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Sample records for metal mechanic sector

  1. Knowledge Management and Competitive Advantage: study in the metal-mechanic sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Centenaro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to analyze the factors related to organizational culture that assist in knowledge management processes, helping to generate competitive advantage in the companies of metal-mechanic sector. Therefore, a quantitative survey data collection strategy was performed by applying a structured questionnaire in a sample of 63 employees from 13 companies in the metal-mechanic sector. The results were analyzed using multiple regression and indicate that the studied segment, learning and trust are positive and significant predictors of knowledge management. Thus, it can be inferred that the companies that stimulate its employees to learn and invest in maintaining confidence among members of the organization may achieve better performance in knowledge management. Finally, the results also expose that the knowledge management directly influences the performance and organizational effectiveness, demonstrating that the use and sharing of tacit and explicit knowledge are generating competitive advantage to competitors.

  2. Sectoral Market Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This paper first reviews proposals for the design of sectoral and related market mechanisms currently debated, both in the UNFCCC negotiations, and in different domestic legislative contexts. Secondly, it addresses the possible principles and technical requirements that Parties may wish to consider as the foundations for further elaboration of the mechanisms. The third issue explored herein is domestic implementation of sectoral market mechanisms by host countries, incentives to move to new market mechanisms, as well as how the transition between current and future mechanisms could be managed.

  3. Rearrangement of the layout of the welding equipment of a company in the metal mechanical sector using the Systematic Layout Planning method (SLP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Alexsandro Turati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The correct physical layout is relevant to the operational efficiency of the company. This study proposes rearranging the layout of the welding equipment of a company in the metal mechanical sector, which is located in Araras/SP, aiming to improve the production workflow. The Systematic Layout Planning method (SLP was used, with the field research divided into steps: obtaining detailed information about the process and the product; meetings with stakeholders; determining inter-related activities; analyzing space requirements; developing a new layout. The new layout has space allocated for the purchasing of new machinery, the existing machinery has been redistributed by specialty, and the unloading of raw materials has been transferred to the shed, maximizing the use of overhead cranes and keeping the stock close to the warehouse. In addition, forklift traffic flow has decreased; new movement corridors were demarcated; and painting areas were isolated. In conclusion, the SLP method proved efficient in creating a layout.

  4. Proposal for evaluation of the level of implementation of typical practices of lean production in company a sector of the metal-mechanic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Graça Saraiva Nogueira

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the advantages obtained when performing lean production, different sectors of the production of goods and services have adopted its principles and practices. Due to its degree of abstraction, it is difficult to establish a level of incorporation of such concepts. On the other hand, because of the operational features of its practices, such assessment becomes possible through the quantification of the elements involved (time, cost, raw material. The use of lean production practices does not guarantee its implementation and sustainability. However, the assessment of such practices might, in an indirect way, provide hints on how widespread its principles are and to what extent they are being adopted. The present assessment took place at an metal-mechanic company which has been implementing lean production as a philosophy of production at corporate levels since 2002. The operational manager and managers responsible for quality, production, sales, purchase, maintenance, and PCP also took part in this research. Each manager answered to an interview and filled a checklist and a ranking in order to evaluate performance and importance, respectively. Just-in-time, leveling production (heijunka, and integration practices with the supply chain yielded the most unfavorable results, whereas group technology, continuous improvement, and visual management yielded the best results. With regard to the importance criterion, the practices of standardized operations, just-in-time, and quick changeover were considered the most important, whereas workforce flexibility, group technology, and development of lean product were the least important. Key-words: Lean Production; Measurement of Performance and Importance, Sector of the metal-mechanic

  5. On mechanism of metals modifying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernov, V.S.; Busol, F.I.

    1975-01-01

    Data from the literature are cited to show that in several cases, the mechanism of modification of metals and alloys by additives soluble in the melt cannot be explained by the adsorption hypothesis based on the surface activity of these additives. It is suggested that the mechanism of modification by soluble additives can be explained by the presence of a layer of liquid enriched (or depleted) in the additives preceding the crystallization front (densification by concentration), formed under actual conditions of crystallization as a result of the different solubilities of the additive in the solid and liquid phases of the base metal, regardless of its surface activity. This densification by concentration leads to the inhibition of crystal growth in the base metal (barrier action) and to concentration overcooling. On the basis of this theory it is suggested that the modifying action of additives can be predicted from some parameters of the phase diagrams. (author)

  6. Formation mechanisms of metal colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halaciuga, Ionel

    Highly dispersed uniform metallic particles are widely used in various areas of technology and medicine and are likely to be incorporated into many other applications in the future. It is commonly accepted that size, shape and composition of the particles represent critical factors in most applications. Thus, understanding the mechanisms of formation of metal particles and the ways to control the physical (e.g. shape, size) and chemical (e.g. composition) properties is of great importance. In the current research, the formation of uniform silver spheres is investigated experimentally. The parameters that influence the formation of silver particles when concentrated iso-ascorbic acid and silver-polyamine complex solutions are rapidly mixed were studied in the absence of dispersants. We found that by varying the nature of the amine, temperature, concentration of reactants, silver/amine molar ratio, and the nature of the silver salt, the size of the resulting silver particles can be varied in a wide range (0.08--1.5 microm). The silver particles were formed by aggregation of nanosize subunits as substantiated by both electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques and by the vivid rapid color changes during the chemical precipitation process. From the practical standpoint, the goal of this research was to prepare well dispersed spherical silver particles having a relatively smooth surface and a diameter of about 1 microm to satisfy the demands of the current electronic materials market. A two stage particle growth model previously developed to explain the narrow size distribution occurring in synthesis of gold spheres was applied to the present experimental system, and the parameters that control the size distribution characteristics were identified. The kinetic parameter required to match the final particle size was found to be in agreement with the one used previously in modeling formation of gold spheres, suggesting that similar kinetics governs the

  7. Strengthening Mechanisms in Microtruss Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Evelyn K.

    Microtrusses are hybrid materials composed of a three-dimensional array of struts capable of efficiently transmitting an externally applied load. The strut connectivity of microtrusses enables them to behave in a stretch-dominated fashion, allowing higher specific strength and stiffness values to be reached than conventional metal foams. While much attention has been given to the optimization of microtruss architectures, little attention has been given to the strengthening mechanisms inside the materials that make up this architecture. This thesis examines strengthening mechanisms in aluminum alloy and copper alloy microtruss systems with and without a reinforcing structural coating. C11000 microtrusses were stretch-bend fabricated for the first time; varying internal truss angles were selected in order to study the accumulating effects of plastic deformation and it was found that the mechanical performance was significantly enhanced in the presence of work hardening with the peak strength increasing by a factor of three. The C11000 microtrusses could also be significantly reinforced with sleeves of electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ni-53wt%Fe. It was found that the strength increase from work hardening and electrodeposition were additive over the range of structures considered. The AA2024 system allowed the contribution of work hardening, precipitation hardening, and hard anodizing to be considered as interacting strengthening mechanisms. Because of the lower formability of AA2024 compared to C11000, several different perforation geometries in the starting sheet were considered in order to more effectively distribute the plastic strain during stretch-bend fabrication. A T8 condition was selected over a T6 condition because it was shown that the plastic deformation induced during the final step was sufficient to enhance precipitation kinetics allowing higher strengths to be reached, while at the same time eliminating one annealing treatment. When hard anodizing

  8. Sectoral crediting mechanism: How far China has to go

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Wenjia; Wang Can; Chen Jining; Wang Siqiang

    2012-01-01

    Based on the review of the basic design of the sectoral crediting mechanism (SCM) – a promising option for developing countries’ emission reduction commitments – this paper analyzes five important practical issues for China to solve before participating in SCM, which include (1) difficulties in determining a crediting baseline (2) the unsolved over-supply problem in the carbon market (3) the very likely “carbon credits falling short of mitigation costs” problem (4) the immature market-oriented price system jeopardizing the success of motivation incentives and (5) inadequate capacity building. Corresponding suggestions or compromise solutions are given after a discussion of each issue. It is also recommended that in order to witness SCM come into being, researchers and negotiators should endeavor to solve the practical issues that SCM meets now, bearing in mind the balance of interests of both developing and developed countries. Finally we believe that SCM’s political barriers can be overcome when technical, economic institutional and capacity problems are solved. - Highlights: ► Latest developments in Sectoral Crediting Mechanism design have been reviewed. ► Ten years would be an ideal duration to adjust sectoral crediting baseline in China. ► Specific sectors could be selected to solve the carbon credits over-supply problem. ► SCM credits may come short of the mitigation costs, claiming a rising carbon price. ► Pricing system in China’s electricity sector makes it not a good candidate for SCM.

  9. Mechanisms of metal dusting corrosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hummelshøj, Thomas Strabo

    In this thesis the early stages of metal dusting corrosion is addressed; the development of carbon expanded austenite, C, and the decomposition hereof into carbides. Later stages of metal dusting corrosion are explored by a systematic study of stainless steel foils exposed to metal dusting...... deformed stainless steel flakes is transformed to expanded martensite/austenite during low-temperature carburization. Various experimental procedures to experimentally determine the concentration dependent diffusion coefficient of carbon in expanded austenite are evaluated. The most promising procedure...... powders and flakes. The nature of the decomposition products, carbides of the form M23C6 and M7C3, were evaluated by X-ray diffraction, light optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and thermodynamic modelling. The decomposition was found to be dependent on several parameters such as thermal...

  10. Mechanical and metal trades handbook

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Englische Ausgabe des vielfach bewährten Tabellenbuchs Metall, 45. Auflage. Translation of the 45th edition of the well-known "Tabellenbuch Metall". It is well suited for shop reference, tooling, machine building, maintenance and as a general book of knowledge. It is also useful for educational purposes, especially in practical work or curricula, continuing education programs. The contents of this book include tables and formulae in eight chapters. The tables contain the most important guidelines, designs, types, dimensions and standard values for their subject areas.

  11. Mechanisms of bacterial metals removal from solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torma, A.E.; Pryfogle, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Great Lakes area sediments are contaminated with varying amounts of heavy metals and polychlorinated organic matter. With respect to the bioremediation of metallic contents of these sediments, it was shown that a number of microorganisms exist which can effectively solubilize heavy metals. The basic reaction mechanisms of bioleaching processes were discussed and the effects of semiconductor character of the sulfide substrate explained. A special emphasis was made to comment on INEL's bioremediation capability. 37 refs

  12. Implications of metal accumulation mechanisms to phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Abdul R; Schröder, Peter

    2009-03-01

    Trace elements (heavy metals and metalloids) are important environmental pollutants, and many of them are toxic even at very low concentrations. Pollution of the biosphere with trace elements has accelerated dramatically since the Industrial Revolution. Primary sources are the burning of fossil fuels, mining and smelting of metalliferous ores, municipal wastes, agrochemicals, and sewage. In addition, natural mineral deposits containing particularly large quantities of heavy metals are found in many regions. These areas often support characteristic plant species thriving in metal-enriched environments. Whereas many species avoid the uptake of heavy metals from these soils, some of them can accumulate significantly high concentrations of toxic metals, to levels which by far exceed the soil levels. The natural phenomenon of heavy metal tolerance has enhanced the interest of plant ecologists, plant physiologists, and plant biologists to investigate the physiology and genetics of metal tolerance in specialized hyperaccumulator plants such as Arabidopsis halleri and Thlaspi caerulescens. In this review, we describe recent advances in understanding the genetic and molecular basis of metal tolerance in plants with special reference to transcriptomics of heavy metal accumulator plants and the identification of functional genes implied in tolerance and detoxification. Plants are susceptible to heavy metal toxicity and respond to avoid detrimental effects in a variety of different ways. The toxic dose depends on the type of ion, ion concentration, plant species, and stage of plant growth. Tolerance to metals is based on multiple mechanisms such as cell wall binding, active transport of ions into the vacuole, and formation of complexes with organic acids or peptides. One of the most important mechanisms for metal detoxification in plants appears to be chelation of metals by low-molecular-weight proteins such as metallothioneins and peptide ligands, the phytochelatins. For

  13. Reducing barriers to energy efficiency in the German mechanical engineering sector. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, J.; Boede, U.

    2000-12-01

    This report describes the empirical research into barriers to energy efficiency in the German mechanical engineering (ME) sector. It is one of nine such reports in the BARRIERS project. The report contains description and analysis of four case studies of energy management in German companies in the ME sector. The results are analysed using the theoretical framework developed for the BARRIERS project. The report also provides brief recommendations on how these barriers to the rational use of energy (RUE) may be overcome and how energy efficiency within the ME sector may be improved. The results of the study for the ME sector in Germany are summarised in this executive summary under the following headings: - Characterising the mechanical engineering sector; - Case studies of energy management in the German mechanical engineering sector; - Evidence of barriers in the German mechanical engineering sector; - The role of energy service companies in the mechanical engineering sector; - Policy implications. (orig.)

  14. Reducing barriers to energy efficiency in the German mechanical engineering sector. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, J.; Boede, U.

    2000-12-01

    This report describes the empirical research into barriers to energy efficiency in the German mechanical engineering (ME) sector. It is one of nine such reports in the BARRIERS project. The report contains description and analysis of four case studies of energy management in German companies in the ME sector. The results are analysed using the theoretical framework developed for the BARRIERS project. The report also provides brief recommendations on how these barriers to the rational use of energy (RUE) may be overcome and how energy efficiency within the ME sector may be improved. The results of the study for the ME sector in Germany are summarised in this executive summary under the following headings: - Characterising the mechanical engineering sector; - Case studies of energy management in the German mechanical engineering sector; - Evidence of barriers in the German mechanical engineering sector; - The role of energy service companies in the mechanical engineering sector; - Policy implications. (orig.)

  15. Reaction mechanisms of metal complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Hay, R W

    2000-01-01

    This text provides a general background as a course module in the area of inorganic reaction mechanisms, suitable for advanced undergraduate and postgraduate study and/or research. The topic has important research applications in the metallurgical industry and is of interest in the science of biochemistry, biology, organic, inorganic and bioinorganic chemistry. In addition to coverage of substitution reactions in four-, five- and six-coordinate complexes, the book contains further chapters devoted to isomerization and racemization reactions, to the general field of redox reactions, and to the reactions of coordinated ligands. It is relevant in other fields such as organic, bioinorganic and biological chemistry, providing a bridge to organic reaction mechanisms. The book also contains a chapter on the kinetic background to the subject with many illustrative examples which should prove useful to those beginning research. Provides a general background as a course module in the area of inorganic reaction mechanis...

  16. Mechanisms of liquid-metal embrittlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovich, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    The mechanism of the embrittlement of metals and alloys during deformation in contact with liquid metals are discussed. With 20Kh13 steel in a Pb-Sn melt and polycrystalline Al in the presence of various mercury solutions a.s examples, considered are the three main processes - adsorption, corrosion (dissolution), formation of new phases which cause the disintegration of materials under the action of liquid-metallic media. Presented are data on plastic ductile and strength properties of the above materials in the presence of liquid-metallic media. A model is described that takes into account the effect of the medium upon the plastic deformation and the part the medium plays in liquid-metallic embrittlement

  17. Metallic materials for mechanical damping capacity applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crăciun, R. C.; Stanciu, S.; Cimpoeșu, R.; (Dragoș Ursanu, A. I.; Manole, V.; Paraschiv, P.; Chicet, D. L.

    2016-08-01

    Some metallic materials exhibit good damping capacity of mechanical energy into thermal energy. This property along with the others metallic characteristics make this materials interesting for a big number of applications. These materials can be used as bumpers in different applications including automotive field. Beside grey cast iron and shape memory alloys few new metallic materials are presented for the supposition of high damping capacity. We analyze the causes that increase the internal friction of some metallic materials and possibilities to enhance this property through different mechanical, physical or chemical methods. Shape memory alloys, especially those based on copper, present a different damping capacity on martensite, austenite or transition state. In the transformation range M ↔A, which in case of copper base shape memory alloys is quite large, the metallic intelligent materials present a high internal friction, almost comparable with natural rubber behavior that can transform mechanical energy into thermal energy till a certain value of the external solicitation. These materials can be used as noise or small vibrations bumpers or even as shock absorbers in automotive industry.

  18. Sorption mechanisms of metals to graphene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Showalter, Allison R; Bunker, Bruce A; Duster, Thomas A; Szymanowski, Jennifer E S; Na, Chongzheng; Fein, Jeremy B

    2016-01-01

    Environmental toxic metal contamination remediation and prevention is an ongoing issue. Graphene oxide is highly sorptive for many heavy metals over a wide pH range under different ionic strength conditions. We present x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy results investigating the binding environment of Pb(II), Cd(II) and U(VI) ions onto multi-layered graphene oxide (MLGO). Analysis indicates that the dominant sorption mechanism of Pb to MLGO changes as a function of pH, with increasing inner sphere contribution as pH increases. In contrast, the sorption mechanism of Cd to MLGO remains constant under the studied pH range. This adsorption mechanism is an electrostatic attraction between the hydrated Cd +2 ion and the MLGO surface. The U(VI), present as the uranyl ion, changes only subtly as a function of pH and is bound to the surface via an inner sphere bond. Knowledge of the binding mechanism for each metal is necessary to help in optimizing environmental remediation or prevention in filtration systems. (paper)

  19. Cogeneration technology for the metal-processing sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sala, A. [Accenture, Gran Via 45, 48011 Bilbao (Spain); Flores, I.; Sala, J.M.; Millan, J.A.; Gomez, I. [Department of Thermal Engineering, University of the Basque Country, Alda, Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Lopez, L.M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of La Rioja, C/Luis de Ulloa, 20, E 26004 Logrono (La Rioja) (Spain)

    2008-06-15

    Enclosed are the results of a feasibility study for a cogeneration facility at a company manufacturing large ship and off-shore oil-platform chains. The sizing of the main cogeneration equipment has been based on the assumption that the main energy demand is that needed to keep the quench bath at a temperature of 12{sup o}C, thus compensating for the heat input from the chain proper and furnace gases. The main difficulty of the study has been to assess, with the maximum possible assurance and precision, the quench water-flow rate, which at present is cooled down through the cooling towers and in the future through an absorption cooler driven by the waste-heat present in the exhaust gases of a 1000 kW natural-gas engine. To this end, energy audits for each furnace have been carried out, identifying and quantifying each energy flow. As a technique for energy saving and efficiency improvement, cogeneration has been wide spread across all industrial sectors in Spain. (author)

  20. Towards zero waste production in the minerals and metals sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, William J.

    The production of mineral and metal commodities results in large quantities of wastes (solid, liquid and gaseous) at each stage of value-adding — from mining to manufacturing. Waste production (both consumer and non-consumer) is a major contributor to environmental degradation. Approaches to waste management in the minerals industry are largely `after the event'. These have moved progressively from foul-and-flee to dilute-and-disperse to end end-of-pipe treatments. There is now a need to move to approaches which aim to reduce or eliminate waste production at source. Modern waste management strategies include the application of cleaner production principles, the use of wastes as raw materials, the reengineering of process flowsheets to minimise waste production, and use of industrial symbioses through industrial ecology to convert wastes into useful by-products. This paper examines how these can be adopted by the minerals industry, with some recent examples. The financial, technical, systemic and regulatory drivers and barriers are also examined.

  1. Multidimensional supersymmetric quantum mechanics: spurious states for the tensor sector two Hamiltonian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chia-Chun; Kouri, Donald J

    2013-04-25

    We show that there exist spurious states for the sector two tensor Hamiltonian in multidimensional supersymmetric quantum mechanics. For one-dimensional supersymmetric quantum mechanics on an infinite domain, the sector one and two Hamiltonians have identical spectra with the exception of the ground state of the sector one. For tensorial multidimensional supersymmetric quantum mechanics, there exist normalizable spurious states for the sector two Hamiltonian with energy equal to the ground state energy of the sector one. These spurious states are annihilated by the adjoint charge operator, and hence, they do not correspond to physical states for the original Hamiltonian. The Hermitian property of the sector two Hamiltonian implies the orthogonality between spurious and physical states. In addition, we develop a method for construction of a specific form of the spurious states for any quantum system and also generate several spurious states for a two-dimensional anharmonic oscillator system and for the hydrogen atom.

  2. Deformation Mechanisms of Gum Metals Under Nanoindentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Rohini Priya

    Gum Metal is a set of multi-component beta-Ti alloys designed and developed by Toyota Central R&D Labs in 2003 to have a nearly zero shear modulus in the direction. After significant amounts of cold-work (>90%), these alloys were found to have yield strengths at a significant fraction of the predicted ideal strengths and exhibited very little work hardening. It has been speculated that this mechanical behavior may be realized through an ideal shear mechanism as opposed to conventional plastic deformation mechanisms, such as slip, and that such a mechanism may be realized through a defect structure termed "nanodisturbance". It is furthermore theorized that for near ideal strength to be attained, dislocations need to be pinned at sufficiently high stresses. It is the search for these defects and pinning points that motivates the present study. However, the mechanism of plastic deformation and the true origin of specific defect structures unique to gum metals is still controversial, mainly due to the complexity of the beta-Ti alloy system and the heavily distorted lattice exhibited in cold worked gum metals, rendering interpretation of images difficult. Accordingly, the first aim of this study is to clarify the starting as-received microstructures of gum metal alloys through conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and aberration-corrected high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy with high-angle annular dark field detector (HAADF-HRSTEM) imaging. To elucidate the effects of beta-stability and starting microstructure on the deformation behavior of gum metals and thus to provide adequate context for potentially novel deformation structures, we investigate three alloy conditions: gum metal that has undergone solution heat treatment (STGM), gum metal that has been heavily cold worked (CWGM), and a solution treated alloy of nominal gum metal composition, but leaner in beta-stabilizing content (ST Ref-1). In order to directly relate observed

  3. ORGANIZATIONAL AND ECONOMIC ASSUMPTIONS OF IMPROVEMENT INNOVATIVE MECHANISM OF UKRAINIAN AGRICULTURAL SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Bogdan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the structure of the potential of innovative development of the of ukrainian agroindustrial sector. There was studied scientific potential and agribusiness production capacity in order to identify significant disparities hamper scientific and industrial cooperation. The author considers the market and the state priorities of innovation and constructed cross-section. The recommendations for areas of improvement of the innovative development organizational-economic mechanism of the sector, which will enhance the competitiveness of agribusiness sector, providing a high level of scientific and technological development of the agricultural sector as one of the priorities in Ukraine.

  4. Rare metal granites in the structures of the Russian sector of Pacific ore belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. И. Алексеев

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Data are presented on the geology of areas of rare metal granites proliferation in the Russian sector of the Pacific Ore Belt that make one take a fresh look at the East Asian granitoid area to update its metallogeny. History is reviewed of studying rare metal granites of the Russian Far East. As a rule, these are found in the vicinity of major tungsten-stanniferous ore deposits, except much later than discovering the former, at the stages of their assessment and survey. Rare earth granites are usually missed by the geologists during the early stages of regional geological surveys due to their small size, weak eroding and external similarity with earlier granites. Using the examples of the Central Polousny, Badzhal and Kuyviveem-Pyrekakay regions the structural and geological conditions are characterized of localization of rare metal granites. Comparative analysis of geological situations made it possible to formulate the areal character of manifestation of rare metal granites; their confinedness to late Mesozoic orogenic arched uplifts of bogen structures above deep granitoid batholiths; positioning in the areas where longitudinal and transversal deep laying faults cross; gravitation to the environs of pre-Cambrian median masses. Similarity of structural-geological conditions for manifestation of the well-studied ore-containing granites serves to confirm the hypothesis on the joint stage of late Cretaceous rare metal magmatism in the Russian sector of the Pacific Ore Belt and the existence in the region of a magmatic super-province – the Far East belt of rare metal granites that includes the Novosibirsk-Chukotka, the Yana-Kolyma and the Sikhote-Alin rare metal – granite provinces.

  5. Modelling of atmospheric transport of heavy metals emitted from Polish power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zysk, Janusz

    2016-01-01

    Modelling of atmospheric transport of heavy metals emitted from Polish power sector. Many studies have been conducted to investigate the atmospheric heavy metals contamination and its deposition to ecosystems. The increasing attention to mercury pollution has been mainly driven by the growing evidence of its negative impacts on wildlife, ecosystems and particularly human health. Lead and cadmium are also toxics which are being emitted into the atmosphere by anthropogenic as well as natural sources. The harmful influence of these three heavy metals was underlined in the Aarhus Protocol on Heavy Metals of 1998. The Parties of this protocol (including Poland) are obligated to reduce emissions, observe the transport and the amounts of lead, mercury and cadmium in the environment. Poland is one of the biggest emitter of mercury, lead and cadmium in Europe mainly due to emission from coal combustion processes. Therefore in Poland, research efforts to study the heavy metals emission, atmospheric transport, concentration and deposition are extremely important. The objectives of this work were twofold: - The practical objective was to develop and run a model to represent the atmospheric dispersion of mercury and to implement it in the air quality modelling platform Polyphemus.- The scientific objective was to perform heavy metals dispersion studies over Europe and detailed studies of the impact of the polish power sector on the air quality regarding mercury, cadmium and lead. To meet the declared aim, a new mercury chemical model was implemented into the Polyphemus air quality system. The scientific literature was reviewed regarding mercury chemistry and mercury chemical models. It can be concluded that the chemistry of mercury is still not well known. The models also differ in the way of calculating the dry and wet deposition of mercury. The elemental gaseous mercury ambient concentrations are evenly distributed, on the contrary, high variations in the spatial gradients of

  6. Invariants of the spherical sector in conformal mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakobyan, Tigran; Nersessian, Armen; Saghatelian, Armen; Lechtenfeld, Olaf

    2011-01-01

    A direct relation is established between the constants of motion for conformal mechanics and those for its spherical part. In this way, we find the complete set of functionally independent constants of motion for the so-called cuboctahedric Higgs oscillator, which is just the spherical part of the rational A 3 Calogero model (describing four Calogero particles after decoupling their center of mass).

  7. Mechanical Design of Metal Dome for Industrial Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin-Chee Liu, Thomas; Chen, Li-Wei; Lin, Nai-Pin

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, the mechanical design of metal domes is studied using finite element analysis. The snap-through behavior of a practical button design that uses a metal dome is found. In addition, the individual click ratio and maximum force for a variety of metal domes are determined. This paper provides guidance on button design for industrial engineers.

  8. Potential for recycling of slightly radioactive metals arising from decommissioning within nuclear sector in Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrncir, Tomas; Strazovec, Roman; Zachar, Matej

    2017-09-07

    The decommissioning of nuclear installations represents a complex process resulting in the generation of large amounts of waste materials containing various concentrations of radionuclides. Selection of an appropriate strategy of management of the mentioned materials strongly influences the effectiveness of decommissioning process keeping in mind safety, financial and other relevant aspects. In line with international incentives for optimization of radioactive material management, concepts of recycling and reuse of materials are widely discussed and applications of these concepts are analysed. Recycling of some portion of these materials within nuclear sector (e.g. scrap metals or concrete rubble) seems to be highly desirable from economical point of view and may lead to conserve some disposal capacity. However, detailed safety assessment along with cost/benefit calculations and feasibility study should be developed in order to prove the safety, practicality and cost effectiveness of possible recycling scenarios. Paper discussed the potential for recycling of slightly radioactive metals arising from decommissioning of NPPs within nuclear sector in Slovakia. Various available recycling scenarios are introduced and method for overall assessment of various recycling scenarios is outlined including the preliminary assessment of safety and financial aspects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessment of Waste Production and Heavy Metal Emission from Energy Production Sector of Zahedan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayyere Poormollae

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Due to the lack of accurate statistics on the amount of waste generated in the energy production sector in Zahedan, before any planning, one should identify all waste producing centers associated with the energy sector and also the quantity and quality of their waste in Zahedan. Materials and methods: This research is a cross-sectional descriptive study. It examined the produced wastes in the electrical energy generation sector. A questionnaire was prepared and completed for each unit that possibility produces these wastes. Moreover, in the studied units, the weigh percent per unit was determined by separating production waste, and collecting and weighing them. Results: In gas power plant of Zahedan, production of burned oil was approximately 480 liters and the annual consumption of turbine oil and compressor oil was 40 liters. In the diesel power plant, 2,200 liters of burned oil is produced for each generator after 1,500 hours of work. Concentration of heavy metals of Cr, Cd, Zn, Pb, Cu, and Ni in the burned oil sample of the gas power plant was 43.2, 0.01, 0.20, 1.3, 2.7, 0.2 mg/l, respectively and in the diesel power plant were 36.3, 0.08, 0.09, 0.9, 4.7, 1.1 mg/l. Conclusion: In the studied samples, several cases of heavy metal pollution were identified. Therefore, proper planning for appropriate management of these units is necessary for any possible leakage and environmental pollution transport. Furthermore, in order to minimize the adverse impacts of hazardous wastes on the environment and people in Zahedan, integrated hazardous wastes management should be practices in electrical energy generation plants. Moreover, one must consider the measures required to exposure, transport, and safe maintenance before managing or eliminating this type of waste.

  10. IT Governance Mechanisms and Administration/IT Alignment in the Public Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Till

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms of information technology (IT) governance have been widely recognized as practices to sustain alignment of business and IT units. However, the IT governance literature so far has drawn little attention to the possible idiosyncrasies of governance arrangements in the public sector....... In this paper we propose a conceptual model to investigate the relationship between IT governance mechanisms and according performance outcomes specifically for public sector organizations. A survey instrument is developed and validated based on in-depth interviews with IT representatives from three different...

  11. The Clean Development Mechanism and Sustainable Development in China's Electricity Sector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paul A. Steenhof

    2005-01-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism,a flexibility mechanism contained in the Kyoto Protocol, offers China an important tool to attract investment in clean energy technology and processes into its electricity sector. The Chinese electricity sector places centrally in the country's economy and environment, being a significant contributor to the acid rain and air pollution problems that plague many of China's cities and regions, and therefore a focus of many related energy and environmental policies.China's electricity sector has also been the subject of a number of economic analyses that have showed that it contains the highest potential for clean energy investment through the Clean Development Mechanism of any economic sector in China. This mechanism, through the active participation from investors in more industrialized countries, can help alleviate the environmental problems attributable to electricity generation in China through advancing such technology as wind electricity generation, dean coal technology, high efficient natural gas electricity generation, or utilization of coal mine methane. In this context, the Clean Development Mechanism also compliments a range of environmental and energy policies which are strategizing to encourage the sustainable development of China's economy.

  12. Metal accumulation and detoxification mechanisms in mycorrhizal Betula pubescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Fuego, D; Bertrand, A; González, A

    2017-12-01

    Metal detoxification in plants is a complex process that involves different mechanisms, such as the retention of metals to the cell wall and their chelation and subsequent compartmentalization in plant vacuoles. In order to identify the mechanisms involved in metal accumulation and tolerance in Betula pubescens, as well as the role of mycorrhization in these processes, mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants were grown in two industrial soils with contrasting concentrations of heavy metals. Mycorrhization increased metal uptake at low metal concentrations in the soil and reduced it at high metal concentrations, which led to an enhanced growth and biomass production of the host when growing in the most polluted soil. Our results suggest that the sequestration on the cell wall is the main detoxification mechanism in white birch exposed to acute chronic metal-stress, while phytochelatins play a role mitigating metal toxicity inside the cells. Given its high Mn and Zn root-to-shoot translocation rate, Betula pubescens is a very promising species for the phytoremediation of soils polluted with these metals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mechanical behaviour of dissimilar metal welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escaravage, C.

    1990-01-01

    This report addresses the problems of dissimilar metal welds connecting an austenitic stainless steel component to a ferritic steel component. In LMFBRs such welds appear at the junction of the austenitic stainless steel vessel with the ferritic steel roof and in sodium and water or steam pipes. The latter are exposed to high temperatures in the creep range. A wide range of austenitic stainless steels and ferritic steels (carbon steels, low allow steels and alloy steels) are covered; the study encompasses more than 20 different weld metals (austenitic stainless steels and nickel base alloys). The report begins with a presentation of the materials, geometries and welding procedures treated in the study, followed by a review of service experience from examinations of dissimilar metal welds after elevated temperature service, in particular failed welds. Results of laboratory tests performed for reproducing service failures are then discussed. A further section is devoted to a review of test results on fatigue behaviour and impact toughness for dissimilar metal welded joints when creep is not significant. Finally, the problem of residual life assessment is addressed. A set of recommendations concludes the report. They concern the material selection, welding procedure, life prediction and testing of dissimilar metal welds. 84 refs

  14. PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS AS MECHANISMS FOR RISK MANAGEMENT IN THE WATER SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona FRONE

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Some forms of Public Private Partnership (PPP have been long since used in the procurement and operation of water infrastructure, as shown in the first part of the paper. The main object of the paper is to highlight the mechanisms of PPP in the water sector and to suggest that in times of economic and financial distress, when both the public sector and the private sector face additional risks and challenges, various models of PPP may be used to manage and mitigate the risks and to improve performance in providing the public services of Water Supply and Sanitation (WSS. The economic and financial risks of the WSS sector are commonly classified in two broad categories but within these broad categories there are many more specific risks. Therefore, we shall analyse some of these main risks and their potential interrelations, by employing several methodologies: literature review, case studies, performance indicators, risk matrix, analysis and synthesis. The mechanisms, features and experiences of PPP in this branch of the water sector are summarized and comparatively analysed, from the viewpoint of risk sharing, leading to some conclusions and recommendations on the opportunity and effectiveness of implementing such arrangements especially in Romania.

  15. effects of metal inert gas welding parameters on some mechanical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EFFECTS OF METAL INERT GAS WELDING PARAMETERS ON SOME MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL IN ACIDIC ... Design Expert Software, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Rockwell Hardness Test, Monsanto Tensometer and Izod Impact Test were used to determine the ...

  16. Identification and assessment of the need to improve the operation of production systems in the metal sector enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Górska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an attempt was made to identify the areas of metal products manufacturing processes that require improvement. Determination of such areas may become a source of a lot of valuable information for the enterprise, enabling the development of its improvement directions. The results of survey allowed also to define a model of implementation importance for tasks contributing to the metal sector enterprises improvement.

  17. Mechanism of the superior mechanical strength of nanometer-sized metal single crystals revealed

    KAUST Repository

    Afify, N. D.; Salem, H. G.; Yavari, A.; El Sayed, Tamer S.

    2013-01-01

    Clear understanding of the superior mechanical strength of nanometer-sized metal single crystals is required to derive advanced mechanical components retaining such superiority. Although high quality studies have been reported on nano

  18. Creep mechanisms and constitutive relations in pure metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nix, W.D.

    1979-01-01

    The mechanisms of creep of pure metals is briefly reviewed and divided into two parts: steady state flow mechanisms, and non-steady state flow mechanisms and constitutive relations. Creep by diffusional flow is now reasonably well understood, with theory and experiment in good agreement. The closely related phenomenon of Harper--Dorn creep can also be understood in terms of diffusion between dislocations. Power law creep involves the climb of edge disloctions controlled by lattice self diffusion. Theoretical treatments of this process invariably give a power law exponent of 3. This natural creep law is compared with the data for FCC and BCC metals. It is suggested that diffusion controlled climb is the controlling process in BCC metals at very high temperatures. Stacking fault energy effects may preclude the possibility that creep is controlled entirely by lattice self diffusion in some FCC metals. The subject of power law breakdown is presented as a natural consequence of the transition to low temperature flow phenomena. The role of core diffusion in this transition is briefly discussed. The mechanisms are presented by which pure metals creep at elevated temperatures. While most of this review deals with the mechanisms of steady state flow, some discussion is devoted to creep flow under non-steady state conditions. This topic is discussed in connection with the development of constitutive equations for describing plastic flow in metals

  19. [Mechanisms of articulation between the informal and the formal urban sectors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomnitz, L

    1978-01-01

    This article utilizes field data from Mexico City squatter settlements and personal interviews with employers to analyze some aspects of social relations between the informal sector and the formal urban sector, and compares the results with findings of other anthropologists in Mexico and elsewhere to derive a series of theoretical generalizations concerning mechanisms of articulation between the marginal sector and the formal economic and political institutions of the society. The formal sector is postulated to consist of the 3 subsectors of power, capital, and labor, which are in permanent conflict among themselves but all of which enjoy labor security and an assured minimal level of income. The marginal or informal sector lacks employment security, a minimal income level, and bargaining power. It is characterized by a small scale economy utilizing intensive familial labor. The informal sector is marginal to the dominant industrial system of production and the state apparatus, although it fulfills functions in terms of the national economy. 2 types of relationships may be distinguished in the social organization of the marginal sector: reciprocal relations between equals which form a network for the exchange of goods and services, or patron/client relations which are used, for example, in the case of petty entrepreneurs utilizing their relatives and acquaintances to create units of production. The functions of reciprocal relations are affected by social, physical, economic, and psychosocial distance or proximity and may result in exchanges of information, labor assistance, loans, services, or moral support. Patron/client relations may be direct, or the "patron" may be an intermediary. Some reciprocal networks display a pattern of incipient asymmetry leading to formation of true patron/client ties and some petty entrepreneurs or intermediaries manage to develop true patron/client networks; case histories are used to illustrate both phenomena. Intermediaries

  20. Metal uptake and acute toxicity in zebrafish: Common mechanisms across multiple metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsop, Derek, E-mail: alsopde@mcmaster.ca [Department of Biology, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1 (Canada); Wood, Chris M. [Department of Biology, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1 (Canada)

    2011-10-15

    All metals tested reduced calcium uptake in zebrafish larvae. However, it was whole body sodium loss that was functionally related to toxicity. The zebrafish larvae acute toxicity assay save time, space and resources. - Abstract: Zebrafish larvae (Danio rerio) were used to examine the mechanisms of action and acute toxicities of metals. Larvae had similar physiological responses and sensitivities to waterborne metals as adults. While cadmium and zinc have previously been shown to reduce Ca{sup 2+} uptake, copper and nickel also decreased Ca{sup 2+} uptake, suggesting that the epithelial transport of all these metals is through Ca{sup 2+} pathways. However, exposure to cadmium, copper or nickel for up to 48 h had little or no effect on total whole body Ca{sup 2+} levels, indicating that the reduction of Ca{sup 2+} uptake is not the acute toxic mechanism of these metals. Instead, mortalities were effectively related to whole body Na{sup +}, which decreased up to 39% after 48 h exposures to different metals around their respective 96 h LC50s. Decreases in whole body K{sup +} were also observed, although they were not as pronounced or frequent as Na{sup +} losses. None of the metals tested inhibited Na{sup +} uptake in zebrafish (Na{sup +} uptake was in fact increased with exposure) and the observed losses of Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+} were proportional to the ionic gradients between the plasma and water, indicating diffusive ion loss with metal exposure. This study has shown that there is a common pathway for metal uptake and a common mechanism of acute toxicity across groups of metals in zebrafish. The disruption of ion uptake accompanying metal exposure does not appear to be responsible for the acute toxicity of metals, as has been previously suggested, but rather the toxicity is instead due to total ion loss (predominantly Na{sup +}).

  1. Mechanisms of metal sorption by biochars: Biochar characteristics and modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongbo; Dong, Xiaoling; da Silva, Evandro B; de Oliveira, Letuzia M; Chen, Yanshan; Ma, Lena Q

    2017-07-01

    Biochar produced by thermal decomposition of biomass under oxygen-limited conditions has received increasing attention as a cost-effective sorbent to treat metal-contaminated waters. However, there is a lack of information on the roles of different sorption mechanisms for different metals and recent development of biochar modification to enhance metal sorption capacity, which is critical for biochar field application. This review summarizes the characteristics of biochar (e.g., surface area, porosity, pH, surface charge, functional groups, and mineral components) and main mechanisms governing sorption of As, Cr, Cd, Pb, and Hg by biochar. Biochar properties vary considerably with feedstock material and pyrolysis temperature, with high temperature producing biochars with higher surface area, porosity, pH, and mineral contents, but less functional groups. Different mechanisms dominate sorption of As (complexation and electrostatic interactions), Cr (electrostatic interactions, reduction, and complexation), Cd and Pb (complexation, cation exchange, and precipitation), and Hg (complexation and reduction). Besides sorption mechanisms, recent advance in modifying biochar by loading with minerals, reductants, organic functional groups, and nanoparticles, and activation with alkali solution to enhance metal sorption capacity is discussed. Future research needs for field application of biochar include competitive sorption mechanisms of co-existing metals, biochar reuse, and cost reduction of biochar production. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Mechanisms of diffusional phase transformations in metals and alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Aaronson, Hubert I; Lee, Jong K

    2010-01-01

    Developed by the late metallurgy professor and master experimentalist Hubert I. Aaronson, this collection of lecture notes details the fundamental principles of phase transformations in metals and alloys upon which steel and other metals industries are based. Mechanisms of Diffusional Phase Transformations in Metals and Alloys is devoted to solid-solid phase transformations in which elementary atomic processes are diffusional jumps, and these processes occur in a series of so-called nucleation and growth through interface migration. Instead of relying strictly on a pedagogical approach, it doc

  3. Mechanisms of current flow in metal-semiconductor ohmic contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blank, T. V.; Gol'dberg, Yu. A.

    2007-01-01

    Published data on the properties of metal-semiconductor ohmic contacts and mechanisms of current flow in these contacts (thermionic emission, field emission, thermal-field emission, and also current flow through metal shunts) are reviewed. Theoretical dependences of the resistance of an ohmic contact on temperature and the charge-carrier concentration in a semiconductor were compared with experimental data on ohmic contacts to II-VI semiconductors (ZnSe, ZnO), III-V semiconductors (GaN, AlN, InN, GaAs, GaP, InP), Group IV semiconductors (SiC, diamond), and alloys of these semiconductors. In ohmic contacts based on lightly doped semiconductors, the main mechanism of current flow is thermionic emission with the metal-semiconductor potential barrier height equal to 0.1-0.2 eV. In ohmic contacts based on heavily doped semiconductors, the current flow is effected owing to the field emission, while the metal-semiconductor potential barrier height is equal to 0.3-0.5 eV. In alloyed In contacts to GaP and GaN, a mechanism of current flow that is not characteristic of Schottky diodes (current flow through metal shunts formed by deposition of metal atoms onto dislocations or other imperfections in semiconductors) is observed

  4. Sectoral crediting mechanisms for greenhouse gas mitigation. Institutional and operational issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, R. [International Energy Agency IEA, Paris (France); Ellis, J. [Environment Directorate, International Energy Agency IEA, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD, Paris (France)

    2006-05-15

    Guiding policy choices requires a systematic comparison of options. In the case of a hypothetical policy instrument, e.g. sectoral crediting, such systematic comparison is difficult as different options may not be strictly comparable. For instance, not all options may be easily applied to a given sector (e.g. an intensity-based crediting may hardly be implemented to a government policy seeking to substitute public transport for personal vehicles); the policy-based SCM may be the only practical option in this case and comparison is therefore moot. Also, not all countries may have the institutional capacity to implement all three options at the same scale. Last, the ability of each option to deliver real reductions hinges on the 'additionality' of the sector's efforts and on the stringency of the baseline. Unfortunately, there is no universally recognised method to define additionality and to determine a baseline. This paper nonetheless offers some insights on how each potential SCM option may fare with respect to the following criteria: Environmental effectiveness: can this option trigger real reductions where implemented?; Addressing competitiveness concerns; Administrative cost and feasibility: how demanding is the mechanism in terms of monitoring, review and, possibly enforcement policy?; Economic efficiency: to what extent does the mechanism lead to the adoption of the least-cost mitigation options in the sector? An initial assessment of each option along these criteria is provided in the conclusion section. This paper explores potential SCMs along several lines. Section 2 draws lessons from existing mechanisms; section 3 considers several dimensions to be considered for baselines; section 4 discusses how SCM could be implemented to provide effective incentives to mitigation; section 5 explores international governance issues. Concluding remarks are presented in section 6.

  5. Mechanical failure and glass transition in metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egami, T.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We review the recent results of molecular dynamics simulations on metallic glasses. → They show the equivalence of mechanical failure and glass transition. → We discuss the microscopic mechanism behind this equivalence. → We show that the density of defects in metallic glasses is as high as a quarter. → Our concepts about the defect state in glasses need to be changed. - Abstract: The current majority view on the phenomenon of mechanical failure in metallic glasses appears to be that it is caused by the activity of some structural defects, such as free-volumes or shear transformation zones, and the concentration of such defects is small, only of the order of 1%. However, the recent results compel us to revise this view. Through molecular dynamics simulation it has been shown that mechanical failure is the stress-induced glass transition. According to our theory the concentration of the liquid-like sites (defects) is well over 20% at the glass transition. We suggest that the defect concentration in metallic glasses is actually very high, and percolation of such defects causes atomic avalanche and mechanical failure. In this article we discuss the glass transition, mechanical failure and viscosity from such a point of view.

  6. Consumo de energía eléctrica en el sector industrial : metales, siderurgia y gases industriales

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez de la Cruz, Carlos Javier

    2011-01-01

    En este PFC se analiza el consumo industrial de electricidad en nuestro país, en los sectores de Siderurgia, Metales y Gases industriales, que forman una parte de la demanda eléctrica de España y que también será analizada con detalle. De los procesos de siderurgia, se estudian la producción integral y la no integral, para la metalurgia no férrea, el PFC se centra en a producción de zinc, y en el sector de gases industriales, se estudia el proceso de fraccionamiento del aire, q...

  7. Carbon emission scenarios of China's power sector: Impact of controlling measures and carbon pricing mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Liu

    2018-03-01

    on the low-carbon development of China's power sector: (1 improve the energy efficiency proactively and optimize the energy structure of power sector gradually; (2 promote the low-carbon transition of power sector by using market-based mechanism like carbon emission trading scheme to internalize the external cost of carbon emission; (3 give more emphasis on and support to the CCUS application in power sector. Keywords: Power sector, TIMES model, Scenario analysis, Carbon peak, Carbon pricing, Policy recommendations

  8. Computer simulations of the mechanical properties of metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøtz, Jakob; Vegge, Tejs

    1999-01-01

    Atomic-scale computer simulations can be used to gain a better understanding of the mechanical properties of materials. In this paper we demonstrate how this can be done in the case of nanocrystalline copper, and give a brief overview of how simulations may be extended to larger length scales....... Nanocrystline metals are metals with grain sizes in the nanometre range, they have a number of technologically interesting properties such as much increased hardness and yield strength. Our simulations show that the deformation mechanisms are different in these materials than in coarse-grained materials...

  9. Metal resistance or tolerance? Acidophiles confront high metal loads via both abiotic and biotic mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark eDopson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available All metals are toxic at high concentrations and consequently their intracellular concentrations must be regulated. Acidophilic microorganisms have an optimum growth pH < 3 and proliferate in natural and anthropogenic low pH environments. Some acidophiles are involved in the catalysis of sulfide mineral dissolution, resulting in high concentrations of metals in solution. Acidophiles are often described as highly metal resistant via mechanisms such as multiple and/or more efficient active resistance systems than are present in neutrophiles. However, this is not the case for all acidophiles and we contend that their growth in high metal concentrations is partially due to an intrinsic tolerance as a consequence of the environment in which they live. In this perspective, we highlight metal tolerance via complexation of free metals by sulfate ions and passive tolerance to metal influx via an internal positive cytoplasmic transmembrane potential. These tolerance mechanisms have been largely ignored in past studies of acidophile growth in the presence of metals and should be taken into account.

  10. Latin America: market mechanisms and supply adequacy in power sector reforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammons, T.J. [University of Glasgow, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Barroso, L.A. [PSR, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Rudnick, H. [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile)

    2011-03-15

    The process of transformation in government and operations in the power sector leads to interaction between increasing integrated markets and public agencies in charge of policy making, regulation and control. This is examined for Latin America where state and marketing power sector planning, contract auctions to assure supply adequacy in an uncertain market environment, cross-border contracts, financing challenges for generation investments, and auctions of contracts to secure supply adequacy in the second stage of power sector reform are discussed. First, the state and market in power sector planning reform and state policies in Latin America are considered. Here, present concerns; the state-market relationship (the position of regulation, globalisation, internationalisation), and state market in the energy sector (correction and adjustments) are reviewed. Case studies for Argentina and Brazil are briefly outlined. The paper then examines contract auctions to assure supply adequacy in an uncertain energy environment that are being explored to face supply problems over recent years in the Chilean electricity market, taking into account the unexpected restrictions in natural gas transfers from Argentina. Also discussed are supply adequacy mechanisms and cross-border contracts in the Central American regional electricity market including firm transmission rights and financing challenges for generation investments. The final part of the paper discusses auctions of contracts and energy call options to ensure supply adequacy in the Brazilian power sector reform. Here, first stage of power sector reform, what went wrong, the second stage of reform and the move towards energy supply auctions, energy supply auctions so far and what's next in the challenges of environmental constraints and electricity-gas integration are reviewed. The reform being proposed to the electric regulatory framework for wholesale transactions in Peru is also reviewed. Considered are bids for

  11. Inter-provincial clean development mechanism in China: A case study of the solar PV sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacques, David A.; Guan, Dabo; Geng, Yong; Xue, Bing; Wang, Xiaoguang

    2013-01-01

    With ever growing urgency, climate change mitigation is fast becoming a priority for China. A successful policy of implementing and expanding sustainable development and the use of renewable energy is therefore vital. As well as long-term and near-term targets for installed capacity of renewable energy, in its 12th five-year plan, China has created strict and ambitious carbon intensity targets for each province. This study proposes an inter-provincial clean development mechanism to assist in meeting these targets. This mechanism will create potential co-benefits of assisting in sustainable development in lesser developed provinces, increasing local air quality and supporting the growth of China's renewable energy sector. This paper also highlights the potential that this inter-provincial clean development mechanism has in accelerating the growth of the domestic solar photovoltaics (PV) sector, for which the market in China is still in its infancy. - Highlights: ► We recognise the necessity for each province in China to reduce its GHG emissions. ► We assess the potential of a national scale a CDM style mechanism for China. ► We consider the effect that the national CDM could have on solar PV in China

  12. Mechanisms of chelation of heavy metals by chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averbach, B.L.

    1980-01-01

    The concentration profiles of several heavy metal ions and anions have been measured in chitosan membranes immersed in dilute aqueous solutions. The shapes of the concentration curves for the metal ions is characteristic of a diffusion process in which the diffusion coefficient is a function of the concentration. The anion penetrates much more rapidly than the cation, however, and the concentration appears to be dependent on the reaction kinetics. We propose a mechanism whereby the metal ion bonds with the nitrogen in the functional amino group, with the bridging oxygen and with two hydroxyl groups in a neighboring glucose ring. The anion, on the other hand, bonds ionically to the metal-amino complex in order to neutralize the charge and to the protonated amino sites which have not reacted with the metal ion. In the case of uranium in sea water, it is probable that the uranium is present as a uranyl complex and that bonding with chitosan will occur by ionic bonding, that is, salt formation, rather than by covalent bonding to the amino groups. Uranyl complexes in dilute concentration will thus compete with chloride and the relative concentrations will be determined by the equilibrium constants. Work on the reaction between chitosan and dilute solutions of copper sulfate is reported. A mechanism for these reactions is postulated, and it is suggested that the same mechanism carries over to uranium in sea water. This suggests certain limitations on the process which should be explored if chitosan is to be used for this purpose

  13. Heavy Metals in Soils of auto- mechanic shops and refuse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dumpsites soil samples in Apir and North Bank Auto- mechanic workshop locations in Makurdi, the Benue State capital located on latitude 70 44'N and longitude 80 32'E of the Equator situated in a valley in north central Nigeria, 100m above sea level, were collected and analyzed for content of selected heavy metals.

  14. Mechanical and electronic properties of Janus monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wenwu; Wang, Zhiguo

    2018-05-01

    The mechanical and electronic properties of Janus monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides MXY (M  =  Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, W; X/Y  =  S, Se, Te) were investigated using density functional theory. Results show that breaking the out-of-plane structural symmetry can be used to tune the electronic and mechanical behavior of monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides. The band gaps of monolayer WXY and MoXY are in the ranges of 0.16–1.91 and 0.94–1.69 eV, respectively. A semiconductor to metallic phase transition occurred in Janus monolayer MXY (M  =  Ti, Zr and Hf). The monolayers MXY (M  =  V, Nb, Ta and Cr) show metallic characteristics, which show no dependence on the structural symmetry breaking. The mechanical properties of MXY depended on the composition. Monolayer MXY (M  =  Mo, Ti, Zr, Hf and W) showed brittle characteristic, whereas monolayer CrXY and VXY are with ductile characteristic. The in-plane stiffness of pristine and Janus monolayer MXY are in the range between 22 and 158 N m‑1. The tunable electronic and mechanical properties of these 2D materials would advance the development of ultra-sensitive detectors, nanogenerators, low-power electronics, and energy harvesting and electromechanical systems.

  15. Mechanisms of metallization degradation in high power diodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Mads; Kristensen, Peter Kjær; Pedersen, Kristian Bonderup

    2016-01-01

    Under operation the topside metallization of power electronic chips is commonly observed to degrade and thereby affecta device's electrical characteristics. However, the mechanisms of the degradation process and the role of environmental factors are not yet fully understood. In this work, we...

  16. Atomistic simulations of Mg-Cu metallic glasses: Mechanical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, Nicholas; Schiøtz, Jakob; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    2004-01-01

    The atomistic mechanisms of plastic deformation in amorphous metals are far from being understood. We have derived potential parameters for molecular dynamics simulations of Mg-Cu amorphous alloys using the Effective Medium Theory. We have simulated the formation of alloys by cooling from the melt...

  17. Mechanics of metal-catecholate complexes: The roles of coordination state and metal types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiping

    2013-01-01

    There have been growing evidences for the critical roles of metal-coordination complexes in defining structural and mechanical properties of unmineralized biological materials, including hardness, toughness, and abrasion resistance. Their dynamic (e.g. pH-responsive, self-healable, reversible) properties inspire promising applications of synthetic materials following this concept. However, mechanics of these coordination crosslinks, which lays the ground for predictive and rational material design, has not yet been well addressed. Here we present a first-principles study of representative coordination complexes between metals and catechols. The results show that these crosslinks offer stiffness and strength near a covalent bond, which strongly depend on the coordination state and type of metals. This dependence is discussed by analyzing the nature of bonding between metals and catechols. The responsive mechanics of metal-coordination is further mapped from the single-molecule level to a networked material. The results presented here provide fundamental understanding and principles for material selection in metal-coordination-based applications. PMID:24107799

  18. Accidents of Electrical and Mechanical Works for Public Sector Projects in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Francis K W; Chan, Albert P C; Wong, Andy K D; Hon, Carol K H; Choi, Tracy N Y

    2018-03-10

    A study on electrical and mechanical (E&M) works-related accidents for public sector projects provided the opportunity to gain a better understanding of the causes of accidents by analyzing the circumstances of all E&M works accidents. The research aims to examine accidents of E&M works which happened in public sector projects. A total of 421 E&M works-related accidents in the "Public Works Programme Construction Site Safety and Environmental Statistics" (PCSES) system were extracted for analysis. Two-step cluster analysis was conducted to classify the E&M accidents into different groups. The results identified three E&M accidents groups: (1) electricians with over 15 years of experience were prone to 'fall of person from height'; (2) electricians with zero to five years of experience were prone to 'slip, trip or fall on same level'; (3) air-conditioning workers with zero to five years of experience were prone to multiple types of accidents. Practical measures were recommended for each specific cluster group to avoid recurrence of similar accidents. The accident analysis would be vital for industry practitioners to enhance the safety performance of public sector projects. This study contributes to filling the knowledge gap of how and why E&M accidents occur and promulgating preventive measures for E&M accidents which have been under researched.

  19. Accidents of Electrical and Mechanical Works for Public Sector Projects in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis K. W. Wong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A study on electrical and mechanical (E&M works-related accidents for public sector projects provided the opportunity to gain a better understanding of the causes of accidents by analyzing the circumstances of all E&M works accidents. The research aims to examine accidents of E&M works which happened in public sector projects. A total of 421 E&M works-related accidents in the “Public Works Programme Construction Site Safety and Environmental Statistics” (PCSES system were extracted for analysis. Two-step cluster analysis was conducted to classify the E&M accidents into different groups. The results identified three E&M accidents groups: (1 electricians with over 15 years of experience were prone to ‘fall of person from height’; (2 electricians with zero to five years of experience were prone to ‘slip, trip or fall on same level’; (3 air-conditioning workers with zero to five years of experience were prone to multiple types of accidents. Practical measures were recommended for each specific cluster group to avoid recurrence of similar accidents. The accident analysis would be vital for industry practitioners to enhance the safety performance of public sector projects. This study contributes to filling the knowledge gap of how and why E&M accidents occur and promulgating preventive measures for E&M accidents which have been under researched.

  20. Accidents of Electrical and Mechanical Works for Public Sector Projects in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Francis K. W.; Chan, Albert P. C.; Wong, Andy K. D.; Choi, Tracy N. Y.

    2018-01-01

    A study on electrical and mechanical (E&M) works-related accidents for public sector projects provided the opportunity to gain a better understanding of the causes of accidents by analyzing the circumstances of all E&M works accidents. The research aims to examine accidents of E&M works which happened in public sector projects. A total of 421 E&M works-related accidents in the “Public Works Programme Construction Site Safety and Environmental Statistics” (PCSES) system were extracted for analysis. Two-step cluster analysis was conducted to classify the E&M accidents into different groups. The results identified three E&M accidents groups: (1) electricians with over 15 years of experience were prone to ‘fall of person from height’; (2) electricians with zero to five years of experience were prone to ‘slip, trip or fall on same level’; (3) air-conditioning workers with zero to five years of experience were prone to multiple types of accidents. Practical measures were recommended for each specific cluster group to avoid recurrence of similar accidents. The accident analysis would be vital for industry practitioners to enhance the safety performance of public sector projects. This study contributes to filling the knowledge gap of how and why E&M accidents occur and promulgating preventive measures for E&M accidents which have been under researched. PMID:29534429

  1. To implicate the private sector in funding: The Kyoto mechanisms and SUMO policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leguet, Benoit; Morel, Romain

    2015-01-01

    Internationally set objectives in the fight against climate change cannot be reached without funding from the private sector. Public money, a scarce resource, must be used as best possible, in particular when it has a leverage effect on private funding. In this respect, feedback from the Kyoto Protocol's clean development mechanism is of interest. On the eve of the 2015 Paris Climate Conference, we must ramp up the mobilization of private resources. Smart unconventional monetary (SUMO) policies could help us toward this goal. Several countries have adopted such policies to cope with macro-economic circumstances or systemic risks. Is the destabilization of the climate not a risk of this sort?

  2. Evaporation as the transport mechanism of metals in arid regions

    KAUST Repository

    Lima, Ana T.

    2014-09-01

    Soils of arid regions are exposed to drought and drastic temperature oscillations throughout the year. Transport mechanisms in these soils are therefore very different from the ones in temperate regions, where rain dictates the fate of most elements in soils. Due to the low rainfall and high evaporation rates in arid regions, groundwater quality is not threatened and all soil contamination issues tend to be overlooked. But if soil contamination happens, where do contaminants go? This study tests the hypothesis of upward metal movement in soils when evaporation is the main transport mechanism. Laboratory evaporation tests were carried out with heavy metal spiked Saudi soil, using circulation of air as the driving force (Fig. 1). Main results show that loamy soil retains heavy metals quite well while evaporation drives heavy metals to the surface of a sandy soil. Evaporation transports heavy metals upward in sandy soils of arid regions, making them accumulate at the soil surface. Sand being the dominating type of soil in arid regions, soils can then be a potential source of contaminated aerosols and atmospheric pollution - a transboundary problem. Some other repercussions for this problem are foreseen, such as the public ingestion or inhalation of dust. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Explosive mechanism of metal destruction by intense electromagnetic radiation flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martynyuk, M.M.

    1977-01-01

    The metal destruction by a powerful flux of electromagnetic radiation is considered on the basis of thermodynamics and kinetics of the transition of molten metal to vapour during its rapid heating. The possibility is discussed of obtaining a metastable liquid-metal phase and of its explosion transition to a stable two-phase state (phase explosion of metastable liquid). It has been shown that at densities of radiation beam ensuring the heating of the metal to the spinodal point Tsub(s) during a time tsub(s)=10 -5 -10 -7 s the vaporization of the matter from the surface of the liquid is negligible, and the main mechanism of the metal destruction is the phase explosion of the metastable liquid-metal phase which originates in the Tsub(s) vicinity. The experimental data on the electric explosion of conductors for tsub(s)=10 -6 -10 -5 s has served as a basis for calculating the excess enthalpy and the proportion of the vapour phase formed in the phase explosion of Cu, Ag, Au, Zn, Cd, Al, Pb, Zr, Nb, Mo, W, Pt and Re. The particularities of the phase explosion at flux densities corresponding to tsub(s)( -8 s are considered

  4. Investigation of the Mechanical Behaviour of Metal Diamond Composites

    CERN Document Server

    Peroni, L; Bertarelli, A; Dallocchio, A; Mariani, N; Bizzaro, S

    2012-01-01

    Metal-Diamond Composites (Me-CD) are a novel class of materials which has typical applications in the field of thermal management. Usually, due to the high volume fraction of diamonds inside the matrix, the mechanical behavior of such materials is quite brittle with low level of fracture stress and strain. However, with advanced innovations in the sintering processes, it is possible to obtain composite materials with a good level of strength and toughness. The great advantage of these materials is the possibility to combine the high thermal and electrical conductivity of diamonds with the strength of metals. Aim of this work is the investigation of the mechanical behavior of Me-CD from quasi-static to high strain-rate loading conditions. The temperature influence on mechanical properties is also evaluated.

  5. Yeast enolase: mechanism of activation by metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, J M

    1981-01-01

    Yeast enolase as prepared by current procedures is inherently chemically homogeneous, though deamidation and partial denaturation can produce electrophoretically distinct forms. A true isozyme of the enzyme exists but does not survive the purification procedure. The chemical sequence for both has been established. The enzyme behaves in solution like a compact, nearly spherical molecule of moderate hydration. Strong intramolecular forces maintain the structure of the individual subunits. The enzyme as isolated is dimeric. If dissociated in the presence of magnesium ions and substrate, then the subunits are active, but if the dissociation occurs in the absence of metal ions, they are inactive until they have reassociated and undergone a first order "annealing" process. Magnesium (II) enhances association. The interaction between the subunits is hydrophobic in character. The enzyme can bind up to 2 mol of most metal ions in "conformational" sites which then allows up to 2 mol of substrate or some substrate analogue to bind. This is not sufficient for catalysis, but conformational metal ions do more than just allow substrate binding. A change in the environment of the metal ions occurs on substrate or substrate analogue binding. There is an absolute correlation between the occurrence of a structural change undergone by the 3-amino analogue of phosphoenolpyruvate and whether the metal ions produce any level of enzymatic activity. For catalysis, two more moles of metal ions, called "catalytic", must bind. There is evidence that the enzymatic reaction involves a carbanion mechanism. It is likely that two more moles of metal ion can bind which inhibit the reaction. The requirement for 2 mol of metal ion per subunit which contribute in different ways to catalysis is exhibited by a number of other enzymes.

  6. The mechanical behavior of nanoscale metallic multilayers: A survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Q.; Xie, J. Y.; Wang, F.; Huang, P.; Xu, K. W.; Lu, T. J.

    2015-06-01

    The mechanical behavior of nanoscale metallic multilayers (NMMs) has attracted much attention from both scientific and practical views. Compared with their monolithic counterparts, the large number of interfaces existing in the NMMs dictates the unique behavior of this special class of structural composite materials. While there have been a number of reviews on the mechanical mechanism of microlaminates, the rapid development of nanotechnology brought a pressing need for an overview focusing exclusively on a property-based definition of the NMMs, especially their size-dependent microstructure and mechanical performance. This article attempts to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date review on the microstructure, mechanical property and plastic deformation physics of NMMs. We hope this review could accomplish two purposes: (1) introducing the basic concepts of scaling and dimensional analysis to scientists and engineers working on NMM systems, and (2) providing a better understanding of interface behavior and the exceptional qualities the interfaces in NMMs display at atomic scale.

  7. Mechanical annealing in the flow of supercooled metallic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Meng; Dai, Lan Hong; Liu, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Flow induced structural evolution in a supercooled metallic liquid Vit106a (Zr 58.5 Cu 15.6 Al 10.3 Ni 12.8 Nb 2.8 , at. %) was investigated via uni-axial compression combined with differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Compression tests at strain rates covering the transition from Newtonian flow to non-Newtonian flow and at the same strain rate 2 × 10 −1 s −1 to different strains were performed at the end of glass transition (T g-end  = 703 K). The relaxation enthalpies measured by DSC indicate that the samples underwent non-Newtonian flow contain more free volume than the thermally annealed sample (703 K, 4 min), while the samples underwent Newtonian flow contain less, namely, the free volume of supercooled metallic liquids increases in non-Newtonian flow, while decreases in Newtonian flow. The oscillated variation of the relaxation enthalpies of the samples deformed at the same strain rate 2 × 10 −1 s −1 to different strains confirms that the decrease of free volume was caused by flow stress, i.e., “mechanical annealing.” Micro-hardness tests were also performed to show a similar structural evolution tendency. Based on the obtained results, the stress-temperature scaling in the glass transition of metallic glasses are supported experimentally, as stress plays a role similar to temperature in the creation and annihilation of free volume. In addition, a widening perspective angle on the glass transition of metallic glasses by exploring the 3-dimensional stress-temperature-enthalpy phase diagram is presented. The implications of the observed mechanical annealing effect on the amorphous structure and the work-hardening mechanism of metallic glasses are elucidated based on atomic level stress model

  8. Mechanism of biosorption of Heavy metals by mucor rouxii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, G. [Alberta Capital Region Wastewater Commission, Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta (Canada); Viraraghavan, T. [Faculty of Engineering, University of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2008-08-15

    Fungi such as Aspergillus niger and Mucor rouxii are capable of removing heavy metals from aqueous solutions. The role various functional groups play in the cell wall of M. rouxii in metal biosorption of lead, cadmium, nickel and zinc was investigated in this paper. The biomass was chemically treated to modify the functional carboxyl, amino and phosphate groups. These modifications were examined by means of infrared spectroscopy. It was found that an esterification of the carboxyl groups and phosphate and a methylation of the amine groups significantly decreased the biosorption of the heavy metals studied. Thus, the carboxylate, amine and phosphate groups were recognized as important in the biosorption of metal ions by M. rouxii biomass. The role the lipids fraction play was not significant. The study showed that Na, K, Ca and Mg ions were released from the biomass after biosorption of Pb,Cd,Ni and Zn, indicating that ion exchange was a key mechanism in the biosorption of metal ions by M. rouxii biomass. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  9. Analyzing the effects of applying IoT to a metal-mechanical company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Cañizares

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to show the improvements obtained through the application of IoT in a company of the metal-mechanical sector. Design/methodology/approach: The methodology used has been the collection of data before and after the application of the IoT in the process to manufacture tool-machines. Findings: Improvements obtained in some aspects of the process are very high (above 30%, making it a process that is more efficient allowing reduce costs. Research limitations/implications: Some aspects or details are difficult to quantify because there are no measurable parameters. Practical implications: Technological advances and new technologies applied to the industry, allows significant improvements in production. Social implications: Improvements obtained in the process can improve the conditions of workers. Originality/value: Originality of the paper is very high, because there are no publications of study or practical cases in the sector, due to the confidentiality and competitiveness of the sector.

