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Sample records for metallurgical plant ust-kamenogrsk

  1. The beryllium production at Ulba metallurgical plant (Ust-Kamenogrsk, Kazakhstan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvinskykh, E.M.; Savchuk, V.V.; Tuzov, Y.V. [Ulba Metallurgical Plant (Zavod), Ust-Kamenogorsk, Abay prospect 102 (Kazakhstan)

    1998-01-01

    The Report includes data on beryllium production of Ulba metallurgical plant, located in Ust-Kamenogorsk (Kazakhstan). Beryllium production is showed to have extended technological opportunities in manufacturing semi-products (beryllium ingots, master alloys, metallic beryllium powders, beryllium oxide) and in production of structural beryllium and its parts. Ulba metallurgical plant owns a unique technology of beryllium vacuum distillation, which allows to produce reactor grades of beryllium with a low content of metallic impurities. At present Ulba plant does not depend on raw materials suppliers. The quantity of stored raw materials and semi-products will allow to provide a 25-years work of beryllium production at a full capacity. The plant has a satisfactory experience in solving ecological problems, which could be useful in ITER program. (author)

  2. Mercury distribution in an abandoned metallurgical plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millán R.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work is to evaluate the spatial distribution of Hg in the soil-plant system within an area where intense activity of Hg was dominant over a long period. An abandoned metallurgical plant from the 17th-18th centuries was chosen as the study area. It is situated in Almadenejos within the Almadén mining district (Spain that constitutes the largest and most unusual concentration of mercury in the world and has provided a third of the entire world production of mercury (Hg. Nowadays, this study area is covered with cinnabar mine tailings and village habitants use it for livestock. The area has elevated Hg concentrations of natural origin and from human activities. Soil parameters are similar throughout the study area; however, data reveal high variability in total and available Hg concentrations in soils, making it difficult to establish a tendency. Marrubium vulgare L.has been studied due to its high presence in the field plot, and there is no evidence of phenological toxicity. Furthermore, in spite of elevated Hg concentrations, a good biological activity is tested in the soil samples. All these characteristics, spatial variation, high Hg concentration, good biological activity, enhance the peculiarity of the study area for studies involving Hg.

  3. Some results of medical researches at Ulba Metallurgical Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artemieva, G.I.; Novikov, V.G.; Savchuk, V.V. [Ulba Metallurgical Plant, Ust-Kamenogorsk (Kazakhstan)

    1998-01-01

    The results of 45-years medical researches at beryllium production of Ulba Metallurgical Plant are summarized in this report. Statistic data on different kinds of occupational diseases, related to beryllium production and the dynamics of changing occupational diseases with the development of beryllium production, are given there. Data on average duration of life of occupational disease patients are presented in the report. It includes the description of problems, related to berylliosis diagnosis. Issues, connected to beryllium production effect on health of man, located nearby beryllium production are also discussed there as well. (author)

  4. Magnetic spherules from the soils near the slag dump of the Nizhniy Tagil metallurgical plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Makarov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic spherules, which are widespread in soils, can have different origins, but spherules with cosmic origin are the most studied. At that, functioning of numerous industrial enterprises of metallurgical profile, thermal power stations, and motor transport can be their origin. According to the data of previous researchers, spherical magnetic particles in soils can serve as an indicator for quantitative assessment of erosion-accumulative phenomena. The authors studied magnetic spherules, isolated from soil samples taken near the dump of blast furnace and metallurgical slags of a large Nizhny Tagil metallurgical plant located on the left bank of the Olkhovka river, functioning since 1949. The way the dump forms is by draining slag along the slope. Consequently, adjacent territories are exposed to a significant dust load, associated with increased concentrations of a number of heavy metals: chromium, iron, manganese, vanadium, copper and zinc. The study of magnetic spherules performed for samples of soils taken at a distance of 50 and 100 m to the west of the dump showed that the content of magnetic fraction in them was 15.1 and 11.7% respectively, of the mineral part of the samples. The authors studied magnetic spherules on a scanning microscope JEOL JSM 6390LV, an at that provide their morphology and the chemical composition of magnetic spherules (18 analyzes and aggregates on their surface (5 analyzes. Based on the presence of characteristic impurity elements, there are the following varieties: zinc, manganese, vanadium, determined by the peculiarities of metallurgical processes. Low concentrations of spherules in soils do not allow considering them as a significant source of pollution of natural environment, only a slight increase in the content of heavy metals characteristic for them is possible.

  5. [Three years of work-related accidents in a metallurgic plant: ways to its understanding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Cláudia Giglio de Oliveira; Dias, Adriano

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this study is to describe, by quantitative and qualitative methods, industrial accidents occurred during three years in a metallurgic plant in the rural area to understand the possible causes. It is a case study in a metallurgic plant where 336 accidents were studied in a 3-year period by means of three procedures: analysis of accidents' registers, interviews with 166 hurt workers, and the organization of Focal Groups (111 workers) for discussion. The ratio of yearly incidence of accidents was 16.9%; 75 cases required more than 15 out-of-work days; 51.2% occurred in the morning and affected boilermakers (48.2%). Among the interviewed workers, average schooling was 8.8 years, age ranged from 31-50 years (55.4%), 64.5% of workers had already suffered more than one accident. Besides, workers exposed to intense noise (+ 90 dBA) were the most affected (53%). In the focal groups, perceptions and feelings of workers regarding the accidents were identified that had not appeared in the previous stages. It can be concluded that focal groups allow for a better identification of factors that may contribute for accidents such as performance pressures, extra-hours of work, low wages, and precarious conditions of work and work organization.

  6. Occupational exposure in South African metallurgical plants and industries involving naturally occurring radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, I.D.

    2002-01-01

    South Africa has a very large mining and minerals processing industry exploiting a variety of ores and minerals containing elevated levels of NORM. The industry employs more than 300,000 persons. Doses have been assessed to workers in the mining industry in South Africa. In the gold mining industry radon measurements have been performed since the early 1970s. Regulations have been in force since 1990. The mean annual dose to underground gold mine workers, mostly from radon progeny, is about 5 mSv with maximum doses exceeding 20 mSv. The maximum annual dose to surface workers in gold mines is 5 mSv. In South African coal mines the mean annual dose from inhalation of radon decay products has been estimated from limited radon concentration measurements to be about 0.6 mSv. In the phosphoric acid and fertilizer production industry the doses to the workers do not exceed 6 mSv/y. There are 3 mineral sands operations in South Africa, for which the maximum annual dose to workers is 3 mSv. One open pit copper mine contains elevated levels of U, which is extracted as a by-product. The maximum annual doses to workers are 5 mSv for workers in the mine and 20 mSv for workers in the metallurgical plant. Worker doses in the metallurgical plant have since been reduced with the introduction of radiation protection measures

  7. Thermo-mecano-metallurgical modelling of welding: application to welded joints in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosimo, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    The Thermo-Mecano-Metallurgical (TMM) modelling of welding is considered in this thesis, where the high non-linearity and the multiphysics character of the problem makes necessary to study different areas of Computational Mechanics. Each of the main problems, specifically the thermal, the mechanical and the metallurgical problems, are separately investigated. In the context of Computational Welding Mechanics (CWM), their coupling is solved by means of a staggered approach making the hypothesis that they are weakly-coupled. In the case of the thermal problem, the primary complication is stated by the solid/liquid phase change. Classical formulations dealing with the solution of this problem suffer from instabilities associated to the discontinuity of the temperature gradient at the phase change boundary. This issue is studied in this work by considering an enriched finite element formulation with the ability of representing the gradient discontinuity inside finite elements. It is remarked that the proposed method avoids the use of an auxiliary equation to determine the enrichment position, which is common for level set formulations. The mechanical behaviour of bodies during solidification is revisited and implemented as part of the Finite Element (FE) framework OOFELIE. When possible, microstructure evolution must be considered in order to correctly predict Weld Residual Stresses (WRS). In this context, the implementation of a particular model for predicting microstructure evolution comes in association with the restriction that it can be applied to a reduced number of materials. In order to deal with this issue, the conception of a computational tool flexible enough to describe a wide range of materials is undertaken. Additionally, a model describing the Titanium alloy Ti6Al4V is particularly considered. The high computational cost of welding problems is addressed by means of the formulation of Hyper-Reduced Order Models (HROMs), and the parallelization of the FE

  8. The history of decisions on creation of nuclear and metallurgical complex on the basis of the Kola nuclear power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudrin B. I.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Some reasons for the choice of directions for using electric and thermal energy of the Kola nuclear power plant located beyond the Arctic Circle have been presented. The regions of the country and their large-scale industrial productions based on metallurgical enterprises have been indicated; the electrical supply of these enterprises is implemented from the Kola NPP. The results of research of energy inputs for the production of a ton of steel and cast iron have been presented. It has been determined that the main direction of technological modernization in the steel industry is avoiding the use of organic fuels (particularly in coke-blast furnace production as the most energy-intensive and its replacement with the technology of direct reduction of iron with hydrogen. As an alternative energy source for organic fuels the creation of a fuel-free nuclear-metallurgical electrified complex has been proposed. The principal scheme of the fuel-free nuclear-metallurgical electrified complex has been described, here the main novelty has a reducing gases preparation block giving the potential ability for creating waste-free process. It has been noted that this technology requires using high temperatures and solving technical problems related to heat resistance of constructions. Some examples of world research on the implementation of similar projects have been presented. It has been determined that the use of new technology will cause the need for optimization of power consumption structure due to the redistribution of capacity and electrical consumption between productions. The introduction of new technologies requires solving a number of problems on electric power supply and electrical equipment designing. It has been observed that on the Kola NPP large-scale reconstruction was carried out during the working period, it helped to increase its project capacity and extend the operation life. Nowadays the region has excess installed capacity that can be

  9. Optimization Review: Bunker Hill Mining and Metallurgical Complex Superfund Site, Central Treatment Plant (CTP), Kellogg, Shoshone County, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Bunker Hill Mining and Metallurgical Complex Superfund Site includes all areas of the Coeur d’Alene Basin where mining-related contamination occurred and encompasses a 21-square mile “Box” along Interstate 90 surrounding the former smelter complex.

  10. Metallurgical Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The purpose is to increase basic knowledge of metallurgical processing for controlling the microstructure and mechanical properties of metallic aerospace alloys and...

  11. Occupational exposure to PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs of metallurgical workers in some industrial plants of the Brescia area, northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abballe, Annalisa; Barbieri, Pietro Gino; di Domenico, Alessandro; Garattini, Siria; Iacovella, Nicola; Ingelido, Anna Maria; Marra, Valentina; Miniero, Roberto; Valentini, Silvia; De Felip, Elena

    2013-01-01

    The study was carried out in order to respond to public concern on the occupational exposure of metallurgical workers to highly toxic PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs in the area of the city of Brescia, northern Italy. The study investigated the effects on the haematic burden of occupational exposures to the aforesaid contaminants in different work environments, attempting to establish causal relationships and providing indications for occupational health preventive measures. Chemical concentrations were measured in blood serum of "professionally exposed" (PE) and "not professionally exposed" (NPE) subjects. NPE subjects included industrial administrative employees, Brescia inhabitants, and remote rural people. The central tendency indexes of contaminant cumulative concentrations were higher in PE than in NPE samples (for the mean values: PCDDs+PCDFs, 22.9 vs. 19.5 pgWHO-TEQ(1997)/g lb; DL-PCBs, 26.0 vs. 23.6 pgWHO-TEQ(1997)/g lb; PCDDs+PCDFs+DL-PCBs (TEQ(TOT)), 48.9 vs. 43.1 pgWHO-TEQ(1997)/g lb; Σ(6)[NDL-PCBs], 427 vs. 401 ng g(-1)lb); however, no statistical differences were detected at P=0.05. A significant difference for PCDDs+PCDFs and TEQ(TOT) was observed as the NPE data were progressively reduced to those of the remote rural people. The existence of a differential occupational exposure due to different environments was detected by applying the factor analysis to congener-specific data (analytical profiles). Findings indicate that metallurgical workers may be exposed to PCDD, PCDF, and PCB more than the general population, in particular due to non-negligible contributions to exposure from workplace ambient air. Findings also suggest that an improvement of preventive measures may be required to avoid chemical overexposure in certain metallurgical workplaces. To identify exposure groups, the DL- and NDL-PCB analytical profiles seemed to be more sensitive to environmental exposure sources/pathways than those of PCDDs and PCDFs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All

  12. Influence of metallurgical and electrochemical factors on cracking of steels at nuclear power plants under high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokhmurskii, V.I.; Gnyp, I.P.

    1994-01-01

    The influence of metallurgical heterogeneities in steels and electrochemical factors on corrosion cracking under high temperature water environment is studied, with special emphasis on the influence of manganese sulfide inclusions and other non-metallic ones on the crack growth rate. Results show that the electro-chemical conditions for an hydrogen concentration increase in a pre-failure zone exist at a crack tip under cyclic loading; hydrogen penetrating into metals at high temperature reduces manganese sulfides, ferric carbides, and cause high pressure of gases in micro-discontinuities, thus leading to cyclic corrosion cracking; anodic (relatively to a metal matrix) inclusions are rather the cause of steel cracking resistance decrease than cathodic ones. 16 refs., 4 figs

  13. Preliminary results on air pollution inside an iron metallurgical plant, using rotating streaker sampler and energy dispersive X-ray microfluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento Filho, V.F.; Silva, R.M.C.; Perez, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    Our aim was to study the chemical concentration of some metals in suspended particulate matter inside an-iron metallurgical plant. Using a rotating streaker air-particulate sampler with 8 and 0.45 microns pore diameter filter, it was possible to collect coarse and fine particulates during a week, with one hour step. After this, each strip of the filter was analyzed by energy dispersive x-ray microfluorescence (μ-EDXRF), using in the excitation a collimated x-ray line beam from a Mo target tube (30 kV, 20 mA, Zr filter) with a quartz capillary (120 mm long, 10 mm entrance diameter and 20 microns inner diameter at exit). The detection was carried out using a Si(Li) semiconductor detector coupled to a multichannel analyzer, and the X-ray spectra were fitted with the AXIL software. The profiles of several elements are shown and the results are discussed.

  14. The use of radioisotope tracers in the metallurgical industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easey, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    Radioisotope techniques have been widely used in the metallurgical industries for many years. They have been shown to be very suitable for studying large scale plant and, in many cases, they are the most suitable techniques for such investigations. Applications of radioisotope tracers to some specific metallurgical problems are discussed. (author)

  15. An assessment and evaluation for recycle/reuse of contaminated process and metallurgical equipment at the DOE Rocky Flats Plant Site -- Building 865. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    An economic analysis of the potential advantages of alternatives for recycling and reusing equipment now stored in Building 865 at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Colorado has been conducted. The inventory considered in this analysis consists primarily of metallurgical and process equipment used before January 1992, during development and production of nuclear weapons components at the site. The economic analysis consists of a thorough building inventory and cost comparisons for four equipment dispositions alternatives. The first is a baseline option of disposal at a Low Level Waste (LLW) landfill. The three alternatives investigated are metal recycling, reuse with the government sector, and release for unrestricted use. This report provides item-by-item estimates of value, disposal cost, and decontamination cost. The economic evaluation methods documented here, the simple cost comparisons presented, and the data provided as a supplement, should provide a foundation for D&D decisions for Building 865, as well as for similar D&D tasks at RFP and at other sites.

  16. An assessment and evaluation for recycle/reuse of contaminated process and metallurgical equipment at the DOE Rocky Flats Plant Site -- Building 865

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    An economic analysis of the potential advantages of alternatives for recycling and reusing equipment now stored in Building 865 at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Colorado has been conducted. The inventory considered in this analysis consists primarily of metallurgical and process equipment used before January 1992, during development and production of nuclear weapons components at the site. The economic analysis consists of a thorough building inventory and cost comparisons for four equipment dispositions alternatives. The first is a baseline option of disposal at a Low Level Waste (LLW) landfill. The three alternatives investigated are metal recycling, reuse with the government sector, and release for unrestricted use. This report provides item-by-item estimates of value, disposal cost, and decontamination cost. The economic evaluation methods documented here, the simple cost comparisons presented, and the data provided as a supplement, should provide a foundation for D ampersand D decisions for Building 865, as well as for similar D ampersand D tasks at RFP and at other sites

  17. Feasibility studies to establish at the Kazakhstan Ulba metallurgical plant the manufacturing capability to produce low-enriched uranium certified reference materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzminski, Jozef [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nesuhoff, J [NBL; Cratto, P [NBL; Pfennigwerth, G [Y12 NATIONAL SEC. COMPLEX; Mikhailenko, A [ULBA METALLURGICAL PLANT; Maliutina, I [ULBA METALLURGICAL PLANT; Nations, J [GREGG PROTECTION SERVICES

    2009-01-01

    One of the salient features of the transition plan that the United States Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) is presently implementing in the Former Soviet Union countries is the availability of uranium certified reference materials for calibration of nondestructive assay (NDA) measurement equipment. To address this challenge, DOE/NNSA and U.S. national laboratories have focused their cooperative efforts on establishing a reliable source for manufacturing, certifying, and supplying of such standards. The Ulba Metallurgical Plant (UMP), Kazakhstan, which processes large quantities of low-enriched uranium to produce ceramic fuel pellets for nuclear-powered reactors, is well situated to become a key supplier of low-enriched uranium certified reference materials for the country and Central Asia region. We have recently completed Phase I of a feasibility study to establish at UMP capabilities of manufacturing these standards. In this paper we will discuss details of a proposed methodology for uranium down-blending, material selection and characterization, and a proposed methodology of measurement by destructive (DA) and non-destructive (NDA) analysis to form a database for material certification by the competent State authorities in the Republic of Kazakhstan. In addition, we will discuss the prospect for manufacturing of such standards at UMP.

  18. Utilization of secondary energy resources of metallurgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... with a heat output of 4200 kW, a working agent R 600, a source of low-potential heat-circulating water: a 460 kW gas engine. The proposed scheme showed high efficiency of power supply of the town in comparison with the gas boiler. Keywords: heat pump; internal combustion engine metallurgical plant; energy efficiency ...

  19. Metallurgical coating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, L.C.; Whittaker, G.S.

    1984-05-01

    The present invention relates to a novel metallurgical coating system which provides corrosion resistance and non-stick properties to metallic components which are subjected to unusually severe operating conditions. The coating system comprises a first layer comprising tantalum which is deposited upon a substrate and a second layer comprising molybdenum disilicide which is deposited upon the first layer.

  20. Application of magnetic methods for assessment of soil restoration in the vicinity of metallurgical copper-processing plant in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordanova, N; Petrovský, E; Kapicka, A; Jordanova, D; Petrov, P

    2017-04-01

    Copper ore mining and processing are among the most harmful anthropogenic influences for the environment and they are a subject of international and national law regulations. Recultivation of areas influenced by mining and processing industry is commonly applied and monitored in order to restore as much as possible the natural environment. In this study, environmental magnetic methods are applied in order to assess the degree of soil restoration in terms of soil development, after remediation of waste dump from Cu-processing plant. Soils developed under birch forest stands of different age (5, 15, and 25 years) as well as raw waste material were sampled along depth down to 20-30 cm. Variations in magnetic parameters and ratios obtained (magnetic susceptibility, frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility, anhysteretic remanence (ARM), isothermal remanence (IRM), ARM/IRM 100mT ) suggest the presence of magnetic enhancement in the upper 0-15 cm, the thickness of this layer varying depending on the age of the forest stand. Magnetic mineral responsible for this enhancement is of magnetite type, while waste material contains a large amount of hematite, as evidenced by coercivity analysis of IRM acquisition curves and thermal demagnetization of composite IRM. Magnetic grain-sized proxy parameters suggest that magnetite particles are coarser, magnetically stable, while no or minor amount of superparamagnetic grains were detected at room temperature. A well-defined linear regression between the topsoil magnetic susceptibility and the approximate age of the forest stand provides an indication that the magnetic enhancement is of pedogenic origin. It is concluded that the observed magnetic enhancement of recultivated soils studied is linked to a combined effect of pedogenic contribution and possible additions of industrial ashes as a liming agent for soil restoration.

  1. Metallurgical applications: fractography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meny, L.

    1978-01-01

    The principal metallurgical uses of the scanning electron microscope and the microprobe described here employ images obtained on a CRT from an electron signal or X rays. The various electron signals are the back scattered electrons, secondary electrons and absorbed electrons. The differences in the intensity of thee signals with the acceleration tension E 0 , the inclination angle β, the atomic number Z of the target and any potential applied to the sample give rise to contrasts: atomic number contrast, given by the sample current or the back scattered electrons; topographical contrast, given by the emission of the secondary electrons Δ that vary with α (the angle between the normal to the surface and the direction of the incident beam) [fr

  2. Metallurgical plasma torches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapovalov, V.A.; Latash, Yu.V.

    2000-01-01

    The technological equipment for the plasma heating of metals, plasma melting and plasma treatment of the surface is usually developed on the basis of are plasma torches using direct or alternating current. The reasons which partly restrict the industrial application of the plasma torches are the relatively short service life of the electrode (cathode) on which the arc is supported, and the contamination of the treated metal with the products of failure of the electrode. The aim of this work was to determine the reasons for the occurrence of negative phenomena observed in the process of service of plasma torches, and propose suitable approaches to the design of metallurgical plasma torches characterised by a long service life

  3. Crisis management in metallurgical enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gajdzik

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of report analysis which presents situation in metallurgical sector after 2008 the range of changes implemented in management of metallurgical enterprises was characterised. A definition approach to crisis management was suggested as the process when the enterprise is managed during the breakdown period in market condition of the economy in the way directed towards preventing the negative effects of crisis inside enterprises. The publication presents the key aspects of enterprise management in the period of collapse of the balance between the supply and demand on the metallurgical market.

  4. The R85m President Brand joint metallurgical complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, Adam.

    1977-01-01

    The uranium plant at President Brand, which was built in 1971 and opened last year, is now being extended. The plant forms only part of the extensive joint metallurgical complex being developed by Anglo American Corp. in the Free State, costing a total R85million. This article examines technical details of the recovery processes involved

  5. Plasma technology in metallurgical processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haile, O.

    1995-12-31

    This literature work is mainly focusing on the mechanisms of plasma technology and telling about metallurgical processing, particularly iron and steelmaking as well as the advantage of the unique properties of plasma. The main advantages of plasma technology in metallurgical operations is to direct utilization of naturally available raw materials and fuels without costly upgrading andlor beneficiation, improved environmental impact, improve process control, significant amplification of reactor and process equipment utilization and increased efficiency of raw materials, energy and man power. This literature survey is based on the publication `plasma technology in metallurgical processing` presents a comprehensive account of the physical, electrical, and mechanical aspects of plasma production and practical processing. The applications of plasma technology in metallurgical processing are covered in depth with special emphasis on developments in promising early stages. Plasma technology of today is mature in the metallurgical process applications. A few dramatic improvements are expected in the near future this giving an impetus to the technologists for the long range planning. (18 refs.) (author)

  6. Três anos de acidentes do trabalho em uma metalúrgica: caminhos para seu entendimento Three years of work-related accidents in a metallurgic plant: ways to its understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Giglio de Oliveira Gonçalves

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é descrever, através de estratégias metodológicas quantitativas e qualitativas, os acidentes do trabalho ocorridos em três anos numa indústria metalúrgica do interior de São Paulo para compreender suas possíveis causas. Trata-se de um estudo de casos de uma indústria; foram estudados 336 acidentes em três anos, utilizando-se três procedimentos: análise dos registros dos acidentes, entrevistas (166 acidentados e realização de grupos focais (111 trabalhadores. A proporção de incidência anual dos acidentes foi de 16,9%; 75 casos com afastamento superior a 15 dias; 51,2% ocorreram pela manhã, afetando caldeireiros (48,2%. Entre os entrevistados, escolaridade média de 8,8 anos e idade de 31 a 50 anos (55,4%; 64,5% já haviam sofrido outros acidentes e com maior ocorrência naqueles expostos ao ruído intenso (mais 90 dBA (53%. Nos grupos focais, identificaram-se percepções e sentimentos dos trabalhadores a respeito dos acidentes que não apareceram nas etapas anteriores. Através dos grupos focais pode-se identificar melhor os fatores que contribuem para os acidentes, como: pressões, realização de horas extras, baixos salários, condições de trabalho precárias e organização do trabalho.The objective of this study is to describe, by quantitative and qualitative methods, industrial accidents occurred during three years in a metallurgic plant in the rural area to understand the possible causes. It is a case study in a metallurgic plant where 336 accidents were studied in a 3-year period by means of three procedures: analysis of accidents' registers, interviews with 166 hurt workers, and the organization of Focal Groups (111 workers for discussion. The ratio of yearly incidence of accidents was 16.9%; 75 cases required more than 15 out-of-work days; 51.2% occurred in the morning and affected boilermakers (48.2%. Among the interviewed workers, average schooling was 8.8 years, age ranged from 31

  7. Diagnosis of employee engagement in metallurgical enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gajdzik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the theoretical part of the publication an overview of the definitions of employee engagement was conducted together with the analysis of the methods and techniques which influence the professional activity of the employees in the metallurgical enterprise. The practical part discusses the results of diagnosis of engagement in steelworks. Presented theories, as well as the research, fill the information gap concerning the engagement of the employees in metallurgical enterprises. This notion is important due to the fact that modern conditions of human resources management require the engagement of the employees as something commonly accepted and a designation of manufacturing enterprises.

  8. Friction welding thermal and metallurgical characteristics

    CERN Document Server

    Yilbas, Bekir Sami

    2014-01-01

    This book provides insight into the thermal analysis of friction welding incorporating welding parameters such as external, duration, breaking load, and material properties. The morphological and metallurgical changes associated with the resulting weld sites are analysed using characterization methods such as electron scanning microscope, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction, and Nuclear reaction analysis.

  9. Cyril Stanley Smith's Translations of Metallurgical Classics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 6. Cyril Stanley Smith's Translations of Metallurgical Classics. Martha Goodway. General Article Volume 11 Issue 6 June 2006 pp 63-66. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  10. Cyril Stanley Smith's Translations of Metallurgical Classics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A remarkable contribution of Professor Cyril Stanley Smith was the translation of metallurgical classics into English from several languages - both ancient and modem ... He had not prepared for the role of technical translator. His wife,. Alice Kimball Smith, in oral history interviews made for Harvard. University related how his ...

  11. Project development for mining-metallurgical complexes for production of uranium concentrates - an analysis and a methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajuria G, S.; Blanco P, B.; Pena A, J.; Manzanera Q, C.

    1978-10-01

    Activities comprising the development of a project for a mining-metallurgical complex for production of uranium concentrates, from sampling and evaluation of an orebody until plant start-up, are analyzed. The analysis of the orebody, characterization of the ore, bench scale and pilot plant metallurgical studies, environmental studies and economic analyses of the project are described. The mining project and mine preparation and engineering and construction of the plant are reviewed in less detail. The estimated time lapse for the development of a typical project under ideal conditions is 66 months. A bar diagram is included showing an approximate timetable for each activity. (author)

  12. Refining of metallurgical silicon by directional solidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martorano, M.A., E-mail: martoran@usp.br [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Mello Moraes, 2463 Sao Paulo-SP, 05508-900 (Brazil); Neto, J.B. Ferreira, E-mail: jbfn@ipt.br [Laboratory of Metallurgy and Ceramics Materials, Institute for Technological Research, Av. Prof. Almeida Prado, 532, Sao Paulo-SP, 05508-901 (Brazil); Oliveira, T.S., E-mail: theo.usp@bol.com.br [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Mello Moraes, 2463 Sao Paulo-SP, 05508-900 (Brazil); Tsubaki, T.O., E-mail: tomoe@ipt.br [Laboratory of Metallurgy and Ceramics Materials, Institute for Technological Research, Av. Prof. Almeida Prado, 532, Sao Paulo-SP, 05508-901 (Brazil)

    2011-02-25

    The directional solidification of a typical and a previously refined metallurgical silicon was carried out in a vertical Bridgman furnace. The mold velocity out of the hot zone of the furnace changed from one experiment to another in the range between 5 and 110 {mu}m s{sup -1}. Samples were extracted from the cylindrical ingots obtained in the experiments to investigate the effects of the mold velocity on the micro and macrostructures and on the concentration profiles of impurities along the ingots. At the lowest mold velocity, the macrostructures consist of columnar grains oriented approximately parallel to the ingot axis. As velocity increases, grains become thinner and more inclined in the radial direction. Precipitated particles containing Si, Fe, Al, and Ti are observed at the top of all ingots and, as the mold velocity increases, they are also seen at the ingot bottom and middle. The concentration profiles of several impurities have been measured along the ingots by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP), indicating an accumulation of impurities at the ingot top. Consequently, the bottom and middle of the ingots are purer than the corresponding metallurgical silicon from which they solidified. Slices from the ingot bottom have also been analyzed by the glow discharge mass spectrometry technique (GDMS), allowing measurement of impurity concentrations that were below the quantification limit of the ICP. The purification effect and the accumulation of impurities at the ingot top are more pronounced as the mold velocity decreases. In the ingots obtained from the typical metallurgical silicon at the lowest mold velocities (5 and 10 {mu}m s{sup -1}), except for Al, all impurities are in concentrations below an important maximum limit for the feedstock of solar grade silicon. At the same mold velocities, the concentrations of Fe, Ti, Cu, Mn, and Ni measured at the bottom of the ingots obtained from both types of metallurgical silicon (typical

  13. Modern recycling methods in metallurgical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Maj

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of environment caused by increased industrial activities is the main topic of discussions in Poland and in the world. The possibilities of waste recovery and recycling vary in different sectors of the industry, and the specific methods, developed and improved all the time, depend on the type of the waste. In this study, the attention has been focussed mainly on the waste from metallurgical industry and on the available techniques of its recycling

  14. Processing and utilization of metallurgical slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Pribulová

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Metallurgy and foundry industry create a huge amount of slags that are by-products in production of pig iron, steel and cast iron. Slag is produced in a very large amount in pyrometallurgical processes, and is a huge source of waste if not properly recycled and utilized. With rapid growth of industrialization, land available for land-filling of large quantity of metallurgical slag is being reduced all over the world and disposal cost is becoming increasingly higher. Metallurgical slag from different metallurgical processes treated and utilized in different ways based on different slag characteristics. The most economic and efficient option for reducing metallurgical waste is through recycling, which is a significant contribution to saving natural resources and reducing CO2 emissions. Characteristic of slags as well as its treatment and utilization are given in the paper. Slag from pig iron and steel production is used most frequently in building industry. From experiments using blast furnace slag and granulated blast furnace slag as gravel, and water glass as binder it can be concluded that that the best results – the best values of compression strength and tensile strength were reached by using of 18% of water glass as a solidification activating agent. According to cubic compression strength, mixture from 50% blast furnace gravel, 50% granulated blast furnace slag and 18% water glass falls into C35/45 class of concrete. Such concrete also fulfils strength requirements for road concrete, moreover, it even exceeds them considerably and, therefore, it can find an application in construction of road communications or in production of concrete slabs.

  15. Production of iron from metallurgical waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, David W; Iwasaki, Iwao

    2013-09-17

    A method of recovering metallic iron from iron-bearing metallurgical waste in steelmaking comprising steps of providing an iron-bearing metallurgical waste containing more than 55% by weight FeO and FeO equivalent and a particle size of at least 80% less than 10 mesh, mixing the iron-bearing metallurgical waste with a carbonaceous material to form a reducible mixture where the carbonaceous material is between 80 and 110% of the stoichiometric amount needed to reduce the iron-bearing waste to metallic iron, and as needed additions to provide a silica content between 0.8 and 8% by weight and a ratio of CaO/SiO.sub.2 between 1.4 and 1.8, forming agglomerates of the reducible mixture over a hearth material layer to protect the hearth, heating the agglomerates to a higher temperature above the melting point of iron to form nodules of metallic iron and slag material from the agglomerates by melting.

  16. 7th european metallurgical conference EMC 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srećko R. Stopić

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available From June 23 – 26, 2013, the GDMB Society for Mining, Metallurgy, Resource and Environmental Technology organized 7th European Metallurgical Conference (EMC 2013 in Weimar, Germany. The previous European metallurgical conferences were organized by  the GDMB in Friedrichshafen (2001, Hanover (2003, Leipzig (2005, Duesseldorf (2007, Innsbruck (2009, and Duesseldorf (2011. The GDMB is a non-profit organization from Clausthal, Germany,,focused on combining science with practical experience in metallurgy, mining, materials engineering, mineral processing, recycling and refining of metals, and  manufacturing of semi- and finishing products. The European Metallurgical conference EMC is one of the most well-known conferences worldwide in the field of non-ferrous metallurgy and is attended regularly by decision makers from industry and universities. The scientific program contained 6 plenary lectures and more than 130 presentations. An extensive poster exhibition was held, during which the authors had an opportunity to introduce their posters to the entire plenum as a part of a brief presentation., The € 500 worth “Poster Award EMC 2011 was awarded to Christoph Pichler from the Montan-University in Leoben, Austria. Not only the most important European countries were represented here, but also more than one third of the lecturers were from countries outside Europe (Canada, Japan, China, USA, South Africa, Australia. The origin of the participants reflects the aim of the organizers: to make this conference a worldwide platform for the scientific exchange of experience and information. The scientific presentations of the conference are presented in Proceedings: Vol. 1: Copper, Precious Metals, Waste effluents Treatment/ Biohydrometallurgical applications; Process Metallurgy, Bridging Non-Ferrous and Ferrous Metallurgy; Vol. 2: Lead and Zinc, Light metals, Sustainable technologies, Sustainable of non-ferrous metals production, Process Control

  17. Application of logistic principles in metallurgical production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Malindžák

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Metallurgical production processes (MPP consist of continuous and discrete types of technology operation, transport, manipulation and storing processes regards the flow of material and also the equipment and machines. Other specifics are: long production cycles, great inertia, tree structure of production processes (from roots up to the leaves, high level of investments etc. These characteristics resulted in some specifics of production logistics. This article deals with these specifics and explains it using the conditions of production processes of continuous slab casting, their heating in push furnaces at rolling temperature and rolling itself in hot wideband steel mill.

  18. The metallurgical integrity of the frit vent assembly diffusion bond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, G. B.

    1994-06-01

    Iridium alloy clad vent sets (CVS's) are now being made by Energy Systems at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. These CVS's are being made for the US Department of Energy's (NE-53) General Purpose Heat Source- Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (GPHS-RTG) program, which is to supply electrical power for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Cassini mission to Saturn. A GPHS-RTG has 72 CVS'. Each CVS encapsulates one (238)PuO2 fuel pellet. The helium gas produced from the alpha decay of the (238)Pu is vented through a nominal 0.45-mm-diam hole in the vent cup of each CVS. A frit vent assembly that is electron beam welded over the vent hole allows helium gas to escape but prevents plutonia fines from exiting. The metallurgical integrity of frit vent assemblies produced by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) were compared with those produced earlier by EG&G-Mound Applied Technology, Inc. (EG&G-MAT). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) photographs were taken (at magnifications of from 126x to 1,000x) of the starting frit vent powder and the diffusion-bonded powder in finished frit vent assemblies produced by Energy Systems and EG&G-MAT. Frit vent assemblies also were metallographically prepared and visually examined/photographed at magnifications of from 50x to 1,000x. The SEM and metallographic examinations of the particle-to-particle and particle-to-foil component diffusion bonds indicated that the Energy Systems-produced and EG&G-MAT-produced frit vent assemblies have comparable metallurgical integrity. Statistical analysis of the Energy Systems production data shows that the frit vent manufacturing yield is 91%.

  19. Proceedings of papers. 3. Balkan Metallurgical Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickovski, Jovan

    2003-01-01

    This Conference aims to be a central event in the metallurgy research of Balkan, fulfilling the goals to present the most outstanding relevant developments in modern metallurgy; to inspire high standards of excellence in pure and applied metallurgy research; to attract outstanding scientists to present central lectures on modem metallurgical research, and on the challenges imposed by the needs of society; to inspire the young generation of metallurgists in Balkan and other countries. Following these lines, the 3. Balkan Conference on Metallurgy will provide a unique opportunity for academic and industrial metallurgists from the Balkan countries and wider, to exchange ideas, expertise, and experience on topics related to the theme of the Conference - Balkan Metallurgy in Search for New Ways of Development. The aim of the organizers was to bring together distinguished experts, not only to present their work, but also to discuss the major scientific and technological challenges facing metallurgy in this millennium.The 6 sections of the conference were entitled: Section A: Extractive metallurgy; Section B: Physical metallurgy and materials science - ferrous metals and non ferrous metals; Section C: Management, maintenance control and optimization of metallurgical processes; Section D: New technologies and techniques; Section E: Refractory and powder; Section F: Corrosion and protection of metals. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  20. Measures to restore metallurgical mine wasteland using ecological restoration technologies: A case study at Longnan Rare Earth Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Yunzhang; Gu, Ruizhi; Guo, Ruikai; Zhang, Xueyan

    2017-01-01

    Whereas mining activities produce the raw materials that are crucial to economic growth, such activities leave extensive scarring on the land, contributing to the waste of valuable land resources and upsetting the ecological environment. The aim of this study is therefore to investigate various ecological technologies to restore metallurgical mine wastelands. These technologies include measures such as soil amelioration, vegetation restoration, different vegetation planting patterns, and engineering technologies. The Longnan Rare Earth Mine in the Jiangxi Province of China is used as the case study. The ecological restoration process provides a favourable reference for the restoration of a metallurgical mine wasteland.

  1. Key Lake Mining Corporation metallurgical complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lendrum, F.C.

    1984-02-01

    The Key Lake uranium mine is located in Saskatchewan, 550 km northeast of Saskatoon. It began operations in 1983, and is licensed and regulated by both Saskatchewan government agencies and the Canadian Atomic Energy Control Board. This report examines the metallurgical processes used at the mill and discusses the spills that occurred in the first four months the mine was in operation. It finds that all spills of an acidic nature in the mill were small amounts in the CCD or solution pretreatment sections. Contingency procedures are in place and sumps are capable of handling spills. The only major change in design contemplated will be converting the secondary crushing from the use of an impact crusher to the use of a semi-autogeneous grinding mill. The monitoring program set out by the AECB and Saskatchewan Environment is thorough. It monitors effluents and water pathways, and includes aquatic biota and sediments. Air monitoring is also required by Saskatchewan Environment

  2. The two faces of coal : uncertainty the common prospect for metallurgical and thermal coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlotnikov, D.

    2010-01-01

    Although the methods of producing thermal and metallurgical coal are the same, metallurgical coal is destined to cross the world for steel manufacturing and thermal coal is destined for power plants close to where it was mined. This article discussed the factors influencing the price of these 2 coals. The production of thermal coal can remain steady during an economic crisis because coal-fired power plants generally provide low-cost-base-load electricity that remains stable during economic cycles. However, the demand for metallurgical coal is more volatile during an economic crisis because it is directly related to the demand for steel products in the construction and automotive industry, which are very sensitive to the state of the economy. There have been recent indications that Canada's export market for thermal coal is on the rise. In 2008, China became a net importer of coking coal. China's need for more coal to fuel its growing economy despite the global economic slowdown has meant that producers are diverting excess supply from European markets to China. Higher-end thermal coal offers low sulphur content and higher energy content, both desirable traits for power utilities facing strict emissions control. In addition to having huge reserves of very high-quality coal that is becoming increasingly important to China, Canada has the advantage of having the available transportation capacity in its west coast terminals and on its rail network. 3 figs.

  3. Effect of metallurgical variables on void swelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, W.G.; Lauritzen, T.; Rosolowski, J.H.; Turkalo, A.M.

    1976-01-01

    The mechanism of void swelling is reviewed briefly and the anticipated effects of metallurgical variables are described. Experimental results showing the effects of metallurgical variables are reviewed, most of the work being done by simulation methods employing charged particle bombardments to simulate reactor damage. Although the early emphasis was on structural variables such as grain size, cold work and precipitates to control swelling, it now seems that the practical reduction of swelling will be achieved by modifying alloy composition. Void swelling is strongly influenced by the relative amounts of Fe, Cr, and Ni in an alloy; the amount of swelling can be varied by three orders of magnitude by changing the relative amounts of the three elements in an austenitic ternary alloy. The effect of composition on swelling of a simple ferritic alloy will also be described. The swelling of a simple austenitic alloy of Fe, Cr, and Ni can be reduced by certain minor element additions. The most effective swelling inhibitors are Si, Ti, Zr, and Nb, and combinations of Si and Ti are synergetic. Swelling reductions of two orders of magnitude have been achieved with combined additions. Predictions of swelling in commercial solid solution alloys are made on the basis of the present knowledge of the effects of major composition and minor element additions. The predictions agree with experimental results. For more complex commercial alloys, predictions are made for the effects on swelling of heat treatments that cause changes in matrix composition. In some cases, heat treatment is expected to change the peak swelling by more than a factor of ten, and to shift the peak swelling temperature by almost 100 0 C. Sensitivity of swelling to detailed matrix composition places emphasis on the need for developing understanding of the stability of structure and local composition in an irradiation environment

  4. The application of winning key metrics in a metallurgical firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mikušová

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is focused on creating a system of metrics and its application in a metallurgical firm. Its aim is to highlight the dangers associated with the creation and application of an effective system of metrics. Its objective is also to demonstrate the process (initial steps in the development of this system in the real family metallurgical firm. In the experimental part an example of causal links among key metrics in the chosen metallurgical firm is presented. Risks associated with the selection of appropriate metrics are presented for discussion.

  5. IFM – SCIENTIFIC CENTRE OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE UKRAINIAN METALLURGICAL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOLSHAKOV V. I.

    2017-01-01

    K. P. Bunin, S. N. Kozhevnikov. Professor N. O. Voronova. Conclusion. In 1960 the site for the construction of the laboratory base was given to the Institute, It was near the Botanical garden. Academician Z. I. Nekrasov creates the Institute of his dream. After creative rise in 1960s– 1980s the Institute survived during difficult 1990s and remained the leading branch scientific research Institute. IFM has saved high scientific potential and continues to carry out complex scientific research works in the field of the ferrous metallurgy. Academician V. I. Bol’shakov was Director of the Institute for about 20 years (1996–2015. The Institute collaborates with all big metallurgical plants of Ukraine, countries of UIS, China, Japan and other countries.

  6. Sustainable cost reduction by lean management in metallurgical processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Todorut

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the need for sustainable cost reduction in the metallurgical industry by applying Lean Management (LM tools and concepts in metallurgical production processes leading to increased competitiveness of corporations in a global market. The paper highlights that Lean Management is a novel way of thinking, adapting to change, reducing waste and continuous improvement, leading to sustainable development of companies in the metallurgical industry. The authors outline the main Lean Management instruments based on recent scientific research and include a comparative analysis of other tools, such as Sort, Straighten, Shine, Standardize, Sustain (5S, Visual Management (VM, Kaizen, Total Productive Maintenance (TPM, Single-Minute Exchange of Dies (SMED, leading to a critical appraisal of their application in the metallurgical industry.

  7. Electric arc spraying for restoration and repair of metallurgical equipment parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В’ячеслав Олександрович Роянов

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that the electric arc spraying with the use of powder wires can be used to repair and restore parts of metallurgical equipment. The technology of spraying parts by means of the cored wire Steelcored M8TUV; T462MMIN5 and combinations of steel and aluminum wires to restore shaft-gears, shaft-beams, cranes axles for the foundry of the Moldavian Metallurgical Plant has been introduced. The composition of the flux-cored wires MMP-2,3 developed at the Department of Equipment and welding production technology of PSTU that provides the required hardness and adhesion of the coating and the substrate have been shown and the results of the coatings properties studies have been published. Studies have shown matching properties of the coatings to be used for details of the metallurgical equipment working under difficult conditions, including the rolls of rolling mills. Cored wire was used for pilot plating of the rolls surface of the skin-rolling stand at the cold-rolling mill at Illich Steel and Iron Works, Mariupol. Residual coating thickness ranged from 15 to 25 microns. Strip sized 0,9 × 1025 mm has been rolled, the squeezing is equal to 0,8...1,0%.

  8. Numerical computation of fluid flow in different nonferrous metallurgical reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lackner, A.

    1996-10-01

    Heat, mass and fluid flow phenomena in metallurgical reactor systems such as smelting cyclones or electrolytic cells are complex and intricately linked through the governing equations of fluid flow, chemical reaction kinetics and chemical thermodynamics. The challenges for the representation of flow phenomena in such reactors as well as the transfers of these concepts to non-specialist modelers (e.g. plant operators and management personnel) can be met through scientific flow visualization techniques. In the first example the fluid flow of the gas phase and of concentrate particles in a smelting cyclone for copper production are calculated three dimensionally. The effect of design parameters (length and diameter of reactor, concentrate feeding tangentially or from the top, ..) and operating conditions are investigated. Single particle traces show, how to increase particle retention time before the particles reach the liquid film flowing down the cyclone wall. Cyclone separators are widely used in the metallurgical and chemical industry for collection of large quantities of dust. Most of the empirical models, which today are applied for the design, are lacking in being valid in the high temperature region. Therefore the numerical prediction of the collection efficiency of dust particles is done. The particle behavior close to the wall is considered by applying a particle restitution model, which calculates individual particle restitution coefficients as functions of impact velocity and impact angle. The effect of design parameters and operating are studied. Moreover, the fluid flow inside a copper refining electrolysis cell is modeled. The simulation is based on density variations in the boundary layer at the electrode surface. Density and thickness of the boundary layer are compared to measurements in a parametric study. The actual inhibitor concentration in the cell is calculated, too. Moreover, a two-phase flow approach is developed to simulate the behavior of

  9. Soft restructuring process in metallurgical enterprises in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gajdzik

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the range and outcomes of soft restructuring in metallurgical enterprises in Poland. The term ‘soft restructuring’ applies to changes in metallurgical enterprises’ employment policy during the period of political transformation in Poland. Steelworks performance under the market economy conditions demanded introducing changes in staff resources. Changes referred both to the staff structure as well as employees’ skills and gradual engaging of the staff in building the steelworks’ competitive advantage.

  10. A metallurgical study of some viking swords

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams, Alan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available While «pattern-welded» swords have been found all over Europe from sites dating from the Migration Period and into the Early Middle Ages, they were steadily supplanted during the Viking period by swords made out of a few pieces of iron and steel, or even a single piece of steel. Swords with «Ulfberht» or related inscriptions were the most famous of these. The results of the metallurgical study of 44 specimens from «Ulfberht» swords, as well as some other Viking-age swords, together with electron microanalyses carried out on selected examples, are presented here.

    Mientras que se han encontrado en toda Europa espadas forjadas mediante el sistema de ‘pattern welding’ (entrelazado de láminas formando patrones visibles, procedentes de yacimientos que se extienden desde el Periodo de las Migraciones bárbaras hasta la Alta Edad Media, durante el periodo vikingo fueron habitualmente reemplazadas por espadas forjadas a partir de unas pocas piezas de hierro y acero, o incluso de una única pieza de acero. Las más famosas de entre ellas fueron las espadas con la inscripción «Ulfbehrt» u otras relacionadas. Este artículo presenta los resultados del estudio metalúrgico de 44 ejemplares de espadas de «Ulfberht» y otras de época vikinga, así como los microanálisis efectuados sobre algunas muestras seleccionadas.

  11. Metallurgical test work to support development of the Kintyre Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maley, M.; Ring, R.; Paulsen, E.; Maxton, D.

    2014-01-01

    The Kintyre uranium deposit is located in the Pilbara region of Western Australia and is jointly owned by Cameco and Mitsubishi. The current indicated resource estimate is approximately 55 million pounds of U 3 O 8 equivalent [~21,000 t U] at an average grade of 0.58% [0.49% U]. Due to the high levels of carbonate minerals in the deposit, alkaline leaching was strongly considered as an option to the usually preferred acid route. Following a detailed assessment, the acid option was chosen, with the preferred flowsheet involving an acid leach, followed by solvent extraction and precipitation. As part of the Kintyre metallurgical investigations, ANSTO Minerals performed an extensive work program, examining numerous aspects of the proposed flowsheet. This included a leach optimisation program, followed by a study determining the effects of sample variability in leaching. Settling, filtration and rheology work on slurries and tailings was performed, as well as testwork to determine the effect of neutralisation conditions on metal precipitation and radionuclide deportment. In addition, an extensive laboratory and solvent extraction mixer-settler mini-pilot plan campaign was performed to compare the performance of conventional ammonia/ammonium sulphate strip and the non-conventional strong acid strip (400 g/L H 2 SO 4 ) using leach liquor generated from Kintyre ore. The pilot plant involved two campaigns of three days continuous operation using each stripping system, with >99.5% uranium recovery achieved in each campaign. This paper will present an overview of the key results from the Kintyre leaching and neutralisation testwork undertaken at ANSTO Minerals, and will also outline the performance of the solvent extraction mini pilot plant. (author)

  12. New radionuclide specific laboratory detection system for metallurgical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burianova, L.; Solc, J.; Dryak, P.; Moser, H.; Branger, T.; Garcia-Torano, E.; Peyres, V.; Capogni, M.; Luca, A.; Vodenik, B.; Oliveira, C.; Portugal, L.; Tzika, F.; Lutter, G.; Szucs, L.; Dziel, T.; Burda, O.; Dirk, A.; Martinkovic, J.; Sliskonen, T.; Mattila, A.

    2014-01-01

    One of the main outputs of the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP) project 'Ionising radiation metrology for the metallurgical industry' (MetroMetal) was the recommendation on a novel spectrometric detection system optimized for the measurement of radioactivity in metallurgical samples. The recommended system, prototypes of which were constructed at two project partner's laboratories, was characterized by using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Six different MC codes were used to model the system and a range of cylindrical samples of cast steel, slag and fume dust. The samples' shape, density, and elemental composition were the same as the ones of the calibration standards developed within the project to provide traceability to end-users. The MC models were used to calculate full-energy peak and total detection efficiencies as well as true coincidence summing correction (TCSC) factors for selected radionuclides of interest in the metallurgical industry: 60 Co, 137 Cs, 192 Ir, 214 Bi, 214 Pb, and 208 Tl. The MC codes were compared to each other on the basis of the calculated detection efficiencies and TCSC factors. In addition, a 'Procedural guide for calculation of TCSC factors for samples in metallurgical industry' was developed for end-users. The TCSC factors reached in certain cases up to 32% showing that the summing effects are of high importance in the close measurement geometries met in routine analysis of metallurgical samples. (authors)

  13. Energy-dissipation-model for metallurgical multi-phase-systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavrommatis, K.T. [Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule Aachen, Aachen (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Entropy production in real processes is directly associated with the dissipation of energy. Both are potential measures for the proceed of irreversible processes taking place in metallurgical systems. Many of these processes in multi-phase-systems could then be modelled on the basis of the energy-dissipation associated with. As this entity can often be estimated using very simple assumptions from first principles, the evolution of an overall measure of systems behaviour can be studied constructing an energy-dissipation -based model of the system. In this work a formulation of this concept, the Energy-Dissipation-Model (EDM), for metallurgical multi-phase-systems is given. Special examples are studied to illustrate the concept, and benefits as well as the range of validity are shown. This concept might be understood as complement to usual CFD-modelling of complex systems on a more abstract level but reproducing essential attributes of complex metallurgical systems. (author)

  14. Safety performance indicators in the metallurgical industry using WEB programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cioca

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development has a significant impact today in Romania and worldwide. In this context, risk assessment becomes mandatory for enterprises. This paper analyzes the situation of occupational risks in the metallurgical industry in the European Union, Romania, and the United States and highlights the main causes for work accidents in Romanian metallurgical industry. The analysis covers the period 2010 - 2016. The data collected from Romania is compared to the data related to the European Union and the United States. Moreover, the paper aims to present an occupational risk assessment tool, which is customizable for each area of activity. The last section of the paper discusses the research results and limitations.

  15. RISKS IDENTIFYING IN INNOVATION DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS OF METALLURGICAL ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Євгенія Сергіївна ШВЕЦЬ

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical aspects of risk management in innovative programs of metallurgical enterprises are examined; the causes of risks, their classification on the basic signs and stages of the risk management process and methods of risk management in innovative programs of metallurgical enterprises are described in modern conditions of Ukraine. The advanced and simplified methods of audit risk are characterized and the most common methods of quantitative risk analysis are listed. Conclusions were made about the essential things that are important especially for risks arising in the company due innovative development selecting.

  16. Study of the Metallurgical Aspects of Steel Micro-Alloying by Titan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kijac, J.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The metal properties upgrading applying it’s alloying with the simultaneous limitation of the impurities represents a prospective possibility of the metallurgical production further development. The interaction of the alloying substance active element with oxygen in metal and adjacent multiphase environment occurs under the actual conditions. Present paper is oriented particularly to the thermodynamic aspects of deoxygenation by titan in process of production of micro alloyed low carbon steel in two plants (oxygen converter 1-OC1 and 2-OC2 with the different effect of micro-alloy exploitation. Analysis of the effect of the metallurgical factors on the titan smelting loss in micro-alloyed steel production points at the need to master the metal preparation for the alloying and especially has got the decisive effect upon the oxidizing ability and rate of the slag phase availability. When comparing the micro-alloying matter yield among the individual production units, disclosed have been better results obtained in plant OC 2. Confirmed has been the effect of the slag amount (average amount of 7,3 t at OC 1 and 5,83 t at OC 2 and its quality during the steel tapping as one among the most significant factors affecting the alloying process and which also represent its oxidizing potential.

  17. Metallurgical and mechanical characterization of mild steel-mild ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    679–686. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Metallurgical and mechanical characterization of mild steel-mild steel joint formed by microwave hybrid heating process. AMIT BANSAL1,∗, APURBBA KUMAR SHARMA1 and. SHANTANU DAS2. 1Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology.

  18. Radioactivity of raw materials, metallurgical and casting products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hons, J.

    2000-01-01

    At present, the radioactive contamination of metallurgical products and initial materials represent a potential obstacle in foreign and domestic trade. It is of course an undesirable threat o the living environment on the one side and, at the same time, a new incorrectly used means for suppressing competition and forming a protection 'umbrella' of the national market to desirable imports on the other hand

  19. Cost estimation and management over the life cycle of metallurgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates whether all expected costs over the life cycle of metallurgical research projects are included in initial, normal and fi nal cost estimates, and whether these costs are managed throughout a project's life cycle since there is not enough emphasis on the accurate estimation of costs and their management ...

  20. Control of innovation activity in a competitive metallurgical business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, S. V.

    2010-12-01

    Certain competitive advantages of a manufacturer on a goods market can be provided if one creates conditions for bifurcation development of an innovation process in metallurgical business under conditions of market uncertainty of a demand for goods of a specified consumer quality and determines the technical-and-economic versions of stable operation of a production system for performing orders of metal product consumers.

  1. Mining-metallurgical projects for the production of uranium concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajuria-Garza, S.

    1983-01-01

    This report presents an overall view of a complete project for a mining-metallurgical complex for the production of uranium concentrates. Relevant aspects of each important topic are discussed as parts of an integrated methodology. The principal project activities are analyzed and the relationships among the various factors affecting the design are indicated. A list of 96 principal activities is proposed as an example. These activities are distributed in eight groups: initial evaluations preliminary feasibility studies, project engineering, construction, industrial operation, decommissioning and post-decommissioning activities. The environmental impact and the radiological risks due to the construction and operation of the mining metallurgical complex are analyzed. The principles of radiological protection and the regulations, standards and recommendations for radiological protection in uranium mines and mills are discussed. This report is also a guide to the specialized literature: a bibliography with 765 references is included. (author)

  2. Supercritical water oxidation benchscale testing metallurgical analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norby, B.C.

