WorldWideScience

Sample records for metallic mineral deposits

  1. The Genesis of Precious and Base Metal Mineralization at the Miguel Auza Deposit, Zacatecas, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findley, A. A.; Olivo, G. R.; Godin, L.

    2009-05-01

    The Miguel Auza mine located in Zacatecas State, Mexico, is a vein-type polymetallic epithermal deposit hosted in deformed argillite, siltstone and, greywacke of the Cretaceous Caracol Formation. Silver-rich base metal veins (0.2 m to >1.5 m wide) are spatially associated with the NE-striking, steeply SE- dipping (70-80°) Miguel Auza fault over a strike length of 1.6 km and a depth of 460 m. A 2 km2 monzonitic stock located in the proximity of the mineralized zones, has previously been interpreted as the source of the mineralizing fluids. Four distinct structural stages are correlated with hydrothermal mineral deposition: (I) The Pre-ore stage is characterized by normal faulting, fracturing of host rock, and rotation of bedding planes. This stage consists of quartz, illite, chlorite, +/- pyrite alteration of sedimentary wall rocks. (II) The Pyrite-vein stage is associated with reverse-sense reactivation of early normal faults, dilation of bedding planes/fractures, and deposition of generally barren calcite + pyrite veinlets. (III) The Main-ore stage is related to the development of reverse-fault- hosted massive sulphide veins. During this stage three phases of mineral deposition are recorded: early pyrite and arsenopyrite, intermediate chalcopyrite, pyrite, arsenopyrite, and base metals, and late base metals and Ag-bearing minerals. Associated gangue minerals during the main ore stage are quartz, muscovite, calcite and chlorite. (IV) The Post-ore stage involves late NW-SE striking block faulting, brecciation and calcite veining. Later supergene oxidation of veins led to deposition of Fe-oxides and hydroxides, commonly filling fractures or replacing early-formed sulphide assemblages. The various vein types display classic epithermal textures including open space filling, banding, comb quartz and brecciation. The Ag-bearing minerals comprise pyrargyrite [Ag3(Sb,As)S3], argentotennantite [(Cu,Ag)10(Zn,Fe)2(Sn,As)4S13], polybasite-pearceite [(Ag,Cu)16(Sb,As)2S11], and

  2. Role of Mineral Deposits in Global Geochemical Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, S.; Wilkinson, B.

    2009-12-01

    contributions to the near-surface global copper cycle and, for porphyry copper deposits, is approximately 13,000 times larger than the rate at which Earth concentrates copper in them. Preliminary estimates for mineral deposits containing gold yield similar results, suggesting that these relations apply to most metals that are concentrated into hydrothermal mineral deposits. These comparisons indicate that erosion of mineral deposits is a small but important contributor to the natural near-surface flux of metals. Anthropogenic removal and dispersal of metals into the surface environment (mining) is several orders of magnitude larger, and is likely to result in depletion of mineral deposits from the upper few kilometers of Earth’s crust within the next few thousand years.

  3. A review of silver-rich mineral deposits and their metallogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graybeal, Frederick T.; Vikre, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Mineral deposits with large inventories or high grades of silver are found in four genetic groups: (1) volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS), (2) sedimentary exhalative (SEDEX), (3) lithogene, and, (4) magmatichydrothermal. Principal differences between the four groups relate to source rocks and regions, metal associations, process and timing of mineralization, and tectonic setting. These four groups may be subdivided into specific metal associations on ternary diagrams based on relative metal contents. The VMS deposits rarely contain more than 15,600 t Ag (500 Moz). Grades average 33 g/t Ag. Variable Ag- Pb-Zn-Cu-Au ± Sn concentrations are interpreted as having been derived both from shallow plutons and by leaching of the volcanic rock pile in regions of thin or no continental crust and the mineralization is syngenetic. Higher silver grades are associated with areas of abundant felsic volcanic rocks. The SEDEX deposits rarely contain more than 15,600 t Ag (500 Moz). Grades average 46 g/t Ag. Silver, lead, and zinc in relatively consistent proportions are leached from sedimentary rocks filling rift-related basins, where the continental crust is thin, and deposited as syngenetic to diagenetic massive sulfides. Pre-mineral volcanic rocks and their detritus may occur deep within the basin and gold is typically absent. Lithogene silver-rich deposits are epigenetic products of varying combinations of compaction, dewatering, meteoric water recharge, and metamorphism of rift basin-related clastic sedimentary and interbedded volcanic rocks. Individual deposits may contain more than 15,600 t Ag (500 Moz) at high grades. Ores are characterized by four well-defined metal associations, including Ag, Ag-Pb-Zn, Ag-Cu, and Ag-Co-Ni-U. Leaching, transport, and deposition of metals may occur both in specific sedimentary strata and other rock types adjacent to the rift. Multiple mineralizing events lasting 10 to 15 m.y., separated by as much as 1 b.y., may occur in a single basin

  4. Mineral deposits of Central America, with a section on manganese deposits of Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Ralph Jackson; Irving, Earl Montgomery; Simons, F.S.

    1957-01-01

    The mineral deposits of Central America were studied between 1942 and 1945, in cooperation with the United States Department of State and the Foreign Economic Administration. Emphasis was originally placed on the study of strategic-mineral deposits, especially of antimony, chromite, manganese, quartz, and mica, but deposits of other minerals that offered promise of significant future production were also studied. A brief appraisal of the base-metal deposits was made, and deposits of iron ore in Honduras and of lead and zinc ores in Guatemala were mapped. In addition, studies were made of the regional geology of some areas, data were collected from many sources, and a new map of the geology of Central America was compiled.

  5. Rare earth element lithogeochemistry of granitoid mineral deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.P.; Fryer, B.J. (Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s (Canada). Dept. of Earth Sciences)

    1983-12-01

    As a monitor of the processes involved in the formation of granitoid mineral deposits the coherent group behaviour of the rare earth elements (REE) actively reflects changing fluid characteristics. For example, in the porphyry environment, magmatic-hydrothermal fluids produce potassic alteration with strong enrichment in the light rare earth elements, reflecting their high pH, low fluid/rock ratios, and the dominant role of Cl/sup -/ complexing in metal (i.e. Cu, Au) transport. With increasing fluid/rock ratios and decreasing pH accompanying the progressive involvement of meteoric fluids (and the production of propylitic, argillic, and phyllic alteration) anionic species such as F/sup -/ and CO/sub 3//sup 2 -/ become important in metal (e.g. Mo, W) transport through complexing, and their activity in the hydrothermal fluids is illustrated by mobilization of the heavy rare earth elements. The relative involvement of Cl/sup -/ versus F/sup -/ versus CO/sub 3//sup 2 -/ in metal transport in other granite-related systems can also be monitored through REE behaviour. Hence granitoid tin-tungsten mineralization and associated greisenization typically exhibit heavy rare earth enrichment and evidence the importance of F/sup -/ and CO/sub 3//sup 2 -/ in metal transport. Similarly, heavy rare earth element enrichment in hydrothermal uranium deposits can be related to the transport of uranium as carbonate complexes. REE are widely accepted as powerful tools in the study of rock petrogenesis, but their use has been neglected in the investigation of mineral deposits. The recognition of the systematic variation of REE distributions in granitoid mineral deposits suggests that the application of REE geochemistry, particularly when integrated with fluid inclusion and isotope studies, can provide l) an effective method for identifying the physiochemical controls of metal transport and 2) a useful criterion of elucidating metal distribution.

  6. Rare earth element lithogeochemistry of granitoid mineral deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.P.; Fryer, B.J.

    1983-01-01

    As a monitor of the processes involved in the formation of granitoid mineral deposits the coherent group behaviour of the rare earth elements (REE) actively reflects changing fluid characteristics. For example, in the porphyry environment, magmatic-hydrothermal fluids produce potassic alteration with strong enrichment in the light rare earth elements, reflecting their high pH, low fluid/rock ratios, and the dominant role of Cl - complexing in metal (i.e. Cu, Au) transport. With increasing fluid/rock ratios and decreasing pH accompanying the progressive involvement of meteoric fluids (and the production of propylitic, argillic, and phyllic alteration) anionic species such as F - and CO 3 2- become important in metal (e.g. Mo, W) transport through complexing, and their activity in the hydrothermal fluids is illustrated by mobilization of the heavy rare earth elements. The relative involvement of Cl - versus F - versus CO 3 2- in metal transport in other granite-related systems can also be monitored through REE behaviour. Hence granitoid tin-tungsten mineralization and associated greisenization typically exhibit heavy rare earth enrichment and evidence the importance of F - and CO 3 2- in metal transport. Similarly, heavy rare earth element enrichment in hydrothermal uranium deposits can be related to the transport of uranium as carbonate complexes. REE are widely accepted as powerful tools in the study of rock petrogenesis, but their use has been neglected in the investigation of mineral deposits. The recognition of the systematic variation of REE distributions in granitoid mineral deposits suggests that the application of REE geochemistry, particularly when integrated with fluid inclusion and isotope studies, can provide l) an effective method for identifying the physiochemical controls of metal transport and 2) a useful criterion of elucidating metal distribution

  7. Methods of mineral potential assessment of uranium deposits: A mineral systems approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaireth, S.

    2014-01-01

    Mineral potential represents the likelihood (probability) that an economic mineral deposit could have formed in an area. Mineral potential assessment and prospectivity analysis use a probabilistic concepts to mineral deposits, where the probability of an event (formation of a mineral deposit) is conditional on two factors : i) geological processes occurring in the area, and ii) the presence of geological features indicative of those process. For instance, one of the geological processes critical for the formation of sandstone-hosted uranium deposits in an area is transport of uranium in groundwaters. Geological features indicative of this process in an area comprise, i) presence of leachable source rocks of uranium; ii) presence of highly permeable sandstone; and iii) suitable hydrogeological gradient driving flow groundwaters. Mineral deposits can also be conceptualised as mineral systems with more emphasis on mineralising processes. This concept has some clear parallels with the petroleum systems approach which has proven to be a useful in oil and gas exploration. Mineral systems are defined as ‘all geological factors that control the generation and preservation of mineral deposits’. Seven important geological factors are outlined to define the characteristics of a hydrothermal mineral system. These factors include: i) source of the mineralising fluids and transporting legends; ii) source of metals and other ore components; iii) migration pathways which may include inflow as well as outflow zones; iv) thermal gradients; v) source of energy to mobilised fluids; vi) mechanical and structural focusing mechanism at the trap site; and vii) chemical and/or physical cause for precipitation of ore minerals at the trap site. This approach, commonly known as the ‘source’, ‘transport’ and ‘trap’ paradigm has been redefined to introduce five questions as a basis to understand spatial and temporal evolution of a mineral system at all scales (regional to

  8. Book review: Economic geology: Principles and practice: Metals, minerals, coal and hydrocarbons—Introduction to formation and sustainable exploitation of mineral deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Eric

    2013-01-01

    This volume, available in both hardcover and paperback, is an English translation of the fifth edition of the German language text Mineralische und Energie-Rohstoffe. The book provides an extensive overview of natural resources and societal issues associated with extracting raw materials. The comprehensive list of raw materials discussed includes metals, industrial minerals, coal, and hydrocarbons. The book is divided into four parts: (1) “Metalliferous ore deposits,” (2) “Nonmetallic minerals and rocks,” (3) “Practice of economic geology,” and (4) “Fossil energy raw materials—coal, oil, and gas.” These sections are bound by a brief introduction and an extensive list of up-to-date references as well as an index. Each chapter begins with a concise synopsis and concludes with a summary that contains useful suggestions for additional reading. All figures are grayscale images and line drawings; however, several have been grouped together and reproduced as color plates. Also included is a companion website (www.wiley.com/go/pohl/geology) that contains additional resources, such as digital copies of figures, tables, and an expanded index, all available for download in easy-to-use formats.Economic Geology: Principles and Practice: Metals, Minerals, Coal and Hydrocarbons—Introduction to Formation and Sustainable Exploitation of Mineral Deposits. Walter l. Pohl. 2011. Wiley-Blackwell. Pp. 663. ISBN 978-1-4443-3663-4 (paperback).

  9. Self-Ordering and Complexity in Epizonal Mineral Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, Richard W.; Berger, Byron R.

    Epizonal base and precious metal deposits makeup a range of familiar deposit styles including porphyry copper-gold, epithermal veins and stockworks, carbonate-replacement deposits, and polymetallic volcanic rock-hosted (VHMS) deposits. They occur along convergent plate margins and are invariably associated directly with active faults and volcanism. They are complex in form, variable in their characteristics at all scales, and highly localized in the earth's crust. More than a century of detailed research has provided an extensive base of observational data characterizing these deposits, from their regional setting to the fluid and isotope chemistry of mineral deposition. This has led to a broad understanding of the large-scale hydrothermal systems within which they form. Low salinity vapor, released by magma crystallization and dispersed into vigorously convecting groundwater systems, is recognized as a principal source of metals and the gases that control redox conditions within systems. The temperature and pressure of the ambient fluid anywhere within these systems is close to its vapor-liquid phase boundary, and mineral deposition is a consequence of short timescale perturbations generated by localized release of crustal stress. However, a review of occurrence data raises questions about ore formation that are not addressed by traditional genetic models. For example, what are the origins of banding in epithermal veins, and what controls the frequency of oscillatory lamination? What controls where the phenomenon of mineralization occurs, and why are some porphyry deposits, for example, so much larger than others? The distinctive, self-organized characteristics of epizonal deposits are shown to be the result of repetitive coupling of fracture dilation consequent on brittle failure, phase separation ("boiling"), and heat transfer between fluid and host rock. Process coupling substantially increases solute concentrations and triggers fast, far

  10. Main types of rare-metal mineralization in Karelia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivashchenko, V. I.

    2016-03-01

    Rare-metal mineralization in Karelia is represented by V, Be, U deposits and In, Re, Nb, Ta, Li, Ce, La, and Y occurrences, which are combined into 17 types of magmatic, pegmatite, albitite-greisen, hydrothermal-metasomatic, sedimentary, and epigenetic groups. The main vanadium resources are localized in the Onega ore district. These are deposits of the Padma group (556 kt) and the Pudozhgorsky complex (1.5 Mt). The REE occurrences are primarily characterized by Ce-La specialization. The perspective of HREE is related to the Eletozero-Tiksheozero alkaline and Salmi anorthosite-rapakivi granite complexes. Rare-metal pegmatites bear complex mineralization with insignificant low-grade resources. The Lobash and Jalonvaara porphyry Cu-Mo deposits are potential sources of rhenium: Re contents in molybdenite are 20-70 and 50-246 ppm and hypothetical resources are 12 and 7.5 t, respectively. The high-grade (˜100 ppm) and metallogenic potential of indium (˜2400 t) make the deposits of the Pitkäranta ore district leading in the category of Russian ore objects most prospective for indium. Despite the diverse rare-metal mineralization known in Karelia, the current state of this kind of mineral commodities at the world market leaves real metallogenic perspective only for V, U, Re, In, and Nb.

  11. The mineralization and mechanism of the endogenetic mineral deposit in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Yonghong

    2010-01-01

    In the process of mineralization, due to the difference in rank, scale and order of structures orebody, mine colomn or rich ore bag are often produced in the specific structural parts. Obviously, it is controlled by favourite structure. The important and direct control of the structure to metal endogenetic mineralization evolution are representative on the affect of pulse action of structure to the multi-stage of mineralization evolution. According to the formation environment of the mineralization, it can be classified as collision orogeny mineralization, release(extension)mineralization, slide draw-division basin mineralization and shear zone extension mineralization. Throng the discuss of endogenetic deposit in the geological evolution, structure and formation machenism, the metallogenic model was preliminary established,and the criteria for delineating favourable metallogenic area was identified. (authors)

  12. Information system of mineral deposits in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hribernik, K.; Rokavec, D.; Šinigioj, J.; Šolar, S.

    2010-03-01

    At the Geologic Survey of Slovenia the need for complex overview and control of the deposits of available non-metallic mineral raw materials and of their exploitations became urgent. In the framework of the Geologic Information System we established the Database of non-metallic mineral deposits comprising all important data of deposits and concessionars. Relational database is built with program package MS Access, but in year 2008 we plan to transfer it on SQL server. In the evidence there is 272 deposits and 200 concessionars. The mineral resources information system of Slovenia, which was started back in 2002, consists of two integrated parts, mentioned relational database of mineral deposits, which relates information in tabular way so that rules of relational algebra can be applied, and geographic information system (GIS), which relates spatial information of deposits. . The complex relationships between objects and the concepts of normalized data structures, lead to the practical informative and useful data model, transparent to the user and to better decision-making by allowing future scenarios to be developed and inspected. Computerized storage, and display system is as already said, developed and managed under the support of Geological Survey of Slovenia, which conducts research on the occurrence, quality, quantity, and availability of mineral resources in order to help the Nation make informed decisions using earth-science information. Information about deposit is stored in records in approximately hundred data fields. A numeric record number uniquely identifies each site. The data fields are grouped under principal categories. Each record comprise elementary data of deposit (name, type, location, prospect, rock), administrative data (concessionar, number of decree in official paper, object of decree, number of contract and its duration) and data of mineral resource produced amount and size of exploration area). The data can also be searched, sorted and

  13. Mineral Deposit Data for Epigenetic Base- and Precious-metal and Uranium-thorium Deposits in South-central and Southwestern Montana and Southern and Central Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, T.L.

    2004-01-01

    Metal deposits spatially associated with the Cretaceous Boulder and Idaho batholiths of southwestern Montana and southern and central Idaho have been exploited since the early 1860s. Au was first discovered in placer deposits; exploitation of vein deposits in bedrock soon followed. In 1865, high-grade Ag vein deposits were discovered and remained economically important until the 1890s. Early high-grade deposits of Au, Ag and Pb were found in the weathered portions of the veins systems. As mining progressed to deeper levels, Ag and Pb grades diminished. Exploration for and development of these vein deposits in this area have continued until the present. A majority of these base- and precious-metal vein deposits are classified as polymetallic veins (PMV) and polymetallic carbonate-replacement (PMR) deposits in this compilation. Porphyry Cu and Mo, epithermal (Au, Ag, Hg and Sb), base- and precious-metal and W skarn, W vein, and U and Th vein deposits are also common in this area. The world-class Butte Cu porphyry and the Butte high-sulfidation Cu vein deposits are in this study area. PMV and PMR deposits are the most numerous in the region and constitute about 85% of the deposit records compiled. Several types of syngenetic/diagenetic sulfide mineral deposits in rocks of the Belt Supergroup or their equivalents are common in the region and they have been the source of a substantial metal production over the last century. These syngenetic deposits and their metamorphosed/structurally remobilized equivalents were not included in this database; therefore, deposits in the Idaho portion of the Coeur d'Alene district and the Idaho Cobalt belt, for example, have not been included because many of them are believed to be of this type.

  14. U-Pb age for some base-metal sulfide deposits in Ireland: genetic implications for Mississippi Valley-type mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duane, M.J.; Welke, H.J.; Allsopp, H.L.

    1986-01-01

    Evidence is presented that links the timing of vein-type (Cu-Ag(U)) to stratiform Mississippi Valley-type (MVT, Pb-Zn) ore events in Ireland. The rare occurrence of pitchblende, coffinite(?), and brannerite mineralization, which is regarded as a precursor component to the sulfide mineralization in the Gortdrum deposit (Ireland), provides the first direct radiometric dating tool for these carbonate-hosted deposits. The U-Pb (340 +25/-20 Ma) and Pb-Pb (359 +/- 26 Ma) whole-rock ages constrain the uranium and base-metal mineralizing events to the Early Carboniferous. The data support a model according to which MVT and earlier uranium mineralization stages of some major ore bodies resulted from fracturing coincident with large basin-dewatering events. The Pb-Pb and concordia data are consistent with an Early Carboniferous age for the mineralization at Gortdrum and agree closely with a previously published Rb-Sr age of 359 +/- 22 Ma, obtained for Missouri glauconites. Furthermore, other comparative geologic data from Ireland and from North American MVT mineral provinces support a model of Pb-Zn-Cu(U) mobilization on a regional scale that implicates the later closing stages of the proto-Atlantic. 40 references, 3 figures, 1 table

  15. A synthesis of mineralization styles and geodynamic settings of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic metallic ore deposits in the Altay Mountains, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fuquan; Geng, Xinxia; Wang, Rui; Zhang, Zhixin; Guo, Xuji

    2018-06-01

    The Altay Mountains within the Xinjiang region of northwestern China hosts major metallic ore deposits. Here we review the geological characteristics, metallogenic features and tectonic settings of these deposits. The metallic ore deposits in the Altay Mountains occur mainly within four regions: North Altay, Central Altay, South Altay and Erqis. We recognize seven types of metallic ore deposits in the Altay Mountains: VMS, submarine volcanogenic iron, magmatic, skarn, pegmatite, hydrothermal vein (Cu-Zn, Fe) and orogenic gold. Among these types, the VMS, pegmatite, orogenic gold and skarn deposits are the most common. Most of the rare metal pegmatite deposits are distributed in Central Altay, with only a few in South Altay. The VMS, submarine volcanogenic type iron and skarn-type deposits are distributed in South Altay, whereas the orogenic-type gold deposits are distributed in the Erqis Fault belt. The hydrothermal vein-type deposits occur in the Erqis Fault belt and Chonghu'er Basin in South Altay. Magmatic-type deposits are mostly in the Erqis Fault belt and Central Altay. Based on isotopic age data, the VMS, submarine volcanogenic-type Fe and skarn-type Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe mineralization occurred during Early-Middle Devonian (∼410-377 Ma), orogenic-type Au, magmatic-type Cu-Ni, and a small number of skarn-type Fe, hydrothermal vein-type Cu-Zn, pegmatite-type rare-metal deposits in Early-Middle Permian (293-261 Ma), pegmatite-type rare-metal deposits, few skarn-type Fe deposit in Early-Middle Triassic (248-232 Ma), and dominantly represented by pegmatite-type rare-metal deposits in Late Triassic-Early Jurassic (223-180 Ma). The metallic ore deposits in the Altay Mountains formed in various tectonic settings, such as the Early-Middle Devonian continental arc and oceanic island arc, Early-Middle Permian post-collisional extensional setting, and Triassic-Early Jurassic intracontinental setting.

  16. Atmospherically deposited trace metals from bulk mineral concentrate port operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mark Patrick

    2015-05-15

    Although metal exposures in the environment have declined over the last two decades, certain activities and locations still present a risk of harm to human health. This study examines environmental dust metal and metalloid hazards (arsenic, cadmium, lead and nickel) associated with bulk mineral transport, loading and unloading port operations in public locations and children's playgrounds in the inner city of Townsville, northern Queensland. The mean increase in lead on post-play hand wipes (965 μg/m(2)/day) across all sites was more than 10-times the mean pre-play loadings (95 μg/m(2)/day). Maximum loading values after a 10-minute play period were 3012 μg/m(2), more than seven times the goal of 400 μg/m(2) used by the Government of Western Australia (2011). Maximum daily nickel post-play hand loadings (404 μg/m(2)) were more than 26 times above the German Federal Immission Control Act 2002 annual benchmark of 15 μg/m(2)/day. Repeat sampling over the 5-day study period showed that hands and surfaces were re-contaminated daily from the deposition of metal-rich atmospheric dusts. Lead isotopic composition analysis of dust wipes ((208)Pb/(207)Pb and (206)Pb/(207)Pb) showed that surface dust lead was similar to Mount Isa type ores, which are exported through the Port of Townsville. While dust metal contaminant loadings are lower than other mining and smelting towns in Australia, they exceeded national and international benchmarks for environmental quality. The lessons from this study are clear - even where operations are considered acceptable by managing authorities, targeted assessment and monitoring can be used to evaluate whether current management practices are truly best practice. Reassessment can identify opportunities for improvement and maximum environmental and human health protection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Quartz-pebble-conglomerate gold deposits: Chapter P in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ryan D.; Anderson, Eric D.

    2018-05-17

    Quartz-pebble-conglomerate gold deposits represent the largest repository of gold on Earth, largely due to the deposits of the Witwatersrand Basin, which account for nearly 40 percent of the total gold produced throughout Earth’s history. This deposit type has had a controversial history in regards to genetic models. However, most researchers conclude that they are paleoplacer deposits that have been modified by metamorphism and hydrothermal fluid flow subsequent to initial sedimentation.The deposits are found exclusively within fault-bounded depositional basins. The periphery of these basins commonly consists of granite-greenstone terranes, classic hosts for lode gold that source the detrital material infilling the basin. The gold reefs are typically located along unconformities or, less commonly, at the top of sedimentary beds. Large quartz pebbles and heavy-mineral concentrates are found associated with the gold. Deposits that formed prior to the Great Oxidation Event (circa 2.4 giga-annum [Ga]) contain pyrite, whereas younger deposits contain iron oxides. Uranium minerals and hydrocarbons are also notable features of some deposits.Much of the gold in these types of deposits forms crystalline features that are the product of local remobilization. However, some gold grains preserve textures that are undoubtedly of detrital origin. Other heavy minerals, such as pyrite, contain growth banding that is truncated along broken margins, which indicates that they were transported into place as opposed to forming by in situ growth in a hydrothermal setting.The ore tailings associated with these deposits commonly contain uranium-rich minerals and sulfides. Oxidation of the sulfides releases sulfuric acid and mobilizes various metals into the environment. The neutralizing potential of the tailings is minimal, since carbonate minerals are rare. The continuity of the tabular ore bodies, such as those of the Witwatersrand Basin, has allowed these mines to be the deepest in

  18. Mineral transformations during the dissolution of uranium ore minerals by dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasauer, S.; Weidler, P.; Fakra, S.; Tyliszczak, T.; Shuh, D.

    2011-12-01

    Carnotite minerals [X2(UO2)2(VO4)2]; X = K, Ca, Ba, Mn, Na, Cu or Pb] form the major ore of uranium in the Colorado Plateau. These deposits are highly oxidized and contain U(VI) and V(IV). The biotransformation of U(VI) bound in carnotite by bacteria during dissimilatory metal reduction presents a complex puzzle in mineral chemistry. Both U(VI) and V(V) can be respired by metal reducing bacteria, and the mineral structure can change depending on the associated counterion. We incubated anaerobic cultures of S. putrefaciens CN32 with natural carnotite minerals from southeastern Utah in a nutrient-limited defined medium. Strain CN32 is a gram negative bacterium and a terrestrial isolate from New Mexico. The mineral and metal transformations were compared to a system that contained similar concentrations of soluble U(VI) and V(V). Electron (SEM, TEM) microscopies and x-ray spectromicroscopy (STXM) were used in conjunction with XRD to track mineral changes, and bacterial survival was monitored throughout the incubations. Slow rates of metal reduction over 10 months for the treatment with carnotite minerals revealed distinct biotic and abiotic processes, providing insight on mineral transformation and bacteria-metal interactions. The bacteria existed as small flocs or individual cells attached to the mineral phase, but did not adsorb soluble U or V, and accumulated very little of the biominerals. Reduction of mineral V(V) necessarily led to a dismantling of the carnotite structure. Bioreduction of V(V) by CN32 contributed small but profound changes to the mineral system, resulting in new minerals. Abiotic cation exchange within the carnotite group minerals induced the rearrangement of the mineral structures, leading to further mineral transformation. In contrast, bacteria survival was poor for treatments with soluble U(VI) and V(V), although both metals were reduced completely and formed solid UO2 and VO2; we also detected V(III). For these treatments, the bacteria

  19. Metasomatic zoning at some stratiform rare metal deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altyntsev, Yu.V.; Bazhenov, M.I.; Bepeshov, G.V.; Komarnitskij, G.M.; Petrov, I.Ya.; Serykh, A.S.

    1985-01-01

    Metasomatic zoning of stratiform deposits of rare metals (Mo, Pb, As, V, Se, U, etc.) in intermontane depresions, deposited at the postorogenic stage of Paleozoic geosyncline region development, is considered. Geochemical and geophysical characteristics of metasomatic zoning in the case of sloping and steep rock deposition are given. It is established, that in rare metal deposits in variegated deposits of molassoid formation of Middle-Upper Paleozoic the external and internal zones of metasomatic alterations are distinctly separated. The external zone is presented by mineral association: quartz + -albile + -calcite + -epidote; the internal one - by hydromica + -chlorite + -analcite, laumontite + -hematite + -ankerite + -kaolinite. Geochemical zoning is manifested quite regularly at all the deposits and it is subjected to metasomatic zoning. Changes in physical properties of rocks reflect the metasomatic zoning. The character of metasomatic alterations of rocks, geochemical zoning of metasomatites at rare metal deposits in molassoid deposits and spatially contiguous deposits in volcanogenic complexes have common features. A supposition is made on polygenic ore formation in sedimentary rocks of the depressions

  20. Silver-bearing minerals in the Xinhua hydrothermal vein-type Pb-Zn deposit, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minfang; Zhang, Xubo; Guo, Xiaonan; Pi, Daohui; Yang, Meijun

    2018-02-01

    Electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) results are reported for newly identified silver-bearing minerals from the Xinhua deposit, Yunkaidashan area, South China. The Xinhua deposit is a hydrothermal vein-type Pb-Zn deposit and is hosted in the Pubei Complex, which consists of a cordierite-biotite granite with a U-Pb zircon age of 244.3 ± 1.8-251.9 ± 2.2 Ma. The mineralization process is subdivided into four mineralization stages, characterized by the following mineral associations: mineralization stage I with quartz, pyrite, and sphalerite; mineralization stage II with siderite, galena, and tetrahedrite; mineralization stage III with quartz and galena; and mineralization stage IV with quartz, calcite, and baryte. Tetrahedrite series minerals, such as freibergite, argentotetrahedrite, and tennantite are the main Ag-bearing minerals in the Xinhua deposit. The greatest concentration of silver occurs in phases from mineralization stage II. Microscopic observations reveal close relationship between galena and tetrahedrite series minerals that mostly occur as irregular inclusions within galena. The negative correlation between Cu and Ag in the lattices of tetrahedrite series minerals suggests that Cu sites are occupied by Ag atoms. Zn substitution for Fe in argentotetrahedrite and Cd substitution for Pb in tetrahedrite are also observed. Micro-thermometric data reveal that both homogenization temperatures and calculated salinities of hydrothermal fluids decrease progressively from the early to the later mineralization stages. The metal ions, such as Ag+, Cu+, Pb2+, and Zn2+, are transported as chlorine complex ions in the early mineralization stage and as bisulfide complex ions in the late mineralization stage, caused by changes in oxygen fugacity, temperature, and pH of the hydrothermal fluids. Because of the varying solubility of different metal ions, Pb2+, Zn2+, and Cu2+ ions are initially precipitated as galena, sphalerite, and chalcopyrite, respectively. With

  1. South Africa's mineral industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-06-01

    The main aim of the Minerals Bureau in presenting this annual review is to provide an up-to-date reference document on the current state of the mineral industry in South Africa. This includes a brief look at the production, trade, economy, resources and deposits of precious metals and minerals, energy minerals, metallic minerals, and non-metallic minerals. One article discusses the production, trade, export, deposits and economy of uranium

  2. Understanding Contaminants Associated with Mineral Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verplanck, Philip L.

    2008-01-01

    Interdisciplinary studies by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have resulted in substantial progress in understanding the processes that control *the release of metals and acidic water from inactive mines and mineralized areas, *the transport of metals and acidic water to streams, and *the fate and effect of metals and acidity on downstream ecosystems. The potential environmental effects associated with abandoned and inactive mines, resulting from the complex interaction of a variety of chemical and physical processes, is an area of study that is important to the USGS Mineral Resources Program. Understanding the processes contributing to the environmental effects of abandoned and inactive mines is also of interest to a wide range of stakeholders, including both those responsible for managing lands with historically mined areas and those responsible for anticipating environmental consequences of future mining operations. The recently completed (2007) USGS project entitled 'Process Studies of Contaminants Associated with Mineral Deposits' focused on abandoned and inactive mines and mineralized areas in the Rocky Mountains of Montana, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Arizona, where there are thousands of abandoned mines. Results from these studies provide new information that advances our understanding of the physical and biogeochemical processes causing the mobilization, transport, reaction, and fate of potentially toxic elements (including aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, copper, iron, lead, and zinc) in mineralized near-surface systems and their effects on aquatic and riparian habitat. These interdisciplinary studies provide the basis for scientific decisionmaking and remedial action by local, State, and Federal agencies charged with minimizing the effects of potentially toxic elements on the environment. Current (2007) USGS research highlights the need to understand (1) the geologic sources of metals and acidity and the geochemical reactions that release them from their

  3. Estimating chemical composition of atmospheric deposition fluxes from mineral insoluble particles deposition collected in the western Mediterranean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to measure the mass flux of atmospheric insoluble deposition and to constrain regional models of dust simulation, a network of automatic deposition collectors (CARAGA has been installed throughout the western Mediterranean Basin. Weekly samples of the insoluble fraction of total atmospheric deposition were collected concurrently on filters at five sites including four on western Mediterranean islands (Frioul and Corsica, France; Mallorca, Spain; and Lampedusa, Italy and one in the southern French Alps (Le Casset, and a weighing and ignition protocol was applied in order to quantify their mineral fraction. Atmospheric deposition is both a strong source of nutrients and metals for marine ecosystems in this area. However, there are few data on trace-metal deposition in the literature, since their deposition measurement is difficult to perform. In order to obtain more information from CARAGA atmospheric deposition samples, this study aimed to test their relevance in estimating elemental fluxes in addition to total mass fluxes. The elemental chemical analysis of ashed CARAGA filter samples was based on an acid digestion and an elemental analysis by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES and mass spectrometry (MS in a clean room. The sampling and analytical protocols were tested to determine the elemental composition for mineral dust tracers (Al, Ca, K, Mg and Ti, nutrients (P and Fe and trace metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, V and Zn from simulated wet deposition of dust analogues and traffic soot. The relative mass loss by dissolution in wet deposition was lower than 1 % for Al and Fe, and reached 13 % for P due to its larger solubility in water. For trace metals, this loss represented less than 3 % of the total mass concentration, except for Zn, Cu and Mn for which it could reach 10 %, especially in traffic soot. The chemical contamination during analysis was negligible for all the elements except for Cd

  4. Heavy metal immobilization in mineral phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apblett, A.

    1993-01-01

    A successful waste form for toxic or radioactive metals must not only have the ability to chemically incorporate the elements but it must also be extremely stable in the geological environment. Thus, ceramic wasteforms are sought which mimic those minerals that have sequestered the hazardous metals for billions of years. One method for producing ceramics, metal organic deposition (MOD) is outstanding in its simplicity, versatility, and inexpensiveness. The major contribution that the MOD process can make to ceramic waste forms is the ability to mix the toxic metals at a molecular level with the elements which form the ceramic matrix. With proper choice of organic ligands, the inclusion of significant amounts of alkali metals in the ceramic and, hence, their detrimental effect on durability may be avoided. In the first stage of our research we identified thermally-unstable ligands which could fulfill the role of complexing toxic metal species and allowing their precipitation or extraction into nonaqueous solvents

  5. Minerals Yearbook, volume I, Metals and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2018-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  6. MetClass: A software for the visualization and exploitation of Dill's (2010) "chessboard" classification of mineral deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaabeche, Hamza; Chabou, Moulley Charaf; Bendaoud, Abderrahmane; Bodinier, Jean-Louis; Lobry, Olivier; Retif, Fabien

    2016-06-01

    Rising economic value of a large number of metals as a result of their importance for new technologies and industrial development has renewed worldwide interest for mineral exploration and detailed studies of ore deposits. The Dill's (2010) "chessboard" classification of mineral deposits is the most recent attempt to provide an exhaustive overview of all mineral deposits known to date. However, the voluminous Dills review paper is accessible only in print or as PDF file. In this article, we present MetClass, software that provides advanced solutions to perform efficient research and statistics using Dill's classification and the related database. MetClass allows to assemble all results relevant to a given ore deposit on a user-friendly interface. This software is therefore a valuable tool for mineral exploration and research on ore deposits, as well as an educational solution for students in metallogeny.

  7. Electrochemical deposition of mineralized BSA/collagen coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, Junjun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Lin, Jun; Li, Juan; Wang, Huiming [The First Affiliated Hospital of Medical College, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310003 (China); Cheng, Kui [School of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Weng, Wenjian, E-mail: wengwj@zju.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); The Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2016-09-01

    In this work, mineralized collagen coatings with different loading quantity of bovine serum albumin (BSA) were prepared via in situ electrochemical deposition on titanium substrate. The microstructure and BSA loading quantity of the coatings could be controlled by the electrochemical deposition parameters, such as deposition potential, BSA concentration and its adding sequence in the electrolyte. The BSA loading quantity in the coatings was obtained in the range of 0.0170–0.173 mg/cm{sup 2}, enhancing the cell adhesion and proliferation of the coatings with the simultaneous release. The distinct release behaviors of BSA were attributed to their gradient distribution with different mineralization degrees, which could be adjusted by the deposition process. These results suggest that in situ electrochemical deposition is a promising way to incorporate functional molecules into the mineralized collagen coatings and the mineralized BSA/collagen coatings are highly promising for improving the rhBMP-2 loading capability (1.8-fold). - Highlights: • BSA is incorporated into mineralized collagen coating by electrochemical deposition. • The loading amount of BSA in coatings can be adjusted in the range of 0-173 ng. • The BSA/collagen coating shows good cytocompatibility with free-albumin culture. • The incorporation process is put forward for some other molecules deposition.

  8. Deposit model for heavy-mineral sands in coastal environments: Chapter L in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Fey, David L.; Shah, Anjana K.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Hoefen, Todd M.

    2014-01-01

    This report provides a descriptive model of heavy-mineral sands, which are sedimentary deposits of dense minerals that accumulate with sand, silt, and clay in coastal environments, locally forming economic concentrations of the heavy minerals. This deposit type is the main source of titanium feedstock for the titanium dioxide (TiO2) pigments industry, through recovery of the minerals ilmenite (Fe2+TiO3), rutile (TiO2), and leucoxene (an alteration product of ilmenite). Heavy-mineral sands are also the principal source of zircon (ZrSiO4) and its zirconium oxide; zircon is often recovered as a coproduct. Other heavy minerals produced as coproducts from some deposits are sillimanite/kyanite, staurolite, monazite, and garnet. Monazite [(Ce,La,Nd,Th)PO4] is a source of rare earth elements as well as thorium, which is used in thorium-based nuclear power under development in India and elsewhere.

  9. The genesis of the base metal ore deposit from Herja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Damian

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The Herja ore deposit is one of the most known of the Baia Mare Neogene metallogenetic district and is associated with a complex stock of Pannonian age. The hydrothermal alterations associated with the mineralizations are represented by: the propylitization, the argillization, the phyllic and potassic alteration. The monoascenedant character of the mineralizations is predominant. The magmatic intrusions have been sequential placed and have represented the heat, metals and hydrothermal solutions source. In the first stages of mineralization the hydrothermal solutions contain predominantly magmatic water and in the final stages the water is of connate and meteoric origin. According to the structural magmatic control, to the mineralogical composition and to the hydrothermal alterations, the Herja ore deposits are of a low sulphidation epithermal systems type.

  10. Tracing low-temperature aqueous metal migration in mineralized watersheds with Cu isotope fractionation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, R.; Munk, L.A.; Townley, B.; Gou, K.Y.; Gómez Miguélez, N.; Titley, S.; Chen, G.G.; Song, S.; Reich, M.; Tornos, F.; Ruiz, J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Cu isotope fractionation of ores and waters identifies copper sulfide weathering. • Redox reactions cause isotopic shift measured in areas of sulfide weathering. • Consistent isotope signature in different deposit, climate, or concentration. - Abstract: Copper isotope signatures in waters emanating from mineralized watersheds provide evidence for the source aqueous copper in solution. Low-temperature aqueous oxidation of Cu sulfide minerals produces significant copper isotopic fractionation between solutions and residues. Abiotic experimental data of fractionation (defined as Δ liquid–solid ‰ = δ 65 Cu liquid − δ 65 Cu solid ) are on the order of 1–3‰ and are unique for copper rich-sulfide minerals. Data presented here from ores and waters within defined boundaries of porphyry copper, massive sulfide, skarn, and epithermal ore deposits mimic abiotic experiments. Thus, the oxidation of sulfide minerals appears to cause the signatures in the waters although significant biological, temperature, and pH variations exist in the fluids. Regardless of the deposit type, water type, concentration of Cu in solution, or location, the data provide a means to trace sources of metals in solutions. This relationship allows for tracking sources and degree of metal migration in low temperature aqueous systems and has direct application to exploration geology and environmental geochemistry

  11. Preliminary Mineral Resource Assessment of Selected Mineral Deposit Types in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludington, Steve; Orris, Greta J.; Bolm, Karen S.; Peters, Stephen G.; ,

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Wise decision-making and management of natural resources depend upon credible and reliable scientific information about the occurrence, distribution, quantity and quality of a country's resource base. Economic development decisions by governments require such information to be part of a Mineral Resource Assessment. Such Mineral Assessments are also useful to private citizens and international investors, consultants, and companies prior to entry and investment in a country. Assessments can also be used to help evaluate the economic risks and impact on the natural environment associated with development of resources. In February 2002, at the request of the Department of State and the then U.S. Ambassador to Afghanistan (Robert P. Finn), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) prepared a detailed proposal addressing natural resources issues critical to the reconstruction of Afghanistan. The proposal was refined and updated in December 2003 and was presented as a 5-year work plan to USAID-Kabul in February 2004. USAID-Kabul currently funds this plan and this report presents a part of the preliminary results obligated for fiscal year 2006. A final Preliminary Assessment of the Non Fuel Mineral Resource of Afghanistan will be completed and delivered at the end of fiscal year 2007. Afghanistan has abundant metallic and non-metallic resources, but the potential resources have never been systematically assessed using modern methods. Much of the existing mineral information for Afghanistan was gathered during the 1950s and continued in the late 1980s until the departure of the geologic advisors from the Soviet Union. During this period, there were many mineral-related activities centered on systematic geologic mapping of the country, collection of geochemical and rock samples, implementation of airborne geophysical surveys, and exploration focused on the discovery of large mineral deposits. Many reports, maps, charts, and tables were produced at that time. Some of

  12. Isotopic data from proterozoic sediment-hosted sulfide deposits of Brazil: Implications for their metallogenic evolution and for mineral exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misi, Aroldo; Coelho, Carlos E.S.; Franca Rocha, Washington J.S.; Gomez, Adriana S.R.; Cunha, Iona A.; Iyer, Sundaram S.; Tassinari, Colombo C.G.; Kyle, J. Richard

    1998-01-01

    Geological, petrographic, fluid inclusions studies and isotopic data of seven Proterozoic sediment-hosted Pb-Zn-Ag sulfide deposits of Brazil, permit the estimation of the age of the hosting sequence and the mineralization, the nature of the sulfur and metal sources, the temperature range of sulfide formation and the environment of deposition of the mineral deposits. The studies suggest that they were formed during periods of extensional tectonics: Growth faults or reactivated basement faults were responsible for localized circulation of metal-bearing fluids within the sedimentary sequences. In most cases, sulfides were formed by the reduction of sedimentary sulfates. Linear structures are important controls for sulfide concentration in these Proterozoic basins. (author)

  13. Arc-related porphyry molybdenum deposit model: Chapter D in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ryan D.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a descriptive model for arc-related porphyry molybdenum deposits. Presented within are geological, geochemical, and mineralogical characteristics that differentiate this deposit type from porphyry copper and alkali-feldspar rhyolite-granite porphyry molybdenum deposits. The U.S. Geological Survey's effort to update existing mineral deposit models spurred this research, which is intended to supplement previously published models for this deposit type that help guide mineral-resource and mineral-environmental assessments.

  14. Phanerozoic Rifting Phases And Mineral Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassaan, Mahmoud

    2016-04-01

    connected with NW,WNW and N-S faults genetically related to volcano-hydrothermal activity associated the Red Sea rifting. At Sherm EL-Sheikh hydrothermal manganese deposit occurs in Oligocene clastics within fault zone. Four iron-manganese-barite mineralization in Esh-Elmellaha plateau are controlled by faults trending NW,NE and nearly E-W intersecting Miocene carbonate rocks. Barite exists disseminated in the ores and as a vein in NW fault. In Shalatee - Halaib district 24 manganese deposits and barite veins with sulphide patches occur within Miocene carbonates distributed along two NW fault planes,trending 240°and 310° and occur in granite and basalt . Uranium -lead-zinc sulfide mineralization occur in Late Proterozoic granite, Late Cretaceous sandstones, and chiefly in Miocene clastic-carbonate-evaporate rocks. The occurrences of uranium- lead-zinc and iron-manganese-barite mineralization have the characteristic features of hypogene cavity filling and replacement deposits correlated with Miocene- Recent Aden volcanic rocks rifting. In western Saudi Arabia barite-lead-zinc mineralization occurs at Lat. 25° 45' and 25° 50'N hosted by Tertiary sediments in limestone nearby basaltic flows and NE-SW fault system. The mineralized hot brines in the Red Sea deeps considered by the author a part of this province. The author considers the constant rifting phases of Pangea and then progressive fragmentation of Western Gondwana during the Late Carboniferous-Lias, Late Jurassic-Early Aptian, Late Aptian - Albian and Late Eocene-Early Miocene and Oligocene-Miocene, responsible for formation of the mineral deposits constituting the M provinces. During these events, rifting, magmatism and hydrothermal activities took place in different peri-continental margins.

  15. Methods of mineral potential assessment of uranium deposits: A mineral systems approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaireth, S.

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: • Choice of methods depends on the objective; • Basics: – Know your mineral system (deposit-type): SCIENCE; – Create useful datasets: A MUST; • Mineral system approach can be rewarding. For successful examples visit GA’s website; • Don’t overdo or oversell it (only detailed exploration such as drilling can find a deposit)

  16. Mercury contamination in agricultural soils from abandoned metal mines classified by geology and mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han Sik; Jung, Myung Chae

    2012-01-01

    This survey aimed to compare mercury concentrations in soils related to geology and mineralization types of mines. A total of 16,386 surface soils (0~15 cm in depth) were taken from agricultural lands near 343 abandoned mines (within 2 km from each mine) and analyzed for Hg by AAS with a hydride-generation device. To meaningfully compare mercury levels in soils with geology and mineralization types, three subclassification criteria were adapted: (1) five mineralization types, (2) four valuable ore mineral types, and (3) four parent rock types. The average concentration of Hg in all soils was 0.204 mg kg(-1) with a range of 0.002-24.07 mg kg(-1). Based on the mineralization types, average Hg concentrations (mg kg(-1)) in the soils decreased in the order of pegmatite (0.250) > hydrothermal vein (0.208) > hydrothermal replacement (0.166) > skarn (0.121) > sedimentary deposits (0.045). In terms of the valuable ore mineral types, the concentrations decreased in the order of Au-Ag-base metal mines ≈ base metal mines > Au-Ag mines > Sn-W-Mo-Fe-Mn mines. For parent rock types, similar concentrations were found in the soils derived from sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks followed by heterogeneous rocks with igneous and metamorphic processes. Furthermore, farmland soils contained relatively higher Hg levels than paddy soils. Therefore, it can be concluded that soils in Au, Ag, and base metal mines derived from a hydrothermal vein type of metamorphic rocks and pegmatite deposits contained relatively higher concentrations of mercury in the surface environment.

  17. Beyond the obvious limits of ore deposits: The use of mineralogical, geochemical, and biological features for the remote detection of mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, D.L.; Kelley, K.D.; Coker, W.B.; Caughlin, B.; Doherty, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    deposits with a low-temperature thermal history. A number of newly investigated secondary far field features include the development of reduced columns by electrochemical processes in transported overburden, geochemical dispersion related to the expulsion of groundwater from tectonic and seismic compression, dispersion of vapor above ore deposits, and geochemical dispersion related to biological processes. Redox gradients have been found between underlying reduced and overlying oxidized environments associated with sulfide bodies, which result in mass transfer through electro-chemical dispersion. Recent studies have characterized the pH, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), and self potential (SP) in overburden overlying sulfide-hosted gold and VMS deposits. Lateral migration of metals in groundwater is well understood from normal groundwater flow, but the processes responsible for vertical mass transfer of groundwater and its dissolved components have been recognized only recently. One process, termed cyclical dilatancy pumping, expels groundwater during and after earthquake events, which can cause the redistribution of metals around deposits in some environments. Soil gases are of interest owing to their high degree of mobility through the vadose zone in transported overburden. Numerous soil gas species (CO2, O2, Hg, Rn, He, sulfur compounds, and light hydrocarbons) have been measured and interpreted as diagnostic of some buried mineral deposits, and some evidence suggests a possible link between vapor dispersion and metal enrichment in soil. Geochemical enrichment in plant material and soils through successive growth-death cycles is well established, but the important role of microorganisms is now increasingly evident. Microorganisms significantly enhance the kinetics of sulfide oxidation and influence the distribution of metals around ore deposits. The presence of metal-resistant bacteria and enhanced concentrations of sulfate-reducing bacteria in exotic overburd

  18. Seamount mineral deposits: A source of rare metals for high technology industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, James R.; Conrad, Tracey A.; Staudigel, Hubert

    2010-01-01

    The near exponential growth in Earth’s population and the global economy puts increasing constraints on our planet’s finite supply of natural metal resources, and, consequently, there is an increasing need for new sources to supply high-tech industries. To date, effectively all of our raw-metal resources are produced at land-based sites. Except for nearshore placer deposits, the marine environment has been largely excluded from metal mining due to technological difficulties, even though it covers more than 70% of the planet. The case can be made that deep-water seabed mining is inevitable in the future, owing to the critical and strategic metal needs for human society. In this paper, we evaluate the case that seamounts offer significant potential for mining.

  19. Characterization of minerals, metals and materials

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, Jiann-Yang; Bai, Chengguang; Carpenter, John; Cai, Mingdong; Firrao, Donato; Kim, Byoung-Gon

    2012-01-01

    This state-of-the-art reference contains chapters on all aspects of the characterization of minerals, metals, and materials. The title presents papers from one of the largest yearly gatherings of materials scientists in the world and thoroughly discusses the characterization of minerals, metals, and materials The scope includes current industrial applications and research and developments in the following areas:  Characterization of Ferrous Metals Characterization of Non-Ferrous Materials Characterization of Minerals and Ceramics Character

  20. The heterogeneous nature of mineral matter, fly-ash and deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creelman, R.A.; Pohl, J.H.; Devir, G.P.; Su, S. [R.A. Creelman and Associates, Epping, NSW (Australia)

    2000-07-01

    This paper reports on a series of slagging studies investigating the heterogeneous nature of mineral matter, fly ash and deposits, and how this heterogeneity affects deposition. The data come from low temperature ashing (LTA) of pulverised coal, fly ash from boilers, and deposits from pilot-scale furnaces and boilers. The paper presents optical and scanning electron (SEM) micrographs, electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) and energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDXRA) of mineral matter, individual fly ash particles, and localised regions of deposits. During combustion, the included mineral matter is transformed into fly ash, melts and partially adheres to the char surface, and may form agglomerated masses. Excluded mineral matter has little chance of encountering another ash particle and agglomerating in the gas phase, but can react with other particles in the wall deposits. Certain fly ash particles adhere to the wall where they can combine with other fly ash particles. Analyses of molten regions of deposits have shown, so far, four mineral phase fields to be responsible for forming difficult deposits with melting points below deposit surface temperatures of 1200 to 1350{sup o}C. These mineral fields include iron cordierite, albite and its silica undersaturated equivalent nepheline, anorthite, and compounds with ratios of Ca to P of 2.3-2.5.

  1. Trace metals partitioning among different sedimentary mineral phases and the deposit-feeding polychaete Armandia brevis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Díaz-de-Alba, Margarita [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Biomolecules (INBIO), Faculty of Sciences, CEI-MAR, University of Cadiz, Campus Rio S. Pedro, E-11510, Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Huerta-Diaz, Miguel Angel, E-mail: huertam@uabc.edu.mx [Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Campus Ensenada, Km. 103 Carr. Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada 22800, Baja California (Mexico); Delgadillo-Hinojosa, Francisco [Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Campus Ensenada, Km. 103 Carr. Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada 22800, Baja California (Mexico); Hare, Landis [Centre Eau Terre Environnement, 490, rue de la Couronne, Québec, Québec G1K 9A9 (Canada); Galindo-Riaño, M. Dolores [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Biomolecules (INBIO), Faculty of Sciences, CEI-MAR, University of Cadiz, Campus Rio S. Pedro, E-11510, Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Siqueiros-Valencia, Arturo [Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Campus Ensenada, Km. 103 Carr. Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada 22800, Baja California (Mexico)

    2016-02-01

    Trace metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) were determined in two operationally defined fractions (HCl and pyrite) in sediments from Ensenada and El Sauzal harbors (Mexico). The HCl fraction had significantly higher metal concentrations relative to the pyrite fraction in both harbors, underlining the weak tendency of most trace metals to associate with pyrite. Exceptionally, Cu was highly pyritized, with degrees of trace metal pyritization (DTMP) > 80% in both harbors. Dissolved Fe flux measurements combined with solid phase Fe sulfide data indicated that 98 mt of Fe are precipitated as iron sulfides every year in Ensenada Harbor. These Fe sulfides (and associated trace metals) will remain preserved in the sediments, unless they are perturbed by dredging or sediment resuspension. Calculations indicate that dredging activities could export to the open ocean 0.20 ± 0.13 to (0.30 ± 0.56) × 10{sup 3} mt of Cd and Cu, respectively, creating a potential threat to marine benthic organisms. Degrees of pyritization (DOP) values in Ensenada and El Sauzal harbors were relatively low (< 25%) while degrees of sulfidization (DOS) were high (~ 50%) because of the contribution of acid volatile sulfide. DOP values correlated with DTMP values (p ≤ 0.001), indicating that metals are gradually incorporated into pyrite as this mineral is formed. Significant correlations were also found between DTMP values and − log(K{sub sp(MeS)}/K{sub sp(pyr)}) for both harbors, indicating that incorporation of trace metals into the pyrite phase is a function of the solubility product of the corresponding metal sulfide. The order in which elements were pyritized in both harbors was Zn ≈ Mn < Fe < Cd ≈ Pb < Ni ≈ Co < < Cu. Lastly, a strong correlation (r{sup 2} = 0.87, p < 0.01) was found between average reactive trace metal concentrations and metal concentrations measured in Armandia brevis (a deposit-feeding Opheliid polychaete), suggesting that these labile sedimentary metals are

  2. Trace metals partitioning among different sedimentary mineral phases and the deposit-feeding polychaete Armandia brevis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díaz-de-Alba, Margarita; Huerta-Diaz, Miguel Angel; Delgadillo-Hinojosa, Francisco; Hare, Landis; Galindo-Riaño, M. Dolores; Siqueiros-Valencia, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Trace metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) were determined in two operationally defined fractions (HCl and pyrite) in sediments from Ensenada and El Sauzal harbors (Mexico). The HCl fraction had significantly higher metal concentrations relative to the pyrite fraction in both harbors, underlining the weak tendency of most trace metals to associate with pyrite. Exceptionally, Cu was highly pyritized, with degrees of trace metal pyritization (DTMP) > 80% in both harbors. Dissolved Fe flux measurements combined with solid phase Fe sulfide data indicated that 98 mt of Fe are precipitated as iron sulfides every year in Ensenada Harbor. These Fe sulfides (and associated trace metals) will remain preserved in the sediments, unless they are perturbed by dredging or sediment resuspension. Calculations indicate that dredging activities could export to the open ocean 0.20 ± 0.13 to (0.30 ± 0.56) × 10"3 mt of Cd and Cu, respectively, creating a potential threat to marine benthic organisms. Degrees of pyritization (DOP) values in Ensenada and El Sauzal harbors were relatively low (< 25%) while degrees of sulfidization (DOS) were high (~ 50%) because of the contribution of acid volatile sulfide. DOP values correlated with DTMP values (p ≤ 0.001), indicating that metals are gradually incorporated into pyrite as this mineral is formed. Significant correlations were also found between DTMP values and − log(K_s_p_(_M_e_S_)/K_s_p_(_p_y_r_)) for both harbors, indicating that incorporation of trace metals into the pyrite phase is a function of the solubility product of the corresponding metal sulfide. The order in which elements were pyritized in both harbors was Zn ≈ Mn < Fe < Cd ≈ Pb < Ni ≈ Co < < Cu. Lastly, a strong correlation (r"2 = 0.87, p < 0.01) was found between average reactive trace metal concentrations and metal concentrations measured in Armandia brevis (a deposit-feeding Opheliid polychaete), suggesting that these labile sedimentary metals are

  3. Mineralogic sources of metals in leachates from the weathering of sedex, massive sulfide, and vein deposit mining wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, S.F.; Hageman, P.L.; Seal, R.R.; Piatak, N.M.; Lowers, H.

    2011-01-01

    Weathered mine waste consists of oxidized primary minerals and chemically unstable secondary phases that can be sources of readily soluble metals and acid rock drainage. Elevated concentrations of metals such as Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn are observed in deionized water-based leachate solutions derived from complex sedex and Cu-Pb-Zn mine wastes. Leachate (USGS FLT) from the Elizabeth mine, a massive sulfide deposit, has a pH of 3.4 and high concentrations of Al (16700 ug/L), Cu (440 ug/L), and Zn (8620 ug/L). Leachate from the sedex Faro mine has a pH of 3.5 and high concentrations of Al (2040 ug/L), Cu (1930 ug/L), Pb (2080 ug/L), and Zn (52900 ug/L). In contrast, higher-pH leachates produced from tailings of polymetallic vein deposits have order of magnitude lower metal concentrations. These data indicate that highly soluble secondary mineral phases exist at the surface of waste material where the samples were collected. Sulfide minerals from all sites exhibit differential degrees of weathering, from dissolution etched grain rims, to rinds of secondary minerals, to skeletal remnants. These microscale mineral-dissolution textures enhance weathering and metal teachability of waste material. Besides the formation of secondary minerals, sulfide grains from dried tailings samples may be coated by amorphous Fe-Al-Si minerals that also adsorb metals such as Cu, Ni, and Zn.

  4. Sr isotope geochemistry of East Alpine mineral deposits and mass spectrometric analyses of fluid inclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grum, W.

    1995-05-01

    Strontium isotope geochemistry and deformational history of selected carbonate-hosted deposits from different tectonic positions in the Eastern Alps were studied. In this context an equipment has been constructed to analyze the composition of volatile components of fluid inclusions (FI). Based on the results of Sr-isotopic investigations two groups of deposits are discriminated: Deposits formed by formation waters and/or metamorphogenic fluids: Tux (magnesite, scheelite), Otterzug (barite), Lassing (magnesite), Rabenwald (talc), Laussa and Mooseck (fluorite). The mineralizing fluids are derived from different sedimentary rock series and therefore 87 Sr/ 86 Sr-ratios vary between 0.707 and 0.719. Deposits situated along fault zones: Lassing (talc), Gasteiner Tal (Silberpfennig area; gold), Schlaining (stibnite) and Waldenstein (specularite). Sr isotope ratios of the mineralizing fluids from Lassing, Waldenstein and Schlaining ranges from 0.7112 to 0.7127 and are therefore thought to have scavenged the East Alpine crystalline. The mineralizing solutions of the Gasteiner Tal deposit may either have equilibrated with low radiogenic sedimentary or with (ultra-)basic rocks. A cracking chamber has been constructed in order to open FI by cracking for mass spectrometric analysis of volatile components. Gases are analysed using a quadrupole mass spectrometer. The desorption of gas from metal and sample surfaces during cracking can be neglected. The amount of gas released from the mineral lattices was studied. With that fast method ore bearing from barren host rocks have been distinguished by different composition of the FI at the Brixlegg barite mineralization (Eastern Alps). Within the Galway fluorite deposit (Ireland) different fluids were involved and mass spectrometric analysis were carried out to characterize these different fluids and to identify their origin. (author)

  5. Geochemical and modal data for igneous rocks associated with epithermal mineral deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Bray, Edward A.

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this report are to (1) present available geochemical and modal data for igneous rocks associated with epithermal mineral deposits and (2) to make those data widely and readily available for subsequent, more in-depth consideration and interpretation. Epithermal precious and base-metal deposits are commonly associated with subduction-related calc-alkaline to alkaline arc magmatism as well as back-arc continental rift magmatism. These deposits form in association with compositionally diverse extrusive and intrusive igneous rocks. Temperature and depth regimes prevailing during deposit formation are highly variable. The deposits form from hydrothermal fluids that range from acidic to near-neutral pH, and they occur in a variety of structural settings. The disparate temperature, pressure, fluid chemistry, and structural controls have resulted in deposits with wide ranging characteristics. Economic geologists have employed these characteristics to develop classification schemes for epithermal deposits and to constrain the important genetic processes responsible for their formation.

  6. PIXE analysis of nephrite minerals from different deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z. W.; Gan, F. X.; Cheng, H. S.

    2011-02-01

    External-beam PIXE was used to determine the major, minor and trace elements of 45 nephrite minerals from 14 different deposits, including China and other countries. Depending on the R∗ value (mole percent of Mg 2+/(Mg 2+ + Fe 2+(3+))) and content of Cr, Co and Ni, two types of nephrite minerals from dolomite and serpentinized ultramafic deposits can be more accurately distinguished. Besides, the nephrite minerals from Xiaomeiling and Wenchuan deposit can be distinguished with others from dolomite deposits, through the content of Sr and Mn/Fe value, respectively. Moreover, depending on the Sr content, clear evidence was given to prove that the raw materials of ancient nephrite artifacts from Liangzhu culture ruins are not from Xiaomeiling nephrite deposit. Furthermore, PIXE as a non-destructive method will be more used to study ancient nephrite artifacts, so these results can provide scientific basis for seeking the provenance of nephrite raw materials.

  7. Age, genesis and exploration for mineral deposits: the possibilities offered by lead isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcoux, E.; Calvez, J.Y.

    1985-01-01

    After a brief theoretical survey of the subject, the paper discusses the assistance that lead isotopes can bring to solving problems of metallogenesis and mineral exploration. Lead isotopes act as a true geologic clock when radioactive decay of lead takes place in a closed U-Th-Pb system, or when these conditions have been recreated by homogenization of a large crustal segment. The lead clock is thus reliable for deposits whose process of formation was part of a hydrothermal event that affected a significant part of the crust, most importantly in island-arc volcanosedimentary deposits, much less so for deposits formed by spatially restricted hydrothermal activity such as the emplacement of veins. Very interesting possibilities are also to be found in the capacity of lead isotopes to act as geochemical tracers. In conjunction with paragenetic and gitologic studies, determination of the isotopic composition of lead allows the sources of metals to be identified and permits an approach to the understanding of inheritance phenomena in a mineral deposit or province. This information also assists in unravelling the successive metallogenic processes in a region, thus contributing to refinement of the concept of a metallogenic province. Lastly lead isotopes provide an additional factor in assessing the economic potential of a deposit undergoing exploration. The method is based on a comparison of the isotopic signature of the deposit with that of economic mineralization occuring elsewhere in the circa. Examples of stratiform deposits and the gold-bearing veins of Limousin are described. The application of this method to gossans can provide additional information to standard geochemistry and thus assist in grading of targets [fr

  8. Clay minerals in sandstone uranium deposits: radwaste applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookins, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    Clay minerals play an important role in the genesis of uranium deposits in sandstones. They incorporate the rate earths (REE), U, Sb, Th, Cs, Rb, Sr, Y, Ba, and even small amounts of chalcophiles. These minerals possess analog elements for many of the radwaste fission products as well as actinides and some actinide daughters. In sandstone uranium deposits, clay minerals are also associated with sulfide minerals, usually pyrite, and organic carbonaceous matter. The primary clay minerals are usually smectites, illites, chlorites and mixed layer varieties. The integrity of these clay minerals is demonstrated by their retention of formational-mineralization ages determined by Rb-Sr geochronologic investigation of the Grants Mineral Belt of the United States. The importance of the clay minerals as analog for parts of the multi-barrier concept in radwaste disposal is their ability to impede water penetration into - and movement of key elements out of uranium rich zones. The clay minerals further sorb and in other ways incorporate into their structures many fission products and actinide analogs from man-made nuclear wastes. 22 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  9. Mineralogy of accessory and rare minerals associated with chromite deposits in the Khoy area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emamalipour, A.

    2008-01-01

    The chromite deposits in the Khoy area have lenticular, tubular and vein-like shapes which are found in serpenlinized hurzburgite. Chromite and serpentine are major minerals and hematite and magnetite are minor phases in the chromitic ores .Furthermore, Fe, Ni, Cu, Co, Zn, Ru, Os, Ir, La, Ce, Gd and S elements are found as base metal sulfides, sulfides of platinum group elements, metal oxides, native elements, natural alloys and solid inclusions in chromite grains and or in serpentinic ground mass. These minerals have very fine grain sizes and recognitions of them by ore microscopic method was limited, so the investigations were continued by EMPA. The majority of these minerals have secondary origin and are related with serpentinization. processes and only a few of them have primary origin. Among sulfide minerals bravoite, pyrotite, milerite, linaite and pyrite have secondary origin, whereas pentlandite has primary one. Chalcopyrite has been formed in two generations, as both primary and secondary origins. Among primary platinum group elements minerals lourite ((Ru, Os, Ir)S 2 ) is considerable, which was found as a solid inclusion in the chromite grain and has primary origin. Native metals and natural alloys such as nickel, copper, iron and josephinite (Ni 3 Fe) have been formed in micro fractures of chromite grains filled by serpentine. A few rare earth element-rich compositions were found in micro fractures also and have secondary origin

  10. Titanium minerals of placer deposits as a source for new materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotova, Olga; Ponaryadov, Alexey

    2015-04-01

    Heavy mineral deposits are a source of the economic important element titanium, which is contained in ilmenite and leucoxene. The mineral composition of placer titanium ore and localization pattern of ore minerals determine their processing and enriching technologies. New data on the mineralogy of titanium ores from modern coastal-marine placer in Stradbroke Island, Eastern Australia, and Pizhma paleoplacer in Middle Timan, Russia, and materials on their basis are presented. The samples were studied by the following methods: optical-mineralogical (stereomicroscope MBS-10, polarizing microscope POLAM L-311), semiquantitative x-ray phase analysis (x-ray difractometer X'Pert PRO MPD). Besides microprobe (VEGA 3 TESCAN) and x-ray fluorescent analysis (XRF-1800 Shimadzu) were used. By the mineralogical composition ores of the both deposits are complex: enriched by valuable minerals. Apart from main ore concentrates it is possible to obtain accompanying nonmetallic products. This will increase the efficiency of deposit exploitation. Ilmenite dominates in ore sands of Stradbroke Island, and leucoxene dominates in the ores of the Pizhma titanium deposit. Australian ilmenite and its altered varieties are mainly characterized by a very high MnO content (from 5.24 to 11.08 %). The irregular distribution of iron oxides, titanium and manganese in the altered ilmenite was shown in the paper. E.g., in the areas of substitution of ilmenite by pseudorutile the concentrations of the given elements are greatly various due to various ratios of basic components in each grain. Their ratios are equal in the area of rutile evolution. Moreover, the high content of gold, diamonds and also rare earth elements (REE) and rare metals (their forms are not determined) were studied. We found native copper on the surface of minerals composing titanium-bearing sandstones of the Pizhma placer. According to the technological features of rocks (density and magnetic) studied placers are close. The

  11. Localization of mineralization, its age, and relationship to magmatism at the Mogot silver-base-metal deposit, North Stanovoi metallogenic zone in the southeastern framework of the North Asian Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchko, I. V.; Buchko, Ir. V.; Sorokin, A. A.; Ponomarchuk, V. A.; Travin, A. V.