  10. Energy consumption analysis of Spanish food and drink, textile, chemical and non-metallic mineral products sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranda-Usón, Alfonso; Ferreira, Germán; Mainar-Toledo, M.D.; Scarpellini, Sabina; Llera Sastresa, Eva

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides quantitative information for energy consumption from four different industry sectors based on an energy analysis obtained by means of in-situ energy audits and complementary information. The latter information was taken from Saving Strategy and Energy Efficiency in Spain (Estrategia de Ahorro y Eficiencia Energética en España 2004–2010, E4) documents and the 2009 Industrial Survey of Spain from the National Statistics Institute (Instituto Nacional de Estadística, INE). The results show an estimate of energy consumption for each sector, namely Spanish food, drink and tobacco (9.6%), textile (4.5%), chemical (14.7%), and non-metallic mineral products (24.3%), as well as the degree of inefficiency for each, obtained by means of a stochastic frontier production function model. These results are combined with the energy consumption analysis to identify potential energy saving opportunities around 20.0% of the total energy consumption for all studied sectors. These energy saving opportunities are classified according to thermal or electrical energy consumption and percentage savings of the total energy consumption. -- Highlights: ► This study presents the analysis of four Spanish energy-consuming industrial sectors. ► The four selected sectors account for 33.0% of the total industrial SMEs. ► An audit was carried out in several factories from each analysed industrial sector. ► Stochastic Cobb-Douglas frontiers were used to estimate production frontiers. ► Potential energy saving opportunities around 20.0% of the total energy consumption.

  11. Torque-transmitting mechanism of a metal CVT belt; Kinzoku CVT belt no torque dentatsu mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, D; Mabuchi, Y; Kato, Y [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The slip mechanism of a metal CVT belt which consisted of several hundred V-shaped elements and two sets of laminated metal rings was analyzed by focusing on the distribution of the gaps occurring between the elements, and a simulation which could predict the slip-limit torque at which the slip ratio increases sharply was developed. In this paper, the outline of the simulation is shown with some comparison between the calculated results and the experimental data. 3 refs., 13 figs.

  12. Phytoremediation of radionuclides - heavy metals in mycorrhizosphere soil and enzymatic mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulekar, M.H.; Bhawana, P.; Anamika, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear industry plays a vital role in the economic growth and development of manufacturing sector of a developing country. The nuclear industry is a fastest growing industry in India which contributes 2% production of renewable energy. The nuclear industry involves the handling and uses of radioactive materials. Nuclear wastes generated through chemical processing and/or nuclear weapons program have also enhanced the level of hazardous environmental contaminants. In low level nuclear wastes, concentration involved are low and volumes are large. Hence, physical and chemical methods may not be effective practice to decontaminate the low level nuclear waste. The organic as well as inorganic chemicals present in the nuclear wastes find their way in soil and water causing environmental pollution. In present research study, the mycorrhiza soil has been developed using pot culture technique in green house. The mycorrhiza soil characterization was done for physico-chemical and microbial parameters. The heavy metals such as Cu, Pb and Zn toxicity in mycorrhiza soil at a concentration viz. 0, 5, 10, 20, 50, 75 and 100 ppm was assessed using the green plants such as Medicago sativa, Brassica juncea and Alfalfa. These green plants have been used for phytoremediation of heavy metals at a varying concentration of 0, 5, 10, 20 and 50 ppm using the pot culture technique. The chlorophyll content and caretenoid as an indicator of plant growth and the enzymatic activities have been assessed as a defence mechanism during phytoremediation of heavy metals by these green plants. The mycorrhiza soil has been found as an effective and efficient natural fertilizer to remediate heavy metals by green plants. Phytoremediation of heavy metals in mycorrhizosphere has proved that it is an effective, efficient, ecofriendly, low cost, sustainable green technology for restoration of ecosystem in radionuclides - heavy metal polluted environment. (author)

  13. Operationalizing clean development mechanism baselines: A case study of China's electrical sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhof, Paul A.

    The global carbon market is rapidly developing as the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol draws closer and Parties to the Protocol with greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction targets seek alternative ways to reduce their emissions. The Protocol includes the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), a tool that encourages project-based investments to be made in developing nations that will lead to an additional reduction in emissions. Due to China's economic size and rate of growth, technological characteristics, and its reliance on coal, it contains a large proportion of the global CDM potential. As China's economy modernizes, more technologies and processes are requiring electricity and demand for this energy source is accelerating rapidly. Relatively inefficient technology to generate electricity in China thereby results in the electrical sector having substantial GHG emission reduction opportunities as related to the CDM. In order to ensure the credibility of the CDM in leading to a reduction in GHG emissions, it is important that the baseline method used in the CDM approval process is scientifically sound and accessible for both others to use and for evaluation purposes. Three different methods for assessing CDM baselines and environmental additionality are investigated in the context of China's electrical sector: a method based on a historical perspective of the electrical sector (factor decomposition), a method structured upon a current perspective (operating and build margins), and a simulation of the future (dispatch analysis). Assessing future emission levels for China's electrical sector is a very challenging task given the complexity of the system, its dynamics, and that it is heavily influenced by internal and external forces, but of the different baseline methods investigated, dispatch modelling is best suited for the Chinese context as it is able to consider the important regional and temporal dimensions of its economy and its future development

  14. Regulatory mechanisms for absenteeism in the health sector: a systematic review of strategies and their implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisakye, Angela N; Tweheyo, Raymond; Ssengooba, Freddie; Pariyo, George W; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus; Kiwanuka, Suzanne N

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review was undertaken to identify regulatory mechanisms aimed at mitigating health care worker absenteeism, to describe where and how they have been implemented as well as their possible effects. The goal was to propose potential policy options for managing the problem of absenteeism among human resources for health in low- and middle-income countries. Mechanisms described in this review are at the local workplace and broader national policy level. A comprehensive online search was conducted on EMBASE, CINAHL, PubMed, Google Scholar, Google, and Social Science Citation Index using MEDLINE search terms. Retrieved studies were uploaded onto reference manager and screened by two independent reviewers. Only publications in English were included. Data were extracted and synthesized according to the objectives of the review. Twenty six of the 4,975 published articles retrieved were included. All were from high-income countries and covered all cadres of health workers. The regulatory mechanisms and possible effects include 1) organizational-level mechanisms being reported as effective in curbing absenteeism in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs); 2) prohibition of private sector activities in LMICs offering benefits but presenting a challenge for the government to monitor the health workforce; 3) contractual changes from temporary to fixed posts having been associated with no reduction in absenteeism and not being appropriate for LMICs; 4) multifaceted work interventions being implemented in most settings; 5) the possibility of using financial and incentive regulatory mechanisms in LMICs; 6) health intervention mechanisms reducing absenteeism when integrated with exercise programs; and 7) attendance by legislation during emergencies being criticized for violating human rights in the United States and not being effective in curbing absenteeism. Most countries have applied multiple strategies to mitigate health care worker absenteeism. The success of these

  15. Regulatory mechanisms for absenteeism in the health sector: a systematic review of strategies and their implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisakye, Angela N; Tweheyo, Raymond; Ssengooba, Freddie; Pariyo, George W; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus; Kiwanuka, Suzanne N

    2016-01-01

    Background A systematic review was undertaken to identify regulatory mechanisms aimed at mitigating health care worker absenteeism, to describe where and how they have been implemented as well as their possible effects. The goal was to propose potential policy options for managing the problem of absenteeism among human resources for health in low- and middle-income countries. Mechanisms described in this review are at the local workplace and broader national policy level. Methods A comprehensive online search was conducted on EMBASE, CINAHL, PubMed, Google Scholar, Google, and Social Science Citation Index using MEDLINE search terms. Retrieved studies were uploaded onto reference manager and screened by two independent reviewers. Only publications in English were included. Data were extracted and synthesized according to the objectives of the review. Results Twenty six of the 4,975 published articles retrieved were included. All were from high-income countries and covered all cadres of health workers. The regulatory mechanisms and possible effects include 1) organizational-level mechanisms being reported as effective in curbing absenteeism in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs); 2) prohibition of private sector activities in LMICs offering benefits but presenting a challenge for the government to monitor the health workforce; 3) contractual changes from temporary to fixed posts having been associated with no reduction in absenteeism and not being appropriate for LMICs; 4) multifaceted work interventions being implemented in most settings; 5) the possibility of using financial and incentive regulatory mechanisms in LMICs; 6) health intervention mechanisms reducing absenteeism when integrated with exercise programs; and 7) attendance by legislation during emergencies being criticized for violating human rights in the United States and not being effective in curbing absenteeism. Conclusion Most countries have applied multiple strategies to mitigate health care

  16. Funding and financing mechanisms for infrastructure delivery: multi-sector analysis of benchmarking of South Africa against developed countries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Matji, MP

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available -1 AMPEAK Asset Management Conference 2015 Funding and financing mechanisms for infrastructure delivery: multi-sector analysis of benchmarking of South Africa against developed countries Matji, MP and Ruiters, C Abstract: For developing..., the researcher identifies financing opportunities for infrastructure delivery in South Africa and how such opportunities can be explored, taking into account political dynamics and legislative sector-based frameworks. Keywords: Asset Management, Financing...

  17. Toward a quantitative understanding of mechanical behavior of nanocrystalline metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dao, M.; Lu, L.; Asaro, R.J.; Hosson, J.T.M. de; Ma, E.

    2007-01-01

    Focusing on nanocrystalline (nc) pure face-centered cubic metals, where systematic experimental data are available, this paper presents a brief overview of the recent progress made in improving mechanical properties of nc materials, and in quantitatively and mechanistically understanding the underlying mechanisms. The mechanical properties reviewed include strength, ductility, strain rate and temperature dependence, fatigue and tribological properties. The highlighted examples include recent experimental studies in obtaining both high strength and considerable ductility, the compromise between enhanced fatigue limit and reduced crack growth resistance, the stress-assisted dynamic grain growth during deformation, and the relation between rate sensitivity and possible deformation mechanisms. The recent advances in obtaining quantitative and mechanics-based models, developed in line with the related transmission electron microscopy and relevant molecular dynamics observations, are discussed with particular attention to mechanistic models of partial/perfect-dislocation or deformation-twin-mediated deformation processes interacting with grain boundaries, constitutive modeling and simulations of grain size distribution and dynamic grain growth, and physically motivated crystal plasticity modeling of pure Cu with nanoscale growth twins. Sustained research efforts have established a group of nanocrystalline and nanostructured metals that exhibit a combination of high strength and considerable ductility in tension. Accompanying the gradually deepening understanding of the deformation mechanisms and their relative importance, quantitative and mechanisms-based constitutive models that can realistically capture experimentally measured and grain-size-dependent stress-strain behavior, strain-rate sensitivity and even ductility limit are becoming available. Some outstanding issues and future opportunities are listed and discussed

  18. Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review of Mechanical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, John J.; Seifi, Mohsen

    2016-07-01

    This article reviews published data on the mechanical properties of additively manufactured metallic materials. The additive manufacturing techniques utilized to generate samples covered in this review include powder bed fusion (e.g., EBM, SLM, DMLS) and directed energy deposition (e.g., LENS, EBF3). Although only a limited number of metallic alloy systems are currently available for additive manufacturing (e.g., Ti-6Al-4V, TiAl, stainless steel, Inconel 625/718, and Al-Si-10Mg), the bulk of the published mechanical properties information has been generated on Ti-6Al-4V. However, summary tables for published mechanical properties and/or key figures are included for each of the alloys listed above, grouped by the additive technique used to generate the data. Published values for mechanical properties obtained from hardness, tension/compression, fracture toughness, fatigue crack growth, and high cycle fatigue are included for as-built, heat-treated, and/or HIP conditions, when available. The effects of test orientation/build direction on properties, when available, are also provided, along with discussion of the potential source(s) (e.g., texture, microstructure changes, defects) of anisotropy in properties. Recommendations for additional work are also provided.

  19. CDM (Clean Development Mechanism) opportunities for the oil and gas sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Joana Chiavari [FEEM - Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei, Milan (Italy). Eni/Agip Group

    2004-07-01

    Due to the broad impact of legislation limiting greenhouse gas emissions and the increasing public awareness concerning the environment, the oil industry has been currently incorporating climate change considerations in its corporate strategy. However, compliance in the carbon constrained economy does not merely represent a cost issue; it also represents an opportunity. Projects developed under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) in particular represent an incentive both for companies and governments to invest in emission reduction projects in developing countries and earn carbon credits, while promoting sustainable development. The oil industry is characterized by a high emission reduction potential and is able to deliver to the market an amount of credits which is by far higher than the amount that most projects developers are able to offer. However some critical issues, such as the current interpretation of the additionally concept, may represent a barrier for the full utilization of such mechanism, particularly regarding petroleum-sector projects, thus reducing the benefits the CDM can actually produce. Considering that a very large number of CDM projects may be needed for the implementation of a successful climate policy, the engagement of the oil industry on the Kyoto mechanisms is very important and auspicial. (author)

  20. REGULARITIES AND MECHANISM OF FORMATION OF STRUCTURE OF THE MECHANICALLY ALLOYED COMPOSITIONS GROUND ON THE BASIS OF METAL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. G. Lovshenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimentally determined regularities and mechanism of formation of structure of the mechanically alloyed compositions foundations on the basis of the widely applied in mechanical engineering metals – iron, nickel, aluminum, copper are given. 

  1. Evaluation of the information quality in a company of metal-mechanical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Augusto Spiegel Gualazzi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of an instrument for assessing the quality of information based on attributes such as accuracy, reliability, performance, among others. This instrument was applied in order to evaluate and identify ineffective information in a specific scenario of an engineering company in the metal-mechanic sector from the point of view of users of technical information. The case study aimed to demonstrate the applicability and functionality of the assessment instrument, the interest of people in evaluating their information and, finally, evaluate the scope of their results. The result of this evaluation allowed the company researched a plan of action to correct problems in its processes and identified inaccuracies in the information, indicating that the problem was solved by the method of problem solving.

  2. Small specimen technique for assessing mechanical properties of metallic components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobo, Raquel M.; Andrade, Arnaldo H.P.; Morcelli, Aparecido E., E-mail: rmlobo@ipen.br, E-mail: morcelliae@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Small Punch Test (SPT) is one of the most promising techniques of small specimen test, which was originally applied in testing of irradiated materials in nuclear engineering. Then it was introduced to other fields as an almost nondestructive method to measure the local mechanical properties that are difficult to be obtained using conventional mechanical tests. Most studies to date are focused on metallic materials, although SPT applications are recently spreading to other materials. The small punch test (SPT) employs small-sized specimens (for example, samples measuring 8 mm in diameter and 0.5 mm thick). The specimen is firmly clamped between two circular dies and is bi-axially strained until failure into a circular hole using a hemispherical punch. The 'load-punch displacement' record can be used to estimate the yield strength, the ultimate tensile strength, the tensile elongation, and the temperature of the ductile-to-brittle transition. Recently, some researchers are working on the use of miniature notched or pre-cracked specimens (denoted as p-SPT) to validate its geometry and dimensions for obtaining the fracture properties of metallic materials. In a first approach, the technique makes it possible to convert primary experimental data into conventional mechanical properties of a massive specimen. In this paper a comprehensive review of the different STP applications is presented with the aim of clarifying its usefulness. (author)

  3. Small specimen technique for assessing mechanical properties of metallic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, Raquel M.; Andrade, Arnaldo H.P.; Morcelli, Aparecido E.

    2017-01-01

    Small Punch Test (SPT) is one of the most promising techniques of small specimen test, which was originally applied in testing of irradiated materials in nuclear engineering. Then it was introduced to other fields as an almost nondestructive method to measure the local mechanical properties that are difficult to be obtained using conventional mechanical tests. Most studies to date are focused on metallic materials, although SPT applications are recently spreading to other materials. The small punch test (SPT) employs small-sized specimens (for example, samples measuring 8 mm in diameter and 0.5 mm thick). The specimen is firmly clamped between two circular dies and is bi-axially strained until failure into a circular hole using a hemispherical punch. The 'load-punch displacement' record can be used to estimate the yield strength, the ultimate tensile strength, the tensile elongation, and the temperature of the ductile-to-brittle transition. Recently, some researchers are working on the use of miniature notched or pre-cracked specimens (denoted as p-SPT) to validate its geometry and dimensions for obtaining the fracture properties of metallic materials. In a first approach, the technique makes it possible to convert primary experimental data into conventional mechanical properties of a massive specimen. In this paper a comprehensive review of the different STP applications is presented with the aim of clarifying its usefulness. (author)

  4. Corrosion fatigue of biomedical metallic alloys: mechanisms and mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Renato Altobelli; de Oliveira, Mara Cristina Lopes

    2012-03-01

    Cyclic stresses are often related to the premature mechanical failure of metallic biomaterials. The complex interaction between fatigue and corrosion in the physiological environment has been subject of many investigations. In this context, microstructure, heat treatments, plastic deformation, surface finishing and coatings have decisive influence on the mechanisms of fatigue crack nucleation and growth. Furthermore, wear is frequently present and contributes to the process. However, despite all the effort at elucidating the mechanisms that govern corrosion fatigue of biomedical alloys, failures continue to occur. This work reviews the literature on corrosion-fatigue-related phenomena of Ti alloys, surgical stainless steels, Co-Cr-Mo and Mg alloys. The aim was to discuss the correlation between structural and surface aspects of these materials and the onset of fatigue in the highly saline environment of the human body. By understanding such correlation, mitigation of corrosion fatigue failure may be achieved in a reliable scientific-based manner. Different mitigation methods are also reviewed and discussed throughout the text. It is intended that the information condensed in this article should be a valuable tool in the development of increasingly successful designs against the corrosion fatigue of metallic implants. Copyright © 2011 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The World Health Organization's mechanisms for increasing the health sector budget: The South African context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Fouche Hendrik Johannes; Wolfaardt, Jaqueline Elizabeth

    2016-07-04

    South Africa (SA) has limited scope for raising income taxes, and the proposed National Health Insurance (NHI) scheme will necessitate growth in the health sector budget. The NHI White Paper suggests five funding scenarios to meet the expected shortfall. These scenarios are a mixture of a surcharge on taxable income, an increase in value-added tax and a payroll tax. Five alternative options, suggested by the World Health Organization, are interrogated as ways to decrease the general taxation proposed in the White Paper. The five mechanisms (corporate tax, financial transaction levy, and taxes on tobacco, alcohol and unhealthy foods) were chosen based on their fund-raising potential and their mandatory element. A literature review provides the information for a discussion of the potential costs of each mechanism. Within specific assumptions, potential budgetary contribution is compared with the requirement. First, raising corporate tax rates could raise enough funds, but the losses due to capital flight might be too much for the local economy to bear. Second, a levy on currency transactions is unlikely to raise the required resources, even without a probable decrease in the number of transactions. Third, the increase in the tax on tobacco and alcohol would need to be very large, even assuming that consumption patterns would remain unchanged. Lastly, a tax on unhealthy food products is a new idea and could be explored as an option - especially as the SA Treasury has announced its future implementation. Implementing only one of the mechanisms is unlikely to increase available funding sufficiently, but if they are implemented together the welfare-maximising tax rate for each mechanism may be high enough to fulfil the NHI scheme's budgetary requirement, moderating the increases in the tax burden of the SA population.

  6. Regulatory mechanisms for absenteeism in the health sector: a systematic review of strategies and their implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kisakye AN

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Angela N Kisakye,1 Raymond Tweheyo,1 Freddie Ssengooba,1 George W Pariyo,2 Elizeus Rutebemberwa,1 Suzanne N Kiwanuka1 1Department of Health Policy Planning and Management, Makerere University School of Public Health, Kampala, Uganda; 2Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA Background: A systematic review was undertaken to identify regulatory mechanisms aimed at mitigating health care worker absenteeism, to describe where and how they have been implemented as well as their possible effects. The goal was to propose potential policy options for managing the problem of absenteeism among human resources for health in low- and middle-income countries. Mechanisms described in this review are at the local workplace and broader national policy level. Methods: A comprehensive online search was conducted on EMBASE, CINAHL, PubMed, Google Scholar, Google, and Social Science Citation Index using MEDLINE search terms. Retrieved studies were uploaded onto reference manager and screened by two independent reviewers. Only publications in English were included. Data were extracted and synthesized according to the objectives of the review. Results: Twenty six of the 4,975 published articles retrieved were included. All were from high-income countries and covered all cadres of health workers. The regulatory mechanisms and possible effects include 1 organizational-level mechanisms being reported as effective in curbing absenteeism in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs; 2 prohibition of private sector activities in LMICs offering benefits but presenting a challenge for the government to monitor the health workforce; 3 contractual changes from temporary to fixed posts having been associated with no reduction in absenteeism and not being appropriate for LMICs; 4 multifaceted work interventions being implemented in most settings; 5 the possibility of using financial and incentive regulatory mechanisms

  7. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 438 - Typical Products in Metal Products and Machinery Sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Air & Gas Compressors Automatic Vending Machines Ball & Roller Bearings Blowers... Fields, & Services BUS & TRUCK Bus Terminal & Service Facilities Courier Services, Except by Air Freight... Work Bolts, Nuts, Screws, Rivets & Washers Crowns & Closures Cutlery Fabricated Metal Products...

  8. Mechanism of the superior mechanical strength of nanometer-sized metal single crystals revealed

    KAUST Repository

    Afify, N. D.

    2013-10-01

    Clear understanding of the superior mechanical strength of nanometer-sized metal single crystals is required to derive advanced mechanical components retaining such superiority. Although high quality studies have been reported on nano-crystalline metals, the superiority of small single crystals has neither been fundamentally explained nor quantified to this date. Here we present a molecular dynamics study of aluminum single crystals in the size range from 4.1 nm to 40.5 nm. We show that the ultimate mechanical strength deteriorates exponentially as the single crystal size increases. The small crystals superiority is explained by their ability to continuously form vacancies and to recover them. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Mechanical deformation of atomic-scale metallic contacts: Structure and mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads Reinholdt; Brandbyge, Mads; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    1998-01-01

    We have simulated the mechanical deformation of atomic-scale metallic contacts under tensile strain using molecular dynamics and effective medium theory potentials. The evolution of the structure of the contacts and the underlying deformation mechanisms are described along with the calculated......, but vacancies can be permanently present. The transition states and energies for slip mechanisms have been determined using the nudged elastic band method, and we find a size-dependent crossover from a dislocation-mediated slip to a homogeneous slip when the contact diameter becomes less than a few nm. We show...

  10. Analysis of the technological capacity of pymes in the metal sector- an evaluation methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Divitt Velosa García

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Rev.esc.adm.neg Las pymes del sector metalmecánico, requieren mejorar su desempeño empresarial de tal forma que esto permita el desarrollo de ventajas competitivas frente a mercados globales. Estas ventajas se pueden lograr de muchas formas, pero una de las fuentes que en los últimos años ha tomado gran importancia es a través del sistema de producción (Hill, 2000. En este trabajo se presenta una metodología para medir la capacidad tecnológica de producción en las pymes del sector metalmecánico colombiano, con el objetivo de evaluar la gestión frente a dos aspectos específicos diseño y manufactura, y de acuerdo con los resultados proponer estrategias para que estas empresas puedan mejorar su capacidad tecnológica.

  11. Synthesis of alumina-metal nanocomposites by mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osso, D.; Caer, G. le; Begin-Colin, S.; Mocellin, A.; Matteazzi, P.

    1993-01-01

    The synthesis of nanometer-sized α-Al 2 O 3 -metal composites can be performed by room temperature ball-milling of mixtures of metal-oxides and aluminium as shown by Matteazzi and Le Caer. The average crystallite size of the alumina-metal composite so obtained is in general about 10nm. Such composites may also be prepared by direct grinding of a mixture of α-Al 2 O 3 and of a metal or an alloy. The present work is devoted to the study of the reaction mechanisms by X-Ray diffraction and 57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy for the α-Al 2 O 3 -Cr, α-Al 2 O 3 -Fe, α-Al 2 O 3 -(Fe-Cr) and α-Al 2 O 3 -Ti systems. Moessbauer spectroscopy shows that non-completely reduced Fe, partly in the form of Fe 2+ , still exists at the end of the synthesis and belongs to a ternary Al-Fe-O oxide in α-Al 2 O 3 -Fe composites although it cannot be indexed by X-Ray diffraction. The Fe 2+ component is mainly associated with iron environments in or similar to those of hercynite. Species like Fe 3+ in Al 2 O 3 or in grain boundaries are observed, Fe 4+ and Fe 0 cannot be excluded. Differences are obtained by reactive milling and by direct milling the reaction products. Reactive milling of Al-TiO 2 (anatase) yields α-Al 2 O 3 -Ti nanocomposites. The transient formation of a high-pressure orthorhombic form of TiO 2 of the α-PbO 2 type is observed. (orig.)

  12. Dynamics of technology shifts in the household sector-implications for clean development mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, B. Sudhakara; Balachandra, P.

    2006-01-01

    The present paper attempts to analyse the dynamics of energy end-use technology shifts in the household sector in India. The technology shifts can be categorized as naturally occurring shifts (with increasing household incomes and availability of energy carriers) and policy-induced shifts (by creating a favourable environment). Initially, the households energy usage patterns, types of energy carriers and the technologies in use are analysed using the data from the National Sample Survey (1999-2000). The energy consumption is disaggregated according to end-use activity and by income groups for rural as well as urban households. It is observed that large variations in energy use exist across different sections of households-urban/rural, low/high-income groups, etc. Further, the paper provides a methodological framework for the diffusion of energy-efficient technologies, and the implications of such diffusions for the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). It analyses the reasons for the gap between possible and practical implementation of energy-efficient measures, study the reasons for households not using the cost-effective technologies available to them, the benefits of innovation of energy efficiency, and the required policies and specific proposals for government intervention to achieve the potential for the CDM

  13. How to use the clean development mechanism in the residential sector? The case of Brazilian refrigerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, Helioui; Cohen, Claude; Salem Szklo, Alexandre

    2006-01-01

    The definition of simple and reliable emission baselines is crucial to foster clean development mechanism (CDM) projects. This paper assesses a project methodology that could boost large-scale energy-efficiency projects in the sector of domestic appliances. The baseline appliance is defined a priori in a 'conservative' manner as the design option minimizing life-cycle social costs. The project methodology consists in a program which rebates new appliances according to their emission savings compared to the baseline. Is the proposed baseline acceptable? What could be the impact of such project on emissions? To address these questions, we look for insights from a hypothetical case on Brazilian refrigerators. A rational choice model is developed which assumes that households select design options minimizing life-cycle private costs. Results suggest that electricity tariff distortions and financial constraints might hamper project performances and allow significant free-riding. Low income households remain trapped into low-efficiency choices and high income households adopt outperforming appliances, whether rebated or not. However, simple solutions likely to improve the project methodology do exist

  14. A conjoint analysis of corporate preferences for the sectoral crediting mechanism: a case study of Shanxi Province in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, S.; Smits, M.; Wang, C.

    2016-01-01

    It is crucial to understand corporate preferences in designing and planning new market-based instruments. Using the method of conjoint analysis, this paper evaluates corporate preferences for policy alternatives of the sectoral crediting mechanism aiming at supporting its discussions and

  15. Evolution of metal-metal wear mechanisms in martensitic steel deposits for recharging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gualco, Agustin; Svoboda, Hernan G; Surian, Estela S; De Vedia, Luis A

    2008-01-01

    This work studied metal recharged by welding with a martensitic steel (Cr, Mn, Mo, V and W alloy), deposited with a metal filled tubular wire on a low carbon steel, using semi-automatic welding with a contributing heat of 2 kJ/mm and under a gaseous protection of Ar-2%CO 2 . Transverse cuts were extracted from the welded sample for microstructural characterization, hardness measurement, determination of chemical composition and wear tests. The microstructural characterization was performed using light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The wear tests (metal-metal) were carried out on an Amsler machine in natural flow condition, with 500, 1250 and 2000 N of applied charge. The reference material was SAE 1020 steel. The weight loss curves were determined as a function of the distance run up to 5000 meters for all conditions. Then the test's wear surfaces and debris were analyzed. The microstructure consisted mostly of martensite and a fraction of retained austenite. A pattern of dendritic segregation was observed. The hardness on the wear surface averaged 670 HV 1 . The wear behavior showed a lineal variation between the loss of weight and the distance run, for the different loads applied. The rates of wear for each condition were obtained. The observed wear mechanisms were abrasion and adhesion, with plastic deformation. At low charges, the predominant mechanism was mild oxidative wear and at bigger loads heavy oxidative wear with the presence of zones with adhesion. The oxides formed on the surface of the eroded plate were identified

  16. Precursor directed synthesis - ``molecular'' mechanisms in the Soft Chemistry approaches and their use for template-free synthesis of metal, metal oxide and metal chalcogenide nanoparticles and nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seisenbaeva, Gulaim A.; Kessler, Vadim G.

    2014-05-01

    This review provides an insight into the common reaction mechanisms in Soft Chemistry processes involved in nucleation, growth and aggregation of metal, metal oxide and chalcogenide nanoparticles starting from metal-organic precursors such as metal alkoxides, beta-diketonates, carboxylates and their chalcogene analogues and demonstrates how mastering the precursor chemistry permits us to control the chemical and phase composition, crystallinity, morphology, porosity and surface characteristics of produced nanomaterials.This review provides an insight into the common reaction mechanisms in Soft Chemistry processes involved in nucleation, growth and aggregation of metal, metal oxide and chalcogenide nanoparticles starting from metal-organic precursors such as metal alkoxides, beta-diketonates, carboxylates and their chalcogene analogues and demonstrates how mastering the precursor chemistry permits us to control the chemical and phase composition, crystallinity, morphology, porosity and surface characteristics of produced nanomaterials. To Professor David Avnir on his 65th birthday.

  17. Mechanical and Fatigue Properties of Additively Manufactured Metallic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadollahi, Aref

    This study aims to investigate the mechanical and fatigue behavior of additively manufactured metallic materials. Several challenges associated with different metal additive manufacturing (AM) techniques (i.e. laser-powder bed fusion and direct laser deposition) have been addressed experimentally and numerically. Experiments have been carried out to study the effects of process inter-layer time interval--i.e. either building the samples one-at-a-time or multi-at-a-time (in-parallel)--on the microstructural features and mechanical properties of 316L stainless steel samples, fabricated via a direct laser deposition (DLD). Next, the effect of building orientation--i.e. the orientation in which AM parts are built--on microstructure, tensile, and fatigue behaviors of 17-4 PH stainless steel, fabricated via a laser-powder bed fusion (L-PBF) method was investigated. Afterwards, the effect of surface finishing--here, as-built versus machined--on uniaxial fatigue behavior and failure mechanisms of Inconel 718 fabricated via a laser-powder bed fusion technique was sought. The numerical studies, as part of this dissertation, aimed to model the mechanical behavior of AM materials, under monotonic and cyclic loading, based on the observations and findings from the experiments. Despite significant research efforts for optimizing process parameters, achieving a homogenous, defect-free AM product--immediately after fabrication--has not yet been fully demonstrated. Thus, one solution for ensuring the adoption of AM materials for application should center on predicting the variations in mechanical behavior of AM parts based on their resultant microstructure. In this regard, an internal state variable (ISV) plasticity-damage model was employed to quantify the damage evolution in DLD 316L SS, under tensile loading, using the microstructural features associated with the manufacturing process. Finally, fatigue behavior of AM parts has been modeled based on the crack-growth concept

  18. Multiscale simulations in face-centered cubic metals: A method coupling quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xiao-Xiang; Wang Chong-Yu

    2013-01-01

    An effective multiscale simulation which concurrently couples the quantum-mechanical and molecular-mechanical calculations based on the position continuity of atoms is presented. By an iterative procedure, the structure of the dislocation core in face-centered cubic metal is obtained by first-principles calculation and the long-range stress is released by molecular dynamics relaxation. Compared to earlier multiscale methods, the present work couples the long-range strain to the local displacements of the dislocation core in a simpler way with the same accuracy. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  19. Study of the static airtightness mechanisms of metal seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tlili, A.

    2013-01-01

    The thesis aims to better understand the sealing mechanisms in contact at the interface between a metal gasket and clamps. The proposed approach is based on the development of a numerical model of the clamping seal by incorporating the laws' behavior of materials that will be determined by micro instrumented indentation testing. This model is particularly interested in identifying ways of providing the fluid leak to be sealed and to determine leakage rates resulting from the identified paths, as well as the evolution of the conductance of the interface over time. Particular attention will be paid to the roughness of the surfaces, changing leak paths at different levels depending on the tightening of the seal and gas flow rates in the different types of defects. The study was conducted in Pierrelatte's Sealing laboratory that develops metal seals for the aerospace, nuclear and scientific research. The thesis focuses on real surfaces and was supplemented by measurements of helium leaks using a press which applies different loads at different gas pressures and different roughness. (author) [fr

  20. Health sector reforms and human resources for health in Uganda and Bangladesh: mechanisms of effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kielmann Tara

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the expanding literature on how reforms may affect health workers and which reactions they may provoke, little research has been conducted on the mechanisms of effect through which health sector reforms either promote or discourage health worker performance. This paper seeks to trace these mechanisms and examines the contextual framework of reform objectives in Uganda and Bangladesh, and health workers' responses to the changes in their working environments by taking a 'realistic evaluation' approach. Methods The study findings were generated by triangulating both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection and analysis among policy technocrats, health managers and groups of health providers. Quantitative surveys were conducted with over 700 individual health workers in both Bangladesh and Uganda and supplemented with qualitative data obtained from focus group discussions and key interviews with professional cadres, health managers and key institutions involved in the design, implementation and evaluation of the reforms of interest. Results The reforms in both countries affected the workforce through various mechanisms. In Bangladesh, the effects of the unification efforts resulted in a power struggle and general mistrust between the two former workforce tracts, family planning and health. However positive effects of the reforms were felt regarding the changes in payment schemes. Ugandan findings show how the workforce responded to a strong and rapidly implemented system of decentralisation where the power of new local authorities was influenced by resource constraints and nepotism in recruitment. On the other hand, closer ties to local authorities provided the opportunity to gain insight into the operational constraints originating from higher levels that health staff were dealing with. Conclusion Findings from the study suggest that a reform planners should use the proposed dynamic responses model to

  1. Stress relaxation insensitive designs for metal compliant mechanism threshold accelerometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Vilorio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We present two designs for metal compliant mechanisms for use as threshold accelerometers which require zero external power. Both designs rely on long, thin flexures positioned orthogonally to a flat body. The first design involves cutting or stamping a thin spring-steel sheet and then bending elements to form the necessary thin flexors. The second design uses precut spring-steel flexure elements mounted into a mold which is then filled with molten tin to form a bimetallic device. Accelerations necessary to switch the devices between bistable states were measured using a centrifuge. Both designs showed very little variation in threshold acceleration due to stress relaxation over a period of several weeks. Relatively large variations in threshold acceleration were observed for devices of the same design, most likely due to variations in the angle of the flexor elements relative to the main body of the devices. Keywords: Structural health monitoring, Sensor, Accelerometer, Zero power, Shock, Threshold

  2. Investigating Deformation and Failure Mechanisms in Nanoscale Multilayer Metallic Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zbib, Hussein M. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Bahr, David F. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2014-10-22

    Over the history of materials science there are many examples of materials discoveries that have made superlative materials; the strongest, lightest, or toughest material is almost always a goal when we invent new materials. However, often these have been a result of enormous trial and error approaches. A new methodology, one in which researchers design, from the atoms up, new ultra-strong materials for use in energy applications, is taking hold within the science and engineering community. This project focused on one particular new classification of materials; nanolaminate metallic composites. These materials, where two metallic materials are intimately bonded and layered over and over to form sheets or coatings, have been shown over the past decade to reach strengths over 10 times that of their constituents. However, they are not yet widely used in part because while extremely strong (they don’t permanently bend), they are also not particularly tough (they break relatively easily when notched). Our program took a coupled approach to investigating new materials systems within the laminate field. We used computational materials science to explore ways to institute new deformation mechanisms that occurred when a tri-layer, rather than the more common bi-layer system was created. Our predictions suggested that copper-nickel or copper-niobium composites (two very common bi-layer systems) with layer thicknesses on the order of 20 nm and then layered 100’s of times, would be less tough than a copper-nickel-niobium metallic composite of similar thicknesses. In particular, a particular mode of permanent deformation, cross-slip, could be activated only in the tri-layer system; the crystal structure of the other bi-layers would prohibit this particular mode of deformation. We then experimentally validated this predication using a wide range of tools. We utilized a DOE user facility, the Center for Integrated Nanotechnology (CINT), to fabricate, for the first time, these

  3. Residual stresses and mechanical properties of metal matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Christer.

    1993-01-01

    The large difference in coefficient of thermal expansion of the matrix and particles in a metal matrix composite will introduce residual stresses during cooling from process temperature. These stresses are locally very high, and are known to influence the mechanical behaviour of the material. Changes in the stress state will occur during heat treatments and when the material is loaded due to different elastic, plastic, and creep properties of the constituents. The change of residual stresses in an Al-SiC particulate composite after different degree of plastic straining has been studied. The effect of plastic straining was modelled by an Eshelby model. The model and the measurements both show that the stress in the loading direction decreases for a tensile plastic strain and increases for a compressive plastic strain. By x-ray diffraction the stress response in the matrix and particles can be measured independently. This has been used to determine the stress state under and after heat treatments and under mechanical loading in two Al 15% SiC metal matrix composites. By analysing the line width from x-ray experiment the changes in the microstrains in the material were studied. A finite element model was used to model the generation of thermal residual stresses, stress relaxation during heat treatments, and load sharing during the first load cycle. Calculated stresses and microstrains were found to be in good agreement with the measured values. The elastic behaviour of the composite can be understood largely in terms of elastic load transfer between matrix and particles. However, at higher loads when the matrix becomes plastic residual stresses also become important. 21 refs

  4. Enterprise systems in financial sector - an application in precious metal trading forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaozhu; Fang, Yiwei

    2013-11-01

    The use of enterprise systems has become increasingly popular in the financial service industry. This paper discusses the applications of enterprise systems in the financial sectors and presents an application in gold price forecasting. We carefully examine the impacts of a few most widely assumed factors that have significant impact on the long-term gold price using statistical regression techniques. The analysis on our proposed linear regression mode indicates that the United States ultra scale of M2 money supply has been the most important catalyst for the rising price of gold, and the CRB index upward trend has also been the weighty factor for pushing up the gold price. In addition, the gold price has a low negative correlation with the Dow Jones Industrial Average, and low positive correlations with the US dollar index and the gold ETFs holdings.

  5. Cleaner generation, free-riders, and environmental integrity: clean development mechanism and the power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernow, Stephen; Kartha, Sivan; Lazarus, Michael; Page, Tom [Tellus Institute and Stockholm Environmental Institute-Boston Center, Boston, MA (United States)

    2001-06-01

    This article provides a first-cut estimate of the potential impacts of the clean development mechanism (CDM) on electricity generation and carbon emissions in the power sector of non-Annex 1 countries. We construct four illustrative CDM regimes that represent a range of approaches under consideration within the climate community. We examine the impact of these CDM regimes on investments in new generation, under illustrative carbon trading prices of US$ 10 and 100/tC. In the cases that are most conductive to CDM activity, roughly 94% of new generation investments remains identical to the without-CDM situation, with only 6% shifting from higher to lower carbon intensity technologies. We estimate that the CDM would bolster renewable energy generation by as little as 15% at US$ 10/tC, or as much as 300% at US$ 100/tC. A striking finding comes from our examination of the potential magnitude of the 'free-rider' problem, i.e. crediting of activities that will occur even in the absence of the CDM. The CDM is intended to be globally carbon-neutral --- a project reduces emissions in the host country but generates credits that increase emissions in the investor country. However, to the extent that unwarranted credits are awarded to non-additional projects, the CDM would increase global carbon emissions above the without-CDM emissions level. Under two of the CDM regimes considered, cumulative free-riders credits total 250-600MtC through the end of the first budget period in 2012. This represents 10-23% of the likely OECD emissions reduction requirement during the first budget period. Since such a magnitude of free-rider credits from non-additional CDM projects could threaten the environmental integrity of the Kyoto protocol, it is imperative that policy makers devise CDM rules that encourage legitimate projects, while effectively screening out non-additional activities. (Author)

  6. Dual Mechanism Nonlinear Response of Selected Metal Organic Chromophores

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peak, John D

    2007-01-01

    13 The goal for the research described herein is the development of a series of transition metal based metal organic chromophores that display both two-photon and excited state absorption (TPA/ESA) character...

  7. Spontaneous grafting of diazonium salts: chemical mechanism on metallic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesnage, Alice; Lefèvre, Xavier; Jégou, Pascale; Deniau, Guy; Palacin, Serge

    2012-08-14

    The spontaneous reaction of diazonium salts on various substrates has been widely employed since it consists of a simple immersion of the substrate in the diazonium salt solution. As electrochemical processes involving the same diazonium salts, the spontaneous grafting is assumed to give covalently poly(phenylene)-like bonded films. Resistance to solvents and to ultrasonication is commonly accepted as indirect proof of the existence of a covalent bond. However, the most relevant attempts to demonstrate a metal-C interface bond have been obtained by an XPS investigation of spontaneously grafted films on copper. Similarly, our experiments give evidence of such a bond in spontaneously grafted films on nickel substrates in acetonitrile. In the case of gold substrates, the formation of a spontaneous film was unexpected but reported in the literature in parallel to our observations. Even if no interfacial bond was observed, formation of the films was explained by grafting of aryl cations or radicals on the surface arising from dediazoniation, the film growing later by azo coupling, radical addition, or cationic addition on the grafted phenyl layer. Nevertheless, none of these mechanisms fits our experimental results showing the presence of an Au-N bond. In this work, we present a fine spectroscopic analysis of the coatings obtained on gold and nickel substrates that allow us to propose a chemical structure of such films, in particular, their interface with the substrates. After testing the most probable mechanisms, we have concluded in favor of the involvement of two complementary mechanisms which are the direct reaction of diazonium salts with the gold surface that accounts for the observed Au-N interfacial bonds as well as the formation of aryl cations able to graft on the substrate through Au-C linkages.

  8. Damage mechanisms and metallic materials development in multiphase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Yugui; Liu, Wei; Yao, Zhiming; Ke, Wei

    2002-01-01

    The investigation on the synergistic effects among corrosion, slurry erosion and cavitation erosion has special significance for hydraulic turbines operated in Yangtze River and Yellow River where the high concentration solid particles exist in water. Two typical metallic materials i.e. Cr-Mn-N stainless steel and Ni-Ti shapememory-alloy, and two typical materials used for hydraulic turbines 20SiMn and 0Cr13Ni5Mo as compared materials were selected in order to investigate the roles of work-hardening ability and martensitic transformation as well as pseudoelastics in damage mechanism in multiphase flow. Both modified rotating disk rig and ultrasonic vibration facility were used to simulate the possible damage mechanism of materials in multiphase flow. The effects of corrosion on cavitation erosion were investigated through adding 3wt% NaCl. The degradation mechanism was analyzed by electrochemical test, SEM observation, hardness and roughness measurement. The results showed that there was a strong synergistic interaction among electrochemical corrosion, slurry erosion and cavitation erosion for 20SiMn in liquid-solid two-phase medium. In contrast, corrosion played little role for 0Cr13Ni5Mo. Cr-Mn-N stainless steel with high Mn content showed better resistance to cavitation erosion and slurry erosion than 0Cr13Ni5Mo, which was mainly due to its good work-hardening ability as well as strain-induced martensite transformation. The cavitation micro-cracks for Cr-Mn-N stainless steel were parallel to the specimen surface in contrast with 0Cr13Ni5Mo whose micro-cracks were perpendicular to the surface. Ni-Ti alloy with pseudoelasticity showed excellent resistance to combined interaction of cavitation erosion and slurry erosion

  9. On Thermocapillary Mechanism of Spatial Separation of Metal Melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demin, V. A.; Mizev, A. I.; Petukhov, M. I.

    2018-02-01

    Theoretical research has been devoted to the study of binary metal melts behavior in a thin capillary. Earlier it has been found experimentally that unusually significant and quick redistribution of melts components takes place along capillary after the cooling. Numerical simulation of concentration-induced convection has been carried out to explain these experimental data. Two-component melt of both liquid metals filling vertical thin capillary with non-uniform temperature distribution on the boundaries is considered. It is assumed that the condition of absolute non-wetting is valid on the sidewalls. Because of this effect there is a free surface on vertical boundaries, where thermocapillary force is appeared due to the external longitudinal temperature gradient. It makes to move liquid elements at a big distance, compared with axial size of capillary. Effects of adsorption-desorption on the surface, thermal and concentration-capillary forces, convective motion in a volume and diffusion generate the large-scale circulation. This process includes the admixture carrying-out on the surface in the more hot higher part of the channel, its following transfer down along the boundary due to the thermocapillary force and its return in the volume over the desorption in the lower part of capillary. Intensity of motion and processes of adsorption-desorption on the free boundary have the decisive influence upon the formation of concentration fields and speed of components redistribution. Thus, one of the possible mechanisms of longitudinal division on components of liquid binary mixtures in thin channels has been demonstrated.

  10. Nanoscale strengthening mechanisms in metallic thin film systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeppner, Rachel Lynn

    Nano-scale strengthening mechanisms for thin films were investigated for systems governed by two different strengthening techniques: nano-laminate strengthening and oxide dispersion strengthening. Films were tested under elevated temperature conditions to investigate changes in deformation mechanisms at different operating temperatures, and the structural stability. Both systems exhibit remarkable stability after annealing and thus long-term reliability. Nano-scale metallic multilayers with smaller layer thicknesses show a greater relative resistance to decreasing strength at higher temperature testing conditions than those with larger layer thicknesses. This is seen in both Cu/Ni/Nb multilayers as well as a similar tri-component bi-layer system (Cu-Ni/Nb), which removed the coherent interface from the film. Both nanoindentation and micro-pillar compression tests investigated the strain-hardening ability of these two systems to determine what role the coherent interface plays in this mechanism. Tri-layer films showed a higher strain-hardening ability as the layer thickness decreased and a higher strain-hardening exponent than the bi-layer system: verifying the presence of a coherent interface increases the strain-hardening ability of these multilayer systems. Both systems exhibited hardening of the room temperature strength after annealing, suggesting a change in microstructure has occurred, unlike that seen in other multilayer systems. Oxide dispersion strengthened Au films showed a marked increase in hardness and wear resistance with the addition of ZnO particles. The threshold for stress-induced grain-refinement as opposed to grain growth is seen at concentrations of at least 0.5 vol%. These systems exhibited stable microstructures during thermal cycling in films containing at least 1.0%ZnO. Nanoindentation experiments show the drop in hardness following annealing is almost completely attributed to the resulting grain growth. Four-point probe resistivity

  11. Study of inelastic deformation mechanisms in metal glass volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakaj, S.A.; Neklyudov, I.M.; Savchenko, V.I.; Ehkert, Yu.

    2001-01-01

    The results of investigations of the mechanical properties and internal friction of the bulk amorphous alloy Zr 53.5 Ti 5 Cu 17.5 Ni 14.6 Al 10.4 within the temperature range from the room temperature up to glass-transition temperature are reported. The yield stress and transition from homogeneous to inhomogeneous plastic deformation are investigated. The temperature dependence of low-frequency internal friction, Q -1 (T), in the amplitude-independent limit of oscillations is obtained. The temperature range within which the homogeneous plastic deformation is observed under compression stress is determined. The superplasticity of the amorphous alloy is revealed at the temperature which is 100K lower than the glass-transition temperature. The lowest temperature, at which the superplasticity is revealed, turns to be an edge of the temperature range where Q -1 (T) increases fast. The microscopic nature of the observed phenomena are interpreted on the base of the polycluster model of the metallic glasses

  12. Mechanisms in the shaping of organic food as strategy in the Danish food sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    . The paper analyses some of the changes that have taken place in the Danish food sector during the last 10-15 years with respect to organic food. The paper looks for how changes in the systems of production, consumption, knowledge and regulation have interacted and what kind of coherence and dissonance among...

  13. Bacterial mediated alleviation of heavy metal stress and decreased accumulation of metals in plant tissues: Mechanisms and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etesami, Hassan

    2018-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution of agricultural soils is one of main concerns causing some of the different ecological and environmental problems. Excess accumulation of these metals in soil has changed microbial community (e.g., structure, function, and diversity), deteriorated soil, decreased the growth and yield of plant, and entered into the food chain. Plants' tolerance to heavy metal stress needs to be improved in order to allow growth of crops with minimum or no accumulation of heavy metals in edible parts of plant that satisfy safe food demands for the world's rapidly increasing population. It is well known that PGPRs (plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria) enhance crop productivity and plant resistance to heavy metal stress. Many recent reports describe the application of heavy metal resistant-PGPRs to enhance agricultural yields without accumulation of metal in plant tissues. This review provides information about the mechanisms possessed by heavy metal resistant-PGPRs that ameliorate heavy metal stress to plants and decrease the accumulation of these metals in plant, and finally gives some perspectives for research on these bacteria in agriculture in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. New graphic classification and theory of H effects on the mechanical properties of metal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidelle, J.P.

    1988-09-01

    A simple use of the theory of sets allows an accurate yet concise classification of hydrogen effects on metals mechanical properties, generally embrittlements and/or corrosions or other effects, mostly noxious or sometimes favorable but limited. Gas bubbles role is more general than reported. Metals affected by (a) dissol-ved (-ing) H or (b) solid hydrides able to be generated by direct hydrogen/solid metals reactions are, like H itself, ''A'' metals of Mendeleiev's table; ''B'' metals are not affected, or only under extreme conditions, unless alloyed with A metals

  15. Codeformation processing of mechanically-dissimilar metal/intermetallic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marte, Judson Sloan

    A systematic and scientific approach has been applied to the study of codeformation processing. A series of composites having mechanically-dissimilar phases were developed in which the high temperature flow behavior of the reinforcement material could be varied independent of the matrix. This was accomplished through the use of a series of intermetallic matrix composites (IMCs) as discontinuous reinforcements in an otherwise conventional metal matrix composite. The IMCs are produced using an in-situ reaction synthesis technique, called the XD(TM) process. The temperature of the exothermic synthesis reaction, called the adiabatic temperature, has been calculated and shown to increase with increasing volume percentage of TiB2 reinforcement. Further, this temperature has been shown to effect the size and spacing of the TiB2, microstructural features which are often used in discontinuous composite strength models. Study of the high temperature flow behavior of the components of the metal/IMC composite is critical to the development of an understanding of codeformation. A series of compression tests performed at 1000° to 1200°C and strain-rates of 10-3 and 10-4 sec-1. Peak flow stresses were used to evaluate the influence of material properties and process conditions. These data were incorporated into phenomenologically-based constitutive equations that have been used to predict the flow behavior. It has been determined that plastic deformation of the IMCs occurs readily, and is largely TiB2 independent, at temperatures approaching the melting point of the intermetallic matrices. Ti-6Al-4V/IMC powder blends were extruded at high temperatures to achieve commensurately deformed microstructures. The results of codeformation processing were analyzed in terms of the plastic strain of the IMC particulates. IMC particle deformation was shown to increase with increasing IMC particle size, volume percentage of IMC, extrusion temperature, homologous temperature, extrusion

  16. Characterizing time-dependent mechanics in metallic MEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geers M.G.D.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Experiments for characterization of time-dependent material properties in free-standing metallic microelectromechanical system (MEMS pose challenges: e.g. fabrication and handling (sub-μm sized specimens, control and measurement of sub-μN loads and sub-μm displacements over long periods and various temperatures [1]. A variety of experimental setups have been reported each having their pros and cons. One example is a micro-tensile tester with an ingenious electro-static specimen gripping system [2] aiding simple specimen design giving good results at μN and sub-μm levels, but without in-situ full-field observations. Other progressive examples assimilate the specimen, MEMS actuators and load cells on a single chip [3,4] yielding significant results at nN and nm levels with in-situ TEM/SEM observability, though not without complications: complex load actuator/sensor calibration per chip, measures to reduce fabrication failure and unfeasible cofabrication on wafers with commercial metallic MEMS. This work aims to overcome these drawbacks by developing experimental methods with high sensitivity, precision and in-situ full-field observation capabilities. Moreover, these should be applicable to simple free-standing metallic MEMS that can be co-fabricated with commercial devices. These methods will then serve in systematic studies into size-effects in time-dependent material properties. First a numeric-experimental method is developed. It characterizes bending deformation of onwafer μm-sized aluminum cantilevers. A specially designed micro-clamp is used to mechanically apply a constant precise deflection of the beam (zres <50 nm for a prolonged period, see fig. 1. After this period, the deflection by the micro-clamp is removed. Full-field height maps with the ensuing deformation are measured over time with confocal optical profilometry (COP. This yields the tip deflection as function of time with ~3 nm precision, see fig.2. To extract material

  17. TOXIC METAL EMISSIONS FROM INCINERATION: MECHANISMS AND CONTROL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxic metals appear in the effluents of many combustion processes, and their release into the environment has come under regulatory scrutiny. This paper reviews the nature of the problems associated with toxic metals in combustion processes, and describes where these problems occ...

  18. The acting wear mechanisms on metal-on-metal hip joint bearings: in-vitro results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wimmer, M.A.; Loos, J.; Nassutt, R.; Heitkemper, M.; Fischer, A.

    2001-01-01

    Metal-on-metal (MOM) hip joint bearings are currently under discussion as alternatives to metal-on-polymer (MOP) bearings. Some criteria under scrutiny are the wear resistance, the influence of wear particles on the surrounding tissue, as well as the frictional torque. In order to understand and

  19. Mechanism of deposit formation on fuel-wetted metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stavinoha, L.L.; Westbrook, S.R.; McInnis, L.A. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Experiments were performed in a Single-Tube Heat Exchanger (STHE) apparatus and a Hot Liquid Process Simulator (HLPS) configured and operated to meet Jet Fuel Thermal Oxidation Tester (JFTOT) ASTM D 3241 requirements. The HLPS-JFTOT heater tubes used were 1018 mild steel, 316 stainless steel (SS), 304 stainless steel (SS), and 304 SS tubes coated with aluminum, magnesium, gold, and copper. A low-sulfur Jet A fuel with a breakpoint temperature of 254{degrees}C was used to create deposits on the heater tubes at temperatures of 300{degrees}C, 340{degrees}C, and 380{degrees}C. Deposit thickness was measured by dielectric breakdown voltage and Auger ion milling. Pronounced differences between the deposit thickness measuring techniques suggested that both the Auger milling rate and the dielectric strength of the deposit may be affected by deposit morphology/composition (such as metal ions that may have become included in the bulk of the deposit). Carbon burnoff data were obtained as a means of judging the validity of DMD-derived deposit evaluations. ESCA data suggest that the thinnest deposit was on the magnesium-coated test tube. The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) photographs showed marked variations in the deposit morphology and the results suggested that surface composition has a significant effect on the mechanism of deposition. The most dramatic effect observed was that the bulk of deposits moved to tube locations of lower temperature as the maximum temperature of the tube was increased from 300{degrees} to 380{degrees}C, also verified in a single-tube heat exchanger. The results indicate that the deposition rate and quantity at elevated temperatures is not completely temperature dependent, but is limited by the concentration of dissolved oxygen and/or reactive components in the fuel over a temperature range.

  20. Metal Pollutants and Cardiovascular Disease: Mechanisms and Consequences of Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solenkova, Natalia V.; Newman, Jonathan D.; Berger, Jeffrey S.; Thurston, George; Hochman, Judith S.; Lamas, Gervasio A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction There is epidemiological evidence that metal contaminants may play a role in the development of atherosclerosis and its complications. Moreover, a recent clinical trial of a metal chelator had a surprisingly positive result in reducing cardiovascular events in a secondary prevention population, strengthening the link between metal exposure and cardiovascular disease (CVD). This is, therefore, an opportune moment to review evidence that exposure to metal pollutants, such as arsenic, lead, cadmium, and mercury, are significant risk factors for CVD. Methods We reviewed the English-speaking medical literature to assess and present the epidemiological evidence that 4 metals having no role in the human body (xenobiotic), mercury, lead, cadmium, and arsenic, have epidemiologic and mechanistic links to atherosclerosis and CVD. Moreover, we briefly review how the results of the Trial to Assess Chelation Therapy strengthen the link between atherosclerosis and xenobiotic metal contamination in humans. Conclusions There is strong evidence that xenobiotic metal contamination is linked to atherosclerotic disease and is a modifiable risk factor. PMID:25458643

  1. Brown algae overproduce cell wall polysaccharides as a protection mechanism against the heavy metal toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Leonardo R.; Leal, Raquel N.; Noseda, Miguel; Duarte, Maria Eugenia R.; Pereira, Mariana S.; Mourao, Paulo A.S.; Farina, Marcos; Amado Filho, Gilberto M.

    2010-01-01

    Brown algae are often used as heavy metal biomonitors and biosorbents because they can accumulate high concentrations of metals. Cation-exchange performed by cell wall polysaccharides is pointed out as the main chemical mechanism for the metal sequestration. Here, we biochemically investigated if the brown alga Padina gymnospora living in a heavy metal contaminated area would modify their polysaccharidic content. We exposed non-living biomass to Cd and Pb and studied the metals adsorption and localization. We found that raw dried polysaccharides, sulfate groups, uronic acids, fucose, mannose, and galactose were significantly higher in contaminated algae compared with the control ones. Metal concentrations adsorbed by non-living biomass were rising comparatively to the tested concentrations. Electron microscopy showed numerous granules in the cell walls and X-ray microanalysis revealed Cd as the main element. We concluded that P. gymnospora overproduces cell wall polysaccharides when exposed to high metal concentrations as a defense mechanism.

  2. Review of thermodinamic and mechanical properties of hydrogen-transition metal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathias, H.; Katz, Y.

    1978-04-01

    A large body of fundamental and empirical knowledge has been acquired during many years of research concerning the interactions between hydrogen and metals, the location of hydrogen in metal structures, its mobility in metals and its influence on mechanical properties of metals. Much progress has been made in the understanding of related phenomena, and various theories have been proposed, but considerable disagreement still exist about basic mechanisms involved. The growing interest in these subjects and their important role in science and technology are well documented by many reviews and symposia. A general survey of these topics with reference to experimental results and theories related to thermodynamic and mechanical properties of hydrogen-transition metal systems, such as H-Pd, H-Ti, H-Fe etc. is given in the present review. Special emphasis is given to hydrogen embrittlement of metals

  3. Damage Tolerance and Mechanics of Interfaces in Nanostructured Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Daniel J.

    The concept of interface driven properties in crystalline metals has been one of the most intensely discussed topics in materials science for decades. Since the 1980s researchers have been exploring the concept of grain boundary engineering as route for tuning properties such as fracture toughness and irradiation resistance. This is especially true in ultra-fine grained and nanocrystalline materials where grain boundary mediated properties become dominant. More recently, materials composed of hierarchical nanostructures, such as amorphous-crystalline nanolaminates, have attracted considerable attention due to their favorable properties, ease of manufacture and highly tunable microstructure. While both grain boundary engineering and hierarchical nanostructures have shown promise there are still questions remaining regarding the role of specific attributes of the microstructure (such as grain boundaries, grain/layer size and inter/intralayer morphology) in determining material properties. This thesis attempts to address these questions by using atomistic simulations to perform deformation and damage loading studies on a series of nanolaminate and bicrystalline structures. During the course of this thesis the roles of layer thickness, interlayer structure and interlayer chemistry on the mechanical properties of Ni-NiX amorphous-crystalline nanolaminates were explored using atomistic simulations. This thesis found that layer thickness/thickness ratio and amorphous layer chemistry play a crucial role in yield strength and Young's modulus. Analysis of the deformation mechanisms at the atomic scale revealed that structures containing single crystalline, crystalline layers undergo plastic deformation when shear transformation zones form in the amorphous layer and impinge on the amorphous-crystalline interface, leading to dislocation emission. However, structures containing nanocrystalline, crystalline layers (both equiaxed and columnar nanocrystalline) undergo plastic

  4. The elasto plastic fracture mechanics in ductile metal sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.A.; Malik, M.N.; Naeem, A.; Haq, A.U.; Atkins, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    The crack initiation of propagation in ductile metal sheets are caused by various micro and macro changes taking place due to material properties, applied loads, shape of the indenter (tool geometry) and the environmental conditions. These microstructural failures are directly related to the atomic bonding, crystal lattices, grain boundary status, material flaws in matrix, inhomogeneities and anisotropy in the metal sheets. The Elasto-Plastic related energy based equations are applied to these Rigid Plastic materials to determine the onset of fracture in metal forming. The combined stress and strain criterion of a critical plastic work per unit volume is no more considered as a universal ductile fracture criterion, rather a critical plastic work per unit volume dependence on all sort of stresses (hydrostatic) are the required features for the sheet metal failure (fracture). In this present study, crack initiation and propagation are related empirically with fracture toughness and the application of the theory in industry to save energy. (author)

  5. The Chimborazo sector collapse and debris avalanche : deposit characteristics as evidence of emplacement mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard, B.; Vries de, B. V.; Barba, D.; Leyrit, H.; Robin, Claude; Alcaraz, S.; Samaniego, Pablo

    2008-01-01

    Chimborazo is a Late Pleistocene to Holocene stratovolcano located at the southwest end of the main Ecuadorian volcanic arc. It experienced a large sector collapse and debris avalanche (DA) of the initial edifice (CH-1). This left a 4 km wide scar, removing 8.0 +/- 0.5 km(3) of the edifice. The debris avalanche deposit (DAD) is abundantly exposed throughout the Riobamba Basin to the Rio Chambo, more than 35 km southeast of the volcano. The DAD averages a thickness of 40 m, covers about 280 km...

  6. PNGMDR 2013-2015. ANDRA's opinion on the development of sector of recycling of VLA ferrous metallic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The scope of this report is to state the ANDRA's opinion on the recycling of very-low-level metallic wastes, and mainly ferrous metallic wastes which are the main stream of them. After having evoked a study jointly performed by EDF, AREVA, the CEA and the ANDRA to assess the technical and economic feasibility of a valorisation of very-low-level metallic wastes in the nuclear sector, this study proposes an assessment of ferrous metals which might be recycled over about thirty years. After having outlined the strong motivation of the ANDRA for such a recycling, the report proposes an overview of the heterogeneous stream of metallic wastes, by distinguishing scrap materials from very heterogeneous origins like those brought to the Cires storage centre, and those with more homogeneous origins (for example, from dismantling activities). The next part proposes an overview of various non coordinated initiatives, notably by the ANDRA, on different storage sites. The report identifies the keys for a successful recycling of contaminated metals in Europe, and the main challenges for the recycling of very-low-level ferrous metal in France (in competition with direct storage, and with the application of the risk-related regulation for some metallic wastes). Some proposals made by the ANDRA are then stated: a reference industrial scheme, and a coordination of actors under the auspices of the State

  7. Assessment of metal sorption mechanisms by aquatic macrophytes using PIXE analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Módenes, A.N., E-mail: anmodenes@yahoo.com.br [Department of Chemical Engineering-Postgraduate Program, West Parana State University, Campus of Toledo, rua da Faculdade 645, Jd. La Salle, 85903-000 Toledo, PR (Brazil); Espinoza-Quiñones, F.R.; Santos, G.H.F.; Borba, C.E. [Department of Chemical Engineering-Postgraduate Program, West Parana State University, Campus of Toledo, rua da Faculdade 645, Jd. La Salle, 85903-000 Toledo, PR (Brazil); Rizzutto, M.A. [Physics Institute, University of São Paulo, Rua do Matão s/n, Travessa R 187, 05508-900 São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Divalent metal ion removals by Egeria densa biosorbent. • Multielements concentrations in biosorbent samples by PIXE analysis. • Elements mass balance in liquid and solid phase before and after metal removals. • Assessment of the mechanisms involved in Cd{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+} removal by biosorbent. • Confirmation of the signature of ion exchange process in metal removal. -- Abstract: In this work, a study of the metal sorption mechanism by dead biomass has been performed. All batch metal biosorption experiments were performed using the aquatic macrophyte Egeria densa as biosorbent. Divalent cadmium and zinc solutions were used to assess the sorption mechanisms involved. Using a suitable equilibrium time of 2 h and a mixture of 300 mg biosorbent and 50 mL metal solution at pH 5, monocomponent sorption experiments were performed. In order to determine the residual amounts of metals in the aqueous solutions and the concentrations of removed metals in the dry biomass, Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) measurements in thin and thick target samples were carried out. Based on the strong experimental evidence from the mass balance among the major elements participating in the sorption processes, an ion exchange process was identified as the mechanism responsible for metal removal by the dry biomass.