    1993-02-01

    This report describes metallurgical evaluation of witness wires from a series of tests using supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) to process cutting oil containing a simulated radionuclide. The goal of the tests was to evaluate the technology's ability to process a highly chlorinated waste representative of many mixed waste streams generated in the DOE complex. The testing was conducted with a bench-scale SCWO system developed by the Modell Development Corporation. Significant test objectives included process optimization for adequate destruction efficiency, tracking the radionuclide simulant and certain metals in the effluent streams, and assessment of reactor material degradation resulting from processing a highly chlorinated waste. The metallurgical evaluation described herein includes results of metallographic analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy analysis of witness wires exposed to the SCWO environment for one test series

  3. LWR surveillance dosimetry improvement program: PSF metallurgical blind test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kam, F.B.K.; Maerker, R.E.; Stallmann, F.W.

    1984-01-01

    The metallurgical irradiation experiment at the Oak Ridge Research Reactor Poolside Facility (ORR-PSF) was designed as a benchmark to test the accuracy of radiation embrittlement predictions in the pressure vessel wall of light water reactors on the basis of results from surveillance capsules. The PSF metallurgical Blind Test is concerned with the simulated surveillance capsule (SSC) and the simulated pressure vessel capsule (SPVC). The data from the ORR-PSF benchmark experiment are the basis for comparison with the predictions made by participants of the metallurgical ''Blind Test''. The Blind Test required the participants to predict the embrittlement of the irradiated specimen based only on dosimetry and metallurgical data from the SSC1 capsule. This exercise included both the prediction of damage fluence and the prediction of embrittlement based on the predicted fluence. A variety of prediction methodologies was used by the participants. No glaring biases or other deficiencies were found, but neither were any of the methods clearly superior to the others. Closer analysis shows a rather complex and poorly understood relation between fluence and material damage. Many prediction formulas can give an adequate approximation, but further improvement of the prediction methodology is unlikely at this time given the many unknown factors. Instead, attention should be focused on determining realistic uncertainties for the predicted material changes. The Blind Test comparisons provide some clues for the size of these uncertainties. In particular, higher uncertainties must be assigned to materials whose chemical composition lies outside the data set for which the prediction formula was obtained. 16 references, 14 figures, 5 tables

  4. Thermo-ecological cost (TEC evaluation of metallurgical processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Stanek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metallurgy represents a complex production system of fuel and mineral non-renewable resources transformation. The effectiveness of resource management in metallurgical chains depends on the applied ore grade and on the irreversibility of components of the system. TEC can be applied to measure the influence of metallurgy on the depletion of natural resources. The paper discusses the possibility of application of TEC in metallurgy and presents illustrative example concerning blast-furnace process.

  5. Experimental research on quality features of metallurgical coke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrei, V.; Constantin, N.

    2015-06-01

    From all the solid fuels, the metallurgical coke is the most used in obtaining iron in the blast furnace. Together with the iron ore, manganese ore and fluxes, it constitutes the basis of raw materials and materials for elaborating pig iron. This paper presents the results of laboratory investigations by the authors to determine the most important quality characteristics of some types of coke used in the blast furnace charge.

  6. The first metallurgical tests on plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grison, E.; Abramson, R.; Anselin, F.; Monti, H.

    1958-01-01

    Metallic plutonium was first prepared in France in January 1956, as soon as we had access to quantities of the order of several grams of plutonium, which had been extracted from the rods of the pile EL2 at Saclay. Since up to the present this reactor, of thermal power 2 000 kW, has been our only source of plutonium, we have so far only worked on experimental quantities sufficient for the basic tests but not for tests on a scale of possible applications. It is this work, carried out during this phase of preliminary research, which is described below. With the starting up of the plutonium extraction plant at Marcoule, where the reactor G1 has been operating at power for more than a year, we shall go on next to a another order of magnitude which will allow the manufacture and experimentation of prototype fuel elements. (author) [fr

  7. HIT Solar Cells with N-Type Low-Cost Metallurgical Si

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A conversion efficiency of 20.23% of heterojunction with intrinsic thin layer (HIT solar cell on 156 mm × 156 mm metallurgical Si wafer has been obtained. Applying AFORS-HET software simulation, HIT solar cell with metallurgical Si was investigated with regard to impurity concentration, compensation level, and their impacts on cell performance. It is known that a small amount of impurity in metallurgical Si materials is not harmful to solar cell properties.

  8. Mechanical and metallurgical properties of carotid artery clamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dujovny, M; Kossovsky, N; Kossowsky, R; Segal, R; Diaz, F G; Kaufman, H; Perlin, A; Cook, E E

    1985-11-01

    The mechanical and metallurgical properties of carotid artery clamps were evaluated. The pressure plate retreat propensity, metallurgical composition, surface morphology, magnetic properties, and corrosion resistance of the Crutchfield, Selverstone, Salibi, and Kindt clamps were tested. None of the clamps showed evidence of pressure plate retreat. The clamps differed significantly in their composition, surface cleanliness, magnetic properties, and corrosion resistance. The Crutchfield clamp was the only one manufactured from an ASTM-ANSI-approved implantable stainless steel (AISI 316) and the only clamp in which the surfaces were clean and free of debris. The Selverstone clamp was made principally from AISI 304 stainless steel, as was one Salibi clamp. The pressure plate on another Salibi clamp was made from a 1% chromium and 1% manganese steel. Machining and surface debris consisting principally of aluminum, silicon, and sulfur was abundant on the Selverstone and Salibi clamps. The Kindt clamp was manufactured from AISI 301 stainless steel with a silicate-aluminized outer coating. The Crutchfield and Selverstone clamps were essentially nonferromagnetic, whereas the Salibi and Kindt clamps were sensitive to magnetic flux. In the pitting potential corrosion test, the Crutchfield clamp demonstrated good corrosion resistance with a pitting potential of 310 mV and no surface corrosion or pitting by scanning electron microscopy examination. The Selverstone clamp had lower pitting potentials and showed various degrees of corrosion and surface pitting by scanning electron microscopy. The Salibi pressure plate had a very low pitting potential of -525 mV and showed severe corrosion. By metallurgical criteria, only the Crutchfield clamp is suitable for long term implantation.

  9. Wear and corrosion performance of metallurgical coatings in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.N.; Farwick, D.G.

    1980-01-01

    The friction, wear, and corrosion performance of several metallurgical coatings in 200 to 650 0 C sodium are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on those coatings which have successfully passed the qualification tests necessary for acceptance in breeder reactor environments. Tests include friction, wear, corrosion, thermal cycling, self-welding, and irradiation exposure under as-prototypic-as-possible service conditions. Materials tested were coatings of various refractory metal carbides in metallic binders, nickel-base and cobalt-base alloys and intermetallic compounds such as the aluminides and borides. Coating processes evaluated included plasma spray, detonation gun, sputtering, spark-deposition, and solid-state diffusion

  10. Magnetohydrodynamic research in fusion blanket engineering and metallurgical processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuhiro, A.

    1991-11-01

    A review of recent research activities in liquid metal magnetohydrodynamics (LM-MHDs) is presented in this article. Two major reserach areas are discussed. The first topic involves the thermomechanical design issues in a proposed tokamak fusion reactor. The primary concerns are in the magneto-thermal-hydraulic performance of a self-cooled liquid metal blanket. The second topic involves the application of MHD in material processing in the metallurgical and semiconductor industries. The two representative applications are electromagnetic stirring (EMS) of continuously cast steel and the Czochralski (CZ) method of crystal growth in the presence of a magnetic field. (author) 24 figs., 10 tabs., 136 refs

  11. The 6th European metallurgical conference EMC 2011: Proceedings review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srećko R. Stopić

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The GDMB Society for Mining, Metallurgy, Resource and Environmental Technology organized the 6th European Metallurgical Conference (2011 in Duesseldorf from June 26 to 29, 2011. The same venue hosted the most important international metallurgical trade fairs for metallurgy of iron and steel, new casting and thermochemical processes METEC, GIFA, THERMOPROCESS and NEWCAST. The previous European metallurgical conferences were organized by GDMB in Friedrichshafen (2001, Hanover (2003, Leipzig (2005, Duesseldorf (2007, Innsbruck (2009. The GDMB is a non-profit organization situated in Clausthal in Germany, which is related to combining science with the practical experience in metallurgy, mining, materials engineering, mineral processing, recycling and refining of metals, and manufacturing of semi- and finishing products. The European Metallurgical conference EMC is one of the most known conferences worldwide in the field of non-ferrous metallurgy and is attended regularly by the decision makers from the industry and universities. The scientific program contained 6 plenary lectures and more than 160 presentations from 40 countries in 5 parallel series. An extensive poster exhibition was held, during which the authors had an opportunity to introduce their posters to the entire plenum as a part of a brief presentation. The best poster from the Montan-University in Leoben, Austria, was awarded the € 500 'Poster Award EMC 2011'. Not only were the most important European countries represented here, more than one third of the lecturers were from the non-European countries (Canada, Japan, China, USA, South Africa, Australia. The origin of the participants reflects the aim of the organizers: to make this conference a worldwide platform for the scientific exchange of experience and information. More than 400 participants from all over the world participated at this conference. The scientific presentations of the conference are presented in five Proceedings

  12. Market Structure Differences Impacting Australian Iron Ore and Metallurgical Coal Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Lawrence

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Steelmaking relies on iron ore and metallurgical coal as main ingredients, the trade of which is hypothesized to theoretically change in tandem. However, strong correlation is not evident in historical trade prices of steelmaking inputs. To determine causes to this occurrence, the market factors that influence the Australian iron ore and metallurgical coal industries were studied. Data was collected over the past decade for worldwide resource production and trade quantities of crude steel, iron ore, and metallurgical coal. The data was analysed to reveal trends, allowing examination of the macroeconomic trade of metallurgical coal and iron ore with relation to worldwide and country specific steel production. It was determined that the influential growth of China’s steel production has spurred the growth of worldwide iron ore demand, which was met with increased production and supply, from Australia. The increased metallurgical coal demand has been met with increased production within China locally. Measures of supply elasticity were created for worldwide iron ore and metallurgical coal trade, where comparisons between Australia’s industries to the relevant greatest competitor were examined. The results, along with respective resource production data, highlighted the elevated competitive position that Australian iron ore producers enjoy compared to metallurgical coal producers. Trade characteristics revealed the different market structures that iron ore and metallurgical coal industries operate in, prompting a discussion of the effects these markets have on the two Australian industries.

  13. Integrated Multimotor Electrical DC Drive for Metallurgical Rolling Table

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gała Marek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A drive system of a section of a metallurgical rolling table consisting of six dc motors, 2220 amperes of total current, fed from a single ABB reversible thyristor converter has been described in this paper. Autonomous excitation circuits of the motors are fed from independent thyristor converters working in the so called MULTIFEX system linked with a supervisory high power converter. There are presented schemes of the DSL communication realized by FEX excitation cards of the motors using the SDSC card of the DCS-800-S02 converter and logic control system based on a PLC controller. The parameterization of the DCS-800 converter and the DCF 803 excitation systems was conducted using the DriveWindow software tool. Significant waveforms of voltages, currents and the estimated motor velocity are described and presented for the idle run as well as during transporting sheets discharged from a pusher furnace.

  14. Characterization of Nanocarbon Copper Composites Manufactured in Metallurgical Synthesis Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knych, Tadeusz; Kwaśniewski, Paweł; Kiesiewicz, Grzegorz; Mamala, Andrzej; Kawecki, Artur; Smyrak, Beata

    2014-08-01

    Currently, there is a worldwide search for new forms of materials with properties that are significantly improved in comparison to materials currently in use. One promising research direction lies in the synthesis of metals containing modern carbon materials ( e.g., graphene, nanotubes). In this article, the research results of metallurgical synthesis of a mixture of copper and two different kinds of carbon (activated carbon and multiwall carbon nanotubes) are shown. Samples of copper-carbon nanocomposite were synthesized by simultaneously exposing molten copper to an electrical current while vigorously stirring and adding carbon while under an inert gas atmosphere. The article contains research results of density, hardness, electrical conductivity, structure (TEM), and carbon decomposition (SIMS method) for the obtained materials.

  15. First Mining workshop of Mining and metallurgical of MERCOSUR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    In the city of Montevideo, capital of the Oriental Republic of Uruguay, at 23 days of September 1994, under the First Meeting of Mercosur Mining Metallurgical, meet representatives of the mining sector in the countries signed the Treaty of Asuncion , attended as observers, authorities of the Republic of Bolivia and Ecuador and representatives of the productive labor, legislative and research. The primary objective is to integrate the mining sectors of those countries, taking into account the specificity of the mining, given by the resource it uses, the need for high-risk investment with slow recoveries of capital and infrastructure problems, taking into account leverage and its remarkable impact on the development of regional economies.

  16. Cryogenic treatment of steel: from concept to metallurgical understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Matteo; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2017-01-01

    Subjecting steel to cryogenic treatment to improve its properties was conceived in the 30ies of the previous century. The proof of concept that properties, in particular wear resistance, can indeed be improved importantly, was reported in the next decades. Despite many investigations......, the metallurgical understanding of the microstructural changes involved in cryogenic treatment of steel has remained poor. It is believed that the improvement in wear resistance is promoted by an enhanced precipitation of carbides during tempering, but no explanation has been given as to how this enhanced...... precipitation can be obtained. In the last six years, the authors have applied in situ magnetometry, synchrotron X-Ray Diffraction and dilatometry to enlighten the phase transitions occurring in steels at cryogenic temperatures and to point out the connection between different treatment parameters...

  17. Inventory management in a metallurgical of the automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antonio Maia de Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the importance of inventory management in a metallurgical company, located in Santo André city, in Grande São Paulo, since the inventory management is crucial within a company that wants to survive nowadays, by studying the main features and trends in the methods used for inventory control. In this case study the basic concepts for good control were considered, showing tools currently used in the market, providing data for material purchase, sales control, parts in stock, future orders, MRP, storage space, among others once many companies have high and unnecessary cost of stock for not being aware of the real importance of this control. It is felt that the logistics of the company should invest in technology by purchasing the MRP system, visiting fairs and attending seminars. This way, the company will have better inventory control thus consequently decrease the purchase of materials.

  18. Powder metallurgical high performance materials. Proceedings. Volume 4: late papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kneringer, G.; Roedhammer, P.; Wildner, H.

    2001-01-01

    This is the fourth volume (late papers) of the 15th International Plansee seminar 2001 which general theme was 'Powder metallurgical high performance materials'. The seminar looked beyond the refractory metals and cemented carbides, which remain as its focus, to novel classes of materials, such as intermetallic compounds, with potential for high temperature applications. This volume 4 contains papers dealing with high performance P/M metals (ITER and fusion reactors, solid targets, materials microstructure, novel alloys, etc.), P/M hard materials ( production and characterization, tungsten carbides, titanium carbides, microstructural design, coatings composition and performance, etc.) and general topics. From 37 papers 24 correspond to INIS subject scope and they were indexed separately. (nevyjel)

  19. Centrifugal Casting Features/Metallurgical Characterization of Aluminum Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirita, G.; Soares, D.; Cruz, D.; Silva, F. S.; Stefanescu, I.

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the study of centrifugal effects on aluminium castings under high G values. Most of the studies in this domain (FGMs obtained by centrifugal casting) deal with functionally graded composites reinforced with a solid phase such as silicon particles or others. However, in this study it will be shown that unreinforced aluminium alloys may be significantly influenced by the centrifugal effect and that functionally graded castings are also obtained. It has been observed that the centrifugal effect may increase in some alloys, depending on the relative position in the castings, the rupture strength by approx. 50%, and rupture strain by about 300%, as compared to the gravity casting technique. The Young's modulus may also increase by about 20%. It has also been reported that in vertical centrifugal castings there are mainly three aspects that affect the components thus obtained, namely: fluid dynamics; vibration (inherent to the system); and centrifugal force. These features have a different effect on the castings depending on the aluminium alloy. In this paper, an analysis of the most important effects of the centrifugal casting process on metallurgical features is conducted. A solidification characterization at several points along the mould will be made in order to have an accurate idea of both the fluid dynamics inside the mould during the casting and the solidification behavior in different parts of the component. These two analyses will be related to the metallurgical properties (phase distribution; SDAS; eutectic silicon content and shape, pores density and shape) along the component and mainly along the direction of the centrifugal pressure. A comparison between castings obtained by both centrifugal casting technique and gravity casting technique is made for reference (gravity casting)

  20. Cleaner metallurgical industry in Serbia: a road to the sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Panias

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the sustainable development has been a global and fundamental objecttive, a metallurgical industrial sector faces some of the most difficult sustainability challenges of any industrial sector. On the other hand, the metallurgical production in Serbia is a very important part of the economy. Due to present facilities and technologies, metallurgical companies face a great challenge to fulfill the requirements introduced by legislature referring to the cleaner production and sustainable development. The state of art in the production, facilities, pollution with some answers to imposed challenges is presented.

  1. Estimation of metallurgical parameters of flotation process from froth visual features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Massinaei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of metallurgical parameters of flotation process from froth visual features is the ultimate goal of a machine vision based control system. In this study, a batch flotation system was operated under different process conditions and metallurgical parameters and froth image data were determined simultaneously. Algorithms have been developed for measuring textural and physical froth features from the captured images. The correlation between the froth features and metallurgical parameters was successfully modeled, using artificial neural networks. It has been shown that the performance parameters of flotation process can be accurately estimated from the extracted image features, which is of great importance for developing automatic control systems.

  2. Metallurgical sessions. Second ALAMET congress (held in) Buenos Aires, Argentina, 6-10 May 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This congress was held in Buenos Aires, Argentine Republic, on May 6-10, 1991, gathering experts from all over the world. The present volume includes the papers presented at the Metallurgical Sessions - II. ALAMET Congress [es

  3. Development of market strategies of metallurgical enterrprises after restructuring of steel industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gajdzik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Before metallurgical enterprises started implementation of marketing activities they had to go through restructuring processes which included all areas of their market activities. Privatised metallurgical enterprises after economic transformation gradually implemented marketing to their business activities. The article presents notions connected with development of marketing strategies from the period of last 20 years. The range of analysis includes categories corresponding with instruments of mix marketing (4P − product, price, place, promotion.

  4. USING THE OUTSOURCING MECHANISM TO INCREASE THE EFFICIENCY OF REPAIR AND MAINTENANCE IN METALLURGICAL ENTERPRISES

    OpenAIRE

    Elena I. Kozlova; Anna N. Lopatina; Maxim A. Novak

    2017-01-01

    Abstract. Objectives The aim of the work is to study the outsourcing mechanism from the point of view of increasing the efficiency of repair and maintenance at a metallurgical enterprise. Method Analysis of the experience of using outsourcing of repair services at domestic and foreign metallurgical enterprises was carried out. Analysis of the experience of the withdrawal from enterprise repair services into a separate outsourcing company has shown that the main advantages of this method of or...

  5. Synergetic use of lignite fly ash and metallurgical converter slag in geopolymer concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Mucsi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The application and utilization of the industrial wastes and by-products in the construction industry is a key issue from an environmental and economic point of view. The increased use of lignite has substantially increased the available quantities of lignite fired power plant fly ash, which can be mainly classified as class C fly ash. The utilization of such raw material however has some difficulties. In the present paper lignite fired power station fly ash and metallurgical converter slag were used for the production of geopolymer concrete. The fly ash was used as a geopolymer based binder material, and a converter slag as aggregate, thus created a geopolymer concrete which contains mainly industrial wastes. As preliminary test experimental series were carried out using andesite as aggregate. The optimal aggregate/binder ratio was determined. The effect of the amount of alkaline activator solution in the binder, the aggregate type on the geopolymer concretes’ compressive strength and density was investigated. Furthermore, the physical properties - freeze-thaw resistance and particle size distribution - of the applied aggregates were measured as well. As a result of the experiments it was found that physical properties of the andesite and converter slag aggregate was close. Therefore andesite can be replaced by converter slag in the concrete mixture. Additionally, geopolymer concrete with nearly 20 MPa compressive strength was produced from class C fly ash and converter slag.

  6. NMR investigation of boron impurities in refined metallurgical grade silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grafe, Hans-Joachim; Loeser, Wolfgang; Schmitz, Steffen; Sakaliyska, Miroslava [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research (IFW), Dresden (Germany); Wurmehl, Sabine [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research (IFW), Dresden (Germany); Institute for Solid State Physics, Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany); Eisert, Stefan; Reichenbach, Birk; Mueller, Tim [Adensis GmbH, Dresden (Germany); Acker, Joerg; Rietig, Anja; Ducke, Jana [Department of Chemistry, Faculty for Natural Sciences, Brandenburg Technical University Cottbus-Senftenberg, Senftenberg (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method was applied for tracking boron impurities in the refining process of metallurgical grade (MG) silicon. From the NMR signal of the {sup 11}B isotope at an operating temperature 4.2 K, the boron concentration can be estimated down to the order of 1-10 wppm B. After melting and resolidification of MG-Si alloyed with Ca and Ti, a major fraction of B impurities remains in the Si solid solution as inferred from the characteristic NMR frequency. The alloying element Ti does not form substantial fractions of TiB{sub 2}. Acid leaching of crushed powders of MG-Si alloyed with Ca and Ti can diminish the initial impurity content of B suggesting its accumulation in the grain boundary phases. NMR signals of TiB{sub 2} at 4.2 K and room temperature (RT), and of poly-Si with different B doping at 4.2 K. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Fundamental metallurgical aspects of axial splitting in zircaloy cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, H. M.

    2000-01-01

    Fundamental metallurgical aspects of axial splitting in irradiated Zircaloy cladding have been investigated by microstructural characterization and analytical modeling, with emphasis on application of the results to understand high-burnup fuel failure under RIA situations. Optical microscopy, SEM, and TEM were conducted on BWR and PWR fuel cladding tubes that were irradiated to fluence levels of 3.3 x 10 21 n cm -2 to 5.9 x 10 21 n cm -2 (E > 1 MeV) and tested in hot cell at 292--325 C in Ar. The morphology, distribution, and habit planes of macroscopic and microscopic hydrides in as-irradiated and posttest cladding were determined by stereo-TEM. The type and magnitude of the residual stress produced in association with oxide-layer growth and dense hydride precipitation, and several synergistic factors that strongly influence axial-splitting behavior were analyzed. The results of the microstructural characterization and stress analyses were then correlated with axial-splitting behavior of high-burnup PWR cladding reported for simulated-RIA conditions. The effects of key test procedures and their implications for the interpretation of RIA test results are discussed

  8. Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1993-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1992, samples from 18 groundwater monitoring wells of the AMB series at the Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility were analyzed for certain heavy metals, indicator parameters, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Six parameters exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) and the Savannah River Site Flag 2 criteria during the quarter. The results for fourth quarter 1992 are fairly consistent with the rest of the year's data. Tetrachloroethylene exceeded the final PDWS in well AMB 4D only two of the four quarters; in the other three wells in which it was elevated, it was present at similar levels throughout the year. Trichloroethylene consistently exceeded its PDWS in wells AMB 4A, 4B, 4D, 5, and 7A during the year. Trichloroethylene was elevated in well AMB 6 only during third and fourth quarters and in well AMB 7 only during fourth quarter. Total alpha-emitting radium was above the final PDWS for total radium in well AMB 5 at similar levels throughout the year and exceeded the PDWS during one of the three quarters it was analyzed for (third quarter 1992) in well AMB 10B.

  9. Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1993-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1992, samples from 18 groundwater monitoring wells of the AMB series at the Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility were analyzed for certain heavy metals, indicator parameters, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Six parameters exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) and the Savannah River Site Flag 2 criteria during the quarter. The results for fourth quarter 1992 are fairly consistent with the rest of the year's data. Tetrachloroethylene exceeded the final PDWS in well AMB 4D only two of the four quarters; in the other three wells in which it was elevated, it was present at similar levels throughout the year. Trichloroethylene consistently exceeded its PDWS in wells AMB 4A, 4B, 4D, 5, and 7A during the year. Trichloroethylene was elevated in well AMB 6 only during third and fourth quarters and in well AMB 7 only during fourth quarter. Total alpha-emitting radium was above the final PDWS for total radium in well AMB 5 at similar levels throughout the year and exceeded the PDWS during one of the three quarters it was analyzed for (third quarter 1992) in well AMB 10B

  10. Laser treatment of boron carbide surfaces: Metallurgical and morphological examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilbas, B.S., E-mail: bsilbas@kfupm.edu.sa; Karatas, C.

    2014-08-01

    Highlights: • Dense layer with fine grains is formed at surface. • Irregular shaped grains and dendrites are formed below dense layer. • Assisting gas forms nitride species (BN and BC{sub 2}N) at surface. • Fracture toughness of treated surface reduces because of high hardness. • Residual stress is compressive and the maximum residual stress is about 0.9 GPa. - Abstract: Laser treatment of B{sub 4}C tile surfaces is carried out under high pressure nitrogen assisting gas environment. Morphological and metallurgical changes in the laser treated layer are examined by incorporating scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Microhardness and fracture toughness of the laser treated surface are determined from the indentation data. Residual stress formed at the treated surface is obtained by using X-ray diffraction technique. It is found that laser treated surface is free from large scale asperities including cracks and voids; however, some locally scattered shallow cavities with 1.5–2 μm widths are formed at the surface because of high temperature processing. Dense layer, consisting of fine grains, and formation of nitride species (BN and BC{sub 2}N) enhance microhardness and lower fracture toughness at the surface. Residual stress formed in the treated layer is compressive and the maximum residual stress is in the order of −0.9 GPa.

  11. ECOLOGICAL MANAGEMENT IN THE MINING AND METALLURGICAL MARAMURES AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel POP

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper is part of the interdisciplinary recent concerns of "environmental management", looking to determine the damages caused by pollution, remediation expenditures, and benefits that may arise through the application of remediation techniques and decontamination technologies in the mining and metallurgical Maramureş area. Large areas of land were diverted from their original destination (pastures, arable land, forests being now covered with ponds and dumps of mine or flotation tailings, deposits that are insufficiently protected, and have become sources of pollution to surrounding areas. All Eastern European countries have in common major environmental problems, the most serious being due to mining, metallurgy and chemistry. In the relationship of "economic-ecological" equilibrium, should be considered both economic criteria, as well as ecological ones. Pollution as the deterioration of environment, requires costs for rehabilitation of degraded areas, and for environmental protection, costs for new technologies, non polluting ones. The assessment foundation of environmental damages, is necessary for establishing the priority directions in the allocation of funds for projects to protect and rehabilitate the environment.

  12. A metallurgical route to solar-grade silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schei, A.

    1986-02-01

    The aim of the process is to produce silicon for crystallization into ingots that can be sliced to wafers for processing into photovoltaic cells. If the potential purity can be realized, the silicon will also be applicable for ribbon pulling techniques where the purification during crystallization is negligible. The process consists of several steps: selection and purification of raw materials, carbothermic reduction of silica, ladle treatment, casting, crushing, leaching, and melting. The leaching step is crucial for high purity, and the obtainable purity is determined by the solidification before leaching. The most difficult specifications to fulfill are the low contents of boron, phosphorus, and carbon. Boron and phosphorus can be excluded from the raw materials, but the carbothermic reduction will unavoidably saturate the silicon with carbon at high temperature. During cooling carbon will precipitate as silicon carbide crystals, which will be harmful in solar cells. The cost of this solar silicon will depend strongly on the scale of production. It is as yet premature to give exact figures, but with a scale of some thousand tons per year, the cost will only be a few times the cost of ordinary metallurgical silicon.

  13. Quest for steel quality: the role of metallurgical chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLean, A. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Science

    2000-10-01

    Improvements in the quality of steels and the role played by metallurgical chemistry to bring about those improvements are discussed. The particular emphasis is on the chemical behaviour of solutes in molten steel and the reaction between steel, slag and refractory materials and the manner in which they influence the physical properties and performance of the steel product. As an illustration of the contribution of chemistry to steel making the case of the steel plates used in the construction of the Titanic is cited. In 1911 when the Titanic was constructed by Harland and Wolff at their Belfast shipyard, the steel plates used in the hull met all then current specifications. In 1992 when a number of steel samples recovered from the Titanic were examined, it was found that the hull of the vessel was constructed of low carbon, semi-killed steel, produced in the open-hearth process. Microstructural analysis showed extensive carbon banding, typical of hot rolled 0.2 per cent carbon steel. Also found were long manganese sulphide inclusions elongated in the rolling direction, some of which exceeded 25 mm in length. It was determined that as a consequence of these inclusions, at a seawater temperature of 0 degree C, the hull plates of the Titanic had essentially no resistance to fracture. Today's high quality steels used in applications such as Arctic pipelines, offshore platforms, icebreakers and ships for the transportation of natural gas, oxygen and sulphur concentrations are frequently less than 10 ppm. These elements have a profound influence of the quality of the final steel products by virtue of their effect of hindering the formation of inclusions. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Groundwater quality assessment plan for the Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerome, K.M.

    1990-10-01

    The Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility (MLHWMF) will be closed under interim status regulation and permitted as a hazardous waste management facility by a Post Closure Part B Permit under 40 CFR 264. This report discusses the ground water quality assessment plan for the MLHWMF. The Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility consists of the process sewer line leading to the Metallurgical Laboratory basin from the fence, the Metallurgical Laboratory basin, the drainage outfall to the Carolina bay, and the Carolina bay itself. The Metallurgical Laboratory HWMF received F001, F003, F007, and D011 waste. F001 waste includes spent halogenated solvents used in degreasing (trichloroethylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and carbon tetrachloride). F003 waste includes spent nonhalogenated solvents (acetone), and F007 waste is spent cyanide plating bath solution. At present forty-three constituents are analyzed per sample. Trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and total radium are the only constituents that were reported above Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) during the second quarter of 1990. Listed in this report are the constituents that are being analyzed at present. Appendix A presents the trends for the analyzed constituents from the fourth quarter of 1988 to the second quarter of 1990. 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Anaerobic microbiological method of cleaning water contaminated by metallurgical slags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олена Леонідівна Дан

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The problem of environmental protection and rational use of water resources is one of the most important problems of environmental policy in Ukraine. This problem in Mariupol is particularly acute as metallurgical and coke industries cause significant damage to adjacent water bodies (the Kalchyk, the Kalmius and coastal zone of the Sea of Azov. One of the most harmful components of wastewater of these enterprises are sulfide-containing compounds. These compounds in water can cause great harm to both human health and the environment. For example, in 1999 the main city enterprises (AZOVSTAL IRON & STEEL WORKS and ILYICH IRON AND STEEL WORKS discharged 885,0 million m³ of wastewater (including 403,9 million m³ of polluted waste water into water bodies. The slag dumps and landfills in close proximity to the sea form a source of dangerous pollution, because contaminated water infiltration washed out here in the groundwater and surface water, get into the Sea of Azov later on. There are 97 mg/l of sulfides in the protective dam of AZOVSTAL IRON & STEEL WORKS, what exceeds the standards (MPC = 10 mg/l. It makes it possible for us to put forward biochemical purification processes. Anaerobic microbiological method proposed in the article has several advantages (compact hardware design, a minimum amount of activated sludge and lack of energy consumption for aeration over the existing wastewater treatment (chemical, mechanical, biological. The experimental procedure consisted in introducing the medium to be purified purified into microbial communities of high concentration (Thiobacillus «X», Thiobacillus concretivorus, which assimilated organic substances of the medium as a primary energy source. The kinetics of sulfide compounds removal by means of anaerobic microbiological method was considered. The effectiveness of wastewater treatment with changing purification process conditions has been also assessed (concentration of sulfides, reactor type, p

  16. A metallurgical study of Nāga Bhasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dev Nath Singh Gautam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The metal Nāga (Lead is being used by Indians since ancient times. Its external and internal uses have been described in Caraka, Suśruta and other Ayurvedic Saṃhitā. According to most of the Rasa texts, Nāga Bhasma and its formulations are used in many diseases such as Prameha, Jvara, Gulma, Śukrameha etc. Objectives: In the present study, Nāga Bhasma was prepared by the traditional Puṭa method (TPM and by the electric muffle furnace Puṭa method (EMFPM and standardized using Metallographic studies. Doing so helps in the study of the microstructure of Nāga Bhasma and also helps in the identification of the metal particles along with the nature of compound formed during the Māraṇa (Bhasmīkaraṇa process. Setting and Design: Different samples from initial raw material to final product of Nāga Bhasma were collected during the pharmaceutical process (1st, 30th and 60th Puṭa from both methods i.e. TPM and EMFPM. Samples from both methods were studied using metallographic examination. Materials and Methods: The processing of the Nāga Bhasma (ṣaṣṭipuṭa was done according to Ānanda Kanda[9] Samples from the raw material i.e. Aśodhita Nāga (raw Lead and that processed after 1st, 30th and 60th Puṭa from both methods i.e. traditional Puṭa method (using heat from burning of cow dung cakes and electric muffle furnace Puṭa method were taken. They were mounted on self hardening acrylic base. After careful polishing to obtain scratch free surface of product, they were used for metallurgical study. Conclusion: This study shows that traditional Puṭa method may be better than electric muffle furnace Puṭa method because of more homogeneous distribution of Lead sulphide in the Nāga Bhasma which is prepared by traditional method.

  17. Application of transformational roasting to the treatment of metallurgical wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Preston Carl

    Transformational roasting involves the heating of a material along with specific additives to induce mineralogical changes in the starting material. By controlling the chemical composition, roasting atmosphere, temperature and time of reaction, the mineral transformations induced during roasting can be engineered to control the distribution of valuable or harmful metals and to produce new mineral assemblages that are more amenable to conventional methods of metals recovery or to environmentally safe disposal. However, to date, transformational roasting processes have only been applied to the recovery of a limited number of metals from a limited number of materials. A generalized procedure for the application of transformational roasting techniques to the treatment of new materials was proposed that utilized a combination of thermodynamic analysis, scoping tests, Design of Experiments (DOE) testing, mineralogical studies, process optimization and analysis of the deportment of minor elements to identify promising roasting systems for further study. This procedure was developed, tested and refined through the application of these techniques to four different industrial metallurgical wastes, including oil sands fly ash from Suncor in northern Alberta, zinc ferrite residue from Doe Run Peru, electric are furnace (EAF) dust from Altasteel's operations in Edmonton, Alberta, and copper-nickel-arsenic sulphide residue from Inco's refinery in Thompson, Manitoba. A large number of potential reagents were identified and tested for the latter three materials and transformational roasting was effectively used to induce mineral transformations during the roasting of these wastes which increased the solubility of valuable elements, decreased the solubility of major impurities, produced a differential solubility between valuable and harmful elements or controlled the volatilization of harmful elements. Comprehensive studies of these mineralogical transformations and the solubility

  18. Biaxial fatigue behavior of a powder metallurgical TRIP steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ackermann

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Multiaxial fatigue behavior is an important topic in critical structural components. In the present study the biaxial-planar fatigue behavior of a powder metallurgical TRIP steel (Transformation Induced Plasticity was studied by taking into account martensitic phase transformation and crack growth behavior. Biaxial cyclic deformation tests were carried out on a servo hydraulic biaxial tension-compression test rig using cruciform specimens. Different states of strain were studied by varying the strain ratio between the axial strain amplitudes in the range of -1 (shear loading to 1 (equibiaxial loading. The investigated loading conditions were proportional due to fixed directions of principal strains. The studied TRIP steel exhibits martensitic phase transformation from -austenite via ε-martensite into α‘- martensite which causes pronounced cyclic hardening. The α‘-martensite formation increased with increasing plastic strain amplitude. Shear loading promoted martensite formation and caused the highest α‘-martensite volume fractions at fatigue failure in comparison to uniaxial and other biaxial states of strain. Moreover, the fatigue lives of shear tests were higher than those of uniaxial and other biaxial tests. The von Mises equivalent strain hypothesis was found to be appropriate for uniaxial and biaxial fatigue, but too conservative for shear fatigue, according to literature for torsional fatigue. The COD strain amplitude which is based on crack opening displacement gave a better correlation of the investigated fatigue lives, especially those for shear loading. Different types of major cracks were observed on the sample surfaces after biaxial cyclic deformation by using electron monitoring in an electron beam universal system and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Specimens with strain ratios of 1, 0.5, -0.1 and -0.5 showed mode I major cracks (perpendicular to the axis of maximum principal strain. Major cracks after shear fatigue

  19. Conceptual design for treatment of mining and metallurgical wastewaters which contains arsenic and antimony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Kamberović

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a preliminary design for treatment of mining and metallurgical wastewaters (MMW from the basin of antimony “Zajača“, which contains high concentrations of arsenic and antimony. MMW have been investigated in laboratory, due to large difference in concentrations of pollutants. Metallurgical wastewaters were treated using iron (II-sulfate and lime milk used to adjust the pH value at 7. After chemical treatment of metallurgical wastewater and its joining with mining wastewater, residual amount of arsenic in water was below maximum allowed concentrations, while the concentration of antimony, remained above the maximum allowed value. The final phase of purification process was performed using ion exchange resin. After treatment of MMW, they can be used as technical water in the smelting process of secondary raw lead materials.

  20. ORNL evaluation of the ORR-PSF metallurgical experiment and blind test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stallmann, F.W.

    1984-01-01

    A methodology is described to evaluate the dosimetry and metallurgical data from the two-year ORR-PSF metallurgical irradiation experiment. The first step is to obtain a three-dimensional map of damage exposure parameter values based on neutron transport calculations and dosimetry measurements which are obtained by means of the LSL-M2 adjustment procedure. Metallurgical test data are then combined with damage parameter, temperature, and chemistry information to determine the correlation between radiation and steel embrittlement in reactor pressure vessels including estimates for the uncertainties. Statistical procedures for the evaluation of Charpy data, developed earlier, are used for this investigation. The data obtained in this investigation provide a benchmark against which the predictions of the PSF Blind Test can be compared. The results of this investigation and the Blind Test comparison are discussed

  1. Effects of mechanical activation on the carbothermal reduction of chromite with metallurgical coke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Yıldız

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The carbothermal reduction of mechanically activated chromite with metallurgical coke under an argon atmosphere was investigated at temperatures between 1100 and 1400°C and the effects of the mechanical activation on chromite structure were analyzed by x-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. An increase in specific surface area resulted in more contact points. The activation procedure led to amorphization and structural disordering in chromite and accelerated the degree of reduction and metalization in the mixture of chromite and metallurgical coke. Carbothermal reduction products were analzed by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDS.

  2. Retail optimization in Romanian metallurgical industry by applying of fuzzy networks concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Our article presents possibilities of applying the concept Fuzzy Networks for an efficient metallurgical industry in Romania. We also present and analyze Fuzzy Networks complementary concepts, such as Expert Systems (ES, Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP, Analytics and Intelligent Strategies (SAI. The main results of our article are based on a case study of the possibilities of applying these concepts in metallurgy through Fuzzy Networks. Also, it is presented a case study on the application of the FUZZY concept on the Romanian metallurgical industry.

  3. Comparison of Metallurgical and Ultrasonic Inspections of Galvanized Steel Resistance Spot Welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, Timothy J.; Ghaffari, Bita; Mozurkewich, George; Reverdy, Frederic; Hopkins, Deborah

    2006-01-01

    Metallurgical examination of galvanized steel resistance spot welds was used to gauge the capabilities of two ultrasonic, non-destructive, scanning techniques. One method utilized the amplitude of the echo from the weld faying surface, while the other used the spectral content of the echo train to map the fused area. The specimens were subsequently sectioned and etched, to distinguish the fused, zinc-brazed, and non-fused areas. The spectral maps better matched the metallurgical maps, while the interface-amplitude method consistently overestimated the weld size

  4. Stress corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steels in PWR primary water: an update of metallurgical investigations performed on French withdrawn components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boursier, J.M. [R and D Division - Materials Branch Studies - Les Renardieres - 78 - Moret sur Loing (France); Gallet, S.; Rouillon, Y. [Nuclear Power Division - Corporate Laboratories - 37 - Avoine (France); Bordes, P. [Electricite de France, Nuclear Power Division - 93 - Saint Denis (France)

    2002-07-01

    Austenitic stainless steels (AISI 304, 304L, 316 and 316L) are largely used in Nuclear Power Plants because of their good resistance to corrosion and their satisfactory mechanical properties. Nevertheless, on various French PWR Nuclear Power Plants, several cases of corrosion have been encountered in auxiliary circuit portions where deleterious species and oxygen can be present. This paper focuses on the metallurgical investigations performed on pulled out components such as Canopy welds or 'dead legs' (auxiliary circuit portions connected to the main primary loops) in terms of cracking locations and degradation parameters. In addition, some comparisons between Nuclear Power Plant feedback and fundamental research and development studies are discussed, particularly in the scope of temperature, microstructure, stresses (applied and residual) and medium responsible for the degradation. (authors)

  5. Microbiological and physicochemical treatments applied to metallurgic industry aiming water reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Roberto Crystal Bello

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted on the reuse of the water in a system composed of a sewage treatment plant (STP using prolonged aeration with activated sludge and a compact water treatment plant (CWTP in a metallurgic industry. The processes for obtaining the water for reuse were microbiological and physicochemical. The domestic sewage was then pumped to the STP, where biological flocks were formed and clarified water was obtained. The efficiency of the microbiological process in the STP was evaluated for removal of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD and sedimentary solids (SS. The efficiency of physicochemical processes for clarifying the water and disinfection was evaluated through analysis of pH, turbidity, color, aerobic heterotrophic bacterial count, free chlorine, hardness, alkalinity, chlorides, sulfates and dissolved total solids (DTS. In the reuse of the water, acute toxicity for the microcrustaceans Daphnia similis was also evaluated.Estudou-se o reuso de água de um sistema composto por estação de tratamento de esgoto (ETE com aeração prolongada e lodo ativado, e em uma estação compacta de tratamento de água (ECTA de uma indústria metalúrgica. Os processos para obtenção da água de reuso foram: microbiológico e físico-químico. O esgoto doméstico foi bombeado para a ETE, onde houve formação de flocos biológicos e água clarificada. Avaliou-se a eficiência do processo microbiológico da ETE mediante a remoção de demanda bioquímica de oxigênio (DBO, demanda química de oxigênio (DQO e sólidos sedimentáveis (SS. A eficiência do processo físico-químico de clarificação e desinfecção foi avaliada mediante análises de pH, turbidez, cor, contagem de bactérias heterotróficas aeróbias, cloro livre, dureza, alcalinidade, cloretos, sulfatos, sólidos totais dissolvidos (STD. Na água de reuso além desses parâmetros avaliou-se a toxicidade aguda ao microcrustáceo Daphnia similis.

  6. The economic and social dimensions of Romania’s metallurgical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Popescu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to enhance the understanding of both the economic and social dimensions belonging to Romania’s metallurgical industry and how they contribute to generating business value. The approach of this subject became of utmost necessity in turbulent times such as the one Romania is facing nowadays.

  7. Metallurgical analysis of a 304L stainless steel canister from the Spent Fuel Test - Climax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, H.; Van Konynenburg, R.A.; McCright, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Results of a metallurgical examination of a type 304L stainless steel canister that had been used to store spent nuclear fuel in an underground granite formation for about three years are reported. No observable corrosion or cracking were found. The results are applied to waste packages in a potential high level nuclear waste repository in tuff. 10 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Utilisation of metallurgical by-products in road construction in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresta, František

    2017-09-01

    Metallurgical by-products, primarily blast furnace slag and steel slag, have ranked among important alternative sources of fill as well as of material for the structural layers in highways. Main hazards of metallurgical by-products are closely connected to their chemical and mineralogical composition and they can be resulted in volume changes. Fears from possible deformations similar to the D47 motorway meant that metallurgical by-products were excluded from several public tenders of road construction. Comparison of blast furnace slag, steel slag and other metallurgical by products parameters allow us to define the most hazardous material as steelworks waste. Linear swelling of steelwork waste achieves more than 40% at 75°C and swelling pressure was higher than 1.5 MPa. Compositional heterogeneity of steelworks waste makes it difficult to establish the long-term behaviour of this material. At the present time we cannot ascertain which maximum values can be reached by deformation and what are the swelling pressures acting on the material while the volume changes are in progress.

  9. Comparison of metallurgical coke and lignite coke for power generation in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanakuakangwan, Sudlop; Tangjitsitcharoen, Somkiat

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents and compares two alternatives of cokes in power generation which are the metallurgical coke with coke oven gas and the coke from lignite under the consideration of the energy and the environment. These alternatives not only consume less fuel due to their higher heat content than conventional coal but also has less SO2 emission. The metallurgical coke and its by-product which is coke oven gas can be obtained from the carbonization process of coking coal. According to high grade coking coal, the result in the energy attitude is not profitable but its sulfur content that directly affects the emission of SO2 is considered to be very low. On the other hand, the coke produced from lignite is known as it is the lowest grade from coal and it causes the high pollution. Regarding to energy profitability, the lignite coke is considered to be much more beneficial than the metallurgical coke in contrast to the environmental concerns. However, the metallurgical coke has the highest heating value. Therefore, a decision making between those choices must be referred to the surrounding circumstances based on energy and environment as well as economic consideration in the further research.

  10. International competitiveness and marketing practices in the Australian mining and metallurgical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fynmore, R.J.

    1993-12-31

    The paper examines the sources of Australia`s competitive strengths and weaknesses in the mining and metallurgical industry, and goes on to examine minerals marketing practices. A chart compares Australia`s production costs for iron ore, coal, aluminium, copper, gold, zinc and nickel with those of other major producing countries. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  11. Simulation model for planning metallurgical treatment of large-size billets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timofeev, M.A.; Echeistova, L.A.; Kuznetsov, V.G.; Semakin, S.V.; Krivonogov, A.B.

    1989-01-01

    The computerized simulation system ''Ritm'' for planning metallurgical treatment of billets is developed. Three principles, specifying the organization structure of the treatment cycle are formulated as follows: a cycling principle, a priority principle and a principle of group treatment. The ''Ritm'' software consists of three independent operating systems: preparation of source data, simulation, data output

  12. Quality of some Nigerian coals as a blending stock in metallurgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lafia- Obi/foreign coals blends possess lower ash and better rheological properties compared to Chikila/foreign coal composites which have high ash and poor rheological properties. These together suggest that amongst the two Nigerian coals, Lafia-Obi is superior for blending with the foreign ones in metallurgical coke ...

  13. Metallurgical Testwork to Support Development of the Kintyre Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maley, Mark; Fainerman-Melnikova, Marina; Ovinis, Mervin; Soldenhoff, Karin; Ring, Bob; Paulsen, Eric; Maxton, David

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: • Two fully integrated U SX mini-pilot plants were successfully operated for 6 days testing ammonium strip and acid strip processes; • High U recoveries from feed to product stream were achieved: – [U]raffinate < 10 mg/L; – acid strip process: 99.8%; – ammonia strip process: 99.6%. • Comparable stripping efficiency: – ammonia strip process: 99.3%; – acid strip process: 99.6-99.8%. • Potential operational issue with ammonia strip – stable emulsion formation (extraction) and crud.

  14. Long-Term Monitoring Network Optimization Evaluation for Operable Unit 2, Bunker Hill Mining and Metallurgical Complex Superfund Site, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report presents a description and evaluation of the ground water and surface water monitoring program associated with the Bunker Hill Mining and Metallurgical Complex Superfund Site (Bunker Hill) Operable Unit (OU) 2.

  15. METALLURGICAL PROGRAMS: CALCULATION OF MASS FROM VOLUME, DENSITY OF MIXTURES, AND CONVERSION OF ATOMIC TO WEIGHT PERCENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degroh, H.

    1994-01-01

    The Metallurgical Programs include three simple programs which calculate solutions to problems common to metallurgical engineers and persons making metal castings. The first program calculates the mass of a binary ideal (alloy) given the weight fractions and densities of the pure components and the total volume. The second program calculates the densities of a binary ideal mixture. The third program converts the atomic percentages of a binary mixture to weight percentages. The programs use simple equations to assist the materials staff with routine calculations. The Metallurgical Programs are written in Microsoft QuickBASIC for interactive execution and have been implemented on an IBM PC-XT/AT operating MS-DOS 2.1 or higher with 256K bytes of memory. All instructions needed by the user appear as prompts as the software is used. Data is input using the keyboard only and output is via the monitor. The Metallurgical programs were written in 1987.

  16. Detection of contaminated metallurgical scrap at borders: a proposal for an 'investigation level'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duftschmid, K.E.

    1999-01-01

    In 1995 the IAEA started a program to combat illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials which includes the problem of cross-border movement of contaminated metallurgical scrap. A major activity in this program is the elaboration of a Safety Guide on 'Preventing, Detecting and Responding to Illicit Trafficking', co-sponsored by the World Customs Organization (WCO) and INTERPOL. The guide will provide advice to the Member States, in particular on technical and administrative procedures for detection of radioactive materials at borders. Radiation monitoring systems for contaminated scrap metals have been successfully used in steel plants and larger scrap yards since several years and suitable products are on the market today. Using sophisticated software and dynamic scanning techniques such systems allow for detection of an artificial increase in radiation background level as low as by 20%, even if the natural background signal is substantially suppressed by the vehicle itself entering the monitor. However, the measurement conditions at borders are essentially different from those in plants. Large traffic crossing major borders limits the time for detection and response to a few seconds and multiple checks are nearly impractical. Shielded radioactive sources - even of high activity - which are deeply buried in scrap, cannot be detected without unloading the vehicle, a procedure generally ruled out at borders. Highly sensitive monitoring systems necessarily cause frequent false alarms or nuisance alarms due to innocent radioactive materials such as naturally occurring radioactivity e.g. in fertilizers, scale in pipes used in the oil industry or medical radioisotopes. A particular, rather frequent problem is the unnecessary reject of scrap transports on borders due to the inherent low level contamination of steel with 60 Co, even in sheet metal used for lorries or railroad cars. Such contamination can easily be caused by the routine method to control

  17. Projects development for mining-metallurgical units for production of uranium concentrates. An analysis an a methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajuria G, S.; Blanco P, B.; Manzanera Q, C.; Pena A, J.

    1978-07-01

    An analysis and a methodology for the complete development of a mining- metallurgist project is presented, from the sampling and the evaluation of a deposit until the outburst of a metallurgical plant. The main objectives of this work are three: On one hand it is to establish a methodology for standardize the internal activities of the Sub management of Benefits. It is convenient standardize the experimental procedures, the evaluation approaches and the form of presentation of results so that they are directly comparable and that it is easy their interpretation and use. Given the nature so variable of the minerals this document cannot be but that a guide and it is indispensable that in all moment the personnel that develops these activities uses his knowledge, experience and professional approach to obtain the best results. On the other hand it is to establish a base to facilitate the coordination of the activities of the Sub management of Benefit with other work groups, inside of and outside of the INEN that should collaborate in the projects. Finally it is to present a vision of group of the whole project like reference base for the participant personnel. Many of the specialists that contribute to the project would not be metallurgists, but rather they practice other disciplines. It is therefore convenient to facilitate the one that are formed an image of the complete project. (Author)

  18. Characterization of tool wear in high-speed milling of hardened powder metallurgical steels

    OpenAIRE

    Klocke, Fritz; Arntz, Kristian; Cabral, Gustavo Francisco; Stolorz, Martin; Busch, Marc

    2011-01-01

    In this experimental study, the cutting performance of ball-end mills in high-speed dry-hard milling of powder metallurgical steels was investigated. The cutting performance of the milling tools was mainly evaluated in terms of cutting length, tool wear, and cutting forces. Two different types of hardened steels were machined, the cold working steel HS 4-2-4 PM (K490 Microclean/66 HRC) and the high speed steel HS 6-5-3 PM (S790...

  19. Metallurgical Characterization of Reduced Activation Martensitic Steel F-82H Modified

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, P.; Lapena, J.; Lancha, A.M.; Gomez-Briceno, D.; Schirra, M.

    1999-12-01

    During 1995-1998 within of research and development programs on reduced ferritic/martensitic steels for fusion, metallurgical characterization of 8Cr-2WVTa steel, denominated F-28H modified, have been carried out. The work has focused on studying the microstructural and mechanical (tensile, creep, low cycle fatigue and charpy) characteristics of as-received state and aged material in the temperature range 300 degree centigrade to 600 degree centigrade for periods up to 5000 h. (Author) 45 refs

  20. Metallurgical bond between magnesium AZ91 alloy and aluminium plasma sprayed coatings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubatík, Tomáš František; Pala, Zdeněk; Neufuss, Karel; Vilémová, Monika; Mušálek, Radek; Stoulil, J.; Slepička, P.; Chráska, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 282, November (2015), s. 163-170 ISSN 0257-8972 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-31538P Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Plasma spraying * AZ91 magnesium alloy * Aluminium * Metallurgical bond * X-ray diffraction Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 2.139, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0257897215303297

  1. Graduates mining and metallurgical specialty in professional and economic spheres of society (Dnepropetrovsk region)

    OpenAIRE

    M. V. Mosondz

    2015-01-01

    The paper analyzes the process of inclusion graduates of mining and metallurgical complex (MMC) to professional and economic spheres of society; attitude of employers to hire graduates; barriers to hiring young professionals; evaluation indicators of successful graduates of vocational integration. Revealed a rather high level of professional work (64%); positive assessment of the benefits of education; greatest satisfaction such conditions as stable income, matching specialty; insufficient...

  2. Metallurgical flow recognition by random signal analysis of stress wave emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, B.

    1973-01-01

    The present study involves detailed random signal analysis of individual 'bursts' of emission with objective of 'reading' their frequency spectra to identify specific metallurgical mechanisms. Mild steel unnotched testpieces were used in the early stages of development of this research. From a fracture mechanics point of view this research could lead to a powerful nondestructive testing device allowing identification of interior, instead of only surface, deformation mechanisms. (author)

  3. Grinding-induced metallurgical alterations in the binder phase of WC-Co cemented carbides

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jing; Roa Rovira, Joan Josep; Schwind, Martin; Odén, M.; Johansonn Joesaar, M. P.; Llanes Pitarch, Luis Miguel

    2017-01-01

    The metallic binder phase dictates the toughening behavior of WC-Co cemented carbides (hardmetals), even though it occupies a relative small fraction of the composite. Studies on deformation and phase transformation of the binder constituent are scarce. Grinding represents a key manufacturing step in machining of hardmetal tools, and is well-recognized to induce surface integrity alterations. In this work, metallurgical alterations of the binder phase in ground WC-Co cemented carbides have be...

  4. Conversion of Ulba Metallurgy Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onoprienko, O.

    1996-01-01

    General Information 'Ulba Metallurgical plant' Joint Stock Company successfully operates for more than 46 years. The plant was established by MINSREDMASH, USSR and at the present moment has finished complexes for production of nuclear fuel for atomic power stations, tantalum and superconducting materials production, beryllium, hydrofluoric acid manufacture and engineering production. Problem Essence In spite of the monopoly possession of tantalum manufacture, beryllium and uranium fuel, superconducting materials in Commonwealth of Independent States countries, company has serious financial problems due to the critical situation in Commonwealth of Independent States countries, production ties collapse and fast market demand decrease for the Ulba Metallurgical Plant Joint Stock Company products. The alternative decision is to create substitute productions, conversion integrating and introducing new products to the world market

  5. A new concept of wastes utilization on the JSC 'Ulba Metallurgical Plant' uranium manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashin, S.A.; Korobejnikov, I.V.; Manych, A.V.; Kombarov, V.A.

    2003-01-01

    A new concept of radioactive waste handling is developed. It is based on the following principals: 1. Reduce of the waste raffinates volumes at the expense of technological process optimization and extraction of valuable reactants with partially close cycle organization; 2. Imposition of limitation on amount of the incoming water-soluble radioisotopes in temporary disposal due to its concentration and co-precipitation with following additional-extraction and return into the technological process; 3. Combustion of wasted organics in the furnace, dissolution of produced ash, extraction of the radionuclides and its return into technologic process; 4. Refining remelting of radioactive stainless scrap with following re-cycling. A new concept is partially put into operation. The solution of a high-tech tasks is carrying out in co-operation with leading research institutions of Kazakhstan and Russia

  6. Maintaining data of route observations of emission plumes from Norilsk mining and metallurgical plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonenkov, Denis V.; Raputa, Vladimir F.; Yaroslavtseva, Tatyana V.; Belan, Boris D.; Antokhina, Olga Yu.