    2014-03-01

    The results of studying the Mogot silver-base-metal deposit located in the Dzhugdzhur-Stanovoi Superterrane are discussed in this paper. The main ore-controlling structural elements of the studied district are near-latitudinal and NE-trending faults, which are accompanied by zones of hydrothermal metasomatic potassic, propylitic, and argillic alterations, breccias with quartz and quartz-carbonate cement replacing metamorphic rocks and granitoids of the Late Stanovoi Complex. The total sulfide content in ore is 2-3%. The high Ag, Pb, and Zn contents in ore allow us to consider the Mogot deposit as silver-base-metal, since except of orebody 4, there are no silver minerals proper. This indicates that silver is incorporated into crystalline lattice of sulfides. The results of 40Ar/39Ar geochronological investigations show that the hydrothermal ore deposition dated at 127-125 Ma was related to emplacement of intrusions pertaining to the Tynda-Bakaran Complex.

  12. Mineral deposits research in Uruguay. Technical economic part

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raabe, W.

    1959-01-01

    Technical researches, mineralogical and chemical analysis were carried out in Zapucay and Iman deposit located in Uruguay south America, as a result of that, researchers was described the mineral adherences of the deposits.

  13. Economical characteristics of base types of minerals. 1. Metallic minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.

    1990-01-01

    Metallic minerals is raw materials base of black and colour metallurgy. In this article of book author describes the group of black metals (iron, manganese, chromium), group of tempers (titanium, vanadium, nickel, cobalt, molybdenum, tungsten), colour metals (copper, lead, zinc, aluminium, tin, mercury, antimony, bismuth) and etc.

  14. Potential for Sulfide Mineral Deposits in Australian Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConachy, Timothy F.

    The world is witnessing a paradigm shift in relation to marine mineral resources. High-value seafloor massive sulfides at active convergent plate boundaries are attracting serious commercial attention. Under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, maritime jurisdictional zones will increase by extending over continental margins and ocean basins. For Australia, this means a possible additional 3.37 million km2 of seabed. Australia's sovereign responsibility includes, amongst other roles, the management of the exploitation of nonliving resources and sea-bed mining. What, therefore, is the potential in Australia's marine jurisdiction for similar deposits to those currently attracting commercial attention in neighboring nations and for other types/styles of sulfide deposits? A preliminary review of opportunities suggests the following: (i) volcanogenic copper—lead—zinc—silver—gold mineralization in fossil arcs and back arcs in eastern waters Norfolk Ridge and the Three Kings Ridge; (ii) Mississippi Valley-type lead—zinc—silver mineralization in the NW Shelf area; (iii) ophiolite-hosted copper mineralization in the Macquarie Ridge Complex in the Southern Ocean; and (iv) submerged extensions of prospective land-based terranes, one example being offshore Gawler Craton for iron oxide—copper—gold deposits. These areas would benefit from pre-competitive surveys of detailed swath bathymetry mapping, geophysical surveys, and sampling to help build a strategic inventory of future seafloor mineral resources for Australia.

  15. Metallogenetic condition and mineralization characteristics of uranium deposit No.114

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Lin; Ma Fei; Yang Wanjin

    1988-01-01

    Deposit No 114 is one of the typical carbonate-type uranium deposits, that are widely distributed in South China. In this paper formational environment of host rock, wall-rock alteration, sulfur, oxygen, carbon isotopes, mineralization temperatures, ore compsitions were studied. Based on the U-Pb isotopic research three mineralization stages in deposit No 114 were established, namely 104 Ma, 61 Ma and 11 Ma. It is suggested, that the deposit No 114 is a polygenetic deposit formed primarily by supergene leaching and hydrothermal reworked. The uranium deposit has multi-sources, the main uranium source of which is from the granite body situated nearby. According to metallogenetic characteristics the authors suggest the favourable geological exploration guides for this kind of ore deposits

  16. Nitrogen mineralization across an atmospheric nitrogen deposition gradient in Southern California deserts

    Science.gov (United States)

    L.E. Rao; D.R. Parker; Andrzej Bytnerowicz; E.B. Allen

    2009-01-01

    Dry nitrogen deposition is common in arid ecosystems near urban and agricultural centers, yet its impacts on natural environments are relatively understudied. We examined the effects of N deposition on soil N mineralization across a depositional gradient at Joshua Tree National Park. We hypothesized that N deposition affects N mineralization by promoting...

  17. Bio-mineralization and potential biogeochemical processes in bauxite deposits: genetic and ore quality significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskou, Magdalini; Economou-Eliopoulos, Maria

    2013-08-01

    The Parnassos-Ghiona bauxite deposit in Greece of karst type is the 11th largest bauxite producer in the world. The mineralogical, major and trace-element contents and δ18O, δ12C, δ34S isotopic compositions of bauxite ores from this deposit and associated limestone provide valuable evidence for their origin and biogeochemical processes resulting in the beneficiation of low grade bauxite ores. The organic matter as thin coal layers, overlying the bauxite deposits, within limestone itself (negative δ12C isotopic values) and the negative δ34S values in sulfides within bauxite ores point to the existence of the appropriate circumstances for Fe bio-leaching and bio-mineralization. Furthermore, a consortium of microorganisms of varying morphological forms (filament-like and spherical to lenticular at an average size of 2 μm), either as fossils or presently living and producing enzymes, is a powerful factor to catalyze the redox reactions, expedite the rates of metal extraction and provide alternative pathways for metal leaching processes resulting in the beneficiation of bauxite ore.

  18. New Mexico Known Mineral Deposit Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains all Known Mineral Deposit Areas in the state of New Mexico. It is in a vector digital structure digitized from a 1:500,000 scale map of the...

  19. Minerals with metal-organic framework structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huskić, Igor; Pekov, Igor V; Krivovichev, Sergey V; Friščić, Tomislav

    2016-08-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are an increasingly important family of advanced materials based on open, nanometer-scale metal-organic architectures, whose design and synthesis are based on the directed assembly of carefully designed subunits. We now demonstrate an unexpected link between mineralogy and MOF chemistry by discovering that the rare organic minerals stepanovite and zhemchuzhnikovite exhibit structures found in well-established magnetic and proton-conducting metal oxalate MOFs. Structures of stepanovite and zhemchuzhnikovite, exhibiting almost nanometer-wide and guest-filled apertures and channels, respectively, change the perspective of MOFs as exclusively artificial materials and represent, so far, unique examples of open framework architectures in organic minerals.

  20. Complex mineralization at large ore deposits in the Russian Far East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, A. A.; Malyshev, Yu. F.; Goroshko, M. V.; Romanovsky, N. P.

    2011-04-01

    Genetic and mineralogical features of large deposits with complex Sn, W, and Mo mineralization in the Sikhote-Alin and Amur-Khingan metallogenic provinces are considered, as well as those of raremetal, rare earth, and uranium deposits in the Aldan-Stanovoi province. The spatiotemporal, geological, and mineralogical attributes of large deposits are set forth, and their geodynamic settings are determined. These attributes are exemplified in the large Tigriny Sn-W greisen-type deposit. The variation of regional tectonic settings and their spatial superposition are the main factor controlling formation of large deposits. Such a variation gives rise to multiple reactivation of the ore-magmatic system and long-term, multistage formation of deposits. Pulsatory mineralogical zoning with telescoped mineral assemblages related to different stages results in the formation of complex ores. The highest-grade zones of mass discharge of hydrothermal solutions are formed at the deposits. The promising greisen-type mineralization with complex Sn-W-Mo ore is suggested to be an additional source of tungsten and molybdenum. The Tigriny, Pravourminsky, and Arsen'evsky deposits, as well as deposits of the Komsomol'sk and Khingan-Olonoi ore districts are examples. Large and superlarge U, Ta, Nb, Be, and REE deposits are localized in the southeastern Aldan-Stanovoi Shield. The Ulkan and Arbarastakh ore districts attract special attention. The confirmed prospects of new large deposits with Sn, W, Mo, Ta, Nb, Be, REE, and U mineralization in the south of the Russian Far East assure expediency of further geological exploration in this territory.

  1. Province-scale commonalities of some world-class gold deposits: Implications for mineral exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David I. Groves

    2015-05-01

    Here we promote the concept that mineral explorers need to carefully consider the scale at which their exploration targets are viewed. It is necessary to carefully assess the potential of drill targets in terms of terrane to province to district scale, rather than deposit scale, where most current economic geology research and conceptual thinking is concentrated. If orogenic, IRGD, Carlin-style and IOCG gold-rich systems are viewed at the deposit scale, they appear quite different in terms of conventionally adopted research parameters. However, recent models for these deposit styles show increasingly similar source-region parameters when viewed at the lithosphere scale, suggesting common tectonic settings. It is only by assessing individual targets in their tectonic context that they can be more reliably ranked in terms of potential to provide a significant drill discovery. Targets adjacent to craton margins, other lithosphere boundaries, and suture zones are clearly favoured for all of these gold deposit styles, and such exploration could lead to incidental discovery of major deposits of other metals sited along the same tectonic boundaries.

  2. Surface Finish after Laser Metal Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombouts, M.; Maes, G.; Hendrix, W.; Delarbre, E.; Motmans, F.

    Laser metal deposition (LMD) is an additive manufacturing technology for the fabrication of metal parts through layerwise deposition and laser induced melting of metal powder. The poor surface finish presents a major limitation in LMD. This study focuses on the effects of surface inclination angle and strategies to improve the surface finish of LMD components. A substantial improvement in surface quality of both the side and top surfaces has been obtained by laser remelting after powder deposition.

  3. Fe-isotope fractionation in magmatic-hydrothermal mineral deposits: A case study from the Renison Sn-W deposit, Tasmania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawryk, Christine M.; Foden, John D.

    2015-02-01

    We present 50 new iron isotopic analyses of source granite and mineral separates from the Renison tin deposit in western Tasmania. The aim of the study is to characterise the composition of minerals within a tin deposit associated with a reduced, S-type magma. We have analysed bulk samples of granite, and separates of pyrrhotite, pyrite, arsenopyrite, magnetite, chalcopyrite and siderite by multi-collector inductively coupled mass spectrometry. The isotopic compositions of mineral separates are consistent with theoretical predictions of equilibrium fractionation based on Mössbauer spectroscopy and other parametric calculations. Mineral-mineral pairs yield temperatures of formation that are in agreement with prior detailed fluid inclusion studies, but are spatially inconsistent with declining fluid temperatures with distance from the causative intrusion, limiting the use of Fe isotopes as a potential geothermometer, at least in this case. Comparison of our data with published data from other deposits clearly demonstrates that pyrite, magnetite and chalcopyrite from the hottest ore fluids (>300-400 °C) at Renison are isotopically heavier than minerals sampled from a deposit formed at similar temperatures, but associated with a more oxidised and less differentiated intrusion.

  4. Diagnostic Genesis Features of Au-Ag Selenide-Telluride Mineralization of Western Java Deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euis Tintin Yuningsih

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.3.1.67-76The ore mineralogy of the westernmost part of West Java such as Pongkor, Cibaliung, Cikidang, Cikotok, and Cirotan are characterized by the dominance of silver-arsenic-antimony sulfosalt with silver selenides and rarely tellurides over the argentite, whereas the eastern part of West Java including Arinem and Cineam deposits are dominated by silver-gold tellurides. Mineralogy of Se-type deposits at Pongkor, Cikidang, Cibaliung, Cisungsang, and Cirotan and Te-type deposits at Arinem and Cineam shows their different geochemical characteristics. Mineralogical and geochemical differences can be explained by variation of physico-chemical conditions that existed during gold-silver deposition by applying the phase relation among sulfide, telluride, and selenide mineral association in the deposits. The relative values of ƒSe2(g, ƒTe(g, and ƒS2(g control the actual presence of selenide or telluride minerals within the West Java deposits, which also depend on their concentrations in the hydrothermal fluid. Even though the concentration of selenium in the hydrothermal fluid of Te-type deposits might have been similar or even higher than that in the Se-type, early substitution of selenium in the sulfide minerals prevents its concentration in the hydrothermal fluid to the levels for precipitating selenide minerals. Therefore, early sulfide mineral deposition from reduction fluids will not increase the ƒSe2(g/ƒS2(g ratio to form selenide minerals in Te-type deposits of Arinem and Cineam, other than selenium-bearing sulfide mineral such as Se-bearing galena or Se-bearing pyrargyrite-proustite.

  5. Microbial weathering processes after release of heavy metals and arsenic from fluvial tailing deposits; Mikrobielle Verwitterungsprozesse bei der Freisetzung von Schwermetallen und Arsen aus fluvialen Tailingablagerungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willscher, S. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Fak. fuer Forst, Geo und Hydrowissenschaften, Inst. fuer Abfallwirtschaft und Altlasten

    2006-07-01

    Microbial processes play an important role in global metal cycles. The microbial weathering of mineral surfaces, including deposited anthropogenic mineral remainders, is a natural occurring process, taking place on uncovered dump surfaces as well as in deeper zones of dumps. Such weathering processes also occur in metal contaminated soils and sediments. In this work, a sulfidic fluvial tailing sediment was investigated for its acidity and salinity generating potential and the subsequent mobilisation of heavy metals, generated by biogeochemical processes. The long-term risks of such a deposit were evaluated. Unstabilised deposits of such materials can generate a considerable contamination of the surrounding ground and surface water. It could be shown in the experiments that in acid generating dumps and tailing materials besides the well known acidophilic autotrophs also acidotolerant heterotrophic microorganisms play a role in the mobilisation of metals. (orig.)

  6. Intermediate sulfidation type base metal mineralization at Aliabad-Khanchy, Tarom-Hashtjin metallogenic belt, NW Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouhestani, Hossein; Mokhtari, Mir Ali Asghar; Chang, Zhaoshan; Johnson, Craig A.

    2018-01-01

    The Aliabad-Khanchy epithermal base metal deposit is located in the Tarom-Hashtjin metallogenic belt (THMB) of northwest Iran. The mineralization occurs as Cu-bearing brecciated quartz veins hosted by Eocene volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of the Karaj Formation. Ore formation can be divided into five stages, with most ore minerals, such as pyrite and chalcopyrite being formed in the early stages. The main wall-rock alteration is silicification, and chlorite, argillic and propylitic alteration. Microthermometric measurements of fluid inclusion assemblages show that the ore-forming fluids have eutectic temperatures between −30 and −52 °C, trapping temperatures of 150–290 °C, and salinities of 6.6–12.4 wt% NaCl equiv. These data demonstrate that the ore-forming fluids were medium- to high-temperature, medium- to low-salinity, and low-density H2O–NaCl–CaCl2 fluids. Calculated δ18O values indicate that ore-forming hydrothermal fluids had δ18Owater ranging from +3.6‰ to +0.8‰, confirming that the ore–fluid system evolved from dominantly magmatic to dominantly meteoric. The calculated 34SH2S values range from −8.1‰ to −5.0‰, consistent with derivation of the sulfur from either magma or possibly from local volcanic wall-rock. Combined, the fluid inclusion and stable isotope data indicate that the Aliabad-Khanchy deposit formed from magmatic-hydrothermal fluids. After rising to a depth of between 790 and 500 m, the fluid boiled and subsequent hydraulic fracturing may have led to inflow and/or mixing of early magmatic fluids with circulating groundwater causing deposition of base metals due to dilution and/or cooling. The Aliabad-Khanchy deposit is interpreted as an intermediate-sulfidation style of epithermal mineralization. Our data suggest that the mineralization at Aliabad-Khanchy and other epithermal deposits of the THMB formed by hydrothermal activity related to shallow late Eocene magmatism. The altered Eocene volcanic and

  7. Evaluation of Mineral Deposits Along the Little Wind River, Riverton, WY, Processing Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Sam [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dam, Wiliam [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management

    2014-12-01

    In 2012, the U.S.Department of Energy (DOE) began reassessing the former Riverton, Wyoming, Processing Site area for potential contaminant sources impacting groundwater. A flood in 2010 along the Little Wind River resulted in increases in groundwater contamination (DOE 2013).This investigation is a small part of continued efforts by DOE and other stakeholders to update human health and ecological risk assessments, to make a comprehensive examination of all exposure pathways to ensure that the site remains protective through established institutional controls. During field inspections at the Riverton Site in 2013, a white evaporitic mineral deposit was identified along the bank of the Little Wind River within the discharge zone of the groundwater contamination plume. In December 2013, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel collected a sample for analysis by X-ray fluorescence (Figure 1 shows the type of material sampled). The sample had a uranium concentration of approximately 64 to 73 parts per million. Although the uranium in this mineral deposit is within the expected range for evaporatic minerals in the western United States (SRNL 2014), DOE determined that additional assessment of the mineral deposit was warranted. In response to the initial collection and analysis of a sample of the mineral deposit, DOE developed a work plan (Work Plan to Sample Mineral Deposits Along the Little Wind River, Riverton, Wyoming, Processing Site [DOE 2014]) to further define the extent of these mineral deposits and the concentration of the associated contaminants (Appendix A). The work plan addressed field reconnaissance, mapping, sampling, and the assessment of risk associated with the mineral deposits adjacent to the Little Wind River.

  8. New and non-traditional mineral raw materials deposits, perspectives of use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyseev, O.; Beyseev, A.; Baichigasov, I.; Sergev, E.; Shakirova, G.

    1996-01-01

    Deposits of new and non-traditional kinds of mineral raw material are revealed, explored and prepared to industrial recovery in Kazakstan, that can be used in frames of conversion process to create new materials with unique properties, to prepare base for new technologies elaboration, and to achieve appreciable economic benefit. These deposits are located mostly in geographic and economic conditions of advanced infrastructure and mining works network, favorable for recovery.On the tests results the following is of heaviest interest: RHODUCITE, NEMALITE-CONTAINING CHRYSOTILE-ASBESTOS, NICKEL-CONTAINING SILICATE-ASBOLAN ORES, MEDICINAL MINERALS, SHUNGITES, FULLERENES, RAW QUARTZ MINERALS - the group of deposits containing 5 min tons of high quality quartz good for manufacture of cut-glass and fibre-optical articles, is explored in details. There are also deposits of other kinds of non-traditional strategic mineral raw material in the Republic of Kazakstan - natural fillers, that can be used in the national economy of the country and bring considerable economic benefit: chrysotile-asbestos, amphibole-asbestos, talk, vollastonite, tremolite, actinolite, vermiculite, zeolite, etc

  9. Reaction kinetics of metal deposition via surface limited red-ox replacement of underpotentially deposited metal monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokcen, Dincer; Bae, Sang-Eun; Brankovic, Stanko R.

    2011-01-01

    The study of the kinetics of metal deposition via surface limited red-ox replacement of underpotentially deposited metal monolayers is presented. The model system was Pt submonolayer deposition on Au(1 1 1) via red-ox replacement of Pb and Cu UPD monolayers on Au(1 1 1). The kinetics of a single replacement reaction was studied using the formalism of the comprehensive analytical model developed to fit the open circuit potential transients from deposition experiments. The practical reaction kinetics parameters like reaction half life, reaction order and reaction rate constant are determined and discussed with their relevance to design and control of deposition experiments. The effects of transport limitation and the role of the anions/electrolyte on deposition kinetics are investigated and their significance to design of effective deposition process is discussed.

  10. Spatial and temporal zoning of hydrothermal alteration and mineralization in the Sossego iron oxide-copper-gold deposit, Carajás Mineral Province, Brazil: Paragenesis and stable isotope constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Lena V.S.; Xavier, R.P.; Carvalho, E.R.; Hitzman, M.W.; Johnson, C.A.; Souza, Filho C.R.; Torresi, I.

    2008-01-01

    subsidiary siegenite, and millerite. Pyrrhotite and pyrite are minor constituents of ore in the Sequerinho orebodies while pyrite is relatively abundant in the Sossego–Curral bodies. Oxygen isotope partitioning between mineral pairs constrains temperatures in the deposit spatially and through time. In the Sequeirinho orebody, the early sodic–calcic alteration stage was characterized by temperatures exceeding 500°C and δ18OH2O values for the alteration fluid of 6.9 ± 0.9‰. Temperature declines outward and upward from the zone of most intense alteration. Paragenetically later copper–gold mineralization displays markedly lower temperatures (formational/metamorphic or magmatic origin. The decrease of δ18OH2O values through time may reflect influx of surficially derived waters during later alteration and mineralization events. Influx of such fluids could be related to episodic fluid overpressure, resulting in dilution and cooling of the metalliferous fluid, causing deposition of metals transported as metal chloride complexes.

  11. Mineral characterisation of Don Pao rare earth deposit in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    XuanBen, T.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The Don Pao Rare Earth Deposit was discovered in 1959 in Phon Tho district, about 450km North-West of Hanoi capital. Geological work was conducted between 1959-95, resulting in 60 ore bodies of various sizes being identified. The ore bodies are irregularly shaped nests, lenses and veins hosted in the shear zone, at the margin of a Paeleogene aged syenite massif. The mineral composition of Don Pao Deposit is very complex, consisting of more than 50 minerals. Among them, basnaesite, parisite, fluorite and barite are the main constituent minerals of the ore. All the minerals were identified by the modern methods of mineralogical studies. Based on the constituent mineral ratios, four ore types have been distinguished in the deposit: 1. Rare earth ore containing over 5 percent of RE 2 O 3 . 2. Rare Earth-Barite ore containing 0.5 to 30 percent of RE 2 O 3 . 3. Rare Earth-Barite-Fluorite ore containing 1 to 5 percent of RE 2 O 3 . 4. Rare Earth bearing Fluorite ore containing 1 to 5 percent of RE 2 O 3 . According to the benefication test, the ores in Don Pao can be enriched to a concentrate of 60 percent of RE 2 O 3 with a recover of 75 percent

  12. Geology and hydrothermal alteration at the Madh adh Dhahab epithermal precious-metal deposit, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doebrich, J.L.; LeAnderson, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Mahd adh Dhahab is a late Precambrian epithermal gold-silver-base metal deposit located in the west-central part of the Arabian Shield. North-trending quartz veins containing base and precious metals cut an east-striking, north-dipping homoclinal sequence of volcanic, volcaniclastic, and epiclastic rocks of intermediate to felsic composition. Ore was localized where the veins cut competent, coarse-grained, fragmental units directly below incompetent and impermeable tuff units. The proximity of an epizonal rhyolite porphyry stock to these contacts also was important in localizing ore. Ore minerals include native gold and silver, gold-silver tellurides, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, and minor galena, and five stages of mineralization have been identified.

  13. Protection of mineral deposits - a way towards difficult compromises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwanek-Bąk, Barbara; Nieć, Marek

    2014-05-01

    Mineral deposits are non-renewable natural resources. Their protection and reasonable exploitation are crucial requests resulting from sustainable development principles. Those are also fundamental issues in frame of the intergeneration justice and fairness concept. Protection of mineral resources should be based on interrelated activities: maintaining the possibility of economic use of the identified mineral resources, reduced consumption of mineral resources and ensuring satisfactory results of new prospecting and development of innovative technologies for the mineral resources base. The main problem with guarantee to the use of mineral resources is the accessibility to sites with documented deposits and prospective areas of their occurrence. Often, this contradicts with the interests of residents, planners and needs of the biotic environment protection, thus is often a source of conflicts. Legislative regulations are necessary to mitigate such arguable matters. SWOT analysis carried out with respect to introducing such legal regulations serves to identify the sources of conflicts and difficulties associated with their solution. Consensus reaching is a difficult task, so all decision makers are required to show their mutual understanding and willingness to achieve the goals taking into consideration all benefits for the population (including future generations). Foundations for finding the middle ground are: making the communities aware of their demands on minerals and of indispensable conditions for satisfying these demands; providing complete and accessible information; factual, non-emotional negotiations between decision makers and the public.

  14. Occurrence model for volcanogenic beryllium deposits: Chapter F in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Nora K.; Hofstra, Albert H.; Lindsey, David A.; Seal, Robert R.; Jaskula, Brian W.; Piatak, Nadine M.

    2012-01-01

    Current global and domestic mineral resources of beryllium (Be) for industrial uses are dominated by ores produced from deposits of the volcanogenic Be type. Beryllium deposits of this type can form where hydrothermal fluids interact with fluorine and lithophile-element (uranium, thorium, rubidium, lithium, beryllium, cesium, tantalum, rare earth elements, and tin) enriched volcanic rocks that contain a highly reactive lithic component, such as carbonate clasts. Volcanic and hypabyssal high-silica biotite-bearing topaz rhyolite constitutes the most well-recognized igneous suite associated with such Be deposits. The exemplar setting is an extensional tectonic environment, such as that characterized by the Basin and Range Province, where younger topaz-bearing igneous rock sequences overlie older dolomite, quartzite, shale, and limestone sequences. Mined deposits and related mineralized rocks at Spor Mountain, Utah, make up a unique economic deposit of volcanogenic Be having extensive production and proven and probable reserves. Proven reserves in Utah, as reported by the U.S. Geological Survey National Mineral Information Center, total about 15,900 tons of Be that are present in the mineral bertrandite (Be4Si2O7(OH)2). At the type locality for volcanogenic Be, Spor Mountain, the tuffaceous breccias and stratified tuffs that host the Be ore formed as a result of explosive volcanism that brought carbonate and other lithic fragments to the surface through vent structures that cut the underlying dolomitic Paleozoic sedimentary rock sequences. The tuffaceous sediments and lithic clasts are thought to make up phreatomagmatic base surge deposits. Hydrothermal fluids leached Be from volcanic glass in the tuff and redeposited the Be as bertrandite upon reaction of the hydrothermal fluid with carbonate clasts in lithic-rich sections of tuff. The localization of the deposits in tuff above fluorite-mineralized faults in carbonate rocks, together with isotopic evidence for the

  15. Development of Ceramic Coating on Metal Substrate using Industrial Waste and Ore Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuyan, S. K.; Thiyagarajan, T. K.; Mishra, S. C.

    2017-02-01

    The technological advancement in modern era has a boon for enlightening human life; but also is a bane to produce a huge amount of (industrial) wastes, which is of great concern for utilization and not to create environmental threats viz. polution etc. In the present piece of research work, attempts have been made to utilize fly ash (wastes of thermal power plants) and along with alumina bearing ore i.e. bauxite, for developing plasma spray ceramic coatings on metals. Fly ash and with 10 and 20% bauxite addition is used to deposit plasma spray coatings on a metal substrate. The surface morphology of the coatings deposited at different power levels of plasma spraying investigated through SEM and EDS analysis. The coating thickness is measured. The porosity levels of the coatings are evaluated. The coating hardness isalso measured. This piece of research work will be beneficial for future development and use of industrial waste and ore minerals for high-valued applications.

  16. The Shah-Ali-Beiglou Zn-Pb-Cu (-Ag Deposit, Iran: An Example of Intermediate Sulfidation Epithermal Type Mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijeh Mikaeili

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Shah-Ali-Beiglou epithermal base metal-silver deposit is located in the Tarom-Hashjin metallogenic province (THMP in northwestern Iran. This deposit is hosted by quartz monzonite dikes of Oligocene age and surrounded by andesite to trachyandesite volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of Eocene age. The subvolcanic rocks in the study area vary in composition from quartz-monzonite to monzonite and have metaluminous, calc-alkaline to shoshonitic affinity. These rocks have I-type geochemical characteristic and are related to post-collisional tectonic setting. The mineralization occurs as NE-SW and E-W-trending brecciated veins controlled by strike-slip and normal faults, which are associated to the Late Oligocene compressional regime. The mineral paragenesis of the vein mineralization is subdivided into pre-ore stage, ore stage, post-ore stage, and supergene stage. Pre-ore stage is dominated by quartz, sericite, and subhedral to anhedral pyrite as disseminated form. Ore-stage is represented by quartz, sphalerite (from 0.1 mol % to 4 mol % FeS, galena, chalcopyrite, tetrahedrite-tennantite, minor seligmannite and enargite, as vein-veinlet, cement and clast breccias. Post-ore stage is defined by deposition of quartz and carbonate along with minor barite, and supergene stage is characterized by bornite, chalcocite, covellite, hematite, goethite, and jarosite. The ore mineralization is associated with the silicic alteration. The styles of alteration are silicic, carbonate, sericitic, chloritic, and propylitic. Fluid inclusions in sphalerite have a wide range of salinities between 0.35 wt % and 21.4 wt % NaCl equivalent and homogenization temperatures range from 123 to 320 °C. The isotopic values of sulfides vary from 2.8‰ to 6.7‰ suggesting a magmatic source for the sulfur. In the present study, based on geological setting, alteration style of the host and wall rocks, main textures, mineral assemblages, composition of ore minerals, and structural

  17. On the Genesis and Mineralization of the Tungsten Deposit Uludağ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. van der KAADEN

    1958-06-01

    Full Text Available The tungsten deposit of Uludağ is closely linked with a late tectonic Paleozoic intrusion of a granodiorite - granite - batholith into a series of crystalline rocks and marbles. The deposit is located in a marble syncline folded into the granite. It is the tectonic structure of this syncline that controlled the location and the shape of the deposit. The mineralization took place after the granite of the border-zone was more or less solidified. High-temperature solutions and volatiles acted with the wall-rock along cracks, bedding-and shearing planes and resulted in the formation of tungsten-bearing sheets of tactile in the marble syncline and in the mineralization of a brecciated zone on both sides of the contact between marble and granite. The sequence of mineralization is discussed

  18. Ammonia release method for depositing metal oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, G.L.; Martin, F.S.

    1993-12-31

    A method of depositing metal oxides on substrates which is indifferent to the electrochemical properties of the substrates and which comprises forming ammine complexes containing metal ions and thereafter effecting removal of ammonia from the ammine complexes so as to permit slow precipitation and deposition of metal oxide on the substrates.

  19. Deposition and benthic mineralization of organic carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordi, Gunnvor A.; Glud, Ronnie N.; Simonsen, Knud

    2018-01-01

    Seasonal variations in sedimentation and benthic mineralization of organic carbon (OC) were investigated in a Faroese fjord. Deposited particulate organic carbon (POC) was mainly of marine origin, with terrestrial material only accounting for b1%. On an annual basis the POC export fromthe euphotic...

  20. Natural radiation in mineral sands deposits in Vietnam and problem of radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, Bui Van; Duong, Pham Van; Dien, Pham Quang; Quang, Nguyen Hao

    1993-01-01

    There are about 40 mineral sands deposits located along the Vietnamese coast between Binh Ngoc in the North to Vung Tau in the South of the country. Most of them are being exploited for both, domestic and foreign markets. It has been assessed that the natural gamma background levels over the deposits vary between 0.2 to over 10μGy/h. This wide range indicates that the level of naturally occurring radioactivity in the deposits will warrant its further investigations due to the likelihood of an occurrence of elevated radioactivity levels in mineral processing plants. This paper presents results of the following preliminary investigations: determinations of U and Th concentrations in mineral sands ore samples from several deposits, and determinations of U and Th concentrations in various ilmenite concentrate fractions and secondary separation tailings from Ha Tinh province. The radioactivity levels in the heavy minerals and the labour intensive mineral separation technology currently applied will warrant closer attention to be paid to mineral processing and waste handling in order to improve both, occupational and environmental radiological aspects of the operations. 4 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig

  1. Injury experience in metallic mineral mining, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of metallic mineral mining in the United States for 1991. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  2. Injury experience in metallic mineral mining, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of metallic mineral mining in the United States for 1992. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  3. Conditions required for opening of a commercial mineral deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shastry, S.

    1991-01-01

    It has been observed that once a mineral deposit is discovered and ore reserves are estimation, it is presumed that the deposit is commercially exploitable. Estimation of ore reserves, alone is not sufficient to consider a deposit exploitable. There are many more investigation necessary to make a deposit commercially mineable. Data regarding rock characteristics, behaviour of the ore body, hydrological conditions, extraction properties of ore, disposal of mine water and waste rock and suitable sites for mill tailings disposal, are required to be collected for assessing the opening of a new deposit. In this paper all these conditions are discussed

  4. The application of microtextural and heavy mineral analysis to discriminate between storm and tsunami deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Pedro J.M.; Gelfenbaum, Guy R.; Dawson, Sue; La selle, Seanpaul; Milne, F; Cascalho, J.; Ponte Lira, C.; Andrade, C.; Freitas, M. C.; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2017-01-01

    Recent work has applied microtextural and heavy mineral analyses to sandy storm and tsunami deposits from Portugal, Scotland, Indonesia and the USA. We looked at the interpretation of microtextural imagery (scanning electron microscopy) of quartz grains and heavy mineral compositions. We consider inundation events of different chronologies and sources (the AD 1755 Lisbon and 2004 Indian Ocean tsunamis, the Great Storm of 11 January 2005 in Scotland, and Hurricane Sandy in 2012) that affected contrasting coastal and hinterland settings with different regional oceanographic conditions. Storm and tsunami deposits were examined along with potential source sediments (alluvial, beach, dune and nearshore sediments) to determine provenance.Results suggest that tsunami deposits typically exhibit a significant spatial variation in grain sizes, microtextures and heavy minerals. Storm deposits show less variability, especially in vertical profiles. Tsunami and storm quartz grains had more percussion marks and fresh surfaces compared to potential source material. Moreover, in the studied cases, tsunami samples had fewer fresh surfaces than storm deposits.Heavy mineral assemblages are typically site-specific. The concentration of heavy minerals decreases upwards in tsunamigenic units, whereas storm sediments show cyclic concentrations of heavy minerals, reflected in the laminations observed macroscopically in the deposits.

  5. Age of mineralization of the Nansatsu type gold deposits, Kagoshima, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izawa, Eiji; Urashima, Yukitoshi; Okubo, Yoshikazu.

    1984-01-01

    Gold-bearing massive silicified rocks occur in the volcanic piles of the Neogene Tertiary age in the Makurazaki district, southern Kyushu and are termed as the Nansatsu type gold deposits. Currently three mines, Kasuga, Iwato and Akeshi, are operating. The argillized zones consisting mainly of quartz, kaolinite and minor goethite surround the silicified rocks. Alunite series minerals occur in and around the silicified rocks. Ages of mineralization have been discussed for many years but were unanswered. K-Ar dating of selected alunite and alunite-bearing rocks from three mines yields ages of 5.5 - 3.7 m.y. K-Ar ages at Mt. Sonomi of the Kasuga mine (5.5 +- 0.4 m.y.) and at the Arabira orebody of the Iwato mine (4.7 +- 1.0 m.y.) probably represent the ages of gold mineralization. Slightly younger ages at Mt. Iwato of the Iwato mine (4.4 +- 0.7 m.y.) and at the No. 1 orebody of the Akeshi mine (3.7 +- 1.1 m.y.) might reflect possible changes in chemical composition of alunite during weathering after mineralization. Gold-silver mineralization in southern Kyushu took place in the Pliocene to early Pleistocene, except minor silver-rich vein type deposits in the middle Miocene time. This study shows that four values are concordant with each other and indicate the latest Miocene to early Pliocene ages for mineralization of the Nansatsu type gold deposits in the Makurazaki district. The ages are comparable with the vein type gold deposits of the early Pliocene time such as Kushikino (4.0 +- 0.3 m.y.) and Hanakago (4.8 +- 2.9 m.y.). Another gold mineralization were known in the early Pleistocene time such as Hishikari (1.5 +- 0.3 m.y.) and Ora (1.8 +- 0.2 m.y.). At present there seems to be only minor gold mineralization between 4 and 2 m.y. (author)

  6. The structure environment, rock-magma system, mineral-forming series and pattern of volcanic mineral-forming of uranium deposit in southeast of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Dagan

    1992-01-01

    The Volcanic uranium deposit of rock-magma belt-the Mid-Cz Volcano in the Southeast of China mainly formed around 120 ∼ 130 Ma and 90 ∼ 100 Ma Which is in harmony with the two rock magma activities of k within the region. The rock-magma system of this period formed around the turning period from pressure to tension in the continent margin of southeast China, which is mainly characterized by the appearance of A-type granite and alkaline, sub-alkaline rocks (trachyte, trachyandensite, trachybasalt, basic rock alkaline basalt). The uranium deposit is controlled by the base rift of dissection to the mantle, the volcanic basin is of the double characteristics of transversal rift valley basin (early period) ad tension rift valley basin (laster period). The leading role of the deep source is stressed in terms of internal-forming series of volcanic uranium deposits is considered to exist; and also in terms of internal-forming series of volcanic uranium deposits is considered to exist; and also in terms of mineral-forming patterns, the multi-pattern led by the deep-source is stressed, including the mineral-forming pattern of uranium deposit of continental thermos, repeated periphery mineral-forming pattern of uranium deposit and the mineral-forming pattern of uranium deposit of rising pole-like thermos. Ten suggestions are put forward to the next mineral-search according to the above thoughts

  7. The Kongsberg silver deposits, Norway: Ag-Hg-Sb mineralization and constraints for the formation of the deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotková, Jana; Kullerud, Kåre; Šrein, Vladimír; Drábek, Milan; Škoda, Radek

    2018-04-01

    The Kongsberg silver district has been investigated by microscopy and electron microprobe analysis, focusing primarily on the Ag-Hg-Sb mineralization within the context of the updated mineral paragenesis. The earliest mineralization stage is represented by sulfides, including acanthite, and sulfosalts. Native silver formed initially through breakdown of early Ag-bearing phases and later through influx of additional Ag-bearing fluids and silver remobilization. The first two generations of native silver were separated in time by the formation of Ni-Co-Fe sulfarsenides and the monoarsenide niccolite along rims of silver crystals. The presence of As-free sulfosalts and the absence of di- and tri-arsenides suggest a lower arsenic/sulfur activity ratio for the Kongsberg deposits compared to other five-element deposits. Native silver shows binary Ag-Hg and Ag-Sb solid solutions, in contrast to the ternary Ag-Hg-Sb compositions typical for other deposits of similar type. Antimonial silver together with allargentum, dyscrasite, and pyrargyrite was documented exclusively from the northern area of the district. Elsewhere, the only Sb-bearing minerals are polybasite and tetrahedrite/freibergite. Hg-rich silver (up to 21 wt% Hg) has been documented only in the central-western area. Myrmekite of freibergite and chalcopyrite reflects exsolution from an original Ag-poor tetrahedrite upon cooling, while myrmekite of pyrite and silver, forming through breakdown of low-temperature phases (argentopyrite or lenaite) upon heating, characterizes the Kongsberg silver district. Based on the stabilities of minerals and mineral assemblages, the formation of the silver mineralization can be constrained to temperatures between 180 and 250 °C.

  8. Minerals in deserts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.I.

    1982-01-01

    Almost any kind of mineral deposit can occur in desert areas, and the lack of vegetation and soil cover makes finding them easier. Some kinds of deposits, though, are more likely to occur in deserts than elsewhere. Some of these result from processes genetically related to the present desert climate that improved lower grade deposits of ore. One such process, termed secondary enrichment, is most effective in areas with deep water tables, and many low-grade copper, silver, and uranium deposits have been converted into mineable ore by the downward migration and redeposition of soluble metals. In a desert terrane, placer processes are effective whenever running water flowing over steep slopes erodes outcropping ore bodies and transports and concentrates the heavier ore minerals at lower levels, thus converting low-grade or hard-to-mine bedrock deposits into economically workable concentrations. Other kinds of deposits are better preserved in deserts because the lower rainfall at the surface, and the lower volume of flow and the greater depths to groundwater, result in less destruction of soluble ores; deposits of salines and phosphates are the most notable ores affected by these factors. Still other ore deposits are created as a consequence of the arid climate, mostly because the high evaporation rates operating on standing bodies of water produce brines that can lead directly to concentrations of salts and indirectly to secondary minerals, such as zeolites, that are produced by reaction of silicate minerals with saline waters

  9. Selective metal-vapor deposition on solvent evaporated polymer surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Koji; Tsujioka, Tsuyoshi, E-mail: tsujioka@cc.osaka-kyoiku.ac.jp

    2015-12-31

    We report a selective metal-vapor deposition phenomenon based on solvent printing and evaporation on polymer surfaces and propose a method to prepare fine metal patterns using maskless vacuum deposition. Evaporation of the solvent molecules from the surface caused large free volumes between surface polymer chains and resulted in high mobility of the chains, enhancing metal-vapor atom desorption from the surface. This phenomenon was applied to prepare metal patterns on the polymer surface using solvent printing and maskless metal vacuum deposition. Metal patterns with high resolution of micron scale were obtained for various metal species and semiconductor polymer substrates including poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] and poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl). - Highlights: • Selective metal-vapor deposition using solvent evaporation on polymer was attained. • Metal patterns with high resolution were obtained for various metal species. • This method can be applied to achieve fine metal-electrodes for polymer electronics.

  10. A Study of Deposition Coatings Formed by Electroformed Metallic Materials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoji Hayashi

    Full Text Available Major joining methods of dental casting metal include brazing and laser welding. However, brazing cannot be applied for electroformed metals since heat treatment could affect the fit, and, therefore, laser welding is used for such metals. New methods of joining metals that do not impair the characteristics of electroformed metals should be developed. When new coating is performed on the surface of the base metal, surface treatment is usually performed before re-coating. The effect of surface treatment is clinically evaluated by peeling and flex tests. However, these testing methods are not ideal for deposition coating strength measurement of electroformed metals. There have been no studies on the deposition coating strength and methods to test electroformed metals. We developed a new deposition coating strength test for electroformed metals. The influence of the negative electrolytic method, which is one of the electrochemical surface treatments, on the strength of the deposition coating of electroformed metals was investigated, and the following conclusions were drawn: 1. This process makes it possible to remove residual deposits on the electrodeposited metal surface layer. 2. Cathode electrolysis is a simple and safe method that is capable of improving the surface treatment by adjustments to the current supply method and current intensity. 3. Electrochemical treatment can improve the deposition coating strength compared to the physical or chemical treatment methods. 4. Electro-deposition coating is an innovative technique for the deposition coating of electroformed metal.

  11. Metal Deposition from Organic Solutions for Microelectronic Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dahlgren, E

    2001-01-01

    ... plating in aqueous solutions. This process was also shown to be capable of producing selectively deposited seed layers only on exposed reactive metal surfaces for subsequent electroless and electrolytic metal depositions...

  12. Deposition of metal Islands, metal clusters and metal containing single molecules on self-assembled monolayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speets, Emiel Adrianus

    2005-01-01

    The central topic of this thesis is the deposition of metals on Self-Assembled Monolayers (SAMs). Metals are deposited in the form of submicron scale islands, nanometer scale clusters, and as supramolecular, organometallic coordination cages. Several SAMs on various substrates were prepared and

  13. Indicator minerals as guides to base metal sulphide mineralisation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zn-bearing minerals that act as indicator minerals for base metal sulphide mineralization from the Proterozoic Betul Belt,central India with special emphasis on their genetic significance have been discussed.Sulphide mineralisation is hosted by the felsic volcanic rocks and has similarities with volcanic-hosted massive ...

  14. A Heavy Metal Atmospheric Deposition Study in the South Ural Mountains

    CERN Document Server

    Frontasyeva, M V; Steinnes, E; Lyapunov, S M; Cherchintsev, V D

    2002-01-01

    Samples of the mosses Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi, collected in the summer of 1998, were used to study the atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and other toxic elements in the Chelyabinsk Region situated in the South Ural, one of the most heavily polluted industrial areas of the Russian Federation. Samples of natural soils were collected simultaneously with moss at the same 30 sites in order to investigate surface accumulation of heavy metals and to examine the correlation of elements in moss and soil samples in order to separate contributions from atmospheric deposition and from soil minerals. A total of 38 elements (Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Zr, Mo, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Th, U) in soil and 33 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Ag, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Th, U) in mosses were determined by epithermal neutron activation analysis. The elem...

  15. Cobalt deposition in mineralized bone tissue after metal-on-metal hip resurfacing: Quantitative μ-X-ray-fluorescence analysis of implant material incorporation in periprosthetic tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Michael; Busse, Björn; Procop, Mathias; Zustin, Jozef; Amling, Michael; Katzer, Alexander

    2017-10-01

    Most resurfacing systems are manufactured from cobalt-chromium alloys with metal-on-metal (MoM) bearing couples. Because the quantity of particulate metal and corrosion products which can be released into the periprosthetic milieu is greater in MoM bearings than in metal-on-polyethylene (MoP) bearings, it is hypothesized that the quantity and distribution of debris released by the MoM components induce a compositional change in the periprosthetic bone. To determine the validity of this claim, nondestructive µ-X-ray fluorescence analysis was carried out on undecalcified histological samples from 13 femoral heads which had undergone surface replacement. These samples were extracted from the patients after gradient time points due to required revision surgery. Samples from nonintervened femoral heads as well as from a MoP resurfaced implant served as controls. Light microscopy and µ-X-ray fluorescence analyses revealed that cobalt debris was found not only in the soft tissue around the prosthesis and the bone marrow, but also in the mineralized bone tissue. Mineralized bone exposed to surface replacements showed significant increases in cobalt concentrations in comparison with control specimens without an implant. A maximum cobalt concentration in mineralized hard tissue of up to 380 ppm was detected as early as 2 years after implantation. Values of this magnitude are not found in implants with a MoP surface bearing until a lifetime of more than 20 years. This study demonstrates that hip resurfacing implants with MoM bearings present a potential long-term health risk due to rapid cobalt ion accumulation in periprosthetic hard tissue. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 1855-1862, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Mineral deposits of the Silica plateau – evaluation of selected geological factors of the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BalហBartolomej

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The Silica plateau is a part of a greatest karst area in the Slovak republic - Protected Landscape Area Slovak karst (CHKO Slovenský kras. Karst areas belong to the most sensitive environments, from the point of view of impacts caused by anthropogenous activities. This area reacts sensitively, disturbing the environmental balance caused by mining of mineral deposits. Three mineral deposits of industrial rocks: one deposit of decorative stone - Silická Brezová and two deposits of building stone – Silická Brezová I and Lipovník, respectively, were registered on January 1-st, 2001 in the territory of the Silica plateau. Some deposits utilized in the past namely two deposits of building raw materials (Hrušov and Krásnohorská Dlhá Lúka and one Pb-Zn ore deposit (Ardovo are also mentioned and evaluated in the paper. From the point of view of economical potential of the area, mineral deposits have a character of geopotentials. However the utilization of deposits represents negative anthropogenous impact. When compared with another forms of optimal and rational utilization of the country, e.g. agriculture, forestry, water management, construction, tourism etc., mineral deposits have a character of geobarriers. This research was carried out in the frame of the VEGA Grant No. 1/6090/1999.

  17. Gasification of carbon deposits on catalysts and metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, J L

    1986-10-01

    'Coke' deposited on catalysts and reactor surfaces includes a variety of carbons of different structures and origins, their reactivities being conveniently assessed by Temperature Programmed Reaction (TPR). The gasification of carbon deposits obtained in the laboratory under well controlled conditions, and the regeneration of coked catalysts from petroleum refining processes are reviewed and discussed. Filamentary carbon deposits, containing dispersed metal particles, behave as supported metal catalysts during gasification, and show high reactivities. Pyrolytic and acid catalysis carbons are less reactive on their own, as the gasification is not catalysed; however, metal components of the catalyst or metal impurities deposited on the surface may enhance gasification. 26 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Characterization of Minerals: From the Classroom to Soils to Talc Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamee, Brittani D.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation addresses different methods and challenges surrounding characterizing and identifying minerals in three environments: in the classroom, in soils, and in talc deposits. A lab manual for a mineralogy and optical mineralogy course prepares students for mineral characterization and identification by giving them the methods and tools…

  19. Nuclear technology and mineral recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, Richard M.; Niermeyer, Karl E.

    1970-01-01

    The particular aspect of nuclear technology most applicable to the mineral field, as has been pointed out by various authors, is nuclear blasting. The prime target for this nuclear blasting has usually been a large disseminated deposit of copper mineralization which, because of large dimensions, employs the nuclear devices most effectively. From the work of the AEC we know that the larger nuclear devices fragment rock for a lower energy cost per unit of ground broken than do smaller nuclear devices or chemical explosives. A mineralized deposit near the surface is usually not amenable to nuclear fragmentation, nor are the more deeply buried thin deposits. Also, one would not anticipate fragmenting a zone of excessively erratic mineralization with nuclear devices. Many of our mineralized areas would be eliminated using the above criteria, so at this point you are well aware that my self-imposed limitation is to nuclear blasting and large disseminated copper deposits. As with most other industries, copper mining faces rising costs and greater demands for its products. One of the rising cost features peculiar to extractive industries is the reliance placed on production from lower grade deposits as the higher grade deposits are depleted. As the grade or metal content of an orebody decreases more material must be handled to produce a given amount of metal. The increased volume of ore which must be handled as the grade declines requires expansion of facilities and higher capital expenditures. Expansion of facilities for mining, milling, and concentrating of the ore increases the per unit capital cost of the end product--copper. Increased copper consumption will aggravate this situation with demand for more metal, much of which will have to be obtained from lower grade deposits. As the higher grade deposits are depleted, future production will come from those deposits which cannot be exploited economically today. Most familiar of the proposed new methods for copper mining

  20. Nuclear technology and mineral recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Richard M; Niermeyer, Karl E [Anaconda Company, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1970-05-15

    The particular aspect of nuclear technology most applicable to the mineral field, as has been pointed out by various authors, is nuclear blasting. The prime target for this nuclear blasting has usually been a large disseminated deposit of copper mineralization which, because of large dimensions, employs the nuclear devices most effectively. From the work of the AEC we know that the larger nuclear devices fragment rock for a lower energy cost per unit of ground broken than do smaller nuclear devices or chemical explosives. A mineralized deposit near the surface is usually not amenable to nuclear fragmentation, nor are the more deeply buried thin deposits. Also, one would not anticipate fragmenting a zone of excessively erratic mineralization with nuclear devices. Many of our mineralized areas would be eliminated using the above criteria, so at this point you are well aware that my self-imposed limitation is to nuclear blasting and large disseminated copper deposits. As with most other industries, copper mining faces rising costs and greater demands for its products. One of the rising cost features peculiar to extractive industries is the reliance placed on production from lower grade deposits as the higher grade deposits are depleted. As the grade or metal content of an orebody decreases more material must be handled to produce a given amount of metal. The increased volume of ore which must be handled as the grade declines requires expansion of facilities and higher capital expenditures. Expansion of facilities for mining, milling, and concentrating of the ore increases the per unit capital cost of the end product--copper. Increased copper consumption will aggravate this situation with demand for more metal, much of which will have to be obtained from lower grade deposits. As the higher grade deposits are depleted, future production will come from those deposits which cannot be exploited economically today. Most familiar of the proposed new methods for copper mining

  1. Using ASD data to identify the altered minerals for exploring of gold deposit in the Beishan area, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, G. L.; Yi, H.; Yang, M.; Liang, N.; Li, J. Q.; Yang, J. L.

    2016-11-01

    Hyperspectral information of altered minerals plays an important role in the identifications of mineralized zones. In this study, the altered minerals of two gold deposits from Fangshankou-Laojinchang regions of Beishan metallogenic belt were measured by ASD field Spectrometer. Many gold deposits would have a close relationship with Variscan magma intrusion, which have been found in study region. The alteration minerals have been divided six types by the spectral results, i.e. sericite, limonite, dolomite, chlorite, epidote and calcite. The distribution characteristics and formations of altered minerals were discussed here. By the ASD, the spectral curve of different geological units in the Jintanzi and Fangshankou gold deposits were analysed and summarized. The results show that the sericite and limonite are mainly related with the gold mineralization and widely occurred in the gold deposits. Therefore, we proposed that the sericite and limonite are the iconic alteration mineral assemblages for gold mineralization and the models of altered minerals for gold deposits could be established in this region.

  2. Statistical models for optimizing mineral exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wignall, T.K.; DeGeoffroy, J.

    1987-01-01

    The primary purpose of mineral exploration is to discover ore deposits. The emphasis of this volume is on the mathematical and computational aspects of optimizing mineral exploration. The seven chapters that make up the main body of the book are devoted to the description and application of various types of computerized geomathematical models. These chapters include: (1) the optimal selection of ore deposit types and regions of search, as well as prospecting selected areas, (2) designing airborne and ground field programs for the optimal coverage of prospecting areas, and (3) delineating and evaluating exploration targets within prospecting areas by means of statistical modeling. Many of these statistical programs are innovative and are designed to be useful for mineral exploration modeling. Examples of geomathematical models are applied to exploring for six main types of base and precious metal deposits, as well as other mineral resources (such as bauxite and uranium)

  3. Influences of Hydraulic Fracturing on Fluid Flow and Mineralization at the Vein-Type Tungsten Deposits in Southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangchong Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wolframite is the main ore mineral at the vein-type tungsten deposits in the Nanling Range, which is a world-class tungsten province. It is disputed how wolframite is precipitated at these deposits and no one has yet studied the links of the mechanical processes to fluid flow and mineralization. Finite element-based numerical experiments are used to investigate the influences of a hydraulic fracturing process on fluid flow and solubility of CO2 and quartz. The fluids are aqueous NaCl solutions and fluid pressure is the only variable controlling solubility of CO2 and quartz in the numerical experiments. Significant fluctuations of fluid pressure and high-velocity hydrothermal pulse are found once rock is fractured by high-pressure fluids. The fluid pressure drop induced by hydraulic fracturing could cause a 9% decrease of quartz solubility. This amount of quartz deposition may not cause a significant decrease in rock permeability. The fluid pressure decrease after hydraulic fracturing also reduces solubility of CO2 by 36% and increases pH. Because an increase in pH would cause a major decrease in solubility of tungsten, the fluid pressure drop accompanying a hydraulic fracturing process facilitates wolframite precipitation. Our numerical experiments provide insight into the mechanisms precipitating wolframite at the tungsten deposits in the Nanling Range as well as other metals whose solubility is strongly dependent on pH.

  4. Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in Europe estimated by moss analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruehling, Aa. [Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Lund (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology

    1995-12-31

    Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in Europe including 21 countries was monitored in 1990-1992 by the moss technique. This technique is based on the fact that the concentrations of heavy metals in moss are closely correlated to atmospheric deposition. This was the first attempt to map heavy metal deposition in this large area. The objectives of the project were to characterise qualitatively and quantitatively the regional atmospheric deposition pattern of heavy metals in background areas in Europe, to indicate the location of important heavy metal pollution sources and to allow retrospective comparisons with similar studies. The present survey is a follow-up of a joint Danish and Swedish project in 1980 and an extended survey in 1985 within the framework of the Nordic Council of Ministers. In Sweden, heavy-metal deposition was first mapped on a nation-wide scale in 1968-1971 and 1975. (author)

  5. Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in Europe estimated by moss analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruehling, Aa [Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Lund (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology

    1996-12-31

    Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in Europe including 21 countries was monitored in 1990-1992 by the moss technique. This technique is based on the fact that the concentrations of heavy metals in moss are closely correlated to atmospheric deposition. This was the first attempt to map heavy metal deposition in this large area. The objectives of the project were to characterise qualitatively and quantitatively the regional atmospheric deposition pattern of heavy metals in background areas in Europe, to indicate the location of important heavy metal pollution sources and to allow retrospective comparisons with similar studies. The present survey is a follow-up of a joint Danish and Swedish project in 1980 and an extended survey in 1985 within the framework of the Nordic Council of Ministers. In Sweden, heavy-metal deposition was first mapped on a nation-wide scale in 1968-1971 and 1975. (author)

  6. Mineralogy and heavy metal content of secondary mineral salts: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Secondary minerals associated with acid mine drainage play an important role in metal cycling and may pose a geochemical hazard. The occurrence of secondary minerals indicates prevailing and past geochemical conditions. Detecting and characterising secondary minerals is necessary to the planning of remediation ...

  7. Lava cave microbial communities within mats and secondary mineral deposits: implications for life detection on other planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northup, D E; Melim, L A; Spilde, M N; Hathaway, J J M; Garcia, M G; Moya, M; Stone, F D; Boston, P J; Dapkevicius, M L N E; Riquelme, C

    2011-09-01

    Lava caves contain a wealth of yellow, white, pink, tan, and gold-colored microbial mats; but in addition to these clearly biological mats, there are many secondary mineral deposits that are nonbiological in appearance. Secondary mineral deposits examined include an amorphous copper-silicate deposit (Hawai'i) that is blue-green in color and contains reticulated and fuzzy filament morphologies. In the Azores, lava tubes contain iron-oxide formations, a soft ooze-like coating, and pink hexagons on basaltic glass, while gold-colored deposits are found in lava caves in New Mexico and Hawai'i. A combination of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and molecular techniques was used to analyze these communities. Molecular analyses of the microbial mats and secondary mineral deposits revealed a community that contains 14 phyla of bacteria across three locations: the Azores, New Mexico, and Hawai'i. Similarities exist between bacterial phyla found in microbial mats and secondary minerals, but marked differences also occur, such as the lack of Actinobacteria in two-thirds of the secondary mineral deposits. The discovery that such deposits contain abundant life can help guide our detection of life on extraterrestrial bodies.

  8. Mineral exploration with ERTS imagery. [Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolais, S. M.

    1974-01-01

    Ten potential target areas for metallic mineral exploration were selected on the basis of a photo-lineament interpretation of the ERTS image 1172-17141 in central Colorado. An evaluation of bias indicated that prior geologic knowledge of the region had little, if any, effect on target selection. In addition, a contoured plot of the frequency of photo-lineament intersections was made to determine what relationships exist between the photo-lineaments and mineral districts. Comparison of this plot with a plot of the mineral districts indicates that areas with a high frequency of intersections commonly coincide with known mineral districts. The results of this experiment suggest that photo-lineaments are fractures or fracture-controlled features, and their distribution may be a guide to metallic mineral deposits in Colorado, and probably other areas as well.

  9. Evaluation of mineral resource potential of the Finnish precambrian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltonen, K.

    1993-05-01

    In the report the undiscovered mineral resource potential of metallogenic regions in Finland is evaluated. The evaluation is based on known deposits. The criteria of the evaluation were: ore and mineral deposit density, regional distribution of valuable metals, and the amount and the nature of prospecting methods used. The information for the study has been collected from the data base for ore minerals maintained by the Geological Survey of Finland. Regions with mineral resource potential conclusively under national average are Presvecokarelidic and Svecokarelidic granitoids and rapakivi Massif. The mineral resource potential of basic rocks in relation to their surface area is multiple compared to non-basic rocks

  10. The mineral base and productive capacities of metals and non-metals of Kosovo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizaj, M.; Beqiri, E.; McBow, I.; O'Brien, E. Z.; Kongoli, F.

    2008-08-01

    All historical periods of Kosovo—Ilirik, Roman, Medieval, Turkish, and former Yugoslavian—are linked with the intensive development of mining and metallurgy. This activity influenced and still is influencing the overall position of Kosovo as a country. For example, according to a 2006 World Bank report as well as other studies, Kosovo has potential lignite resources (geological reserves) of about 1.5 billion tonnes, which are ranked fifth in the world in importance. Other significant Kosovan mineral resources include lead, zinc, gold, silver, bauxite, and uranium, and rare metals accompanying those minerals, including indium, cadmium, thallium, gallium, and bismuth. These rare metals are of particular importance in developing advanced industrial technologies. Kosovo also has reserves of high-quality non-metals, including magnesite, quartz grit, bentonite, argil, talc, and asbestos. No database exists for these non-metal reserves, and further research and studies are needed.

  11. Metals in bulk deposition and surface waters at two upland locations in northern England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawlor, A.J.; Tipping, E

    2003-02-01

    Surface water concentrations of potentially-toxic metals depend upon atmospheric deposition and catchment biogeochemical processes. - Concentrations of aluminium and minor metals (Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Cd, Ba, Pb) were measured in precipitation and surface water at two upland locations (Upper Duddon Valley, UDV; Great Dun Fell, GDF) in northern England for 1 year commencing April 1998. At both locations, the loads in bulk precipitation were at the lower ends of ranges reported for other rural and remote sites, for the period 1985-1995. The deposited metals were mostly in the dissolved form, and their concentrations tended to be greatest when rainfall volumes were low. The concentrations of Cu, Zn and Pb in deposition were correlated (r{sup 2}{>=}0.40) with concentrations of non-marine sulphate. Three streams, ranging in mean pH from 5.07 to 7.07, and with mean concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) <1 mg l{sup -1}, were monitored at UDV, and two pools (mean pH 4.89 and 6.83, mean DOC 22 and 15 mg l{sup -1}) at GDF. Aluminium and the minor metals were mainly in the dissolved form, and in the following ranges (means of 49-51 samples, {mu}g l{sup -1}): Al 36-530, Mn 4.4-36, Ni 0.26-2.8, Cu 0.25-1.7, Zn 2.1-30, Cd 0.03-0.16, Ba 1.9-140, Pb 0.10-4.5. Concentrations were generally higher at GDF. Differences in metal concentrations between the two locations and between waters at each location, and temporal variations in individual waters, can be explained qualitatively in terms of sorption to solid-phase soil organic matter and mineral surfaces, complexation and transport by DOC, and chemical weathering. The UDV catchments are sinks for Pb and sources of Al, Mn, Sr, Cd and Ba. The GDF catchments are sources of Al, Mn, Ni, Zn, Sr, Cd and Ba. Other metals measured at the two locations are approximately in balance. Comparison of metal:silicon ratios in the surface waters with values for silicate rocks indicates enrichment of Ni and Cu, and substantial enrichment of

  12. Mineralogy of the epithermal precious and base metal deposit Banská Hodruša at the Rozália Mine (Slovakia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubač, Alexander; Chovan, Martin; Koděra, Peter; Kyle, J. Richard; Žitňan, Peter; Lexa, Jaroslav; Vojtko, Rastislav

    2018-03-01

    The Au-Ag-Pb-Zn-Cu epithermal deposit Banská Hodruša of intermediate-sulphidation type is located in the Middle Miocene Štiavnica stratovolcano on the inner side of the Carpathian arc in Slovakia. This deposit represents an unusual subhorizontal multi-stage vein system, related to processes of underground cauldron subsidence and exhumation of a subvolcanic granodiorite pluton. Veins are developed on a low-angle normal shear zone, possibly representing a detachment zone in andesitic wall rocks that formed during emplacement and exhumation of the granodiorite pluton. The deposit consists of two parts, separated by a thick sill of quartz-diorite porphyry. The eastern part is currently mined, and the western part has already been depleted. The Banská Hodruša mineralization was formed during four stages: (1) low-grade silicified breccia at subhorizontal structures at the base of the deposit; (2) stockwork of steep veins with rhodonite-rhodochrosite, quartz-sulphide-carbonate and quartz-gold assemblages; (3) thin quartz-gold veins with medium dip in tension cracks inside the shear zone and complementary detachment hosted quartz-base metals-gold veins; (4) Post-ore veins. Gold and electrum (920-730) occur as intergrowths with base metal sulphides or hosted in quartz and carbonates, accompanied by Au-Ag tellurides (hessite, petzite). Rare Te-polybasite and Cu-cervelleite result from re-equilibration of early Te-bearing minerals during cooling. Sulphide minerals include low Fe sphalerite ( 1.25 wt%), galena, chalcopyrite, and pyrite. The wall rock alteration is represented mostly by adularia, illite, chlorite, quartz, calcite and pyrite. Precipitation of gold, Au-Ag tellurides, Mn-bearing minerals and adularia resulted from boiling of fluids due to hydraulic fracturing, as well as opening of dilatational structures within the shear zone.

  13. Adsorption and redox reactions of heavy metals on synthesized Mn oxide minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Xionghan; Zhai Limei; Tan Wenfeng; Liu Fan; He Jizheng

    2007-01-01

    Several Mn oxide minerals commonly occurring in soils were synthesized by modified or optimized methods. The morphologies, structures, compositions and surface properties of the synthesized Mn oxide minerals were characterized. Adsorption and redox reactions of heavy metals on these minerals in relation to the mineral structures and surface properties were also investigated. The synthesized birnessite, todorokite, cryptomelane, and hausmannite were single-phased minerals and had the typical morphologies from analyses of XRD and TEM/ED. The PZCs of the synthesized birnessite, todorokite and cryptomelane were 1.75, 3.50 and 2.10, respectively. The magnitude order of their surface variable negative charge was: birnessite ≥ cryptomelane > todorokite. The hausmannite had a much higher PZC than others with the least surface variable negative charge. Birnessite exhibited the largest adsorption capacity on heavy metals Pb 2+ , Cu 2+ , Co 2+ , Cd 2+ and Zn 2+ , while hausmannite the smallest one. Birnessite, cryptomelane and todorokite showed the greatest adsorption capacity on Pb 2+ among the tested heavy metals. Hydration tendency (pK 1 ) of the heavy metals and the surface variable charge of the Mn minerals had significant impacts on the adsorption. The ability in Cr(III) oxidation and concomitant release of Mn 2+ varied greatly depending on the structure, composition, surface properties and crystallinity of the minerals. The maximum amounts of Cr(III) oxidized by the Mn oxide minerals in order were (mmol/kg): birnessite (1330.0) > cryptomelane (422.6) > todorokite (59.7) > hausmannite (36.6). - The characteristics of heavy metal adsorption and Cr(III) oxidation on Mn oxide minerals are determined by their structure, composition, surface property and crystallinity

  14. Geology mineralogy, structure and texture of Agh-Otagh base- precious metal mineralization (North Takab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Rahmati

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Agh-Otagh mineralization area in the north of Takab, was formed within the andesistic tuffaceous rocks of the Oligo- Miocene age. Mineralization include polymetallic (Cu-Pb-Zn-Au-Ag quartz veins and silicified zones, which occurred as breccia and vein- veinlets with comb, cockade and disseminated textures. Chalcopyrite, pyrite, galena and sphalerite are common ore minerals. Alteration zones consist of silicification, sericitization, argillitic, propelitic and carbonatization. Cu-Au mineralization is associated with silicification and sericitization. Analytical results of the samples from the ore- bearing quartz veins and the silicified zones indicate that the highest grade for Au is 664 ppb (ave.181 ppb. The highest and the average grades for Ag, Cu, Pb, and Zn are 120 ppm (300 ppm, 1.3 % (0.38 %, 5.5 % (0.06 % and 4.5 % (0.28 %, respectively. The investigations indicate that the Agh-Otagh mineralization was formed in four stages. In the first stage or the pre-mineralization stage, the host rock, as a result of hydrothermal process, underwent brecciation and some quartz veins and siliceous cap were formed. In the second stage or the mineralization stage the sulfide minerals formed within the quartz veins and silicification zones developed at the third stage, some unmineralized quartz, barite and carbonate vein- veinlets crosscut the previous stages. The last stage of mineralization related to supergene processes. Based on geological, mineralogical, alteration, structural and textural evidences, the Agh-Otagh base- precious metal mineralization is similar to the medium sulfidation epithermal deposits.

  15. Mineral potential of clays that cover the gypsum deposits in Araripina-PE region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lira, B.B.; Anjos, I.F. dos; Rego, S.A.B.C.

    2011-01-01

    In the present work the applicability of the clays that cover the deposits of Gypsum Plaster in the region of Araripina - PE for use as the ceramic pigments and for bricks production in the red ceramic industry was analyzed. The clay minerals contained the illite, kaolinite and smectite, with high proportion of the last one. The possibility of industrial application of this mineral clay is considerable; however, the mining industries that mine and process the gypsum in the region do not take the clays into account as the potential mineral. In general, industries use the clay minerals in manufacturing processes or as key raw materials, or as the alternatives for some kinds of the chemical processing industries. This paper aims to highlight the potential of materials that cover the deposits of gypsum in reference. The material sampled from different deposit layers was characterized and the physical treatment of ore was applied. The results showed that the material analyzed can be used in various kinds of industry, such as the production of natural ceramic pigments. (author)

  16. Atmospheric Deposition of Heavy Metals in Soil Affected by Different Soil Uses of Southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, J. A.; Faz, A.; Martínez-Martínez, S.; Bech, J.