  8. Levels of metals, arsenic and phosphorus in sediments from two sectors of a Brazilian Marine Protected Area (Tupinambás Ecological Station).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Natasha T; Figueira, Rubens C L; Abessa, Denis M S

    2015-02-28

    The Tupinambás Ecological Station (TES) is a Marine Protected Area consisting of two sectors: the Archipelago of Alcatrazes and the Cabras and Palmas islets. This investigation aimed to provide a first diagnosis of the concentrations of metals (Al,Cr,Cu,Fe,Hg,Ni,Pb,Zn), As and P in sediments from the TES. 24 sediment samples were collected in both sectors using a Van Veen grab sampler. Sediment textures and levels of Organic Matter (OM) and CaCO3 were determined, as well as the concentrations of the above-mentioned elements after partial acid digestion. Sediments were predominantly sandy. Higher levels of CaCO3 occurred in the Alcatrazes sector, whereas the OM contents were higher in the islets sector. Metals concentrations were low and associated with fines, while P and As presented a different behavior. The observed concentrations to all studies elements in sediments from the TES were considered as background values. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Revelations from the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans on the Complex Interplay of Metal Toxicological Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebany J. Martinez-Finley

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Metals have been definitively linked to a number of disease states. Due to the widespread existence of metals in our environment from both natural and anthropogenic sources, understanding the mechanisms of their cellular detoxification is of upmost importance. Organisms have evolved cellular detoxification systems including glutathione, metallothioneins, pumps and transporters, and heat shock proteins to regulate intracellular metal levels. The model organism, Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans, contains these systems and provides several advantages for deciphering the mechanisms of metal detoxification. This review provides a brief summary of contemporary literature on the various mechanisms involved in the cellular detoxification of metals, specifically, antimony, arsenic, cadmium, copper, manganese, mercury, and depleted uranium using the C. elegans model system for investigation and analysis.

  10. Metal resistance mechanisms in Gram-negative bacteria and their potential to remove Hg in the presence of other metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanella, Patricia; Cabral, Lucélia; Costa, Alexandre Pereira; de Oliveira Camargo, Flávio Anastácio; Gianello, Clesio; Bento, Fátima Menezes

    2017-06-01

    Contamination of the environment by heavy metals has been increasing in recent years due to industrial activities. Thus research involving microorganisms capable of surviving in multi-contaminated environments is extremely important. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the removal of mercury alone and in the presence of cadmium, nickel and lead by four mercury-resistant microorganisms; estimate the removal of Cd, Ni and Pb; understand the mechanisms involved (reduction, siderophores, biofilms, biosorption and bioaccumulation) in the metal resistance of the isolate Pseudomonas sp. B50D; and determine the capacity of Pseudomonas sp. B50D in removing Hg, Cd, Ni and Pb from an industrial effluent. It was shown that the four isolates evaluated were capable of removing from 62% to 95% of mercury from a culture medium with no addition of other metals. The isolate Pseudomonas sp. B50D showed the best performance in the removal of mercury when evaluated concomitantly with other metals. This isolate was capable of removing 75% of Hg in the presence of Cd and 91% in the presence of Ni and Pb. With respect to the other metals it removed 60%, 15% and 85% of Cd, Ni and Pb, respectively. In tests with effluent, the isolate Pseudomonas sp. B50D removed 85% of Hg but did not remove the other metals. This isolate presented reduction, biosorption, biofilm production and siderophore production as its metal resistance mechanisms. Pseudomonas sp. B50D was thus a candidate with potential for application in the bioremediation of effluents with complex metal contaminations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Use of absorption mechanisms to decrease heavy metal mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this project is to reduce the toxic heavy metal leaching from coal fly ash so that the fly ash may be used for road : surface or related applications. Trona (trisodium hydrogendicarbonate dihydrate, Na3HCO3CO32H2O) is injected into...

  12. Fluid Mechanics Of Molten Metal Droplets In Additive Manufacturing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tesař, Václav; Šonský, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 4 (2016), s. 403-412 ISSN 2046-0546 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-23046S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : additive manufacturing * droplets * molten metal Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics http://www.witpress.com/elibrary/cmem-volumes/4/4/1545

  13. Accelerator and Technical Sector Seminar: Mechanical stabilization and positioning of CLIC quadrupoles with sub-nanometre resolution

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    Thursday 24 November 2010 Accelerator and Technical Sector Seminar at 14:15  -  BE Auditorium, bldg. 6 (Meyrin) – please note unusual place Mechanical stabilization and positioning of CLIC quadrupoles with sub-nanometre resolution Stef Janssens /EN-MME Abstract: To reach the required luminosity at the CLIC interaction point, about 4000 quadrupoles are needed to obtain a vertical beam size of 1 nm at the interaction point. The mechanical jitter of the quadrupole magnets will result in an emittance growth. An active vibration isolation system is required to reduce vibrations from the ground and from external forces to about 1.5 nm integrated root mean square (r.m.s.) vertical displacement at 1 Hz. A short overview of vibration damping and isolation strategies will be presented as well as a comparison of existing systems. The unprecedented resolution requirements and the instruments enabling these measurements will be discussed. The vibration sources from which the magnets need to...

  14. Interaction mechanisms between ceramic particles and atomized metallic droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yue; Lavernia, Enrique J.

    1992-10-01

    The present study was undertaken to provide insight into the dynamic interactions that occur when ceramic particles are placed in intimate contact with a metallic matrix undergoing a phase change. To that effect, Al-4 wt pct Si/SiCp composite droplets were synthesized using a spray atomization and coinjection approach, and their solidification microstructures were studied both qualitatively and quantitatively. The present results show that SiC particles (SiCp) were incor- porated into the matrix and that the extent of incorporation depends on the solidification con- dition of the droplets at the moment of SiC particle injection. Two factors were found to affect the distribution and volume fraction of SiC particles in droplets: the penetration of particles into droplets and the entrapment and/or rejection of particles by the solidification front. First, during coinjection, particles collide with the atomized droplets with three possible results: they may penetrate the droplets, adhere to the droplet surface, or bounce back after impact. The extent of penetration of SiC particles into droplets was noted to depend on the kinetic energy of the particles and the magnitude of the surface energy change in the droplets that occurs upon impact. In liquid droplets, the extent of penetration of SiC particles was shown to depend on the changes in surface energy, ΔEs, experienced by the droplets. Accordingly, large SiC particles encoun- tered more resistance to penetration relative to small ones. In solid droplets, the penetration of SiC particles was correlated with the dynamic pressure exerted by the SiC particles on the droplets during impact and the depth of the ensuing crater. The results showed that no pene- tration was possible in such droplets. Second, once SiC particles have penetrated droplets, their final location in the microstructure is governed by their interactions with the solidification front. As a result of these interactions, both entrapment and rejection of

  15. Mechanical properties of vapor-deposited thin metallic films: a status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, P.H.

    1982-01-01

    The mechanical properties of vapor-deposited thin metallic films are being studied in conjunction with the target fabrication group associated with the laser-fusion energy program. The purpose of the work is to gain an understanding as to which metals are structurally best suited to contain a glass microsphere filled with deuterium-tritium (D-T) gas at large internal pressures

  16. The mechanisms of heavy metal immobilization by cementitious material treatments and thermal treatments: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bin; Liu, Bo; Yang, Jian; Zhang, Shengen

    2017-05-15

    Safe disposal of solid wastes containing heavy metals is a significant task for environment protection. Immobilization treatment is an effective technology to achieve this task. Cementitious material treatments and thermal treatments are two types of attractive immobilization treatments due to that the heavy metals could be encapsulated in their dense and durable wasteforms. This paper discusses the heavy metal immobilization mechanisms of these methods in detail. Physical encapsulation and chemical stabilization are two fundamental mechanisms that occur simultaneously during the immobilization processes. After immobilization treatments, the wasteforms build up a low permeable barrier for the contaminations. This reduces the exposed surface of wastes. Chemical stabilization occurs when the heavy metals transform into more stable and less soluble metal bearing phases. The heavy metal bearing phases in the wasteforms are also reviewed in this paper. If the heavy metals are incorporated into more stable and less soluble metal bearing phases, the potential hazards of heavy metals will be lower. Thus, converting heavy metals into more stable phases during immobilization processes should be a common way to enhance the immobilization effect of these immobilization methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A constitutive model of nanocrystalline metals based on competing grain boundary and grain interior deformation mechanisms

    KAUST Repository

    Gurses, Ercan; El Sayed, Tamer S.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, a viscoplastic constitutive model for nanocrystalline metals is presented. The model is based on competing grain boundary and grain interior deformation mechanisms. In particular, inelastic deformations caused by grain boundary

  18. Application of brown coal activated mechanically at disposal of heavy metal from waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brezovska, M.

    2003-01-01

    Sorptive characteristics of activated brown coal from mine of Novaky and impact of mechanical activation on sorption of heavy metals from water were examined. Experimental results indicate suitable choice and good absorption ability of used material

  19. Ecological Risk Assessment of Metal Pollution along Greater Cairo Sector of the River Nile, Egypt, Using Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, as Bioindicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael A. Omar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to evaluate seasonal metal pollution along Greater Cairo sector of the River Nile, Egypt, using wild Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, as bioindicator and to conduct a risk assessment for human consumers. Greater Cairo is the largest populated area along the whole course of River Nile with a wide range of anthropogenic activities. Effects of metal pollution on fish body indices were studied using condition factor (CF and scaled mass index (SMI. Metal pollution index (MPI showed that the total metal load in fish organs followed the follwoing order: kidney > liver > gill > muscle which gives a better idea about the target organs for metal accumulation. Metal concentrations in fish muscle (edible tissue showed the following arrangement: Fe > Zn > Cu > Mn > Pb > Cd. Metal’s bioaccumulation factor (BAF in fish muscle showed the following arrangement: Zn > Cu > Fe > Mn > Cd and Pb. The hazard index (HI as an indicator of human health risks associated with fish consumption showed that adverse health effects are not expected to occur in most cases. However, the metals’ cumulative risk effects gave an alarming sign specifically at high fish consumption rates.

  20. The Chimborazo sector collapse and debris avalanche: Deposit characteristics as evidence of emplacement mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Benjamin; van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin; Barba, Diego; Leyrit, Hervé; Robin, Claude; Alcaraz, Samantha; Samaniego, Pablo

    2008-09-01

    Chimborazo is a Late Pleistocene to Holocene stratovolcano located at the southwest end of the main Ecuadorian volcanic arc. It experienced a large sector collapse and debris avalanche (DA) of the initial edifice (CH-I). This left a 4 km wide scar, removing 8.0 ± 0.5 km 3 of the edifice. The debris avalanche deposit (DAD) is abundantly exposed throughout the Riobamba Basin to the Río Chambo, more than 35 km southeast of the volcano. The DAD averages a thickness of 40 m, covers about 280 km 2, and has a volume of > 11 km 3. Two main DAD facies are recognized: block and mixed facies. The block facies is derived predominantly from edifice lava and forms > 80 vol.% of the DAD, with a probable volume increase of 15-25 vol.%. The mixed facies was essentially created by mixing brecciated edifice rock with substratum and is found mainly in distal and marginal areas. The DAD has clear surface ridges and hummocks, and internal structures such as jigsaw cracks, injections, and shear-zone features are widespread. Structures such as stretched blocks along the base contact indicate high basal shear. Substratum incorporation is directly observed at the base and is inferred from the presence of substratum-derived material in the DAD body. Based on the facies and structural interpretation, we propose an emplacement model of a lava-rich avalanche strongly cataclased before and/or during failure initiation. The flow mobilises and incorporates significant substrata (10-14 vol.%) while developing a fine lubricating basal layer. The substrata-dominated mixed facies is transported to the DAD interior and top in dykes invading previously-formed fractures.

  1. Metal-ceramic materials. Study and prediction of effective mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karakulov, Valerii V.; Smolin, Igor Yu.

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical behavior of stochastic metal-ceramic composite materials was numerically simulated on mesoscopic scale level. Deformation of mesoscopic volumes of composites, whose structure consists of a metal matrix and randomly distributed ceramic inclusions, was numerically simulated. The results of the numerical simulation were used for evaluation of the effective elastic and strength properties of metal-ceramic materials with different parameters of the structure. The values of the effective mechanical properties of investigated materials were obtained, and the character of the dependence of the effective elastic and strength properties on the structure parameters of composites was determined.

  2. Mechanisms of change of a novel weight loss programme provided by a third sector organisation: a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Naoimh E; Visram, Shelina; Connell, Louise A

    2016-05-10

    There is a need for theory-driven studies that explore the underlying mechanisms of change of complex weight loss programmes. Such studies will contribute to the existing evidence-base on how these programmes work and thus inform the future development and evaluation of tailored, effective interventions to tackle overweight and obesity. This study explored the mechanisms by which a novel weight loss programme triggered change amongst participants. The programme, delivered by a third sector organisation, addressed both diet and physical activity. Over a 26 week period participants engaged in three weekly sessions (education and exercise in a large group, exercise in a small group and a one-to-one education and exercise session). Novel aspects included the intensity and duration of the programme, a competitive selection process, milestone physical challenges (e.g. working up to a 5 K and 10 K walk/run during the programme), alumni support (face-to-face and online) and family attendance at exercise sessions. Data were collected through interviews with programme providers (n = 2) and focus groups with participants (n = 12). Discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using NVivo10. Published behaviour change frameworks and behaviour change technique taxonomies were used to guide the coding process. Clients' interactions with components of the weight loss programme brought about a change in their commitment, knowledge, beliefs about capabilities and social and environmental contexts. Intervention components that generated these changes included the competitive selection process, group and online support, family involvement and overcoming milestone challenges over the 26 week programme. The mechanisms by which these components triggered change differed between participants. There is an urgent need to establish robust interventions that can support people who are overweight and obese to achieve a healthy weight and maintain this change. Third

  3. Mechanisms of change of a novel weight loss programme provided by a third sector organisation: a qualitative interview study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoimh E. McMahon

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a need for theory-driven studies that explore the underlying mechanisms of change of complex weight loss programmes. Such studies will contribute to the existing evidence-base on how these programmes work and thus inform the future development and evaluation of tailored, effective interventions to tackle overweight and obesity. This study explored the mechanisms by which a novel weight loss programme triggered change amongst participants. The programme, delivered by a third sector organisation, addressed both diet and physical activity. Over a 26 week period participants engaged in three weekly sessions (education and exercise in a large group, exercise in a small group and a one-to-one education and exercise session. Novel aspects included the intensity and duration of the programme, a competitive selection process, milestone physical challenges (e.g. working up to a 5 K and 10 K walk/run during the programme, alumni support (face-to-face and online and family attendance at exercise sessions. Methods Data were collected through interviews with programme providers (n = 2 and focus groups with participants (n = 12. Discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using NVivo10. Published behaviour change frameworks and behaviour change technique taxonomies were used to guide the coding process. Results Clients’ interactions with components of the weight loss programme brought about a change in their commitment, knowledge, beliefs about capabilities and social and environmental contexts. Intervention components that generated these changes included the competitive selection process, group and online support, family involvement and overcoming milestone challenges over the 26 week programme. The mechanisms by which these components triggered change differed between participants. Conclusions There is an urgent need to establish robust interventions that can support people who are overweight and

  4. Metal Oxide Nanomaterial QNAR Models: Available Structural Descriptors and Understanding of Toxicity Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiali Ying

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Metal oxide nanomaterials are widely used in various areas; however, the divergent published toxicology data makes it difficult to determine whether there is a risk associated with exposure to metal oxide nanomaterials. The application of quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR modeling in metal oxide nanomaterials toxicity studies can reduce the need for time-consuming and resource-intensive nanotoxicity tests. The nanostructure and inorganic composition of metal oxide nanomaterials makes this approach different from classical QSAR study; this review lists and classifies some structural descriptors, such as size, cation charge, and band gap energy, in recent metal oxide nanomaterials quantitative nanostructure activity relationship (QNAR studies and discusses the mechanism of metal oxide nanomaterials toxicity based on these descriptors and traditional nanotoxicity tests.

  5. Mechanical pumps for liquid metals; Pompes mecaniques pour metaux liquides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumier, J; Gollion, H J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The pumping of liquid metals by centrifugal pumps poses two principal problems. These are hermetic sealing of the rotating shaft and, its guidance where immersed in liquid metal. The solutions to the problems used on 13 experimental pumps are given here. The resolution of the guidance problem consists in the majority of cases in the utilisation of hydrostatic bearings. Accordingly, a theoretical study was instituted for the first time to calculate the bearings of the earlier pumps. After this, an experimental study was carried out, to check the theory by water tests. A relation for bearing calculation of pumps with diffusers is proposed. Finally the influence of the bearing elasticity on the shafts critical speed is studied. (authors) [French] Le pompage des metaux liquides, par des pompes centrifuges, pose 2 principaux problemes, qui sont: d'une part, la realisation d'une excellente etancheite au passage de l'arbre, d'autre part, son guidage sur la partie immergee dans le metal liquide. Les solutions retenues pour resoudre ces problemes sur 13 pompes experimentees sont presentees. Le probleme du guidage de l'arbre, a dans la majorite des cas ete resolu en utilisant un palier hydrostatique, aussi l'etude en a d'abord ete approfondie de facon theorique pour calculer les paliers des premieres pompes, puis experimentale pour controler la theorie, en effectuant des essais a l'eau. On propose une relation pour calculer les paliers des pompes a diffuseurs. On a en outre effectue une etude de l'influence de l'elasticite du palier hydrostatique sur la vitesse critique de l'arbre. (auteurs)

  6. Heated Hydro-Mechanical Deep Drawing of Magnesium Sheet Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Gerrit

    In order to reduce fuel consumption efforts have been made to decrease the weight of automobile constructions by increasing the use of lightweight materials. In this field of application magnesium alloys are important because of their low density. A promising alternative to large surfaced and thin die casting parts has been found in construction parts that are manufactured by sheet metal forming of magnesium. Magnesium alloys show a limited formability at room temperature. A considerable improvement of formability can be achieved by heating the material. Formability increases above a temperature of approximately T = 225 °C.

  7. Plasticity enhancement mechanisms in refractory metals and intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibala, R.; Chang, H.; Czarnik, C.M.; Edwards, K.M.; Misra, A.

    1993-01-01

    Plasticity enhancement associated with surface films and precipitates or dispersoids in bcc refractory metals is operative in ordered intermetallic compounds. Some results are given for NiAl and MoSi 2 -based materials. The monotonic and cyclic plasticity of NiAl at room temperature can be enhanced by surface films. Ductile second phases also enhance the plasticity of NiAl. MoSi 2 exhibits similar effects of surface films and dispersoids, but primarily at elevated temperatures. The plasticity enhancement is associated with enhanced dislocation generation from constrained deformation at the film-substrate or precipitate/dispersoid-matrix interface of the composite systems

  8. Exploring the mechanical strength of additively manufactured metal structures with embedded electrical materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J., E-mail: J.Li5@lboro.ac.uk; Monaghan, T.; Masurtschak, S.; Bournias-Varotsis, A.; Friel, R.J.; Harris, R.A.

    2015-07-15

    Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing (UAM) enables the integration of a wide variety of components into solid metal matrices due to the process induced high degree of metal matrix plastic flow at low bulk temperatures. Exploitation of this phenomenon allows the fabrication of previously unobtainable novel engineered metal matrix components. The feasibility of directly embedding electrical materials within UAM metal matrices was investigated in this work. Three different dielectric materials were embedded into UAM fabricated aluminium metal-matrices with, research derived, optimal processing parameters. The effect of the dielectric material hardness on the final metal matrix mechanical strength after UAM processing was investigated systematically via mechanical peel testing and microscopy. It was found that when the Knoop hardness of the dielectric film was increased from 12.1 HK/0.01 kg to 27.3 HK/0.01 kg, the mechanical peel testing and linear weld density of the bond interface were enhanced by 15% and 16%, respectively, at UAM parameters of 1600 N weld force, 25 µm sonotrode amplitude, and 20 mm/s welding speed. This work uniquely identified that the mechanical strength of dielectric containing UAM metal matrices improved with increasing dielectric material hardness. It was therefore concluded that any UAM metal matrix mechanical strength degradation due to dielectric embedding could be restricted by employing a dielectric material with a suitable hardness (larger than 20 HK/0.01 kg). This result is of great interest and a vital step for realising electronic containing multifunctional smart metal composites for future industrial applications.

  9. Study of the Fracture Mechanisms of Electroplated Metallization Systems Using In Situ Microtension Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msolli, Sabeur; Kim, Heung Soo

    2018-03-01

    This framework assesses the mechanical behavior of some potential thin/thick metallization systems in use as either ohmic contacts for diamond semi-conductors or for metallization on copper double bounded ceramic substrates present in the next-generation power electronics packaging. The interesting and unique characteristic of this packaging is the use of diamond as a semi-conductor material instead of silicon to increase the lifetime of embedded power converters for use in aeronautical applications. Theoretically, such packaging is able to withstand temperatures of up to 300 °C without breaking the semi-conductor, provided that the constitutive materials of the packaging are compatible. Metallization is very important to protect the chips and substrates. Therefore, we address this issue in the present work. The tested metallization systems are Ni/Au, Ni/Cr/Au and Ni/Cr. These specific systems were studied since they can be used in conjunction with existing bonding technologies, including AuGe soldering, Ag-In Transient liquid Phase Bonding and silver nanoparticle sintering. The metallization is achieved via electrodeposition, and a mechanical test, consisting of a microtension technique, is carried out at room temperature inside a scanning electron microscopy chamber. The technique permits observations the cracks initiation and growth in the metallization to locate the deformation zones and identify the fracture mechanisms. Different failure mechanisms were shown to occur depending on the metallic layers deposited on top of the copper substrate. The density of these cracks depends on the imposed load and the involved metallization. These observations will help choose the metallization that is compatible with the particular bonding material, and manage mechanical stress due to thermal cycling so that they can be used as a constitutive component for high-temperature power electronics packaging.

  10. Restructuring of the corporate sector of national economy: content and mechanism of realization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Gusakov

    2016-08-01

    It has been suggested to distinguish three directions of the restructuring: inner corporate restructuring; restructuring of relations; economics conditions restructuring. Inner corporate restructuring includes property forms changes, entity structure changes, capital structure changes, form of incorporation changes, management bodies changes, management changes, staff politics changes, reorganization, liquidation, privatization, corporatization. Restructuring of relations includes sales market changes, conversion of enterprises, diversification, contractor’s changes, property assignation, lease, concession, franchising, debt’s restructuring, changes of credit politics, technical supplement, using alternative power sources, standardization etc. Economics conditions restructuring includes regulation and legislation changes, tax regulation changes, currency market changes, changes in credit policies, changers in stock market. Accordingly, every restructuring direction includes many mechanisms of its possible fulfillment. The author has distinguished twenty six mechanisms all the restructuring and they are presented in the table form.The corporate management models’ use in correlation to corporate restructuring models has been described in the article. The author has come to the conclusion that pragmatic model of the corporate restructuring is more preferable in comparison with world recognized valuable model because of the peculiarities of the post-social economy in Ukraine.

  11. Copper Benzenetricarboxylate Metal-Organic Framework Nucleation Mechanisms on Metal Oxide Powders and Thin Films formed by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, Paul C; Zhao, Junjie; Williams, Philip S; Walls, Howard J; Shepherd, Sarah D; Losego, Mark D; Peterson, Gregory W; Parsons, Gregory N

    2016-04-13

    Chemically functional microporous metal-organic framework (MOF) crystals are attractive for filtration and gas storage applications, and recent results show that they can be immobilized on high surface area substrates, such as fiber mats. However, fundamental knowledge is still lacking regarding initial key reaction steps in thin film MOF nucleation and growth. We find that thin inorganic nucleation layers formed by atomic layer deposition (ALD) can promote solvothermal growth of copper benzenetricarboxylate MOF (Cu-BTC) on various substrate surfaces. The nature of the ALD material affects the MOF nucleation time, crystal size and morphology, and the resulting MOF surface area per unit mass. To understand MOF nucleation mechanisms, we investigate detailed Cu-BTC MOF nucleation behavior on metal oxide powders and Al2O3, ZnO, and TiO2 layers formed by ALD on polypropylene substrates. Studying both combined and sequential MOF reactant exposure conditions, we find that during solvothermal synthesis ALD metal oxides can react with the MOF metal precursor to form double hydroxy salts that can further convert to Cu-BTC MOF. The acidic organic linker can also etch or react with the surface to form MOF from an oxide metal source, which can also function as a nucleation agent for Cu-BTC in the mixed solvothermal solution. We discuss the implications of these results for better controlled thin film MOF nucleation and growth.

  12. A review of toxicity and mechanisms of individual and mixtures of heavy metals in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiangyang; Cobbina, Samuel J; Mao, Guanghua; Xu, Hai; Zhang, Zhen; Yang, Liuqing

    2016-05-01

    The rational for the study was to review the literature on the toxicity and corresponding mechanisms associated with lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), and arsenic (As), individually and as mixtures, in the environment. Heavy metals are ubiquitous and generally persist in the environment, enabling them to biomagnify in the food chain. Living systems most often interact with a cocktail of heavy metals in the environment. Heavy metal exposure to biological systems may lead to oxidation stress which may induce DNA damage, protein modification, lipid peroxidation, and others. In this review, the major mechanism associated with toxicities of individual metals was the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Additionally, toxicities were expressed through depletion of glutathione and bonding to sulfhydryl groups of proteins. Interestingly, a metal like Pb becomes toxic to organisms through the depletion of antioxidants while Cd indirectly generates ROS by its ability to replace iron and copper. ROS generated through exposure to arsenic were associated with many modes of action, and heavy metal mixtures were found to have varied effects on organisms. Many models based on concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA) have been introduced to help predict toxicities and mechanisms associated with metal mixtures. An integrated model which combines CA and IA was further proposed for evaluating toxicities of non-interactive mixtures. In cases where there are molecular interactions, the toxicogenomic approach was used to predict toxicities. The high-throughput toxicogenomics combines studies in genetics, genome-scale expression, cell and tissue expression, metabolite profiling, and bioinformatics.

  13. Lattice mechanical properties of some fcc f-shell metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baria, J.K.; Jani, A.R.

    2003-01-01

    A pseudopotential depending on an effective core radius is proposed to study the binding energy, equation of state, ion-ion interaction, phonon dispersion curves (q-space and r-space analysis), mode Grueneisen parameters and dynamical elastic constants of some fcc f-shell metals La, Yb, Ce and Th. The contribution of the s-like electrons is calculated in the second-order perturbation theory for the potential while d- and f-like electron is taken into account by introducing repulsive short-range Born-Mayer term. The parameter of the potential is evaluated by zero pressure condition. An excellent agreement between theoretical investigations and experimental findings is achieved which confirms the present formalism. (author)

  14. Transport mechanisms in the laser alloying of metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Ryszard; Tomczyk, Mariusz; Walczak, Maria

    2003-10-01

    This article presents some investigations of a laser alloyed surface layer of nickel doped with gold and of copper doped with aluminum. The velocity of the convectino flow in the laser pool predicted by computation implies that there may exist good miscibility for the range of components different from those obtained by the conventional method. This indicates a predominant role of the Marangoni convection for mixing elements. Some metallurgical cross-sections of Ni-Au; Mo-Au; Cu-Al; Cu-Au layers, alloyed by an Nd-YAG laser, for different contents of doping elements are presented. They may be interesting information about miscibility of these metals during laser pulse τ1=4ms.

  15. Capability and Mechanisms of Macrofungi in Heavy Metal Accumulation:A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Miao-miao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Some macrofungi have the ability to accumulate heavy metals, which is comparable to hyper-accumulator plants. Cordyceps militaris can accumulate Zn up to 20 000 mg·kg-1. Therefore, macrofungi have the potential to be used as an important bioremediation tool for heavy metals. In this review, we summarized the heavy metal resistant capacity of typical macrofungi and known relevant mechanisms. Generally, straw-decay fungi presented better capability for Cu, Ag and Cd enrichment than wood-decay fungi, while wood-decay fungi could accumulate Cr, Mg, Se and Pb. Different macrofungi species, different growth periods(mycelium and fruiting body and different parts of fruiting body showed different capability for heavy metals accumulation. General mechanisms for heavy metals accumulation in macrofungi included extracellular precipitation in the forms of polymeric substances, cell wall adsorption and intracellular absorption. Macrofungi could also detoxify by chelating metal ions by metallothionein(MT, secreting antioxidant enzymes(SOD, CAT, POD and degradating the misfolded proteins by ubiquitin-proteasome system(UPS. We also explored the potential of macrofungi in heavy metal remediation and pollution diagnostics as a biological indicator. Some macrofungi had been applied in the remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils and water. Finally, some future research areas including strain breeding and genetic engineering were discussed, which might provide references for the future studies.

  16. Mechanical anomaly impact on metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors on flexible silicon fabric

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Kutbee, Arwa T.; Ghodsi Nasseri, Seyed Faizelldin; Bersuker, G.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    We report the impact of mechanical anomaly on high-κ/metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors built on flexible silicon (100) fabric. The mechanical tests include studying the effect of bending radius up to 5 mm minimum bending radius with respect

  17. Establishment of Experimental Apparatus and Mechanical Test for SFR Metallic Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sun Ki; Lee, Chong Tak; Oh, Seok Jin; Ko, Young Mo; Kim, Ki Hwan; Woo, Yoon Myung; Lee, Chan Bock

    2010-12-01

    U-Zr binary alloys and U-Zr-Ce ternary alloys as SFR surrogate metallic fuels were fabricated by a casting process. Tensile tests were performed to evaluate the mechanical properties of the fuels. As a results, the mechanical properties such as yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, and elongation were measured. In this report, these experimental results are presented

  18. Exploiting large-pore metal-organic frameworks for separations through entropic molecular mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres-Knoop, A.; Dubbeldam, D.

    2015-01-01

    We review the molecular mechanisms behind adsorption and the separations of mixtures in metal-organic frameworks and zeolites. Separation mechanisms can be based on differences in the affinity of the adsorbate with the framework and on entropic effects. To develop next-generation adsorbents, the

  19. The mechanism of strength and deformation in Gum Metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, T.; Kuramoto, S.; Morris, J.W.; Nagasako, N.; Withey, E.; Chrzan, D.C.

    2013-01-01

    “Gum Metal” refers to β-Ti alloys that achieve exceptional elastic elongation and, with a specific alloy composition, appear to deform via a dislocation-free mechanism involving elastic instability at the limit of strength. This paper describes the current status of research on its strength, deformation mechanism and the possible role of stress-induced martensite. The theoretical basis for deformation at ideal strength is presented. The relevant experimental data is then discussed, including ex situ nanoindentation behavior and in situ pillar compression observed by transmission electron microscopy

  20. The effect of carbon content on mechanical properties, failure and corrosion resistance of deposited chromium metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Леонід Кімович Лещинськiй

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that if choosing a metal composition for surfacing rolls and rollers of continuous casting machines, both the carbon impact on the mechanical and functional properties and the critical values of the chromium concentration, which determine the corrosion resistance of the metal with regard to electrochemical corrosion theory, should be considered as well. The paper studied the effect of chromium and carbon steel the X5-X12 type on the structure, technological strength, mechanical properties, fracturing resistance and corrosion resistance of the weld metal. The composition of chromium tool steels (deposited metal (X5-used for the rolls of hot rolling mills and (X12-used for continuous casting machines rollers correspond to these values. The impact of carbon on the properties of the deposited metal containing chromium was considered by comparing the data for both types of the deposited metal. It was found that for both types of the deposited metal (X5 and X12, the limiting value of the carbon content, providing an optimal combination of strength, ductility, failure resistance is the same. If the carbon content is more than the limiting value – (0,25% the technological strength and failure resistance of the deposited metal significantly reduce. With increasing carbon content from 0,18 to 0,25% the martensite structure has a mixed morphology – lath and plate. The strength and toughness of the deposited metal grow. Of particular interest is simultaneous increase in the specific work of failure resulted from crack inhibition at the boundary with far less solid and more ductile ferrite. As for the 5% chromium metal, the X12 type composition with 0,25% C, is borderline. With a further increase in the carbon content of the metal both ductility and failure resistance sharply decrease and with 0,40% C the growth rate of fatigue crack increases by almost 1,5 times

  1. Shaping mechanisms of metal specificity in a family of metazoan metallothioneins: evolutionary differentiation of mollusc metallothioneins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atrian Sílvia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The degree of metal binding specificity in metalloproteins such as metallothioneins (MTs can be crucial for their functional accuracy. Unlike most other animal species, pulmonate molluscs possess homometallic MT isoforms loaded with Cu+ or Cd2+. They have, so far, been obtained as native metal-MT complexes from snail tissues, where they are involved in the metabolism of the metal ion species bound to the respective isoform. However, it has not as yet been discerned if their specific metal occupation is the result of a rigid control of metal availability, or isoform expression programming in the hosting tissues or of structural differences of the respective peptides determining the coordinative options for the different metal ions. In this study, the Roman snail (Helix pomatia Cu-loaded and Cd-loaded isoforms (HpCuMT and HpCdMT were used as model molecules in order to elucidate the biochemical and evolutionary mechanisms permitting pulmonate MTs to achieve specificity for their cognate metal ion. Results HpCuMT and HpCdMT were recombinantly synthesized in the presence of Cd2+, Zn2+ or Cu2+ and corresponding metal complexes analysed by electrospray mass spectrometry and circular dichroism (CD and ultra violet-visible (UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Both MT isoforms were only able to form unique, homometallic and stable complexes (Cd6-HpCdMT and Cu12-HpCuMT with their cognate metal ions. Yeast complementation assays demonstrated that the two isoforms assumed metal-specific functions, in agreement with their binding preferences, in heterologous eukaryotic environments. In the snail organism, the functional metal specificity of HpCdMT and HpCuMT was contributed by metal-specific transcription programming and cell-specific expression. Sequence elucidation and phylogenetic analysis of MT isoforms from a number of snail species revealed that they possess an unspecific and two metal-specific MT isoforms, whose metal specificity was

  2. Market Mechanisms and the Use of Renewables in the Power Sectors of Asia and Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, Guido Alfredo A.

    2005-01-01

    There are tremendous renewable energy (RE) resources around the world which when tapped for power generation could contribute a significant component to the application of a Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). In Europe, and in other more developed economies, governments have made strategic commitments in fostering the use of cleaner burning fuels and sealed in place financial tools and policies that put RE technology on par, or at the very least, in competing mode with traditional energy resources. On the other hand, Asia and other developing nations, paint a different picture. There are no concrete policy statements and programmes supporting RE technology, or if there are, the vision has been greatly impaired owing to various factors such as but not limited to: poverty and the lack of capital fund, a helpless reliance on grant-based development assistance programmes, lack of financial incentives, product unawareness and immaturity of the market. Owing largely, perhaps, to the convenience and cheaper initial cost of using traditional energy resources, RE technology does not stand a chance, if at all, in competition with traditional energy sources as demands for it have not been properly advanced. The development of RE technology which would have spelled the broader use of international CDM mechanisms has, therefore, really been difficult in the region. Only a number of Asian countries have policies that support the development of renewable energy. On the contrary, some of them give more priority to the development of conventional energy sources, thus there is limited funding and incentives for renewable energy development. If these data are looked into, and with the help of investors, lenders, and developers, governments in these countries may yet be able to focus on developing RE technology that can contribute power generation for its electrification programmes

  3. Mechanical stability of nanoporous metals with small ligament sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowson, Douglas A.; Farkas, Diana; Corcoran, Sean G.

    2009-01-01

    Digital samples of nanoporous gold with small ligament sizes were studied by atomistic simulation using different interatomic potentials that represent varying surface stress values. We predict a surface relaxation driven mechanical instability for these materials. Plastic deformation is induced by the surface stress without external load, related to the combination of the surface stress value and the surface to volume ratio.

  4. Evaporation as the transport mechanism of metals in arid regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lima, A.T.; Safar, Z.; Loch, J.P.G.

    Soils of arid regions are exposed to drought and drastic temperature oscillations throughout the year. Transport mechanisms in these soils are therefore very different from the ones in temperate regions, where rain dictates the fate of most elements in soils. Due to the low rainfall and high

  5. effects of metal inert gas welding parameters on some mechanical

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    mechanical properties (hardness, tensile and impact) of type 304 austenitic stainless steel (ASS) immersed in 0.5M hydrochloric acid at ... The increasing high demand on stainless steel usage in industry as a ... materials prices of major alloying additions such as nickel ..... Microstructure of Cast Fibre-Polyester/Iron Filings.

  6. Mechanism of yttrium atom formation in electrothermal atomization from metallic and metal-carbide surfaces of a heated graphite atomizer in atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahab, H.S.; Chakrabarti, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    Mechanism of Y atom formation from pyrocoated graphite, tantalum and tungsten metal surfaces of a graphite tube atomizer has been studied and a mechanism for the formation for Y atoms is proposed for the first time. (author)

  7. A Sustainable Closed-Loop Supply Chain Decision Mechanism in the Electronic Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiafu Su

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In a closed-loop supply chain for electronic products, the manufacturer’s priority is to enhance the residual value of the collected end-of-use product and decide whether to outsource this business to a retailer, a third-party service, or retain it exclusively. In this paper, we constructed three models to study the decision mechanism in a closed-loop supply chain, with different players selected to collect the used product. By comparing the three models, we characterized the conditions under which the manufacturer will benefit most, and we then aimed to determine the best choice for the manufacturer. Our findings show that, when the retailer and the third-party service provider provide equal performance in collecting the used product, the manufacturer will give priority to the third-party service provider if they choose to outsource this business. If the reverse flows managed by the retailer result in a higher payoff for the manufacturer, then the manufacturer will choose to outsource this business to the retailer who will also benefit.

  8. Generation Mechanism of Work Hardened Surface Layer in Metal Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikiji, Rikio; Kondo, Eiji; Kawagoishi, Norio; Arai, Minoru

    Finish machining used to be carried out in grinding, but it is being replaced by cutting with very small undeformed chip thickness. In ultra precision process, the effects of the cutting conditions and the complicated factors on the machined surface integrity are the serious problems. In this research, work hardened surface layer was dealt with as an evaluation of the machined surface integrity and the effect of the mechanical factors on work hardening was investigated experimentally in orthogonal cutting. As a result, it was found that work hardened surface layer was affected not only by the shear angle varied under the cutting conditions and the thrust force of cutting resistance, but also by the thrust force acting point, the coefficient of the thrust force and the compressive stress equivalent to the bulk hardness. Furthermore, these mechanical factors acting on the depth of the work hardened surface layer were investigated with the calculation model.

  9. Microstructure and mechanical properties of direct metal laser sintered TI-6AL-4V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becker, Thorsten Hermann

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS is a selective laser melting (SLM manufacturing process that can produce near net shape parts from metallic powders. A range of materials are suitable for SLM; they include various metals such as titanium, steel, aluminium, and cobalt-chrome alloys. This paper forms part of a research drive that aims to evaluate the material performance of the SLM-manufactured metals. It presents DMLS-produced Ti-6Al-4V, a titanium alloy often used in biomedical and aerospace applications. This paper also studies the effect of several heat treatments on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti-6Al-4V processed by SLM. It reports the achievable mechanical properties of the alloy, including quasi-static, crack growth behaviour, density and porosity distribution, and post-processing using various heat-treatment conditions.

  10. Microscopic mechanisms of graphene electrolytic delamination from metal substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisichella, G.; Di Franco, S.; Roccaforte, F.; Giannazzo, F.; Ravesi, S.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, hydrogen bubbling delamination of graphene (Gr) from copper using a strong electrolyte (KOH) water solution was performed, focusing on the effect of the KOH concentration (C KOH ) on the Gr delamination rate. A factor of ∼10 decrease in the time required for the complete Gr delamination from Cu cathodes with the same geometry was found increasing C KOH from ∼0.05 M to ∼0.60 M. After transfer of the separated Gr membranes to SiO 2 substrates by a highly reproducible thermo-compression printing method, an accurate atomic force microscopy investigation of the changes in Gr morphology as a function of C KOH was performed. Supported by these analyses, a microscopic model of the delamination process has been proposed, where a key role is played by graphene wrinkles acting as nucleation sites for H 2 bubbles at the cathode perimeter. With this approach, the H 2 supersaturation generated at the electrode for different electrolyte concentrations was estimated and the inverse dependence of t d on C KOH was quantitatively explained. Although developed in the case of Cu, this analysis is generally valid and can be applied to describe the electrolytic delamination of graphene from several metal substrates.

  11. Rupture mechanics of metallic alloys for hydrogen transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moro, I.; Briottet, L.; Lemoine, P.; Andrieu, E.; Blanc, C.

    2007-01-01

    With the aim to establish a cheap hydrogen distribution system, the transport by pipelines is a solution particularly interesting. Among the high limit of elasticity steels, the X80 has been chosen for hydrogen transport. Its chemical composition and microstructure are given. Important microstructural changes have been revealed in the sheet thickness: the microstructure is thinner and richer in perlite in surface than in bulk. In parallel to this microstructural evolution, a microhardness gradient has been observed: the material microhardness is stronger in surface than in bulk of the sheet. The use of this material for hydrogen transport requires to study its resistance to hydrogen embrittlement. The main aim of this work is to develop an easy rupture mechanics test allowing to qualify the studied material in a gaseous hydrogen environment, to determine the sensitivity of the studied material to the hydrogen embrittlement and to better understand the mechanisms of the hydrogen embrittlement for ferritic materials. Two experimental tests have been used for: the first one is a traction machine coupled to an autoclave; the second one allows to carry out disk rupture tests. The toughness of the material in a gaseous hydrogen environment has thus been determined. The resistance of the material to hydrogen embrittlement has been characterized and by simulation, it has been possible to identify the areas with a strong concentration in hydrogen. The second aim of this work is to study the influence of the steel microstructure on the hydrogen position in the material and on the resistance of the material to the hydrogen embrittlement. The preferential trapping sites on the material not mechanically loaded have at first been identified, as well as the hydrogen position on the different phases and at the ferrite/cementite interface. The interaction between the mechanical loads, the position and the trapping of the hydrogen have been studied then. At last, has been

  12. Mechanical anomaly impact on metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors on flexible silicon fabric

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.

    2014-06-09

    We report the impact of mechanical anomaly on high-κ/metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors built on flexible silicon (100) fabric. The mechanical tests include studying the effect of bending radius up to 5 mm minimum bending radius with respect to breakdown voltage and leakage current of the devices. We also report the effect of continuous mechanical stress on the breakdown voltage over extended periods of times.

  13. Mechanisms of stress avoidance and tolerance by plants used in phytoremediation of heavy metals

    OpenAIRE

    Jutsz Anna Małachowska; Gnida Anna

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution of soil is a significant environmental problem and has a negative impact on human health and agriculture. Phytoremediation can be an alternative environmental treatment technology, using the natural ability of plants to take up and accumulate pollutants or transform them. Proper development of plants in contaminated areas (e.g. heavy metals) requires them to generate the appropriate protective mechanisms against the toxic effects of these pollutants. This paper presents ...

  14. Thermo-mechanically induced texture evolution and micro-structural change of aluminum metallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Mads; Walter, Thomas; Kristensen, Peter Kjær

    2018-01-01

    During operation of high power electronic chips the topside metallization is subjected to cyclic compressive and tensile stresses leading to unwanted thermo-mechanical fatigue of the metallization layer. The stress is caused by the difference in the thermal expansion coefficients...... are not yet fully understood. In this work, we investigate the microstructural evolution of an Al metallization on high power diode chips subjected to passive thermal cycling between 20 and 100ºC. The texture of the Al film is analyzed ex-situ by a combination of electron backscatter diffraction and X...

  15. Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review of Mechanical Properties (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-21

    treated 1,257 1,436 Laser IN718 As built NA NA 590 845 11 NA 188 Heat treated 1,133 1,240 9 EBF3 IN718 As built XY 159 580 910 22 NA 189 EBF3 IN718 As... Raman S, Christensen A. 2010. Mechanical evaluation of porous titanium (Ti6Al4V) structures with electron beam melting (EBM). J. Mech. Behav. Biomed...335 Raman Studies of Carbon Nanostructures Ado Jorio and Antonio G. Souza Filho

  16. Mechanical improvement of metal reinforcement rings for a finite ring-shaped superconducting bulk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen-Guang; Zhou, You-He

    2018-03-01

    As a key technique, reinforcement of type-II superconducting bulks with metal rings can efficiently improve their mechanical properties to enhance the maximum trapped field. In this paper, we study the magnetostrictive and fracture behaviors of a finite superconducting ring bulk reinforced by three typical reinforcing structures composed of metal rings during the magnetizing process by means of the minimization of magnetic energy and the finite element method. After a field-dependent critical current density is adopted, the magnetostriction, pinning-induced stress, and crack tip stress intensity factor are calculated considering the demagnetization effects. The results show that the mechanical properties of the ring bulk are strongly dependent on the reinforcing structure and the material and geometrical parameters of the metal rings. Introducing the metal ring can significantly reduce the hoop stress, and the reduction effect by internal reinforcement is much improved relative to external reinforcement. By comparison, bilateral reinforcement seems to be the best candidate structure. Only when the metal rings have particular Young's modulus and radial thickness will they contribute to improve the mechanical properties the most. In addition, if an edge crack is pre-existing in the ring bulk, the presence of metal rings can effectively avoid crack propagation since it reduces the crack tip stress intensity factor by nearly one order of magnitude.

  17. Evaluation of mechanical properties in metal wire mesh supported selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajath, S.; Siddaraju, C.; Nandakishora, Y.; Roy, Sukumar

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this research is to evaluate certain specific mechanical properties of certain stainless steel wire mesh supported Selective catalytic reduction catalysts structures wherein the physical properties of the metal wire mesh and also its surface treatments played vital role thereby influencing the mechanical properties. As the adhesion between the stainless steel wire mesh and the catalyst material determines the bond strength and the erosion resistance of catalyst structures, surface modifications of the metal- wire mesh structure in order to facilitate the interface bonding is therefore very important to realize enhanced level of mechanical properties. One way to enhance such adhesion properties, the stainless steel wire mesh is treated with the various acids, i.e., chromic acid, phosphoric acid including certain mineral acids and combination of all those in various molar ratios that could generate surface active groups on metal surface that promotes good interface structure between the metal- wire mesh and metal oxide-based catalyst material and then the stainless steel wire mesh is dipped in the glass powder slurry containing some amount of organic binder. As a result of which the said catalyst material adheres to the metal-wire mesh surface more effectively that improves the erosion profile of supported catalysts structure including bond strength.

  18. Contribution to diffusion mechanism study in amorphous metallic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaye, Jean-Marc

    1993-01-01

    This work is dedicated to the study of the vacancy diffusion mechanism in mono-elementary and binary amorphous Lennard-Jones systems, by a molecular dynamics method. The first chapter is a review of the preceding works performed before the beginning of this thesis, the method of simulation is described in the second chapter. We showed in the following chapters that the vacancies, introduced by the removal of one atom, remain stable on a large percentage of sites, especially in the binary system. By calculating some thermodynamical values, formation and migration enthalpies and entropies, we showed that the vacancy mechanism is magnified in a disordered system, as compared to a crystal of the same composition, and therefore can explain the magnitudes of the experimental diffusion coefficients. In parallel, to measure diffusion coefficients, we have settled an experimental method based on the evolution of the resistivity of a multilayer sample during interdiffusion, a gold-silver multilayer in our case (chapter six). By measurements under pressure, the activation volume is determined and our results agree well with the preceding ones. (author) [fr

  19. Nanometric mechanical cutting of metallic glass investigated using atomistic simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Cheng-Da, E-mail: nanowu@cycu.edu.tw [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, 200, Chung Pei Rd., Chung Li District, Taoyuan City 32023, Taiwan (China); Fang, Te-Hua, E-mail: fang.tehua@msa.hinet.net [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Su, Jih-Kai, E-mail: yummy_2468@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • A nanoscale chip with a shear plane of 135° is extruded by the tool. • Tangential force and normal force increase with increasing tool nose radius. • Resistance factor increases with increasing cutting depth and temperature. - Abstract: The effects of cutting depth, tool nose radius, and temperature on the cutting mechanism and mechanics of amorphous NiAl workpieces are studied using molecular dynamics simulations based on the second-moment approximation of the many-body tight-binding potential. These effects are investigated in terms of atomic trajectories and flow field, shear strain, cutting force, resistance factor, cutting ratio, and pile-up characteristics. The simulation results show that a nanoscale chip with a shear plane of 135° is extruded by the tool from a workpiece surface during the cutting process. The workpiece atoms underneath the tool flow upward due to the adhesion force and elastic recovery. The required tangential force and normal force increase with increasing cutting depth and tool nose radius; both forces also increase with decreasing temperature. The resistance factor increases with increasing cutting depth and temperature, and decreases with increasing tool nose radius.

  20. Mechanically and electrically robust metal-mask design for organic CMOS circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintani, Michihiro; Qin, Zhaoxing; Kuribara, Kazunori; Ogasahara, Yasuhiro; Hiromoto, Masayuki; Sato, Takashi

    2018-04-01

    The design of metal masks for fabricating organic CMOS circuits requires the consideration of not only the electrical property of the circuits, but also the mechanical strength of the masks. In this paper, we propose a new design flow for metal masks that realizes coanalysis of the mechanical and electrical properties and enables design exploration considering the trade-off between the two properties. As a case study, we apply a “stitching technique” to the mask design of a ring oscillator and explore the best design. With this technique, mask patterns are divided into separate parts using multiple mask layers to improve the mechanical strength at the cost of high resistance of the vias. By a numerical experiment, the design trade-off of the stitching technique is quantitatively analyzed, and it is demonstrated that the proposed flow is useful for the exploration of the designs of metal masks.

  1. Oxidation and Metal-Insertion in Molybdenite Surfaces: Evaluation of Charge-Transfer Mechanisms and Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramana, Chintalapalle V.; Becker, U.; Shutthanandan, V.; Julien, C. M.

    2008-06-05

    Molybdenum sulfide (MoS2), an important representative member of the layered transition-metal dichalcogenides, has been of special importance to the research community of geochemistry, materials and environmental chemistry, and industrial science and technology. Understanding the oxidation behavior and charge-transfer mechanisms in MoS2 is important to gain better insight into the degradation of this mineral in the environment. On the other hand understanding the insertion of metals into molybdenite and evaluation of charge-transfer mechanism and dynamics is quite important to utilize these minerals in technological applications. Furthermore, such a detailed investigation of thermal oxidation behavior and intercalation process will provide a basis to further explore and model the mechanism of adsorption of metal ions on to geomedia. Therefore, the present work was performed to understand the oxidation and intercalation processes of molybdenite surfaces. The results obtained, using a wide variety of analytical techniques, are presented and discussed in this paper.

  2. Effects of metal-ion replacement on pyrazinamidase activity: A quantum mechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadem-Maaref, Mahmoud; Mehrnejad, Faramarz; Phirouznia, Arash

    2017-05-01

    Pyrazinamidase (PZase), a metalloenzyme, is responsible for acidic modification of pyrazinamide (PZA), a drug used in tuberculosis treatment. The metal coordination site of the enzyme is able to coordinate various divalent metal cofactors. Previous experimental studies have demonstrated that metal ions, such as Co 2+ , Mn 2+ , and Zn 2+ , are able to reactivate metal-depleted PZase, while others including Cu 2+ , Fe 2+ , and Mg 2+ , cannot restore activity. In this study, we investigated binding of various metal ions to the metal coordination site (MCS) of the enzyme using quantum mechanical calculations. We calculated the metal-ligand (residue) binding energy and the atomic partial charges in the presence of various ions. The results indicated that the tendency of alkaline earth metals to bind to PZase MCS is very low and not suitable for enzyme structural and catalytic function. In contrast, Co 2+ and Ni 2+ ions have very high binding affinity and are favorable to the structural and functional properties of the enzyme. Furthermore, we observed that the rate at which Ni 2+ , Co 2+ and Fe 2+ ions in PZase MCS polarize the OH bond of coordinated water molecules is much higher than the polarization rate created by other ions. This finding suggests that the coordination of Ni 2+ , Co 2+ , or Fe 2+ to PZase facilitates the deprotonation of coordinated water molecules to generate a nucleophile that catalyzes the enzymatic reaction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Nonphonon mechanism of superconductivity in compounds of transition metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.A.; Zaitsev, R.O.

    1989-01-01

    The kinematical mechanism of superconductivity is applied to the Emery-Hirsch model for the CuO 2 and BiO 3 layers. A superconducting region due to strong kinematic interaction of p- and s, d-electrons are determined as a function of n p and n s,d -degrees of non-filling of 2p 6 ,6s 2 ,3d 10 shells of O 2 - ,Bi 3 + ,Cu + . The T c is calculated taking into account the spin flip relaxation time. Magnetostatic properties of a superconducting state in a weak magnetic field are investigated. Coefficients of the Ginzburg-Landau equation are calculated. The ground state energy of the Emery-Hirsch model is also calculated

  4. Propensity of bond exchange as a window into the mechanical properties of metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, W.; Wang, X. L., E-mail: xlwang@um.cityu.edu.hk; Lan, S. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Pan, S. P. [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Lu, Z. P. [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2015-02-09

    We investigated the mechanical properties of Zr-Cu-Al bulk metallic glasses, by compression experiment and molecular dynamics simulations. From the simulation, we found that the large, solvent atom, Zr, has high propensity of bond exchange compared to those of the smaller solute atoms. The difference in bond exchange is consistent with the observed disparity in mechanical behaviors: Zr-rich metallic glass exhibits low elastic modulus and large plastic strain. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements suggest that the increased propensity in bond exchange is related to the softening of Zr bonds with increasing Zr content.

  5. Mechanisms and kinetics of electrodeposition of alkali metals on solid and liquid mercury electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Wenzhe.

    1993-01-01

    Electroreduction of alkali metal ions at mercury is an important area in electrochemistry related to the battery industry. In this work, four major topics were considered: alkali metal/mercury interactions; electrosorption of alkali metal ions on solid mercury; electroreduction of alkali metal/crown ether complexes; and ammonium amalgam formation. The formation of alkali metal-mercury intermetallic compounds was studied on liquid and frozen thin layer mercury electrodes. The stoichiometry of the compounds produced under these conditions was determined using cyclic voltammetry. As expected, formation of a new phase was preceded by nucleation phenomena, which were particularly easy to monitor at solid Hg electrodes. The nucleation kinetics were studied using the chronoamperometric method. At very low temperatures, when the mobility of mercury atoms was restricted, the electrosorption of alkali metal ions on solid mercury electrodes was noted. Subsequent study allowed determination of the electrosorption parameters. The free energy of electrosorption is discussed in terms of interactions between alkali metals and mercury. The effect of crown ethers on the kinetics of alkali metal ion reduction was studied at both standard size and ultramicro-mercury electrodes in nonaqueous solutions using ultrafast cyclic voltammetry and ac voltammetry. The usefulness of ultrafast cyclic voltammetry with ultramicroelectrodes in measurements of the kinetics of amalgam formation was verified in a brief study of cadmium ion reduction. The mechanism of the complex reduction at mercury was analyzed based on the free energy changes before and after the activation state. In addition, the stoichiometry and formation constants of the crown ether/alkali metal complexes were determined using cyclic voltammetry. The mechanism of electroreduction of ammonium ions at mercury electrodes in non-aqueous media was analyzed.

  6. Mechanical tearing of graphene on an oxidizing metal surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, Lijin; Gupta, Aparna; Shaina, P R; Jaiswal, Manu; Gupta, Nandita Das

    2015-01-01

    Graphene, the thinnest possible anticorrosion and gas-permeation barrier, is poised to transform the protective coatings industry for a variety of surface applications. In this work, we have studied the structural changes of graphene when the underlying copper surface undergoes oxidation upon heating. Single-layer graphene directly grown on a copper surface by chemical vapour deposition was annealed under ambient atmosphere conditions up to 400 °C. The onset temperature of the surface oxidation of copper is found to be higher for graphene-coated foils. Parallel arrays of graphene nanoripples are a ubiquitous feature of pristine graphene on copper, and we demonstrate that these form crucial sites for the onset of the oxidation of copper, particularly for ∼0.3–0.4 μm ripple widths. In these regions, the oxidation proceeds along the length of the nanoripples, resulting in the formation of parallel stripes of oxidized copper regions. We demonstrate from temperature-dependent Raman spectroscopy that the primary defect formation process in graphene involves boundary-type defects rather than vacancy or sp"3-type defects. This observation is consistent with a mechanical tearing process that splits graphene into small polycrystalline domains. The size of these is estimated to be sub-50 nm. (paper)

  7. Mechanical tearing of graphene on an oxidizing metal surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Lijin; Gupta, Aparna; Shaina, P R; Das Gupta, Nandita; Jaiswal, Manu

    2015-12-11

    Graphene, the thinnest possible anticorrosion and gas-permeation barrier, is poised to transform the protective coatings industry for a variety of surface applications. In this work, we have studied the structural changes of graphene when the underlying copper surface undergoes oxidation upon heating. Single-layer graphene directly grown on a copper surface by chemical vapour deposition was annealed under ambient atmosphere conditions up to 400 °C. The onset temperature of the surface oxidation of copper is found to be higher for graphene-coated foils. Parallel arrays of graphene nanoripples are a ubiquitous feature of pristine graphene on copper, and we demonstrate that these form crucial sites for the onset of the oxidation of copper, particularly for ∼0.3-0.4 μm ripple widths. In these regions, the oxidation proceeds along the length of the nanoripples, resulting in the formation of parallel stripes of oxidized copper regions. We demonstrate from temperature-dependent Raman spectroscopy that the primary defect formation process in graphene involves boundary-type defects rather than vacancy or sp(3)-type defects. This observation is consistent with a mechanical tearing process that splits graphene into small polycrystalline domains. The size of these is estimated to be sub-50 nm.

  8. ELECTROCHEMICAL STUDIES OF URANIUM METAL CORROSION MECHANISM AND KINETICS IN WATER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudanova, Natalya; Maslennikov, Alexander; Peretroukhine, Vladimir F.; Delegard, Calvin H.

    2006-01-01

    During long-term underwater storage of low burn-up uranium metal fuel, a corrosion product sludge forms containing uranium metal grains, uranium dioxide, uranates and, in some cases, uranium peroxide. Literature data on the corrosion of non-irradiated uranium metal and its alloys do not allow unequivocal prediction of the paragenesis of irradiated uranium in water. The goal of the present work conducted under the program 'CORROSION OF IRRADIATED URANIUM ALLOYS FUEL IN WATER' is to study the corrosion of uranium and uranium alloys and the paragenesis of the corrosion products during long-term underwater storage of uranium alloy fuel irradiated at the Hanford Site. The elucidation of the physico-chemical nature of the corrosion of irradiated uranium alloys in comparison with non-irradiated uranium metal and its alloys is one of the most important aspects of this work. Electrochemical methods are being used to study uranium metal corrosion mechanism and kinetics. The present part of work aims to examine and revise, where appropriate, the understanding of uranium metal corrosion mechanism and kinetics in water

  9. The development and mechanical characterization of aluminium copper-carbon fiber metal matrix hybrid composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor, M. U.; Feroze, M.; Ahmad, T.; Kamran, M.; Butt, M. T. Z.

    2018-04-01

    Metal matrix composites (MMCs) come under advanced materials that can be used for a wide range of industrial applications. MMCs contain a non-metallic reinforcement incorporated into a metallic matrix which can enhance properties over base metal alloys. Copper-Carbon fiber reinforced aluminium based hybrid composites were prepared by compo casting method. 4 weight % copper was used as alloying element with Al because of its precipitation hardened properties. Different weight compositions of composites were developed and characterized by mechanical testing. A significant improvement in tensile strength and micro hardness were found, before and after heat treatment of the composite. The SEM analysis of the fractured surfaces showed dispersed and embedded Carbon fibers within the network leading to the enhanced strength.

  10. Municipal compost-based mixture for acid mine drainage bioremediation: Metal retention mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oriol Gibert; Joan de Pablo; Jose Luis Cortina; Carlos Ayora [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain). Departament d' Enginyeria Qumica

    2005-09-15

    An upflow packed column was operated to evaluate the potential of a mixture of municipal compost and calcite to promote sulphidogenesis in the remediation of a simulated mine water at high flows (>0.1 m d{sup -1}). Results showed that the pH was neutralised and metals (Fe, Al, Zn, Cu) were significantly removed. Metal removal was attributed to the combined result of precipitation as metal (oxy)hydroxides and carbonates, co-precipitation with these (oxy)hydroxides and sorption onto the compost surface rather than to precipitation as metal sulphides. The two last mechanisms are especially significant for Zn, whose hydroxide is not expected to precipitate at pH 6-7. Before the saturation of compost sorption sites, 60% of the influent Zn was estimated to have been removed by co-precipitation with Fe- and Al-(oxy)hydroxide and 40% by sorption onto the municipal compost.

  11. A molecular mechanics (MM3(96)) force field for metal-amide complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, B.P.; Clement, O.; Sandrone, G.; Dixon, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    A molecular mechanics (MM3(96)) force field is reported for modeling metal complexes of amides in which the amide is coordinated through oxygen. This model uses a points-on-a-sphere approach which involves the parameterization of the Msingle bondO stretch, the Msingle bondO double-bond C bend, and the Msingle bondO double-bond Csingle bondX (X = C, H, N) torsion interactions. Relationships between force field parameters and metal ion properties (charge, ionic radius, and electronegativity) are presented that allow the application of this model to a wide range of metal ions. The model satisfactorily reproduces the structures of over fifty amide complexes with the alkaline earths, transition metals, lanthanides, and actinides

  12. Prediction of contact mechanics in metal-on-metal Total Hip Replacement for parametrically comprehensive designs and loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Finn E; Nyman, Edward; Coburn, James C

    2015-07-16

    Manufacturers and investigators of Total Hip Replacement (THR) bearings require tools to predict the contact mechanics resulting from diverse design and loading parameters. This study provides contact mechanics solutions for metal-on-metal (MoM) bearings that encompass the current design space and could aid pre-clinical design optimization and evaluation. Stochastic finite element (FE) simulation was used to calculate the head-on-cup contact mechanics for five thousand combinations of design and loading parameters. FE results were used to train a Random Forest (RF) surrogate model to rapidly predict the contact patch dimensions, contact area, pressures and plastic deformations for arbitrary designs and loading. In addition to widely observed polar and edge contact, FE results included ring-polar, asymmetric-polar, and transitional categories which have previously received limited attention. Combinations of design and load parameters associated with each contact category were identified. Polar contact pressures were predicted in the range of 0-200 MPa with no permanent deformation. Edge loading (with subluxation) was associated with pressures greater than 500 MPa and induced permanent deformation in 83% of cases. Transitional-edge contact (with little subluxation) was associated with intermediate pressures and permanent deformation in most cases, indicating that, even with ideal anatomical alignment, bearings may face extreme wear challenges. Surrogate models were able to accurately predict contact mechanics 18,000 times faster than FE analyses. The developed surrogate models enable rapid prediction of MoM bearing contact mechanics across the most comprehensive range of loading and designs to date, and may be useful to those performing bearing design optimization or evaluation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. 3-D Modelling of Electromagnetic, Thermal, Mechanical and Metallurgical Couplings in Metal Forming Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chenot, Jean-Loup; Bay, Francois

    2007-01-01

    The different stages of metal forming processes often involve - beyond the mechanical deformations processes - other physical coupled problems, such as heat transfer, electromagnetism or metallurgy. The purpose of this paper is to focus on problems involving electromagnetic couplings. After a brief recall on electromagnetic modeling, we shall then focus on induction heating processes and present some results regarding heat transfer, as well as mechanical couplings. A case showing coupling for metallurgic microstructure evolution will conclude this paper

  14. Transition absorption as a mechanism of surface photoelectron emission from metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhukovsky, Sergei; Protsenko, Igor E.; Ikhsanov, Renat Sh

    2015-01-01

    Transition absorption of a photon by an electron passingthrough a boundary between two media with different permit-tivities is described both classically and quantum mechani-cally. Transition absorption is shown to make a substantialcontribution to photoelectron emission at a metal....../semicon-ductor interface in nanoplasmonic systems, and is put forth asa possible microscopic mechanism of the surface photoelec-tric effect in photodetectors and solar cells containing plas-monic nanoparticles....

  15. Mechanical properties of permeable materials with an organized structure on the base of continuous metal fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpinos, D.M.; Rutkovskij, A.E.; Zorin, V.A.; Ivanchuk, A.A.

    1979-01-01

    The mechanical properties were studied for permeable fibrous materials with an organized structure on the base of continuous metal fibers (from Kh18N9T steel) subjected to preliminary reprocessing volumetric net half-finished products. The effect of geometrical parameters of the net half-finished products and of their orientation in packing are shown to affect the mechanical properties within a wide range of porosities

  16. Effect of metallic dopants on the microstructure and mechanical properties of TiB2

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chlup, Zdeněk; Bača, L.; Halasová, Martina; Neubauer, E.; Hadraba, Hynek; Stelzer, N.; Roupcová, Pavla

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 10 (2015), s. 2745-2754 ISSN 0955-2219 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/1644; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Grant - others:The Austrian Research Promotion Agency (FFG)(AT) 834287 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Titanium diboride * Metallic dopants * Microstructure * Mechanical properties * Fracture behaviour1 Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 2.933, year: 2015

  17. Thermal crackling: study of the mechanical effects of quick temperature fluctuations on metallic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradel, P.