    2017-11-01

    Models for estimating the regional transport of active and passive impurities based on the data of route observations in the vicinity of point and area sources are proposed. Approbation of models on the data of airborne probing of atmospheric pollution in the Norilsk industrial region was carried out. In the range of distances of 60-100 km from the source of emissions, the active gas-to-particle conversion was analyzed on the basis of the observed data.

  7. Fast determination of impurities in metallurgical grade silicon for photovoltaics by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampel, J.; Boldt, F.M.; Gerstenberg, H.; Hampel, G.; Kratz, J.V.; Reber, S.; Wiehl, N.

    2011-01-01

    Standard wafer solar cells are made of near-semiconductor quality silicon. This high quality material makes up a significant part of the total costs of a solar module. Therefore, new concepts with less expensive so called solar grade silicon directly based on physiochemically upgraded metallurgical grade silicon are investigated. Metallurgical grade silicon contains large amounts of impurities, mainly transition metals like Fe, Cr, Mn, and Co, which degrade the minority carrier lifetime and thus the solar cell efficiency. A major reduction of the transition metal content occurs during the unidirectional crystallization due to the low segregation coefficient between the solid and liquid phase. A further reduction of the impurity level has to be done by gettering procedures applied to the silicon wafers. The efficiency of such cleaning procedures of metallurgical grade silicon is studied by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Small sized silicon wafers of approximately 200 mg with and without gettering step were analyzed. To accelerate the detection of transition metals in a crystallized silicon ingot, experiments of scanning whole vertical silicon columns with a diameter of approximately 1 cm by gamma spectroscopy were carried out. It was demonstrated that impurity profiles can be obtained in a comparably short time. Relatively constant transition metal ratios were found throughout an entire silicon ingot. This led to the conclusion that the determination of several metal profiles might be possible by the detection of only one 'leading element'. As the determination of Mn in silicon can be done quite fast compared to elements like Fe, Cr, and Co, it could be used as a rough marker for the overall metal concentration level. Thus, a fast way to determine impurities in photovoltaic silicon material is demonstrated. - Highlights: → We demonstrate a fast way to determine impurities in photovoltaic silicon by NAA. → We make first experiments of locally

  8. Influence of carbon nano tubes on mechanical, metallurgical and tribological behavior of magnesium nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.T. Selvamani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research work, three different reinforcements of Carbon Nano Tubes (in weight % such as 2%, 3% and 4% were added to the magnesium AZ91D grade magnesium alloy to fabricate the Nanocomposites through stir casting method. The effects of volume percentage on the mechanical, metallurgical and wear behavior were analyzed. The composites with 4% reinforcement show high hardness while the composites with 3% reinforcement show better tensile and yield strength and also an improved wear resistance compared to other. Also, the characterization of the Nanocomposites were made using Optical Microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Finite Element – Scanning Electron Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy to understand its nature.

  9. Metallurgical and acoustical characterization of a hydroformed, 304 stainless steel, Caribbean-style musical pan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murr, L.E.; Gaytan, S.M.; Lopez, M.I.; Bujanda, D.E.; Martinez, E.Y.; Whitmyre, G.; Price, H.

    2008-01-01

    We report herein the metallurgical and acoustical characterization of hydroformed 304 stainless steel, Caribbean pans. These pans were fully tuned to chromatic tones and compared to a manufactured, low-carbon, Caribbean steel pan standard. Hydroformed platforms had a Vickers microindentation hardness of HV 345, which was reduced by annealing during pan fabrication to HV 270. Skirts welded to the hydroformed head had a microindentation hardness of HV 440. Microstructural characterization by light optical metallography and transmission electron microscopy illustrated microstructures (including grain structures) characteristic of these pan microindentation hardnesses

  10. Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report: Third quarter 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    During third quarter 1993, samples from AMB groundwater monitoring wells at the Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility were analyzed for certain heavy metals, indicator parameters, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Eight parameters exceeded standards during the quarter. As in previous quarters, tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards; and aluminum, iron, lead, manganese, pH, and total organic halogens exceeded the Savannah River Site Flag 2 criteria in one or more of the wells. Groundwater flow direction and rate in the water-table unit were similar to previous quarters

  11. Effective recruitment method for the marketing department of a metallurgical enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Jaba

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some solutions to recruit staff for the Marketing Department of a metallurgical enterprise. Our goal is to present the psychological characteristics of a certain category of employees on a sample of 107 employees and to evaluate the relationship between the motivation to work and those characteristics. In order to realize such evaluation we used the linear mixed effects model in the statistical software program R. The results showed that a significant effect on work motivation have factors like work climate and the employee agreeability.

  12. Options of utilizing steelmaking dust in a non-metallurgical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lis

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Recycling of by-products of the steelmaking process in electric arc (EAF furnaces is an important activity from the perspective of environmental protection as well as the steelmaking industry itself. This article is a discussion concerning the selected research results in terms of utilisation of steelmaking dusts containing 4 - 12 % of zinc in manufacture of cement bricks, ceramic construction materials as well as colored glass products. The research conducted has implied that using steelmaking dusts in non-metallurgical industries is both possible and reasonable.

  13. Selection of human capital in metallurgical companies using information technology (IT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Iancu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Personnel selection is a process that takes place in a company in order to have better business performance and competitive advantage. Nowadays, companies have realized the importance of human capital as a necessity for survival in today’s competitive market. There are several methods for selecting staff, but this paper seeks to demonstrate that this selection can be done with the help of an expert system. Metallurgical companies face even greater challenges for managing personnel selection. This research will discover and test the key elements of management personnel selection and implementation of an expert system.

  14. A multi-level code for metallurgical effects in metal-forming processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, P.A.; Silling, S.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Computational Physics and Mechanics Dept.; Hughes, D.A.; Bammann, D.J.; Chiesa, M.L. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The authors present the final report on a Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project, A Multi-level Code for Metallurgical Effects in metal-Forming Processes, performed during the fiscal years 1995 and 1996. The project focused on the development of new modeling capabilities for simulating forging and extrusion processes that typically display phenomenology occurring on two different length scales. In support of model fitting and code validation, ring compression and extrusion experiments were performed on 304L stainless steel, a material of interest in DOE nuclear weapons applications.

  15. SOCIO-ECONOMICAL SUBSTANTIATION OF LARGE INTEGRATED STRUCTURES IN METALLURGICAL COMPLEX CREATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Kozitsyn

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The main tendencies of Russia and Urals economy development on modern stage are considered; the necessity of creation of large integrated structures is shown. The methodical apparate of effectiveness evaluation of manufactural-territorial integration in regional economy is given, in its base the use of complex evaluation of economical safety of the territory is put. On the example of Urals mining-metallurgical company the effectiveness evaluation of creation and functioning of large integrated structure for municipal formations of Sverdlovskaya area in retrospective (2000 − 2004 yy and perspective (for the period till 2010 y periods is conducted.

  16. Metallurgical study of stress corrosion in aqueous media of alloy 600 (NC15Fe)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garriga-Majo, Denis

    1993-01-01

    The development of intergranular cracks have been noticed in steam generator tubes made of alloy 600. These cracks result in tube embrittlement, and several actions have been implemented to try to improve tube strength, mainly by reducing the applied mechanical solicitations. For given temperature, chemistry and mechanical solicitations, the alloy sensitivity seems to depend on its micro-structural condition. Thus, after a general description of stress corrosion cracking phenomena, the main existing theories are reviewed as well as means to reproduce these cracking phenomena in laboratory. The author addresses general and microstructure properties of Alloy 600, metallurgical, electrochemical or mechanical parameters which govern its stress corrosion cracking behaviour, and different theories proposed to model and predict this behaviour. In the second part, the author studies the structure of Alloy 600 tubes before their installation in the steam generator: metallurgical study, search for parameters enabling the prediction of tube microstructure and tensile characteristics, study of the origin of microstructure differences with respect to tube fabrication batch. The third part addresses the study of Alloy 600 plasticity and creep with respect to its micro-structural condition, with a particular attention to material deformation mechanisms at grain boundaries. The fourth part reports the analysis of the stress corrosion behaviour of steam generator tubes in pure water and in primary environment [fr

  17. Characterization of Tool Wear in High-Speed Milling of Hardened Powder Metallurgical Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritz Klocke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this experimental study, the cutting performance of ball-end mills in high-speed dry-hard milling of powder metallurgical steels was investigated. The cutting performance of the milling tools was mainly evaluated in terms of cutting length, tool wear, and cutting forces. Two different types of hardened steels were machined, the cold working steel HS 4-2-4 PM (K490 Microclean/66 HRC and the high speed steel HS 6-5-3 PM (S790 Microclean/64 HRC. The milling tests were performed at effective cutting speeds of 225, 300, and 400 m/min with a four fluted solid carbide ball-end mill (0 = 6, TiAlN coating. It was observed that by means of analytically optimised chipping parameters and increased cutting speed, the tool life can be drastically enhanced. Further, in machining the harder material HS 4-2-4 PM, the tool life is up to three times in regard to the less harder material HS 6-5-3 PM. Thus, it can be assumed that not only the hardness of the material to be machined plays a vital role for the high-speed dry-hard cutting performance, but also the microstructure and thermal characteristics of the investigated powder metallurgical steels in their hardened state.

  18. Review of New Technology for Preparing Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell Materials by Metallurgical Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Man; Dai, Yongnian; Ma, Wenhui; Yang, Bin; Chu, Qingmei

    2017-11-01

    The goals of greatly reducing the photovoltaic power cost and making it less than that of thermal power to realize photovoltaic power grid parity without state subsidies are focused on in this paper. The research status, key technologies and development of the new technology for preparing crystalline silicon solar cell materials by metallurgical method at home and abroad are reviewed. The important effects of impurities and defects in crystalline silicon on its properties are analysed. The importance of new technology on reducing production costs and improving its quality to increase the cell conversion efficiency are emphasized. The previous research results show that the raw materials of crystalline silicon are extremely abundant. The product of crystalline silicon can meet the quality requirements of solar cell materials: Si ≥ 6 N, P 1 Ω cm, minority carrier life > 25 μs cell conversion efficiency of about 19.3%, the product costs dollars / kg, the product energy consumption < 30 kwh / kg. The existing problems are pointed out. The prospect of the new metallurgical process with low cost, low energy consumption, low carbon and sustainable development are prospected.

  19. Relation between the optical and metallurgical properties of polished molybdenum mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J. M.; Wong, S. M.; Krauss, G.

    1980-10-01

    A study has been performed to determine the correlation among the microstructure, metallurgical processing, and optical surface finish of commercially available types of molybdenum (Mo) bar and plate and 0.5-mm thick Mo sheet. Specimens of bar and plate stock produced from low-carbon vacuum-arc Mo or powder-metallurgy-processed Mo, as well as TZM(Ti-Zr-Mo) Mo alloy, were in the form of 3.86-cm diam disks. In addition, typical cross-rolled sheet specimens were produced from powder-metallurgy-processed Mo that had a very fine grain structure and a high degree of texture. Specimens were extensively characterized both optically and metallurgically. It was found that well-polished surfaces have surface topographies directly related to the microstructure and hence to the processing of the material. In sheet material having a well-developed texture, the polishability appeared to be independent of texture, and the grain size did not result in a lower scatter surface. It was concluded that the optimum type of Mo to use for smooth low-scatter mirrors is low-carbon vacuum-arc-cast plate or sheet material.

  20. A thermo-metallurgical constitutive law of steels for structural mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waeckel, Francois

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this work is to include the metallurgical behaviour of steels (and specifically their phases transformations) into thermo-mechanical studies. For this, a new model of aniso-thermal phase transformations during the cooling stage is proposed. Developed in the thermodynamics framework of simple materials with memory variables, its originality lies in the choice of the temperature time derivative T as independent variable. The identification and the transformation rates computation use the C.C.T. diagrams which are considered as families of particular solutions of evolution equations. The validation shows ability of the model to simulate all C.C.T. deductible tests. Furthermore, for some tests not included into the C.C.T., the numerical results remain good and the model, from which evolution equation form has been let free, allows to incorporate them to the identification data without modifying the C.C.T. simulation accuracy. Lastly, to take into account structural transformations mechanical effects, some currently used models have been introduced, together with the metallurgical model, in a finite element code. They allow whole quenching or welding simulations (up to residual stresses) as demonstrated by application examples. (author) [fr

  1. Metallurgical characterization of pulsed current gas tungsten arc, friction stir and laser beam welded AZ31B magnesium alloy joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmanaban, G.; Balasubramanian, V.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the influences of welding processes such as friction stir welding (FSW), laser beam welding (LBW) and pulsed current gas tungsten arc welding (PCGTAW) on mechanical and metallurgical properties of AZ31B magnesium alloy. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-Ray diffraction technique were used to evaluate the metallurgical characteristics of welded joints. LBW joints exhibited superior tensile properties compared to FSW and PCGTAW joints due to the formation of finer grains in weld region, higher fusion zone hardness, the absence of heat affected zone, presence of uniformly distributed finer precipitates in weld region.

  2. Possibilities of Formation of Dioxins and Furans in Metallurgical Processes as well as Methods of their Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holtzer, M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The metallurgical industry, among others, generates various kinds of wastes: gaseous, dusts, wastes and sewage. Special attention of the European Union is directed towards the elimination or significant reduction of the gaseous-dust contamination emissions including the most hazardous compounds, such as dioxins and furans. In the article the sources of dioxins and furans in metallurgical industry are described along with the reduction methods of these pollutants. Particularly the activities recommended as the Best Available Techniques (BAT in order to reduce the PCDD/PCDF emission from sintering processes, non-ferrous metallurgy and foundry engineering have been presented.

  3. Correlation Between the Efficiency of Machinery and Equipment and the Productivity of Workers and its Effect on the Performance of a Metallurgical Undertaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulawik, A.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the example of procedure of life and objectify work effectiveness analysis in metallurgical enterprise were presented. Besides, on the example of chosen units of metallurgical enterprise, results of analysis - based on methodic proposed in the article - were discussed.

  4. Metallurgical source-contribution analysis of PM10 annual average concentration: A dispersion modeling approach in moravian-silesian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jančík

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is to present analysis of metallurgical industry contribution to annual average PM10 concentrations in Moravian-Silesian based on means of the air pollution modelling in accord with the Czech reference methodology SYMOS´97.

  5. Morphology, chemistry and distribution of neoformed spherulites in agricultural land affected by metallurgical point-source pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leguedois, S.; Oort, van F.; Jongmans, A.G.; Chevalier, P.

    2004-01-01

    Metal distribution patterns in superficial soil horizons of agricultural land affected by metallurgical point-source pollution were studied using optical and electron microscopy, synchrotron radiation and spectroscopy analyses. The site is located in northern France, at the center of a former entry

  6. Explosion bonding of dissimilar materials for fabricating APS front end components: Analysis of metallurgical and mechanical properties and UHV applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yuheng; Shu, Deming; Kuzay, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    The front end beamline section contains photon shutters and fixed masks. These components are made of OFHC copper and GlidCOP AL-15. Stainless steels (304 or 316) are also used for connecting photon shutters and fixed masks to other components that operate in the ultrahigh vacuum system. All these dissimilar materials need to be joined together. However, bonding these dissimilar materials is very difficult because of their different mechanical and thermal properties and incompatible metallurgical properties. Explosion bonding is a bonding method in which the controlled energy of a detonating explosive is used to create a metallurgical bond between two or more similar or dissimilar materials. No intermediate filler metal, for example, a brazing compound or soldering alloy, is needed to promote bonding, and no external heat need be applied. A study of the metallurgical and mechanical properties and YGV applications of GlidCop AL-15, OFHC copper, and 304 stainless steel explosion-bonded joints has been done. This report contains five parts: an ultrasonic examination of explosion-bonded joints and a standard setup; mechanical-property and thermal-cycle tests of GlidCop AL-15/304 stainless steel explosion-bonded joints; leak tests of a GlidCop AL-15/304 stainless steel explosion-bonded interfaces for UHV application; metallurgical examination of explosion-bonded interfaces and failure analysis, and discussion and conclusion

  7. Mechanical fasteners used in historical Siberian shipbuilding: perspectives for metallurgical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharov, A. E.; Mednikov, D. M.; Karelin, N. M.; Nasyrov, I. R.

    2017-10-01

    Recent discoveries of shipwrecked vessels in the northern reaches of the river Yenisei led to a number of questions concerning the history of shipbuilding in Siberia and the technical features of the first vessels of the industrial era to navigate the Northern Sea Route and the Yenisei. One of these questions addresses the features of mechanical fasteners used in the construction of the Siberian vessels. The answer to this question may provide information on how the first vessels, constructed in Siberia during the 1870’s, were able to sail the high seas of the Arctic Ocean and reach European ports. In this paper, we provide a description of iron mechanical fasteners obtained from one shipwrecked vessel and discuss on the perspectives of a metallurgical analysis This research has been funded by a grant of the Russian Fund of Humanities Research (Russian Fund of Fundamental Research) and the Krasnoyarsk Regional Science Fund under Grant number 16-11-24010.

  8. Arsenic precipitation from metallurgical effluents; Precipitacion de arsenico desde efluentes metalurgicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, P.; Vargas, C.; Araya, E.; Martin, I.; Alguacil, F. J.

    2004-07-01

    In the mining-metallurgical companies different liquid effluents are produced, which can contain a series of dissolved elements that are considered dangerous from an environmental point of view. One of these elements is the arsenic, especially in the state of oxidation +5 that can be precipitated as calcium or iron arsenate. To fulfil the environmental requests it should have in solution a content of arsenic lower than 0,5 mg/l and the obtained solid product should be very stable under the condition in which it will be stored. this work looks for the best conditions of arsenic precipitation, until achieving contents in solution lower than such mentioned concentration. Also, the stability of the precipitates was studied. (Author) 7 refs.

  9. Utilizing of the metallurgical slag for production of cementless concrete mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Baricová

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In process of pig iron, steel and cast iron production besides main product, also secondary products are formed, that have character of secondary raw materials and industrial wastes. The most abundant secondary product originating in the metallurgical process is furnace slag. Total amount of accured slag, also its chemical, mineralogical, physical – chemical properties and similarity with natural stones predestinate its utilisation in different fields of industry. The contribution deals with production of cementless concrete mixtures, where the main parts were formed by blast furnace granulated slag grinded and different gravel slag from blast furnace, oxygen converter and electric arc furnace. As activators of solidification different kinds of water glass were tested.

  10. Powder metallurgical high performance materials. Proceedings. Volume 1: high performance P/M metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kneringer, G.; Roedhammer, P.; Wildner, H.

    2001-01-01

    The proceedings of this sequence of seminars form an impressive chronicle of the continued progress in the understanding of refractory metals and cemented carbides and in their manufacture and application. There the ingenuity and assiduous work of thousands of scientists and engineers striving for progress in the field of powder metallurgy is documented in more than 2000 contributions covering some 30000 pages. The 15th Plansee Seminar was convened under the general theme 'Powder Metallurgical High Performance Materials'. Under this broadened perspective the seminar will strive to look beyond the refractory metals and cemented carbides, which remain at its focus, to novel classes of materials, such as intermetallic compounds, with potential for high temperature applications. (author)

  11. Method of purifying metallurgical grade silicon employing reduced pressure atmospheric control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingle, W. M.; Thompson, S. W.; Chaney, R. E. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A method in which a quartz tube is charged with chunks of metallurgical grade silicon and/or a mixture of such chunks and high purity quartz sand, and impurities from a class including aluminum, boron, as well as certain transition metals including nickel, iron, and manganese is described. The tube is then evacuated and heated to a temperature within a range of 800 C to 1400 C. A stream of gas comprising a reactant, such as silicon tetrafluoride, is continuously delivered at low pressures through the charge for causing a metathetical reaction of impurities of the silicon and the reactant to occur for forming a volatile halide and leaving a residue of silicon of an improved purity. The reactant which included carbon monoxide gas and impurities such as iron and nickel react to form volatile carbonyls.

  12. Determination of Japanese buyer valuation of metallurgical coal characteristics by hedonic modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerner, R.J. [Griffith University, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia). Graduate School of Management

    2001-09-01

    Considerable efforts have been devoted by econometric researchers to understanding Japanese steel mill (JSM) metallurgical coal valuation policies, and whether such policies disadvantage coal exporters. Much of this research has employed the hedonic regression modeling technique of Rosen and examines the significance of coal quality in establishing market price. This article discusses shortcomings in some such modeling studies, and presents results of additional hedonic modeling to buttress findings of previous work suggesting that cross-cultural bargaining factors rather than coal quality explain lower prices for Australian coals in Japanese market settlements. Policy changes that might be effective in ameliorating bilateral market distortions arising from oligopsony characteristics exhibited in JSM contract settlements are then explored. 29 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Leaching of nickel and copper from soil contaminated by metallurgical dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcan, Valery

    2002-04-01

    The paper presents the results of the laboratory percolation experiment simulated soil contamination by emissions from a Ni-Cu smelter. Humus (Ao horizon) columns were transferred to lysimeters from an illuvial, humic, ferriferous forest podzol site. Fine metallurgical dust containing Ni and Cu was layered on the columns and irrigated with sulphuric acid solutions at pH 3, 4, 5, and 6. Irrigation for 19 months indicated that the leaching of metals down the humus column was greatest at pH 6. Calculations indicated that it would take 160-270 years for complete leaching of Ni from the Ao layer, and 100-200 years for Cu, depending on the dust composition. Natural decontamination of affected soils will take centuries.

  14. Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report. Second quarter 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    During second quarter 1994, samples from AMB groundwater monitoring wells at the Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility were analyzed for selected heavy metals, indicator parameters, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Three parameters exceeded standards during the quarter. As in previous quarters, tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards. Total organic halogens exceeded the Savannah River Site (SRS) Flag 2 criteria in two of the wells. Groundwater flow direction and rate in the M-Area Aquifer Zone were similar to previous quarters. Conditions affecting determination of groundwater flow directions and rates in the Upper Lost Lake Aquifer Zone, Lower Lost Lake Aquifer Zone, and the Middle Sand Aquifer Zone of the Crouch Branch Confining Unit were also similar to previous quarters. During second quarter 1994, SRS received SCDHEC approval for five point-of-compliance wells and two plume definition wells near the Met Lab HWMF. Field work has begun on this project.

  15. Change of the layout of an office of a metallurgical company: simple projects, big solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Luiz Carlos da Silva; Eckhardt, Moacir; da Motta, Giordano Paulo

    2012-01-01

    The posture, a good organization and the proper layout of the environment and workplaces have a positive influence on the income of an employee. To develop the work it is used a methodology that addressed the study phases of the theory involving the subject, description of the current situation, preparation of conceptions, choice of design, implementation and reporting of results. Through the project of "Change of the layout of an office of a metallurgical company" there was an intervention in these reported aspects providing improvements in the office, regarding ergonomic, layout, workplace and lighting issues, bringing welfare to the official, with the intent to improve its performance within the company and facilitating its actions, as the company's customer service. The results provided improvements in layout, in the workplace and especially in comfort for the human resources that perform their activities.

  16. Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report. First quarter 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    During first quarter 1995, samples from AMB groundwater monitoring wells at the Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility (Met Lab HWMF) were analyzed for selected heavy metals, field measurements, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Six parameters exceeded standards during the quarter. As in previous quarters, tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS). Total organic halogens exceeded its Savannah River Site (SRS) Flag 2 criterion during first quarter 1995 as in fourth quarter 1994. Aluminum, iron, and manganese, which were not analyzed for during fourth quarter 1994, exceeded the Flag 2 criteria in at least two wells each during first quarter 1995. Groundwater flow direction and rate in the M-Area Aquifer Zone were similar to previous quarters. Conditions affecting the determination of groundwater flow directions and rates in the Upper Lost Lake Aquifer Zone, Lower Lost Lake Aquifer Zone, and the Middle Sand Aquifer Zone of the Crouch Branch Confining Unit were also similar to previous quarters

  17. DIFFERENCES OF COMMITMENT BETWEEN GENERATIONS X AND Y – A STUDY IN A METALLURGICAL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Teodoro Tolfo Ribas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The way each generation acts in society and in organizations is always a matter of study and appreciation (LOMBARDIA; STEIN & PIN, 2008. Thus, this study aimed to examine the organizational commitment in its affetctive, instrumental and normative dimensions in different generational groups (X and Y of Metallurgical Industry in the city of Caxias do Sul (RS. The research is descriptive and quantitative in nature. To reach its objective it uses a validated questionnaire, based on Ribas 2010, with 96 professional of the administrative sector. The results identify that the respondents have very similar approaches regarding affective, instrumental and normative commitment perceptions. Still, it was noticed that the highest means for both generations, were obtained in the construct of affective commitment. The clearest difference emerged in the focus of instrumental commitment, which determines the individual’s need to remain in business.

  18. Powder metallurgical high performance materials. Proceedings. Volume 2: P/M hard materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kneringer, G.; Roedhammer, P.; Wildner, H.

    2001-01-01

    The proceedings of these seminars form an impressive chronicle of the continued progress in the understanding of refractory metals and cemented carbides and in their manufacture and application. There the ingenuity and assiduous work of thousands of scientists and engineers striving for progress in the field of powder metallurgy is documented in more than 2000 contributions covering some 30000 pages. The 15 th Plansee Seminar was convened under the general theme 'Powder Metallurgical High Performance Materials'. Under this broadened perspective the seminar will strive to look beyond the refractory metals and cemented carbides, which remain at its focus, to novel classes of materials, such as intermetallic compounds, with potential for high temperature applications. (author)

  19. Metallurgical and Chemical Characterization of Bronze Remains Found at the Houhe Site in Shanxi Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, D.; Nan, P. H.; Wang, J. Y.; Song, G. D.; Luo, W. G.

    2015-07-01

    This study attempts to determine the metallurgical and chemical characteristics of Chinese bronze artifacts from the early Iron Age by taking the bronze artifacts from the Houhe site as an example. The bronze artifacts included vessels, buckles, mirrors, and bells. Elemental compositions of 10 Chinese bronze artifacts from the Houhe site were determined by an x-ray fluorescence system. Microstructures were observed by a polarizing microscope. Most of the artifacts were cast and lacked external evidence of secondary processing. The copper content of the vessels is higher than the other samples, and the copper content of buckles is the lowest. High tin content is a distinctive characteristic of the mirrors. Through comparisons, bells show a decline in the content of copper from the Western Zhou dynasty to the early Han dynasty, and the content of lead increased over time. Combined with historical studies, the findings show that there may have been industrial standards for bronze production during the Han dynasty.

  20. GEOLOGY OF THE FLORENCIA GOLD – TELLURIDE DEPOSIT (CAMAGÜEY, CUBA AND SOME METALLURGICAL CONSIDERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López K Jesús M.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the results from a study of the Florencia gold-telluride deposit in Central Cuba, including mineralogical, petrographical, microprobe and chemical analysis. Valuable information is provided for the exploration, mining and processing of gold ores from other nearby deposits with similar characteristics. Results highlight changes in the mineralogical composition of the ores between the north and south sectors of the deposit, as reflected in metallurgical concentrates after beneficiation and flotation of samples from these sectors.
    It is shown that gold deposits of the Cretaceous Volcanic Arc of Cuba largely consist of native gold, telluride and pyrite, where arsenopyrite is almost absent. Traces of lead, zinc and cadmium are present in the periphery of the main ore zones.

  1. Atomic absorption determination of vanadium in products of metallurgical production and mineral feed stock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polikarpova, N.V.; Panteleeva, E.Yu.

    1983-01-01

    Rapid and selective method of atomic absorption determination of vanadium in metallurgical process products and numerical feed stock is suggested. Buffering mixture of aluminium and phosphoric acid is used to suppress the effect of sample composition on the value of vanadium atomic absorption. The concentration of buffer components can vary from 400 up to 2000 μg/ml Al and from 2 up to 5% vol. H 3 PO 4 . The suggested mixture completely eli-- minates the strong chromium effect. The developed method was used for analyzing steels, alloys based on Mo, Ni, Ti, Cr, as well as titanium magnetite ores and concentrates. The method enables to determine from 0.05 up to 10% vanadium with 0.05-0.01 relative standard deviation, respectively

  2. Employment and other selected personnel attributes in metallurgical and industrial enterprises of different size - research results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pawliczek

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper deals with the issue of employment and other selected personnel attributes as employees’ affiliations, employees’ benefits, monitoring of employees’ satisfaction, monitoring of work productivity, investments into employees education and obstacles in hiring qualified human resources. The characteristics are benchmarked on the background of enterprise size based on the employees count in the year 2013. The relevant data were collected in Czech industrial enterprises, including metallurgical companies, with the help of university questionnaire research in order to induce synergy effect arising from mutual communication of academy-students-industry. The most important results are presented later in the paper, complemented with discussion based on relevant professional literature sources. The findings suggest that bigger companies check productivity and satisfaction and dismiss employees more frequently, unlike medium companies which do not reduce their workforce and solve the impact of crisis by decreased affiliations, reduced benefits and similar savings.

  3. Termination of the Special Metallurgical (SM) Building at Mound Laboratory: a final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, W.R.; Kokenge, B.R.; Marsh, G.C.

    1976-01-01

    The report describes and highlights the more important factors associated with the termination of the Special Metallurgical (SM) Building at Mound Laboratory. As a result, a written record of the more important techniques and procedures is now available for reference by others involved in similar termination efforts. Included in this report is a description of the organizational units that were used in this effort along with a description of their responsibilities. A general description of the SM Building and a discussion of the more relevant procedures and equipment that were used are also presented. In addition, pertinent Health Physics information, such as personnel exposure, final wipe levels in the terminated facility, and assays of the structure, are provided. Based on the experience gained from this project, recommendations were made regarding the design of future radioactive material handling facilities so that when they are ultimately terminated the effort can be accomplished more efficiently

  4. Mathematical Modelling of the Price Range in the Procurement of Ferrous Scrap by Metallurgical Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Aleksandrovna Ivanova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available For metallurgical enterprises, it is important to understand the limits of the most probable values of prices and geographical area for procurement of ferrous scrap in the regions. In order to define the maximal scrap prices in the regions, the authors have developed a mathematical model of “auction purchases”. This model equally assesses price competition between scrap consumers. When setting the price, we consider the territorial imbalances between scrap supply and demand in the regions; costs for scrap transportation from supplier to consumer; price level for scrap in the “windows for exports”. We calculate the lowest price according to the “export parity”. The results of the calculations allow evaluating a range of regional prices and interregional flows of scrap. This approach is unnown in the published works of Russian and foreign researchers. For calculations, we have developed a special software. The following initial data were used: data on railroad transportation of ferrous scrap in the Russian Federation provided by JSC Russian Railways; handbooks of railway tariffs 10–01 between railway stations of the Russian Federation; statistical data on prices of 3A metal scrap in the “windows for exports”. The article presents the formal structure of the model of “auction procurement”, the algorithm of its implementation and the results of calculations. The price level calculated according to the model of “auction procurement” can be used in management practice as potentially highest level of price, which can be reached in the conditions of competition between consumers of scrap in a situation when the negotiations are impossible. The proposed mathematical model allows a metallurgical enterprise to prove and implement a differentiated approach to the formation of regional prices of scrap, and to define regions for scrap purchasing.

  5. Metallurgical Effects of Shunting Current on Resistance Spot-Welded Joints of AA2219 Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari Vardanjani, M.; Araee, A.; Senkara, J.; Jakubowski, J.; Godek, J.

    2016-08-01

    Shunting effect is the loss of electrical current via the secondary circuit provided due to the existence of previous nugget in a series of welding spots. This phenomenon influences on metallurgical aspects of resistance spot-welded (RSW) joints in terms of quality and performance. In this paper RSW joints of AA2219 sheets with 1 mm thickness are investigated metallurgically for shunted and single spots. An electro-thermal finite element analysis is performed on the RSW process of shunted spot and temperature distribution and variation are obtained. These predictions are then compared with experimental micrographs. Three values of 5 mm, 20 mm, and infinite (i.e., single spot) are assumed for welding distance. Numerical and experimental results are matching each other in terms of nugget and HAZ geometry as increasing distance raised nugget size and symmetry of HAZ. In addition, important effect of shunting current on nugget thickness, microstructure, and Copper segregation on HAZ grain boundaries were discovered. A quantitative analysis is also performed about the influence of welding distance on important properties including ratio of nugget thickness and diameter ( r t), ratio of HAZ area on shunted and free side of nugget ( r HA), and ratio of equivalent segregated and total amount of Copper, measured in sample ( r Cu) on HAZ. Increasing distance from 5 mm to infinite, indicated a gain of 111.04, -45.55, and -75.15% in r t, r HA, and r Cu, respectively, while obtained ratios for 20 mm welding distance was suitable compared to single spot.

  6. Peer review of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Vessel Investigation Project metallurgical examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohl, R.W.; Gaydos, R.G.; Vander Voort, G.F.; Diercks, D.R.

    1994-07-01

    Fifteen samples recovered from the lower head of the Three Mile Island (TMI) Unit 2 nuclear reactor pressure vessel were subjected to detailed metallurgical examinations by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), with supporting work carried out by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and several of the European participants. These examinations determined that a portion of the lower head, a so-called elliptical ''hot spot'' measuring ∼0.8 x 1 m, reached temperatures as high as 1100 degrees C during the accident and cooled from these temperatures at ∼10--100 degrees C/min. The remainder of the lower head was found to have remained below the ferrite-toaustenite transformation temperature of 727 degrees C during the accident. Because of the significance of these results and their importance to the overall analysis of the TMI accident, a panel of three outside peer reviewers, Dr. Robert W. Bohl, Mr. Richard G. Gaydos, and Mr. George F. Vander Voort, was formed to conduct an independent review of the metallurgical analyses. After a thorough review of the previous analyses and examination of photo-micrographs and actual lower head specimens, the panel determined that the conclusions resulting from the INEL study were fundamentally correct. In particular, the panel reaffirmed that four lower head samples attained temperatures as high as 1100 degrees C, and perhaps as high as 1150--1200 degrees C in one case, during the accident. They concluded that these samples subsequently cooled at a rate of ∼50--125 degrees C/min in the temperature range of 600--400 degrees C, in good agreement with the original analysis. The reviewers also agreed that the remainder of the lower head samples had not exceeded the ferrite-to-austenite transformation temperature during the accident and suggested several refinements and alternative procedures that could have been employed in the original analysis

  7. Integration of soil magnetometry and geochemistry for assessment of human health risk from metallurgical slag dumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachwał, Marzena; Wawer, Małgorzata; Magiera, Tadeusz; Steinnes, Eiliv

    2017-12-01

    The main objective of the study was an assessment of the pollution level of agricultural land located close to dumps of industrial waste remaining after former Zn and Pb ore processing in Poland. The integrated geophysical-geochemical methods were applied for assessment of soil quality with respect to trace element pollution. Additionally, human health risk induced by the contaminated arable soil and dusting slag heap was estimated. The investigations pointed out that soils in the vicinity of the metallurgical slag dump in Piekary were heavily polluted. Spatial distribution of magnetic susceptibility corresponding well with distribution of the content of potentially toxic elements indicated the local "pollution hotspots." Proper geophysical and geochemical data interpretation supported by statistical factor analysis enabled identification of three different sources of pollution including metallurgical slug dump as a main source, but also traffic pollution influencing the area located along the busy road and relatively strong influence of the geochemical background. Computed health hazard index revealed no adverse health effect to the farmers cultivating arable soil, but in the direct vicinity of dusting, slag dump health risk occurred, caused mostly by very toxic elements as As and Tl. In the future, investigation should be focused on contribution of different sources to the heavy metal pollution in soil-crop system in this area. It should be highlighted that a site-specific approach should be taken in order to redevelop this kind of area in order to reduce ecological and human health threat. The study proved the integrated two-stage geophysical-geochemical method to be a feasible, reliable, and cost-effective tool for identification of the extent of soil pollution and areas at risk.

  8. ALTERNATIVE BINDERS TO BENTONITE FOR IRON ORE PELLETIZING : PART II : EFFECTS ON METALLURGICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Sivrikaya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was started to find alternative binders to bentonite and to recover the low preheated and fired pellet mechanical strengths of organic binders-bonded pellets. Bentonite is considered as a chemical impurity for pellet chemistry due to acid constituents (SiO2 and Al2O3. Especially addition of silica-alumina bearing binders is detrimental for iron ore concentrate with high acidic content. Organic binders are the most studied binders since they are free in silica. Although they yield pellets with good wet strength; they have found limited application in industry since they fail to give sufficient physical and mechanical strength to preheated and fired pellets. It is investigated that how insufficient preheated and fired pellet strengths can be improved when organic binders are used as binder. The addition of a slag bonding/strength increasing constituent (free in acidic contents into pellet feed to provide pellet strength with the use of organic binders was proposed. Addition of boron compounds such as colemanite, tincal, borax pentahydrate, boric acid together with organic binders such as CMC, starch, dextrin and some organic based binders, into magnetite and hematite pellet mixture was tested. After determining the addition of boron compounds is beneficial to recover the low pellet physical and mechanical qualities in the first part of this study, in this second part, metallurgical and chemical properties (reducibility - swelling index – microstructure – mineralogy - chemical content of pellets produced with combined binders (an organic binder plus a boron compound were presented. The metallurgical and chemical tests results showed that good quality product pellets can be produced with combined binders when compared with the bentonite-bonded pellets. Hence, the suggested combined binders can be used as binder in place of bentonite in iron ore pelletizing without compromising the pellet chemistry.

  9. Metallurgical study and phase diagram calculations of the Zr-Nb-Fe-(Sn,O) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toffolon, C.

    2000-01-01

    The Framatome M5 TM Zr-Nb-O alloy with small amounts of Fe is of interest for nuclear applications (PWR fuel cladding).The behaviour of this kind of alloy for in-service conditions strongly depends on the microstructure. Therefore, a metallurgical study of alloys of the Zr-Nb-Fe-(O-Sn) system has been developed in order to study the influence of chemical composition variabilities of Nb, Fe and O and thermal treatments on the resultant microstructure. In order to get some insight on the physical metallurgy of Zr-Nb-Fe-(Sn,O) alloys and to minimize the experiments, it is useful to build a thermodynamic database. With this object, it was necessary to re-optimize and to calculate the low order binary systems such as Fe-Nb and Nb-Sn in order to assess the Zr-Nb-Fe-(Sn,O) system. Then, the experimental studies concerned: the influence of small variations in Nb and O contents on the α/β transus temperatures. A comparison between experimental results and thermodynamic predictions showed a good agreement; the precipitation kinetics of βNb and intermetallic phases in the α phase domain. These experiments showed that the kinetics depends on the initial metallurgical conditions; the determination of the crystallographic structure and the stoichiometry of the ternary Zr-Nb-Fe intermetallic compounds as a function of the temperature. Finally, these experimental data were used to propose a first assessment of the Zr-Nb-Fe(O∼1200 ppm) system. (author)

  10. Performance analysis of locomotive park of the transport service of rolling mills metallurgical enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ганна Вікторовна Маслак

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In terms of market economy it is highly important to implement new transport and energy-saving technologies into industrial enterprises and industrial objects’ workflow. And the main point here is employment of traction means which secure considerable economy in transport costs and, first and foremost, energy consumption. The issue of transport service of the rolling shop at a metallurgical enterprise is of high importance from the point of view of railway traction means utilization effectiveness, i.e. locomotives utilization within the process of shunting (which is carried out at railway tracks serving loading and unloading sites of the rolling shop. The article assesses operational indicators of locomotives’ performance by the time, power and adhesion weight within serving transport-and-handling complex of rolling shop at metallurgical enterprise. With this purpose transport technology of transport-and-handling complex of rolling shop is taken into consideration. In order to make the performance assessment of the locomotive fleet operation, algorithm of research has been developed. In accordance with this algorithm, operational parameters for TGM-4 locomotives exploitation have been defined (the data is provided for locomotive operation during a shift.Adhesion weight and locomotive power calculations have been made for work and after-hours runs. The analysis shows the level of inefficiency of locomotives use. One of the main ways of saving these costs is substitution of high-powered locomotives with energy-saving traction means. This issue can be solved at the expense of traction means based on wheeled tractors or self-propelled chassis which can be used either on a road or on a railway track. In accordance with operational conditions, qualification of tractive effort and other parameters, the effectiveness of traction means utilization at railway- and auto-transportations significantly increases

  11. Manganese Ores from South Sulawesi: Their Potential Uses as Raw Materials for Metallurgical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sufriadin Sufriadin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of manganese ores from Barru and Bone regencies of South Sulawesi has been conducted with the aim at clarification of their mineralogical and chemical composition for their potential uses as the raw materials for metallurgical industry. Mineralogical properties of the ores analyzed by means of optical microscopy and X-ray diffractometry (XRD show that samples from Barru consist mainly of rhodochrosite (MnCO3 with less cryptomelane, groutite, bixbyite, and todorokite. Goethite, calcite and small amount of quartz present as impurities. Manganese ore samples from Bone are predominantly composed of pyrolusite (MnO2 with subordinate ramsdellite and hollandite. Barite, quartz, hematite and clay are present as gangue minerals. Chemical compositions determined by using XRF method revealed that Barru samples contain higher in MnO (average is 40.07 wt% than the Bone samples (average is 34.36 wt%. Similarly, Fe2O3 and CaO are also higher in Barru than those of the Bone samples. In contrast, concentrations of SiO2 and total alkali (K2O + Na2O are lower in the Barru samples. The average P2O5 content of samples in both areas is low (<0.2 wt%. Relatively higher grade of Fe2O3 in the Barru ore implies that it has potential application for ferromanganese production; whereas the elevated SiO2 content of the Bone ore is a good indication for silicomanganese manufacture. However, both ores may not favorable to be directly used as raw materials in metallurgical uses. Prior to be used, the ores should be treated by applying physical beneficiation in order to reduce deleterious elements.

  12. Peer review of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Vessel Investigation Project metallurgical examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohl, R.W.; Gaydos, R.G.; Vander Voort, G.F.; Diercks, D.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-07-01

    Fifteen samples recovered from the lower head of the Three Mile Island (TMI) Unit 2 nuclear reactor pressure vessel were subjected to detailed metallurgical examinations by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), with supporting work carried out by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and several of the European participants. These examinations determined that a portion of the lower head, a so-called elliptical ``hot spot`` measuring {approx}0.8 {times} 1 m, reached temperatures as high as 1100{degrees}C during the accident and cooled from these temperatures at {approx}10--100{degrees}C/min. The remainder of the lower head was found to have remained below the ferrite-toaustenite transformation temperature of 727{degrees}C during the accident. Because of the significance of these results and their importance to the overall analysis of the TMI accident, a panel of three outside peer reviewers, Dr. Robert W. Bohl, Mr. Richard G. Gaydos, and Mr. George F. Vander Voort, was formed to conduct an independent review of the metallurgical analyses. After a thorough review of the previous analyses and examination of photo-micrographs and actual lower head specimens, the panel determined that the conclusions resulting from the INEL study were fundamentally correct. In particular, the panel reaffirmed that four lower head samples attained temperatures as high as 1100{degrees}C, and perhaps as high as 1150--1200{degrees}C in one case, during the accident. They concluded that these samples subsequently cooled at a rate of {approx}50--125{degrees}C/min in the temperature range of 600--400{degrees}C, in good agreement with the original analysis. The reviewers also agreed that the remainder of the lower head samples had not exceeded the ferrite-to-austenite transformation temperature during the accident and suggested several refinements and alternative procedures that could have been employed in the original analysis.

  13. Mechanical and metallurgical properties of dissimilar metal joints using novel joining techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashcroft, Emma Jane

    In recent years there have been significant new developments in welding processes for joining stainless steel and dissimilar metals. This is associated with the rise in interest of using stainless steel in the automotive industry from both car manufacturers and stainless steel producers. The main reason for using stainless steel within the automotive industry is the combination of formability and high strength but also the improved corrosion resistance when compared to zinc coated mild steel. This research explores the mechanical and metallurgical properties of dissimilar metal joining and determines a relationship between the fatigue properties and weld geometry. The research focuses on the relatively unexplored joining techniques of Laser Hybrid Welding and Cold Metal Transfer applied to joining stainless steel grades Hy-Tens 1000 and LDX 2101 to Dogal 260RP-X mild steel. The joints are assessed in terms of tensile, fatigue and metallurgical properties. Experimental results and analysis show that the fatigue properties of both laser hybrid welding and cold metal transfer joints are a linear relationship with a negative gradient to value of the root angle on the mild steel side of the joints, as the angle at the root decreases the fatigue life increases.It was found that when joining the material combinations outlined in this research with Laser Hybrid Welding the resulting solidified weld pool was chemically inhomogeneous. However, welds produced using Cold Metal Transfer resulted in a chemically homogenous weld pool and consistent microhardness. Comparisons with laser welding show that laser hybrid welding and cold metal transfer can produce joints with mechanical properties comparable to welding methods currently being used in the automotive industry, for example, laser welding.

  14. Corrosion behaviour of hyper duplex stainless steel in various metallurgical conditions for sea water cooled condensers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Umesh Pratap; Kain, Vivekanand; Chandra, Kamlesh

    2011-01-01

    The sea water cooled condensers have to resist severe corrosion as marine environment is the most corrosive natural environment. Copper alloys are being phased out due to difficulties in water chemistry control and Titanium base alloys are extremely expensive. Austenitic stainless steels (SS) remain prone to localized corrosion in marine environments hence not suitable. These heat exchangers operate at temperatures not exceeding 50 deg C and at very low pressures. The tubes of these heat exchangers are joined to the carbon steel tube sheets by roll expansion or by roll expansion followed by seam welding. These conditions are expected to affect the localized corrosion resistance of the tube in roll joined region due to cold working and in the tube-tube sheet welded joint due to thermal effects of welding. In this study, the localized corrosion behaviour of a Hyper Duplex Stainless Steel (HDSS) has been evaluated, and compared with other materials e.g. types 304L SS, 316L SS, Duplex SS 2205, Titanium grade - 2, and Al Brass. The evaluation is done in three metallurgical conditions (a) as received, (b) cold rolled and (c) welded condition in synthetic sea water at room temperature and at 50 deg C to assess the resistance to crevice, pitting and stress corrosion cracking using standard ASTM exposure and electrochemical techniques. The results provide comparative assessment of these alloys and show their susceptibility in the three metallurgical conditions as encountered in condensers. Hyper-duplex SS has been shown to be highly resistant in sea water for the condenser tubing application. (author)

  15. An environmentally-friendly vacuum reduction metallurgical process to recover germanium from coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lingen; Xu, Zhenming, E-mail: zmxu@sjtu.edu.cn

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • An environmental friendly vacuum reduction metallurgical process is proposed. • Rare and valuable metal germanium from coal fly ash is recycled. • Residues are not a hazardous material and can be further recycled. • A germanium recovery ratio of 94.64% is obtained in pilot scale experiments. - Abstract: The demand for germanium in the field of semiconductor, electronics, and optical devices is growing rapidly; however, the resources of germanium are scarce worldwide. As a secondary material, coal fly ash could be further recycled to retrieve germanium. Up to now, the conventional processes to recover germanium have two problems as follows: on the one hand, it is difficult to be satisfactory for its economic and environmental effect; on the other hand, the recovery ratio of germanium is not all that could be desired. In this paper, an environmentally-friendly vacuum reduction metallurgical process (VRMP) was proposed to recover germanium from coal fly ash. The results of the laboratory scale experiments indicated that the appropriate parameters were 1173 K and 10 Pa with 10 wt% coke addition for 40 min, and recovery ratio germanium was 93.96%. On the basis of above condition, the pilot scale experiments were utilized to assess the actual effect of VRMP for recovery of germanium with parameter of 1473 K, 1–10 Pa and heating time 40 min, the recovery ratio of germanium reached 94.64%. This process considerably enhances germanium recovery, meanwhile, eliminates much of the water usage and residue secondary pollution compared with other conventional processes.

  16. Metallurgical and mechanical behaviours of PWR fuel cladding tube oxidised at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, A.

    2007-12-01

    Zirconium alloys are used as cladding materials in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). As they are submitted to very extreme conditions, it is necessary to check their behaviour and especially to make sure they meet the safety criteria. They are therefore studied under typical in service-loadings but also under accidental loadings. In one of these accidental scenarios, called Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) the cladding temperature may increase above 800 C, in a steam environment, and decrease before a final quench of the cladding. During this temperature transient, the cladding is heavily oxidised, and the metallurgical changes lead to a decrease of the post quench mechanical properties. It is then necessary to correlate this drop in residual ductility to the metallurgical evolutions. This is the problem we want to address in this study: the oxidation of PWR cladding materials at high temperature in a steam environment and its consequences on post quench mechanical properties. As oxygen goes massively into the metallic part - a zirconia layer grows at the same time - during the high temperature oxidation, the claddings tubes microstructure shows three different phases that are the outer oxide layer (zirconia) and the inner metallic phases (α(O) and 'ex β') - with various mechanical properties. In order to reproduce the behaviour of this multilayered material, the first part of this study consisted in creating samples with different - but homogeneous in thickness - oxygen contents, similar to those observed in the different phases of the real cladding. The study was especially focused on the β-->α phase transformation upon cooling and on the resulting microstructures. A mechanism was proposed to describe this phase transformation. For instance, we conclude that for our oxygen enriched samples, the phase transformation kinetics upon cooling are ruled by the oxygen partitioning between the two allotropic phases. Then, these materials were mechanically tested at

  17. USING THE OUTSOURCING MECHANISM TO INCREASE THE EFFICIENCY OF REPAIR AND MAINTENANCE IN METALLURGICAL ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena I. Kozlova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Objectives The aim of the work is to study the outsourcing mechanism from the point of view of increasing the efficiency of repair and maintenance at a metallurgical enterprise. Method Analysis of the experience of using outsourcing of repair services at domestic and foreign metallurgical enterprises was carried out. Analysis of the experience of the withdrawal from enterprise repair services into a separate outsourcing company has shown that the main advantages of this method of organising repair activities are an increase in the transparency of the costs of repairs and maintenance, and hence their reduction, as well as a reduction in the amount of equipment downtime. The main characteristics of outsourcing were revealed, substantiating its expediency. The restructuring of the repair system provides a step-by-step transition from decentralised to centralised structures of technical, mechanical, power and electrical repair services of enterprises, from the principle of "self-service" to the principle of "proprietary service" by isolating the subdivisions of the repair system from the structure of enterprises and creating competing members of the repair services market. Put another way, this is typified by moving away from the status of auxiliary production to a selfdependent activity. The stages of outsourcing the repair services of the enterprise are considered and possible problems that may arise in the course of the work of a working group are established to determine the suitability of outsourcing and to resolve the numerous issues arising from the transfer of repair functions. Results The findings of the research include approaches developed for overcoming risky situations: providing guarantees from the customer and the contractor and indicating them in the contract, increasing the motivation of the outsourcing company through a key performance indicator that should increase the interest of the performer in providing quality

  18. Nutrient and dissolved organic carbon removal from water using mining and metallurgical by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendling, Laura A; Douglas, Grant B; Coleman, Shandel; Yuan, Zheng

    2012-05-15

    Excess nutrient input to water bodies frequently results in algal blooms and development of oxygen deficient conditions. Mining or metallurgical by-products can potentially be utilised as filtration media within water treatment systems such as constructed wetlands, permeable reactive barriers, or drain liners. These materials may offer a cost-effective solution for the removal of nutrients and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from natural waters. This study investigated steel-making, alumina refining (red mud and red sand) and heavy mineral processing by-products, as well as the low-cost mineral-based material calcined magnesia, in laboratory column trials. Influent water and column effluents were analysed for pH and flow rate, alkalinity, nutrient species and DOC, and a range of major cations and anions. In general, by-products with high Ca or Mg, and to a lesser extent those with high Fe content, were well-suited to nutrient and DOC removal from water. Of the individual materials examined, the heavy mineral processing residue neutralised used acid (NUA) exhibited the highest sorption capacity for P, and removed the greatest proportions of all N species and DOC from influent water. In general, NUA and mixtures containing NUA, particularly those with calcined magnesia or red mud/red sand were the most effective in removing nutrients and DOC from influent water. Post-treatment effluents from columns containing NUA and NUA/steel-making by-product, NUA/red sand and NUA/calcined magnesia mixtures exhibited large reductions in DOC, P and N concentrations and exhibited a shift in nutrient ratios away from potential N- and Si-limitation and towards potential P-limitation. If employed as part of a large-scale water treatment scheme, use of these mining and metallurgical by-products for nutrient removal could result in reduced algal biomass and improved water quality. Identification and effective implementation of mining by-products or blends thereof in constructed wetlands

  19. M-Area and Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facilities groundwater monitoring and corrective-action report (U). Third and fourth quarters 1996, Vol. I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report describes the groundwater monitoring and corrective-action program at the M-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) and the Metallurgical Laboratory (Met Lab) HWMF at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during 1996.

  20. THE PROFITABILITY AND LIQUIDITY UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF THE FINANCING POLICY IN THE METALLURGICAL INDUSTRY OF EU 28

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOBROTĂ GABRIELA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the problems of the economic system, the use of the capital and his structure represent important elements in the process of the financial decisions. The aim of this paper is to identify the influence of funding policy on rentability in metallurgical industry, dimensioned with the help of a set of relevant indicators, determined on the base of some aggregated data for a significant sample of very large firms from EU 28. Also, the paper present the situation of liquidity, reflected through the cash- flow and liquidity ratio, in the metallurgical industry of EU 28, being used dates for the period 2004 – 2013, for the mentioned sample. The conclusion of the realised study is that a funding policy well-founded, correlated with the efficient management of expenses and proactive risk management can positively influence the profitability and liquidity.

  1. A comparison of the metallurgical behaviour of dispersion fuels with uranium silicides and U6Fe as dispersants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazare, S.

    1984-01-01

    In the past few years metallurgical studies have been carried out to develop fuel dispersions with U-densities up to 7.0 Mg U m -3 . Uranium silicides have been considered to be the prime candidates as dispersants; U 6 Fe being a potential alternative on account of its higher U-density. The objective of this paper is to compare the metallurgical behaviour of these two material combinations with regard to the following aspects: (1) preparation of the compounds U 3 Si, U 3 Si 2 and U 6 Fe; (2) powder metallurgical processing to miniature fuel element plates; (3) reaction behaviour under equilibrium conditions in the relevant portions of the ternary U-Si-Al and U-Fe-Al systems; (4) dimensional stability of the fuel plates after prolonged thermal treatment; (5) thermochemical behaviour of fuel plates at temperatures near the melting point of the cladding. Based on this data, the possible advantages of each fuel combination are discussed. (author)

  2. Mechanical and Metallurgical Properties of Various Nickel-Titanium Rotary Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu-Sang Shim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of thermomechanical treatment on mechanical and metallurgical properties of nickel-titanium (NiTi rotary instruments. Eight kinds of NiTi rotary instruments with sizes of ISO #25 were selected: ProFile, K3, and One Shape for the conventional alloy; ProTaper NEXT, Reciproc, and WaveOne for the M-wire alloy; HyFlex CM for the controlled memory- (CM- wire; and TF for the R-phase alloy. Torsional fracture and cyclic fatigue fracture tests were performed. Products underwent a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC analysis. The CM-wire and R-phase groups had the lowest elastic modulus, followed by the M-wire group. The maximum torque of the M-wire instrument was comparable to that of a conventional instrument, while those of the CM-wire and R-phase instruments were lower. The angular displacement at failure (ADF for the CM-wire and R-phase instruments was higher than that of conventional instruments, and ADF of the M-wire instruments was lower. The cyclic fatigue resistance of the thermomechanically treated NiTi instruments was higher. DSC plots revealed that NiTi instruments made with the conventional alloy were primarily composed of austenite at room temperature; stable martensite and R-phase were found in thermomechanically treated instruments.