    2009-04-01

    Heavy metals are a natural constituent of rocks, sediments and soils. However, the heavy metal content of top soils is also dependent on other sources than weathering of the indigenous minerals; input from atmospheric deposition seems to be an important pathway. Atmospheric deposition is defined as the process by which atmospheric pollutants are transferred to terrestrial and aquatic surfaces and is commonly classified as either dry or wet. The interest in atmospheric deposition has increased over the past decade due to concerns about the effects of deposited materials on the environment. Dry deposition provides a significant mechanism for the removal of particles from the atmosphere and is an important pathway for the loading of heavy metals into the soil ecosystem. Within the last decade, an intensive effort has been made to determine the atmospheric heavy metal deposition in both urban and rural areas. The main objective of this study was to identification of atmospheric heavy metals deposition in soil affected by different soil uses. Study area is located in Murcia Province (southeast of Spain), in the surroundings of Murcia City. The climate is typically semiarid Mediterranean with an annual average temperature of 18°C and precipitation of 350 mm. In order to determine heavy metals atmospheric deposition a sampling at different depths (0-1 cm, 1-5 cm, 5-15 cm and 15-30 cm) was carried out in 7 sites including agricultural soils, two industrial areas and natural sites. The samples were taken to the laboratory where, dried, passed through a 2 mm sieve, and grinded. For the determination of the moisture the samples were weighed and oven dried at 105 °C for 24 h. The total amounts of metals (Pb, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Mn, Ni and Cr) were determined by digesting the samples with nitric/perchoric acids and measuring with ICP-MS. Results showed that zinc contamination in some samples of industrial areas was detected, even this contamination reaches 30 cm depth; thus it is

  17. Radioactive mineral deposits of the Pembroke-Renfrew area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masson, S.L.; Gordon, J.B.

    1981-01-01

    This report deals with the geological features of all the reported uranium and thorium occurrences in the Pembroke-Renfrew area of southeastern Ontario. There are 118 radioactive occurrences within the study area of which 102 were examined by the authors during the summers of 1977 and 1978. The report consists of a comprehensive description of the geological association and mineral content of the deposits which were examined. In addition, an attempt has been made to determine their mode of origin in order to assess the potential for discovery of additional deposits and to provide guidelines for exploration

  18. Post-depositional redistribution of trace metals in reservoir sediments of a mining/smelting-impacted watershed (the Lot River, SW France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audry, Stephane; Grosbois, Cecile; Bril, Hubert; Schaefer, Joerg; Kierczak, Jakub; Blanc, Gerard

    2010-01-01

    Mining/smelting wastes and reservoir sediment cores from the Lot River watershed were studied using mineralogical (XRD, SEM-EDS, EMPA) and geochemical (redox dynamics, selective extractions) approaches to characterize the main carrier phases of trace metals. These two approaches permitted determining the role of post-depositional redistribution processes in sediments and their effects on the fate and mobility of trace metals. The mining/smelting wastes showed heterogeneous mineral compositions with highly variable contents of trace metals. The main trace metal-bearing phases include spinels affected by secondary processes, silicates and sulfates. The results indicate a clear change in the chemical partitioning of trace metals between the reservoir sediments upstream and downstream of the mining/smelting activities, with the downstream sediments showing a 2-fold to 5-fold greater contribution of the oxidizable fraction. This increase was ascribed to stronger post-depositional redistribution of trace metals related to intense early diagenetic processes, including dissolution of trace metal-bearing phases and precipitation of authigenic sulfide phases through organic matter (OM) mineralization. This redistribution is due to high inputs (derived from mining/smelting waste weathering) at the water-sediment interface of (i) dissolved SO 4 promoting more efficient OM mineralization, and (ii) highly reactive trace metal-bearing particles. As a result, the main trace metal-bearing phases in the downstream sediments are represented by Zn- and Fe-sulfides, with minor occurrence of detrital zincian spinels, sulfates and Fe-oxyhydroxides. Sequestration of trace metals in sulfides at depth in reservoir sediments does not represent long term sequestration owing to possible resuspension of anoxic sediments by natural (floods) and/or anthropogenic (dredging, dam flush) events that might promote trace metal mobilization through sulfide oxidation. It is estimated that, during a major

  19. Discussion on the genesis and mineralization of sandstone type uranium deposit in the southern-central Longchuanjiang basin, western Yunnan province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Yuqi; Li Mangen

    2002-01-01

    The author mainly discusses the character of the depositional systems, geological structures and ore-bearing series in the south-central Longchuanjiang basin, and points out that the uranium mineralization is closely related to the two depositional discontinuities caused by the tectonic evolution. Based on the characteristics of uranium mineralization in the area, pitchblende, uranium blacks and phosphuranylite are discovered in No. 382 uranium deposit and radiometric super-micro-minerals in No. 381 deposit. The research on the uranium mineralization age in No. 382 deposit shows that the mineralization in the south-central part of the basin has genetically multi-staged

  20. Proceedings for a Workshop on Deposit Modeling, Mineral Resource Assessment, and Their Role in Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briskey, Joseph A.; Schulz, Klaus J.

    2007-01-01

    The world's use of nonfuel mineral resources continues to increase to support a growing population and increasing standards of living. The ability to meet this increasing demand is affected especially by concerns about possible environmental degradation associated with minerals production and by competing land uses. What information does the world need to support global minerals development in a sustainable way?Informed planning and decisions concerning sustainability and future mineral resource supply require a long–term perspective and an integrated approach to resource, land use, economic, and environmental management worldwide. Such perspective and approach require unbiased information on the global distribution of identified and especially undiscovered resources, the economic and political factors influencing their development, and the potential environmental consequences of their exploitation.The U.S. Geological Survey and the former Deposit Modeling Program of the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) sponsored a workshop on "Deposit Modeling, Mineral Resource Assessment, and Their Role in Sustainable Development" at the 31st International Geological Congress (IGC) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, on August 18–19, 2000. The purpose of the workshop was to review the state-of-the-art in mineral deposit modeling and resource assessment and to examine the role of global assessments of nonfuel mineral resources in sustainable development.The workshop addressed questions such as the following: Which of the available mineral deposit models and assessment methods are best suited for predicting the locations, deposit types, and amounts of undiscovered nonfuel mineral resources remaining in the world? What is the availability of global geologic, mineral deposit, and mineral exploration information? How can mineral resource assessments be used to address economic and

  1. The "chessboard" classification scheme of mineral deposits: Mineralogy and geology from aluminum to zirconium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, Harald G.

    2010-06-01

    Economic geology is a mixtum compositum of all geoscientific disciplines focused on one goal, finding new mineral depsosits and enhancing their exploitation. The keystones of this mixtum compositum are geology and mineralogy whose studies are centered around the emplacement of the ore body and the development of its minerals and rocks. In the present study, mineralogy and geology act as x- and y-coordinates of a classification chart of mineral resources called the "chessboard" (or "spreadsheet") classification scheme. Magmatic and sedimentary lithologies together with tectonic structures (1 -D/pipes, 2 -D/veins) are plotted along the x-axis in the header of the spreadsheet diagram representing the columns in this chart diagram. 63 commodity groups, encompassing minerals and elements are plotted along the y-axis, forming the lines of the spreadsheet. These commodities are subjected to a tripartite subdivision into ore minerals, industrial minerals/rocks and gemstones/ornamental stones. Further information on the various types of mineral deposits, as to the major ore and gangue minerals, the current models and the mode of formation or when and in which geodynamic setting these deposits mainly formed throughout the geological past may be obtained from the text by simply using the code of each deposit in the chart. This code can be created by combining the commodity (lines) shown by numbers plus lower caps with the host rocks or structure (columns) given by capital letters. Each commodity has a small preface on the mineralogy and chemistry and ends up with an outlook into its final use and the supply situation of the raw material on a global basis, which may be updated by the user through a direct link to databases available on the internet. In this case the study has been linked to the commodity database of the US Geological Survey. The internal subdivision of each commodity section corresponds to the common host rock lithologies (magmatic, sedimentary, and

  2. An overview of metallic mineralization in the Pine Creek Geosyncline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Needham, R.S.; Roarty, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    Although renowned for its relatively recently discovered large uranium deposits, the Pine Creek Geosyncline has a history of exploitation dating back to 1865, during which time 16 metals have been extracted. Uranium makes up 96.8 percent of the value of recorded production and reserves at present metal prices, lead 1.9 percent, gold and zinc 0.32 percent each, iron 0.2 percent, silver 0.2 percent and all other metals 0.3 percent. The Alligator Rivers Uranium Field accounts for 95 percent of the total value of recorded production and reserves, the Rum Jungle Uranium Field 4 percent, and all other areas 1 percent. Deposits range from stratiform through stratabound to vein-type. Most have undergone some degree of alteration or remobilisation, and extreme metasomatism in some masks clues to the earlier evolution of the deposits. Small vein-type hydrothermal deposits, clustered around intrusive granites, predominate. Other deposits can be sub-divided into those associated with the basement, those associated with the Masson and Cahill Formations, and those associated with the Gerowie Tuff, Koolpin, and Kapalga Formations. Many deposits have undergone supergene concentration near the surface, and some have been formed predominantly by this process. Uranium appears to have been mainly derived from Archaean source rocks, and base metals and some precious metals from volcanic exhalative sources. Main areas of potential are the Alligator Rivers region for uranium and possibly gold, and the central part of the geosyncline for base metals. (author)

  3. Heavy metal atmospheric deposition study in the South Ural Mountains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frontasyeva, M.V.; Smirnov, L.I.; Lyapunov, S.M.

    2004-01-01

    Samples of the mosses Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi, collected in the summer of 1998, were used to study the atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and other toxic elements in the Chelyabinsk Region situated in the South Urals, one of the most heavily polluted industrial areas of the Russian Federation. Samples of natural soils were collected simultaneously with moss at the same 30 sites in order to investigate surface accumulation of heavy metals and to examine the correlation of elements in moss and soil samples in order to separate contributions from atmospheric deposition and from soil minerals. A total of 38 elements (Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Zr, Mo, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Th, U) in soil and 33 elements Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Ag, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Th, U) were determined by epithermal neutron activation analysis. The elements Cu, Cd and Pb (in moss samples only) were obtained by atomic absorption spectrometry. VARIMAX rotated principal component analysis was used to identify and characterize different pollution sources and to point out the most polluted areas. (author)

  4. Ion beam assisted deposition of metal-coatings on beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashlykov, I.S.; Tul'ev, V.V.

    2015-01-01

    Thin films were applied on beryllium substrates on the basis of metals (Cr, Ti, Cu and W) with method of the ion-assisted deposition in vacuum. Me/Be structures were prepared using 20 kV ions irradiation during deposition on beryllium neutral fraction generated from vacuum arc plasma. Rutherford back scattering and computer simulation RUMP code were applied to investigate the composition of the modified beryllium surface. Researches showed that the superficial structure is formed on beryllium by thickness ~ 50-60 nm. The covering composition includes atoms of the deposited metal (0.5-3.3 at. %), atoms of technological impurity carbon (0.8-1.8 at. %) and oxygen (6.3-9.9 at. %), atoms of beryllium from the substrate. Ion assisted deposition of metals on beryllium substrate is accompanied by radiation enhanced diffusion of metals, oxygen atoms in the substrate, out diffusion of beryllium, carbon atoms in the deposited coating and sputtering film-forming ions assists. (authors)

  5. Geology and mineral deposits of Churchill County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willden, Ronald; Speed, Robert C.

    1974-01-01

    Churchill County, in west-central Nevada, is an area of varied topography and geology that has had a rather small total mineral production. The western part of the county is dominated by the broad low valley of the Carson Sink, which is underlain by deposits of Lake Lahontan. The bordering mountain ranges to the west and south are of low relief and underlain largely by Tertiary volcanic and sedimentary units. Pre-Tertiary rocks are extensively exposed east of the Carson Sink in the Stillwater Range, Clan Alpine Mountains, Augusta Mountains, and New Pass Mountains. The eastern valleys are underlain by Quaternary alluvial and lacustrine deposits contemporaneous with the western deposits of Lake Lahontan. The eastern mountain ranges are more rugged than the western ranges and have higher relief; the eastern valleys are generally narrower.

  6. Carbide-reinforced metal matrix composite by direct metal deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novichenko, D.; Thivillon, L.; Bertrand, Ph.; Smurov, I.

    Direct metal deposition (DMD) is an automated 3D laser cladding technology with co-axial powder injection for industrial applications. The actual objective is to demonstrate the possibility to produce metal matrix composite objects in a single-step process. Powders of Fe-based alloy (16NCD13) and titanium carbide (TiC) are premixed before cladding. Volume content of the carbide-reinforced phase is varied. Relationships between the main laser cladding parameters and the geometry of the built-up objects (single track, 2D coating) are discussed. On the base of parametric study, a laser cladding process map for the deposition of individual tracks was established. Microstructure and composition of the laser-fabricated metal matrix composite objects are examined. Two different types of structures: (a) with the presence of undissolved and (b) precipitated titanium carbides are observed. Mechanism of formation of diverse precipitated titanium carbides is studied.

  7. The occurrence of ferropyrosmalite in the mineralized breccias from Igarape Bahia (North region, Brazil) Au-Cu (± ETR-U) deposit, Carajas mineral Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tazava, Edison; Gomes, Newton Souza; Oliveira, Claudinei Gouveia de

    1999-01-01

    In the last years, several works report the presence of pyrosmalite mineral series [(Fe, Mn) 8 Si 6 O 15 (OH, Cl) 10 ] commonly associated with volcanic exhalative massive sulphide or Fe-Mn metamorphosed deposits. In this paper, we present the inedit occurrence of ferropyrosmalite in the Au-Cu (± REE-U) of Igarape Bahia deposit, located in the Au-Cu district of the Carajas Mineral Province. We consider the Igarape Bahia mineralization as being related to the genesis of iron-oxide class deposit, like the Olympic Dam type. Ferropyrosmalite occurs in two different contexts: associated with carbonate veins; associated with heterolithic breccias, composed by BIF and mafic metavolcanic fragments immersed in a magnetic, chalcopyrite, bornite, pyrite, carbonates (calcite to siderite), uranium and REE minerals, and gold, - rich matrix. The growth of ferropyrosmalite is probably due to the substitution of iron rich minerals (chloride, magnetite and siderite), controlled by magmatic fluid influx rich in chlorine. The permeability of breccias and the discontinuity of veins favour fluid percolation. The mode of occurrence of ferropyrosmalite and its relation with amphibole (ferro-hornblende-actinolite) indicate metasomatic growth of the former under temperatures in the transition of greenschist/amphibolite facies. The ferropyrosmalite of the Igarape Bahia deposit represents an uncommon type of occurrence linked to hydrothermal/magmatic conditions. (author)

  8. Mineral composition and heavy metal contamination of sediments originating from radium rich formation water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bzowski, Zbigniew; Michalik, Bogusław

    2015-03-01

    Radium rich formation water is often associated with fossil fuels as crude oil, natural gas and hard coal. As a result of fossil fuels exploitation high amount of such water is released into environment. In spite of the high radium content such waters create a serious radiation risk neither to humans nor biota directly. First and foremost due to very high mineralization they are not drinkable at all. But after discharge chemical and physical conditions are substantially changed and sediments which additionally concentrated radium are arising. Due to features of technological processes such phenomenon is very intensive in underground coal mining where huge volume of such water must be pumped into surface in order to keep underground galleries dry. Slightly different situation occurs in oil rigs, but finally also huge volume of so called process water is pumped into environment. Regardless their origin arising sediments often contain activity concentration of radium isotopes exceeding the clearance levels set for naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) (Council Directive, 2013). The analysis of metals and minerals content showed that besides radioactivity such sediments contain high amount of metals geochemically similar to radium as barium, strontium and lead. Correlation analysis proved that main mechanism leading to sediment creation is co-precipitation radium with these metals as a sulfate. The absorption on clay minerals is negligible even when barium is not present in significant quantities. Owing to very low solubility of sulfates radium accumulated in this way should not migrate into environment in the neighborhood of a site where such sediment were deposited. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Minerals of oxidation zone of the Chokadambulaq iron deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safaraliev, N.S.

    2008-01-01

    The zone of oxidation of Chokadambulaq iron deposit has original mineral composition, which characterized specificity of their formation. Here is formed a secondary zone of enrichment marit ores, having practical meaning. In last is concentrated from 0.5 up to 1.0% from total quantities of reserves

  10. From sources to deposits: Recent advances about the unconformity-related U deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercadier, Julien; Richard, Antonin; Cathelineau, Michel; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Cuney, Michel; Annesley, Irvine R.

    2014-01-01

    Current knowledge: - Hydrothermal deposits (< 250°C); - U-Pb ages: 1.6-0.9 Ga + late remobilizations; - 3 locations; - Structure-related, graphite; - Strong K-Mg-B alteration: illite-chloritesdravite/ Mg-foitite (Mg Tour)-hydrothermal quartz; - Mineralizing fluids: Na-Ca-rich brines (25-35 wt% eq. NaCl). However still relevant scientific/geological questions remain: Can we provide new insights about: - the origin of the brines? - the source of U and other metals? - the percolation conditions within the basement rocks? - the chemical modifications at the origin of the formation of mineralizing brines? - the conditions for the transport and deposition of uranium?

  11. Elemental imaging of organic matter and associated metals in ore deposits using micro PIXE and micro-EBS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, S., E-mail: fuchs@geomin.eu [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, McGill University, 3450 University Street, Montreal H3A 0E8 (Canada); Przybylowicz, W.J., E-mail: przybylowicz@tlabs.ac.za [Materials Research Department, iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, Al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Williams-Jones, A.E., E-mail: anthony.williams-jones@mcgill.ca [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, McGill University, 3450 University Street, Montreal H3A 0E8 (Canada)

    2014-01-01

    Micro-PIXE and micro-EBS analyses were carried out on samples from the Au–U-bearing Carbon Leader Reef of the Witwatersrand in South Africa to investigate the role of organic matter in the formation of this deposit. Micro-PIXE and Micro-EBS shows a very complex metal distribution within the bitumen nodules and their interstitial spaces. The style of the gold distribution and its association with epigenetic minerals (REE phosphates, phyllosilicates) indicates that all observed gold migrated in aqueous solution and precipitated by reduction on the surfaces of the bitumen nodules. Uraninite occurrences are confined to the bitumen nodules, which supports the argument of a uraninite paleo-placer; however the pervasive distribution of uranium also supports the argument that uraninite is derived from organo-metallic complexes. This study shows that micro-PIXE is a powerful tool to characterize metals associated with hydrocarbons. However, the organic matrix, the complexity of the obtained spectra and the small size of the minerals have significant influence on the reliability of the quantitative data. Due to highly variable amounts of heavy metals (U, Au, Pb) the obtained micro-EBS results are of questionable quality.

  12. Effect of soil metal contamination on glyphosate mineralization: role of zinc in the mineralization rates of two copper-spiked mineral soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bojeong; Kim, Young Sik; Kim, Bo Min; Hay, Anthony G; McBride, Murray B

    2011-03-01

    A systematic investigation into lowered degradation rates of glyphosate in metal-contaminated soils was performed by measuring mineralization of [(14)C]glyphosate to (14)CO(2) in two mineral soils that had been spiked with Cu and/or Zn at various loadings. Cumulative (14)CO(2) release was estimated to be approximately 6% or less of the amount of [(14)C]glyphosate originally added in both soils over an 80-d incubation. For all but the highest Cu treatments (400 mg kg(-1)) in the coarse-textured Arkport soil, mineralization began without a lag phase and declined over time. No inhibition of mineralization was observed for Zn up to 400 mg kg(-1) in either soil, suggesting differential sensitivity of glyphosate mineralization to the types of metal and soil. Interestingly, Zn appeared to alleviate high-Cu inhibition of mineralization in the Arkport soil. The protective role of Zn against Cu toxicity was also observed in the pure culture study with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, suggesting that increased mineralization rates in high Cu soil with Zn additions might have been due to alleviation of cellular toxicity by Zn rather than a mineralization specific mechanism. Extensive use of glyphosate combined with its reduced degradation in Cu-contaminated, coarse-textured soils may increase glyphosate persistence in soil and consequently facilitate Cu and glyphosate mobilization in the soil environment. Copyright © 2010 SETAC.

  13. Wafer-scale laser lithography. I. Pyrolytic deposition of metal microstructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, I.P.; Hyde, R.A.; McWilliams, B.M.; Weisberg, A.H.; Wood, L.L.

    1982-01-01

    Mechanisms for laser-driven pyrolytic deposition of micron-scale metal structures on crystalline silicon have been studied. Models have been developed to predict temporal and spatial propeties of laser-induced pyrolytic deposition processes. An argon ion laser-based apparatus has been used to deposit metal by pyrolytic decomposition of metal alkyl and carbonyl compounds, in order to evaluate the models. These results of these studies are discussed, along with their implications for the high-speed creation of micron-scale metal structures in ultra-large scale integrated circuit systems. 4 figures

  14. Discussion on several problems on the mineralization of paleo-channel sandstone type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Shijie

    1997-01-01

    On the basis of comprehensively analyzing paleo-channel sandstone type uranium deposits at home and abroad, the author discusses the division of mineralization types of paleo-channel sandstone type uranium deposits, and analyzes the metallogenic geologic conditions such as regional geologic background, climatic and geomorphological conditions, basement and sedimentary cover, characteristics of paleo-valley and paleo-channel, mineralization features as well as epigenetic metallogenic process. Future prospecting direction is also proposed

  15. UV laser deposition of metal films by photogenerated free radicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, R. K.; Mantei, T. D.

    1986-01-01

    A novel photochemical method for liquid-phase deposition of metal films is described. In the liquid phase deposition scheme, a metal containing compound and a metal-metal bonded carbonyl complex are dissolved together in a polar solvent and the mixture is irradiated using a UV laser. The optical arrangement consists of a HeCd laser which provides 7 mW of power at a wavelength of 325 nm in the TEM(OO) mode. The beam is attenuated and may be expanded to a diameter of 5-20 mm. Experiments with photochemical deposition of silver films onto glass and quartz substrates are described in detail. Mass spectrometric analysis of deposited silver films indicated a deposition rate of about 1 A/s at incident power levels of 0.01 W/sq cm. UV laser-induced copper and palladium films have also been obtained. A black and white photograph showing the silver Van Der Pauw pattern of a solution-deposited film is provided.

  16. Deposition of heavy metals from dust fallout in selected areas of Eastern Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Slančo

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with an evaluation of the deposition of selected heavy metals in the form of a detailed analysis of the dust fallout. The loaded areas of Nižná Slaná and Jelšava with the mining and mineral processing industry of siderite ore and magnesite, the area of Krompachy with the copper metal works, the municipal and industrial environs of Košice and relatively clean area of the National Park of Slovak Paradise were monitored and compared. The results have shown significant differences in the qualitative and quantitative effect on the monitored areas. The values of heavy metals content in the dust fallout of the loaded areas exceeded by order the values detected in the Slovak Paradise. As to the mining areas of Nižná Slaná and Jelšava, the highest content of heavy metals was recorded in the case of Mn and As. The metallurgical area of Krompachy is mostly loaded by Cu, Pb, As and Cd..

  17. Significant deposits of gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, K.R.; DeYoung, J.H.; Ludington, S.

    2000-01-01

    Approximately 99 percent of past production and remaining identified resources of gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc in the United States are accounted for by deposits that originally contained at least 2 metric tonnes (t) gold, 85 t silver, 50,000 t copper, 30,000 t lead, or 50,000 t zinc. The U.S. Geological Survey, beginning with the 1996 National Mineral Resource Assessment, is systematically compiling data on these deposits, collectively known as 'significant' deposits. As of December 31, 1996, the significant deposits database contained 1,118 entries corresponding to individual deposits or mining districts. Maintaining, updating and analyzing a database of this size is much easier than managing the more than 100,000 records in the Mineral Resource Data System and Minerals Availability System/Minerals Industry Location System, yet the significant deposits database accounts for almost all past production and remaining identified resources of these metals in the United States. About 33 percent of gold, 22 percent of silver, 42 percent of copper, 39 percent of lead, and 46 percent of zinc are contained in or were produced from deposits discovered after World War II. Even within a database of significant deposits, a disproportionate share of past production and remaining resources is accounted for by a very small number of deposits. The largest 10 producers for each metal account for one third of the gold, 60 percent of the silver, 68 percent of the copper, 85 percent of the lead, and 75 percent of the zinc produced in the United States. The 10 largest deposits in terms of identified remaining resources of each of the five metals contain 43 percent of the gold, 56 percent of the silver, 48 percent of the copper, 94 percent of the lead, and 72 percent of the zinc. Identified resources in significant deposits for each metal are less than the mean estimates of resources in undiscovered deposits from the 1996 U.S. National Mineral Resource Assessment. Identified

  18. Characteristics of uranium mineralization and depositional system of host sediments, Bayantala basin, Inner Mongolia autonomous region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Minqiang; Wu Rengui; Yu Dagan; Chen Anping; Shen Kefeng

    2003-01-01

    Based upon the research of basin fills at the Bayantala basin, the genetic facies of host sediments have been ascertained and the target beds and their range are delineated. The sand bodies of the Upper Member of Tengge'er Formation deposited in fan delta front is favorable to the formation of uranium mineralization of phreatic-interlayer oxidation. The Saihantala Fm deposited in fluvial system can be divided into Lower Member and Upper Member based on depositional microfacies and paleoclimate. The Lower Member of braided system is the most important target bed enriched in organic matter where basal-channel-type uranium mineralization occurs. Features of alteration and mineralization suggest that the early-stage and the late-stage uranium mineralization are related to phreatic oxidation and interlayer oxidation (roll-type) respectively. Meanwhile, the secondary reduction has superimposed over the earlier mineralization in the area caused by hydrocarbons raising along faults

  19. Remote sensing application research of mineralization prospect of uranium-polymetal deposits in west side of Daxinganling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Fusheng; Cui Zhenkui; Fang Maolong; Wang Guojuan; Yao Hua

    1998-12-01

    The key of mineral exploration by remote sensing method is the extraction and identification of mineralization-related geologic information from remote sensing data under the guidance of mineralization theory. Remote sensing research of deposits is combined with the analysis of regional geology setting, so as to give full play to the advantage of remote sensing technology. According to the geologic features of the covered area, different kinds of satellite data are, at first, selected and processed with different methods and therefore mineralization-related geologic information is effectively extracted. Then regional geologic setting is discussed and main mineralization-controlled factors, such as uranium-occurred volcanic basins, mineralization-controlled faults and granite bodies, Mesozoic volcanic rock series, volcanic framework, are identified. On the basis of the former study, the remote sensing image models of different kinds of deposits have been established. Finally, multi-source information integration technique has been applied to the assessment of favorable mineralization areas. This research shows that it is feasible to extract and identify mineralization-related information from remote sensing images in complicated and covered areas, and that the study area is favorable for uranium and polymetal deposit explorations because of its favorable geologic setting and mineralization conditions

  20. Origin and prospectivity of heavy mineral enriched sand deposits along the Somaliland coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M. Y.; Hibberd, P.; Stoikovich, B.

    2018-04-01

    Sixty-one heavy mineral enriched samples along the Somaliland coast from Eil Sheikh to Ras Khatib, a distance of about 130 km, were analyzed using X-ray Fluorescence, X-ray Diffraction and SEM-EDS techniques. This study reveals that a considerable amount of heavy minerals is present along the Somaliland coast and confirms the presence of high concentration titanium and iron bearing minerals. However, the backshore deposits in the mouths of Waaheen and Biyo Gure ephemeral rivers as well as raised paleo-beaches in the east of port city of Berbera demonstrate the highest level of titaniferous heavy minerals with most samples showing concentration greater than 50 wt %. The titanium detected in geochemical analysis occurs in the form of ilmenite, rutile, titanite and titaniferous magnetite. Also, present in minor or trace amounts, are garnet, zircon and monazite. Heavy mineral accumulations in the east and west of Berbera have different mineralogical assemblages. The east of Berbera is dominated by quartz with moderate concentration of plagioclase, K-feldspar, magnetite, hematite and titanium bearing minerals, whereas in the west of Berbera, the dominant minerals are quartz, K-feldspar and plagioclase with variable proportions of ilmenite, rutile, mica, amphibole and pyroxene. These variations in mineral assemblages suggest different composition of the catchment areas that supply sediment to these deposits. The catchment area in the east of Berbera consists mainly of Proterozoic crystalline basement of the Qabri Bahar complex, Gabbro-Synenite belt and granitic intrusions that outcrop in Hudiso, Tulo Dibijo and surrounding areas. The primary sources of heavy minerals in the west of Berbera comprise of high-grade metamorphic rocks of the Mora and Qabri Bahar complexes as well as the Miocene volcanics that outcrop in Laferug and Hagabo areas. The heavy mineral sand deposits observed along the Somaliland coast have the potential to provide commercially important heavy

  1. Metal Matrix Composite Material by Direct Metal Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novichenko, D.; Marants, A.; Thivillon, L.; Bertrand, P. H.; Smurov, I.

    Direct Metal Deposition (DMD) is a laser cladding process for producing a protective coating on the surface of a metallic part or manufacturing layer-by-layer parts in a single-step process. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the possibility to create carbide-reinforced metal matrix composite objects. Powders of steel 16NCD13 with different volume contents of titanium carbide are tested. On the base of statistical analysis, a laser cladding processing map is constructed. Relationships between the different content of titanium carbide in a powder mixture and the material microstructure are found. Mechanism of formation of various precipitated titanium carbides is investigated.

  2. Clay minerals in uraniferous deposit of Imouraren (Tim Mersoi basin, Niger): implications on genesis of deposit and on ore treatment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billon, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Nigerian uraniferous deposits are located in carboniferous and Jurassic formations of Tim Mersoi basin. AREVA is shareholder of 3 mine sites in this area: SOMAIR and COMINAK, both in exploitation since 1960's and IMOURAREN, 80 km further South, whose exploitation is planned for 2015. Mineralization of Imouraren deposit is included in the fluvial formation of Tchirezrine 2 (Jurassic), composed of channels and flood plains. Facies of channel in-fillings range from coarse sandstones to siltstones, while overflow facies are composed of analcimolites. Secondary mineralogy was acquired during 2 stages: 1- diagenesis, with formation of clay minerals, analcime, secondary quartz and albites, and 2- stage of fluids circulations, which induced alteration of detrital and diagenetic minerals, formation of new phases and uranium deposition. A mineralogical zoning, at the scale of deposit resulted from this alteration. The heterogeneity of Tchirezrine 2, at the level of both facies and mineralogy, is also evidenced during ore treatment, as ore reacts differently depending on its source, with sometimes problems of U recovery. Ore treatment tests showed that analcimes and chlorites were both penalizing minerals, because of 1- the sequestration of U-bearing minerals into analcimes, 2- their dissolution which trends to move away from U solubilization conditions (pH and Eh) and to form numerous sulfates, and 3- problems of percolation. A detection method of analcime-rich ores, based on infrared spectroscopy, was developed in order to optimize ore blending and so to reduce negative effects during ore treatment process. (author)

  3. A genetic model based on evapoconcentration for sediment-hosted exotic-Cu mineralization in arid environments: the case of the El Tesoro Central copper deposit, Atacama Desert, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Mort, A.; Riquelme, R.; Alonso-Zarza, A. M.; Campos, E.; Bissig, T.; Mpodozis, C.; Carretier, S.; Herrera, C.; Tapia, M.; Pizarro, H.; Muñoz, S.

    2017-12-01

    Although the formation of exotic-Cu deposits is controlled by multiple factors, the role of the sedimentary environment has not been well defined. We present a case study of the El Tesoro Central exotic-Cu deposit located in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile. This deposit consists of two mineralized bodies hosted within Late Cenozoic gravels deposited in an arid continental environment dominated by alluvial fans with sub-surficial ponded water bodies formed at the foot of these fans or within the interfan areas. Both exotic-Cu orebodies mostly consist of chrysocolla, copper wad, atacamite, paratacamite, quartz, opal, and calcite. The most commonly observed paragenesis comprises chrysocolla, silica minerals, and calcite and records a progressive increase in pH, which is notably influenced by evaporation. The results of stable isotope analyses (δ13C and δ18O) and hydrogeochemical simulations confirm that evapoconcentration is the main controlling factor in the exotic-Cu mineralization at El Tesoro Central. This conclusion complements the traditional genetic model based on the gradual neutralization of highly oversaturated Cu-bearing solutions that progressively cement the gravels and underlying bedrock regardless of the depositional environment. This study concludes that in exotic-Cu deposits formed relatively far from the source, a favorable sedimentary environment and particular hydrologic and climatic conditions are essential to trap, accumulate, evapoconcentrate, neutralize and saturate Cu-bearing solutions to trigger mineralization. Thus, detailed sedimentological studies should be incorporated when devising exploration strategies in order to discover new exotic-Cu resources, particularly if they are expected to have formed relatively far from the metal sources.

  4. Metals distribution in Kumkol deposit petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musaeva, Z.G.; Nadirov, A.N.; Ajdarbaev, A.S.

    1997-01-01

    Metals content in samples of Kumkol deposit petroleum is determined by the method of X-ray diffraction and neutron activation analysis. Specific consideration was devoted to nickel and vanadium. It is possible, that sources of these metals are various petroleum formation as well as both the absorbed or the got in stratum microelements. (author)

  5. Science of mineral deposits and economics of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackowsky, M.T.

    1978-01-01

    The availability of fossile energy carriers is investigated with regard to raw material reserves and their know deposits, by means of output and consumption. According to the author's opinion its discussion should have a priority over all discussions concerning energy crisis, energy supply and environmental protection. The author also touches the high measure of political problems beside the geoscientifical and technological problems of raw material supply. He briefly points to the general situation on the energy market with the help of data on stocks and consumption as given by the 10th International Energy Conference 1977 at Istambul and eventually deals with topics on mineral deposits science and uranium production. (HK) [de

  6. Biological role in the transformation of platinum-group mineral grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reith, Frank; Zammit, Carla M.; Shar, Sahar S.; Etschmann, Barbara; Bottrill, Ralph; Southam, Gordon; Ta, Christine; Kilburn, Matthew; Oberthür, Thomas; Ball, Andrew S.; Brugger, Joël

    2016-04-01

    Platinum-group elements are strategically important metals. Finding new deposits is becoming increasingly difficult owing to our limited understanding of the processes that affect their mobility in surface environments. Microorganisms have been shown to promote the mobility of metals around ore deposits. Here we show that microorganisms influence the mobility of platinum-group elements in mineral grains collected from Brazil, Australia and Colombia. Scanning electron microscopy showed biofilms covering the platinum-group mineral grains. The biofilms contained abundant platinum-group element nanoparticles and microcrystalline aggregates, and were dominated by Proteobacteria, many of which were closely related to known metal-resistant species. Some platinum-group mineral grains contained carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, selenium and iodine, suggesting the grains may be biogenic in origin. Molecular analyses show that Brazilian platinum-palladium grains hosted specific bacterial communities, which were different in composition from communities associated with gold grains, or communities in surrounding soils and sediments. Nano-phase metallic platinum accumulated when a metallophillic bacterium was incubated with a percolating platinum-containing medium, suggesting that biofilms can cause the precipitation of mobile platinum complexes. We conclude that biofilms are capable of forming or transforming platinum-group mineral grains, and may play an important role for platinum-group element dispersion and re-concentration in surface environments.

  7. Investigation of Organic Matters and their Roles in Deposition and Phosphate Mineralization in the Kuh-e-Sefid Deposit, Ramhormoz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houshang Pourkaseb

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction It has been recently stated that phosphorite deposits are in fact marine biogenic materials, due to bacterial activity producing bio-apatite. In addition, Phosphorites contain 15–20 wt.% P2O5 (Tzifas et al., 2014. In this deposit, phosphate mineralization has occurred as phosphorite lenses with Eocene age within the Pabdeh Formation, with thickness up to 1.5 meters and width of 15 meters and its hosted rock is black shale. According to the presence of indices of fossils such as Globorotalia, Hantkenina, its age can be attributed to the middle Eocene. The Pabdeh formation is a very rich organic matter in addition to the presence of phosphate (Damiri, 2011. The formation due to planktonic foraminifera rich in organic matter is like the hydrocarbon source rock (Daneshian et al., 2012. In marine basins where upwelling and productivity are limited, phosphates may develop outside of microbial cells and also within bacterial cellular structures, formed by slow bacterial assimilation of phosphorus from assaying organic matter in areas of restricted sedimentation (O’Brine et al., 1981. It is therefore suggested that the upwelling currents did that in the recycling of phosphorus from dead organisms such as fishes and other marine vertebrates. The aim of this study is investigation of organic matter’s species and their roles in deposition and phosphate mineralization in the Kuh-e-Sefid phosphate deposit using XRD, FTIR and Rock-Eval pyrolysis. Materials and methods In field observations, 12 samples were selected and they were taken from units of phosphate and shale host rock in the Kuh-e-Sefid phosphate ore deposit. Ten cross sections were studied by conventional microscopic methods. Rock-Eval analysis was used in order to determine the organic carbon in the geology Department of the Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz. The Phosphorite samples were determined by XRD at the Kansaran Binaloud Company in the Science and Technology campus in

  8. The Early Jurassic Bokan Mountain peralkaline granitic complex (southeastern Alaska): geochemistry, petrogenesis and rare-metal mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostal, Jaroslav; Kontak, Daniel J.; Karl, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    The Early Jurassic (ca. 177 Ma) Bokan Mountain granitic complex, located on southern Prince of Wales Island, southernmost Alaska, cross-cuts Paleozoic igneous and metasedimentary rocks of the Alexander terrane of the North American Cordillera and was emplaced during a rifting event. The complex is a circular body (~3 km in diameter) of peralkaline granitic composition that has a core of arfvedsonite granite surrounded by aegirine granite. All the rock-forming minerals typically record a two-stage growth history and aegirine and arfvedsonite were the last major phases to crystalize from the magma. The Bokan granites and related dikes have SiO2 from 72 to 78 wt. %, high iron (FeO (tot) ~3-4.5 wt. %) and alkali (8-10 wt.%) concentrations with high FeO(tot)/(FeO(tot)+MgO) ratios (typically >0.95) and the molar Al2O3/(Na2O+K2O) ratio Nd values which are indicative of a mantle signature. The parent magma is inferred to be derived from an earlier metasomatized lithospheric mantle by low degrees of partial melting and generated the Bokan granitic melt through extensive fractional crystallization. The Bokan complex hosts significant rare-metal (REE, Y, U, Th, Nb) mineralization that is related to the late-stage crystallization history of the complex which involved the overlap of emplacement of felsic dikes, including pegmatite bodies, and generation of orthomagmatic fluids. The abundances of REE, HFSE, U and Th as well as Pb and Nd isotopic values of the pluton and dikes were modified by orthomagmatic hydrothermal fluids highly enriched in the strongly incompatible trace elements, which also escaped along zones of structural weakness to generate rare-metal mineralization. The latter was deposited in two stages: the first relates to the latest stage of magma emplacement and is associated with felsic dikes that intruded along the faults and shear deformations, whereas the second stage involved ingress of hydrothermal fluids that both remobilized and enriched the initial

  9. A preliminary comparison of mineral deposits in faults near Yucca Mountain, Nevada, with possible analogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaniman, D.T.; Bish, D.L.; Chipera, S.

    1988-05-01

    Several faults near Yucca Mountain, Nevada, contain abundant calcite and opal-CT, with lesser amounts of opal-A and sepiolite or smectite. These secondary minerals are being studied to determine the directions, amounts, and timing of transport involved in their formation. Such information is important for evaluating the future performances of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository beneath Yucca Mountain. This report is a preliminary assessment of how those minerals were formed. Possible analog deposits from known hydrothermal veins, warm springs, cold springs or seeps, soils, and aeolian sands were studied by petrographic and x-ray diffraction methods for comparison with the minerals deposited in the faults; there are major mineralogic differences in all of these environments except in the aeolian sands and in some cold seeps. Preliminary conclusions are that the deposits in the faults and in the sand ramps are closely related, and that the process of deposition did not require upward transport from depth. 35 refs., 25 figs

  10. Anomalous metal concentrations in soil and till at the Ballinalack Zn-Pb deposit, Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalveram, Ann-Kristin; McClenaghan, Seán H.; Kamber, Balz S.

    2017-04-01

    Metals such as zinc, iron, arsenic and lead are commonly found in low concentrations within soils. These signatures may occur as a result of natural dispersion from metal-bearing geological formations and (or) from anthropogenic sources. Prior to investigating any high or anomalous concentrations of metals in the surficial environment, it is important to reconcile potential sources of metals and verify whether element anomalies are in response to buried mineralization. Here we show how to distinguish true elevated concentrations from naturally occurring variations within a soil system. The research area is situated above the limestone-hosted Ballinalack Zn-Pb deposit in the central Irish Midlands. To investigate the pedogenesis and its related geochemical signature, top of the till and the BC soil horizon were sampled. Although the area can be described as pasture land, it does not preclude previous anthropogenic influences from former agricultural use and local small scale peat harvesting. For the soil BC horizon as well as in the top of the till, aqua regia-digestible element concentrations vary significantly and locally reach anomalous levels: Zn (median: 104 ppm; range: 27 - 13150 ppm), Pb (median: 16 ppm; range: 2 - 6430 ppm), As (median: 7.7 ppm; range: 1.4 - 362 ppm), Ag (median: 0.12 ppm; range: 0.04 - 19.9 ppm), Ba (median: 40 ppm; range: 10 - 1230 ppm), Cd (median: 1.5 ppm; range: 0.2 - 68 ppm), Co (median: 7.3 ppm; range: 0.5 - 22 ppm), Ni (median: 37 ppm; range: 3 - 134 ppm), Fe (median: 17900 ppm; range: 5000 - 52300 ppm), Ga (median: 2.4 ppm; range: 0.3 - 7.6 ppm), Sb (median: 1.2 ppm; range: 0.1 - 197 ppm) and Tl (median: 0.3 ppm; range: 0.02 - 8.6 ppm). Comparison with background levels from the area and grouped according to underlying geology, enrichment factor calculations (against Nb and Zr) indicate an elemental response to metalliferous-bearing bedrock. These results confirm that soil anomalies of Zn, Pb, As, Ag, Ba, Cd, Ni, Sb and Tl, are

  11. Assessment of undiscovered sandstone copper deposits of the Kodar-Udokan area, Russia: Chapter M in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientek, Michael L.; Chechetkin, Vladimir S.; Parks, Heather L.; Box, Stephen E.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Cossette, Pamela M.; Dolgopolova, Alla; Hayes, Timothy S.; Seltmann, Reimar; Syusyura, Boris; Taylor, Cliff D.; Wintzer, Niki E.

    2014-01-01

    Mineral resource assessments integrate and synthesize available information as a basis for estimating the location, quality, and quantity of undiscovered mineral resources. This probabilistic mineral resource assessment of undiscovered sandstone copper deposits within Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks of the Kodar-Udokan area in Russia is a contribution to a global assessment led by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The purposes of this study are to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) to indicate where undiscovered sandstone-hosted copper deposits may occur within 2 km of the surface, (2) provide a database of known sandstone copper deposits and significant prospects, (3) estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within these permissive tracts at several levels of confidence, and (4) provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper (Cu) and mineralized rock that could be contained in undiscovered deposits within each tract. The workshop for the assessment, held in October 2009, used a three-part form of mineral resource assessment as described by Singer (1993) and Singer and Menzie (2010).

  12. Eliminating Heavy Metals from Water with NanoSheet Minerals as Adsorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoxian Song

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals usually referred to those with atomic weights ranging from 63.5 to 200.6. Because of natural-mineral dissolution and human activities such as mining, pesticides, fertilizer, metal planting and batteries manufacture, etc., these heavy metals, including zinc, copper, mercury, lead, cadmium and chromium have been excessively released into water courses, like underground water, lake and river, etc. The ingestion of the heavy metals-contaminated water would raise serious health problems to human beings even at a low concentration. For instance, lead can bring human beings about barrier to the normal function of kidney, liver and reproductive system, while zinc can cause stomach cramps, skin irritations, vomiting and anemia. Mercury is a horrible neurotoxin that may result in damages to the central nervous system, dysfunction of pulmonary and kidney, chest and dyspnea. Chromium (VI has been proved can cause many diseases ranging from general skin irritation to severe lung carcinoma. Accordingly, the World Health Organization announced the maximum contaminant levels (MCL for the heavy metals in drinking water. There are numerous processes for eliminating heavy metals from water in order to provide citizens safe drinking water, including precipitation, adsorption, ion exchange, membrane separation and biological treatment, etc. Adsorption is considered as a potential process for deeply removing heavy metals, in which the selection of adsorbents plays a predominant role. Nano-sheet minerals as the adsorbents are currently the hottest researches in the field. They are obtained from layered minerals, such as montmorillonite, graphite and molybdenite, through the processing of intercalation, electrochemical and mechanical exfoliation, etc. Nano-sheet minerals are featured by their large specific surface area, relatively low costs and active adsorbing sites, leading to be effective and potential adsorbents for heavy metals removal from water

  13. Long-term evolution of radio-active waste storage in geological formations: analogy with the weathering of mineral deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantinolle, P.; Griffault, L.; Jebrak, M.

    1986-01-01

    The aim of this study was to select examples of mineral deposits and their weathering environment, showing the long-term behaviour, in geological time, measuring (area, volume) some constituent elements of radio-active waste storage subject to the hazards of hydrogeochemical weathering. Initially, a feasibility study was made to collate data available within the BRGM (mining group and public service) and from literature dealing with weathering of deposits. It was thus discovered that the analogy between radio-active waste storage and mineral deposits could be approached in two different yet complementary ways: - one approach is to observe the behaviour of a mineral deposit in relation to the country rocks. For this a bibliographic metallogenic study was made. The other approach is to observe the behaviour of chemical elements during deposition of a mineral deposit whose genesis is similar to the spatial and thermal environment of a deposit of radio-active waste in a geological formation. For this two sites were selected corresponding to hydrothermal systems showing strong analogies to those expected in the neighbourhood of the storage sites. These two sites, Langenberg in the Vosges and La Telhaie in Brittany, were the subject of complementary analytical work [fr

  14. The mangazeya Ag-Pb-Zn vein deposit hosted in sedimentary rocks, Sakha-Yakutia, Russia: Mineral assemblages, fluid inclusions, stable isotopes (C, O, S), and origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anikina, E. Yu.; Bortnikov, N. S.; Klubnikin, G. K.; Gamyanin, G. N.; Prokof'ev, V. Yu.

    2016-05-01

    The succession of mineral assemblages, chemistry of gangue and ore minerals, fluid inclusions, and stable isotopes (C, O, S) in minerals have been studied in the Mangazeya silver-base-metal deposit hosted in terrigenous rocks of the Verkhoyansk Fold-Thrust Belt. The deposit is localized in the junction zone of the Kuranakh Anticlinorium and the Sartanga Synclinorium at the steep eastern limb of the Endybal Anticline. The deposit is situated at the intersection of the regional Nyuektame and North Tirekhtyakh faults. Igneous rocks are represented by the Endybal massif of granodiorite porphyry 97.8 ± 0.9 Ma in age and dikes varying in composition. One preore and three types of ore mineralization separated in space are distinguished: quartz-pyrite-arsenopyrite (I), quartz-carbonate-sulfide (II), and silver-base-metal (III). Quartz and carbonate (siderite) are predominant in ore veins. Ore minerals are represented by arsenopyrite, pyrite, sphalerite, galena, fahlore, and less frequent sulfosalts. Three types of fluid inclusions in quartz differ in phase compositions: two- or three-phase aqueous-carbon dioxide (FI I), carbon dioxide gas (FI II), and two-phase (FI III) containing liquid and a gas bubble. The homogenization temperature and salinity fall within the ranges of 367-217°C and 13.8-2.6 wt % NaCl equiv in FI I; 336-126°C and 15.4-0.8 wt % NaCl equiv in FI III. Carbon dioxide in FI II was homogenized in gas at +30.2 to +15.3°C and at +27.2 to 29.0°C in liquid. The δ34S values for minerals of type I range from-1.8 to +4.7‰ (V-CDT); of type II, from-7.4 to +6.6‰; and of type III, from-5.6 to +7.1‰. δ13C and δ18O vary from-7.0 to-6.7‰ (V-PDB) and from +16.6 to +17.1 (V-SMOW) in siderite-I; from-9.1 to-6.9‰ (V-PDB) and from +14.6 to +18.9 (V-SMOW) in siderite-II; from-5.4 to-3.1‰ (V-PDB) and from +14.6 to +19.5 (V-SMOW) in ankerite; and from-4.2 to-2.9‰ (V-PDB) and from +13.5 to +16.8 (V-SMOW) in calcite. The data on mineral assemblages, fluid

  15. Greisen deposits associated to carboniferous post-orogenic granites with mineralization potential, Sierra de Fiambala, Catamarca, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogliata, A. S.; Rubinstein, N. R.; Avila, J. C.; Baez, M.

    2008-01-01

    The Fiambala range is located in the central south part of the province of Catamarca, Western Sierras Pampeanas, Argentina. It is largely conformed by Precambrian metamorphic rocks, a Cambrian granitic intrusive, Ordovician basic and ultra basic rocks and epi zonal Carboniferous granites (Los Ratones, El Salto and Ayacucho Granites). The Carboniferous granites are sub alkaline, weakly peraluminous, high silica (except for the porphyritic facies of Los Ratones granite) and moderately enriched in K. Contents of trace elements and REE indicate that El S alto and Ayacucho granites and the granular facies of Los Ratones granite have characteristics of evolved and differentiated granite associated with hydrothermal systems. The variations of trace elements, particularly Sn, W, U, Rb, Ba, Zr and Sr suggest that they correspond to granites with mineralization potential. Genetically linked to these granites there are Sn, W, U and minor base metals greisen deposits. The hydrothermal process that yield to these deposits involved two main alteration stages, beginning with alkali metasomatism follow by greissenization. According to the isotopic ages the hydrothermal processes postdate about 1 Ma the magmatic activity. The analyses of the granites and the associated greisen deposits confirm that the post orogenic carboniferous magmatism is the major metallogenetic control of the ore deposits from the studied area. This metallogenetic control could be a useful tool in prospecting similar deposits in the rest of the Western Sierras Pampeanas. (Author)

  16. Radioactive mineral deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1948-01-01

    This publication was designed as a guide for uranium and thorium prospectors in Australia. Physical properties, such as color, streak, luster, hardness, fracture, and specific gravity of the uranium and thorium-bearing minerals are summarized and the various methods suitable for detecting radioactivity in minerals are described. Two colored plates show samples of pitchblende (uraninite), autunite, carnotite, monazite, and others of the most important minerals sources of uranium and thorium.

  17. Gemstones and geosciences in space and time. Digital maps to the "Chessboard classification scheme of mineral deposits"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, Harald G.; Weber, Berthold

    2013-12-01

    The gemstones, covering the spectrum from jeweler's to showcase quality, have been presented in a tripartite subdivision, by country, geology and geomorphology realized in 99 digital maps with more than 2600 mineralized sites. The various maps were designed based on the "Chessboard classification scheme of mineral deposits" proposed by Dill (2010a, 2010b) to reveal the interrelations between gemstone deposits and mineral deposits of other commodities and direct our thoughts to potential new target areas for exploration. A number of 33 categories were used for these digital maps: chromium, nickel, titanium, iron, manganese, copper, tin-tungsten, beryllium, lithium, zinc, calcium, boron, fluorine, strontium, phosphorus, zirconium, silica, feldspar, feldspathoids, zeolite, amphibole (tiger's eye), olivine, pyroxenoid, garnet, epidote, sillimanite-andalusite, corundum-spinel - diaspore, diamond, vermiculite-pagodite, prehnite, sepiolite, jet, and amber. Besides the political base map (gems by country) the mineral deposit is drawn on a geological map, illustrating the main lithologies, stratigraphic units and tectonic structure to unravel the evolution of primary gemstone deposits in time and space. The geomorphological map is to show the control of climate and subaerial and submarine hydrography on the deposition of secondary gemstone deposits. The digital maps are designed so as to be plotted as a paper version of different scale and to upgrade them for an interactive use and link them to gemological databases.

  18. The research of the quantitative prediction of the deposits concentrated regions of the large and super-large sized mineral deposits in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Zhenyu; Wang Shicheng

    2003-01-01

    By the general theory and method of mineral resources prognosis of synthetic information, the locative and quantitative prediction of the large and super-large sized mineral deposits of solid resources of 1 : 5,000,000 are developed in china. The deposit concentrated regions is model unit, the anomaly concentrated regions is prediction unit. The mineral prognosis of synthetic information is developed on GIS platform. The technical route and work method of looking for the large and super-large sized mineral resources and basic principle of compiling attribute table of the variables and the response variables are mentioned. In research of prediction of resources quantity, the locative and quantitative prediction are processed by separately the quantification theory Ⅲ and the corresponding characteristic analysis, two methods are compared. It is very important for resources prediction of western ten provinces in china, it is helpful. (authors)

  19. Mineral Adsorbents for Removal of Metals in Urban Runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorklund, Karin; Li, Loretta

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the capacity of four different soil minerals to adsorb metals frequently detected in urban runoff. These are low-cost, natural and commercially available soil minerals. Contaminated surface runoff from urban areas is a major cause of concern for water quality and aquatic ecosystems worldwide. Pollution in urban areas is generated by a wide array of non-point sources, including vehicular transportation and building materials. Some of the most frequently detected pollutants in urban runoff are metals. Exhaust gases, tire wear and brake linings are major sources of such metals as Pb, Zn and Cu, while impregnated wood, plastics and galvanized surfaces may release As, Cd, Cr and Zn. Many metals have toxic effects on aquatic plants and animals, depending on metal speciation and bioavailability. The removal efficiency of pollutants in stormwater depends on treatment practices and on the properties the pollutant. The distribution of metals in urban runoff has shown, for example, that Pb is predominantly particle-associated, whereas Zn and Cd are present mainly in dissolved form. Many metals are also attached to colloids, which may act as carriers for contaminants, thereby facilitating their transport through conventional water treatment processes. Filtration of stormwater is one of the most promising techniques for removal of particulates, colloidal and truly dissolved pollutants, provided that effective filtration and adsorption media are used. Filtration and infiltration are used in a wide array of stormwater treatment methods e.g. porous paving, infiltration drains and rain gardens. Several soil minerals were investigated for their potential as stormwater filter materials. Laboratory batch tests were conducted to determine the adsorption capacity of these minerals. A synthetic stormwater was tested, with spiked concentrations corresponding to levels reported in urban runoff, ranging from 50-1,500 µg/L for Zn; 5-250 µg/L for Cu

  20. Formation conditions of uranium minerals in oxidation zone of uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Youzhu

    2005-01-01

    The paper concerns about the summary and classification of hydrothermal uranium deposit with oxidation zone. Based on the summary of observation results of forty uranium deposits located in CIS and Bulgaria which are of different sizes and industrial-genetic types, analysis on available published information concerning oxidation and uranium mineral enrichment in supergenic zone, oxidation zone classification of hydrothermal uranium had been put forward according to the general system of the exogenetic uranium concentration. (authors)

  1. Calderas and mineralization: volcanic geology and mineralization in the Chianti caldera complex, Trans-Pecos Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duex, T.W.; Henry, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes preliminary results of an ongoing study of the volcanic stratigraphy, caldera activity, and known and potential mineralization of the Chinati Mountains area of Trans-Pecos Texas. Many ore deposits are spatially associated with calderas and other volcanic centers. A genetic relationship between calderas and base and precious metal mineralization has been proposed by some and denied by others. Steven and others have demonstrated that calderas provide an important setting for mineralization in the San Juan volcanic field of Colorado. Mineralization is not found in all calderas but is apparently restricted to calderas that had complex, postsubsidence igneous activity. A comparison of volcanic setting, volcanic history, caldera evolution, and evidence of mineralization in Trans-Pecos to those of the San Juan volcanic field, a major mineral producer, indicates that Trans-Pecos Texas also could be an important mineralized region. The Chianti caldera complex in Trans-Pecos Texas contains at least two calderas that have had considerable postsubsidence activity and that display large areas of hydrothermal alteration and mineralization. Abundant prospects in Trans-Pecos and numerous producing mines immediately south of the Trans-Pecos volcanic field in Mexico are additional evidence that ore-grade deposits could occur in Texas.

  2. Possible Involvement of Permian Phosphoria Formation Oil as a Source of REE and Other Metals Associated with Complex U-V Mineralization in the Northern Bighorn Basin?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita L. Moore-Nall

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The origin of V, U, REE and other metals in the Permian Phosphoria Formation have been speculated and studied by numerous scientists. The exceptionally high concentrations of metals have been interpreted to reflect fundamental transitions from anoxic to oxic marine conditions. Much of the oil in the Bighorn Basin, is sourced by the Phosphoria Formation. Two of the top 10 producing oil fields in Wyoming are located approximately 50 km west of two abandoned U-V mining districts in the northern portion of the basin. These fields produce from basin margin anticlinal structures from Mississippian age reservoir rock. Samples collected from abandoned U-V mines and prospects hosted in Mississippian aged paleokarst in Montana and Wyoming have hydrocarbon residue present and contain anomalous high concentrations of many metals that are found in similar concentrations in the Phosphoria Formation. As, Hg, Mo, Pb, Tl, U, V and Zn, often metals of environmental concern occur in high concentrations in Phosphoria Formation samples and had values ranging from 30–1295 ppm As, 0.179–12.8 ppm Hg, 2–791 ppm Mo, <2–146 ppm Pb, 10–490 ppm Tl, 907–86,800 ppm U, 1240–18,900 ppm V, and 7–2230 ppm Zn, in mineralized samples from this study. The REE plus Y composition of Madison Limestone- and limestone breccia hosted-bitumen reflect similar patterns to both mineralized samples from this study and to U.S. Geological Survey rock samples from studies of the Phosphoria Formation. Geochemical, mineralogical and field data were used to investigate past theories for mineralization of these deposits to determine if U present in home wells and Hg content of fish from rivers on the proximal Crow Indian Reservation may have been derived from these deposits or related to their mode of mineralization.

  3. Binding of heavy metal ions in aggregates of microbial cells, EPS and biogenic iron minerals measured in-situ using metal- and glycoconjugates-specific fluorophores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Likai; Guo, Yuan; Byrne, James M.; Zeitvogel, Fabian; Schmid, Gregor; Ingino, Pablo; Li, Jianli; Neu, Thomas R.; Swanner, Elizabeth D.; Kappler, Andreas; Obst, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Aggregates consisting of bacterial cells, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and Fe(III) minerals formed by Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria are common at bulk or microscale chemical interfaces where Fe cycling occurs. The high sorption capacity and binding capacity of cells, EPS, and minerals controls the mobility and fate of heavy metals. However, it remains unclear to which of these component(s) the metals will bind in complex aggregates. To clarify this question, the present study focuses on 3D mapping of heavy metals sorbed to cells, glycoconjugates that comprise the majority of EPS constituents, and Fe(III) mineral aggregates formed by the phototrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria Rhodobacter ferrooxidans SW2 using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) in combination with metal- and glycoconjugates-specific fluorophores. The present study evaluated the influence of glycoconjugates, microbial cell surfaces, and (biogenic) Fe(III) minerals, and the availability of ferrous and ferric iron on heavy metal sorption. Analyses in this study provide detailed knowledge on the spatial distribution of metal ions in the aggregates at the sub-μm scale, which is essential to understand the underlying mechanisms of microbe-mineral-metal interactions. The heavy metals (Au3+, Cd2+, Cr3+, CrO42-, Cu2+, Hg2+, Ni2+, Pd2+, tributyltin (TBT) and Zn2+) were found mainly sorbed to cell surfaces, present within the glycoconjugates matrix, and bound to the mineral surfaces, but not incorporated into the biogenic Fe(III) minerals. Statistical analysis revealed that all ten heavy metals tested showed relatively similar sorption behavior that was affected by the presence of sorbed ferrous and ferric iron. Results in this study showed that in addition to the mineral surfaces, both bacterial cell surfaces and the glycoconjugates provided most of sorption sites for heavy metals. Simultaneously, ferrous and ferric iron ions competed with the heavy metals for sorption sites on the organic

  4. Corrosion processes of physical vapor deposition-coated metallic implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Renato Altobelli; de Oliveira, Mara Cristina Lopes

    2009-01-01

    Protecting metallic implants from the harsh environment of physiological fluids is essential to guaranteeing successful long-term use in a patient's body. Chemical degradation may lead to the failure of an implant device in two different ways. First, metal ions may cause inflammatory reactions in the tissues surrounding the implant and, in extreme cases, these reactions may inflict acute pain on the patient and lead to loosening of the device. Therefore, increasing wear strength is beneficial to the performance of the metallic implant. Second, localized corrosion processes contribute to the nucleation of fatigue cracks, and corrosion fatigue is the main reason for the mechanical failure of metallic implants. Common biomedical alloys such as stainless steel, cobalt-chrome alloys, and titanium alloys are prone to at least one of these problems. Vapor-deposited hard coatings act directly to improve corrosion, wear, and fatigue resistances of metallic materials. The effectiveness of the corrosion protection is strongly related to the structure of the physical vapor deposition layer. The aim of this paper is to present a comprehensive review of the correlation between the structure of physical vapor deposition layers and the corrosion properties of metallic implants.

  5. Mineral resources of Slovakia, questions of classification and valuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baláž Peter

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the Constitution of Slovak Republic, mineral resources of Slovakia are in the ownership of Slovak Republic. In 1997, 721 exclusive mineral deposits of mineral fuels, metals and industrial minerals were registered in Slovakia. The classification for economic and uneconomic reserves/resources requires an annual updating, concerning changes of market mineral prices and mine production costs. In terms of economic valuation of mineral resources, a new United Nations international classification for reserves/resources appears as a perspective alternative. Changes of geological and mining legislation are necessary for real valuation of Slovak mineral resources.

  6. Depositing nanometer-sized particles of metals onto carbon allotropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Kent A. (Inventor); Fallbach, Michael J. (Inventor); Ghose, Sayata (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G. (Inventor); Delozier, Donavon M. (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A process for depositing nanometer-sized metal particles onto a substrate in the absence of aqueous solvents, organic solvents, and reducing agents, and without any required pre-treatment of the substrate, includes preparing an admixture of a metal compound and a substrate by dry mixing a chosen amount of the metal compound with a chosen amount of the substrate; and supplying energy to the admixture in an amount sufficient to deposit zero valance metal particles onto the substrate. This process gives rise to a number of deposited metallic particle sizes which may be controlled. The compositions prepared by this process are used to produce polymer composites by combining them with readily available commodity and engineering plastics. The polymer composites are used as coatings, or they are used to fabricate articles, such as free-standing films, fibers, fabrics, foams, molded and laminated articles, tubes, adhesives, and fiber reinforced articles. These articles are well-suited for many applications requiring thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, antibacterial activity, catalytic activity, and combinations thereof.

  7. Mapping Potential Areas For Gold And Base Metals Mineralization In Southeastern Desert, Egypt: An Approach By Using Remote Sensing And GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElFouly, A.; Salem, H.

    2003-01-01

    Integration of Landsat-Thematic Mapper (TM), aero magnetic data, structural geology along with the known mineralization occurrences in the area are mainly the factors used to recognize favorable sites for structurally controlled mineralization at the northern part of the southeastern Desert of Egypt. Two knowledge-driven models were constructed based on a conceptual gold exploration model. The Density of Lineament Intersection (DLI) results from this study along with Dempster-Shafer (D-S) Belief approach show good results in delineating favorable mineralization areas. The basic assignment probability maps for the heat source, strong magnetism, hydrothermal alteration, geologic structure, and known mineralization occurrences in the area are the main D-S Belief approach recognition criteria component used for mineral exploration in the study area. The DLI method is maximizing the use of Landsat remote sensing data that could be used efficiently in the exploration for structurally controlled hydrothermal related mineralization. The DLI method results show higher resolution and accurate results for gold and base metals exploration. The high favorability areas by using the DLI method is 2196 Km 2 which are concise area than the D-S Belief approach for about 3976.5 Km 2 . These results are useful to be a strong base for planning accurate exploration program. The potential favorability maps of gold and base metals ore deposits from the northern part of the South Eastern Desert predicted the known areas of mineralization as well as identified high potential areas not known before with mineralization for future exploration

  8. Mineralization mechanism and geodynamic setting of No. 337 deposit in Xiazhuang uranium orefield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhanshi; Wu Jianhua; Liu Shuai; Hua Renmin

    2009-01-01

    Uranium deposit No.337 in Xiazhuang uranium orefield has been regarden as a representative of the earliest forming, relatively high temperature and short time gap between the formation of pluton and the mineralization. But the latest study revealed that the formation age of the Maofeng pluton, which is the most important uranium host granite in Xiazhuang uranium orefield, is 206-238.2 Ma by LA-ICP-MS zircon dating, while the secondary origin muscovite in Maofeng pluton has the age of 131-136 Ma by 40 Ar/ 39 Ar dating which correspond to the main mineralization age of 130.3-138 Ma in uranium deposit No.337. In Guidong granitic complex, Maofeng pluton shown some unique characteristics. It has the Al 2 O 3 /TiO 2 ratio that infers the lowest forming temperature, the lowest ΣREE and it is the only pluton which presents typical tetrad effects of REE, it is also shown a varying δ 18 O values and the lowest( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr) i values. According to the above findings, a concept model of uranium mineralization and geodynamic setting for No.337 uranium deposit might be presented: in late or post-collision stage of Indosinian orogeny, strongly peraluminous granite of Maofeng pluton formed from partial melting of uranium rich formations. Intrusion of maficdyke in late Yanshanian Period(<140 Ma), caused large fluid movement. Uranium was reactivated and extracted from the altered granite,and precipitated in some favorite places to form uranium ore bodies. Uranium deposit No.337 is the typical representative of the first stage uranium mineralization in Xiazhuang uranium orefield. (authors)

  9. Considerations on the phosophoro-uraniferous mineralization of Itataia deposit-CE, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendonca, J.C.G.S.; Braga, A. de P.G.; Campos, M. de.

    1980-01-01

    Phosphoro-uraniferous deposit of Itataia is situated in Precambrian metamorphic terrains, into the litho-stratigraphic unit named Caico Complex. Regionally, the rocks are linearly folded, as a result of compressive tectonic that fits in the regmatic pattern. Rio Groairas' and Itatira's wrench faults form shearing couples in which the drag folds' climax are thrusting faults with axial plane dipping north. Uranium mineralization occurs into a phosphatic rock containing about 80% of collophane - 'collophanite - in association chiefly with marbles or feldsphatic rocks and gneisses. The ore (collophanite) occurs mainly as a stockwork, and it may be massive, (into big joints) or disseminated (impregnating the host rocks). Dark ore appears only in brecciated zones; it is richer in uranium content, but poorer in phosphorous. The highest grade ore is in a very fractured zone, associated to marbles. Supergene enrichment took place in this area. Underground works show that mineralization is deeper toward east. No uranium mineral was identified yet. Itataia's deposit is a very peculiar one, because of the high grade uranium-phosphorous association. That's why it's difficult to establish a genetic model. However, there exist several genetic hypothesis, some of which in the same line of thought. (Author) [pt

  10. The impact of atmospheric mineral aerosol deposition on the albedo of snow & sea ice: are snow and sea ice optical properties more important than mineral aerosol optical properties?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Lamare

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the albedo of polar regions is crucial for understanding a range of climatic processes that have an impact on a global scale. Light-absorbing impurities in atmospheric aerosols deposited on snow and sea ice by aeolian transport absorb solar radiation, reducing albedo. Here, the effects of five mineral aerosol deposits reducing the albedo of polar snow and sea ice are considered. Calculations employing a coupled atmospheric and snow/sea ice radiative-transfer model (TUV-snow show that the effects of mineral aerosol deposits are strongly dependent on the snow or sea ice type rather than the differences between the aerosol optical characteristics. The change in albedo between five different mineral aerosol deposits with refractive indices varying by a factor of 2 reaches a maximum of 0.0788, whereas the difference between cold polar snow and melting sea ice is 0.8893 for the same mineral loading. Surprisingly, the thickness of a surface layer of snow or sea ice loaded with the same mass ratio of mineral dust has little effect on albedo. On the contrary, the surface albedo of two snowpacks of equal depth, containing the same mineral aerosol mass ratio, is similar, whether the loading is uniformly distributed or concentrated in multiple layers, regardless of their position or spacing. The impact of mineral aerosol deposits is much larger on melting sea ice than on other types of snow and sea ice. Therefore, the higher input of shortwave radiation during the summer melt cycle associated with melting sea ice accelerates the melt process.