    1984-05-01

    After a brief overview of the thermohydraulical conditions of liquid sodium leading to important temperature fluctuations near the metallic surfaces, the author examines the transfer modes of these fluctuations in the structure thickness and the long term mechanical effects. Dimensioning models based on thermal and metallurgical properties are under study for structures subject to such sodium loads [fr

  18. A constitutive model of nanocrystalline metals based on competing grain boundary and grain interior deformation mechanisms

    KAUST Repository

    Gurses, Ercan

    2011-12-01

    In this work, a viscoplastic constitutive model for nanocrystalline metals is presented. The model is based on competing grain boundary and grain interior deformation mechanisms. In particular, inelastic deformations caused by grain boundary diffusion, grain boundary sliding and dislocation activities are considered. Effects of pressure on the grain boundary diffusion and sliding mechanisms are taken into account. Furthermore, the influence of grain size distribution on macroscopic response is studied. The model is shown to capture the fundamental mechanical characteristics of nanocrystalline metals. These include grain size dependence of the strength, i.e., both the traditional and the inverse Hall-Petch effects, the tension-compression asymmetry and the enhanced rate sensitivity. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of mechanical properties of aluminium alloy–alumina–boron carbide metal matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijaya Ramnath, B.; Elanchezhian, C.; Jaivignesh, M.; Rajesh, S.; Parswajinan, C.; Siddique Ahmed Ghias, A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Fabrication of MMC with aluminium alloy–alumina–boron carbide is done. • Different proportions of reinforcements are added. • The effects of varying proportions are studied. • Investigation on mechanical properties above composites is performed. • Failure morphology analysis is done using SEM. - Abstract: This paper deals with the fabrication and mechanical investigation of aluminium alloy, alumina (Al 2 O 3 ) and boron carbide metal matrix composites. Aluminium is the matrix metal having properties like light weight, high strength and ease of machinability. Alumina which has better wear resistance, high strength, hardness and boron carbide which has excellent hardness and fracture toughness are added as reinforcements. Here, the fabrication is done by stir casting which involves mixing the required quantities of additives into stirred molten aluminium. After solidification, the samples are prepared and tested to find the various mechanical properties like tensile, flexural, impact and hardness. The internal structure of the composite is observed using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)

  20. Mechanism and energetics of dislocation cross-slip in hcp metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhaoxuan; Curtin, W. A.

    2016-10-01

    Hexagonal close-packed (hcp) metals such as Mg, Ti, and Zr are lightweight and/or durable metals with critical structural applications in the automotive (Mg), aerospace (Ti), and nuclear (Zr) industries. The hcp structure, however, brings significant complications in the mechanisms of plastic deformation, strengthening, and ductility, and these complications pose significant challenges in advancing the science and engineering of these metals. In hcp metals, generalized plasticity requires the activation of slip on pyramidal planes, but the structure, motion, and cross-slip of the associated dislocations are not well established even though they determine ductility and influence strengthening. Here, atomistic simulations in Mg reveal the unusual mechanism of dislocation cross-slip between pyramidal I and II planes, which occurs by cross-slip of the individual partial dislocations. The energy barrier is controlled by a fundamental step/jog energy and the near-core energy difference between pyramidal dislocations. The near-core energy difference can be changed by nonglide stresses, leading to tension-compression asymmetry and even a switch in absolute stability from one glide plane to the other, both features observed experimentally in Mg, Ti, and their alloys. The unique cross-slip mechanism is governed by common features of the generalized stacking fault energy surfaces of hcp pyramidal planes and is thus expected to be generic to all hcp metals. An analytical model is developed to predict the cross-slip barrier as a function of the near-core energy difference and applied stresses and quantifies the controlling features of cross-slip and pyramidal I/II stability across the family of hcp metals.

  1. Mechanisms of metal tolerance in marine macroalgae, with emphasis on copper tolerance in Chlorophyta and Rhodophyta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moenne, Alejandra; González, Alberto; Sáez, Claudio A

    2016-07-01

    Green and red macroalgae are closely related organisms, and with terrestrial plants, and constitute the base of marine food webs in coastal ecosystems. Green and red seaweeds, as all living organisms, require essential metals, such as copper, iron, zinc, which can act as co-factors for several proteins and enzymes; however, these metals in excess can induce stress and impair cell viability. Most important negative effects of metal excess are related to the induction of an oxidative stress condition, characterized by the over-accumulation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). In this respect, copper, abundant in wastewaters disposed to coastal environments from domestic and industrial activities, has been one of the most studied metals. Different investigations have provided evidence that green and red macroalgae display several defenses against copper excess to prevent, or at least reduce, stress and damage, among which are cellular exclusion mechanisms, synthesis of metal-chelating compounds, and the activation of the antioxidant system. Most important defense mechanisms identified in green and red seaweed involve: metal-binding to cell wall and epibionts; syntheses of metallothioneins and phytochelatins that accumulate in the cytoplasm; and the increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase, and greater production of antioxidant metabolites as glutathione and ascorbate in organelles and the cytoplasm. In this review, we go through historical records, latest advances, and pending tasks aiming to expand our current knowledge on defense mechanisms to copper excess in green and red macroalgae, with emphasis on biochemical and molecular aspects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Metallic particles into mechanical and hydraulic systems in agricultural and construction machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jair Rosas da; Silva, Deise Paula da [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas (IAC), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia Agricola; Bormio, Marcos Roberto [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Bauru, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia

    2008-07-01

    The lubricant oil analysis are an indicator of the conditions how the lubricant is, may to allow the prevision of damages that occurred into machine due to the internal abrasion of hydraulic and mechanical components of the machines. The present study had the objective to determine the kind and quantity of the metallic particles that occurred into the lubricant oil of the mechanical and hydraulic compartments of the energy transmission systems of three kinds of machines: a tracked-tractor, a sugarcane harvester and a group of power-shovels. The metallic particles presents into these compartments were determined under laboratory tests and concerning to the following elements: iron, copper, chromium, lead, nickel, aluminum, silex, tin and molybdenum. About to the tracked-tractor, the metallic contaminators into to the oil charges surpasses the tolerate levels, considering the technical standards adopted in this evaluation. In the sugarcane harvester only a metallic element in excess was identified and, in a power-shovel group it was showed the need to correct air false entrances in the hydraulic or mechanical systems due the high presence of silex element. (author)

  3. Environmental reactions and their effects on mechanical behavior of metallic materials. Technical progress report, February 1, 1977--January 31, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibala, R.; Sethi, V.K.; Fournier, R.

    1977-01-01

    New results obtained in surface oxide softening of the Group VB refractory metals and mechanical behavior of Nb-H and Nb-D alloys are presented. The results include: (a) experimental verification of a model of surface oxide softening of body-centered cubic metals; (b) determination of a stress-differential effect in surface oxide softening; and (c) characterization of hydrogen and deuterium strengthening in Nb and Nb-O alloys. The second section reviews major contributions in topics on: interstitials in metals, mechanical behavior of body-centered cubic metals, solute-defect interactions and internal friction mechanisms in solids

  4. Microstructure and mechanical properties of metallic high-temperature materials. Research report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mughrabi, H.; Gottstein, G.; Mecking, H.; Riedel, H.; Toboloski, J.

    1999-01-01

    This volume contains 38 lectures of research studies performed in the course of the Priority Programme 'Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Metallic High-Temperature Materials' supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) over a period of six years from 1991 to 1997. The four materials selected were: 1. light metal PM-aluminium and titanium base alloys; 2. ferritic chromium and austenitic alloy 800 steels; 3. (monocrystalline) nickel-base superalloys; and 4. nickel- and iron-base oxide-dispersion-strengthened superalloys. All papers have been abstracted separately for the ENERGY database

  5. Fluid mechanics of additive manufacturing of metal objects by accretion of droplets – a survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesař Václav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents a survey of principles of additive manufacturing of metal objects by accretion of molten metal droplets, focusing on fluid-mechanical problems that deserve being investigated. The main problem is slowness of manufacturing due to necessarily small size of added droplets. Increase of droplet repetition rate calls for basic research of the phenomena that take place inside and around the droplets: ballistics of their flight, internal flowfield with heat and mass transfer, oscillation of surfaces, and the ways to elimination of satellite droplets.

  6. Correlation of mechanical properties with nondestructive evaluation of babbitt metal/bronze composite interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijiri, Y.; Liaw, P. K.; Taszarek, B. J.; Frohlich, S.; Gungor, M. N.

    1988-09-01

    Interfaces of the babbitt metal-bronze composite were examined ultrasonically and were fractured using the Chalmers test method. It was found that the ultrasonic results correlated with the bond strength, the ductility, and the degree of bonding at the tested interface. Specifically, high ultrasonic reflection percentages were associated with low bond strength, low ductility, and low percentages of bonded regions. The fracture mechanism in the bonded area of the babbitt-bronze interface is related to the presence of the intermetallic compound, Cu6Sn5, at the interface. It is suggested that the non-destructive ultrasonic technique can detect the bond integrity of babbitted metals.

  7. Synthesis and mechanical properties of Fe–Nb–B thin-film metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, J.H.; Hostert, C.; Music, D.; Frisk, A.; Björck, M.; Schneider, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Fe–Nb–B thin-film metallic glasses (TFMGs) were synthesized via a combinatorial sputtering approach to probe the property–composition correlation. The boron content was found to dominate the mechanical properties of the TFMGs. The ∼10% smaller strength of Fe–Nb–B TFMGs compared to existing bulk metallic glass with similar composition may be attributed to the absence of a network-like structure based on (Fe,M) 23 B 6 phase due to the extreme quenching conditions employed.

  8. Fluid mechanics of additive manufacturing of metal objects by accretion of droplets - a survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesař, Václav

    2016-03-01

    Paper presents a survey of principles of additive manufacturing of metal objects by accretion of molten metal droplets, focusing on fluid-mechanical problems that deserve being investigated. The main problem is slowness of manufacturing due to necessarily small size of added droplets. Increase of droplet repetition rate calls for basic research of the phenomena that take place inside and around the droplets: ballistics of their flight, internal flowfield with heat and mass transfer, oscillation of surfaces, and the ways to elimination of satellite droplets.

  9. THE PHYSICAL MECHANISM BEHIND M DWARF METALLICITY INDICATORS AND THE ROLE OF C AND O ABUNDANCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veyette, Mark J.; Muirhead, Philip S. [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Mann, Andrew W. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Allard, France [Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon, UMR 5574, Université de Lyon, ENS de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, CNRS, F-69007, Lyon (France)

    2016-09-10

    We present near-infrared (NIR) synthetic spectra based on PHOENIX stellar atmosphere models of typical early and mid-M dwarfs with varied C and O abundances. We apply multiple recently published methods for determining M dwarf metallicity to our models to determine the effects of C and O abundances on metallicity indicators. We find that the pseudo-continuum level is very sensitive to C/O and that all metallicity indicators show a dependence on C and O abundances, especially in lower T {sub eff} models. In some cases, the inferred metallicity ranges over a full order of magnitude (>1 dex) when [C/Fe] and [O/Fe] are varied independently by ±0.2. We also find that [(O−C)/Fe], the difference in O and C abundances, is a better tracer of the pseudo-continuum level than C/O. Models of mid-M dwarfs with [C/Fe], [O/Fe], and [M/H] that are realistic in the context of galactic chemical evolution suggest that variation in [(O−C)/Fe] is the primary physical mechanism behind the M dwarf metallicity tracers investigated here. Empirically calibrated metallicity indicators are still valid for most nearby M dwarfs due to the tight correlation between [(O−C)/Fe] and [Fe/H] evident in spectroscopic surveys of solar neighborhood FGK stars. Variations in C and O abundances also affect the spectral energy distribution of M dwarfs. Allowing [O/Fe] to be a free parameter provides better agreement between the synthetic spectra and observed spectra of metal-rich M dwarfs. We suggest that flux-calibrated, low-resolution, NIR spectra can provide a path toward measuring C and O abundances in M dwarfs and breaking the degeneracy between C/O and [Fe/H] present in M dwarf metallicity indicators.

  10. Microstructure and mechanical properties of metal/oxide and metal/silicide interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, L.; Miracle, D.; Abbaschian, R.

    1995-01-01

    Fracture energies of Al 2 O 3 /Nb interfaces and MoSi 2 /Nb interfaces with and without Al 2 O 3 coating were measured using sandwich-type chevron-notched specimens. The relations between the mechanical properties, microstructures, types of bonds at the interface and processing routes were explored. The fracture energy of the Al 2 O 3 /Nb interface was determined to be 9 J/m 2 and changed to 16 J/m 2 when Nb was pre-oxidized before the formation of the Al 2 O 3 /Nb interface. The fracture energy of the MoSi 2 /Nb interface could not be determined directly because of the formation of the interfacial compounds. However, the fracture energy at the MoSi 2 /Nb interfacial region was found to depend on the interfacial bond strength, roughness of interfaces and microstructure of interfacial compounds. The interfacial fracture energies of Al 2 O 3 with silicides, MoSi 2 , Nb 5 Si 3 , or (Nb, Mo)Si 2 were estimated to be about 16 J/m 2 , while the interfacial fracture energies between two silicides or between Nb and a silicide were larger than 34 J/m 2 . The measured fracture energies between two silicides or between Nb and a silicide were larger than 34 J/m 2 . The measured fracture energies of the various interfaces are discussed in terms of the interfacial microstructures and types of bonds at the interfaces

  11. Novel in situ mechanical testers to enable integrated metal surface micro-machines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follstaedt, David Martin; de Boer, Maarten Pieter; Kotula, Paul Gabriel; Hearne, Sean Joseph; Foiles, Stephen Martin; Buchheit, Thomas Edward; Dyck, Christopher William

    2005-10-01

    The ability to integrate metal and semiconductor micro-systems to perform highly complex functions, such as RF-MEMS, will depend on developing freestanding metal structures that offer improved conductivity, reflectivity, and mechanical properties. Three issues have prevented the proliferation of these systems: (1) warpage of active components due to through-thickness stress gradients, (2) limited component lifetimes due to fatigue, and (3) low yield strength. To address these issues, we focus on developing and implementing techniques to enable the direct study of the stress and microstructural evolution during electrodeposition and mechanical loading. The study of stress during electrodeposition of metal thin films is being accomplished by integrating a multi-beam optical stress sensor into an electrodeposition chamber. By coupling the in-situ stress information with ex-situ microstructural analysis, a scientific understanding of the sources of stress during electrodeposition will be obtained. These results are providing a foundation upon which to develop a stress-gradient-free thin film directly applicable to the production of freestanding metal structures. The issues of fatigue and yield strength are being addressed by developing novel surface micromachined tensile and bend testers, by interferometry, and by TEM analysis. The MEMS tensile tester has a ''Bosch'' etched hole to allow for direct viewing of the microstructure in a TEM before, during, and after loading. This approach allows for the quantitative measurements of stress-strain relations while imaging dislocation motion, and determination of fracture nucleation in samples with well-known fatigue/strain histories. This technique facilitates the determination of the limits for classical deformation mechanisms and helps to formulate a new understanding of the mechanical response as the grain sizes are refined to a nanometer scale. Together, these studies will result in a science

  12. A new type of sandwich panel with periodic cellular metal cores and its mechanical performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Chae-Hong; Jeon, Insu; Kang, Ki-Ju

    2009-01-01

    Many studies have been performed on the mechanical properties and optimization of truss PCMs (periodic cellular metals), but those on the fabrication process, which is one of key factors determining the survivability of PCMs in the market, have been relatively limited. This study introduces a new idea on the fabrication of quasi Kagome truss cored sandwich panels, which is based on the expanded-metal process. And the mechanical behavior of the sandwich panels is to be evaluated. The mechanical strengths and failure mechanisms under compression and bending load are estimated based on elementary mechanics of materials, and the optimal design is derived. Its validity is proved by comparison with the results of experiments. The results showed that the new idea is promising with respect to all three requirements, i.e., the morphology, fabrication cost, and raw materials. The simple mechanical analysis was sufficiently effective and accurate for estimating the performance and failure mode of the sandwich panels. In the experiments, sandwich panel specimens of three different designs were compared in their bending behaviors to demonstrate sensitivity of geometric parameters. Namely, although all the designs had little difference in their load capacity-per-weight, the failure mechanisms and the behaviors after a peak load were totally different.

  13. Precursor directed synthesis--"molecular" mechanisms in the Soft Chemistry approaches and their use for template-free synthesis of metal, metal oxide and metal chalcogenide nanoparticles and nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seisenbaeva, Gulaim A; Kessler, Vadim G

    2014-06-21

    This review provides an insight into the common reaction mechanisms in Soft Chemistry processes involved in nucleation, growth and aggregation of metal, metal oxide and chalcogenide nanoparticles starting from metal-organic precursors such as metal alkoxides, beta-diketonates, carboxylates and their chalcogene analogues and demonstrates how mastering the precursor chemistry permits us to control the chemical and phase composition, crystallinity, morphology, porosity and surface characteristics of produced nanomaterials.

  14. Mechanisms of energetic efficiency in the transportation sector: environmental impacts and reflections in final energy consumption: PNE 2030; Mecanismos de eficiencia energetica no setor de transportes: impactos ambientais e os reflexos no consumo final de energia: PNE 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berni, Mauro Donizeti [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico], email: mauro_berni@nipeunicamp.org.br; Dorileo, Ivo Leandro [Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso (NIEPE/UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Estudos em Planejamento Energetico; Perez, Andrea Juliana Ortiz [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DE/FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Energia. Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica; Paccola, Jose Angelo; Silva Junior, Herculano Xavier da; Bernardes, Cyro Barbosa [MCPAR Engenharia, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This work presents an energy efficiency mechanisms analysis in the Brazilian transport sector. Significant energy savings can be made in this sector and rely on urgent widespread implementation of mechanisms. The experience of the developed countries serves as base for the critical evaluation of the Brazilian situation, considering the current technological period, the investments and initiatives to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. (author)

  15. Thermal and mechanical properties of aluminized fabrics for use in ferrous metal handling operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, J E; Scott, W D; Bates, C E

    1977-11-01

    Protective garments are normally worn in molten handling operations to provide some protection against molten metal splashes. These garments are also intended to provide protection against radiant heat, and they should be as heat resistant and comfortable as possible. Asbestos-based fabrics have been employed for many years, but recently some concern has been expressed over possible asbestos exposure. This program was undertaken to explore the ability of several types of fabrics to resist heat transfer during molten metal impact. A molten metal splash test, along with standard methods for determining tensile strength, flame resistance, and abrasion-flexing resistance were used to evaluate several classes of protective fabrics. The results indicate that there are materials available that offer equal or better mechanical properties and thermal protection compared to aluminized asbestos.

  16. Effects of holding pressure and process temperatures on the mechanical properties of moulded metallic parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Esteves, N.M.

    2013-01-01

    Metal injection moulding is gaining more and more importance over the time and needs more research to be done to understand the sensitivity of process to different process parameters. The current paper makes an attempt to better understand the effects of holding pressure and process temperatures...... on the moulded metallic parts. Stainless steel 316L is used in the investigation to produce the specimen by metal injection moulding (MIM) and multiple analyses were carried out on samples produced with different combinations of holding pressure, mould temperature and melt temperature. Finally, the parts were...... characterized to investigate mechanical properties like density, ultimate tensile strength, shrinkage etc. The results are discussed in the paper. The main conclusion from this study is unlike plastic moulding, the tensile properties of MIM parts doesn’t vary based on the flow direction of the melt, and tensile...

  17. On two possible mechanisms of metallic island remotion from solid surface at heavy multicharged ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorob'eva, I.V.; Geguzin, Ya.E.; Monastyrenko, V.E.

    1986-01-01

    Two mechanisms of energy transfer from a moving ion to a metallic island film on a solid surface are described. A particular case when the energy transfer quantity is enough to remove an island from the solid surface breaking adhesion bond is considered. One mechanism is 'shaking off', another one is a 'jumping up' mechanism. The essence of the first mechanism is that an ion bombarding the surface excites a cylindrical shock wave with a front that can 'shake off' islands from the solid surface along the ion trajectory when it reaches the surface. An island is heated in pulsed mode, and during thermal expansion it should push off the substrate, and so it jumps up. The pure case of such mechanism is observed when an ion transverses an island and transfers energy to the latter one that is defined by the quantity of ion energy losses in the island

  18. Impact of silver metallization and electron irradiation on the mechanical deformation of polyimide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muradov, A. D.; Mukashev, K. M.; Yar-Mukhamedova, G. Sh.; Korobova, N. E.

    2017-11-01

    The impact of silver metallization and electron irradiation on the physical and mechanical properties of polyimide films has been studied. The metal that impregnated the structure of the polyimide substrate was 1-5 μm. The surface coatings contained 80-97% of the relative silver mirror in the visible and infrared regions. Irradiation was performed at the ELU-6 linear accelerator with an average beam electron energy of 2 MeV, an integral current of up to 1000 μA, a pulse repetition rate of 200 Hz, and a pulse duration of 5 μs. The absorbed dose in the samples was 10, 20, 30, and 40 MGy. The samples were deformed at room temperature under uniaxial tension on an Instron 5982 universal testing system. The structural changes in the composite materials that result from the impact of the physical factors were studied using an X-ray diffractometer DRON-2M in air at 293 K using Cu K α radiation (λαCu = 1.5418 Å). A substantial growth of mechanical characteristics resulting from the film metallization, as compared to the pure film, was observed. The growth of the ultimate strength by Δσ = 105 MPa and the plasticity by Δɛ = 75% is connected with the characteristics of the change of structure of the metallized films and the chemical etching conditions. The electron irradiation of the metallized polyimide film worsens its elastic and strength characteristics due to the formation of new phases in the form of silver oxide in the coating. The concentration of these phases increased with increasing dose, which was also the result of the violation of the ordered material structure, namely, the rupture of polyimide macromolecule bonds and the formation of new phases of silver in the coating. A mathematical model was obtained that predicts the elastic properties of silver metallized polyimide films. This model agrees with the experimental data.

  19. Oxidation and metal-insertion in molybdenite surfaces: evaluation of charge-transfer mechanisms and dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shutthanandan V

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2, a layered transition-metal dichalcogenide, has been of special importance to the research community of geochemistry, materials and environmental chemistry, and geotechnical engineering. Understanding the oxidation behavior and charge-transfer mechanisms in MoS2 is important to gain better insight into the degradation of this mineral in the environment. In addition, understanding the insertion of metals into molybdenite and evaluation of charge-transfer mechanism and dynamics is important to utilize these minerals in technological applications. Furthermore, a detailed investigation of thermal oxidation behavior and metal-insertion will provide a basis to further explore and model the mechanism of adsorption of metal ions onto geomedia. The present work was performed to understand thermal oxidation and metal-insertion processes of molybdenite surfaces. The analysis was performed using atomic force microscopy (AFM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS, and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA. Structural studies using SEM and TEM indicate the local-disordering of the structure as a result of charge-transfer process between the inserted lithium and the molybdenite layer. Selected area electron diffraction measurements indicate the large variations in the diffusivity of lithium confirming that the charge-transfer is different along and perpendicular to the layers in molybdenite. Thermal heating of molybenite surface in air at 400°C induces surface oxidation, which is slow during the first hour of heating and then increases significantly. The SEM results indicate that the crystals formed on the molybdenite surface as a result of thermal oxidation exhibit regular thin-elongated shape. The average size and density of the crystals on the surface is dependent on the time of annealing; smaller size and high density during the first one-hour and

  20. Oxidation and metal-insertion in molybdenite surfaces: evaluation of charge-transfer mechanisms and dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramana, C V; Becker, U; Shutthanandan, V; Julien, C M

    2008-06-05

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), a layered transition-metal dichalcogenide, has been of special importance to the research community of geochemistry, materials and environmental chemistry, and geotechnical engineering. Understanding the oxidation behavior and charge-transfer mechanisms in MoS2 is important to gain better insight into the degradation of this mineral in the environment. In addition, understanding the insertion of metals into molybdenite and evaluation of charge-transfer mechanism and dynamics is important to utilize these minerals in technological applications. Furthermore, a detailed investigation of thermal oxidation behavior and metal-insertion will provide a basis to further explore and model the mechanism of adsorption of metal ions onto geomedia.The present work was performed to understand thermal oxidation and metal-insertion processes of molybdenite surfaces. The analysis was performed using atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA).Structural studies using SEM and TEM indicate the local-disordering of the structure as a result of charge-transfer process between the inserted lithium and the molybdenite layer. Selected area electron diffraction measurements indicate the large variations in the diffusivity of lithium confirming that the charge-transfer is different along and perpendicular to the layers in molybdenite. Thermal heating of molybenite surface in air at 400 degrees C induces surface oxidation, which is slow during the first hour of heating and then increases significantly. The SEM results indicate that the crystals formed on the molybdenite surface as a result of thermal oxidation exhibit regular thin-elongated shape. The average size and density of the crystals on the surface is dependent on the time of annealing; smaller size and high density during the first one-hour and significant

  1. Bioremediation mechanisms of combined pollution of PAHs and heavy metals by bacteria and fungi: A mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shao-Heng; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Niu, Qiu-Ya; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Lu; Jiang, Lu-Hua; Tan, Xiao-Fei; Xu, Piao; Zhang, Chen; Cheng, Min

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, knowledge in regard to bioremediation of combined pollution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals by bacteria and fungi has been widely developed. This paper reviews the species of bacteria and fungi which can tackle with various types of PAHs and heavy metals entering into environment simultaneously or successively. Microbial activity, pollutants bioavailability and environmental factors (e.g. pH, temperature, low molecular weight organic acids and humic acids) can all affect the bioremediation of PAHs and heavy metals. Moreover, this paper summarizes the remediation mechanisms of PAHs and heavy metals by microbes via elucidating the interaction mechanisms of heavy metals with heavy metals, PAHs/PAHs metabolites with PAHs and PAHs with heavy metals. Based on the above reviews, this paper also discusses the potential research needs for this field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mechanism of Metal Ion Activation of the Diphtheria Toxin Repressor DtxR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Aquino,J.; Tetenbaum-Novatt, J.; White, A.; Berkovitch, F.; Ringe, D.

    2005-01-01

    The diphtheria toxin repressor (DtxR) is a metal ion-activated transcriptional regulator that has been linked to the virulence of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Structure determination has shown that there are two metal ion binding sites per repressor monomer, and site-directed mutagenesis has demonstrated that binding site 2 (primary) is essential for recognition of the target DNA repressor, leaving the role of binding site 1 (ancillary) unclear. Calorimetric techniques have demonstrated that although binding site 1 (ancillary) has high affinity for metal ion with a binding constant of 2 x 10{sup -7}, binding site 2 (primary) is a low-affinity binding site with a binding constant of 6.3 x 10{sup -4}. These two binding sites act in an independent fashion, and their contribution can be easily dissected by traditional mutational analysis. Our results clearly demonstrate that binding site 1 (ancillary) is the first one to be occupied during metal ion activation, playing a critical role in stabilization of the repressor. In addition, structural data obtained for the mutants Ni-DtxR(H79A, C102D), reported here, and the previously reported DtxR(H79A) have allowed us to propose a mechanism of metal activation for DtxR.

  3. Low-temperature embrittlement and fracture of metals with different crystal lattices – Dislocation mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Chernov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The state of a low-temperature embrittlement (cold brittleness and dislocation mechanisms for formation of the temperature of a ductile-brittle transition and brittle fracture of metals (mono- and polycrystals with various crystal lattices (BCC, FCC, HCP are considered. The conditions for their formation connected with a stress-deformed state and strength (low temperature yield strength as well as the fracture breaking stress and mobility of dislocations in the top of a crack of the fractured metal are determined. These conditions can be met for BCC and some HCP metals in the initial state (without irradiation and after a low-temperature damaging (neutron irradiation. These conditions are not met for FCC and many HCP metals. In the process of the damaging (neutron irradiation such conditions are not met also and the state of low-temperature embrittlement of metals is absent (suppressed due to arising various radiation dynamic processes, which increase the mobility of dislocations and worsen the strength characteristics.

  4. Atomic mechanism of shear localization during indentation of a nanostructured metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sansoz, F.; Dupont, V.

    2007-01-01

    Shear localization is an important mode of deformation in nanocrystalline metals. However, it is very difficult to verify the existence of local shear planes in nanocrystalline metals experimentally. Sharp indentation techniques may provide novel opportunities to investigate the effect of shear localization at different length scales, but the relationship between indentation response and atomic-level shear band formation has not been fully addressed. This paper describes an effort to provide direct insight on the mechanism of shear localization during indentation of nanocrystalline metals from atomistic simulations. Molecular statics is performed with the quasi-continuum method to simulate the indentation of single crystal and nanocrystalline Al with a sharp cylindrical probe. In the nanocrystalline regime, two grain sizes are investigated, 5 nm and 10 nm. We find that the indentation of nanocrystalline metals is characterized by serrated plastic flow. This effect seems to be independent of the grain size. Serration in nanocrystalline metals is found to be associated with the formation of shear bands by sliding of aligned interfaces and intragranular slip, which results in deformation twinning

  5. Preliminary study of sintering of metallic niobium processed for mechanical milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, H.M.; Vurobi Junior, S.; Cintho, O.M.; Sandim, H.R.Z.; Leite, G.S.

    2010-01-01

    In present study was preliminary study of mechanical milling influence on preparing of metallic niobium powder for sintering. Sample of metallic niobium in powder passing in sieve no. 635 mesh was processed by mechanical milling in SPEX mill for 8 hours using power grinding of 7:1 and a nitrogen atmosphere. The powder was annealed at different temperatures, 900 deg C, 1000 deg C, 1100 deg C and 1200 deg C for 1 hour in an atmosphere of hydrogen and argon to study their crystallization, which then were formed into blank for analysis of the curves compressibility. These samples were also subjected to x-ray diffraction in that their data were compared between the annealing temperatures. We also evaluate the compressibility curves of niobium samples with and without grinding these samples were subjected to x-ray diffraction and fluorescence. (author)

  6. Mechanical properties of metallic ribbons investigated by depth sensing indentation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesek, Ladislav; Dobrzanski, Leszek A.; Zubko, Pavol; Konieczny, Jaroslaw

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents mechanical properties of two kinds of Co-based and one Fe-based metallic ribbons by the depth sensing indentation (DSI) technique. Investigations were carried out on two kinds ternary alloy Co 77 Si 11,5 B 11,5 and Fe 78 Si 13 B 9 and multicomponent Co 68 Fe 4 Mo 1 Si 13,5 B 13,5 , which are so-called 'zero-magnetostriction' materials. Metallic ribbons were investigated in amorphous state and partially crystallized state after annealing in 400deg. C in argon atmosphere. Heating of ribbons obtained by melt spinning technique was performed to check its effect on changes of mechanical properties

  7. The State Investment and Innovation Policy for Development of Forest Sector: the Ecological-Economic Aspects and Mechanisms for Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzyubenko Oleksandr M.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available he need for formation of the State investment and innovation policy for development of forest sector has been substantiated as an important prerequisite for overcoming investment deficits in both the public and the corporate sectors of forest and wood processing production. The main tendencies in the implementation of capital investments by the entities of forestry entrepreneurship, dynamics of involvement of credit resources by forestry enterprises, and shifts in the structure of capital investments in 2016 were analyzed as compared to 2013. It has been found that an important part of the State investment and innovation policy for development of forest sector should be incentives to accelerate the modernization and upgrading of the material-technical base of lumbering and wood processing. The need to form an institutional framework for partnership between the State and business entities in the part of financing the projects of modernization of lumbering and wood processing equipment has been substantiated.

  8. Modernization perspectives of the Sao Paulo State sugarcane sector through the clean development mechanism and potential carbon credits generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira; Lora, Beatriz Acquaro [Brazilian Reference Center on Biomass (CENBIO/USP), SP (Brazil)], Emails: suani@iee.usp.br, blora@iee.usp.br

    2009-07-01

    The world-wide necessity of greenhouse gases mitigation and the intergovernmental mobilization to reach the objectives established by the United Nations Framework on Climate Change (UNFCCC) has opened space for the renewable energy increase in the world's energy matrix. In Brazil, the solid sugarcane industry currently develops business in the scope of the clean development mechanism (CDM) under the Kyoto's Protocol, by means of 18 biomass-based projects, with renewable energy generation through bagasse cogeneration at 20 Sao Paulo State's sugarcane production units. The projects activity's consists of increasing the efficiency in the bagasse cogeneration facilities, qualifying the units to sell surplus electricity to the national grid, avoiding the dispatch of the same amount of energy produced by fossil-fuelled thermal plants to that grid. The reduced emissions are measured in carbon equivalent and can be converted into negotiable credits. The objective of this study was to build a 'state of art' scenario, calculating the potential emissions reduction through CDM projects for the sugarcane sector of Sao Paulo State, in which we consider the adherence of all the production units of the State to the CDM projects. The technological parameters used to elaborate the scenario were provided by the Sao Paulo State Government Bioenergy Special Commission and the baseline factor used of 0,268 tCO{sub 2}e/MWh was the adopted by the CDM projects in operation in the State. The sugarcane database for the calculations was the production ranking provided by UNICA for the 2006/2007 season. In the most conservative scenario (40 bar bagasse) 131 units could generate 607 MWm of surplus power avoiding the emission of 1.404.593 tCO{sub 2}e/year. For the 92 bar (bagasse and straw) scenario, the units could generate 3.055 MWm of surplus power avoiding 12.199.443 tCO{sub 2}e/year. (author)

  9. STATISTICAL DISTRIBUTION PATTERNS IN MECHANICAL AND FATIGUE PROPERTIES OF METALLIC MATERIALS

    OpenAIRE

    Tatsuo, SAKAI; Masaki, NAKAJIMA; Keiro, TOKAJI; Norihiko, HASEGAWA; Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ritsumeikan University; Department of Mechanical Engineering, Toyota College of Technology; Department of Mechanical Engineering, Gifu University; Department of Mechanical Engineering, Gifu University

    1997-01-01

    Many papers on the statistical aspect of materials strength have been collected and reviewed by The Research Group for Statistical Aspects of Materials Strength.A book of "Statistical Aspects of Materials Strength" was written by this group, and published in 1992.Based on the experimental data compiled in this book, distribution patterns of mechanical properties are systematically surveyed paying an attention to metallic materials.Thus one can obtain the fundamental knowledge for a reliabilit...

  10. Hybrid Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics Solvation Scheme for Computing Free Energies of Reactions at Metal-Water Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faheem, Muhammad; Heyden, Andreas

    2014-08-12

    We report the development of a quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics free energy perturbation (QM/MM-FEP) method for modeling chemical reactions at metal-water interfaces. This novel solvation scheme combines planewave density function theory (DFT), periodic electrostatic embedded cluster method (PEECM) calculations using Gaussian-type orbitals, and classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to obtain a free energy description of a complex metal-water system. We derive a potential of mean force (PMF) of the reaction system within the QM/MM framework. A fixed-size, finite ensemble of MM conformations is used to permit precise evaluation of the PMF of QM coordinates and its gradient defined within this ensemble. Local conformations of adsorbed reaction moieties are optimized using sequential MD-sampling and QM-optimization steps. An approximate reaction coordinate is constructed using a number of interpolated states and the free energy difference between adjacent states is calculated using the QM/MM-FEP method. By avoiding on-the-fly QM calculations and by circumventing the challenges associated with statistical averaging during MD sampling, a computational speedup of multiple orders of magnitude is realized. The method is systematically validated against the results of ab initio QM calculations and demonstrated for C-C cleavage in double-dehydrogenated ethylene glycol on a Pt (111) model surface.

  11. Studies on microstructure, mechanical and corrosion properties of high nitrogen stainless steel shielded metal arc welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Raffi; Madhusudhan Reddy, G.; Srinivasa Rao, K.

    2018-03-01

    The present work is aimed at studying the microstructure, mechanical and corrosion properties of high nitrogen stainless steel shielded metal arc (SMA) welds made with Cromang-N electrode. Basis for selecting this electrode is to increase the solubility of nitrogen in weld metal due to high chromium and manganese content. Microstructures of the welds were characterized using optical microscopy (OM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) mainly to determine the morphology, phase analysis, grain size and orientation image mapping. Hardness, tensile and ductility bend tests were carried out to determine mechanical properties. Potentio-dynamic polarization testing was carried out to study the pitting corrosion resistance using a GillAC basic electrochemical system. Constant load type testing was carried out to study stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behaviour of welds. The investigation results shown that the selected Cr–Mn–N type electrode resulted in favourable microstructure and completely solidified as single phase coarse austenite. Mechanical properties of SMA welds are found to be inferior when compared to that of base metal and is due to coarse and dendritic structure.

  12. A general mechanism for intracellular toxicity of metal-containing nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Sabella, Stefania

    2014-04-09

    The assessment of the risks exerted by nanoparticles is a key challenge for academic, industrial, and regulatory communities worldwide. Experimental evidence points towards significant toxicity for a range of nanoparticles both in vitro and in vivo. Worldwide efforts aim at uncovering the underlying mechanisms for this toxicity. Here, we show that the intracellular ion release elicited by the acidic conditions of the lysosomal cellular compartment-where particles are abundantly internalized-is responsible for the cascading events associated with nanoparticles-induced intracellular toxicity. We call this mechanism a "lysosome-enhanced Trojan horse effect" since, in the case of nanoparticles, the protective cellular machinery designed to degrade foreign objects is actually responsible for their toxicity. To test our hypothesis, we compare the toxicity of similar gold particles whose main difference is in the internalization pathways. We show that particles known to pass directly through cell membranes become more toxic when modified so as to be mostly internalized by endocytosis. Furthermore, using experiments with chelating and lysosomotropic agents, we found that the toxicity mechanism for different metal containing NPs (such as metallic, metal oxide, and semiconductor NPs) is mainly associated with the release of the corresponding toxic ions. Finally, we show that particles unable to release toxic ions (such as stably coated NPs, or diamond and silica NPs) are not harmful to intracellular environments. The Royal Society of Chemistry 2014.

  13. A general mechanism for intracellular toxicity of metal-containing nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Sabella, Stefania; Carney, Randy P.; Brunetti, Virgilio; Malvindi, Maria Ada; Al-Juffali, Noura; Vecchio, Giuseppe; Janes, Sam M.; Bakr, Osman; Cingolani, Roberto; Stellacci, Francesco; Pompa, Pier Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of the risks exerted by nanoparticles is a key challenge for academic, industrial, and regulatory communities worldwide. Experimental evidence points towards significant toxicity for a range of nanoparticles both in vitro and in vivo. Worldwide efforts aim at uncovering the underlying mechanisms for this toxicity. Here, we show that the intracellular ion release elicited by the acidic conditions of the lysosomal cellular compartment-where particles are abundantly internalized-is responsible for the cascading events associated with nanoparticles-induced intracellular toxicity. We call this mechanism a "lysosome-enhanced Trojan horse effect" since, in the case of nanoparticles, the protective cellular machinery designed to degrade foreign objects is actually responsible for their toxicity. To test our hypothesis, we compare the toxicity of similar gold particles whose main difference is in the internalization pathways. We show that particles known to pass directly through cell membranes become more toxic when modified so as to be mostly internalized by endocytosis. Furthermore, using experiments with chelating and lysosomotropic agents, we found that the toxicity mechanism for different metal containing NPs (such as metallic, metal oxide, and semiconductor NPs) is mainly associated with the release of the corresponding toxic ions. Finally, we show that particles unable to release toxic ions (such as stably coated NPs, or diamond and silica NPs) are not harmful to intracellular environments. The Royal Society of Chemistry 2014.

  14. Effect of electronegativity on the mechanical properties of metal hydrides with a fluorite structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Masato; Setoyama, Daigo; Matsunaga, Junji; Muta, Hiroaki; Kurosaki, Ken; Uno, Masayoshi; Yamanaka, Shinsuke

    2006-01-01

    Bulk titanium, yttrium, and zirconium hydrides, which have the same structure as that of fluorite-type fcc C 1, were produced and their mechanical properties were investigated. With an increase in the hydrogen content, the lattice parameters of titanium and zirconium hydrides increased, whereas those of yttrium hydride decreased. The elastic moduli of titanium and zirconium hydrides decreased by hydrogen addition, whereas those of yttrium hydride increased. There are linear relations between the electronegativities and hydrogen content dependence of the properties. Therefore, the mechanical properties of the metal hydrides are considered to be determined by a common rule based on the electronegativity

  15. A mechanical model of a non-uniform ionomeric polymer metal composite actuator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anton, Mart; Aabloo, Alvo; Punning, Andres; Kruusmaa, Maarja

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a mechanical model of an IPMC (ionomeric polymer metal composite) actuator in a cantilever beam configuration. The main contribution of our model is that it gives the most detailed description reported so far of the quasistatic mechanical behaviour of the actuator with non-uniform bending at large deflections. We also investigate a case where part of an IPMC actuator is replaced with a rigid elongation and demonstrate that this configuration would make the actuator behave more linearly. The model is experimentally validated with MuscleSheet(TM) IPMCs, purchased from BioMimetics Inc

  16. A Study On The Metal Carbide Composite Diffusion Bonding For Mechanical Seal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim D.-K.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical Seal use highly efficient alternative water having a great quantity of an aqueous solution and has an advantage no corrosion brine. Metal Carbide composites have been investigated as potential materials for high temperature structural applications and for application in the processing industry. The existing Mechanical seal material is a highly expensive carbide alloy, and it is difficult to take a price advantage. Therefore the study of replacing body area with inexpensive steel material excluding O-ring and contact area which demands high characteristics is needed.

  17. Mechanized azobenzene-functionalized zirconium metal-organic framework for on-command cargo release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiangshi; Gui, Bo; Yuan, Daqiang; Zeller, Matthias; Wang, Cheng

    2016-08-01

    Stimuli-responsive metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have gained increasing attention recently for their potential applications in many areas. We report the design and synthesis of a water-stable zirconium MOF (Zr-MOF) that bears photoresponsive azobenzene groups. This particular MOF can be used as a reservoir for storage of cargo in water, and the cargo-loaded MOF can be further capped to construct a mechanized MOF through the binding of β-cyclodextrin with the azobenzene stalks on the MOF surface. The resulting mechanized MOF has shown on-command cargo release triggered by ultraviolet irradiation or addition of competitive agents without premature release. This study represents a simple approach to the construction of stimuli-responsive mechanized MOFs, and considering mechanized UiO-68-azo made from biocompatible components, this smart system may provide a unique MOF platform for on-command drug delivery in the future.

  18. Stacking faults and mechanisms strain-induced transformations of hcp metals (Ti, Mg) during mechanical activation in liquid hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubnin, A. N.; Dorofeev, G. A.; Nikonova, R. M.; Mukhgalin, V. V.; Lad'yanov, V. I.

    2017-11-01

    The evolution of the structure and substructure of metals Ti and Mg with hexagonal close-packed (hcp) lattice is studied during their mechanical activation in a planetary ball mill in liquid hydrocarbons (toluene, n-heptane) and with additions of carbon materials (graphite, fullerite, nanotubes) by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and chemical analysis. The temperature behavior and hydrogen-accumulating properties of mechanocomposites are studied. During mechanical activation of Ti and Mg, liquid hydrocarbons decay, metastable nanocrystalline titanium carbohydride Ti(C,H) x and magnesium hydride β-MgH2 are formed, respectively. The Ti(C,H) x and MgH2 formation mechanisms during mechanical activation are deformation ones and are associated with stacking faults accumulation, and the formation of face-centered cubic (fcc) packing of atoms. Metastable Ti(C,H)x decays at a temperature of 550°C, the partial reverse transformation fcc → hcp occurs. The crystalline defect accumulation (nanograin boundaries, stacking faults), hydrocarbon destruction, and mechanocomposite formation leads to the enhancement of subsequent magnesium hydrogenation in the Sieverts reactor.

  19. [Mechanism and implication of regulation of the pricing of essential medicines in the private pharmaceutical sector in Mali].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maïga, D; Maïga, S; Maïga, M D

    2010-04-01

    The healthcare and pharmaceutical professions in Mali were privatized in 1985. Privatization led to swift expansion of the private sector and upset the balance that had existed between the public and private sectors. A national pharmaceutical policy did not emerge until a decade later. Its purpose was to promote a system ensuring fair access to essential generic medicines for all. It was hoped that synergy between the two sectors would promote that objective. However, the policy calling for distribution of essential generic medicine through the private sector was not accompanied by an adequate system for pricing. This problem led the government to adopt a price regulation policy to realign market dynamics with public health goals. This experience shows that a sustained effort from public policy makers is necessary to prevail against the professional and business interests that can conflict with the public interest. Analysis of this experience also demonstrates the need to improve, restructure, and control the pharmaceutical industry. The government must continue to play its crucial role in the context of limited resources and inequality between consumers and pharmaceutical companies.

  20. Effects of different production technologies on mechanical and metallurgical properties of precious metal denture alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Paolo; Battaglia, Eleonora; Capuzzi, Stefano; Berto, Filippo

    2017-12-01

    Precious metal alloys can be supplied in traditional plate form or innovative drop form with high degree of purity. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the influence of precious metal alloy form on metallurgical and mechanical properties of the final dental products with particular reference to metal-ceramic bond strength and casting defects. A widely used alloy for denture was selected; its nominal composition was close to 55 wt% Pd - 34 wt% Ag - 6 wt% In - 3 wt% Sn. Specimens were produced starting from the alloy in both plate and drop forms. A specific test method was developed to obtain results that could be representative of the real conditions of use. In order to achieve further information about the adhesion behaviour and resistance, the fracture surfaces of the samples were observed using `Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)'. Moreover, material defects caused by the moulding process were studied. The form of the alloy before casting does not significantly influence the shear bond strength between the metal and the ceramic material (p-value=0,976); however, according to SEM images, products from drop form alloy show less solidification defects compared to products obtained with plate form alloy. This was attributed to the absence of polluting additives used in the production of drop form alloy. This study shows that the use of precious metal denture alloys supplied in drop form does not affect the metal-ceramic bond strength compared to alloys supplied in the traditional plate form. However, compared to the plate form, the drop form is found free of solidification defects, less expensive to produce and characterized by minor environmental impacts.

  1. A spin transition mechanism for cooperative adsorption in metal-organic frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Douglas A.; Keitz, Benjamin K.; Oktawiec, Julia; Mason, Jarad A.; Runčevski, Tomče; Xiao, Dianne J.; Darago, Lucy E.; Crocellà, Valentina; Bordiga, Silvia; Long, Jeffrey R.

    2017-10-01

    Cooperative binding, whereby an initial binding event facilitates the uptake of additional substrate molecules, is common in biological systems such as haemoglobin. It was recently shown that porous solids that exhibit cooperative binding have substantial energetic benefits over traditional adsorbents, but few guidelines currently exist for the design of such materials. In principle, metal-organic frameworks that contain coordinatively unsaturated metal centres could act as both selective and cooperative adsorbents if guest binding at one site were to trigger an electronic transformation that subsequently altered the binding properties at neighbouring metal sites. Here we illustrate this concept through the selective adsorption of carbon monoxide (CO) in a series of metal-organic frameworks featuring coordinatively unsaturated iron(II) sites. Functioning via a mechanism by which neighbouring iron(II) sites undergo a spin-state transition above a threshold CO pressure, these materials exhibit large CO separation capacities with only small changes in temperature. The very low regeneration energies that result may enable more efficient Fischer-Tropsch conversions and extraction of CO from industrial waste feeds, which currently underutilize this versatile carbon synthon. The electronic basis for the cooperative adsorption demonstrated here could provide a general strategy for designing efficient and selective adsorbents suitable for various separations.

  2. Bacterial Exopolysaccharide mediated heavy metal removal: A Review on biosynthesis, mechanism and remediation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pratima; Diwan, Batul

    2017-03-01

    Heavy metal contamination has been recognized as a major public health risk, particularly in developing countries and their toxicological manifestations are well known. Conventional remediation strategies are either expensive or they generate toxic by-products, which adversely affect the environment. Therefore, necessity for an environmentally safe strategy motivates interest towards biological techniques. One of such most profoundly driven approach in recent times is biosorption through microbial biomass and their products. Extracellular polymeric substances are such complex blend of high molecular weight microbial (prokaryotic and eukaryotic) biopolymers. They are mainly composed of proteins, polysaccharides, uronic acids, humic substances, lipids etc. One of its essential constituent is the exopolysaccharide (EPS) released out of self defense against harsh conditions of starvation, pH and temperature, hence it displays exemplary physiological, rheological and physio-chemical properties. Its net anionic makeup allows the biopolymer to effectively sequester positively charged heavy metal ions. The polysaccharide has been expounded deeply in this article with reference to its biosynthesis and emphasizes heavy metal sorption abilities of polymer in terms of mechanism of action and remediation. It reports current investigation and strategic advancements in dealing bacterial cells and their EPS in diverse forms - mixed culture EPS, single cell EPS, live, dead or immobilized EPS. A significant scrutiny is also involved highlighting the existing challenges that still lie in the path of commercialization. The article enlightens the potential of EPS to bring about bio-detoxification of heavy metal contaminated terrestrial and aquatic systems in highly sustainable, economic and eco-friendly manner.

  3. Combined toxicity and underlying mechanisms of a mixture of eight heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qi; Gu, Yuanliang; Yue, Xia; Mao, Guochuan; Wang, Yafei; Su, Hong; Xu, Jin; Shi, Hongbo; Zou, Baobo; Zhao, Jinshun; Wang, Renyuan

    2017-02-01

    With the rapid development of modernization and industrialization in China, a large quantity of heavy metals, including zinc, copper, lead, cadmium and mercury, have been entering the atmosphere, soil and water, the latter being the primary route of pollution. In the present study, in vitro experiments were performed to examine the joint toxicity and the underlying mechanisms of the eight most common heavy metals contaminating offshore waters on the eastern coast of Ningbo region. Using a cell cycle assay, cell apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) detection methods, the present study demonstrated that the heavy metal mixture arrested JB6 cells at the S phase, induced the generation of ROS and cell apoptosis. A luciferase assay indicated that the levels of activator protein‑1 and nuclear factor‑κB transcription factors were upregulated. Upregulation of the protein levels of C‑jun and p65 were detected in the JB6 cells by western blot analysis; these two genes have important roles in cell carcinogenesis. These results provide a useful reference for further investigations on the combined toxicity of the exposure to multiple heavy metals.

  4. Experiments and parametric studies on 3D metallic auxetic metamaterials with tuneable mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Xin; Shen, Jianhu; Ghaedizadeh, Arash; Min Xie, Yi; Tian, Hongqi

    2015-01-01

    Auxetic metamaterials are synthetic materials with microstructures engineered to achieve negative Poisson’s ratios. Auxetic metamaterials are of great interest because of their unusual properties and various potential applications. However, most of the previous research has been focused on auxetic behaviour of elastomers under elastic deformation. Inspired by our recent finding of the loss of auxetic behaviour in metallic auxetic metamaterials, a systematic experimental and numerical investigation has been carried out to explore the mechanism behind this phenomenon. Using an improved methodology of generating buckling-induced auxetic metamaterials, several samples of metallic auxetic metamaterials have been fabricated using a 3D printing technique. The experiments on those samples have revealed the special features of auxetic behaviour for metallic auxetic metamaterials and proved the effectiveness of our structural modification. Parametric studies have been performed through experimentally validated finite element models to explore the auxetic performance of the designed metallic metamaterials. It is found that the auxetic performance can be tuned by the geometry of microstructures, and the strength and stiffness can be tuned by the plasticity of the base material while maintaining the auxetic performance. (paper)

  5. Cytotoxic mechanism related to dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase in Leydig cells exposed to heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Xunmin; Li, Zhiliang; Chen, Hongxia; Li, Junqi; Tian, Huajian; Li, Zengli; Gao, Xuejuan; Xiang, Qi; Su, Zhijian; Huang, Yadong; Zhang, Qihao

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals are common environmental toxicants with adverse effects on steroid biosynthesis. The importance of mitochondria has been recognized in cytotoxic mechanism of heavy metals on Leydig cells these years. But it is still poorly known. Our previous study reported that dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLD) located on the mitochondria was significantly decreased in Leydig cells exposed to cadmium, which suggested that DLD might be involved in the cytotoxic effects. Therefore, the altered expression of DLD was validated in rats and R2C cells exposed to cadmium, manganese and lead, and the role of DLD in the steroid synthesis pathway cAMP/PKA-ERK1/2 was investigated in this study. With a low expression of DLD, heavy metals dramatically reduced the levels of steroid hormone by inhibiting the activation of cAMP/PKA, PKC signaling pathway and the steroidogenic enzymes StAR, CYP11A1 and 3β-HSD. After knockdown of DLD in R2C cells, progesterone synthesis was reduced by 40%, and the intracellular concentration of cAMP, protein expression of StAR, 3β-HSD, PKA, and the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 were also decreased. These results highlight that DLD is down-regulation and related to steroid biosynthesis in Leyig cells exposed to heavy metals; cAMP/PKA act as downstream effector molecules of DLD, which activate phosphorylation of ERK1/2 to initiate the steroidogenesis

  6. Mechanical and Acoustic Characteristics of the Weld and the Base Metal Machine Part of Career Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Alexander N.; Knjaz'kov, Victor L.; Levashova, Elena E.; Ababkov, Nikolay V.; Pimonov, Maksim V.

    2018-01-01

    Currently, many industries use foreign-made machinery. There is no opportunity to purchase quality original spare parts for which machinery. Therefore, enterprises operating this equipment are looking for producers of analogues of various parts and assemblies. Quite often, the metal of such analog components turns out to be substandard, which leads to their breakdown at a much earlier date and the enterprises incur material losses. Due to the fact that the complex of performance characteristics and the resource of products are laid at the stage of their production, it is extremely important to control the quality of the raw materials. The structure, mechanical, acoustic and magnetic characteristics of metal samples of such destroyed details of quarry transport as hydraulic cylinders and detail “axis” of an excavator are investigated. A significant spread of data on the chemical composition of metal, hardness and characteristics of non-destructive testing is established, which gives grounds to recommend to manufacturers and suppliers of parts is more responsible to approach the incoming quality control. The results of the investigation of metal samples by destructive and non-destructive methods of control are compared, which showed that the spectral-acoustic method of nondestructive testing can be used to control the quality of the responsible machine parts under conditions of import substitution.

  7. Interface structure and mechanics between graphene and metal substrates: a first-principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiping; Buehler, Markus J.

    2010-12-01

    Graphene is a fascinating material not only for technological applications, but also as a test bed for fundamental insights into condensed matter physics due to its unique two-dimensional structure. One of the most intriguing issues is the understanding of the properties of graphene and various substrate materials. In particular, the interfaces between graphene and metal substrates are of critical importance in applications of graphene in integrated electronics, as thermal materials, and in electromechanical devices. Here we investigate the structure and mechanical interactions at a graphene-metal interface through density functional theory (DFT)-based calculations. We focus on copper (111) and nickel (111) surfaces adhered to a monolayer of graphene, and find that their cohesive energy, strength and electronic structure correlate directly with their atomic geometry. Due to the strong coupling between open d-orbitals, the nickel-graphene interface has a much stronger cohesive energy with graphene than copper. We also find that the interface cohesive energy profile features a well-and-shoulder shape that cannot be captured by simple pair-wise models such as the Lennard-Jones potential. Our results provide a detailed understanding of the interfacial properties of graphene-metal systems, and help to predict the performance of graphene-based nanoelectronics and nanocomposites. The availability of structural and energetic data of graphene-metal interfaces could also be useful for the development of empirical force fields for molecular dynamics simulations.

  8. Mechanisms of copper stress alleviation in Citrus trees after metal uptake by leaves or roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippler, Franz Walter Rieger; Petená, Guilherme; Boaretto, Rodrigo Marcelli; Quaggio, José Antônio; Azevedo, Ricardo Antunes; Mattos-Jr, Dirceu

    2018-05-01

    Nutritional disorders caused by copper (Cu) have affected citrus orchards. Since Cu is foliar sprayed as a pesticide to control citrus diseases, this metal accumulates in the soil. Thereby, we evaluated the effects of Cu leaf absorption after spray of different metal sources, as well as roots absorption on growth, nutritional status, and oxidative stress of young sweet orange trees. Two experiments were carried out under greenhouse conditions. The first experiment was set up with varying Cu levels to the soil (nil Cu, 0.5, 2.0, 4.0 and 8.0 g of Cu per plant as CuSO 4 .5H 2 O), whereas the second experiment with Cu application via foliar sprays (0.5 and 2.0 g of Cu per plant) and comparing two metal sources (CuSO 4 .5H 2 O or Cu(OH) 2 ). Copper was mainly accumulated in roots with soil supply, but an increase of oxidative stress levels was observed in leaves. On the other hand, Cu concentrations were higher in leaves that received foliar sprays, mainly as Cu(OH) 2 . However, when sulfate was foliar sprayed, plants exhibited more symptoms of injuries in the canopy with decreased chlorophyll contents and increased hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation levels. Copper toxicity was characterized by sap leakage from the trunk and twigs, which is the first report of this specific Cu excess symptom in woody trees. Despite plants with 8.0 g of Cu soil-applied exhibiting the sap leakage, growth of new plant parts was more vigorous with lower oxidative stress levels and injuries compared to those with 4.0 g of Cu soil-applied (without sap leakage). With the highest level of Cu applied via foliar as sulfate, Cu was eliminated by plant roots, increasing the rhizospheric soil metal levels. Despite citrus likely exhibiting different mechanisms to reduce the damages caused by metal toxicity, such as responsive enzymatic antioxidant system, metal accumulation in the roots, and metal exclusion by roots, excess Cu resulted in damages on plant growth and metabolism when the

  9. Structure and nano-mechanical characteristics of surface oxide layers on a metallic glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, A; Qin, C L; Gu, L; González, S; Shluger, A; Fecht, H-J; Louzguine-Luzgin, D V; Inoue, A

    2011-03-04

    Owing to their low elastic moduli, high specific strength and excellent processing characteristics in the undercooled liquid state, metallic glasses are promising materials for applications in micromechanical systems. With miniaturization of metallic mechanical components down to the micrometer scale, the importance of a native oxide layer on a glass surface is increasing. In this work we use TEM and XPS to characterize the structure and properties of the native oxide layer grown on Ni(62)Nb(38) metallic glass and their evolution after annealing in air. The thickness of the oxide layer almost doubled after annealing. In both cases the oxide layer is amorphous and consists predominantly of Nb oxide. We investigate the friction behavior at low loads and in ambient conditions (i.e. at T = 295 K and 60% air humidity) of both as-cast and annealed samples by friction force microscopy. After annealing the friction coefficient is found to have significantly increased. We attribute this effect to the increase of the mechanical stability of the oxide layer upon annealing.

  10. Composition design and mechanical properties of ternary Cu–Zr–Ti bulk metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Ye; Zeng, Yuqiao; Jing, Lijun; Zhang, Lu; Pi, Jinhong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Newly designed monolithic bulk metallic glasses are of good glass-forming ability. • Cu 50 Zr 44 Ti 6 exhibits excellent plastic deformation up to ∼7.4%. • Copious and intersected shear bans are observed in the fractography of Cu 50 Zr 44 Ti 6 . • Cu 50 Zr 44 Ti 6 has the best plasticity in the ternary Cu–Zr–Ti bulk metallic glasses. - Abstract: The new compositions of ternary Cu–Zr–Ti bulk metallic glasses are predicted by integrating calculation of vacancy formation energy, mixing enthalpy and configuration entropy of the alloys based on thermodynamics of glass formers. The monolithic amorphous rods of 3 mm diameter have been successfully fabricated, and characterized by X-ray diffractometry, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electronic microscopy, transmission electronic microscopy and compression tests. The results show that the designed alloys possess good glass forming ability and excellent mechanical properties. The mechanical properties of the samples can be effectively improved by regulating their composition. The monolithic amorphous rod of Cu 50 Zr 44 Ti 6 exhibits a high fracture strength of 1855 MPa and excellent plastic deformation up to ∼7.4%. The formation and propagation of shear bands in samples are also investigated. The enhancement of plastic deformation is mainly contributed to multiplication and intersection of shear bands

  11. Direct laser sintering of metal powders: Mechanism, kinetics and microstructural features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simchi, A.

    2006-01-01

    In the present work, the densification and microstructural evolution during direct laser sintering of metal powders were studied. Various ferrous powders including Fe, Fe-C, Fe-Cu, Fe-C-Cu-P, 316L stainless steel, and M2 high-speed steel were used. The empirical sintering rate data was related to the energy input of the laser beam according to the first order kinetics equation to establish a simple sintering model. The equation calculates the densification of metal powders during direct laser sintering process as a function of operating parameters including laser power, scan rate, layer thickness and scan line spacing. It was found that when melting/solidification approach is the mechanism of sintering, the densification of metals powders (D) can be expressed as an exponential function of laser specific energy input (ψ) as ln(1 - D) = -Kψ. The coefficient K is designated as 'densification coefficient'; a material dependent parameter that varies with chemical composition, powder particle size, and oxygen content of the powder material. The mechanism of particle bonding and microstructural features of the laser sintered powders are addressed

  12. Bio-recovery of non-essential heavy metals by intra- and extracellular mechanisms in free-living microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-García, Jorge D; Sánchez-Thomas, Rosina; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Free-living microorganisms may become suitable models for recovery of non-essential and essential heavy metals from wastewater bodies and soils by using and enhancing their accumulating and/or leaching abilities. This review analyzes the variety of different mechanisms developed mainly in bacteria, protists and microalgae to accumulate heavy metals, being the most relevant those involving phytochelatin and metallothionein biosyntheses; phosphate/polyphosphate metabolism; compartmentalization of heavy metal-complexes into vacuoles, chloroplasts and mitochondria; and secretion of malate and other organic acids. Cyanide biosynthesis for extra-cellular heavy metal bioleaching is also examined. These metabolic/cellular processes are herein analyzed at the transcriptional, kinetic and metabolic levels to provide mechanistic basis for developing genetically engineered microorganisms with greater capacities and efficiencies for heavy metal recovery, recycling of heavy metals, biosensing of metal ions, and engineering of metalloenzymes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Jacking mechanism for upper internals structure of a liquid metal nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillett, J.E.; Wineman, A.L.

    1983-01-01

    A jacking mechanism for raising the upper internals structure of a liquid metal nuclear reactor which jacking mechanism uses a system of gears and drive shafts to transmit force from a single motor to four mechanically synchronized ball jacks to raise and lower support columns which support the upper internals structure. The support columns each have a pin which rides in a slot in a housing fixed to the reactor head. The pin has two locking plates which can be rotated around the pin to bring the locking plates into engagement with the housing in a raised or a lowered position of the support column such that the support column is then supported by the locking plate and not by the ball screw jacks. (author)

  14. Mechanical instability in non-uniform atomic structure: Application to amorphous metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umeno, Yoshitaka; Kitamura, Takayuki; Tagawa, Motoki

    2007-01-01

    It is important to reveal the deformation of amorphous metal in the atomistic scale level as materials with non-crystal structure have been attracting attention with their prominent functions. In this paper atomistic simulations of tensile deformation of an amorphous model are conducted and local mechanical instability is analyzed to clarify the deformation mechanism of the amorphous structure. Instability causing sharp stress drop is associated with unstable motion of atoms within local region. The size of the region where the unstable atomic motion occurs corresponds to the magnitude of total stress decrease. At instability with large stress decrease the deformation at the onset of the instability propagates to surrounding region, which gives rise to a hysteresis loop in the stress-strain relation. This manifests the microscopic mechanism of the plasticity of amorphous structure

  15. Manipulating Conduction in Metal Oxide Semiconductors: Mechanism Investigation and Conductance Tuning in Doped Fe2O3 Hematite and Metal/Ga2O3/Metal Heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo

    This study aims at understanding the fundamental mechanisms of conduction in several metal oxide semiconductors, namely alpha-Fe2O 3 and beta-Ga2O3, and how it could be tuned to desired values/states to enable a wide range of application. In the first effort, by adding Ti dopant, we successfully turned Fe2O3 from insulating to conductive by fabricated compositionally and structurally well-defined epitaxial alpha-(TixFe1-x)2 O3(0001) films for x ≤ 0.09. All films were grown by oxygen plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy on Al2O3(0001) sapphire substrate with a buffer layer of Cr2O3 to relax the strain from lattice mismatch. Van der Pauw resistivity and Hall effect measurements reveal carrier concentrations between 1019 and 1020 cm-3 at room temperature and mobilities in the range of 0.1 to 0.6 cm2/V˙s. Such low mobility, unlike conventional band-conduction semiconductor, was attributed to hopping mechanism due to strong electron-phonon interaction in the lattice. More interestingly, conduction mechanism transitions from small-polaron hopping at higher temperatures to variable range hopping at lower temperatures with a transition temperature between 180 to 140 K. Consequently, by adding Ti dopant, conductive Fe 2O3 hematite thin films were achieved with a well-understood conducting mechanism that could guide further device application such as spin transistor and water splitting. In the case of Ga2O3, while having a band gap as high as 5 eV, they are usually conductive for commercially available samples due to unintentional Si doping. However, we discovered the conductance could be repeatedly switched between high resistance state and low resistance state when made into metal/Ga2O3 /metal heterostructure. However, to obtain well controlled switching process with consistent switching voltages and resistances, understanding switching mechanism is the key. In this study, we fabricated resistive switching devices utilizing a Ni/Ga2O3/Ir heterostructure. Bipolar

  16. Mechanism of optical unidirectional transmission in subwavelength dual-metal gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, H.; Zheng, Z. Y.; Hao, H. Y.; Dong, A. G.; Fan, Z. J.; Liu, D. H.

    2014-03-01

    The mechanism of optical unidirectional (OUD) transmission in parallel subwavelength dual-metal gratings was investigated. It was found that this kind of OUD phenomenon originates from the coupling of the surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) between the front grating and a layer of metal film which replaces the rear grating. The higher the intensity of the coupled SPPs at the entrances of the rear grating, the higher the transmittance can be achieved. Basing on this property, an effective OUD example was achieved by exploring the intensity difference at the entrances of the rear gratings between the two incidences of opposite directions. In this kind of OUD, the positive transmittance can exceed 80 % and the difference between the transmittances of the two opposite directions can be as large as 63 %. The detailed design process was also presented.

  17. Nanotribological behavior analysis of graphene/metal nanocomposites via MD simulations: New concepts and underlying mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazeri, A.; Mobarghei, A.