  3. Metallurgical examination of, and resin transfer from, Three Mile Island prefilter liners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, Jr, J W; Spaletta, H W

    1984-08-01

    Metallurgical examinations were performed on two EPICOR-II prefilter liners at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to determine conditions of the liners and identify the minimum expected lifetime of those and other liners stored at INEL. The research work was accomplished by EG and G Idaho, Inc. for the EPICOR-II Research and Disposition Program, which is funded by the US Department of Energy. The EPICOR-II prefilter liners were used to filter radionuclides from contaminated water during cleanup of Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2). The liners were constructed of carbon steel with a phenolic protective coating and contained organic and inorganic ion-exchange filtration media. Program plans call for interim storage of EPICOR-II prefilters at INEL for up to ten years, before final disposal in high integrity containers at the Hanford, Washington commercial disposal site. This report describes the (a) resin transfer process used to empty liners for examination, (b) removal of metallographic sections from those liners, (c) specimen preparation, and (d) findings from metallographic examination of those specimens. A minimum lifetime for the liners is determined and recommendations are given for storage of wastes from future TMI-2 activities.

  4. Metallurgical electrochemistry: the interface between materials science and molten salt chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadoway, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    Even though molten salt electrolysis finds application in the primary extraction of metals (electrowinning), the purification and recycling of metals (electrorefining), and in the formation of metal coatings (electroplating), the technology remains in many respects underexploited. Electrolysis in molten salts as well as other nonaqueous media has enormous potential for materials processing. First, owing to the special attributes of nonaqueous electrolytes electrochemical processing in these media has an important role to play in the generation of advanced materials, i.e., materials with specialized chemistries or tailored microstructures (electrosynthesis). Secondly, as environmental quality standards rise beyond the capabilities of classical metals extraction technologies to comply, molten salt electrolysis may prove to be the only acceptable route from ore to metal. Growing public awareness of pollution from the metals industry could stimulate a renaissance in molten salt electrochemistry. Challenges facing metallurgical electrochemistry as relates to the environment fall into two categories: (1) improving existing electrochemical technology, and (2) developing clean electrochemical technology to displace current nonelectrochemical technology. In both instances success hinges upon the discovery of advanced materials and the ecologically sound extraction of metals, the close coupling between materials science and molten salt chemistry is manifest. (author) 6 refs

  5. Development and characterization of powder metallurgically produced discontinuous tungsten fiber reinforced tungsten composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Y.; Coenen, J. W.; Riesch, J.; Sistla, S.; Almanstötter, J.; Jasper, B.; Terra, A.; Höschen, T.; Gietl, H.; Bram, M.; Gonzalez-Julian, J.; Linsmeier, Ch; Broeckmann, C.

    2017-12-01

    In future fusion reactors, tungsten is the prime candidate material for the plasma facing components. Nevertheless, tungsten is prone to develop cracks due to its intrinsic brittleness—a major concern under the extreme conditions of fusion environment. To overcome this drawback, tungsten fiber reinforced tungsten (Wf/W) composites are being developed. These composite materials rely on an extrinsic toughing principle, similar to those in ceramic matrix composite, using internal energy dissipation mechanisms, such as crack bridging and fiber pull-out, during crack propagation. This can help Wf/W to facilitate a pseudo-ductile behavior and allows an elevated damage resilience compared to pure W. For pseudo-ductility mechanisms to occur, the interface between the fiber and matrix is crucial. Recent developments in the area of powder-metallurgical Wf/W are presented. Two consolidation methods are compared. Field assisted sintering technology and hot isostatic pressing are chosen to manufacture the Wf/W composites. Initial mechanical tests and microstructural analyses are performed on the Wf/W composites with a 30% fiber volume fraction. The samples produced by both processes can give pseudo-ductile behavior at room temperature.

  6. Process of optimization of district heat production by utilizing waste energy from metallurgical processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovšek, Damjan; Fužir, Miran; Slatinek, Matic; Šepul, Tanja; Plesnik, Kristijan; Lečnik, Samo

    2017-07-01

    In a consortium with SIJ (Slovenian Steel Group), Metal Ravne, the local community of Ravne na Koro\\vskem and the public research Institut Jožef Stefan, with its registered office in Slovenia, Petrol Energetika, d.o.o. set up a technical and technological platform of an innovative energy case for a transition of steel industry into circular economy with a complete energy solution called »Utilization of Waste Heat from Metallurgical Processes for District Heating of Ravne na Koro\\vskem. This is the first such project designed for a useful utilization of waste heat in steel industry which uses modern technology and innovative system solutions for an integration of a smart, efficient and sustainable heating and cooling system and which shows a growth potential. This will allow the industry and cities to make energy savings, to improve the quality of air and to increase the benefits for the society we live in. On the basis of circular economy, we designed a target-oriented co-operation of economy, local community and public research institute to produce new business models where end consumers are put into the centre. This innovation opens the door for steel industry and local community to a joint aim that is a transition into efficient low-carbon energy systems which are based on involvement of natural local conditions, renewable energy sources, the use of waste heat and with respect for the principles of sustainable development.

  7. High power density systems used in advanced metallurgical applications and safety aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirji, K.V.; Ramesh, N.

    2016-01-01

    This topic concerns about the operation and development of electron beam (EB) machines utilized in metallurgical applications such as EB melting and EB welding. They are popular in purification of refractory metals and welding of their alloy components. In this equipment, EB generation, acceleration, harnessing and energy dissipation need to be performed under high vacuum conditions. The high voltage required for acceleration is generated by using 3 phase 415 Volts, 50 Hz ac power supply. The transformers used have to be specially designed to withstand frequent, high short circuit currents which result from discharges during processing. The high voltage rectifiers are similarly designed to cater to such duties, apart from generating high voltage with low ripple contents. Apart from trans-rectifiers, the cables need to be designed with proper termination at the gun to ensure safety of operating personnel, while ensuring ease of connection. Practical problems of electric discharges due to sudden evolution of gaseous and metallic impurities, proper dissipation of residual charge on cathode assembly and the EB gun need to be handled carefully. (author)

  8. Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report. Fourth quarter 1992 and 1992 summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1993-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1992, samples from 18 groundwater monitoring wells of the AMB series at the Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility were analyzed for certain heavy metals, indicator parameters, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Six parameters exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) and the Savannah River Site Flag 2 criteria during the quarter. The results for fourth quarter 1992 are fairly consistent with the rest of the year`s data. Tetrachloroethylene exceeded the final PDWS in well AMB 4D only two of the four quarters; in the other three wells in which it was elevated, it was present at similar levels throughout the year. Trichloroethylene consistently exceeded its PDWS in wells AMB 4A, 4B, 4D, 5, and 7A during the year. Trichloroethylene was elevated in well AMB 6 only during third and fourth quarters and in well AMB 7 only during fourth quarter. Total alpha-emitting radium was above the final PDWS for total radium in well AMB 5 at similar levels throughout the year and exceeded the PDWS during one of the three quarters it was analyzed for (third quarter 1992) in well AMB 10B.

  9. Influence of metallurgical heterogeneities on the mechanisms of hydrogen diffusion and trapping of in nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudriss, Abdelali

    2012-01-01

    A thorough investigation on the influence of several metallurgical defects on the hydrogen diffusion and trapping was conducted on nickel. This work was conducted towards two scientific orientations. A first approach was to assess the impact of intrinsic defects, especially grain boundaries and geometrically necessary dislocations on the hydrogen transport and segregation mechanisms. Combining microstructural characterizations with electrochemical permeation tests and thermal desorption spectroscopy, it has established that the grain boundaries with ordered structure called 'special grain boundaries' are preferential areas for hydrogen segregation. On the other hand, a second category of grain boundaries called 'general' or 'random' with high free volume and disordered structure are promoters for hydrogen diffusion, and they represent the main sources of the phenomena short circuit diffusion reported in the face-centered cubic materials. The second approach of this work consisted in the study of the interaction of hydrogen with the plastic deformation heterogeneities. The electrochemical permeation tests performed on microstructures obtained by deformation showed that for the traction monotonous, the equiaxed cells and walls of dislocations are the potential traps for hydrogen and they slow its transport, this latter is mainly provided by the interstitial diffusion mechanism. In addition, for fatigue microstructure, rapid diffusivity of hydrogen was recorded, and suggesting that a phenomenon similar to short-circuit diffusion is involved in the transport of hydrogen. On two approaches, the results suggest a contribution of hydrogen in the formation of vacancies. (author) [fr

  10. Nuclear methods on service of mountain manufacture Navoi Mining-Metallurgical complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucherskiy, N.I.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: On a number of the major minerals, such as gold, uranium, copper, tungsten, potash salts, phosphorites, caolines, etc. Uzbekistan on the confirmed stocks and predicted resources occupies leading places among the states of the world. The basic deposits of gold and uranium are concentrated in Central-Kysylkum region, which is field of activity of Navoi mining-metallurgical combine. In industrial divisions of the combine, located in five areas of republic about 60000 persons are engaged. At all stages of manufacture of gold (since investigation) analytical maintenance has extremely important role. In NMMC radioanalytical methods are widely used, in particular, on mine 'Muruntau' the unique gamma-activation analysis laboratory has been constructed and entered into operation. For the period of operation of laboratory, i.e. since 1977, it is executed more than nine millions analyses of geological tests with extremely high expressness (about tens seconds). It is used x-ray-radiometric method for large-portion (by dumper) sortings and on lumpy separation of ores. With the help of high-sensitivity radiometric means of measurements it is possible to develop phosphorites for reception of phosphoric fertilizers. Nuclear-physical methods are applied to the decision of other problems. Thus, due to application of nuclear-physical methods of the operative control of technological processes of mining manufacture, quality management of ores, the account of quantity of products of extraction and their preliminary enrichment, the actual problem - increase in profitability of all mining manufacture NMMC is solved

  11. Powder metallurgical low-modulus Ti-Mg alloys for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Li, Kaiyang; Luo, Tao; Song, Min; Wu, Hong; Xiao, Jian; Tan, Yanni; Cheng, Ming; Chen, Bing; Niu, Xinrui; Hu, Rong; Li, Xiaohui; Tang, Huiping

    2015-11-01

    In this work, powder metallurgical (PM) Ti-Mg alloys were prepared using combined techniques of mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering. The alloys mainly consist of super saturations of Mg in Ti matrix, and some laminar structured Ti- and Mg-rich phases. The PM Ti-Mg alloys contain a homogeneous mixtures of nanocrystalline Mg and Ti phases. The novel microstructures result in unconventional mechanical and biological properties. It has been shown that the PM Ti-Mg alloys have a much lower compression modulus (36-50GPa) compared to other Ti alloys, but still remain a very high compressive strength (1500-1800MPa). In addition, the PM Ti-Mg alloys show good biocompatibility and bioactivity. Mg can dissolve in the simulated body fluids, and induce the formation of the calcium phosphate layer. The compression modulus of PM Ti-Mg alloys decreases with the amount of Mg, while the bioactivity increases. Although the corrosion resistance of Ti-Mg alloys decreases with the content of Mg, the alloys still show good stability in simulated body fluid under electrochemical conditions. The indirect and direct cytotoxicity results show that PM Ti-Mg alloys have a good biocompatibility to NIH-3T3 cells. Therefore, the PM Ti-Mg alloys are promising candidates in biomedical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A CFD study on the dust behaviour in a metallurgical waste-heat boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Yongxiang; Jokilaakso, A. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Materials Processing and Powder Metallurgy

    1997-12-31

    A waste-heat boiler forms an essential part for the treatment of high temperature flue-gases in most metallurgical processes. Flue-dust carried by the furnace off-gas has to be captured efficiently in the waste-heat boilers before entering the downstream gas purification equipment. Flue dust may accumulate and foul on the heat transfer surfaces such as tube-walls, narrow conjunctions between the boiler and the furnace uptake, and thus may cause smelter shutdown, and interrupt the production. A commercial CFD package is used as the major tool on modelling the dust flow and settling in the waste-heat boiler of an industrial copper flash smelter. In the presentation, dust settling behaviour is illustrated for a wide range of particle sizes, and dust capture efficiency in the radiation section of the boiler for different particle sizes has been shown with the transient simulation. The simulation aims at providing detailed information of dust behaviour in the waste-heat boiler in sulphide smelting. (author) 11 refs.

  13. EDXRF and micro-EDXRF studies of Late Bronze Age metallurgical productions from Canedotes (Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Pedro; Araújo, M. de Fátima; Canha, Alexandre

    2007-10-01

    Metallurgical production in Central Portugal during the Late Bronze Age was primarily based on copper-tin alloys, despite influences from the Atlantic area where copper-tin-lead alloys are common. Metallic artefacts from archaeological site of Canedotes (Central Portugal) were analysed by EDXRF to establish the type of alloys present. Polished spots in selected artefacts were also analysed by micro-EDXRF to determine the major and minor elemental composition of the original alloys. The collection constitutes 18 copper-tin artefacts and one unalloyed copper artefact with tin and arsenic as minor constituents. Artefacts that require a thermomechanical finishing process, such as tools and weapons, seem to have improved control over the tin content. The composition of two buttons, one cramp and one metallic droplet suggest that some of the copper sources were rich in arsenic. Finally, the low iron content of the artefacts seems to agree well with the smelting of copper ores in crucible furnaces, a smelting process used in certain areas of the Iberian Peninsula until pre-Roman times.

  14. Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report. Third quarter, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    During third quarter 1994, samples from AMB groundwater monitoring wells at the Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility (Met Lab HWMF) were analyzed for selected heavy metals, indicator parameters, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Eight parameters exceeded standards during the quarter. As in previous quarters, tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS). Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate exceeded final PDWS in one well. Aluminum, iron, manganese, tin, and total organic halogens exceeded the Savannah River Site (SRS) Flag 2 criteria. Groundwater flow direction and rate in the M-Area Aquifer Zone were similar to previous quarters. Conditions affecting determination of groundwater flow directions and rates in the Upper Lost Lake Aquifer Zone, Lower Lost Lake Aquifer Zone, and the Middle Sand Aquifer Zone of the Crouch Branch Confining Unit were also similar to previous quarters. During second quarter 1994, SRS received South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control approval for constructing five point-of-compliance wells and two plume definition wells near the Met Lab HWMF. This project began in July 1994 and is complete; however, analytical data from these wells is not available yet

  15. Metallurgical aspects of fatigue fractured surfaces of al grain refined by some rare earth materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaid, A.I.O.

    2005-01-01

    Aluminum and aluminum alloys are widely used materials in the automobile and air craft industries due to their high strength-to-weight ratio, in addition to some other attractive characteristics e.g. corrosion resistance and high electrical and thermal conductivities. Aluminum and its alloys are normally grain refined by Ti or Ti+B to enhance their surface quality and improve their mechanical strength. Although the effect of addition of these grain refiners on the microstructure mechanical behaviour has been investigated and reported, little work has been published on the effect of the refiners on the fatigue life of aluminum and its alloys. In this paper, the effect of addition of some rare earth materials, namely Vanadium and Zirconium on the fatigue life of commercially pure aluminum grain refined by Ti or Ti+B is reported and discussed. Furthermore, metallurgical aspects of these elements on the fatigue fractured surfaces are also discussed using scanning electron microscopy, SEM. Finally, photoscans of the fractured surfaces at different fatigue stresses are presented and discussed. (author)

  16. Evaluation of Metallurgical Quality of Master Heat IN-713C Nickel Alloy Ingots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binczyk F.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of evaluation of the metallurgical quality of master heat ingots and of the identification of non-metallic inclusions (oxides of Al., Zr, Hf, Cr, etc., which have been found in the shrinkage cavities formed in these ingots. The inclusions penetrate into the liquid alloy, and on pouring of mould are transferred to the casting, especially when the filtering system is not sufficiently effective. The specific nature of the melting process of nickel and cobalt alloys, carried out in vacuum induction furnaces, excludes the possibility of alloy refining and slag removal from the melt surface. Therefore, to improve the quality of castings (parts of aircraft engines, it is so important to evaluate the quality of ingots before charging them into the crucible of an induction furnace. It has been proved that one of the methods for rapid quality evaluation is an ATD analysis of the sample solidification process, where samples are taken from different areas of the master heat ingot. The evaluation is based on a set of parameters plotted on the graph of the dT/dt derivative curve during the last stage of the solidification process in a range from TEut to Tsol.

  17. Evaluation of Metallurgical Quality of Master Heat IN-713C Nickel Alloy Ingots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Binczyk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of evaluation of the metallurgical quality of master heat ingots and of the identification of non-metallic inclusions (oxides of Al., Zr, Hf, Cr, etc., which have been found in the shrinkage cavities formed in these ingots. The inclusions penetrate into the liquid alloy, and on pouring of mould are transferred to the casting, especially when the filtering system is not sufficiently effective. The specific nature of the melting process of nickel and cobalt alloys, carried out in vacuum induction furnaces,excludes the possibility of alloy refining and slag removal from the melt surface. Therefore, to improve the quality of castings (parts of aircraft engines, it is so important to evaluate the quality of ingots before charging them into the crucible of an induction furnace. It has been proved that one of the methods for rapid quality evaluation is an ATD analysis of the sample solidification process, where samples are taken from different areas of the master heat ingot. The evaluation is based on a set of parameters plotted on the graph of the dT/dt derivative curve during the last stage of the solidification process in a range from TEut to Tsol.

  18. Determination of nanoscale particles in the air of working zone at the metallurgical production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т.S. Ulanova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies of the air of working zone at the metallurgical production on the example of Avisma OJSC (Berezniki, the Perm Territory for the content of nanoscale particles are specified. The maximum nanoparticles concentration in the range of 13523–28609 mln./m3 is determined at the working place of the titanium production smelter with the maximum size of particles of 10–15 nm. At the working place in the administrative building (reference working place the maximum concentration is determined within the range of 524–1000 mln./m3; the maximum size of nanoparticles is 20 nm. It was established that the number concentration of nanoparticles at the reference working places (administration of Avisma OJSC is significantly lower than at the working places of main production processes. The presented studies can be used as the additional factors in the assessment of labor conditions and occupational risk during the manufacture and use of materials containing nanoparticles as well as the production processes with the nanoparticles formation.

  19. Measures to detect and control radioactive contaminated metallurgical scrap at border checkpoints in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smagala, G.

    1999-01-01

    The issue of radioactive contaminated metallurgical scrap has never received a high priority in Poland and in the international community. Since the dissolution of the former Soviet Union a higher attention has been given to the problem. Poland which is located between the West and East Europe has the obligation to develop and implement an effective prevention and detection system. The reasons to increase national control and detection system at the border checkpoints in Poland are to avoid the following risks: post Chernobyl contamination transports of commodities; transport of contaminated metal scrap; transfer of radioactive waste for their disposal or utilization; high risk of becoming a transit country of illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and radioactive sources. In order to avoid the above-mentioned risks, Poland initiated in 1990, a deployment of the portable radiation devices at the border checkpoints and, as of 1998, the number of installed instruments exceeded a hundred. This paper presents Poland's activities to detect contaminated scrap at its border checkpoints. (author)

  20. Performance Analysis of a Grid-Connected Upgraded Metallurgical Grade Silicon Photovoltaic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Huang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Because of their low cost, photovoltaic (PV cells made from upgraded metallurgical grade silicon (UMG-Si are a promising alternative to conventional solar grade silicon-based PV cells. This study investigates the outdoor performance of a 1.26 kW grid-connected UMG-Si PV system over five years, reporting the energy yields and performance ratio and estimating the long-term performance degradation rate. To make this investigation more meaningful, the performance of a mono-Si PV system installed at the same place and studied during the same period of time is presented for reference. Furthermore, this study systematizes and rationalizes the necessity of a data selection and filtering process to improve the accuracy of degradation rate estimation. The impact of plane-of-array irradiation threshold for data filtering on performance ratio and degradation rate is also studied. The UMG-Si PV system’s monthly performance ratio after data filtering ranged from 84% to 93% over the observation period. The annual degradation rate was 0.44% derived from time series of monthly performance ratio using the classical decomposition method. A comparison of performance ratio and degradation rate to conventional crystalline silicon-based PV systems suggests that performance of the UMG-Si PV system is comparable to that of conventional systems.

  1. A review of recent developments in ion implantation for metallurgical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchings, Ron

    1994-01-01

    Ion implantation emerged during the 1970s as a possible tool for improving the wear and corrosion resistance of metals and alloys. This emergence led to a period of intense activity in the early 1980s, aimed at identifying opportunities for the industrial application of ion implantation. This paper reviews the progress which has been made towards establishing ion implantation as an effective and reliable technique for improving the wear resistance of engineering materials. Particular emphasis is placed on the implantation of nitrogen. It is shown how detailed metallurgical studies have elucidated the role played by the implanted nitrogen in enhancing the resistance to wear of a broad range of alloys. These studies have highlighted the fact that the thin nature of the implanted layer has been a prime factor in restricting the industrial usage of ion implantation to a narrow range of specialized applications. This has resulted in a shift to the development of duplex treatments involving two-stage processes or, more recently, new techniques which allow simultaneous implantation and thermochemical treatment. The capabilities of, and future prospects for, such techniques are discussed. ((orig.))

  2. Comparative assessment of metallurgical recovery of metals from electronic waste with special emphasis on bioleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, Anshu; Hait, Subrata

    2017-03-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) or electronic waste (e-waste) is one of the fastest growing waste streams in the urban environment worldwide. The core component of printed circuit board (PCB) in e-waste contains a complex array of metals in rich quantity, some of which are toxic to the environment and all of which are valuable resources. Therefore, the recycling of e-waste is an important aspect not only from the point of waste treatment but also from the recovery of metals for economic growth. Conventional approaches for recovery of metals from e-waste, viz. pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical techniques, are rapid and efficient, but cause secondary pollution and economically unviable. Limitations of the conventional techniques have led to a shift towards biometallurgical technique involving microbiological leaching of metals from e-waste in eco-friendly manner. However, optimization of certain biotic and abiotic factors such as microbial species, pH, temperature, nutrients, and aeration rate affect the bioleaching process and can lead to profitable recovery of metals from e-waste. The present review provides a comprehensive assessment on the metallurgical techniques for recovery of metals from e-waste with special emphasis on bioleaching process and the associated factors.

  3. Production of highly porous glass-ceramics from metallurgical slag, fly ash and waste glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangutova Bianka V.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Glass-ceramics composites were produced based on fly-ash obtained from coal power stations, metallurgical slag from ferronickel industry and waste glass from TV monitors, windows and flasks. Using 50% waste flask glass in combination with fly ash and 20% waste glass from TV screens in combination with slag, E-modulus and bending strength values of the designed systems are increased (system based on fly ash: E-modulus from 6 to 29 GPa, and bending strength from 9 to 75 MPa. The polyurethane foam was used as a pore creator which gave the material porosity of 70(5% (fly ash-glass composite and a porosity of 65( 5% (slag-glass composite. E-modulus values of the designed porous systems were 3.5(1.2 GPa and 8.1(3 GPa, while the bending strength values were 6.0(2 MPa and 13.2(3.5 MPa, respectively. These materials could be used for the production of tiles, wall bricks, as well as for the construction of air diffusers for waste water aeration.

  4. Model for temperature profile estimation in the refractory of a metallurgical ladle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredman, T. P.; Saxén, H.

    1998-06-01

    Modeling of the transient thermal state of metallurgical ladels is motivated by the need for estimating the drop in temperature of the liquid metal in the ladle. On-line estimation of the state is required, since the same ladle is used in a number of casting cycles with rapid changes in boundary conditions for the temperature field, and the conditions in the current as well as previous cycles affect the thermal state. Although a large number of methods for the numerical solution of conduction-diffusion partial differential equations have been developed, there are still advantages to keeping thermal field computations at a relatively simple level, in contrast to the situation in the design process of ladles, where two-dimensional modeling may be required. Extensive computations under nonverifiable boundary and initial parameter values are not especially suited for real-time simulation of industrial processes. This article presents a novel approach to the solution of the one-dimensional transient heat conduction problem applied to ladle linings, relying on classical analytical techniques in combination with numerical methods. The performance of the model was validated by a comparison of predictions to thermocouple measurements from the refractory of a steelmaking ladle during a campaign of 26 casting cycles. Reasonable agreement between the measured and simulated variables could be established, which demonstrates the feasibility of the approach.

  5. Metallurgical examination of, and resin transfer from, Three Mile Island prefilter liners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Spaletta, H.W.

    1984-08-01

    Metallurgical examinations were performed on two EPICOR-II prefilter liners at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to determine conditions of the liners and identify the minimum expected lifetime of those and other liners stored at INEL. The research work was accomplished by EG and G Idaho, Inc. for the EPICOR-II Research and Disposition Program, which is funded by the US Department of Energy. The EPICOR-II prefilter liners were used to filter radionuclides from contaminated water during cleanup of Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2). The liners were constructed of carbon steel with a phenolic protective coating and contained organic and inorganic ion-exchange filtration media. Program plans call for interim storage of EPICOR-II prefilters at INEL for up to ten years, before final disposal in high integrity containers at the Hanford, Washington commercial disposal site. This report describes the (a) resin transfer process used to empty liners for examination, (b) removal of metallographic sections from those liners, (c) specimen preparation, and (d) findings from metallographic examination of those specimens. A minimum lifetime for the liners is determined and recommendations are given for storage of wastes from future TMI-2 activities

  6. Microstructure, cytotoxicity and corrosion of powder-metallurgical iron alloys for biodegradable bone replacement materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegener, Bernd; Sievers, Birte; Utzschneider, Sandra; Mueller, Peter; Jansson, Volkmar [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Marchioninistrasse 15, 81377 Muenchen (Germany); Roessler, Sophie; Nies, Berthold [InnoTERE GmbH, Tatzberg 47, 01307 Dresden (Germany); Stephani, Guenter; Kieback, Bernd [Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Technology and Advanced Materials (IFAM), Dresden Branch Lab, Winterbergstrasse 28, 01277 Dresden (Germany); Quadbeck, Peter, E-mail: peter.quadbeck@ifam-dd.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Technology and Advanced Materials (IFAM), Dresden Branch Lab, Winterbergstrasse 28, 01277 Dresden (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Up to now biodegradable bone implants with the ability of bearing high loads for the temporary replacement of bones or as osteosynthesis material are not available. Iron and iron based alloys have been identified as appropriate materials, since they combine high strength at medium corrosion rates. Thus, the aim of the present study is the development of a degradable iron based alloy with the perspective of using them as matrix material of cellular structures with biomechanical tailored properties. A powder metallurgical approach has been used to manufacture Fe-C, Fe-0.6P, Fe-1.6P, Fe-B and Fe-Ag samples, which have been tested with respect to their microstructure, their cytotoxicity, and their degradation rate. In order to determine the cytotoxicity of the material a monolayer culture of fibroblast and a perfusion chamber system has been chosen, which was recommended by the ISO 10993-5:1999 for biological testing of medical devices. It has been found, that in particular phosphorus features beneficial properties, since density and thus the strength of the material are increased. No corrosion inhibiting effects of phosphorus on the degradation rate have been found.

  7. Erosion and corrosion of nuclear power plant materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This conference is composed of 23 papers, grouped in 3 sessions which main themes are: analysis of corrosion and erosion damages of nuclear power plant equipment and influence of water chemistry, temperature, irradiations, metallurgical and electrochemical factors, flow assisted cracking, stress cracking; monitoring and control of erosion and corrosion in nuclear power plants; susceptibility of structural materials to erosion and corrosion and ways to improve the resistance of materials, steels, coatings, etc. to erosion, corrosion and cracking

  8. Effects of different production technologies on mechanical and metallurgical properties of precious metal denture alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Paolo; Battaglia, Eleonora; Capuzzi, Stefano; Berto, Filippo

    2017-12-01

    Precious metal alloys can be supplied in traditional plate form or innovative drop form with high degree of purity. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the influence of precious metal alloy form on metallurgical and mechanical properties of the final dental products with particular reference to metal-ceramic bond strength and casting defects. A widely used alloy for denture was selected; its nominal composition was close to 55 wt% Pd - 34 wt% Ag - 6 wt% In - 3 wt% Sn. Specimens were produced starting from the alloy in both plate and drop forms. A specific test method was developed to obtain results that could be representative of the real conditions of use. In order to achieve further information about the adhesion behaviour and resistance, the fracture surfaces of the samples were observed using `Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)'. Moreover, material defects caused by the moulding process were studied. The form of the alloy before casting does not significantly influence the shear bond strength between the metal and the ceramic material (p-value=0,976); however, according to SEM images, products from drop form alloy show less solidification defects compared to products obtained with plate form alloy. This was attributed to the absence of polluting additives used in the production of drop form alloy. This study shows that the use of precious metal denture alloys supplied in drop form does not affect the metal-ceramic bond strength compared to alloys supplied in the traditional plate form. However, compared to the plate form, the drop form is found free of solidification defects, less expensive to produce and characterized by minor environmental impacts.

  9. Effects of alloying element and metallurgical structure on semiconducting characteristics of oxide film of zirconium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Masahisa; Kanno, Masayosi; Maki, Hideo.

    1991-01-01

    Semiconducting characteristics of oxide films formed on pure Zr, Zr-Sn binary alloy and Zr-Sn-X (X: Fe, Ni or Cr) ternary alloys were evaluated by photo-electrochemical method, in order to make clear the effects of alloying elements on oxidation mechanism of Zr alloy in BWR environment. Oxide films of the alloys showed the characteristics of n-type semiconductor. Maximum photocurrent (I max) was generated by an illumination of monochromatic light with the energy of 5 ∼ 6 eV, i.e. the band gap energy of the Zr alloy oxide was 5 ∼ 6 eV. This value is lower by 2 ∼ 3 eV than the theoretical band gap energy (8 eV) of stoichiometric ZrO 2 . These facts suggest that the generation of I max was resulted from an excitation of electrons trapped with anion vacancies (oxygen vacancies) of non-stoichiometric ZrO 2-x . Therefore, the value of I max is considered to be proportional to the density of anion vacancy. High corrosion resistant alloys showed lower value of I max. The changes of I max, due to change of chemical composition of alloys and due to the change of metallurgical structure, was able to be explained by the valence theory of oxide semiconductor, i.e. the decrease of 1 max was considered to be resulted from the decrease of anion vacancies due to the substitution of divalent cations (Ni 2+ ) and trivalent cations (Fe 3+ , Cr 3+ ) at Zr 4+ cation sites. From these results, it was concluded that oxidation rate of Zr alloy depended on the density of oxygen vacancies in oxide film. (author)

  10. Metallurgical characterization of brass objects from the Akko 1 shipwreck, Israel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashkenazi, D., E-mail: dana@eng.tau.ac.il [Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv 69978 (Israel); Cvikel, D. [Leon Recanati Institute for Maritime Studies, University of Haifa, 31905 (Israel); Stern, A. [Department of Materials Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel); Klein, S. [Institut für Geowissenschaften, Facheinheit Mineralogie, J. W. Goethe Universität, Altenhöferallee 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Kahanov, Y. [Leon Recanati Institute for Maritime Studies, University of Haifa, 31905 (Israel)

    2014-06-01

    The Akko 1 shipwreck was a small Egyptian armed vessel or auxiliary naval brig built in the eastern Mediterranean at the beginning of the 19th century. During the underwater excavations, about 230 brass hook-and-eye closures were found, mainly in the bow area. In addition, 158 brass cases were found, mainly between midships and the aft extremity of the shipwreck. Metallurgical non-destructive and destructive characterizations of selected items were performed, including radiographic testing, XRF, lead isotope analysis, optical microscopy, SEM–EDS and microhardness tests. The hook-and-eye closures and the cases were both found to be made of binary copper–zinc alloy (about 30 wt.% zinc). While the brass cases were made from rolled sheets, hand-made using simple tools, and joined by tin–lead soldering material, the brass hook-and-eye closures were hand-made from drawn brass wire, and manufactured from commercial drawn brass bars by a cold-working process. The lead isotope analyses suggest different provenances of the raw materials used for making the brass objects, thus the different origins of the ores may hint that the brass wire and sheet were imported to the workshops in which the objects were manufactured. - Highlights: • Brass cases and hook-and-eye closures were retrieved from the Akko 1 shipwreck. • Both types of objects were made of binary copper–zinc alloy (about 30 wt.% zinc). • The cases were hand-made from rolled sheets and joined by tin–lead soldering. • Hook-and-eye closures were made from drawn brass wire manufactured by cold-working. • Lead isotope analyses suggest that the origins of the raw material were diverse.

  11. Soil pollution indices conditioned by medieval metallurgical activity - A case study from Krakow (Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Joanna; Mazurek, Ryszard; Gąsiorek, Michał; Setlak, Marcin; Zaleski, Tomasz; Waroszewski, Jaroslaw

    2016-11-01

    The studied soil profile under the Main Market Square (MMS) in Krakow was characterised by the influence of medieval metallurgical activity. In the presented soil section lithological discontinuity (LD) was found, which manifests itself in the form of cultural layers (CLs). Moreover, in this paper LD detection methods based on soil texture are presented. For the first time, three different ways to identify the presence of LD in the urban soils are suggested. The presence of LD had an influence on the content and distribution of heavy metals within the soil profile. The content of heavy metals in the CLs under the MMS in Krakow was significantly higher than the content in natural horizons. In addition, there were distinct differences in the content of heavy metals within CLs. Profile variability and differences in the content of heavy metals and phosphorus within the CLs under the MMS were activity indicators of Krakow inhabitants in the past. This paper presents alternative methods for the assessment of the degree of heavy metal contamination in urban soils using selected pollution indices. On the basis of the studied total concentration of heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cu, Mn, Cr, Cd, Ni, Sn, Ag) and total phosphorus content, the Geoaccumulation Index (I geo ), Enrichment Factor (EF), Sum of Pollution Index (PI sum ), Single Pollution Index (PI), Nemerow Pollution Index (PI Nemerow ) and Potential Ecological Risk (RI) were calculated using different local and reference geochemical backgrounds. The use of various geochemical backgrounds is helpful to evaluate the assessment of soil pollution. The individual CLs differed from each other according to the degree of pollution. The different values of pollution indices within the studied soil profile showed that LDS should not be evaluated in terms of contamination as one, homogeneous soil profile but each separate CL should be treated individually. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Metallurgical characterization of brass objects from the Akko 1 shipwreck, Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashkenazi, D.; Cvikel, D.; Stern, A.; Klein, S.; Kahanov, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The Akko 1 shipwreck was a small Egyptian armed vessel or auxiliary naval brig built in the eastern Mediterranean at the beginning of the 19th century. During the underwater excavations, about 230 brass hook-and-eye closures were found, mainly in the bow area. In addition, 158 brass cases were found, mainly between midships and the aft extremity of the shipwreck. Metallurgical non-destructive and destructive characterizations of selected items were performed, including radiographic testing, XRF, lead isotope analysis, optical microscopy, SEM–EDS and microhardness tests. The hook-and-eye closures and the cases were both found to be made of binary copper–zinc alloy (about 30 wt.% zinc). While the brass cases were made from rolled sheets, hand-made using simple tools, and joined by tin–lead soldering material, the brass hook-and-eye closures were hand-made from drawn brass wire, and manufactured from commercial drawn brass bars by a cold-working process. The lead isotope analyses suggest different provenances of the raw materials used for making the brass objects, thus the different origins of the ores may hint that the brass wire and sheet were imported to the workshops in which the objects were manufactured. - Highlights: • Brass cases and hook-and-eye closures were retrieved from the Akko 1 shipwreck. • Both types of objects were made of binary copper–zinc alloy (about 30 wt.% zinc). • The cases were hand-made from rolled sheets and joined by tin–lead soldering. • Hook-and-eye closures were made from drawn brass wire manufactured by cold-working. • Lead isotope analyses suggest that the origins of the raw material were diverse

  13. Recycling of the rare earth oxides from spent rechargeable batteries using waste metallurgical slags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang K.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A high temperature process for recycling spent nickel-metal hydride rechargeable batteries has been recently developed at SINTEF/NTNU. The spent battery modules were first frozen with liquid nitrogen for the de-activation and brittle fracture treatment. The broken steel scraps and plastics were then separated by the mechanical classification and magnetic separation. The remaining positive and negative electrodes, together with the polymer separator, were heated to 600-800oC in order to remove the organic components and further separate the Ni-based negative electrode. XRF analyses indicate that the heat-treated materials consist mainly of nickel, rare earth and cobalt oxides. The valuable rare earth oxides were further recovered by the high-temperature slagging treatment. The waste metallurgical slags, consist mainly of SiO2 and CaO, were used as the rare earth oxide absorbent. After the high temperature slagging treatment, over 98% of nickel and cobalt oxides were reduced to the metal phase; meanwhile almost all rare earth oxides remain in the molten slags. Furthermore, EPMA and XRF analyses of the slag samples indicate that the rare earth oxides selectively precipitate in the forms of solid xSiO2•yCaO•zRe2O3. The matrix of slag phase is Re2O3 deficient, typically being less than 5 wt%. This provides a sound basis to further develop the high-temperature process of concentrating the Re2O3 oxides in slags.

  14. Synergistic Separation Behavior of Boron in Metallurgical Grade Silicon Using a Combined Slagging and Gas Blowing Refining Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jijun; Zhou, Yeqiang; Ma, Wenhui; Xu, Min; Yang, Bin

    2017-02-01

    A combined slagging and gas blowing refining technique for boron removal from metallurgical grade silicon using the CaO-SiO2-CaCl2 slag and the mixed Ar-O2-H2O gas is investigated. The oxygen gas blowing in combination with water vapor shows a wonderful removal efficiency of boron compared with the single oxygen or the single water vapor blowing. It is analyzed from the thermodynamics that a synergistic separation behavior of boron is resulted from CaCl2 and O2. Boron is removed and reduced from 22 to 0.75 ppmw with a removal efficiency of 96.6 pct.

  15. Evidence of trace element emission during the combustion of sulfide-bearing metallurgical slags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortnikova, Svetlana Borisovna; Olenchenko, Vladimir Vladimirovich; Gaskova, Olga Lukinichna; Chernii, Konstantin Ivanovich; Devyatova, Anna Yurevna; Kucher, Dmitrii Olegovich

    2017-01-01

    The present study shows the results of field and laboratory studies of trace element transfer from waste heaps of metallurgical slags (Kemerovo region, town of Belovo). Temperature anomalies were observed, with high temperatures up to 81.2 °C on the top of the heap. A visual geophysical model of the inner parts of the heap with contrasting resistivity zones was obtained using the electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) method, and quantitative characteristics were derived. Dry and frozen slag zones were characterized by resistivity of 50–500 Ohm·m. The resistivity of wet slag varied from 5 to 10 Ohm·m for slag with low humidity of 1–2 Ohm·m for slag saturated with highly mineralized solutions. The local anomaly of extremely low resistivity (0.3–0.5 Ohm·m) might be associated with a combustion centre or high pore solutions TDS. Basic major elements (Ca, Mg, K, Na, Si, and Al), metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd) and anionic elements (As, Sb, and V) were determined in gas condensates in situ. The most volatile elements were basic elements: Ca > Cu > Mg > Na > Mn > Fe, Zn. Lower concentration in the condensates was determined for Si > K > As > Sr > Al > V and Pb, Ba, La were also found. The observed mineral paragenetic sequences were primary minerals of barite-polymetallic ores and sphalerite concentrate, high-temperature minerals formed during pyrometallurgical processing and/or permanent combustion of the heap surface, efflorescence minerals formed by atmospheric oxidation accelerated by acid steam condensation. An experimental investigations using stepwise and 500 °C heating of the same samples were performed to compare the elements that were released into the gas phase in situ and off-site. - Highlights: • Sulfide tailings temperature anomalies up to 81.2 °C. • A visual geophysical model of the bowels of the heap with contrasting resistivity zones was obtained. • Base rock-forming elements, metals and anionogenic elements were

  16. Spatiotemporal dynamics of the pollution of Al-Fe-humus podzols in the impact zone of a nonferrous metallurgical plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyanguzova, I. V.; Goldvirt, D. K.; Fadeeva, I. K.

    2016-10-01

    The dependence of the level of contamination of the upper horizon of Al-Fe-humus podzols (Podzols Rustic) with heavy metals (Ni, Cu) on the distance from the Severonickel smelter (Monchegorsk, Murmansk oblast) was studied on a number of test plots in the medium-aged pine stands. It was found that metal concentrations in the soils could be reasonably approximated by the negative exponential function. In the buffer zone of the smelter, the concentrations of Ni and Cu exceed background values by 8-17 times; in the impact zone, by 50-100 times. The study of the dynamics of acid-soluble forms of Ni and Cu in the organic horizons of podzols on the key plots showed that the boundaries of polluted territory shift towards background regions despite the recent five-eightfold decrease in the emissions. The concentrations of heavy metals in the litter horizons continued to increase in the buffer zone. In the impact zone, their contamination remained at the very high level. Firm bounding of heavy metals in the organic horizon coupled with their continuing aerial input did not allow the beginning of the soil self-purification process, which might last for decades and centuries. Raster electron microscope and X-ray spectral microanalysis showed that particles (>85%) of the ashed matter of organic horizons from the background region, the buffer zone, and the impact zone is mainly represented by various soil-forming minerals and iron oxides (in particular, magnetite). In the samples from the impact zone, about 5% of the mineral particles had the surface morphology and chemical composition typical of dust particles emitted into the air by metal smelters. Most probably, these spherical particles represented magnetite Fe3O4 enriched in heavy metals (Cu, Ni).

  17. Application of magnetic methods for assessment of soil restoration in the vicinity of metallurgical copper-processing plant in Bulgaria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jordanova, N.; Petrovský, Eduard; Kapička, Aleš; Jordanova, D.; Petrov, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 189, č. 4 (2017), 158/1-158/14 ISSN 0167-6369 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG15036 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : environmental magnetism * copper mining * technosols * pedogenic magnetic minerals Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography OBOR OECD: Physical geography Impact factor: 1.687, year: 2016

  18. High Temperature Corrosion in Biomass Incineration Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Maahn, Ernst emanuel; Gotthjælp, K.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the project is to study the role of ash deposits in high temperature corrosion of superheater materials in biomass and refuse fire combined heat and power plants. The project has included the two main activities: a) A chemical characterisation of ash deposits collected from a major...... number of biomass and refuse fired combined heat and power plant boilers, b) Laboratory exposures and metallurgical examinations of material specimens with ash deposits in well-defined gas environments with HCl and SO2 in a furnace....

  19. Assessing market structures in resource markets. An empirical analysis of the market for metallurgical coal using various equilibrium models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenczik, Stefan; Panke, Timo [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Energy Economics

    2015-05-15

    The prevalent market structures found in many resource markets consist of a high concentration on the supply side and a low demand elasticity. Market results are therefore frequently assumed to be an outcome of strategic interaction between producers. Common models to investigate the market outcomes and underlying market structures are games representing competitive markets, strategic Cournot competition and Stackelberg structures taking into account a dominant player acting first followed by one or more followers. Besides analysing a previously neglected scenario of the latter kind, we add to the literature by expanding the application of mathematical models by applying an Equilibrium Problem with Equilibrium Constraints (EPEC), which is used to model multi-leader-follower games, to a spatial market. We apply our model by investigating the prevalent market setting in the international market for metallurgical coal between 2008 and 2010, whose market structure provides arguments for a wide variety of market structures. Using different statistical measures and comparing model with actual market outcomes, we find that two previously neglected settings perform best: First, a setting in which the four largest metallurgical coal exporting firms compete against each other as Stackelberg leaders, while the remainders act as Cournot followers. Second, a setting with BHPB acting as sole Stackelberg leader.

  20. Assessing market structures in resource markets. An empirical analysis of the market for metallurgical coal using various equilibrium models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenczik, Stefan; Panke, Timo

    2015-01-01

    The prevalent market structures found in many resource markets consist of a high concentration on the supply side and a low demand elasticity. Market results are therefore frequently assumed to be an outcome of strategic interaction between producers. Common models to investigate the market outcomes and underlying market structures are games representing competitive markets, strategic Cournot competition and Stackelberg structures taking into account a dominant player acting first followed by one or more followers. Besides analysing a previously neglected scenario of the latter kind, we add to the literature by expanding the application of mathematical models by applying an Equilibrium Problem with Equilibrium Constraints (EPEC), which is used to model multi-leader-follower games, to a spatial market. We apply our model by investigating the prevalent market setting in the international market for metallurgical coal between 2008 and 2010, whose market structure provides arguments for a wide variety of market structures. Using different statistical measures and comparing model with actual market outcomes, we find that two previously neglected settings perform best: First, a setting in which the four largest metallurgical coal exporting firms compete against each other as Stackelberg leaders, while the remainders act as Cournot followers. Second, a setting with BHPB acting as sole Stackelberg leader.

  1. Application of Six Sigma Using DMAIC Methodology in the Process of Product Quality Control in Metallurgical Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girmanová Lenka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Six Sigma DMAIC can be considered a guide for problem solving and product or process improvement. The majority of companies start to implement Six Sigma using the DMAIC methodology. The paper deals with application of Six Sigma using the DMAIC methodology in the process of product quality control. The case study is oriented on the field of metallurgical operations. The goal of the Six Sigma project was to ensure the required metallurgic product quality and to avoid an increase in internal costs associated with poor product quality. In this case study, a variety of tools and techniques like flow chart, histogram, Pareto diagram, analysis of FMEA (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis data, cause and effect diagram, logical analysis was used. The Sigma level has improved by approximately 13%. The achieved improvements have helped to reduce the quantity of defective products and the processing costs (technology for re-adjusting. Benefits resulting from the DMAIC implementation can be divided into three levels: the qualitative, economic and safety level.

  2. Effect of Laser Beam Alloying Strategies on the Metallurgical and Mechanical Properties of Hot Forming Tool Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Konstantin; Neubauer, Franziska; Holzer, Matthias; Mann, Vincent; Hugger, Florian; Roth, Stephan; Schmidt, Michael

    In terms of increasing lightweight designs of car body parts, the machining of high strength steels in hot stamping processes becomes of particular interest. Due to high process forces at hot stamping, the surface of such tools in the area of maximal stress is subject wear, which necessitate some local increase of microhardness to enhance the mechanical performance. Especially laser beam alloying using filler wire and beam oscillation is some suitable method to modify the mechanical properties of tool surfaces to emcompass some continuous martensitic structure, featuring a certain microhardness. Nevertheless the thermal energy input during laser beam alloying induces tempering in the heat affected zone and reduces the hardness. This paper discusses the influence of alloying strategies on the thermal energy input and the resulting metallurgical structure of modified tool surfaces. Also the cooling behavior of alloyed lines for different energy inputs per unit length is of interest. Therefore, the metallurgical microstructure is analyzed regarding microhardness as well as formation of carbides. Furthermore, a numerical thermal simulation is developed to investigate the temperature profile in the heat affected zone of the specimen. These investigations permit the control of the spatiotemporal energy input to avoid tempering of the microstructure.

  3. Corrosion resistance of Ni-Cr-Mo alloys. Chemical composition and metallurgical condition's effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zadorozne, N.S.; Rebak, Raul B.

    2009-01-01

    P, may form if Ni-Cr-Mo alloys are exposed for tens of hours in the range of 600 C degrees to 1100 C degrees. These phases could have a detrimental effect upon corrosion resistance and cause a loss of mechanical ductility. The precipitation of TCP phases starts at grain boundaries and for long aging times it progresses to twins boundaries and then the grain bodies. TCP phases are rich in Mo and Cr. Zones in the matrix adjacent to the TCP precipitates may be depleted of Cr and Mo, and the alloy becomes sensitized.The aim of the present work was to compare the general corrosion rate and the crevice corrosion susceptibility of alloys C-22, C-22HS and HYBRID-BC1 in different metallurgical conditions when exposed to hot chloride solutions. The effects of the alloy composition and different heat treatments were assessed. (author)

  4. Tube failures due to cooling process problem and foreign materials in power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, J. [Kapar Energy Ventures Sdn Bhd, Jalan Tok Muda, Kapar 42200 (Malaysia); Purbolaksono, J., E-mail: judha@uniten.edu.m [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Km 7 Jalan Kajang-Puchong, Kajang 43009, Selangor (Malaysia); Beng, L.C. [Kapar Energy Ventures Sdn Bhd, Jalan Tok Muda, Kapar 42200 (Malaysia)

    2010-07-15

    Cooling process which uses water for heat transfer is an essential factor in coal-fired and nuclear plants. Loss of cooling upset can force the plants to shut down. In particular, this paper reports visual inspections and metallurgical examinations on the failed SA210-A1 right-hand side (RHS) water wall tube of a coal-fired plant. The water wall tube showed the abnormal outer surface colour and has failed with wide-open ductile rupture and thin edges indicating typical signs of short-term overheating. Metallurgical examinations confirmed the failed tube experiencing higher temperature operation. Water flow starvation due to restriction inside the upstream tube is identified as the main root cause of failure. The findings are important to take failure mitigation actions in the future operation. Discussion on the typical problems related to the cooling process in nuclear power plants is also presented.

  5. Tube failures due to cooling process problem and foreign materials in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, J.; Purbolaksono, J.; Beng, L.C.

    2010-01-01

    Cooling process which uses water for heat transfer is an essential factor in coal-fired and nuclear plants. Loss of cooling upset can force the plants to shut down. In particular, this paper reports visual inspections and metallurgical examinations on the failed SA210-A1 right-hand side (RHS) water wall tube of a coal-fired plant. The water wall tube showed the abnormal outer surface colour and has failed with wide-open ductile rupture and thin edges indicating typical signs of short-term overheating. Metallurgical examinations confirmed the failed tube experiencing higher temperature operation. Water flow starvation due to restriction inside the upstream tube is identified as the main root cause of failure. The findings are important to take failure mitigation actions in the future operation. Discussion on the typical problems related to the cooling process in nuclear power plants is also presented.

  6. Effect of groove design on mechanical and metallurgical properties of quenched and tempered low alloy abrasion resistant steel welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Varun; Shahi, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of weld groove design on Q and T steel welded joints is investigated. • Groove design influences heat dissipation characteristics of welded joints. • Double-V groove joint possesses maximum yield strength and UTS. • C-groove joint possesses highest impact energy, both at room temperature and 0 °C. • A wide variation in microhardness exists across different zone of the weldments. - Abstract: Experimental investigations were carried out to study the influence of three different groove designs on mechanical and metallurgical properties of 15 mm thick Q and T (quenched and tempered) steel welded joints. Welding heat input variation corresponding to each joint configuration was kept to a minimal such that the objective of investigating, exclusively, the effect of varied weld volume on the mechanical and metallurgical performance of these joints could be accomplished. Mechanical performance of these joints was evaluated by subjecting them to transverse tensile testing, and Charpy V-notch impact testing of the weld zones at room temperature and 0 °C. The results of this study reveal that among all types of groove formations used for welding, double-V groove joint possessed maximum YS (yield strength) and UTS (ultimate tensile strength), besides maximum strength ratio (YS/UTS) that was followed by U-groove joint and C-groove joint, respectively. However, weld zone tested individually, for the cover as well as the root pass of the C-groove joint possessed highest CVN (Charpy V-notch) values, both at room temperature and 0 °C. Extensive microhardness studies of these weldments showed a wide variation in the microhardness values of the weld zone and the HAZ (heat affected zone). It was concluded that each groove formation/design exerted a significant influence on the heat dissipation characteristics of these joints, which is evident from different morphological features as revealed through optical microscopy. Scanning electron microscopic

  7. Effect of CH3COOH on Hydrometallurgical Purification of Metallurgical-Grade Silicon Using HCl-HF Leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chunjin; Lu, Haifei; Wei, Kuixian; Ma, Wenhui; Xie, Keqiang; Wu, Jijun; Lei, Yun; Yang, Bin; Morita, Kazuki

    2018-04-01

    The present study investigated the effects of adding CH3COOH to HCl and HF used to purify metallurgical-grade Si (MG-Si). After 6 h of leaching MG-Si with an acid mixture consisting of 4 mol L-1 HCl, 3 mol L-1 HF, and 3 mol L-1 CH3COOH at 348 K, the total impurity removal efficiency was 88.5%, exceeding the 81.5% removal efficiency obtained without addition of CH3COOH. The microstructural evolution of Si after etching with the two lixiviants indicated better dissolution of metal impurities in MG-Si when using the HCl-HF-CH3COOH mixture. Furthermore, the leaching kinetics of Fe using the HCl-HF and HCl-HF-CH3COOH mixtures were observed to depend on the interfacial chemical reactions.

  8. Recent advances and future perspectives of nanosized zero- valent iron for extraction of heavy elements from metallurgical sludges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailov, I. Yu; Levina, V. V.; Kolesnikov, E. A.; Chuprunov, K. O.; Gusev, A. A.; Godymchuk, A. Yu; Kuznetsov, D. V.

    2016-01-01

    Advanced oxidation processes with nanosized zero-valent iron have presented great potential in wastewater treatment technology and now experience both increasing popularity and reliable technical improvements. Besides wastewater treatment, there is another promising application for an emerging technology of iron nanoparticles - as Fenton-like catalyst for extraction of valuable elements from poor and secondary raw materials such as metallurgical sludges. In present research, we carried out a set of experiments with emphasis on the physicochemical mechanisms and their relationship to the performance. In particular, we examined complex acidic - hydrogen peroxide leaching of zinc from blast furnace sludge with nanosized zero-valent iron as Fenton-like catalyst. Results of the experiments showed promising potential for subsequent application in extraction of heavy and rare-earth elements.

  9. Recent advances and future perspectives of nanosized zero- valent iron for extraction of heavy elements from metallurgical sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailov, I Yu; Levina, V V; Kolesnikov, E A; Chuprunov, K O; Gusev, A A; Godymchuk, A Yu; Kuznetsov, D V

    2016-01-01

    Advanced oxidation processes with nanosized zero-valent iron have presented great potential in wastewater treatment technology and now experience both increasing popularity and reliable technical improvements. Besides wastewater treatment, there is another promising application for an emerging technology of iron nanoparticles - as Fenton-like catalyst for extraction of valuable elements from poor and secondary raw materials such as metallurgical sludges. In present research, we carried out a set of experiments with emphasis on the physicochemical mechanisms and their relationship to the performance. In particular, we examined complex acidic - hydrogen peroxide leaching of zinc from blast furnace sludge with nanosized zero-valent iron as Fenton-like catalyst. Results of the experiments showed promising potential for subsequent application in extraction of heavy and rare-earth elements. (paper)

  10. Roadmap report of the Metallurgical Industry and Foundries [in the Netherlands]; Rapportage Routekaart Metallurgische Industrie en Gieterijen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-15

    The roadmap describes the direction VNMI and AVNeG consider as feasible to realize substantial improvements with regard to energy efficiency in metallurgical production processes and in the usage of metal products. The aim of the report is to guide development efforts and describe technical and organizational options for businesses and industries in the metal sector [Dutch] De Routekaart beschrijft de richting die VNMI en AVNeG als haalbaar zien om naar 2030 toe substantiele energie-efficientieverbeteringen te realiseren in metallurgische productieprocessen en in de gebruiksfase van metaal producten. Het rapport is richtinggevend voor ontwikkelingsinspanningen en beschrijft technische en organisatorische mogelijkheden waar bedrijven individueel en in sectorverband zich voor zullen inzetten.

  11. Metallurgical investigation of cracking of the isolation valve downstream piping of regenerative heat exchanger at beaver valley unit 1 station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, G.V.

    1998-01-01

    A metallurgical investigation was conducted to establish the mechanism and cause of cracking in the regenerative heat exchanger piping at Beaver Valley Unit 1 PWR station in the USA. The investigation, which was centered on an eight inch long pipe section containing the cracking included surface examinations, metallographic and fractographic examinations, and chemistry evaluations. The results of the examinations showed that there were two types of pipe degradation mechanisms that affected the type 304 stainless schedule 40 piping. These consisted of localized corrosive attack on the OD surface due to the presence of chlorides, sulphates and phosphates, and transgranular stress corrosion cracking in the pipe wall due to the presence of chloride contaminants. The overall results of the investigation showed that the introduction of contaminants from external sources other than pipe insulation was the cause of heat exchanger pipe cracking. (author)

  12. Theoretical and experimental research on the use of expert systems (ES in assessing risks of failure in metallurgical companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Iancu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The systems’ engineering has reached an explosive development of intelligent systems technology which solves complex problems based on human expertise accumulated in the past and following the processes of learning and reasoning very similar to those of the biological brain. In this article, the concept of the proposed expert system is the result of interdisciplinary researches (computer science, management, accounting and business administration, etc., which are designed to provide a tool for top management work force of a listed metallurgical company. The inference machine will provide in the end score functions for Altman, Conan Holder model and rating which eventually can be combined into a single model that will forecast the company’s evolution in coming years.