  11. Metallic Conductive Nanowires Elaborated by PVD Metal Deposition on Suspended DNA Bundles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Christophe; Elchinger, Pierre-Henri; Nonglaton, Guillaume; Tidiane-Diagne, Cheikh; Tiron, Raluca; Thuaire, Aurélie; Gasparutto, Didier; Baillin, Xavier

    2017-09-01

    Metallic conductive nanowires (NWs) with DNA bundle core are achieved, thanks to an original process relying on double-stranded DNA alignment and physical vapor deposition (PVD) metallization steps involving a silicon substrate. First, bundles of DNA are suspended with a repeatable process between 2 µm high parallel electrodes with separating gaps ranging from 800 nm to 2 µm. The process consists in the drop deposition of a DNA lambda-phage solution on the electrodes followed by a naturally evaporation step. The deposition process is controlled by the DNA concentration within the buffer solution, the drop volume, and the electrode hydrophobicity. The suspended bundles are finally metallized with various thicknesses of titanium and gold by a PVD e-beam evaporation process. The achieved NWs have a width ranging from a few nanometers up to 100 nm. The electrical behavior of the achieved 60 and 80 nm width metallic NWs is shown to be Ohmic and their intrinsic resistance is estimated according to different geometrical models of the NW section area. For the 80 nm width NWs, a resistance of about few ohms is established, opening exploration fields for applications in microelectronics. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Coating of Bio-mimetic Minerals-Substituted Hydroxyapatite on Surgical Grade Stainless Steel 316L by Electrophoretic Deposition for Hard tissue Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraj, Dharman; Rajan, Mariappan

    2018-02-01

    Third-era bio-implant materials intend to empower particular live cell reactions at the atomic level, these materials represented with a resorbable and biocompatibility that bodies recuperate once they have been embedded. Necessitate to decrease expenses in public health services has required the utilization of surgical grade stainless steel (SS 316L) as the most inexpensive choice for orthodontic and orthopaedic implants. 316L SS is one of the broadly used implant biomaterials in orthodontic and orthopaedic surgeries. Yet, frequently those discharge for toxic metal ions is confirm from the implants and hence a second surgery is required will remove those implant material. One approach to managing the discharge of toxic metal ions is to coat the implant substance with bio-mimetic minerals in hydroxyapatite (HA). Bio-mimetic minerals such as magnesium (Mg), strontium (Sr), also zinc (Zn) were revealed with animate bone growth furthermore restrain bone resorption both in vitro and in vivo. The present work deals with the electrophoretic deposition (EPD) for multi minerals substituted hydroxyapatite (M-HA) on the surface treated 316L SS under distinctive temperatures (27°C, (room temperature), 60 and 80°C). The resultant coatings were characterized by FT-IR, XRD, SEM-EDX, adhesion strength and leach out analysis.

  13. A heavy metal atmospheric deposition study in the South Ural mountains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frontas'eva, M.V.; Smirnov, L.I.; Steinnes, E.; Lyapunov, S.M.; Cherchintsev, V.D.

    2002-01-01

    Samples of the mosses Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi, collected in the summer of 1998, were used to study the atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and other toxic elements in the Chelyabinsk Region situated in the South Ural, one of the most heavily poluted industrial areas of the Russian Federation. Samples of natural soils were collected simultaneously with moss at the same 30 sites in order to investigate surface accumulation of heavy metals and to examine the correlation of elements in moss and soil samples in order to separate contributions from atmospheric deposition and from soil minerals. A total of 38 elements (Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Zr, Mo, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Yb, Hf, Tf, W, Au, Th, U) in soil and 33 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Ag, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Th, U) in mosses were determined by epithermal neutron activation analysis, The elements Cu, Cd and Pb (in moss samples only) were obtained by atomic absorption spectrometry. The element concentrations were compared to those for copper basins in Poland and Serbia as well as to baseline concentrations in Norway. VARIMAX rotated principal component analysis was used to identify and characterise different pollution sources and to point out the most polluted areas

  14. Framework and evolution of Hercynian mineralization in the Iberian Meseta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schermerhorn, L.J.G.

    1981-01-01

    The Hercynian cycle, starting in Late Precambrian times and terminated at the end of the Palaeozoic, is associated in the Iberian Peninsula with the deposition of a wide variety of metallic and nonmetallic mineral resources. The most famous of these are the base-metal sulphides of the Iberian Pyrite

  15. Trends in the forecast of the world prices for selected metals and their influence on the exploitation of the Slovak raw mineral base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavkovský Jozef

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is given a basic information about the situation in the ore raw material base of the Slovak republic, after its transition to the market economy in the years 1990 – 1994. By dumping the ore mining, a decrease in the ore production, especially their sortiment, also started. Therefore only two ore mines – Nižná Slaná (Fe ores and Banská Hodruša (Au ores are in operation in Slovakia at present time. The rest of Slovak ores are economically not viable after present criteria. Besides the evaluation of balanced and unbalanced ore deposits, and the deposit´s parameters, the knowledge about trends of world ores and metal prices are very important. From this point of view, ores and metals which have a great importance (Fe, Al, Cu, Sb, Ag, Au for Slovakia are discussed. The obtained results have a prognostic character and they should be considered at the utilisation of own mineral base, as well as when buying mineral raw materials from abroad. In both cases the information about trends of world prices of raw materials play an important role.

  16. Platinum-group elements and gold in base metal sulfides, platinum-group minerals, and Re-Os isotope compositions of the Uitkomst complex, South Africa

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trubač, Jakub; Ackerman, Lukáš; Gauert, Ch.; Ďurišová, Jana; Hrstka, Tomáš

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 2 (2018), s. 439-461 ISSN 0361-0128 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-15390S Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : binary alloys * copper compounds * economic geology * gold * iridium * isotopes * ore deposits * osmium * palladium * platinum * platinum metals * pyrites * Rhenium * rhenium alloys * ruthenium * solid solutions * sulfur compounds * crustal materials * mass-balance calculations * massive sulfides * mineralized zone * monosulfide solid solutions * platinum group elements * platinum group elements (PGEs) * platinum group minerals Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy; AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology (ARUB-Q) OBOR OECD: Geology; Archaeology (ARUB-Q) Impact factor: 2.519, year: 2016

  17. Methods of improvement of forecasting of development of mineral deposits' power supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Putilov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mineral deposits (among which non-ferrous metals take a leading place are situated on the territory of our planet rather unevenly, and often in out-of-the-way places. Nuclear power (particularly, transportable nuclear power plants provides the new possibilities of power supply, which is very important for deposits' development. This article shares the economic aspects of forecasting in the field of power development (in particular, nuclear power on the basis of transportable nuclear power plants. Economic barriers of development of innovative nuclear technologies are considered on the example of transportable nuclear power plants. At the same time, there are given the ways of elimination of such barrier to development of this technology as methodical absence of investigation of a question of distribution of added cost between producers of innovative equipment and final product. Addition of new analytical tool (“business diagonal” is offered for a method of definition of economically efficient distribution of added cost (received as a result of introduction of innovative technologies between participants of production and consumption of atomic energy within the “economic cross” model. There is offered the order of use of method of cash flows discounting at calculations between nuclear market participants. Economic methods, offered in this article, may be used in forecasting of development of other energy technologies and introduction of prospective energy equipment.

  18. Mineralization, geochemistry, fluid inclusion and sulfur stable isotope studies in the carbonate hosted Baqoroq Cu-Zn-As deposit (NE Anarak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Jazi

    2015-10-01

    , crustification banding,andbotryoidaltexture. The host rock has undergone dolomitization alteration Hypogene minerals include chalcopyrite, pyrite, sphalerite, galena, enargite, barite, and calcite. Supergene minerals include malachite, azurite, covellite, chrysocolla, chalcocite, cerussite, smithsonite, native copper and iron oxide minerals. Sulfantimonides and sulfardenides are abundant in low- and moderate temperature stages of the deposit, while bismuth sulfides generally occur in higher temperature ores, according to Malakhov, 1968. Analysis of rich ore samples indicates copper is the most abundant heavy metal in the ore (average 20.28 wt%, followed by zinc (average ~ 1 wt% and arsenic (average ~ 1 wt%, respectively. Thepresence of many trace elements in the ore, such as Sb, Pb, Ag and V, are very important. Element pairs such as Ag-Cu, Zn-Cd, Zn-Sb, Fe-V and Pb-Mo are correlated with each other. The Baqoroq ore minerals are rich in As, Sb and poor in Bi. Highamountsof antimony usually occur in a low temperature stage (Marshall and Joensuu, 1961. Malakhov (1968 suggested thata high Sb/Biratio in the ore indicates a low temperature of formation for the Baqoroq deposit. Sulfide mineralization fluids were found to have homogenization temperatures between 259 and 354°C and salinities between 8.37 and 13.18 wt% NaCl eq. Surface water apparently diluted theore-bearing fluids in the final stages and deposited sulfide-freecalcite veins at relatively low temperatures (78 to 112 °C and low salinities (3.59 to 6.07 wt% NaCl eq.. The δ34S values of barite of the Baqoroq deposit range from +13.1 to +14.37‰from whichδ34S values of ore fluids were calculated to vary between -8.57‰ and -7.23‰. Sulfur within natural environments is derived ultimately from either igneous or seawater sources (Ohmoto and Rye, 1979. Barite δ34S values of Baqoroq deposit lie within the range of Cretaceous-age oceanic sulfate values. The reduction of sulfate to sulfide couldhave been caused either by

  19. The study of mineralization and fluid inclusion in Dehsalm Mahour 2 lead deposit, east of Lut block, Central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Mohammadpour

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Mahour 2 lead mineralization area is located, about 145 km west of Nehbandan and 2 km northwest of Mahour polymetal deposit and in the eastern part of Lut Block. The area comprises of volcanic and pyroclastic rocks (Eocene intruded by several intrusive rocks mainly as dioritic dykes and stocks. Mineralization as veins and filling the space, occurred in altered andesitic rocks. Supergene zone is characterized by azurite, malachite, linarite and iron oxides (hematite and limonite whereas, galena, pyrite, chalcopyrite and magnetite are the main minerals of hypogene zone. And, quartz and calcite are main gangue. The area is dominated by four types of alteration including silicic, sericitic, propylitic, and argillic. Fluid inclusions study on quartz mineral sections polished reveals the presence of 1.0 to 5.6 percent salt and homogeneous temperature between 278 to 570 ° C. The high temperature with low salinity zone mineralization in this area is likely related to another generation of mineralization in the area. The results of fluid inclusions show that the mineralization is probably a mixture of magmatic fluid and atmospheric, although there is doubt. Several similar criteria including form of deposit, primary ore deposit, alteration facies, tectonic environment and magmatic series document that there should be a correlation between the origin of the studied mineralization area and that of the Mahour polymetal deposit.

  20. Depositional environments as a guide to uranium mineralization in the Chinle formation, San Rafael Swell, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupe, R.

    1977-01-01

    The sedimentary textures resulting from depositional processes operating in low-energy environments appear to have influenced uranium mineralization. The Chinle consists of three fining-upward, fluvial-lacustrine sequences. Uranium minerals are concentrated in the lower part of the lowest sequence in areas where sediments of low-energy environment are complexly interbedded with sediments of other environments. Areas favorable for uranium exploration exist in the subsurface to the north, west, and south of the Chinle outcrop in the Swell. This determination is based on the spatial distribution of depositional environments and the pattern of Chinle deposition through time. 8 refs

  1. Methanogens predominate in natural corrosion protective layers on metal sheet piles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kip, Nardy; Jansen, S.; Leite, M.F.A.; De Hollander, M.; Afanasyev, M.; Kuramae, E.E.; van Veen, J.A.

    2017-01-01

    Microorganisms are able to cause, but also to inhibit or protect against corrosion. Corrosion inhibition by microbial processes may be due to the formation of mineral deposition layers on metal objects. Such deposition layers have been found in archaeological studies on ancient metal objects, buried

  2. Geology and Mineral Deposits of the Snow Camp-Saxapahaw Area, Central North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Robert G.; Gumiel, Pablo; Payas, Alba

    2006-01-01

    uneven distribution of outcrops prevented comprehensive structural studies. Except for a few late plutons and dikes, all of the rocks of the area have been metamorphosed in middle to upper greenschist facies, and contact aureoles were recognized around some of the plutons. Several relatively small bodies of granitic rock contain plagioclase grains in which primary oscillatory zoning was unaffected by metamorphism. These were interpreted to be post-metamorphic. We think that there were three separate stages of hydrothermal alteration in the complex volcanic terrane in the area. The oldest, an area of at least 8.5 square miles (22 square kilometers), was subjected to an intense hydrothermal alteration, ranging from peripheral zones of quartz-sericite-paragonite through a patchy marginal zone of pyrophyllite, andalusite, and other high-alumina minerals, to almost totally silicified core zones. The second event resulted in large areas of weak to moderate sericitic and propylitic alteration recognizable only in the Reedy Branch Tuff. The last event was related to post-metamorphic plutons. All of the pyrophyllite-andalusite deposits and perhaps most of the gold and silver mineralization can be related to the first period of hydrothermal alteration. The subsequent metamorphism did not produce significant changes in mineral species in the zones of most intense hydrothermal alteration. Gold- and silver-bearing sulfide minerals in fracture zones along the southeastern margin of the graben may also have been deposited during this earliest alteration stage. No metallic mineralization appears to have occurred during the second event. A group of molybdenum-bearing greisenlike bodies formed during the emplacement of the youngest plutons during the post-metamorphic event. One gold-bearing sulfide zone occurs in the exocontact of one such porphyritic stock. Significant amounts of pyrophyllite-andalusite-bearing rock have been extracted from the Snow Camp Mine and from

  3. Dry deposition fluxes and deposition velocities of trace metals in the Tokyo metropolitan area measured with a water surface sampler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Masahiro; Marumoto, Kohji

    2004-04-01

    Dry deposition fluxes and deposition velocities (=deposition flux/atmospheric concentration) for trace metals including Hg, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn in the Tokyo metropolitan area were measured using an improved water surface sampler. Mercury is deposited on the water surface in both gaseous (reactive gaseous mercury, RGM) and particulate (particulate mercury, Hg(p)) forms. The results based on 1 yr observations found that dry deposition plays a significant if not dominant role in trace metal deposition in this urban area, contributing fluxes ranging from 0.46 (Cd) to 3.0 (Zn) times those of concurrent wet deposition fluxes. The deposition velocities were found to be dependent on the deposition of coarse particles larger than approximately 5 microm in diameter on the basis of model calculations. Our analysis suggests that the 84.13% diameter is a more appropriate index for each deposited metal than the 50% diameter in the assumed undersize log-normal distribution, because larger particles are responsible for the flux. The deposition velocities for trace metals other than mercury increased exponentially with an increase in their 84.13% diameters. Using this regression equation, the deposition velocities for Hg(p) were estimated from its 84.13% diameter. The deposition fluxes for Hg(p) calculated from the estimated velocities tended to be close to the mercury fluxes measured with the water surface sampler during the study periods except during summer.

  4. Developments in hot-filament metal oxide deposition (HFMOD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrant, Steven F.; Trasferetti, Benedito C.; Scarminio, Jair; Davanzo, Celso U.; Rouxinol, Francisco P.M.; Gelamo, Rogerio V.; Bica de Moraes, Mario A.

    2008-01-01

    Hot-filament metal oxide deposition (HFMOD) is a variant of conventional hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) recently developed in our laboratory and successfully used to obtain high-quality, uniform films of MO x , WO x and VO x . The method employs the controlled oxidation of a filament of a transition metal heated to 1000 deg. C or more in a rarefied oxygen atmosphere (typically, of about 1 Pa). Metal oxide vapor formed on the surface of the filament is transported a few centimetres to deposit on a suitable substrate. Key system parameters include the choice of filament material and diameter, the applied current and the partial pressures of oxygen in the chamber. Relatively high film deposition rates, such as 31 nm min -1 for MoO x , are obtained. The film stoichiometry depends on the exact deposition conditions. MoO x films, for example, present a mixture of MoO 2 and MoO 3 phases, as revealed by XPS. As determined by Li + intercalation using an electrochemical cell, these films also show a colouration efficiency of 19.5 cm 2 C -1 at a wavelength of 700 nm. MO x and WO x films are promising in applications involving electrochromism and characteristics of their colouring/bleaching cycles are presented. The chemical composition and structure of VO x films examined using IRRAS (infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy), RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) and XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectrometry) are also presented

  5. IMMOBILIZATION OF HEAVY METALS IN SOILS AND WATER BY A MANGANESE MINERAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    A synthesized Mn mineral used in study on adsorption of heavy metals from water has shown a great adsorption capability for Pb, Cu, Cd, Co, Ni and Zn on this mineral over a pH range from 2 to 8. The retention of Pb on this mineral was as high as 10% of its weight. Application of ...

  6. Exposure of the Public from Large Deposits of Mineral Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-06-01

    All minerals and raw materials contain radionuclides of natural origin. In most situations, the exposure of humans to such radionuclides is considered to be part of the normal natural radiation background and is not generally of concern. In some cases, however, the radionuclide concentrations are elevated above normal levels or become elevated as a result of mineral processing activities, and measures for protecting against exposure to the material involved may need to be considered. The mineral or raw material is then treated as radioactive material for the purposes of radiation protection and falls within the definition of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). The IAEA has developed criteria for determining which materials need to be considered for regulatory control. For materials containing only radionuclides of natural origin, the criteria are an activity concentration of 1 Bq/g for 238 U, 235 U, 232 Th and their decay progeny and an activity concentration of 10 Bq/g for 40 K. These values were determined on the basis of the activity concentrations of these radionuclides in normal rocks and soil, and represent the (rounded) upper bounds of the ranges of such concentrations as determined by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). The values are intended to apply to all solid materials except foodstuffs, material in transport and radioactive residues in the environment (for which separate criteria apply) and 40 K in the body (which is excluded entirely from regulatory requirements). While the radiation dose was not a consideration in the determination of the above-mentioned regulatory criteria, the IAEA has noted that doses received by individuals as a consequence of the use of these criteria are unlikely to exceed about 1 mSv in a year, excluding the emanation of radon. However, in the case of bulk volumes of material contaminating water pathways, such as large deposits of NORM residues from mining and

  7. Adsorption of heavy metals by road deposited solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardana, Chandima; Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Egodawatta, Prasanna

    2013-01-01

    The research study discussed in the paper investigated the adsorption/desorption behaviour of heavy metals commonly deposited on urban road surfaces, namely, Zn, Cu, Cr and Pb, for different particle size ranges of solids. The study outcomes, based on field studies and batch experiments, confirmed that road deposited solids particles contain a significantly high amount of vacant charge sites with the potential to adsorb additional heavy metals. Kinetic studies and adsorption experiments indicated that Cr is the most preferred metal element to associate with solids due to the relatively high electronegativity and high charge density of trivalent cation (Cr(3+)). However, the relatively low availability of Cr in the urban road environment could influence this behaviour. Comparing total adsorbed metals present in solids particles, it was found that Zn has the highest capacity for adsorption to solids. Desorption experiments confirmed that a low concentration of Cu, Cr and Pb in solids was present in water-soluble and exchangeable form, whilst a significant fraction of adsorbed Zn has a high likelihood of being released back into solution. Among heavy metals, Zn is considered to be the most commonly available metal among road surface pollutants.

  8. Heavy metals in atmospheric surrogate dry deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morselli; Cecchini; Grandi; Iannuccilli; Barilli; Olivieri

    1999-02-01

    This paper describes a methodological approach for the assessment of the amount of surrogate dry deposition of several toxic heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, V, Zn) associated with atmospheric particulate matter at ground level. The objectives of the study were twofold: i) the evaluation of several techniques for the digestion of dry deposition samples for trace metal analysis; ii) the comparison of the results from two samplers with different collecting surfaces. A dry solid surface sampler (DRY sampler, Andersen--USA) and a water layer surface sampler (DAS sampler--MTX Italy) were employed. The samples were collected over a one-year period in an urban site of Bologna (northern Italy). A description is given of the complete procedure, from sampling to data elaboration, including sample storage, digestion and analytical methods. According to the results obtained with three different digestion techniques (Teflon bomb, microwave digester and Teflon flask with vapour cooling system), the highest recovery rate was achieved by the Teflon bomb procedure employing an NBS 1648 Standard Reference Material; 90-95% of the elements considered were recovered by dissolution in a pressurized Teflon bomb with an HNO3-HF mixture. Given these results, the technique was adopted for dry deposition sample digestion. On the basis of the amount of heavy metals measured as monthly deposition fluxes (microg/m2), the collecting efficiency of the DAS sampler for a number of elements was found to be as much as two to three times greater than that of the DRY sampler.

  9. Heavy metal deposition fluxes affecting an Atlantic coastal area in the southwest of Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Sonia; de la Rosa, Jesús D.; Sánchez de la Campa, Ana M.; González-Castanedo, Yolanda; Fernández-Camacho, Rocío

    2013-10-01

    The present study seeks to estimate the impact of industrial emissions and harbour activities on total atmospheric deposition in an Atlantic coastal area in the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula. Three large industrial estates and a busy harbour have a notable influence on air quality in the city of Huelva and the surrounding area. The study is based on a geochemical characterization of trace elements deposited (soluble and insoluble fractions) in samples collected at a rate of 15 days/sample from June 2008 to May 2011 in three sampling sites, one in the principal industrial belt, another in the city of Huelva, and the last, 56 km outside Huelva city in an area of high ecological interest. The industrial emissions emitted by the Huelva industrial belt exert a notable influence on atmospheric deposition. Major deposition fluxes were registered for Fe, Cu, V, Ni, P, Pb, As, Sn, Sb, Se and Bi, principally in the insoluble fraction, derived from industrial funnel emissions and from harbour activities. Metals such as Mn, Ni, Cu and Zn, and elements such as P also have a significant presence in the soluble fraction converting them into potentially bio-available nutrients for the living organism in the ocean. A principal component analysis certifies three common emissions sources in the area: 1) a mineral factor composed mainly of elements derived from silicate minerals mixed with certain anthropogenic species (Mg, K, Sr, Na, Al, Ba, LREE, Li, Mn, HREE, Ti, Fe, Se, V, SO-, Ni, Ca and P); 2) an industrial factor composed of the same trace elements in the three areas (Sb, Mo, Bi, As, Pb, Sn and Cd) thus confirming the impact of the emissions from the Huelva industrial belt on remote areas; and 3) a marine factor composed of Na, Cl, Mg and SO.

  10. Stratigraphy of the Kapalga Formation north of Pine Creek and its relationship to base metal mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulevitch, J.

    1980-01-01

    The lithology, stratigraphy and mineralization of the Kapalga Formation (South Alligator Group) is described from the Margaret Syncline in the Pine Creek area of the Northern Territory of Australia. An interdigitation of carbonaceous siltstones and mudstones, chert, ashstones and tuffaceous chert, greywacke, siltstone, mudstone and minor banded iron formation (b.i.f.) characterises the Formation. These rocks define a vertical facies transition between low energy sediments of the underlying Koolpin Formation, and high energy sediments of the overlying Burrell Creek Formation. This transition is interlayered with numerous ashstone-tuffaceous chert horizons which were deposited during the waning stage of Gerowie Tuff sedimentation. The boundary between the Kapalga Formation of the South Alligator Group and the Burrell Creek Formation of the Finniss River Group is strictly conformable in this part of the Pine Creek 'Geosyncline'. Relict devitrified shards have been recognised in the Gerowie Tuff in the Margaret Syncline and these observations along with whole-rock chemical analyses conclusively support claims by previous investigators that these rocks are volcanic derivatives. Base metal mineralization at Iron Blow and Mt. Bonnie occurs as massive, stratiform, sulphide-silicate-carbonate lodes. The deposits are at the same stratigraphic level towards the base of the Kapalga Formation and minor stratification parallel with bedding has been observed. These features, and the association of the lodes with mud-flow breccias, lead to the conclusion that the lodes are syngenetic in origin. Thermochemical consideration of the sulphide assemblages together with the temporal relationship between the mineralization and Gerowie Tuff point to diagenetic devitrification of the underlying tuffaceous rocks as the source of the mineralization. Recent publications of experimental data from reaction of seawater and volcanic glass provide information which supports this thesis, and

  11. Molybdenum mineralization related to the Yangtze's lower crust and differentiation in the Dabie Orogen: Evidence from the geochemical features of the Yaochong porphyry Mo deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing-Quan; Li, Bin; Shao, Yong-Jun; Lu, An-Huai; Lai, Jian-Qing; Li, Yong-Feng; Luo, Zheng-Zhuan

    2017-06-01

    The Dabie Orogen is a world-class case for large amounts of Mo mineralization in that it contains at least 10 porphyry Mo deposits with Mo metal reserves over 3 Mt from the time period of 156-110 Ma. However, the principal mechanism for the Mo mineralization remains controversial due to the lack of a precise definition of its source and shallow ore-forming process, which is essential to understand these rare large Mo deposits. Detailed geochronology, geochemistry, and isotopic data for ore-related granites and minerals were analyzed in order to place constraints on the massive Mo mineralization in the Dabie Orogen in eastern China. The Yaochong molybdenum orebodies were hosted in the transition belt and alteration zone between the granitic stocks and the Dabie Complex and were characterized as numerous veinlets with potassic, phyllic and propylitic alterations. The buried Yaochong granitic intrusions and associated molybdenum mineralization yield Early Cretaceous ages of magmatic activities at ca. 138 Ma and extremely similar Re-Os isotope ages for the corresponding Mo metallogenic event at ca. 137 Ma. The Yaochong monzogranite and granite porphyry belong to the highly fractionated I-type granites, which are believed to be derived from the dominantly Yangtze's lower crust mixed with the Northern Dabie Complex due to their geochemical and isotope features. The elemental diversity and isotopic homogeneity suggest that the formation of the Yaochong monzogranite involved the fractionation of biotite, garnet and minor feldspar and accessory minerals combined with a weak crustal assimilation process. In contrast, the granite porphyry was possibly generated by the partial melting of the same mixed lower continental crust via the differentiation process involving the fractionation of feldspar, apatite, and/or titanite. Fractional crystallization processes can significantly elevate the molybdenum concentration in the residual melts. The biotite fractional crystallization

  12. Mineral phases and metals in baghouse dust from secondary aluminum production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghouse dust (BHD) is a solid waste generated by air pollution control systems during secondary aluminum processing (SAP). Management and disposal of BHD can be challenging in the U.S. and elsewhere. In this study, the mineral phases, metal content and metal leachability of 78...

  13. Structure and chemical characteristics of natural mineral deposit Terbunskaya (Lipetsk region, Russia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motyleva, S., E-mail: motyleva-svetlana@mail.ru; Mertvishcheva, M. [All-Russian Horticular Institute for Breeding, Agrotechnology and Nursery Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Moskow (Russian Federation); Shchuchka, R.; Gulidova, V. [Yelets state university named after I. A. Bunin, Yelets (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-22

    New knowledge about the mineralogical features Terbunsky mineral. Investigated 5 fractions isolated from the incision (2-2,5 m). Terbunskaya deposit belongs to minerals Santonian age. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive analysis of fractions isolated studied in detail. In the coarse fractions found ancient organic remains of algae and micro-organisms that have been sedimented together with the mineral component during geological periods. The share of organic inclusions does not exceed 1.5%. Chemical composition confirms the presence of silicon and carbonate organisms. Advantageously proportion of minerals having a layered structure with a plurality of micro and nano pore size 600 - 80-nm and an average chemical composition (wt%): Na (0,64), Mg (0,54), Al (13.48), Si (27 57), K (2.39) Ca (0.75)

  14. Mineral and energy resource assessment maps of the Mount Katmai, Naknek, and western Afognak quadrangles, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, S.E.; Riehle, J.R.; Magoon, L.B.; Campbell, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    On the basis of new geologic mapping and exploration geochemical studies, we have provided a mineral and energy resource assessment of the Mount Katmai, Naknek, and western Afognak quadrangles, Alaska. We delineate four tracts of ground that have metallic mineral resources. The mineral deposit types considered in each tract are summarized in table 4. Estimates of the number of undiscovered mineral deposits have been made for porphyry copper and polymetallic vein deposits. We estimate that one undiscovered porphyry copper deposit is present in the Katmai study area at the ten percent probability level. Although the sampling density may be too low to give an accurate estimate of the number of undiscovered polymetallic vein deposits, we suggest that, at a minimum, there is a five percent probability for five or more undiscovered polymetallic vein deposits in the Katmai study area. In addition, several areas have potential for undiscovered porphyry molybdenum, massive sulfide, and epithermal gold and mercury deposits.

  15. Laser Direct Metal Deposition of 2024 Al Alloy: Trace Geometry Prediction via Machine Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizia Caiazzo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Laser direct metal deposition is an advanced additive manufacturing technology suitably applicable in maintenance, repair, and overhaul of high-cost products, allowing for minimal distortion of the workpiece, reduced heat affected zones, and superior surface quality. Special interest is growing for the repair and coating of 2024 aluminum alloy parts, extensively utilized for a wide range of applications in the automotive, military, and aerospace sectors due to its excellent plasticity, corrosion resistance, electric conductivity, and strength-to-weight ratio. A critical issue in the laser direct metal deposition process is related to the geometrical parameters of the cross-section of the deposited metal trace that should be controlled to meet the part specifications. In this research, a machine learning approach based on artificial neural networks is developed to find the correlation between the laser metal deposition process parameters and the output geometrical parameters of the deposited metal trace produced by laser direct metal deposition on 5-mm-thick 2024 aluminum alloy plates. The results show that the neural network-based machine learning paradigm is able to accurately estimate the appropriate process parameters required to obtain a specified geometry for the deposited metal trace.

  16. Laser Direct Metal Deposition of 2024 Al Alloy: Trace Geometry Prediction via Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiazzo, Fabrizia; Caggiano, Alessandra

    2018-03-19

    Laser direct metal deposition is an advanced additive manufacturing technology suitably applicable in maintenance, repair, and overhaul of high-cost products, allowing for minimal distortion of the workpiece, reduced heat affected zones, and superior surface quality. Special interest is growing for the repair and coating of 2024 aluminum alloy parts, extensively utilized for a wide range of applications in the automotive, military, and aerospace sectors due to its excellent plasticity, corrosion resistance, electric conductivity, and strength-to-weight ratio. A critical issue in the laser direct metal deposition process is related to the geometrical parameters of the cross-section of the deposited metal trace that should be controlled to meet the part specifications. In this research, a machine learning approach based on artificial neural networks is developed to find the correlation between the laser metal deposition process parameters and the output geometrical parameters of the deposited metal trace produced by laser direct metal deposition on 5-mm-thick 2024 aluminum alloy plates. The results show that the neural network-based machine learning paradigm is able to accurately estimate the appropriate process parameters required to obtain a specified geometry for the deposited metal trace.

  17. Post-depositional formation of vivianite-type minerals alters sediment phosphorus records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Dijkstra

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P concentrations in sediments are frequently used to reconstruct past environmental conditions in freshwater and marine systems, with high values thought to be indicative of a high biological productivity. Recent studies suggest that the post-depositional formation of vivianite, an iron(II-phosphate mineral, might significantly alter trends in P with sediment depth. To assess its importance, we investigate a sediment record from the Bornholm Basin that was retrieved during the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP Baltic Sea Paleoenvironment Expedition 347 in 2013, consisting of lake sediments overlain by brackish–marine deposits. Combining bulk sediment geochemistry with microanalysis using scanning electron microscope energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS and synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS, we demonstrate that vivianite-type minerals rich in manganese and magnesium are present in the lake deposits just below the transition to the brackish–marine sediments (at 11.5 to 12 m sediment depth. In this depth interval, phosphate that diffuses down from the organic-rich, brackish–marine sediments meets porewaters rich in dissolved iron in the lake sediments, resulting in the precipitation of iron(II phosphate. Results from a reactive transport model suggest that the peak in iron(II phosphate originally occurred at the lake–marine transition (9 to 10 m and moved downwards due to changes in the depth of a sulfidization front. However, its current position relative to the lake–marine transition is stable as the vivianite-type minerals and active sulfidization fronts have been spatially separated over time. Experiments in which vivianite was subjected to sulfidic conditions demonstrate that incorporation of manganese or magnesium in vivianite does not affect its susceptibility to sulfide-induced dissolution. Our work highlights that post-depositional formation of iron(II phosphates such as vivianite has

  18. Post-depositional formation of vivianite-type minerals alters sediment phosphorus records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Nikki; Hagens, Mathilde; Egger, Matthias; Slomp, Caroline P.

    2018-02-01

    Phosphorus (P) concentrations in sediments are frequently used to reconstruct past environmental conditions in freshwater and marine systems, with high values thought to be indicative of a high biological productivity. Recent studies suggest that the post-depositional formation of vivianite, an iron(II)-phosphate mineral, might significantly alter trends in P with sediment depth. To assess its importance, we investigate a sediment record from the Bornholm Basin that was retrieved during the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Baltic Sea Paleoenvironment Expedition 347 in 2013, consisting of lake sediments overlain by brackish-marine deposits. Combining bulk sediment geochemistry with microanalysis using scanning electron microscope energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), we demonstrate that vivianite-type minerals rich in manganese and magnesium are present in the lake deposits just below the transition to the brackish-marine sediments (at 11.5 to 12 m sediment depth). In this depth interval, phosphate that diffuses down from the organic-rich, brackish-marine sediments meets porewaters rich in dissolved iron in the lake sediments, resulting in the precipitation of iron(II) phosphate. Results from a reactive transport model suggest that the peak in iron(II) phosphate originally occurred at the lake-marine transition (9 to 10 m) and moved downwards due to changes in the depth of a sulfidization front. However, its current position relative to the lake-marine transition is stable as the vivianite-type minerals and active sulfidization fronts have been spatially separated over time. Experiments in which vivianite was subjected to sulfidic conditions demonstrate that incorporation of manganese or magnesium in vivianite does not affect its susceptibility to sulfide-induced dissolution. Our work highlights that post-depositional formation of iron(II) phosphates such as vivianite has the potential to strongly

  19. Uranium mineralization and unconformities: how do they correlate? - A look beyond the classic unconformity-type deposit model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markwitz, Vanessa; Porwal, Alok; Campbell McCuaig, T.; Kreuzer, Oliver P.

    2010-05-01

    Uranium deposits are usually classified based on the characteristics of their host rocks and geological environments (Dahlkamp, 1993; OECD/NEA Red Book and IAEA, 2000; Cuney, 2009). The traditional unconformity-related deposit types are the most economical deposits in the world, with the highest grades amongst all uranium deposit types. In order to predict undiscovered uranium deposits, there is a need to understand the spatial association of uranium mineralization with structures and unconformities. Hydrothermal uranium deposits develop by uranium enriched fluids from source rocks, transported along permeable pathways to their depositional environment. Unconformities are not only separating competent from incompetent sequences, but provide the physico-chemical gradient in the depositional environment. They acted as important fluid flow pathways for uranium to migrate not only for surface-derived oxygenated fluids, but also for high oxidized metamorphic and magmatic fluids, dominated by their geological environment in which the unconformities occur. We have carried out comprehensive empirical spatial analyses of various types of uranium deposits in Australia, and first results indicate that there is a strong spatial correlation between unconformities and uranium deposits, not only for traditional unconformity-related deposits but also for other styles. As a start we analysed uranium deposits in Queensland and in particular Proterozoic metasomatic-related deposits in the Mount Isa Inlier and Late Carboniferous to Early Permian volcanic-hosted uranium occurrences in Georgetown and Charters Towers Regions show strong spatial associations with contemporary and older unconformities. The Georgetown Inlier in northern Queensland consists of a diverse range of rocks, including Proterozoic and early Palaeozoic metamorphic rocks and granites and late Palaeozoic volcanic rocks and related granites. Uranium-molybdenum (+/- fluorine) mineralization in the Georgetown inlier

  20. The geology of the Collins Bay uranium deposit, Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, B.E.

    1980-01-01

    The Collins Bay deposit lies within the Churchill Province on the western edge of the Wollaston lithostructural domain where it underlies the eastern edge of the Helikian Athabasca Formation. It is 6 miles north-northeast of the Rabbit Lake mine. Two principal zones of uranium mineralization are described. The A zone, a partly eroded, high-grade pod of metal oxide and arsenides sheathed by clay-like minerals, which trends north-northeast and lies under 25 to 40 feet of water; and the B zone, which lies 6 000 ft south of the A, subcrops under till cover and is a partly eroded zone composed of metal oxide and arsenides which occur within variably altered Athabasca Formation. The deposit is typical of the unconformity-type uranium-nickel deposits of the Athabasca Basin. Observed features fit well with the diagenetic-hydrothermal model for such deposts. (auth)

  1. Rare Earth Element Fluorocarbonate Minerals from the Olympic Dam Cu-U-Au-Ag Deposit, South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle S. Schmandt

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Olympic Dam is a world-class breccia-hosted iron-oxide copper-gold-uranium ore deposit located in the Gawler Craton, South Australia. It contains elevated concentrations of rare earth elements (REE which occur as the REE minerals bastnäsite, synchysite, florencite, monazite, and xenotime. This is the first study to focus on the mineralogy and composition of the most abundant REE mineral at Olympic Dam, bastnäsite, and subordinate synchysite. The sample suite extends across the deposit and represents different sulfide mineralization styles (chalcopyrite-bornite and bornite-chalcocite and breccias of various types, ranging from those dominated by clasts of granite, dykes, and hematite. The REE-fluorocarbonates (bastnäsite and synchysite typically occur as fine-grained (<50 μm disseminations in Cu-Fe-sulfides and gangue minerals, and also within breccia matrix. They are also locally concentrated within macroscopic REE-mineral-rich pockets at various locations across the deposit. Such coarse-grained samples formed the primary target of this study. Three general textural groups of bastnäsite are recognized: matrix (further divided into disseminated, fine-grained, and stubby types, irregular (sulfide-associated, and clast replacement. Textures are largely driven by the specific location and prevailing mineral assemblage, with morphology and grain size often controlled by the associated minerals (hematite, sulfides. Major element concentration data reveal limited compositional variation among the REE-fluorocarbonates; all are Ce-dominant. Subtle compositional differences among REE-fluorocarbonates define a spectrum from relatively La-enriched to (Ce + Nd-enriched phases. Granite-derived hydrothermal fluids were the likely source of F in the REE-fluorocarbonates, as well as some of the CO2, which may also have been contributed by associated mafic-ultramafic magmatism. However, transport of REE by Cl-ligands is the most likely scenario. Stubby bastn

  2. Formation of amorphous metal alloys by chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullendore, A.W.

    1988-03-18

    Amorphous alloys are deposited by a process of thermal dissociation of mixtures of organometallic compounds and metalloid hydrides,e.g., transition metal carbonyl, such as nickel carbonyl and diborane. Various sizes and shapes of deposits can be achieved, including near-net-shape free standing articles, multilayer deposits, and the like. Manipulation or absence of a magnetic field affects the nature and the structure of the deposit. 1 fig.

  3. Developments in hot-filament metal oxide deposition (HFMOD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durrant, Steven F. [Laboratorio de Plasmas Tecnologicos, Campus Experimental de Sorocaba, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Avenida Tres de Marco, 511, Alto de Boa Vista, 18087-180 Sorocaba, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: steve@sorocaba.unesp.br; Trasferetti, Benedito C. [Departamento de Policia Federal, Superintendencia Regional no Piaui, Setor Tecnico-Cientifico, Avenida Maranhao, 1022/N, 64.000-010, Teresina, PI (Brazil); Scarminio, Jair [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), 86051-990, Londrina, PR (Brazil); Davanzo, Celso U. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), 13083-970, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Rouxinol, Francisco P.M.; Gelamo, Rogerio V.; Bica de Moraes, Mario A. [Laboratorio de Processos de Plasma, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), 13083-970, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2008-01-15

    Hot-filament metal oxide deposition (HFMOD) is a variant of conventional hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) recently developed in our laboratory and successfully used to obtain high-quality, uniform films of MO{sub x}, WO{sub x} and VO{sub x}. The method employs the controlled oxidation of a filament of a transition metal heated to 1000 deg. C or more in a rarefied oxygen atmosphere (typically, of about 1 Pa). Metal oxide vapor formed on the surface of the filament is transported a few centimetres to deposit on a suitable substrate. Key system parameters include the choice of filament material and diameter, the applied current and the partial pressures of oxygen in the chamber. Relatively high film deposition rates, such as 31 nm min{sup -1} for MoO{sub x}, are obtained. The film stoichiometry depends on the exact deposition conditions. MoO{sub x} films, for example, present a mixture of MoO{sub 2} and MoO{sub 3} phases, as revealed by XPS. As determined by Li{sup +} intercalation using an electrochemical cell, these films also show a colouration efficiency of 19.5 cm{sup 2} C{sup -1} at a wavelength of 700 nm. MO{sub x} and WO{sub x} films are promising in applications involving electrochromism and characteristics of their colouring/bleaching cycles are presented. The chemical composition and structure of VO{sub x} films examined using IRRAS (infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy), RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) and XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectrometry) are also presented.

  4. Proton microprobe study of tin-polymetallic deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murao, S [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Sie, S H; Suter, G F [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience

    1997-12-31

    Tin-polymetallic vein type deposits are a complex mixture of cassiterite and sulfides and they are the main source of technologically important rare metals such as indium and bismuth. Constituent minerals are usually fine grained having wide range of chemical composition and often the elements of interest occur as trace elements not amenable to electron microprobe analysis. PIXE with a proton microprobe can be an effective tool to study such deposits by delineating the distribution of trace elements among carrier minerals. Two representative indium-bearing deposits of tin- polymetallic type, Tosham of India (Cu-ln-Bi-Sn-W-Ag), and Mount Pleasant of Canada (Zn-Cu-In-Bi-Sn-W), were studied to delineate the distribution of medical/high-tech rare metals and to examine the effectiveness of the proton probe analysis of such ore. One of the results of the study indicated that indium and bismuth are present in chalcopyrite in the deposits. In addition to these important rare metals, zinc, copper, arsenic, antimony, selenium, and tin are common in chalcopyrite and pyrite. Arsenopyrite contains nickel, copper, zinc, silver, tin, antimony and bismuth. In chalcopyrite and pyrite, zinc, arsenic, indium, bismuth and lead are richer in Mount Pleasant ore, but silver is higher at Tosham. Also thallium and gold were found only in Tosham pyrite. The Tosham deposit is related to S-type granite, while Mount Pleasant to A-type. It appears that petrographic character of the source magma is one of the factors to determine the trace element distribution in tin-polymetallic deposit. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Proton microprobe study of tin-polymetallic deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murao, S. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Sie, S.H.; Suter, G.F. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience

    1996-12-31

    Tin-polymetallic vein type deposits are a complex mixture of cassiterite and sulfides and they are the main source of technologically important rare metals such as indium and bismuth. Constituent minerals are usually fine grained having wide range of chemical composition and often the elements of interest occur as trace elements not amenable to electron microprobe analysis. PIXE with a proton microprobe can be an effective tool to study such deposits by delineating the distribution of trace elements among carrier minerals. Two representative indium-bearing deposits of tin- polymetallic type, Tosham of India (Cu-ln-Bi-Sn-W-Ag), and Mount Pleasant of Canada (Zn-Cu-In-Bi-Sn-W), were studied to delineate the distribution of medical/high-tech rare metals and to examine the effectiveness of the proton probe analysis of such ore. One of the results of the study indicated that indium and bismuth are present in chalcopyrite in the deposits. In addition to these important rare metals, zinc, copper, arsenic, antimony, selenium, and tin are common in chalcopyrite and pyrite. Arsenopyrite contains nickel, copper, zinc, silver, tin, antimony and bismuth. In chalcopyrite and pyrite, zinc, arsenic, indium, bismuth and lead are richer in Mount Pleasant ore, but silver is higher at Tosham. Also thallium and gold were found only in Tosham pyrite. The Tosham deposit is related to S-type granite, while Mount Pleasant to A-type. It appears that petrographic character of the source magma is one of the factors to determine the trace element distribution in tin-polymetallic deposit. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Proton microprobe study of tin-polymetallic deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murao, S.; Sie, S.H.; Suter, G.F.

    1996-01-01

    Tin-polymetallic vein type deposits are a complex mixture of cassiterite and sulfides and they are the main source of technologically important rare metals such as indium and bismuth. Constituent minerals are usually fine grained having wide range of chemical composition and often the elements of interest occur as trace elements not amenable to electron microprobe analysis. PIXE with a proton microprobe can be an effective tool to study such deposits by delineating the distribution of trace elements among carrier minerals. Two representative indium-bearing deposits of tin- polymetallic type, Tosham of India (Cu-ln-Bi-Sn-W-Ag), and Mount Pleasant of Canada (Zn-Cu-In-Bi-Sn-W), were studied to delineate the distribution of medical/high-tech rare metals and to examine the effectiveness of the proton probe analysis of such ore. One of the results of the study indicated that indium and bismuth are present in chalcopyrite in the deposits. In addition to these important rare metals, zinc, copper, arsenic, antimony, selenium, and tin are common in chalcopyrite and pyrite. Arsenopyrite contains nickel, copper, zinc, silver, tin, antimony and bismuth. In chalcopyrite and pyrite, zinc, arsenic, indium, bismuth and lead are richer in Mount Pleasant ore, but silver is higher at Tosham. Also thallium and gold were found only in Tosham pyrite. The Tosham deposit is related to S-type granite, while Mount Pleasant to A-type. It appears that petrographic character of the source magma is one of the factors to determine the trace element distribution in tin-polymetallic deposit. 6 refs., 2 figs

  7. Numerical Simulations of Particle Deposition in Metal Foam Heat Exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauret, Emilie; Saha, Suvash C.; Gu, Yuantong

    2013-01-01

    Australia is a high-potential country for geothermal power with reserves currently estimated in the tens of millions of petajoules, enough to power the nation for at least 1000 years at current usage. However, these resources are mainly located in isolated arid regions where water is scarce. Therefore, wet cooling systems for geothermal plants in Australia are the least attractive solution and thus air-cooled heat exchangers are preferred. In order to increase the efficiency of such heat exchangers, metal foams have been used. One issue raised by this solution is the fouling caused by dust deposition. In this case, the heat transfer characteristics of the metal foam heat exchanger can dramatically deteriorate. Exploring the particle deposition property in the metal foam exchanger becomes crucial. This paper is a numerical investigation aimed to address this issue. Two-dimensional (2D) numerical simulations of a standard one-row tube bundle wrapped with metal foam in cross-flow are performed and highlight preferential particle deposition areas.

  8. GIS-based identification of areas with mineral resource potential for six selected deposit groups, Bureau of Land Management Central Yukon Planning Area, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, James V.; Karl, Susan M.; Labay, Keith A.; Shew, Nora B.; Granitto, Matthew; Hayes, Timothy S.; Mauk, Jeffrey L.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.; Todd, Erin; Wang, Bronwen; Werdon, Melanie B.; Yager, Douglas B.

    2015-01-01

    This study, covering the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Central Yukon Planning Area (CYPA), Alaska, was prepared to aid BLM mineral resource management planning. Estimated mineral resource potential and certainty are mapped for six selected mineral deposit groups: (1) rare earth element (REE) deposits associated with peralkaline to carbonatitic intrusive igneous rocks, (2) placer and paleoplacer gold, (3) platinum group element (PGE) deposits associated with mafic and ultramafic intrusive igneous rocks, (4) carbonate-hosted copper deposits, (5) sandstone uranium deposits, and (6) tin-tungsten-molybdenum-fluorspar deposits associated with specialized granites. These six deposit groups include most of the strategic and critical elements of greatest interest in current exploration.

  9. Sulfur Isotope Composition of Some Polymetallic Deposits in the Republic of Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serafimovski, Todor; Tasev, Goran

    2005-01-01

    The attempt to obtain an exact information about the origin of sulfur and other metals present in polymetallic deposits at the territory of the Republic of Macedonia have resulted in a detailed sulfur isotope composition study, which have enclosed the following deposits: Toranica, Sasa, Zletovo, Buchim and Alshar deposit. Results obtained for the formerly mentioned deposits have shown that sulfur isotope composition β 34 S is in the range -7.52 to +2.18 per mils in Toranica, -1.22 -- +6.94 per mils in Sasa, -3.12 -- +3.40 per mils in Zletovo (without ore associated barites), +0.00 to +2.53 per mils in Buchim (the narrowest range of all studied deposits) and -6.84 to +0.351 per mils β 34 S in Alshar. Therefore, the most probably origin of primary sulfur in studied deposits from Earth's crust or eventually Upper Mantle. Such sources of sulfur and other mineralizing metals confirmed the theories about the endo gene origin of mineralization fluids, which have formed studied deposits. (Author)

  10. Spectroscopic monitoring of metallic bonding in laser metal deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ya, Wei; Konuk, A.R.; Aarts, Ronald G.K.M.; Pathiraj, B.; Huis in 't Veld, Bert

    2015-01-01

    A new approach is presented in this paper to link optical emission spectrum analysis to the quality of clad layers produced with laser metal deposition (LMD). A Nd:YAG laser (λ = 1.064 μm) was used to produce clad tracks with Metco 42C powder on AISI 4140 steel substrate. The laser power was ramped

  11. Identification of mineral deposits in the brain on radiological images: a systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DelValdes Hernandez, Maria; Maconick, Lucy C.; Tan, Elizabeth M.J.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.

    2012-01-01

    MRI has allowed the study of mineral deposition in the brain throughout life and in disease. However, studies differ in their reporting of minerals on MRI for reasons that are unclear. We conducted a systematic review from 1985 to July 2011 to determine the appearance of iron, calcium, copper and manganese on MRI and CT and their reliability. We assessed which imaging investigations provided the most consistent results compared with histology. Of 325 papers on minerals imaging, we included 46 studies that confirmed findings either directly or indirectly using a non-imaging method such as histology. Within this group, there was inconsistency in the identification of iron probably because of changes in its paramagnetic properties during its degradation. Iron appeared consistently hypointense only on T2*-weighted MRI, and along with calcified areas, hyperattenuated on CT. Appearance of copper, calcium and manganese, although consistently reported as hyperintense on T1-weighted MRI, was confirmed histologically in few studies. On T2-weighted imaging, calcified areas were always reported as hypointense, while the appearance of iron depended on the concentration, location and degradation stage. More work is required to improve the reliability of imaging methods to detect and differentiate brain mineral deposition accurately. (orig.)

  12. Metal dispersion and mobility in soils from the Lik Zn-Pb-Ag massive sulphide deposit, NW Alaska: Environmental and exploration implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, K.D.; Kelley, D.L.

    2003-01-01

    The Lik deposit in northern Alaska is a largely unexposed shale-hosted Zn-Pb-Ag massive sulphide deposit that is underlain by continuous permafrost. Residual soils overlying the mineralized zone have element enrichments that are two to six times greater than baseline values. The most prominent elements are Ag, Mo, P, Se, Sr, V by total 4-acid digestion and Tl by a weak partial digestion (Enzyme Leach or EL) because they show multi-point anomalies that extend across the entire mineralized zone, concentration ranges are 0.5-2.6 ppm Ag, 4-26 ppm Mo, 0.1-0.3% P, 3-22 ppm Se, 90-230 ppm Sr, 170-406 ppm V, and 1.6-30 ppb Tl. Lead, Sb, and Hg are also anomalous (up to 178 ppm, 30 ppm, and 1.9 ppm, respectively), but all are characterized by single point anomalies directly over the mineralized zone, with only slightly elevated concentrations over the lower mineralized section. Zinc (total) has a consistent baseline response of 200 ppm, but it is not elevated in soils overlying the mineralized zone. However, Zn by EL shows a distinct single-point anomaly over the ore zone that suggests it was highly mobile and partly adsorbed on oxides or other secondary phases during weathering. In situ analyses (by laser ablation ICP-MS) of pyrite and sphalerite from drill core suggest that sphalerite is the primary residence for Ag, Cd, and Hg in addition to Zn, and pyrite contains As, Fe, Sb, and Tl. The level and degree of oxidation, and the proportion of reacting pyrite and carbonate minerals are two factors that affected the mobility and transport of metals. In oxidizing conditions, Zn is highly mobile relative to Hg and Ag, perhaps explaining the decoupling of Zn from the other sphalerite-hosted elements in the soils. Soils are acidic (to 3.9 pH) directly over the deposit due to the presence of acid-producing pyrite, but acid-neutralizing carbonate away from the mineralized zone yield soils that are near neutral. The soils therefore formed in a complex system involving oxidation and

  13. Distributed regularity of accompanying element and its deep prospecting significances in Guizhou 504 uranium mineral deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Weiqian; Huang Kaiping; Cheng Guangqing

    2012-01-01

    In the 504 hydrotherm type mineral deposit, Mo, Hg, Ni, Re, Te, Se element (Mo, Hg are industrial mineral deposit and Ni, Re, Te, Se are scarce element) reach the industrial integrated utilization request, the scarce element widely distributed in acid orebody (upper ore zone) and alkali orebody (lower ore zone). Based on composite samples of uranium ore in the analysis, through computer processing, the linear regression and R-factor analysis, Reveals the relationship between uranium and other elements. They haven't correlation among the U, Hg, Mo. The relation- ship among the Ni, Re, Te, Se is germane. Using this correlation, deep in the deposit and surrounding exploration provides the basis for deep. (authors)

  14. Economic filters for evaluating porphyry copper deposit resource assessments using grade-tonnage deposit models, with examples from the U.S. Geological Survey global mineral resource assessment: Chapter H in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Gilpin R.; Menzie, W. David

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of the amount and location of undiscovered mineral resources that are likely to be economically recoverable is important for assessing the long-term adequacy and availability of mineral supplies. This requires an economic evaluation of estimates of undiscovered resources generated by traditional resource assessments (Singer and Menzie, 2010). In this study, simplified engineering cost models were used to estimate the economic fraction of resources contained in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits, predicted in a global assessment of copper resources. The cost models of Camm (1991) were updated with a cost index to reflect increases in mining and milling costs since 1989. The updated cost models were used to perform an economic analysis of undiscovered resources estimated in porphyry copper deposits in six tracts located in North America. The assessment estimated undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within 1 kilometer of the land surface in three depth intervals.

  15. Interpretasi Deposit Uranium Berdasarkan Data Tahanan Jenis dan Polarisasi Terinduksi di Sektor Rabau Hulu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Haryanto

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Rabau Hulu area, Kalan, Kalimantan Barat is a potential area of uranium that has been explored in detail by various methods. Methods of resistivity and induced polarization can be applied in the exploration of uranium deposits in which its mineralization associated with sulphide minerals. Processing, analysis, and interpretation of resistivity and induced polarization data conducted in order to identify the distribution of uranium deposits and lithology of the rocks in the study area. Uranium deposits in the area Rabau Hulu is generally associated with sulphides, tourmaline and contained in favorable rocks. Symptoms of uranium mineralization encountered in other forms of irregular and uneven consists of uraninite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, molybdenite, and ilmenite minerals. Data acquisition using dipole-dipole configuration in an area of ​​approximately 36 hectares, 46 lines along + 425 m. Acquisition of induced polarization frequency domain data which the same points and lines with resistivity data. Data processing produces resistivity and metal factor values and subsequently made two-dimensional section. Determination of resistivity and induced polarization are done by correlated boreholes data with the results of data processing. Resistivity of uranium deposits zone worth less than 2,000 Ωm and the value of metal factor greater than 90 mho/m. Uranium deposit zone is expanding along with the depth. Uranium deposits distribution trending Southwestern-Northeast and shaped lens.

  16. Uranium deposit interpretation based on resistivity and induced polarization data in Rabau hulu sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwi Haryanto; Bambang Soetopo; Adhika Junara Karunianto; Supriyanto

    2015-01-01

    Rabau Hulu area, Kalan, Kalimantan Barat is a potential area of uranium that has been explored in detail by various methods. Methods of resistivity and induced polarization can be applied in the exploration of uranium deposits in which its mineralization associated with sulphide minerals. Processing, analysis, and interpretation of resistivity and induced polarization data conducted in order to identify the distribution of uranium deposits and lithology of the rocks in the study area. Uranium deposits in the area Rabau Hulu is generally associated with sulphides, tourmaline and contained in favorable rocks. Symptoms of uranium mineralization encountered in other forms of irregular and uneven consists of uraninite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, molybdenite, and ilmenite minerals. Data acquisition using dipole-dipole configuration in an area of approximately 36 hectares, 46 lines along ± 425 m. Acquisition of induced polarization frequency domain data which the same points and lines with resistivity data. Data processing produces resistivity and metal factor values and subsequently made two-dimensional section. Determination of resistivity and induced polarization are done by correlated boreholes data with the results of data processing. Resistivity of uranium deposits zone worth less than 2,000 Ωm and the value of metal factor greater than 90 mho/m. Uranium deposit zone is expanding along with the depth. Uranium deposits distribution trending Southwestern-Northeast and shaped lens. (author)

  17. The graphite deposit at Borrowdale (UK): A catastrophic mineralizing event associated with Ordovician magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, L.; Millward, D.; Luque, F. J.; Barrenechea, J. F.; Beyssac, O.; Huizenga, J.-M.; Rodas, M.; Clarke, S. M.

    2010-04-01

    The volcanic-hosted graphite deposit at Borrowdale in Cumbria, UK, was formed through precipitation from C-O-H fluids. The δ 13C data indicate that carbon was incorporated into the mineralizing fluids by assimilation of carbonaceous metapelites of the Skiddaw Group by andesite magmas of the Borrowdale Volcanic Group. The graphite mineralization occurred as the fluids migrated upwards through normal conjugate fractures forming the main subvertical pipe-like bodies. The mineralizing fluids evolved from CO 2-CH 4-H 2O mixtures (XCO 2 = 0.6-0.8) to CH 4-H 2O mixtures. Coevally with graphite deposition, the andesite and dioritic wall rocks adjacent to the veins were intensely hydrothermally altered to a propylitic assemblage. The initial graphite precipitation was probably triggered by the earliest hydration reactions in the volcanic host rocks. During the main mineralization stage, graphite precipitated along the pipe-like bodies due to CO 2 → C + O 2. This agrees with the isotopic data which indicate that the first graphite morphologies crystallizing from the fluid (cryptocrystalline aggregates) are isotopically lighter than those crystallizing later (flakes). Late chlorite-graphite veins were formed from CH 4-enriched fluids following the reaction CH 4 + O 2 → C + 2H 2O, producing the successive precipitation of isotopically lighter graphite morphologies. Thus, as mineralization proceeded, water-generating reactions were involved in graphite precipitation, further favouring the propylitic alteration. The structural features of the pipe-like mineralized bodies as well as the isotopic homogeneity of graphite suggest that the mineralization occurred in a very short period of time.

  18. Metal-Insulator-Metal Single Electron Transistors with Tunnel Barriers Prepared by Atomic Layer Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golnaz Karbasian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Single electron transistors are nanoscale electron devices that require thin, high-quality tunnel barriers to operate and have potential applications in sensing, metrology and beyond-CMOS computing schemes. Given that atomic layer deposition is used to form CMOS gate stacks with low trap densities and excellent thickness control, it is well-suited as a technique to form a variety of tunnel barriers. This work is a review of our recent research on atomic layer deposition and post-fabrication treatments to fabricate metallic single electron transistors with a variety of metals and dielectrics.

  19. A parallel analysis of hydrolithospheric beds geodata of Narzan mineral water Kislovodsk deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Д. А. Первухин

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The area of the Caucasus Mineral Waters – an environmental spa - occupies a special place among the other  spa regions of Russia due to richness, diversity, abundance and value of its mineral waters, landscape and climate conditions, and therapeutic muds. Lately the rate increased of developing its mineral water resources for both the local spa use and bottling for retail consumers. The growing number of mineral water bottling enterprises and sanatorium organizations affects significantly the amount of mineral water uptake. Irrational water uptake results in deterioration of underground water quality, change of its chemical composition and temperature. Expansion of the depression crater may eventually result in a collapse of seams roofing and vanishing of many water springs. It refers to all the waters underlying the area of Kavkazskie Mineralnye Vody. Due to that situation there is a potential threat of degradation of these deposits of mineral waters. Therefore, an important task consists in building forecast models of hydro-lithospheric processes in the region while the scope of water uptake changes in various parts of the deposit. it will be based on analyzing aerial photographs taken from board unmanned aerial vehicles. Currently such analysis is conducted using simple linear algorithms. The paper suggests to use the Nvidia CUDA technology for the purpose, adapting the mathematics used to ana- lyze aerial photographs to that technology. The initial data for processing were obtained by aerial photography in the course of remote sensing of the area by unmanned aerial vehicles belonging to OJSC «Narzan», Kislovodsk, an enterprise for mining mineral water. Presented in this paper have their Author’s Certificates issued by the Federal Institute of Industrial Property, the Russian Federation.

  20. Mineral sources of water and their influence on the safe disposal of radioactive wastes in bedded salt deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fallis, S.M.

    1973-12-01

    With the increased use of nuclear energy, there will be subsequent increases in high-level radioactive wastes such as Sr 90 , Cs 137 , and Pu 239 . Several agencies have considered the safest possible means to store or dispose of wastes in geologic environments such as underground storage in salt deposits, shale beds, abandoned dry mines, and in clay and shale pits. Salt deposits have received the most favorable attention because they exist in dry environments and because of other desirable properties of halite (its plasticity, gamma-ray shielding, heat dissipation ability, low mining cost, and worldwide abundance). Much work has been done on bedded salt deposits, particularly the Hutchinson Salt Member of the Wellington Formation at Lyons, Kansas. Salt beds heated by the decay of the radioactive wastes may release water by dehydration of hydrous minerals commonly present in evaporite sequences or water present in other forms such as fluid inclusions. More than 80 hydrous minerals are known to occur in evaporite deposits. The occurrences, total water contents (up to 63%) and dehydration temperatures (often less that 150 0 C) of these minerals are given. Since it is desirable to dispose of radioactive wastes in a dry environment, care must be taken that large quantities of water are not released through the heating of hydrous minerals. Seventy-four samples from four cores taken at Lyons, Kansas, were analyzed by x-ray diffraction. The minerals detected were halite, anhydrite, gypsum, polyhalite, dolomite, magnesite, quartz, feldspar, and the clay minerals illite, chlorite, kaolinite, vermiculite, smectite, mixed-layer clay, and corrensite (interstratified chlorite-vermiculite). Of these, gypsum, polyhalite and the clay minerals are all capable of releasing water when heated

  1. Krypton-85 storage in sputter-deposited amorphous metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tingey, G.L.; McClanahan, E.D.; Lytle, J.M.; Gordon, N.R.; Knoll, R.W.

    1982-06-01

    After comparing options for storing radioactive krypton gas, the United States Department of Energy selected ion implantation of the gas into a sputter-deposited metal matrix as the reference process. This technique is being developed with pilot-scale testing and further characterization of the deposited product. The process involves implanting krypton atoms into a growing deposit during the sputtering process. An amorphous metal deposit of nominal composition Ni 0 81 La 0 09 Kr 0 10 has been selected for further studies because of the high krypton loading, high sputtering yield, relatively low cost of the metallic components, resistance to corrosion, and stability of the product. The krypton release from this amorphous metal is described as an activated diffusion process which increases linearly with the square root of time. Studies of krypton release rate as a function of temperature were completed and an activation energy for the diffusion of 70 kcal/mole obtained. From these data, we estimated that the krypton release during the first ten years would be 0.5% for a maximum temperature of 350 0 C. The actual release of the krypton during storage was projected to be lower by a factor of 10 7 with the maximum temperature only 220 0 C. Thermal analysis studies show two energy releases occurring with krypton-containing alloys: one associated with recrystallization of the amorphous alloy and a second associated with krypton release. The total energy release between 100 and 800 0 C was less than 50 cal/g. Estimates are given for the cost of operation of the ion implantation process for solidification of the krypton-85 from a 2000-tonne heavy metal/year reprocessing plant. The present value costs, in 1981 dollars including capital and operating costs and assuming a 30-year life, are about $26M for the lifetime of the plant. Annual energy consumption of the process was estimated to be 3.9 M kWh/year

  2. Trace metals analysis in molybdenite mineral sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamrakar, Praveen Kumar; Pitre, K.S.

    2000-01-01

    DC polarography and other related techniques, viz., DPP and DPASV have been successfully used for the simultaneous determination of trace metals in molybdenite mineral sample. The polarograms and voltammograms of sample solution have been recorded in 0.1 M (NH 4 ) 2 tartrate supporting electrolyte at two different pH values i.e., 2.7±0.1 and 9.0±0.1. The results indicate the presence of Cu 2+ , Mo 6+ , Cd 2+ , Ni 2+ , In 3+ , Fe 3+ and W 6+ metal ions in the sample. For the determination of tungsten(VI), 11 M HCl has been used as supporting electrolyte. Tungsten(VI) produces a well defined wave/peak with E 1/2 /Ep=-0.42V/-0.48V vs SCE in 11 M HCl. The quantitative analysis by the method of standard addition shows the mineral sample to have the following composition, Cu 2+ ( 14.83), Mo 6+ (253.70), Cd 2+ (41.36), Ni 2+ (16.08), In 3+ (3.06), Fe 3+ (83.00)and W 6+ (4.14 )mg/g of the sample. Statistical treatment of the observed voltammetric data reveals high accuracy and good precision of determination. The observed voltammetric results are comparable with those obtained using AAS method. (author)

  3. Multiple and prolonged porphyry Cu–Au mineralization and alteration events in the Halasu deposit, Chinese Altai, Xinjiang, northwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunji Xue

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Halasu area is located in the southeastern margin of the Chinese Altai in Xinjiang, China. It is part of the Altaid orogenic collage where a number of porphyry-type Cu–Mo–Au deposits have been discovered in recent years. Geological mapping and drilling indicate the presence of various mineralized porphyritic intrusions in the Halasu Cu–Au deposit, which is currently under exploration. U–Pb dating of zircon crystals from four different mineralized porphyries reveals three significantly different ages of magmatic intrusion, i.e., ca. 372–382 Ma granodioritic porphyry and porphyritic granite, ca. 266 Ma quartz monzonitic porphyry, and ca. 216 Ma quartz dioritic porphyry. Re–Os dating of molybdenite from veinlet-dissemination ores in the granodioritic porphyry yields an age of mineralization of ca. 377 Ma, and Ar–Ar dating of K-feldspar from K-feldspar–quartz–chalcopyrite veins produces ages of ca. 269 and ca. 198 Ma. The mineralization (and alteration ages correspond broadly to the three episodes of magmatic intrusion, suggesting three overprinting porphyry mineralization events that are significantly separated in time. The first episode of porphyry intrusion and mineralization may be related to the magmatic arc being above a plate subduction zone, and the second was formed in a late-collisional environment during the closing of the Junggar Ocean, whereas the third episode of mineralization took place in the post-collisional stage. This case study suggests that in orogens where major porphyry deposits have been found in magmatic arc environments, the potential of discovering late- to post-collisional porphyry deposits cannot be neglected; conversely, in orogens where most porphyry deposits have late- to post-collisional ages, more attention should be paid to porphyries that were formed earlier in magmatic arc environments.