    2018-04-01

    In this article, we report a series of MD-based nanoindentation tests aimed to examine the nanotribological characteristics of metal-based nanocomposites in the presence of graphene sheets. To evaluate the effects of graphene/matrix interactions on the results, nickel and copper are selected as metals having strong and weak interactions with graphene, respectively. Consequently, the influence of graphene layers sliding and their distance from the sample surface on the nanoindentation outputs is thoroughly examined. Additionally, the temperature dependence of the results is deeply investigated with emphasis on the underlying mechanisms. To verify the accuracy of nanoindentation outputs, results of this method are compared with the data obtained via the tensile test. It is concluded that the nanoindentation results are closer to the values obtained by means of experimental setups. Employing these numerical-based experiments enables us to perform parametric studies to find out the dominant factors affecting the nanotribological behavior of these nanocomposites at the atomic-scale.

  18. Mechanical properties test data of Alloy 718 for liquid metal fast breeder reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korth, G.E.

    1983-01-01

    Mechanical property test data are reported for Alloy 718 with two heat treatments: conventional heat treatment (CHT) for base metal and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) heat treatment (IHT) for base and weld metal. Tests were conducted in air from 24 to 704 degree C and include elastic properties (Young's modulus, shear modulus, Poisson's ratio), tensile properties, creep-rupture properties, fatigue properties, creep-fatigue properties, and Charpy impact behavior. Effects of long term thermal aging at 538, 593, 649, and 704 degree C for times to 25,000 h are also reported for CHT material (tensile, creep-rupture, fatigue, and Charpy), and IHT material (tensile, and Charpy). 18 refs., 63 figs., 36 tabs

  19. Mechanical and magnetic properties of semi-Heusler/light-metal composites consolidated by spark plasma sintering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koller, M.; Chráska, Tomáš; Cinert, Jakub; Heczko, Oleg; Kopeček, Jaromír; Landa, Michal; Mušálek, Radek; Rameš, Michal; Seiner, Hanuš; Stráský, J.; Janeček, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 126, July (2017), s. 351-357 ISSN 0264-1275 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36566G Institutional support: RVO:61389021 ; RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61388998 Keywords : Metal–metal composites * Spark plasma sintering * Light metals * Ferromagnetic alloys * Mechanical properties Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials; JI - Composite Materials (FZU-D); JI - Composite Materials (UT-L) OBOR OECD: Composites (including laminates, reinforced plastics, cermets, combined natural and synthetic fibre fabrics; Composites (including laminates, reinforced plastics, cermets, combined natural and synthetic fibre fabrics (FZU-D); Composites (including laminates, reinforced plastics, cermets, combined natural and synthetic fibre fabrics (UT-L) Impact factor: 4.364, year: 2016 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ article /pii/S0264127517303842?via%3Dih

  20. Thermo-mechanical properties and integrity of metallic interconnects in microelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ege, Efe Sinan

    In this dissertation, combined numerical (Finite Element Method) and experimental efforts were undertaken to study thermo-mechanical behavior in microelectronic devices. Interconnects, including chip-level metallization and package-level solder joints, are used to join many of the circuit parts in modern equipment. The dissertation is structured into six independent studies after the introductory chapter. The first two studies focus on thermo-mechanical fatigue of solder joints. Thermo-mechanical fatigue, in the form of damage along a microstructurally coarsened region in tin-lead solder, is analyzed along with the effects of intermetallic morphology. Also, lap-shear testing is modeled to characterize the joint and to investigate the validity of experimental data from different solder and substrate geometries. In the third study, the effects of pre-machined holes on strain localization and overall ductility in bulk eutectic tin-lead alloy is examined. Finite element analyses, taking into account the viscoplastic response, were carried out to provide a mechanistic rationale to corroborate the experimental findings. The fourth study concerns chip-level copper interconnects. Various combinations of oxide and polymer-based low-k dielectric schemes, with and without the thin barrier layers surrounding the Cu line, are considered. Attention is devoted to the thermal stress and strain fields and their dependency on material properties, geometry, and modeling details. This study is followed by a chapter on atomistics of interface-mediated plasticity in thin metallic films. The objective is to gain fundamental insight into the underlying mechanisms affecting the mechanical response of nanoscale thin films. The final study investigates the effect of microstructural heterogeneity on indentation response, for the purpose of raising awareness of the uncertainties involved in applying indentation techniques in probing mechanical properties of miniaturized devices.

  1. High temperature oxidation of metals: vacancy injection and consequences on the mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perusin, S.

    2004-11-01

    The aim of this work is to account for the effects of the high temperature oxidation of metals on their microstructure and their mechanical properties. 'Model' materials like pure nickel, pure iron and the Ni-20Cr alloy are studied. Nickel foils have been oxidised at 1000 C on one side only in laboratory air, the other side being protected from oxidation by a reducing atmosphere. After the oxidation treatment, the unoxidized face was carefully examined by using an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). Grain boundaries grooves were characterised and their depth were compared to the ones obtained on the same sample heat treated in the reducing atmosphere during the same time. They are found to be much deeper in the case of the single side oxidised samples. It is shown that this additional grooving is directly linked to the growth of the oxide scale on the opposite side and that it can be explained by the diffusion of the vacancies produced at the oxide scale - metal interface, across the entire sample through grain boundaries. Moreover, the comparison between single side oxidised samples and samples oxidised on both sides points out that voids in grain boundaries are only observed in this latter case proving the vacancies condensation in the metal when the two faces are oxidised. The role of the carbon content and the sample's geometry on this phenomenon is examined in detail. The diffusion of vacancies is coupled with the transport of oxygen so that a mechanism of oxygen transport by vacancies is suggested. The tensile tests realised at room temperature on nickel foils (bamboo microstructure) show that the oxide scale can constitute a barrier to the emergence of dislocations at the metal surface. Finally, the Ni-20Cr alloy is tested in tensile and creep tests between 25 and 825 C in oxidising or reducing atmospheres. (author)

  2. Understanding the molecular mechanism of pulse current charging for stable lithium-metal batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Tan, Shen; Li, Linlin; Lu, Yingying; He, Yi

    2017-01-01

    High energy and safe electrochemical storage are critical components in multiple emerging fields of technologies. Rechargeable lithium-metal batteries are considered to be promising alternatives for current lithium-ion batteries, leading to as much as a 10-fold improvement in anode storage capacity (from 372 to 3860 mAh g−1). One of the major challenges for commercializing lithium-metal batteries is the reliability and safety issue, which is often associated with uneven lithium electrodeposition (lithium dendrites) during the charging stage of the battery cycling process. We report that stable lithium-metal batteries can be achieved by simply charging cells with square-wave pulse current. We investigated the effects of charging period and frequency as well as the mechanisms that govern this process at the molecular level. Molecular simulations were performed to study the diffusion and the solvation structure of lithium cations (Li+) in bulk electrolyte. The model predicts that loose association between cations and anions can enhance the transport of Li+ and eventually stabilize the lithium electrodeposition. We also performed galvanostatic measurements to evaluate the cycling behavior and cell lifetime under pulsed electric field and found that the cell lifetime can be more than doubled using certain pulse current waveforms. Both experimental and simulation results demonstrate that the effectiveness of pulse current charging on dendrite suppression can be optimized by choosing proper time- and frequency-dependent pulses. This work provides a molecular basis for understanding the mechanisms of pulse current charging to mitigating lithium dendrites and designing pulse current waveforms for stable lithium-metal batteries. PMID:28776039

  3. Heavy metals (Pb, Cd, As and MeHg) as risk factors for cognitive dysfunction: A general review of metal mixture mechanism in brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karri, Venkatanaidu; Schuhmacher, Marta; Kumar, Vikas

    2016-12-01

    Human exposure to toxic heavy metals is a global challenge. Concurrent exposure of heavy metals, such as lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As) and methylmercury (MeHg) are particularly important due to their long lasting effects on the brain. The exact toxicological mechanisms invoked by exposure to mixtures of the metals Pb, Cd, As and MeHg are still unclear, however they share many common pathways for causing cognitive dysfunction. The combination of metals may produce additive/synergetic effects due to their common binding affinity with NMDA receptor (Pb, As, MeHg), Na + - K + ATP-ase pump (Cd, MeHg), biological Ca +2 (Pb, Cd, MeHg), Glu neurotransmitter (Pb, MeHg), which can lead to imbalance between the pro-oxidant elements (ROS) and the antioxidants (reducing elements). In this process, ROS dominates the antioxidants factors such as GPx, GS, GSH, MT-III, Catalase, SOD, BDNF, and CERB, and finally leads to cognitive dysfunction. The present review illustrates an account of the current knowledge about the individual metal induced cognitive dysfunction mechanisms and analyse common Mode of Actions (MOAs) of quaternary metal mixture (Pb, Cd, As, MeHg). This review aims to help advancement in mixture toxicology and development of next generation predictive model (such as PBPK/PD) combining both kinetic and dynamic interactions of metals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of the metallic glass volume fraction on the mechanical properties of Zr-based metallic glass reinforced with porous W composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, X.Q.; Wang, L.; Xue, Y.F.; Cheng, X.W.; Wang, Y.D.; Nie, Z.H.; Zhang, H.F.; Fu, H.M.; Ma, L.L.; Ren, Y.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanical properties of both as-cast and as-extruded Zr-based metallic glass reinforced with tungsten composites with 33, 28, and 21 vol. % of metallic glass were investigated under quasi-static compression at strain rates from 10 −4 s −1 to 10 −1 s −1 . These two types of composites exhibited a strain rate sensitivity exponent that increased with the increase of the tungsten volume fraction. Compared to the composites with 33 and 21 vol. % of the metallic glass, the two types of composites with 28 vol. % of the metallic glass phase exhibited superior fracture energies. The in-situ compression test on the as-cast composites using high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction (HEXRD) revealed that the yield stress of the tungsten phase increased with a decrease in the metallic glass volume fraction. The as-cast composite with 28 vol. % of the metallic glass exhibited relatively great mechanical properties compared to the composites that contained 33 and 21 vol. % of the metallic glass. This result was attributed to the great coupling of the load distribution between the two phases and the high lattice strain in the tungsten phase.

  5. Border Injuries: An Analysis of Prehospital Demographics, Mechanisms, and Patterns of Injuries Encountered by USBP EMS Agents in the El Paso (Texas USA) Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Russell A

    2017-08-01

    Study Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate Emergency Medical Services (EMS), use, injury mechanisms, prehospital assessments, and injuries among those receiving aid from the United States Border Patrol (USBP) in the El Paso (Texas USA) Sector. This is a time-series, retrospective analysis of all prehospital data for injuries among patients receiving care from USBP EMS on the US Mexico border in the El Paso sector from February 6, 2014 to February 6, 2016. A total of 473 documented EMS encounters occurred in this two-year period and demonstrated a male gender predominance (male 63%; female 37%) with the most prominent ages between 22-40 years old. The most prevalent EMS call types were medical (55%) and trauma (42%). The most common chief complaints were an injured or painful extremity (35%) and rash (13%). The most common USBP EMS provider primary impression was traumatic injury (34%), followed by fever/infection (17%) and extremity injury (7%); however, the most common secondary impression was also extremity injury (20%). The most common mechanism of injury was fall (26%) and motor vehicle accident (MVA; 22%). The USBP EMS was the first provider on scene in 96% of the MVAs. The author reports on injury patterns, mechanisms, chief complaints, EMS impressions, as well as demographics of patients reporting to USBP EMS. A knowledge of these injury patterns will be useful to EMS administrators and physicians along the US Mexico border. Baker RA . Border injuries: an analysis of prehospital demographics, mechanisms, and patterns of injuries encountered by USBP EMS agents in the El Paso (Texas USA) Sector. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(4):431-436.

  6. Mechanical characterization of SiC particulate & E-glass fiber reinforced Al 3003 hybrid metal matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana, K. S. Lakshmi; Shivanand, H. K.

    2018-04-01

    Metal matrix composites constitute a class of low cost high quality materials which offer high performance for various industrial applications. The orientation of this research is towards the study of mechanical properties of as cast silicon carbide (SiC) particulates and Short E-Glass fibers reinforced Aluminum matrix composites (AMCs). The Hybrid metal matrix composite is developed by reinforcing SiC particulates of 100 microns and short E-Glass fibers of 2-3 mm length with Al 3003 in different compositions. The vortex method of stir casting was employed, in which the reinforcements were introduced into the vortex created by the molten metal by means of mechanical stirrer. The mechanical properties of the prepared metal matrix composites were analyzed. From the studies it was noticed that an improvement in mechanical properties of the reinforced alloys compared to unreinforced alloys.

  7. Agriculture Sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agriculture sectors comprise establishments primarily engaged in growing crops, raising animals, and harvesting fish and other animals. Find information on compliance, enforcement and guidance on EPA laws and regulations on the NAICS 111 & 112 sectors.

  8. Research Update: Mechanical properties of metal-organic frameworks – Influence of structure and chemical bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs, a young family of functional materials, have been attracting considerable attention from the chemistry, materials science, and physics communities. In the light of their potential applications in industry and technology, the fundamental mechanical properties of MOFs, which are of critical importance for manufacturing, processing, and performance, need to be addressed and understood. It has been widely accepted that the framework topology, which describes the overall connectivity pattern of the MOF building units, is of vital importance for the mechanical properties. However, recent advances in the area of MOF mechanics reveal that chemistry plays a major role as well. From the viewpoint of materials science, a deep understanding of the influence of chemical effects on MOF mechanics is not only highly desirable for the development of novel functional materials with targeted mechanical response, but also for a better understanding of important properties such as structural flexibility and framework breathing. The present work discusses the intrinsic connection between chemical effects and the mechanical behavior of MOFs through a number of prototypical examples.

  9. Research Update: Mechanical properties of metal-organic frameworks - Influence of structure and chemical bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Henke, Sebastian; Cheetham, Anthony K.

    2014-12-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), a young family of functional materials, have been attracting considerable attention from the chemistry, materials science, and physics communities. In the light of their potential applications in industry and technology, the fundamental mechanical properties of MOFs, which are of critical importance for manufacturing, processing, and performance, need to be addressed and understood. It has been widely accepted that the framework topology, which describes the overall connectivity pattern of the MOF building units, is of vital importance for the mechanical properties. However, recent advances in the area of MOF mechanics reveal that chemistry plays a major role as well. From the viewpoint of materials science, a deep understanding of the influence of chemical effects on MOF mechanics is not only highly desirable for the development of novel functional materials with targeted mechanical response, but also for a better understanding of important properties such as structural flexibility and framework breathing. The present work discusses the intrinsic connection between chemical effects and the mechanical behavior of MOFs through a number of prototypical examples.

  10. A general mechanism for intracellular toxicity of metal-containing nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabella, Stefania; Carney, Randy P.; Brunetti, Virgilio; Malvindi, Maria Ada; Al-Juffali, Noura; Vecchio, Giuseppe; Janes, Sam M.; Bakr, Osman M.; Cingolani, Roberto; Stellacci, Francesco; Pompa, Pier Paolo

    2014-05-01

    The assessment of the risks exerted by nanoparticles is a key challenge for academic, industrial, and regulatory communities worldwide. Experimental evidence points towards significant toxicity for a range of nanoparticles both in vitro and in vivo. Worldwide efforts aim at uncovering the underlying mechanisms for this toxicity. Here, we show that the intracellular ion release elicited by the acidic conditions of the lysosomal cellular compartment - where particles are abundantly internalized - is responsible for the cascading events associated with nanoparticles-induced intracellular toxicity. We call this mechanism a ``lysosome-enhanced Trojan horse effect'' since, in the case of nanoparticles, the protective cellular machinery designed to degrade foreign objects is actually responsible for their toxicity. To test our hypothesis, we compare the toxicity of similar gold particles whose main difference is in the internalization pathways. We show that particles known to pass directly through cell membranes become more toxic when modified so as to be mostly internalized by endocytosis. Furthermore, using experiments with chelating and lysosomotropic agents, we found that the toxicity mechanism for different metal containing NPs (such as metallic, metal oxide, and semiconductor NPs) is mainly associated with the release of the corresponding toxic ions. Finally, we show that particles unable to release toxic ions (such as stably coated NPs, or diamond and silica NPs) are not harmful to intracellular environments.The assessment of the risks exerted by nanoparticles is a key challenge for academic, industrial, and regulatory communities worldwide. Experimental evidence points towards significant toxicity for a range of nanoparticles both in vitro and in vivo. Worldwide efforts aim at uncovering the underlying mechanisms for this toxicity. Here, we show that the intracellular ion release elicited by the acidic conditions of the lysosomal cellular compartment - where

  11. Synthetically chemical-electrical mechanism for controlling large scale reversible deformation of liquid metal objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Sheng, Lei; Liu, Jing

    2014-11-01

    Reversible deformation of a machine holds enormous promise across many scientific areas ranging from mechanical engineering to applied physics. So far, such capabilities are still hard to achieve through conventional rigid materials or depending mainly on elastomeric materials, which however own rather limited performances and require complicated manipulations. Here, we show a basic strategy which is fundamentally different from the existing ones to realize large scale reversible deformation through controlling the working materials via the synthetically chemical-electrical mechanism (SCHEME). Such activity incorporates an object of liquid metal gallium whose surface area could spread up to five times of its original size and vice versa under low energy consumption. Particularly, the alterable surface tension based on combination of chemical dissolution and electrochemical oxidation is ascribed to the reversible shape transformation, which works much more flexible than many former deformation principles through converting electrical energy into mechanical movement. A series of very unusual phenomena regarding the reversible configurational shifts are disclosed with dominant factors clarified. This study opens a generalized way to combine the liquid metal serving as shape-variable element with the SCHEME to compose functional soft machines, which implies huge potential for developing future smart robots to fulfill various complicated tasks.

  12. Mechanically durable underwater superoleophobic surfaces based on hydrophilic bulk metals for oil/water separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huadong; Lian, Zhongxu; Xu, Jinkai; Wan, Yanling; Wang, Zuobin; Li, Yiquan; Yu, Zhanjiang; Weng, Zhankun

    2018-04-01

    Despite the success of previous methods for fabricating underwater superoleophobic surfaces, most of the surfaces based on soft materials are prone to collapse and deformation due to their mechanically fragile nature, and they fail to perform their designed functions after the surface materials are damaged in water. In this work, the nanosecond laser-induced oxide coatings on hydrophilic bulk metals are reported which overcomes the limitation and shows the robust underwater superoleophobicity to a mechanical challenge encountered by surfaces deployed in water environment. The results show that the surface materials have the advantage that the underwater superoleophobicity is still preserved after the surfaces are scratched by knife or sandpaper and even completely destroyed because of the hydrophilic property of damaged materials in water. It is important that the results provide a guide for the design of durable underwater superoleophobic surfaces, and the development of superoleophobic materials in many potential applications such as the oil-repellent and the oil/water separation. Additionally, the nanosecond laser technology is simple, cost-effective and suitable for the large-area and mass fabrication of mechanically durable underwater superoleophobic metal materials.

  13. Combined quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical method for metal-organic frameworks: proton topologies of NU-1000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xin-Ping; Gagliardi, Laura; Truhlar, Donald G

    2018-01-17

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are materials with applications in catalysis, gas separations, and storage. Quantum mechanical (QM) calculations can provide valuable guidance to understand and predict their properties. In order to make the calculations faster, rather than modeling these materials as periodic (infinite) systems, it is useful to construct finite models (called cluster models) and use subsystem methods such as fragment methods or combined quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical (QM/MM) methods. Here we employ a QM/MM methodology to study one particular MOF that has been of widespread interest because of its wide pores and good solvent and thermal stability, namely NU-1000, which contains hexanuclear zirconium nodes and 1,3,6,8-tetrakis(p-benzoic acid)pyrene (TBAPy 4- ) linkers. A modified version of the Bristow-Tiana-Walsh transferable force field has been developed to allow QM/MM calculations on NU-1000; we call the new parametrization the NU1T force field. We consider isomeric structures corresponding to various proton topologies of the [Zr 6 (μ 3 -O) 8 O 8 H 16 ] 8+ node of NU-1000, and we compute their relative energies using a QM/MM scheme designed for the present kind of problem. We compared the results to full quantum mechanical (QM) energy calculations and found that the QM/MM models can reproduce the full QM relative energetics (which span a range of 334 kJ mol -1 ) with a mean unsigned deviation (MUD) of only 2 kJ mol -1 . Furthermore, we found that the structures optimized by QM/MM are nearly identical to their full QM optimized counterparts.

  14. Corrosion-electrochemical and mechanical properties of aluminium-berylium alloys alloyed by rare-earth metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safarov, A.M.; Odinaev, Kh.E.; Shukroev, M.Sh.; Saidov, R.Kh.

    1997-01-01

    In order to study influence of rare earth metals on corrosion-electrochemical and mechanical properties of aluminium-berylium alloys the alloys contain 1 mass % beryllium and different amount of rare earth metals were obtained.-electrochemical and mechanical properties of aluminium-berylium alloys. The electrochemical characteristics of obtained alloys, including stationary potential, potentials of passivation beginning and full passivation, potentials of pitting formation and re passivation were defined.

  15. Concurrent material-fabrication optimization of metal-matrix laminates under thermo-mechanical loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanos, D. A.; Morel, M. R.; Chamis, C. C.

    1991-01-01

    A methodology is developed to tailor fabrication and material parameters of metal-matrix laminates for maximum loading capacity under thermomechanical loads. The stresses during the thermomechanical response are minimized subject to failure constrains and bounds on the laminate properties. The thermomechanical response of the laminate is simulated using nonlinear composite mechanics. Evaluations of the method on a graphite/copper symmetric cross-ply laminate were performed. The cross-ply laminate required different optimum fabrication procedures than a unidirectional composite. Also, the consideration of the thermomechanical cycle had a significant effect on the predicted optimal process.

  16. Observation of a New Mechanism Balancing Hardening and Softening in Metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Tianbo; Hansen, Niels; Huang, Xiaoxu

    2014-01-01

    Plastic deformation of metals refines the microstructure and increases the strength through work hardening, but this effect of deformation is counterbalanced by dynamic recovery. After large strain, the microstructure typically shows a lamellar morphology, with finely spaced lamellar boundaries...... connected by triple junctions. Here, we report that mechanically assisted triple junction motion is an important contributor to dynamic recovery, leading to an almost steady state. Triple junction motion replaces two boundaries by one, while maintaining the structural morphology. The observation...... rationalizes both a decreasing work hardening rate and the approach to a dynamic equilibrium of structural refinement at large strains....

  17. Mechanical properties of metal-organic frameworks: An indentation study on epitaxial thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundschuh, S.; Kraft, O.; Arslan, H. K.; Gliemann, H.; Weidler, P. G.; Wöll, C.

    2012-09-01

    We have determined the hardness and Young's modulus of a highly porous metal-organic framework (MOF) using a standard nanoindentation technique. Despite the very low density of these films, 1.22 g cm-3, Young's modulus reaches values of almost 10 GPa for HKUST-1, demonstrating that this porous coordination polymer is substantially stiffer than normal polymers. This progress in characterizing mechanical properties of MOFs has been made possible by the use of high quality, oriented thin films grown using liquid phase epitaxy on modified Au substrates.

  18. Understanding the Mechanical forces of Self-Expandable Metal Stents in the Biliary Ducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isayama, Hiroyuki; Nakai, Yousuke; Hamada, Tsuyoshi; Matsubara, Saburo; Kogure, Hirofumi; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2016-12-01

    Self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) was an effective biliary endoprosthesis. Mechanical properties of SEMS, radial and axial force (RF, AF), may play important roles in the bile duct after placement. RF was well known dilation force and influenced on the occurrence of migration. AF, newly proposed by this author, was defined as the recovery force when the SEMS vended. AF was related with the cause of bile duct kinking, pancreatitis, and cholecystitis due to the compression of the bile duct, orifice of the cystic duct, and pancreatic orifice. Ideal SEMS may show high RF and low AF.

  19. Application of High-Density Electropulsing to Improve the Performance of Metallic Materials: Mechanisms, Microstructure and Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinying Sheng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The technology of high-density electropulsing has been applied to increase the performance of metallic materials since the 1990s and has shown significant advantages over traditional heat treatment in many aspects. However, the microstructure changes in electropulsing treatment (EPT metals and alloys have not been fully explored, and the effects vary significantly on different material. When high-density electrical pulses are applied to metals and alloys, the input of electric energy and thermal energy generally leads to structural rearrangements, such as dynamic recrystallization, dislocation movements and grain refinement. The enhanced mechanical properties of the metals and alloys after high-density electropulsing treatment are reflected by the significant improvement of elongation. As a result, this technology holds great promise in improving the deformation limit and repairing cracks and defects in the plastic processing of metals. This review summarizes the effect of high-density electropulsing treatment on microstructural properties and, thus, the enhancement in mechanical strength, hardness and corrosion performance of metallic materials. It is noteworthy that the change of some properties can be related to the structure state before EPT (quenched, annealed, deformed or others. The mechanisms for the microstructural evolution, grain refinement and formation of oriented microstructures of different metals and alloys are presented. Future research trends of high-density electrical pulse technology for specific metals and alloys are highlighted.

  20. Application of High-Density Electropulsing to Improve the Performance of Metallic Materials: Mechanisms, Microstructure and Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Yinying; Hua, Youlu; Wang, Xiaojian; Zhao, Xueyang; Chen, Lianxi; Zhou, Hanyu; Wang, James; Berndt, Christopher C; Li, Wei

    2018-01-24

    The technology of high-density electropulsing has been applied to increase the performance of metallic materials since the 1990s and has shown significant advantages over traditional heat treatment in many aspects. However, the microstructure changes in electropulsing treatment (EPT) metals and alloys have not been fully explored, and the effects vary significantly on different material. When high-density electrical pulses are applied to metals and alloys, the input of electric energy and thermal energy generally leads to structural rearrangements, such as dynamic recrystallization, dislocation movements and grain refinement. The enhanced mechanical properties of the metals and alloys after high-density electropulsing treatment are reflected by the significant improvement of elongation. As a result, this technology holds great promise in improving the deformation limit and repairing cracks and defects in the plastic processing of metals. This review summarizes the effect of high-density electropulsing treatment on microstructural properties and, thus, the enhancement in mechanical strength, hardness and corrosion performance of metallic materials. It is noteworthy that the change of some properties can be related to the structure state before EPT (quenched, annealed, deformed or others). The mechanisms for the microstructural evolution, grain refinement and formation of oriented microstructures of different metals and alloys are presented. Future research trends of high-density electrical pulse technology for specific metals and alloys are highlighted.

  1. Application of High-Density Electropulsing to Improve the Performance of Metallic Materials: Mechanisms, Microstructure and Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Yinying; Hua, Youlu; Zhao, Xueyang; Chen, Lianxi; Zhou, Hanyu; Wang, James; Berndt, Christopher C.; Li, Wei

    2018-01-01

    The technology of high-density electropulsing has been applied to increase the performance of metallic materials since the 1990s and has shown significant advantages over traditional heat treatment in many aspects. However, the microstructure changes in electropulsing treatment (EPT) metals and alloys have not been fully explored, and the effects vary significantly on different material. When high-density electrical pulses are applied to metals and alloys, the input of electric energy and thermal energy generally leads to structural rearrangements, such as dynamic recrystallization, dislocation movements and grain refinement. The enhanced mechanical properties of the metals and alloys after high-density electropulsing treatment are reflected by the significant improvement of elongation. As a result, this technology holds great promise in improving the deformation limit and repairing cracks and defects in the plastic processing of metals. This review summarizes the effect of high-density electropulsing treatment on microstructural properties and, thus, the enhancement in mechanical strength, hardness and corrosion performance of metallic materials. It is noteworthy that the change of some properties can be related to the structure state before EPT (quenched, annealed, deformed or others). The mechanisms for the microstructural evolution, grain refinement and formation of oriented microstructures of different metals and alloys are presented. Future research trends of high-density electrical pulse technology for specific metals and alloys are highlighted. PMID:29364844

  2. Measurement of mechanical properties of metallic glass at elevated temperature using sonic resonance method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluvan, Suresh; Zhang, Haifeng; Mridha, Sanghita; Mukherjee, Sundeep

    2017-04-01

    Bulk metallic glasses are fully amorphous multi-component alloys with homogeneous and isotropic structure down to the atomic scale. Some attractive attributes of bulk metallic glasses include high strength and hardness as well as excellent corrosion and wear resistance. However, there are few reports and limited understanding of their mechanical properties at elevated temperatures. We used a nondestructive sonic resonance method to measure the Young's modulus and Shear modulus of a bulk metallic glass, Zr41.2Ti13.8Cu12.5Ni10Be22.5, at elevated temperatures. The measurement system was designed using a laser displacement sensor to detect the sonic vibration produced by a speaker on the specimen in high-temperature furnace. The OMICRON Bode-100 Vector Network Analyzer was used to sweep the frequency and its output was connected to the speaker which vibrated the material in its flexural mode and torsional modes. A Polytec OFV-505 laser vibrometer sensor was used to capture the vibration of the material at various frequencies. The flexural and torsional mode frequency shift due to the temperature variation was used to determine the Young's modulus and Shear modulus. The temperature range of measurement was from 50°C to 350°C. The Young's modulus was found to reduce from 100GPa to 94GPa for the 300°C temperature span. Similarly, the Shear modulus decreased from 38.5GPa at 50°C to 36GPa at 350°C.

  3. The heavy metal paradox in arbuscular mycorrhizas: from mechanisms to biotechnological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrol, Nuria; Tamayo, Elisabeth; Vargas, Paola

    2016-12-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses that involve most plants and Glomeromycota fungi are integral and functional parts of plant roots. In these associations, the fungi not only colonize the root cortex but also maintain an extensive network of hyphae that extend out of the root into the surrounding environment. These external hyphae contribute to plant uptake of low mobility nutrients, such as P, Zn, and Cu. Besides improving plant mineral nutrition, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can alleviate heavy metal (HM) toxicity to their host plants. HMs, such as Cu, Zn, Fe, and Mn, play essential roles in many biological processes but are toxic when present in excess. This makes their transport and homeostatic control of particular importance to all living organisms. AMF play an important role in modulating plant HM acquisition in a wide range of soil metal concentrations and have been considered to be a key element in the improvement of micronutrient concentrations in crops and in the phytoremediation of polluted soils. In the present review, we provide an overview of the contribution of AMF to plant HM acquisition and performance under deficient and toxic HM conditions, and summarize current knowledge of metal homeostasis mechanisms in arbuscular mycorrhizas. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Diagnosis of the offer from the private sector in extrajudicial conciliation in law as settlement mechanism for intersubjective conflicts in the municipality of El Espinal – Tolima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaitán Reyes, Julián Andrés

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The extrajudicial conciliation procedures in law has been shown as the suitable method for the large number of qualified intersubjective conflicts; becoming as an effective and reliable tool that has all the advantages to be a justice that reconstructs the social fabric in essence; therefore, should be understood as a socio-legal institution. This paper shows the progress result of the research study that investigates the effectiveness of extrajudicial conciliation in law as a settlement mechanism for qualified intersubjective conflicts in the municipality of El Espinal - Tolima. For this matter, it was conducted a thorough study of the offer from the private sector in (notaries, Chamber of Commerce and Cooperative University of Colombia, branch El Espinal about extrajudicial conciliation in law in the municipality mentioned above. It was found that the extrajudicial conciliation in law in the offer from the private sector not only is the least known but also is barely used; likewise, it is poorly articulated with the rest of the offer. In order to strengthen the conciliation, it is relevant to divulge its importance as an effective instrument to solve conflicts and its articulation with the offer from the public sector in the municipality of Espinal.

  5. Gradient plasticity for thermo-mechanical processes in metals with length and time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyiadjis, George Z.; Faghihi, Danial

    2013-03-01

    A thermodynamically consistent framework is developed in order to characterize the mechanical and thermal behavior of metals in small volume and on the fast transient time. In this regard, an enhanced gradient plasticity theory is coupled with the application of a micromorphic approach to the temperature variable. A physically based yield function based on the concept of thermal activation energy and the dislocation interaction mechanisms including nonlinear hardening is taken into consideration in the derivation. The effect of the material microstructural interface between two materials is also incorporated in the formulation with both temperature and rate effects. In order to accurately address the strengthening and hardening mechanisms, the theory is developed based on the decomposition of the mechanical state variables into energetic and dissipative counterparts which endowed the constitutive equations to have both energetic and dissipative gradient length scales for the bulk material and the interface. Moreover, the microstructural interaction effect in the fast transient process is addressed by incorporating two time scales into the microscopic heat equation. The numerical example of thin film on elastic substrate or a single phase bicrystal under uniform tension is addressed here. The effects of individual counterparts of the framework on the thermal and mechanical responses are investigated. The model is also compared with experimental results.

  6. Mechanisms of Furfural Reduction on Metal Electrodes: Distinguishing Pathways for Selective Hydrogenation of Bioderived Oxygenates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadderdon, Xiaotong H.; Chadderdon, David J.; Matthiesen, John E.

    2017-01-01

    Electrochemical reduction of biomass-derived platform molecules is an emerging route for the sustainable production of fuels and chemicals. Understanding gaps between reaction conditions, underlying mechanisms, and product selectivity have limited the rational design of active, stable, and selective catalyst systems. Here, the mechanisms of electrochemical reduction of furfural, an important biobased platform molecule and model for aldehyde reduction, are explored through a combination of voltammetry, preparative electrolysis, thiol-electrode modifications, and kinetic isotope studies. It is demonstrated that two distinct mechanisms are operable on metallic Cu electrodes in acidic electrolytes: (i) electrocatalytic hydrogenation (ECH) and (ii) direct electroreduction. The contributions of each mechanism to the observed product distribution are clarified by evaluating the requirement for direct chemical interactions with the electrode surface and the role of adsorbed hydrogen. Further analysis reveals that hydrogenation and hydrogenolysis products are generated by parallel ECH pathways. By understanding the underlying mechanisms it enables the manipulation of furfural reduction by rationally tuning the electrode potential, electrolyte pH, and furfural concentration to promote selective formation of important biobased polymer precursors and fuels.

  7. Mechanisms of Furfural Reduction on Metal Electrodes: Distinguishing Pathways for Selective Hydrogenation of Bioderived Oxygenates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadderdon, Xiaotong H; Chadderdon, David J; Matthiesen, John E; Qiu, Yang; Carraher, Jack M; Tessonnier, Jean-Philippe; Li, Wenzhen

    2017-10-11

    Electrochemical reduction of biomass-derived platform molecules is an emerging route for the sustainable production of fuels and chemicals. However, understanding gaps between reaction conditions, underlying mechanisms, and product selectivity have limited the rational design of active, stable, and selective catalyst systems. In this work, the mechanisms of electrochemical reduction of furfural, an important biobased platform molecule and model for aldehyde reduction, are explored through a combination of voltammetry, preparative electrolysis, thiol-electrode modifications, and kinetic isotope studies. It is demonstrated that two distinct mechanisms are operable on metallic Cu electrodes in acidic electrolytes: (i) electrocatalytic hydrogenation (ECH) and (ii) direct electroreduction. The contributions of each mechanism to the observed product distribution are clarified by evaluating the requirement for direct chemical interactions with the electrode surface and the role of adsorbed hydrogen. Further analysis reveals that hydrogenation and hydrogenolysis products are generated by parallel ECH pathways. Understanding the underlying mechanisms enables the manipulation of furfural reduction by rationally tuning the electrode potential, electrolyte pH, and furfural concentration to promote selective formation of important biobased polymer precursors and fuels.

  8. Mechanical and corrosion behaviors of developed copper-based metal matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manvandra Kumar; Gautam, Rakesh Kumar; Prakash, Rajiv; Ji, Gopal

    2018-03-01

    This work investigates mechanical properties and corrosion resistances of cast copper-tungsten carbide (WC) metal matrix composites (MMCs). Copper matrix composites have been developed by stir casting technique. Different sizes of micro and nano particles of WC particles are utilized as reinforcement to prepare two copper-based composites, however, nano size of WC particles are prepared by high-energy ball milling. XRD (X-rays diffraction) characterize the materials for involvement of different phases. The mechanical behavior of composites has been studied by Vickers hardness test and compression test; while the corrosion behavior of developed composites is investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in 0.5 M H2SO4 solutions. The results show that hardness, compressive strength and corrosion resistance of copper matrix composites are very high in comparison to that of copper matrix, which attributed to the microstructural changes occurred during composite formation. SEM (Scanning electron microscopy) reveals the morphology of the corroded surfaces.

  9. Glass forming ability and mechanical properties of Zr50Cu42Al8 bulk metallic glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, L; Chan, K C; Wang, G; Liu, L

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we report that Zr 50 Cu 42 Al 8 bulk metallic glass (BMG) exhibits excellent glass forming ability and mechanical properties. Zr 50 Cu 42 Al 8 glassy rods with a diameter of 3 mm were prepared using conventional copper mould suction casting. The glassy rod exhibits a modulus of about 115 GPa and a fracture strength of about 2 GPa, and, as compared with other large-scale BMGs, it has excellent room-temperature plasticity of up to 20% under compression. The fracture mechanism of the rod was investigated by microstructural investigations, and it was found that the large plasticity of the as-cast rod is closely related to the in situ formation of nano-crystalline particles embedded in the amorphous matrix.

  10. Effect of continuum damage mechanics on spring back prediction in metal forming processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayebi, Ali; Shahabi, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    The influence of considering the variations in material properties was investigated through continuum damage mechanics according to the Lemaitre isotropic unified damage law to predict the bending force and spring back in V-bending sheet metal forming processes, with emphasis on Finite element (FE) simulation considerations. The material constants of the damage model were calibrated through a uniaxial tensile test with an appropriate and convenient repeating strategy. Holloman’s isotropic and Ziegler’s linear kinematic hardening laws were employed to describe the behavior of a hardening material. To specify the ideal FE conditions for simulating spring back, the effect of the various numerical considerations during FE simulation was investigated and compared with the experimental outcome. Results indicate that considering continuum damage mechanics decreased the predicted bending force and improved the accuracy of spring back prediction.

  11. Mechanical tunability via hydrogen bonding in metal-organic frameworks with the perovskite architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Thirumurugan, A; Barton, Phillip T; Lin, Zheshuai; Henke, Sebastian; Yeung, Hamish H-M; Wharmby, Michael T; Bithell, Erica G; Howard, Christopher J; Cheetham, Anthony K

    2014-06-04

    Two analogous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with the perovskite architecture, [C(NH2)3][Mn(HCOO)3] (1) and [(CH2)3NH2][Mn(HCOO)3] (2), exhibit significantly different mechanical properties. The marked difference is attributed to their distinct modes of hydrogen bonding between the A-site amine cation and the anionic framework. The stronger cross-linking hydrogen bonding in 1 gives rise to Young's moduli and hardnesses that are up to twice those in 2, while the thermal expansion is substantially smaller. This study presents clear evidence that the mechanical properties of MOF materials can be substantially tuned via hydrogen-bonding interactions.

  12. Thermal and mechanical behavior of metal matrix and ceramic matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, John M. (Editor); Moeller, Helen H. (Editor); Johnson, W. S. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The present conference discusses local stresses in metal-matrix composites (MMCs) subjected to thermal and mechanical loads, the computational simulation of high-temperature MMCs' cyclic behavior, an analysis of a ceramic-matrix composite (CMC) flexure specimen, and a plasticity analysis of fibrous composite laminates under thermomechanical loads. Also discussed are a comparison of methods for determining the fiber-matrix interface frictional stresses of CMCs, the monotonic and cyclic behavior of an SiC/calcium aluminosilicate CMC, the mechanical and thermal properties of an SiC particle-reinforced Al alloy MMC, the temperature-dependent tensile and shear response of a graphite-reinforced 6061 Al-alloy MMC, the fiber/matrix interface bonding strength of MMCs, and fatigue crack growth in an Al2O3 short fiber-reinforced Al-2Mg matrix MMC.

  13. Bacterial Exopolysaccharide mediated heavy metal removal: A Review on biosynthesis, mechanism and remediation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratima Gupta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal contamination has been recognized as a major public health risk, particularly in developing countries and their toxicological manifestations are well known. Conventional remediation strategies are either expensive or they generate toxic by-products, which adversely affect the environment. Therefore, necessity for an environmentally safe strategy motivates interest towards biological techniques. One of such most profoundly driven approach in recent times is biosorption through microbial biomass and their products. Extracellular polymeric substances are such complex blend of high molecular weight microbial (prokaryotic and eukaryotic biopolymers. They are mainly composed of proteins, polysaccharides, uronic acids, humic substances, lipids etc. One of its essential constituent is the exopolysaccharide (EPS released out of self defense against harsh conditions of starvation, pH and temperature, hence it displays exemplary physiological, rheological and physio-chemical properties. Its net anionic makeup allows the biopolymer to effectively sequester positively charged heavy metal ions. The polysaccharide has been expounded deeply in this article with reference to its biosynthesis and emphasizes heavy metal sorption abilities of polymer in terms of mechanism of action and remediation. It reports current investigation and strategic advancements in dealing bacterial cells and their EPS in diverse forms – mixed culture EPS, single cell EPS, live, dead or immobilized EPS. A significant scrutiny is also involved highlighting the existing challenges that still lie in the path of commercialization. The article enlightens the potential of EPS to bring about bio-detoxification of heavy metal contaminated terrestrial and aquatic systems in highly sustainable, economic and eco-friendly manner.

  14. Metal-organic and supramolecular architectures based on mechanically interlocked molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Isurika Rosini

    The focus of this work is on mechanically interlocked molecules (MIMs), which have unusual physicochemical and mechanical properties with potential applications in nano-scale/molecular devices and high strength materials. Rotaxanes, for example, consist of an axle-like molecule threaded through a wheel-like molecule, with bulky groups at the two ends of the axle preventing the wheel from dissociating. The position of the wheel along the axle can be switched in a controllable and reversible manner by applying external stimuli, a feature that might lead to the next generation of computers. Molecularly woven materials (MWMs), another example of molecules with mechanically interlocked features, are predicted to be unprecedentedly strong while being lightweight and flexible. With the ultimate goal of achieving control over the functioning of molecular devices in the solid state, a variety of pseudorotaxane building blocks were prepared and characterized, including a novel, rare blue-colored motif. The temperature-dependent assembly/disassembly of pseudorotaxanes was exploited for the construction of single-wavelength colorimetric temperature sensors over a 100 °C window. Pseudorotaxanes based on aromatic crown ether wheels and disubstituted 4,4'-bipyridinium axles were converted into rotaxanes upon binding to metal complexes (zinc, cadmium, mercury, copper, cobalt), and the formation of ordered crystalline arrays was studied in the solid state. The columnar organization of pseudorotaxanes by Hg2X6 2-- complexes (X = Cl, Br, I), leading to unprecedented dichroic (blue/red) rotaxane crystals, was demonstrated for the first time. From the crystal structures studied it became apparent that negatively charged metal complexes are needed for successful assembly with the positively charged pseudorotaxane units. To be able to use the more common, positively charged metal ions for rotaxane framework construction, neutral and negatively charged pseudorotaxanes were synthesized

  15. Mechanical properties of sheet metal components with local reinforcement produced by additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünsal, Ismail; Hama-Saleh, R.; Sviridov, Alexander; Bambach, Markus; Weisheit, A.; Schleifenbaum, J. H.

    2018-05-01

    New technological challenges like electro-mobility pose an increasing demand for cost-efficient processes for the production of product variants. This demand opens the possibility to combine established die-based manufacturing methods and innovative, dieless technologies like additive manufacturing [1, 2]. In this context, additive manufacturing technologies allow for the weight-efficient local reinforcement of parts before and after forming, enabling manufacturers to produce product variants from series parts [3]. Previous work by the authors shows that the optimal shape of the reinforcing structure can be determined using sizing optimization. Sheet metal parts can then be reinforced using laser metal deposition. The material used is a pearlite-reduced, micro-alloyed steel (ZE 630). The aim of this paper is to determine the effect of the additive manufacturing process on the material behavior and the mechanical properties of the base material and the resulting composite material. The parameters of the AM process are optimized to reach similar material properties in the base material and the build-up volume. A metallographic analysis of the parts is presented, where the additive layers, the base material and also the bonding between the additive layers and the base material are analyzed. The paper shows the feasibility of the approach and details the resulting mechanical properties and performance.

  16. Oxidized Metal Powders for Mechanical Shock and Crush Safety Enhancers; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GARINO, TERRY J.

    2002-01-01

    The use of oxidized metal powders in mechanical shock or crush safety enhancers in nuclear weapons has been investigated. The functioning of these devices is based on the remarkable electrical behavior of compacts of certain oxidized metal powders when subjected to compressive stress. For example, the low voltage resistivity of a compact of oxidized tantalum powder was found to decrease by over six orders of magnitude during compaction between 1 MPa, where the thin, insulating oxide coatings on the particles are intact, to 10 MPa, where the oxide coatings have broken down along a chain of particles spanning the electrodes. In this work, the behavior of tantalum and aluminum powders was investigated. The low voltage resistivity during compaction of powders oxidized under various conditions was measured and compared. In addition, the resistivity at higher voltages and the dielectric breakdown strength during compaction were also measured. A key finding was that significant changes in the electrical properties persist after the removal of the stress so that a mechanical shock enhancer is feasible. This was verified by preliminary shock experiments. Finally, conceptual designs for both types of enhancers are presented

  17. Role of surfaces and interfaces in controlling the mechanical properties of metallic alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won-Jong; Chia, Wen-Jui; Wang, Jinliu; Chen, Yanfeng; Vaynman, Semyon; Fine, Morris E; Chung, Yip-Wah

    2010-11-02

    This article explores the subtle effects of surfaces and interfaces on the mechanical properties of bulk metallic alloys using three examples: environmental effects on fatigue life, hydrogen embrittlement effects on the ductility of intermetallics, and the role of coherent precipitates in the toughness of steels. It is demonstrated that the marked degradation of the fatigue life of metals is due to the strong chemisorption of adsorbates on exposed slip steps that are formed during fatigue deformation. These adsorbates reduce the reversibility of slip, thus accelerating fatigue damage in a chemically active gas environment. For certain intermetallic alloys such as Ni(3)Al and Ni(3)Fe, the ductility depends on the ambient gas composition and the atomic ordering in these alloys, both of which govern the complex surface chemical reactions taking place in the vicinity of crack tips. Finally, it is shown that local stresses at a coherent precipitate-matrix interface can activate dislocation motion at low temperatures, thus improving the fracture toughness of bulk alloys such as steels at cryogenic temperatures. These examples illustrate the complex interplay between surface chemistry and mechanics, often yielding unexpected results.

  18. Determination of Informal Sector as Urban Pollution Source : Fume Characterization of Small-scale Manual Metal Arc Welding using Factor Analysis in Bandung City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nastiti

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries, the informal sector, particularly small-scale welding activities, are considered to be an important contributor to urban air pollution although studies in this sector are limited. This study aims to identify the composition of small-scale welding fume in order to further investigate the effects and set control strategies and urban pollution abatement policies. Breathing zone air samples were collected from 30 mild steel manual metal arc welders and 17 non-welders in Bandung City, West Java, Indonesia. The respirable particulates in air samples were analyzed using gravimetric method, and Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA was employed to identify characteristic of welding fume. It was found that respirable particulates concentration in welders (range : 315.6 and 3,735.93 µgm-3; average 1,545.436 µgm-3 were significantly higher than in non-welders (range : 41.84 and 1,688.03 µgm-3; average : 375.783 µgm-3. Welders’ breathing zones contain Fe>Na>K>Mn>Al >Cr>Ti>Cl>Br>I>Zn>Sb>V>Co>Sc; while non-welders’ breathing zones contain Cr>F>Al>Ti>Na>Br>I>Mn>Cl>Co>Zn>Sc. Inter-species correlation analysis conducted using Statgraphic Ver. 4.0 shows that Fe (range : n.d. – 775.19 µgm-3; average: 0.1674 µgm-3, Co (range : n.d. – 0.51 µgm-3; average: 0.000082 µgm-3, Mn (range : 0.39 – 148.37 µgm-3; average: 0.0374 µgm-3, Na (range: 0.17 and 623.85 µgm-3; average: 0.0973 µgm-3 and K (range : n.d. – 301.15 µgm-3; average: 0.0535 µgm-3 were emitted from welding activity, and thus are considered as components of welding fume which contribute to urban air pollution. Although welding fume and the identified species in welding fume were still below permissible limit, small-scale welding activities have great potential in emitting higher fume concentration due to due to high variability of welding activities, such as welding frequency, materials being welded, and varied environmental conditions

  19. Determination of Informal Sector as Urban Pollution Source : Fume Characterization of Small-scale Manual Metal Arc Welding using Factor Analysis in Bandung City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nastiti, A.; Pramudyastuti, D.Y.; Oginawati, K.; Santoso, M.

    2012-01-01

    In developing countries, the informal sector, particularly small-scale welding activities, are considered to be an important contributor to urban air pollution although studies in this sector are limited. This study aims to identify the composition of small-scale welding fume in order to further investigate the effects and set control strategies and urban pollution abatement policies. Breathing zone air samples were collected from 30 mild steel manual metal arc welders and 17 non-welders in Bandung City, West Java, Indonesia. The respirable particulates in air samples were analyzed using gravimetric method, and Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was employed to identify characteristic of welding fume. It was found that respirable particulates concentration in welders (range : 315.6 and 3,735.93 µgm -3 ; average 1,545.436 µgm -3 ) were significantly higher than in non-welders (range : 41.84 and 1,688.03 µgm -3 ; average : 375.783 µgm -3 ). Welders' breathing zones contain Fe>Na>K>Mn>Al >Cr>Ti>Cl>Br>I>Zn>Sb>V>Co>Sc; while non-welders' breathing zones contain Cr>F>Al>Ti>Na>Br>I>Mn>Cl>Co>Zn>Sc. Inter-species correlation analysis conducted using Statgraphic Ver. 4.0 shows that Fe (range : n.d. - 775.19 µgm -3 ; average: 0.1674µgm -3 ), Co (range : n.d. - 0.51 µgm -3 ; average: 0.000082 µgm -3 ), Mn (range : 0.39 - 148.37 µgm -3 ; average: 0.0374 µgm -3 ), Na (range: 0.17 and 623.85 µgm -3 ; average: 0.0973 µgm -3 ) and K (range : n.d. - 301.15 µgm -3 ; average: 0.0535 µgm -3 ) were emitted from welding activity, and thus are considered as components of welding fume which contribute to urban air pollution. Although welding fume and the identified species in welding fume were still below permissible limit, small-scale welding activities have great potential in emitting higher fume concentration due to due to high variability of welding activities, such as welding frequency, materials being welded, and varied environmental conditions. (author)

  20. Mechanical properties of ultra thin metallic films revealed by synchrotron techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, Patric Alfons

    2007-07-20

    A prerequisite for the study of the scaling behavior of mechanical properties of ultra thin films is a suitable testing technique. Therefore synchrotron-based in situ testing techniques were developed and optimized in order to characterize the stress evolution in ultra thin metallic films on compliant polymer substrates during isothermal tensile tests. Experimental procedures for polycrystalline as well as single crystalline films were established. These techniques were used to systematically investigate the influence of microstructure, film thickness (20 to 1000 nm) and temperature (-150 to 200 C) on the mechanical properties. Passivated and unpassivated Au and Cu films as well as single crystalline Au films on polyimide substrates were tested. Special care was also dedicated to the microstructural characterization of the samples which was very important for the correct interpretation of the results of the mechanical tests. Down to a film thickness of about 100 to 200 nm the yield strength increased for all film systems (passivated and unpassivated) and microstructures (polycrystalline and singlecrystalline). The influence of different interfaces was smaller than expected. This could be explained by a dislocation source model based on the nucleation of perfect dislocations. For polycrystalline films the film thickness as well as the grain size distribution had to be considered. For smaller film thicknesses the increase in flow stress was weaker and the deformation behavior changed because the nucleation of perfect dislocations became unfavorable. Instead, the film materials used alternative mechanisms to relieve the high stresses. For regular and homogeneous deformation the total strain was accommodated by the nucleation and motion of partial dislocations. If the deformation was localized due to initial cracks in a brittle interlayer or local delamination, dislocation plasticity was not effective enough to relieve the stress concentration and the films showed

  1. Statistical mechanics of binary mixture adsorption in metal-organic frameworks in the osmotic ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Lawrence J.; Manos, George

    2018-03-01

    Although crucial for designing separation processes little is known experimentally about multi-component adsorption isotherms in comparison with pure single components. Very few binary mixture adsorption isotherms are to be found in the literature and information about isotherms over a wide range of gas-phase composition and mechanical pressures and temperature is lacking. Here, we present a quasi-one-dimensional statistical mechanical model of binary mixture adsorption in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) treated exactly by a transfer matrix method in the osmotic ensemble. The experimental parameter space may be very complex and investigations into multi-component mixture adsorption may be guided by theoretical insights. The approach successfully models breathing structural transitions induced by adsorption giving a good account of the shape of adsorption isotherms of CO2 and CH4 adsorption in MIL-53(Al). Binary mixture isotherms and co-adsorption-phase diagrams are also calculated and found to give a good description of the experimental trends in these properties and because of the wide model parameter range which reproduces this behaviour suggests that this is generic to MOFs. Finally, a study is made of the influence of mechanical pressure on the shape of CO2 and CH4 adsorption isotherms in MIL-53(Al). Quite modest mechanical pressures can induce significant changes to isotherm shapes in MOFs with implications for binary mixture separation processes. This article is part of the theme issue `Modern theoretical chemistry'.

  2. A mechanical deformation model of metallic fuel pin under steady state conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D. W.; Lee, B. W.; Kim, Y. I.; Han, D. H.

    2004-01-01

    As a mechanical deformation model of the MACSIS code predicts the cladding deformation due to the simple thin shell theory, it is impossible to predict the FCMI(Fuel-Cladding Mechanical Interaction). Therefore, a mechanical deformation model used the generalized plane strain is developed. The DEFORM is a mechanical deformation routine which is used to analyze the stresses and strains in the fuel and cladding of a metallic fuel pin of LMRs. The accuracy of the program is demonstrated by comparison of the DEFORM predictions with the result of another code calculations or experimental results in literature. The stress/strain distributions of elastic part under free thermal expansion condition are completely matched with the results of ANSYS code. The swelling and creep solutions are reasonably well agreed with the simulations of ALFUS and LIFE-M codes, respectively. The predicted cladding strains are under estimated than experimental data at the range of high burnup. Therefore, it is recommended that the fine tuning of the DEFORM based on various range of experimental data

  3. Effect of strain rate on the mechanical properties of a gum metal with various microstructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Silu; Pan, Z.L.; Zhao, Y.H.; Topping, T.; Valiev, R.Z.; Liao, X.Z.; Lavernia, E.J.; Zhu, Y.T.; Wei, Q.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, a bulk gum metal (GM) was fabricated via arc melting from high purity powders. The ingots were first extruded using a conventional route followed by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP). The mechanical behavior of the extruded GM and ECAP-processed GM was studied under both quasi-static and high strain rate compression conditions to evaluate the influence of strain rate. In addition, the associated mechanical anisotropy, or the lack thereof, was investigated through loading in different orientations with respect to the extrusion or ECAP direction. Precipitous stress drops were observed under dynamic compression of both extruded and ECAP-processed GM specimens when loading perpendicular to the extrusion direction. Adiabatic shear banding (ASB) was found to be associated with the precipitous stress drops on the dynamic stress-strain curves. The details of the ASBs were characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy, with emphasis on electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD). The mechanisms responsible for the formation of ASB were examined both from thermal softening and geometrical softening perspectives. Significant microstructure refinement within ASBs was established, and a possible grain refinement mechanism was proposed.

  4. New insight into adsorption characteristics and mechanisms of the biosorbent from waste activated sludge for heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yun; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Jiao; Xia, Siqing

    2016-07-01

    The adsorption characteristics and mechanisms of the biosorbent from waste activated sludge were investigated by adsorbing Pb(2+) and Zn(2+) in aqueous single-metal solutions. A pH value of the metal solutions at 6.0 was beneficial to the high adsorption quantity of the biosorbent. The optimal mass ratio of the biosorbent to metal ions was found to be 2. A higher adsorption quantity of the biosorbent was achieved by keeping the reaction temperature below 55°C. Response surface methodology was applied to optimize the biosorption processes, and the developed mathematical equations showed high determination coefficients (above 0.99 for both metal ions) and insignificant lack of fit (p=0.0838 and 0.0782 for Pb(2+) and Zn(2+), respectively). Atomic force microscopy analyses suggested that the metal elements were adsorbed onto the biosorbent surface via electrostatic interaction. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses indicated the presence of complexation (between -NH2, -CN and metal ions) and ion-exchange (between -COOH and metal ions). The adsorption mechanisms could be the combined action of electrostatic interaction, complexation and ion-exchange between functional groups and metal ions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Metal and engineering industry in the Finnish economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeenpaeae, I.; Viitanen, M.; Juutinen, A.

    1996-01-01

    The study analyses quantitatively the position, internal structures and environmental aspects of the metal sector (basic metal industry, mechanical engineering, electronics and electrotechnics) in the recent past of the Finnish economy. The changes in the sector by the year 2005 are assessed by means of a macroeconomic simulation model as well. The future development of the metal sector by the year 2005 was assessed by the FMS model system, for which a detailed metal sector sub-model was constructed. The scenario of the general development of the Finnish economy was tuned so that it corresponds as closely as possible to the recent basic projections of the economy made by the government authorities. Three scenarios for the metal sector were constructed: base scenario, rapid and slow growth scenarios. In the base scenario the production volume of the metal sector grows by 6 per cent annually between 1994-2005 while the annual growth rate of the whole industry is 4 per cent and that of the GDP 3 per cent. In the rapid growth scenario, the growth rate of the metal sector goes up to 10 per cent and in the slow growth scenario down to 3 per cent. In the assessment of environmental effects of the metal sector are included energy consumption, emissions into the air, use on natural resources, waste formation and recycling of metals. Although the production volume of the metal sector almost doubles between 1990 - 2000, the consumption of primary energy grows only about one fourth and that of the electricity by 50 per cent

  6. Cure and mechanical properties of carboxylated nitrile rubber (XNBR) vulcanized by alkaline earth metal compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulyapitak, Tulyapong

    Compounds of carboxylated nitrile rubber (XNBR) with alkaline metal oxides and hydroxide were prepared, and their cure and mechanical properties were investigated. Magnesium oxide (MgO) with different specific surface areas (45, 65, and 140 m2/g) was used. Increased specific surface area and concentration of MgO resulted in higher cure rate. Optimum stiffness, tensile strength, and ultimate strain required an equimolar amount of acidity and MgO. The effect of specific surface area on tensile properties was not significant. Crosslink density of XNBR-MgO vulcanizates increased with increased amounts of MgO. ATR-IR spectroscopy showed that neutralization occurs in two steps: (1) During mixing and storage, MgO reacts with carboxyl groups (RCOOH) to give RCOOMgOH. (2) Upon curing, these react bimolecularly to form RCOOMgOOCR and Mg(OH)2. Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis revealed an ionic transition at higher temperature, in addition to the glass transition. The ionic transition shifts to higher temperature with increasing MgO concentration. Like MgO-XNBR systems, cure rates of XNBR-calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) and XNBR-barium oxide (BaO) compounds increased with increased content of curing agents. Curing by these two agents resulted in ionic crosslinks. To ensure optimum tensile properties, equimolar amounts of carboxyl groups and curing agents were required. Dynamic mechanical analysis revealed the ionic transition in these two systems. It shifted to higher temperature with increased amounts of curing agents. In contrast to MgO, Ca(OH)2, and BaO, calcium oxide (CaO) gave results similar to those for thermally cured samples. No ionic transition was observed in XNBR-CaO systems. Tensile strength of XNBR depended on the strength of ionic crosslinks, which was dependent on the size of the alkaline metal ions.

  7. Investigation of Reactivity Feedback Mechanism of Axial and Radial Expansion Effect of Metal-Fueled Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, Seung-Hwan; Choi, Chi-Woong; Jeong, Tae-Kyung; Ha, Gi-Seok

    2015-01-01

    The major inherent reactivity feedback models for a ceramic fuel used in a conventional light water reactor are Doppler feedback and moderator feedback. The metal fuel has these two reactivity feedback mechanisms previously mentioned. In addition, the metal fuel has two more reactivity feedback models related to the thermal expansion phenomena of the metal fuel. Since the metal fuel has a good capability to expand according to the temperature changes of the core, two more feedback mechanisms exist. These additional two feedback mechanism are important to the inherent safety of metal fuel and can make metal-fueled SFR safer than oxide-fueled SFR. These phenomena have already been applied to safety analysis on design extended condition. In this study, the effect of these characteristics on power control capability was examined through a simple load change operation. The axial expansion mechanism is induced from the change of the fuel temperature according to the change of the power level of PGSFR. When the power increases, the fuel temperatures in the metal fuel will increase and then the reactivity will decrease due to the axial elongation of the metal fuel. To evaluate the expansion effect, 2 cases were simulated with the same scenario by using MMS-LMR code developed at KAERI. The first simulation was to analyze the change of the reactor power according to the change of BOP power without the reactivity feedback model of the axial and radial expansion of the core during the power transient event. That is to say, the core had only two reactivity feedback mechanism of Doppler and coolant temperature

  8. Investigating the Mechanical Behavior and Deformation Mechanisms of Ultrafinegrained Metal Films Using Ex-situ and In-situ TEM Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, Ehsan

    Nanocrystalline (NC) and Ultrafine-grained (UFG) metal films exhibit a wide range of enhanced mechanical properties compared to their coarse-grained counterparts. These properties, such as very high strength, primarily arise from the change in the underlying deformation mechanisms. Experimental and simulation studies have shown that because of the small grain size, conventional dislocation plasticity is curtailed in these materials and grain boundary mediated mechanisms become more important. Although the deformation behavior and the underlying mechanisms in these materials have been investigated in depth, relatively little attention has been focused on the inhomogeneous nature of their microstructure (particularly originating from the texture of the film) and its influence on their macroscopic response. Furthermore, the rate dependency of mechanical response in NC/UFG metal films with different textures has not been systematically investigated. The objectives of this dissertation are two-fold. The first objective is to carry out a systematic investigation of the mechanical behavior of NC/UFG thin films with different textures under different loading rates. This includes a novel approach to study the effect of texture-induced plastic anisotropy on mechanical behavior of the films. Efforts are made to correlate the behavior of UFG metal films and the underlying deformation mechanisms. The second objective is to understand the deformation mechanisms of UFG aluminum films using in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) experiments with Automated Crystal Orientation Mapping. This technique enables us to investigate grain rotations in UFG Al films and to monitor the microstructural changes in these films during deformation, thereby revealing detailed information about the deformation mechanisms prevalent in UFG metal films.

  9. Assessment of trace metals using lichen transplant from automobile mechanic workshop in Ile-Ife metropolis, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odiwe, Anthony I; Adesanwo, Adeyemi T J; Olowoyo, Joshua O; Raimi, Idris O

    2014-04-01

    The level of air pollution around the automobile mechanic workshops has been generally overlooked. This study, examined the level of trace metals in automobile mechanic workshops and the suitability of using transplanted lichen thalli of Lepraria incana for measuring air pollution in such areas. Samples of the lichen thalli were transplanted into seven different sites and were attached to the bark of trees at each site. The samples were harvested from the sites after 3-month exposure. Concentrations of Pb, Cu, Cd, Fe, Zn, and S content were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results showed that there was a significant difference in the trace metals concentrations across the sites (p trend in the concentration of these heavy metals suggests that activities in these workshops might become a major source of certain heavy metals in the environment and if the pollution activities persist, it might become worrisome over time.