  13. Metallurgical and Mechanical Characterization of High Temperature Titanium Alloys Joined by Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangwar, Kapil Dev

    In the world of joining, riveting and additive manufacturing, weight reduction, and omission of defects (at both macro and micro level) remain of paramount. Therefore, in the wake of ubiquitous fusion welding (FW) and widely accepted approach of riveting using Inconel bolts to resist corrosion at higher temperature, friction stir welding (FSW) has emerged as a novice jewel in friction based additive manufacturing industry. With advancements in automation of welding process and tool material, FSW of materials with higher work hardening such as steel and titanium has also become probable. Process and property relations associated with FSW are inevitable in case of dissimilar titanium alloys, due to presence of heterogeneity (whether atrocious or advantageous) in and around the weld nugget. These process property relationships are needed to be studied and addressed properly in order to optimize the processing window for improved mechanical and metallurgical properties. In this study FSWed similar and dissimilar butt joints of α+β, and near α titanium, alloys have been produced for varying processing conditions in order to study the effect of rotation speed (rpm) and traverse speed (TS; mm-min-1). The aim of this study is to assess the effect of tool geometry, tool rpm, TS on microstructure and mechanical properties of most widely used α+β titanium alloy, Ti-6Al-4V (Ti-64), standard grain and fine grain in addition to α+β,Ti-5Al-4V (T-54M), standard grain, and near α, Ti-6Al-2Mo-4Zr-2Sn (Ti-6242), standard grain (SG) and fine grain (FG). During FSW, a unique α+β fine-grained microstructure has been formed depending on whether or not the peak temperature in the weld nugget (WN) reached above or below β transus temperature. The resulting microstructure consists of acicular α+β, emanating from the prior β grain boundary as the weld cools off. The changes in the microstructure are observed by optical microscopy (OM). Later, a detailed analysis of material

  14. A novel application of resin in pulp in the metallurgical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, C.A.; Cromberge, G.

    1985-01-01

    The results are presented of several small-scale pilot-plant investigations that demonstrate the feasibility of a resin-in-pulp process for the combined extraction of gold and uranium. Both metals are leached into an aqueous solution as anionic complexes, and, under appropriate conditions, both metal anions can be stabilized in the same solution and extracted from that solution by anion-exchange resins. Three different lead materials containing gold and uranium were tested, and several configurations for leaching and the resin-in-pulp process were examined so that the efficiency of extraction of the process could be demonsrated. The results of the various pilot-plant investigations are discussed with particular emphasis on the deportment of gold and uranium during the leaching extraction, and elution steps

  15. THE MAIN DIRECTIONS OF THE ENERGY DEVELOPMENT AT BELORUSSIAN METALLURGICAL WORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Sotnikov

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The review of technical decisions on using of utilization heat in the systems of air conditioning, sewage water clearing, keeping of constant oxygen pressure in the plant set at provision from three independent sources is reflected in the article. The cumulative experience of the sewage water clearing at the facilities of back osmosis is noted, the qualitative figures of sewage membranes of different kinds are analyzed. The carrying out of technical decisions will allow to decrease considerably the deleterious effect on the environment.

  16. Projects development for mining-metallurgical units for production of uranium concentrates. An analysis an a methodology; Desarrollo de proyectos para unidades minero-metalurgicas para produccion de concentrados de uranio. Un analisis y una metodologia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajuria G, S.; Blanco P, B.; Manzanera Q, C.; Pena A, J. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1978-07-15

    An analysis and a methodology for the complete development of a mining- metallurgist project is presented, from the sampling and the evaluation of a deposit until the outburst of a metallurgical plant. The main objectives of this work are three: On one hand it is to establish a methodology for standardize the internal activities of the Sub management of Benefits. It is convenient standardize the experimental procedures, the evaluation approaches and the form of presentation of results so that they are directly comparable and that it is easy their interpretation and use. Given the nature so variable of the minerals this document cannot be but that a guide and it is indispensable that in all moment the personnel that develops these activities uses his knowledge, experience and professional approach to obtain the best results. On the other hand it is to establish a base to facilitate the coordination of the activities of the Sub management of Benefit with other work groups, inside of and outside of the INEN that should collaborate in the projects. Finally it is to present a vision of group of the whole project like reference base for the participant personnel. Many of the specialists that contribute to the project would not be metallurgists, but rather they practice other disciplines. It is therefore convenient to facilitate the one that are formed an image of the complete project. (Author)

  17. Environmental management and educational needs of the small and medium-sized businesses of the metallurgical sector in the south region of Madrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urena, A.; Rams, J.; Mendez, F. J.; Rodriguez, J.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the environmental management and needs of the small and medium-sized businesses of the metallurgical industry in the south region of Madrid were analysed. Information was obtained through a telephone questionnaire distributed to more than 170 companies. Although most of the respondent employees do not consider environmental training one of their priorities, they expressed their interest in implementing Environmental Management Systems, waste minimization and higher knowledge of the specific legal aspects. (Author) 7 refs

  18. Assessment of the effect of Nd:YAG laser pulse operating parameters on the metallurgical characteristics of different tool steels using DOE software

    OpenAIRE

    Muhič, T.; Kosec, L.; Liedl, G.; Pleterski, M.

    2011-01-01

    To ensure the reliability of repair welded tool surfaces, clad quality should be improved. The relationships between metallurgical characteristics of cladding and laser input welding parameters were studied using the design of experiments software. The influence of laser power, welding speed, focal point position and diameter of welding wire on the weld-bead geometry (i.e. penetration, cladding zone width and heat-affected-zone width), microstructural homogeneity, dilution and bond strength w...

  19. Environmental impact of the minero-metallurgic industry on the marine ecosystem in Moa, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Canals, M.; Pedro Garcia, L.

    1999-01-01

    One of the biggest nickel mineral deposits of the world is located in Moa; therefore two plants are installed for the extraction of this metal in the region, and another is in its construction phase. During the technological processes, residuals that contain great quantity of metallic elements, and high acidity level are discharged into the environment. The objectives of this research were to establish the levels of pollution of eleven metals, Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in the superficial bottom sediments, sea water and organisms of the marine aquatorium (green and white sea urchins, blue crabs, oysters and mangrove leaves). The dynamics of pollution in superficial sediments was also determined in the course of a 9-year study. As complementary analyses, pH and salinity were determined for the supradjacent water to the marine bottom, as well as the content of organic carbon, and granulometry of the sediment

  20. Use of metallurgical dust for removal chromium ions from aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pająk, Magdalena; Dzieniszewska, Agnieszka; Kyzioł-Komosińska, Joanna; Chrobok, Michał

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the potential for the application of dust from steel plant as an effective sorbent for removing Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in the form of simple and complex ions - Acid Blue 193 dye from aqueous solutions. Three isotherms models were used to interpret the experimental results namely: Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich. Estimated equations parameters allowed to determine the binding mechanism. Based on laboratory studies it was found that the dust was characterized by high sorption capacities for Cr ions and dye from the aqueous solution. The sorption capacity of the dust for Cr(III) and Cr(VI) ions depended on the degree of oxidation, pH of solution and kind of anion and changed in series: Cr(III)-Cl pH=5.0> Cr(III)-SO4 pH=5.0> Cr(III)-Cl pH=3.0> Cr(III)-SO4 pH=3.0> Cr(VI) pH=5.0> Cr(VI) pH=3.0. Dust was also characterized by a high maximum sorption capacity of dye at a range of 38.2 - 91.7 mg/g, depending on the dose of dust. Based on the study it was found that dust from a steel plant, containing iron oxides, can be used as low-cost and effective sorbent to remove pollutions containing chromium ions, especially from acidic wastewater.

  1. Use of metallurgical dust for removal chromium ions from aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pająk Magdalena

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the potential for the application of dust from steel plant as an effective sorbent for removing Cr(III and Cr(VI in the form of simple and complex ions – Acid Blue 193 dye from aqueous solutions. Three isotherms models were used to interpret the experimental results namely: Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin–Radushkevich. Estimated equations parameters allowed to determine the binding mechanism. Based on laboratory studies it was found that the dust was characterized by high sorption capacities for Cr ions and dye from the aqueous solution. The sorption capacity of the dust for Cr(III and Cr(VI ions depended on the degree of oxidation, pH of solution and kind of anion and changed in series: Cr(III-Cl pH=5.0> Cr(III-SO4 pH=5.0> Cr(III-Cl pH=3.0> Cr(III-SO4 pH=3.0> Cr(VI pH=5.0> Cr(VI pH=3.0. Dust was also characterized by a high maximum sorption capacity of dye at a range of 38.2 – 91.7 mg/g, depending on the dose of dust. Based on the study it was found that dust from a steel plant, containing iron oxides, can be used as low-cost and effective sorbent to remove pollutions containing chromium ions, especially from acidic wastewater.

  2. 3D Model Studies on the Effect of Bed and Powder Type Upon Radial Static Pressure and Powder Distribution in Metallurgical Shaft Furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panic B.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The flow of gases in metallurgical shaft furnaces has a decisive influence on the course and process efficiency. Radial changes in porosity of the bed cause uneven flow of gas along the radius of the reactor, which sometimes is deliberate and intentional. However, holdup of solid particles in descending packed beds of metallurgical shaft furnaces can lead to unintentional changes in porosity of the bed along the radial reactor. Unintentional changes in porosity often disrupt the flow of gas causing poor performance of the furnace. Such disruptions of flow may occur in the blast furnace due to high level of powder content in gas caused by large amount of coal dust/powder insufflated as fuel substitute. The paper describes the model test results of radial distribution of static pressure and powder hold up within metallurgical reactor. The measurements were carried out with the use of 3D physical model of two-phase flow gas-powder in the moving (descending packed bed. Sinter or blast furnace pellets were used as packed bed while carbon powder or iron powder were used as the powder. Wide diversity within both static pressure distribution and powder distribution along the radius of the reactor were observed once the change in the type of powder occurred.

  3. Morphology, chemistry and distribution of neoformed spherulites in agricultural land affected by metallurgical point-source pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leguédois, Sophie; Van Oort, Folkert; Jongmans, Toine; Chevallier, Pierre

    2004-07-01

    Metal distribution patterns in superficial soil horizons of agricultural land affected by metallurgical point-source pollution were studied using optical and electron microscopy, synchrotron radiation and spectroscopy analyses. The site is located in northern France, at the center of a former entry lane to a bunker of World War II, temporarily paved with coarse industrial waste fragments and removed at the end of the war. Thin sections made from undisturbed soil samples from A and B horizons were studied. Optical microscopy revealed the occurrence of yellow micrometer-sized (Ap horizon) and red decamicrometer-sized spherulites (AB, B(1)g horizons) as well as distinct distribution patterns. The chemical composition of the spherulites was dominated by Fe, Mn, Zn, Pb, Ca, and P. Comparison of calculated Zn stocks, both in the groundmass and in spherulites, showed a quasi-exclusive Zn accumulation in these neoformed features. Their formation was related to several factors: (i) liberation of metal elements due to weathering of waste products, (ii) Ca and P supply from fertilizing practices, (iii) co-precipitation of metal elements and Ca and P in a porous soil environment, after slow exudation of a supersaturated soil solution in more confined mineral media.

  4. Thallium isotopes in metallurgical wastes/contaminated soils: A novel tool to trace metal source and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaněk, Aleš; Grösslová, Zuzana; Mihaljevič, Martin; Ettler, Vojtěch; Trubač, Jakub; Chrastný, Vladislav; Penížek, Vít; Teper, Leslaw; Cabala, Jerzy; Voegelin, Andreas; Zádorová, Tereza; Oborná, Vendula; Drábek, Ondřej; Holubík, Ondřej; Houška, Jakub; Pavlů, Lenka; Ash, Christopher

    2018-02-05

    Thallium (Tl) concentration and isotope data have been recorded for contaminated soils and a set of industrial wastes that were produced within different stages of Zn ore mining and metallurgical processing of Zn-rich materials. Despite large differences in Tl levels of the waste materials (1-500mgkg -1 ), generally small changes in ε 205 Tl values have been observed. However, isotopically lighter Tl was recorded in fly ash (ε 205 Tl∼-4.1) than in slag (ε 205 Tl∼-3.3), implying partial isotope fractionation during material processing. Thallium isotope compositions in the studied soils reflected the Tl contamination (ε 205 Tl∼-3.8), despite the fact that the major pollution period ended more than 30 years ago. Therefore, we assume that former industrial Tl inputs into soils, if significant, can potentially be traced using the isotope tracing method. We also suggest that the isotope redistributions occurred in some soil (subsurface) horizons, with Tl being isotopically heavier than the pollution source, due to specific sorption and/or precipitation processes, which complicates the discrimination of primary Tl. Thallium isotope analysis proved to be a promising tool to aid our understanding of Tl behavior within the smelting process, as well as its post-depositional dynamics in the environmental systems (soils). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Metallurgical Bonding Development of V-4Cr-4Ti Alloy for the DIII-D Radiative Divertor Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.P.; Johnson, W.R.; Trester, P.W.

    1998-01-01

    General Atomics (GA), in conjunction with the Department of Energy's (DOE) DIII-D Program, is carrying out a plan to utilize a vanadium alloy in the DIII-D tokamak as part of the DIII-D Radiative Divertor (RD) upgrade. The V-4Cr-4Ti alloy has been selected in the U.S. as the leading candidate vanadium alloy for fusion applications. This alloy will be used for the divertor fabrication. Manufacturing development with the V-4Cr-4Ti alloy is a focus of the DIII-D RD Program. The RD structure, part of which will be fabricated from V-4Cr-4Ti alloy, will require many product forms and types of metal/metal bonded joints. Metallurgical bonding methods development on this vanadium alloy is therefore a key area of study by GA. Several solid state (non-fusion weld) and fusion weld joining methods are being investigated. To date, GA has been successful in producing ductile, high strength, vacuum leak tight joints by all of the methods under investigation. The solid state joining was accomplished in air, i.e., without the need for a vacuum or inert gas environment to prevent interstitial impurity contamination of the V-4Cr-4Ti alloy

  6. Left-wing, democracy, and trade union insurgency in Mexico: nuclear, mining, and metallurgical workers, 1972-1985

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Necoechea Gracia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the history of trade union insurgency in Mexico during the 1970s and the relationship established between the left and the labor class. To do this, experiences of the Mexican National Nuclear Energy Trade Union and those of sections 11 and 147 of the mining-metallurgical trade union are analyzed. In the first case, its relationship with the democratic movement of electrical workers and the current of revolutionary nationalism are observed and in the second its links with the political organization Línea Proletaria, which has a Maoist affiliation. Both currents proposed various strategies that revived the tension existing in the Mexican labor movement in the early century, between those who thought that trade unions should not ally to political parties and instead exert direct action at work and those who advocated for political alliances, which they called multiple action. Both movements converged in the trade union movement of that period, which demanded trade union democracy and demonstrated against the austerity policy imposed by the government, as well as for the defense of natural resources. On the other hand, labor activism was manifested in an environment of greater rebelliousness combined with other social groups, a situation that ascertains advances in the struggles of workers from the industry and services, and its impact on the political, social, and cultural life in the country.

  7. Metallurgical reactions in the coalescence zone between a reinforcement and a base metal in reinforced brazed joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorc, B.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A reinforcement wire added to a brazed joint strongly improves the properties of the joint, i.e., its strength, toughness and resistance to crack initiation and propagation. This effect, however, can be achieved only if the reinforcement wire is of a suitable shape, from an appropriate material as regards the base metal and the brazing alloy and it coalesces strongly and toughly with the base metal. The properties of such a joint depend on the reinforcement wire and not on the brazing alloy. The most favourable reinforcement shape was determined. Metallurgical reactions among the base metal, the brazing alloy, and the reinforcement were studied.

    La armadura, añadida a las uniones fuertemente soldadas, mejora considerablemente las características de la unión, es decir, su dureza, tenacidad y resistencia frente a la formación y propagación de la grieta separada. Se puede alcanzar dicho resultado solamente si el alambre de la armadura tiene la forma apropiada, está formado con el material adecuado (acorde al material de base y la unión y se funde de manera fuerte y tenaz con el material de base. Las propiedades de la unión mencionada, dependen del alambre de la armadura y no de la soldadura. Se determina la forma más ventajosa de la armadura y se investigan las reacciones metalúrgicas entre el material de base, la soldadura y la armadura.

  8. Resistance Upset Welding of ODS Steel Fuel Claddings—Evaluation of a Process Parameter Range Based on Metallurgical Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Corpace

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Resistance upset welding is successfully applied to Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS steel fuel cladding. Due to the strong correlation between the mechanical properties and the microstructure of the ODS steel, this study focuses on the consequences of the welding process on the metallurgical state of the PM2000 ODS steel. A range of process parameters is identified to achieve operative welding. Characterizations of the microstructure are correlated to measurements recorded during the welding process. The thinness of the clad is responsible for a thermal unbalance, leading to a higher temperature reached. Its deformation is important and may lead to a lack of joining between the faying surfaces located on the outer part of the join which can be avoided by increasing the dissipated energy or by limiting the clad stick-out. The deformation and the temperature reached trigger a recrystallization phenomenon in the welded area, usually combined with a modification of the yttrium dispersion, i.e., oxide dispersion, which can damage the long-life resistance of the fuel cladding. The process parameters are optimized to limit the deformation of the clad, preventing the compactness defect and the modification of the nanoscale oxide dispersion.

  9. Microstructure and tribology behaviors of in-situ WC/Fe carbide coating fabricated by plasma transferred arc metallurgic reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Youlu; Li, Zhuguo

    2017-11-01

    In order to improve the dry sliding tribology properties of mild steel compound, the in-situ WC carbide coatings with 18, 32, 54 vol% WC were successfully synthesized using plasma transferred arc metallurgic reaction (PTAMR) with alloy powders W, C and Fe-30Ni. The composition, microstructure and microhardness of the carbide coatings were characterized. It was found that the carbide coating consisted of WC, M6C and γ phases, carbides distribute gradually from the coating bottom to top, the in-situ WC crystal grows into triangle prism structure with high hardness and good toughness. Dry sliding tribology behaviors were studied on block-on-wheel dry sliding wear tester with load 300 N, sliding speed 0.836 m/s and distance 500 m. Results show that the friction coefficient diagrams contain three stages, variation of friction coefficient increase with the content of WC, friction temperature increase with the sliding distance, increasing the content of WC can directly increase the antiwear property of WC/Fe carbide coating. The main wear mechanisms of in-situ WC/Fe carbide coating are adhesive, oxidation, micro-cutting and ploughing wear.

  10. Effects of metallurgical factors on stress corrosion cracking of Ni-base alloys in high temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonezawa, T.; Sasaguri, N.; Onimura, K.

    1988-01-01

    Nickel-base Alloy 600 is the principal material used for the steam generator tubes of PWRs. Generally, this alloy has been proven to be satisfactory for this application, however when it is subjected to extremely high stress level in PWR primary water, it may suffer from stress corrosion cracking. The authors have systematically studied the effects of test temperature and such metallurgical factors as cold working, chemical composition and heat treatment on the stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 in high temperature water, and also on that of Alloy 690 which is a promising material for the tubes and may provide improved crrosion resistance for steam generators. The test materials, the stress corrosion cracking test and the test results are reported. When the test temperature was raise, the stress corrosion cracking of the nickel-base alloys was accelerated. The time of stress corrosion cracking occurrence decreased with increasing applied stress, and it occurred at the stress level higher than the 0.2 % offset proof stress of Alloy 600. In Alloy 690, stress corrosion cracking was not observed at such stress level. Cold worked Alloy 600 showed higher resistance to stress corrosion cracking than the annealed alloy. (Kako, I.)

  11. Influence of coal batch preparation on the quality of metallurgical соkе

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Катерина Олегівна Шмельцер

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To study the influence of coal batch properties on coke strength we have considered the quality of the coke produced at the plant in Krivoy Rog from 2008 till 2012. Such factors as the large number of coal suppliers, imprecise selection of the optimal degree of batch crushing result in the decline in coke quality, the batch density and contents of the lean class (<0,5 mm are not optimum; poor blending of the batch after crushing; increased moisture and ash content of the coking batch; and extreme fluctuation in the coal and batch characteristics. It was found that high humidity of coal batch and its large fluctuations has most profound effect on the mechanical properties of coke. Under deteriorating resource base the quality of the coking batch preparation is important, To have batch of proper quality the following key aspects must be taken into account: the batch must be crushed to an optimum degree that will result in leaning components decrease and increased contents of vitrivite in it which improves the sinterability and coking, and hence the quality of coke; the degree of mixing of the coking batch in all indices must be up to 98-99%, for uneven distribution in the coal chamber worsens the quality of coke

  12. Raw materials inventory management for a Coke plant / by Christoffel van Dijk

    OpenAIRE

    Van Dijk, Christoffel

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of inventory management and logistics for a metallurgical coke plant at Mittal Steel, Vanderbijlpark Works , Gauteng, South Africa. Inventory management and logistics is a concept, which has shown considerable development in the post-World War II era. The concept of applying inventory and logistics as a business function initially emerged during the price wars era and evolved during the quest for quality era. Thereafter, business inventory and logistics had a promotion/marketing focu...

  13. Improving of the water preparation systems in the industry thermal power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choshnova Daniela

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Some modern possibilities for modernization of the water preparation in the heat power plants of metallurgical enterprises are presented. It is focused on the ecological and technological advantages of the methods for obtaining of ultra-pure water. This work is not intended to justify the need of usage of particular technology in an object. This is a separate task requiring in-depth consideration.

  14. A metallurgical and mechanical study on dissimilar Friction Stir welding of aluminum 1050 to brass (CuZn30)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esmaeili, A.; Givi, M.K. Besharati; Rajani, H.R. Zareie

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Brass and aluminum 1050 are joined for the first time through Friction Stir welding. → Welding parameters are optimized to obtain a sound joint. → The ultimate tensile strength of the sound joint reaches 80% of aluminum base metal. → The effect of interfacial intermetallic compounds on mechanical properties is probed. → CuZn, Cu9Al4 and CuAl2 form the majority of observed intermetallic compounds. - Abstract: In this research, the effect of Friction Stir welding parameters on mechanical and metallurgical properties of aluminum 1050/brass (70%Cu-30%Zn) joints was investigated. Optical microscopy, SEM, X-ray diffraction analysis and EDS analysis were used to probe microstructures and chemical compositions. In order to examine mechanical properties, besides hardness test, tensile strength of the welds was measured. The main parameters in this study were the tool rotational speed, offset, welding speed, and depth of the sinking pin. The maximum ultimate tensile strength of the joint reached in this research was 80% of the base metal (aluminum). Results show that the optimum parameters will yield a defect free joint arisen from a suitable material flow and a narrow multilayer intermetallic compound at interface in addition to a composite structure in the stir zone which all result in a strong joint. Also, by leaving the optimized condition, occurrence of large brass fragments and weld defects lower weld strength besides shifting fracture path from interface to the stir zone. Also, according to the results, using low rotation speed is accompanied by disappearance of interfacial intermetallic layer, whereas fast rotation will thicken this layer. Moreover, severe mechanical twining is observed in TMAZ of brass which leads to high values of hardness in this region.

  15. Metallurgical and mechanical examinations of steel–copper joints arc welded using bronze and nickel-base superalloy filler materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velu, M.; Bhat, Sunil

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Optical and scanning electron microscopy show defect free weld interfaces. ► Energy dispersive spectroscopy shows low dilution level of the weld by Fe. ► XRD studies show no brittle intermetallic phases in the weld interfaces. ► Weld interfaces did not fail during tensile, transverse bending and impact tests. ► The joint exhibits superior strength properties than that of bronze filler. - Abstract: The paper presents metallurgical and mechanical examinations of joints between dissimilar metals viz. copper (UNSC11000) and alloy steel (En31) obtained by Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) using two different filler materials, bronze and nickel-base super alloy. The weld bead of the joint with bronze-filler displayed porosity, while that with nickel-filler did not. In tension tests, the weldments with bronze-filler fractured in the centre of the weld, while those with nickel-filler fractured in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of copper. Since the latter exhibited higher strength than the former, all the major tests were undertaken over the joints with nickel-filler alone. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) coupled with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) indicated corrugated weld interfaces and favorable elemental diffusions across them. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies around the weld interfaces did not reveal any detrimental intermetallic compounds. Transverse bending tests showed that flexural strengths of the weldments were higher than the tensile strengths. Transverse side bend tests confirmed good ductility of the joints. Shear strength of the weld-interface (Cu–Ni or Ni–steel) was higher than the yield strength of weaker metal. Microhardness and Charpy impact values were measured at all the important zones across the weldment

  16. Trial-by-fire transformation: an interview with Globe Metallurgical's Arden C. Sims. Interview by Bruce Rayner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, A C

    1992-01-01

    Globe Metallurgical Inc., a $115 million supplier of specialty metals, is best known as the first small company to win the Baldrige Award in 1988. But there is much more to this gutsy little company than total quality. During the 1980s, Globe transformed itself from a rust-belt has-been on the verge of bankruptcy into a high-technology, high-quality industry leader. Along the way, the company went private in a management-led leveraged buyout, embraced flexible work teams, adopted a high-value-added, niche marketing strategy, and took its business global. Leading the way in Globe's reinvention was Chief Executive Arden C. Sims, the slow-talking son of a West Virginian coal miner. When he joined the company in 1984, Sims had no experience in the new managerial techniques. He was a product of the old school of management: cut costs and trim operations to regain competitiveness. But he soon discovered that old-style management was not enough to battle offshore competitors, an unproductive work force, rising costs, and outdated production technology. He was forced to go looking for new ideas and practices. In a succession of learning experiences, Sims attended a seminar on total quality in 1985, paving the way for the company's quality program; he discovered the power of flexible work teams when management was forced to run the furnaces during a year-long strike; he organized an LBO, allowing him to change the work order even more dramatically; and he took the company global and into highly profitable niche markets by severing a long-standing relationship with Globe's sales and marketing representative. As a result of these and other changes, Globe leads the specialty metals industry in virtually all performance measures.

  17. Metallurgical, surface, and corrosion analysis of Ni-Cr dental casting alloys before and after porcelain firing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsin-Yi; Bowers, Bonnie; Wolan, John T; Cai, Zhuo; Bumgardner, Joel D

    2008-03-01

    A porcelain veneer is often fired on nickel-chromium casting alloys used in dental restorations for aesthetic purposes. The porcelain-fused-to-metal (PFM) process brings the temperature to over 950 degrees C and may change the alloy's corrosion properties. In this study, the metallurgical, surface, and corrosion properties of two Ni-Cr alloys were examined, before and after PFM firing. Two types of alloy were tested-a high Cr, Mo alloy without Be and a low Cr, Mo alloy with Be. Before the PFM firing, specimens from both alloys were examined for their microstructures, hardness, electrochemical corrosion properties, surface composition, and metal ion release. After the PFM firing, the same specimens were again examined for the same properties. Neither of the alloys showed any differences in their electrochemical corrosion properties after the PFM firing. However, both alloys exhibited new phases in their microstructure and significant changes in hardness after firing. In addition, there was a slight increase in CrO(x) on the surface of the Be-free alloy and increased Mo-Ni was observed on the surface of both alloys via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). This might be one of the reasons why both alloys had increased Ni and Mo ion release after firing. The PFM firing process changed the alloys' hardness, microstructure, and surface composition. No significant changes in the alloys' corrosion behavior were observed, however, the significant increase in metal ion release over a month may need to be further investigated for its clinical effects.

  18. M-Area and Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facilities Groundwate Monitoring and Corrective-Action Report, First and Second Quarters 1998, Volumes I, II, & III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1998-10-30

    This report describes the groundwater monitoring and corrective-action program at the M-Area Hazardous waste Management Facility (HWMF) and the Metallurgical Laboratory (Met Lab) HWMF at the Savannah river Site (SRS) during first and second quarters 1998. This program is required by South Carolina Hazardous Waste Permit SC1-890-008-989 and Section 264.100(g) of the South Carolina Hazardous Waste Management Regulations. Report requirements are described in the 1995 RCRA Renewal Permit, effective October 5, 1995, Section IIIB.H.11.b for the M-Area HWMF and Section IIIG.H.11.b for the Met Lab HWMF.

  19. Coal Mining and Post-Metallurgic Dumping Grounds and Their Connections with Exploitation of Raw Materials in the Region of Ruda Śląska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonczy, Iwona; Gawor, Łukasz

    2017-06-01

    Characteristics of mining and metallurgical waste dumps in Ruda Śląska was presented in this article. Special attention was paid to the relationship of waste material accumulated on the dumps with resources exploited on studied area. The possibilities of dumps management were also traced and two directions were indicated. The first one is associated with forming a biological covering on the dumps and the second one - with the dumps liquidation and with recovery areas now occupied by the dumps and thus with the secondary use of material collected on them.

  20. Metallurgical aspects of welding. Ferrous and nonferrous materials. 4. new rev. ed.; Die Metallurgie des Schweissens. Eisenwerkstoffe - nichteisenmetallische Werkstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, Guenter

    2010-07-01

    This is the fourth edition of the standard work on welding metallurgy. The various problems of ferrous and nonferrous materials in the welding process are presented in great detail. In order to prevent corrosion of welded constructions, metallurgical properties and problems of all important technical materials are discussed, i.e. alloyed and unalloyed steels, cast iron materials, and the most relevant nonferrous materials. At the end of each chapter, the interested reader will find exercises for self-studies. Some of these can be solved using the material presented in the book while others are intended for deepening and further training. Easy examples (with solutions) are found all over the book; they are helpful because they provide information on underlying mechanisms and interdependences that are not obvious at first glance. The information was adapted to new EURO standards and international standards (up to March 2009) as far as these are relevant to Germany. New information is provided, e.g., on new steel standards (constructional steels according to DIN EN 10025), heat-treatable steels according to DIN EN 10025-6 and DIN EN 10083, high-alloy steels according to DIN EN 10088, and filler materials for steel welding according to DIN EN ISO 2560. The systematics of the ''law of cohabitation'' was applied to welding engineering for the first time here. (orig.) [German] Das in vierter Auflage erscheinende Buch widmet sich der Schweissmetallurgie mit ihren Besonderheiten. Die vielfaeltigen Probleme der Eisenwerkstoffe und der nichteisenmetallischen Werkstoffe bei ihrer schweisstechnischen Verarbeitung werden ausfuehrlich dargestellt. Um Korrosionsschaeden an geschweissten Konstruktionen vorzubeugen, wird die Metallurgie aller technisch bedeutsamen Werkstoffe, wie unlegierte und legierte Staehle, Eisen-Gusswerkstoffe, die wichtigsten NE-Metalle, ausfuehrlich besprochen. An den Kapitelenden findet der interessierte Leser Aufgaben, von denen ein

  1. Early Iron Age gold buttons from South-Western Iberian Peninsula. Identification of a gold metallurgical workshop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monge Soares, António M.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Early Iron Age gold buttons from Castro dos Ratinhos, Fortios and Outeiro da Cabeça were analysed by conventional EDXRF, Micro-PIXE, SEM-EDS and Optical Microscopy. EDXRF results point out to a rather homogeneous alloy composition throughout all the analysed buttons. PIXE microanalyses show that all the button components (disk, tab and peripheral grooved decorated rod have the same alloy composition. PIXE and SEM-EDS microanalyses, supplemented with optical microscopy characterization, show the absence of chemical composition differences between distinct components and joining zones, suggesting that no solder had been applied, i.e. that a partial melting/solid state diffusion process had been used for the welding of button components. Finally, the noticeable similar compositions together with the use of the same welding process and the very similar artefact typologies suggest that those small gold treasures could be interpreted as the result of the work of a single metallurgical workshop, probably located somewhere in the South-Western Iberian Peninsula.

    Botones de oro pertenecientes a la primera Edad del Hierro, procedentes de Castro dos Ratinhos, Fortios e Outeiro da Cabeça (Portugal, fueron analizados por EDXRF y Micro-PIXE. Los resultados de los análisis por EDXRF mostraron una composición similar en todos los botones, independientemente de su procedencia. Por otra parte, los microanálisis por PIXE permitieron verificar que los componentes soldados de cada botón (disco, presilla y cordón exterior tienen la misma composición química. Además de eso, las áreas de soldadura fueron estudiadas mediante Micro-PIXE, SEM-EDS y posterior análisis metalográfico por microscopia óptica de reflexión. Estos análisis permitieron comprobar la ausencia de soldaduras en las zonas de unión de estos componentes, lo que nos permite concluir que debe haber tenido lugar un proceso de fusión parcial y de difusión en estado sólido para unir

  2. Research on Metallurgical Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminum alloys, *Titanium alloys, *Ceramic materials , *Dispersion hardening, *Vapor plating, * Refractory materials , Mechanical properties...Microstructure, Powder alloys, Oxides, Induction heating, Boron alloys, Yttrium oxides, Creep, Fracture(Mechanics), Toughness, Crucibles, Shock waves, Thermomechanics

  3. A two-step leaching method designed based on chemical fraction distribution of the heavy metals for selective leaching of Cd, Zn, Cu, and Pb from metallurgical sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fen; Yu, Junxia; Xiong, Wanli; Xu, Yuanlai; Chi, Ru-An

    2018-01-01

    For selective leaching and highly effective recovery of heavy metals from a metallurgical sludge, a two-step leaching method was designed based on the distribution analysis of the chemical fractions of the loaded heavy metal. Hydrochloric acid (HCl) was used as a leaching agent in the first step to leach the relatively labile heavy metals and then ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) was applied to leach the residual metals according to their different fractional distribution. Using the two-step leaching method, 82.89% of Cd, 55.73% of Zn, 10.85% of Cu, and 0.25% of Pb were leached in the first step by 0.7 M HCl at a contact time of 240 min, and the leaching efficiencies for Cd, Zn, Cu, and Pb were elevated up to 99.76, 91.41, 71.85, and 94.06%, by subsequent treatment with 0.2 M EDTA at 480 min, respectively. Furthermore, HCl leaching induced fractional redistribution, which might increase the mobility of the remaining metals and then facilitate the following metal removal by EDTA. The facilitation was further confirmed by the comparison to the one-step leaching method with single HCl or single EDTA, respectively. These results suggested that the designed two-step leaching method by HCl and EDTA could be used for selective leaching and effective recovery of heavy metals from the metallurgical sludge or heavy metal-contaminated solid media.

  4. Studies on the influence of metallurgical variables on the stress corrosion behavior of aisi 304 stainless steel in sodium chloride solution using the fracture mechanics approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatak, H. S.; Gnanamoorthy, J. B.; Rodriguez, P.

    1996-05-01

    Stress corrosion data on a nuclear grade AISI type 304 stainless steel in a boiling solution of 5M NaCl+ 0.15M Na2SO4+ 3 mL/L HC1 (bp 381 K) for various metallurgical conditions of the steel are presented in this article. The metallurgical conditions used are solution annealing, sensitization, 10 pct cold work, 20 pct cold work, solution annealing + sensitization, 10 pct cold work + sensi-tization, and 20 pct cold work + sensitization. The fracture mechanics approach has been used to obtain quantitative data on the stress corrosion crack growth rates. The stress intensity factor, K 1, and J integral, J 1, have been used as evaluation parameters. The crack growth rates have been measured using compact tension type samples under both increasing and decreasing stress intensity factors. A crack growth rate of 5 X 10-11 m/s was chosen for the determination of threshold para-meters. Results of the optical microscopic and fractographic examinations are presented. Acoustic signals were recorded during crack growth. Data generated from acoustic emissions, activation energy measurements, and fractographic features indicate hydrogen embrittlement as the possible mechanism of cracking.

  5. Revisiting (Some of) the Lasting Impacts of the Liberty Ships via a Metallurgical Analysis of Rivets from the SS "John W. Brown"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, M. D.; Grogg, W. J.; Akoma, A.; Hayes, B. J.; Reidy, R. F.; Imhoff, E. F.; Collins, P. C.

    2015-12-01

    During World War II, 2710 Liberty ships were built in the United States across 18 ship yards. The rate of production of these ships was at a scale not previously witnessed, reflecting a strategic marshaling of national assets critical to the war effort. For the metallurgist, metallurgical engineer, or materials scientist, these ships also struck commanding images regarding their catastrophic failures. The study of these failures led to increased understanding of brittle fracture, fracture mechanics, and ductile-to-brittle transition temperatures. The post-mortem studies of Liberty ships highlighted the importance of composition and microstructure in controlling the properties of steel in fracture-critical applications. This study examines a rivet from the SS "John W. Brown", which was assembled in Baltimore, Maryland, and launched in September 1942, The "John W. Brown" was restored between 1988 and 1991. Classical metallurgical analysis of a rivet from the original 1942 vessel is compared with modern rivets used during its restoration. The rivets provide an analogue to the plate material used in these ships. A comparison of these materials is presented along with a discussion of the importance of composition-microstructure-property relationships that concomitantly evolved.

  6. Ecological Catastrophes in the steppe? Landscape Archaeology at the mining and metallurgical complex of Kargaly (Region of Orenbourg, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicent García, Juan M.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Kargaly is one of the most important centers of mining and metallurgy in the great Eurasian steppe. Dr. E.N. Chernykh and his team (Institute of Archaeology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow and various researchers at the CSIC and other Spanish institutions have developed a joint project to undertake a comprehensive study of the site's two main phases of occupation, the Bronze Age (2nd millenium BC and the first Russian industrialization (1745-1900 AD. The Russian members of the joint team are in charge of the archaeological investigations, while the Spanish members are studying metallurgical and mining technology and production, on the one hand, and the environmental context and impact of these activities, on the other. This article presents the research design and first results of the Palaeoenvironmental research at Kargaly. This work has two aspects. The first consisted of obtaining one of the most complete palaeoenvironmental data sets from the steppes through both the systematic sampling of archaeological sites to recover charcoal, seeds, fruits and pollen and the taking of palynological cores from natural deposits, on the other Both sampling programs were supported by radiocarbon dates. The second aspect, to which the greater part of this article is devoted, was dedicated to contextualizing the palaeobotanical evidence by studying the present-day landscape, with particular attention to understanding the processes which shape the variability of the pollen rain. Our purpose was to obtain explicit and measurable calibrative criteria which would enable us to answer the palaeoenvironmental questions raised by our archaeological and archaeometallurgical research. These questions include, most importantly, the following: what was the extent of forest (the energy base for the mining/metallurgical complex during the Bronze Age? and how do we evaluate subsistence practices? (an issue related to the origins of agriculture on the

  7. Reconstructing the ecological impacts of eight decades of mining, metallurgical, and municipal activities on a small boreal lake in northern Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doig, Lorne E; Schiffer, Stephanie T; Liber, Karsten

    2015-07-01

    As a result of long-term metal mining and metallurgical activities, the sediment of Ross Lake (Flin Flon, MB, Canada) is highly contaminated with metals and other elements. Although the effluents likely were discharged into Ross Lake as early as the late 1920s, lake biophysical data were not collected until 1973, more than 4 decades after the onset of mining and municipal activities. The early influence of these activities on the ecology of Ross Lake is unknown, as are the effects of improvements to metallurgical effluent quality and discontinuation of municipal wastewater discharge into the lake's north basin. To address this knowledge gap, analyses typical of paleolimnological investigations were applied to cores of sediment collected in 2009 from the south basin of Ross Lake. Stratigraphic analyses of physicochemical sediment characteristics (e.g., the concentrations of metals and other elements, organic C, total N, and δ(13)C and δ(15)N values) and subfossil remains (diatoms, Chironomidae, Chaoborus, and Cladocera) were used to infer historical biological and chemical changes in Ross Lake. With the onset of mining activities, concentrations of various elements (e.g., As, Cr, Cu, Zn, and Se) increased dramatically in the sediment profile, eventually declining with improved tailings management. Nevertheless, concentrations of metals in recent sediments remain elevated compared with pre-industrial sediments. Constrained cluster analyses demonstrated distinct pre-industrial and postindustrial communities for both the diatoms and chironomids. The biodiversity of the postindustrial diatom assemblages were much reduced compared with the pre-industrial assemblages. The postindustrial chironomid assemblage was dominated by Chironomus and to a lesser extent by Procladius, suggesting that Ross Lake became a degraded environment. Abundances of Cladocera and Chaoborus were severely reduced in the postindustrial era, likely because of metals toxicity. Overall, improvements

  8. 1Q/2Q00 M-Area and Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facilities Groundwater Monitoring and Corrective-Action Report - First and Second Quarters 2000 - Volumes I, II, and II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    2000-10-24

    This report describes the groundwater monitoring and corrective-action program at the M-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) and the Metallurgical Laboratory (Met Lab) HWMF at the Savannah River site (SRS) during first and second quarters of 2000.

  9. The significance of mineralogical analysis of Witwatersrand plant products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koen, G.M.; Snegg, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    The ore processor must obtain knowledge of the mode of occurrence of the mineral or minerals he tries to recover in order to be able to improve the extraction process or to increase the grade of the residues. The mineralogist can supply this information, thereby 1) enabling the metallurgist to take steps to improve the efficiency of the plant, 2) enabling planning of a more efficient future plant for processing similar ores, or 3) assisting in the planning of metallurgical testwork. Examples of such investigations are 1) treatment of free gold in the recovery plant, 2) deportment of gold in residues, 3) recovery of gold from thucholite, and 4) quantitative determination of the deportment of uranium (or gold) in head and in residue samples

  10. Microstructure of Precipitation Hardenable Powder Metallurgical Ni Alloys Containing 35 to 45 pct Cr and 3.5 to 6 pct Nb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bihlet, Uffe Ditlev; Dahl, Kristian Vinter; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2014-01-01

    Ni-based alloys with high Cr contents are not only known for their excellent high temperature and hot corrosion resistance, but are also known for poor mechanical properties and difficult workability. Powder metallurgical (PM) manufacturing of alloys may overcome several of the shortcomings...... encountered in materials manufacturing involving solidification. In the present work, six PM Ni-based alloys containing 35 to 45 wt pct Cr and 3.5 to 6 wt pct Nb were produced and compacted via hot isostatic pressing. Samples were heat treated for up to 1656 hours at either 923 K or 973 K (650 °C or 700 °C......), and the microstructures and mechanical properties were quantified and compared to thermodynamic calculations. For the majority of the investigated alloys, the high Cr and Nb contents caused development of primary populations of globular α-Cr and δ (Ni3Nb). Transmission electron microscopy of selected alloys confirmed...

  11. Development of advanced high strength tantalum base alloys. Phase 3: Influence of metallurgical condition on the mechanical properties of ASTAR-811C sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammon, R. L.; Buckman, R. W., Jr.; Harrod, D. L.

    1972-01-01

    Metallurgical condition was shown to have a significant effect on the creep properties of ASTAR-811C (Ta-8W-1Re-0.7Hf-0.025C) sheet. Cold worked material exhibited creep rates 30 times higher than solution annealed material and 10 times greater than for recrystallized material. Both grain size and the carbide morphology changes as the final annealing temperature was raised from 3000 F to 3600 F. However, the lowest creep rates were achieved for material which retained the high temperature form of the Ta2C precipitate. Samples with GTA weldments had essentially identical properties as recrystallized base metal. Cooling rates from 3600 F of 5, 50, and 800 F deg/min. had little effect on the 2000 and 2400 F creep behavior of ASTAR-811C.

  12. Metallurgical and mechanical properties of Inconel 600 and stellite; Estudio del comportamiento mecanico-metalurgico de alceacion inconel 600 y estelita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cstillo, Martin; Villa, Gabriel; Vite, Manuel [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Palacios, Francisco [Instituto Nacional de Investigacion Nuclear (ININ), Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Hernandez, Luis H; Urriolagoita, Guillermo [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-01-15

    The present work studies the metallurgical and mechanical properties of two alloys, Inconel 600 and stellite, which are within the group of high hardness alloys or superalloys, which are deposited through the electrical weld process to the metallic arc with coated electrode (SMAW) and thereinafter analyzed through electron microscopy, diffractometry and abrasion, Impact and hardness test. The relationship between the microstructure and the final properties of the coating (hardness and abrasion wear resistance) was observed. [Spanish] Este trabajo presenta el estudio sobre las propiedades metalurgicas y mecanicas de dos aleaciones, inconel 600 y estelita, clasificadas dentro del grupo de aleaciones de alta dureza o superaleaciones; las cuales fueron depositadas mediante el proceso de soldadura electrica al arco metalico con electrodo revestido (SMAW) y fueron analizadas mediante microscopia electronica (SEM), difractometria pruebas de abrasion, impacto y dureza. Se observo la relacion entre la microstructura y las propiedades del recubrimiento, como son: dureza, resistencia a la abrasion, resistencia al impacto, ente otras.

  13. Wet precipitators for sulphuric acid plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojanpera, R.O.

    1989-01-01

    Both the service requirements and design construction details have changed considerably in recent years for wet electrostatic precipitators as used for gas cleaning ahead of metallurgical sulphuric acid plants. Increased concern over acid quality has resulted in more emphasis on dust efficiencies compared to collection of acid mist. Also, higher static operating pressures have caused large structural loads on casing and internal components. In this paper these two issues are addressed in the following ways: Recognition that all dusts do not collect similarly. The mechanism by which various dusts collect affect the design of the entire wet gas cleaning system. Use of both traditional and newer materials of construction to accommodate the higher design pressures while still maintaining corrosion resistance

  14. System of accounting and control of nuclear materials (MCA) relative to IAEA safeguards and improvement of radioecological situation of the Joint Stock Company ULBA Metallurgical Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, B.; Khadeev, V.; Antonov, N.; Gradelnikov, K.

    1996-01-01

    Following goals must be accomplished following this Project : - Develop computerized and automated MCA data system; - Provide up-to-date and reliable accounting and control of availability and transfer of nuclear materials, detect loss or theft of nuclear materials; - Improve book keeping of nuclear materials, provide paperwork for raw materials and finished products sales and purchase control, process nuclear materials shipment data; - Reduce sampling error and to obtain precise measure of nuclear materials to obtain ESADRA target values; - Thorium concentrates transfer preliminary released from raw Beryllium to the new storage to prevent environment radiation pollution and obvious fire accidents; - Improve radioecological situation of the territory caused by old storage dismantling and decontamination of site; - Improve accounting, storing and Physical Protection of Thorium Following is the proposal to obtain goals of the Project : - Develop accounting and control systems - Develop basic standards and procedures for MCA system - Develop users specifications of MCA data system - Develop software of MCA data system - Assembly and adjustment of local network at the production facilities - Automated MCA data system personnel training - Develop measurement system - Determination of the mistakes in sampling and measurement of Uranium and isotopes content - Develop the procedures of sampling and measurement of Uranium and isotopes content providing ESADRA target values - Develop measure control program covering scales and analytical equipment and measuring methods - Develop software for measure control program support - Thorium shipment, decontamination and improvement of Physical Protection of Thorium storage - Accounting of Thorium containing materials when transferring to the new storage - Arrange storage decontamination - Develop new systems of Thorium Containment/Surveillance and Physical Protection

  15. Biological monitoring of exposure to low concentrations of benzene in workers at a metallurgical coke production plant: new insights into S-phenylmercapturic acid and urinary benzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovreglio, Piero; De Palma, Giuseppe; Barbieri, Anna; Andreoli, Roberta; Drago, Ignazio; Greco, Luciano; Gallo, Elisabetta; Diomede, Laura; Scaramuzzo, Pietro; Ricossa, Maria Cristina; Fostinelli, Jacopo; Apostoli, Pietro; Soleo, Leonardo

    2018-02-01

    Urinary S-phenylmercapturic acid (SPMA) and benzene (U-Ben) are usually measured at the end of the work shift (ES), although their kinetic of elimination is not clearly known. To investigate SPMA and U-Ben elimination 16 h after the ES, in 93 coke production workers exposed to low benzene concentrations. Airborne benzene (A-Ben) was measured by passive samplings, while SPMA, U-Ben, methyl-tert-butyl ether (U-MTBE), cotinine (U-Cot) and creatinine were determined on urine samples collected at ES and before the beginning of the next work shift (next BS). Median A-Ben concentrations were 17.2 µg/m 3 in the personal and 34.7 µg/m 3 in the stationary samplings. SPMA was always detectable, whereas U-Ben was below the limit of quantification in 26.7% of the ES and 35.6% of the next BS samples, and U-MTBE in more than the 80.0% of the samples. At both the sampling times, SPMA and U-Ben showed a positive dependence on personal A-Ben, as well as on creatinine and U-Cot values. SPMA and U-Ben at the next BS were dependent on the exposure to low benzene concentrations suffered in the previous work shift, prompting a reconsideration of the urine sampling time recommended by the American Conference Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH).

  16. Structuration of the overall volume of transport operations at handling of the inbound waggon traffic of metallurgical enterprise with one railway siding connecting to the external network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ганна Вікторовна Маслак

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the operation analysis of a metallurgical enterprise transport system with one railway siding connected to the external network. Three functional modules were determined: transport complex for incoming wagon traffic processing, transport-and-handling complex for raw materials unloading, transport-and-handling complex for finished products shipment. For each of the complexes basic functions were determined: the first module distributes empty and loaded waggons between the freight railway stations within the enterprise; the second module provides timely supply of production shops with required volumes of raw materials; the third module enables timely supply of production shops with railway rolling stock for finished products shipment. Structuration of overall volume of transport operations has been conducted for each of the complexes within the transport system of the metallurgical enterprise, basic technological operations have been determined, and causes for time waste have been found out. Overall volume of transport operations per day has been determined, it comprising planned transport operations and extra transport operations as well. As a result of the research it has been determined, that maximum volume of extra transport operations occur at the transport complex for incoming wagon traffic processing. Its operation is based on time norms which not always fit the dynamics of external network operation, as well as production shops operation. Furthermore, this module is a connecting link making the dynamics of external waggon traffic, the internal dynamics of the enterprise, and the dynamics of production shops compatible. As a consequence, considerable extra time waste occurs when waggon traffic goes through this module

  17. Effect of friction time on mechanical and metallurgical properties of continuous drive friction welded Ti6Al4V/SUS321 joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Peng; Li, Jinglong; Salman, Muhammad; Liang, Li; Xiong, Jiangtao; Zhang, Fusheng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The effect of friction time on the microstructure and joint strength was studied. • The fit of burn-off lengths at different times yields a simple equation. • The longer friction time leads to oversized flash in Ti6Al4V side and overgrown IMCs. • An IMZ with width less than 3 μm is beneficial to make a strong metallurgical bond. • The average strength of 560 MPa is obtained and higher than ever reported results. - Abstract: Dissimilar joint of Ti6Al4V titanium alloy and SUS321 stainless steel was fabricated by continuous drive friction welding. The effect of friction time on the mechanical properties was evaluated by hardness measurement and tensile test, while the interfacial microstructure and fracture morphologies were analyzed by scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive spectroscope and X-ray Diffraction. The results show that the tensile strength increases with friction time under the experimental conditions. And the maximum average strength 560 MPa, which is 90.3% of the SUS321 base metal, is achieved at a friction time of 4 s. For all samples, studied fracture occurred along the joint interface, where intermetallic compounds like FeTi, Fe 2 Ti, Ni 3 (Al, Ti) and Fe 3 Ti 3 O and many other phases were formed among elements from the two base metals. The width of intermetallic compounds zone increases with friction time up to 3 μm, below which it is beneficial to make a strong metallurgical bond. However, the longer friction time leads to oversized flash on the Ti6Al4V side and overgrown intermetallic compounds. Finally the optimized friction time was discussed to be in the range of 2–4 s, under which the sound joint with good reproducibility can be expected

  18. Ex situ characterization of metallurgical inclusions in X100 pipeline steel before and after immersion in a neutral pH bicarbonate solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yingbo; Liu, Jie [Key Laboratory of Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Deng, Yida [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Han, Xiaopeng [Key Laboratory of Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Hu, Wenbin [Key Laboratory of Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhong, Cheng, E-mail: cheng.zhong@tju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2016-07-15

    The initiation of corrosion pits in pipeline steels plays an important role in the development of stress corrosion cracking. In order to reveal the effect of inclusions on corrosion initiation sites and also to clarify contradictory results from previous literature, we proposed an ex situ characterization method that is allowed to characterize exactly the same inclusion or location of the surface of steel before and after corrosion tests. The time-dependent corrosion behaviour of the inclusions and the surrounding X100 steel matrix at the same area before and after early stage immersion in a near-neutral pH bicarbonate solution was investigated by ex situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and localized electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (LEIS). The sizes of most inclusions in X100 steel are below 3 μm. The results challenge the long-held opinion of previous work that corrosion pit initiations are related with the inclusions. It has been found that most of the inclusions remain stable (intact) during the whole testing time although severe corrosion occurs on the matrix of the steel. The chemical composition of the inclusion greatly affects the chemical stability of the inclusion. SiO{sub 2} inclusions and complex inclusions with a high SiO{sub 2} content remain intact although obvious general corrosion occurs on the steel matrix under the investigated immersion period. Inclusions with little Si, such as Al–Mg–Ca–O enriched inclusions, totally disappear after certain immersion time. During the immersion, the corrosion product tends to deposit at the interstice between the inclusion and steel matrix. - Highlights: • Ex situ characterization of metallurgical inclusions in X100 pipeline steel. • The pipeline steel was immersed in neutral pH bicarbonate solution. • Majority of inclusions remain stable during the whole testing time. • The chemical stability of metallurgical inclusions depends on the SiO{sub 2

  19. Ex situ characterization of metallurgical inclusions in X100 pipeline steel before and after immersion in a neutral pH bicarbonate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yingbo; Liu, Jie; Deng, Yida; Han, Xiaopeng; Hu, Wenbin; Zhong, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    The initiation of corrosion pits in pipeline steels plays an important role in the development of stress corrosion cracking. In order to reveal the effect of inclusions on corrosion initiation sites and also to clarify contradictory results from previous literature, we proposed an ex situ characterization method that is allowed to characterize exactly the same inclusion or location of the surface of steel before and after corrosion tests. The time-dependent corrosion behaviour of the inclusions and the surrounding X100 steel matrix at the same area before and after early stage immersion in a near-neutral pH bicarbonate solution was investigated by ex situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and localized electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (LEIS). The sizes of most inclusions in X100 steel are below 3 μm. The results challenge the long-held opinion of previous work that corrosion pit initiations are related with the inclusions. It has been found that most of the inclusions remain stable (intact) during the whole testing time although severe corrosion occurs on the matrix of the steel. The chemical composition of the inclusion greatly affects the chemical stability of the inclusion. SiO 2 inclusions and complex inclusions with a high SiO 2 content remain intact although obvious general corrosion occurs on the steel matrix under the investigated immersion period. Inclusions with little Si, such as Al–Mg–Ca–O enriched inclusions, totally disappear after certain immersion time. During the immersion, the corrosion product tends to deposit at the interstice between the inclusion and steel matrix. - Highlights: • Ex situ characterization of metallurgical inclusions in X100 pipeline steel. • The pipeline steel was immersed in neutral pH bicarbonate solution. • Majority of inclusions remain stable during the whole testing time. • The chemical stability of metallurgical inclusions depends on the SiO 2 content.