  4. Synchrotron X-ray Investigations of Mineral-Microbe-Metal Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemner, Kenneth M.; O'Loughlin, Edward J.; Kelly, Shelly D.; Boyanov, Maxim I.

    2005-01-01

    Interactions between microbes and minerals can play an important role in metal transformations (i.e. changes to an element's valence state, coordination chemistry, or both), which can ultimately affect that element's mobility. Mineralogy affects microbial metabolism and ecology in a system; microbes, in turn, can affect the system's mineralogy. Increasingly, synchrotron-based X-ray experiments are in routine use for determining an element's valence state and coordination chemistry, as well as for examining the role of microbes in metal transformations.

  5. Deposition of metallic nanoparticles on carbon nanotubes via a fast evaporation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Guoqiang; Xing Yangchuan

    2006-01-01

    A new technique was developed for the deposition of colloidal metal nanoparticles on carbon nanotubes. It involves fast evaporation of a suspension containing sonochemically functionalized carbon nanotubes and colloidal nanoparticles. It was demonstrated that metallic nanoparticles with different sizes and concentrations can be deposited on the carbon nanotubes with only a few agglomerates. The technique does not seem to be limited by what the nanoparticles are, and therefore would be applicable to the deposition of other nanoparticles on carbon nanotubes. PtPd and CoPt 3 alloy nanoparticles were used to demonstrate the deposition process. It was found that the surfactants used to disperse the nanoparticles can hinder the nanoparticle deposition. When the nanoparticles were washed with ethanol, they could be well deposited on the carbon nanotubes. The obtained carbon nanotube supported metal nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry

  6. An exploration in mineral supply chain mapping using tantalum as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Viruet, Yadira; Menzie, W. David; Papp, John F.; Yager, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    This report uses the supply chain of tantalum (Ta) to investigate the complexity of mineral and metal supply chains in general and show how they can be mapped. A supply chain is made up of all the manufacturers, suppliers, information networks, and so forth, that provide the materials and parts that go into making up a final product. The mineral portion of the supply chain begins with mineral material in the ground (the ore deposit); extends through a series of processes that include mining, beneficiation, processing (smelting and refining), semimanufacture, and manufacture; and continues through transformation of the mineral ore into concentrates, refined mineral commodities, intermediate forms (such as metals and alloys), component parts, and, finally, complex products. This study analyses the supply chain of tantalum beginning with minerals in the ground to many of the final goods that contain tantalum.

  7. HEAVY MINERALS IN PLACER DEPOSIT IN SINGKAWANG WATERS, WEST Kalimantan, RELATED TO FELSIC SOURCE ROCK OF ITS COASTAL AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deny Setiady

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Placer deposits are physically accumulated by fluvial and marine processes in coastal area. Thirty six samples were selected from seventy seven samples of seafloor sediment of Singkawang waters. Those samples have been analyzed microscopically for heavy mineral contents. Based on this analysis, the heavy minerals can be divided into four groups: oxyde and hydroxyde, silicate, sulphide, and carbonate. The source of most heavy minerals in the study area is commonly formed by Felsic igneous rock and finally deposited on the seafloor sediments.

  8. Atmospheric heavy metal deposition accumulated in rural forest soils of southern Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovmand, Mads Frederik; Kemp, Kaare; Kystol, J.

    2008-01-01

    Thirty-three years of measurements of atmospheric heavy metal (HM) deposition (bulk precipitation) in Denmark combined with European emission inventories form the basis for calculating a 50-year accumulated atmospheric input to a remote forest plantation on the island of Laesoe. Soil samples taken...... in atmospheric deposition and in soils. The accumulated atmospheric deposition is of the same magnitude as the increase of these metals in the top soil....

  9. Induced polarization and electromagnetic field surveys of sedimentary uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D.L.; Smith, B.D.

    1985-01-01

    Induced polarization (IP) and electromagnetic (EM) geophysical surveys were made over three areas of sedimentary uranium deposits in the western United States. The EM techniques were sometimes useful for investigating general structural settings, but not for finding uranium deposits per se. IP techniques were useful to help pinpoint zones of disseminated pyrite associated with the uranium deposits. In one case no clear differences were seen between the IP signatures of oxidized and reduced ground. Spectral (multi-frequency) IP showed no particular advantages over conventional IP for exploration applications. A sediment mineralization factor is introduced comparable to the ''metal factor'' used to detect porphyry copper mineralization. (author)

  10. An investigation on high temperature fatigue properties of tempered nuclear-grade deposited weld metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, X. Y.; Zhu, P.; Yong, Q.; Liu, T. G.; Lu, Y. H.; Zhao, J. C.; Jiang, Y.; Shoji, T.

    2018-02-01

    Effect of tempering on low cycle fatigue (LCF) behaviors of nuclear-grade deposited weld metal was investigated, and The LCF tests were performed at 350 °C with strain amplitudes ranging from 0.2% to 0.6%. The results showed that at a low strain amplitude, deposited weld metal tempered for 1 h had a high fatigue resistance due to high yield strength, while at a high strain amplitude, the one tempered for 24 h had a superior fatigue resistance due to high ductility. Deposited weld metal tempered for 1 h exhibited cyclic hardening at the tested strain amplitudes. Deposited weld metal tempered for 24 h exhibited cyclic hardening at a low strain amplitude but cyclic softening at a high strain amplitude. Existence and decomposition of martensite-austenite (M-A) islands as well as dislocations activities contributed to fatigue property discrepancy among the two tempered deposited weld metal.

  11. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope studies of gold mineralization in the southern Apuseni Mountains, Romania: interpretation and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alderton, David H.M.

    1998-01-01

    Precious and base metal mineralization in the southern Apuseni Mountains of western Romania occurs in several steeply-dipping veins which are hosted by Miocene andesitic rocks. Fluid inclusion evidence suggests that the majority of the mineralization was caused by low salinity fluids at temperatures between 200 and 300 o C. Although subject to several uncertainties, the oxygen and hydrogen isotope data support a model in which main stage mineralization was formed when a metal-bearing magmatic fluid was exsolved from the crystallizing melt. In contrast to many other 'epithermal' precious metal deposits, the incorporation into the hydrothermal system of local meteoric groundwaters was minor, and mostly restricted to the latest, barren, low temperature stage of mineralization. (Author)

  12. Stable isotope, chemical, and mineral compositions of the Middle Proterozoic Lijiaying Mn deposit, Shaanxi Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hsueh-Wen; Hein, James R.; Ye, Jie; Fan, Delian

    1999-01-01

    The Lijiaying Mn deposit, located about 250 km southwest of Xian, is a high-quality ore characterized by low P and Fe contents and a mean Mn content of about 23%. The ore deposit occurs in shallow-water marine sedimentary rocks of probable Middle Proterozoic age. Carbonate minerals in the ore deposit include kutnahorite, calcite, Mn calcite, and Mg calcite. Carbon (−0.4 to −4.0‰) and oxygen (−3.7 to −12.9‰) isotopes show that, with a few exceptions, those carbonate minerals are not pristine low-temperature marine precipitates. All samples are depleted in rare earth elements (REEs) relative to shale and have negative Eu and positive Ce anomalies on chondrite-normalized plots. The Fe/Mn ratios of representative ore samples range from about 0.034 to deep ocean-floor during the Cenozoic. Because the Lijiaying precursor mineral formed in a shallow-water marine environment, the atmospheric oxygen content during the Middle Proterozoic may have been lower than it has been during the Cenozoic.

  13. Mineral sources of water and their influence on the safe disposal of radioactive wastes in bedded salt deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallis, S.M.

    1973-12-01

    With the increased use of nuclear energy, there will be subsequent increases in high-level radioactive wastes such as Sr/sup 90/, Cs/sup 137/, and Pu/sup 239/. Several agencies have considered the safest possible means to store or dispose of wastes in geologic environments such as underground storage in salt deposits, shale beds, abandoned dry mines, and in clay and shale pits. Salt deposits have received the most favorable attention because they exist in dry environments and because of other desirable properties of halite (its plasticity, gamma-ray shielding, heat dissipation ability, low mining cost, and worldwide abundance). Much work has been done on bedded salt deposits, particularly the Hutchinson Salt Member of the Wellington Formation at Lyons, Kansas. Salt beds heated by the decay of the radioactive wastes may release water by dehydration of hydrous minerals commonly present in evaporite sequences or water present in other forms such as fluid inclusions. More than 80 hydrous minerals are known to occur in evaporite deposits. The occurrences, total water contents (up to 63%) and dehydration temperatures (often less that 150/sup 0/C) of these minerals are given. Since it is desirable to dispose of radioactive wastes in a dry environment, care must be taken that large quantities of water are not released through the heating of hydrous minerals. Seventy-four samples from four cores taken at Lyons, Kansas, were analyzed by x-ray diffraction. The minerals detected were halite, anhydrite, gypsum, polyhalite, dolomite, magnesite, quartz, feldspar, and the clay minerals illite, chlorite, kaolinite, vermiculite, smectite, mixed-layer clay, and corrensite (interstratified chlorite-vermiculite). Of these, gypsum, polyhalite and the clay minerals are all capable of releasing water when heated.

  14. Issues involved in the atomic layer deposition of metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, Robert Kimes

    Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) was used to study the nucleation and growth of tungsten on aluminum oxide surfaces. Tungsten metal was deposited using Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) techniques. ALD uses sequential surface reactions to deposit material with atomic layer control. W ALD is performed using sequential exposures of WF6 and Si2H6. The step-wise nature of W ALD allows nucleation studies to be performed by analyzing the W surface concentration after each ALD reaction. Nucleation and growth regions can be identified by quantifying the AES signal intensities from both the W surface and the Al2O3 substrate. W nucleation occurred in 3 ALD reaction cycles. The AES results yielded a nucleation rate of 1.0 A/ALD cycle and a growth rate of ≈3 A/ALD cycle. AES studies also explored the nucleation and growth of Al2O3 on W. Al2O3 nucleated in 1 ALD cycle giving a nucleation rate of 3.5 A/ALD cycle and a subsequent growth rate of 1.0 A/ALD cycle. Mass spectrometry was then used to study the ALD reaction chemistry of tungsten deposition. Because of the step-wise nature of the W ALD chemistry, each W ALD reaction could be studied independently. The gaseous mass products were identified from both the WF6 and Si2H6 reactions. H2, HF and SiF4 mass products were observed for the WF6 reaction. The Si2H6 reaction displayed a room temperature reaction and a 200°C reaction. Products from the room temperature Si2H6 reaction were H2 and SiF3H. The reaction at 200°C yielded only H2 as a reaction product. H2 desorption from the surface contributes to the 200°C Si2H6 reaction. AES was used to confirm that the gas phase reaction products are correlated with a change in the surface species. Atomic hydrogen reduction of metal halides and oganometallic compounds provides another method for depositing metals with atomic layer control. The quantity of atomic hydrogen necessary to perform this chemistry is critical to the metal ALD process. A thermocouple probe was constructed to

  15. Assessment and Seasonal Variations of Heavy Metals and Mineral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mal Raji

    ISSN 0794-5698. Assessment and Seasonal Variations of Heavy Metals and Mineral Elements in River ... immediately from Sokoto Cement Factory) at value above WHO's permissible limit in the rainy season. Ag .... level which is considered to represent a threat to the life of .... regulations governing waste management and.

  16. Deposition of airborne metals around the lead-zinc mine in Maarmorilik monitored by lichens and mosses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilegaard, K.

    1994-01-01

    The deposition of heavy metals around the Pb-Zn mine in Maarmorilik (Greenland) was monitored during the year 1979-1990 by analyses of concentrations in in situ lichens (Cetraria nivalis and Umbilicaria Lyngei) and higher plants (rhododendron lapponicum). Concentrations of the metals Ag, As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, S b and Zn decreased with increasing distance from the mining and milling complex according to the model: y = ax b + C where y = concentrations, x = distance, c = background concentration, a and b = constants. The spread was most pronounced west of Maarmorilik. Exposed Pb-Zn mineralizations in the area were found not to influence the overall deposition pattern. The transport of pollutants to higher altitudes was little. Airborne pollution with Cd, Pb and Zn was monitored with suspended Sphagnumbags during a period with ship-loading of concentrates and compared to a period without this activity. There was a strongly increased deposition of airborne Cd, Pb and Zn during periods of ship-loading. The primary sources of pollution were the concentrate conveyor and the ship-loader. Sphagnum-bags were also used to monitor the effects of remedial actions carried out in the mining town. Analyses of the concentrations of Pb in Cetraria during the years 1979 to 1990 showed that pollution during the last years was only about half as large as during the early years. This decrease is attributed to the pollution abatement carried out at the mining complex. (au) (23 refs.)

  17. GIS-based identification of areas that have resource potential for critical minerals in six selected groups of deposit types in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Susan M.; Jones, James V.; Hayes, Timothy S.

    2016-11-16

    Alaska has considerable potential for undiscovered mineral resources. This report evaluates potential for undiscovered critical minerals in Alaska. Critical minerals are those for which the United States imports more than half of its total supply and which are largely derived from nations that cannot be considered reliable trading partners. In this report, estimated resource potential and certainty for the state of Alaska are analyzed and mapped for the following six selected mineral deposit groups that may contain one or more critical minerals: (1) rare earth elements-thorium-yttrium-niobium(-uranium-zirconium) [REE-Th-Y-Nb(-U-Zr)] deposits associated with peralkaline to carbonatitic igneous intrusive rocks; (2) placer and paleoplacer gold (Au) deposits that in some places might also produce platinum group elements (PGE), chromium (Cr), tin (Sn), tungsten (W), silver (Ag), or titanium (Ti); (3) platinum group elements(-cobalt-chromium-nickel-titanium-vanadium) [PGE(-Co-Cr-Ni-Ti-V)] deposits associated with mafic to ultramafic intrusive rocks; (4) carbonate-hosted copper(-cobalt-silver-germanium-gallium) [Cu(-Co-Ag-Ge-Ga)] deposits; (5) sandstone-hosted uranium(-vanadium-copper) [U(-V-Cu)] deposits; and (6) tin-tungsten-molybdenum(-tantalum-indium-fluorspar) [Sn-W-Mo(-Ta-In-fluorspar)] deposits associated with specialized granites.This study used a data-driven, geographic information system (GIS)-implemented method to identify areas that have mineral resource potential in Alaska. This method systematically and simultaneously analyzes geoscience data from multiple geospatially referenced datasets and uses individual subwatersheds (12-digit hydrologic units) as the spatial unit of classification. The final map output uses a red, yellow, green, and gray color scheme to portray estimated relative potential (High, Medium, Low, Unknown) for each of the six groups of mineral deposit types, and it indicates the relative certainty (High, Medium, Low) of that estimate for

  18. Geometry of the neoproterozoic and paleozoic rift margin of western Laurentia: Implications for mineral deposit settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, K.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. and Canadian Cordilleran miogeocline evolved during several phases of Cryogenian-Devonian intracontinental rifting that formed the western mangin of Laurentia. Recent field and dating studies across central Idaho and northern Nevada result in identification of two segments of the rift margin. Resulting interpretations of rift geometry in the northern U.S. Cordillera are compatible with interpretations of northwest- striking asymmetric extensional segments subdivided by northeast-striking transform and transfer segments. The new interpretation permits integration of miogeoclinal segments along the length of the western North American Cordillera. For the U.S. Cordillera, miogeoclinal segments include the St. Mary-Moyie transform, eastern Washington- eastern Idaho upper-plate margin, Snake River transfer, Nevada-Utah lower-plate margin, and Mina transfer. The rift is orthogonal to most older basement domains, but the location of the transform-transfer zones suggests control of them by basement domain boundaries. The zigzag geometry of reentrants and promontories along the rift is paralleled by salients and recesses in younger thrust belts and by segmentation of younger extensional domains. Likewise, transform transfer zones localized subsequent transcurrent structures and igneous activity. Sediment-hosted mineral deposits trace the same zigzag geometry along the margin. Sedimentary exhalative (sedex) Zn-Pb-Ag ??Au and barite mineral deposits formed in continental-slope rocks during the Late Devonian-Mississippian and to a lesser degree, during the Cambrian-Early Ordovician. Such deposits formed during episodes of renewed extension along miogeoclinal segments. Carbonate-hosted Mississippi Valley- type (MVT) Zn-Pb deposits formed in structurally reactivated continental shelf rocks during the Late Devonian-Mississippian and Mesozoic due to reactivation of preexisting structures. The distribution and abundance of sedex and MVT deposits are controlled by the

  19. The hydrogeochemical characteristics of the certain uranium deposit and their relationship with uranium mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Huanguang

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of previous work, this paper studies characteristics of the stratum,lithology,structure, ore bodies, ore and wall rocks and the relations between hydrochemical characteristics and uranium mineraliztion are stressed and anaysed.The environmental index of hydrogeochemisty is closely related with the uranium form, migration,and precipitation. According to negative ion, the ground water is classified into HCO3-,SO42-, HCO3--SO42-and HCO3-Cl-. For deposit genesis, uranium source comes from two parts; there are five mineralizations such as leaching, adsorption, hydrogeochemistry, palaeo-climatology and geothermal mineralization. Hydrogeochemical mineralization is the key process.. (authors)

  20. tectonic environments and rare metal mineralization in pegmatites of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    The discrimination diagrams: Rb versus Nb +Y and Nb versus Y, and Th/Ta ratio combined with field observations and empirical information from the literature were used to infer the tectonic environments and sources of the rare metal mineralization in the pegmatites of Komu area, southwestern Nigeria. The discrimination ...

  1. Geochronology and petrogenesis of the Qibaoshan Cu-polymetallic deposit, northeastern Hunan Province: Implications for the metal source and metallogenic evolution of the intracontinental Qinhang Cu-polymetallic belt, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shunda; Mao, Jingwen; Zhao, Panlao; Yuan, Yabin

    2018-03-01

    The recently recognized Qinhang metallogenic belt (QHMB) is an economically important intracontinental Mesozoic porphyry-skarn Cu-polymetallic metallogenic belt in South China. However, the origin of the ore-bearing magma and the major factors controlling the different metal assemblages in the QHMB are still unclear. The Qibaoshan deposit is a large Cu-Au-Pb-Zn-Ag-Fe deposit located at the juncture between the northern and central parts of the QHMB. In this study, new zircon U-Pb ages, Hf-O isotopic data, molybdenite Re-Os ages, and whole-rock geochemical data are combined to constrain the timing of the mineralization and the origin and petrogenesis of the ore-bearing porphyry in the Qibaoshan deposit. The ages obtained from both zircon U-Pb and molybdenite Re-Os dating fall in the Late Jurassic (between 152.7 and 148.3 Ma), revealing that this deposit is significantly younger than previously estimated (227-184 Ma). The Qibaoshan ore-bearing quartz porphyry shows variable negative zircon εHf(t) values (-14.8 to -5.5), high δ18O values (8.4 to 10.8‰), and high Mg# values (69.1 to 73.0), indicating that it formed via the partial melting of ancient crust triggered by the injection of mantle-derived magma. Zircon Hf-O isotopic modeling of the mixing of two extreme endmembers indicates that the magmatic source comprised 70-80% reworked ancient crustal components and 20-30% depleted mantle components. Based on comparisons with other ore-bearing porphyries in the QHMB, a magmatic source dominated by crust-derived material and relatively low oxygen fugacities (ΔFMQ -1.8 to ΔFMQ +0.8) was responsible for the high (Pb + Zn)/Cu ratio in the Qibaoshan deposit, and the Pb, Zn and Ag were mainly derived from the reworked ancient crust. Although four analyses of inherited Neoproterozoic zircons ( 800 Ma) have variable positive εHf(t) values (0.72 to 11.21), indicating that Neoproterozoic juvenile crust was involved in the formation of the Qibaoshan ore-bearing quartz

  2. Dynamic modelling of atmospherically-deposited Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in Pennine catchments (northern England)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tipping, E.; Rothwell, J.J.; Shotbolt, L.; Lawlor, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Simulation modelling with CHUM-AM was carried out to investigate the accumulation and release of atmospherically-deposited heavy metals (Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) in six moorland catchments, five with organic-rich soils, one with calcareous brown earths, in the Pennine chain of northern England. The model considers two soil layers and a third layer of weathering mineral matter, and operates on a yearly timestep, driven by deposition scenarios covering the period 1400-2010. The principal processes controlling heavy metals are competitive solid-solution partitioning of solutes, chemical interactions in solution, and chemical weathering. Agreement between observed and simulated soil metal pools and surface water concentrations for recent years was generally satisfactory, the results confirming that most contemporary soil metal is from atmospheric pollution. Metals in catchments with organic-rich soils show some mobility, especially under more acid conditions, but the calcareous mineral soils have retained nearly all anthropogenic metal inputs. Complexation by dissolved organic matter and co-transport accounts for up to 80% of the Cu in surface waters. - CHUM-AM is applied to six differing moorland catchments to account for the accumulation and leaching of atmospherically-deposited trace metals over the past several centuries.

  3. Dynamic modelling of atmospherically-deposited Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in Pennine catchments (northern England)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tipping, E., E-mail: et@ceh.ac.u [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Rothwell, J.J. [Upland Environments Research Unit, School of Environment and Development, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Shotbolt, L. [Geography Department, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Lawlor, A.J. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    Simulation modelling with CHUM-AM was carried out to investigate the accumulation and release of atmospherically-deposited heavy metals (Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) in six moorland catchments, five with organic-rich soils, one with calcareous brown earths, in the Pennine chain of northern England. The model considers two soil layers and a third layer of weathering mineral matter, and operates on a yearly timestep, driven by deposition scenarios covering the period 1400-2010. The principal processes controlling heavy metals are competitive solid-solution partitioning of solutes, chemical interactions in solution, and chemical weathering. Agreement between observed and simulated soil metal pools and surface water concentrations for recent years was generally satisfactory, the results confirming that most contemporary soil metal is from atmospheric pollution. Metals in catchments with organic-rich soils show some mobility, especially under more acid conditions, but the calcareous mineral soils have retained nearly all anthropogenic metal inputs. Complexation by dissolved organic matter and co-transport accounts for up to 80% of the Cu in surface waters. - CHUM-AM is applied to six differing moorland catchments to account for the accumulation and leaching of atmospherically-deposited trace metals over the past several centuries.

  4. Evaluation of calcium, magnesium, zinc, aluminum and manganese deposition in bones and CNS of rats fed calcium-deficient diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasui, Masayuki; Ota, Kiichiro; Sasajima, Kazuhisa; Iwata, Shiro.

    1994-01-01

    The long term intake of unbalanced mineral diets has been reported to be one of the pathogenetic factors of central nervous system (CNS) degeneration, and the unbalanced mineral distribution in the bones clinically is expressed as a metabolic bone disorder or deposition of neurotoxic minerals/metals. The unbalanced mineral or metal diets in animals provoke the unbalanced mineral distribution in bones and soft tissues. In this study, the calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn), aluminum (Al) and manganese (Mn) contents in the CNS and the bones of rats maintained on unbalanced mineral diets were analyzed to investigate the roles of bone on CNS degeneration. Male Wistar rats were maintained for 90 days on the following diets: (A) standard diet, (B) low Ca diet, (C) low Ca-Mg diet, (D) low Ca-Mg diet with high Al. Al and Mn contents were determined in the frontal cortex, spinal cord, lumbar spine and femur using inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICP) for Ca, Mg and Zn, and neutron activation analysis (NAA) for Al and Mn. Intake of low Ca and Mg with added Al in rats led to the abnormal distribution of metals or minerals in the bones and in the CNS. These results illustrate that unbalanced mineral diets and metal-metal interactions may lead to the irregular deposition of Al and Mn in the bones and ultimately in the CNS, thus inducing CNS degeneration. (author)

  5. Modeling film uniformity and symmetry in ionized metal physical vapor deposition with cylindrical targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Junqing; Yang Lin; Yoon, Jae Hong; Cho, Tong Yul; Tao Guoqing

    2008-01-01

    Severe asymmetry of the metal deposits on the trench sidewalls occurs near the wafer edge during low pressure ionized metal physical vapor deposition of Cu seed layer for microprocessor interconnects. To investigate this process and mitigate the asymmetry, an analytical view factor model based on the analogy between metal sputtering and diffuse thermal radiation was constructed to investigate deposition uniformity and symmetry for cylindrical target sputtering in low pressure (below 0.1 Pa) ionized Cu physical vapor deposition. The model predictions indicate that as the distance from the cylindrical target to wafer increases, the metal film thickness becomes more uniform across the wafer and the asymmetry of the metal deposits at the wafer edge increases significantly. These trends are similar to those for planar targets. To minimize the asymmetry, the height of the cylindrical target should be kept at a minimum. For cylindrical targets, the outward-facing sidewall of the trench could receive more direct Cu fluxes than the inward-facing one when the target to wafer distance is short. The predictions also indicate that increasing the diameter of the cylindrical target could significantly reduce the asymmetry in metal deposits at the wafer edge and make the film thickness more uniform across the wafer

  6. The distribution of E-centres concentration in the minerals of the wall-rocks of uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kislyakov, Ya.M.; Moiseev, B.M.; Rakov, L.T.; Kulagin, Eh.G.

    1975-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance was used to investigate the distribution of electron-hole centres caused by natural radioactive irradiation in terrigenous arcosic rocks and their principal mineral components (quartz-feldspar concretions, white and smoky quartz, feldspars). The relationship between concentrations of E-centres and the uranium content of the rocks reflects the genetic features of the uranium mineralization. Taking one specific deposit as an example, the author shows the proportional dependence between uranium content and E-centre concentration. The dependence reflects the practically simultraneous formation of the main mass of epigenetic mineralization. The hypothesis that older (syngenetic) ore deposits may have existed was not confirmed. Despite the long interval between sedimentary accumulation end epigenesis, no significant surplus concentrations of E-centres were found in epigenetic-metamorphic rocks. Anomalous concentrations of uranium and E-centres are caused by uranium migration during later epigenetic processes superimposed on the mesozoic ore-controlling zonality. One result of this migration is the formation in limonitized rocks of ''augen'' ores for which low concentrations of paramagnetic centres are typical. For the study of the distribution of E-centres in rocks from uranium deposits, it is possible to use polymineral mixtures. For the proper interpratation of the data obtained, however, account must be taken of the sensitivity to irradiation of the various mineral components, particularly the various forms of quartz, which is the principal natural dosimeter. (E.G.)

  7. Geology, mineralization, geochemistry and petrology of intrusions in the Kuh Zar Au-Cu deposit, Damghan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payam Roohbakhsh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Kuh Zar Au-Cu deposit is located in the central part of the Torud-Chah Shirin Volcanic-Plutonic Belt, 100 km southeast of the city of Damghan. Mineralization including quartz-base metal veins are common throughout this Cenozoic volcano-plutonic belt (Liaghat et al., 2008; Mehrabi and Ghasemi Siani, 2010. The major part of the study area is covered with Cenozoic pyroclastic and volcanic rocks that are intruded by subvolcanic rocks. This paper aims to study the geological, geochemical and petrogenesis of the area using exploration keys for new mineral deposits in the Torud-Chah Shirin zone. Materials and methods To better understand the geological units and identify the alteration zones of the area, 200 rock samples were collected from the field and 132 thin sections with 15 polished thin sections were prepared for petrography and mineralization studies. Ten samples of intrusions with the least alteration were analyzed using the XRF at the East Amethyst Laboratory in Mashhad, Iran. These samples were also analyzed for trace and rare earth elements using ICP-MS, following a lithium metaborate/tetraborate fusion in the Acme Analytical Laboratories Ltd, Vancouver, Canada. 137 geochemistry samples were prepared by the chip composite method of alteration and mineralization zones and were analyzed in the Acme laboratory by Aqua Regia AQ250. Results The geology of the area consists of pyroclastic (crystal tuff and volcanic rocks with andesite and latite composition, which were intruded by subvolcanic intrusive rocks with porphyritic texture and monzonitic composition. Monzonite rocks were intruded by younger subvolcanic units with dioritic composition. The intrusion of monzonitic pluton and stocks led to the formation of QSP, propylitic, carbonate and silicification-tourmaline broad alteration zones in the area. Monzonite rocks accompanied with disseminated mineralization of about 1 to 10% of pyrite and these sulfides have been converted to

  8. Sedimentology and economic potential of a storm-derived heavy-mineral deposit in the Witteberg group, Cape Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, D I; Labuschagne, L S

    1982-06-01

    Two heavy-mineral-bearing, very fine-grained sandstone beds occur in the upper part of the Weltevrede Formation of the Witteberg Group, 35 km east-north-east of Willowmore, Cape Province. The beds are located within a 10-m-thick stratigraphic interval approximately 100 m below the base of the Witpoort Formation. The beds are amalgamated and consist of up to 5 units, each representing deposition from a storm-surge ebb current. Nine samples taken from the upper bed and one from the lower were analysed for heavy-mineral content. In order of decreasing abundance the heavy-minerals are rutile, zircon, ilmenite, magnetite, monazite, staurolite and sphene. The zircon contains uranium and the monazite is thorium bearing. Simple linear regression analysis of three elements, three oxides, the heavy mineral fraction and the radiometric response indicate that the proportion of heavy minerals does not vary significantly between samples and that the radiometric response of the beds (determined with a portable gamma-ray scintillometer) is directly related to the heavy mineral content. The heavy minerals are concentrated in the upper 20 cm of each bed where deposition from suspension, during the final phase of storm activity, was predominant. Significant concentrations are limited to the upper bed.

  9. Sedimentology and economic potential of a storm-derived heavy-mineral deposit in the Witteberg group, Cape Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, D.I.; Labuschagne, L.S.

    1982-06-01

    Two heavy-mineral-bearing, very fine-grained sandstone beds occur in the upper part of the Weltevrede Formation of the Witteberg Group, 35 km east-north-east of Willowmore, Cape Province. The beds are located within a 10-m-thick stratigraphic interval approximately 100 m below the base of the Witpoort Formation. The beds are amalgamated and consist of up to 5 units, each representing deposition from a storm-surge ebb current. Nine samples taken from the upper bed and one from the lower were analysed for heavy-mineral content. In order of decreasing abundance the heavy-minerals are rutile, zircon, ilmenite, magnetite, monazite, staurolite and sphene. The zircon contains uranium and the monazite is thorium bearing. Simple linear regression analysis of three elements, three oxides, the heavy mineral fraction and the radiometric response indicate that the proportion of heavy minerals does not vary significantly between samples and that the radiometric response of the beds (determined with a portable gamma-ray scintillometer) is directly related to the heavy mineral content. The heavy minerals are concentrated in the upper 20 cm of each bed where deposition from suspension, during the final phase of storm activity, was predominant. Significant concentrations are limited to the upper bed

  10. Co-deposition of metallic actinides on a solid cathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limmer, S. J.; Williamson, M. A.; Willit, J. L. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne (United States)

    2008-08-15

    The amount of rare earth contamination that will be found in a co-deposit of actinides is a function of the type of cathode used. A non-alloying solid cathode will result in a significantly lower rare earth contamination in the actinide co-deposit than a liquid cadmium cathode. With proper control of the cathode potential vs. a stable reference electrode, co-deposition of uranium with other more electroactive metals has been demonstrated using a non-alloying solid cathode.

  11. Co-deposition of metallic actinides on a solid cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limmer, S. J.; Williamson, M. A.; Willit, J. L.

    2008-01-01

    The amount of rare earth contamination that will be found in a co-deposit of actinides is a function of the type of cathode used. A non-alloying solid cathode will result in a significantly lower rare earth contamination in the actinide co-deposit than a liquid cadmium cathode. With proper control of the cathode potential vs. a stable reference electrode, co-deposition of uranium with other more electroactive metals has been demonstrated using a non-alloying solid cathode

  12. Comparison of radiation detector performance for different metal contacts on CdZnTe deposited by electroless deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Q.; Dierre, F.; Crocco, J.; Bensalah, H.; Dieguez, E. [Crystal Growth Laboratory, Department of Materials Physics, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Ayoub, M. [Durham Scientific Crystals Laboratory, Netpark, Thomas Wright Way, Sedgefield, TS21, 3FD (United Kingdom); Corregidor, V.; Alves, E. [Unidade de Fisica e Aceleradores, LFI, ITN, E.N.10, 2686-953, Sacavem (Portugal); Fernandez-Ruiz, R. [Servicio Interdepartamental de Investigacion. Laboratorio de TXRF/Laue-XRD. Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Perez, J.M. [CIEMAT, Edificio 22, Avda Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-11-15

    A comparative study of four different metals gold (Au), platinum (Pt), ruthenium (Ru) and rhodium (Rh) deposited on CdZnTe(CZT) by the electroless deposition method has been carried out. Two of these materials, Ru and Rh, have been deposited for the first time by this method. In contrast to the Pt deposition, the deposition of Ru and Rh were not carried out under the optimal conditions. The metals deposited on the samples were identified by Total reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF). Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) analyses show that Au forms the thickest layer ({proportional_to}160 nm) for the experimental conditions of this work. Current-voltage measurements show that Pt forms a more linear ohmic contact with the lowest leakage current. A {sup 57}Co gamma ray spectrum gave a better detector performance with a FWHM 11 keV at 122 keV. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in the Copenhagen area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, A; Hovmand, M F; Johnsen, I

    1978-10-01

    Transport of heavy metals from the atmosphere to the soil and vegetation takes place by dust fall, bulk precipitation, and gas/aerosol adsorption processes. Atmospheric dry and wet deposition of the heavy metals lead, zinc, nickel, vanadium, iron, and copper over the Copenhagen area was measured by sampling in plastic funnels from 17 stations throughout the area for 12 months. Epigeic bryophytes, epiphytic lichen, and topsoil samples were analyzed. A linear correlation between bulk precipitation and heavy metal concentration in lichens and bryophytes was found. An exponential correlation between bulk precipitation and heavy metal concentration in soil was noted. Regional variation of the heavy metal levels in the Copenhagen area was described, and three sub-areas with high metal burdens were distinguished. (10 diagrams, 8 graphs, 13 references, 2 tables)

  14. Assessment of heavy metals in loose deposits in drinking water distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quanli; Han, Weiqiang; Han, Bingjun; Shu, Min; Shi, Baoyou

    2018-06-09

    Heavy metal accumulation and potential releases from loose deposits in drinking water distribution system (DWDS) can have critical impacts on drinking water safety, but the associated risks have not been sufficiently evaluated. In this work, the potential biological toxicity of heavy metals in loose deposits was calculated based on consensus-based sediment quality guidelines, and the effects of some of the main water quality parameters, such as the pH and bicarbonate and phosphate content, on the release behaviors of pre-accumulated heavy metals were investigated. The results showed that heavy metals (Cu, As, Cr, Pb, and Cd) significantly accumulated in all the samples, but the contents of the heavy metals were multiple magnitudes lower than the Fe and Mn contents. The potential biotoxicity of As and Cu was relatively high, but the biotoxicity of Cd was negligible. The water quality can significantly influence the release of heavy metals from loose deposits. As the pH increased from 7.0 to 9.0, the release of As and Cr obviously increased. The release of As, Cu, Pb, and Cr also accelerated with the addition of phosphate (from 1 to 5 mg/L). In contrast to the trends for the pH and phosphate, variations in the bicarbonate content did not have a significant influence on the release of As and Cr. The release ratios of heavy metals in the samples were very low, and there was not a correlation between the release rate of the heavy metals in the loose deposits and their potential biotoxicity.

  15. Fluid inclusion and noble gas studies of the Dongping gold deposit, Hebei Province, China: A mantle connection for mineralization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, J.; Li, Y.; Goldfarb, R.; He, Y.; Zaw, K.

    2003-01-01

    The Dongping gold deposit (>100 t Au) occurs about 200 km inboard of the northern margin of the North China craton. The deposit is mainly hosted by syenite of a middle Paleozoic alkalic intrusive complex that was emplaced into Late Archean basement rocks. Both groups of rocks are intruded by Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous crustal-melt granite dikes and stocks, some within a few kilometers of the deposit. The gold ores were deposited during this latter magmatic period at about 150 Ma, a time that was characterized by widespread regional north-south compression that formed the east-west-trending Yanshan deformational belt. The ores include both the telluride mineral-bearing, low sulfide quartz veins and the highly K-feldspar-altered syenite, with most of the resource concentrated in two orebodies (1 and 70). Fluid inclusion microthermometry indicates heterogeneous trapping of low-salinity (e.g., 5-7 wt % NaCl equiv) fluids that varied from a few to 60 mole percent nonaqueous volatile species. Laser Raman spectroscopy confirms that the vapor phase in these inclusions is dominated by CO2, but may be comprised of as much as 9 mole percent H2S and 20 mole percent N2; methane concentrations in the vapor phase are consistently interaction of ore fluids with surrounding crustal rocks, which may have contributed additional He to the fluids. A mantle source for at least some of the components of the gold-forming fluid is consistent with upwelling of hot asthenosphere and erosion of as much as 100 to 150 km of cool Archean lithosphere beneath the craton during this time. The Dongping deposit is located along the 100-km-wide north-south gravity lineament, which marks the western border of the thinned crust. As both regional metamorphism of Mesoproterozoic and younger cover rocks, and widespread granite magmatism, also occurred at ca. 150 Ma, it is unclear as to whether one or both of these also contributed fluid and/or metals to the hydrothermal system. Importantly, these

  16. Effect of pH change on the primary uran-mica mineralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shmariovich, E M; Zhil' tsova, I G; Pakul' nis, G V; Shugina, G A [Ministerstvo Geologii SSR, Moscow

    1982-01-01

    Conditions of the formation of ore bodies of hexavalent uranium minerals represented by uranyl vanadates and phosphates which are primary and sedimented from low temperature solutions (carnotite deposits in calcretes and carnotite - autunite deposits in black shale formations) are considered. Thermodynamic curves of the solubility dependence of various uranyl minerals on pH medium in the absence of SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ and CO/sub 3//sup 2 -/ ions and for sulphate-carbonate solutions have been calculated using dissociation constants of corresponding acids and ..delta..G/sup 0/f(298.15) values. It has been ascertained that uranyl mineral compounds according to the dependence of their solubility on ph medium form a distinct series from molybdates through arsenates, phosphates, vanadates and silicates to minerals of uranophane and kasolite group. It is shown that during the formation of infiltration deposits with uranyl mineralization a decisive role is played by the contrast change of pH value of medium caused by the presence of acid geochemical barrier (uranyl molybdates, arsenates, phosphates and vanadates are precipitating) or neutralizing alkaline barriers (uran-mica and uranyl silicates are precipitating) on the path of movement of oxygen metal-bearing solutions.

  17. Deposition and characterization of noble metal onto surfaces of 304l stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras R, A.; Arganis J, C. R.; Aguilar T, J. A.; Medina A, A. L.

    2010-10-01

    Noble metal chemical addition (NMCA) plus hydrogen water chemistry is an industry-wide accepted approach for potential intergranular stress corrosion cracking mitigation of BWR internals components. NMCA is a method of applying noble metal onto BWR internals surfaces using reactor water as the transport medium that causes the deposition of noble metal from the liquid onto surfaces. In this work different platinum concentration solutions were deposited onto pre-oxidized surfaces of 304l steel at 180 C during 48 hr in an autoclave. In order to simulate the zinc water conditions, deposits of Zn and Pt-Zn were also carried out. The solutions used to obtain the deposits were: sodium hexahydroxyplatinate (IV), zinc nitrate hydrate and zinc oxide. The deposits obtained were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Finally, the electrochemical corrosion potential of pre-oxidized samples with Pt deposit were obtained and compared with the electrochemical corrosion potential of only pre-oxidized samples. (Author)

  18. Volcanic Metal Emissions and Implications for Geochemical Cycling and Mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, M.; Mather, T. A.

    2016-12-01

    Volcanoes emit substantial fluxes of metals to the atmosphere in volcanic gas plumes in the form of aerosol, adsorbed onto silicate particles and even in some cases as gases.. A huge database of metal emissions has been built over the preceding decades, which shows that volcanoes emit highly volatile metals into the atmosphere, such as As, Bi, Cd, Hg, Re, Se, Tl, among others. Understanding the cycling of metals through the Solid Earth system has importance for tackling a wide range of Earth Science problems, e.g. (1) the environmental impacts of metal emissions; (2) the sulfur and metal emissions of volcanic eruptions; (3) the behavior of metals during subduction and slab devolatilization; (4) the influence of redox on metal behavior in subduction zones; (5) the partitioning of metals between magmatic vapor, brines and melts; and (6) the relationships between volcanism and ore deposit formation. It is clear, when comparing the metal composition and flux in the gases and aerosols emitted from volcanoes, that they vary with tectonic setting. These differences allow insights into how the magmatic vapor was generated and how it interacted with melts and sulfides during magma differentiation and decompression. Hotspot volcanoes (e.g. Kilauea, Hawaii; volcanoes in Iceland) outgas a metal suite that mirrors the sulfide liquid-silicate melt partitioning behaviors reconstructed from experiments (as far as they are known), suggesting that the aqueous fluids (that will later be outgassed from the volcano) receive metals directly from oxidation of sulfide liquids during degassing and ascent of magmas towards the surface. At arc volcanoes, the gaseous fluxes of metals are typically much higher; and there are greater enrichments in elements that partition strongly into vapor or brine from silicate melts such as Cu, Au, Zn, Pb, W. We collate and present data on volcanic metal emissions from volcanoes worldwide and review the implications of the data array for metal cycling

  19. Current knowledge of US metal and nonmetal miner health: Current and potential data sources for analysis of miner health status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeoman, K. M.; Halldin, C. N.; Wood, J.; Storey, E.; Johns, D.; Laney, A. S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Little is known about the current health status of US metal and nonmetal (MNM) miners, in part because no health surveillance systems exist for this population. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is developing a program to characterize burden of disease among MNM miners. This report discusses current knowledge and potential data sources of MNM miner health. Recent national surveys were analyzed, and literature specific to MNM miner health status was reviewed. No robust estimates of disease prevalence were identified, and national surveys did not provide information specific to MNM miners. Because substantial gaps exist in the understanding of MNM miners' current health status, NIOSH plans to develop a health surveillance program for this population to guide intervention efforts to reduce occupational and personal risks for chronic illness. PMID:25658684

  20. Perspectives of natural isotopes application for solving hydrogeological problems of mineral deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozkowski, A.

    1978-01-01

    Results of hydrogeological studies made with use of natural isotopes and carried out within the Lublin Coal Field are presented in the paper. The studies have proved advantageous possibilities of isotope technique application for solving the hydrogeological problems of mineral deposits. Examination of isotope relations in ground waters complements traditional hydrogeological methods. This trend of complex investigations enables solving some peculiar hydrodynamic and hydrochemical problems. Exact recognition of these conditions is required to elaborate out proper prognosis on water content degree in given deposit and on value of ground water inflow into areas of designed mines. (author)

  1. Electrochemically induced maskless metal deposition on micropore wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Hébert, Clément; Pham, Pascale; Sauter-Starace, Fabien; Haguet, Vincent; Livache, Thierry; Mailley, Pascal

    2012-05-07

    By applying an external electric field across a micropore via an electrolyte, metal ions in the electrolyte can be reduced locally onto the inner wall of the micropore, which was fabricated in a silica-covered silicon membrane. This maskless metal deposition on the silica surface is a result of the pore membrane polarization in the electric field. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Au-As (lead) vein mineralizations of the Cevennes and Chataigneraie regions (French Massif Central). Isotopic characterization (Pb). Mineralizing role of granites in the setting up of these mineralizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havard, M.L.

    1997-06-01

    This work has been carried out in the Frame of the national program 'Geofrance 3D' jointly organized by the French office for geologic and mining researches (BRGM), and the CNRS-INSU/DSPT3. Its aim is the study of the formation of gold-bearing mineralizations of the Variscan chain in the Cevennes and Chataigneraie regions (French Massif Central). In the Cevennes region, the gold-bearing veins are linked with the intrusion of the late-tectonic granodioritic plutons. The aim of this study is to determine the chronology of the mineralizing episodes and to analyze the relationship between the metal concentrates and the setting up of the granites. In the Chataigneraie region, the granites are intrusive in ortho- and para-gneiss series. The hydrothermal activity associated with the contact metamorphism should be responsible for the deposition of gold-bearing wolfram mineralization. The geochemistry of lead isotopes is used to determine the origin of metals in the sulfide mineralizations. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used for the visualization of the microstructure heterogeneities of the minerals and for the quantitative chemical analysis of their successive para-geneses. The comparison between the results obtained in both regions allows to make a difference between their relative degree of erosion and their gold potentialities. (J.S.)

  3. Effects of metals on vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Press, N P

    1972-01-01

    Prospectors have long known that abnormal concentrations of metals in the soil overlying an ore deposit can affect the vegetation rooting in this soil; mineral deposits have even been discovered because of such vegetation changes. Recently, many people have become interested in the possibility of remote sensing such vegetation changes, and perhaps using the results in conjunction with airborne geophysics and photogeological interpretation in integrated prospecting programs.

  4. Magnetron target designs to improve wafer edge trench filling in ionized metal physical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Junqing; Yoon, Jae-Hong; Shin, Keesam; Park, Bong-Gyu; Yang Lin

    2006-01-01

    Severe asymmetry of the metal deposits on the trench sidewalls occurs near the wafer edge during low pressure ionized metal physical vapor deposition of Cu seed layer for microprocessor interconnects. To investigate this process and mitigate the asymmetry, an analytical view factor model based on the analogy between metal sputtering and diffuse thermal radiation was constructed. The model was validated based on the agreement between the model predictions and the reported experimental values for the asymmetric metal deposition at trench sidewalls near the wafer edge for a 200 mm wafer. This model could predict the thickness of the metal deposits across the wafer, the symmetry of the deposits on the trench sidewalls at any wafer location, and the angular distributions of the metal fluxes arriving at any wafer location. The model predictions for the 300 mm wafer indicate that as the target-to-wafer distance is shortened, the deposit thickness increases and the asymmetry decreases, however the overall uniformity decreases. Up to reasonable limits, increasing the target size and the sputtering intensity for the outer target portion significantly improves the uniformity across the wafer and the symmetry on the trench sidewalls near the wafer edge

  5. Precious metal-bearing epithermal deposits in western Patagonia (NE Lago Fontana region), Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanfranchini, Mabel Elena; Etcheverry, Ricardo Oscar; de Barrio, Raúl Ernesto; Recio Hernández, Clemente

    2013-04-01

    Precious metal-bearing quartz veins occur at the northeastern sector of the Lago Fontana region in southwestern Argentina, within the context of the Andean continental magmatic arc environment. The deposits and their associated alteration zones are spatially related to a Cretaceous calc-alkaline magmatism represented by silicic dikes and hypabyssal intrusions, and hosted by a Late Jurassic to Cretaceous volcano-sedimentary sequence. The veins and related veinlets crop out discontinuously, in general terms in a NW-SE belt. The primary vein mineral assemblage is composed mostly of pyrite ± galena ± chalcopyrite > hematite ± arsenopyrite in silica gangue minerals. Chemical analyses of grab samples from selected quartz veins show as much as 5.7 ppm Au and 224 ppm Ag, as well as elevated Pb, Cu, and Zn. Hydrothermal fluids caused an innermost silicification and adularia-sericite alteration assemblage, and an external propylitic halo. Sulfur isotope values measured for sulfides (δSS from -1.90 to +1.56‰), and oxygen and hydrogen isotopes measured on quartz crystals and extracted primary fluid inclusion waters (δOO = -2.85 to +5.40‰; δDO = -106.0 to -103.4‰) indicate that mineralization probably formed from magmatic fluids, which were mixed with meteoric waters. Also, fluid inclusion data from quartz veins point out that these fluids had low salinity (1.7-4.2 wt% NaCl equiv.), and temperatures of homogenization between 180 and 325 °C. Mineralogical, petrographic and geochemical features for mineralized surface exposures indicate a typical adularia-sericite, low sulfidation epithermal system in the Lago Fontana area that represents a promising target for further exploration programs.

  6. Re-Os dating on pyrite and metal sources tracing in porphyry-type and neutral epithermal deposits: example of the Bolcana, Troita and Magura deposits, Apuseni Mountains, Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardon, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    Many porphyry-type (Cu-Au) and neutral epithermal (Pb-Zn and Au ± Ag) ore deposits are encountered in the region of the Apuseni Mountains, located at the foot of the Carpathian chain in the Western Romania. These deposits are related to a Neogene andesitic volcanism. In order to demonstrate possible genetic relationships between the porphyry-type and neutral epithermal deposits, the Bolcana porphyry has been investigated since it is surrounded by a number of epithermal low-sulfidation veins with a Pb-Zn ± Au mineralisation. These veins are currently mined at the Troita and Magura sites. A structural analysis and a 3D modelling pf these deposits indicate that the geometry and orientation of fractures and mineralized vein are consistent both with direction of regional extension and with a NW-SE progression of the different andesitic intrusions. In order to establish precisely the temporal relationship between the different ore deposits, a Re-Os dating method has been developed and applied on pyrite which is ubiquitous in all of the deposits. This method enabled us to assign an age of 10.9 ± 1.9 Ma for the porphyry-hosted mineralization. The ages obtained for the epithermal systems are somewhat approximative as perturbations of the Re-Os system are observed for these environments. A fractionation of rhenium responsible for a significant enrichment in this element for the apical zone of the porphyry has been demonstrated. This enrichment is most probably related to a maximum boiling event, which may also explain a similar enrichment in arsenic for the pyrite in the same zone. The sources for the metals have been characterized at the district scale by combining two isotopic systems (Re-Os and Pb-Pb) on both pyrite and galena. The osmium data indicate that the Troita deposit has composition which is similar to that of the Bolcana porphyry. In contrast the results obtained for the Magura deposits indicate the Re-OS system has in this case been perturbed due to a

  7. ELECTROCATALYSIS ON SURFACES MODIFIED BY METAL MONOLAYERS DEPOSITED AT UNDERPOTENTIALS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ADZIC,R.

    2000-12-01

    The remarkable catalytic properties of electrode surfaces modified by monolayer amounts of metal adatoms obtained by underpotential deposition (UPD) have been the subject of a large number of studies during the last couple of decades. This interest stems from the possibility of implementing strictly surface modifications of electrocatalysts in an elegant, well-controlled way, and these bi-metallic surfaces can serve as models for the design of new catalysts. In addition, some of these systems may have potential for practical applications. The UPD of metals, which in general involves the deposition of up to a monolayer of metal on a foreign substrate at potentials positive to the reversible thermodynamic potential, facilitates this type of surface modification, which can be performed repeatedly by potential control. Recent studies of these surfaces and their catalytic properties by new in situ surface structure sensitive techniques have greatly improved the understanding of these systems.

  8. Reaction factors for photo-electrochemical deposition of metal silver on polypyrrole as conducting polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakita, Jin; Boter, Jelmer M.; Shova, Neupane; Fujihira, Hiroshi; Chikyow, Toyohiro

    2015-01-01

    Composite of metal and conducting polymer is expected for electrical application by the use of their advantages. For improvement of the composite’s characteristics, it is important to control formation rate and structure of the composites obtained by simultaneous metal deposition and polymerization under photo irradiation. The purpose of this research was to reveal the effects of UV irradiation and dopant type for conducting polymer on photo-electrochemical deposition of metal. Cathodic polarization curves for silver deposition on polypyrrole doped with different types of anion at different intensity of the UV light were compared. Deposited particles were evaluated by the statistical analysis. The experimental results showed that silver deposition on polypyrrole was enhanced by UV introduction and depended on the dopant type.

  9. Inorganic-Organic Coating via Molecular Layer Deposition Enables Long Life Sodium Metal Anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Goncharova, Lyudmila V; Zhang, Qian; Kaghazchi, Payam; Sun, Qian; Lushington, Andrew; Wang, Biqiong; Li, Ruying; Sun, Xueliang

    2017-09-13

    Metallic Na anode is considered as a promising alternative candidate for Na ion batteries (NIBs) and Na metal batteries (NMBs) due to its high specific capacity, and low potential. However, the unstable solid electrolyte interphase layer caused by serious corrosion and reaction in electrolyte will lead to big challenges, including dendrite growth, low Coulombic efficiency and even safety issues. In this paper, we first demonstrate the inorganic-organic coating via advanced molecular layer deposition (alucone) as a protective layer for metallic Na anode. By protecting Na anode with controllable alucone layer, the dendrites and mossy Na formation have been effectively suppressed and the lifetime has been significantly improved. Moreover, the molecular layer deposition alucone coating shows better performances than the atomic layer deposition Al 2 O 3 coating. The novel design of molecular layer deposition protected Na metal anode may bring in new opportunities to the realization of the next-generation high energy-density NIBs and NMBs.

  10. Metal-rich fluid inclusions provide new insights into unconformity-related U deposits (Athabasca Basin and Basement, Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Antonin; Cathelineau, Michel; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Mercadier, Julien; Banks, David A.; Cuney, Michel

    2016-02-01

    The Paleoproterozoic Athabasca Basin (Canada) hosts numerous giant unconformity-related uranium deposits. The scope of this study is to establish the pressure, temperature, and composition (P-T-X conditions) of the brines that circulated at the base of the Athabasca Basin and in its crystalline basement before, during and after UO2 deposition. These brines are commonly sampled as fluid inclusions in quartz- and dolomite-cementing veins and breccias associated with alteration and U mineralization. Microthermometry and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) data from five deposits (Rabbit Lake, P-Patch, Eagle Point, Millennium, and Shea Creek) complement previously published data for the McArthur River deposit. In all of the deposits investigated, fluid inclusion salinity is between 25 and 40 wt.% NaCl equiv., with compositions displaying a continuum between a "NaCl-rich brine" end-member (Cl > Na > Ca > Mg > K) and a "CaCl2-rich brine" end-member (Cl > Ca ≈ Mg > Na > K). The CaCl2-rich brine has the highest salinity and shows evidence for halite saturation at the time of trapping. The continuum of compositions between the NaCl-rich brine and the CaCl2-rich brine end-members combined with P-T reconstructions suggest anisothermal mixing of the two brines (NaCl-rich brine, 180 ± 30 °C and 800 ± 400 bars; CaCl2-rich brine, 120 ± 30 °C and 600 ± 300 bars) that occurred under fluctuating pressure conditions (hydrostatic to supra-hydrostatic). However, because the two brines were U bearing and therefore oxidized, brine mixing was probably not the driving force for UO2 deposition. Several scenarios are put forward to account for the Cl-Na-Ca-Mg-K composition of the brines, involving combinations of seawater evaporation, halite dissolution, mixing with a halite-dissolution brine, Mg/Ca exchange by dolomitization, Na/Ca exchange by albitization of plagioclase, Na/K exchange by albitization of K-feldspar, and Mg loss by Mg

  11. Professional illnesses in miners caused by heavy metals and toxic substances

    OpenAIRE

    Veličkova N.; Petrova B.

    2013-01-01

    The exposure of humans in an environment contaminated with heavy metals is associated with many diseases, characterized by pathological changes in the respiratory tract, lung function deterioration. The results of the research, conducted with miners working in the “Sasa” lead and zinc mine, were focused on validating the existing professional risk. Most affected are the miners engaged in drilling head and ore. Disease was verified by analysis of acute symptoms. According to the time of ...

  12. Mercury isotope constraints on the source for sediment-hosted lead-zinc deposits in the Changdu area, southwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chunxia; Yin, Runsheng; Peng, Jiantang; Hurley, James P.; Lepak, Ryan F.; Gao, Jianfeng; Feng, Xinbin; Hu, Ruizhong; Bi, Xianwu

    2018-03-01

    The Lanuoma and Cuona sediment-hosted Pb-Zn deposits hosted by Upper Triassic limestone and sandstone, respectively, are located in the Changdu area, SW China. Mercury concentrations and Hg isotopic compositions from sulfide minerals and potential source rocks (e.g., the host sedimentary rocks and the metamorphic basement) were investigated to constrain metal sources and mineralization processes. In both deposits, sulfide minerals have higher mercury (Hg) concentrations (0.35 to 1185 ppm) than the metamorphic basement rocks (0.05 to 0.15 ppm) and sedimentary rocks (0.02 to 0.08 ppm). Large variations of mass-dependent fractionation (3.3‰ in δ202Hg) and mass-independent fractionation (0.3‰ in Δ199Hg) of Hg isotopes were observed. Sulfide minerals have Hg isotope signatures that are similar to the hydrothermal altered rocks around the deposit, and similar to the metamorphic basement, but different from barren sedimentary rocks. The variation of Δ199Hg suggests that Hg in sulfides was mainly derived from the underlying metamorphic basement. Mercury isotopes could be a geochemical tracer in understanding metal sources in hydrothermal ore deposits.

  13. Magmatic-vapor expansion and the formation of high-sulfidation gold deposits: Chemical controls on alteration and mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, R.W.; Berger, B.R.

    2011-01-01

    Large bulk-tonnage high-sulfidation gold deposits, such as Yanacocha, Peru, are the surface expression of structurally-controlled lode gold deposits, such as El Indio, Chile. Both formed in active andesite-dacite volcanic terranes. Fluid inclusion, stable isotope and geologic data show that lode deposits formed within 1500. m of the paleo-surface as a consequence of the expansion of low-salinity, low-density magmatic vapor with very limited, if any, groundwater mixing. They are characterized by an initial 'Sulfate' Stage of advanced argillic wallrock alteration ?? alunite commonly with intense silicification followed by a 'Sulfide' Stage - a succession of discrete sulfide-sulfosalt veins that may be ore grade in gold and silver. Fluid inclusions in quartz formed during wallrock alteration have homogenization temperatures between 100 and over 500 ??C and preserve a record of a vapor-rich environment. Recent data for El Indio and similar deposits show that at the commencement of the Sulfide Stage, 'condensation' of Cu-As-S sulfosalt melts with trace concentrations of Sb, Te, Bi, Ag and Au occurred at > 600 ??C following pyrite deposition. Euhedral quartz crystals were simultaneously deposited from the vapor phase during crystallization of the vapor-saturated melt occurs to Fe-tennantite with progressive non-equilibrium fractionation of heavy metals between melt-vapor and solid. Vugs containing a range of sulfides, sulfosalts and gold record the changing composition of the vapor. Published fluid inclusion and mineralogical data are reviewed in the context of geological relationships to establish boundary conditions through which to trace the expansion of magmatic vapor from source to surface and consequent alteration and mineralization. Initially heat loss from the vapor is high resulting in the formation of acid condensate permeating through the wallrock. This Sulfate Stage alteration effectively isolates the expansion of magmatic vapor in subsurface fracture arrays

  14. Variations in the mineral composition and heavy metals content of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Babayemi

    The parts of Moringa oleifera were assessed for mineral composition and some heavy metal ... cadmium from aqueous system (Sharma et al., 2006). ... Crude extracts and essential oil from M. oleifera possess ... into some probable chemical interactions between the .... processing methods that may lead to detoxification and.

  15. Flood deposits and their heavy metal load - example of the Neckar river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellmann, H.

    1993-01-01

    Flood deposits may develop from suspended solids under certain conditions, e.g. after the passage of a flood wave. Depending on the origin of the suspended material, the heavy metal load in these deposits varies considerably. Recent sediments deposited in the Neckar waterway after the flood of February/March 1990 are taken as an example to explain that it is necessary to consider the contamination load in relation to the grain size of the material. To this end, the heavy metal contents of the fine grain fraction (grain diameter [de

  16. 3&4D Geomodeling Applied to Mineral Resources Exploration - A New Tool for Targeting Deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Jean-Jacques; Mejia, Pablo; Caumon, Guillaume; Collon-Drouaillet, Pauline

    2013-04-01

    3 & 4D geomodeling, a computer method for reconstituting the past deformation history of geological formations, has been used in oil and gas exploration for more than a decade for reconstituting fluid migration. It begins nowadays to be applied for exploring with new eyes old mature mining fields and new prospects. We describe shortly the 3&4D geomodeling basic notions, concepts, and methodology when applied to mineral resources assessment and modeling ore deposits, pointing out the advantages, recommendations and limitations, together with new challenges they rise. Several 3D GeoModels of mining explorations selected across Europe will be presented as illustrative case studies which have been achieved during the EU FP7 ProMine research project. It includes: (i) the Cu-Au porphyry deposits in the Hellenic Belt (Greece); (ii) the VMS in the Iberian Pyrite Belt including the Neves Corvo deposit (Portugal) and (iii) the sediment-hosted polymetallic Cu-Ag (Au, PGE) Kupferschiefer ore deposit in the Foresudetic Belt (Poland). In each case full 3D models using surfaces and regular grid (Sgrid) were built from all dataset available from exploration and exploitation including geological primary maps, 2D seismic cross-sections, and boreholes. The level of knowledge may differ from one site to another however those 3D resulting models were used to pilot additional field and exploration works. In the case of the Kupferschiefer, a sequential restoration-decompaction (4D geomodeling) from the Upper Permian to Cenozoic was conducted in the Lubin- Sieroszowice district of Poland. The results help in better understanding the various superimposed mineralization events which occurred through time in this copper deposit. A hydro-fracturing index was then calculated from the estimated overpressures during a Late Cretaceous-Early Paleocene up-lifting, and seems to correlate with the copper content distribution in the ore-series. These results are in agreement with an Early Paleocene

  17. A comment on the metallogenic theory of exogenetic uranium ore deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaodong; Yu Dagan

    2010-01-01

    The theory of exogenetic sandstone-type uranium followed the form process of construction in the early time, and discussed the uranium metallization by chemical enrichment during the phase of syn-deposition and diagenesis. Later, the epigenetic theory was put forward by emphasizing hydrodynamic influence on mineralization. The idea of uranium mineralization in open systems is a renovated metallogenic theory for uranium, which confirms the role of exogenesis playing in uranium mineralization. For open systems, this paper underlines that, as the most critical factors for uranium mineralization, both uranium sources and reduce agents should be open to form a dual-open system. Uranium ore deposits in the tectonic zone of eastern China formed in dual-open system, where uranium has been associated with coal, petroleum and natural gas in the sandstone sequence. (authors)

  18. Using geoelectrochemical technique to extract uranium and other metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yulong

    1990-10-01

    The geoelectrochemical extraction technique, which is a direct deep exploring method, is one of the geoelectrochemical exploring methods. It is developed recently to explore basic metals, precious metals, rare metals and some nonmetal mineral products. It is also a combination of electrical surveying and geochemical surveying. This method is more useful in the seeking of gold ore deposit. The principle and technique of this method and the results in seeking gold, uranium, lead, nickel and tin ore deposits are introduced. The equipment and instruments used in this method are also given

  19. Microorganisms in the deposits of cold carbon mineral waters of the Russian Far East and their habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalitina, E. G.; Kharitonova, N. A.; Kuzmina, T. V.; Chelnokov, G. A.

    2018-01-01

    Study of the chemical composition of carbon mineral waters has shown the prevalence of calcium, magnesium and sodium among the cations, sulfate, nitrate and chloride ions among the anions, and ferric iron, strontium and manganese in the microelement composition. Results of the microbiological studies have revealed that carbon mineral waters contain various microorganisms that can transform the physical and chemical composition of mineral waters by interfering with geochemical cycles. The sanitary and microbiological properties of carbon mineral waters have been evaluated thus proving that the waters of Medvezhii (Shmakovskoe deposit) are microbiologically clean.

  20. Advances in microbial leaching processes for nickel extraction from lateritic minerals - A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behra, Sunil Kumar; Mulaba-Bafubiandi, Antoine Floribert

    2015-01-01

    Lateritic nickel minerals constitute about 80% of nickel reserves in the world, but their contribution for nickel production is about 40%. The obstacles in extraction of nickel from lateritic minerals are attributed to their very complex mineralogy and low nickel content. Hence, the existing metallurgical techniques are not techno-economically feasible and environmentally sustainable for processing of such complex deposits. At this juncture, microbial mineral processing could be a benevolent approach for processing of lateritic minerals in favor of nickel extraction. The microbial mineral processing route offers many advantages over conventional metallurgical methods as the process is operated under ambient conditions and requires low energy input; thus these processes are relatively simple and environment friendly. Microbial processing of the lateritic deposits still needs improvement to make it industrially viable. Microorganisms play the pivotal role in mineral bio-processing as they catalyze the extraction of metals from minerals. So it is inevitable to explore the physiological and bio-molecular mechanisms involved in this microbe-mineral interaction. The present article offers comprehensive information about the advances in microbial processes for extraction of nickel from laterites.

  1. Advances in microbial leaching processes for nickel extraction from lateritic minerals - A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behra, Sunil Kumar; Mulaba-Bafubiandi, Antoine Floribert [Faculty of Engineering and the Built Environment, University of Johannesburg, (South Africa)

    2015-08-15

    Lateritic nickel minerals constitute about 80% of nickel reserves in the world, but their contribution for nickel production is about 40%. The obstacles in extraction of nickel from lateritic minerals are attributed to their very complex mineralogy and low nickel content. Hence, the existing metallurgical techniques are not techno-economically feasible and environmentally sustainable for processing of such complex deposits. At this juncture, microbial mineral processing could be a benevolent approach for processing of lateritic minerals in favor of nickel extraction. The microbial mineral processing route offers many advantages over conventional metallurgical methods as the process is operated under ambient conditions and requires low energy input; thus these processes are relatively simple and environment friendly. Microbial processing of the lateritic deposits still needs improvement to make it industrially viable. Microorganisms play the pivotal role in mineral bio-processing as they catalyze the extraction of metals from minerals. So it is inevitable to explore the physiological and bio-molecular mechanisms involved in this microbe-mineral interaction. The present article offers comprehensive information about the advances in microbial processes for extraction of nickel from laterites.

  2. DELINEATION OF BOUNDARY CONTOURS OF MINERAL RAW MATERIALS WITHIN THE DEPOSIT SPACE CONSIDERING THE QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Tomašić

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of performed explorations, in the phase of deposit preparation and development for exploitation the obtained results regarding the raw material quality were transfered to the surface. The results served both for the development and planning of deposit excavation dynamics and for the delineation of boundary contours by mineral raw materials within the deposit space considering the quality, The case presented in the article refers to the marl and limestone open pit for the cement industry, the »Partizan« near Split (the paper is published in Croatian.

  3. Mineralization of alanine enantiomers in soil treated with heavy metals and nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Formánek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the determination of the effect of heavy metals and nutrients applied to the soil on alanine enatiomers mineralization with the main focus on evaluating the effect on L/D alanine respiration rate ratio. This study was initiated because previous research works revealed a change in L/D amino acid respiration under acid- or heavy metal-stress in soil. Generally, D-amino acids artificially supplied to soil are less utilized by microorganisms compared with their L-enantiomers. Stress of soil microorganisms cause decreased discrimination of D-amino acids utilization. Also, previous research showed that an application of fertilizers or combinations of fertilizers may affect the mineralization rate of L-amino acids differently, compared with their D-enantiomers. The results of this study show, that the effect of both heavy metals and nutrients on the L/D ratio was not clear, increasing or decreasing this ratio. Further research is necessary to broaden this study.

  4. Computing atmospheric transport and deposition of heavy metals over Europe: country budgets for 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartnicki, J.