  10. Microstructure and mechanical behavior of direct metal laser sintered Inconel alloy 718

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Derek H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Bicknell, Jonathan; Jorgensen, Luke [Turbocam Energy Solutions, Turbocam International, Dover, NH 03820 (United States); Patterson, Brian M.; Cordes, Nikolaus L. [Materials Science Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Tsukrov, Igor [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Knezevic, Marko, E-mail: marko.knezevic@unh.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    In this paper, we investigate microstructure and quasi-static mechanical behavior of the direct metal laser sintered Inconel 718 superalloy as a function of build direction (BD). The printed material was further processed by annealing and double-aging, hot isostatic pressing (HIP), and machining. We characterize porosity fraction and distribution using micro X-ray computed tomography (μXCT), grain structure and crystallographic texture using electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD), and mechanical response in quasi-static tension and compression using standard mechanical testing at room temperature. Analysis of the μXCT imaging shows that majority of porosity develops in the outer layer of the printed material. However, porosity inside the material is also present. The EBSD measurements reveal formation of columnar grains, which favor < 001 > fiber texture components along the BD. These measurements also show evidence of coarse-grained microstructure present in the samples treated by HIP. Finally, analysis of grain boundaries reveal that HIP results in a large number of annealing twins compared to that in samples that underwent annealing and double-aging. The yield strength varies with the testing direction by approximately 7%, which is governed by a combination of grain morphology and crystallographic texture. In particular, we determine tension–compression asymmetry in the yield stress as well as anisotropy of the material flow during compression. We find that HIP lowers yield stress but improves ductility relative to the annealed and aged material. These results are discussed and critically compared with the data reported for wrought material in the same condition. - Highlights: • Microstructure and mechanical properties of DMLS Inconel 718 are studied in function of build direction. • Inhomogeneity of microstructure in the material in several conditions is quantified by μXCT and EBSD. • Anisotropy and asymmetry in the mechanical response are

  11. Microstructure and mechanical behavior of direct metal laser sintered Inconel alloy 718

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Derek H.; Bicknell, Jonathan; Jorgensen, Luke; Patterson, Brian M.; Cordes, Nikolaus L.; Tsukrov, Igor; Knezevic, Marko

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate microstructure and quasi-static mechanical behavior of the direct metal laser sintered Inconel 718 superalloy as a function of build direction (BD). The printed material was further processed by annealing and double-aging, hot isostatic pressing (HIP), and machining. We characterize porosity fraction and distribution using micro X-ray computed tomography (μXCT), grain structure and crystallographic texture using electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD), and mechanical response in quasi-static tension and compression using standard mechanical testing at room temperature. Analysis of the μXCT imaging shows that majority of porosity develops in the outer layer of the printed material. However, porosity inside the material is also present. The EBSD measurements reveal formation of columnar grains, which favor fiber texture components along the BD. These measurements also show evidence of coarse-grained microstructure present in the samples treated by HIP. Finally, analysis of grain boundaries reveal that HIP results in a large number of annealing twins compared to that in samples that underwent annealing and double-aging. The yield strength varies with the testing direction by approximately 7%, which is governed by a combination of grain morphology and crystallographic texture. In particular, we determine tension–compression asymmetry in the yield stress as well as anisotropy of the material flow during compression. We find that HIP lowers yield stress but improves ductility relative to the annealed and aged material. These results are discussed and critically compared with the data reported for wrought material in the same condition. - Highlights: • Microstructure and mechanical properties of DMLS Inconel 718 are studied in function of build direction. • Inhomogeneity of microstructure in the material in several conditions is quantified by μXCT and EBSD. • Anisotropy and asymmetry in the mechanical response are determined by

  12. Jacking mechanism for upper internals structure of a liquid metal nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillett, J.E.; Wineman, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    A jacking mechanism is described for raising the upper internals structure of a liquid metal nuclear reactor which jacking mechanism uses a system of gears and drive shafts to transmit force from a single motor to four mechanically synchronized ball jacks to raise and lower support columns which support the upper internals structure. The support columns have a pin structure which rides up and down in a slot in a housing fixed to the reactor head. The pin has two locking plates which can be rotated around the pin to bring bolt holes through the locking plates into alignment with a set of bolt holes in the housing, there being a set of such housing bolt holes corresponding to both a raised and a lowered position of the support column. When the locking plate is so aligned, a surface of the locking plate mates with a surface in the housing such that the support column is then supported by the locking plate and not by the ball jacks. Since the locking plates are to be installed and bolted to the housing during periods of reactor operation, the ball jacks need not be sized to react the large forces which occur or potentially could occur on the upper internals structure of the reactor during operation. The locking plates react these loads. The ball jacks, used only during refueling, can be smaller, which enable conventionally available equipment to fulfill the precision requirements for the task within available space

  13. Mechanical characteristics of self-expandable metallic stents: in vitro study with three types of stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Hee; Kim, Kie Hwan; Chin, Soo Yil

    1998-01-01

    To obtain objective and comparable data for mechanical characteristics of self-expandable metallic stents widely used in the treatment of biliary obstruction. The stents tested were the 6 and 8 mm-band Hanaro spiral stent, Gianturco-Rosch Z stent, Wallstent, Ultraflex stent, and Memotherm stent. Each was subjected to three types of load:point, area, and circular. We analyzed their mechanical characteristics (resistance force, expansile force, and elasticity) according to these three types of stress. With regard to point loads, the Memotherm stent showed the highest resistance force and expansile force. The 8 mm-band Hanaro stent showed the lowest resistance force and the Gianturco-Rosch Z stent and Ultraflex stent showed lower expansile force. With regard to area loads, the Ultraflex stent showed the highest resistance force. The 6 mm-band Hanaro stent, Gianturco-Rosch Z stent, and Ultraflex stent showed higher expansile force. The 8 mm-band Hanaro stent showed the lowest value in both resistance force and expansile force. For circular loads, the Memotherm stent showed the highest resistance force and the Ultraflex stent and Wallstent showed lower value. Under all types of stress, the Hanaro stent and Memotherm stent were completely elastic, and the Ultraflex stent and Wallstent showed a wide gap between resistance force and expansile force. In clinical practice, awareness of the mechanical characteristics of each stent might help in choosing the one which is most suitable, according to type of biliary obstruction. =20

  14. Mechanical characteristics of self-expandable metallic stents: in vitro study with three types of stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Hee; Kim, Kie Hwan; Chin, Soo Yil [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-09-01

    To obtain objective and comparable data for mechanical characteristics of self-expandable metallic stents widely used in the treatment of biliary obstruction. The stents tested were the 6 and 8 mm-band Hanaro spiral stent, Gianturco-Rosch Z stent, Wallstent, Ultraflex stent, and Memotherm stent. Each was subjected to three types of load:point, area, and circular. We analyzed their mechanical characteristics (resistance force, expansile force, and elasticity) according to these three types of stress. With regard to point loads, the Memotherm stent showed the highest resistance force and expansile force. The 8 mm-band Hanaro stent showed the lowest resistance force and the Gianturco-Rosch Z stent and Ultraflex stent showed lower expansile force. With regard to area loads, the Ultraflex stent showed the highest resistance force. The 6 mm-band Hanaro stent, Gianturco-Rosch Z stent, and Ultraflex stent showed higher expansile force. The 8 mm-band Hanaro stent showed the lowest value in both resistance force and expansile force. For circular loads, the Memotherm stent showed the highest resistance force and the Ultraflex stent and Wallstent showed lower value. Under all types of stress, the Hanaro stent and Memotherm stent were completely elastic, and the Ultraflex stent and Wallstent showed a wide gap between resistance force and expansile force. In clinical practice, awareness of the mechanical characteristics of each stent might help in choosing the one which is most suitable, according to type of biliary obstruction. =20.

  15. Fabrication process optimization for improved mechanical properties of Al 7075/SiCp metal matrix composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipti Kanta Das

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Two sets of nine different silicon carbide particulate (SiCp reinforced Al 7075 Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs were fabricated using liquid metallurgy stir casting process. Mean particle size and weight percentage of the reinforcement were varied according to Taguchi L9 Design of Experiments (DOE. One set of the cast composites were then heat treated to T6 condition. Optical micrographs of the MMCs reveal consistent dispersion of reinforcements in the matrix phase. Mechanical properties were determined for both as-cast and heat treated MMCs for comparison of the experimental results. Linear regression models were developed for mechanical properties of the heat treated MMCs using list square method of regression analysis. The fabrication process parameters were then optimized using Taguchi based grey relational analysis for the multiple mechanical properties of the heat treated MMCs. The largest value of mean grey relational grade was obtained for the composite with mean particle size 6.18 µm and 25 weight % of reinforcement. The optimal combination of process parameters were then verified through confirmation experiments, which resulted 42% of improvement in the grey relational grade. Finally, the percentage of contribution of each process parameter on the multiple performance characteristics was calculated through Analysis of Variance (ANOVA.

  16. Collapse mechanisms of metal foam matrix composites under static and dynamic loading conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linul, Emanoil, E-mail: emanoil.linul@upt.ro [Department of Mechanics and Strength of Materials, Politehnica University of Timisoara, 1 Mihai Viteazu Avenue, 300 222 Timisoara (Romania); Marsavina, Liviu [Department of Mechanics and Strength of Materials, Politehnica University of Timisoara, 1 Mihai Viteazu Avenue, 300 222 Timisoara (Romania); Kováčik, Jaroslav [Institute of Materials and Machine Mechanics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 845 13 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2017-04-06

    The collapse mechanisms of metal foam matrix composites under static and dynamic loading conditions were experimentally and analytically investigated. Closed-cell aluminium foam AlSi10 with 325±10 kg/m{sup 3} density was used as core material, while stainless-steel-mesh is the faces materials. Prior to characterizing the composite sandwich structure, the stainless steel mesh face material and closed-cell aluminium foam were characterized by tensile testing and compression testing, respectively. Experimental tests were performed on sandwich beams using both High Speed Camera and Digital Image Correlation system for strain distribution. All experimental tests were performed at room temperature with constant crosshead speed of 1.67×10{sup −4} m/s for static tests and 2 m/s impact loading speed for dynamic tests. Two main deformation behaviours of investigated metal foam matrix composites were observed following post-failure collapse: face failure and core shear. It was showed that the initiation, propagation and interaction of failure modes depend on the type of loading, constituent material properties and geometrical parameters.

  17. Kinetics and Mechanism of Metal Retention/Release in Geochemical Processes in Soil - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Robert W.

    2000-12-29

    Effective, remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals requires a better understanding of the mechanisms by which the metals are retained/released in soils over a long period of time. Studies on reaction of Cr(VI) with iron-rich clays indicated that structural iron (II) in these surfaces is capable of reducing chromate to chromium (III). We found that iron (II) either found naturally or produced by treatment of clay with sodium dithionite, effectively reduced Cr (VI) to Cr (III). Thus, in situ remediation of chromium combines reduction of Cr (VI) to Cr (III) and immobilization of chromium on mineral surfaces. During this study, lead sorption on a kaolin surface was found to be a rapid and a pH dependant process in which lead sorption significantly increased with the amount of phosphate on the clay surface. This study verifies that methylmercury cation remains intact when it binds to humic acids, forming a monodentate complex with some sub-population of humic thiol ligands .

  18. The Hydrolytic Stability and Degradation Mechanism of a Hierarchically Porous Metal Alkylphosphonate Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Lv

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To aid the design of a hierarchically porous unconventional metal-phosphonate framework (HP-UMPF for practical radioanalytical separation, a systematic investigation of the hydrolytic stability of bulk phase against acidic corrosion has been carried out for an archetypical HP-UMPF. Bulk dissolution results suggest that aqueous acidity has a more paramount effect on incongruent leaching than the temperature, and the kinetic stability reaches equilibrium by way of an accumulation of a partial leached species on the corrosion conduits. A variation of particle morphology, hierarchical porosity and backbone composition upon corrosion reveals that they are hydrolytically resilient without suffering any great degradation of porous texture, although large aggregates crack into sporadic fractures while the nucleophilic attack of inorganic layers cause the leaching of tin and phosphorus. The remaining selectivity of these HP-UMPFs is dictated by a balance between the elimination of free phosphonate and the exposure of confined phosphonates, thus allowing a real-time tailor of radionuclide sequestration. Moreover, a plausible degradation mechanism has been proposed for the triple progressive dissolution of three-level hierarchical porous structures to elucidate resultant reactivity. These HP-UMPFs are compared with benchmark metal-organic frameworks (MOFs to obtain a rough grading of hydrolytic stability and two feasible approaches are suggested for enhancing their hydrolytic stability that are intended for real-life separation protocols.

  19. Metallurgical and Mechanical Evaluation of 4340 Steel Produced by Direct Metal Laser Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelis, Elias; Clemente, Matthew; Kerwien, Stacey; Ravindra, Nuggehalli M.; Hespos, Michael R.

    2015-03-01

    Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) was used to produce high-strength low-alloy 4340 steel specimens. Mechanical and metallurgical analyses were performed on the specimens to determine the samples with the highest strengths and the least porosity. The optimal process parameters were thus defined based on the corresponding experimental conditions. Additionally, the effects of fabricating specimens with both virgin and recycled powders were studied. Scanning electron microscopy and electron-dispersive spectroscopy were performed on both types of powders to determine the starting morphology and composition. The initial tensile results are promising, suggesting that DMLS can produce specimens equal in strength to wrought materials. However, there is evidence of cracking on several of the heat-treated tensile specimens that is unexplained. Several theories point to disturbances in the build chamber environment that went undetected while the specimens were being fabricated.

  20. Microstructural and mechanical properties on friction welding of dissimilar metals used in motor vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesudoss Hynes, N. Rajesh; Shenbaga Velu, P.

    2018-02-01

    In the last two decades, major car manufacturing companies are exploring the possibilities of joining magnesium with aluminium, via friction welding technique for many crucial automotive applications. Our primary objective, is to carry out an experimental investigation in order to study the behaviour of dissimilar joints. The microscopic structure at the welded joint interface was analysed using an optical microscopy and scanning electron microscope. It was found that, by increasing the value of friction time, the value of the tensile strength increases and the result of tensile strength is found to be 120 MPa at a friction time of 10 s. Micro hardness was found to be higher at the interface of the weldment due to the development of a brittle intermetallic compound. Micro structural studies using SEM reveals, distinct zones such as an unaffected parent metal zone, the heat affected zone, a thermo-mechanically affected zone and a fully deformed plasticised zone.

  1. Influence of implantation of three metallic ions on the mechanical properties of two polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swain, M.V. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Lindfield, NSW (Australia). Div. of Applied Physics; Perry, A.J. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia); Treglio, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    Ion implantation of poly ethylene terephthalate (PET) and polystyrene (PS) with various high energy metallic ions at 70 kV to dose of 3 x 10{sup 16} ions/cm 2 have been made. Measurements of the mechanical properties of the polymers before and after implantation have been made with an ultra microindentation system using both pointed and a small (2 nm) radiused spherical tipped indenter. Significant differences have been observed between the Ti-B dual implanted surfaces and those of the Au and W implanted surfaces. For both the PET and PS the resistance to indenter penetration at very low loads was much greater for the Ti-B dual implanted surfaces. The estimated hardness and modulus versus depth of penetration for both indenters shows that the spherical indenter produces more consistent and less controversial values that are somewhat lower than the optimistic estimates from pointed indenters. 8 refs., 2 fig.

  2. Influence of implantation of three metallic ions on the mechanical properties of two polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swain, M V [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Lindfield, NSW (Australia). Div. of Applied Physics; Perry, A J [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia); Treglio, J R

    1997-12-31

    Ion implantation of poly ethylene terephthalate (PET) and polystyrene (PS) with various high energy metallic ions at 70 kV to dose of 3 x 10{sup 16} ions/cm 2 have been made. Measurements of the mechanical properties of the polymers before and after implantation have been made with an ultra microindentation system using both pointed and a small (2 nm) radiused spherical tipped indenter. Significant differences have been observed between the Ti-B dual implanted surfaces and those of the Au and W implanted surfaces. For both the PET and PS the resistance to indenter penetration at very low loads was much greater for the Ti-B dual implanted surfaces. The estimated hardness and modulus versus depth of penetration for both indenters shows that the spherical indenter produces more consistent and less controversial values that are somewhat lower than the optimistic estimates from pointed indenters. 8 refs., 2 fig.

  3. Characterization of mechanically alloyed Ti-based bulk metallic glass composites containing carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, C.F. [Institute of Materials Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean University, No. 2, Beining Road, Keelung (China); Lin, H.M. [Department of Materials Engineering, Tatung University, No.40, Sec. 3, Jhongshan N. Rd. Jhongshan District, Taipei 104 Taiwan (China); Lee, P.Y.

    2008-11-15

    This study explored the feasibility of preparing CNT/Ti{sub 50}Cu{sub 28}Ni{sub 15}Sn{sub 7} bulk metallic glass (BMG) composites though powder metallurgy route. The CNT/Ti{sub 50}Cu{sub 28}Ni{sub 15}Sn{sub 7} BMG composites were obtained by consolidating the 8h mechanically alloyed composite powders by vacuum hot pressing process. A significant increase in hardness (9.34 GPa) and fracture strength (1937 MPa) was achieved for the Ti{sub 50}Cu{sub 28}Ni{sub 15}Sn{sub 7} BMG composites containing 12 vol. % CNT. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  4. Effect of Sphere Properties on Microstructure and Mechanical Performance of Cast Composite Metal Foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matias Garcia-Avila

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum-steel composite metal foams (Al-S CMF are manufactured using steel hollow spheres, with a variety of sphere carbon content, surface roughness, and wall porosity, embedded in an Aluminum matrix through gravity casting technique. The microstructural and mechanical properties of the material were studied using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and quasi-static compressive testing. Higher carbon content and surface roughness in the sphere wall were responsible for an increase in formation of intermetallic phases which had a strengthening effect at lower strain levels, increasing the yield strength of the material by a factor of 2, while higher sphere wall porosity resulted in a decrease on the density of the material and improving its cushioning and ductility maintaining its energy absorption capabilities.

  5. Mechanical and diffusion properties of refractory me--tal and alloy monocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinyaev, A.Ya.; Kopalejshvili, N.I.

    1977-01-01

    The temperature dependence of mechanical properties of single crystals Mo, W, Ta, Nb and of alloys Mo-Ta and Nb-Ta has been investigated from the point of view of diffusion processes. The curve of the dependence of the ultimate strength upon the temperature has shown four discontinuities corresponding to various stages of development of intercrystalline and volume diffusions. It is shown that for close-to-ideal solid solutions of Nb-Ta alloys the temperature dependence of the strength properties is the same as for pure metals. In case of appreciable deviations from ideal properties (system Mo-Ta), the drops in strength, due to volume diffusion, shift toward higher temperatures

  6. Microstructure and mechanical properties of a novel β titanium metallic composite by selective laser melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrancken, B.; Thijs, L.; Kruth, J.-P.; Van Humbeeck, J.

    2014-01-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) is an additive manufacturing process in which functional, complex parts are produced by selectively melting consecutive layers of powder with a laser beam. This flexibility enables the exploration of a wide spectrum of possibilities in creating novel alloys or even metal–metal composites with unique microstructures. In this research, Ti6Al4V-ELI powder was mixed with 10 wt.% Mo powder. In contrast to the fully α′ microstructure of Ti6Al4V after SLM, the novel microstructure consists of a β titanium matrix with randomly dispersed pure Mo particles, as observed by light optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Most importantly, the solidification mechanism changes from planar to cellular mode. Microstructures after heat treatment indicate that the β phase is metastable and locate the β transus at ∼900 °C, and tensile properties are equal to or better than conventional β titanium alloys

  7. Light Hydrocarbons Adsorption Mechanisms in Two Calcium-based Microporous Metal Organic Frameworks

    KAUST Repository

    Plonka, Anna M.

    2016-01-25

    The adsorption mechanism of ethane, ethylene and acetylene (C2Hn; n=2, 4, 6) on two microporous metal organic frameworks (MOFs) is described here that is consistent with observations from single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction, calorimetric measurments and gas adsorption isotherm measurements. Two calcium-based MOFs, designated as SBMOF-1 and SBMOF-2 (SB: Stony Brook), form three-dimensional frameworks with one-dimensional open channels. As determined form single crystal diffraction experiments channel geometries of both SBMOF-1 and SBMOF-2 provide multiple adsorption sites for hydrocarbon molecules trough C-H…π and C-H…O interactions, similarly to interactions in the molecular and protein crystals. Both materials selectively adsorb C2 hydrocarbon gases over methane as determined with IAST and breakthrough calculations, with C2H6/CH4 selectivity as high as 74 in SBMOF-1.

  8. Equilibrium arsenic adsorption onto metallic oxides : Isotherm models, error analysis and removal mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simsek, Esra Bilgin [Yalova University, Yalova (Turkmenistan); Beker, Ulker [Yldz Technical University, Istanbul (Turkmenistan)

    2014-11-15

    Arsenic adsorption properties of mono- (Fe or Al) and binary (Fe-Al) metal oxides supported on natural zeolite were investigated at three levels of temperature (298, 318 and 338 K). All data obtained from equilibrium experiments were analyzed by Freundlich, Langmuir, Dubinin-Radushkevich, Sips, Toth and Redlich-Peterson isotherms, and error functions were used to predict the best fitting model. The error analysis demonstrated that the As(Ⅴ) adsorption processes were best described by the Dubinin-Raduskevich model with the lowest sum of normalized error values. According to results, the presence of iron and aluminum oxides in the zeolite network improved the As(Ⅴ) adsorption capacity of the raw zeolite (ZNa). The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses of ZNa-Fe and ZNa-AlFe samples suggested that the redox reactions are the postulated mechanisms for the adsorption onto them while the adsorption process is followed by surface complexation reactions for ZNa-Al.

  9. XPS and Auger investigation of mechanisms affecting corrosion inhibition of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, R.M.; Surman, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    Atmospheric corrosion of metal surfaces need not be extremely obvious to cause extensive damage to many products. Very small corrosion pits and spots can cause defects in critical copper sources, often resulting in the catastrophic failure of complete electronic assemblies. Microscopic corrosion in steel can lead to the complete failure of subsequently added coatings or furnishings, the automotive industry has become aware. In addition, corrosion at its earliest stages can initiate other corrosion at a later date, resulting in inferior finishings or coatings. A major interest in atmospheric corrosion is in the mechanism by which the initial corrosion initiated and propagated. The initial phase involves the attack of the very other surface layers, hence it is difficult to observe with conventional techniques such as SEM/EDX. This paper presents some of the results obtained by both Auger electron spectroscopy and x- ray photoelectron spectroscopy, of steel and copper samples exposed to corrosive materials under controlled conditions

  10. A mechanical analysis of metallic tritide aging by helium bubble growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montheillet, F. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines (SMS), CNRS UMR 5146 (PECM), 158 cours Fauriel, 42023 Saint-Etienne Cedex 2 (France)], E-mail: montheil@emse.fr; Delaplanche, D.; Fabre, A.; Munier, E.; Thiebaut, S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique de Valduc, 21120 Is-sur-Tille (France)

    2008-10-25

    A simple mechanical model is proposed for the aging of a metallic tritide. The material is assumed to be elastic-power law viscoplastic. Part of the helium atoms generated by tritium decay form spherical bubbles that weaken the elastic moduli of the overall material. By contrast, others can be stored in solid solution in the matrix and are likely to increase the moduli. Two variants of the model are compared, assuming either instantaneous or finite rate diffusion of helium. They predict globally similar evolutions of the gas pressure inside the bubbles, the geometrical parameters (bubble radius, overall swelling), as well as the matrix and overall elastic moduli. The results are in good agreement with atomistic calculations of the pressure evolution. Furthermore, recent experimental measurements of the Young modulus changes during aging are better reproduced when He diffusion rate is finite, thus supporting the second variant of the model.

  11. Overall mechanical properties of fiber-reinforced metal matrix composites for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, J.H.; Bolt, H.

    2002-01-01

    The high-temperature strength and creep properties are among the crucial criteria for the structural materials of plasma facing components (PFC) of fusion reactors, as they will be subjected to severe thermal stresses. The fiber-reinforced metal matrix composites are a potential heat sink material for the PFC application, since the combination of different material properties can lead to versatile performances. In this article, the overall mechanical properties of two model composites based on theoretical predictions are presented. The matrix materials considered were a precipitation hardened CuCrZr alloy and reduced activation martensitic steel 'Eurofer'. Continuous SiC fibers were used for the reinforcement. The results demonstrate that yield stress, ultimate tensile strength, work hardening rate and creep resistance could be extensively improved by the fiber reinforcement up to fiber content of 40 vol.%. The influence of the residual stresses on the plastic behavior of the composites is also discussed

  12. A mechanical analysis of metallic tritide aging by helium bubble growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montheillet, F.; Delaplanche, D.; Fabre, A.; Munier, E.; Thiebaut, S.

    2008-01-01

    A simple mechanical model is proposed for the aging of a metallic tritide. The material is assumed to be elastic-power law viscoplastic. Part of the helium atoms generated by tritium decay form spherical bubbles that weaken the elastic moduli of the overall material. By contrast, others can be stored in solid solution in the matrix and are likely to increase the moduli. Two variants of the model are compared, assuming either instantaneous or finite rate diffusion of helium. They predict globally similar evolutions of the gas pressure inside the bubbles, the geometrical parameters (bubble radius, overall swelling), as well as the matrix and overall elastic moduli. The results are in good agreement with atomistic calculations of the pressure evolution. Furthermore, recent experimental measurements of the Young modulus changes during aging are better reproduced when He diffusion rate is finite, thus supporting the second variant of the model

  13. Transcriptional analysis and molecular dynamics simulations reveal the mechanism of toxic metals removal and efflux pumps in Lysinibacillus sphaericus OT4b.31

    KAUST Repository

    Shaw, Dario Rangel; Dussan, Jenny

    2017-01-01

    Lysinibacillus sphaericus strain OT4b.31 is a bacterium widely applied in bioremediation processes of hydrocarbon and metal polluted environments. In this study, we identified the molecular mechanism underlying the Pb2+ and Cr6+ resistance. Metal

  14. The Process of Nanostructuring of Metal (Iron Matrix in Composite Materials for Directional Control of the Mechanical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Zemtsova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We justified theoretical and experimental bases of synthesis of new class of highly nanostructured composite nanomaterials based on metal matrix with titanium carbide nanowires as dispersed phase. A new combined method for obtaining of metal iron-based composite materials comprising the powder metallurgy processes and the surface design of the dispersed phase is considered. The following stages of material synthesis are investigated: (1 preparation of porous metal matrix; (2 surface structuring of the porous metal matrix by TiC nanowires; (3 pressing and sintering to give solid metal composite nanostructured materials based on iron with TiC nanostructures with size 1–50 nm. This material can be represented as the material type “frame in the frame” that represents iron metal frame reinforcing the frame of different chemical compositions based on TiC. Study of material functional properties showed that the mechanical properties of composite materials based on iron with TiC dispersed phase despite the presence of residual porosity are comparable to the properties of the best grades of steel containing expensive dopants and obtained by molding. This will solve the problem of developing a new generation of nanostructured metal (iron-based materials with improved mechanical properties for the different areas of technology.

  15. Effect of thermal and mechanical parameter’s damage numerical simulation cycling effects on defects in hot metal forming processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Amri, Abdelouahid; el yakhloufi Haddou, Mounir; Khamlichi, Abdellatif

    2017-10-01

    Damage mechanisms in hot metal forming processes are accelerated by mechanical stresses arising during Thermal and mechanical properties variations, because it consists of the materials with different thermal and mechanical loadings and swelling coefficients. In this work, 3D finite element models (FEM) are developed to simulate the effect of Temperature and the stresses on the model development, using a general purpose FE software ABAQUS. Explicit dynamic analysis with coupled Temperature displacement procedure is used for a model. The purpose of this research was to study the thermomechanical damage mechanics in hot forming processes. The important process variables and the main characteristics of various hot forming processes will also be discussed.

  16. Efficient modeling of metallic interconnects for thermo-mechanical simulation of SOFC stacks: homogenized behaviors and effect of contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tadesse Molla, Tesfaye; Kwok, Kawai; Frandsen, Henrik Lund

    2016-01-01

    temperature, deformations involving the elastic, creep as well as effect of changes in the geometry due to contact should be accounted for. The constitutive law can be applied using 3D modeling, but for simple presentation of the theory, 2D plane strain formulation is used to model the corrugated metallic......Currently thermo-mechanical analysis of the entire solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack at operational conditions is computationally challenging if the geometry of metallic interconnects is considered explicitly. This is particularly the case when creep deformations in the interconnect are considered...... model to calculate the homogenized mechanical response of corrugated metallic interconnects at high temperatures.Thereafter, a constitutive law for the homogenized structure (effective material law) is developed. In order to properly describe the mechanical behavior of the interconnect at high...

  17. Devitrification kinetics and phase selection mechanisms in Cu-Zr metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalay, Ilkay [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Metallic glasses have been a promising class of materials since their discovery in the 1960s. Indeed, remarkable chemical, mechanical and physical properties have attracted considerable attention, and several excellent reviews are available. Moreover, the special group of glass forming alloys known as the bulk metallic glasses (BMG) become amorphous solids even at relatively low cooling rates, allowing them to be cast in large cross sections, opening the scope of potential applications to include bulk forms and net shape structural applications. Recent studies have been reported for new bulk metallic glasses produced with lower cooling rates, from 0.1 to several hundred K/s. Some of the application products of BMGs include sporting goods, high performance springs and medical devices. Several rapid solidification techniques, including melt-spinning, atomization and surface melting have been developed to produce amorphous alloys. The aim of all these methods is to solidify the liquid phase rapidly enough to suppress the nucleation and growth of crystalline phases. Furthermore, the production of amorphous/crystalline composite (ACC) materials by partial crystallization of amorphous precursor has recently given rise to materials that provide better mechanical and magnetic properties than the monolithic amorphous or crystalline alloys. In addition, these advances illustrate the broad untapped potential of using the glassy state as an intermediate stage in the processing of new materials and nanostructures. These advances underlie the necessity of investigations on prediction and control of phase stability and microstructural dynamics during both solidification and devitrification processes. This research presented in this dissertation is mainly focused on Cu-Zr and Cu-Zr-Al alloy systems. The Cu-Zr binary system has high glass forming ability in a wide compositional range (35-70 at.% Cu). Thereby, Cu-Zr based alloys have attracted much attention according to fundamental

  18. Computer-aided study of key factors determining high mechanical properties of nanostructured surface layers in metal-ceramic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalenko, Igor S.; Shilko, Evgeny V.; Ovcharenko, Vladimir E.; Psakhie, Sergey G.

    2017-12-01

    The paper presents the movable cellular automaton method. It is based on numerical models of surface layers of the metal-ceramic composite NiCr-TiC modified under electron beam irradiation in inert gas plasmas. The models take into account different geometric, concentration and mechanical parameters of ceramic and metallic components. The authors study the contributions of key structural factors in mechanical properties of surface layers and determine the ranges of their variations by providing the optimum balance of strength, strain hardening and fracture toughness.

  19. Macro-mechanical material model for fiber reinforced metal matrix composites

    CERN Document Server

    Banks-Sills, L

    1999-01-01

    The stress-strain behavior of a metal matrix composite reinforced with unidirectional, continuous and periodic fibers is investigated. Three-dimensional micro-mechanical analyses of a unit cell by means of the finite element method $9 and homogenization-localization are carried out. These calculations allow the determination of material behavior of the in-plane, as well as the fiber directions. The fibers are assumed to be elastic and the matrix elasto-plastic. $9 The matrix material is governed by a von Mises yield surface, isotropic hardening and an associated flow rule. With the aid of these analyses, the foundation to a macro-mechanical material model is presented which is employed to $9 consider an elementary problem. The model includes an anisotropic yield surface with isotropic hardening and an associated flow rule. A beam in bending containing square fibers under plane strain conditions is analyzed by means of $9 the model. Two cases are considered: one in which the fibers are symmetric with respect t...

  20. Alkali Metal Cation versus Proton and Methyl Cation Affinities: Structure and Bonding Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughlala, Zakaria; Fonseca Guerra, Célia; Bickelhaupt, F Matthias

    2016-06-01

    We have analyzed the structure and bonding of gas-phase Cl-X and [HCl-X](+) complexes for X(+)= H(+), CH3 (+), Li(+), and Na(+), using relativistic density functional theory (DFT). We wish to establish a quantitative trend in affinities of the anionic and neutral Lewis bases Cl(-) and HCl for the various cations. The Cl-X bond becomes longer and weaker along X(+) = H(+), CH3 (+), Li(+), and Na(+). Our main purpose is to understand the heterolytic bonding mechanism behind the intrinsic (i.e., in the absence of solvent) alkali metal cation affinities (AMCA) and how this compares with and differs from those of the proton affinity (PA) and methyl cation affinity (MCA). Our analyses are based on Kohn-Sham molecular orbital (KS-MO) theory in combination with a quantitative energy decomposition analysis (EDA) that pinpoints the importance of the different features in the bonding mechanism. Orbital overlap appears to play an important role in determining the trend in cation affinities.

  1. Modeling the Mechanical Behavior of Aluminum Laminated Metal Composites During High Temperature Deformation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grishber, R

    1997-01-01

    A constitutive model for deformation of a novel laminated metal composite (LMC) which is comprised of 21 alternating layers of Al 5182 alloy and Al 6090/SiC/25p metal matrix composite (MMC) has been proposed...

  2. Metallurgy and mechanical properties variation with heat input,during dissimilar metal welding between stainless and carbon steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdan, RD; Koswara, AL; Surasno; Wirawan, R.; Faturohman, F.; Widyanto, B.; Suratman, R.

    2018-02-01

    The present research focus on the metallurgy and mechanical aspect of dissimilar metal welding.One of the common parameters that significantly contribute to the metallurgical aspect on the metal during welding is heat input. Regarding this point, in the present research, voltage, current and the welding speed has been varied in order to observe the effect of heat input on the metallurgical and mechanical aspect of both welded metals. Welding was conducted by Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) on stainless and carbon steel with filler metal of ER 309. After welding, hardness test (micro-Vickers), tensile test, macro and micro-structure characterization and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) characterization were performed. It was observed no brittle martensite observed at HAZ of carbon steel, whereas sensitization was observed at the HAZ of stainless steel for all heat input variation at the present research. Generally, both HAZ at carbon steel and stainless steel did not affect tensile test result, however the formation of chromium carbide at the grain boundary of HAZ structure (sensitization) of stainless steel, indicate that better process and control of welding is required for dissimilar metal welding, especially to overcome this issue.

  3. Direct comparison of coronary bare metal vs. drug-eluting stents: same platform, different mechanics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Wolfram; Lanzer, Peter; Behrens, Peter; Brandt-Wunderlich, Christoph; Öner, Alper; Ince, Hüseyin; Schmitz, Klaus-Peter; Grabow, Niels

    2018-01-08

    Drug-eluting stents (DES) compared to bare metal stents (BMS) have shown superior clinical performance, but are considered less suitable in complex cases. Most studies do not distinguish between DES and BMS with respect to their mechanical performance. The objective was to obtain mechanical parameters for direct comparison of BMS and DES. In vitro bench tests evaluated crimped stent profiles, crossability in stenosis models, elastic recoil, bending stiffness (crimped and expanded), and scaffolding properties. The study included five pairs of BMS and DES each with the same stent platforms (all n = 5; PRO-Kinetic Energy, Orsiro: BIOTRONIK AG, Bülach, Switzerland; MULTI-LINK 8, XIENCE Xpedition: Abbott Vascular, Temecula, CA; REBEL Monorail, Promus PREMIER, Boston Scientific, Marlborough, MA; Integrity, Resolute Integrity, Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN; Kaname, Ultimaster: Terumo Corporation, Tokyo, Japan). Statistical analysis used pooled variance t tests for pairwise comparison of BMS with DES. Crimped profiles in BMS groups ranged from 0.97 ± 0.01 mm (PRO-Kinetic Energy) to 1.13 ± 0.01 mm (Kaname) and in DES groups from 1.02 ± 0.01 mm (Orsiro) to 1.13 ± 0.01 mm (Ultimaster). Crossability was best for low profile stent systems. Elastic recoil ranged from 4.07 ± 0.22% (Orsiro) to 5.87 ± 0.54% (REBEL Monorail) including both BMS and DES. The bending stiffness of crimped and expanded stents showed no systematic differences between BMS and DES neither did the scaffolding. Based on in vitro measurements BMS appear superior to DES in some aspects of mechanical performance, yet the differences are small and not class uniform. The data provide assistance in selecting the optimal system for treatment and assessment of new generations of bioresorbable scaffolds. not applicable.

  4. An Assessment of Mechanical and Tribological Property of Hybrid Aluminium Metal Matrix Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Santosh Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Composite materials has huge requirement in the area of automobile, aerospace, and wear resistant applications. This study presents the synthesis of composite reinforced with SiC and Al2O3 using gravity stir casting. Stir casting is the manufacturing process that is incorporated to produce the composite material because of its extreme bonding capacity with base material. The composition of reinforcement with 6061 aluminium matrix is SiC-7.5% and Al2O3 -2.5% respectively. The average size of reinforcement particle is 30-40 microns. The synthesised composite casting is machined using EDM to prepare specimens for various tests. Microstructure study was carried and the microstructure images prove the existence and dispersion of reinforcement particles in the metal matrix. There is no visible porosity is observed. The hardness of the specimen is tested using Vickers hardness tester and found considerable increase when compare with parent alloy Al 6061. Also mechanical and tribological properties of hybrid Aluminium metal matrix composite were employed. The fortifying material, Silicon Carbide is composed of tetrahedral of carbon and silicon atoms with strong bonds in crystal lattice along with its excellent wear resistance property and alumina have high strength and wear resistance. To avoid enormous material wastage and to achieve absolute accuracy, wire-cut EDM process is capitalised to engrave the specimen as per required dimensions. Three Tensile test specimens were prepared, in order to achieve reliability in results as per ASTM- E8 standard, and the values were tabulated. Impact test was carried out and the readings were tabulated. Wear test was carried out using pin on disc wear test apparatus and the results show considerable increase in wear resistant property when compare with parent alloy Al6061.The above work proves the successful fabrication of composite and evaluation of properties.

  5. Microstructure and mechanical behavior of metal injection molded Ti-Nb binary alloys as biomedical material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dapeng; Chang, Keke; Ebel, Thomas; Qian, Ma; Willumeit, Regine; Yan, Ming; Pyczak, Florian

    2013-12-01

    The application of titanium (Ti) based biomedical materials which are widely used at present, such as commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti) and Ti-6Al-4V, are limited by the mismatch of Young's modulus between the implant and the bones, the high costs of products, and the difficulty of producing complex shapes of materials by conventional methods. Niobium (Nb) is a non-toxic element with strong β stabilizing effect in Ti alloys, which makes Ti-Nb based alloys attractive for implant application. Metal injection molding (MIM) is a cost-efficient near-net shape process. Thus, it attracts growing interest for the processing of Ti and Ti alloys as biomaterial. In this investigation, metal injection molding was applied to the fabrication of a series of Ti-Nb binary alloys with niobium content ranging from 10wt% to 22wt%, and CP-Ti for comparison. Specimens were characterized by melt extraction, optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Titanium carbide formation was observed in all the as-sintered Ti-Nb binary alloys but not in the as-sintered CP-Ti. Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns revealed that the carbides are Ti2C. It was found that with increasing niobium content from 0% to 22%, the porosity increased from about 1.6% to 5.8%, and the carbide area fraction increased from 0% to about 1.8% in the as-sintered samples. The effects of niobium content, porosity and titanium carbides on mechanical properties have been discussed. The as-sintered Ti-Nb specimens exhibited an excellent combination of high tensile strength and low Young's modulus, but relatively low ductility. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Molecular water oxidation mechanisms followed by transition metals: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Xavier; Maji, Somnath; Bofill, Roger; García-Antón, Jordi; Escriche, Lluís; Llobet, Antoni

    2014-02-18

    One clean alternative to fossil fuels would be to split water using sunlight. However, to achieve this goal, researchers still need to fully understand and control several key chemical reactions. One of them is the catalytic oxidation of water to molecular oxygen, which also occurs at the oxygen evolving center of photosystem II in green plants and algae. Despite its importance for biology and renewable energy, the mechanism of this reaction is not fully understood. Transition metal water oxidation catalysts in homogeneous media offer a superb platform for researchers to investigate and extract the crucial information to describe the different steps involved in this complex reaction accurately. The mechanistic information extracted at a molecular level allows researchers to understand both the factors that govern this reaction and the ones that derail the system to cause decomposition. As a result, rugged and efficient water oxidation catalysts with potential technological applications can be developed. In this Account, we discuss the current mechanistic understanding of the water oxidation reaction catalyzed by transition metals in the homogeneous phase, based on work developed in our laboratories and complemented by research from other groups. Rather than reviewing all of the catalysts described to date, we focus systematically on the several key elements and their rationale from molecules studied in homogeneous media. We organize these catalysts based on how the crucial oxygen-oxygen bond step takes place, whether via a water nucleophilic attack or via the interaction of two M-O units, rather than based on the nuclearity of the water oxidation catalysts. Furthermore we have used DFT methodology to characterize key intermediates and transition states. The combination of both theory and experiments has allowed us to get a complete view of the water oxidation cycle for the different catalysts studied. Finally, we also describe the various deactivation pathways for

  7. The rate-limiting mechanism of transition metal gettering in multicrystalline silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHugo, S.A.; Thompson, A.C.; Imaizumi, M.

    1997-01-01

    Multicrystalline silicon is a very interesting material for terrestrial solar cells. Its low cost and respectable energy conversion efficiency (12-15%) makes it arguably the most cost competitive material for large-volume solar power generation. However, the solar cell efficiency of this material is severely degraded by regions of high minority carrier recombination which have been shown to possess both dislocations and microdefects. These structural defects are known to increase in recombination activity with transition metal decoration. Therefore, gettering of metal impurities from the material would be expected to greatly enhance solar cell performance. Contrary to this rationale, experiments using frontside phosphorus and/or backside aluminum treatments have been found to improve regions with low recombination activity while having little or no effect on the high recombination regions and in turn only slightly improving the overall cell performance. The goal of this research is to determine the mechanism by which gettering is ineffectual on these high recombination regions. The authors have performed studies on integrated circuit (IC) quality single crystal and multicrystalline solar cell silicon (mc-silicon) in the as-grown state and after a variety of processing/gettering steps. With Surface Photovoltage measurements of the minority carrier diffusion length which is inversely proportional to carrier recombination, they have seen that aluminum gettering is effective for improving IC quality material but ineffective for improving the regions of initially low diffusion lengths (high recombination rates) in mc-silicon. Of particular interest is the great increase in diffusion length for IC material as compared to the mc-silicon. Clearly the IC material has benefited to a greater extent from the gettering procedure than the mc-silicon

  8. Synthesis and Mechanism of Metal-Mediated Polymerization of Phenolic Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Phenol-formaldehyde (PF resin is a high performance adhesive, but has not been widely developed due to its slow curing rate and high curing temperature. To accelerate the curing rate and to lower the curing temperature of PF resin, four types of metal-mediated catalysts were employed in the synthesis of PF resin; namely, barium hydroxide (Ba(OH2, sodium carbonate (Na2CO3, lithium hydroxide (LiOH, and zinc acetate ((CH3COO2Zn. The cure-acceleration effects of these catalysts on the properties of PF resins were measured, and the chemical structures of the PF resins accelerated with the catalysts were investigated by using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy and quantitative liquid carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR. The results showed that the accelerated efficiency of these catalysts to PF resin could be ordered in the following sequence: Na2CO3 > (CH3COO2Zn > Ba(OH2 > LiOH. The catalysts (CH3COO2Zn and Na2CO3 increased the reaction activity of the phenol ortho position and the condensation reaction of ortho methylol. The accelerating mechanism of (CH3COO2Zn on PF resin is probably different from that of Na2CO3, which can be confirmed by the differences in the differential thermogravimetric (DTG curve and thermogravimetric (TG data. Compared to the Na2CO3-accelerated PF resin, the (CH3COO2Zn-accelerated PF resin showed different peaks in the DTG curve and higher weight residues. In the synthesis process, the catalyst (CH3COO2Zn may form chelating compounds (containing a metal-ligand bond, which can promote the linkage of formaldehyde to the phenolic hydroxyl ortho position.

  9. Further insight into the mechanism of heavy metals partitioning in stormwater runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djukić, Aleksandar; Lekić, Branislava; Rajaković-Ognjanović, Vladana; Veljović, Djordje; Vulić, Tatjana; Djolić, Maja; Naunovic, Zorana; Despotović, Jovan; Prodanović, Dušan

    2016-03-01

    Various particles and materials, including pollutants, deposited on urban surfaces are washed off by stormwater runoff during rain events. The interactions between the solid and dissolved compounds in stormwater runoff are phenomena of importance for the selection and improvement of optimal stormwater management practices aimed at minimizing pollutant input to receiving waters. The objective of this research was to further investigate the mechanisms responsible for the partitioning of heavy metals (HM) between the solid and liquid phases in urban stormwater runoff. The research involved the collection of samples from urban asphalt surfaces, chemical characterization of the bulk liquid samples, solids separation, particle size distribution fractionation and chemical and physico-chemical characterization of the solid phase particles. The results revealed that a negligible fraction of HM was present in the liquid phase (less than 3% by weight), while there was a strong correlation between the total content of heavy metals and total suspended solids. Examinations of surface morphology and mineralogy revealed that the solid phase particles consist predominantly of natural macroporous materials: alpha quartz (80%), magnetite (11.4%) and silicon diphosphate (8.9%). These materials have a low surface area and do not have significant adsorptive capacity. These materials have a low surface area and do not have significant adsorptive capacity. The presence of HM on the surface of solid particles was not confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray microanalyses. These findings, along with the results of the liquid phase sample characterization, indicate that the partitioning of HM between the liquid and solid phases in the analyzed samples may be attributed to precipitation processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Enhanced fatigue endurance of metallic glasses through a staircase-like fracture mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gludovatz, Bernd; Demetriou, Marios D; Floyd, Michael; Hohenwarter, Anton; Johnson, William L; Ritchie, Robert O

    2013-11-12

    Bulk-metallic glasses (BMGs) are now candidate materials for structural applications due to their exceptional strength and toughness. However, their fatigue resistance can be poor and inconsistent, severely limiting their potential as reliable structural materials. As fatigue limits are invariably governed by the local arrest of microscopically small cracks at microstructural features, the lack of microstructure in monolithic glasses, often coupled with other factors, such as the ease of crack formation in shear bands or a high susceptibility to corrosion, can lead to low fatigue limits (some ~1/20 of their tensile strengths) and highly variable fatigue lives. BMG-matrix composites can provide a solution here as their duplex microstructures can arrest shear bands at a second phase to prevent cracks from exceeding critical size; under these conditions, fatigue limits become comparable with those of crystalline alloys. Here, we report on a Pd-based glass that similarly has high fatigue resistance but without a second phase. This monolithic glass displays high intrinsic toughness from extensive shear-band proliferation with cavitation and cracking effectively obstructed. We find that this property can further promote fatigue resistance through extrinsic crack-tip shielding, a mechanism well known in crystalline metals but not previously reported in BMGs, whereby cyclically loaded cracks propagate in a highly "zig-zag" manner, creating a rough "staircase-like" profile. The resulting crack-surface contact (roughness-induced crack closure) elevates fatigue properties to those comparable to crystalline alloys, and the accompanying plasticity helps to reduce flaw sensitivity in the glass, thereby promoting structural reliability.

  11. The effect of governance mechanisms on food safety in the supply chain: Evidence from the Lebanese dairy sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, Gumataw K; Chalak, Ali; Abiad, Mohamad G

    2017-07-01

    Food safety is a key public health issue worldwide. This study aims to characterise existing governance mechanisms - governance structures (GSs) and food safety management systems (FSMSs) - and analyse the alignment thereof in detecting food safety hazards, based on empirical evidence from Lebanon. Firm-to-firm and public baseline are the dominant FSMSs applied in a large-scale, while chain-wide FSMSs are observed only in a small-scale. Most transactions involving farmers are relational and market-based in contrast to (large-scale) processors, which opt for hierarchical GSs. Large-scale processors use a combination of FSMSs and GSs to minimise food safety hazards albeit potential increase in coordination costs; this is an important feature of modern food supply chains. The econometric analysis reveals contract period, on-farm inspection and experience having significant effects in minimising food safety hazards. However, the potential to implement farm-level FSMS is influenced by formality of the contract, herd size, trading partner choice, and experience. Public baseline FSMSs appear effective in controlling food safety hazards; however, this may not be viable due to the scarcity of public resources. We suggest public policies to focus on long-lasting governance mechanisms by introducing incentive schemes and farm-level FSMSs by providing loans and education to farmers. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Electroforming and Switching in Oxides of Transition Metals: The Role of Metal Insulator Transition in the Switching Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovskii, F. A.; Odynets, L. L.; Pergament, A. L.; Stefanovich, G. B.

    1996-02-01

    Electroforming and switching effects in sandwich structures based on anodic films of transition metal oxides (V, Nb, Ti, Fe, Ta, W, Zr, Hf, Mo) have been studied. After being electroformed, some materials exhibited current-controlled negative resistance with S-shapedV-Icharacteristics. For V, Fe, Ti, and Nb oxides, the temperature dependences of the threshold voltage have been measured. As the temperature increased,Vthdecreased to zero at a critical temperatureT0, which depended on the film material. Comparison of theT0values with the temperatures of metal-insulator phase transition for some compounds (Tt= 120 K for Fe3O4, 340 K for VO2, ∼500 K for Ti2O3, and 1070 K for NbO2) showed that switching was related to the transition in the applied electric field. Channels consisting of the above-mentioned lower oxides were formed in the initial anodic films during the electroforming. The possibility of formation of these oxides with a metal-insulator transition was confirmed by thermodynamic calculations.

  13. Estimation and diminution of CO2 emissions by clean development mechanism option at power sector in Oman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh Solanki, Parmal; Sarma Mallela, Venkateswara [Caledonian (University) College of Engineering, Muscat (Oman); Zhou, Chengke [Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of the major pollutants among greenhouse gases emitted by fossil fuel based power plants and responsible for environmental tribulations. Therefore diminution of carbon dioxide level by Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is now serious concern worldwide. This paper evaluates the emission factors of national electric grid in Oman and proposes a wind energy based CDM project to diminish the CO2 emissions. Estimations show that operating margin emission factors of national grid during five years lies in the range of 0.74 to 0.69 kg CO2/kWh. Further, proposed CDM project revealed the annual baseline emissions reduction of 45552 ton CO2 and able to earn the revenue of US$ 61.49 million by certify emission reductions in the first crediting period of project. Paper also critically analyse the opportunities for CDM project, its lucrative aspect, barrier and challenges.

  14. Investigation on mechanical properties of welded material under different types of welding filler (shielded metal arc welding)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Abdullah Mohd; Lair, Noor Ajian Mohd; Wei, Foo Jun

    2018-05-01

    The Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) is (or the Stick welding) defined as a welding process, which melts and joins metals with an arc between a welding filler (electrode rod) and the workpieces. The main objective was to study the mechanical properties of welded metal under different types of welding fillers and current for SMAW. This project utilized the Design of Experiment (DOE) by adopting the Full Factorial Design. The independent variables were the types of welding filler and welding current, whereas the other welding parameters were fixed at the optimum value. The levels for types of welding filler were by the models of welding filler (E6013, E7016 and E7018) used and the levels for welding current were 80A and 90A. The responses were the mechanical properties of welded material, which include tensile strength and hardness. The experiment was analyzed using the two way ANOVA. The results prove that there are significant effects of welding filler types and current levels on the tensile strength and hardness of the welded metal. At the same time, the ANOVA results and interaction plot indicate that there are significant interactions between the welding filler types and the welding current on both the hardness and tensile strength of the welded metals, which has never been reported before. This project found that when the amount of heat input with increase, the mechanical properties such as tensile strength and hardness decrease. The optimum tensile strength for welded metal is produced by the welding filler E7016 and the optimum of hardness of welded metal is produced by the welding filler E7018 at welding current of 80A.

  15. Kinetics and mechanisms of metal retention/release in geochemical processes in soil. 1997 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    'Remediation of soils polluted with heavy metals is a major challenge facing the nation. This is especially so at many DOE facilities and other superfund sites. In many cases, speciation of the metals is inaccurate and difficult and the mechanisms by which the metals are retained/released in soils over long times are poorly understood. Consequently, the long-term fate of metals in soils cannot be precisely predicted and often, the remediation recommendations and techniques that are employed to clean up soils may be ineffective or unnecessary. Accordingly, the authors are proposing work to generate basic knowledge on the kinetics and mechanism(s) of heavy metal retention/release by soil mineral colloids as affected by inorganic anion. The nature of the interaction of Cd(II), Co(II), Cr(VI), Cu(II), Ni(II) and Pb(II) with pure soil minerals and extracted soil clays will be investigated. The colloids will be characterized in terms of surface area, surface charge and surface site density. They will be used to study the effect(s) of pH, phosphate rate, and temperature on metals retention/release. The experiments will involve using various kinetic and isothermic sorption equations as models to describe the data thus acquired. The spectroscopic methods will involve using extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The data generated from the proposed study will assist in designing better remediation strategies to effectively clean up toxic heavy metal contaminated soils at DOE facilities and other superfund sites.'

  16. Do sector-specific shocks explain aggregate fluctuations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busato, Francesco; Girardi, Alessandro; Argentiero, Amedeo

    -sector productivity fluctuations.(ii) Cross-sector technology shocks have very little explanatory power on productivity andemployment, while cross-sector non-technology shocks explain more than 60 percent of employmentthat is reallocated across sector; this suggests that the shocks’ transmission mechanism....... Thenon-durable sector may follow a standard RBC model, while the durable sector should incorporateconsumption habit formation....

  17. TIG AISI-316 welds using an inert gas welding chamber and different filler metals: Changes in mechanical properties and microstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascual, M.; Salas, F.; Carcel, F.J.; Perales, M.; Sanchez, A.

    2010-07-01

    This report analyses the influence of the use of an inert gas welding chamber with a totally inert atmosphere on the microstructure and mechanical properties of austenitic AISI 316L stainless steel TIG welds, using AISI ER316L, AISI 308L and Inconel 625 as filler metals. When compared with the typical TIG process, the use of the inert gas chamber induced changes in the microstructure, mainly an increase in the presence of vermicular ferrite and ferrite stringers, what resulted in higher yield strengths and lower values of hardness. Its effect on other characteristics of the joins, such as tensile strength, depended on the filler metal. The best combination of mechanical characteristics was obtained when welding in the inert gas chamber using Inconel 625 as filler metal. (Author). 12 refs.

  18. The main mechanisms of flotation extraction of heavy metal ions out of water solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubareva, G.I.

    2002-01-01

    Flotation extraction of heavy metal ions out of water solutions using reagent EMKO (sodium soaps of vat residues of C grade) is presented. It is established that it is related to hydration energy and stability of sublates being formed. These two parameters affect contrariwise. A difference of molar ratios [EMKO]:[Me] in the course of extracting metals into froth can be explained by their different aggregative state, and a proportion of ionic form of metals and hydroxides being formed. Metal flotation rate is different for each of metal cations to be floated and is dependant on hydrogen ion concentrations [ru

  19. Additively manufactured metallic porous biomaterials based on minimal surfaces : A unique combination of topological, mechanical, and mass transport properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbert, F S L; Lietaert, K; Eftekhari, A A; Pouran, B; Ahmadi, S M; Weinans, H; Zadpoor, A A

    2017-01-01

    Porous biomaterials that simultaneously mimic the topological, mechanical, and mass transport properties of bone are in great demand but are rarely found in the literature. In this study, we rationally designed and additively manufactured (AM) porous metallic biomaterials based on four different

  20. Influence of temper condition on microstructure and mechanical properties of semisolid metal processed Al–Si–Mg alloy A356

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moller, H

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The microstructures and mechanical properties of strontium modified semisolid metal high pressure die cast A356 alloy are presented. The alloy A356-F (as cast) has a globular primary grain structure containing a fine eutectic. Solution treatment...

  1. Residual Stress Induced Mechanical Property Enhancement in Steel Encapsulated Light Metal Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudger, Sean James

    Macro hybridized systems consisting of steel encapsulated light metal matrix composites (MMCs) were produced with the goal of creating a low cost/light weight composite system with enhanced mechanical properties. MMCs are frequently incorporated into advanced material systems due to their tailorable material properties. However, they often have insufficient ductility for many structural applications. The macro hybridized systems take advantage of the high strength, modulus, and damage tolerance of steels and high specific stiffness and low density of MMCs while mitigating the high density of steels and the poor ductility of MMCs. Furthermore, a coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch induced residual compressive stress method is utilized as a means of improving the ductility of the MMCs and overall efficiency of the macro hybridized systems. Systems consisting of an A36, 304 stainless steel, or NitronicRTM 50 stainless steel shell filled with an Al-SiC, Al-Al2O3, or Mg-B4C MMC are evaluated in this work. Upon cooling from processing temperatures, residual strains are generated due to a CTE mismatch between each of the phases. The resulting systems offer higher specific properties and a more structurally efficient system can be attained. Mechanical testing was performed and improvements in yield stress, ultimate tensile stress, and ductility were observed. However, the combination of these dissimilar materials often results in the formation of intermetallic compounds. In certain loading situations, these typically brittle intermetallic layers can result in degraded performance. X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), and Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) are utilized to characterize the intermetallic layer formation at the interface between the steel and MMC. As the residual stress condition in each phase has a large impact on the mechanical property improvement, accurate quantification of these strains/stresses is

  2. Determination of the mechanical characteristics of irradiated metals from the results of microhardness tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofman, A.

    1999-01-01

    To predict the possibilities of using structural materials in nuclear and thermonuclear reactors, it is important to have data on changes of the mechanical characteristics and irradiation obtained from full-scale or simulation tests. Materials are irradiated in nuclear reactors with fast neutrons, the sources of high-energy neutrons with an energy of 14 MeV and the accelerators of charged particles. The restricted volumes for irradiation of these specimens in the systems and also the need to test large numbers of specimens under the same conditions make it necessary to reduce the size of irradiated specimens. To solve this problem, work is being carried out to develop various methods of testing miniature specimens, including tension extrusion of disc-shaped micro-specimens, microhardness, and the Charpy Method. In examination of the irradiation hardening of the materials, the main advantage of the microhardness method is that it makes it possible to examine small specimens. In single microhardness tests, only a small area of the irradiated specimens is examined. This makes it possible to increase the radiation dose and carry out subsequent tests of microhardness on the same specimens. The aim of this work was to determine the possibilities of using the microhardness measurement method for evaluating the mechanical characteristics of metallic materials. The comparison of the data, obtained in microhardness tests and in tensile loading specimens of 0Kh18N10Tsteel, irradiated with neutrons, shows the efficiency of the microhardness method as a tool for investigating the irradiation hardening of reactor materials

  3. Forests and global warming mitigation in Brazil: opportunities in the Brazilian forest sector for responses to global warming under the 'clean development mechanism''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearnside, P.M.

    1999-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol created global warming response opportunities through the clean development mechanism that allow countries like Brazil to receive investments from companies and governments wishing to offset their emissions of greenhouse gases. Brazil has a special place in strategies for combating global warming because its vast areas of tropical forest represent a potentially large source of emissions if deforested. A number of issues need to be settled to properly assign credit for carbon in the types of options presented by the Brazilian forest sector. These include definition of the units of carbon (permanent sequestration versus carbon-ton-years, the latter being most appropriate for forest options), the means of crediting forest reserve establishment, adoption of discounting or other time-preference weighting for carbon, definition of the accounting method (avoided emissions versus stock maintenance), and mechanism to allow program contributions to be counted, rather than restricting consideration to free-standing projects. Silvicultural plantations offer opportunities for carbon benefits, but have high social impacts in the Brazilian context. Plantations also inherently compete with deforestation reduction options for funds. Forest management has been proposed as a global warming response option, but the assignment of any value to time makes this unattractive in terms of carbon benefits. However, reduced-impact logging can substantially reduce emissions over those from traditional logging practices. Slowing deforestation is the major opportunity offered by Brazil. Slowing deforestation will require understanding its causes and creating functional models capable of generating land-use change scenarios with and without different policy changes and other activities. Brazil already has a number of programs designed to slow deforestation, but the continued rapid loss of forest highlights the vast gulf that exists between the magnitude of the problem and the

  4. TPM and autonomous maintenance: case study in a metal mechanic company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norberto Carvalho Biehl

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article was to describe a case of autonomous maintenance implementation in a pilot area of a metal mechanical industry company. The TPM – Total Productive Maintenance is a managerial technology that can help companies to reduce failures and breakages of machines. One of the most important issues of TPM is autonomous maintenance. The method of research was the case study. A program of twelve points was structured and adopted as stand-alone maintenance deployment guide. The program began in a pilot area, including three machining centers. The main results of the pilot program were: increasing by more than 700% the Mean Time between Failure, reducing by more than 40% in the Mean Time to Repair, as well as the consequent increase of more than five percentage points on the availability of the three machines and almost 60% reduction in the cost of maintenance materials. The main conclusion was that the TPM, and in particular the autonomous maintenance, can increase the efficiency of maintenance as strategic factor, which enhances the competitiveness of manufacturing in industrial companies.

  5. Significant enhancement of metal heat dissipation from mechanically exfoliated graphene nanosheets through thermal radiation effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junxiong Hu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate a facile approach to significantly enhance the heat dissipation potential of conventional aluminum (Al heat sinks by mechanically coating graphene nanosheets. For Al and graphene-coated Al heat sinks, the change in temperature with change in coating coverage, coating thickness and heat flux are studied. It is found that with the increase in coating coverage from 0 to 100%, the steady-state temperature is decreased by 5 °C at a heat flux of 1.8 W cm-1. By increasing the average thickness of graphene coating from 480 nm to 1900 nm, a remarkable temperature reduction up to 7 °C can be observed. Moreover, with the increase in heat flux from 1.2 W cm-1 to 2.4 W cm-1, the temperature difference between uncoated and graphene-coated samples increases from 1 °C to 6 °C. The thermal analysis and finite element simulation reveal that the thermal radiation plays a key role in enhancing the heat dissipation performance. The effect of heat convection remains weak owing to the low air velocity at surface-air boundary. This work provides a technological innovation in improving metal heat dissipation using graphene nanosheets.

  6. Tribological coatings for complex mechanical elements produced by supersonic cluster beam deposition of metal dichalcogenide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazzoni, C.; Buttery, M.; Hampson, M. R.; Roberts, E. W.; Ducati, C.; Lenardi, C.; Cavaliere, F.; Piseri, P.; Milani, P.

    2015-07-01

    Fullerene-like MoS2 and WS2 nanoparticles can be used as building blocks for the fabrication of fluid and solid lubricants. Metal dichalcogenide films have a very low friction coefficient in vacuum, therefore they have mostly been used as solid lubricants in space and vacuum applications. Unfortunately, their use is significantly hampered by the fact that in the presence of humidity, oxygen and moisture, the low-friction properties of these materials rapidly degrade due to oxidation. The use of closed-cage MoS2 and WS2 nanoparticles may eliminate this problem, although the fabrication of lubricant thin films starting from dichalcogenide nanoparticles is, to date, a difficult task. Here we demonstrate the use of supersonic cluster beam deposition for the coating of complex mechanical elements (angular contact ball bearings) with nanostructured MoS2 and WS2 thin films. We report structural and tribological characterization of the coatings in view of the optimization of tribological performances for aerospace applications.

  7. Epitaxial Growth of Two-Dimensional Layered Transition-Metal Dichalcogenides: Growth Mechanism, Controllability, and Scalability

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Henan

    2017-07-06

    Recently there have been many research breakthroughs in two-dimensional (2D) materials including graphene, boron nitride (h-BN), black phosphors (BPs), and transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs). The unique electrical, optical, and thermal properties in 2D materials are associated with their strictly defined low dimensionalities. These materials provide a wide range of basic building blocks for next-generation electronics. The chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique has shown great promise to generate high-quality TMDC layers with scalable size, controllable thickness, and excellent electronic properties suitable for both technological applications and fundamental sciences. The capability to precisely engineer 2D materials by chemical approaches has also given rise to fascinating new physics, which could lead to exciting new applications. In this Review, we introduce the latest development of TMDC synthesis by CVD approaches and provide further insight for the controllable and reliable synthesis of atomically thin TMDCs. Understanding of the vapor-phase growth mechanism of 2D TMDCs could benefit the formation of complicated heterostructures and novel artificial 2D lattices.

  8. Improved Mechanical and Tribological Properties of Metal-Matrix Composites Dispersion-Strengthened by Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenii Levashov

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Co- and Fe-based alloys produced by powder technology are being widely used as a matrix for diamond-containing composites in cutting, drilling, grinding pplications, etc. The severe service conditions demand that the mechanical and tribological properties of these alloys be improved. Development of metal-matrix composites (MMCs and alloys reinforced with nanoparticles is a promising way to resolve this problem. In this work, we have investigated the effect of nano-sized WC, ZrO2, Al2O3, and Si3N4 additives on the properties of sintered dispersion-strengthened Co- and Fe-based MMCs. The results show an increase in the hardness (up to 10 HRB, bending strength (up to 50%, wear resistance (by a factor of 2–10 and a decrease in the friction coefficient (up to 4-fold of the dispersion-strengthened materials. The use of designed alloys as a binder of cutting diamond tools gave a 4-fold increment in the service life, without reduction in their cutting speed.

  9. Intrinsic homogeneous linewidth and broadening mechanisms of excitons in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides

    KAUST Repository

    Moody, Galan

    2015-09-18

    The band-edge optical response of transition metal dichalcogenides, an emerging class of atomically thin semiconductors, is dominated by tightly bound excitons localized at the corners of the Brillouin zone (valley excitons). A fundamental yet unknown property of valley excitons in these materials is the intrinsic homogeneous linewidth, which reflects irreversible quantum dissipation arising from system (exciton) and bath (vacuum and other quasiparticles) interactions and determines the timescale during which excitons can be coherently manipulated. Here we use optical two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy to measure the exciton homogeneous linewidth in monolayer tungsten diselenide (WSe2). The homogeneous linewidth is found to be nearly two orders of magnitude narrower than the inhomogeneous width at low temperatures. We evaluate quantitatively the role of exciton–exciton and exciton–phonon interactions and population relaxation as linewidth broadening mechanisms. The key insights reported here—strong many-body effects and intrinsically rapid radiative recombination—are expected to be ubiquitous in atomically thin semiconductors.

  10. Mechanism study of selective heavy metal ion removal with polypyrrole-functionalized polyacrylonitrile nanofiber mats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jianqiang; Luo, Chao [Key Laboratory of Carbon Fiber and Functional Polymers, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Qi, Genggeng [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Pan, Kai, E-mail: pankai@mail.buct.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Carbon Fiber and Functional Polymers, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Cao, Bing, E-mail: bcao@mail.buct.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Carbon Fiber and Functional Polymers, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2014-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PAN/PPy core/shell nanofiber used for Cr(VI) removal. • Adsorption mechanisms were investigated. • Selective adsorption performances were investigated. - Abstract: Polyacrylonitrile/polypyrrole (PAN/PPy) core/shell nanofiber mat was prepared through electrospinning followed by a simple chemical oxidation method. The polypyrrole-functionalized nanofiber mats showed selective adsorption performance for anions. The interaction between heavy metal anions and polypyrrole (especially the interaction between Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}{sup 2−} and polypyrrole) during the adsorption process was studied. The results showed that the adsorption process included two steps: one was the anion exchange process between the Cl{sup −} and Cr(VI), and the other was the redox process for the Cr(VI) ions. The adsorption amount was related to the protonation time of the PAN/PPy nanofiber mat and increased as protonation time increased. Meanwhile, the Cr(VI) ions were reduced to Cr(III) through the reaction with amino groups of polypyrrole (from secondary amines to tertiary amines). PAN/PPy nanofiber mat showed high selectivity for Cr(VI), and the adsorption performance was nearly unaffected by other co-existing anions (Cl{sup −}, NO{sub 3}{sup −}, and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}) except for PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} for the pH change.