  20. Some metallurgical aspects of ancient silver coins discovered in romania (original and imitations) - provenance, destination and commercial networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinescu, Bogdan; Cojocaru, Viorel; Bugoi, Roxana

    2007-01-01

    migrated to the South and Southeast Dacia. - The preference for adding tin (and maybe also lead) in Ag/Cu alloys is due probably to the fact that tin fades the red color of copper, resulting a silvery nuance. In addition the melting point of alloy is lowered which was important for an unsophisticated metallurgy. Although tin does almost not exist in the earth of old Romania territory, bronze objects (huge medals, statues, coins, etc.) were common enough and easy to be found. - Lead concentration also increased in time bringing out to a quaternary alloy (Ag+Cu+Sn+Pb), such as in Varteju-Carlomanesti and/or Radulesti-Hunedoara issues. Such an alloy also generalized in the Roman coinage, but much latter (c. AD 250). 23 - Although hundreds of Geto-Dacian coins were investigated by atomic and nuclear techniques, no entirely bronze or copper coin was found except a few proved modern fakes. In the same time official fake coins made of bronze was a practice in extra Dacian territory. This can be understood by the metallurgical methods used by Geto-Dacians. If the coin alloy had no Au or Ag, the melting into a clay cylinder would wet the clay preventing the formation of a globule necessary for the coin blank. Even for an alloy with a smaller concentration of noble metals, the adding of some charcoal and clay dust will produce a carbon monoxide atmosphere around of metal that prevents the oxides formation and will help the globule appearance. As concerning the Apollonia - Dyrrhachium drachms, five main categories were found: - original coins (similar to drachms emitted before the Civil War) with 97-99% silver, low (1-2%) copper content, - debased coins with silver content down to 70% and copper content from 5 to 25%, probably emitted due to inflation problem, normal phenomenon for an economy in war, - official (original dies) counterfeits from bronze (70% copper and 30% tin) covered by a very thin layer of argentarium (tin-lead alloy imitating the silver), - official counterfeits

  1. Influence of hydrogen simulating burn-up effects on the metallurgical and thermal-mechanical behaviour of M5TM and zircaloy-4 alloys under LOCA conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mardon, J.P.; Brachet, J.C.; Portier, L.; Maillot, V.; Forgeron, T.; Lesbros, A.; Waeckel, N.

    2005-01-01

    A few years ago, within the framework of the CEA/ EDF /Framatome ANP R and D cooperative program, we made the assumption that the burn-up influence on the thermal-mechanical behavior of the cladding tubes under LOCA conditions is strongly linked to the hydrogen uptake due to the in-service oxidation. Thus, since that time, an extensive experimental program has been conducted in CEA labs on as-received and pre-hydrided Zircaloy-4 and M5 TM alloys of Framatome-ANP to get a better insight into the influence of the hydrogen on the thermal-mechanical cladding behavior during the first phase of the LOCA transient (ballooning and rupture) and for post-quenched conditions (residual ductility / toughness). On the one hand, one of the main assumptions here was that the microstructural defects, and the resultant hardening produced under heavy neutron irradiation within the Zr matrix, are annealed early in the first phase of the LOCA transient (i.e. first thermal ramp) and thus, that the main effects of high burn-up should come from the hydrogen uptake. To assess this hypothesis, specific thermal-mechanical tests have been performed on as-received, pre-hydrided and irradiated cladding tubes. This confirmed that the effect of hydrogen uptake dominates over that of irradiation on the thermal-mechanical response of the materials. So, in a first part of the paper, we will summarize the main results obtained here and, from the metallurgical point of view, we will illustrate the strong influence of hydrogen on the decrease of the α-to-β phase transformation temperatures of the zirconium alloys studied. On the other hand, studies have been performed on the post-quench mechanical behavior of as-received and pre-hydrided cladding tubes after single-face oxidation at 1000-1200 degree C and quenching. In parallel with these mechanical tests, in-depth metallurgical investigations have been developed, to be able to quantify the resultant phases thickness (ZrO 2 , α-Zr(O) and ex-β phase

  2. Metallurgical and mechanical behaviours of PWR fuel cladding tube oxidised at high temperature; Comportements metallurqigue et mecanique des materiaux de gainage du combustible REP oxydes a haute temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, A

    2007-12-15

    Zirconium alloys are used as cladding materials in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). As they are submitted to very extreme conditions, it is necessary to check their behaviour and especially to make sure they meet the safety criteria. They are therefore studied under typical in service-loadings but also under accidental loadings. In one of these accidental scenarios, called Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) the cladding temperature may increase above 800 C, in a steam environment, and decrease before a final quench of the cladding. During this temperature transient, the cladding is heavily oxidised, and the metallurgical changes lead to a decrease of the post quench mechanical properties. It is then necessary to correlate this drop in residual ductility to the metallurgical evolutions. This is the problem we want to address in this study: the oxidation of PWR cladding materials at high temperature in a steam environment and its consequences on post quench mechanical properties. As oxygen goes massively into the metallic part - a zirconia layer grows at the same time - during the high temperature oxidation, the claddings tubes microstructure shows three different phases that are the outer oxide layer (zirconia) and the inner metallic phases ({alpha}(O) and 'ex {beta}') - with various mechanical properties. In order to reproduce the behaviour of this multilayered material, the first part of this study consisted in creating samples with different - but homogeneous in thickness - oxygen contents, similar to those observed in the different phases of the real cladding. The study was especially focused on the {beta}-->{alpha} phase transformation upon cooling and on the resulting microstructures. A mechanism was proposed to describe this phase transformation. For instance, we conclude that for our oxygen enriched samples, the phase transformation kinetics upon cooling are ruled by the oxygen partitioning between the two allotropic phases. Then, these materials

  3. Analysis of operational indicators and ways to improve the efficiency of transport service of the rolling mills at metallurgical enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ганна Вікторовна Маслак

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the transport service of the cold rolling plant. The additional downtime of the railway carriages in the freight areas and at the station serving the plant has been defined. The factors influencing the process in question have been established. It was found that the loading process itself is carried out according to sophisticated transport technology that provides consistent service of significant amount of the rolling rolls freight areas with powerful locomotives and the supply and cleaning of the railway carriages carried out by small groups as well. It was determined that the share of transport operations is more than 55% of the total time of technological operations in the rolling mills transport and freight complexes. It has been stated that the combined actions of all these factors directly influence on operational indicators in the transport and freight complexes of rolling mills when shipping finished products, the volume of transportation increases and that is manifested as the maximum loading of the station capacities, additional downtime of railway carriages and the use of locomotive time. It has been stated that the proper estimation of transport maintenance of rolling mills becomes an important scientific and technical task. That will make it possible to work out a new approach to increasing the efficiency of transport technologies in transport and freight complexes

  4. Effect of Continuous and Pulsed Current on the Metallurgical and Mechanical Properties of Gas Tungsten Arc Welded AISI 4340 Aeronautical and AISI 304 L Austenitic Stainless Steel Dissimilar Joints

    OpenAIRE

    Arivarasu, Moganraj; Ramkumar Kasinath, Devendranath; Natarajan, Arivazhagan

    2015-01-01

    In this research work, the weldability of low alloyed AISI 4340 aeronautical steel and AISI 304L austenitic stainless steel joined by continuous current (CC) and pulsed current (PC) gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) techniques, using ER309L and ERNiCr-3 filler metals was investigated. The main focus of the study involves the investigation on the effect of continuous and pulsed current mode of GTA welding process on the metallurgical and mechanical properties of these dissimilar weldments. Micro...

  5. Restoration in a mining and metallurgical industries area as a model project. Subproject 1: Factory for amalgamation Halsbruecke. Final report; Modellhafte Sanierung in einer Region mit Bergbau- und Huettenindustrie. Teilvorhaben 1: Amalgamierwerk Halsbruecke, Land Sachsen. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cichos, C.; Menzer, V.; Schaal, A.

    1993-06-01

    Technology development for the restoration of a metallurgical site contaminated by heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Hg, As) with the aims of far-reaching recycling as well as minimizing of residues and demonstration of this technology contains in a first step - detailed historical exploration; - chemical, physical and mineralogical materials analysis; - bench scale investigations for process engineering. Starting from historical appraisal and geogene/anthropogene conditions the methods of material characterization bring statements on processing of noxious materials (metallurgical), harmless dumping abilities (immobilization, stabilization) and technological process stages (particularly wet mechanical processes). The same methodology is useful for analogous mining, metallurgical and used material sites with contamination by heavy metals and consisting of heterogeneous materials. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die modellhafte Technologieentwicklung und die Demonstration dieser Technologie zur Sanierung eines durch Schwermetalle (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, Hg, As) komplex belasteten Huettenstandortes unter dem Aspekt einer weitgehenden Reststoffverwertung sowie Minimierung der zu entsorgenden Rueckstaende umfasst in der ersten Phase - eine detaillierte historische Analyse/Erkundung; - eine chemische, physikalische und mineralogische Stoffcharakterisierung; verfahrenstechnische Untersuchungen im Labormassstab. Ausgehend von der historischen Bewertung und der geogenen/anthropogenen Verhaeltnisse fuehren die Methoden der Stoffcharakterisierung zu Aussagen der Schadstoffweiterverarbeitung (metallurgisch) sowie der gefahrlosen Deponierung (Immobilisierung, Stabilisierung) und zu technologischen Verfahrensschritten (bes. nassmechanische Verfahren). Die Herangehensweise ist fuer analoge Bergbau- aber besonders Huettenstandorte ggf. auch fuer andere Altlastenstandorte mit komplexer Schwermetallkontamination und heterogenem Material relevant. (orig.)

  6. Effects of various tool pin profiles on mechanical and metallurgical properties of friction stir welded joints of cryorolled AA2219 aluminium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal Babu, Karupannan; Panneerselvam, Kavan; Sathiya, Paulraj; Noorul Haq, Abdul Haq; Sundarrajan, Srinivasan; Mastanaiah, Potta; Srinivasa Murthy, Chunduri Venkata

    2018-02-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) process was conducted on cryorolled (CR) AA2219 plate using different tool pin profiles such as cylindrical pin, threaded cylindrical pin, square pin and hexagonal pin profiles. The FSW was carried out with pairs of 6 mm thick CR aluminium plates with different tool pin profiles. The different tool pin profile weld portions' behaviors like mechanical (tensile strength, impact and hardness) and metallurgical characteristics were analyzed. The results of the mechanical analysis revealed that the joint made by the hexagonal pin tool had good strength compared to other pin profiles. This was due to the pulsating action and material flow of the tool resulting in dynamic recrystallization in the weld zone. This was confirmed by the ultra fine grain structure formation in Weld Nugget (WN) of hexagonal pin tool joint with a higher percentage of precipitate dissolution. The fractograph of the hexagonal tool pin weld portion confirmed the finer dimple structure morphology without having any interior defect compared to other tool pin profiles. The lowest weld joint strength was obtained from cylindrical pin profile weld joint due to insufficient material flow during welding. The Transmission Electron Microscope and EDX analysis showed the dissolution of the metastable θ″, θ' (Al2Cu) partial precipitates in the WN and proved the influence of metastable precipitates on enhancement of mechanical behavior of weld. The XRD results also confirmed the Al2Cu precipitation dissolution in the weld zone.

  7. Production of Copper as a Complex Mining and Metallurgical Processing System in Polish Copper Mines of the Legnica-Glogów Copper Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malewski, Jerzy

    2017-12-01

    Geological and technological conditions of Cu production in the Polish copper mines of the Legnica-Glogów Copper Belt are presented. Cu production is recognized as a technological fractal consisting of subsystems for mineral exploration, ore extraction and processing, and metallurgical treatment. Qualitative and quantitative models of these operations have been proposed, including estimation of their costs of process production. Numerical calculations of such a system have been performed, which allow optimize the system parameters according to economic criteria under variable Cu mineralization in the ore deposit. The main objective of the study is to develop forecasting tool for analysis of production efficiency in domestic copper mines based on available sources of information. Such analyses are primarily of social value, allowing for assessment of the efficiency of management of local mineral resources in the light of current technological and market constraints. At the same time, this is a concept of the system analysis method to manage deposit exploitation on operational and strategic level.

  8. Metallurgical examinations update of baffle bolts removed from operating French PWR. Microstructural investigations of a baffle to former bolt located on a high level of the internal structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panait, C.; Fargeas, E.; Miloudi, S.; Moulart, P.; Tommy-Martin, M.; Monteil, N.; Pokor, C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the microstructural investigations conducted on a cracked baffle to former bolt extracted from an upper former level of the internal structures of a French Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). Extensive microstructural investigations using Light Microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) have been conducted to understand the degradation mechanisms of this bolt. TEM investigations have revealed neutron irradiation damage in the microstructure of the bolt such as Frank loops and cavities and/or bubbles. The number of features per unit volume as a function of diameter was determined in the head and in the shank of the bolt. The obtained results are relatively similar to those obtained for other damaged bolts extracted from PWR-type reactors and irradiated in similar conditions (dose and temperature). The irradiation damage has induced an evolution of the mechanical properties (hardening of the material), as revealed by the hardness measurements along the bolt, with a higher average value in the head (400 HV), compared to the shank (15 mm under the head), about 340 HV. The metallurgical investigations have confirmed that this bolt was damaged by Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC)

  9. Reduced Antivation Ferritic/Martensitic Steel Eurofer 97 as Possible Structural Material for Fusion Devices. Metallurgical Characterization on As-Received Condition and after Simulated Services Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, P.; Lancha, A. M.; Lapena, J.; Serrano, M.; Hernandez-Mayoral, M.

    2004-07-01

    Metallurgical Characterization of the reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel Eurofer'97, on as-received condition and after thermal ageing treatment in the temperature range from 400 degree centigree to 600 degree centigree for periods up to 10.000 h, was carried out. The microstructure of the steel remained stable (tempered martensite with M{sub 2}3 C{sub 6} and MX precipitates) after the thermal ageing treatments studied in this work. In general, this stability was also observed in the mechanical properties. The Eurofer'97 steel exhibited similar values of hardness, ultimate tensile stress, 0,2% proof stress, USE and T{sub 0}3 regardless of the investigated material condition. However, ageing at 600 degree centigree for 10.000 ha caused a slight increase in the DBTT, of approximately 23. In terms of creep properties, the steel shows in general adequate creep rupture strength levels for short rupture times. However, the results obtained up to now for long time creep rupture tests at 500 degree centigree suggests a change in the deformation mechanisms. (Author) 62 refs.

  10. THE ROLE OF SHIELDING GAS ON MECHANICAL, METALLURGICAL AND CORROSION PROPERTIES OF CORTEN STEEL WELDED JOINTS OF RAILWAY COACHES USING GMAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byju John

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This analysis lays emphasis on finding a suitable combination of shielding gas for welding underframe members such as sole bar of Railway Coaches made of corten steel; for improved mechanical, metallurgical and corrosion properties of welds using copper coated solid MIG/MAG welding filler wire size 1.2 mm conforming to AWS/SFA 5.18 ER 70 S in Semi-automatic GMAW process. Solid filler wire is preferred by welders due to less fumes, practically no slag and easy manipulation of welding torch with smooth wire flow during corrosion repair attention, when compared to Flux cored wire. Three joints using Gas metal arc welding (GMAW with shielding gases viz., Pure CO2, (80% Ar – 20% CO2 and (90% Ar – 10% CO2 were made from test pieces cut from Sole bar material of Railway Coach. Study of Mechanical properties such as tensile strength, hardness and toughness revealed that welded joint made using shielding gas (80% Ar – 20% CO2 has better Mechanical properties compared to the other two shielding gases and comparable to that of Parent metal. Type of Shielding gas used has influence on the chemical composition and macro & micro structures. The Tafel extrapolation study of freshly ground samples in 3.5% NaCl solution revealed that the welded joint made using shielding gas (80% Ar – 20% CO2 has also better corrosion resistance which is comparable to the Parent metal as well as similar commercial steels.

  11. Metallurgical production from North-east of the Iberian Peninsula during III millennium cal. BC: the Bauma del Serrat del Pont (Tortellá, Girona workshop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcalde, Gabriel

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available We examine the third millennium cal. BC levels from the small rockshelter of Bauma del Serrat del Pont. The site was settled by a small group, building a perishable structure except in the II. 5 level. Some evidence suggests a seasonal occupation of the site. Multidisciplinary research shows a broad spectrum of local resources involved in the dairy life of this people, including those related to metallurgical activity. We find very old tin alloys, plain or bell beaker decorated pot-furnaces (used to smelt copper ores and clay tuyeres.

    Se presentan los resultados de la excavación en los niveles del III milenio cal. AC del pequeño abrigo rocoso de la Bauma del Serrat del Pont. El yacimiento fue ocupado por un grupo pequeño que organizó el espacio interno con una estructura de material perecedero, excepto en el nivel II.5. Algunos datos indican que las ocupaciones pudieron tener un carácter estacional. Los estudios multidisciplinares reconstruyen un aprovechamiento diversificado de recursos locales, entre los que se integran los dedicados a las tareas metalúrgicas. Se documentan aleaciones intencionadas de bronce de gran antigüedad, el empleo de vasijas horno con o sin decoración campaniforme, y toberas de arcilla.

  12. A comparative evaluation of metallurgical properties of stainless steel and TMA archwires with timolium and titanium niobium archwires--an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayalakshmi, R Devaki; Nagachandran, K S; Kummi, Pradeep; Jayakumar, P

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate and compare the mechanical and metallurgical properties of stainless steel and titanium molybdenum alloy (TMA) archwires, with recently introduced timolium and titanium niobium arch wires. Archwires were categorized into four groups (group I to IV) with 10 samples in each group. They were evaluated for tensile strength, yield strength, modulus of elasticity, load deflection, frictional properties and weld characteristics. The results were statistically analyzed using ANOVA test and it indicated that stainless steel has high strength, high stiffness and low friction compared to other arch wires, thereby proving that it is the best choice for both sliding as well as frictionless retraction mechanics. TMA with its high formability, low stiffness and low load deflection property is suited to apply consistent force in malaligned teeth but, high friction limits its use in retraction only with loop mechanics. Timolium possesses comparatively low stiffness, better strength and behaves as an intermediate between stainless steel and TMA and hence can be tried for almost all clinical situations. Low springback and high formability of titanium-niobium archwire allows creation of finishing bends and thus it can be used as finishing archwire.

  13. A comparative evaluation of metallurgical properties of stainless steel and TMA archwires with timolium and titanium niobium archwires - An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayalakshmi R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aims to evaluate and compare the mechanical and metallurgical properties of stainless steel and titanium molybdenum alloy (TMA archwires, with recently introduced timolium and titanium niobium arch wires. Materials and Methods: Archwires were categorized into four groups (group I to IV with 10 samples in each group. They were evaluated for tensile strength, yield strength, modulus of elasticity, load deflection, frictional properties and weld characteristics. Results: The results were statistically analyzed using ANOVA test and it indicated that stainless steel has high strength, high stiffness and low friction compared to other arch wires, thereby proving that it is the best choice for both sliding as well as frictionless retraction mechanics. TMA with its high formability, low stiffness and low load deflection property is suited to apply consistent force in malaligned teeth but, high friction limits its use in retraction only with loop mechanics. Conclusion: Timolium possesses comparatively low stiffness, better strength and behaves as an intermediate between stainless steel and TMA and hence can be tried for almost all clinical situations. Low springback and high formability of titanium-niobium archwire allows creation of finishing bends and thus it can be used as finishing archwire.

  14. The influence of microstructure on the mechanical properties of metallurgical rolls made of G200CrMoNi4-3-3 cast steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Brodziak

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the study is the high-carbon tool cast steel G200CrMoNi4-3-3 used for metallurgical rolls, especially in section rolling mills. The test material was derived from a roll damaged in production; therefore, the authors had the material in a raw state at their disposal, on which they were able to carry out additional heat treatment operations. The pearlitic matrix of casting steel G200CrMoNi4-3-3 allows machining to be done to modify the pass or to remove any defects, and the primary and secondary precipitates of carbides enhance the tribological properties. The authors have been for years involved in the optimization of the structure of this material by slight correction to its chemical composition and/or the modification of heat treatment. The presented principles of heat treatment modifications will lead to considerable economic and ecologic profits. It has also been demonstrated that raising slightly the contents of carbide-forming elements, which markedly increases the quantity of transformed ledeburite, results in an enhancement of tribological properties. The analysis of a dozen or so rolls exploited down to the dead roll diameter has shown that roll of cast steel with increased contents of carbon and carbide-forming elements exhibit better service properties, as characterized by the amount of feedstock rolled. Such a method of enhancing the service properties required the assessment of fracture toughness, which was verified using the linear-elastic methods of fracture mechanics.

  15. Competitiveness and Economic Security — Priority Problems of the Region’s Metallurgical Comples and Its Leaders in the Conditions Of Instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Anatolyevich Kozitsyn

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The subject-matter of the research is the study of the regional metallurgical complex and its leaders, which account for 55 % of industrial output and more than 57 % of exports of the Sverdlovsk region, in the current terms of economic instability. Supporting the business priorities of improving the competitiveness and economic security of the enterprise is based on the example of "UMMCHolding" — the leader of ferrous metallurgy in the Middle Urals, an active participant in the global and Russian copper market. The modern economic, mathematical, and general scientific methods (comparison study, the ratio of total and private, and others are applied as the research methods. To obtain the study results, the main areas of the holding impacted by the sanctions are analyzed: modernization of production and spare parts provisions of the current imported equipment, correction of the supply chain, searching for new business partners, transformation of the structure and direction of cargo traffic, solving transportation problems, stocks system management and minimization of economic, social and environmental costs. The urgency of solving the problem of company competitiveness and economic security increasing together with its sectoral and regional features in the present conditions is proved as the key conclusion. The high competitiveness of the holding is considered to be one of the factors of its economic security. The main goal of the economic security of the company is its sustainable and maximally effective functioning at the present time and high potential for successful development in the future. The indicators and criteria for the economic security evaluation are studied in detail. The analysis conducted has shown that, in general, the holding has high indicators characterizing its economic security on the basis of high competitiveness. As a negative sign, a lack of the investment growth needed to solve urgent problems is noticed.

  16. Natural arsenic attenuation via metal arsenate precipitation in soils contaminated with metallurgical wastes: III. Adsorption versus precipitation in clean As(V)/goethite/Pb(II)/carbonate systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaca-Escobar, Katherine; Villalobos, Mario; Ceniceros-Gómez, Agueda E.

    2012-01-01

    Soil contamination with As and potentially harmful metals is a widespread problem around the world especially from mining and metallurgical wastes, which release substantial amounts of these elements to the environment in potentially mobile species. Recently, it has been found that in various Mexican soils contaminated with these types of wastes, arsenate is not in the form of sorbed species on Fe oxides present in the soils, as generally reported in the literature, but in the form of very insoluble compounds such as Pb, Cu and Ca arsenates. Here a thermodynamic model is applied and validated with the results from wet chemical experiments to determine the fundamental geochemical conditions governing the mobility of As in the presence of Pb. For this purpose, a relatively simple but fundamental system of goethite (α-FeOOH)/As(V)/Pb(II)/carbonate was defined as a function of the As(V)/Fe(III) ratio, in a pH range of 5–10. The speciation model included the simultaneous inclusion of triple layer surface complexation and arsenate precipitation equilibria. The model predicts that from very low total As(V)/Fe(III) molar ratios (0.012 at pH 7) the precipitation mechanism significantly influences the attenuation of As(V), and rapidly becomes the dominant process over the adsorption mechanism. Model results identify the quantitative conditions of predominance for each mechanism and describe the transition conditions in which relatively large fractions of adsorbed, precipitated and dissolved As(V) species prevail. Experimental measurements at selected As(V)/Fe(III) ratios and pH confirmed the predictions and validated the coupled thermodynamic model utilized.

  17. TiNi shape memory alloys: effects of the fabrication route, the oxygen content and the zirconium or hafnium additions on the metallurgical characteristics and the thermomechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olier, P.

    1996-01-01

    In order to promote the development of Ti-Ni shape memory alloys, we have studied the correlation between the fabrication route, the chemical composition (O 2 content, Zr or Hf additions), the metallurgical characteristics and the thermomechanical properties. A conventional sintering does not allow to obtain a homogeneous compound of pure Ti 50 Ni 50 alloy because of the occurrence of Kirkendall porosities which act as a diffusion barrier. An original process including combustion synthesis and hot-extrusion was successfully developed. Resulting products exhibit a smaller grain size (15-20μm) and an enhanced workability in comparison with products obtained by arc-melting and subsequent hot rolling. The presence of oxygen in equiatomic Ti-Ni alloy induces the oxide precipitation of Ti 4 Ni 2 O x type (with x ≤ 1). The precipitated particle fraction is proportional to the oxygen nominal content of the alloy. We show that the decrease of the transformation temperatures is correlated with the decrease of Ti in solid solution due to Ti 4 Ni 2 O precipitation. Moreover, we find that a fine and homogenous oxide dispersion is suitable to decrease the grain size during hot rolling and to enhance to the one way shape memory properties. An increase of the typical transformation temperatures is obtained through of Zr or Hf (in substitution to Ti). But, an increase of the hardness is measured, and consequently the workability of the ternary alloys becomes reduced. However, it is worthwhile to point out that a Ti 38 Ni 50 Hf 12 product obtained by arc melting and hot extrusion is able to fully recover an apparent plastic strain of more than 4% during tensile tests performed under special loading conditions. Such as behaviour is of great interest with respect to potential applications in a temperature range higher that 100 deg. C. (author)

  18. Development of recycling techniques for nuclear power plant decommissioning waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikura, Takeshi; Oguri, Daiichiro; Abe, Seiji; Ohnishi, Kazuhiko

    2003-01-01

    Recycling of concrete and metal waste will provide solution to reduce waste volume, contributing to save the natural resources and to protect the environment. Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation has developed techniques of concrete and metal recycling for decommissioning waste of commercial nuclear power plants. A process of radioactive concrete usage for mortar solidification was seen to reduce concrete waste volume by 2/3. A concrete reclamation process for high quality aggregate was confirmed that the reclaimed aggregate concrete is equivalent to ordinary concrete. Its byproduct powder was seen to be utilized various usage. A process of waste metal casting to use radioactive metal as filler could substantially decrease the waste metal volume when thinner containers are applied. A pyro-metallurgical separation process was seen to decrease cobalt concentration by 1/100. Some of these techniques are finished of demonstration tests for future decommissioning activity. (author)

  19. MECON's activities in chemical plant design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pramanik, S.R.; Wazir, S.N.

    1976-12-01

    Mecon's activities in chemical plant design are surveyed, including the company's, i.e., Metallurgical and Engineering Consultants (India) Ltd., countercurrent extraction process with caustic soda solution for recovering phenols (up to 90%) as sodium phenolate from by-product oil fractions produced at coke plants and coal gasification plants, which was first installed at the Durgapur Steel Plant for treating light oil and drained naphthalene-oil fractions; a design for producer-gas generators with approximately 4 to 4.5 million kcal/h thermal output, which can be operated on sized coal or sized coke and which can be used to make raw, hot or clean, cold producer gas, e.g., as a petroleum oil substitute; a countercurrent wash-oil scrubbing process and detailed design for the recovery, refining, and rectification of benzene, toluene, and xylene from petroleum- or coal-based streams; and the engineering and design of a new 13,700 ton/y oil-furnace carbon black plant at Kerala. Flow diagrams, diagrams, and tables.

  20. Perda auditiva induzida pelo ruído em trabalhadores de metalúrgica Noise induced hearing loss in metallurgical workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Adad Araújo

    Full Text Available Introdução: A perda auditiva induzida pelo ruído é uma patologia insidiosa cumulativa, que cresce ao longo dos anos de exposição ao ruído associado ao ambiente de trabalho. Objetivos: Identificar e quantificar a ocorrência de alterações auditivas sugestivas de Perda Auditiva Induzida pelo Ruído e os principais sintomas otorrinolaringológicos referidos pelos trabalhadores. Forma de estudo: prospectivo clínico randomizado. Casuística e métodos: Pesquisa realizada no período de janeiro a março de 2000 com 187 trabalhadores de indústria metalúrgica no município de Goiânia, avaliados por médicos otorrinolaringologistas através de roteiro de entrevista e audiometria ocupacional. Resultados: Foram obtidas audiometrias ocupacionais sendo: 21% sugestivas de PAIR, 72%, normais e 7%, sugestivas de outras doenças auditivas. Os sintomas auditivos mais freqüentes foram: dificuldade de compreensão da fala, 12%; hipoacusia, 7%; tinitus, 13%; sensação de plenitude auricular, 4%; otorreia, 6%; tonturas, 12%. Conclusão: Concluímos que em metalúrgica há ocorrência de alterações auditivas sugestivas de Perda Auditiva Induzida pelo Ruído e queixa de sintomas otorrinolaringológicos significativos.Introduction: Noise induced hearing loss is a cumulative pathological disease that increases over the years with exposure to noise associated with the work atmosphere. Objectives: To identify and quantify the occurrence of hearing loss suggestive of Noise Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL and the principle otolaryngological symptoms referred to by workers. Study design: prospective clinical randomized. Material and method: Research was carried out from January to March of 2000 with 187 metallurgical workers in the city of Goiânia, who were evaluated by otolaryngologists by means of a combination of interviews and occupational hearing exams. Results: Occupational hearing tests results were: 21% suggestive of NIHL, 72% normal, and 7% suggestive of

  1. Potentially harmful elements (PHEs) in scalp hair, soil and metallurgical wastes in Mitrovica, Kosovo: the role of oral bioaccessibility and mineralogy in human PHE exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisa, N; Bird, G; Brewer, P A; Dean, J R; Entwistle, J A; Kemp, S J; Macklin, M G

    2013-10-01

    Internationally publicized impacts upon human health associated with potentially harmful element (PHE) exposure have been reported amongst internally displaced populations (IDPs) in Mitrovica, Kosovo, following the Kosovan War. Particular concern has surrounded the exposure to Pb indicated by the presence of highly elevated concentrations of Pb in blood and hair samples. This study utilizes a physiologically-based in-vitro extraction method to assess the bioaccessibility of PHEs in surface soils and metallurgical waste in Mitrovica and assesses the potential daily intake of soil-bound PHEs. Maximum As (210mgkg(-1)), Cd (38mgkg(-1)), Cu (410mgkg(-1)), Pb (18790mgkg(-1)) and Zn (8500mgkg(-1)) concentrations in surface soils (0-10cm) are elevated above guideline values. Samples with high PHE concentrations (e.g. As >1000mgkg(-1); Pb >1500mgkg(-1)) exhibit a wide range of bioaccessibilities (5.40 - 92.20% in the gastric (G) phase and 10.00 - 55.80% in the gastric-intestinal (G-I) phase). Samples associated with lower bioaccessibilities typically contain a number of XRD-identifiable primary and secondary mineral phases, particularly As- and Pb-bearing arsenian pyrite, beudantite, galena and cerrusite. Quantification of the potential human exposure risk associated with the ingestion of soil-associated PHEs indicates that on average, 0.01μg Cd kg(-1) BW d(-1), 0.16μg Cu kg(-1) BW d(--1), 0.12μg As kg(-1) BW d(-1), 7.81μg Pb kg(-1) BW d(-1), and 2.68μg Zn kg(-1) BW d(-1) could be bioaccessible following ingestion of PHE-rich soils in the Mitrovica region, with Pb, and to a lesser extent As, indicating the likely possibility of local populations exceeding the recommended tolerable daily intake. Lead present within surface soils of the area could indeed have contributed to the human Pb burden due to the high bioaccessibility of Pb present within these soils (13.40 - 92.20% in the gastric phase). Data for Pb levels in scalp hair (≤120μgg(-1)) and blood (≥650μgdL(-1

  2. Metallurgical Laboratory and Components Testing

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In the field of metallurgy, TTC is equipped to run laboratory tests on track and rolling stock components and materials. The testing lab contains scanning-electron,...

  3. Influence of aerogenic contamination on phytoncide activity of woody plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. Volodarez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to determine variations of antimicrobial activity of the volatile organic compounds from leaves of woody plants, which are growing on the areas with the different air pollution degree in the south-east of Ukraine. The research objects were Aesculus hippocastanum L., Betula pendula Roth, Salix alba L., Picea pungens Engelm. in Donetsk, Ukraine, and 6 species (Betula pendula Roth, Fraxinus excelsior L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., Populus nigra L., Tilia cordata Mill., Picea pungens Engelm. in Kramatorsk, Ukraine. Samples were collected in Donetsk every month during 2012 and 2013 years on four sample areas. Three research areas border with Donetsk Metallurgical Plant PSC, heavy traffic road and Kalinin coal mine, that feature such pollutants as CO2, SO2, NO2, and marsh gas. The fourth research area is the recreation zone (Donetsk Culture and Leisure Park near Donbass Arena stadium. The control area is located in the Donetsk Botanical Garden. The leaves from trees in Kramatorsk were collected in July and August 2013 on the sample area. The research area borders with Novokramatorsk Machine-building Plant JSC, which also features CO2, SO2, NO2 and other pollutants. The control area is located in the Jubilejnyi park. The research proves that antimicrobial activity of the volatile organic compounds from leaves of species under studyis sensitive to the impact of pollutants. Moreover, the antimicrobial activity of leaves B. pendula, S. alba, F. excelsior, R. pseudoacacia, P. nigra increases under the influence of pollutants from metallurgical plants and traffic exhausts. The antimicrobial ability of A. hippocastanum, T. cordata and P. pungens enhances in the areas with the cleaner air. These species are not gas-resistant species. Consequently, gas-resistant species feature the higher antimicrobial activity in the conditions of contamination. The other benefit of this study consists in monitoring of the seasonal

  4. Poisonous Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH POISONOUS PLANTS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Photo courtesy ... U.S. Department of Agriculture Many native and exotic plants are poisonous to humans when ingested or if ...

  5. Aquatic plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, T. V.; Sand-Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Aquatic fl owering plants form a relatively young plant group on an evolutionary timescale. The group has developed over the past 80 million years from terrestrial fl owering plants that re-colonised the aquatic environment after 60-100 million years on land. The exchange of species between...... terrestrial and aquatic environments continues today and is very intensive along stream banks. In this chapter we describe the physical and chemical barriers to the exchange of plants between land and water....

  6. Medicinal Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, J. David

    1997-01-01

    Highlights the demand for medicinal plants as pharmaceuticals and the demand for health care treatments worldwide and the issues that arise from this. Discusses new drugs from plants, anticancer drugs, antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, herbal remedies, quality, safety, efficacy, and conservation of plants. Contains 30 references. (JRH)

  7. Poisonous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppenga, Robert H

    2010-01-01

    A large number of plants can cause adverse effects when ingested by animals or people. Plant toxicity is due to a wide diversity of chemical toxins that include alkaloids, glycosides, proteins and amino acids. There are several notable toxic plants for which a specific chemical responsible for toxicity has not been determined. There are many examples of species differences in terms of their sensitivity to intoxication from plants. Pets, such as dogs and cats, and people, especially children, are frequently exposed to the same toxic plants due to their shared environments. On the other hand, livestock are exposed to toxic plants that are rarely involved in human intoxications due to the unique environments in which they are kept. Fortunately, adverse effects often do not occur or are generally mild following most toxic plant ingestions and no therapeutic intervention is necessary. However, some plants are extremely toxic and ingestion of small amounts can cause rapid death. The diagnosis of plant intoxication can be challenging, especially in veterinary medicine where a history of exposure to a toxic plant is often lacking. Analytical tests are available to detect some plant toxins, although their diagnostic utility is often limited by test availability and timeliness of results. With a few notable exceptions, antidotes for plant toxins are not available. However, general supportive and symptomatic care often is sufficient to successfully treat a symptomatic patient.

  8. Influence of metallurgical phase transformation on crack propagation of 15-5PH stainless steel and 16MND5 low carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J.

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the effects of phase transformations on crack propagation. We want to understand the changes of fracture toughness during welding. In this work, fracture toughness is expressed by J-integral. There are many experimental methods to obtain the critical toughness JIC but they are impractical for our investigation during phase transformation. That is the reason why we have proposed a method coupling mechanical tests, digital image correlation and finite element simulation. The fracture tests are implemented on pre-cracked single edge notched plate sample which is easy for machining and heat conduct during phase transformation. The tests are conducted at different temperatures until rupture. Digital image correlation gives us the displacement information on every sample. Each test is then simulated by finite element where the fracture toughness is evaluated by the method G-Theta at the crack propagation starting moment found by potential drop method and digital image correlation technical. Two materials have been studied, 15Cr-5Ni martensitic precipitation hardening stainless steel and 16MND5 ferritic low carbon steel. For these two materials, different test temperatures were chosen before, during and after phase transformation for testing and failure characterization of the mechanical behavior. Investigation result shows that metallurgical phase transformation has an influence on fracture toughness and further crack propagation. For 15-5PH, the result of J1C shows that the as received 15-5PH has higher fracture toughness than the one at 200 C. The toughness is also higher than the original material after one cycle heat treatment probably due to some residual austenite. Meanwhile, pure austenite 15-5PH at 200 C has higher fracture toughness than pure martensitic 15-5PH at 200 C. For 16MND5, the result also proves that the phase transformation affects fracture toughness. The as received material has bigger J1C than the situation where it was heated

  9. Prevalencia de los factores de riesgo cardiovascular en trabajadores de una planta metalúrgica Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among workers in a metallurgical factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Alonso Díaz

    2012-09-01

    and sex obtained by applying a standardized protocol performed during periodic medical examinations at work to a group of 358 workers, 330 men and 28 women, in a metallurgical industry in Cantabria with a mean age of 42 ± 8 years. Result: Dyslipidemia is the most important risk factor for its high prevalence (52% in a relatively young population, followed by smoking (35% and obesity (22%. These three risk factors are also those with a higher attributable risk in the incidence of ischemic heart disease in the general Spanish population, so they should be subject to intervention. Conclusions: Occupational Health Service companies have a privileged position due to their accessibility to evaluate and treat cardiovascular risk factors present in the working population they serve.

  10. The modelling of the uranium-leaching and ion-exchange processes of the Hartebeestfontein Gold Mine and its role in economic plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broekman, B.R.; Ward, B.

    1985-01-01

    Computer facilities available in the Metallurgical Department at Hartebeestfontein Gold Mine have enabled the research staff to develope complex, practical mathematical models of their uranium hydrometallurgical processes. Empirical models of uranium leaching, uranium loading on resin and redox potential in leach liquors are discussed. These models, developed with non-linear regression techniques, form the basis of an over all mathematical model for a uranium plant. The most economic operating conditions can be predicted for specific prices of uranium and reagents. Substantial profit improvements have been achieved as a result of the changes in the process and equipment that have been made

  11. Plant walkdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostov, M.

    2000-01-01

    This report covers the following: preparatory steps for performing plant walk-down; the objective of the first plant walk-down; plant walk-down procedures; earthquake screening evaluation; walk-down documentation; second plant walk-down. The following objectives concerning the plant walk-down(s) were achieved. The plant system configuration is verified in order to proceed with event tree and fault tree analyses. Systems interactions, other types of dependencies or plant unique features are identified. he safety related components that are judged to generically possess high capacities (i.e., larger than the earthquake review level) have been verified to contain no weaknesses. Further analyses needed to establish the capacities of remaining safety-related components are identified and necessary field data are obtained. Information on components is obtained to assist in HCLPF (fragility) evaluation and peer review of the seismic margin study

  12. Industrial and natural sources of gaseous elemental mercury in the Almadén district (Spain): an updated report on this issue after the ceasing of mining and metallurgical activities in 2003 and major land reclamation works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higueras, Pablo; Esbrí, José María; Oyarzun, Roberto; Llanos, Willans; Martínez-Coronado, Alba; Lillo, Javier; López-Berdonces, Miguel Angel; García-Noguero, Eva Maria

    2013-08-01

    Two events during the last decade had major environmental repercussions in Almadén town (Spain). First it was the ceasing of activities in the mercury mine and metallurgical facilities in 2003, and then the finalization of the restoration works on the main waste dump in 2008. The combination of both events brought about a dramatic drop in the emissions of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) to the atmosphere. Although no one would now call the Almadén area as 'mercury-free', the GEM levels have fallen beneath international reference safety levels for the first time in centuries. This has been a major breakthrough because in less than one decade the site went from GEM levels in the order of "tens of thousands" to mere "tens" nanogram per cubic meter. Although these figures are per se a remarkable achievement, they do not mark the end of the environmental concerns in the Almadén district. Two other sites remain as potential environmental hazards. (1) The Las Cuevas mercury storage complex, a partially restored ex-mining site where liquid mercury is being stored. The MERSADE Project (LIFE-European Union) has tested the Las Cuevas complex as a potential site for the installation of a future European prototype safe deposit of surplus mercury from industrial activities. Despite restoration works carried out in 2004, the Las Cuevas complex can still be regarded as hotspot of mercury contamination, with high concentrations above 800μgg(-1) Hgsoil and 300ngm(-3) Hggas. However, as predicted by air contamination modeling using the ISC-AERMOD software, GEM concentrations fade away in a short distance following the formation of a NW-SE oriented narrow plume extending for a few hundred meters from the complex perimeter. (2) Far more dangerous from the human health perspective is the Almadenejos area, hosting the small Almadenejos village, the so-called Cerco de Almadenejos (CDA; an old metallurgical precinct), and the mines of La Nueva Concepción, La Vieja Concepción and El

  13. Poisonous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellerman, T S

    2009-03-01

    South Africa is blessed with one of the richest floras in the world, which--not surprisingly--includes many poisonous plants. Theiler in the founding years believed that plants could be involved in the aetiologies of many of the then unexplained conditions of stock, such as gousiekte and geeldikkop. His subsequent investigations of plant poisonings largely laid the foundation for the future Sections of Toxicology at the Institute and the Faculty of Veterinary Science (UP). The history of research into plant poisonings over the last 100 years is briefly outlined. Some examples of sustained research on important plant poisonings, such as cardiac glycoside poisoning and gousiekte, are given to illustrate our approach to the subject and the progress that has been made. The collation and transfer of information and the impact of plant poisonings on the livestock industry is discussed and possible avenues of future research are investigated.

  14. Electronic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinidou, Eleni; Gabrielsson, Roger; Gomez, Eliot; Crispin, Xavier; Nilsson, Ove; Simon, Daniel T.; Berggren, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    The roots, stems, leaves, and vascular circuitry of higher plants are responsible for conveying the chemical signals that regulate growth and functions. From a certain perspective, these features are analogous to the contacts, interconnections, devices, and wires of discrete and integrated electronic circuits. Although many attempts have been made to augment plant function with electroactive materials, plants’ “circuitry” has never been directly merged with electronics. We report analog and digital organic electronic circuits and devices manufactured in living plants. The four key components of a circuit have been achieved using the xylem, leaves, veins, and signals of the plant as the template and integral part of the circuit elements and functions. With integrated and distributed electronics in plants, one can envisage a range of applications including precision recording and regulation of physiology, energy harvesting from photosynthesis, and alternatives to genetic modification for plant optimization. PMID:26702448

  15. Shielding Gas and Heat Input Effects on the Mechanical and Metallurgical Characterization of Gas Metal Arc Welding of Super Martensitic Stainless Steel (12Cr5Ni2Mo) Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabakaran, T.; Prabhakar, M.; Sathiya, P.

    This paper deals with the effects of shielding gas mixtures (100% CO2, 100% Ar and 80 % Ar + 20% CO2) and heat input (3.00, 3.65 and 4.33kJ/mm) on the mechanical and metallurgical characteristics of AISI 410S (American Iron and Steel Institute) super martensitic stainless steel (SMSS) by gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process. AISI 410S SMSS with 1.2mm diameter of a 410 filler wire was used in this study. A detailed microstructural analysis of the weld region as well as the mechanical properties (impact, microhardness and tensile tests at room temperature and 800∘C) was carried out. The tensile and impact fracture surfaces were further analyzed through scanning electron microscope (SEM). 100% Ar shielded welds have a higher amount of δ ferrite content and due to this fact the tensile strength of the joints is superior to the other two shielded welds.

  16. Metallurgical study and phase diagram calculations of the Zr-Nb-Fe-(Sn,O) system; Etude metallurgique et calculs des diagrammes de phases des alliages base zirconium du systeme: Zr-Nb-Fe-(O,Sn)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toffolon, C. [CEA/Saclay, Dept. d' Etudes du Comportement des Materiaux (DECM), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)]|[Paris-6 Univ., 75 (France)

    2000-07-01

    The Framatome M5{sup TM} Zr-Nb-O alloy with small amounts of Fe is of interest for nuclear applications (PWR fuel cladding).The behaviour of this kind of alloy for in-service conditions strongly depends on the microstructure. Therefore, a metallurgical study of alloys of the Zr-Nb-Fe-(O-Sn) system has been developed in order to study the influence of chemical composition variabilities of Nb, Fe and O and thermal treatments on the resultant microstructure. In order to get some insight on the physical metallurgy of Zr-Nb-Fe-(Sn,O) alloys and to minimize the experiments, it is useful to build a thermodynamic database. With this object, it was necessary to re-optimize and to calculate the low order binary systems such as Fe-Nb and Nb-Sn in order to assess the Zr-Nb-Fe-(Sn,O) system. Then, the experimental studies concerned: the influence of small variations in Nb and O contents on the {alpha}/{beta} transus temperatures. A comparison between experimental results and thermodynamic predictions showed a good agreement; the precipitation kinetics of {beta}Nb and intermetallic phases in the {alpha} phase domain. These experiments showed that the kinetics depends on the initial metallurgical conditions; the determination of the crystallographic structure and the stoichiometry of the ternary Zr-Nb-Fe intermetallic compounds as a function of the temperature. Finally, these experimental data were used to propose a first assessment of the Zr-Nb-Fe(O{approx}1200 ppm) system. (author)

  17. Plant Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dennis W. C.

    2014-01-01

    Plants are a huge and diverse group of organisms, ranging from microscopic marine phytoplankton to enormous terrestrial trees epitomized by the giant sequoia: 300 feet tall, living 3000 years, and weighing as much as 3000 tons. For this plant issue of "CBE-Life Sciences Education," the author focuses on a botanical topic that most…

  18. Carnivorous Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canipe, Stephen

    This biology lesson on carnivorous (insectivorous) plants is designed to supplement the textbook in the areas of plant diversity, ecology, and distribution. An introduction provides general background information for use as lecture material by the teacher or as reading and/or study material for students. The introduction also includes…

  19. Plant ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, A.; Soufi, S.M.; Cha, J.W.; Romney, E.M.

    1976-01-01

    Progress is reported in the following areas of research: effects of chromium toxicity on bush bean plants; role of synthetic chelating agents in mineral cycling; use of waste pyrites from mine operations on highly calcareous soil; roots of higher plants as a barrier to translocation of metals; nitrogen cycle in the northern Mohave desert; plant productivity and nutrient interrelationships of perennials; effects of copper, cobalt, cadmium, zinc, nickel, and chromium on growth and mineral concentration in chrysanthemum; plant uptake of 239 Pu, 240 Pu, and 241 Am through roots from soils containing aged fallout materials; estimated inventory of plutonium and uranium radionuclides for vegetation in aged fallout areas; and temperature and water relations and photosynthesis in desert plants

  20. Process engineering considerations in the design of the water treatment plant for the Rum Jungle rehabilitation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackland, M.C.

    1983-01-01

    The Rum Jungle rehabilitation programme includes the treatment of around 4 million cubic metres of water that has been polluted by previous treatment operations and acidic seepage containing heavy metal salts from slowly oxidising overburden dumps. The water to be treated is of low pH and contains high sulphate levels. Project rehabilitation criteria and the basic chemistry of metal salts in solution were considered in arriving at the final process design. In order to achieve a cost effective plant design, the process was translated into a flow sheet that used unit operations that are more typical of the extractive metallurgical than the traditional water treatment industry. Consideration of the unit operations and the operating aspects of the plant are discussed

  1. Eddy currents signal processing for steam generator inspection in PWR nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgel, B.

    1992-01-01

    Steam generator tubes in nuclear power plants are periodically checked by means of eddy current probes. The output of a probe is composed of three types of signals: known events (rolling zone, support plates, U-bend part), noise (mainly metallurgical noise) and possible flaws. The latter are random transients, both in arrival time and in shape: they have to be detected and then estimated, before to be fed to the high level stages of a diagnostic system. The objective of the study presented is to develop a semi-automatic system, which could manage and process more than 1 M-bytes of data per tube and provide an operator with reliable diagnostics proposals within a few minutes. This can be achieved only by cooperation of several digital signal processing techniques: detection, segmentation, estimation, noise subtraction, adaptive filtering, modelization, pattern recognition. The paper describes some of these items

  2. Study of ferromagnetic component base material on nuclear power plant testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soedardjo; Histori; Triyadi, Ari

    1998-01-01

    Ferromagnetic component base material testing on Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) has been studied. NPP component was chosen is A533 grade B2 steel, which is commonly used for pressure vessels in light-water reactor. The testing development technology we performed from the acoustic emission measurement and magnetic field measurement combination and namely Barkhausen noise measurement technique. The non destructive Test provides to residual stress and characteristic microstructure measurement. The metallurgical effect and magnetomechanical acoustic emission parameters will be tried to study the Fe-Ni content. The result of study was recrystallization of dislocated grains proceeds at 600 o C and tempering at 650 o C produced annealed ferrite plus carbide structure

  3. Decommissioning of nuclear reprocessing plants French past experience and approach to future large scale operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean Jacques, M.; Maurel, J.J.; Maillet, J.

    1994-01-01

    Over the years, France has built up significant experience in dismantling nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities or various types of units representative of a modern reprocessing plant. However, only small or medium scale operations have been carried out so far. To prepare the future decommissioning of large size industrial facilities such as UP1 (Marcoule) and UP2 (La Hague), new technologies must be developed to maximize waste recycling and optimize direct operations by operators, taking the integrated dose and cost aspects into account. The decommissioning and dismantling methodology comprises: a preparation phase for inventory, choice and installation of tools and arrangement of working areas, a dismantling phase with decontamination, and a final contamination control phase. Detailed description of dismantling operations of the MA Pu finishing facility (La Hague) and of the RM2 radio metallurgical laboratory (CEA-Fontenay-aux-Roses) are given as examples. (J.S.). 3 tabs

  4. T Plant

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Arguably the second most historic building at Hanford is the T Plant.This facility is historic in that it's the oldest remaining nuclear facility in the country that...

  5. Plant Macrofossils

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past vegetation and environmental change derived from plant remains large enough to be seen without a microscope (macrofossils), such as leaves, needles,...

  6. Lunar Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We present an open design for a first plant growth module on the Moon (LPX). The primary science goal of lunar habitat is to investigate germination and initial...

  7. Succulent plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Howard; Males, Jamie

    2017-09-11

    The peculiar morphologies of succulent plants have been variously considered as grotesque monstrosities and exotic curiosities, but succulents have always been perceived as unique. The succulent syndrome is considered to be one of the most remarkable examples of convergent evolution across the plant kingdom. Common to all succulents is the presence of large cells for water storage. However, cellular succulence can occur in any vegetative plant organ, with the level of succulence in roots, stems, and leaves being subject to a certain degree of evolutionary coordination. Furthermore, cellular succulence scales up to morphological succulence according to various anatomical schemes that confer contrasting functional characteristics. This means that succulence is associated with a broad range of ecophysiological strategies and occurs in plants that have evolved in many different environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Plant simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumitsu, Hiroyuki

    1998-01-01

    A simulator of a reactor plant of the present invention comprises a plurality of distributed computers, an indication processing section and an operation section. The simulation calculation functions of various kinds of plant models in the plant are shared by the plurality of computers. The indication processing section controls collection of data of the plant simulated by the computers and instructions of an operator. The operation section is operated by the operator and the results of operation are transmitted to the indication processing section, to conduct operation trainings and display the results of the simulation. Each of the computers and the indication processing portion are connected with each other by a network having a memory for common use. Data such as the results of calculation of plant models and various kinds of parameters of the plant required commonly to the calculators and the indication processing section are stored in the common memory, and adapted to be used by way of the network. (N.H.)

  9. A state of the art on primary side stress corrosion cracking in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. P.; Kim, J. S.; Han, J. H.; Lee, D. H.; Lim, Y. S.; Suh, J. H.; Hwang, S. S.; Hur, D. H.

    1999-09-01

    A state of art on primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) of alloy 600 used as steam generator tubing of nuclear power plant and remedial action on the PWSCC were reviewed and analyzed. One of the major metallurgical factors which have effect on PWSCC is Cr carbide distribution. A semicontinuous intergranular Cr carbide distribution enhance PWSCC of alloy 600. PWSCC rate is reported to be reported to be proportional to exp(-50 cal/RT) σ 4 . PWSCC rate also increase with increase in hydrogen partial pressure from 0 to 150 ppm and then decreased with further increase in hydrogen partial pressure to 757 ppm. Development of PWSCC prediction technology which takes into account tubing material, fabrication process and operating history of steam generator is needed to manage PWSCC of domestic nuclear power plant. PWSCC has mainly occurred at expansion irregularities within tubesheet, expansion transitions, dented tube support plate intersections and transition and apex of U bend. Remedial actions to PWSCC are sleeving, plugging, temperature reduction, Ni plating, Ni sleeving, shot peening and steam generator replacement in worst case. Option to remedial actions depend on plant specific such as plant age, leak rate from primary to secondary, density and progression of PWSCC. Ni sleeving developed in Framatome seems to be a powerful method because it never subject to PWSCC. Remedial action should be developed and evaluated for possible PWSCC of domestic nuclear power plant. (author)

  10. Industrial and natural sources of gaseous elemental mercury in the Almadén district (Spain): An updated report on this issue after the ceasing of mining and metallurgical activities in 2003 and major land reclamation works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higueras, Pablo; María Esbrí, José; Oyarzun, Roberto; Llanos, Willans; Martínez-Coronado, Alba

    2013-01-01

    Two events during the last decade had major environmental repercussions in Almadén town (Spain). First it was the ceasing of activities in the mercury mine and metallurgical facilities in 2003, and then the finalization of the restoration works on the main waste dump in 2008. The combination of both events brought about a dramatic drop in the emissions of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) to the atmosphere. Although no one would now call the Almadén area as ‘mercury-free’, the GEM levels have fallen beneath international reference safety levels for the first time in centuries. This has been a major breakthrough because in less than one decade the site went from GEM levels in the order of “tens of thousands” to mere “tens” nanogram per cubic meter. Although these figures are per se a remarkable achievement, they do not mark the end of the environmental concerns in the Almadén district. Two other sites remain as potential environmental hazards. (1) The Las Cuevas mercury storage complex, a partially restored ex-mining site where liquid mercury is being stored. The MERSADE Project (LIFE—European Union) has tested the Las Cuevas complex as a potential site for the installation of a future European prototype safe deposit of surplus mercury from industrial activities. Despite restoration works carried out in 2004, the Las Cuevas complex can still be regarded as hotspot of mercury contamination, with high concentrations above 800 μg g −1 Hg soil and 300 ng m −3 Hg gas . However, as predicted by air contamination modeling using the ISC-AERMOD software, GEM concentrations fade away in a short distance following the formation of a NW–SE oriented narrow plume extending for a few hundred meters from the complex perimeter. (2) Far more dangerous from the human health perspective is the Almadenejos area, hosting the small Almadenejos village, the so-called Cerco de Almadenejos (CDA; an old metallurgical precinct), and the mines of La Nueva Concepción, La

  11. Industrial and natural sources of gaseous elemental mercury in the Almadén district (Spain): An updated report on this issue after the ceasing of mining and metallurgical activities in 2003 and major land reclamation works

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higueras, Pablo, E-mail: pablo.higueras@uclm.es [Departamento de Ingeniería Geológica y Minera, Escuela Universitaria Politécnica de Almadén, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Plaza M. Meca 1, 13400 Almadén (Spain); Instituto de Geología Aplicada (IGeA), Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Plaza M. Meca 1, 13400 Almadén (Spain); María Esbrí, José [Departamento de Ingeniería Geológica y Minera, Escuela Universitaria Politécnica de Almadén, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Plaza M. Meca 1, 13400 Almadén (Spain); Instituto de Geología Aplicada (IGeA), Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Plaza M. Meca 1, 13400 Almadén (Spain); Oyarzun, Roberto; Llanos, Willans [Instituto de Geología Aplicada (IGeA), Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Plaza M. Meca 1, 13400 Almadén (Spain); Departamento de Cristalografía y Mineralogía, Facultad de Ciencias Geológicas, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Martínez-Coronado, Alba [Instituto de Geología Aplicada (IGeA), Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Plaza M. Meca 1, 13400 Almadén (Spain); and others

    2013-08-15

    Two events during the last decade had major environmental repercussions in Almadén town (Spain). First it was the ceasing of activities in the mercury mine and metallurgical facilities in 2003, and then the finalization of the restoration works on the main waste dump in 2008. The combination of both events brought about a dramatic drop in the emissions of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) to the atmosphere. Although no one would now call the Almadén area as ‘mercury-free’, the GEM levels have fallen beneath international reference safety levels for the first time in centuries. This has been a major breakthrough because in less than one decade the site went from GEM levels in the order of “tens of thousands” to mere “tens” nanogram per cubic meter. Although these figures are per se a remarkable achievement, they do not mark the end of the environmental concerns in the Almadén district. Two other sites remain as potential environmental hazards. (1) The Las Cuevas mercury storage complex, a partially restored ex-mining site where liquid mercury is being stored. The MERSADE Project (LIFE—European Union) has tested the Las Cuevas complex as a potential site for the installation of a future European prototype safe deposit of surplus mercury from industrial activities. Despite restoration works carried out in 2004, the Las Cuevas complex can still be regarded as hotspot of mercury contamination, with high concentrations above 800 μg g{sup −1} Hg{sub soil} and 300 ng m{sup −3} Hg{sub gas}. However, as predicted by air contamination modeling using the ISC-AERMOD software, GEM concentrations fade away in a short distance following the formation of a NW–SE oriented narrow plume extending for a few hundred meters from the complex perimeter. (2) Far more dangerous from the human health perspective is the Almadenejos area, hosting the small Almadenejos village, the so-called Cerco de Almadenejos (CDA; an old metallurgical precinct), and the mines of La

  12. Environmental approach of companies within the pulp/paper, metallurgical and sugar/alcohol sectors Conduta ambiental de empresas dos setores de celulose e papel, siderúrgico e sucroalcooleiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laércio Antônio Gonçalves Jacovine

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Companies have been witnessing major changes in their environment and environmental models have been developed aiming to improve their strategic planning. The objective of this study was to examine the environmental approach adopted by companies within the Pulp and Paper, Metallurgical and Sugar and Alcohol sectors, in order to evaluate their environmental performances. The analysis was based on a matrix which relates managerial functions with a set of environmental approaches and performance indicators, classifying the company environmental performance as weak, moderate or strong. The managerial functions approached in this model are: Management (General, Legal Affairs, Finance, Human Resources and Purchasing; Product and Process Development; Production and Maintenance; and Marketing. The analyzed indicators include: international insertion; capital origin and location. The pulp and paper and metallurgical companies obtained average scores of 54.5 and 51.56 points, respectively, being classified as having a strong environmental performance. On the other hand, the sugar and alcohol companies obtained average score of 46 points, being classified as moderate in environmental performance. The high level of environmental performance of pulp and paper and metallurgical companies can be attributed to the following factors: larger international insertion, presence of foreign capital in controlling shares, performance in the international market and company location near large population centers. Pulp and paper and mainly sugar and alcohol companies are less efficient in meeting the requirements of the environmental legislation, particularly those related to the conformity of permanent protected areas and legal reserves.As empresas têm presenciado transformações amplas no ambiente em que estão inseridas e, com o intuito de auxiliar no planejamento estratégico das empresas, têm sido desenvolvidos modelos ambientais. O objetivo desse estudo foi

  13. Environmental management and educational needs of the small and medium-sized businesses of the metallurgical sector in the south region of Madrid; Las pequenas y medianas empresas de sector metalurgico en la zona sur de la Comunidad de Madrid: Gestion medioambiental y necesidades de formacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urena, A.; Rams, J.; Mendez, F. J.; Rodriguez, J.