    1996-01-01

    The Heavy Metal Eulerian Transport (HMET) model has been used to calculate the exchange of As, Cd, Pb and Zn between European countries in 1985. The model was run separately for each emitter country and the computed deposition field used to calculate the contribution of the emitter to each receptor country. The results of these computations are presented in the form of a country budget matrix for each metal. Accuracy of such computations depends on the size and linearity of the numerical method applied to the transport equation. Exchange of heavy metals due to atmospheric transport over Europe is significant. 30% to 90% of the heavy metals emitted from each country is deposited in other countries. The remaining mass is deposited in European seas, Atlantic Ocean and transported outside the model domain. The largest part of the emission from each country is deposited in the same country. The next largest fraction is transported to the nearest neighbours. A significant long range transport of heavy metals is to the Soviet Union. This is partly justified by the size and location of this receptor country, as well as the prevailing meteorological conditions in Europe. However, this large transport to USSR is slightly overestimated due to some artificial properties of the numerical method applied to basic model equations. Export versus import and emission versus deposition of metals were analyzed for each country. The largest positive difference between export and import was found for Poland, Germany and Yugoslavia (As, Cd and Zn), and United Kingdom, Italy and Belgium (Pb). The Soviet Union and Czechoslovakia are the countries where import of all metals is significantly larger than export. The Soviet Union has much higher emissions than deposition of all metals compared to other European countries. 38 refs., 5 figs., 13 tabs

  5. Mineral deposits research in Uruguay. Technical economic part; Investigacion de yacimientos de minerales en el Uruguay. Parte tecnico economica.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raabe, W

    1959-07-01

    Technical researches, mineralogical and chemical analysis were carried out in Zapucay and Iman deposit located in Uruguay south America, as a result of that, researchers was described the mineral adherences of the deposits.

  6. Textural, compositional, and sulfur isotope variations of sulfide minerals in the Red Dog Zn-Pb-Ag deposits, Brooks Range, Alaska: Implications for Ore Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, K.D.; Leach, D.L.; Johnson, C.A.; Clark, J.L.; Fayek, M.; Slack, J.F.; Anderson, V.M.; Ayuso, R.A.; Ridley, W.I.

    2004-01-01

    -column sulfate to form barite, and metals combined with H2S derived from bacterial sulfate reduction to form sulfides. Higher temperatures and salinities and relatively oxidized ore-stage fluids (stages 2 and 3) compared with stage 1 were probably important controls on the abundances and relative amounts of metals in the fluids and the resulting sulfide chemistry. Textural observations and isotopic data show that preexisting barite was reductively dissolved, providing a source of H2S for sulfide mineral formation. In stage 3, the continued flow of hydrothermal fluids caused thermal alteration of organic-rich mudstones and a build-up of methane that led to fluid overpressuring, hydrofracturing, and vein formation. Barite, red-brown sphalerite, and other sulfides were deposited in the veins, and preexisting barite was pervasively replaced by red-brown sphalerite. Hydrothermal activity ceased until Jurassic time when thrusting and large-scale fluid flow related to the Brookian orogeny remobilized and formed late tan sphalerite in tectonic breccias. ?? 2004 by Economic Geology.

  7. Magmatic ore deposits in layered intrusions - Descriptive model for reef-type PGE and contact-type Cu-Ni-PGE deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientek, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    Layered, ultramafic to mafic intrusions are uncommon in the geologic record, but host magmatic ore deposits containing most of the world's economic concentrations of platinum-group elements (PGE) (figs. 1 and 2). These deposits are mined primarily for their platinum, palladium, and rhodium contents (table 1). Magmatic ore deposits are derived from accumulations of crystals of metallic oxides, or immiscible sulfide, or oxide liquids that formed during the cooling and crystallization of magma, typically with mafic to ultramafic compositions. "PGE reefs" are stratabound PGE-enriched lode mineralization in mafic to ultramafic layered intrusions. The term "reef" is derived from Australian and South African literature for this style of mineralization and used to refer to (1) the rock layer that is mineralized and has distinctive texture or mineralogy (Naldrett, 2004), or (2) the PGE-enriched sulfide mineralization that occurs within the rock layer. For example, Viljoen (1999) broadly defined the Merensky Reef as "a mineralized zone within or closely associated with an unconformity surface in the ultramafic cumulate at the base of the Merensky Cyclic Unit." In this report, we will use the term PGE reef to refer to the PGE-enriched mineralization, not the host rock layer. Within a layered igneous intrusion, reef-type mineralization is laterally persistent along strike, extending for the length of the intrusion, typically tens to hundreds of kilometers. However, the mineralized interval is thin, generally centimeters to meters thick, relative to the stratigraphic thickness of layers in an intrusion that vary from hundreds to thousands of meters. PGE-enriched sulfide mineralization is also found near the contacts or margins of layered mafic to ultramafic intrusions (Iljina and Lee, 2005). This contact-type mineralization consists of disseminated to massive concentrations of iron-copper-nickel-PGE-enriched sulfide mineral concentrations in zones that can be tens to hundreds

  8. Tuning the architectures of lead deposits on metal substrates by electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Chenzhong; Liu Meng; Zhang Peng; He Xiaohui; Li Gaoren; Zhao Wenxia; Liu Peng; Tong Yexiang

    2008-01-01

    Different morphologies of lead (Pb) deposited on different metal substrates have been prepared via electrochemical deposition in aqueous solution. The morphologies of as-deposited lead were determined by scanning electron microscope (SEM). It is found that the various morphologies of the products are dependent on the electrodeposition conditions, including the deposition current densities, concentration of additives, substrates and deposition time. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) results reveal that all these lead deposits with different morphologies can be assigned to the space group Fm-3m (2 2 5)

  9. Ultra-pure soft water ameliorates atopic skin disease by preventing metallic soap deposition in NC/Tnd mice and reduces skin dryness in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Akane; Matsuda, Akira; Jung, Kyungsook; Jang, Hyosun; Ahn, Ginnae; Ishizaka, Saori; Amagai, Yosuke; Oida, Kumiko; Arkwright, Peter D; Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2015-09-01

    Mineral ions in tap water react with fatty acids in soap, leading to the formation of insoluble precipitate (metallic soap) on skin during washing. We hypothesised that metallic soap might negatively alter skin conditions. Application of metallic soap onto the skin of NC/Tnd mice with allergic dermatitis further induced inflammation with elevation of plasma immunoglobulin E and proinflammatory cytokine expression. Pruritus and dryness were ameliorated when the back of mice was washed with soap in Ca2+- and Mg2+-free ultra-pure soft water (UPSW). Washing in UPSW, but not tap water, also protected the skin of healthy volunteers from the soap deposition. Furthermore, 4 weeks of showering with UPSW reduced dryness and pruritus of human subjects with dry skin. Washing with UPSW may be therapeutically beneficial in patients with skin troubles.

  10. Concentration factors of uranium mineralization in VII depositional cycle of Shuixigou group, lower-middle Jurassic at Wukurqi uranium deposit, Yili basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Taoyong

    2004-01-01

    Starting with the analysis on uranium mineralization, this paper emphatically discusses factors related to uranium concentration in VII depositional cycle, such as the structure, the paleoclimate, the lithofacies-paleogeography, the lithology, the hydrogeology, the geochemistry, and the content of effective reductant. The author suggests that key factors of uranium migration and concentration at Wukurqi uranium deposit are the existence of ore-hosting formation (sand body), the long-term recharge of oxygen and uranium-bearing groundwater, the existence of effective reductant in ore-hosting formation

  11. The distribution of trace elements in a range of deep-sea sulphide ore deposits and their impact on seafloor mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, E. K.; Scott, T. B.; Brooker, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    Acid rock drainage is a natural weathering process that is often exacerbated by mining activities, common in onshore sulphide ore deposits, that can lead to considerable environmental impact. A similar 'weathering process' occurs at seafloor massive sulphide (SMS) ore deposits. In contrast to the onshore situation, the expected consequence in the marine environment is often considered to be oxide formation, negligible metal release and minimal net acid generation due to the high buffering capacity of seawater and low solubility of iron at near neutral pH. However, no dissolution studies exist that emulate the true composition of sulphide ore deposits that either sit passively on the seafloor or are actively mined in this colder, more saline, and alkaline environment. In particular, these deposits will include a variety of minerals, and it is the interaction of these minerals and inclusions in regards to galvanic cells that can subsequently increase the dissolution of metals into the water column. Any heavy metal release that is not balanced by subsequent oxidation and precipitation, has the potential to produce toxicity for benthic ecosystems, bioaccumulation and dispersal through currents. The present work has sought to provide a pilot investigation on the deep sea weathering of sulphide minerals, by identifying the mineral phases, trace elements and potential galvanic couples that may arise in sulphide mineral samples collected from various tectonic settings. Samples have been analysed using EMPA and LA-ICPMS in order to identify the range of trace elements and toxins that may be contributed to the water column, especially heavy metals and environmental toxins (e.g. Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Co, Ni, Cd, As, Sb, Sn, Hg). Our observations raise important questions about which ore deposits could have more or less environmental impact during any mining activity. These observations will be used to design oxidative dissolution experiments at deep-sea conditions utilising the

  12. Plasma sprayed and electrospark deposited zirconium metal diffusion barrier coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollis, Kendall J.; Pena, Maria I.

    2010-01-01

    Zirconium metal coatings applied by plasma spraying and electrospark deposition (ESD) have been investigated for use as diffusion barrier coatings on low enrichment uranium fuel for research nuclear reactors. The coatings have been applied to both stainless steel as a surrogate and to simulated nuclear fuel uranium-molybdenum alloy substrates. Deposition parameter development accompanied by coating characterization has been performed. The structure of the plasma sprayed coating was shown to vary with transferred arc current during deposition. The structure of ESD coatings was shown to vary with the capacitance of the deposition equipment.

  13. Results of LA-ICP-MS sulfide mapping from Algoma-type BIF gold systems with implications for the nature of mineralizing fluids, metal sources, and deposit models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourcerol, B.; Kontak, D. J.; Thurston, P. C.; Petrus, J. A.

    2018-01-01

    Quantitative laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) element distribution maps combined with traverse mode analyses have been acquired on various sulfides (pyrite, pyrrhotite, arsenopyrite) from three Canadian Algoma-type BIF-hosted gold deposits ( 4 Moz Au Meadowbank, ≥ 2.8 Moz Au Meliadine district, 6 Moz Au Musselwhite). These data, in conjunction with detailed petrographic and SEM-EDS observations, provide insight into the nature and relative timing of gold events, the presence and implication of trace element zoning regarding crystallization processes, and elemental associations that fingerprint gold events. Furthermore, the use of an innovative method of processing the LA-ICP-MS data in map and traverse modes, whereby the results are fragmented into time-slice data, to generate various binary plots (Ag versus Ni) provides a means to identify elemental associations (Te, Bi) not otherwise apparent. This integrated means of treating geochemical data, along with petrography, allows multiple gold events and remobilization processes to be recognized and their elemental associations determined. The main gold event in each of these deposits is characterized by the coupling of an As-Se-Te-Ag element association coincident with intense stratabound sulfide-replacement of the Fe-rich host rock. Additionally, the data indicate presence of a later remobilization event, which upgraded the Au tenor, as either non-refractory or refractory type, along fracture networks due to the ingress of subsequent base metal-bearing metamorphic fluids (mainly a Pb-Bi association). Furthermore, the data reveal a stratigraphic influence, as reflected in the elemental associations and the elemental enrichments observed and the nature of the sulfide phase hosting the gold mineralization (arsenopyrite versus pyrite).

  14. Characterization of sands and mineral clays in channel and floodplain deposits of Portuguesa river, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando José González Clemente

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the main channel and floodplain of Portuguesa River were studied the mineralogical characteristics of sand and clay minerals respectively. The methodology consisted of X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis, for both mineral fractions. The results indicated the presence of mainly of quartz sands with minor amounts of chlorite, muscovite, calcite and feldspar which are considered quartz sand mature. Its origin is related to the source area and rework of soils and sediments of the floodplain. The clay fraction is characterized by the presence of 13 mineral crystalline phases consisting mainly of quartz, muscovite and chlorite, and clay minerals such as kaolinite, vermiculite, montmorillonite and nontronita. Its detrital origin may be due to mineral neoformation and inheritance. Therefore both mineral fractions consist mainly of quartz and kaolinite, which are essential components of the source area as well as the Quaternary alluvial deposits and the soils that make up the region.

  15. Gas phase deposition of oxide and metal-oxide coatings on fuel particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patokin, A.P.; Khrebtov, V.L.; Shirokov, B.M.

    2008-01-01

    Production processes and properties of oxide (Al 2 O 3 , ZrO 2 ) and metal-oxide (Mo-Al 2 O 3 , Mo-ZrO 2 , W-Al 2 O 3 , W-ZrO 2 ) coatings on molybdenum substrates and uranium dioxide fuel particles were investigated. It is shown that the main factors that have an effect on the deposition rate, density, microstructure and other properties of coatings are the deposition temperature, the ratio of H 2 and CO 2 flow rates, the total reactor pressure and the ratio of partial pressures of corresponding metal chlorides during formation of metal-oxide coatings

  16. Determination of Mineralization Zones Using Interpretation of IP and RS Data in The GarmabCopper Deposit (South Khorasan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Adelpour

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Garmab copper deposit is located northeast of Qaen (South Khorasan province in the1:100,000 scale map of Abiz in the eastern tectonic zone of Iran. It is hosted by Late Paleocene-Eocene lava flows consisting mainly of andesite, trachy¬andesite, andesite-basalt and basalt lavas, as well as pyroclastic rocks, including tuffs and ignimbrites. The Lut Block has undergone intense magmatic activitywith a variety of geochemical characteristics due to changing tectonic conditions (e.g., compression during subduction followed by tensional conditions; Karimpour et al., 2012; Zarrinkoub et al., 2012. The Lut Block has a great potential for the discovery of new mineral deposits, like the Mahrabad and Khonik porphyry copper-gold deposits (Malekzadeh shafarodi, 2009, the Dehsalam porphyry copper deposit (Arjmandzadeh, 2011, high sulfidation epithermal gold deposits such as Chah Shalghami (Karimpour, 2005 and IOCG deposits such as Kuh-E-Zar and Qaleh Zari (Mazlomi et al., 2008. Materials and methods After field studies of the Garmab area, 32 thin sections and 21 polished sections were prepared for petrological and mineralogical studies.In addition, 10 least-altered and fractured samples of volcanic rocks were selected for geochemical studies. Major oxides were determined using XRF analyses at the Zarazma laboratory. Induced polarization and resistivity geophysical data were collected and correlated with geological and alteration maps. The geophysical datawere collectedfrom 420 individual points, using a dipole-dipole arrangement along five profiles separated 60m apart.This covered the study area entirely. After a change in the mineralization trend was observed,additional profileswere designed, twoon bearings of 25º and three on 75º. Results The Garmab volcanic rocks exhibit typical geochemical characteristics of subduction zone magmas including strong enrichment in LILE and depletion in HFSE. Based on the discrimination plot of Irvine and

  17. Spectral characteristics of propylitic alteration minerals as a vectoring tool for porphyry copper deposits

    OpenAIRE

    Neal, LC; Wilkinson, JJ; Mason, PJ; Chang, Z

    2018-01-01

    publisher: Elsevier articletitle: Spectral characteristics of propylitic alteration minerals as a vectoring tool for porphyry copper deposits journaltitle: Journal of Geochemical Exploration articlelink: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gexplo.2017.10.019 content_type: article copyright: © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. GOLD-BEARING MINERALIZED ZONES OF THE YUZHNOE ORE OCCURRENCE AND ITS COMPARISON WITH LODE GOLD DEPOSITS OF YENISEI RIDGE

    OpenAIRE

    MANSUROV R.KH.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the discussed issue is caused by the need to detect a new gold ore deposits within the Yenisei ridge to replenish the mineral resources of gold ore in Russia. The main aim of the study is to explore the features of geological structure and gold ore mineralized zones of ore occurrence Yuzhnoe in order to forecast gold ore bodies, and to substantiate the continuation of geological exploration. The prospecting is realized by the express method of prospecting of gold ore deposits...

  19. Fluid Evolution During Mineralization of Atashkuh Fluorite-Barite (±Sulfide Deposit, South of Delijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Javad Moghaddasi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction More than 30 fluorite occurrences with approximately 1.35 million tons of reserves have been recognized in Iran (Ghorbani, 2013. The Atashkuh fluorite-barite (±sulfide deposit is one of four occurrences located south of the city of Delijan in Markazi province, about 80 km SE of Arak city. The Atashkuh deposit occurs between the central Iran structural zone on the north and the Sanandaj-Sirjan structural zone on the south. The geology of the area is dominated by folded and faulted Jurassic carbonates and shales (Thiele et al., 1968. The lower Jurassic shale and calcareous sandstone of the Shemshak Formation and the Middle to Upper Jurassic dolomite of the Badamu Formation are the main host rocks for the fluorite veins. In this study, 40 samples from fluorite veins and host rocks were collected, from which 25 thin sections and 8 doubly-polished thin sections were prepared. Micro-thermometric studies were conducted on primary fluid inclusions using the Linkam THM600 heating-freezing stage. In addition, 10 samples were analyzed by XRD. Results Fluid inclusion data indicate that the Atashkuh fluorite-barite (±sulfides veins were deposited as a result of mixing a primary multi-component Na-K(-Mg-Ca high-salinity brine (SH type inclusions with less saline calcium-rich connate water (LVHH type inclusions and pressure reduction of ore bearing fluids. Fluid inclusions containing halite in high-salinity brine, and hydrohalite in connate water show suggest a high-salinity brine and connate water before mixing. The main mineralization stage was followed by circulation of low temperature meteoric water, responsible for the late stage mineralization. The micro-thermometry results suggest that the main fluorite mineralization occurred at 250 °C and 150 Mpa pressure. Dolomitization and silicification are the main alteration types associated with the Atashkuh mineralization. The occurrence of chlorite, talc, illite and dolomitized host rock all

  20. Climax-Type Porphyry Molybdenum Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludington, Steve; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    Climax-type porphyry molybdenum deposits, as defined here, are extremely rare; thirteen deposits are known, all in western North America and ranging in age from Late Cretaceous to mainly Tertiary. They are consistently found in a postsubduction, extensional tectonic setting and are invariably associated with A-type granites that formed after peak activity of a magmatic cycle. The deposits consist of ore shells of quartz-molybdenite stockwork veins that lie above and surrounding the apices of cupola-like, highly evolved, calc-alkaline granite and subvolcanic rhyolite-porphyry bodies. These plutons are invariably enriched in fluorine (commonly >1 percent), rubidium (commonly >500 parts per million), and niobium-tantalum (Nb commonly >50 parts per million). The deposits are relatively high grade (typically 0.1-0.3 percent Mo) and may be very large (typically 100-1,000 million tons). Molybdenum, as MoS2, is the primary commodity in all known deposits. The effect on surface-water quality owing to natural influx of water or sediment from a Climax-type mineralized area can extend many kilometers downstream from the mineralized area. Waste piles composed of quartz-silica-pyrite altered rocks will likely produce acidic drainage waters. The potential exists for concentrations of fluorine or rare metals in surface water and groundwater to exceed recommended limits for human consumption near both mined and unmined Climax-type deposits.

  1. Post-depositional tectonic modification of VMS deposits in Iberia and its economic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castroviejo, Ricardo; Quesada, Cecilio; Soler, Miguel

    2011-07-01

    The original stratigraphic relationships and structure of VMS deposits are commonly obscured by deformation. This can also affect their economic significance, as shown by several Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB, SW Iberia) examples. The contrasting rheologic properties of the different lithologies present in an orebody (massive sulphide, feeder stockwork, alteration envelope, volcanic and sedimentary rocks) play a major role in determining its overall behaviour. Variscan thin-skinned tectonics led to stacking of the massive pyrite and stockwork bodies in duplex structures, resulting in local thickening and increased tonnage of minable mineralization. Furthermore, differential mechanical behaviour of the different sulphide minerals localised the detachments along relatively ductile sulphide-rich bands. The result was a geochemical and mineralogical reorganisation of most deposits, which now consist of barren, massive pyrite horses, bounded by base metal-rich ductile shear zones. Metal redistribution was enhanced by mobilisation of the base metal sulphides from the initially impoverished massive pyrite, through pressure-solution processes, to tensional fissures within the already ductile shear zones. In NW Iberia, VMS deposits were also strongly overprinted by the Variscan deformation during emplacement of the Cabo Ortegal and Órdenes allochthonous nappe complexes, but no stacking of the orebodies was produced. Original contacts were transposed, and the orebodies, their feeder zones and the country rock acquired pronounced laminar geometry. In lower-grade rocks (greenschist facies, Cabo Ortegal Complex), solution transfer mechanisms are common in pyrite, which remains in the brittle domain, while chalcopyrite shows ductile behaviour. In higher-grade rocks (amphibolite facies, Órdenes Complex), metamorphic recrystallisation overprints earlier deformation textures. The contrasting behaviour of the IPB and NW Iberian deposits is explained by key factors that affect their

  2. Laboratory studies of immersion and deposition mode ice nucleation of ozone aged mineral dust particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. A. Kanji

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ice nucleation in the atmosphere is central to the understanding the microphysical properties of mixed-phase and cirrus clouds. Ambient conditions such as temperature (T and relative humidity (RH, as well as aerosol properties such as chemical composition and mixing state play an important role in predicting ice formation in the troposphere. Previous field studies have reported the absence of sulfate and organic compounds on mineral dust ice crystal residuals sampled at mountain top stations or aircraft based measurements despite the long-range transport mineral dust is subjected to. We present laboratory studies of ice nucleation for immersion and deposition mode on ozone aged mineral dust particles for 233 T ns are reported and observed to increase as a function of decreasing temperature. We present first results that demonstrate enhancement of the ice nucleation ability of aged mineral dust particles in both the deposition and immersion mode due to ageing. We also present the first results to show a suppression of heterogeneous ice nucleation activity without the condensation of a coating of (inorganic material. In immersion mode, low ozone exposed Ka particles showed enhanced ice activity requiring a median freezing temperature of 1.5 K warmer than that of untreated Ka, whereas high ozone exposed ATD particles showed suppressed ice nucleation requiring a median freezing temperature of 3 K colder than that of untreated ATD. In deposition mode, low exposure Ka had ice active fractions of an order of magnitude higher than untreated Ka, whereas high ozone exposed ATD had ice active fractions up to a factor of 4 lower than untreated ATD. From our results, we derive and present parameterizations in terms of ns(T that can be used in models to predict ice nuclei concentrations based on available aerosol surface area.

  3. Ore horizons, ore facies, mineralogy and geochemistry of volconogenic massive sulfide (VMS deposits of the Varandan Ba-Pb-Cu deposit, southwest of Qamsar - Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayeq Hashemi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Varandan Ba-Pb-Cu deposits are located15 km southwest of the town of Qamsar and approximately 7 km south west of the Qazaan village, in the Urumieh- Dokhtar magmatic arc. The Kashan region that is situated in west-central Iran hosts several barite-base metal deposits and occurrences, the biggest ones are the Varandan Ba-Pb-Cu (case considered in this study and the Tapeh-Sorkh (Khalajmaasomi et al., 2010 and Dorreh Ba (Nazari, 1994 deposits. Previous researchers (Izadi, 1996; Farokhpey et al., 2010 have proposed an epithermal model for formation of the Varandan deposit. However, based on some feature of the deposit, it seems that this genetic model may not be correct. Therefore, it is necessary to do more precise research studies on the deposit. The main purpose of this paper is to discuss the genesis of the Varandan deposit based on geological, ore facies, mineralogy, wall rock alterations, and geochemical studies. Materials and methods A field study and sampling was performed during the summer of 2013. To assess the geochemical characteristics of the deposit, about 17 systematic samples from different ore facies of the first, second and third sub-horizon were collected for petrography and mineralogy, and for inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy(ICP-AES, X-ray diffraction (XRD and X-ray fluorescence (XRF geochemical analysis methods. The microscopic studies were done in the optics laboratory of the Shahrood University, and the geochemical analyzes were conducted in laboratories of the Center of Research and Mineral Processing Ore Minerals of Iran, Karaj, Iran. Results The host sequence in the Varandan deposit involves three units, from bottom to top: Unit1: grey, green siliceous tuff, brecciated tuff, crystal tuff and andesite; Unit2: white grey nummulitic limestone, limy tuff and marl: and Unit3: tuff breccia and crystal lithic tuff. Mineralization in the Varandan deposit has occurred as four ore sub

  4. To the micro-climatic condition influence upon the environment pollution during exploitation of being oxidized mineral deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmedzhanov, T.K.; Al'mukhambetova, Sh.K.; Bajramov, I.M.

    1998-01-01

    Conducted researches showed dependence of environment pollution rate under exploration of being oxidized mineral deposits from number of meteorological futures of season changes. Zones of gases spreading in atmosphere from sources of pollution in dependence from micro-climatic conditions are estimated. Results can be used during preventive measures projecting for environment in deposits districts. (author)

  5. Effects of deposition of heavy-metal-polluted harbor mud on microbial diversity and metal resistance in sandy marine sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toes, Ann-Charlotte M; Finke, Niko; Kuenen, J Gijs

    2008-01-01

    Deposition of dredged harbor sediments in relatively undisturbed ecosystems is often considered a viable option for confinement of pollutants and possible natural attenuation. This study investigated the effects of deposition of heavy-metal-polluted sludge on the microbial diversity of sandy...... the finding that some groups of clones were shared between the metal-impacted sandy sediment and the harbor control, comparative analyses showed that the two sediments were significantly different in community composition. Consequences of redeposition of metal-polluted sediment were primarily underlined...... with cultivation-dependent techniques. Toxicity tests showed that the percentage of Cd- and Cu-tolerant aerobic heterotrophs was highest among isolates from the sandy sediment with metal-polluted mud on top....

  6. The interaction of fingermark deposits on metal surfaces and potential ways for visualisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wightman, G; Emery, F; Austin, C; Andersson, I; Harcus, L; Arju, G; Steven, C

    2015-04-01

    The interaction of fingermark deposits on metals has been examined by a variety of techniques. Visualisation by film growth has been the main area of investigation through: thermal oxidation, anodising, peroxide solution, and the interaction with vapour of iodine and ammonium sulphide. Corrosion of the underlying metal has also been examined as an alternative means of visualisation. Confocal microscopy was used to look at the film thickness and corrosion products around the prints. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersion of X-rays (SEM-EDX) examined a number of metal samples to investigate film growth and the elemental distribution. The observations suggest that differential oxidation was occurring as well as corrosion into the metal. Fingermark deposits on metals can corrode into the metal depending on the reactivity of the metal and leave a recoverable mark. However, fingermark deposits can also alter the rate of chemical reaction of the substrate metal by oxidation. In some cases organic matter can inhibit reaction, both when forming an oxide layer and when corroding the metal. However, signs of third level detail from pore contact may also be visible and the monovalent ions from salts could also influence film growth. Whilst further work would need to be carried out to decide whether any of these techniques may have application in fingermark recovery, this study does suggest that fingermarks on metals may be recoverable after incidents such as fires or immersion in water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Regional distribution regularity of sandstone uranium deposits in Asian continent and prospecting strategy for sandstone uranium deposits in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zuyi

    2002-01-01

    Since the 1980's, after the discovery of numerous sandstone uranium deposits in Middle Asia (Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan) many large sandstone uranium deposits have been found in both Russia and Mongolia. So that Asia has become the most concentrated region of sandstone uranium deposits. The known sandstone uranium deposits occur mostly in a arcual tectonic belt constrained from the north by the Siberian continental block, and the Tarim-North China continental block from the south. This belt is named by Russian geologists as the Central Asian Mobile Belt, and some Chinese geologists call it the 'Mongolian Arc'. A lot of large and super large metallic, non-metallic, gold, polymetallic, porphyry copper and gold, massive sulphide and uranium deposits (of sandstone and volcanic types) with different origin and various types concentrated occur in this belt. The abundant and colourful mineral resources in the region are closely associated with the specific geologic-tectonic evolution of the above belt. It is necessary to strengthen the detailed geologic research and uranium prospecting in the region

  8. The Porgera gold deposit, Papua, New Guinea, 2: sources of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, J.P.; McCulloch, M.T.; Kerrich, R.

    1991-01-01

    Sr and Pb isotopic studies of mineralized rocks and veins from the Porgera gold deposit indicates that these components were derived from a mixture of sedimentary and igneous sources, probably located within the Om Formation which underlies (< 3 km depth) the presently exposed Porgera Intrusive Complex (PIC) and associated ore deposit. Gold abundances in least-altered samples correlate with PGE, and indicate that the parental magma was mil enriched in Au and Pt-group elements relative to the Ir-group. (author)

  9. Strata-bound Fe-Co-Cu-Au-Bi-Y-REE deposits of the Idaho Cobalt Belt: Multistage hydrothermal mineralization in a magmatic-related iron oxide copper-gold system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, John F.

    2012-01-01

    , consistent with the general lack of abundant chalcopyrite in cobaltite-rich samples.Paragenetic relations determined by scanning electron microscopy indicate that the earliest Y-REE-Be mineralization preceded deposition of Co, Cu, Au, and Bi. Allanite, xenotime, and gadolinite-(Y) commonly occur as intergrowths with and inclusions in cobaltite; the opposite texture is rare. Monazite, in contrast, forms a poikiloblastic matrix to cobaltite and thin rims on allanite and xenotime, reflecting a later metamorphic paragenesis. Allanite and xenotime also show evidence of late dissolution and reprecipitation, forming discordant rims on older anhedral allanite and xenotime and separate euhedral crystals of each mineral. Textural data suggest extensive deformation of the deposits by folding and shearing, and by pervasive recrystallization, all during Cretaceous metamorphism. Sensitive high resolution ion microprobe U-Pb geochronology by Aleinikoff et al. (2012) supports these paragenetic interpretations, documenting contemporaneous Mesoproterozoic growth of early xenotime and crystallization of megacrystic A-type granite on the northern border of the district. These ages are used together with mineralogical and geochemical data from the present study to support an epigenetic, IOCG model for Fe-Co-Cu-Au-Bi-Y-REE deposits of the Idaho cobalt belt. A sulfide facies variant of IOCG deposits is proposed for the Blackbird district, in which reducing hydrothermal conditions favored deposition of sulfide minerals over iron oxides. This new model includes Mesoproterozoic vein mineralization and related Fe-Cl metasomatism that formed the biotite-rich lenses, a predominantly felsic magmatic source for metals in the deposits, given their local abundance of Y, REEs, and Be, and a major sedimentary component in the hydrothermal fluids based on independent sulfur isotope and boron isotope data for sulfides and ore-related tourmaline, respectively.

  10. Carbon nanotubes/pectin/minerals substituted apatite nanocomposite depositions on anodized titanium for hard tissue implant: In vivo biological performance"†

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govindaraj, Dharman; Rajan, Mariappan; Munusamy, Murugan A.; Alarfaj, Abdullah A.; Higuchi, Akon; Suresh Kumar, S.

    2017-01-01

    A surface deposition approach enveloping the use of biocompatible trace components and strengthening materials will affect the physicochemical and osseointegration properties of nanocomposite deposited implants. The current work is aimed at the development of functionalized carbon nanotubes (f-CNT)/Pectin (P)/mineralized hydroxyapatite (M-HA) ((f-CNT/P/M-HA)) nanocomposite depositions by electrophoretic deposition on anodized titanium (TiO_2) implant. The capacity of f-CNT manages the cost of mechanical strength, while pectin (extracted from pomegranate peel) and minerals (strontium, magnesium, and zinc) enhance the biocompatibility of the HA deposition was investigate utilizing different methods. The functional and morphological analyses were done by FTIR, XRD, XPS, SEM-EDX and TEM. The mechanical depiction results show improved adherence quality for the nanocomposite deposition. Additionally, an enhanced viability of osteoblast cells (MG63 (HOS)) was monitored in vitro on the f-CNT/P/M-HA nanocomposite deposition. The capacity of the nanocomposite deposited TiO_2 implant to encourage bone development was assessed in vivo. Hence, the as-synthesized nanocomposite deposited TiO_2 that joins the comfort osteoconductivity of mineralized hydroxyapatite, pectin collectively with the compressive strength of f-CNT can have numerous uses in orthopaedics since it could enhance implant fixation in human bone. - Highlights: • Successful development of CNTs–Pectin reinforced M-HA nanocomposite coating on TiO_2 by electrodeposition. • The success of nanocomposite coatings was evidenced with FTIR, XRD, XPS, SEM-EDX, and TEM. • Nanocomposite coating on TiO_2 is bio-resistive, better candidate for implant applications. • The fabricate nanocomposite coatings showed good biocompatibility and no adverse effect from in vitro and in vivo tests.

  11. Life-Cycle environmental impact assessment of mineral industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisan Farjana, Shahjadi; Huda, Nazmul; Parvez Mahmud, M. A.

    2018-05-01

    Mining is the extraction and processing of valuable ferro and non-ferro metals and minerals to be further used in manufacturing industries. Valuable metals and minerals are extracted from the geological deposits and ores deep in the surface through complex manufacturing technologies. The extraction and processing of mining industries involve particle emission to air or water, toxicity to the environment, contamination of water resources, ozone layer depletion and most importantly decay of human health. Despite all these negative impacts towards sustainability, mining industries are working throughout the world to facilitate the employment sector, economy and technological growth. The five most important miners in the world are South Africa, Russia, Australia, Ukraine, Guinea. The mining industries contributes to their GDP significantly. However, the most important issue is making the mining world sustainable thus reducing the emissions. To address the environmental impacts caused by the mining sectors, this paper is going to analyse the environmental impacts caused by the 5 major minerals extraction processes, which are bauxite, ilmenite, iron ore, rutile and uranium by using the life-cycle impact assessment technologies. The analysis is done here using SimaPro software version 8.4 using ReCipe, CML and Australian indicator method.

  12. Structural strengthening of rocket nozzle extension by means of laser metal deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honoré, M.; Brox, L.; Hallberg, M.

    2012-03-01

    Commercial space operations strive to maximize the payload per launch in order to minimize the costs of each kg launched into orbit; this yields demand for ever larger launchers with larger, more powerful rocket engines. Volvo Aero Corporation in collaboration with Snecma and Astrium has designed and tested a new, upgraded Nozzle extension for the Vulcain 2 engine configuration, denoted Vulcain 2+ NE Demonstrator The manufacturing process for the welding of the sandwich wall and the stiffening structure is developed in close cooperation with FORCE Technology. The upgrade is intended to be available for future development programs for the European Space Agency's (ESA) highly successful commercial launch vehicle, the ARIANE 5. The Vulcain 2+ Nozzle Extension Demonstrator [1] features a novel, thin-sheet laser-welded configuration, with laser metal deposition built-up 3D-features for the mounting of stiffening structure, flanges and for structural strengthening, in order to cope with the extreme load- and thermal conditions, to which the rocket nozzle extension is exposed during launch of the 750 ton ARIANE 5 launcher. Several millimeters of material thickness has been deposited by laser metal deposition without disturbing the intricate flow geometry of the nozzle cooling channels. The laser metal deposition process has been applied on a full-scale rocket nozzle demonstrator, and in excess of 15 kilometers of filler wire has been successfully applied to the rocket nozzle. The laser metal deposition has proven successful in two full-throttle, full-scale tests, firing the rocket engine and nozzle in the ESA test facility P5 by DLR in Lampoldshausen, Germany.

  13. Influence of laser power on microstructure of laser metal deposited 17-4 ph stainless steel

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adeyemi, AA

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of laser power on the microstructure of 17-4 PH stainless steel produced by laser metal deposition was investigated. Multiple-trackof 17-4 stainless steel powder was deposited on 316 stainless steel substrate using laser metal...

  14. The Lepanto Cu–Au deposit, Philippines: A fossil hyperacidic volcanic lake complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Byron R.; Henley, Richard W.; Lowers, Heather; Pribil, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Hyperacidic lakes and associated solfatara in active volcanoes are the expression of magmatic gas expansion from source to surface. Here we show for the first time, that the vein system that comprises the ~ 2 Ma high-sulfidation, Lepanto copper–gold deposit in the Mankayan district (Philippines) was associated with a contemporary hyperacidic volcanic lake complex—possibly the first such lake recognized in the geological record. A 15–20‰ difference in sulfur isotopic composition between barite and sulfides and sulfosalts in the vent fumarole encrustations supports the interpretation that SO2-rich volcanic gas vented into the base of the lake and marginal to it and ties the mineralization directly to magmatic gas expansion, fracture propagation, and mineralization that occurred through a series of decompression steps within the feeder fracture network. These data confirm that crater lake environments such as Kawah Ijen (Java, Indonesia) provide modern day analogs of the Lepanto and other high sulfidation Cu–Au depositing environments.We also provide extensive analysis of sulfosalt–sulfide reactions during vein formation within the hyperacidic lake complex. Pyrite ±  silica deposited first at high temperature followed by enargite that preserves the vapor–solid diffusion of, for example, antimony, tin, and tellurium into the vapor from the crystallizing solid. Subsolidus, intra-crystalline diffusion continued as temperature declined. Pyrite and enargite are replaced by Fe-tennantite in the lodes which initially has low Sb/(Sb + As) atomic ratios around 13.5% close to the ideal tennantite formula, but evolves to higher ratios as crystallization proceeds. Fumarole encrustation clasts and sulfosalts in the lake sediment are more highly evolved with a larger range of trace element substitutions, including antimony. Substitution of especially Zn, Te, Ag, and Sn into tennantite records metal and semi-metal fractionation between the expanding magmatic

  15. Modeling of liquid-metal corrosion/deposition in a fusion reactor blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malang, S.; Smith, D.L.

    1984-04-01

    A model has been developed for the investigation of the liquid-metal corrosion and the corrosion product transport in a liquid-metal-cooled fusion reactor blanket. The model describes the two-dimensional transport of wall material in the liquid-metal flow and is based on the following assumptions: (1) parallel flow in a straight circular tube; (2) transport of wall material perpendicular to the flow direction by diffusion and turbulent exchange; in flow direction by the flow motion only; (3) magnetic field causes uniform velocity profile with thin boundary layer and suppresses turbulent mass exchange; and (4) liquid metal at the interface is saturated with wall material. A computer code based on this model has been used to analyze the corrosion of ferritic steel by lithium lead and the deposition of wall material in the cooler part of a loop. Three cases have been investigated: (1) ANL forced convection corrosion experiment (without magnetic field); (2) corrosion in the MARS liquid-metal-cooled blanket (with magnetic field); and (3) deposition of wall material in the corrosion product cleanup system of the MARS blanket loop

  16. Genesis of copper-lead mineralization in the regionally zoned Agnigundala Sulfide Belt, Cuddapah Basin, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, H. N.; Bandyopadhyay, Sandip

    2018-03-01

    Shallow marine sandstone-shale-carbonate sedimentary rocks of the Paleoproterozoic northern Cuddapah basin host copper (Nallakonda deposit), copper-lead (Dhukonda deposit), and lead mineralization (Bandalamottu deposit) which together constitute the Agnigundala Sulfide Belt. The Cu sulfide mineralization in sandstone is both stratabound and disseminated, and Pb sulfide mineralization occurs as stratabound fracture filling veins and/or replacement veins within dolomite. Systematic mineralogical and sulfur, carbon, and oxygen isotope studies of the three deposits indicate a common ore-fluid that deposited copper at Nallakonda, copper-lead at Dhukonda, and lead at Bandalamottu under progressive cooling during migration through sediments. The ore-fluid was of low temperature (water sulfate produced sulfide for ore deposition. It is envisaged that basal red-bed and evaporite-bearing rift-related continental to shallow marine sediments might have acted as the source for the metals. Rift-related faults developed during sedimentation in the basin might have punctured the ore-fluid pool in the lower sedimentary succession and also acted as conduits for their upward migration. The ore-bearing horizons have participated in deformations during basin inversion without any recognizable remobilization.

  17. Ensuring the Environmental and Industrial Safety in Solid Mineral Deposit Surface Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubetskoy, Kliment; Rylnikova, Marina; Esina, Ekaterina

    2017-11-01

    The growing environmental pressure of mineral deposit surface mining and severization of industrial safety requirements dictate the necessity of refining the regulatory framework governing safe and efficient development of underground resources. The applicable regulatory documentation governing the procedure of ore open-pit wall and bench stability design for the stage of pit reaching its final boundary was issued several decades ago. Over recent decades, mining and geomechanical conditions have changed significantly in surface mining operations, numerous new software packages and computer developments have appeared, opportunities of experimental methods of source data collection and processing, grounding of the permissible parameters of open pit walls have changed dramatically, and, thus, methods of risk assessment have been perfected [10-13]. IPKON RAS, with the support of the Federal Service for Environmental Supervision, assumed the role of the initiator of the project for the development of Federal norms and regulations of industrial safety "Rules for ensuring the stability of walls and benches of open pits, open-cast mines and spoil banks", which contribute to the improvement of economic efficiency and safety of mineral deposit surface mining and enhancement of the competitiveness of Russian mines at the international level that is very important in the current situation.

  18. Levels of heavy metals and essential minerals in hair samples of children with autism in Oman: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Farsi, Yahya M; Waly, Mostafa I; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M; Al-Shafaee, Mohammed A; Al-Farsi, Omar A; Al-Khaduri, Maha M; Gupta, Ishita; Ouhtit, Allal; Al-Adawi, Samir; Al-Said, Mona F; Deth, Richard C

    2013-02-01

    Toxic levels of heavy metals and low levels of essential minerals have been suggested to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This study documents the levels of heavy metals and essential minerals in hair samples of children with ASD in Muscat, the urbanized capital of Oman, Muscat. The study included 27 children with ASD and 27 matched non-ASD controls. Parental interviews were held and dietary intake questionnaires completed in conjunction with the collection of hair samples. Analysis of heavy metals and essential minerals was carried out by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Chi-square analysis and non-parametric Fisher's exact tests were used to assess statistical significance. Children with ASD had significantly higher levels of all 11 analyzed heavy metals in their hair samples (P minerals sulfur, sodium, magnesium, potassium, zinc, and iron, but lower levels of calcium and copper in their hair samples. This study corroborates data from previous studies in different parts of the world indicating the presence of elevated levels of heavy metals and selective depletion of essential minerals in the hair of children with ASD.

  19. Short-term variability of mineral dust, metals and carbon emission from road dust resuspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Fulvio; Schaap, Martijn; Denier van der Gon, Hugo A. C.; Pandolfi, Marco; Alastuey, Andrés; Keuken, Menno; Querol, Xavier

    2013-08-01

    Particulate matter (PM) pollution in cities has severe impact on morbidity and mortality of their population. In these cities, road dust resuspension contributes largely to PM and airborne heavy metals concentrations. However, the short-term variation of emission through resuspension is not well described in the air quality models, hampering a reliable description of air pollution and related health effects. In this study we experimentally show that the emission strength of resuspension varies widely among road dust components/sources. Our results offer the first experimental evidence of different emission rates for mineral dust, heavy metals and carbon fractions due to traffic-induced resuspension. Also, the same component (or source) recovers differently in a road in Barcelona (Spain) and a road in Utrecht (The Netherlands). This finding has important implications on atmospheric pollution modelling, mostly for mineral dust, heavy metals and carbon species. After rain events, recoveries were generally faster in Barcelona rather than in Utrecht. The largest difference was found for the mineral dust (Al, Si, Ca). Tyre wear particles (organic carbon and zinc) recovered faster than other road dust particles in both cities. The source apportionment of road dust mass provides useful information for air quality management.

  20. Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in the Copenhagen area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Allan; Hovmand, Mads Frederik; Johnsen, Ib

    1978-01-01

    Atmospheric dry and wet deposition (bulk precipitation) of the heavy metals Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, V and Fe over the Copenhagen area was measured by sampling in plastic funnels from 17 stations during a twelve-month period. Epigeic bryophytes from 100 stations in the area were analysed for the heavy...

  1. Comparing heavy metal contents in crops receiving mineral fertilisers and animal manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent Tolstrup; Elsgaard, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Spring barley (grain, straw), grass-clover (two cuts), winter wheat (grain, straw) and silage maize grown in the Askov long-term experiment with different levels (0, ½, 1, 1½, 2) of mineral fertiliser (NPK) and animal manure (AM) had concentrations of As, Pb, Cd and Hg below the EC maximum permis...... of NPK and AM does not pose a threat in terms of feed quality. However, the long-term accumulation of heavy metals added with mineral fertilisers and animal manure is essentially irreversible and may threaten soil quality....... in the analysed metal contents between crops grown with NPK and AM. Crop contents of uranium and thallium were below the analytical detection limits regardless of nutrient source and addition rate. Thus in a farming context similar to that of the Askov experiment, the long-term application of standard rates...

  2. Proceedings of the 6. international symposium on waste processing and recycling in the mineral and metallurgical industries : WALSIM : water, air and land sustainability issues in mineral and metal extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, C.Q.; Pickles, C.A.; Brienne, S.; Rao, S.R.

    2008-01-01

    The proceedings of the 2008 conference of metallurgists of CIM includes a collection 7 separate symposia, namely (1) aerospace materials and manufacturing, (2) water, air and land sustainability issues in mineral and metal extraction (WALSIM), (3) current status and future trends of functional nanometers, (4) recent developments in advanced high strength steels processing, (5) corrosion and wear of materials, (6) advanced characterization techniques applied to mineral, metals and materials, and (7) management in metallurgy. The WALSIM symposium dealt with environmental issues, with particular reference to the three topics of water, air and land sustainability associated with mineral and metal extraction, processing and fabrication. It provided an opportunity for scientists, engineers and plant operators to report on work aimed at achieving more efficient, environmentally sound and sustainable performance of the mineral and metals industry by enabling related organizations to exchange information on the latest developments in this field of activity with considerations of both industry and society. The sessions were entitled: resource recovery from waste material; by-products processing of slag, fly ash and electric arc furnace dust; metal recycling; wastewater and effluent treatment; gaseous pollutants treatment; and, sustainability and basic research. The symposium featured 43 presentations, of which 17 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  3. Proceedings of the 6. international symposium on waste processing and recycling in the mineral and metallurgical industries : WALSIM : water, air and land sustainability issues in mineral and metal extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, C.Q. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry; Pickles, C.A. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mining Engineering; Brienne, S. [Teck Cominco Metals Ltd., Trail, BC (Canada). Applied Research and Engineering; Rao, S.R. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Mining and Materials Engineering] (eds.)

    2008-07-01

    The proceedings of the 2008 conference of metallurgists of CIM includes a collection 7 separate symposia, namely (1) aerospace materials and manufacturing, (2) water, air and land sustainability issues in mineral and metal extraction (WALSIM), (3) current status and future trends of functional nanometers, (4) recent developments in advanced high strength steels processing, (5) corrosion and wear of materials, (6) advanced characterization techniques applied to mineral, metals and materials, and (7) management in metallurgy. The WALSIM symposium dealt with environmental issues, with particular reference to the three topics of water, air and land sustainability associated with mineral and metal extraction, processing and fabrication. It provided an opportunity for scientists, engineers and plant operators to report on work aimed at achieving more efficient, environmentally sound and sustainable performance of the mineral and metals industry by enabling related organizations to exchange information on the latest developments in this field of activity with considerations of both industry and society. The sessions were entitled: resource recovery from waste material; by-products processing of slag, fly ash and electric arc furnace dust; metal recycling; wastewater and effluent treatment; gaseous pollutants treatment; and, sustainability and basic research. The symposium featured 43 presentations, of which 17 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  4. On the genesis and dynamics of mineral waters of Essentuki deposit in the Great Region of Caucasian Mineral Waters on the basis of uranium isotope information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalov, P.I.; Tikhonov, A.I.; Kiselev, G.P.; Merkulova, K.I.

    1991-01-01

    The sources of the Great Region of Caucasian Mineral Waters are established and contribution of each source in the formation of this region is determined using the data on isotopic ratio and content of uranium in mineral waters. The investigation relies on the fact that 234 U/ 238 U radioactivity ratio used as a tracer in different for waters which drain the rocks with different content and distribution of uranium therein. The investigation results reveal the peculiarities of the geological history of the above region and can be used for predicting new deposits of mineral waters

  5. Mineral-deposit model for lithium-cesium-tantalum pegmatites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Dwight C.; McCauley, Andrew D.; Stillings, Lisa L.

    2017-06-20

    Lithium-cesium-tantalum (LCT) pegmatites comprise a compositionally defined subset of granitic pegmatites. The major minerals are quartz, potassium feldspar, albite, and muscovite; typical accessory minerals include biotite, garnet, tourmaline, and apatite. The principal lithium ore minerals are spodumene, petalite, and lepidolite; cesium mostly comes from pollucite; and tantalum mostly comes from columbite-tantalite. Tin ore as cassiterite and beryllium ore as beryl also occur in LCT pegmatites, as do a number of gemstones and high-value museum specimens of rare minerals. Individual crystals in LCT pegmatites can be enormous: the largest spodumene was 14 meters long, the largest beryl was 18 meters long, and the largest potassium feldspar was 49 meters long.Lithium-cesium-tantalum pegmatites account for about one-fourth of the world’s lithium production, most of the tantalum production, and all of the cesium production. Giant deposits include Tanco in Canada, Greenbushes in Australia, and Bikita in Zimbabwe. The largest lithium pegmatite in the United States, at King’s Mountain, North Carolina, is no longer being mined although large reserves of lithium remain. Depending on size and attitude of the pegmatite, a variety of mining techniques are used, including artisanal surface mining, open-pit surface mining, small underground workings, and large underground operations using room-and-pillar design. In favorable circumstances, what would otherwise be gangue minerals (quartz, potassium feldspar, albite, and muscovite) can be mined along with lithium and (or) tantalum as coproducts.Most LCT pegmatites are hosted in metamorphosed supracrustal rocks in the upper greenschist to lower amphibolite facies. Lithium-cesium-tantalum pegmatite intrusions generally are emplaced late during orogeny, with emplacement being controlled by pre-existing structures. Typically, they crop out near evolved, peraluminous granites and leucogranites from which they are inferred to be

  6. Multi-scale interactions of geological processes during mineralization: cascade dynamics model and multifractal simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yao

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Relations between mineralization and certain geological processes are established mostly by geologist's knowledge of field observations. However, these relations are descriptive and a quantitative model of how certain geological processes strengthen or hinder mineralization is not clear, that is to say, the mechanism of the interactions between mineralization and the geological framework has not been thoroughly studied. The dynamics behind these interactions are key in the understanding of fractal or multifractal formations caused by mineralization, among which singularities arise due to anomalous concentration of metals in narrow space. From a statistical point of view, we think that cascade dynamics play an important role in mineralization and studying them can reveal the nature of the various interactions throughout the process. We have constructed a multiplicative cascade model to simulate these dynamics. The probabilities of mineral deposit occurrences are used to represent direct results of mineralization. Multifractal simulation of probabilities of mineral potential based on our model is exemplified by a case study dealing with hydrothermal gold deposits in southern Nova Scotia, Canada. The extent of the impacts of certain geological processes on gold mineralization is related to the scale of the cascade process, especially to the maximum cascade division number nmax. Our research helps to understand how the singularity occurs during mineralization, which remains unanswered up to now, and the simulation may provide a more accurate distribution of mineral deposit occurrences that can be used to improve the results of the weights of evidence model in mapping mineral potential.

  7. Molecular Models for DSMC Simulations of Metal Vapor Deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Venkattraman, A; Alexeenko, Alina A

    2010-01-01

    The direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method is applied here to model the electron‐beam (e‐beam) physical vapor deposition of copper thin films. A suitable molecular model for copper‐copper interactions have been determined based on comparisons with experiments for a 2D slit source. The model for atomic copper vapor is then used in axi‐symmetric DSMC simulations for analysis of a typical e‐beam metal deposition system with a cup crucible. The dimensional and non‐dimensional mass fluxes obt...

  8. Towards zero waste production in the minerals and metals sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, William J.

    The production of mineral and metal commodities results in large quantities of wastes (solid, liquid and gaseous) at each stage of value-adding — from mining to manufacturing. Waste production (both consumer and non-consumer) is a major contributor to environmental degradation. Approaches to waste management in the minerals industry are largely `after the event'. These have moved progressively from foul-and-flee to dilute-and-disperse to end end-of-pipe treatments. There is now a need to move to approaches which aim to reduce or eliminate waste production at source. Modern waste management strategies include the application of cleaner production principles, the use of wastes as raw materials, the reengineering of process flowsheets to minimise waste production, and use of industrial symbioses through industrial ecology to convert wastes into useful by-products. This paper examines how these can be adopted by the minerals industry, with some recent examples. The financial, technical, systemic and regulatory drivers and barriers are also examined.

  9. Mineral supply constraints necessitate a global policy response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickless, Edmund

    2016-04-01

    Adoption on 12 December 2015 of The Paris Agreement, the first universal climate agreement, suggests that nations will invest in infrastructures for renewable energy sources paving the way to a global low-carbon society. These large-scale changes will require vast amounts of metals and minerals. Regardless of whether known supplies are enough to meet demand in the near future, efforts must be made now to forestall unpredictable yet inevitable supply shortages in the decades to come, shortages that would dramatically impact the building of additional generation and distribution capacity, and deployment of low-carbon technology. But in response to the current downturn in commodity prices, the global mining industry is downsizing and reducing investment in the new exploration, putting at risk future security of supply. Mining and climate change are inextricably linked; the new adaptive technologies needed to tackle climate change depend on extraction of minerals and metals. An interdisciplinary group supported by the International Union of Geological Sciences, the International Council for Science Unions and UNESCO proposes measures to avert the looming minerals crisis that is developing in the context of current recycling capacity and exploration trends. Our immediate goal is to stimulate discussion of supply constraints using available data on mineral reserves. We build on recent discussions of supply risk and criticality with a focus on the source of primary resources over the next two to three decades when the availability of metals for recycling will remain low. Current massive production of iron ore and other such commodities despite record low prices indicates a failure of the traditional supply and demand constraints. Broader discussions of metal and mineral supply beyond current criticality are needed given the pace of technological and demographic change as well as rapid development spurts. Furthermore, accessible mineral deposits are irregularly distributed

  10. Directions of development of research methods in the assessment of leaching of heavy metals from mineral waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Król Anna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many test methods to assess the level of the release of heavy metals into the environment from mineral waste materials. Leaching methods can be different depending on the leaching time periods, leaching dynamics, sample preparation method or the pH of the elution medium. In Poland, little attention is paid to the research on the relationship between the leaching of particular heavy metals from mineral wastes and changes in environmental conditions, including the pH of the environment. Tests being carried out abroad have started to pay great attention to the pH-dependent impact of the environment and the liquid being in contact with the material on the degree of leaching contaminants from wastes. The solubility of all metals depends on the value of the pH. Authors of the paper will try to prove that Polish methods of waste characterization is incomplete and inconsistent with opinions prevailing in the global literature. The procedure described in the Polish standards are insufficient to determine the actual level of leaching of heavy metals having regard to the impact of multiple external conditions on the level of leaching of heavy metals. Paper will present a directions of development of research methods in the assessment of leaching of heavy metals from mineral waste.

  11. Mesozoic Magmatism and Base-Metal Mineralization in the Fortymile Mining District, Eastern Alaska - Initial Results of Petrographic, Geochemical, and Isotopic Studies in the Mount Veta Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Slack, John F.; Aleinikoff, John N.; Mortensen, James K.

    2009-01-01

    -bearing Zn skarn. Cu-Zn-Pb-Ag-Au showings at the Oscar pros-pect occur in marble-hosted magnetite and pyrrhotite skarn that is spatially related to the stocks, dikes, and sills of the Early Jurassic syenite of Mount Veta. Mineralized rocks at the Eva Creek Ag-Zn-Pb-Cu prospect are within 1.5 km of the Mount Veta pluton, which is epidotized and locally altered along its contact with metamorphosed country rock east of the prospect. We report five new sulfide Pb-isotopic analyses from the LWM, Oscar, and Eva Creek prospects and compare these sulfide Pb-isotopic ratios with those for sulfides from nearby deposits and prospects in the Yukon-Tanana Upland and with feldspar Pb-isotopic ratios for Mesozoic plutons in the region. Disparities between the Pb-isotopic ratios for sulfides and igneous feldspars are consistent with a carbonate-replacement model for both the LWM and Eva Creek prospects. The presence in the Fortymile district of base-metal sulfides within both calc-silicate-rich skarns and the calc-silicate-free carbonate replacement deposits may reflect multistage mineralization by magmatic-hydrothermal systems during the emplacement of two or more magmatically unrelated igneous intrusions. Alternatively, all of the mineralized occurrences could be products of one regionally zoned system that formed during the intrusion of a single pluton. In addition to the likely origin of some of the base-metal occurrences by intrusion-related hydrothermal fluids, proximity of the LWM prospect to the northeast-striking, high-angle Kechumstuk Fault suggests that fluid flow along the fault also played an important role during carbonate-replacement mineralization.

  12. The effect of carbon content on mechanical properties, failure and corrosion resistance of deposited chromium metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Леонід Кімович Лещинськiй

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that if choosing a metal composition for surfacing rolls and rollers of continuous casting machines, both the carbon impact on the mechanical and functional properties and the critical values of the chromium concentration, which determine the corrosion resistance of the metal with regard to electrochemical corrosion theory, should be considered as well. The paper studied the effect of chromium and carbon steel the X5-X12 type on the structure, technological strength, mechanical properties, fracturing resistance and corrosion resistance of the weld metal. The composition of chromium tool steels (deposited metal (X5-used for the rolls of hot rolling mills and (X12-used for continuous casting machines rollers correspond to these values. The impact of carbon on the properties of the deposited metal containing chromium was considered by comparing the data for both types of the deposited metal. It was found that for both types of the deposited metal (X5 and X12, the limiting value of the carbon content, providing an optimal combination of strength, ductility, failure resistance is the same. If the carbon content is more than the limiting value – (0,25% the technological strength and failure resistance of the deposited metal significantly reduce. With increasing carbon content from 0,18 to 0,25% the martensite structure has a mixed morphology – lath and plate. The strength and toughness of the deposited metal grow. Of particular interest is simultaneous increase in the specific work of failure resulted from crack inhibition at the boundary with far less solid and more ductile ferrite. As for the 5% chromium metal, the X12 type composition with 0,25% C, is borderline. With a further increase in the carbon content of the metal both ductility and failure resistance sharply decrease and with 0,40% C the growth rate of fatigue crack increases by almost 1,5 times

  13. Enhancement of surface integrity of titanium alloy with copper by means of laser metal deposition process

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Erinosho, MF

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The laser metal deposition process possesses the combination of metallic powder and laser beam respectively. However, these combinations create an adhesive bonding that permanently solidifies the laser-enhanced-deposited powders. Titanium alloys (Ti...

  14. Map of critical raw material deposits in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Bertrand

    2016-04-01

    common interoperable EU Geological Knowledge Base. Such a Knowledge Base will support exploration for indigenous mineral resources and strengthen policy and decision making. In 2010, the European Commission identified 14 non energy non-agricultural raw materials as being critical. Criticality is based on both the scarcity of supply and the importance to European industry. This list was updated in 2014 to include 7 new commodities with one being dropped from the original list. The list now comprises: antimony, beryllium, borates, chromium, cobalt, coking coal, fluorspar, gallium, germanium, graphite, indium, magnesite, magnesium, niobium, phosphate rock, platinum group metals, light and heavy rare earth elements (separately), silicon metal and tungsten. ProMine was a European Union (EU) co-funded project, which had as its main objective the stimulation of the extractive industry to deliver new products to manufacturing industry. A major deliverable of the project was the ProMine Mineral Deposit (MD) database that contains information related to almost 13,000 mineral deposits in Europe. In order to extract data to be displayed on the CRM map of Europe, the ProMine MD database was queried for all commodities on the EC CRM list which were in the medium to super-large deposit size. Following this, the dataset was circulated to MREG in order to verify, validate and update the list.

  15. Oxygen Extraction from Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Tony

    2017-01-01

    Oxygen, whether used as part of rocket bipropellant or for astronaut life support, is a key consumable for space exploration and commercialization. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) has been proposed many times as a method for making space exploration more cost effective and sustainable. On planetary and asteroid surfaces the presence of minerals in the regolith that contain oxygen is very common, making them a potential oxygen resource. The majority of research and development for oxygen extraction from minerals has been for lunar regolith although this work would generally be applicable to regolith at other locations in space. This presentation will briefly survey the major methods investigated for oxygen extraction from regolith with a focus on the current status of those methods and possible future development pathways. The major oxygen production methods are (1) extraction from lunar ilmenite (FeTiO3) with either hydrogen or carbon monoxide, (2) carbothermal reduction of iron oxides and silicates with methane, and (3) molten regolith electrolysis (MRE) of silicates. Methods (1) and (2) have also been investigated in a two-step process using CO reduction and carbon deposition followed by carbothermal reduction. All three processes have byproducts that could also be used as resources. Hydrogen or carbon monoxide reduction produce iron metal in small amounts that could potentially be used as construction material. Carbothermal reduction also makes iron metal along with silicon metal and a glass with possible applications. MRE produces iron, silicon, aluminum, titanium, and glass, with higher silicon yields than carbothermal reduction. On Mars and possibly on some moons and asteroids, water is present in the form of mineral hydrates, hydroxyl (-OH) groups on minerals, andor water adsorbed on mineral surfaces. Heating of the minerals can liberate the water which can be electrolyzed to provide a source of oxygen as well. The chemistry of these processes, some key

  16. Ore-Forming Systems In Volcanogenic-Sedimentary Sequences By The Example Of Base Metal Deposits Of The Caucasus And East Pontic Metallotect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergo KEKELIA

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available By the example of Alpine volcanogenic base metal deposits of the central part of the AlpineHimalayan fold belt (East Pontic Metallotect and Caucasus, it has been demonstrated that their hydrothermal systems naturally emerge at various stages of active interaction of microplates-continental fragments of Eurasia and Gondwanaland. During the divergence stage, at the microplates-boundary zones within the marginal sea, hydrothermal-sedimentary Cu and polymetallic deposits have been formed; at the early convergence stage, within the paleo-island-arc systems, epigenetic Cu and in lesser extent, barite-polymetallic (Lesser Caucasus, and later both combined (hydrothermal-sedimentary and stockwork and epigenetic (mainly Cu- and Zn-containing deposits have been originated (East Pontic Metallotect. At the beginning of the collisional stage, in connection with antidrome volcanism within the back-arc volcanic structures, polyformational deposits (barite, barite-polymetallic, Cu, Au have been formed. This tendency persists during the whole collisional stage - in the within-plate and transplate Eocene volcanic depressions - mainly polymetallic deposits have been originated in which the increasing contents of Ag take place in comparison to Au. The authors share the opinion that the primarily- anomalous environments for Cu-Zn deposits can have been "specialized" basic and medium-acidic volcanics whereas for baritic and barite polymetallic deposits grey coloured and evaporitic sequences in the volcano-structure pedestals with buried highly mineralized brines seem to be most favorable.

  17. Textural Evolution During Micro Direct Metal Deposition of NiTi Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademzadeh, Saeed; Bariani, Paolo F.; Bruschi, Stefania

    2018-03-01

    In this research, a micro direct metal deposition process, newly developed as a potential method for micro additive manufacturing was used to fabricate NiTi builds. The effect of scanning strategy on grain growth and textural evolution was investigated using scanning electron microscope equipped with electron backscattered diffraction detector. Investigations showed that, the angle between the successive single tracks has an important role in grain size distribution and textural evolution of NiTi phase. Unidirectional laser beam scanning pattern developed a fiber texture; conversely, a backward and forward scanning pattern developed a strong ‖‖ RD texture on the surface of NiTi cubic samples produced by micro direct metal deposition.

  18. Carbon nanotubes/pectin/minerals substituted apatite nanocomposite depositions on anodized titanium for hard tissue implant: In vivo biological performance{sup †}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govindaraj, Dharman [Biomaterials in Medicinal Chemistry Lab, Department of Natural Products Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625021 (India); Rajan, Mariappan, E-mail: rajanm153@gmail.com [Biomaterials in Medicinal Chemistry Lab, Department of Natural Products Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625021 (India); Munusamy, Murugan A.; Alarfaj, Abdullah A. [Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Higuchi, Akon [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Central University, Jhong-li, Taoyuan, 32001 Taiwan (China); Suresh Kumar, S. [Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang (Malaysia)

    2017-06-15

    A surface deposition approach enveloping the use of biocompatible trace components and strengthening materials will affect the physicochemical and osseointegration properties of nanocomposite deposited implants. The current work is aimed at the development of functionalized carbon nanotubes (f-CNT)/Pectin (P)/mineralized hydroxyapatite (M-HA) ((f-CNT/P/M-HA)) nanocomposite depositions by electrophoretic deposition on anodized titanium (TiO{sub 2}) implant. The capacity of f-CNT manages the cost of mechanical strength, while pectin (extracted from pomegranate peel) and minerals (strontium, magnesium, and zinc) enhance the biocompatibility of the HA deposition was investigate utilizing different methods. The functional and morphological analyses were done by FTIR, XRD, XPS, SEM-EDX and TEM. The mechanical depiction results show improved adherence quality for the nanocomposite deposition. Additionally, an enhanced viability of osteoblast cells (MG63 (HOS)) was monitored in vitro on the f-CNT/P/M-HA nanocomposite deposition. The capacity of the nanocomposite deposited TiO{sub 2} implant to encourage bone development was assessed in vivo. Hence, the as-synthesized nanocomposite deposited TiO{sub 2} that joins the comfort osteoconductivity of mineralized hydroxyapatite, pectin collectively with the compressive strength of f-CNT can have numerous uses in orthopaedics since it could enhance implant fixation in human bone. - Highlights: • Successful development of CNTs–Pectin reinforced M-HA nanocomposite coating on TiO{sub 2} by electrodeposition. • The success of nanocomposite coatings was evidenced with FTIR, XRD, XPS, SEM-EDX, and TEM. • Nanocomposite coating on TiO{sub 2} is bio-resistive, better candidate for implant applications. • The fabricate nanocomposite coatings showed good biocompatibility and no adverse effect from in vitro and in vivo tests.

  19. Alteration and petrology of Intrusive Rocks associated with Gold Mineralization at Kuh-E-Zar Gold Deposit, Torbat-e-Heydaryeh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Mazloumi Bajestani

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Kuh- e -Zar gold deposit located 35 km west of Torbat-e-Heydaryeh, (Khorassan e- Razavi province, East of Iran. This deposit is a specularite-rich Iron oxide type (IOCG. This mine is situated within Khaf-Bardascan volcanic plutonic belt. Based on recent exploration along this belt, several IOCG type system plus Kuh-e-Zar deposit are discovered. In the study area, several type of tuff and lava having acid to intermediate composition are identified (upper Eocene. Oligo-Miocene granite, granodiorite, synogranite and monzonite intruded upper Eocene andesite-dacite-rhyolite. Intrusive rocks are meta-aluminous, medium to high-K series I-type. Based on spider diagram, intrusive rocks show enrichment in LILE = K, Th, Rb and depletion in HFSE = Nb, Sr, Ti. Based geochemistry of igneous rock, they formed in continental margin subduction zone. Propylitic (chlorite alteration is dominated and covers large area. Silicification is restricted only to mineralized zones. Argillic and albitization is found in certain location and cover small areas. The style of mineralization was controlled by the type and geometry of fault zones. Mineralization is found as vein, stockwork and breccias. Hypogene mineral Paragenesis include: specularite-quartz-gold-chlorite ± chalcopyrite ± pyrite ± galena ± barite. Secondary minerals formed due to oxidation are: goethite, limonite, lepidocrucite, Malachite, Azurite, Covelite, Cerucite, hydrocerucite, Pyrolusite and Smitsonite. In a few localities, chalcopyrite and minor pyrite and galena are found. Based on SEM analysis gold is present as electrum. Mineralization appeared in different type such as vein, stockwork and Hydrothermal breccia in strike sleep fault zone which are hidden inside volcano plutonic rocks. The average gold grade is between 3.02 ppm and ore reserve is estimated more than 3 million tons (cut off grade = 0.7 ppm.