  11. Mechanism study of selective heavy metal ion removal with polypyrrole-functionalized polyacrylonitrile nanofiber mats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jianqiang; Luo, Chao; Qi, Genggeng; Pan, Kai; Cao, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PAN/PPy core/shell nanofiber used for Cr(VI) removal. • Adsorption mechanisms were investigated. • Selective adsorption performances were investigated. - Abstract: Polyacrylonitrile/polypyrrole (PAN/PPy) core/shell nanofiber mat was prepared through electrospinning followed by a simple chemical oxidation method. The polypyrrole-functionalized nanofiber mats showed selective adsorption performance for anions. The interaction between heavy metal anions and polypyrrole (especially the interaction between Cr 2 O 7 2− and polypyrrole) during the adsorption process was studied. The results showed that the adsorption process included two steps: one was the anion exchange process between the Cl − and Cr(VI), and the other was the redox process for the Cr(VI) ions. The adsorption amount was related to the protonation time of the PAN/PPy nanofiber mat and increased as protonation time increased. Meanwhile, the Cr(VI) ions were reduced to Cr(III) through the reaction with amino groups of polypyrrole (from secondary amines to tertiary amines). PAN/PPy nanofiber mat showed high selectivity for Cr(VI), and the adsorption performance was nearly unaffected by other co-existing anions (Cl − , NO 3 − , and SO 4 2− ) except for PO 4 3− for the pH change

  12. A parametric analysis of future ethanol use in the light-duty transportation sector: Can the US meet its Renewable Fuel Standard goals without an enforcement mechanism?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westbrook, Jessica; Barter, Garrett E.; Manley, Dawn K.; West, Todd H.

    2014-01-01

    The modified Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) prescribes a volume of biofuels to be used in the United States transportation sector each year through 2022. As the dominant component of the transportation sector, we consider the feasibility of the light-duty vehicle (LDV) parc to provide enough demand for biofuels to satisfy RFS2. Sensitivity studies show that the fuel price differential between gasoline and ethanol blendstocks, such as E85, is the principal factor in LDV biofuel consumption. The numbers of flex fuel vehicles and biofuel refueling stations will grow given a favorable price differential. However, unless the feedstock price differential becomes extreme (biomass prices below $100 per dry ton and oil prices above $215 per barrel), which deviates from historical price trends, LDV parc biofuel consumption will fall short of the RFS2 mandate without an enforcement mechanism. Additionally, such commodity prices might increase biofuel consumption in the short-term, but discourage use of biofuels in the long-term as other technologies that do not rely on any gasoline blendstock may be preferable. Finally, the RFS2 program goals of reducing fossil fuel consumption and transportation greenhouse gas emissions could be achieved through other pathways, such as notable improvements in conventional vehicle efficiency. - Author-Highlights: • At current commodity prices, the LDV fleet will not use enough biofuel to meet RFS2. • RFS2 can be met through the promotion of flex-fuel vehicles and their use of E85 fuel. • The gasoline-E85 price premium is the key factor in encouraging biofuel consumption. • RFS2 is satisfied at extreme oil prices (at least $215/barrel). • This oil price encourages biofuel use in the RFS2 timeframe, but not in the long run

  13. Effect of nickel content on mechanical properties and fracture toughness of weld metal of WWER-1000 reactor vessel welded joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubchenko, A.S.; Vasilchenko, G.S.; Starchenko, E.G.; Nosov, S.I

    2004-08-01

    Welding of WWER-1000 reactor vessel of steel 15X2HMPHIA is performed using the C{sub B}-12X2H2MAA wire and PHI-16 or PHI-16A flux. Nickel content in the weld metal usually lays within the limits 1.2-1.9%. The experimental data is shown on the weld metal with the nickel contents 1.28-2.45% after irradiation with fluence up to 260.10{sup 22}n/m{sup 2} at energy more than 0.5 MEV. The embrittlement was measured by shift of critical brittleness temperature. Has appeared, that the weld metal with the low nickel content is the least responsive to irradiation embrittlement. The mechanical properties and fracture toughness of the weld metal with the contents of a nickel less than 1.3% are studied. Specimens CT-1T are tested, the 'master-curve', and its confidence bounds with probability of destruction 5 and 95% is built. 'Master-curve' in the specified confidence interval is affirmed by CT-4T specimens test data. Is shown, that the mechanical properties and fracture toughness of the weld metal with the contents of nickel less than 1.3% satisfy the normative requirements.

  14. Effect of nickel content on mechanical properties and fracture toughness of weld metal of WWER-1000 reactor vessel welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubchenko, A.S.; Vasilchenko, G.S.; Starchenko, E.G.; Nosov, S.I.

    2004-01-01

    Welding of WWER-1000 reactor vessel of steel 15X2HMPHIA is performed using the C B -12X2H2MAA wire and PHI-16 or PHI-16A flux. Nickel content in the weld metal usually lays within the limits 1.2-1.9%. The experimental data is shown on the weld metal with the nickel contents 1.28-2.45% after irradiation with fluence up to 260.10 22 n/m 2 at energy more than 0.5 MEV. The embrittlement was measured by shift of critical brittleness temperature. Has appeared, that the weld metal with the low nickel content is the least responsive to irradiation embrittlement. The mechanical properties and fracture toughness of the weld metal with the contents of a nickel less than 1.3% are studied. Specimens CT-1T are tested, the 'master-curve', and its confidence bounds with probability of destruction 5 and 95% is built. 'Master-curve' in the specified confidence interval is affirmed by CT-4T specimens test data. Is shown, that the mechanical properties and fracture toughness of the weld metal with the contents of nickel less than 1.3% satisfy the normative requirements

  15. [The bonding mechanisms of base metals for metal-ceramic crown microstructure analysis of bonding agent and gold bond between porcelain and base metals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C C; Hsu, C S

    1996-06-01

    The use of base metal alloys for porcelain fused to a metal crown and bridges has increased recently because of lower price, high hardness, high tensile strength and high elastic modulus. The addition of beryllium to base metal alloys increased fluidity and improved casting fitness. Beryllium also controlled surface oxidation and bonding strength. The bonding agent and gold bonding agent also affected the bonding strength between porcelain and metal alloys. Four commercially available ceramic base alloys were studied (two alloys contained beryllium element, another two did not). The purpose of this investigation was to study the microstructure between porcelain matrix, bonding agent and alloy matrix interfaces. A scanning electron micro-probe analyzer and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) were used to study the distribution of elements (Ni, Cr, Mo, Cu, O, Si, Sn, Al) in four base alloys. The following results were obtained: 1. The thickness of the oxidized layer of Rexillium III alloy and Unitbond alloy (contained beryllium) was thinner than Unibond alloy and Wiron 88 alloy (no beryllium). 2. The thickness of the oxidized layer of alloys in air (10 minutes and 30 minutes) was thinner in Unitbond (2.45 microns and 3.80 microns) and thicker in Wiron 88 (4.39 microns and 5.96 microns). 3. The thickness of the oxidized layer occurring for a duration of ten minutes (in vaccum) showed that the Rexillium III alloy was the thinnest (1.93 microns), and Wiron 88 alloy was the thickest (2.30 microns). But in thirty minutes (vacuum), Unitbond alloy was the thinnest (3.37 microns), and Wiron 88 alloy was the thickest (5.51 microns). 4. The intensity of Cr elements was increased obviously near the interface between Unitbond alloy, Wiron 88 alloy (no beryllium) and oxidized layer, but the intensity of Ni and Mo elements was slightly increased. The intensity of Cr element was not increased markedly between Rexillium III alloy, Unitbond alloy (beryllium) and oxidized

  16. Regional transport sector mitigation options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Peter [EECG Consultants, Gaborone (Botswana)

    1998-10-01

    The rationale for conducting climate change mitigation studies in the transport sector is on the premise that: The transport sector is the second largest consumer of fossil fuels in the region; The regional transport sector is an area with high opportunity for infrastructural development under UNFCCC financial mechanism; The regional transport sector is crucial in the SADC region for trade and coupled with the Trade Protocol will play a major role in development hence the need to make it efficient in terms of energy demand and provision of services; The sector offers many mitigation options but with a challenge to evaluate their energy saving and GHG saving potential and yet there is need to quantify possible emission reduction for possible future emission trading. This is also a sector with potential to qualify for financing through Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) recently stipulated in the Kyoto Protocol. (au)

  17. Regional transport sector mitigation options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Peter

    1998-01-01

    The rationale for conducting climate change mitigation studies in the transport sector is on the premise that: The transport sector is the second largest consumer of fossil fuels in the region; The regional transport sector is an area with high opportunity for infrastructural development under UNFCCC financial mechanism; The regional transport sector is crucial in the SADC region for trade and coupled with the Trade Protocol will play a major role in development hence the need to make it efficient in terms of energy demand and provision of services; The sector offers many mitigation options but with a challenge to evaluate their energy saving and GHG saving potential and yet there is need to quantify possible emission reduction for possible future emission trading. This is also a sector with potential to qualify for financing through Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) recently stipulated in the Kyoto Protocol. (au)

  18. MECHANISM(S) OF UPTAKE AND SEQUESTRATION OF LEAD AND OTHER HEAVY METALS BY PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA CHL-004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavy metals in soils and sediments of anthropogenic origin are a major environmental concern, due to the significant health risks they pose and due to the difficulties encountered with their remediation. Diverse industries involved in energy production, pigment synthesis and the...

  19. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Stainless Steel/Brass Joints Brazed by Sn-Electroplated Ag Brazing Filler Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingxing; Peng, Jin; Cui, Datian

    2018-05-01

    To develop a high-Sn-content AgCuZnSn brazing filler metal, the BAg50CuZn was used as the base filler metal and a Sn layer was electroplated upon it. Then, the 304 stainless steel and the H62 brass were induction-brazed with the Sn-plated brazing filler metals. The microstructures of the joints were examined with an optical microscope, a scanning electron microscope and an x-ray diffractometer. The corresponding mechanical properties were obtained with a universal tensile testing machine. The results indicated that the induction brazed joints consisted of the Ag phase, the Cu phase and the CuZn phase. When the content of Sn in the Sn-plated Ag brazing filler metal was 6.0 or 7.2 wt.%, the Cu5Zn8, the Cu41Sn11 and the Ag3Sn phases appeared in the brazed joint. The tensile strength of the joints brazed with the Sn-plated filler metal was higher compared to the joints with the base filler metal. When the content of Sn was 6.0 wt.%, the highest tensile strength of the joint reached to 395 MPa. The joint fractures presented a brittle mode, mixed with a low amount of ductile fracture, when the content of Sn exceeded 6.0 wt.%.

  20. The mechanism of metal nanoparticle formation in plants: limits on accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haverkamp, R. G., E-mail: r.haverkamp@massey.ac.nz; Marshall, A. T. [Massey University, School of Engineering and Advanced Technology (New Zealand)

    2009-08-15

    Metal nanoparticles have many potential technological applications. Biological routes to the synthesis of these particles have been proposed including production by vascular plants, known as phytoextraction. While many studies have looked at metal uptake by plants, particularly with regard to phytoremediation and hyperaccumulation, few have distinguished between metal deposition and metal salt accumulation. This work describes the uptake of AgNO{sub 3}, Na{sub 3}Ag(S{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 2}, and Ag(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}NO{sub 3} solutions by hydroponically grown Brassica juncea and the quantitative measurement of the conversion of these salts to silver metal nanoparticles. Using X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) to determine the metal speciation within the plants, combined with atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) for total Ag, the quantity of reduction of Ag{sup I} to Ag{sup 0} is reported. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed Ag particles of 2-35 nm. The factors controlling the amount of silver accumulated are revealed. It is found that there is a limit on the amount of metal nanoparticles that may be deposited, of about 0.35 wt.% Ag on a dry plant basis, and that higher levels of silver are obtained only by the concentration of metal salts within the plant, not by deposition of metal. The limit on metal nanoparticle accumulation, across a range of metals, is proposed to be controlled by the total reducing capacity of the plant for the reduction potential of the metal species and limited to reactions occurring at an electrochemical potential greater than 0 V (verses the standard hydrogen electrode).

  1. Influence of various thickness metallic interlayers on opto-electric and mechanical properties of AZO thin films on PET substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, R. C.; Li, T. C.; Lin, C. W.

    2012-02-01

    Various thickness metallic interlayers to improve the opto-electric and mechanical properties of aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films deposited on flexible polyethylene terephtalate (PET) substrates are studied. The effects of the interlayers on the resistance and transmittance of the AZO thin films are discussed. The result shows that the metallic interlayers effectively improve the electric resistance but reduce the optical transmittance of the AZO thin films. These phenomena become more obvious as the interlayer thickness increases. However, the AZO with an aluminum interlayer still behaves an acceptable transmittance. Moreover, mechanical tests indicate that the aluminum interlayer increases the hardness and modulus, and reduce the residual stress of the AZO thin films. In contrast, the silver and copper interlayers decrease the AZO's mechanical properties. Comparing to those without any interlayer, the results show that the best interlayer is the 6 nm thick aluminum film.

  2. Impact of the structural state on the mechanical properties in a Zr–Co–Al bulk metallic glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao, J.C.; Pelletier, J.M.; Esnouf, C.; Liu, Y.; Kato, H.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Atomic mobility in metallic glass was studied by DMA, HRTEM and nanoindentation. • Physical ageing and crystallization reduce the atomic mobility. • Plastic deformation, i.e. cold-rolling enhances the atomic mobility. • Atomic mobility in glassy materials can be described by quasi-point defects model. - Abstract: This paper reports on the use of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and nanoindentation technique to investigate atomic mobility in Zr 56 Co 28 Al 16 bulk metallic glass in the as-cast state, after thermal annealing and after cold rolling. From the DMA results together with nanoindentation data point of view, the atomic mobility is significantly modified by the thermo-mechanical history. On the one hand, atomic mobility in bulk metallic glass is reduced after physical aging or crystallization. On the other hand, the atomic mobility in metallic glass is enhanced by cold rolling. To analyze the atomic mobility in amorphous materials, a physical theory is introduced. This model invoked the concept of quasi-point defects, which correspond to the density fluctuations in the glassy materials. Correlated movements of atoms are assisted by these quasi-point defects and the correlation factor χ is connected to the concentration of these “defects” in metallic glasses: (i) physical aging and crystallization decreases the parameter χ and (ii) the concentration of defects augments via plastic deformation (i.e. cold-rolling), suggesting that the correlation factor χ reflects the atomic mobility for glassy materials in a quantitative manner. This correlation bridges the gap between the mechanical properties on macroscopic scale and atomic mobility in microstructural regions in metallic glasses

  3. Investigation of Mechanical Properties and Metallurical Characteristics of a Metallic Chromium and Magnesium Oxide Composite

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manning, Charles

    1963-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been made to evaluate an uncoated thin composite sheet material containing metallic chromium and magnesium oxide for aerospace applications in the temperature range...

  4. Enrichment of the metallic components from waste printed circuit boards by a mechanical separation process using a stamp mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Jae-Min; Jeong, Jinki; Yoo, Kyoungkeun; Lee, Jae-chun; Kim, Wonbaek

    2009-01-01

    Printed circuit boards incorporated in most electrical and electronic equipment contain valuable metals such as Cu, Ni, Au, Ag, Pd, Fe, Sn, and Pb. In order to employ a hydrometallurgical route for the recycling of valuable metals from printed circuit boards, a mechanical pre-treatment step is needed. In this study, the metallic components from waste printed circuit boards have been enriched using a mechanical separation process. Waste printed circuit boards shredded to 5.0 mm. The fractions of milled printed circuit boards of size 5.0 mm fraction and the heavy fraction were subjected to two-step magnetic separation. Through the first magnetic separation at 700 Gauss, 83% of the nickel and iron, based on the whole printed circuit boards, was recovered in the magnetic fraction, and 92% of the copper was recovered in the non-magnetic fraction. The cumulative recovery of nickel-iron concentrate was increased by a second magnetic separation at 3000 Gauss, but the grade of the concentrate decreased remarkably from 76% to 56%. The cumulative recovery of copper concentrate decreased, but the grade increased slightly from 71.6% to 75.4%. This study has demonstrated the feasibility of the mechanical separation process consisting of milling/size classification/gravity separation/two-step magnetic separation for enriching metallic components such as Cu, Ni, Al, and Fe from waste printed circuit boards

  5. Evaluation of the onset of failure under mechanical and thermal stresses on luting agent for metal-ceramic and metal crowns by finite element analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hema Agnihotri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term clinical failures of cemented prosthesis depend, to a large extent, on the integrity of the luting agent. The causative factors that lead to microfracture and, hence, failure of the luting agents are the stresses acting inside the oral cavity. Therefore, the present study was designed to develop an understanding of the relationship between stresses in the tooth and the failure potential of the luting agent. Two-dimensional finite element stress analysis was performed on the mandibular second premolar. The behavior of zinc-phosphate and glass-ionomer were studied under different crowns (metal-ceramic and metal crown and loading conditions (mechanical force of 450 N acting vertically over the occlusal surface, thermal loads of 60° and 0°C. It was observed from the study that failure threshold of the luting agent was influenced both by the elastic modulus of the luting agent and by the type of the crown.

  6. Industrial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainul Hayati Daud; Hazmimi Kasim

    2010-01-01

    The industrial sector is categorized as related to among others, the provision of technical and engineering services, supply of products, testing and troubleshooting of parts, systems and industrial plants, quality control and assurance as well as manufacturing and processing. A total of 161 entities comprising 47 public agencies and 114 private companies were selected for the study in this sector. The majority of the public agencies, 87 %, operate in Peninsular Malaysia. The remainders were located in Sabah and Sarawak. The findings of the study on both public agencies and private companies are presented in subsequent sections of this chapter. (author)

  7. Agricultural sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainul Hayati Daud; Hazmimi Kasim

    2010-01-01

    The applications of nuclear technology in agriculture sector cover the use of the technology at every aspects of agricultural activity, starting from the seed to harvesting as well as the management of plantations itself. In this sector, a total of 55 entities comprising 17 public agencies and 38 private companies were selected for the study. Almost all, 91 % of them are located in Peninsular Malaysia; the rest operates in Sabah and Sarawak. The findings of the study in the public agencies and private companies are presented in the next sections. (author)

  8. Effects of heavy metals on plants and resistance mechanisms. A state-of-the-art report with special reference to literature published in Chinese journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shuiping

    2003-01-01

    As one of the consequences of heavy metal pollution in soil, water and air, plants are contaminated by heavy metals in some parts of China. To understand the effects of heavy metals upon plants and the resistance mechanisms, would make it possible to use plants for cleaning and remediating heavy metal-polluted sites. The research results on the effects of heavy metals on plants and resistant mechanisms are compiled from Chinese publications from scientific journals and university journals, mostly published during the last decade. Effects of heavy metals on plants result in growth inhibition, structure damage, a decline of physiological and biochemical activities as well as of the function of plants. The effects and bioavailability of heavy metals depend on many factors, such as environmental conditions, pH, species of element, organic substances of the media and fertilization, plant species. But, there are also studies on plant resistance mechanisms to protect plants against the toxic effects of heavy metals such as combining heavy metals by proteins and expressing of detoxifying enzyme and nucleic acid, these mechanisms are integrated to protect the plants against injury by heavy metals. There are two aspects on the interaction of plants and heavy metals. On one hand, heavy metals show negative effects on plants. On the other hand, plants have their own resistance mechanisms against toxic effects and for detoxifying heavy metal pollution. To study the effects of heavy metals on plants and mechanisms of resistance, one must select crop cultivars and/or plants for removing heavy metals from soil and water. More highly resistant plants can be selected especially for a remediation of the pollution site. The molecular mechanisms of resistance of plants to heavy metals should be studied further to develop the actual resistance of these plants to heavy metals. Understanding the bioavailability of heavy metals is advantageous for plant cultivation and phytoremediation

  9. Formation mechanisms of metallic Zn nanodots by using ZnO thin films deposited on n-Si substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuk, J. M.; Lee, J. Y.; Kim, Y.; No, Y. S.; Kim, T. W.; Choi, W. K.

    2010-01-01

    High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy results showed that metallic Zn nanodots (NDs) were fabricated through transformation of ZnO thin films by deposition of SiO x on ZnO/n-Si (100) heterostructures. The Zn NDs with various sizes and densities were formed due to the occurrence of the mass diffusion of atoms along the grain boundaries in the ZnO thin films. The fabrication mechanisms of metallic Zn NDs through transformation of ZnO thin films deposited on n-Si substrates are described on the basis of the experimental results.

  10. Microstructure and bonding mechanism of Al/Ti bonded joint using Al-10Si-1Mg filler metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Woong H.; Bong, Ha H.; Hong, Soon H.

    2003-01-01

    The microstructures and liquid state diffusion bonding mechanism of cp-Ti to 1050 Al using an Al-10.0wt.%Si-1.0wt.%Mg filler metal with 100 μm in thickness have been investigated at 620 deg. C under 1x10 -4 Torr. The effects of bonding process parameters on microstructure of bonded joint have been analyzed by using an optical microscope, AES, scanning electron microscopy and EDS. The interfacial bond strength of Al/Ti bonded joints was measured by the single lap shear test. The results show that the bonding at the interface between Al and filler metal proceeds by wetting the Al with molten filler metal, and followed by removal of oxide layer on surface of Al. The interface between Al and filler metal moved during the isothermal solidification of filler metal by the diffusion of Si from filler metal into Al layer. The interface between Al and filler metal became curved in shape with increasing bonding time due to capillary force at grain boundaries. The bonding at the interface between Ti and filler metal proceeds by the formation of two different intermetallic compound layers, identified as Al 5 Si 12 Ti 7 and Al 12 Si 3 Ti 5 , followed by the growth of the intermetallic compound layers. The interfacial bond strength at Al/Ti joint increased with increasing bonding time up to 25 min at 620 deg. C. However, the interfacial bond strength of Al/Ti joint decreased after bonding time of 25 min at 620 deg. C due to formation of cavities in Al near Al/intermetallic interfaces

  11. Lessons Learned from the Private Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robichaud, Robert J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-07

    This session is focused on lessons learned from private sector energy projects that could be applied to the federal sector. This presentation tees up the subsequent presentations by outlining the differences between private and federal sectors in objectives, metrics for determining success, funding resources/mechanisms, payback and ROI evaluation, risk tolerance/aversion, new technology adoption perspectives, and contracting mechanisms.

  12. A realist evaluation of social prescribing: an exploration into the context and mechanisms underpinning a pathway linking primary care with the voluntary sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertotti, Marcello; Frostick, Caroline; Hutt, Patrick; Sohanpal, Ratna; Carnes, Dawn

    2018-05-01

    This article adopts a realist approach to evaluate a social prescribing pilot in the areas of Hackney and City in London (United Kingdom). It unpacks the contextual factors and mechanisms that influenced the development of this pilot for the benefits of GPs, commissioners and practitioners, and reflects on the realist approach to evaluation as a tool for the evaluation of health interventions. Primary care faces considerable challenges including the increase in long-term conditions, GP consultation rates, and widening health inequalities. With its emphasis on linking primary care to non-clinical community services via a social prescribing coordinator (SPC), some models of social prescribing could contribute to reduce the burden on primary care, tackle health inequalities and encourage people to make greater use of non-clinical forms of support. This realist analysis was based on qualitative interviews with users, commissioners, a GP survey, focus groups and learning events to explore stakeholders' experience. To enable a detailed analysis, we adapted the realist approach by subdividing the social prescribing pathway into stages, each with contextual factors, mechanisms and outcomes. SPCs were pivotal to the effective functioning of the social prescribing service and responsible for the activation and initial beneficial impact on users. Although social prescribing shows significant potential for the benefit of patients and primary care, several challenges need to be considered and overcome, including 'buy in' from some GPs, branding, and funding for the third sector in a context where social care cuts are severely affecting the delivery of health care. With its emphasis on context and mechanisms, the realist evaluation approach is useful in understanding how to identify and improve health interventions, and analyse in greater detail the contribution of different stakeholders. As the SPC is central to social prescribing, more needs to be done to understand their role

  13. Chemical-mechanical polishing of metal and dielectric films for microelectronic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Sharath

    The demand for smaller, faster devices has led the integrated circuit (IC) industry to continually increase the device density on a chip while simultaneously reducing feature dimensions. Copper interconnects and multilevel metallization (MLM) schemes were introduced to meet some of these challenges. With the employment of MLM in the ultra-large-scale-integrated (ULSI) circuit fabrication technology, repeated planarization of different surface layers with tolerance of a few nanometers is required. Presently, chemical-mechanical planarization (CMP) is the only technique that can meet this requirement. Damascene and shallow trench isolation processes are currently used in conjunction with CMP in the fabrication of multilevel copper interconnects and isolation of devices, respectively, for advanced logic and memory devices. These processes, at some stage, require simultaneous polishing of two different materials using a single slurry that offers high polish rates, high polish selectivity to one material over the other and good post-polish surface finish. Slurries containing one kind of abrasive particles do not meet most of these demands due mainly to the unique physical and chemical properties of each abrasive. However, if a composite particle is formed that takes the advantages of different abrasives while mitigating their disadvantages, the CMP performance of resulting abrasives would be compelling. It is demonstrated that electrostatic interactions between ceria and silica particles at pH 4 can be used to produce composite particles with enhanced functionality. Zeta potential measurement and TEM images used for particle characterization show the presence of such composite particles with smaller shell particles attached onto larger core particles. Slurries containing ceria (core)/silica (shell) and silica (core)/ceria (shell) composite particles when used to polish metal and dielectric films, respectively, yield both enhanced metal and dielectric film removal rates

  14. Bureaucratic reform, informal sector and welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhuri, Sarbajit; Mandal, Biswajit

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we formulate a three-sector general equilibrium model where one sector produces a service or good used as an intermediate input in two other sectors. Intermediate input here resembles bureaucratic (in)efficiency/control, red-tapism etc. in light of these concerns we introduce informal sector where wage is determined through competitive mechanism. We show that informal wage must go up if bureaucratic efficiency increases in general or if informal sector becomes less prone to bure...

  15. Reliably Modeling the Mechanical Stability of Rigid and Flexible Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogge, Sven M J; Waroquier, Michel; Van Speybroeck, Veronique

    2018-01-16

    Over the past two decades, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have matured from interesting academic peculiarities toward a continuously expanding class of hybrid, nanoporous materials tuned for targeted technological applications such as gas storage and heterogeneous catalysis. These oft-times crystalline materials, composed of inorganic moieties interconnected by organic ligands, can be endowed with desired structural and chemical features by judiciously functionalizing or substituting these building blocks. As a result of this reticular synthesis, MOF research is situated at the intriguing intersection between chemistry and physics, and the building block approach could pave the way toward the construction of an almost infinite number of possible crystalline structures, provided that they exhibit stability under the desired operational conditions. However, this enormous potential is largely untapped to date, as MOFs have not yet found a major breakthrough in technological applications. One of the remaining challenges for this scale-up is the densification of MOF powders, which is generally achieved by subjecting the material to a pressurization step. However, application of an external pressure may substantially alter the chemical and physical properties of the material. A reliable theoretical guidance that can presynthetically identify the most stable materials could help overcome this technological challenge. In this Account, we describe the recent research the progress on computational characterization of the mechanical stability of MOFs. So far, three complementary approaches have been proposed, focusing on different aspects of mechanical stability: (i) the Born stability criteria, (ii) the anisotropy in mechanical moduli such as the Young and shear moduli, and (iii) the pressure-versus-volume equations of state. As these three methods are grounded in distinct computational approaches, it is expected that their accuracy and efficiency will vary. To date

  16. Chronic Toxic Metal Exposure and Cardiovascular Disease: Mechanisms of Risk and Emerging Role of Chelation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneni, Ehimen C; Escolar, Esteban; Lamas, Gervasio A

    2016-12-01

    Over the last few decades, there has been a growing body of epidemiologic evidence linking chronic toxic metal exposure to cardiovascular disease-related morbidity and mortality. The recent and unexpectedly positive findings from a randomized, double-blind, multicenter trial of metal chelation for the secondary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (Trial to Assess Chelation Therapy (TACT)) have focused the discussion on the role of chronic exposure to toxic metals in the development and propagation of cardiovascular disease and the role of toxic metal chelation therapy in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. This review summarizes the most recent evidence linking chronic toxic metal exposure to cardiovascular disease and examines the findings of TACT.

  17. Study of the mechanisms involved in the laser superficial hardening process of metallic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Edmara Marques Rodrigues da

    2001-01-01

    The laser superficial hardening process of a ferrous alloy (gray cast iron) and of an aluminum-silicon alloy was investigated in this work. These metallic alloys are used in the automobile industry for manufacturing cylinders and pistons, respectively. By application of individual pulses and single tracks, the involved mechanisms during the processing were studied. Variables such as energy density, power density, temporal width, beam diameter on the sample surface, atmosphere of the processing region, overlapping and scanning velocity. The hardened surface was characterized by optical and scanning electronic microscopy, dispersive energy microanalysis, X-ray mapping, X-ray diffraction, and measurements of roughness and Vickers microhardness. Depending on the processing parameters, it is possible to obtain different microstructures. The affected area of gray cast iron, can be hardened by remelting or transformation hardening (total or partial) if the reached temperature is higher or not that of melting temperature. Laser treatment originated new structures such as retained austenite, martensite and, occasionally, eutectic of cellular dendritic structure. Aluminum-silicon alloy does not have phase transformation in solid state, it can be hardened only by remelting. The increase of hardness is a function of the precipitation hardening process, which makes the silicon particles smaller and more disperse in the matrix. Maximal values of microhardness (700-1000 HV) were reached with the laser treatment in gray cast iron samples. The initial microhardness is of 242 HV. For aluminum-silicon alloy, the laser remelting increases the initial microhardness of 128 HV to the range of 160-320 HV. The found results give a new perspective for using the CLA/IPEN's laser in the heat treatment area. Besides providing a higher absorptivity to the materials, compared with the CO 2 laser, and optical fiber access, the superficial hardening with Nd:YAG laser, depending on the level of

  18. Examination of structure and mechanical properties of hard-to-weld metal joints obtained with the laser method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czujko, T.; Przetakiewicz, W.; Jozwiak, S.; Hoffman, J.; Kalita, W.

    1995-01-01

    Metal joints of stainless of type X6CrNiMoTi1722 (according to DIN) and high conductivity (HC) copper, and joints of transformer steel containing about 3.5% of silicon were obtained using metal sheets 2 mm in thickness. The microstructure and the distribution of microhardness in the area of the joint, and the changes of the strength and elongation caused by the process of laser welding were examined with reference to the properties of the native metal; and, in the case of transformer steel-joints, the effects of welding by means of the TIG method were also analyzed. A probable mechanism of the formation of the steel-copper joint was presented, the strength of which is comparable with that of copper. The superiority of laser welding over TIG welding was also demonstrated. (author). 11 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  19. Microstructure, mechanical property and metal release of As-SLM CoCrW alloy under different solution treatment conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanjin; Wu, Songquan; Gan, Yiliang; Zhang, Shuyuan; Guo, Sai; Lin, Junjie; Lin, Jinxin

    2015-03-01

    In the study, the microstructure, mechanical property and metal release behavior of selective laser melted CoCrW alloys under different solution treatment conditions were systemically investigated to assess their potential use in orthopedic implants. The effects of the solution treatment on the microstructure, mechanical properties and metal release were systematically studied by OM, SEM, XRD, tensile test, and ICP-AES, respectively. The XRD indicated that during the solution treatment the alloy underwent the transformation of γ-fcc to ε-hcp phase; the ε-hcp phase nearly dominated in the alloy when treated at 1200°C following the water quenching; the results from OM, SEM showed that the microstructural change was occurred under different solution treatments; solution at 1150°C with furnace cooling contributed to the formation of larger precipitates at the grain boundary regions, while the size and number of the precipitates was decreased as heated above 1100°C with the water quenching; moreover, the diamond-like structure was invisible at higher solution temperature over 1150°C following water quenching; compared with the furnace cooling, the alloy quenched by water showed excellent mechanical properties and low amount of metal release; as the alloy heated at 1200°C, the mechanical properties of the alloy reached their optimum combination at UTS=1113.6MPa, 0.2%YS=639.5MPa, and E%=20.1%, whilst showed the lower total quantity of metal release. It is suggested that a proper solution treatment is an efficient strategy for improving the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of As-SLM CoCrW alloy that show acceptable tensile ductility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Metal and metalloid foliar uptake by various plant species exposed to atmospheric industrial fallout: Mechanisms involved for lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreck, E., E-mail: eva.schreck@ensat.fr [Universite de Toulouse (France); INP, UPS (France); EcoLab (Laboratoire Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Environnement) (France); ENSAT, Avenue de l' Agrobiopole, 31326 Castanet Tolosan (France); CNRS (France); EcoLab, 31326 Castanet Tolosan (France); Foucault, Y. [Universite de Toulouse (France); INP, UPS (France); EcoLab (Laboratoire Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Environnement) (France); ENSAT, Avenue de l' Agrobiopole, 31326 Castanet Tolosan (France); CNRS (France); EcoLab, 31326 Castanet Tolosan (France); STCM, Societe de Traitements Chimiques des Metaux, 30 Avenue de Fondeyre 31200 Toulouse (France); Sarret, G. [ISTerre (UMR 5275), Universite J. Fourier and CNRS, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Sobanska, S. [LASIR (UMR CNRS 8516), Universite de Lille 1, Bat. C5, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq cedex (France); Cecillon, L. [ISTerre (UMR 5275), Universite J. Fourier and CNRS, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Castrec-Rouelle, M. [Universite Pierre and Marie Curie (UPMC-Paris 6), Bioemco (Biogeochimie et Ecologie des Milieux Continentaux), Site Jussieu, Tour 56, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris cedex 05 (France); Uzu, G. [Laboratoire d' Aerologie (UMR 5560), OMP, UPS 14, Avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France); GET (UMR 5563), IRD, 14, Avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France); Dumat, C. [Universite de Toulouse (France); INP, UPS (France); EcoLab (Laboratoire Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Environnement) (France); ENSAT, Avenue de l' Agrobiopole, 31326 Castanet Tolosan (France); CNRS (France); EcoLab, 31326 Castanet Tolosan (France)

    2012-06-15

    Fine and ultrafine metallic particulate matters (PMs) are emitted from metallurgic activities in peri-urban zones into the atmosphere and can be deposited in terrestrial ecosystems. The foliar transfer of metals and metalloids and their fate in plant leaves remain unclear, although this way of penetration may be a major contributor to the transfer of metals into plants. This study focused on the foliar uptake of various metals and metalloids from enriched PM (Cu, Zn, Cd, Sn, Sb, As, and especially lead (Pb)) resulting from the emissions of a battery-recycling factory. Metal and metalloid foliar uptake by various vegetable species, exhibiting different morphologies, use (food or fodder) and life-cycle (lettuce, parsley and rye-grass) were studied. The mechanisms involved in foliar metal transfer from atmospheric particulate matter fallout, using lead (Pb) as a model element was also investigated. Several complementary techniques (micro-X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry) were used to investigate the localization and the speciation of lead in their edible parts, i.e. leaves. The results showed lead-enriched PM on the surface of plant leaves. Biogeochemical transformations occurred on the leaf surfaces with the formation of lead secondary species (PbCO{sub 3} and organic Pb). Some compounds were internalized in their primary form (PbSO{sub 4}) underneath an organic layer. Internalization through the cuticle or penetration through stomata openings are proposed as two major mechanisms involved in foliar uptake of particulate matter. - Graphical abstract: Overall picture of performed observations and mechanisms potentially involved in lead foliar uptake. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Foliar uptake of metallic particulate matter (PM) is of environmental and health concerns. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The leaf morphology influences the adsorption

  1. Potential and cost of clean development mechanism options in the energy sector. Inventory of options in non-Annex I countries to reduce GHG-emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, J.C.; Van der Linden, N.H.; Martens, J.W.; Ormel, F.; Van Rooijen, S.N.M. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Heaps, C.; Kartha, S.; Lazarus, M.; Ruth, M. [Stockholm Environment Institute SEI, Boston (United States); Lee, R.; Mendis, M. [Alternative Energy Development, Inc., Silver Spring (United States)

    1999-12-01

    An assessment is presented of the potential and cost of the Clean Development Mechanism as an instrument to partially meet the Greenhouse Gases emission limitation commitments of the Netherlands for the first budget period, 2008-2012. Information about the cost and emission reduction potential in the energy sector has been collected from national mitigation studies. In total, some 300 GHG emission reduction options in 24 non-Annex I countries have been collected Together, these countries account for two-thirds of current non-Annex I GHG emissions. The mitigation potential in non-Annex I countries is significant when compared with Annex I reduction requirements. The inventory of mitigation options suggests that an annual mitigation potential in the first budget period at costs up to 1990 USD 10/ton CO2 is approximately 1.7 Gt CO2 equivalents. However, this estimate should be viewed with caution, as the mitigation studies on which this estimate is based have been carried out as capacity-building exercises and they should not be viewed as definitive, technically rigorous, exhaustive, analysis of national GHG mitigation potential. 15 refs.

  2. Abnormal devitrification behavior and mechanical response of cold-rolled Mg-rich Mg-Cu-Gd metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.I.; Kim, J.W.; Oh, H.S.; Park, J.S.; Park, E.S.

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal devitrification behavior and mechanical response of Mg 75 Cu 15 Gd 10 (relatively strong glass former with higher structural stability) and Mg 85 Cu 5 Gd 10 (relatively fragile glass former with lower structural stability) metallic glasses, fabricated by repeated forced cold rolling, have been investigated. When metallic glasses were cold-rolled up to a thickness reduction ratio of ∼33%, the heat of relaxation (ΔH relax. ) below T g of the cold-rolled specimens was reduced, which indicates the formation of local structural ordering via cold rolling due to stress-induced relaxation. The local structural ordering results in abnormal devitrification behavior, such as higher resistance of glass-to-supercooled liquid transition and delayed growth, in the following heat treatment due to increased nuclei density and pinning site. In particular, the fragility index, m, could assist in understanding structural stability and local structural variation by mechanical processing as well as compositional tuning. Indeed, we examine the shear avalanche size to rationalize the variation of the deformation unit size depending on the structural instability before and after cold rolling. The deformation mode in Mg 85 Cu 5 Gd 10 metallic glass might change from self-organized critical state to chaotic state by cold rolling, which results in unique hardening behavior under the condition for coexisting well distributed local structural ordering and numerous thinner shear deformed areas. These results would give us a guideline for atomic scale structural manipulation of metallic glasses, and help develop novel metallic glass matrix composites with optimal properties through effective mechanical processing as well as heat treatment.

  3. Characterization of Printed Circuit Boards for Metal and Energy Recovery after Milling and Mechanical Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldir A. Bizzo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The proper disposal of electrical and electronic waste is currently a concern of researchers and environmental managers not only because of the large volume of such waste generated, but also because of the heavy metals and toxic substances it contains. This study analyzed printed circuit boards (PCBs from discarded computers to determine their metal content and characterized them as solid waste and fuel. The analysis showed that PCBs consist of approximately 26% metal, made up mainly of copper, lead, aluminum, iron and tin, as well as other heavy metals such as cadmium and nickel. Comparison with the results of other studies indicated that the concentration of precious metals (gold and silver has declined over time. Analysis of the leachate revealed high concentrations of cadmium and lead, giving the residue the characteristics of hazardous waste. After milling the PCBs, we found that larger amounts of metal were concentrated in smaller fractions, while the lightest fraction, obtained by density separation, had a gross calorific value of approximately 11 MJ/kg, although with a high ash content. Milling followed by density separation proved potentially useful for recovery of metals and energy-rich fractions.

  4. Effects of local mechanical and fracture properties on LBB behavior of a dissimilar metal welded joint in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, L.Y.; Wang, G.Z., E-mail: gzwang@ecust.edu.cn; Xuan, F.Z.; Tu, S.T.

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Effect of local mechanical and fracture properties on LBB behavior were investigated. • Considering local mechanical properties leads to slightly high LBB curve. • Use of fracture resistance of base or weld will produce non-conservative LBB result. • Local fracture properties of interface region cannot be ignored in LBB analysis. - Abstract: In this paper, three-dimensional finite element models with and without considering local mechanical properties were built for a dissimilar metal welded joint (DMWJ) connected the safe end to pipe-nozzle of a reactor pressure vessel. The inner circumferential surface cracks were postulated at the interface of A508 steel and buttering Alloy52Mb. Based on the elastic–plastic fracture mechanics theory of J-integral, the crack growth stability was analyzed. The effects of the local mechanical and fracture resistance properties on LBB behavior were investigated. The results show that considering local mechanical properties leads to slightly high LBB curve. For the A508/Alloy52Mb interface region cracks in the DMWJ, if the fracture resistance curve of base metal A508 or the buttering Alloy52Mb is used, the non-conservative (unsafe) LBB assessment result will be produced. With increasing the applied bending moment, the degree of un-conservatism in LBB behavior becomes large. Therefore, to obtain accurate LBB assessment results, the local fracture resistance properties of the interface region should be used.

  5. Cadmium and zinc activate adaptive mechanisms in Nicotiana tabacum similar to those observed in metal tolerant plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Estrella, Rosario; Gómez-Méndez, María F; Amezcua-Romero, Julio C; Barkla, Bronwyn J; Rosas-Santiago, Paul; Pantoja, Omar

    2017-09-01

    Tobacco germinated and grew in the presence of high concentrations of cadmium and zinc without toxic symptoms. Evidence suggests that these ions are sequestered into the vacuole by heavy metal/H + exchanger mechanisms. Heavy metal hyperaccumulation and hypertolerance are traits shared by a small set of plants which show specialized physiological and molecular adaptations allowing them to accumulate and sequester toxic metal ions. Nicotiana tabacum was used to test its potential as a metal-accumulator in a glass house experiment. Seed germination was not affected in the presence of increasing concentrations of zinc and cadmium. Juvenile and adult plants could concentrate CdCl 2 and ZnSO 4 to levels exceeding those in the hydroponic growth medium and maintained or increased their leaf dry weight when treated with 0.5- or 1-mM CdCl 2 or 1-mM ZnSO 4 for 5 days. Accumulation of heavy metals did not affect the chlorophyll and carotenoid levels, while variable effects were observed in cell sap osmolarity. Heavy metal-dependent H + transport across the vacuole membrane was monitored using quinacrine fluorescence quenching. Cadmium- or zinc-dependent fluorescence recovery revealed that increasing concentrations of heavy metals stimulated the activities of the tonoplast Cd 2+ or Zn 2+ /H + exchangers. Immunodetection of the V-ATPase subunits showed that the increased proton transport by zinc was not due to changes in protein amount. MTP1 and MTP4 immunodetection and semiquantitative RT-PCR of NtMTP1, NtNRAMP1, and NtZIP1 helped to identify the genes that are likely involved in sequestration of cadmium and zinc in the leaf and root tissue. Finally, we demonstrated that cadmium and zinc treatments induced an accumulation of zinc in leaf tissues. This study shows that N. tabacum possesses a hyperaccumulation response, and thus could be used for phytoremediation purposes.

  6. Mechanical properties of a co-extruded Metallic Glass/Alloy (MeGA) rod-Effect of the metallic glass volume fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravier, S.; Blandin, J.J.; Suery, M.

    2010-01-01

    A Metallic Glass/Alloy (MeGA) rod with a core in zirconium-based bulk metallic glass and a sleeve in aluminium alloy has been successfully elaborated by co-extrusion. SEM observations of the cross-section of the rod show that the interface between the glass and the alloy is defect-free. Compression tests are carried out at room temperature on the MeGA rods containing various glass volume fractions. The yield stress is well described by the rule of mixtures which combines the strength of the glass and that of the alloy, suggesting isostrain behaviour as could be expected. During compression, a good mechanical bonding is observed in the MeGA-rod even after the first fracture of the metallic glass. Finally, push-out tests are performed to evaluate the bonding quality between the two materials. Large values of the shear strength are measured which confirms that co-extrusion leads to good bonding between the glass and the aluminium alloy.

  7. Modelling the mechanical behaviour of metal powder during Die compaction process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Cricrì

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, powder compaction process was investigated by using a numerical material model, which involves Mohr-Coulomb theory and an elliptical surface plasticity model. An effective algorithm was developed and implemented in the ANSYS finite element (FEM code by using the subroutine USERMAT. Some simulations were performed to validate the proposed metal powder material model. The interaction between metal powder and die walls was considered by means of contact elements. In addition to the analysis of metal powder behaviour during compaction, the actions transmitted to die were also investigated, by considering different friction coefficients. This information is particularly useful for a correct die design.

  8. Quantum-mechanical approach to the state of hydrogen in b. c. c. metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukai, Y; Sugimoto, H

    1980-01-01

    A first step towards consistent understanding of various properties of interstitial hydrogen in b.c.c. metals has been made by solving a Schroedinger equation for hydrogen atoms in the field of interaction with surrounding metal atoms. Properties investigated include the nature of self-trapped states, the relative stability of self-trapped configurations, the average stress field (P-tensor), the excitation energy to be determined by neutron spectroscopy, etc. Calculations were performed on hydrogen isotopes (H, D, T) in group-V metals (V, Nb, Ta), and good agreement was obtained with many different kinds of observations. Some predictions and tentative explanations are also presented.

  9. Quantum-mechanical approach to the state of hydrogen in B. C. C. metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukai, Y; Sugimoto, H [Chuo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    1980-01-01

    A first step towards consistent understanding of various properties of interstitial hydrogen in B.C.C. metals has been made by solving a Schroedinger equation for hydrogen atoms in the field of interaction with surrounding metal atoms. Properties investigated include a nature of self-trapped states, a relative stability of self-trapped configurations, the average stress field (P-tensor), the excitation energy to be determined by neutron spectroscopy, etc. Calculations were performed on hydrogen isotopes (H, D, T) in group-V metals (V, Nb, Ta), and good agreement was obtained with many different kinds of observations. Some predictions and tentative explanations are also presented.

  10. Mechanical tests imaging on metallic matrix composites. Experimental contribution to homogenization methods validation and identification of phase-related mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quoc-Thang Vo

    2013-01-01

    This work is focused on a matrix/inclusion metal composite. A simple method is proposed to evaluate the elastic properties of one phase while the properties of the other phase are assumed to be known. The method is based on both an inverse homogenization scheme and mechanical field's measurements by 2D digital image correlation. The originality of the approach rests on the scale studied, i.e. the microstructure scale of material: the characteristic size of the inclusions is about few tens of microns. The evaluation is performed on standard uniaxial tensile tests associated with a long-distance microscope. It allows observation of the surface of a specimen on the microstructure scale during the mechanical stress. First, the accuracy of the method is estimated on 'perfect' mechanical fields coming from numerical simulations for four microstructures: elastic or porous single inclusions having either spherical or cylindrical shape. Second, this accuracy is estimated on real mechanical field for two simple microstructures: an elasto-plastic metallic matrix containing a single cylindrical micro void or four cylindrical micro voids arranged in a square pattern. Third, the method is used to evaluate elastic properties of αZr inclusions with arbitrary shape in an oxidized Zircaloy-4 sample of the fuel cladding of a pressurized water reactor after an accident loss of coolant accident (LOCA). In all this study, the phases are assumed to have isotropic properties. (author) [fr

  11. Structural and quantum mechanical computations to elucidate the altered binding mechanism of metal and drug with pyrazinamidase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis due to mutagenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasool, Nouman; Iftikhar, Saima; Amir, Anam; Hussain, Waqar

    2018-03-01

    Pyrazinamide is known to be the most effective treatment against tuberculosis disease and is known to have bacteriostatic action. By targeting the bacterial spores, this drug reduces the chances for the progression of the infection in organisms. In recent years, increased instances of the drug resistance of bacterial strains are reported. Pyrazinamidase, activator for pyrazinamide, leads to resistance against the drug due to mutagenicity across the world. The present study aimed at the quantum mechanistic analysis of mutations in pyrazinamidase to gain insights into the mechanism of this enzyme. Quantum mechanical calculations were performed to analyse the effect of mutations at the metal coordination site using ORCA software program. Moreover, conformational changes in PZase binding cavity has also been analysed due to mutations of binding pocket residues using CASTp server. In order to elucidate the behaviour of the mutant pyrazinamidase, docking of PZA in the binding pocket of PZase was performed using AutoDock Vina. Analysis of results revealed that iron showed weak binding with the metal coordination site of the mutant proteins due to alteration in electron transfer mechanism. The binding cavity of the mutant PZase has undergone major conformational changes as the volume of pocket increased due to bulky R-chains of mutated amino acids. These conformational changes lead to weak binding of the drug at binding cavity of PZase and reduce the drug activation mechanism leading to increased drug resistance in the bacterial strains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Particle size studies to reveal crystallization mechanisms of the metal organic framework HKUST-1 during sonochemical synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Mitchell R; Senthilnathan, Sethuraman; Balzer, Christopher J; Shan, Bohan; Chen, Liang; Mu, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Systematic studies of key operating parameters for the sonochemical synthesis of the metal organic framework (MOF) HKUST-1(also called CuBTC) were performed including reaction time, reactor volume, sonication amplitude, sonication tip size, solvent composition, and reactant concentrations analyzed through SEM particle size analysis. Trends in the particle size and size distributions show reproducible control of average particle sizes between 1 and 4μm. These results along with complementary studies in sonofragmentation and temperature control were conducted to compare these results to kinetic crystal growth models found in literature to develop a plausible hypothetical mechanism for ultrasound-assisted growth of metal-organic-frameworks composed of a competitive mechanism including constructive solid-on-solid (SOS) crystal growth and a deconstructive sonofragmentation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Research on Formation Mechanism of Dynamic Response and Residual Stress of Sheet Metal Induced by Laser Shock Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Aixin; Cao, Yupeng; Wang, Heng; Zhang, Zhengang

    2018-01-01

    In order to reveal the quantitative control of the residual stress on the surface of metal materials, the relevant theoretical and experimental studies were carried out to investigate the dynamic response of metal thin plates and the formation mechanism of residual stress induced by laser shock wave. In this paper, the latest research trends on the surface residual stress of laser shock processing technology were elaborated. The main progress of laser shock wave propagation mechanism and dynamic response, laser shock, and surface residual stress were discussed. It is pointed out that the multi-scale characterization of laser and material, surface residual stress and microstructure change is a new hotspot in laser shock strengthening technology.

  14. Mechanism of selective ion flotation. 1. Selective flotation of transition metal cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walkowiak, W.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental investigation is presented of the batch ion flotation of the transition metal cations Cr 3+ , Fe 3+ , Mn 2+ , Co 2+ , Zn 2+ , Ag + , Cd 2+ , and In 3+ from acidic aqueous solutions with sodium dodecylsulfonate and sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate as anionic surfactants. The selectivity sequences Mn 2+ 2+ 2+ 3+ 3+ and Ag + 2+ 3+ are established, both from data for single and multi-ion metal cations solutions, where sublate was not formed in the bulk solution. Good agreement between the selectivity sequences and the values of ionic potential of metal cations was found. An experimental investigation was also performed on the solubility of sublates. The sublates solubility values are discussed in terms of ionic potentials of metal cations as well as of the surfactant size

  15. Mechanism of plutonium metal dissolution in HNO3-HF-N2H4 solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karraker, D.G.

    1985-01-01

    An oxidation-reduction balance of the products of the dissolution of plutonium metal and alloys in HNO 3 -HF-N 2 H 4 solution shows that the major reactions during dissolution are the reduction of nitrate to NH 3 , N 2 and N 2 O by the metal, and the oxidation of H free radicals to NH 3 by N 2 H 4 . Reactions between HNO 3 and N 2 H 4 produce varying amounts of HN 3 . The reaction rate is greater for delta-Pu than alpha-Pu, and is increased by higher concentrations of HF and HNO 3 . The low yield of reduced nitrogen species indicates that nitrate is reduced on the metal surface without producing a significant concentration of species that react with N 2 H 4 . It is conjectured that intermediate Pu valences and electron transfer within the metal are involved. 7 refs., 3 tabs

  16. FINAL TAILINGS OF METAL-WORKING PRODUCTION. Part 3. PHYSICO-MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Djakonov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The indices of adhesion and friability of metal-containing tailings, their water absorbency and wettability and also abrasive characteristics of tailings with the purpose of prevention of contacting surfaces wear are studied.

  17. The mechanism of liquid metal jet formation in the cathode spot of vacuum arc discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gashkov, M. A.; Zubarev, N. M.; Mesyats, G. A.; Uimanov, I. V.

    2016-08-01

    We have theoretically studied the dynamics of molten metal during crater formation in the cathode spot of vacuum arc discharge. At the initial stage, a liquid-metal ridge is formed around the crater. This process has been numerically simulated in the framework of the two-dimensional axisymmetric heat and mass transfer problem in the approximation of viscous incompressible liquid. At a more developed stage, the motion of liquid metal loses axial symmetry, which corresponds to a tendency toward jet formation. The development of azimuthal instabilities of the ridge is analyzed in terms of dispersion relations for surface waves. It is shown that maximum increments correspond to instability of the Rayleigh-Plateau type. Estimations of the time of formation of liquid metal jets and their probable number are obtained.

  18. Mechanisms of Heavy Metal Sequestration in Soils: Plant-Microbe Interactions and Organic Matter Aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teresa W.-M. Fan; Richard M. Higashi; David Crowley; Andrew N. Lane: Teresa A. Cassel; Peter G. Green

    2004-12-31

    For stabilization of heavy metals at contaminated sites, the three way interaction among soil organic matter (OM)-microbes-plants, and their effect on heavy metal binding is critically important for long-term sustainability, a factor that is poorly understood at the molecular level. Using a soil aging system, the humification of plant matter such as wheat straw was probed along with the effect on microbial community on soil from the former McClellan Air Force Base.

  19. A new code for predicting the thermo-mechanical and irradiation behavior of metallic fuels in sodium fast reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karahan, Aydin, E-mail: karahan@mit.ed [Center for Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems, Nuclear Science and Engineering Department, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States); Buongiorno, Jacopo [Center for Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems, Nuclear Science and Engineering Department, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States)

    2010-01-31

    An engineering code to predict the irradiation behavior of U-Zr and U-Pu-Zr metallic alloy fuel pins and UO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} mixed oxide fuel pins in sodium-cooled fast reactors was developed. The code was named Fuel Engineering and Structural analysis Tool (FEAST). FEAST has several modules working in coupled form with an explicit numerical algorithm. These modules describe fission gas release and fuel swelling, fuel chemistry and restructuring, temperature distribution, fuel-clad chemical interaction, and fuel and clad mechanical analysis including transient creep-fracture for the clad. Given the fuel pin geometry, composition and irradiation history, FEAST can analyze fuel and clad thermo-mechanical behavior at both steady-state and design-basis (non-disruptive) transient scenarios. FEAST was written in FORTRAN-90 and has a simple input file similar to that of the LWR fuel code FRAPCON. The metal-fuel version is called FEAST-METAL, and is described in this paper. The oxide-fuel version, FEAST-OXIDE is described in a companion paper. With respect to the old Argonne National Laboratory code LIFE-METAL and other same-generation codes, FEAST-METAL emphasizes more mechanistic, less empirical models, whenever available. Specifically, fission gas release and swelling are modeled with the GRSIS algorithm, which is based on detailed tracking of fission gas bubbles within the metal fuel. Migration of the fuel constituents is modeled by means of thermo-transport theory. Fuel-clad chemical interaction models based on precipitation kinetics were developed for steady-state operation and transients. Finally, a transient intergranular creep-fracture model for the clad, which tracks the nucleation and growth of the cavities at the grain boundaries, was developed for and implemented in the code. Reducing the empiricism in the constitutive models should make it more acceptable to extrapolate FEAST-METAL to new fuel compositions and higher burnup, as envisioned in advanced sodium

  20. A new code for predicting the thermo-mechanical and irradiation behavior of metallic fuels in sodium fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karahan, Aydin; Buongiorno, Jacopo

    2010-01-01

    An engineering code to predict the irradiation behavior of U-Zr and U-Pu-Zr metallic alloy fuel pins and UO 2 -PuO 2 mixed oxide fuel pins in sodium-cooled fast reactors was developed. The code was named Fuel Engineering and Structural analysis Tool (FEAST). FEAST has several modules working in coupled form with an explicit numerical algorithm. These modules describe fission gas release and fuel swelling, fuel chemistry and restructuring, temperature distribution, fuel-clad chemical interaction, and fuel and clad mechanical analysis including transient creep-fracture for the clad. Given the fuel pin geometry, composition and irradiation history, FEAST can analyze fuel and clad thermo-mechanical behavior at both steady-state and design-basis (non-disruptive) transient scenarios. FEAST was written in FORTRAN-90 and has a simple input file similar to that of the LWR fuel code FRAPCON. The metal-fuel version is called FEAST-METAL, and is described in this paper. The oxide-fuel version, FEAST-OXIDE is described in a companion paper. With respect to the old Argonne National Laboratory code LIFE-METAL and other same-generation codes, FEAST-METAL emphasizes more mechanistic, less empirical models, whenever available. Specifically, fission gas release and swelling are modeled with the GRSIS algorithm, which is based on detailed tracking of fission gas bubbles within the metal fuel. Migration of the fuel constituents is modeled by means of thermo-transport theory. Fuel-clad chemical interaction models based on precipitation kinetics were developed for steady-state operation and transients. Finally, a transient intergranular creep-fracture model for the clad, which tracks the nucleation and growth of the cavities at the grain boundaries, was developed for and implemented in the code. Reducing the empiricism in the constitutive models should make it more acceptable to extrapolate FEAST-METAL to new fuel compositions and higher burnup, as envisioned in advanced sodium reactors

  1. Experimental identification for physical mechanism of fiber-form nanostructure growth on metal surfaces with helium plasma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamura, S., E-mail: takamura@aitech.ac.jp [Faculty of Engineering, Aichi Institute of Technology, Yakusa-cho, Toyota 470-0392 (Japan); Uesugi, Y. [Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Institute of Science and Engineering, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan)

    2015-11-30

    Highlights: • Initial growth process of fiber-form nanostructure on metal surfaces under helium ion irradiation is given based on experimental knowledge, where the pitting of original surface and forming nano-walls and/or loop-like nanostructure works as precursors. • The physical mechanism of fiber growth is discussed in terms of shear modulus of metals influenced by helium content as well as surface temperature. • The physical model explains the reason why tantalum does not make sufficiently grown nano-fibers, and the temperature dependence of surface morphology of titanium. - Abstract: The initial stage of fiber-form nanostructure growth on metal surface with helium plasma irradiation is illustrated, taking recent research knowledge using a flux gradient technique, and including loop-like nano-scale structure as precursors. The growth mechanism of fibers is discussed in terms of the shear modulus of various materials that is influenced by the helium content as well as the surface temperature, and the mobility of helium atoms, clusters and/or nano-bubbles in the bulk, loops and fibers. This model may explain the reason why tantalum does not provide fiber-form nanostructure although the loop-like structure was identified. The model also suggests the mechanism of an existence of two kinds of nanostructure of titanium depending on surface temperature. Industrial applications of such nanostructures are suggested in the properties and the possibilities of its growth on other basic materials.

  2. Effective adsorption of oil droplets from oil-in-water emulsion using metal ions encapsulated biopolymers: Role of metal ions and their mechanism in oil removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elanchezhiyan, S Sd; Prabhu, Subbaiah Muthu; Meenakshi, Sankaran

    2018-06-01

    Herein, synthesized and compared the three different kinds of hybrid bio-polymeric composites viz., lanthanum embedded chitosan/gelatin (La@CS-GEL), zirconium embedded chitosan/gelatin (Zr@CS-GEL) and cerium embedded chitosan/gelatin (Ce@CS-GEL) in terms of their oil uptake efficiency. The adsorption efficiency was studied under various optimized parameters like contact time, pH, dose, initial oil concentration and temperature. The oil adsorption capacity was found to be 91, 82 and 45% for La@CS-GEL, Zr@CS-GEL and Ce@CS-GEL composites respectively. The metals were used as a bridging material to connect both CS and GEL using the hydrophilic groups to enhance the oil recovery by hydrophobic interaction. Also, the introduction of metal ions on the surface of biopolymers would modify the oil/water properties which in turn, decrease the interfacial tension between oil and water phases. The mechanism of oil uptake was explained using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX) and heat of combustion. The experimental data confirmed Langmuir isotherm as the best fit for oil adsorption process. Thermodynamic parameters such as standard free energy (ΔG°), standard enthalpy (ΔH°) and standard entropy (ΔS°) indicated that the oil adsorption was spontaneous and endothermic. The oil adsorption mechanism was established based on isotherm and thermodynamic models. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Within the framework of assessing the state of the environment in Lebanon, this chapter describes primary energy demand, the electricity generating sector and environmental impacts arising from the energy sector.Apart from hydropower and traditional energy sources, which together represent 1.7% of energy consumption, all energy in Lebanon derives from imported petroleum products and some coal.Tables present the imports of different petroleum products (Gasoil, Kerosene, fuel oil, coal etc...), their use, the energy balance and demand.Energy pricing and pricing policies, formal and informal electricity generations in Lebanon are described emphasized by tables. The main environmental impacts are briefly summarized. Thermal power stations give rise to emissions of Sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), particulates, oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) and CO/CO 2 from combustion of primary fuel informally generated power from both industry and domestic consumption produce particulate materials and emissions of NO x and SO 2 projected emissions of SO 2 from the power sector with the present generating capacity and with the new combined cycle power plants in operation are shown. Other environmental impacts are described. Recommendations for supply and environment policy are presented

  4. Microstructure and mechanical properties of aluminum 5083 weldments by gas tungsten arc and gas metal arc welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yao [State Key Laboratory of Nonlinear Mechanics, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Wang Wenjing [School of Mechanical, Electronic and Control Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Xie Jijia [State Key Laboratory of Nonlinear Mechanics, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Sun Shouguang [School of Mechanical, Electronic and Control Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Wang Liang [College of Metallurgy and Material Engineering, Chongqing University of Science and Technology, Chongqing 401331 (China); Qian Ye; Meng Yuan [State Key Laboratory of Nonlinear Mechanics, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Wei Yujie, E-mail: yujie_wei@lnm.imech.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Nonlinear Mechanics, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Welding zones by GTAW and GMAW are softer than the parent material Al5083. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GTAW for Al5083 are mechanically more reliable than that welded by GMAW. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GTAW welds fail by shear, but GMAW welds show mixed shear and normal failure. - Abstract: The mechanical properties and microstructural features of aluminum 5083 (Al5083) weldments processed by gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) and gas metal arc welding (GMAW) are investigated. Weldments processed by both methods are mechanically softer than the parent material Al5083, and could be potential sites for plastic localization. It is revealed that Al5083 weldments processed by GTAW are mechanical more reliable than those by GMAW. The former bears higher strength, more ductility, and no apparent microstructure defects. Perceivable porosity in weldments by GMAW is found, which could account for the distinct mechanical properties between weldments processed by GTAW and GMAW. It is suggested that caution should be exercised when using GMAW for Al5083 in the high-speed-train industry where such light weight metal is broadly used.

  5. Microstructure and mechanical properties of aluminum 5083 weldments by gas tungsten arc and gas metal arc welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yao; Wang Wenjing; Xie Jijia; Sun Shouguang; Wang Liang; Qian Ye; Meng Yuan; Wei Yujie

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Welding zones by GTAW and GMAW are softer than the parent material Al5083. ► GTAW for Al5083 are mechanically more reliable than that welded by GMAW. ► GTAW welds fail by shear, but GMAW welds show mixed shear and normal failure. - Abstract: The mechanical properties and microstructural features of aluminum 5083 (Al5083) weldments processed by gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) and gas metal arc welding (GMAW) are investigated. Weldments processed by both methods are mechanically softer than the parent material Al5083, and could be potential sites for plastic localization. It is revealed that Al5083 weldments processed by GTAW are mechanical more reliable than those by GMAW. The former bears higher strength, more ductility, and no apparent microstructure defects. Perceivable porosity in weldments by GMAW is found, which could account for the distinct mechanical properties between weldments processed by GTAW and GMAW. It is suggested that caution should be exercised when using GMAW for Al5083 in the high-speed-train industry where such light weight metal is broadly used.

  6. What happened to anti-malarial markets after the Affordable Medicines Facility-malaria pilot? Trends in ACT availability, price and market share from five African countries under continuation of the private sector co-payment mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tougher, Sarah; Hanson, Kara; Goodman, Catherine

    2017-04-25

    The private sector supplies anti-malarial treatment for large proportions of patients in sub-Saharan Africa. Following the large-scale piloting of the Affordable Medicines Facility-malaria (AMFm) from 2010 to 2011, a private sector co-payment mechanism (CPM) provided continuation of private sector subsidies for quality-assured artemisinin combination therapies (QAACT). This article analyses for the first time the extent to which improvements in private sector QAACT supply and distribution observed during the AMFm were maintained or intensified during continuation of the CPM through 2015 in Kenya, Madagascar, Nigeria, Tanzania and Uganda using repeat cross-sectional outlet survey data. QAACT market share in all five countries increased during the AMFm period (p private sector QAACT availability were maintained or improved. In 2014/15, private sector QAACT availability was greater than 70% in Nigeria (84.3%), Kenya (70.5%), Tanzania (83.0%) and Uganda (77.1%), but only 11.2% in Madagascar. QAACT market share was maintained or improved post-AMFm in Nigeria, Tanzania and Uganda, but statistically significant declines were observed in Kenya and Madagascar. In 2014/5, QAACT market share was highest in Kenya and Uganda (48.2 and 47.5%, respectively) followed by Tanzania (39.2%), Nigeria (35.0%), and Madagascar (7.0%). Four of the five countries experienced significant decreases in median QAACT price during the AMFm period. Private sector QAACT prices were maintained or further reduced in Tanzania, Nigeria and Uganda, but prices increased significantly in Kenya and Madagascar. SP prices were consistently lower than those of QAACT in the AMFm period, with the exception of Kenya and Tanzania in 2011, where they were equal. In 2014/5 QAACT remained two to three times more expensive than the most popular non-artemisinin therapy in all countries except Tanzania. Results suggest that a private sector co-payment mechanism for QAACT implemented at national scale for 5 years was

  7. Investigating the gas sorption mechanism in an rht -metal-organic framework through computational studies

    KAUST Repository

    Pham, Tony T.