    2004-07-01

    In this study, the environmental management and needs of the small and medium-sized businesses of the metallurgical industry in the south region of Madrid were analysed. Information was obtained through a telephone questionnaire distributed to more than 170 companies. Although most of the respondent employees do not consider environmental training one of their priorities, they expressed their interest in implementing Environmental Management Systems, waste minimization and higher knowledge of the specific legal aspects. (Author) 7 refs.

  14. Alternatives to improve technological and environmentally the miner-metallurgic processes of recovery of gold in Vetas and California (Santander, Colombia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedraza Rosas, Julio Elias; Yanez Traslavina, Jose Julian

    2004-01-01

    With the purpose of improving the recovery of gold, to eliminate the use of the mercury and to diminish the contamination with cyanide in the Mining District of Vetas and Californian, the concentration processes were studied in a machine knelson and the intensive cyanidation of the concentrate. As fundamental part of this work, it was carried out the characterization of the samples, determining and quantifying the most influential characteristics in the processes of gravimetric concentration and of cyanidation, as well as the necessary for the design of plants. Of the mineralogical characterization it concluded that the ore of the two municipalities present significant differences that bear to think of the necessity of using different extractive processes. In general, the ore of California, bigger tenors of gold contain and of silver and they are poly-sulphurated; while those of Vetas are of pyritic type, except for that of the Golden Mine that presents similarity with those of California. The minerals of California presented a high percentage of gold (40-60%), fine coming from the alteration of the mineral; a high lixiviability in bottle; especially the samples of the Sinues Mine, with dissolutions of gold of the order of 95%, while of the Vetas was of the order of 60%. The experimental results in the knelson equipment, allowed to check the applicability of this concentration type for the case of the minerals of Vetas, obtaining under controlled operative conditions, concentrated with high tenors of gold, 421.16 g/t; significant enrichment reasons, 29.5 (tenor of the concentrate / tenor of the mineral head), with recoveries of gold notables, bigger to 80%. On the contrary, with those of Californian ores, satisfactory results were not obtained, accountable for the presence of the high percentage of gold in the fines. The application of the intensive cyanidation to the obtained concentrates, it was evaluated in presence and absence of the catalytic Leachwell and Pb

  15. Natural arsenic attenuation via metal arsenate precipitation in soils contaminated with metallurgical wastes: II. Cumulative evidence and identification of minor processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutiérrez-Ruiz, M.E.; Ceniceros-Gómez, A.E.; Villalobos, M.; Romero, F.; Santiago, P.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Aqueous As in soils surrounding a smelting plant decreased through a natural attenuation process. ► As in water extracts from soils matched thermodynamic equilibrium modeling results. ► Modeling indicates that lead arsenates of low-solubility control As mobility. ► Sequential chemical extractions are consistent with the solubility behavior of lead arsenates. ► Microscopic evidence of lead arsenates was obtained by HRTEM–EDS. - Abstract: Accurate identification of individual As species in contaminated environments is critical because the toxicology, mobility and adsorptive properties of this element may vary substantially with its chemical forms and oxidation states. The goal of this work was to relate the geochemical behavior of As in soils contaminated by a lead smelter in Mexico, with its chemical speciation, and to achieve direct identification of low-solubility poorly-crystalline metal arsenates. Arsenic was identified as the most mobile trace element in the wastes from the smelting plant. Arsenic solubility in soils was significantly lower than its solubility in wastes, showing natural attenuation of this element. Its solubility in soil was quantitatively described in selected samples through thermodynamic equilibrium modeling. The results indicated that As solubility is controlled by solid Pb and Cu arsenate formation. The behaviors of the sequential chemical extractions were consistent with the presence of the predicted arsenates. Microscopic evidence of the formation of solid metal arsenates were obtained in fine soil fractions of selected samples with high As contents, by using the following complementary techniques: X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, both coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and the latter with a high angle annular dark field detector. All results supported the formation of low-solubility Pb arsenates as controlling As mobility in the samples

  16. transgenic plants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    been initiated in this area by the Global Pest. Resistance Management Programme located at. MSU. Through effective resistance management training, pesticide use patterns change, and the effective lift: span of pesticides and host plant resistance technology increases. Effective resistance management can mean reduced.

  17. Plant intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipavská, Helena; Žárský, Viktor

    2009-01-01

    The concept of plant intelligence, as proposed by Anthony Trewavas, has raised considerable discussion. However, plant intelligence remains loosely defined; often it is either perceived as practically synonymous to Darwinian fitness, or reduced to a mere decorative metaphor. A more strict view can be taken, emphasizing necessary prerequisites such as memory and learning, which requires clarifying the definition of memory itself. To qualify as memories, traces of past events have to be not only stored, but also actively accessed. We propose a criterion for eliminating false candidates of possible plant intelligence phenomena in this stricter sense: an “intelligent” behavior must involve a component that can be approximated by a plausible algorithmic model involving recourse to stored information about past states of the individual or its environment. Re-evaluation of previously presented examples of plant intelligence shows that only some of them pass our test. “You were hurt?” Kumiko said, looking at the scar. Sally looked down. “Yeah.” “Why didn't you have it removed?” “Sometimes it's good to remember.” “Being hurt?” “Being stupid.”—(W. Gibson: Mona Lisa Overdrive) PMID:19816094

  18. Peculiar features of metallurgical processes at plasma-arc spraying of coatings, made of steel wire with powder fillers B4C and B4C+ZrO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Георгій Михайлович Григоренко

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of metallurgical processes occurring in plasma-arc spraying between the steel shell and the carbide fillers of B4C and B4C cored wires with the addition of nanocrystalline ZrO2 powder has been analyzed. Iron-boron compounds alloyed with carbon are formed in ingots as a result of ferritiс coating of wire interacrion with fillers while the ferritic matrix contains boride and carboboride eutectics. Average microhardness of the carboboride compounds and the matrix is high – 17,78; 16,40 and 8,69; 9,95 GPa for the ingots with с B4C and B4C+ZrO2 respectively. The best quality coatings with low porosity (~1%, lamellar structure consisting of ferrite matrix reinforced with dispersed Fe borides, were obtained at a higher heat input (plasmatron current 240-250 A. The average amount of oxides in the coatings makes 15%. 0,5% addition of nanopowder ZrO2 accelerates dispersed iron-boron compounds forming, promotes their uniform distribution in the structure and improves coating microhardness up to 7,0 GPa. Application of the differential thermal analysis method to simulate the interaction processes between the steel shell and the filler during the heating of wire in the shielding gas makes it possible to promote formation of new phases (borides and carboborides of iron and to predict the phase composition of the coatings

  19. Audubon Plant Study Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    Included are an illustrated student reader, "The Story of Plants and Flowers," an adult leaders' guide, and a large wall chart picturing 37 wildflowers and describing 23 major plant families. The student reader presents these main topics: The Plant Kingdom, The Wonderful World of Plants, Plants Without Flowers, Flowering Plants, Plants Make Food…

  20. Modeling of ultrasonic propagation in a diffusing metallurgical structure, application to NDC; Modelisation de la propagation ultrasonore dans une structure metallurgique diffusante, application au CND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorval, V.

    2009-12-15

    Scattering phenomena can interfere with the ultrasonic non destructive testing of certain materials. It occurs for example in the testing of certain types of steels used in nuclear power plants, or of titanium alloys used in aeronautics. The scattering of ultrasonic waves by the microstructure of those materials induces structural noise and attenuation, which can have a significant impact on detection performances. This thesis deals with the modeling and computing of those phenomena. A model is used to determine the scattering properties of a metal, based on its microstructure. This model was adapted to different categories of metals. A method to compute structural noise based on this model was developed. It relies on the pencil method to perform semi-analytical computations of tridimensional ultrasonic fields. An original approach is used to limit the time necessary to compute noise signal. The computation is based on outputs of the model. This approach is based on the single scattering approximation. Noise signals computed using this method were compared to experimental results. Those comparisons confirm the relevance of the method. They also illustrate the importance of interference phenomena in structural noise. A second computation method that takes into account multiple scattering has been studied. It is based on a Monte-Carlo method applied to the radiative transfer theory. (author)

  1. Spent fuel surveillance at BNFL, Sellafield Nuclear Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addison, C.W.E.

    1988-01-01

    A wide range of irradiated nuclear fuels are stored in ponds in BNFL, Sellafield, UK, prior to reprocessing. Magnox fuel from the first UK power generating reactors has been stored and reprocessed since the mid 1950's, and stocks of irradiated AGR (Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor) and Water Reactor fuels are increasing prior to the start of reprocessing oxide fuel in the THORP (Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant) facility in the early 1990's. The methods of surveillance for each type of fuel are described. Underwater visual examination in ponds and more detailed examination in shielded caves are carried out. Limited surveillance is necessary for Magnox fuel as storage periods are short. For AGR fuels with longer storage periods the retrieval and element breakdown are described, followed by detailed metallurgical examination of pins and element components. The effect of water chemistry on corrosion performance of irradiated AGR fuel during pond storage is illustrated. The methods of confirming satisfactory water storage of water reactor fuel are outlined. The major results of surveillance of each type of fuel are summarised. The organisation of the work programmes is given. The paper concludes that, mainly through monitoring and surveillance, backed by experimental programmes optimum storage regimes have been developed for the various types of fuel, consistent with planned storage periods prior to reprocessing. (author). 1 ref., 14 figs

  2. Evaluation of solubility in simulated lung fluid of metals present in the sludge from a metallurgical industry to produce metallic zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Rosilda Maria Gomes de

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the solubility parameters (rapid and slow dissolution rates, rapid and slow dissolution fractions) metal particles present in a pile of sludge accumulated under exposure to weathering from the Cia Mercantil Inga, located at the Ilha da Madeira, Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro. Plant samples collected in the neighboring of the pile and bioindicators placed in the region and collected after some months indicated that the inhabitants of Ilha da Madeira have been exposed to trace elements such zinc, cadmium, mercury and lead, produced during the processing of zinc minerals (hemimorphite - Zn 4 (OH) 2 Si 2 O 7 .H 2 O, and willemite - Zn 2 SiO 4 ). A static dissolution test in vitro was used to determine the solubility parameters using a simulated lung fluid (SLF), on a time basis ranging from 10 min to 1 year. The metal concentrations in the sludge samples and in the SLF were determined using Particle Induced X-rays Emission (PIXE). In conclusion, this study confirms the harmful effects on the neighboring population of the airborne particles containing these metals that came from the sludge. The solubility parameters obtained for Zn, Cd, Cr, Ni and Mn present in the rapid dissolution fraction in SLF were 0.945; 0.473; 0.226; 0.300 and 0.497, respectively, and the corresponding times for half life of dissolution of the rapid fraction were f r = 2.082 days; f r = 0.09 days; f r = 0.37 days; f r = 0.332 days ad f r = 0.99 days; for the slow dissolution fraction times were f r = 146.95 days; f r = 63 days; f r = 86.64 days; f r = 79.66 days and f r = 59.84 days. These values indicate that these metals present a moderate absorption level in SLF, and may be classified as M type, according to the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The use of solubility parameters allowed a better description of the kinetic behaviour of the sludge in the human body and, therefore, a better evaluation of the worker’s risk to

  3. Stress tolerant plants

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio, Vicente; Iniesto Sánchez, Elisa; Irigoyen Miguel, María Luisa

    2014-01-01

    [EN] The invention relates to transgenic plants and methods for modulating abscisic acid (ABA) perception and signal transduction in plants. The plants find use in increasing yield in plants, particularly under abiotic stress.

  4. The Essence of "Plantness."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darley, W. Marshall

    1990-01-01

    Major differences between plants and animals are presented. Discussed are autotrophs and heterotrophs, plant growth and development, gas exchange, the evolution of plants, ecosystem components, the alleged inferiority of plants, and fungi. (CW)

  5. La cadena de suministro del sector metalúrgico: un análisis de sus principales eslabones (The Supply Chain in the metallurgical sector: an analysis of the main links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Carbajo-de-Lera

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Los directivos actuales conciben que la competencia ya no es empresa frente a empresa, sino que desborda este plano generándose una competencia cadena de suministro frente a cadena de suministro. Por ello, la gestión de la cadena de suministro se convierte en un elemento clave para la supervivencia empresarial y la obtención de ventajas competitivas. El diseño de la cadena de suministro viene definido, en buena parte, por las características del sector al que pertenece. En consecuencia, es de interés realizar análisis sectoriales. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo analizar la cadena de suministro en un sector de gran importancia en la economía española, como es el metalúrgico. En concreto, buscamos determinar su cadena de suministro, definiendo los principales eslabones que la configuran y las relaciones entre ellos.Abstract: In the current business context, competition is no longer firm against firm, but has moved on to a higher plane, with the generation of supply chain against supply chain competition.  Therefore, Supply Chain Management (SCM has strategic relevance as a source of competitive advantage. The design of the supply chain is defined largely by the characteristics of the sector. Consequently, sectorial analysis is required. The aim of this paper is to analyze the supply chain of the metallurgical sector. Specifically, it will be focused on determining its supply chain and defining its main links and relationships.

  6. Production of Solar Grade (SoG) Silicon by Refining Liquid Metallurgical Grade (MG) Silicon: Final Report, 19 April 2001; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattack, C. P.; Joyce, D. B.; Schmid, F.

    2001-01-01

    efficiency of 1-cm2 devices made from Cz crystals grown using the new feedstock were 95% as high as those from Cz crystals grown using EG feedstock and were comparable to those we obtained using commercial and lt;111 and gt; Cz wafers. Devices with an efficiency of 7.3% were also made directly on wafers cut from the feedstock that had not gone through a controlled directional solidification. Only a few cells have been processed. Device parameters for this material have not yet been optimized, and additional diagnostic device fabrication, analysis, and verification is under way. The successful B treatment process developed during the program can be used with high-B-doped silicon scrap from the electronics industry thereby making available, for the short term, a new silicon feedstock for an additional 200 MW/year annual production of PV modules. For the future, this approach, when used in an MG silicon production plant, will produce SoG silicon for$7.62/kg, which is less than the goal of$20/kg

  7. A microgravity processing plant for the manufacturing of propellant and water from asteroid ore

    Science.gov (United States)

    A microgravity processing plant for the manufacturing of propellant and water from asteroid ore is described. Although several studies of lunar-soil processing have been conducted in the past, this study is one of the first focusing on materials processing in a true microgravity environment. The relative size of the processing plant is also quite large - handling 15.5 tons ore per hour. This large scale has implied power and mass requirements far beyond the limits of currently planned space projects. The processing technique proposed - mainly electrolysis with subsystems - is a well known and energy intensive process. Terrestrial materials processing equipment, however, is not generally mass-optimized, for the simple reason that there is no justification for minimizing the weight of, for example, a chemical or metallurgical plant. Until some years ago, this was true not only for the mass but also for the energy consumption. Thus, a space-based processing system must be optimized with respect to two factors which traditionally have not been considered in the terrestrial design of similar equipment. These and other critical design issues are listed.

  8. Accumulative response of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) to heavy metals enhanced by Pb-Zn ore mining and processing plants: Explicitly spatial considerations of ordinary kriging based on a GIS approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pająk, Marek; Halecki, Wiktor; Gąsiorek, Michał

    2017-02-01

    Plants have an accumulative response to heavy metals present in soils or deposited from airborne sources of emissions. Therefore, their tissues are very often used in studies of heavy metal contamination originating from different sources as a bioindicator of environmental pollution. This research was undertaken to examine accumulation capacities of Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu and Cr in washed and unwashed needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and leaves of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) growing in a contaminated area. We collected needles of Scots pine and leaves of silver birch in an area around a sedimentation pond and metallurgic plant processing Pb and Zn ores near Olkusz, Poland. Concentrations of heavy metals, which have been linked with exposure to emissions, were determined from foliar samples collected at 33 sites. These sites were established at various distances (0.5-3.6 km) from the pond and metallurgic plant so as to identify the predominant accumulative response of plants. Spatial gradients for Pb and Zn were calculated using an ordinary kriging interpolation algorithm. A spatial pattern was identified by a GIS method to visualize maps over the Pb-Zn ore mining area. The accumulation of Zn (R 2  = 0.74, p < 0.05) and Pb (R 2  = 0.85, p < 0.01) in plant tissues correlated with soil concentrations. This tendency was not found in the case of Cu, Cd and Cr. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Data concerning the existing nuclear power plants in the world are presented. The data was retrieved from the SIEN (Nuclear and Energetic Information System) data bank. The information are organized in table forms as follows: nuclear plants, its status and type; installed nuclear power plants by country; nuclear power plants under construction by country; planned nuclear power plants by country; cancelled nuclear power plants by country; shut-down nuclear power plants by country. (E.G.) [pt

  10. Plant host finding by parasitic plants: A new perspective on plant to plant communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark C. Mescher; Justin B. Runyon; Consuelo M. De Moraes

    2006-01-01

    Plants release airborne chemicals that can convey ecologically relevant information to other organisms. These plant volatiles are known to mediate a large array of, often complex, interactions between plants and insects. It has been suggested that plant volatiles may have similar importance in mediating interactions among plant species, but there are few well-...

  11. Plant Tissue Culture

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    The success of plant biotechnology relies on the fundamental techniques of plant tissue culture. Understanding basic biol- ogy of plants is a prerequisite for proper utilization of the plant system or parts thereof. Plant tissue culture helps in providing a basic understanding of physical and chemical requirements of cell, tissue, ...

  12. Engineered Plants as Biosensors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stewart, C

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the research was the creation of a model biosensing plant that could detect plant diseases and to characterize the utility of laser induced fluorescence imaging for detecting the inducible (LIFI) plant signal...

  13. Kansas Power Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Power Plants database depicts, as point features, the locations of the various types of power plant locations in Kansas. The locations of the power plants...

  14. Poinsettia plant exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christmas flower poisoning; Lobster plant poisoning; Painted leaf poisoning ... Leaves, stem, sap of the poinsettia plant ... Poinsettia plant exposure can affect many parts of the body. EYES (IF DIRECT CONTACT OCCURS) Burning Redness STOMACH AND ...

  15. Remelting of metallurgical fines using thermal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicente, L.C.; Neto F, J.B.F.; Bender, O.W.; Collares, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    A plasma furnace was developed for remelting of ferro alloys and silicon fines. The furnace capacity was about 4 Kg of silicon and power about 50 kW. The fine (20 to 100 mesh) was fed into the furnace directly at the high temperature zone. This system was tested for remelting silicon fines and the results in the recovery of silicon was about 95% and it took place a refine of aluminium and calcium. (author)

  16. Metallurgical viewpoints on the brittleness of beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagerberg, G.

    1960-02-01

    At present the development and use of beryllium metal for structural applications is severely hampered by its brittleness. Reasons for this lack of ductility are reviewed in discussing the deformation behaviour of beryllium in relation to other hexagonal metals. The ease of fracturing in beryllium is assumed to be a consequence of a limited number of deformation modes in combination with high deformation resistance. Models for the nucleation of fracture are suggested. The relation of ductility to elastic constants as well as to grain size, texture and alloying additions is discussed

  17. Metallurgical applications of the Moessbauer effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flinn, P.A.

    1975-01-01

    Recent developments and practical applications of the Moessbauer effect are reviewed. Moessbauer studies into solid solutions, phase transformations in certain alloy systems and steels, deformation-induced transformations in and corrosion of steels are discussed. Also discussed are the applications of Moessbauer spectroscopy in process metallurgy for diffusion measurements in solids and in an accurate quantitative analysis. The use of backscatter geometry is dealt with. (Z.S.)

  18. Metallurgical Examination of Face Hardened Armor Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    1944-02-29

    2 SAMPLE 4 FIBRE TEST STEEL QUALITY TESI FRACTURES OF FACE HAqDENED ARMIOR 25 JAN 1944 W’sN.710-2268 FIGURE *rfMO Reproduced FromBest Available Clop’ý...5 6 7 8910 12 14 16182024 40 DISTANCE FROM WATER COOLED END OF STANDARiW2 HARDENABILITY BAR - SIXTEENTHS PLATE HEAT OUENCH NO. NO. C N1SI 1 P NIOR 4

  19. The analysis of mineralogical and metallurgical materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, K.

    1978-01-01

    The increase in mineral processing in South Africa has led to an increasing demand for the determination of a wider range of elements at low concentrations, and this in turn has led to the greater use of instrumental analysis. The objects of this report are, first, to serve as a guide to the various types of instrumentation available for a range of analytical problems and, second, to indicate the facilities that are available at the National Institute for Metallurgy for use by industry in sponsored projects. The analytical techniques available are considered from the points of view of basic principles, interferences, precision and accuracy, advantages, limitations, sample preparation, and possible applications

  20. Ionising radiation metrology for the metallurgical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Toraño E.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Every year millions tons of steel are produced worldwide from recycled scrap loads. Although the detection systems in the steelworks prevent most orphan radioactive sources from entering the furnace, there is still the possibility of accidentally melting a radioactive source. The MetroMetal project, carried out in the frame of the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP, addresses this problem by studying the existing measurement systems, developing sets of reference sources in various matrices (cast steel, slag, fume dust and proposing new detection instruments. This paper presents the key lines of the project and describes the preparation of radioactive sources as well as the intercomparison exercises used to test the calibration and correction methods proposed within the project.

  1. Metallurgical viewpoints on the brittleness of beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagerberg, G.

    1960-02-15

    At present the development and use of beryllium metal for structural applications is severely hampered by its brittleness. Reasons for this lack of ductility are reviewed in discussing the deformation behaviour of beryllium in relation to other hexagonal metals. The ease of fracturing in beryllium is assumed to be a consequence of a limited number of deformation modes in combination with high deformation resistance. Models for the nucleation of fracture are suggested. The relation of ductility to elastic constants as well as to grain size, texture and alloying additions is discussed.

  2. Cyril Stanley Smith's Translations of Metallurgical Classics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The contributions of Cyril Stanley Smith to the science of nonferrous metallurgy and his historic involvement in the de- velopment of the atom bomb are well known. He also was signal in the development of the scholarly field known as the history of technology. Not only did he publish a number of books and papers on the ...

  3. Social and ethical challenges for metallurgical companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajdzik, B.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this article is an analysis of one of the most crucial aspects of the contemporary business, which is corporate social responsibility and ethical business. The notion of a socially responsible business signifies the business obligation to contribute to the sustainable economical development by way of working with employees and their families, local communities and the society as a whole in order to improve the quality of their lives. Ethical business means following the principles and standards determining a manner of conducting a given business from the moral point of view. The article contains examples of such challenges that are realised by Arcelor Mittal.

  4. Modelling of chemical reactions in metallurgical processes

    OpenAIRE

    Kinaci, M. Efe; Lichtenegger, Thomas; Schneiderbauer, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Iron-ore reduction has attracted much interest in the last three decades since it can be considered as a core process in steel industry. The iron-ore is reduced to iron with the use of blast furnace and fluidized bed technologies. To investigate the harsh conditions inside fluidized bed reactors, computational tools can be utilized. One such tool is the CFD-DEM method, in which the gas phase reactions and governing equations are calculated in the Eulerian (CFD) side, whereas the particle reac...

  5. Metallurgical examination of gun barrel screws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, E.L.; Clift, T.L.

    1996-06-01

    The examination was conducted to determine the extent of degradation that had occurred after a series of firings; these screws prevent live rounds of ammunition from being loaded into the firing chamber. One concern is that if the screw tip fails and a live round is accidentally loaded into the chamber, a live round could be fired. Another concern is that if the blunt end of the screw begins to degrade by cracking, pieces could become small projectiles during firing. All screws used in firing 100 rounds or more exhibited some degree degradation, which progressively worsened as the number of rounds fired increased. (SEM, metallography, x-ray analysis, and microhardness were used.) Presence of cracks in these screws after 100 fired rounds is a serious concern that warrants the discontinued use of these screws. The screw could be improved by selecting an alloy more resistant to thermal and chemical degradation.

  6. Survey of metallurgical recycling processes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pemsler, J.P.

    1979-03-01

    In the year 2000, the US will consume about 3.2 x 10/sup 15/ Btu to produce the seven major nonferrous metals Al, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Mg, and Ti. Of this amount, 82% will be used in the production of Al. It is projected that 0.6 x 10/sup 15/ Btu will be saved by the recycle of secondary metals. Major opportunities for increasing the extent of recycle and thereby increasing the energy savings are discussed. An inherent feature in the energistics of recycle is that physical processes such as magnetic separation, density separations, melting, and in some instances vaporization are far less energy intensive than are chemical processes associated with dissolution and electrowinning. It is in the domain of scrap of complex composition and physical form, difficult to handle by existing technology, that opportunities exist for new chemical recycle technology. Recycle of scrap metal of adequate grade is currently achieved through pyrometallurgical processes which, in many cases, are not very energy intensive as compared with hydrometallurgical processes. Preliminary flowsheets are presented for the recovery of value metals from batteries considered for use in vehicular propulsion and load leveling applications. The battery types examined are lead/acid, nickel/zinc, nickel/iron, zinc/chlorine, lithium-aluminum/iron sulfide, and sodium/sulfur. A flow sheet has been outlined for an integrated hydrometallurgical process to treat low-grade copper scrap. A fully integrated hydrometallurgical process is outlined, and costs and energy consumption are derived, for recovering zinc metal from electric furnace flue dusts. Costs and energy are high and the process does not appear to warrant development at this time. Improvement in the recycle of magnesium is associated primarily with improved recycle in the Al industry where Mg is an important alloy additive. Ni and Ti recycle are associated with improved collection and sorting of stainless steel and specialty alloys.

  7. World class manufacturing in metallurgical enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gajdzik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available World Class Manufacturing (WCM assumes increase of efficiency of the company by elimination of all the losses, wastage and dangers of safety. In ArcelorMittal the concept of WCM is implemented in particular enterprises within the capital group. In this publication the activities conducted in some of those enterprises are described.

  8. Metallurgical characterization of kaolin from Atacama, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Rivera

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to determine the exploitation potentiality of a kaolin deposit from Atacama in the north of Chile, two types of kaolin (K-1 and K-2 were characterized by XRD, XRF, SEM/EDXS, size distribution, whiteness and DSC. Kaolinite, quartz, muscovite and albite were recognized as main constituents of the ore deposit, and also a significant amount of impurities that negatively impacts on quality were detected. Results show that the low quality presented by the samples, especially K-2, impedes their industrial use as raw material and further mineral concentration processes are proposed. Finally, the results of thermal analysis confirm a conversion to metakaolin that could be the basis for an alternative processing route.

  9. The production of pig iron from crushing plant waste using hot blast cupola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusno Isnugroho

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A production of pig iron has been conducted from crushing plant waste. The process of preparing pig iron was using hot blast cupola (HBC furnace which was injected with charcoal powder to improve temperature process and reduction zone in the furnace. The process was started by washing process and magnetic separation of raw material as an effort to improve iron content degree from crushing plant waste. The next process was preparing the composite pellet with the particle size of −80 + 100 mesh and with the composition of 80% iron ore, 15% wood charcoal, and 5% bentonite. The result of pellet size was 2.5–4.0 mm. The experiment was continued to reduce pellet composite in the HBC furnace. The pig iron produced from this process contained of 93.62%Fe, 3.5%C, 1.55%Si, 0.87%Mn, 0.05%P, and 0.087%S.With this result, the pig iron produced already fulfill the metallurgical specification to be used in smelting industry. Keywords: Pig iron, Pellet, Injection, Charcoal, Hot blast cupola

  10. Single fibre strength of cellulosic fibre extracted from "Belatlan roots" plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Hanis. A., H.; Majid, M. S. Abdul; Ridzuan, M. J. M.; Fahmi, I.

    2017-12-01

    The tensile strength of a fibre extracted from "Belatlan Root" plant was investigated as potential reinforcement material in polymeric composites. Following retting process, the fibres were manually extracted from "Belatlan" root's plant. The fibres were treated with 5 % 10 %, 15 %, and 20 % sodium hydroxide (NaOH) wt. % concentration for 24 h. The single fibre tests were then performed in accordance with ASTM D3822-07 standard. The surfaces of the fibres prior and after the treatment were observed with a metallurgical Microscope MT8100 and the physical properties were recorded. Physically, in the post treatment, the fibre showed a decrease in diameter with increase in NaOH concentration The results from the mechanical testing indicates that samples subjected to 5 % NaOH treatment yielded the highest tensile strength and elastic modulus at 89.05 MPa ± 2.75 and 3.81 GPa ± 0.09 respectively compared to untreated fibres. This represents an increase of almost 72 % in tensile strength and 42 % for elastic modulus. The findings support the preliminary information for incorporating the "Belatlan Root" as possible reinforcing materials in composite structures.

  11. Installation of passive-active shufflers at Los Alamos plant environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurd, J.R.; Hsue, F.; Rinard, P.M.; Wachter, J.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Davidson, C. [Canberra Industries, Inc., Meriden, CT (United States)

    1994-08-01

    Two Canberra-built passive-active {sup 252}Cf shufflers of Los Alamos hardware and software design have been installed and are presently undergoing calibration and certification at Los Alamos National Laboratory. These instruments fulfill important safeguards and accountability measurement requirements for special nuclear material in matrices too dense or otherwise not appropriate for typical gamma-ray techniques. The ability of the shuffler to obtain precise assays under conditions of intense passive emissions of neutrons and gamma rays is a valuable asset in plant environments. This paper reports on the procurement process and the various steps involved in the installation of two shufflers at Los Alamos, one at the Chemical Metallurgical Research (CMR) Building Waste Assay Facility at TA-3 and the other at the PF4 Plutonium Facility at TA-55. Details are given on the certification procedure including the development of standards, various expected matrices, and calibration. Some safety issues are addressed, and some preliminary performance characteristics are presented based on measured background rates in the plant environments.

  12. Installation of passive-active shufflers at Los Alamos plant environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurd, J.R.; Hsue, F.; Rinard, P.M.; Wachter, J.R.; Davidson, C.

    1994-01-01

    Two Canberra-built passive-active 252 Cf shufflers of Los Alamos hardware and software design have been installed and are presently undergoing calibration and certification at Los Alamos National Laboratory. These instruments fulfill important safeguards and accountability measurement requirements for special nuclear material in matrices too dense or otherwise not appropriate for typical gamma-ray techniques. The ability of the shuffler to obtain precise assays under conditions of intense passive emissions of neutrons and gamma rays is a valuable asset in plant environments. This paper reports on the procurement process and the various steps involved in the installation of two shufflers at Los Alamos, one at the Chemical Metallurgical Research (CMR) Building Waste Assay Facility at TA-3 and the other at the PF4 Plutonium Facility at TA-55. Details are given on the certification procedure including the development of standards, various expected matrices, and calibration. Some safety issues are addressed, and some preliminary performance characteristics are presented based on measured background rates in the plant environments

  13. Etude métallurgique du soudage par friction malaxage sur un acier à haute limite élastique destiné à la construction navale : le 80 HLES Metallurgical study of friction stir welding on a steel high yield for shipbuilding: The 80 HLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allart Marion

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Le soudage par friction malaxage est un procédé de soudage relativement récent (début des années 90. Il est aujourd'hui utilisé couramment sur des alliages légers mais ne l'est que depuis peu sur les aciers. L'objectif de nos travaux est de chercher à caractériser la microstructure métallurgique et l'état de déformation et de contrainte après soudage par friction malaxage sur des échantillons d'aciers à haute limite élastique utilisés dans l'industrie navale. Nous chercherons à comprendre les phénomènes métallurgiques qui interviennent en cours de soudage. The friction stir welding is a welding process relatively recent (early 90s. It is now commonly used on light alloys but is only recently on steels. The objective of our work is to try to characterize the metallurgical microstructure and state of stress and strain after friction stir welding on samples of high strength steels used in the shipbuilding industry. We seek to understand the metallurgical phenomena that occur during welding.

  14. Metal content in street dust as a reflection of atmospheric dust emissions from coal power plants, metal smelters, and traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žibret, Gorazd; Van Tonder, Danel; Žibret, Lea

    2013-07-01

    Resuspended street dust is a source of inhalable particles in urban environments. Despite contaminated street dust being a possible health risk factor for local population, little is known about the contribution of atmospheric dust emissions and other factors to the content of toxic metals in street dust. The impact of smelting, traffic, and power plants on metal contaminates in street dust is the focus of street dust sampling at 46 locations in the Witbank area (Republic of South Africa). This area is characterized by numerous open-pit coal mines in the Karoo coal basin, which provides a cheap source of energy to numerous metallurgical smelters and ironworks and supplies coal to the coal-fired power plants located nearby. Street dust was collected on asphalt or concrete surfaces with hard plastic brushes, avoiding collecting of possible sand, soil, or plant particles. Chemical analysis was done on the <0.125 mm fraction using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry subsequent to total digestion. Exceptionally high concentrations of metals were detected with concentrations of Fe reaching 17.7%, Cr 4.3%, Mn 2%, Ni 366 mg/kg, and V 4,410 mg/kg. Factor analysis indicates three sources for the pollution. Road traffic which contributes to the high concentrations of Cu, Pb, Sb, and Sn, with the highest impacts detected in the town of Witbank. The second source is associated with the metal smelting industry, contributing to Fe, Co, Mn, and V emissions. The highest factor scores were observed around four metallurgical smelter operations, located in the Ferrobank, Highveld, and Clewer industrial areas. Impact of vanadium smelter to street dust composition could still be detected some 20 km away from the sources. Exceptionally high concentrations of Cr were observed in four samples collected next to the Ferrobank industrial area, despite Cr not being loaded in factor 2. The last source of the pollution is most probably fly ash associated with the coal-fired power plants

  15. Multinationals and plant survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    2010-01-01

    -parametric estimates show that domestic MNE plants are more likely to exit the market than other plants, also when controlling for plant-specific differences. Finally, foreign presence in the market seems to have had a negative impact on the survival rate of plants in non-exporting non- MNEs, but not to have affected...

  16. Plants get sick too!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although many people may never have given consideration to plant health, plants can suffer from a wide range of diseases. These plant diseases are caused by micro-organisms, including bacteria, fungi, and viruses. The audience will be introduced to short case studies of several plant diseases that m...

  17. Plant extraction process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    A method for producing a plant extract comprises incubating a plant material with an enzyme composition comprising a lipolytic enzyme.......A method for producing a plant extract comprises incubating a plant material with an enzyme composition comprising a lipolytic enzyme....

  18. Plant Biology Science Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, David R.

    This book contains science projects about seed plants that deal with plant physiology, plant ecology, and plant agriculture. Each of the projects includes a step-by-step experiment followed by suggestions for further investigations. Chapters include: (1) "Bean Seed Imbibition"; (2) "Germination Percentages of Different Types of Seeds"; (3)…

  19. Plants' essential chemical elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2007-01-01

    Every garden center and hardware store sells fertilizer guaranteed to "feed" plants. In a strict sense, we can't feed plants. Food contains an energy source. Green plants capture solar energy and make their own food through photosynthesis! Photosynthesis and other metabolic processes require chemical elements in appropriate doses for plants to survive...

  20. Plant Research '75

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    Research is reported on stomatal regulation of the gas exchanges between plant and environment; inhibitory effects in flower formation; plant growth and development through hormones; hormone action; development and nitrogen fixation in algae; primary cell wall glycoprotein ectensin; enzymic mechanisms and control of polysaccharide and glycoprotein synthesis; molecular studies of membrane studies; sensory transduction in plants; regulation of formation of protein complexes and enzymes in higher plant cell and mechanism of sulfur dioxide toxicity in plants. (PCS)

  1. Characterization of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, and polychlorinated naphthalenes in the environment surrounding secondary copper and aluminum metallurgical facilities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jicheng; Zheng, Minghui; Liu, Wenbin; Nie, Zhiqiang; Li, Changliang; Liu, Guorui; Xiao, Ke

    2014-10-01

    Unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants (UP-POPs) were determined in ambient air from around five secondary non-ferrous metal processing plants in China, to investigate the potential impacts of the emissions of these plants on their surrounding environments. The target compounds were polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs), and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs). The PCDD/F, dl-PCB, and PCN concentrations in the ambient air downwind of the plants were 4.70-178, 8.23-7520 and 152-4190 pg/m(3), respectively, and the concentrations upwind of the plants were lower. Clear correlations were found between ambient air and stack gas concentrations of the PCDD/Fs, dl-PCBs, and PCNs among the five plants, respectively. Furthermore, the UP-POPs homolog and congener patterns in the ambient air were similar to the patterns in the stack gas samples. These results indicate that UP-POPs emissions from the plants investigated have obvious impacts on the environments surrounding the plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Dor orofacial e absenteísmo em trabalhadores da indústria metalúrgica e mecânica Orofacial pain and absenteeism in workers of the metallurgic and mechanics industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josimari Telino de Lacerda

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi verificar a prevalência de dor orofacial e sua relação com absenteísmo em trabalhadores do setor metalúrgico e mecânico do município de Xanxerê, Santa Catarina. Realizou-se um estudo transversal envolvendo todos os trabalhadores do sexo masculino (n = 480 das 13 indústrias do setor no município. As informações foram coletadas por meio de entrevistas estruturadas. Informações sócio-demográficas, prevalência, severidade e localização de dor orofacial no último semestre, bem como sobre falta ao trabalho devido à dor orofacial, compuseram o questionário. Dados de identificação, setor e turno de trabalho foram coletados nos departamentos de recursos humanos das empresas. Os dados foram analisados por meio de estatística descritiva e testes de associação de qui-quadrado de Pearson entre absenteísmo e dor orofacial. A prevalência de dor orofacial foi de 66,1%, sendo dor de dente provocada ou dor de dente espontânea os tipos mais frequentes. O absenteísmo devido a dor orofacial no último semestre foi relatado por 9,3% dos trabalhadores, mostrando-se associado à dor de dente espontânea (p The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of orofacial pain and its association with absenteeism in worke rs of the metallurgic and mechanics industry of the city of Xanxerê, Brazil. A cross sectional study was performed involving all male workers(n=480 of the 13 industries of the sector in the city. The information was collected by means of structured interviews. Socio-demographic information, prevalence, severity and localization of orofacial pain in the last semester as well as on absenteeism due to orofacial pain formed the questionnaire. Identification data, work sector and shift were collected in the departments of human resources of the companies. The data were assessed using descriptive statistics and Pearson chi-squared tests between absenteeism and pain in the orofacial region. The

  3. Aspectos metalúrgicos de revestimentos dissimilares com a superliga à base de níquel inconel 625 Metallurgical aspects of dissimilar weld overlays of inconel 625 nickel based superalloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleiton Carvalho Silva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Prolongar a vida útil e aumentar a confiabilidade de equipamentos e tubulações de plantas de produção e processamento de petróleo é uma busca constante no setor de petróleo e gás. Tais aspectos dependem essencialmente do uso de ligas resistentes à corrosão. Neste contexto, a soldagem de revestimento com superligas à base de níquel tem sido uma alternativa interessante, pois confere aos equipamentos uma alta resistência à corrosão com um custo inferior, se comparado à fabricação de componentes ou tubulações maciças com superligas. Assim, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi investigar o comportamento metalúrgico de revestimento de superliga à base de níquel do tipo Inconel 625 depositados pelo processo TIG com alimentação de arame frio. As soldagens foram realizadas em uma bancada robotizada, empregando uma fonte eletrônica de soldagem com sistema de aquisição de dados para o monitoramento dos sinais de corrente e tensão. A caracterização microestrutural foi realizada através das técnicas de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV e transmissão (MET, espectroscopia de energia dispersiva de raios-X (EDS. Os resultados mostraram que a microestrutura do metal de solda foi constituída por uma matriz γ com fases secundárias ricas em Nb. Foi encontrada a formação de precipitados complexos de carbonetos/nitretos de Ti e Nb.To extend the life and reliability of pipes and equipment in oil & gas production and processing settings is a continuous demand. These aspects are essentially dependent on corrosion resistant alloys used. In this context, the weld overlay with Ni-based superalloys is a great interesting alternative, since improve the corrosion resistance without increase the cost of manufacture when compared to massive equipment. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the metallurgical aspects of Inconel 625 weld overlays deposited by GTAW cold wire feed process. The welds were performed using a

  4. Better plants through mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This is a public relations film describing problems associated with the genetic improvement of crop plants through induced mutations. Mutations are the ultimate source of genetic variation in plants. Mutation induction is now established as a practical tool in plant breeding. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division and the IAEA's laboratory at Seibersdorf have supported research and practical implementation of mutation breeding of both seed propagated and vegetatively propagated plants. Plant biotechnology based on in vitro culture and recombinant DNA technology will make a further significant contribution to plant breeding

  5. Plant Phenotype Characterization System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel W McDonald; Ronald B Michaels

    2005-09-09

    This report is the final scientific report for the DOE Inventions and Innovations Project: Plant Phenotype Characterization System, DE-FG36-04GO14334. The period of performance was September 30, 2004 through July 15, 2005. The project objective is to demonstrate the viability of a new scientific instrument concept for the study of plant root systems. The root systems of plants are thought to be important in plant yield and thus important to DOE goals in renewable energy sources. The scientific study and understanding of plant root systems is hampered by the difficulty in observing root activity and the inadequacy of existing root study instrumentation options. We have demonstrated a high throughput, non-invasive, high resolution technique for visualizing plant root systems in-situ. Our approach is based upon low-energy x-ray radiography and the use of containers and substrates (artificial soil) which are virtually transparent to x-rays. The system allows us to germinate and grow plant specimens in our containers and substrates and to generate x-ray images of the developing root system over time. The same plant can be imaged at different times in its development. The system can be used for root studies in plant physiology, plant morphology, plant breeding, plant functional genomics and plant genotype screening.

  6. Classification of cultivated plants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandenburg, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    Agricultural practice demands principles for classification, starting from the basal entity in cultivated plants: the cultivar. In establishing biosystematic relationships between wild, weedy and cultivated plants, the species concept needs re-examination. Combining of botanic classification, based

  7. Plant tissue culture techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Dieter Illg

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions.

  8. Terrestrial plant methane production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Bruhn, Dan; Møller, Ian M.

    We evaluate all experimental work published on the phenomenon of aerobic methane (CH4) generation in terrestrial plants. We conclude that the phenomenon is true. Four stimulating factors have been observed to induce aerobic plant CH4 production, i.e. cutting injuries, increasing temperature...... the aerobic methane emission in plants. Future work is needed for establishing the relative contribution of several proven potential CH4 precursors in plant material....

  9. Plant aquaporins: roles in plant physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guowei; Santoni, Véronique; Maurel, Christophe

    2014-05-01

    Aquaporins are membrane channels that facilitate the transport of water and small neutral molecules across biological membranes of most living organisms. Here, we present comprehensive insights made on plant aquaporins in recent years, pointing to their molecular and physiological specificities with respect to animal or microbial counterparts. In plants, aquaporins occur as multiple isoforms reflecting a high diversity of cellular localizations and various physiological substrates in addition to water. Of particular relevance for plants is the transport by aquaporins of dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide or metalloids such as boric or silicic acid. The mechanisms that determine the gating and subcellular localization of plant aquaporins are extensively studied. They allow aquaporin regulation in response to multiple environmental and hormonal stimuli. Thus, aquaporins play key roles in hydraulic regulation and nutrient transport in roots and leaves. They contribute to several plant growth and developmental processes such as seed germination or emergence of lateral roots. Plants with genetically altered aquaporin functions are now tested for their ability to improve plant resistance to stresses. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Aquaporins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Advanced Plant Habitat (APH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Stephanie E. (Compiler); Levine, Howard G.; Reed, David W.

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Plant Habitat (APH) hardware will be a large growth volume plant habitat, capable of hosting multigenerational studies, in which environmental variables (e.g., temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide level light intensity and spectral quality) can be tracked and controlled in support of whole plant physiological testing and Bio-regenerative Life Support System investigations.

  11. Growing Plants and Minds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presser, Ashley Lewis; Kamdar, Danae; Vidiksis, Regan; Goldstein, Marion; Dominguez, Ximena; Orr, Jillian

    2017-01-01

    Many preschool classrooms explore plant growth. However, because many plants take a long time to grow, it is often hard to facilitate engagement in some practices (i.e., since change is typically not observable from one day to another, children often forget their prior predictions or cannot recall what plants looked like days or weeks earlier).…

  12. Plant Physiology in Greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelink, E.; Kierkels, T.

    2015-01-01

    Since 2004 Ep Heuvelink and Tijs Kierkels have been writing a continuing series of plant physiology articles for the Dutch horticultural journal Onder Glas and the international edition In Greenhouses. The book Plant Physiology in Greenhouses consists of 50 of their plant physiology articles. The

  13. Oak Tree Planting Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherryl L. Nives; William D. Tietje; William H. Weitkamp

    1991-01-01

    An Oak Tree Planting Project was conducted during 1989/90 in San Luis Obispo County by the Integrated Hardwood Range Management Program (IHRMP)/Central Coast. The local media and an IHRMP workshop were used to publicize the Planting Project and give information on the status of oaks (Quercus spp.) in California and oak planting techniques. Outreach...

  14. Plant Systems Biology (editorial)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In June 2003, Plant Physiology published an Arabidopsis special issue devoted to plant systems biology. The intention of Natasha Raikhel and Gloria Coruzzi, the two editors of this first-of-its-kind issue, was ‘‘to help nucleate this new effort within the plant community’’ as they considered that ‘‘...

  15. Plant Breeding Goes Microbial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, Zhong; Jousset, Alexandre|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370632656

    Plant breeding has traditionally improved traits encoded in the plant genome. Here we propose an alternative framework reaching novel phenotypes by modifying together genomic information and plant-associated microbiota. This concept is made possible by a novel technology that enables the

  16. Plants and people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathryn Lynch

    2012-01-01

    Salal! Salmonberries! Sword ferns! The Northwest is home to a great number of native plant species that humans have used for centuries. Sadly, many local children are unaware of the history and culture connecting people and plants. Yet, from the beginning of time, plants have provided us food, medicine, and material for clothing, shelter, transportation, decoration,...

  17. Small hydroelectric power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helgesen, Boerre

    2002-01-01

    Small hydroelectric power plants are power plants of 1 - 10 MW. For a supplier, this is an unnatural limit. A more natural limit involves compact engine design and simplified control system. The article discusses most of the engine and electrotechnical aspects in the development, construction and operation of such a plant

  18. Power Plant Cycling Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

    2012-07-01

    This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

  19. Regional native plant strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendell G. Hassell

    1999-01-01

    Because of increasing public interest in native plants, regional groups have been cooperating to develop native species. The Federal Native Plants Initiative was formed in 1994 to coordinate and encourage the development and use of native plants. The program they developed includes public involvement, organizational structure, technical work groups, implementation...

  20. Diagnosing plant problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheryl A. Smith

    2008-01-01

    Diagnosing Christmas tree problems can be a challenge, requiring a basic knowledge of plant culture and physiology, the effect of environmental influences on plant health, and the ability to identify the possible causes of plant problems. Developing a solution or remedy to the problem depends on a proper diagnosis, a process that requires recognition of a problem and...

  1. Plant Tissue Culture

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    closely linked with the discovery and characterization of plant hormones, and has facilitated our understanding of plant growth and development. Furthermore, the ability to grow plant cells and tissues in culture and to control their development forms the basis of many practical applications in agriculture, horticulture indus-.

  2. Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) are a group of bacteria that enhances plant growth and yield via various plant growth promoting substances as well as biofertilizers. Given the negative environmental impact of artificial fertiliz- ers and their increasing costs, the use of beneficial soil micro- organisms such as ...

  3. TRANSGENIC PLANT CONTAINMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The new technology using plant genetics to produce chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and therapeuitics in a wide array of new plant forms requires sufficient testing to ensure that these new plant introductions are benign in the environment. A recent effort to provide necessary guidan...

  4. Plant innate immunity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Plants are invaded by an array of pathogens of which only a few succeed in causing disease. The attack by others is countered by a sophisticated immune system possessed by the plants. The plant immune system is broadly divided into two, viz. microbial-associated molecular-patterns-triggered immunity (MTI) and ...

  5. Plants under dual attack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponzio, C.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Though immobile, plants are members of complex environments, and are under constant threat from a wide range of attackers, which includes organisms such as insect herbivores or plant pathogens. Plants have developed sophisticated defenses against these attackers, and include chemical responses such

  6. Statistically Valid Planting Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. B. Briscoe

    1961-01-01

    More than 100 million tree seedlings are planted each year in Latin America, and at least ten time'that many should be planted Rational control and development of a program of such magnitude require establishing and interpreting carefully planned trial plantings which will yield statistically valid answers to real and important questions. Unfortunately, many...

  7. Ways of adaptation of the plant populations to chemical and radioactive contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozolotina, V.; Bezel' , V.; Zhuykova, T.; Severu' Khina, O.; Ulyanova, E. [Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology, Ural Division of Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    Chemical agents (heavy metals, acids, etc.) and radiation render their influence upon biota being clearly distinct in primary mechanisms of action. However, lively organisms demonstrate one and the same set [arsenal] of response reactions, and thus it is important to reveal the ways of their realization caused by different types of techno-genic impacts. Our work was intended to examine the seed progeny of the dandelion, Taraxacum officinale, from radionuclides-contaminated coeno-populations (grown at the territories influenced by Eastern-Ural radioactive trace, in the Techa-river flood plain) and those situated in the nearest impact zone affected by a large metallurgical plant in the Urals. Plots, differently distanced from the enterprise, showed heavy metal contamination loads 8-33 times higher than the control site did. Radionuclides concentrations ({sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs) within the contaminated zone exceeded the background values 4-40 times. The study allowed estimation of the seed progeny vitality level for different coeno-populations, comparison of their adaptive potential in regard to heavy metals tolerance and gamma radiation resistance, estimation of abnormal seedlings [sprouts] frequency values. It was shown [found] that under techno-genic pollution the dandelion coeno-populations usually demonstrate wider variations of different characteristics (vitality, mutability, root and leaf growth rates) as compared to those in the background zone. As a general regularity one can regard the phenomenon, that negative effects were not marked to be increased by heavier pollution loads, irrespectively of the agents nature. (author)

  8. Ways of adaptation of the plant populations to chemical and radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozolotina, V.; Bezel', V.; Zhuykova, T.; Severu'Khina, O.; Ulyanova, E.

    2004-01-01

    Chemical agents (heavy metals, acids, etc.) and radiation render their influence upon biota being clearly distinct in primary mechanisms of action. However, lively organisms demonstrate one and the same set [arsenal] of response reactions, and thus it is important to reveal the ways of their realization caused by different types of techno-genic impacts. Our work was intended to examine the seed progeny of the dandelion, Taraxacum officinale, from radionuclides-contaminated coeno-populations (grown at the territories influenced by Eastern-Ural radioactive trace, in the Techa-river flood plain) and those situated in the nearest impact zone affected by a large metallurgical plant in the Urals. Plots, differently distanced from the enterprise, showed heavy metal contamination loads 8-33 times higher than the control site did. Radionuclides concentrations ( 90 Sr and 137 Cs) within the contaminated zone exceeded the background values 4-40 times. The study allowed estimation of the seed progeny vitality level for different coeno-populations, comparison of their adaptive potential in regard to heavy metals tolerance and gamma radiation resistance, estimation of abnormal seedlings [sprouts] frequency values. It was shown [found] that under techno-genic pollution the dandelion coeno-populations usually demonstrate wider variations of different characteristics (vitality, mutability, root and leaf growth rates) as compared to those in the background zone. As a general regularity one can regard the phenomenon, that negative effects were not marked to be increased by heavier pollution loads, irrespectively of the agents nature. (author)

  9. Leaching of valuable elements from thermal power plant bottom ash using a thermo-hydrometallurgical process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojinova, Darinka; Teodosieva, Ralitsa

    2016-06-01

    The solid industrial wastes generated from thermal power plants (TPPs) can be considered as renewable secondary sources for recovery of valuable metals. This study presents the results from investigations that integrated a thermo-hydro-metallurgical method for treatment of bottom ash obtained from the Enel Maritsa East 3 TPP in Bulgaria. Leaching was performed with 20, 30 and 40 wt% sulphuric acid, respectively, in an autoclave at 100(o)C, 120(o)C and 140(o)C for 120, 240, 360 and 480 min, at a constant value of the liquid/solid ratio. After autoclaving, the samples (suspensions) were diluted with a constant value of water and stirring at 50(o)C for 60 min. On the basis of the experimental data the leaching efficiency (α) of the elements in the liquid phase after filtration was estimated. The leaching of aluminium increases significantly with increasing of the temperature, reaching the maximum value of 70 wt%. The highest leaching efficiency values for the other elements are as follows: Fe (86.4%), Ca (86.6%), Na (86.6%), Ni (83.3%) and Zn (83.3%). The maximum value of leaching for Mg, K, Mn, Cu and Cr is in the interval of 46-70%. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. A Study on the Evaluation Technology of Welds Integrity in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Hyun Young; Kim, Jong Sung; Jin, Tae Eun

    2007-01-01

    The final goal of this study is to develop the core technologies applicable to the design, operation and maintenance of welds in nuclear structures. This study includes predicting microstructure changes and residual stress for welded parts of nuclear power plant components. Furthermore, researches are performed on evaluating fatigue, corrosion, and hydrogen induced cracking and finally constructs systematically integrated evaluation system for structural integrity of nuclear welded structures. In this study, metallurgical and mechanical approaches have been effectively coordinated considering real welding phenomena in the fields of welds properties such as microstructure, composition and residual stress, and in the fields of damage evaluations such as fatigue, corrosion, fatigue crack propagation, and stress corrosion cracking. Evaluation techniques tried in this study can be much economical and effective in that it uses theoretical/semi-empirical but includes many additional parameters that can be introduced in real phenomena such as phase transformation, strength mismatch and residual stress. It is clear that residual stress makes great contribution to fatigue and stress corrosion cracking. Therefore the mitigation techniques have been approached by reducing the residual stress of selected parts resulting in successful conclusions

  11. 40 CFR 421.96 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... wastewater pollutants in metallurgical acid plant blowdown introduced into a POTW shall not exceed the following values: Subpart I—Metallurgical Acid Plant—PSNS Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Metallurgical Acid Plants...