  20. Geochronology of the Thompson Creek Mo Deposit: Evidence for the Formation of Arc-related Mo Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, C. D.; Coleman, D. S.; Stein, H. J.

    2016-12-01

    The Thompson Creek Mo deposit in central ID, has been categorized as an arc-related Mo deposit due to the location, grade of Mo, and relative lack of enrichments in F, Rb, and Nb, compared to the Climax-type Mo deposits. Geochronology from this arc-related deposit provides an opportunity to compare and contrast magmatism, and mineralization to that in Climax-type deposits. Distinct pulses of magmatism were required to form the Thompson Creek Mo deposit, which is consistent with recent geochronology from Climax-type deposits. Molybdenite Re-Os geochronology from five veins requires at least three pulses of magmatism and mineralization between 89.39 +/- 0.37 and 88.47 +/- 0.16 Ma. Zircon U-Pb ages from these mineralized samples overlap with molybdenite mineralization, but show a much wider range (91.01 +/- 0.37 to 87.27 +/- 0.69). Previous work from Climax-type Mo deposits suggest a correlation between a super eruption, and the subsequent rapid (<1 Ma) onset, and completion of Mo mineralizing intrusions. The longer life (3-4 Ma) for the Thompson Creek Mo deposit suggests that the mineralizing intrusions for arc-related Mo deposits may not need to have as high [Mo] as the Climax-type deposits. This study also finds a shift in the source of magmatism from the pre- to syn-mineralizing intrusions. Zircons from pre-mineralizing intrusions have much higher (15-60 pg) concentrations of radiogenic Pb than zircons from mineralized intrusions, which all have less than 15 pg, though whole rock [U] are similar.

  1. Exposure emanation methods of prospecting for mineral deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titov, V.L.; Venkov, V.A.; Avdeeva, T.Ya.; Kuvshinnikova, E.I.

    1985-01-01

    Fundamentals of the theory and practice of new methods for prospecting of mineral deposits-exposure emanation surveys are stated. Different modifications of these methods are considered: emanation track method, electron alphametry, technique based on the recording of alpha radiation of radon daughter products and thermoluminescent dosemeters. Advanatges of these methods as compared with the conventional emanation survey using emanometers and methods based on the recording of gamma radiation intensity are shown. Problems of the theory and practical aspects of the concrete modifications application as well as systems for data acquisition and processing fields of the methods application, technique of works performance and survey data interpretation are considered in detail; methods sensitivity, probable mechanisms of radon transport in bowels, role of a depth component of the radiactive emanation concentration field are evaluated. Examples of the method application in practice are given, emanation anomalies and their evaluation methods are classified

  2. Professional illnesses in miners caused by heavy metals and toxic substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veličkova N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The exposure of humans in an environment contaminated with heavy metals is associated with many diseases, characterized by pathological changes in the respiratory tract, lung function deterioration. The results of the research, conducted with miners working in the “Sasa” lead and zinc mine, were focused on validating the existing professional risk. Most affected are the miners engaged in drilling head and ore. Disease was verified by analysis of acute symptoms. According to the time of exposure, disease symptoms were most frequent after exposure from 1 to 3 years. This indicates that a short span of exposure can be dangerous for some organs, depending on individual hypersensitivity. The most common lung diseases in exposed workers are, chronic bronchitis and tracheitis, chronic obstructive lung disease, pneumoconiosis and silicosis. The multidisciplinary elaboration of the topic, suggests the need for a more serious approach to this important phenomenon (ecotoxicological impact of heavy metals in exposed workers, and also is a specific model that is capable of application and in other related research.

  3. Enhancement of isotope exchange reactions over ceramic breeder material by deposition of catalyst metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narisato, Y.; Munakata, K.; Koga, A.; Yokoyama, Y.; Takata, T.; Okabe, H.

    2004-01-01

    The deposition of catalyst metals in ceramic breeders could enhance the release rate of tritium due to the promotion of isotope exchange reactions taking place at the interface of the breeder surface and the sweep gas. In this work, the authors examined the effects of catalytic active metal deposited on lithium titanate on the isotope exchange reactions. With respect to the virgin lithium titanate, it was found that the rate of the isotope exchange reactions taking place on the surface is quite low. However, the deposition of palladium greatly increased the exchange reaction rate. The effect of the amounts of deposited palladium on the isotope exchange reaction rate was also investigated. The results indicate that the exchange reactions are still enhanced even if the amounts of deposited palladium are as low as 0.04%

  4. Petrography, mineralization and mineral explorations in the Zendan salt dome (Hara, Bandar Lengeh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Biabangard

    2018-04-01

    mineralization were sent to the Zarzma laboratory and were analyzed with Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP-OES. Two samples of igneous rocks were analyzed for determining major, minor and trace elements with ICP in Zarzma laboratory. Discussion Magmatic and evaporate fluids are sources of hydrothermal iron mineralization (Barton and Johnson, 2004. Sodic-calcic, semi sub deep pottasic, low silicific and sericitic alterations are related to magmatic fluids (Barton and Johnson, 2004. In the Zendan salt dome it seems that plutonic rocks prepared the source of temperature and made brine liquids evaporate and then moved the metals. Sodic alteration is one of the frequency alterations in the hydrothermal iron deposits related to high brain liquids (Arencibia and Clark, 1996. Immobile elements such as Ni, P and V show a high amount of magmatic iron deposit (Nystrom and Henriquiz, 1994. There is a significant relationship between the amount of Fe and the frequency elements. With an increase in the Fe content, the amount of TiO2, K2O, SiO2 and Al2O3 oxides decrease and the amounts of Ni and Cr2O3 increase. Low immobile elements’ contents and alteration type in the Zendan salt dome show the iron mineralization effect of brines fluids. On the other hand, this deposit can be classified into VMS deposits. Results Iron mineralization in Zendan salt dome is often magnetite, hematite, pyrite and chalcopyrite. Iron mineralization in the Zendan salt dome consists mostly of hematite, limonite and oligist (red soil layers. They are usually found as scattered discontinuous layers and are alternated with gypsum layers. Hematite is the most abundant and dominant. There is a significant relationship between the amount of Fe and frequency elements. With increasing the Fe content, the amounts of TiO2, K2O, SiO2 and Al2O3 oxides decrease and the amounts of Ni and Cr2O3 increase . Low immobile elements' contents and alteration type in the Zendan salt dome shows the iron mineralization effect on brines

  5. Qualitative assessment of selected areas of the world for undiscovered sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits: Chapter Y in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientek, Michael L.; Wintzer, Niki E.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Parks, Heather L.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Causey, J. Douglas; Hatch, Shyla A.; Jenkins, M. Christopher; Williams, David J.; Zientek, Michael L.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Johnson, Kathleen M.

    2015-12-14

    A qualitative mineral resource assessment of sediment-hosted stratabound copper mineralized areas for undiscovered copper deposits was performed for 10 selected areas of the world. The areas, in alphabetical order, are (1) Belt-Purcell Basin, United States and Canada; (2) Benguela and Cuanza Basins, Angola; (3) Chuxiong Basin, China; (4) Dongchuan Group rocks, China; (5) Egypt–Israel–Jordan Rift, Egypt, Israel, and Jordan; (6) Maritimes Basin, Canada; (7) Neuquén Basin, Argentina; (8) Northwest Botswana Rift, Botswana and Namibia; (9) Redstone Copperbelt, Canada; and (10) Salta Rift System, Argentina. This assessment (1) outlines the main characteristics of the areas, (2) classifies known deposits by deposit model subtypes, and (3) ranks the areas according to their potential to contain undiscovered copper deposits.

  6. Solution synthesis of mixed-metal chalcogenide nanoparticles and spray deposition of precursor films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Douglas L.; Curtis, Calvin J.; Ginley, David S.

    2000-01-01

    A colloidal suspension comprising metal chalcogenide nanoparticles and a volatile capping agent. The colloidal suspension is made by reacting a metal salt with a chalcogenide salt in an organic solvent to precipitate a metal chalcogenide, recovering the metal chalcogenide, and admixing the metal chalcogenide with a volatile capping agent. The colloidal suspension is spray deposited onto a substrate to produce a semiconductor precursor film which is substantially free of impurities.

  7. Nature of parent rocks, mineralization styles and ore genesis of regolith-hosted REE deposits in South China: An integrated genetic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan Hei Martin; Zhao, Wen Winston; Zhou, Mei-Fu

    2017-10-01

    Regolith-hosted rare earth element (REE) deposits, also called ion-adsorption or weathered crust elution-deposited REE deposits are distributed over Jiangxi, Guangdong, Fujian, Hunan, Guangxi and Yunnan provinces in South China. In general, these deposits can be categorized into the HREE-dominated type, for example the famous Zudong deposit in southern Jiangxi province and the LREE-dominated type, such as the Heling and Dingnan deposits in southern Jiangxi province. Most of these deposits form from weathering of biotite and muscovite granites, syenites, monzogranites, granodiorites, granite porphyries, and rhyolitic tuffs. The parent rocks are generally peraluminous, siliceous, alkaline and contain a variety of REE-bearing minerals. Mostly, REE patterns of regolith are inherited from the parent rocks, and therefore, characteristics of the parent rocks impose a significant control on the ore formation. Data compilation shows that autometasomatism during the latest stage of granite crystallization is likely essential in forming the HREE-enriched granites, whereas LREE-enriched granites could form through magmatic differentiation. These deposits are normally two- to three-fold, but could be up to ten-fold enrichment in REE compared to the parent granites, where the maximum enrichment usually occurs from the lower B to the upper C horizon. Ce shows different behavior with the other REEs. Strongly positive Ce anomalies commonly occur at the upper part of weathering profiles, likely due to oxidation of Ce3+ to Ce4+ and removal of Ce from soil solutions through precipitation of cerianite. Vertical pH and redox gradients in weathering crusts facilitate dissolution of REE-bearing minerals at shallow level and fixation of REE at depth through either adsorption on clay minerals or precipitation of secondary minerals. At the same time, mass removal of major elements plays an important role in concentrating REE in regolith. Combination of mass removal and eluviation

  8. Sulphide mineralization and wall-rock alteration in ophiolites and modern oceanic spreading centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koski, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Massive and stockwork Fe-Cu-Zn (Cyprus type) sulphide deposits in the upper parts of ophiolite complexes represent hydrothermal mineralization at ancient accretionary plate boundaries. These deposits are probable metallogenic analogues of the polymetallic sulphide deposits recently discovered along modern oceanic spreading centres. Genetic models for these deposits suggest that mineralization results from large-scale circulation of sea-water through basaltic basement along the tectonically active axis of spreading, a zone of high heat flow. The high geothermal gradient above 1 to 2 km deep magma chambers emplaced below the ridge axis drives the convective circulation cell. Cold oxidizing sea-water penetrating the crust on the ridge flanks becomes heated and evolves into a highly reduced somewhat acidic hydrothermal solvent during interaction with basaltic wall-rock. Depending on the temperature and water/rock ratio, this fluid is capable of leaching and transporting iron, manganese, and base metals; dissolved sea-water sulphate is reduced to sulphide. At the ridge axis, the buoyant hydrothermal fluid rises through permeable wall-rocks, and fluid flow may be focussed along deep-seated fractures related to extensional tectonic processes. Metal sulphides are precipitated along channelways as the ascending fluid undergoes adiabatic expansion and then further cooling during mixing with ambient sub-sea-floor water. Vigorous fluid flow results in venting of reduced fluid at the sea-floor/sea-water interface and deposition of massive sulphide. A comparison of sulphide mineralization and wall-rock alteration in ancient and modern spreading centre environments supports this genetic concept. Massive sulphide deposits in ophiolites generally occur in clusters of closely spaced (stacked sequences of pillow basalt and sheet flows, the sea-floor underlying numerous deposits in Guaymas Basin consists of diatomaceous ooze and terrigenous clastic sediment that is intruded by diabase

  9. NOVEL IN-SITU METAL AND MINERAL EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn O' Gorman; Hans von Michaelis; Gregory J. Olson

    2004-09-22

    This white paper summarizes the state of art of in-situ leaching of metals and minerals, and describes a new technology concept employing improved fragmentation of ores underground in order to prepare the ore for more efficient in-situ leaching, combined with technology to continuously improve solution flow patterns through the ore during the leaching process. The process parameters and economic benefits of combining the new concept with chemical and biological leaching are described. A summary is provided of the next steps required to demonstrate the technology with the goal of enabling more widespread use of in-situ leaching.

  10. Pulsed laser deposition of YBCO films on ISD MgO buffered metal tapes

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, B; Koritala, R E; Fisher, B L; Markowitz, A R; Erck, R A; Baurceanu, R; Dorris, S E; Miller, D J; Balachandran, U

    2003-01-01

    Biaxially textured magnesium oxide (MgO) films deposited by inclined-substrate deposition (ISD) are desirable for rapid production of high-quality template layers for YBCO-coated conductors. High-quality YBCO films were grown on ISD MgO buffered metallic substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Columnar grains with a roof-tile surface structure were observed in the ISD MgO films. X-ray pole figure analysis revealed that the (002) planes of the ISD MgO films are tilted at an angle from the substrate normal. A small full-width at half maximum (FWHM) of approx 9deg was observed in the phi-scan for ISD MgO films deposited at an inclination angle of 55deg . In-plane texture in the ISD MgO films developed in the first approx 0.5 mu m from the substrate surface, and then stabilized with further increases in film thickness. Yttria-stabilized zirconia and ceria buffer layers were deposited on the ISD MgO grown on metallic substrates prior to the deposition of YBCO by PLD. YBCO films with the c-axis parallel to the...

  11. Cotton fabrics with UV blocking properties through metal salts deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emam, Hossam E.; Bechtold, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Introducing metal salt based UV-blocking properties into cotton fabric. • A quite simple technique used to produce wash resistant UV-absorbers using different Cu-, Zn- and Ti-salts. • Good UPF was obtained after treatment with Cu and Ti salts, and ranged between 11.6 and 14. • The efficiency of the deposited metal oxides is compared on molar basis. - Abstract: Exposure to sunlight is important for human health as this increases the resistance to diverse pathogens, but the higher doses cause skin problems and diseases. Hence, wearing of sunlight protective fabrics displays a good solution for people working in open atmosphere. The current study offered quite simple and technically feasible ways to prepare good UV protection fabrics based on cotton. Metal salts including Zn, Cu and Ti were immobilized into cotton and oxidized cotton fabrics by using pad-dry-cure technique. Metal contents on fabrics were determined by AAS; the highest metal content was recorded for Cu-fabric and it was 360.6 mmol/kg after treatment of oxidized cotton with 0.5 M of copper nitrate. Ti contents on fabrics were ranged between 168.0 and 200.8 mmol/kg and it showed the lowest release as only 38.1–46.4% leached out fabrics after five laundry washings. Metal containing deposits were specified by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. UV-transmission radiation over treated fabrics was measured and ultraviolet protection factor (UPF) was calculated. UPF was enhanced after treatment with Cu and Ti salts to be 11.6 and 14, respectively. After five washings, the amount of metal (Cu or Ti) retained indicates acceptable laundering durability.

  12. Studies Concerning the Accumulation of Minerals and Heavy Metals in Fruiting Bodies of Wild Mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stihi, Claudia; Radulescu, Cristiana; Gheboianu, Anca; Bancuta, Iulian; Popescu, Ion V.; Busuioc, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    The minerals and heavy metals play an important role in the metabolic processes, during the growth and development of mushrooms, when they are available in appreciable concentration. In this work the concentrations of Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Cd and Pb were analyzed using the Flame Atomic Absorption spectrometry (FAAS) together with Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF) in 3 wild mushrooms species and their growing substrate, collected from various forestry fields in Dambovita County, Romania. The analyzed mushrooms were: Amanita phalloides, Amanita rubescens and Armillariella mellea. The accumulation coefficients were calculated to assess the mobility of minerals and heavy metals from substrate to mushrooms [1].

  13. Microbe and Mineral Mediated Transformation of Heavy Metals, Radionuclides, and Organic Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, R.

    2011-12-01

    Microorganisms influence their surroundings in many ways and humans have utilized microbially catalyzed reactions for benefit for centuries. Over the past few decades, microorganisms have been used for the control of contaminant transport in subsurface environments where many microbe mineral interactions occur. This presentation will discuss microbially influenced mineral formation and transformation as well as their influence on the fate of organic contaminants such as chlorinated aliphatics & 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), heavy metals such as chromium, and radionuclides such as uranium & strontium. Both, batch and flow experiments have been performed, which monitor the net effect of microbe mineral interactions on the fate of these contaminants. This invited presentation will place an emphasis on the relative importance of direct microbial (i.e. biotic) transformations, mineral-mediated transformations as well as other abiotic reactions influencing the fate of environmental contaminants. Experiments will be summarized and placed in context of past and future engineered applications for the control of subsurface contaminants.

  14. An analytical–numerical model of laser direct metal deposition track and microstructure formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahsan, M Naveed; Pinkerton, Andrew J

    2011-01-01

    Multiple analytical and numerical models of the laser metal deposition process have been presented, but most rely on sequential solution of the energy and mass balance equations or discretization of the problem domain. Laser direct metal deposition is a complex process involving multiple interdependent processes which can be best simulated using a fully coupled mass-energy balance solution. In this work a coupled analytical–numerical solution is presented. Sub-models of the powder stream, quasi-stationary conduction in the substrate and powder assimilation into the area of the substrate above the liquidus temperature are combined. An iterative feedback loop is used to ensure mass and energy balances are maintained at the melt pool. The model is verified using Ti–6Al–4V single track deposition, produced with a coaxial nozzle and a diode laser. The model predictions of local temperature history, the track profile and microstructure scale show good agreement with the experimental results. The model is a useful industrial aid and alternative to finite element methods for selecting the parameters to use for laser direct metal deposition when separate geometric and microstructural outcomes are required

  15. [Pollution evaluation and health risk assessment of heavy metals from atmospheric deposition in Lanzhou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Xue, Su-Yin; Wang, Sheng-Li; Nan, Zhong-Ren

    2014-03-01

    In order to evaluate the contamination and health risk of heavy metals from atmospheric deposition in Lanzhou, samples of atmospheric deposition were collected from 11 sampling sites respectively and their concentrations of heavy metals were determined. The results showed that the average contents of Cu, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Zn and Mn were 82.22, 130.31, 4.34, 88.73, 40.64, 369.23 and 501.49 mg x kg(-1), respectively. There was great difference among different functional areas for all elements except Mn. According to the results, the enrichment factor score of Mn was close to 1, while the enrichment of Zn, Ni, Cu and Cr was more serious, and Pb and Cd were extremely enriched. The assessment results of geoaccumulation index of potential ecological risk indicated that the pollution of Cd in the atmospheric deposition of Lanzhou should be classified as extreme degree, and that of Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb as between slight and extreme degrees, and Cr as practically uncontaminated. Contaminations of atmospheric dust by heavy metals in October to the next March were more serious than those from April to August. Health risk assessment indicated that the heavy metals in atmospheric deposition were mainly ingested by human bodies through hand-mouth ingestion. The non-cancer risk was higher for children than for adults. The order of non-cancer hazard indexes of heavy metals was Pb > Cr > Cd > Cu > Ni > Zn. The non-cancer hazard indexes and carcinogen risks of heavy metals were both lower than their threshold values, suggesting that they will not harm the health.

  16. Magmatic-hydrothermal fluid evolution of the Dalli porphyry Cu-Au deposit; using Amphibole and Plagioclas mineral chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houshang Pourkaseb

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The formation of porphyry copper deposits is attributed to the shallow emplacement, and subsequent cooling of the hydrothermal system of porphyritic intrusive rocks (Titley and Bean, 1981. These deposits have usually been developed along the chain of subduction-related volcanic and calc-alkalin batholiths (Sillitoe, 2010. Nevertheless, it is now confirmed that porphyry copper systems can also form in collisional and post collisional settings (Zarasvandi et al., 2015b. Detailed studies on the geochemical features of ore-hosting porphyry Cu-Mo-Au intrusions indicate that they are generally adakitic, water and sulfur- riched, and oxidized (Wang et al., 2014. For example, high oxygen fugacity of magma has decisive role in transmission of copper and gold to the porphyry systems as revealed in (Wang et al., 2014. In this regard, the present work deals with the mineral chemistry of amphibole and plagioclase in the Dalli porphyry Cu-Au deposit. The data is used to achieve the physical and chemical conditions of magma and its impact on mineralization. Moreover, the results of previous studies on the hydrothermal system of the Dalli deposit such as Raman laser spectroscopy and fluid inclusion studies are included for determination of the evolution from magmatic to hydrothermal conditions. Materials and methods In order to correctly characterize the physical and chemical conditions affecting the trend of mineralization, 20 least altered and fractured samples of diorite and quartz-diorite intrusions were chosen from boreholes. Subsequently, 20 thin-polished sections were prepared in the Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz. Finally, mineral chemistry of amphibole and plagioclase were determined using electron micro probe analyses (EMPA in the central lab of the Leoben University. Results Amphibole that is one of the the main rock-forming minerals can form in a wide variety of igneous and metamorphic rocks. Accordingly, amphibole chemistry can be

  17. Crystallite size distribution of clay minerals from selected Serbian clay deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić Vladimir

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The BWA (Bertaut-Warren-Averbach technique for the measurement of the mean crystallite thickness and thickness distributions of phyllosilicates was applied to a set of kaolin and bentonite minerals. Six samples of kaolinitic clays, one sample of halloysite, and five bentonite samples from selected Serbian deposits were analyzed. These clays are of sedimentary volcano-sedimentary (diagenetic, and hydrothermal origin. Two different types of shape of thickness distribution were found - lognormal, typical for bentonite and halloysite, and polymodal, typical for kaolinite. The mean crystallite thickness (T BWA seams to be influenced by the genetic type of the clay sample.

  18. Deposition and Characterization of Thin Films on Metallic Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatica, Jorge E.

    2005-01-01

    A CVD method was successfully developed to produce conversion coatings on aluminum alloys surfaces with reproducible results with a variety of precursors. A well defined protocol to prepare the precursor solutions formulated in a previous research was extended to other additives. It was demonstrated that solutions prepared following such a protocol could be used to systematically generate protective coatings onto aluminum surfaces. Experiments with a variety of formulations revealed that a refined deposition protocol yields reproducible conversion coatings of controlled composition. A preliminary correlation between solution formulations and successful precursors was derived. Coatings were tested for adhesion properties enhancement for commercial paints. A standard testing method was followed and clear trends were identified. Only one precursors was tested systematically. Anticipated work on other precursors should allow a better characterization of the effect of intermetallics on the production of conversion/protective coatings on metals and ceramics. The significance of this work was the practical demonstration that chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques can be used to systematically generate protective/conversion coating on non-ferrous surfaces. In order to become an effective approach to replace chromate-based pre- treatment processes, namely in the aerospace or automobile industry, the process parameters must be defined more precisely. Moreover, the feasibility of scale-up designs necessitates a more comprehensive characterization of the fluid flow, transport phenomena, and chemical kinetics interacting in the process. Kinetic characterization showed a significantly different effect of magnesium-based precursors when compared to iron-based precursors. Future work will concentrate on refining the process through computer simulations and further experimental studies on the effect of other transition metals to induce deposition of conversion/protective films

  19. Deposition of deuterium and metals on divertor tiles in the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, D.S.; Doyle, B.L.; Jackson, G.L.

    1991-01-01

    Hydrogen recycling and impurity influx are important issues in obtaining high confinement discharges in the D3-D tokamak. To reduce metallic impurities in D3-D, 40% of the wall area, including the highest heat flux zones, have been covered with graphite tiles. However erosion, redeposition and hydrogen retention in the tiles, as well as metal transport from the remaining Inconel walls can lead to enhanced recycling and impurity influx. Hydrogen and metal retention in divertor floor tiles have been measured using external ion beam analysis techniques following four campaigns where tiles were exposed to several thousand tokamak discharges. The areal density of deuterium retained following exposure to tokamak plasmas was measured with external nuclear reaction analysis. External proton-induced x-ray emission analysis was used to measure the areal densities of metallic impurities deposited upon the divertor tiles either by sputtering of metallic components during discharges or as contamination during tile fabrication. Measurements for both deuterium and metallic impurities were taken on both the tile surfaces which face the operating plasma and the surfaces on the side of the tiles which form the small gaps separating each of the tiles in the divertor. The highest areal densities of both deuterium and metals were found on the plasma-facing surface near the inner strike point region of each set of divertor tiles. Significant deposits, extending as fast a 1 cm from the plasma-facing and containing up to forty percent of the total divertor deposition, were also observed on the gap-forming surfaces of the tiles

  20. Uranium mineralization environment and prospecting potential of Dawan ore field in Nanling metallogenic belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Shanghai

    2011-01-01

    Located in the middle part of Jiuyishan complex pluton, Nanling metallogenic belt, Dawan uranium ore field in Hunan Province is an important uranium-producing and rare metal, nonferrous metal cluster area due to the favourable mineralization environment. The Cambrian is the main uranium source bed and their contact zone to the pluton is the favorable part for mineralization. The uranium deposits which have been explored are all located in the exocontact zone of Jinjiling pluton in the middle part of Jiuyishan complex pluton which is composed of the independent eastern and western magma evolution centers. In the west center, Jinjiling pluton is closely related to uranium mineralization where the trinity geologic setting was formed with magma evolution, hydrothermal fluid action and mineralization. The deep slitted and large faults provide the pathway and thermodynamic source for circulating migration of mineralizing fluid. The uranium mineralization mainly occurred in crustal stress conversion period of Late Cretaceous and related to the tensive NW extending fault and deep originated fluid. The gravity, aero magnetic, airborne gamma-ray spectrometry anomalies and radioactivity hydrochemical anomaly are important criteria for uranium prospecting. Based on the analysis of regional uranium mineralization environment, the prospecting potential is forecasted. (authors)

  1. Mechanical properties of vapor-deposited thin metallic films: a status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, P.H.

    1982-01-01

    The mechanical properties of vapor-deposited thin metallic films are being studied in conjunction with the target fabrication group associated with the laser-fusion energy program. The purpose of the work is to gain an understanding as to which metals are structurally best suited to contain a glass microsphere filled with deuterium-tritium (D-T) gas at large internal pressures

  2. Archaean Gold Mineralization in an Extensional Setting: The Structural History of the Kukuluma and Matandani Deposits, Geita Greenstone Belt, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimba D. Kwelwa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Three major gold deposits, Matandani, Kukuluma, and Area 3, host several million ouncez (Moz of gold, along a ~5 km long, WNW trend in the E part of the Geita Greenstone Belt, NW Tanzania. The deposits are hosted in Archaean volcanoclastic sediment and intrusive diorite. The geological evolution of the deposits involved three separate stages: (1 an early stage of syn-sedimentary extensional deformation (D1 around 2715 Ma; (2 a second stage involving overprinting ductile folding (D2–4 and shearing (D5–6 events during N-S compression between 2700 and 2665 Ma, coeval with the emplacement of the Kukuluma Intrusive Complex; and (3 a final stage of extensional deformation (D7 accommodated by minor, broadly east-trending normal faults, preceded by the intrusion of felsic porphyritic dykes at ~2650 Ma. The geometry of the ore bodies at Kukuluma and Matandani is controlled by the distribution of magnetite-rich meta-ironstone, near the margins of monzonite-diorite bodies of the Kukuluma Intrusive Complex. The lithological contacts acted as redox boundaries, where high-grade mineralization was enhanced in damage zones with higher permeability, including syn-D3 hydrothermal breccia, D2–D3 fold hinges, and D6 shears. The actual mineralizing event was syn-D7, and occurred in an extensional setting that facilitated the infiltration of mineralizing fluids. Thus, whilst gold mineralization is late-tectonic, ore zone geometries are linked to older structures and lithological boundaries that formed before gold was introduced. The deformation-intrusive history of the Kukuluma and Matandani deposits is near identical to the geological history of the world-class Nyankanga and Geita Hill deposits in the central part of the Geita Greenstone Belt. This similarity suggests that the geological history of much of the greenstone belt is similar. All major gold deposits in the Geita Greenstone Belt lack close proximity to crustal-scale shear zones; they are associated

  3. Integrating Data of ASTER and Landsat-8 OLI (AO for Hydrothermal Alteration Mineral Mapping in Duolong Porphyry Cu-Au Deposit, Tibetan Plateau, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingbin Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important characteristics of porphyry copper deposits (PCDs is the type and distribution pattern of alteration zones which can be used for screening and recognizing these deposits. Hydrothermal alteration minerals with diagnostic spectral absorption properties in the visible and near-infrared (VNIR through the shortwave infrared (SWIR regions can be identified by multispectral and hyperspectral remote sensing data. Six Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER bands in SWIR have been shown to be effective in the mapping of Al-OH, Fe-OH, Mg-OH group minerals. The five VNIR bands of Landsat-8 (L8 Operational Land Imager (OLI are useful for discriminating ferric iron alteration minerals. In the absence of complete hyperspectral coverage area, an opportunity, however, exists to integrate ASTER and L8-OLI (AO to compensate each other’s shortcomings in covering area for mineral mapping. This study examines the potential of AO data in mineral mapping in an arid area of the Duolong porphyry Cu-Au deposit(Tibetan Plateau in China by using spectral analysis techniques. Results show the following conclusions: (1 Combination of ASTER and L8-OLI data (AO has more mineral information content than either alone; (2 The Duolong PCD alteration zones of phyllic, argillic and propylitic zones are mapped using ASTER SWIR bands and the iron-bearing mineral information is best mapped using AO VNIR bands; (3 The multispectral integration data of AO can provide a compensatory data of ASTER VNIR bands for iron-bearing mineral mapping in the arid and semi-arid areas.

  4. Risk assessment of metals in road-deposited sediment along an urban–rural gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Hongtao; Li, Xuyong

    2013-01-01

    We applied the traditional risk assessment methods originally designed for soils and river sediments to evaluation of risk associated with metals in road-deposited sediment (RDS) along an urban–rural gradient that included central urban (UCA), urban village (UVA), central suburban county (CSA), rural town (RTA), and rural village (RVA) areas in the Beijing metropolitan region. A new indicator RI RDS was developed which integrated the RDS characteristics of mobility, grain size and amount with the potential ecological risk index. The risk associated with metals in RDS in urban areas was generally higher than that in rural areas based on the assessment using traditional methods, but the risk was higher in urban and rural village areas than the areas with higher administration units based on the indicator RI RDS . These findings implied that RDS characteristics variation with the urban–rural gradient must be considered in metal risk assessment and RDS washoff pollution control. Highlights: ► Spatial pattern of metal risk level associated with road-deposited sediment (RDS) along urban–rural gradients varied. ► Risk level of metals changed significantly when grain size was considered. ► A new index integrating RDS characteristics and potential ecological risk was developed. ► Results from the new index were improved relative to those of traditional assessment methods. -- A new index integrating road-deposited sediment characteristics and potential ecological risk was developed to assess metal risk along the urban–rural gradient

  5. Trace elements in tourmalines from massive sulfide deposits and tourmalinites: Geochemical controls and exploration applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, W.L.; Slack, J.F.; Ramsden, A.R.; Win, T.T.; Ryan, C.G.

    1996-01-01

    Trace element contents of tourmalines from massive sulfide deposits and tourmalinites have been determined in situ by proton microprobe; >390 analyses were acquired from 32 polished thin sections. Concentrations of trace elements in the tourmalines vary widely, from Sr, Ba, and Ca). Base metal proportions in the tourmalines show systematic patterns on ternary Cu-Pb-Zn diagrams that correlate well with the major commodity metals in the associated massive sulfide deposits. For example, data for tourmalines from Cu-Zn deposits (e.g., Ming mine, Newfoundland) fall mainly on the Cu-Zn join, whereas those from Pb-Zn deposits (e.g., Broken Hill, Australia) plot on the Pb-Zn join; no data fall on the Cu-Pb join, consistent with the lack of this metal association in massive sulfide deposits. The systematic relationship between base metal proportions in the tourmalines and the metallogeny of the host massive sulfide deposits indicates that the analyzed tourmalines retain a strong chemical signature of their original hydrothermal formation, in spite of variable metamorphic recrystallization. Such trace element patterns in massive sulfide tourmalines may be useful in mineral exploration, specifically for the evaluation of tourmaline concentrations in rocks, soils, and stream sediments.

  6. Global mineral resource assessment: porphyry copper assessment of Mexico: Chapter A in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Robinson, Gilpin R.; Ludington, Steve; Gray, Floyd; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Cendejas-Cruz, Francisco; Espinosa, Enrique; Pérez-Segura, Efrén; Valencia-Moreno, Martín; Rodríguez-Castañeda, José Luis; Vásquez-Mendoza, Rigobert; Zürcher, Lukas

    2010-01-01

    Mineral resource assessments provide a synthesis of available information about distributions of mineral deposits in the Earth’s crust. A probabilistic mineral resource assessment of undiscovered resources in porphyry copper deposits in Mexico was done as part of a global mineral resource assessment. The purpose of the study was to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within 1 km of the surface at a scale of 1:1,000,000; (2) provide a database of known porphyry copper deposits and significant prospects; (3) estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within those permissive tracts; and (4) provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), gold (Au), and silver (Ag) that could be contained in undiscovered deposits for each permissive tract. The assessment was conducted using a three-part form of mineral resource assessment based on mineral deposit models (Singer, 1993). Delineation of permissive tracts primarily was based on distributions of mapped igneous rocks related to magmatic arcs that formed in tectonic settings associated with subduction boundary zones. Using a GIS, map units were selected from digital geologic maps based on lithology and age to delineate twelve permissive tracts associated with Jurassic, Laramide (~90 to 34 Ma), and younger Tertiary magmatic arcs. Stream-sediment geochemistry, mapped alteration, regional aeromagnetic data, and exploration history were considered in conjunction with descriptive deposit models and grade and tonnage models to guide estimates.

  7. Co3O4 protective coatings prepared by Pulsed Injection Metal Organic Chemical Vapour Deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burriel, M.; Garcia, G.; Santiso, J.

    2005-01-01

    of deposition temperature. Pure Co3O4 spinel structure was found for deposition temperatures ranging from 360 to 540 degreesC. The optimum experimental parameters to prepare dense layers with a high growth rate were determined and used to prepare corrosion protective coatings for Fe-22Cr metallic interconnects......Cobalt oxide films were grown by Pulsed Injection Metal Organic Chemical Vapour Deposition (PI-MOCVD) using Co(acac)(3) (acac=acetylacetonate) precursor dissolved in toluene. The structure, morphology and growth rate of the layers deposited on silicon substrates were studied as a function......, to be used in Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  8. Efficiency of the deposition mode ice nucleation on mineral dust particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Möhler

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The deposition mode ice nucleation efficiency of various dust aerosols was investigated at cirrus cloud temperatures between 196 and 223 K using the aerosol and cloud chamber facility AIDA (Aerosol Interaction and Dynamics in the Atmosphere. Arizona test dust (ATD as a reference material and two dust samples from the Takla Makan desert in Asia (AD1 and the Sahara (SD2 were used for the experiments at simulated cloud conditions. The dust particle sizes were almost lognormally distributed with mode diameters between 0.3 and 0.5 μm and geometric standard deviations between 1.6 and 1.9. Deposition ice nucleation was most efficient on ATD particles with ice-active particle fractions of about 0.6 and 0.8 at an ice saturation ratio SiSiSi. This indicates that deposition ice nucleation on mineral particles may not be treated in the same stochastic sense as homogeneous freezing. The suggested formulation of ice activation spectra may be used to calculate the formation rate of ice crystals in models, if the number concentration of dust particles is known. More experimental work is needed to quantify the variability of the ice activation spectra as function of the temperature and dust particle properties.

  9. Magnetite-apatite mineralization in Khanlogh iron deposit, northwest of Neyshaboor, NE Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafzadeh Tehrani, Parvin; Asghar Calagari, Ali; Velasco Roldan, Francisco; Simmonds, Vartan; Siahcheshm, Kamal

    2016-04-01

    Khanlogh iron deposit lies on Sabzehvar-Ghoochan Cenozoic magmatic belt in northwest of Neyshaboor, NE Iran. The lithologic units in this area include a series of sub-volcanic intrusive rocks like diorite porphyry, quartz-diorite porphyry, and micro-granodiorite of Oligocene age. Mineralization in this area occurred as veins, dissemination, and open space filling in brecciated zones within the host sub-volcanic intrusive bodies. Three distinct types of mineral associations can be distinguished, (1) diopside-magnetite, (2) magnetite-apatite, and (3) apatite-calcite. Microscopic examinations along with SEM and EPMA studies demonstrated that magnetite is the most common ore mineral occurring as solitary crystals. The euhedral magnetite crystals are accompanied by lamellar destabilized ilmenite and granular fluorapatite in magnetite-apatite ores. The results of EPMA revealed that the lamellar ilmenite, relative to host magnetite crystal, is notably enriched in MgO and MnO (average of 3.3 and 2.6 wt%, respectively; n=5), whereas magnetite is slighter enriched in Ti (TiO2 around 1.8 wt%) being average of MgO, MnO and V2O3 of 0.6wt%, 0.2wt%, and 0.6 wt% (respectively; n=20). Minerals such as chlorapatite, calcite, and chalcedony are also present in the magnetite-apatite ores. The samples from apatite-calcite ores contain coarse crystals of apatite and rhomboedral calcite. The plot of the EPMA data of Khanlogh iron ore samples on diagram of TiO2-V2O5 (Hou et al, 2011) illustrated that the data points lies between the well-known Kiruna and El Laco (Chile) iron deposits. The magnetite crystals in the sub-volcanic host rocks were possibly formed by immiscible iron oxide fluids during magmatic stage. However, the magnetite and apatite existing in the veins and breccia zones may have developed by high temperature hydrothermal fluids. Studies done by Purtov and Kotelnikova (1993) proved that the proportion of Ti in magnetite is related to fluoride complex in the hydrothermal

  10. International mineral economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gocht, W.R.; Eggert, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    International Mineral Economics provides an integrated overview of the important concepts. The treatment is interdisciplinary, drawing on the fields of economics, geology, business, and mining engineering. Part I examines the technical concepts important for understanding the geology of ore deposits, the methods of exploration and deposit evaluation, and the activities of mining and mineral processing. Part II focuses on the economic and related concepts important for understanding mineral development, the evaluation of exploration and mining projects, and mineral markets and market models. Finally, Part III reviews and traces the historical development of the policies of international organizations, the industrialized countries, and the developing countries. (orig.)

  11. Reconstructing temporal trends in heavy metal deposition: Assessing the value of herbarium moss samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shotbolt, L. [Geography Department, Queen Mary, University of London, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: l.shotbolt@qmul.ac.uk; Bueker, P. [Stockholm Environment Institute, University of York, Heslington, YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: pb25@york.ac.uk; Ashmore, M.R. [Environment Department, University of York, Heslington, YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: ma512@york.ac.uk

    2007-05-15

    The use of the herbarium moss archive for investigating past atmospheric deposition of Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb was evaluated. Moss samples from five UK regions collected over 150 years were analysed for 26 elements using ICP-MS. Principal components analysis identified soil as a significant source of Ni and As and atmospheric deposition as the main source of Pb and Cu. Sources of Zn and Cd concentrations were identified to be at least partly atmospheric, but require further investigation. Temporal and spatial trends in metal concentrations in herbarium mosses showed that the highest Pb and Cu levels are found in Northern England in the late 19th century. Metal concentrations in herbarium moss samples were consistently higher than those in mosses collected from the field in 2000. Herbarium moss samples are concluded to be a useful resource to contribute to reconstructing trends in Pb and Cu deposition, but not, without further analysis, for Cd, Zn, As and Ni. - Herbarium moss samples can contribute to the reconstruction of past heavy metal deposition.

  12. Reconstructing temporal trends in heavy metal deposition: Assessing the value of herbarium moss samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shotbolt, L.; Bueker, P.; Ashmore, M.R.

    2007-01-01

    The use of the herbarium moss archive for investigating past atmospheric deposition of Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb was evaluated. Moss samples from five UK regions collected over 150 years were analysed for 26 elements using ICP-MS. Principal components analysis identified soil as a significant source of Ni and As and atmospheric deposition as the main source of Pb and Cu. Sources of Zn and Cd concentrations were identified to be at least partly atmospheric, but require further investigation. Temporal and spatial trends in metal concentrations in herbarium mosses showed that the highest Pb and Cu levels are found in Northern England in the late 19th century. Metal concentrations in herbarium moss samples were consistently higher than those in mosses collected from the field in 2000. Herbarium moss samples are concluded to be a useful resource to contribute to reconstructing trends in Pb and Cu deposition, but not, without further analysis, for Cd, Zn, As and Ni. - Herbarium moss samples can contribute to the reconstruction of past heavy metal deposition

  13. Topography evolution of rough-surface metallic substrates by solution deposition planarization method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Jingyuan; Zhao, Yue; Liu, Linfei; Wu, Wei; Zhang, Zhiwei; Hong, Zhiyong; Li, Yijie; Jin, Zhijian

    2018-01-01

    As an emerging technique for surface smoothing, solution deposition planarization (SDP) has recently drawn more attention on the fabrication of the second generation high temperature superconducting (2G-HTS) tapes. In our work, a number of amorphous oxide layers were deposited on electro-polished or mirror-rolled metallic substrates by chemical solution route. Topography evolution of surface defects on these two types of metallic substrates was thoroughly investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). It was showed that root mean square roughness values (at 50 × 50 μm2 scanning scale) on both rough substrates reduced to ∼5 nm after coating with SDP-layer. The smoothing effect was mainly attributed to decrease of the depth at grain boundary grooving on the electro-polished metallic substrate. On the mirror-rolled metallic substrates, the amplitude and frequency of the height fluctuation perpendicular to the rolling direction were gradually reduced as depositing more numbers of SDP-layer. A high Jc value of 4.17 MA cm-2 (at 77 K, s.f.) was achieved on a full stack of YBCO/CeO2/IBAD-MgO/SDP-layer/C276 sample. This study enhanced understanding of the topography evolution on the surface defects covered by the SDP-layer, and demonstrated a low-cost route for fabricating IBAD-MgO based YBCO templates with a simplified architecture.

  14. Application of laser assisted cold spraying process for metal deposition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tlotleng, Monnamme

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Laser assisted cold spraying (LACS) process is a hybrid technique that uses laser and cold spray to deposit solid powders on metal substrates. For bonding to occur, the particle velocities must be supersonic which are achieved by entraining...

  15. Stiffness management of sheet metal parts using laser metal deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambach, Markus; Sviridov, Alexander; Weisheit, Andreas

    2017-10-01

    Tailored blanks are established solutions for the production of load-adapted sheet metal components. In the course of the individualization of production, such semi-finished products are gaining importance. In addition to tailored welded blanks and tailored rolled blanks, patchwork blanks have been developed which allow a local increase in sheet thickness by welding, gluing or soldering patches onto sheet metal blanks. Patchwork blanks, however, have several limitations, on the one hand, the limited freedom of design in the production of patchwork blanks and, on the other hand, the fact that there is no optimum material bonding with the substrate. The increasing production of derivative and special vehicles on the basis of standard vehicles, prototype production and the functionalization of components require solutions with which semi-finished products and sheet metal components can be provided flexibly with local thickenings or functional elements with a firm metallurgical bond to the substrate. An alternative to tailored and patchwork blanks is, therefore, a free-form reinforcement applied by additive manufacturing via laser metal deposition (LMD). By combining metal forming and additive manufacturing, stiffness can be adapted to the loads based on standard components in a material-efficient manner and without the need to redesign the forming tools. This paper details a study of the potential of stiffness management by LMD using a demonstrator part. Sizing optimization is performed and part distortion is taken into account to find an optimal design for the cladding. A maximum stiffness increase of 167% is feasible with only 4.7% additional mass. Avoiding part distortion leads to a pareto-optimal design which achieves 95% more stiffness with 6% added mass.

  16. Fertility of Rare-Metal Peraluminous Granites and Formation Conditions of Tungsten Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syritso, L. F.; Badanina, E. V.; Abushkevich, V. S.; Volkova, E. V.; Terekhov, A. V.

    2018-01-01

    The tungsten distribution in rocks of the Kukulbei Complex in eastern Transbaikal region results in a high potential of rare-metal peraluminous granites (RPG) for W mineralization and displays a different behavior of W in Li-F and "standard" RPG. These subtypes differ in the behavior of W in melt, spatial localization of mineralization, and the timing of wolframite crystallization relative to the age of the parental granitic rocks. The significant of W concentration is assumed to be due to fractionation of the Li-F melt; however, wolframite mineralization in Li-F enriched granite is not typical in nature. The results of experiments and our calculations of W solubility in granitic melt show that wolframite hardly ever crystallizes directly from melt; it likely migrates in the fluid phase and is then removes from the magma chamber to the host rocks, where secondary concentration takes place in exocontact greisens and quartz-cassiterite-wolframite veins. At the same time, the isotopic age of accessory wolframite (139.5 ± 2.1 Ma) within the Orlovka massif of Li-F granite is close to the formation age of the massif (140.6 ± 2.9 Ma). A different W behavior is recorded in the RPG subtype with a low lithium and fluorine concentration, exemplified by the Spokoininsky massif. There is no significant W gain in the melt. All varieties of wolframite mineralization in the Spokoininsky massif are derived from greisens, veins, and pegmatoids yielding the same crystallization ages (139.5 ± 1.1 Ma), which are 0.9-1.8 Ma later (taking into account the mean-square weighted deviation) than the Spokoininsky granite formation (144.5 ± 1.4 Ma). Perhaps this period corresponds to the time of transition from the magmatic stage to hydrothermal alteration. Comparison of the isotope characteristics (Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotope systems) of rocks and the associated ore minerals (wolframite, cassiterite) from all examined deposits shows a depletion in ɛNd values for ore minerals relative to the

  17. Laser deposition rates of thin films of selected metals and alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cazzaniga, Andrea Carlo; Canulescu, Stela; Schou, Jørgen

    Thin films of Cu, Zn and Sn as well as mixtures of these elements have been produced by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD). The deposition rate of single and multicomponent metallic targets was determined. The strength of PLD is that the stoichiometry of complex compounds, even of complicated alloys...... or metal oxides, can be preserved from target to film. We apply this technique to design films of a mixture of Cu, Zn and Sn, which are constituents of the chalcogenide CZTS, which has a composition close to Cu2ZnSnS4. This compound is expected to be an important candidate for absorbers in new solar cells...... for alloys of the different elements as well as compounds with S will be presented....

  18. The mineral economy of Brazil--Economia mineral do Brasil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurmendi, Alfredo C.; Barboza, Frederico Lopes; Thorman, Charles H.

    1999-01-01

    This study depicts the Brazilian government structure, mineral legislation and investment policy, taxation, foreign investment policies, environmental laws and regulations, and conditions in which the mineral industry operates. The report underlines Brazil's large and diversified mineral endowment. A total of 37 mineral commodities, or groups of closely related commodities, is discussed. An overview of the geologic setting of the major mineral deposits is presented. This report is presented in English and Portuguese in pdf format.

  19. Mineralization model for Chahar Gonbad copper-gold deposit (Sirjan, using mineralogical, alteration and geochemical data and multivariate statistical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seayed Jaber Yousefi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The study area is located in southeastern Iran, about 110 km southwest of Kerman. Geologically, the area is composed of ophiolitic rocks, volcanic rocks, intrusive bodies and sedimentary rocks. Vein mineralization within andesite, andesitic basalt, andesitic tuffs occurred along the Chahar Gonbad fault. Sulfide mineralization in the ore deposit has taken place as dissemination, veins and veinlets in which pyrite and chalcopyrite are the most important ores. In this area, argillic, phyllic and propylitic alteration types are observed. Such elements as Au, Bi, Cu, S and Se are more enriched than others and the enrichment factors for these elements in comparison with background concentration are 321, 503, 393, 703 and 208, and with respect to Clark concentration are 401, 222, 532, 101 and 156, respectively. According to multivariate analysis, three major mineralization phases are recognized in the deposit. During the first phase, hydrothermal calcite veins are enriched in As, Cd, Pb, Zn and Ca, the second phase is manifested by the enrichment of sulfide veins in Cu, Au, Ag, Bi, Fe and S and the third phase mineralization includes Ni, Mn, Se and Sb as an intermediate level between the two previous phases.

  20. Role of hydrotreating products in deposition of fine particles in reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S.; Chung, K.; Gray, M.R. [University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering

    2001-06-11

    Hydrotreating reactions may affect the deposition of fine particles, which can eventually lead to reactor plugging. The deposition of fine particles from gas oil was measured in an internally recirculating reactor at 375{degree}C under hydrogen. H{sub 2}S from hydrodesulfurization would convert corrosion products to metal sulfides. Iron sulfide deposited rapidly in the packed bed because the mineral surface did not retain a stabilizing layer of asphaltenic material. Addition of water, to test the role of hydrodeoxygenation, doubled the deposition of clay particles by reducing the surface coating of organic material. Neither ammonia or quinoline had any effect on particle deposition, therefore, hydrodenitrogenation did not affect particle behavior. 16 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Webinar Presentation: Vitamins, Minerals and Metals: Do Healthy Diets Counteract Health Effects of Toxicants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation, Vitamins, Minerals and Metals: Do Healthy Diets Counteract Health Effects of Toxicants?, was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2015 Webinar Series: Food and Children's Health held on Dec. 9, 2015.

  2. Analysis of heavy metals in road-deposited sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herngren, Lars; Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Ayoko, Godwin A

    2006-07-07

    Road-deposited sediments were analysed for heavy metal concentrations at three different landuses (residential, industrial, commercial) in Queensland State, Australia. The sediments were collected using a domestic vacuum cleaner which was proven to be highly efficient in collecting sub-micron particles. Five particle sizes were analysed separately for eight heavy metal elements (Zn, Fe, Pb, Cd, Cu, Cr, Al and Mn). At all sites, the maximum concentration of the heavy metals occurred in the 0.45-75 microm particle size range, which conventional street cleaning services do not remove efficiently. Multicriteria decision making methods (MCDM), PROMETHEE and GAIA, were employed in the data analysis. PROMETHEE, a non-parametric ranking analysis procedure, was used to rank the metal contents of the sediments sampled at each site. The most polluted site and particle size range were the industrial site and the 0.45-75 microm range, respectively. Although the industrial site displayed the highest metal concentrations, the highest heavy metal loading coincided with the highest sediment load, which occurred at the commercial site. GAIA, a special form of principal component analysis, was applied to determine correlations between the heavy metals and particle size ranges and also to assess possible correlation with total organic carbon (TOC). The GAIA-planes revealed that irrespective of the site, most of the heavy metals are adsorbed to sediments below 150 microm. A weak correlation was found between Zn, Mn and TOC at the commercial site. This could lead to higher bioavailability of these metals through complexation reactions with the organic species in the sediments.

  3. A review of mineral systems and associated tectonic settings of northern Xinjiang, NW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Pirajno

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a review of mineral systems in northern Xinjiang, NW China, focussing on the Tianshan, West and East Junggar and Altay orogenic belts, all of which are part of the greater Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB. The CAOB is a complex collage of ancient microcontinents, island arcs, oceanic plateaux and oceanic plates, which were amalgamated and accreted in Early Palaeozoic to Early Permian times. The establishment of the CAOB collage was followed by strike-slip movements and affected by intraplate magmatism, linked to mantle plume activity, best exemplified by the 250 Ma Siberian Traps and the 280 Ma Tarim event. In northern Xinjiang, there are numerous and economically important mineral systems. In this contribution we describe a selection of representative mineral deposits, including subduction-related porphyry and epithermal deposits, volcanogenic massive sulphides and skarn systems. Shear zone-hosted Au lodes may have first formed as intrusion-related and subsequently re-worked during strike-slip deformation. Intraplate magmatism led to the emplacement of concentrically zoned (Alaskan-style mafic–ultramafic intrusions, many of which host orthomagmatic sulphide deposits. A huge belt of pegmatites in the Altay orogen, locally hosts world-class rare metal deposits. Roll-front, sandstone-hosted U mineralisation completes the rich mineral endowment of the northern Xinjiang terranes.

  4. Geochronology of the Sleeper deposit, Humboldt County, Nevada: epithermal gold-silver mineralization following emplacement of a silicic flow-dome complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, J.E.; McKee, E.H.; Rytuba, J.J.; Nash, J.T.; Utterback, W.C.

    1993-01-01

    The high-grade gold-silver deposits at the Sleeper mine are low sulfidation, quartz-adularia-type epithermal deposits, formed during the final stages of igneous hydrothermal activity of a small middle Miocene silicic flow-dome complex in north-central Nevada. There were multiple pulses of alteration and mineralization but all occurred within a period of less than 2 m.y. Later supergene alteration formed opal and alunite about 5.4 Ma but produced no Au or Ag mineralization other than some remobilization to produce locally rich pockets of secondary Au and Ag enrichment and is unrelated to the older magmatic hydrothermal system. The Sleeper deposit in the northern part of the Great Basin is genetically related to bimodal volcanism that followed a long period of arc-related andesitic volcanism in the same general region. -from Authors

  5. LINEAMENTS MAP OF TURKEY FROM LANDSAT IMAGERY AND SELECTING TARGET AREAS FOR MINERAL EXPLORATION, RELATIONSHIP OF REGIONAL LINEAMENTS TO EARTHQUAKE EPICENTERS, MINERAL WATERS AND HOT SPRINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail HENDEN

    1984-06-01

    Full Text Available Landsat coverage countrywide have been interpreted and a map of lineaments has been prepared. Circular features which are the surface expressions of deep or near   intrusions have  been  carefully mapped in order to investigate their relationship (if any to known mineralizations. From the outset it was postulated that the miner- alizations  are    located at the intersections of lineaments, especially in the vicinity of circular features.  To  test this hypo- thesis known mineralizations were placed on this map. It is noted that the metallic mineral deposits can be grouped into ten regions,  and out  of these,  two regions need to  be explored more intensively. In  some regions selected, locations of possible mineralizations were determined. Earthquake epicenters, mineral water sources and hot spring locations were placed on the  lineaments map. It is seen  that the hot springs and earthquake epicentres are located on regional fault systems.

  6. Effect of metal surface composition on deposition behavior of stainless steel component dissolved in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, Norikatsu; Shimoyashiki, Shigehiro

    1988-01-01

    Deposition behavior of corrosion products has been investigated to clarify the effect of metal surface composition on the deposition process in liquid sodium. For the study a sodium loop made of Type 304 stainless steel was employed. Deposition test pieces, which were Type 304 stainless steel, iron, nickel or Inconel 718, were immersed in the sodium pool of the test pot. Corrosion test pieces, which were Type 304 stainless steel, 50 at% Fe-50 at%Mn and Inconel 718, were set in a heater pin assembly along the axial direction of the heater pin surface. Sodium temperatures at the outlet and inlet of the heater pin assembly were controlled at 943 and 833 K, respectively. Sodium was purified at a cold trap temperature of 393 K and the deposition test was carried out for 4.3 x 10 2 - 2.9 x 10 4 ks. Several crystallized particles were observed on the surface of the deposition test pieces. The particles had compositions and crystal structures which depended on both the composition of deposition test pieces and the concentration of iron and manganese in sodium. Only iron-rich particles having a polyhedral shape deposited on the iron surface. Two types of particles, iron-rich α-phase and γ-phase with nearly the same composition as stainless steel, were deposited on Type 304 stainless steel. A Ni-Mn alloy was deposited on the nickel surface in the case of a higher concentration of manganese in sodium. On the other hand, for a lower manganese concentration, a Fe-Ni alloy was precipitated on the nickel surface. Particles deposited on nickel had a γ-phase crystal structure similar to the deposition test piece of nickel. Hence, the deposition process can be explained as follows: Corrosion products in liquid sodium were deposited on the metal surface by forming a metal alloy selectively with elements of the metal surface. (author)

  7. Self-organized formation of metal-carbon nanostructures by hyperthermal ion deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannstein, I.K.

    2006-04-26

    The quasi-simultaneous deposition of mass-selected hyperthermal carbon and metal ions results in a variety of interesting film morphologies, depending on the metal used and the deposition conditions. The observed features are of the order of a few nanometres and are therefore interesting for future potential applications in the various fields of nanotechnology. The present study focuses on the structural analysis of amorphous carbon films containing either copper, silver, gold, or iron using amongst others Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy. The film morphologies found are as follows: copper-containing films consist of copper nanoclusters with sizes ranging from about 3 to 9 nm uniformly distributed throughout the amorphous carbon matrix. The cluster size hereby rises with the copper content of the films. The silver containing films decompose into a pure amorphous carbon film with silver agglomerates at the surface. Both, the gold- and the iron-containing films show a multilayer structure of metal-rich layers with higher cluster density separated by metal-depleted amorphous carbon layers. The layer distances are of the order of up to 15 nm in the case of gold-carbon films and 7 nm in the case of iron-carbon films. The formation of theses different structures cannot be treated in the context of conventional self-organization mechanisms basing upon thermal diffusion and equilibrium thermodynamics. Instead, an ion-induced atomic transport, sputtering effects, and the stability of small metal clusters were taken into account in order to model the structure formation processes. A similar multilayer morphology was recently also reported in the literature for metal-carbon films grown by magnetron sputtering techniques. In order to investigate, whether the mechanisms are the same as in the case of the ion beam deposited films described above, first experiments were conducted

  8. Minerals, Toxic Heavy Metals, and Antioxidant Properties of Honeys from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudip Paul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study reports on major and trace elements as well as antioxidant properties of honey samples from Bangladesh. Four major cationic elements, seven trace elements, and three heavy metals were determined in the 12 honey samples using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Nutritional values in these honey samples were further investigated according to their antioxidant properties. The content of major elements was in the range of 62.75–616.58, 579.48–2219.43, 69.42–632.25, and 0.13–1.20 mg/kg for sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium, respectively. The trace elements varied in the range of 0.41–28, 0.12–3.54, 1.54–2.85, 0.29–0.59, 0.02–0.35, and 0.01–0.06 mg/kg for iron, zinc, copper, nickel, cobalt, and cadmium, respectively. Among the heavy metals, only lead (0.17–2.19 mg/kg was detected. The results of antioxidant analysis based on phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, reducing sugar, and proteins (as nonphenolic antioxidants revealed that multifloral raw honey samples contain significantly higher levels of reducing agents than monofloral and commercial brand honeys. The study provides a useful insight on the minerals, heavy metals, and antioxidant properties of honey samples commonly consumed in Bangladesh and found to be rich source of antioxidants and minerals. Some samples might pose some risk to the health due to lead contamination.

  9. Geochemical Characteristics of Metamorphic Rock-Hosted Gold Deposit At Onzon-Kanbani Area, Central Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aung Tay Zar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Gold and associated base metal mineralization of Onzon-Kabani area located in the western border of generally N-S trending Mogoke Metamorphic Belt where well-known Sagaing fault is served as a western boundary of this area. In this research area, many artisanal and small-scale gold mines were noted in last three decades. Gold mineralization is hosted in marble and gneiss unit of research area but most common in marble unit. Variety of igneous intrusions are also observed in research area. Mineralizations are observed as fissure filling veins as well as lesser amount of disseminated nature in marble unit. Mineralogically, gold are associated with other base metal such as pyrite, galena, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, marcasite and arsenopyrite. Hydrothermal alteration halos are developed in peripheral of hydrothermal conduits or mineralization veins from proximal to distal such as 1 silicic, 2 sericite-illite, and 3 propylitic alteration.  Most of hydrothermal minerals from each altered zones showed that near neutral condition of pH (e.g. adularia, calcite, illite, sericite and chlorite. Alternatively, hydrothermal alteration zones that show with ore minerals such as native gold, electrum, sphalerite, galena, chalcopyrite, arsenopyrite and marcasite which mostly observed in silicic alteration zone. Typical boiling characters of vein textures and fluid inclusion petrography are observed in hydrothermal system of research area. Boiling, cooling and mixing are possiblily responsible for gold deposition in hydrothermal system. In this paper, authors are documented to clarify the type of mineralization based on hydrothermal alterations, ore and gangue mineral assemblages and fluid inclusion study. All of these data can describe and play an important role for both with respect to understanding deposit genesis and in mineral exploration.

  10. Plume-related mantle source of super-large rare metal deposits from the Lovozero and Khibina massifs on the Kola Peninsula, Eastern part of Baltic Shield: Sr, Nd and Hf isotope systematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogarko, L. N.; Lahaye, Y.; Brey, G. P.

    2010-03-01

    The two world’s largest complexes of highly alkaline nepheline syenites and related rare metal loparite and eudialyte deposits, the Khibina and Lovozero massifs, occur in the central part of the Kola Peninsula. We measured for the first time in situ the trace element concentrations and the Sr, Nd and Hf isotope ratios by LA-ICP-MS (laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer) in loparite, eudialyte an in some other pegmatitic minerals. The results are in aggreement with the whole rock Sr and Nd isotope which suggests the formation of these superlarge rare metal deposits in a magmatic closed system. The initial Hf, Sr, Nd isotope ratios are similar to the isotopic signatures of OIB indicating depleted mantle as a source. This leads to the suggestion that the origin of these gigantic alkaline intrusions is connected to a deep seated mantle source—possibly to a lower mantle plume. The required combination of a depleted mantle and high rare metal enrichment in the source can be explained by the input of incompatible elements by metasomatising melts/fluids into the zones of alkaline magma generation shortly before the partial melting event (to avoid ingrowth of radiogenic isotopes). The minerals belovite and pyrochlore from the pegmatites are abnormally high in 87Sr /86Sr ratios. This may be explained by closed system isotope evolution as a result of a significant increase in Rb/Sr during the evolution of the peralkaline magma.

  11. Silicosis and lung cancer in U.S. metal miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amandus, H.; Costello, J.

    1991-01-01

    The association between silicosis and lung cancer mortality was estimated in 9,912 (369 silicotics and 9,543 nonsilicotics) white male metal miners. These miners were examined by the U.S. Public Health Service during 1959-1961 and were followed through 1975. Miners were excluded from this study if they were employed in a mine during 1959-1961 that used diesel equipment underground. The ores that were mined consisted of copper, lead-zinc, iron, mercury, lead silver, gold and gold-silver, tungsten, and molybdenum. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR, U.S. white male rates) for lung cancer was 1.73 (95% CI: .94-2.90) in silicotics and 1.18 (95% CI: .98-1.42) in nonsilicotics. Additionally, SMRs were higher in silicotics than in nonsilicotics, even in most subgroups stratified by cigarette smoking habit, type of ore mined, years of service in an underground job, radon exposure group, or year of hire. When lung cancer mortality between silicotics and nonsilicotics was compared, the age-adjusted rate ratio (95% CI) was 1.56 (.91-2.68), and the age- and smoking-adjusted rate ratio was 1.96 (.98-3.67). Corresponding figures for miners who were employed in mines with low levels of radon exposure were 1.90 (.98-3.67) and 2.59 (1.44-4.68), respectively. These findings indicate that lung cancer mortality risk was increased in silicotics, and this probably did not result from chance or bias. However, confounding from radon exposure could not be ruled out. The findings indicate that further follow-up of this cohort is needed

  12. Deposition of deuterium and metals on divertor tiles in the DIII--D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, D.S.; Doyle, B.L.; Jackson, G.L.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogen recycling and impurity influx are important issues in obtaining high confinement discharges in the DIII--D tokamak. To reduce metallic impurities in DIII--D, 40% of the wall area, including the highest heat flux zones, have been covered with graphite tiles. However, erosion, redeposition, and hydrogen retention in the tiles, as well as metal transport from the remaining Inconel walls, can lead to enhanced recycling and impurity influx. Hydrogen and metal retention in divertor floor tiles have been measured using external ion beam analysis techniques following four campaigns where tiles were exposed to several thousand tokamak discharges. The areal density of deuterium retained following exposure to tokamak plasmas was measured with external nuclear reaction analysis. External proton-induced x-ray emission analysis was used to measure the areal densities of metallic impurities deposited upon the divertor tiles either by sputtering of metallic components during discharges or as contamination during tile fabrication. Measurements for both deuterium and metallic impurities were taken on both the tile surfaces which face the operating plasma and the surfaces on the sides of the tiles which form the small gaps separating each of the tiles in the divertor. The highest areal densities of both deuterium (from 2 to 8 x 10 18 atoms/cm 2 ) and metals (from 0.2 to 1 x 10 18 atoms/cm 2 ) were found on the plasma-facing surface near the inner strike point region of each set of divertor tiles. Significant deposits, extending as far as 1 cm from the plasma-facing surface and containing up to 40% of the total divertor deposition, were also observed on the gap-forming surfaces of the tiles

  13. Exogenous deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    Exogenous deposits forming as a result of complex exogenous processes, passed under the influence of outside forces on the Earth surface. To them relate physical and chemical weathering, decomposition and decay of mineral masses, redistribution and transportation of material, forming and deposit of new minerals and ores steady on the earth surface conditions

  14. Studies on hydrogeological conditions for mineralization of some sandstone type uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiming; Li Sen; Xiao Feng; Qi Daneng; Yin Jinshuang

    1996-11-01

    Based on the analysis for regional geology, structural and hydrogeological conditions of Erennaoer Depression, Erlian Basin, the hydrogeological hydraulic zoning was carried out for groundwater in the study area, structural-palaeo-hydrogeological stages and the feature of deep-seated groundwater were studied, and, two important U-mineralization periods were determined. The conditions of recharge, runoff and discharge of groundwater in ore bearing aquifers and the hydraulic mechanism were revealed by isotope hydrology and single-well tracing technique. By study of hydrogeochemistry, it is indicated that both Subeng and Nuheting U-deposit are located at the parts where groundwater characteristics intensely variate, and the ore indicators are determined. Oil and gas transportation and the relationships between groundwater and U-metallogenetic process were discussed by using of organic geochemistry method. It shows that the bleeding of oil and gas is very important for the forming of U-deposits. It is suggested that the interlayered oxidation zone type sandstone U-deposit which is suitable for in-situ leaching could be existed in the Tenggeer formation, Bayanhua group of Lower Cretaceous, accordingly, two prospecting areas are delimited. (4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.)