  12. Hydroelectric Power Plants Dobsina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majercak, V.; Srenkelova, Z.; Kristak, J.G.

    1997-01-01

    In this brochure the Hydroelectric Power Plants Dobsina, (VED), subsidiary of the utility Slovenske Elektrarne, a.s. (Slovak Electric, plc. Bratislava) are presented. VED is mainly aimed at generating peak-load electrical energy and maintenance of operational equipment. Reaching its goals, company is first of all focused on reliability of production, economy and effectiveness, keeping principles of work safety and industry safety standards and also ecology. VED operates eight hydroelectric power plants, from which PVE Ruzin I and PVE Dobsina I are pump storage ones and they are controlled directly by the Slovak Energy Dispatch Centre located in Zilina thought the system LS 3200. Those power plants participate in secondary regulation of electrical network of Slovakia. They are used to compensate balance in reference to foreign electrical networks and they are put into operation independently from VED. Activity of the branch is focused mainly on support of fulfilment of such an important aim as electric network regulation. Beginnings of the subsidiary Hydroelectric Power Plants Dobsina are related to the year of 1948. After commissioning of the pump storage Hydroelectric Power Plants Dobsina in 1953, the plant started to carry out its mission. Since that time the subsidiary has been enlarged by other seven power plants, through which it is fulfilling its missions nowadays. The characteristics of these hydroelectric power plants (The pump-storage power plant Dobsina, Small hydroelectric power plant Dobsina II, Small hydroelectric power plant Rakovec, Small hydroelectric power plant Svedlar, Hydroelectric power plant Domasa, The pump-storage power plant Ruzin, and Small hydroelectric power plant Krompachy) are described in detail. Employees welfare and public relations are presented

  13. Protein carbonylation in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ian Max; Havelund, Jesper; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina

    2017-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the current knowledge on protein carbonylation in plants and its role in plant physiology. It starts with a brief outline of the turnover and production sites of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants and the causes of protein carbonylation. This is followed...... by a description of the methods used to study protein carbonylation in plants, which is also very brief as the methods are similar to those used in studies on animals. The chapter also focuses on protein carbonylation in plants in general and in mitochondria and in seeds in particular, as case stories where...

  14. Plants that attack plants: molecular elucidation of plant parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Satoko; Shirasu, Ken

    2012-12-01

    Obligate parasitic plants in the family Orobanchaceae, such as Striga and Orobanche (including Phelipanche) spp., parasitize important crops and cause severe agricultural damage. Recent molecular studies have begun to reveal how these parasites have adapted to hosts in a parasitic lifecycle. The parasites detect nearby host roots and germinate by a mechanism that seems to have evolved from a conserved germination system found in non-parasites. The development of a specialized infecting organ called a haustorium is a unique feature of plant parasites and is triggered by host compounds and redox signals. Newly developed genomic and genetic resources will facilitate more rapid progress toward a molecular understanding of plant parasitism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Photochemical smog and plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawada, T.

    1974-07-01

    Surveys of plant damage due to photochemical smog are summarized. The components of smog which appear to be responsible for plant damage include ozone and peroxyacyl nitrates. Their phytotoxic effects are much greater than those due to sulfur oxides. Damage surveys since 1970 reveal the following symptoms appearing on herbaceous plants (morning glory, cocks comb, dahlia, knotweed, petunia, chickweed, Welsh onion, spinach, Chinese cabbage, chard, taro): yellowish-white leaf discoloration, white and brown spots on matured leaves, and silvering of the lower surfaces of young leaves. Symptoms which appear on arboraceous plants such as zelkova, poplar, ginkgo, planetree, rose mallow, magnolia, pine tree, and rhododendron include early yellowing and reddening, white or brown spots, and untimely leaf-fall. The above plants are now utilized as indicator plants of photochemical smog. Surveys covering a broad area of Tokyo and three other prefectures indicate that plant damage due to photochemical smog extends to relatively unpolluted areas.

  16. Reassessing apoptosis in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, Martin; Williams, Brett; Li, Yurong; de Figueiredo, Paul; Wolpert, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    Cell death can be driven by a genetically programmed signalling pathway known as programmed cell death (PCD). In plants, PCD occurs during development as well as in response to environmental and biotic stimuli. Our understanding of PCD regulation in plants has advanced significantly over the past two decades; however, the molecular machinery responsible for driving the system remains elusive. Thus, whether conserved PCD regulatory mechanisms include plant apoptosis remains enigmatic. Animal apoptotic regulators, including Bcl-2 family members, have not been identified in plants but expression of such regulators can trigger or suppress plant PCD. Moreover, plants exhibit nearly all of the biochemical and morphological features of apoptosis. One difference between plant and animal PCD is the absence of phagocytosis in plants. Evidence is emerging that the vacuole may be key to removal of unwanted plant cells, and may carry out functions that are analogous to animal phagocytosis. Here, we provide context for the argument that apoptotic-like cell death occurs in plants.

  17. Safe genetically engineered plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosellini, D; Veronesi, F

    2007-01-01

    The application of genetic engineering to plants has provided genetically modified plants (GMPs, or transgenic plants) that are cultivated worldwide on increasing areas. The most widespread GMPs are herbicide-resistant soybean and canola and insect-resistant corn and cotton. New GMPs that produce vaccines, pharmaceutical or industrial proteins, and fortified food are approaching the market. The techniques employed to introduce foreign genes into plants allow a quite good degree of predictability of the results, and their genome is minimally modified. However, some aspects of GMPs have raised concern: (a) control of the insertion site of the introduced DNA sequences into the plant genome and of its mutagenic effect; (b) presence of selectable marker genes conferring resistance to an antibiotic or an herbicide, linked to the useful gene; (c) insertion of undesired bacterial plasmid sequences; and (d) gene flow from transgenic plants to non-transgenic crops or wild plants. In response to public concerns, genetic engineering techniques are continuously being improved. Techniques to direct foreign gene integration into chosen genomic sites, to avoid the use of selectable genes or to remove them from the cultivated plants, to reduce the transfer of undesired bacterial sequences, and make use of alternative, safer selectable genes, are all fields of active research. In our laboratory, some of these new techniques are applied to alfalfa, an important forage plant. These emerging methods for plant genetic engineering are briefly reviewed in this work

  18. Aerial radiological survey of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area, Bonsal, North Carolina. Date of survey: June 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jobst, J.E.

    1984-10-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant near Bonsal, North Carolina was conducted during the period 19 to 26 June 1984. The survey encompassed a 263-square-kilometer (101-square-mile) area centered on the reactor facilities. Inferred exposure rates were due primarily to naturally occurring gamma-emitting radionuclides and cosmic ray activity (estimated at 3.6 μR/h). The exposure rates varied broadly, from 4 to 11 μR/h. Most of the forest and farm land in the surrounding countryside ranged from 6 to 9 μR/h. Two areas showed slightly elevated activity (9 to 11 μR/h) due to Plant activities: (1) the land immediately surrounding the reactor because of construction materials and the absence of vegetation, (2) a metallurgical laboratory storage area containing small quantities of fission products. Spectral analysis of the latter showed that 60 Co was the primary contributor to this elevated activity. Ground-based measurements made in several areas around the Plant site were consistent with the aerial data. This was the first aerial radiological survey conducted over this area. 6 references, 7 figures, 3 tables

  19. Hormesis and plant biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calabrese, Edward J. [Department of Public Health, Environmental Health Sciences Division, Pleasant Street, Morrill I, N344, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)], E-mail: edwardc@schoolph.umass.edu; Blain, Robyn B. [Department of Public Health, Environmental Health Sciences Division, Pleasant Street, Morrill I, N344, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2009-01-15

    A database has been developed that demonstrates experimental evidence of hormesis. It includes information from a broad range of biological models, including plants, and information on study design, dose-response features, and physical/chemical properties of the agents. An assessment of plant hormetic dose responses is presented based on greater than 3000 plant endpoints. Plant hormetic dose responses were observed for numerous endpoints including disease incidence, reproductive indices, mutagenic endpoints, various metabolic parameters, developmental processes, and a range of growth indicators. Quantitative features of these dose responses typically display a maximum stimulatory response less than two-fold greater than controls and a width of the stimulatory response usually less than 10-fold in dose range. The database establishes that hormetic dose responses commonly occur in plants, are broadly generalizable, and have quantitative features similar to hormetic dose responses found for animals. - Hormesis commonly occurs within plant species.

  20. Conditional sterility in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Richard B.; McKinney, Elizabeth; Kim, Tehryung

    2010-02-23

    The present disclosure provides methods, recombinant DNA molecules, recombinant host cells containing the DNA molecules, and transgenic plant cells, plant tissue and plants which contain and express at least one antisense or interference RNA specific for a thiamine biosynthetic coding sequence or a thiamine binding protein or a thiamine-degrading protein, wherein the RNA or thiamine binding protein is expressed under the regulatory control of a transcription regulatory sequence which directs expression in male and/or female reproductive tissue. These transgenic plants are conditionally sterile; i.e., they are fertile only in the presence of exogenous thiamine. Such plants are especially appropriate for use in the seed industry or in the environment, for example, for use in revegetation of contaminated soils or phytoremediation, especially when those transgenic plants also contain and express one or more chimeric genes which confer resistance to contaminants.

  1. Annual Plant Reviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    analysing other organisms. This volume aims to highlight the ways in which proteome analysis has been used to probe the complexities of plant biochemistry and physiology. It is aimed at researchers in plant biochemistry, genomics, transcriptomics and metabolomics who wish to gain an up-to-date insight......, three dimensional structures and functions of each protein in a biological system. In plant science, the number of proteome studies is rapidly expanding after the completion of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome sequence, and proteome analyses of other important or emerging model systems and crop plants...... are in progress or are being initiated. Proteome analysis in plants is subject to the same obstacles and limitations as in other organisms, but the nature of plant tissues, with their rigid cell walls and complex variety of secondary metabolites, means that extra challenges are involved that may not be faced when...

  2. Annual Plant Reviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , three dimensional structures and functions of each protein in a biological system. In plant science, the number of proteome studies is rapidly expanding after the completion of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome sequence, and proteome analyses of other important or emerging model systems and crop plants...... are in progress or are being initiated. Proteome analysis in plants is subject to the same obstacles and limitations as in other organisms, but the nature of plant tissues, with their rigid cell walls and complex variety of secondary metabolites, means that extra challenges are involved that may not be faced when...... analysing other organisms. This volume aims to highlight the ways in which proteome analysis has been used to probe the complexities of plant biochemistry and physiology. It is aimed at researchers in plant biochemistry, genomics, transcriptomics and metabolomics who wish to gain an up-to-date insight...

  3. SELENIUM IN HIGHER PLANTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, N.; Zayed, A. M.; De Souza, M. P.; Tarun, A. S.

    2000-06-01

    Plants vary considerably in their physiological response to selenium (Se). Some plant species growing on seleniferous soils are Se tolerant and accumulate very high concentrations of Se (Se accumulators), but most plants are Se nonaccumulators and are Se-sensitive. This review summarizes knowledge of the physiology and biochemistry of both types of plants, particularly with regard to Se uptake and transport, biochemical pathways of assimilation, volatilization and incorporation into proteins, and mechanisms of toxicity and tolerance. Molecular approaches are providing new insights into the role of sulfate transporters and sulfur assimilation enzymes in selenate uptake and metabolism, as well as the question of Se essentiality in plants. Recent advances in our understanding of the plant's ability to metabolize Se into volatile Se forms (phytovolatilization) are discussed, along with the application of phytoremediation for the cleanup of Se contaminated environments.

  4. Plant synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wusheng; Stewart, C Neal

    2015-05-01

    Plant synthetic biology is an emerging field that combines engineering principles with plant biology toward the design and production of new devices. This emerging field should play an important role in future agriculture for traditional crop improvement, but also in enabling novel bioproduction in plants. In this review we discuss the design cycles of synthetic biology as well as key engineering principles, genetic parts, and computational tools that can be utilized in plant synthetic biology. Some pioneering examples are offered as a demonstration of how synthetic biology can be used to modify plants for specific purposes. These include synthetic sensors, synthetic metabolic pathways, and synthetic genomes. We also speculate about the future of synthetic biology of plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Design of chemical plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Il; Kim, Seung Jae; Yang, Jae Ho; Ryu, Hwa Won

    1993-01-01

    This book describes design of chemical plant, which includes chemical engineer and plan for chemical plant, development of chemical process, cost engineering pattern, design and process development, general plant construction plan, project engineering, foundation for economy on assets and depreciation, estimation for cost on capital investment and manufacturing cost, design with computers optimal design and method like fluid mechanics design chemical device and estimation for cost, such as dispatch of material and device writing on design report and appendixes.

  6. Towards plant wires

    OpenAIRE

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In experimental laboratory studies we evaluate a possibility of making electrical wires from living plants. In scoping experiments we use lettuce seedlings as a prototype model of a plant wire. We approximate an electrical potential transfer function by applying direct current voltage to the lettuce seedlings and recording output voltage. We analyse oscillation frequencies of the output potential and assess noise immunity of the plant wires. Our findings will be used in future designs of self...

  7. Explosive Formulation Pilot Plant

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Pilot Plant for Explosive Formulation supports the development of new explosives that are comprised of several components. This system is particularly beneficial...

  8. Epigenetic Regulation in Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikaard, Craig S.; Mittelsten Scheid, Ortrun

    2014-01-01

    The study of epigenetics in plants has a long and rich history, from initial descriptions of non-Mendelian gene behaviors to seminal discoveries of chromatin-modifying proteins and RNAs that mediate gene silencing in most eukaryotes, including humans. Genetic screens in the model plant Arabidopsis have been particularly rewarding, identifying more than 130 epigenetic regulators thus far. The diversity of epigenetic pathways in plants is remarkable, presumably contributing to the phenotypic plasticity of plant postembryonic development and the ability to survive and reproduce in unpredictable environments. PMID:25452385

  9. Plant Transporter Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bo

    Membrane transport proteins (transporters) play a critical role for numerous biological processes, by controlling the movements of ions and molecules in and out of cells. In plants, transporters thus function as gatekeepers between the plant and its surrounding environment and between organs......, tissues, cells and intracellular compartments. Since plants are highly compartmentalized organisms with complex transportation infrastructures, they consequently have many transporters. However, the vast majority of predicted transporters have not yet been experimentally verified to have transport...... activity. This project contains a review of the implemented methods, which have led to plant transporter identification, and present our progress on creating a high-throughput functional genomics transporter identification platform....

  10. Plant Habitat (PH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onate, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will soon have a platform for conducting fundamental research of Large Plants. Plant Habitat (PH) is designed to be a fully controllable environment for high-quality plant physiological research. PH will control light quality, level, and timing, temperature, CO2, relative humidity, and irrigation, while scrubbing ethylene. Additional capabilities include leaf temperature and root zone moisture and oxygen sensing. The light cap will have red (630 nm), blue (450 nm), green (525 nm), far red (730 nm) and broad spectrum white LEDs. There will be several internal cameras (visible and IR) to monitor and record plant growth and operations.

  11. Towards plant wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2014-08-01

    In experimental laboratory studies we evaluate a possibility of making electrical wires from living plants. In scoping experiments we use lettuce seedlings as a prototype model of a plant wire. We approximate an electrical potential transfer function by applying direct current voltage to the lettuce seedlings and recording output voltage. We analyse oscillation frequencies of the output potential and assess noise immunity of the plant wires. Our findings will be used in future designs of self-growing wetware circuits and devices, and integration of plant-based electronic components into future and emergent bio-hybrid systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. MBS Native Plant Communities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data layer contains results of the Minnesota County Biological Survey (MCBS). It includes polygons representing the highest quality native plant communities...

  13. The Kuroshio power plant

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Falin

    2013-01-01

    By outlining a new design or the Kuroshio power plant, new approaches to turbine design, anchorage system planning, deep sea marine engineering and power plant operations and maintenance are explored and suggested. The impact on the local environment, particularly in the face of natural disasters, is also considered to provide a well rounded introduction to plan and build a 30MW pilot power plant. Following a literature review, the six chapters of this book propose a conceptual design by focusing on the plant's core technologies and establish the separate analysis logics for turbine design and

  14. Offshore atomic power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Various merits of offshore atomic power plants are illustrated, and their systems are assessed. The planning of the offshore atomic power plants in USA is reviewed, and the construction costs of the offshore plant in Japan were estimated. Air pollution problem may be solved by the offshore atomic power plants remarkably. Deep water at low temperature may be advantageously used as cooling water for condensers. Marine resources may be bred by building artificial habitats and by providing spring-up equipments. In the case of floating plants, the plant design can be standardized so that the construction costs may be reduced. The offshore plants can be classified into three systems, namely artificial island system, floating system and sea bottom-based system. The island system may be realized with the present level of civil engineering, but requires the development of technology for the resistance of base against earthquake and its calculation means. The floating system may be constructed with conventional power plant engineering and shipbuilding engineering, but the aseismatic stability of breakwater may be a problem to be solved. Deep water floating system and deep water submerging system are conceivable, but its realization may be difficult. The sea bottom-based system with large caissons can be realized by the present civil engineering, but the construction of the caissons, stability against earthquake and resistance to waves may be problems to be solved. The technical prediction and assessment of new plant sites for nuclear power plants have been reported by Science and Technology Agency in 1974. The construction costs of an offshore plant has been estimated by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry to be yen71,026/kW as of 1985. (Iwakiri, K.)

  15. Automated information system for analysis and prediction of production situations in blast furnace plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrov, V. V.; Spirin, N. A.

    2016-09-01

    Advances in modern science and technology are inherently connected with the development, implementation, and widespread use of computer systems based on mathematical modeling. Algorithms and computer systems are gaining practical significance solving a range of process tasks in metallurgy of MES-level (Manufacturing Execution Systems - systems controlling industrial process) of modern automated information systems at the largest iron and steel enterprises in Russia. This fact determines the necessity to develop information-modeling systems based on mathematical models that will take into account the physics of the process, the basics of heat and mass exchange, the laws of energy conservation, and also the peculiarities of the impact of technological and standard characteristics of raw materials on the manufacturing process data. Special attention in this set of operations for metallurgic production is devoted to blast-furnace production, as it consumes the greatest amount of energy, up to 50% of the fuel used in ferrous metallurgy. The paper deals with the requirements, structure and architecture of BF Process Engineer's Automated Workstation (AWS), a computer decision support system of MES Level implemented in the ICS of the Blast Furnace Plant at Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel Works. It presents a brief description of main model subsystems as well as assumptions made in the process of mathematical modelling. Application of the developed system allows the engineering and process staff to analyze online production situations in the blast furnace plant, to solve a number of process tasks related to control of heat, gas dynamics and slag conditions of blast-furnace smelting as well as to calculate the optimal composition of blast-furnace slag, which eventually results in increasing technical and economic performance of blast-furnace production.

  16. Exotic invasive plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolyn Hull Sieg; Barbara G. Phillips; Laura P. Moser

    2003-01-01

    Ecosystems worldwide are threatened by nonnative plant invasions that can cause undesirable, irreversible changes. They can displace native plants and animals, out-cross with native flora, alter nutrient cycling and other ecosystem functions, and even change an ecosystem's flammability (Walker and Smith 1997). After habitat loss, the spread of exotic species is...

  17. Plant diagnosis device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tozuka, Shin-ichi.

    1996-01-01

    Standard data approximately defined are inputted as 1:1 functional data between at least two or more plant data and each of plant data are inputted. Diagnosis data corresponding to each of process data are formed based on the functional data. Limit value data to be a threshold value which determines whether the diagnosis data are in a predetermined state or not are formed. The diagnosis data and the limit value data are displayed in a recognizable state. If diagnosis data of a plurality of plants are displayed simultaneously, all of the plant data are substantially the same value with one standard datum if the plant is in a normal state. When abnormality should occur in the plant, the difference between the diagnosis data and the standard data is remarkable, and the difference between the diagnosis data of other normal plant data and the standard data are also made remarkably, accordingly, the display of a plurality of diagnosis data is scattered thereby capable of diagnosing the abnormality of the plant. (N.H.)

  18. Gender in Plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, the German literary genius immortalised for such triumphs as The Tragedy of Doctor Faust, was also a natural scientist. He believed that every flowering plant had six stages consisting of seed, leaves, calyx, corolla, sex organs and fruit. Each plant was supposed to be made up of fundamental ...

  19. Earthquake-proof plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francescutti, P.

    2008-01-01

    In the wake of the damage suffered by the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power plant as a result of an earthquake last July, this article looks at the seismic risk affecting the Spanish plants and the safety measures in place to prevent it. (Author)

  20. Submarine nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, C.C.

    1984-01-01

    The submarine nuclear power plant has revolutionised the strategy and tactics of under-sea warfare. Present day submarine nuclear power plants are discussed, as well as future developments. The endurance, speed, noise and diving depth of nuclear submarines are also outlined. (U.K.)

  1. Slavery in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabiri, S.; Rodenburg, J.; Ast, van A.; Bastiaans, L.

    2017-01-01

    The rain-fed lowland rice weed Rhamphicarpa fistulosa (Rice Vampireweed) is a facultative root parasitic plant. Growth and reproduction of R. fistulosa benefit considerably from parasitism, but how this affects the host plant is not well established. We determined accumulation and partitioning of

  2. Caladium plant poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enough to prevent normal speaking and swallowing. Home Care If the plant was eaten, wipe out the mouth with a cold, wet cloth, and give the person milk to drink. Call poison control for more treatment information. If the eyes or skin touched the plant, rinse them well with water. ...

  3. Modulating lignin in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apuya, Nestor; Bobzin, Steven Craig; Okamuro, Jack; Zhang, Ke

    2013-01-29

    Materials and methods for modulating (e.g., increasing or decreasing) lignin content in plants are disclosed. For example, nucleic acids encoding lignin-modulating polypeptides are disclosed as well as methods for using such nucleic acids to generate transgenic plants having a modulated lignin content.

  4. Power plant chemical technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    17 contributions covering topies of fossil fuel combustion, flue gas cleaning, power plant materials, corrosion, water/steam cycle chemistry, monitoring and control were presented at the annual meeting devoted to Power Plant Chemical Technology 1996 at Kolding (Denmark) 4-6 September 1996. (EG)

  5. Dormancy in Plant Seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst, H.W.M.; Finch-Savage, W.E.; Buitink, J.; Bolingue, W.; Leubner-Metzger, G.

    2010-01-01

    Seed dormancy has been studied intensely over the past decades and, at present, knowledge of this plant trait is at the forefront of plant biology. The main model species is Arabidopsis thaliana, an annual weed, possessing nondeep physiological dormancy. This overview presents the state-of-the-art

  6. Redox signaling in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyer, Christine H; Noctor, Graham

    2013-06-01

    Our aim is to deliver an authoritative and challenging perspective of current concepts in plant redox signaling, focusing particularly on the complex interface between the redox and hormone-signaling pathways that allow precise control of plant growth and defense in response to metabolic triggers and environmental constraints and cues. Plants produce significant amounts of singlet oxygen and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a result of photosynthetic electron transport and metabolism. Such pathways contribute to the compartment-specific redox-regulated signaling systems in plant cells that convey information to the nucleus to regulate gene expression. Like the chloroplasts and mitochondria, the apoplast-cell wall compartment makes a significant contribution to the redox signaling network, but unlike these organelles, the apoplast has a low antioxidant-buffering capacity. The respective roles of ROS, low-molecular antioxidants, redox-active proteins, and antioxidant enzymes are considered in relation to the functions of plant hormones such as salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and auxin, in the composite control of plant growth and defense. Regulation of redox gradients between key compartments in plant cells such as those across the plasma membrane facilitates flexible and multiple faceted opportunities for redox signaling that spans the intracellular and extracellular environments. In conclusion, plants are recognized as masters of the art of redox regulation that use oxidants and antioxidants as flexible integrators of signals from metabolism and the environment.

  7. Annual Plant Reviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , three dimensional structures and functions of each protein in a biological system. In plant science, the number of proteome studies is rapidly expanding after the completion of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome sequence, and proteome analyses of other important or emerging model systems and crop plants...

  8. [Neotropical plant morphology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-García, Blanca; Mendoza, Aniceto

    2002-01-01

    An analysis on plant morphology and the sources that are important to the morphologic interpretations is done. An additional analysis is presented on all published papers in this subject by the Revista de Biología Tropical since its foundation, as well as its contribution to the plant morphology development in the neotropics.

  9. Defense Signaling in Plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Self defense is the basic response of every living organism. This response is readily observed in animals because of their physical movements typically involved in that pro- cess. Being immobile, plants have evolved highly complex defense mechanisms that differ from those commonly seen in animals. Plants are able to ...

  10. Plant growth promoting rhizobacterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doktycz, Mitchel John; Pelletier, Dale A.; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Weston, David

    2015-08-11

    The present invention is directed to the Pseudomonas fluorescens strain GM30 deposited under ATCC Accession No. PTA-13340, compositions containing the GM30 strain, and methods of using the GM30 strain to enhance plant growth and/or enhance plant resistance to pathogens.

  11. Invertebrates and Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendell R. Haag; Robert J. Distefano; Siobhan Fennessy; Brett D.. Marshall

    2013-01-01

    Invertebrates and plants are among the most ubiquitous and abundant macroscopic organisms in aquatic ecosystems; they dominate most habitats in both diversity and biomass and play central roles in aquatic food webs. Plants regulate and create habitats for a wide array of organisms (Cooke et al. 2005). Snail grazing and bivalve filtering profoundly alter habitats and...

  12. Plant pathogen resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Jean T; Jung, Ho Won; Tschaplinski, Timothy

    2012-11-27

    Azelaic acid or its derivatives or analogs induce a robust and a speedier defense response against pathogens in plants. Azelaic acid treatment alone does not induce many of the known defense-related genes but activates a plant's defense signaling upon pathogen exposure.

  13. Better Plants Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Better Buildings, Better Plants Program is a voluntary partnership initiative to drive significant energy efficiency improvement across energy intensive companies and organizations. 157 leading manufacturers and public water and wastewater treatment utilities are partnering with DOE through Better Plants to improve energy efficiency, slash carbon emissions, and cut energy costs.

  14. NMR, water and plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    As, van H.

    1982-01-01

    This Thesis describes the application of a non-destructive pulsed proton NMR method mainly to measure water transport in the xylem vessels of plant stems and in some model systems. The results are equally well applicable to liquid flow in other biological objects than plants, e.g. flow of blood and

  15. Overview of plant pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlorophylls, carotenoids, flavonoids and betalains are four major classes of biological pigments produced in plants. Chlorophylls are the primary pigments responsible for plant green and photosynthesis. The other three are accessary pigments and secondary metabolites that yield non-green colors and...

  16. Gold in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girling, C.A.; Peterson, P.J.

    1980-01-01

    Many plants have the ability to take up gold from the soil and to accumulate it in their tisssue. Advances have been made in understanding these processes to the point where their exploitation in the field of prospecting for gold appears practically feasible. Neutron activation analysis is used for the determination of the small quantities of gold in plants

  17. Plants as green phones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soler, R.; Harvey, J.A.; Bezemer, T.M.; Stuefer, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    Plants can act as vertical communication channels or `green phones¿ linking soil-dwelling insects and insects in the aboveground ecosystem. When root-feeding insects attack a plant, the direct defense system of the shoot is activated, leading to an accumulation of phytotoxins in the leaves. The

  18. Gender in Plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    animals in which both male and female sexual organs are present in the same individual are called hermaphrodites ... of sexual systems found in seed plants today (Box 1). About three-fourths of all flowering plants .... survive and ultimately reproduce to ensure gene transmission. Males or females that produce offspring that ...

  19. Nuclear Power Plants. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell, Walter, III

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Why Use Nuclear Power?; From Atoms to Electricity; Reactor Types; Typical Plant Design Features; The Cost of Nuclear Power; Plants in the United States; Developments in Foreign…

  20. Solar thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnatbaum, L.

    2009-01-01

    The solar thermal power plant technology, the opportunities it presents and the developments in the market are outlined. The focus is on the technology of parabolic trough power plants, a proven technology for solar power generation on a large scale. In a parabolic trough power plant, trough-shaped mirrors concentrate the solar irradiation onto a pipe in the focal line of the collector. The thermal energy thus generated is used for electricity generation in a steam turbine. Parabolic trough plants can be combined with thermal storage and fossil or biomass fired heat exchangers to generate electricity even when the sun is not shining. Solar Millennium AG in Erlangen has developed the first power plant of this kind in Europe. After two years of construction the plant started operation in Southern Spain in 2008. This one and its sister projects are important steps leading the way for the whole market. The paper also covers the technological challenges, the key components used and the research and development activities concerning this technology. Solar thermal power plants are ideal for covering peak and medium loads in power grids. In hybrid operation they can also cover base-load. The Solar Chimney power plant, another striking technology for the conversion of solar into electric energy, is described briefly. The paper concludes with a look at the future - the import of solar energy from the deserts of North Africa to central Europe. (author)

  1. Gender in Plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 11. Gender in Plants - More About Why and How Plants Change Sex. Renee M Borges. General Article Volume 3 Issue 11 November 1998 pp 30-39. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  2. Carotenoid metabolism in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotenoids are mostly C40 terpenoids, a class of hydrocarbons that participate in various biological processes in plants, such as photosynthesis, photomorphogenesis, photoprotection, and development. Carotenoids also serve as precursors for two plant hormones and a diverse set of apocarotenoids. Th...

  3. Cognition in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calvo, P.; Keijzer, F.A.

    2009-01-01

    To what extent can plants be considered cognitive from the perspective of embodied cognition? Cognition is interpreted very broadly within embodied cognition, and the current evidence for plant intelligence might find an important theoretical background here. However, embodied cognition does stress

  4. Plants on the move

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorza, Livia Camilla Trevisan; Dornelas, Marcelo Carnier

    2011-01-01

    One may think that plants seem relatively immobile. Nevertheless, plants not only produce movement but these movements can be quite rapid such as the closing traps of carnivorous plants, the folding up of leaflets in some Leguminosae species and the movement of floral organs in order to increase cross pollination. We focus this review on thigmotropic and thigmonastic movements, both in vegetative and reproductive parts of higher plants. Ultrastructural studies revealed that most thigmotropic and thigmonastic movements are caused by differentially changing cell turgor within a given tissue. Auxin has emerged as a key molecule that modulates proton extrusion and thus causing changes in cell turgor by enhancing the activity of H+ATPase in cell membranes. Finding conserved molecules and/or operational molecular modules among diverse types of movements would help us to find universal mechanisms controlling movements in plants and thus improve our understanding about the evolution of such phenomena. PMID:22231201

  5. Nuclear power plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulkiewicz, M.; Navratil, J.

    The construction of a nuclear power plant is conditioned on territorial requirements and is accompanied by the disturbance of the environment, land occupation, population migration, the emission of radioactive wastes, thermal pollution, etc. On the other hand, a nuclear power plant makes possible the introduction of district heating and increases the economic and civilization activity of the population. Due to the construction of a nuclear power plant the set limits of negative impacts must not be exceeded. The locality should be selected such as to reduce the unfavourable effects of the plant and to fully use its benefits. The decision on the siting of the nuclear power plant is preceded by the processing of a number of surveys and a wide range of documentation to which the given criteria are strictly applied. (B.H.)

  6. Manganese deficiency in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Sidsel Birkelund; Jensen, Poul Erik; Husted, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential plant micronutrient with an indispensable function as a catalyst in the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PSII). Even so, Mn deficiency frequently occurs without visual leaf symptoms, thereby masking the distribution and dimension of the problem...... restricting crop productivity in many places of the world. Hence, timely alleviation of latent Mn deficiency is a challenge in promoting plant growth and quality. We describe here the key mechanisms of Mn deficiency in plants by focusing on the impact of Mn on PSII stability and functionality. We also address...... the mechanisms underlying the differential tolerance towards Mn deficiency observed among plant genotypes, which enable Mn-efficient plants to grow on marginal land with poor Mn availability....

  7. Exploiting plant alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schläger, Sabrina; Dräger, Birgit

    2016-02-01

    Alkaloid-containing plants have been used for medicine since ancient times. Modern pharmaceuticals still rely on alkaloid extraction from plants, some of which grow slowly, are difficult to cultivate and produce low alkaloid yields. Microbial cells as alternative alkaloid production systems are emerging. Before industrial application of genetically engineered bacteria and yeasts, several steps have to be taken. Original alkaloid-forming enzymes have to be elucidated from plants. Their activity in the heterologous host cells, however, may be low. The exchange of individual plant enzymes for alternative catalysts with better performance and optimal fermentation parameters appear promising. The overall aim is enhancement and stabilization of alkaloid yields from microbes in order to replace the tedious extraction of low alkaloid concentrations from intact plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Plant control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Masuo; Ono, Makoto.

    1995-01-01

    A plant control device comprises an intellectual instrumentation group for measuring a predetermined process amount, an intellectual equipment group operating in accordance with a self-countermeasure, a system information space for outputting system information, a system level monitoring and diagnosing information generalization section for outputting system information, a system level maintenance information generalization section for outputting information concerning maintenance, a plant level information space and a plant level information generalization section. Each of them determines a state of the plant autonomously, and when abnormality is detected, each of the intellectual instrumentation, equipments and systems exchange information with each other, to conduct required operations including operations of intellectual robots, as required. Appropriate countermeasures for gauges, equipments and systems can be conducted autonomously at a place where operators can not access to improve reliability of complicate operations in the working site, as well as improve plant safety and reliability. (N.H.)

  9. Aquaporins in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurel, Christophe; Boursiac, Yann; Luu, Doan-Trung; Santoni, Véronique; Shahzad, Zaigham; Verdoucq, Lionel

    2015-10-01

    Aquaporins are membrane channels that facilitate the transport of water and small neutral molecules across biological membranes of most living organisms. In plants, aquaporins occur as multiple isoforms reflecting a high diversity of cellular localizations, transport selectivity, and regulation properties. Plant aquaporins are localized in the plasma membrane, endoplasmic reticulum, vacuoles, plastids and, in some species, in membrane compartments interacting with symbiotic organisms. Plant aquaporins can transport various physiological substrates in addition to water. Of particular relevance for plants is the transport of dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide and ammonia or metalloids such as boron and silicon. Structure-function studies are developed to address the molecular and cellular mechanisms of plant aquaporin gating and subcellular trafficking. Phosphorylation plays a central role in these two processes. These mechanisms allow aquaporin regulation in response to signaling intermediates such as cytosolic pH and calcium, and reactive oxygen species. Combined genetic and physiological approaches are now integrating this knowledge, showing that aquaporins play key roles in hydraulic regulation in roots and leaves, during drought but also in response to stimuli as diverse as flooding, nutrient availability, temperature, or light. A general hydraulic control of plant tissue expansion by aquaporins is emerging, and their role in key developmental processes (seed germination, emergence of lateral roots) has been established. Plants with genetically altered aquaporin functions are now tested for their ability to improve plant tolerance to stresses. In conclusion, research on aquaporins delineates ever expanding fields in plant integrative biology thereby establishing their crucial role in plants. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Encapsulation plant at Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nystroem, Anders

    2007-08-15

    SKB has already carried out a preliminary study of an encapsulation plant detached from Clab (Central interim storage for spent fuels). This stand-alone encapsulation plant was named FRINK and its assumed siting was the above-ground portion of the final repository, irrespective of the repository's location. The report previously presented was produced in cooperation with BNFL Engineering Ltd in Manchester and the fuel reception technical solution was examined by Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH (GNS) in Hannover and by Societe Generale pour les Techniques Nouvelles (SGN) in Paris. This report is an update of the earlier preliminary study report and is based on the assumption that the encapsulation plant and also the final repository will be sited in the Forsmark area. SKB's main alternative for siting the encapsulation plant is next to Clab. Planning of this facility is ongoing and technical solutions from the planning work have been incorporated in this report. An encapsulation plant placed in proximity to any final repository in Forsmark forms part of the alternative presentation in the application for permission to construct and operate an installation at Clab. The main technical difference between the planned encapsulation plant at Clab and an encapsulation plant at a final repository at Forsmark is how the fuel is managed and prepared before actual encapsulation. Fuel reception at the encapsulation plant in Forsmark would be dry, i.e. there would be no water-filled pools at the facility. Clab is used for verificatory fuel measurements, sorting and drying of the fuel before transport to Forsmark. This means that Clab will require a measure of rebuilding and supplementary equipment. In purely technical terms, the prospects for building an encapsulation plant sited at Forsmark are good. A description of the advantages and drawbacks of siting the encapsulation plant at Clab as opposed to any final repository at Forsmark is presented in a separate

  11. The Development of Plant Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrey, John G.

    1985-01-01

    Examines major lines of thought leading to what is meant by plant biotechnology, namely, the application of existing techniques of plant organ, tissue, and cell culture, plant molecular biology, and genetic engineering to the improvement of plants and of plant productivity for the benefit of man. (JN)

  12. Biofuelled heating plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulliksson, Hans; Wennerstaal, L.; Zethraeus, B.; Johansson, Bert-Aake

    2001-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to serve as a basis to enable establishment and operation of small and medium-sized bio-fuel plants, district heating plants and local district heating plants. Furthermore, the purpose of this report is to serve as a guideline and basis when realizing projects, from the first concept to established plant. Taking into account all the phases, from selection of heating system, fuel type, selection of technical solutions, authorization request or application to operate a plant, planning, construction and buying, inspection, performance test, take-over and control system of the plant. Another purpose of the report is to make sure that best available technology is used and to contribute to continuous development of the technology. The report deals mainly with bio-fuelled plants in the effect range 0.3 to10 MW. The term 'plant' refers to combined power and heating plants as well as 'simpler' district heating plants. The last-mentioned is also often referred to as 'local heating plant'. In this context, the term bio fuel refers to a wide range of fuel types. The term bio fuel includes processed fractions like powders, pellets, and briquettes along with unprocessed fractions, such as by-products from the forest industry; chips and bark. Bio fuels also include straw, energy crops and cereal waste products, but these have not been expressly studied in this report. The report is structured with appendixes regarding the various phases of the projects, with the purpose of serving as a helping handbook, or manual for new establishment, helping out with technical and administrative advice and environmental requirements. Plants of this size are already expanding considerably, and the need for guiding principles for design/technology and environmental requirements is great. These guiding principles should comply with the environmental legislation requirements, and must contain advice and recommendations for bio fuel plants in this effect range, also in

  13. Plant ABC Transporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Joohyun; Park, Jiyoung; Choi, Hyunju; Burla, Bo; Kretzschmar, Tobias; Lee, Youngsook; Martinoia, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    ABC transporters constitute one of the largest protein families found in all living organisms. ABC transporters are driven by ATP hydrolysis and can act as exporters as well as importers. The plant genome encodes for more than 100 ABC transporters, largely exceeding that of other organisms. In Arabidopsis, only 22 out of 130 have been functionally analyzed. They are localized in most membranes of a plant cell such as the plasma membrane, the tonoplast, chloroplasts, mitochondria and peroxisomes and fulfill a multitude of functions. Originally identified as transporters involved in detoxification processes, they have later been shown to be required for organ growth, plant nutrition, plant development, response to abiotic stresses, pathogen resistance and the interaction of the plant with its environment. To fulfill these roles they exhibit different substrate specifies by e.g. depositing surface lipids, accumulating phytate in seeds, and transporting the phytohormones auxin and abscisic acid. The aim of this review is to give an insight into the functions of plant ABC transporters and to show their importance for plant development and survival. PMID:22303277

  14. FRIB Cryogenic Plant Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Kelly D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Ganni, Venkatarao [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Knudsen, Peter N. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Casagranda, Fabio [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2015-12-01

    After practical changes were approved to the initial conceptual design of the cryogenic system for MSU FRIB and an agreement was made with JLab in 2012 to lead the design effort of the cryogenic plant, many activities are in place leading toward a cool-down of the linacs prior to 2018. This is mostly due to using similar equipment used at CHLII for the 12 GeV upgrade at JLab and an aggressive schedule maintained by the MSU Conventional Facilities department. Reported here is an updated status of the cryogenic plant, including the equipment procurement status, plant layout, facility equipment and project schedule.

  15. Selenium accumulation by plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Philip J

    2016-02-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential mineral element for animals and humans, which they acquire largely from plants. The Se concentration in edible plants is determined by the Se phytoavailability in soils. Selenium is not an essential element for plants, but excessive Se can be toxic. Thus, soil Se phytoavailability determines the ecology of plants. Most plants cannot grow on seleniferous soils. Most plants that grow on seleniferous soils accumulate plant species have evolved tolerance to Se, and commonly accumulate tissue Se concentrations >100 mg Se kg(-1) dry matter. These plants are considered to be Se accumulators. Some species can even accumulate Se concentrations of 1000-15 000 mg Se kg(-1 )dry matter and are called Se hyperaccumulators. This article provides an overview of Se uptake, translocation and metabolism in plants and highlights the possible genetic basis of differences in these between and within plant species. The review focuses initially on adaptations allowing plants to tolerate large Se concentrations in their tissues and the evolutionary origin of species that hyperaccumulate Se. It then describes the variation in tissue Se concentrations between and within angiosperm species and identifies genes encoding enzymes limiting the rates of incorporation of Se into organic compounds and chromosomal loci that might enable the development of crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible portions. Finally, it discusses transgenic approaches enabling plants to tolerate greater Se concentrations in the rhizosphere and in their tissues. The trait of Se hyperaccumulation has evolved several times in separate angiosperm clades. The ability to tolerate large tissue Se concentrations is primarily related to the ability to divert Se away from the accumulation of selenocysteine and selenomethionine, which might be incorporated into non-functional proteins, through the synthesis of less toxic Se metabilites. There is potential to breed or select crops

  16. Radiation hormesis in plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Sung; Song, Hi Sup; Lee, Young Keun; Lee, Byung Hun; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek

    2000-04-01

    This research was performed to investigate the effects of low dose γ-ray radiation on the seed germination and the following physiological responses in vegetable crops. Special attention was focused on whether the resistance of vegetables against the unfavorable conditions of environment such as subsequent high doses of radiation or Phytophthora blight of pepper could be enhanced as an aspect of radiation hormesis. Analysis and characterization of antioxidant enzyme from plant culture cells and radiation tolerant of transformed plants from antioxidant (POD) were accomplished in the plant irradiated with different dose of γ-ray. (author)

  17. The illuminated plant cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Jaideep

    2007-11-01

    The past decade has provided biologists with a palette of genetically encoded, multicolored fluorescent proteins. The living plant cell turned into a 'coloring book' and today, nearly every text-book organelle has been highlighted in scintillating fluorescent colors. This review provides a concise listing of the earliest representative fluorescent-protein probes used to highlight various targets within the plant cell, and introduces the idea of using the numerous multicolor, subcellular probes for the development of an early intracellular response profile of plants.

  18. Lead toxicity in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Pallavi; Dubey, Rama Shanker

    2005-01-01

    Contamination of soils by heavy metals is of widespread occurrence as a result of human, agricultural and industrial activities. Among heavy metals, lead is a potential pollutant that readily accumulates in soils and sediments. Although lead is not an essential element for plants, it gets easily absorbed and accumulated in different plant parts. Uptake of Pb in plants is regulated by pH, particle size and cation exchange capacity of the soils as well as by root exudation and other physico-che...

  19. Optofluidics of plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demetri Psaltis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Optofluidics is a tool for synthesizing optical systems, making use of the interaction of light with fluids. In this paper we explore optofluidic mechanisms that have evolved in plants where sunlight and fluidic control combine to define most of the functionality of the plan. We hope that the presentation of how plants function, from an optofluidics point of view, will open a window for the optics community to the vast literature of plant physiology and provide inspiration for new ideas for the design of bio-mimetic optofluidic devices.

  20. Radiation hormesis in plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Sung; Song, Hi Sup; Lee, Young Keun; Cun, Ki Jung; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek

    1999-04-01

    This research was performed to investigate the effects of low dose γ-ray radiation on the seed germination and the following physiological responses in vegetable crops. Special attention was focused on whether the resistance of vegetables against the unfavorable conditions of environment such as acid rain or soil types could be enhanced as an aspect of radiation hormesis. Analysis and characterization of antioxidant enzyme from plant culture cells and radiation tolerant of transformed plants from antioxidant enzyme (POD) were accomplished in the plant irradiated with difference dosage of γ-ray

  1. TOR signalling in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rexin, Daniel; Meyer, Christian; Robaglia, Christophe; Veit, Bruce

    2015-08-15

    Although the eukaryotic TOR (target of rapamycin) kinase signalling pathway has emerged as a key player for integrating nutrient-, energy- and stress-related cues with growth and metabolic outputs, relatively little is known of how this ancient regulatory mechanism has been adapted in higher plants. Drawing comparisons with the substantial knowledge base around TOR kinase signalling in fungal and animal systems, functional aspects of this pathway in plants are reviewed. Both conserved and divergent elements are discussed in relation to unique aspects associated with an autotrophic mode of nutrition and adaptive strategies for multicellular development exhibited by plants. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  2. Radiation hormesis in plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Sung; Song, Hi Sup; Lee, Young Keun; Lee, Byung Hun; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek

    2000-04-01

    This research was performed to investigate the effects of low dose {gamma}-ray radiation on the seed germination and the following physiological responses in vegetable crops. Special attention was focused on whether the resistance of vegetables against the unfavorable conditions of environment such as subsequent high doses of radiation or Phytophthora blight of pepper could be enhanced as an aspect of radiation hormesis. Analysis and characterization of antioxidant enzyme from plant culture cells and radiation tolerant of transformed plants from antioxidant (POD) were accomplished in the plant irradiated with different dose of {gamma}-ray. (author)

  3. Radiation hormesis in plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Sung; Song, Hi Sup; Lee, Young Keun; Cun, Ki Jung; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek

    1999-04-01

    This research was performed to investigate the effects of low dose {gamma}-ray radiation on the seed germination and the following physiological responses in vegetable crops. Special attention was focused on whether the resistance of vegetables against the unfavorable conditions of environment such as acid rain or soil types could be enhanced as an aspect of radiation hormesis. Analysis and characterization of antioxidant enzyme from plant culture cells and radiation tolerant of transformed plants from antioxidant enzyme (POD) were accomplished in the plant irradiated with difference dosage of {gamma}-ray.

  4. Nuclear power plant outages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) controls nuclear power plant safety in Finland. In addition to controlling the design, construction and operation of nuclear power plants, STUK also controls refuelling and repair outages at the plants. According to section 9 of the Nuclear Energy Act (990/87), it shall be the licence-holder's obligation to ensure the safety of the use of nuclear energy. Requirements applicable to the licence-holder as regards the assurance of outage safety are presented in this guide. STUK's regulatory control activities pertaining to outages are also described

  5. 40 CFR 421.95 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... standards for existing sources. The mass of wastewater pollutants in metallurgical acid plant blowdown introduced into a POTW shall not exceed the following values: Subpart I—Metallurgical Acid Plant—PSES...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Metallurgical Acid...

  6. Invasive Plants -- A Horticultural Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Niemiera, Alexander Xavier, 1951-; Von Holle, Betsy

    2009-01-01

    This publication explains how nonnative invasive plants are harmful and why you should care, how to predict the invasive potential of a plant, and how gardeners and landscape professionals can make informed choices when choosing plants.

  7. Photomorphogenesis in plants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kendrick, Richard E; Kronenberg, G. H. M

    1994-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ... VII VIII XXXI Part 1 Introduction 1. Introduction by Lars Olof Bjorn 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 A developing research field ... Plant vision...

  8. Nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima Moreira, Y.M. de.

    1979-01-01

    The legal aspects of nuclear power plant construction in Brazil, derived from governamental political guidelines, are presented. Their evolution, as a consequence of tecnology development is related. (A.L.S.L.) [pt

  9. Chitosan in Plant Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelbasset El Hadrami

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Chitin and chitosan are naturally-occurring compounds that have potential in agriculture with regard to controlling plant diseases. These molecules were shown to display toxicity and inhibit fungal growth and development. They were reported to be active against viruses, bacteria and other pests. Fragments from chitin and chitosan are known to have eliciting activities leading to a variety of defense responses in host plants in response to microbial infections, including the accumulation of phytoalexins, pathogen-related (PR proteins and proteinase inhibitors, lignin synthesis, and callose formation. Based on these and other proprieties that help strengthen host plant defenses, interest has been growing in using them in agricultural systems to reduce the negative impact of diseases on yield and quality of crops. This review recapitulates the properties and uses of chitin, chitosan, and their derivatives, and will focus on their applications and mechanisms of action during plant-pathogen interactions.

  10. Ferrous Metal Processing Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes ferrous metal processing plants in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  11. Nonferrous Metal Processing Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes nonferrous metal processing plants in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  12. Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    PGPR genera exhibiting plant growth promoting activity are: Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, Azotobacter, Bacillus, Burkholdaria,. Enterobacter, Rhizobium, Erwinia, Mycobacterium, Mesorhizo- bium, Flavobacterium, etc. This article presents perspectives on the role of PGPR in agriculture sustainability. Jay Shankar Singh is an.

  13. Nuclear power plant decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaziz Yunus

    1986-01-01

    A number of issues have to be taken into account before the introduction of any nuclear power plant in any country. These issues include reactor safety (site and operational), waste disposal and, lastly, the decommissioning of the reactor inself. Because of the radioactive nature of the components, nuclear power plants require a different approach to decommission compared to other plants. Until recently, issues on reactor safety and waste disposal were the main topics discussed. As for reactor decommissioning, the debates have been academic until now. Although reactors have operated for 25 years, decommissioning of retired reactors has simply not been fully planned. But the Shippingport Atomic Power Plant in Pennysylvania, the first large scale power reactor to be retired, is now being decommissioned. The work has rekindled the debate in the light of reality. Outside the United States, decommissioning is also being confronted on a new plane. (author)

  14. Plant Physiology and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taiz, Lincoln; Zeiger, Eduardo; Møller, Ian Max

    Throughout its twenty-two year history, the authors of Plant Physiology have continually updated the book to incorporate the latest advances in plant biology and implement pedagogical improvements requested by adopters. This has made Plant Physiology the most authoritative, comprehensive...... Physiology and Development. As before, Unit III begins with updated chapters on Cell Walls and Signals and Signal Transduction. The latter chapter has been expanded to include a discussion of major signaling molecules, such as calcium ions and plant hormones. A new, unified chapter entitled Signals from...... to describing the stages of development from embryogenesis to senescence and the many physiological and environmental factors that regulate them. The result provides students with an improved understanding of the integration of hormones and other signaling agents in developmental regulation...

  15. Tropical Plant Collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The symposium Tropical Plant Collections: Legacies from the past? Essential tools for the future? was held on 19th–21st May 2015 with botanists from eighteen countries. Balslev and Friis introduced the themes and voiced their concern about negligence of tropical plant collections in many European......-colonial and early colonial periods. With the presentation by Cribb on the botany of the British Empire we were fully into the colonial period, focussing on the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew. The situation in North America was treated by Funk, who illustrated the development of collections of tropical plants...... in the USA over the past two hundred years. Sebsebe Demissew taked about the situation in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly problems related to building and maintaining plant collections in new and poor nations. Onana outlined the history of botanical collections in Cameroon, covering a colonial period...

  16. Plant stem cell niches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aichinger, Ernst; Kornet, Noortje; Friedrich, Thomas; Laux, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Multicellular organisms possess pluripotent stem cells to form new organs, replenish the daily loss of cells, or regenerate organs after injury. Stem cells are maintained in specific environments, the stem cell niches, that provide signals to block differentiation. In plants, stem cell niches are situated in the shoot, root, and vascular meristems-self-perpetuating units of organ formation. Plants' lifelong activity-which, as in the case of trees, can extend over more than a thousand years-requires that a robust regulatory network keep the balance between pluripotent stem cells and differentiating descendants. In this review, we focus on current models in plant stem cell research elaborated during the past two decades, mainly in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We address the roles of mobile signals on transcriptional modules involved in balancing cell fates. In addition, we discuss shared features of and differences between the distinct stem cell niches of Arabidopsis.

  17. Plutonium Finishing Plant

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Plutonium Finishing Plant, also known as PFP, represented the end of the line (the final procedure) associated with plutonium production at Hanford.PFP was also...

  18. Protoplasts and plant viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakishi, H.; Lesney, M.S.; Carlson, P.

    1984-01-01

    The use of protoplasts in the study of plant viruses has attracted considerable attention since its inception in the late 1960s. This article is an attempt to assess the current status of protoplasts (primarily) and all cell cultures (in some instances) in studies of virus infection, virus replication, cytopathology, cross-protection, virus resistance, and the use of in vitro methods and genetic engineering to recover virus-resistant plants. These areas of study proved difficult to do entirely with whole plants or plant parts. However, because protoplasts could be synchronously infected with virus, they provided a valuable alternative means of following biochemical and cytological events in relation to the virus growth cycle in a more precise manner than previously possible

  19. Plant Vascular Biology 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Biao

    2014-11-17

    This grant supported the Second International Conference on Plant Vascular Biology (PVB 2010) held July 24-28, 2010 on the campus of Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Biao Ding (Ohio State University; OSU) and David Hannapel (Iowa State University; ISU) served as co-chairs of this conference. Biao Ding served as the local organizer. PVB is defined broadly here to include studies on the biogenesis, structure and function of transport systems in plants, under conditions of normal plant growth and development as well as of plant interactions with pathogens. The transport systems cover broadly the xylem, phloem, plasmodesmata and vascular cell membranes. The PVB concept has emerged in recent years to emphasize the integrative nature of the transport systems and approaches to investigate them.

  20. Nuclear Power Plants (Rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell III, Walter [Southern Nuclear Engineering, Inc.

    1973-01-01

    Projected energy requirements for the future suggest that we must employ atomic energy to generate electric power or face depletion of our fossil-fuel resources—coal, oil, and gas. In short, both conservation and economic considerations will require us to use nuclear energy to generate the electricity that supports our civilization. Until we reach the time when nuclear power plants are as common as fossil-fueled or hydroelectric plants, many people will wonder how the nuclear plants work, how much they cost, where they are located, and what kinds of reactors they use. The purpose of this booklet is to answer these questions. In doing so, it will consider only central station plants, which are those that provide electric power for established utility systems.