  15. Re–Os isotope geochronology of the Shangbao pyrite–flourite deposit in southeastern Hunan, South China: Evidence for multiple mineralization events and the role of crust–mantle interaction in polymetallic deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Cheng Huang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In South China, both crustal reworking and crust–mantle interaction were important geological processes during the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras. However, the relationships between these two processes and metal mineralization are still unknown. Here we report rhenium and osmium isotopic data for pyrite grains from a pyrite deposit associated with a granite intrusion in the Shangbao area, southeastern Hunan Province (South China. Two pyrite samples, both containing many euhedral pyrite grains, were collected from the same locality, but the samples yield distinct ages. Six euhedral pyrite grains from one sample yield an isochronal age of 279 ± 12 Ma, with an initial 187Os/188Os ratio of 0.39 ± 0.71, and Re and Os concentrations of 0.12–63.5 ppb and 2.14–185 ppt, respectively. This Early Permian age is in good agreement with the age of the strata that host the pyrite deposit. Five euhedral pyrite grains from the other sample yield an isochronal age of 75.2 ± 4.3 Ma, with an initial 187Os/188Os ratio of 0.141 ± 0.030 and Re and Os concentrations of 0.15–0.43 ppb and 1.0–39.9 ppt, respectively. If one pyrite grain with the highest 187Re/188Os and 187Os/188Os ratios is excluded, other four pyrite grains give an isochronal age of 85 ± 13 Ma. The Late Cretaceous age (75–85 Ma is consistent with the zircon U–Pb age of the Shangbao granites (80.1 ± 0.3 Ma to within uncertainties. Considering also the relatively lower radiogenic initial 187Os/188Os ratio of this sample, we suggest that the later stage pyrite ore was probably formed through crystallization from the magmatic hydrothermal fluids. Combined with other geological and associated magmatic data, we propose a skarn-related fluid–ore interaction process to explain the second stage of metallogenesis in the Shangbao pyrite deposit. The Early Permian pyrite ore was deposited in a brine basin with evaporites during the Early Permian. Later magmatic hydrothermal

  16. Chemical vapor deposition of refractory metals and ceramics III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallois, B.M.; Lee, W.Y.; Pickering, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    The papers contained in this volume were originally presented at Symposium K on Chemical Vapor Deposition of Refractory Metals and Ceramics III, held at the Fall Meeting of the Materials Research Society in Boston, Massachusetts, on November 28--30, 1994. This symposium was sponsored by Morton International Inc., Advanced Materials, and by The Department of Energy-Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The purpose of this symposium was to exchange scientific information on the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of metallic and ceramic materials. CVD technology is receiving much interest in the scientific community, in particular, to synthesize new materials with tailored chemical composition and physical properties that offer multiple functionality. Multiphase or multilayered films, functionally graded materials (FGMs), ''smart'' material structures and nanocomposites are some examples of new classes of materials being produced via CVD. As rapid progress is being made in many interdisciplinary research areas, this symposium is intended to provide a forum for reporting new scientific results and addressing technological issues relevant to CVD materials and processes. Thirty four papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  17. Development of a new process for deposition of metallic vapours and ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabrielli, O. de.

    1989-01-01

    Surface treatment processes by deposition, enabling surface properties to be altered without altering the volume, are making rapid progress in industry. The description of these processes has led us to consider the role and the importance of methods using plasmas. The new plasma source we have developed is the subject of this experimental research: it is the basis of the deposition process (metallic ion and vapour deposition). The specifications and preliminary results enable us to compare this process with others in use. Fast deposition rates and excellent adhesion are the two main characteristics of this process [fr

  18. Radioactive mineral occurrences in the Bancroft area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satterly, J

    1958-12-31

    The report summarizes three years of field work conducted in the Bancroft area investigating occurrences of radioactive minerals, and also includes accounts of properties in the area for which drill logs and survey reports have been filed. It begins with a history of exploration and development of radioactive mineral deposits in the area, a review of the area`s general geology (Grenville metasediments, plutonic rocks), and general descriptions of the types of radioactive mineral deposits found in the area (deposits in granitic and syenitic bodies, metasomatic deposits in limy rocks, hydrothermal deposits). It also describes the mineralogy of radioactive minerals found in the area and the Geiger counter technique used in the investigation. The bulk of the report consists of descriptions of radioactive mineral properties and mine workings, containing (where available) information on exploration history, general and economic geology, and production.

  19. Geology, mineralization, mineral chemistry, and ore-fluid conditions of Irankuh Pb-Zn mining district, south of Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Karimpour

    2017-11-01

    in Mining Engineering, 6: 83-91 (in Persian. Boveiri Konari, M. and Rastad, E., 2016. Nature and origin of dolomitization associated with sulphide mineralization: new insights from the Tappehsorkh Zn-Pb (-Ag-Ba deposit, Irankuh Mining District, Iran. Geological Journal, DOI: 10.1002/gj.2875 Ghasemi, A., 1995. Facies analysis and geochemistry of Kolah-Darvazaeh, Goud-Zendan, and Khaneh-Gorgi Pb-Zn deposits from south of Irankuh. M.Sc. thesis, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran, 158 pp. (in Persian Ghazban, F., McNutt, R.H. and Schwarcz, H. P., 1994. Genesis of sediment-hosted Zn-Pb-Ba deposits in the Irankuh district, Esfahan area, west-central Iran. Economic Geology, 89: 1262-1278. Hosseini-Dinani, H., Aftabi, A., Esmaeili, A. and Rabbani, M., 2015. Composite soil-geochemical halos delineating carbonate-hosted zinc–lead–barium mineralization in the Irankuh district, Isfahan, west-central Iran. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 156: 114-130. Malakhov, A.A., 1968. Bismuth and antimony in galena, indicators of conditions of ore deposition. Geokhimiya, 11: 1283-1296. Rastad, E., 1981. Geological, mineralogical and ore facies investigations on the Lower Cretaceous stratabound Zn – Pb – Ba – Cu deposits of the Irankuh mountain range, Isfahan, west central Iran. Ph.D. thesis, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany, 334 pp. Reichert, J., 2007. A metallogenetic model for carbonate-hosted non-sulphide zinc deposits based on observations of Mehdi Abad and Irankuh, Central and Southwestern Iran. Ph.D. thesis, Martin Luther University Halle Wittenberg, Halle, Germany, 152 pp. Timoori-Asl, F., 2010. Sedimentology and petrology of Jurassic deposits and Basinal brines studies in formation of Irankuh deposit. M.Sc. thesis, Isfahan University, Isfahan, Iran, 120 pp. (in Persian Viets, J.G., Hopkins, R.T. and Miller, B.M., 1992. Variation in minor and trace metals in sphalerite from Mississippi Valley-type deposits of the Ozark Region: genetic implications

  20. Metallization on FDM Parts Using the Chemical Deposition Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhar Equbal

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Metallization of ABS (acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene parts has been studied on flat part surfaces. These parts are fabricated on an FDM (fused deposition modeling machine using the layer-wise deposition principle using ABS as a part material. Electroless copper deposition on ABS parts was performed using two different surface preparation processes, namely ABS parts prepared using chromic acid for etching and ABS parts prepared using a solution mixture of sulphuric acid and hydrogen peroxide (H2SO4/H2O2 for etching. After surface preparations using these routes, copper (Cu is deposited electrolessly using four different acidic baths. The acidic baths used are 5 wt% CuSO4 (copper sulfate with 15 wt% of individual acids, namely HF (hydrofluoric acid, H2SO4 (sulphuric acid, H3PO4 (phosphoric acid and CH3COOH (acetic acid. Cu deposition under different acidic baths used for both the routes is presented and compared based on their electrical performance, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS. The result shows that chromic acid etched samples show better electrical performance and Cu deposition in comparison to samples etched via H2SO4/H2O2.

  1. Effect of inclusions on microstructure and toughness of deposited metals of self-shielded flux cored wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Tianli; Li, Zhuoxin; Kou, Sindo; Jing, Hongyang; Li, Guodong; Li, Hong; Jin Kim, Hee

    2015-01-01

    The effect of inclusions on the microstructure and toughness of the deposited metals of self-shielded flux cored wires was investigated by optical microscopy, electron microscopy and mechanical testing. The deposited metals of three different wires showed different levels of low temperature impact toughness at −40 °C mainly because of differences in the properties of inclusions. The inclusions formed in the deposited metals as a result of deoxidation caused by the addition of extra Al–Mg alloy and ferromanganese to the flux. The inclusions, spherical in shape, were mixtures of Al 2 O 3 and MgO. Inclusions predominantly Al 2 O 3 and 0.3–0.8 μm in diameter were effective for nucleation of acicular ferrite. However, inclusions predominantly MgO were promoted by increasing Mg in the flux and were more effective than Al 2 O 3 inclusions of the same size. These findings suggest that the control of inclusions can be an effective way to improve the impact toughness of the deposited metal

  2. Chemical changes of minerals trapped in the lichen Trapelia involuta. Implication for lichen effect on mobility of uranium and toxic metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasama, Takeshi; Murakami, Takashi; Ohnuki, Toshihiko

    2002-01-01

    To elucidate development of minerals trapped in a lichen, we examined the lichen Trapelia involuta growing directly on secondary uranyl minerals and U-enriched Fe oxide and hydroxide minerals. Sericite and other minerals in the underlying rock are trapped in the lichen T. involuta during its biological growth and chemically changed by lichen activities. The presence of chemically changed sericite accompanied by an Fe-bearing mineral in the lichen suggests that dissolution of sericite is promoted mainly by polysaccharides excreted by the lichen. Oxalic acid or lichen acids absent in the medulla may not play an important role in the dissolution. Our results suggest that lichens on metal-rich surface affect the mobility of uranium and other toxic metals through dissolution followed by trap of minerals from the underlying rock. (author)

  3. A genetic link between magnetite mineralization and diorite intrusion at the El Romeral iron oxide-apatite deposit, northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Paula A.; Barra, Fernando; Reich, Martin; Deditius, Artur; Simon, Adam; Uribe, Francisco; Romero, Rurik; Rojo, Mario

    2018-01-01

    El Romeral is one of the largest iron oxide-apatite (IOA) deposits in the Coastal Cordillera of northern Chile. The Cerro Principal magnetite ore body at El Romeral comprises massive magnetite intergrown with actinolite, with minor apatite, scapolite, and sulfides (pyrite ± chalcopyrite). Several generations of magnetite were identified by using a combination of optical and electron microscopy techniques. The main mineralization event is represented by zoned magnetite grains with inclusion-rich cores and inclusion-poor rims, which form the massive magnetite ore body. This main magnetite stage was followed by two late hydrothermal events that are represented by magnetite veinlets that crosscut the massive ore body and by disseminated magnetite in the andesite host rock and in the Romeral diorite. The sulfur stable isotope signature of the late hydrothermal sulfides indicates a magmatic origin for sulfur (δ34S between - 0.8 and 2.9‰), in agreement with previous δ34S data reported for other Chilean IOA and iron oxide-copper-gold deposits. New 40Ar/39Ar dating of actinolite associated with the main magnetite ore stage yielded ages of ca. 128 Ma, concordant within error with a U-Pb zircon age for the Romeral diorite (129.0 ± 0.9 Ma; mean square weighted deviation = 1.9, n = 28). The late hydrothermal magnetite-biotite mineralization is constrained at ca. 118 Ma by 40Ar/39Ar dating of secondary biotite. This potassic alteration is about 10 Ma younger than the main mineralization episode, and it may be related to post-mineralization dikes that crosscut and remobilize Fe from the main magnetite ore body. These data reveal a clear genetic association between magnetite ore formation, sulfide mineralization, and the diorite intrusion at El Romeral (at 129 Ma), followed by a late and more restricted stage of hydrothermal alteration associated with the emplacement of post-ore dikes at ca. 118 Ma. Therefore, this new evidence supports a magmatic-hydrothermal model for the

  4. High mobility single-crystalline-like GaAs thin films on inexpensive flexible metal substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, P.; Rathi, M.; Gao, Y.; Yao, Y.; Selvamanickam, V.; Zheng, N.; Ahrenkiel, P.; Martinez, J.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate heteroepitaxial growth of single-crystalline-like n and p-type doped GaAs thin films on inexpensive, flexible, and light-weight metal foils by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Single-crystalline-like Ge thin film on biaxially textured templates made by ion beam assisted deposition on metal foil served as the epitaxy enabling substrate for GaAs growth. The GaAs films exhibited strong (004) preferred orientation, sharp in-plane texture, low grain misorientation, strong photoluminescence, and a defect density of ∼10 7  cm −2 . Furthermore, the GaAs films exhibited hole and electron mobilities as high as 66 and 300 cm 2 /V-s, respectively. High mobility single-crystalline-like GaAs thin films on inexpensive metal substrates can pave the path for roll-to-roll manufacturing of flexible III-V solar cells for the mainstream photovoltaics market.

  5. High mobility single-crystalline-like GaAs thin films on inexpensive flexible metal substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, P., E-mail: pdutta2@central.uh.edu; Rathi, M.; Gao, Y.; Yao, Y.; Selvamanickam, V. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States); Zheng, N.; Ahrenkiel, P. [Department of Nanoscience and Nanoengineering, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, South Dakota 57701 (United States); Martinez, J. [Materials Evaluation Laboratory, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas 77085 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    We demonstrate heteroepitaxial growth of single-crystalline-like n and p-type doped GaAs thin films on inexpensive, flexible, and light-weight metal foils by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Single-crystalline-like Ge thin film on biaxially textured templates made by ion beam assisted deposition on metal foil served as the epitaxy enabling substrate for GaAs growth. The GaAs films exhibited strong (004) preferred orientation, sharp in-plane texture, low grain misorientation, strong photoluminescence, and a defect density of ∼10{sup 7 }cm{sup −2}. Furthermore, the GaAs films exhibited hole and electron mobilities as high as 66 and 300 cm{sup 2}/V-s, respectively. High mobility single-crystalline-like GaAs thin films on inexpensive metal substrates can pave the path for roll-to-roll manufacturing of flexible III-V solar cells for the mainstream photovoltaics market.

  6. Process technology - rare and refractory metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, C.K.; Bose, D.K.

    1989-01-01

    India has fairly rich resreves of rare and refractory metals. Abundant sources of ilmenite, rutile, zircon and rare earths are found in the placer deposits of the southern and eastern coasts of the country. Columbite-tantalite occur in mica and the mining belts of Bihar and cassiterite deposits are found in Bastar (Madhya Pradesh). Vanadium as a minor associate occurs in bauxites and in the vast deposits of titaniferrous magnetites. Over the years, research and development and pilot plant works in many research organisations in India have built up a sound technological base in the country for process metallurgy of many refractory and rare earth metals starting from their indigenous sources. The present paper provides a comprehensive view of the developments that have taken place till now on the processing of various refractory and rare earth metals with particular reference to the extensive work carried out at the Department of Atomic Energy. The coverage includes mineral benification separation of individual elements, preparation of pure intermediates, techniques of reduction to metal and final purification. The paper also reviews some of the recent developments that have been taken place in these fields and the potential application of these metals in the foreseeable future. (author). 22 refs., 18 fi g., 7 tabs

  7. Discussion on geochemical characteristics, mechanism and prospecting model of gluey type sandstone uranium mineralization--taking Redwell uranium deposit as an example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinping

    1998-01-01

    Redwell uranium deposit hosted in the red clastic rock formation, is a typical example of gluey type uranium mineralization, which has not been reported so far in China. Based on the study of geochemical characteristics of Redwell deposit, the author discusses the genetic mechanism of this type deposits, and proposes the prospecting model of 4 in 1 of red bed-fault-oil gas-uranium source

  8. Mechanism of deposit formation on fuel-wetted metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stavinoha, L.L.; Westbrook, S.R.; McInnis, L.A. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Experiments were performed in a Single-Tube Heat Exchanger (STHE) apparatus and a Hot Liquid Process Simulator (HLPS) configured and operated to meet Jet Fuel Thermal Oxidation Tester (JFTOT) ASTM D 3241 requirements. The HLPS-JFTOT heater tubes used were 1018 mild steel, 316 stainless steel (SS), 304 stainless steel (SS), and 304 SS tubes coated with aluminum, magnesium, gold, and copper. A low-sulfur Jet A fuel with a breakpoint temperature of 254{degrees}C was used to create deposits on the heater tubes at temperatures of 300{degrees}C, 340{degrees}C, and 380{degrees}C. Deposit thickness was measured by dielectric breakdown voltage and Auger ion milling. Pronounced differences between the deposit thickness measuring techniques suggested that both the Auger milling rate and the dielectric strength of the deposit may be affected by deposit morphology/composition (such as metal ions that may have become included in the bulk of the deposit). Carbon burnoff data were obtained as a means of judging the validity of DMD-derived deposit evaluations. ESCA data suggest that the thinnest deposit was on the magnesium-coated test tube. The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) photographs showed marked variations in the deposit morphology and the results suggested that surface composition has a significant effect on the mechanism of deposition. The most dramatic effect observed was that the bulk of deposits moved to tube locations of lower temperature as the maximum temperature of the tube was increased from 300{degrees} to 380{degrees}C, also verified in a single-tube heat exchanger. The results indicate that the deposition rate and quantity at elevated temperatures is not completely temperature dependent, but is limited by the concentration of dissolved oxygen and/or reactive components in the fuel over a temperature range.

  9. Influence of Cooling Rate in High-Temperature Area on Hardening of Deposited High-Cutting Chrome-Tungsten Metal

    OpenAIRE

    Malushin, N. N.; Valuev, Denis Viktorovich; Valueva, Anna Vladimirovna; Serikbol, A.; Borovikov, I. F.

    2015-01-01

    The authors study the influence of cooling rate in high-temperature area for thermal cycle of high-cutting chrome-tungsten metal weld deposit on the processes of carbide phase merging and austenite grain growth for the purpose of providing high hardness of deposited metal (HRC 64-66).

  10. The spatial thickness distribution of metal films produced by large area pulsed laser deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryds, Nini; Schou, Jørgen; Linderoth, Søren

    2007-01-01

    Thin films of metals have been deposited in the large-area Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) Facility at Riso National Laboratory. Thin films of Ag and Ni were deposited with laser pulses from an excimer laser at 248 nm with a rectangular beam spot at a fluence of 10 J/cm(2) on glass substrates of 127...

  11. How metallic is the binding state of indium hosted by excess-metal chalcogenides in ore deposits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondina Figueiredo, Maria; Pena Silva, Teresa; Oliveira, Daniel; Rosa, Diogo

    2010-05-01

    Discovered in 1863, indium is nowadays a strategic scarce metal used both in classical technologic fields (like low melting-temperature alloys and solders) and in innovative nano-technologies to produce "high-tech devices" by means of new materials, namely liquid crystal displays (LCDs), organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) and the recently introduced transparent flexible thin-films manufactured with ionic amorphous oxide semiconductors (IAOS). Indium is a typical chalcophile element, seldom forming specific minerals and occurring mainly dispersed within polymetallic sulphides, particularly with excess metal ions [1]. The average content of indium in the Earth's crust is very low but a further increase in its demand is still expected in the next years, thus focusing a special interest in uncovering new exploitation sites through promising polymetallic sulphide ores - e.g., the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB) [2] - and in improving recycling technologies. Indium recovery stands mostly on zinc extraction from sphalerite, the natural cubic sulphide which is the prototype of so-called "tetrahedral sulphides" where metal ions fill half of the available tetrahedral sites within the cubic closest packing of sulphur anions where the double of unfilled interstices are available for further in-filling. It is worth remarking that such packing array is particularly suitable for accommodating polymetallic cations by filling closely located interstitial sites [3] as happens in excess-metal tetrahedral sulphides - e.g. bornite, ideally Cu5FeS4, recognized as an In-carrying mineral [4]. Studying the tendency towards In-In interactions able of leading to the formation of polycations would efficiently contribute to understand indium crystal chemistry and the metal binding state in natural chalcogenides. Accordingly, an X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) study at In L3-edge was undertaken using the instrumental set-up of ID21 beamline at the ESRF (European Synchrotron

  12. Review of Biohydrometallurgical Metals Extraction from Polymetallic Mineral Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen R. Watling

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This review has as its underlying premise the need to become proficient in delivering a suite of element or metal products from polymetallic ores to avoid the predicted exhaustion of key metals in demand in technological societies. Many technologies, proven or still to be developed, will assist in meeting the demands of the next generation for trace and rare metals, potentially including the broader application of biohydrometallurgy for the extraction of multiple metals from low-grade and complex ores. Developed biotechnologies that could be applied are briefly reviewed and some of the difficulties to be overcome highlighted. Examples of the bioleaching of polymetallic mineral resources using different combinations of those technologies are described for polymetallic sulfide concentrates, low-grade sulfide and oxidised ores. Three areas for further research are: (i the development of sophisticated continuous vat bioreactors with additional controls; (ii in situ and in stope bioleaching and the need to solve problems associated with microbial activity in that scenario; and (iii the exploitation of sulfur-oxidising microorganisms that, under specific anaerobic leaching conditions, reduce and solubilise refractory iron(III or manganese(IV compounds containing multiple elements. Finally, with the successful applications of stirred tank bioleaching to a polymetallic tailings dump and heap bioleaching to a polymetallic black schist ore, there is no reason why those proven technologies should not be more widely applied.

  13. Atmospheric deposition of heavy metals due to dry, wet and occult deposition at the altitude profile Achenkirch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stopper, S.

    2001-12-01

    The goal of this work was to determine the height dependence of the three types of deposition throughout a one year time period to be able to get information about their elevational and seasonal behavior. In the time period from October 1998 to November 1999 measurements of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn in aerosol, rain and cloud water were conducted in the Achenkirch-Valley in Tyrol, Austria. Afterwards the dry and occult deposition were modeled. The estimated annual inputs of metals at the two measurement sites Christlumkopf (1758 m a.s.l.) Mueeggerkoel (940 m a.s.l.) and the limits of the national law for protection of forest are shown. The measured depositions at both sites were far below the legal regulations. Due to the much higher occult deposition ratio at the top of the mountain the total annual input at the Christlumkopf was higher than at the Mueeggerkoel. This indicates the potential importance of occult deposition. (author)

  14. Controls on Mississippi Valley-Type Zn-Pb mineralization in Behabad district, Central Iran: Constraints from spatial and numerical analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsa, Mohammad; Maghsoudi, Abbas

    2018-04-01

    The Behabad district, located in the central Iranian microcontinent, contains numerous epigenetic stratabound carbonate-hosted Zn-Pb ore bodies. The mineralizations formed as fault, fracture and karst fillings in the Permian-Triassic formations, especially in Middle Triassic dolostones, and comprise mainly non-sulfides zinc ores. These are all interpreted as Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) base metal deposits. From an economic geological point of view, it is imperative to recognize the processes that have plausibly controlled the emplacement of MVT Zn-Pb mineralization in the Behabad district. To address the foregoing issue, analyses of the spatial distribution of mineral deposits comprising fry and fractal techniques and analysis of the spatial association of mineral deposits with geological features using distance distribution analysis were applied to assess the regional-scale processes that could have operated in the distribution of MVT Zn-Pb deposits in the district. The obtained results based on these analytical techniques show the main trends of the occurrences are NW-SE and NE-SW, which are parallel or subparallel to the major northwest and northeast trending faults, supporting the idea that these particular faults could have acted as the main conduits for transport of mineral-bearing fluids. The results of these analyses also suggest that Permian-Triassic brittle carbonate sedimentary rocks have served as the lithological controls on MVT mineralization in the Behabad district as they are spatially and temporally associated with mineralization.

  15. Effect of carbon and manganese on the microstructure and mechanical properties of 9Cr2WVTa deposited metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jian [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Materials and Safety Assessment, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 110016, Shenyang (China); Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 110016, Shenyang (China); Rong, Lijian [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Materials and Safety Assessment, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 110016, Shenyang (China); Li, Dianzhong [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 110016, Shenyang (China); Lu, Shanping, E-mail: shplu@imr.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Materials and Safety Assessment, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 110016, Shenyang (China); Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 110016, Shenyang (China)

    2017-03-15

    Six 9Cr2WVTa deposited metals with different carbon and manganese contents have been studied to reveal the role of major elements, which guide for the design of welding consumables for reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel and meet for the requirements of accelerator driven systems-lead fusion reactors. The typical microstructure for the 9Cr2WVTa deposited metals is the lath martensite along with the fine stripe δ-ferrite. The chemical compositions influence the solidification sequence and therefore, change the δ-ferrite content in the deposited metal. The impact toughness for the 9Cr2WVTa deposited metals decreases remarkably when the δ-ferrite content is more than 5.2 vol%, also the impact toughness decreases owing to the high quenching martensite formation. Increasing the level of manganese addition, α phase of each alloy shifts to the bottom right according to the CCT diagram. - Highlights: • The typical deposited metals is the lath martensite with the fine stripe δ-ferrite. • The impact toughness is dependent on the δ-ferrite and the high quenching martensite. • The chemical compositions influence the solidification sequence.

  16. A measurement of summertime dry deposition of ambient air particulates and associated metallic pollutants in Central Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Guor-Cheng; Chiang, Hung-Che; Chen, Yu-Cheng; Xiao, You-Fu; Wu, Chia-Ming; Kuo, Yu-Chen

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize metallic elements associated with atmospheric particulate matter in the dry deposition plate, total suspended particulate, fine particles, and coarse particles at Taichung Harbor and Gong Ming Junior High School (airport) in central Taiwan at a sampling site from June 2013 to August 2013. The results indicated that: (1) the average concentrations of the metallic elements Cr and Cd were highest at the Gong Ming Junior High School (airport), and the average concentrations of the metallic elements Ni, Cu, and Pb were highest at the Taichung Harbor sampling site. (2) The high smelting industry density and export/import rate of heavily loaded cargos were the main reasons leading to these findings. (3) The average metallic element dry deposition and metallic element PM(2.5-10) all followed the order of Pb > Cr > Cu > Ni > Cd at the two sampling sites. However, the average metallic elements Cu and Pb were found to have the highest dry deposition velocities and concentrations in PM(2.5) for the two sampling sites in this study. (4) The correlation coefficients of ambient air particle dry deposition and concentration with wind speed at the airport were higher than those from the harbor sampling site. The wind and broad open spaces at Taichung Airport were the possible reasons for the increasing correlation coefficients for ambient air particle concentration and dry deposition with wind speed at the Taichung Airport sampling site.

  17. TXRF study of electrochemical deposition of metals on glass-ceramic carbon electrode surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alov, N.; Oskolok, K.; Wittershagen, A.; Mertens, M.; Rittmeyer, C.; Kolbesen, B.O.

    2000-01-01

    Nowadays the methods of solid surface analysis are widely used to study the thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of joint electrochemical deposition of metals on solid substrates. In this work the surfaces of some binary and ternary metal electrodeposits on disc glass-ceramic carbon electrodes were studied by total-reflection x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (TXRF). Metal alloys were obtained as a result of electrochemical co-deposition of copper, cadmium and lead from n x 10 -4 M (Cu, Cd, Pb)(NO 3 ) 2 + 0.01 M HNO 3 solutions under mixing. TXRF measurements were performed with an ATOMIKA EXTRA II A spectrometer using Mo K α and W (Brems) primary excitation. The serious advantage of TXRF as a method of near-surface analysis is very high element sensitivity. Apart from main elements (Cu, Cd, Pb) we have detected trace elements (Cl, Ag, Pt, Hg) which are present in working solution and has an effect to the electrodeposit formation. The comparison of TXRF data with information obtained by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electron-probe x-ray microanalysis permits to realize depth profiling electrochemical alloys. In particular it was found that in binary systems Cu-Pb and Cu-Cd the relative lead and cadmium content on the electrodeposit surface is considerably greater than in the bulk. These phenomena are due to the features of metal nucleation and growth mechanisms. High sensitivity of TXRF to surface morphology and the correlation of TXRF and scanning electron microscopy data allow to determine the area of prevailing location of metal in the heterogeneous alloy surface. So we have established that in Cu-Pb and Cu-Cd-Pb systems solid solution of copper and lead is formed: significant part of lead is deposited not only in specific 3D-clusters but also in copper thin film. It was demonstrated that the near-surface TXRF analysis of metal electrodeposits on solid electrodes is highly effective to study the mechanisms of metal nucleation, metal cluster and thin film

  18. Geochemistry and genesis of apatite bearing Fe oxide Dizdaj deposit, SE Zanjan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Nabatian

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Sorkheh-Dizaj apatite-iron oxide deposit is located 32 km southeast of Zanjan. The area is situated within the Tarom subzone of Western Alborz-Azarbaijan structural zone. The oldest units at the Sorkheh-Dizaj area are Eocene trachyte, trachyandesite, olivine basalt and volcanoclastic brecciate tuff and lapilli tuff which intruded by a quartz-monzonite, monzonite and granite subvolcanic pluton of Upper Eocene- Early Oligocene age. Subvolcanic plutonic rocks in the area show characteristics of the I-type granites. Magmatism of the area is of synorogenic to postorogenic related to magmatic arc environments. Mineralization at the area is divided into three main zones (A, B and C that all of which are located in the host subvolcanic pluton. These three zones are similar in terms of host rock, mineralogy, alteration, structure, texture and metal content. Mineralization in the volcanic rocks occurs as veins similar to those in three main zones, but less abundant. Geometry of the ore bodies is of vein type and their textures are stockwork, massive, banded, brecciate and vein-veinlet. The most important minerals at Sorkheh-Dizaj deposit are magnetite (low Ti and apatite that associated with them minor sulfide minerals such as chalcopyrite, bornite and pyrite. Minerals such as ilmenite, spinel (titanium magnetite, galena and sphalerite occur in low contents. The supergene minerals like chalcocite, malachite, azurite, covellite, hematite and goethite have been formed due to weathering and supergene processes. The main alterations at the deposit are K-feldspar metasomatism, actinolitization, argillic, sericitization, silicification, tourmalinization, and chlorite-epidotic. Rare earth elements (REE studies demonstrate that the deposit is more enriched in LREE than in HREE. The REE patterns in the apatite, magnetite and host rocks are similar suggesting a magmatic relationship. The REE contents of the apatites are higher than those of the host rocks and

  19. Influence of Cooling Rate in High-Temperature Area on Hardening of Deposited High-Cutting Chrome-Tungsten Metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malushin, N N; Valuev, D V; Valueva, A V; Serikbol, A; Borovikov, I F

    2015-01-01

    The authors study the influence of cooling rate in high-temperature area for thermal cycle of high-cutting chrome-tungsten metal weld deposit on the processes of carbide phase merging and austenite grain growth for the purpose of providing high hardness of deposited metal (HRC 64-66). (paper)

  20. Athabasca basin unconformity-type uranium deposits. A special class of sandstone-type deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeve, J.

    1980-01-01

    Two major episodes of uranium metallogenesis are recognized in Northern Saskatchewan. The first is of late-Hudsonian age and gave rise to metamorphic-hydrothermal pitchblende deposits of simple mineralogy at Beaverlodge (primary mineralization: 1780+-20 m.y.). The second and more important episode of approximately Grenvillian age rendered unconformity-type deposits in the Athabasca Basin (primary mineralization: 1000-1300 m.y.). The late-Hudsonian deposits at Beaverlodge were overprinted by this second event and new deposits of complex mineralogy were formed in that area. The metallogenetic importance of a third and much later episode which gave rise to mineralization within the Athabasca Formation is uncertain at the moment. With regards to metallogenesis of the unconformity-type deposits, presently available evidence favours a diagenetic-hydrothermal rather than a near-surface supergene or a magmatic/metamorphic hydrothermal model. The diagenetic-hydrothermal model relates uranium mineralization to 'red bed-type' diagenetic processes in the Athabasca Formation involving post-depositional oxidation and leaching, which continued for several hundred million years after deposition. Ore deposits were formed by interaction, under conditions of deep burial at elevated temperatures and pressures, of a uraniferous oxidizing Athabasca aquifer with reducing, graphite-bearing, metamorphic rocks of the basin floor. The large-scale convection required for such interaction may have been induced by mafic magmatic activity coeval with the episode of mineralization. The diagenetic-hydrothermal model displays close similarities with metallogenetic models developed for certain sandstone-type deposits. (author)

  1. Half-sandwich cobalt complexes in the metal-organic chemical vapor deposition process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgi, Colin [Technische Universität Chemnitz, Faculty of Natural Science, Institute of Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry, Chemnitz 09107 (Germany); Hapke, Marko; Thiel, Indre [Leibniz-Institut für Katalyse e.V. an der Universität Rostock (LIKAT), Albert-Einstein-Straße 29a, Rostock 18059 (Germany); Hildebrandt, Alexander [Technische Universität Chemnitz, Faculty of Natural Science, Institute of Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry, Chemnitz 09107 (Germany); Waechtler, Thomas; Schulz, Stefan E. [Fraunhofer Institute of Electronic Nano Systems (ENAS), Technologie-Campus 3, Chemnitz 09126 (Germany); Technische Universität Chemnitz, Center for Microtechnologies (ZfM), Chemnitz 09107 (Germany); Lang, Heinrich, E-mail: heinrich.lang@chemie.tu-chemnitz.de [Technische Universität Chemnitz, Faculty of Natural Science, Institute of Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry, Chemnitz 09107 (Germany)

    2015-03-02

    A series of cobalt half-sandwich complexes of type [Co(η{sup 5}-C{sub 5}H{sub 5})(L)(L′)] (1: L, L′ = 1,5-hexadiene; 2: L = P(OEt){sub 3}, L′ = H{sub 2}C=CHSiMe{sub 3}; 3: L = L′ = P(OEt){sub 3}) has been studied regarding their physical properties such as the vapor pressure, decomposition temperature and applicability within the metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) process, with a focus of the influence of the phosphite ligands. It could be shown that an increasing number of P(OEt){sub 3} ligands increases the vapor pressure and thermal stability of the respective organometallic compound. Complex 3 appeared to be a promising MOCVD precursor with a high vapor pressure and hence was deposited onto Si/SiO{sub 2} (100 nm) substrates. The resulting reflective layer is closed, dense and homogeneous, with a slightly granulated surface morphology. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies demonstrated the formation of metallic cobalt, cobalt phosphate, cobalt oxide and cobalt carbide. - Highlights: • Thermal studies and vapor pressure measurements of cobalt half-sandwich complexes was carried out. • Chemical vapor deposition with cobalt half-sandwich complexes is reported. • The use of Co-phosphites results in significant phosphorous-doped metallic layers.

  2. International strategic minerals inventory summary report; zirconium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towner, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    Zircon, a zirconium silicate, is currently the most important commercial zirconium-bearing mineral. Baddeleyite, a natural form of zirconia, is less important but has some specific end uses. Both zircon and baddeleyite occur in hard-rock and placer deposits, but at present all zircon production is from placer deposits. Most baddeleyite production is from hard-rock deposits, principally as a byproduct of copper and phosphate-rock mining. World zirconium resources in identified, economically exploitable deposits are about 46 times current production rates. Of these resources, some 71 percent are in South Africa, Australia, and the United States. The principal end uses of zirconium minerals are in ceramic applications and as refractories, abrasives, and mold linings in foundries. A minor amount, mainly of zircon, is used for the production of hafnium-free zirconium metal, which is used principally for sheathing fuel elements in nuclear reactors and in the chemical-processing industry, aerospace engineering, and electronics. Australia and South Africa are the largest zircon producers and account for more than 70 percent of world output; the United States and the Soviet Union account for another 20 percent. South Africa accounts for almost all the world's production of baddeleyite, which is about 2 percent of world production of contained zirconia. Australia and South Africa are the largest exporters of zircon. Unless major new deposits are developed in countries that have not traditionally produced zircon, the pattern of world production is unlikely to change by 2020. The proportions, however, of production that come from existing producing countries may change somewhat.

  3. How much metal can you get? Quantified mass balancing of base metal release during epidosite zone alteration in ophiolite-hosted VMS systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jowitt, Simon M.; Jenkin, Gawen R.T.; Coogan, Laurence A.; Naden, Jon

    2009-01-01

    Understanding source-deposit relationships in VMS systems is important for mineral exploration and to increase knowledge of seafloor hydrothermal processes and ocean–crust fluxes. Although it is known that metals are stripped from oceanic crust by hydrothermal fluids and are partly redeposited in orebodies, some aspects are poorly understood. It has been proposed that metal-depleted epidosites (epidote–quartz–chlorite–Fe-oxide–titanite units within sheeted dyke complexes) were the source rock...

  4. Alaska's rare earth deposits and resource potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, James C.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2012-01-01

    Alaska’s known mineral endowment includes some of the largest and highest grade deposits of various metals, including gold, copper and zinc. Recently, Alaska has also been active in the worldwide search for sources of rare earth elements (REE) to replace exports now being limitedby China. Driven by limited supply of the rare earths, combined with their increasing use in new ‘green’ energy, lighting, transportation, and many other technological applications, the rare earth metals neodymium, europium and, in particular, the heavy rare earth elements terbium, dysprosium and yttrium are forecast to soon be in critical short supply (U.S. Department of Energy, 2010).

  5. Particle morphology and mineral structure of heavy metal-contaminated kaolin soil before and after electrokinetic remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Nicole; Reddy, Krishna R; Al-Hamdan, Ashraf Z

    2009-06-15

    This study aims to characterize the physical distribution of heavy metals in kaolin soil and the chemical and structural changes in kaolinite minerals that result from electrokinetic remediation. Three bench-scale electrokinetic experiments were conducted on kaolin that was spiked with Cr(VI) alone, Ni (II) alone, and a combination of Cr(VI), Ni(II) and Cd(II) under a constant electric potential of 1VDC/cm for a total duration of 4 days. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were performed on the soil samples before and after electrokinetic remediation. Results showed that the heavy metal contaminant distribution in the soil samples was not observable using TEM and EDX. EDX detected nickel and chromium on some kaolinite particles and titanium-rich, high-contrast particles, but no separate phases containing the metal contaminants were detected. Small amounts of heavy metal contaminants that were detected by EDX in the absence of a visible phase suggest that ions are adsorbed to kaolinite particle surfaces as a thin coating. There was also no clear correlation between semiquantitative analysis of EDX spectra and measured total metal concentrations, which may be attributed to low heavy metal concentrations and small size of samples used. X-ray diffraction analyses were aimed to detect any structural changes in kaolinite minerals resulting from EK. The diffraction patterns showed a decrease in peak height with decreasing soil pH value, which indicates possible dissolution of kaolinite minerals during electrokinetic remediation. Overall this study showed that the changes in particle morphology were found to be insignificant, but a relationship was found between the crystallinity of kaolin and the pH changes induced by the applied electric potential.

  6. Particle morphology and mineral structure of heavy metal-contaminated kaolin soil before and after electrokinetic remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roach, Nicole; Reddy, Krishna R.; Al-Hamdan, Ashraf Z.

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to characterize the physical distribution of heavy metals in kaolin soil and the chemical and structural changes in kaolinite minerals that result from electrokinetic remediation. Three bench-scale electrokinetic experiments were conducted on kaolin that was spiked with Cr(VI) alone, Ni (II) alone, and a combination of Cr(VI), Ni(II) and Cd(II) under a constant electric potential of 1 VDC/cm for a total duration of 4 days. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were performed on the soil samples before and after electrokinetic remediation. Results showed that the heavy metal contaminant distribution in the soil samples was not observable using TEM and EDX. EDX detected nickel and chromium on some kaolinite particles and titanium-rich, high-contrast particles, but no separate phases containing the metal contaminants were detected. Small amounts of heavy metal contaminants that were detected by EDX in the absence of a visible phase suggest that ions are adsorbed to kaolinite particle surfaces as a thin coating. There was also no clear correlation between semiquantitative analysis of EDX spectra and measured total metal concentrations, which may be attributed to low heavy metal concentrations and small size of samples used. X-ray diffraction analyses were aimed to detect any structural changes in kaolinite minerals resulting from EK. The diffraction patterns showed a decrease in peak height with decreasing soil pH value, which indicates possible dissolution of kaolinite minerals during electrokinetic remediation. Overall this study showed that the changes in particle morphology were found to be insignificant, but a relationship was found between the crystallinity of kaolin and the pH changes induced by the applied electric potential.

  7. Two main types of uranium deposit within phanerozoic formations of Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shumlyanskiy, V.A.

    1997-01-01

    The two main types of uranium deposits occurring within Phanaerozoic formations of Ukraine are described. They consist of uraniferous bearing bitumen in the Upper Carboniferous to Lower Triassic red beds, and infiltration (roll front type) uranium ores, occurring in the sediments filling ancient Paleogene river valleys. The first deposit type include black to dark brown beds of disseminated to massive bitumen occurring respectively as ozyantraxolite and oxykerite. These beds include uranium, as well as other metals. This uranium mineralization is dated at 195 to 200 million years old. The second type includes infiltration deposits in Paleogene coal bearing sediments, with the uranium mineralization occurring in the upper part of the sequence. The sediments occur within paleovallyes eroded into the underlying crystalline basement of the Ukraine shield and its weathered crust. The paleovalleys extend to a depth of 70 to 90 metres. The coal bearing sediments are overlain by sediments of younger age. Several uranium deposits of the second type are known, including a few identified as being of industrial grade. (author). 7 figs

  8. Metal oxide targets produced by the polymer-assisted deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Mitch A., E-mail: mitch@berkeley.ed [Department of Chemistry, Room 446 Latimer Hall, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-1460 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ali, Mazhar N.; Chang, Noel N.; Parsons-Moss, T. [Department of Chemistry, Room 446 Latimer Hall, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-1460 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ashby, Paul D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Gates, Jacklyn M. [Department of Chemistry, Room 446 Latimer Hall, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-1460 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Stavsetra, Liv [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Gregorich, Kenneth E.; Nitsche, Heino [Department of Chemistry, Room 446 Latimer Hall, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-1460 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2010-02-11

    The polymer-assisted deposition (PAD) method was used to create crack-free homogenous metal oxide films for use as targets in nuclear science applications. Metal oxide films of europium, thulium, and hafnium were prepared as models for actinide oxides. Films produced by a single application of PAD were homogenous and uniform and ranged in thickness from 30 to 320 nm. Reapplication of the PAD method (six times) with a 10% by weight hafnium(IV) solution resulted in an equally homogeneous and uniform film with a total thickness of 600 nm.

  9. Metal oxide targets produced by the polymer-assisted deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Mitch A.; Ali, Mazhar N.; Chang, Noel N.; Parsons-Moss, T.; Ashby, Paul D.; Gates, Jacklyn M.; Stavsetra, Liv; Gregorich, Kenneth E.; Nitsche, Heino

    2010-01-01

    The polymer-assisted deposition (PAD) method was used to create crack-free homogenous metal oxide films for use as targets in nuclear science applications. Metal oxide films of europium, thulium, and hafnium were prepared as models for actinide oxides. Films produced by a single application of PAD were homogenous and uniform and ranged in thickness from 30 to 320 nm. Reapplication of the PAD method (six times) with a 10% by weight hafnium(IV) solution resulted in an equally homogeneous and uniform film with a total thickness of 600 nm.

  10. The Corrosion Protection of Metals by Ion Vapor Deposited Aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danford, M. D.

    1993-01-01

    A study of the corrosion protection of substrate metals by ion vapor deposited aluminum (IVD Al) coats has been carried out. Corrosion protection by both anodized and unanodized IVD Al coats has been investigated. Base metals included in the study were 2219-T87 Al, 7075-T6 Al, Titanium-6 Al-4 Vanadium (Ti-6Al-4V), 4130 steel, D6AC steel, and 4340 steel. Results reveal that the anodized IVD Al coats provide excellent corrosion protection, but good protection is also achieved by IVD Al coats that have not been anodized.

  11. Remote sensing of geologic mineral occurrences for the Colorado mineral belt using LANDSAT data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, R. H. (Principal Investigator); Trexler, D. W.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. LANDSAT imagery was examined as a practical and productive tool for mineral exploration along the Colorado Mineral Belt. An attempt was made to identify all large, active and/or abandoned mining districts on the imagery which initially were discovered by surface manifestations. A number of strong photolinements, circular features, and color anomalies were identified. Some of these form a part of the structural and igneous volcanic framework in which mineral deposits occur. No specific mineral deposits such as veins or porphyries were identified. Promising linear and concentric features were field checked at several locations. Some proved to be fault zones and calderas; others were strictly topographic features related to stream or glacial entrenchment. The Silverton Caldera region and the Idaho Springs-Central City district were chosen and studied as case histories to evaluate the application of LANDSAT imagery to mineral exploration. Evidence of specific mineralization related to ore deposits in these two areas were observed only on low level photography.

  12. Gold and copper deposits in Central Lapland, Northern Finland, with special reference to their exploration and exploitation

    OpenAIRE

    Korkalo, T. (Tuomo)

    2006-01-01

    Abstract At least 30 gold deposits verified by means of one or more notable diamond drill hole results have been discovered in Central Lapland in the last 20 years, and these can be divided spatially into groups, between which the metal composition varies. The deposits contain varying amounts of sulphides and sulpharsenides as well as gold. Pyrite is the most common sulphide mineral in the gold deposits associated with volcanic rocks, and usually pyrrhotite in those associated with sedimen...

  13. Effect of carbon and manganese on the microstructure and mechanical properties of 9Cr2WVTa deposited metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Rong, Lijian; Li, Dianzhong; Lu, Shanping

    2017-03-01

    Six 9Cr2WVTa deposited metals with different carbon and manganese contents have been studied to reveal the role of major elements, which guide for the design of welding consumables for reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel and meet for the requirements of accelerator driven systems-lead fusion reactors. The typical microstructure for the 9Cr2WVTa deposited metals is the lath martensite along with the fine stripe δ-ferrite. The chemical compositions influence the solidification sequence and therefore, change the δ-ferrite content in the deposited metal. The impact toughness for the 9Cr2WVTa deposited metals decreases remarkably when the δ-ferrite content is more than 5.2 vol%, also the impact toughness decreases owing to the high quenching martensite formation. Increasing the level of manganese addition, α phase of each alloy shifts to the bottom right according to the CCT diagram.

  14. Trend of heavy metal and sulphur deposition in Finland from the 1980`s to 1990`s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubin, E.; Lippo, H. [Forest Research Inst., Muhos (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    The moss technique to survey atmospheric heavy metal deposition was developed in Sweden in the late 1960`s. The surveys has extended from regional and national basis to cover all the Nordic countries in 1985, to northern Europe in 1990 and to a large part of Europe in 1990-92. National reports have also been published in many countries. The Forest Research Institute established a network of 3009 secret permanent monitoring sites all over the country in 1985 and 1986 for forest inventory and for monitoring the situation and changes in the forests. One essential part has been to study the effects of air pollution - including heavy metal and sulphur deposition on forests. Deposition has been monitored by collecting bioindicators and analysing the element concentrations. The purpose of this report is to show the trend of the heavy metal and sulphur deposition from the 1980`s to 1990`s and in addition to produce information about the emission sources. (author)

  15. Trend of heavy metal and sulphur deposition in Finland from the 1980`s to 1990`s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubin, E; Lippo, H [Forest Research Inst., Muhos (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The moss technique to survey atmospheric heavy metal deposition was developed in Sweden in the late 1960`s. The surveys has extended from regional and national basis to cover all the Nordic countries in 1985, to northern Europe in 1990 and to a large part of Europe in 1990-92. National reports have also been published in many countries. The Forest Research Institute established a network of 3009 secret permanent monitoring sites all over the country in 1985 and 1986 for forest inventory and for monitoring the situation and changes in the forests. One essential part has been to study the effects of air pollution - including heavy metal and sulphur deposition on forests. Deposition has been monitored by collecting bioindicators and analysing the element concentrations. The purpose of this report is to show the trend of the heavy metal and sulphur deposition from the 1980`s to 1990`s and in addition to produce information about the emission sources. (author)

  16. Characterization and origin of low-T willemite (Zn2SiO4) mineralization: the case of the Bou Arhous deposit (High Atlas, Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choulet, Flavien; Barbanson, Luc; Buatier, Martine; Richard, James; Vennemann, Torsten; Ennaciri, Aomar; Zouhair, Mohamed

    2017-10-01

    Willemite (Zn2SiO4) usually reported in hypogene non-sulfide deposits is described as the main ore mineral in the carbonate-hosted Bou Arhous zinc deposit. This deposit is located in the High Atlas intracontinental range that formed during the Tertiary. Based on a set of microscopic observations, it was possible to establish that willemite replaces primary sphalerite. On the basis of cathodoluminescence imaging, three successive generations of willemite are distinguished, with evidence of dissolution-reprecipitation processes. Willemite is also variably enriched in Ge (up to 1000 ppm), while Ge contents lower than 100 ppm are reported in the primary sulfide minerals. Depending on the willemite generation, this substitution was positively or negatively correlated to the Zn-Pb substitution. According to the nature of zoning (sector versus oscillatory), the incorporation of Ge was either controlled by crystallographic factors or by the nature of the mineralizing fluids. Willemite is associated with other oxidation-related mineral species, like cerussite (PbCO3) but is not in isotopic equilibrium and therefore not considered to be cogenetic. Oxygen isotope compositions support the formation of willemite at temperatures below 130 °C, from mixed meteoric and deeper, hydrothermal fluids. The formation of the High Atlas Belt during the Tertiary has contributed to the exhumation of the sulfide minerals and the development of vertical conduits for percolation of meteoric water and ascending hydrothermal fluids. In addition to a local contribution of silicate minerals of the host limestone, hydrothermal fluids probably transported Si and Ge that are incorporated in willemite.

  17. A shallow marine storm-induced heavy-mineral deposit in the Witteberg group near Willomore, Cape Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, D.I.; Labuschagne, L.S.

    1982-01-01

    Two heavy-mineral-bearing sandstone beds were discovered within the Weltevrede Formation of the Witteberg Group during a routine investigation of an aerial radiometric survey. Maximum concentrations of 142 ppm U and 434 ppm Th were determined by x-ray fluorescence analysis. The sandstone beds that were investigated closely resemble amalgamated storm deposits, each unit representing the product of an individual storm. A radiometric survey indicated that the highest concentration of heavy-minerals are limited to the upper 20 cm of the main bed and the indicated resources are as follows: rutile - 2700 tons, zircon - 850 tons, ilmenite - 650 tons, magnetite - 550 tons, monozite - 200 tons, and uranium - 5 tons

  18. Evidence for rapid epithermal mineralization and coeval bimodal volcanism, Bruner Au-Ag property, NV USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Dylan

    The character of Au-Ag mineralization and volcanic/hydrothermal relationships at the underexplored Miocene-age Bruner low-sulfidation epithermal Au-Ag deposit are elucidated using field and laboratory studies. Bruner is located in central Nevada within the Great Basin extensional province, near several major volcanic trends (Western Andesite, Northern Nevada Rift) associated with world-class Miocene-age epithermal Au-Ag provinces. Despite its proximity to several >1 Moz Au deposits, and newly discovered high-grade drill intercepts (to 117 ppm Au/1.5m), there is no published research on the deposit, the style of mineralization has not been systematically characterized, and vectors to mineralization remain elusive. By investigating the nature of mineralization and time-space relationships between volcanic/hydrothermal activity, the deposit has been integrated into a regional framework, and exploration targeting improved. Mineralization occurs within narrow quartz + adularia +/- pyrite veins that manifest as sheeted/stockwork zones, vein swarms, and rare 0.3-2 m wide veins hosted by two generations of Miocene high-K, high-silica rhyolite flow dome complexes overlying an andesite flow unit. The most prominent structural controls on veining are N­striking faults and syn-mineral basalt/rhyolite dikes. Productive veins have robust boiling indicators (high adularia content, bladed quartz after calcite, recrystallized colloform quartz bands), lack rhythmic banding, and contain only 1-2 stages; these veins overprint, or occur separately from another population of barren to weakly mineralized rhythmically banded quartz-only veins. Ore minerals consist of coarse Au0.5Ag 0.5 electrum, fine Au0.7Ag0.3 electrum, acanthite, uytenbogaardtite (Ag3AuS2) and minor embolite Ag(Br,Cl). Now deeply oxidized, veins typically contain Bruner appears to belong to a small subset of mid-Miocene epithermal deposits in Nevada with low base metal contents and low to no Se, related to calc

  19. Polymer-assisted metal deposition (PAMD): a full-solution strategy for flexible, stretchable, compressible, and wearable metal conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, You; Yan, Casey; Zheng, Zijian

    2014-08-20

    Metal interconnects, contacts, and electrodes are indispensable elements for most applications of flexible, stretchable, and wearable electronics. Current fabrication methods for these metal conductors are mainly based on conventional microfabrication procedures that have been migrated from Si semiconductor industries, which face significant challenges for organic-based compliant substrates. This Research News highlights a recently developed full-solution processing strategy, polymer-assisted metal deposition (PAMD), which is particularly suitable for the roll-to-roll, low-cost fabrication of high-performance compliant metal conductors (Cu, Ni, Ag, and Au) on a wide variety of organic substrates including plastics, elastomers, papers, and textiles. This paper presents i) the principles of PAMD, and how to use it for making ii) flexible, stretchable, and wearable conductive metal electrodes, iii) patterned metal interconnects, and d) 3D stretchable and compressible metal sponges. A critical perspective on this emerging strategy is also provided. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Undiscovered porphyry copper resources in the Urals—A probabilistic mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Mihalasky, Mark J.; Ludington, Stephen; Phillips, Jeffrey; Berger, Byron R.; Denning, Paul; Dicken, Connie; Mars, John; Zientek, Michael L.; Herrington, Richard J.; Seltmann, Reimar

    2017-01-01

    A probabilistic mineral resource assessment of metal resources in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits of the Ural Mountains in Russia and Kazakhstan was done using a quantitative form of mineral resource assessment. Permissive tracts were delineated on the basis of mapped and inferred subsurface distributions of igneous rocks assigned to tectonic zones that include magmatic arcs where the occurrence of porphyry copper deposits within 1 km of the Earth's surface are possible. These permissive tracts outline four north-south trending volcano-plutonic belts in major structural zones of the Urals. From west to east, these include permissive lithologies for porphyry copper deposits associated with Paleozoic subduction-related island-arc complexes preserved in the Tagil and Magnitogorsk arcs, Paleozoic island-arc fragments and associated tonalite-granodiorite intrusions in the East Uralian zone, and Carboniferous continental-margin arcs developed on the Kazakh craton in the Transuralian zone. The tracts range from about 50,000 to 130,000 km2 in area. The Urals host 8 known porphyry copper deposits with total identified resources of about 6.4 million metric tons of copper, at least 20 additional porphyry copper prospect areas, and numerous copper-bearing skarns and copper occurrences.Probabilistic estimates predict a mean of 22 undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within the four permissive tracts delineated in the Urals. Combining estimates with established grade and tonnage models predicts a mean of 82 million metric tons of undiscovered copper. Application of an economic filter suggests that about half of that amount could be economically recoverable based on assumed depth distributions, availability of infrastructure, recovery rates, current metals prices, and investment environment.

  1. Long-term controls on continental-scale bedrock river terrace deposition from integrated clast and heavy mineral assemblage analysis: An example from the lower Orange River, Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashole, Albertina N.; Hodgson, David M.; Chapman, Robert J.; Morgan, Dan J.; Jacob, Roger J.

    2018-02-01

    Establishing relationships between the long-term landscape evolution of drainage basins and the fill of sedimentary basins benefits from analysis of bedrock river terrace deposits. These fragmented detrital archives help to constrain changes in river system character and provenance during sediment transfer from continents (source) to oceans (sink). Thick diamondiferous gravel terrace deposits along the lower Orange River, southern Namibia, provide a rare opportunity to investigate controls on the incision history of a continental-scale bedrock river. Clast assemblage and heavy mineral data from seven localities permit detailed characterisation of the lower Orange River gravel terrace deposits. Two distinct fining-upward gravel terrace deposits are recognised, primarily based on mapped stratigraphic relationships (cross-cutting relationships) and strath and terrace top elevations, and secondarily on the proportion of exotic clasts, referred to as Proto Orange River deposits and Meso Orange River deposits. The older early to middle Miocene Proto Orange River gravels are thick (up to 50 m) and characterised by a dominance of Karoo Supergroup shale and sandstone clasts, whereas the younger Plio-Pleistocene Meso Orange River gravels (6-23 m thick) are characterised by more banded iron formation clasts. Mapping of the downstepping terraces indicates that the Proto gravels were deposited by a higher sinuosity river, and are strongly discordant to the modern Orange River course, whereas the Meso deposits were deposited by a lower sinuosity river. The heavy minerals present in both units comprise magnetite, garnet, amphibole, epidote and ilmenite, with rare titanite and zircon grains. The concentration of amphibole-epidote in the heavy minerals fraction increases from the Proto to the Meso deposits. The decrease in incision depths, recorded by deposit thicknesses above strath terraces, and the differences in clast character (size and roundness) and type between the two

  2. Deposition and benthic mineralization of organic carbon: A seasonal study from Faroe Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    á Norði, Gunnvør; Glud, Ronnie N.; Simonsen, Knud; Gaard, Eilif

    2018-01-01

    Seasonal variations in sedimentation and benthic mineralization of organic carbon (OC) were investigated in a Faroese fjord. Deposited particulate organic carbon (POC) was mainly of marine origin, with terrestrial material only accounting for rates were associated to the spring bloom. The dynamics in the benthic solute exchange were governed by stratification that isolated the bottom water during summer and intensified sediment resuspension during winter. The POC export from the euphotic zone could not sustain the benthic mineralization rate (10.8 mol C m- 2 yr- 1) and the calculated burial rate (9.8 mol C m- 2 yr- 1) of organic material in the central basin. This indicated considerable focusing of material in the central part of the fjord. This was supported by the fact that the measured benthic mineralization rate - in contrast to most investigations - actually increased with increasing water depth. In August, when mineralization was at its maximum, the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) release from the sediment increased by 2.2 mmol m- 2 d- 1 for every m increase in water depth at 30-60 m depth. Due to sediment focusing, the OC burial in the deepest part of the fjord was 9.8 mol C m- 2 yr- 1. This was 2.4 times higher than the average OC burial in the fjord, estimated from the total sedimentation, and benthic mineralization accounting for the water depth related changes in activity. The study in Kaldbaksfjørður underscore that fjords are important sites for long time OC burial, but emphasize the need for accounting for spatial variations when extrapolating results from a single or few stations to the scale of the entire fjord.

  3. Atomic layer deposition of HfO{sub 2} for integration into three-dimensional metal-insulator-metal devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assaud, Loic [Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, CINAM, Marseille (France); ICMMO-ERIEE, Universite Paris-Sud / Universite Paris-Saclay, CNRS, Orsay (France); Pitzschel, Kristina; Barr, Maissa K.S.; Petit, Matthieu; Hanbuecken, Margrit; Santinacci, Lionel [Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, CINAM, Marseille (France); Monier, Guillaume [Universite Clermont Auvergne, Universite Blaise Pascal, CNRS, Institut Pascal, Clermont-Ferrand (France)

    2017-12-15

    HfO{sub 2} nanotubes have been fabricated via a template-assisted deposition process for further use in three-dimensional metal-insulator-metal (MIM) devices. HfO{sub 2} thin layers were grown by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) in anodic alumina membranes (AAM). The ALD was carried out using tetrakis(ethylmethylamino)hafnium and water as Hf and O sources, respectively. Long exposure durations to the precursors have been used to maximize the penetration depth of the HfO{sub 2} layer within the AAM and the effect of the process temperature was investigated. The morphology, the chemical composition, and the crystal structure were studied as a function of the deposition parameters using transmission and scanning electron microscopies, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction, respectively. As expected, the HfO{sub 2} layers grown at low-temperature (T = 150 C) were amorphous, while for a higher temperature (T = 250 C), polycrystalline films were observed. The electrical characterizations have shown better insulating properties for the layers grown at low temperature. Finally, TiN/HfO{sub 2}/TiN multilayers were grown in an AAM as proof-of-concept for three-dimensional MIM nanostructures. (orig.)

  4. Recovering byproduct heavy minerals from sand and gravel, placer gold, and industrial mineral operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, J.M.; Martinez, G.M.; Wong, M.M.

    1979-01-01

    The Bureau of Mines, as part of an effort to maximize minerals and metals recovery from domestic resources, has investigated the feasibility of recovering heavy minerals as byproducts from sand and gravel, placer gold, and industrial mineral operations in northern California. Sand samples from about 50 locations were treated by gravity separation to yield heavy-mineral cocentrates (black sands). Mineral compositions of the concentrates were determined by chemical analysis and mineralogical examination. Individual zircon, ilmenite, magnetite, platinum-group metals, thoria, and silica products were prepared from heavy-mineral concentrates by selective separation using low- and high-intensity magnetic, high-tension, and flotation equipment.

  5. Dating oxalate minerals in rock surface deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watchman, A.

    2001-01-01

    Oxalate minerals are found associated with rocks, mineral coatings, micro-organisms, plants and animals. They are important in archaeology because they have been found intimately associated with organic binders in prehistoric paints. Oxalate minerals also accumulate in the coatings on rock shelter walls and fallen ceiling slabs where they form the natural backing supports for painting and opaque laminates covering engravings. Though the relationship between anthropogenic activity in a rock shelter and oxalate formation is often uncertain, the radiocarbon age of the oxalate may provide the only means for determining the antiquity of a rock painting or engraving. This paper examines the history of dating oxalate minerals at archaeological sites and provides insights into achieving reliable age estimates. (author). 37 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  6. Role of particle size and composition in metal adsorption by solids deposited on urban road surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunawardana, Chandima; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2014-01-01

    Despite common knowledge that the metal content adsorbed by fine particles is relatively higher compared to coarser particles, the reasons for this phenomenon have gained little research attention. The research study discussed in the paper investigated the variations in metal content for different particle sizes of solids associated with pollutant build-up on urban road surfaces. Data analysis confirmed that parameters favourable for metal adsorption to solids such as specific surface area, organic carbon content, effective cation exchange capacity and clay forming minerals content decrease with the increase in particle size. Furthermore, the mineralogical composition of solids was found to be the governing factor influencing the specific surface area and effective cation exchange capacity. There is high quartz content in particles >150 μm compared to particles <150 μm. As particle size reduces below 150 μm, the clay forming minerals content increases, providing favourable physical and chemical properties that influence adsorption. -- Highlights: • Physico-chemical parameters investigated in build-up samples from 32 road surfaces. • Mineralogical composition primarily governs the physico-chemical characteristics. • High clay forming mineral content in fine solids increases SSA and ECEC. • Characteristics influenced by quartz and amorphous content with particle size. • High quartz content in coarse particles contributes reduced metal adsorption. -- The mineralogical composition of solids is the governing factor influencing metal adsorption to solids in pollutant build-up on urban surfaces

  7. 40Ar-39Ar dating of Archean iron oxide Cu-Au and Paleoproterozoic granite-related Cu-Au deposits in the Carajás Mineral Province, Brazil: implications for genetic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Peter J.; Taylor, Roger G.; Peters, Lisa; Matos, Fernando; Freitas, Cantidiano; Saboia, Lineu; Huhn, Sergio

    2018-05-01

    40Ar-39Ar dating of biotite from IOCG and granite-related Cu-Au deposits in the Carajás Mineral Province provides evidence for the timing of mineralization and constraints on genetic models of ore formation. Ages of biotite from greisen and quartz-rich vein and breccia deposits, Alvo 118—1885 ± 4 Ma, Breves—1886 ± 5 Ma, Estrela—1896 ± 7 Ma, and Gameleira—1908 ± 7 Ma, demonstrate the close temporal relationship between Cu-Au mineralization and subjacent A-type granites. Mineralization is hosted within granite cupolas (Breves) or in vein/breccia systems emanating from the cupolas (Estrela and Gameleira), consistent with a genetic relationship of mineralization to the B-Li-F-rich granites. Plateau and minimum ages of biotite from IOCG deposits, including Igarapé Bahia, Cristalino, Corta Goela, and GT34, range from 2537 ± 6 Ma to 2193 ± 4 Ma. The 40Ar-39Ar age of biotite from Igarapé Bahia (2537 ± 6 Ma) is similar to a previous SHRIMP 207Pb-206Pb age for monazite of 2575 ± 12 Ma when the uncertainties in the respective analyses and standards are taken into account. The age spectrum for biotite from Cristalino shows increasing ages for successive steps, consistent with post-crystallization Ar loss, and the age of 2388 ± 5 Ma for the last three steps is considered a minimum age for Cu-Au mineralization. The age of biotite from the GT34 prospect (2512 ± 7 Ma) coincides with a previously identified period of basement reactivation and may indicate the formation of Cu-Au mineralization at this time or resetting of biotite from an older mineralization event at this time. At Corta Goela, within the Canaã Shear Zone, the biotite age of 2193 ± 4 Ma lies between the ages of IOCG (2.57-2.76 Ga) and granite-related Cu-Au ( 1.88 Ga) deposits elsewhere in the Carajás district but is similar to previously reported 40Ar-39Ar ages for amphibole from Sossego, possibly indicating that mineralization at both Sossego and Corta Goela was affected by a thermal event at

  8. Metal immobilization by sludge-derived biochar: roles of mineral oxides and carbonized organic compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weihua; Huang, Xinchen; Jia, Yanming; Rees, Frederic; Tsang, Daniel C W; Qiu, Rongliang; Wang, Hong

    2017-04-01

    Pyrolyzing sludge into biochar is a potentially promising recycling/disposal solution for municipal wastewater sludge, and the sludge-derived biochar (SDBC) presents an excellent sorbent for metal immobilization. As SDBC is composed of both mineral oxides and carbonized organic compartment, this study therefore compared the sorption behaviour of Pb and Zn on SDBC to those of individual and mixture of activated carbon (AC) and amorphous aluminium oxide (Al 2 O 3 ). Batch experiments were conducted at 25 and 45 °C, and the metal-loaded sorbents were artificially aged in the atmosphere for 1-60 days followed by additional sorption experiments. The Pb sorption was generally higher than Zn sorption, and the co-presence of Pb reduced Zn sorption on each studied sorbent. Higher sorption capacities were observed at 45 °C than 25 °C for SDBC and AC, while the opposite was shown for Al 2 O 3 , indicating the significance of temperature-dependent diffusion processes in SDBC and AC. Nevertheless, metal sorption was more selective on Al 2 O 3 that showed a greater affinity towards Pb over Zn under competition, correlating with the reducible fraction of sequential extraction. Furthermore, significant amounts of Pb and Zn were additionally sorbed on SDBC following 30-day ageing. The X-ray diffraction revealed the formation of metal-phosphate precipitates, while the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed a larger quantity of metal-oxygen bonding after 30-day ageing of metal-loaded SDBC. The results may imply favourable long-term transformation and additional sorption capacity of SDBC. In conclusion, SDBC resembles the sorption characteristics of both organic and mineral sorbents in different aspects, presenting an appropriate material for metal immobilization during soil amendment.

  9. Mineral statistics yearbook 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    A summary of mineral production in Saskatchewan was compiled and presented as a reference manual. Statistical information on fuel minerals such as crude oil, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas and coal, and of industrial and metallic minerals, such as potash, sodium sulphate, salt and uranium, was provided in all conceivable variety of tables. Production statistics, disposition and value of sales of industrial and metallic minerals were also made available. Statistical data on drilling of oil and gas reservoirs and crown land disposition were also included. figs., tabs

  10. Recovery of copper and precious metals from chalcopyrite low grade ores - choice between flotation or microorganisms leaching

    OpenAIRE

    Krstev, Boris; Golomeov, Blagoj; Konzulov, Gerasim; Gocev, Zivko

    1998-01-01

    The conventional flotation technologies cannot provide fair results when to applied to very low grade ores or to "refractory" ores. This class include intimate and nonuniform mineral associations, with partialy oxidized minerals and high secondary mineral content and also high soluble salt content, pre-activated minerals because of the excessive permeability of the deposit and of the intense circulation of waters with heavy metal ions etc. Bacterial oxidation as a means to the recovery of met...

  11. Natural versus anthropogenic dispersion of metals to the environment in the Wulik River area, western Brooks Range, northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, K.D.; Hudson, T.

    2007-01-01

    Zinc-lead-silver mineral deposits in the Wulik River region, Alaska, contain an enormous accumulation of Zn. In addition to the giant deposits at Red Dog, at least nine other deposits are known. Natural weathering of these deposits has dispersed metals over a wide region over a long period of time (c. 10 000 years) through transport by stream and groundwater, stream sediments, formation of soils, and perhaps wind-blown atmospheric deposition from weathering of naturally enriched Pb-Zn surface deposits. Anthropogenic input also contributes metals to the environment. Mining of the Red Dog deposit, which began in 1989, produces fine-grained galena and sphalerite concentrates that are transported from the mine site by truck to a storage port facility. Wind-blown dispersion of concentrate dust along the road and around the port facility has been a source of local metal-rich surficial materials. Geochemical and mineralogical characteristics provide a means of distinguishing