    2014-01-09

    Grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations were performed to investigate CO2 and H2 sorption in an rht-metal-organic framework (MOF) that was synthesized with a ligand having a nitrogen-rich trigonal core through trisubstituted triazine groups and amine functional groups. This MOF was synthesized by two different groups, each reporting their own distinct gas sorption measurements and crystal structure. Electronic structure calculations demonstrated that the small differences in the atomic positions between each group\\'s crystal structure resulted in different electrostatic parameters about the Cu2+ ions for the respective unit cells. Simulations of CO2 sorption were performed with and without many-body polarization effects and using our recently developed CO2 potentials, in addition to a well-known bulk CO2 model, in both crystallographic unit cells. Simulated CO2 sorption isotherms and calculated isosteric heats of adsorption, Qst, values were in excellent agreement with the results reported previously by Eddaoudi et al. for both structures using the polarizable CO2 potential. For both crystal structures, the initial site for CO2 sorption were the Cu 2+ ions that had the higher positive charge in the unit cell, although the identity of this electropositive Cu2+ ion was different in each case. Simulations of H2 sorption were performed with three different hydrogen potentials of increasing anisotropy in both crystal structures and the results, especially with the highest fidelity model, agreed well with Eddaoudi et al.\\'s experimental data. The preferred site of H 2 sorption at low loading was between two Cu2+ ions of neighboring paddlewheels. The calculation of the normalized hydrogen dipole distribution for the polarizable model in both crystal structures aided in the identification of four distinct sorption sites in the MOF, which is consistent to what was observed in the experimental inelastic neutron scattering (INS) spectra. Lastly, while the

  8. Hard magnetic properties and coercivity mechanism of melt-spun Misch Metal-Fe-B alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quan, Ningtao; Luo, Yang, E-mail: eluoyang@foxmail.com; Yan, Wenlong; Yuan, Chao; Yu, Dunbo; Sun, Liang; Lu, Shuo; Li, Hongwei; Zhang, Hongbin

    2017-09-01

    Highlights: • Melt-spun MM{sub 13}Fe{sub 81}B{sub 6} alloy shows that the distributions of the La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Fe and B elements is uniformly distributed, and the grain size is in the range of 30–40 nm, it can be seen that Pr-rich and La-rich phases concentrated on grain boundaries, which resulted in the coercivity augment with the increase of MMFe{sub 2} content, and the grain size is around 40–50 nm in MM{sub 16}Fe{sub 78}B{sub 6}. • There is a significant formation of MMFe{sub 2} with abundant Pr and La, and a small amount of Ce and Nd enriched at the interfacial region in MM{sub 16}Fe{sub 78}B{sub 6}, thus an inhomogeneous region was formed. It is considered that the inhomogeneous region is effective in increasing the coercivity. • The optimum-quenched MM{sub 13}Fe{sub 81}B{sub 6} alloy have been shown to exhibit a coercive force of 6.9 kOe and an energy product of 8.5 MGOe, which is superior to anisotropic ferrite magnets of 4.5 MGOe. - Abstract: Magnetic and structural properties of Misch Metal (MM)-Fe-B alloys, were examined in the melt-spun ribbons. Melt-spun MM-Fe-B samples were prepared at the surface velocities of 18–30 m/s. Crystalline structure and their room-temperature magnetization characteristics were analyzed, and the optimum surface velocity of 20 m/s and nominal composition of MM{sub 13}Fe{sub 81}B{sub 6} were obtained. Microstructural analyses indicate that the grain size is approximately 30–50 nm in the alloys with the optimum characteristics. In the MM{sub 16}Fe{sub 78}B{sub 6} alloys, Pr-rich and La-rich phases concentrated on grain boundaries, which resulted in the coercivity augment with the increase of MMFe{sub 2} content. Dependence of coercivity on applied magnetic field suggested that the mechanism of coercivity in moderate MM-content samples was inhomogeneous domain wall pinning type. The melt-spun ribbons in the optimum condition exhibit a coercive force of 6.9 kOe and an energy product of 8.5 MGOe, which can be used as

  9. Selective heavy metals removal from waters by amorphous zirconium phosphate: behavior and mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Bingcai; Zhang, Qingrui; Du, Wei; Zhang, Weiming; Pan, Bingjun; Zhang, Qingjian; Xu, Zhengwen; Zhang, Quanxing

    2007-07-01

    Selective removal of heavy metals from water has been of considerable concern for several decades. In the present study, the amorphous zirconium phosphate (ZrP) was synthesized and characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron micrography (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) as well as pH-titration experiments. Uptake of heavy metals including lead, cadmium, and zinc onto ZrP was studied by using a polystyrene sulfonic-acid exchanger D-001 as a reference sorbent and Ca(2+) as a competing cation due to its ubiquity in natural or industrial waters. The results indicated that the uptake of heavy metals onto ZrP is essentially an ion-exchange process and dependent upon solution pH. In comparison with D-001, ZrP exhibited more favorable sorption of heavy metals particularly in terms of high selectivity, as indicated by the distribution coefficients of ZrP even several orders higher than D-001 towards heavy metals when calcium ion coexisted at a high level in solution. The Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic investigation indicated that the uptake of calcium, cadmium, and zinc ions onto ZrP is only driven by the electrostatic interaction, while that of lead ion is possibly dependent upon the inner-sphere complex formation with ZrP. XPS results further elucidated that ZrP displays different sorption affinity towards heavy metals in the same order as selectivity sequence of Pb(2+)>Zn(2+) approximately Cd(2+)>Ca(2+), which can be explained by hard and soft acids and bases (HASB) theory. Moreover, uptake of heavy metals onto ZrP approached to equilibrium quickly and the used ZrP could be readily regenerated for reuse by the dilute HCl solution. Thus, all the results suggest that amorphous ZrP has excellent potential as a sorption material for water treatment.

  10. Elucidation of Mechanisms and Selectivities of Metal-Catalyzed Reactions using Quantum Chemical Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Stefano; Kalek, Marcin; Huang, Genping; Himo, Fahmi

    2016-05-17

    Quantum chemical techniques today are indispensable for the detailed mechanistic understanding of catalytic reactions. The development of modern density functional theory approaches combined with the enormous growth in computer power have made it possible to treat quite large systems at a reasonable level of accuracy. Accordingly, quantum chemistry has been applied extensively to a wide variety of catalytic systems. A huge number of problems have been solved successfully, and vast amounts of chemical insights have been gained. In this Account, we summarize some of our recent work in this field. A number of examples concerned with transition metal-catalyzed reactions are selected, with emphasis on reactions with various kinds of selectivities. The discussed cases are (1) copper-catalyzed C-H bond amidation of indoles, (2) iridium-catalyzed C(sp(3))-H borylation of chlorosilanes, (3) vanadium-catalyzed Meyer-Schuster rearrangement and its combination with aldol- and Mannich-type additions, (4) palladium-catalyzed propargylic substitution with phosphorus nucleophiles, (5) rhodium-catalyzed 1:2 coupling of aldehydes and allenes, and finally (6) copper-catalyzed coupling of nitrones and alkynes to produce β-lactams (Kinugasa reaction). First, the methodology adopted in these studies is presented briefly. The electronic structure method in the great majority of these kinds of mechanistic investigations has for the last two decades been based on density functional theory. In the cases discussed here, mainly the B3LYP functional has been employed in conjunction with Grimme's empirical dispersion correction, which has been shown to improve the calculated energies significantly. The effect of the surrounding solvent is described by implicit solvation techniques, and the thermochemical corrections are included using the rigid-rotor harmonic oscillator approximation. The reviewed examples are chosen to illustrate the usefulness and versatility of the adopted methodology in

  11. Heterogeneities in metallic glasses. Atomistic computer simulations on the structure and mechanical properties of copper-zirconium alloys and composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brink, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    The present thesis deals with molecular dynamics computer simulations of heterogeneities in copper-zirconium metallic glasses, ranging from intrinsic structural fluctuations to crystalline secondary phases. These heterogeneities define, on a microscopic scale, the properties of the glass, and an understanding of their nature and behaviour is required for deriving the proper structure-property relations. In terms of composite systems, we start with the amorphisation of copper nanolayers embedded in a metallic glass matrix. While copper is an fcc metal with a high propensity for crystallisation, amorphisation can in fact occur in such systems for thermodynamic reasons. This is due to interface effects, which are also known from heterogeneous interfaces in crystals or from grain boundary complexions, although in absence of lattice mismatch. In single-phase glasses, intrinsic heterogeneities are often discussed in terms of soft spots or geometrically unfavourable motifs (GUMs), which can be considered to be mechanically weaker, defective regions of the glass. We investigate the relation between these motifs and the boson peak, an anomaly in the vibrational spectrum of all glasses. We demonstrate a relation between the boson peak and soft spots by analysing various amorphous and partially amorphous samples as well as highentropy alloys. Finally, we treat the plastic deformation of glasses, with and without crystalline secondary phases. We propose an explanation for the experimentally observed variations of propagation direction, composition, and density along a shear band. These variations of propagation direction are small in the case of single-phase glasses. A considerably greater influence on shear band propagation can be exerted by precipitates. We systematically investigate composites ranging from low crystalline volume fraction up to systems which resemble a nanocrystalline metal. In this context, we derive a mechanism map for composite systems and observe the

  12. Heterogeneities in metallic glasses. Atomistic computer simulations on the structure and mechanical properties of copper-zirconium alloys and composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brink, Tobias

    2017-07-01

    The present thesis deals with molecular dynamics computer simulations of heterogeneities in copper-zirconium metallic glasses, ranging from intrinsic structural fluctuations to crystalline secondary phases. These heterogeneities define, on a microscopic scale, the properties of the glass, and an understanding of their nature and behaviour is required for deriving the proper structure-property relations. In terms of composite systems, we start with the amorphisation of copper nanolayers embedded in a metallic glass matrix. While copper is an fcc metal with a high propensity for crystallisation, amorphisation can in fact occur in such systems for thermodynamic reasons. This is due to interface effects, which are also known from heterogeneous interfaces in crystals or from grain boundary complexions, although in absence of lattice mismatch. In single-phase glasses, intrinsic heterogeneities are often discussed in terms of soft spots or geometrically unfavourable motifs (GUMs), which can be considered to be mechanically weaker, defective regions of the glass. We investigate the relation between these motifs and the boson peak, an anomaly in the vibrational spectrum of all glasses. We demonstrate a relation between the boson peak and soft spots by analysing various amorphous and partially amorphous samples as well as highentropy alloys. Finally, we treat the plastic deformation of glasses, with and without crystalline secondary phases. We propose an explanation for the experimentally observed variations of propagation direction, composition, and density along a shear band. These variations of propagation direction are small in the case of single-phase glasses. A considerably greater influence on shear band propagation can be exerted by precipitates. We systematically investigate composites ranging from low crystalline volume fraction up to systems which resemble a nanocrystalline metal. In this context, we derive a mechanism map for composite systems and observe the

  13. Origins of the different metal preferences of Escherichia coli peptide deformylase and Bacillus thermoproteolyticus thermolysin: a comparative quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Minghui; Liu, Haiyan

    2008-08-21

    The Escherichia coli peptide deformylase (PDF) and Bacillus thermoproteolyticus thermolysin (TLN) are two representative metal-requiring peptidases having remarkably similar active centers but distinctively different metal preferences. Zinc is a competent catalytic cofactor for TLN but not for PDF. Reaction pathways and the associated energetics for both enzymes were determined using combined semiempirical and ab initio quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical modeling, without presuming reaction coordinates. The results confirmed that both enzymes catalyze via the same chemical steps, and reproduced their different preferences for zinc or iron as competent cofactors. Further analyses indicated that different feasibility of the nucleophilic attack step leads to different metal preferences of the two enzymes. In TLN, the substrate is strongly activated and can serve as the fifth coordination ligand of zinc prior to the chemical steps. In PDF, the substrate carbonyl is activated by the chemical step itself, and becomes the fifth coordination partner of zinc only in a later stage of the nucleophilic attack. These leads to a much more difficult nucleophilic attack in PDF than in TLN. Different from some earlier suggestions, zinc has no difficulty in accepting an activated substrate as the fifth ligand to switch from tetra- to penta-coordination in either PDF or TLN. When iron replaces zinc, its stronger interaction with the hydroxide ligand may lead to higher activation barrier in TLN. In PDF, the stronger interactions of iron with ligands allow iron-substrate coordination to take place either before or at a very early stage of the chemical step, leading to effective catalysis. Our calculations also show combined semiempirical and ab initio quantum mechanical modeling can be efficient approaches to explore complicated reaction pathways in enzyme systems.

  14. Quantum mechanical ab initio simulation of the electron screening effect in metal deuteride crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huke, A.; Chun, S.M.; Biller, A.; Heide, P. [Technische Universitaet Berlin, Institut fuer Optik und Atomare Physik, Berlin (Germany); Czerski, K. [Technische Universitaet Berlin, Institut fuer Optik und Atomare Physik, Berlin (Germany); University of Szczecin, Institute of Physics, Szczecin (Poland)

    2008-02-15

    In antecedent experiments the electron screening energies of the d+d reactions in metallic environments have been determined to be enhanced by an order of magnitude in comparison to the case of gaseous deuterium targets. The analytical models describing averaged material properties have not been able to explain the experimental results so far. Therefore, a first effort has been undertaken to simulate the dynamics of reacting deuterons in a metallic lattice by means of an ab initio Hartree-Fock calculation of the total electrostatic force between the lattice and the successively approaching deuterons via path integration. The calculations have been performed for Li and Ta, clearly showing a migration of electrons from host metallic to the deuterium atoms. However, in order to avoid more of the necessary simplifications in the model the utilization of a massive parallel supercomputer would be required. (orig.) 3.

  15. Research on geometrical model and mechanism for metal deformation based on plastic flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, H P; Li, X; Rui, Z Y

    2015-01-01

    Starting with general conditions of metal plastic deformation, it analyses the relation between the percentage spread and geometric parameters of a forming body with typical machining process are studied. A geometrical model of deforming metal is set up according to the characteristic of a flowing metal particle. Starting from experimental results, the effect of technological parameters and friction between workpiece and dies on plastic deformation of a material were studied and a slippage deformation model of mass points within the material was proposed. Finally, the computing methods for strain and deformation energy and temperature rise are derived from homogeneous deformation. The results can be used to select technical parameters and compute physical quantities such as strain, deformation energy, and temperature rise. (paper)

  16. Metal ion coordination in the E. coli Nudix hydrolase dihydroneopterin triphosphate pyrophosphatase: New clues into catalytic mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon E Hill

    Full Text Available Dihydroneopterin triphosphate pyrophosphatase (DHNTPase, a member of the Mg2+ dependent Nudix hydrolase superfamily, is the recently-discovered enzyme that functions in the second step of the pterin branch of the folate biosynthetic pathway in E. coli. DHNTPase is of interest because inhibition of enzymes in bacterial folate biosynthetic pathways is a strategy for antibiotic development. We determined crystal structures of DHNTPase with and without activating, Mg2+-mimicking metals Co2+ and Ni2+. Four metal ions, identified by anomalous scattering, and stoichiometrically confirmed in solution by isothermal titration calorimetry, are held in place by Glu56 and Glu60 within the Nudix sequence motif, Glu117, waters, and a sulfate ion, of which the latter is further stabilized by a salt bridge with Lys7. In silico docking of the DHNTP substrate reveals a binding mode in which the pterin ring moiety is nestled in a largely hydrophobic pocket, the β-phosphate activated for nucleophilic attack overlays with the crystallographic sulfate and is in line with an activated water molecule, and remaining phosphate groups are stabilized by all four identified metal ions. The structures and binding data provide new details regarding DHNTPase metal requirements, mechanism, and suggest a strategy for efficient inhibition.

  17. Effects of post weld heat treatment and weld overlay on the residual stress and mechanical properties in dissimilar metal weld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Wagner R.C.; Ribeiro, Vladimir S.; Vilela, Alisson H.F.; Almeida, Camila R.O.; Rabello, Emerson G., E-mail: wrcc@cdtn.br, E-mail: camilarezende.cr@gmail.com, E-mail: egr@cdtn.br, E-mail: vladimirsoler@hotmail.com, E-mail: ahfv02@outlook.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The object of this work is a dissimilar metal weld (DMW) pipe joint between carbon steel (A-106 Gr B) and stainless steel (A-312 TP316L) pipes and filler metals of Nickel alloy (82/182), which find wide application in the field of chemical, oil, petroleum industries, fossil fuel and nuclear power plant. A lot of the failures that have occurred in dissimilar metal welded are affected greatly by residual stresses. Residual stress is often a cause of premature failure of critical components under normal operation of welded components. Several methods have been tested and developed for removing the tensile residual stresses. The aim of the methods is to reduce the tensile stress state or to create compressive stresses at a predefined area, such as the inner surface of a welded pipe joint. Post weld heat treatment (PWHT) and weld overlay (WOL) are two of the residual stress mitigation methods which reduce the tensile residual stress, create compressive stresses and arrest crack initiation and crack growth. The technique used to substantially minimized or eliminated this failure development in the root weld is the post weld heat treatments (stress relief heat treatment) or the weld overlay. In this work was studied the effectiveness in reducing internal residual stress in dissimilar metal welded pipe joints subjected to post weld heat treatment and weld overlay, measurement by hole-drilling strain-gage method of stress relaxation. Also held was mechanical characterization of the welded pipe joint itself. (author)

  18. Metal ion coordination in the E. coli Nudix hydrolase dihydroneopterin triphosphate pyrophosphatase: New clues into catalytic mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Shannon E.; Nguyen, Elaine; Ukachukwu, Chiamaka U.; Freeman, Dana M.; Quirk, Stephen; Lieberman, Raquel L.; Boggon, Titus J.

    2017-07-25

    Dihydroneopterin triphosphate pyrophosphatase (DHNTPase), a member of the Mg2+ dependent Nudix hydrolase superfamily, is the recently-discovered enzyme that functions in the second step of the pterin branch of the folate biosynthetic pathway in E. coli. DHNTPase is of interest because inhibition of enzymes in bacterial folate biosynthetic pathways is a strategy for antibiotic development. We determined crystal structures of DHNTPase with and without activating, Mg2+-mimicking metals Co2+ and Ni2+. Four metal ions, identified by anomalous scattering, and stoichiometrically confirmed in solution by isothermal titration calorimetry, are held in place by Glu56 and Glu60 within the Nudix sequence motif, Glu117, waters, and a sulfate ion, of which the latter is further stabilized by a salt bridge with Lys7. In silico docking of the DHNTP substrate reveals a binding mode in which the pterin ring moiety is nestled in a largely hydrophobic pocket, the β-phosphate activated for nucleophilic attack overlays with the crystallographic sulfate and is in line with an activated water molecule, and remaining phosphate groups are stabilized by all four identified metal ions. The structures and binding data provide new details regarding DHNTPase metal requirements, mechanism, and suggest a strategy for efficient inhibition.

  19. Effects of post weld heat treatment and weld overlay on the residual stress and mechanical properties in dissimilar metal weld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Wagner R.C.; Ribeiro, Vladimir S.; Vilela, Alisson H.F.; Almeida, Camila R.O.; Rabello, Emerson G.

    2017-01-01

    The object of this work is a dissimilar metal weld (DMW) pipe joint between carbon steel (A-106 Gr B) and stainless steel (A-312 TP316L) pipes and filler metals of Nickel alloy (82/182), which find wide application in the field of chemical, oil, petroleum industries, fossil fuel and nuclear power plant. A lot of the failures that have occurred in dissimilar metal welded are affected greatly by residual stresses. Residual stress is often a cause of premature failure of critical components under normal operation of welded components. Several methods have been tested and developed for removing the tensile residual stresses. The aim of the methods is to reduce the tensile stress state or to create compressive stresses at a predefined area, such as the inner surface of a welded pipe joint. Post weld heat treatment (PWHT) and weld overlay (WOL) are two of the residual stress mitigation methods which reduce the tensile residual stress, create compressive stresses and arrest crack initiation and crack growth. The technique used to substantially minimized or eliminated this failure development in the root weld is the post weld heat treatments (stress relief heat treatment) or the weld overlay. In this work was studied the effectiveness in reducing internal residual stress in dissimilar metal welded pipe joints subjected to post weld heat treatment and weld overlay, measurement by hole-drilling strain-gage method of stress relaxation. Also held was mechanical characterization of the welded pipe joint itself. (author)

  20. The atomic-scale nucleation mechanism of NiTi metallic glasses upon isothermal annealing studied via molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Li, JiaHao; Liu, BaiXin

    2015-10-28

    Nucleation is one of the most essential transformation paths in phase transition and exerts a significant influence on the crystallization process. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the atomic-scale nucleation mechanisms of NiTi metallic glasses upon devitrification at various temperatures (700 K, 750 K, 800 K, and 850 K). Our simulations reveal that at 700 K and 750 K, nucleation is polynuclear with high nucleation density, while at 800 K it is mononuclear. The underlying nucleation mechanisms have been clarified, manifesting that nucleation can be induced either by the initial ordered clusters (IOCs) or by the other precursors of nuclei evolved directly from the supercooled liquid. IOCs and other precursors stem from the thermal fluctuations of bond orientational order in supercooled liquids during the quenching process and during the annealing process, respectively. The simulation results not only elucidate the underlying nucleation mechanisms varied with temperature, but also unveil the origin of nucleation. These discoveries offer new insights into the devitrification mechanism of metallic glasses.

  1. Investigation of the role of grain boundary on the mechanical properties of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kheradmand, Nousha; Barnoush, Afrooz; Vehoff, Horst

    2010-01-01

    Compression testing of micropillars was used to investigate the gain boundary effect on the strength of metals which is especially interesting in ultra fine grained and nanocrystalline metals. Single and bicrystal micropillars of different sizes and crystallographic orientations were fabricated using a focused ion beam system and the compression test was performed with a nanoindenter. A reduction of the pillar size as well as the introduction of a grain boundary results in an increase in the yield strength. The results show that the size and the orientation of different adjoining crystals in bicrystalline pillars have an obvious effect on dislocation nucleation and multiplication.

  2. Atomic-scale simulations of the mechanical deformation of nanocrystalline metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøtz, Jakob; Vegge, Tejs; Di Tolla, Francesco

    1999-01-01

    that the main deformation mode is sliding in the grain boundaries through a large number of uncorrelated events, where a few atoms (or a few tens of atoms) slide with respect to each other. Little dislocation activity is seen in the grain interiors. The localization of the deformation to the grain boundaries......Nanocrystalline metals, i.e., metals in which the grain size is in the nanometer range, have a range of technologically interesting properties including increased hardness and yield strength. We present atomic-scale simulations of the plastic behavior of nanocrystalline copper. The simulations show...

  3. Excitation mechanism in the photoisomerization of a surface-bound azobenzene derivative: Role of the metallic substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Sebastian; Kate, Peter; Leyssner, Felix; Nandi, Dhananjay; Wolf, Martin; Tegeder, Petra

    2008-10-01

    Two-photon photoemission spectroscopy is employed to elucidate the electronic structure and the excitation mechanism in the photoinduced isomerization of the molecular switch tetra-tert-butyl-azobenzene (TBA) adsorbed on Au(111). Our results demonstrate that the optical excitation and the mechanism of molecular switching at a metal surface is completely different compared to the corresponding process for the free molecule. In contrast to direct (intramolecular) excitation operative in the isomerization in the liquid phase, the conformational change in the surface-bound TBA is driven by a substrate-mediated charge transfer process. We find that photoexcitation above a threshold hν ≈2.2 eV leads to hole formation in the Au d-band followed by a hole transfer to the highest occupied molecular orbital of TBA. This transiently formed positive ion resonance subsequently results in a conformational change. The photon energy dependent photoisomerization cross section exhibit an unusual shape for a photochemical reaction of an adsorbate on a metal surface. It shows a thresholdlike behavior below hν ≈2.2 eV and above hν ≈4.4 eV. These thresholds correspond to the minimum energy required to create single or multiple hot holes in the Au d-bands, respectively. This study provides important new insights into the use of light to control the structure and function of molecular switches in direct contact with metal electrodes.

  4. Excitation mechanism in the photoisomerization of a surface-bound azobenzene derivative: Role of the metallic substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, Sebastian; Kate, Peter; Leyssner, Felix; Nandi, Dhananjay; Wolf, Martin; Tegeder, Petra

    2008-01-01

    Two-photon photoemission spectroscopy is employed to elucidate the electronic structure and the excitation mechanism in the photoinduced isomerization of the molecular switch tetra-tert-butyl-azobenzene (TBA) adsorbed on Au(111). Our results demonstrate that the optical excitation and the mechanism of molecular switching at a metal surface is completely different compared to the corresponding process for the free molecule. In contrast to direct (intramolecular) excitation operative in the isomerization in the liquid phase, the conformational change in the surface-bound TBA is driven by a substrate-mediated charge transfer process. We find that photoexcitation above a threshold hν≅2.2 eV leads to hole formation in the Au d-band followed by a hole transfer to the highest occupied molecular orbital of TBA. This transiently formed positive ion resonance subsequently results in a conformational change. The photon energy dependent photoisomerization cross section exhibit an unusual shape for a photochemical reaction of an adsorbate on a metal surface. It shows a thresholdlike behavior below hν≅2.2 eV and above hν≅4.4 eV. These thresholds correspond to the minimum energy required to create single or multiple hot holes in the Au d-bands, respectively. This study provides important new insights into the use of light to control the structure and function of molecular switches in direct contact with metal electrodes.

  5. Inverse spinel transition metal oxides for lithium-ion storage with different discharge/charge conversion mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jiawei; Ren, Yurong; Huang, Xiaobing; Ding, Jianning

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Inverse spinel structure relieves the irreversible phase transition of electrodes. • Anodes with the same structure show different discharge/charge conversion mechanisms. • High reversible capacity confirms the potential feasibility of composites. - Abstract: Inverse spinel transition metal oxides (Fe 3 O 4 , MnFe 2 O 4 , Fe 3 O 4 /reduced graphene oxide and MnFe 2 O 4 /reduced graphene oxide) are prepared by a facile ethylene-glycol-assisted hydrothermal method. The stability of inverse spinel structure and the high specific surface area of nanoscale provide transition metal oxides with high specific capacity. And the surface modification with reduced graphene oxide improves the poor conductivity of pristine transition metal oxides. Pristine Fe 3 O 4 and MnFe 2 O 4 deliver the high initial discharge capacity of 1137.1 and 1088.9 mAh g −1 , respectively. Fe 3 O 4 /reduced graphene oxide and MnFe 2 O 4 /reduced graphene oxide get the reversible capacity of 645.8 and 720 mAh g −1 , respectively, even after 55 cycles. The different discharge/charge conversion mechanisms make them different capacity stability. The great electrochemical performances of composites offer electrodes with suitable characteristics for high-performance energy storage application.

  6. Removing lead from metallic mixture of waste printed circuit boards by vacuum distillation: factorial design and removal mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingang; Gao, Yujie; Ding, Hui

    2013-10-01

    The lead removal from the metallic mixture of waste printed circuit boards by vacuum distillation was optimized using experimental design, and a mathematical model was established to elucidate the removal mechanism. The variables studied in lead evaporation consisted of the chamber pressure, heating temperature, heating time, particle size and initial mass. The low-level chamber pressure was fixed at 0.1 Pa as the operation pressure. The application of two-level factorial design generated a first-order polynomial that agreed well with the data for evaporation efficiency of lead. The heating temperature and heating time exhibited significant effects on the efficiency, which was validated by means of the copper-lead mixture experiments. The optimized operating conditions within the region studied were the chamber pressure of 0.1 Pa, heating temperature of 1023 K and heating time of 120 min. After the conditions were employed to remove lead from the metallic mixture of waste printed circuit boards, the efficiency was 99.97%. The mechanism of the effects was elucidated by mathematical modeling that deals with evaporation, mass transfer and condensation, and can be applied to a wider range of metal removal by vacuum distillation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Metal and pharmaceutical mixtures: Is ion loss the mechanism underlying acute toxicity and widespread additive toxicity in zebrafish?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsop, Derek; Wood, Chris M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Zebrafish larvae were used to test the acute toxicity of contaminant mixtures. •Interactions were observed between metals, ammonia and pharmaceuticals. •Larval Na + loss was observed with exposure to all acutely toxic contaminants tested. •Water quality criteria should recognize the toxic interactions between contaminants. -- Abstract: The acute toxicities and mechanisms of action of a variety of environmental contaminants were examined using zebrafish larvae (Danio rerio; 4–8 days post fertilization). Toxic interactions were observed between metals. For example, the addition of a sublethal level of nickel (15% of the LC 50 , one third of the LC 01 ) to all copper treatments decreased the copper 96 h LC 50 by 58%, while sublethal copper exposure (6% of the copper LC 50 , 13% of the LC 01 ) decreased the cadmium 96 h LC 50 by 47%. Two predictive models were assessed, the concentration addition (CA) model, which assumes similar mechanisms of action, and the independent action (IA) model, which assumes different mechanisms of action. Quantitative comparisons indicated the CA model performed better than the IA model; the latter tended to underestimate combined toxicity to a greater extent. The effects of mixtures with nickel or ammonia were typically additive, while mixtures with copper or cadmium were typically greater than additive. Larvae exposed to cadmium, copper or nickel experienced whole body ion loss. Decreases were greatest for Na + followed by K + (as high as 19% and 9%, respectively, in 24 h). Additive toxicity between copper and other pharmaceutical compounds such as fluoxetine (Prozac™), β-naphthoflavone, estrogen and 17α-ethinylestradiol were also observed. Similar to metals, acutely toxic concentrations of fluoxetine, β-naphthoflavone and ammonia all decreased whole body Na + and K + . Overall, whole body Na + loss showed the greatest correlation with mortality across a variety of toxicants. We theorize that a disruption of

  8. Mechanism for resistive switching in chalcogenide-based electrochemical metallization memory cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Zhuge

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that in chalcogenide-based electrochemical metallization (ECM memory cells (e.g., As2S3:Ag, GeS:Cu, and Ag2S, the metal filament grows from the cathode (e.g., Pt and W towards the anode (e.g., Cu and Ag, whereas filament growth along the opposite direction has been observed in oxide-based ECM cells (e.g., ZnO, ZrO2, and SiO2. The growth direction difference has been ascribed to a high ion diffusion coefficient in chalcogenides in comparison with oxides. In this paper, upon analysis of OFF state I–V characteristics of ZnS-based ECM cells, we find that the metal filament grows from the anode towards the cathode and the filament rupture and rejuvenation occur at the cathodic interface, similar to the case of oxide-based ECM cells. It is inferred that in ECM cells based on the chalcogenides such as As2S3:Ag, GeS:Cu, and Ag2S, the filament growth from the cathode towards the anode is due to the existence of an abundance of ready-made mobile metal ions in the chalcogenides rather than to the high ion diffusion coefficient.

  9. Beckmann rearrangement of aldoximes catalyzed by transition metal salts: mechanical aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leusink, A.J.; Meerbeek, T.G.; Noltes, J.G.

    1977-01-01

    The Beckmann rearrangement of aldoximes catalyzed by transition metal salts like palladium and nickel acetylacetonates is shown to be a dehydration‐hydration reaction in which the anti‐oxime is converted into nitrile and the nitrile is converted into amide.

  10. Correlation of Mechanical Properties in Bulk Metallic Glasses with 27Al NMR Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    recycle delay of 300 ms. Magnetization measurements were conducted at room temperature using a Quantum Design SQUID magne- tometer. The magnetization of...Gangopadhyay A K, et al. First X-ray scattering studies on electrostatically levitated metallic liquids: Demonstrated influence of local icosahedral

  11. Tailoring dislocation structures and mechanical properties of nanostructured metals produced by plastic deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Xiaoxu

    2009-01-01

    The presence of a dislocation structure associated with low-angle dislocation boundaries and interior dislocations is a common and characteristic feature in nanostructured metals produced by plastic deformation, and plays an important role in determining both the strength and ductility...

  12. Mechanism of radiation and thermal decomposition of sulphide non-ferrous metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazhrenova, N.P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper deals with the non-ferrous metals sulfides in term of their radiative sensitivity, directed chances of their physical-chemical, and hence technological properties by radiation influence both on sulfide materials and on the processes with their participation. (author)

  13. Predicting Mechanical Properties of Metal Matrix Syntactic Foams Reinforced with Ceramic Spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    predicting the properties of interest listed above. Kiser et al. [12] extended a metal foam model to account for ceramic reinforcement to predict the...Daoud A. J Alloys Compd. 2009; 487:618. 11. Drury WJ, Rickles SA, Sanders Jr TH, Cochran JK. In Light-Weight Alloys for Aerospace Applications, ed. Loe

  14. Decomposition mechanism of methylene blue caused by metallic iron-maghemite mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubuki, Shiro, E-mail: kubuki@tmu.ac.jp; Shibano, Koya; Akiyama, Kazuhiko [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering (Japan); Homonnay, Zoltan; Kuzmann, Erno [Eoetvoes Lorand University, Laboratory of Nuclear Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry (Hungary); Ristic, Mira [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Division of Materials Chemistry (Croatia); Nishida, Tetsuaki [Kinki University, Department of Biological and Environmental Chemistry, Faculty of Humanity-Oriented Science and Engineering (Japan)

    2013-04-15

    Decomposition mechanism of methylene blue (MB) caused by a mixture of metallic iron-maghemite (Fe{sup 0}-{gamma}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) was investigated by means of {sup 57}Fe-Moessbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Ultraviolet-Visible Absorption Spectroscopy (UV-vis) and electrospray-ionization mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS). Ten day-leaching test of 10 {mu}mol L{sup - 1} MB aqueous solution and Fe{sup 0}-{gamma}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} mixture (mass ratio 3:7) showed a decrease in the concentration from 10.5 to 4.45 {mu}mol L{sup - 1} with first-order rate constant (k) of 1.57 x 10 - 1 day - 1. An ESI-MS study of Fe{sup 0}-{gamma}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} mixture (3:7) after the leaching test revealed new peaks at m/z of 100, 110 and 137 due to fragmentation of MB, in addition to those observed at m/z of 284, 270 and 256 which were ascribed to MB, Azure B and Azure A, respectively. {sup 57}Fe-Moessbauer spectra of Fe{sup 0}-{gamma}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} mixture (3:7) resulted in a decrease in absorption area (A) for Fe{sup 0} ({delta} = 0.00{sub {+-}0.01} mm s{sup - 1}, H{sub int} = 33.0{sub {+-}0.1} T) from 37.5 to 21.3, 9.7, 7.9, 7.0 and 4.5{sub {+-}0.5} %, together with an increase in A from 0.0 to 5.0, 13.8, 17.2, 21.0 and 22.4{sub {+-}0.5} % for octahedral (O{sub h}) iron (Fe{sup II} + Fe{sup III}) of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. XRD study of these samples indicated that the peak intensity at 2{Theta} of 44.7 Degree-Sign being ascribed to Fe{sup 0} was decreased, while that of 35.6 Degree-Sign due to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} was almost constant; relative peak ratio of Fe {sup 0}/Fe{sub 3} O{sub 4} was decreased from 26.3 to 2.76 after the leaching, indicating that Fe{sup 0} in the Fe{sup 0}-{gamma}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} mixture was oxidized to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. These experimental results suggest that Fe{sup 0}-{gamma}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} mixture could be utilized for the cleaning or decomposition of toxic organic compounds like trichloroethylene.

  15. Effect of Ge addition on mechanical properties and fracture behavior of Cu-Zr-Al bulk metallic glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malekan, M.; Shabestari, S.G.; Gholamipour, R.; Seyedein, S.H.

    2009-01-01

    Effect of the addition of a small amount of Ge on mechanical properties and fracture behavior of Cu 50 Zr 43 Al 7 (at.%) bulk metallic glass were studied. The Cu 50 Zr 43 Al 7 alloy has a surprising glass-forming ability (GFA), and the glassy rods up to 4 mm in diameter can be formed. Partial addition of Ge causes the crystalline phases precipitate in the glassy matrix of (Cu 50 Zr 43 Al 7 ) 100-x Ge x (x = 0, 1, 2) rods with a diameter of 4 mm. In uniaxial compression, Cu 50 Zr 43 Al 7 bulk metallic glass exhibit high strength of 1692 MPa and very limited plasticity of 0.05%. When Ge increases from 0 to 2 at.%, the strength decreases, but plastic strain increases about 2.5%. Fracture surface and shear bands of samples were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  16. Study on accumulation mechanism for heavy metal in hyper-accumulating plants by synchrotron radiation x-ray analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hokura, Akiko; Kitajima, Nobuyuki; Terada, Yasuko; Nakai, Izumi

    2010-01-01

    Some plants accumulate heavy metal elements such as As, Cd, and Pb, etc., and these plants have been focused on from the perspective of their application to phytoremediation. In order to understand the accumulation mechanism, the distribution and the chemical form of heavy metal should be revealed at cellular level. Here, we have introduced the recent works regarding arsenic hyperaccumulating fern (Pteris vittata L.) and cadmium hyperaccumulating plant (Arabidopsis halleri ssp. gemmifera). A combination of μ-XRF and μ-XANES techniques excited by high-energy X-ray microbeam with 1 μm resolution has proved to be an indispensable tool for the study of Cd accumulation in biological samples on a cellular scale. The sample-preparation techniques were also summarized. (author)

  17. Dissolving, trapping and detrapping mechanisms of hydrogen in bcc and fcc transition metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Wei You

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available First-principles calculations are performed to investigate the dissolving, trapping and detrapping of H in six bcc (V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, W and six fcc (Ni, Pd, Pt, Cu, Ag, Au metals. We find that the zero-point vibrations do not change the site-preference order of H at interstitial sites in these metals except Pt. One vacancy could trap a maximum of 4 H atoms in Au and Pt, 6 H atoms in V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Ni, Pd, Cu and Ag, and 12 H atoms in Mo and W. The zero-point vibrations never change the maximum number of H atoms trapped in a single vacancy in these metals. By calculating the formation energy of vacancy-H (Vac-Hn complex, the superabundant vacancy in V, Nb, Ta, Pd and Ni is demonstrated to be much more easily formed than in the other metals, which has been found in many metals including Pd, Ni and Nb experimentally. Besides, we find that it is most energetically favorable to form Vac-H1 complex in Pt, Cu, Ag and Au, Vac-H4 in Cr, Mo and W, and Vac-H6 in V, Nb, Ta, Pd and Ni. At last, we examine the detrapping behaviors of H atoms in a single vacancy and find that with the heating rate of 10 K/min a vacancy could accommodate 4, 5 and 6 H atoms in Cr, Mo and W at room temperature, respectively. The detrapping temperatures of all H atoms in a single vacancy in V, Nb, Ta, Ni, Pd, Cu and Ag are below room temperature.

  18. Removal effectiveness and mechanisms of naphthalene and heavy metals from artificially contaminated soil by iron chelate-activated persulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Dickson Y.S.; Lo, Irene M.C.

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness and mechanisms of naphthalene and metal removal from artificially contaminated soil by FeEDTA/FeEDDS-activated persulfate were investigated through batch experiments. Using FeEDTA-activated persulfate, higher naphthalene removal from the soil at 7 h was achieved (89%), compared with FeEDDS-activated persulfate (75%). The removal was mainly via the dissolution of naphthalene partitioned on mineral surfaces, followed by activated persulfate oxidation. Although EDDS is advantageous over EDTA in terms of biodegradability, it is not preferable for iron chelate-activated persulfate oxidation since persulfate was consumed to oxidize EDDS, resulting in persulfate inadequacy for naphthalene oxidation. Besides, 55 and 40% of naphthalene were removed by FeEDTA and FeEDDS alone, respectively. Particularly, 21 and 9% of naphthalene were degraded in the presence of FeEDTA and FeEDDS alone, respectively, which caused by electrons transfer among dissolved organic matter, Fe 2+ /Fe 3+ and naphthalene. Over 35, 36 and 45% of Cu, Pb and Zn were removed using FeEDTA/FeEDDS-activated persulfate. -- Highlights: ► FeEDTA/FeEDDS-activated persulfate oxidation removed PAH and heavy metal from soil. ► More naphthalene was removed by FeEDTA-activated persulfate compared to FeEDDS. ► Persulfate was consumed to oxidize EDDS in FeEDDS-activated persulfate oxidation. ► Metals can be extracted from soil by free EDTA/EDDS dissociated from FeEDTA/FeEDDS. ► Naphthalene oxidation can be induced by e − transfer among Fe 2+ , DOM and naphthalene. -- This study focuses on the potencies and mechanisms of naphthalene and metal removal from contaminated soil by FeEDTA/FeEDDS-activated persulfate

  19. Corrosion mechanisms of zirconium alloys - study of the initial oxidation kinetics and of the mechanical behaviour of the metal/oxide system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parise, M.

    1996-12-01

    Nuclear fuel claddings are made of zirconium alloys. The conditions of use lead the cladding oxidize outside. The so-formed layers behaves like a thermal barrier and prevents from using oxidized claddings with an oxide thickness larger than 100 μm. The oxidation kinetic is approximately cubic for oxide thicknesses smaller than about 2μm, linear beyond. A kinetic model has been proposed which estimates the post-transition growth rate from the kinetic parameters of the pre-transition state and morphological features of post-transition layers. This work aims at providing the necessary elements to validate this model and studying the layers around the kinetic transition, in order to determine whether the oxidation mechanisms before and after the transition are similar. Thicknesses of the 50 - 500 nm range of the oxide layers are measured by an optical method; pre-transition kinetics are thus precisely determined. The effect of the composition, the thermal treatment and the presence of oxygen in solid solution is studied. The morphological and crystallographic study of the layers show that they exhibit a lot of similarities before and after the kinetic transition. The results concerning the kinetic aspects and the morphology of the post-transition layers point out that the proposed model leads to realistic post-transition growth rates. Furthermore, the kinetic transition corresponds to the appearance of cracks in the oxide layer. The mechanical behaviour of the metal/oxide system has been modelled at different scales. When the specific behaviours of the metal and the oxide are taken into account together with the interface geometry, radial stresses appear, which are high enough to locally open cracks. The appearance and localization of cracks depend on both the interface geometry and the stress distribution in the metal/oxide system. (author)

  20. Heavy metal removal mechanisms of sorptive filter materials for road runoff treatment and remobilization under de-icing salt applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Maximilian; Hilbig, Harald; Badenberg, Sophia C; Fassnacht, Julius; Drewes, Jörg E; Helmreich, Brigitte

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this research study was to elucidate the removal and remobilization behaviors of five heavy metals (i.e., Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) that had been fixed onto sorptive filter materials used in decentralized stormwater treatment systems receiving traffic area runoff. Six filter materials (i.e., granular activated carbon, a mixture of granular activated alumina and porous concrete, granular activated lignite, half-burnt dolomite, and two granular ferric hydroxides) were evaluated in column experiments. First, a simultaneous preloading with the heavy metals was performed for each filter material. Subsequently, the remobilization effect was tested by three de-icing salt experiments in duplicate using pure NaCl, a mixture of NaCl and CaCl2, and a mixture of NaCl and MgCl2. Three layers of each column were separated to specify the attenuation of heavy metals as a function of depth. Cu and Pb were retained best by most of the selected filter materials, and Cu was often released the least of all metals by the three de-icing salts. The mixture of NaCl and CaCl2 resulted in a stronger effect upon remobilization than the other two de-icing salts. For the material with the highest retention, the effect of the preloading level upon remobilization was measured. The removal mechanisms of all filter materials were determined by advanced laboratory methods. For example, the different intrusions of heavy metals into the particles were determined. Findings of this study can result in improved filter materials used in decentralized stormwater treatment systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mechanism of removal and retention of heavy metals from the acid mine drainage to coastal wetland in the Patagonian marsh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idaszkin, Yanina L; Carol, Eleonora; María Del Pilar, Alvarez

    2017-09-01

    The attenuation of the acid mine drainage is one of the most important environmental challenges facing the mining industry worldwide. Mining waste deposits from an ancient metallurgical extraction of heavy metals were found near to the San Antonio marsh in Patagonia. The aim of this work was to determinate which mechanisms regulate the mobilization and retention of metals by acid drainage. A geological and geomorphological survey was carried out and samples from the mining waste deposits and the marsh were collected to determine soil texture, Eh pH, organic matter, Cu, Pb, Zn and Fe content, and soil mineralogical composition. Metals in marsh plants were determined in above- and below-ground structures. In the mining waste deposits polymetallic sulphides were recognized where the oxidation and formation of oxy-hydroxides and sulphates of Fe, Cu, Pb and Zn occurs. Then, by the alteration of those minerals, the metals enter in solution and are mobilized with the surface drainage towards the marsh where adsorption in the soils fine fraction and organic matter and/or by plants occurs. Locally, in the mining waste deposits, the precipitation/dissolution of Cu, Pb, and Zn sulphates take place in small centripetal drainage basins. In topographically lower portions of the marsh desorption and removal of metals by tidal flow could also be happen. The results allow to concluding that the marsh adjacent to the mining waste deposits is a geochemically active environment that naturally mitigates the contamination caused by acid drainage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Essentially deadly: living with toxic elements: Humans and plants have evolved various mechanisms to deal with and even adopt toxic heavy metals

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Organisms have evolved to deal with or make use of toxic metals. Understanding these mechanisms could help to protect the health of mine workers, tackle malnourishment, or improve ways to clean up polluted environments.

  3. Las pequeñas y medianas empresas del sector metalúrgico en la zona sur de la Comunidad de Madrid: Gestión medioambiental y necesidades de formación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ureña, A.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the environmental management and needs of the small and medium-sized businesses of the metallurgical industry in the south region of Madrid were analysed. Information was obtained through a telephone questionnaire distributed to more than 170 companies. Although most of the respondent employees do not consider environmental training one of their priorities, they expressed their interest in implementing Environmental Management Systems, waste minimization and a higher knowledge of the specific legal aspects.

    En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de un análisis específico de la gestión medioambiental y las necesidades de formación de las pequeñas y medianas empresas (PYMES del sector metalúrgico de la zona sur de la Comunidad de Madrid. Los datos más significativos se han obtenido a través de una encuesta telefónica realizada a más de 170 empresas de la zona. La mayoría de los empleados de las empresas encuestadas no consideran necesaria una formación específica sobre impacto medioambiental. No obstante, el estudio indica el interés, entre otros temas, por el control de vertidos y residuos, la implantación de sistemas de gestión medioambiental y un mayor conocimiento de la legislación y normativa aplicable al sector.

  4. Mechanical stimulated reaction of metal/polymer mixed powders; Kinzoku/kobunshi kongo funmatsu no kikaiteki reiki hanno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobita, M.; Sakakibara, A.; Takemoto, Y. [Okayama University, Okayama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Iwabu, H. [Kurare Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1999-12-15

    Mechanical grinding (MG) with mechanically stimulated reaction was performed on metal/polymer mixed powders. The starting materials used in this study were the metals of Mg, Ti and Mg{sub 2}Ni powders, arid polymer of PTFE, PVC and PE powders. The MG process was investigated using XRD, IR, SEM and TEM. According to XRD results, magnesium fluoride (MgF{sub 2}, TiF{sub 2}) and chloride (MgCl{sub 2}) were detected from MG products of the Mg/PTFE, Ti/PTFE and Mg/PVC blending systems, respectively. Explosive reaction was found during MG of both Mg/PTFE and Ti/PTFE. It was also confirmed by XRD results that the production of MgF{sub 2} had already been formed just before the explosive reaction in Mg/PTFE system. It was found from IR analysis that C-C single bond in the polymers, not only both in PTFE and PVC but also in PE, changed to double bond C=C. Hydrogen produced due to decomposition of PE on blending Mg{sub 2}Ni/PE was absorbed into C-Mg{sub 2}Ni-H as amorphous solutes. These mechanically stimulated reaction was powerful method for decomposition of engineering plastics. (author)

  5. Effect of different lay-ups on the microstructure, mechanical properties and neutron transmission of neutron shielding fibre metal laminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Xuelong; Tang, Xiaobin; Hu, Yubing; Li, Huaguan; Tao, Jie

    2016-01-01

    A novel neutron shielding fibre metal laminates (NSFMLs) with different lay-ups, composed of stacking layers of AA6061 plates, neutron shielding composite and carbon fibre reinforced polyimide (CFRP), were fabricated using hot molding process in atmospheric environments. The microstructure, mechanical properties and neutron transmission of the NSFMLs were evaluated, respectively. The results indicated that the NSFMLs possessed good mechanical properties owing to the good interfacial adhesion of the components. Tensile strength and elastic modulus of the NSFMLs increased with the numbers of lay-ups, while the elongation to fracture exhibited obvious declining tendency. Flexural strength and modulus of the NSFMLs were improved obviously with the increasing of stacking layers. Neutron transmission of the NSFMLs decreased obviously with increasing the number of lay-ups, owing to the increase of "1"0B areal density. Besides, the effect of carbon fibres on the neutron shielding performance of the NSFMLs was also taken into consideration. - Highlights: • A novel neutron shielding fibre metal laminates (NSFMLs) with different lay-ups was successfully fabricated using hot molding process. • Mechanical properties of the NSFMLs were performed in accordance with relative standards. • Neutron transmission of the NSFMLs was conducted according to the testing results. • The effect of carbon fibres on the neutron transmission of the NSFMLs was also investigated.

  6. Effect of different lay-ups on the microstructure, mechanical properties and neutron transmission of neutron shielding fibre metal laminates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Xuelong [College of Material Science & Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics & Astronautics, Nanjing, 211100 (China); Department of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Jiangsu Polytechnic of Finance & Economics, Huai' an, 223003 (China); Tang, Xiaobin; Hu, Yubing; Li, Huaguan [College of Material Science & Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics & Astronautics, Nanjing, 211100 (China); Tao, Jie, E-mail: taojie@nuaa.edu.cn [College of Material Science & Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics & Astronautics, Nanjing, 211100 (China)

    2016-07-15

    A novel neutron shielding fibre metal laminates (NSFMLs) with different lay-ups, composed of stacking layers of AA6061 plates, neutron shielding composite and carbon fibre reinforced polyimide (CFRP), were fabricated using hot molding process in atmospheric environments. The microstructure, mechanical properties and neutron transmission of the NSFMLs were evaluated, respectively. The results indicated that the NSFMLs possessed good mechanical properties owing to the good interfacial adhesion of the components. Tensile strength and elastic modulus of the NSFMLs increased with the numbers of lay-ups, while the elongation to fracture exhibited obvious declining tendency. Flexural strength and modulus of the NSFMLs were improved obviously with the increasing of stacking layers. Neutron transmission of the NSFMLs decreased obviously with increasing the number of lay-ups, owing to the increase of {sup 10}B areal density. Besides, the effect of carbon fibres on the neutron shielding performance of the NSFMLs was also taken into consideration. - Highlights: • A novel neutron shielding fibre metal laminates (NSFMLs) with different lay-ups was successfully fabricated using hot molding process. • Mechanical properties of the NSFMLs were performed in accordance with relative standards. • Neutron transmission of the NSFMLs was conducted according to the testing results. • The effect of carbon fibres on the neutron transmission of the NSFMLs was also investigated.

  7. Sectoral assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callaway, J M; Fenhann, J; Gorham, R; Makundi, W; Sathaye, J

    1999-09-01

    This publication contains five papers that were written as a part of the GEF project, The Economics of Greenhouse Gas Limitations. The main goal of the project was to assess the greenhouse gas reductions and incremental costs of mitigation option sin Ecuador, Argentina, Senegal, Mauritius, Vietnam, Indonesia, Estonia and Hungary. In addition, regional studies were conducted for the Andean Pact nations and Southern Africa to assess various aspects of regional co-operation in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The GEF study also involved the development of a methodological framework for climate change assessment, with a special emphasis on developing countries. These guidelines have been published in a separate document, Economics of Greenhouse Gas Limitations: Methodological Guidelines. The papers in this publication focus on various methodological and policy aspects of greenhouse gas mitigation at the sectoral level, and are outgrowth of work performed on other parts of the GEF project. (au)

  8. Novel mechanisms for self-assembled pattern formation in nanoscopic metal films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyanaraman, R.; Trice, J.; Favazza, C.; Thomas, D.; Sureshkumar, R.

    2007-03-01

    Classical hydrodynamic theory of dewetting of spinodally unstable thin films (Vrij, Disc. farad. Soc. 1966) predicts a monotonic increase in patterning length scales with increasing film thickness. We verified this effect for nanoscopic Co metal films following melting by ns laser pulses for thickness regime hFavazza et al. Nanotechnology, 2006). However, a dramatic change is observed beyond this thickness hc, with length scales decreasing with increasing h. This novel behavior arises from strong thickness dependence of heating by ultrafast laser light resulting in thermocapillary effects, whose magnitude and sign are thickness dependent. We modified the classical theory, according to which the instability occurs when the stabilizing capillary force is overcome by destabilizing attractive long-range interactions, to include thermocapillary effects. The modified theory accurately predicts the experimentally observed trend. This result suggests that a variety of new length scales can be accessed by robust self-assembly via dewetting of metal films under ultrafast light.

  9. Mechanism of high-temperature background of internal friction in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapoval, B.I.; Arzhavitin, V.M.

    1988-01-01

    Data of theoretical and experimental studies on energy dissipation in vibrating metal at small amplitudes and elevated temperatures (high temperature background of internal friction) are generalized and systematized. Evolution of knowledge of the background as a phenomenon influenced mainly by crystal structure defects - their form, quantity, mobility and interaction is followed. Considered is a wide range of investigated metal states and measurement conditions, and interrelations with other characteristics, for instance, strength ones. On the basis of the data obtained by authors and other investigations a concept of an additional third stage of the background increase with the temperature - the stage of deviation from exponential dependence at premelting point, is introduced. 107 refs.; 32 figs.; 3 tabs

  10. Microstructural, thermal and mechanical behavior of co-sputtered binary Zr–Cu thin film metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apreutesei, M. [MATEIS Laboratory-INSA de Lyon, Bât. B. Pascal, 7 Avenue Jean Capelle, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Steyer, P., E-mail: philippe.steyer@insa-lyon.fr [MATEIS Laboratory-INSA de Lyon, Bât. B. Pascal, 7 Avenue Jean Capelle, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Joly-Pottuz, L. [MATEIS Laboratory-INSA de Lyon, Bât. B. Pascal, 7 Avenue Jean Capelle, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Billard, A. [LERMPS-UTBM, Site de Montbéliard, 90010 Belfort Cédex (France); Qiao, J.; Cardinal, S. [MATEIS Laboratory-INSA de Lyon, Bât. B. Pascal, 7 Avenue Jean Capelle, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Sanchette, F. [LASMIS-UTT, UMR CNRS 6279, 12 rue Marie Curie, CS 42060, 10004 Troyes Cedex (France); Pelletier, J.M.; Esnouf, C. [MATEIS Laboratory-INSA de Lyon, Bât. B. Pascal, 7 Avenue Jean Capelle, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2014-06-30

    Bulk metallic glasses have attracted considerable attention over the last decades for their outstanding mechanical features (high strength, super-elasticity) and physico-chemical properties (corrosion resistance). Recently, some attempts to assign such original behavior from bulk materials to modified surfaces have been reported in the literature based on multicomponent alloys. In this paper we focused on the opportunity to form a metallic glass coating from the binary Zr–Cu system using a magnetron co-sputtering physical vapor deposition process. The composition of the films can be easily controlled by the relative intensities applied to both pure targets, which made possible the study of the whole Zr–Cu system (from 13.4 to 85.0 at.% Cu). The chemical composition of the films was obtained by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and their microstructure was characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The thermal stability of the films was deduced from an in situ X-ray diffraction analysis (from room temperature up to 600 °C) and correlated with the results of the differential scanning calorimetry technique. Their mechanical properties were determined by nanoindentation experiments. - Highlights: • We reported deposition of Zr-Cu thin film metallic glasses by co-sputtering • Films were XRD-amorphous in a wide composition range (33.3 – 85.0 at.% Cu) • Microstructure investigation revealed some local nanodomains • We examined the thermal stability by means of in situ X-ray diffraction • Nanoindentation was used to obtained mechanical properties of thin films.

  11. Ultrasonic and mechanical soil washing processes for the remediation of heavy-metal-contaminated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seulgi; Lee, Wontae; Son, Younggyu

    2016-07-01

    Ultrasonic/mechanical soil washing process was investigated and compared with ultrasonic process and mechanical process using a relatively large lab-scale sonoreactor. It was found that higher removal efficiencies were observed in the combined processes for 0.1 and 0.3 M HCl washing liquids. It was due to the combination effects of macroscale removal for the overall range of slurry by mechanical mixing and microscale removal for the limited zone of slurry by cavitational actions.

  12. The design and testing of a memory metal actuated boom release mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powley, D. G.; Brook, G. B.

    1979-01-01

    A boom latch and release mechanism was designed, manufactured and tested, based on a specification for the ISEE-B satellite mechanism. From experimental results obtained, it is possible to calculate the energy available and the operating torques which can be achieved from a torsional shape memory element in terms of the reversible strain induced by prior working. Some guidelines to be followed when designing mechanisms actuated by shape memory elements are included.

  13. On kinetics and mechanism of' furfural oxidation by ions of heterovalent metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupenskij, V.I.

    1983-01-01

    Real constants of rate of furfural oxidation by Cu 2+ , Fe 3+ , Ce 4+ , Ag + , Hg 2+ 2 ions are determined, other kinetic and activation parameters of reactions are calculated, constants of stability and other thermodynamic characteristics of furfural complex with cations-oxidizers are found. Schemes of furfural transformations at one- and two-electron oxidation by ions of variable-valency metals are suggested

  14. Kinetics and mechanism of furfural oxidation by ions of heterovalent metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupenskij, V.I. (Ukhtinskij Industrial' nyj Inst. (USSR))

    1983-01-01

    Real constants of rate of furfural oxidation by Cu/sup 2 +/, Fe/sup 3 +/, Ce/sup 4 +/, Ag/sup +/, Hg/sup 2 +//sub 2/ ions are determined, other kinetic and activation parameters of reactions are calculated, constants of stability and other thermodynamic characteristics of furfural complex with cations-oxidizers are found. Schemes of furfural transformations at one- and two-electron oxidation by ions of variable-valency metals are suggested.

  15. Incidence and Potential Mechanism(s) of Post-Procedural Rise of Cardiac Biomarker in Patients With Coronary Artery Narrowing After Implantation of an Everolimus-Eluting Bioresorbable Vascular Scaffold or Everolimus-Eluting Metallic Stent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishibashi, Yuki; Muramatsu, Takashi; Nakatani, Shimpei

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate the mechanism of post-procedural cardiac biomarker (CB) rise following device implantation. BACKGROUND: A fully bioresorbable Absorb scaffold, compared with everolimus-eluting metallic stents (EES), might be associated with a higher incidence...

  16. Kinetic model for mechanical twinning and its application for intensive loading of metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayer Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this report, we present our twinning model intended for simulation of the dynamic deformation of metals with low values of the stacking fault energy, as well as the results of application of the model to numerical simulation of intensive loading of metals. Generation of a twin is described as an appearance of a stacking fault with size more than some critical value, while growth of a twin is considered as a cooperative movement of partial dislocation along the stacking fault. The twin nucleation rate is expressed through the energy released due to annihilation of dislocations. Movement of partial dislocations in the course of twin growth passes under the action of elastic stress field and phonon drag. The surface energy of the growing twin continuously increases which leads to the appearance of an additional force. Application of this model allows us to investigate plastic response of metals at various dynamic loading conditions and initial defect structures. Influence of twinning at Taylor rod compaction experiments is analyzed including formation of the shape of the lateral surface.

  17. PHYSICAL-MATEMATICALSCIENCE MECHANICS SIMULATION CHALLENGES IN OPTIMISING THEORETICAL METAL CUTTING TASKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasul V. Guseynov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Objectives In the article, problems in the optimising of machining operations, which provide end-unit production of the required quality with a minimum processing cost, are addressed. Methods Increasing the effectiveness of experimental research was achieved through the use of mathematical methods for planning experiments for optimising metal cutting tasks. The minimal processing cost model, in which the objective function is polynomial, is adopted as a criterion for the selection of optimal parameters. Results Polynomial models of the influence of angles φ, α, γ on the torque applied when cutting threads in various steels are constructed. Optimum values of the geometrical tool parameters were obtained using the criterion of minimum cutting forces during processing. The high stability of tools having optimal geometric parameters is determined. It is shown that the use of experimental planning methods allows the optimisation of cutting parameters. In optimising solutions to metal cutting problems, it is found to be expedient to use multifactor experimental planning methods and to select the cutting force as the optimisation parameter when determining tool geometry. Conclusion The joint use of geometric programming and experiment planning methods in order to optimise the parameters of cutting significantly increases the efficiency of technological metal processing approaches. 

  18. The mechanical behavior of metal alloys with grain size distribution in a wide range of strain rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skripnyak, V. A.; Skripnyak, V. V.; Skripnyak, E. G.

    2017-12-01

    The paper discusses a multiscale simulation approach for the construction of grain structure of metals and alloys, providing high tensile strength with ductility. This work compares the mechanical behavior of light alloys and the influence of the grain size distribution in a wide range of strain rates. The influence of the grain size distribution on the inelastic deformation and fracture of aluminium and magnesium alloys is investigated by computer simulations in a wide range of strain rates. It is shown that the yield stress depends on the logarithm of the normalized strain rate for light alloys with a bimodal grain distribution and coarse-grained structure.

  19. Exact matrix treatment of statistical mechanical lattice model of adsorption induced gate opening in metal-organic frameworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunne, Lawrence J; Manos, George

    2015-01-01

    Here we present a statistical mechanical lattice model which is exactly solvable using a matrix method and allows treatment of adsorption induced gate opening structural transformations of metal-organic frameworks which are nanoporous materials with exceptional adsorption properties. Modelling of these structural changes presents a serious theoretical challenge when the solid and gas species are treated in an even handed way. This exactly solvable model complements other simulation based approaches. The methodology presented here highlights the competition between the potential for adsorption and the energy required for structural transition as a driving force for the features in the adsorption isotherms. (paper)

  20. Additively manufactured metallic porous biomaterials based on minimal surfaces: A unique combination of topological, mechanical, and mass transport properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbert, F S L; Lietaert, K; Eftekhari, A A; Pouran, B; Ahmadi, S M; Weinans, H; Zadpoor, A A

    2017-04-15

    Porous biomaterials that simultaneously mimic the topological, mechanical, and mass transport properties of bone are in great demand but are rarely found in the literature. In this study, we rationally designed and additively manufactured (AM) porous metallic biomaterials based on four different types of triply periodic minimal surfaces (TPMS) that mimic the properties of bone to an unprecedented level of multi-physics detail. Sixteen different types of porous biomaterials were rationally designed and fabricated using selective laser melting (SLM) from a titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V). The topology, quasi-static mechanical properties, fatigue resistance, and permeability of the developed biomaterials were then characterized. In terms of topology, the biomaterials resembled the morphological properties of trabecular bone including mean surface curvatures close to zero. The biomaterials showed a favorable but rare combination of relatively low elastic properties in the range of those observed for trabecular bone and high yield strengths exceeding those reported for cortical bone. This combination allows for simultaneously avoiding stress shielding, while providing ample mechanical support for bone tissue regeneration and osseointegration. Furthermore, as opposed to other AM porous biomaterials developed to date for which the fatigue endurance limit has been found to be ≈20% of their yield (or plateau) stress, some of the biomaterials developed in the current study show extremely high fatigue resistance with endurance limits up to 60% of their yield stress. It was also found that the permeability values measured for the developed biomaterials were in the range of values reported for trabecular bone. In summary, the developed porous metallic biomaterials based on TPMS mimic the topological, mechanical, and physical properties of trabecular bone to a great degree. These properties make them potential candidates to be applied as parts of orthopedic implants and/or as bone

  1. Effect of filler metals and heat treatment on mechanical properties of welded joints of the VT20L and VT6L titanium cast alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramova, V.N.; Polyakov, D.A.; Vas'kin, Yu.V.; Kulikov, F.R.; Prostov, I.A.; Yasinskij, K.K.

    1979-01-01

    Developed is a technology of welding and heat treatment of the VT20L and VT6L alloys, providing the mechanical properties of welds on the base metal level. It is found, that for residual stress relieving it is quite enough to anneal the alloys at 650 deg C. Welding of the investigated alloys up to 20 mm thick using SPT-2 additional wire provides the welded joint strength on a level of 0.8 σsub(u) of base metal. Usage of additional wire of base metal provides equal strength of welds and base metal

  2. Influence of Lubricant Pocket Geometry upon Lubrication Mechanisms on Tool-Workpiece Interfaces in Metal Forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shimizu, I; Martins, P.A.F.; Bay, Niels

    2004-01-01

    mechanisms, during upsetting and strip drawing, by means of a rigid viscoplastic finite element formulation. Special emphasis is placed on the effect of pocket geometry on the build up of hydrostatic pressure, which is responsible for the onset of micro lubrication mechanisms. A good agreement is found...... between the numerically predicted and the experimentally measured distributions of hydrostatic stress....

  3. Effects of degradation on the mechanical properties and fracture toughness of a steel pressure-vessel weld metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, S.J.; Knott, J.F.

    2003-01-01

    A degradation procedure has been devised to simulate the effect of neutron irradiation on the mechanical properties of a steel pressure-vessel weld metal. The procedure combines the application of cold prestrain together with an embrittling heat treatment to produce an increase in yield stress, a decrease in strain hardening rate, and an increased propensity for brittle intergranular fracture. Fracture tests were carried out using blunt-notch four-point-bend specimens in slow bend over a range of temperatures and the brittle/ductile transition was shown to increase by approximately 110 deg. C as a result of the degradation. Fractographic analysis of specimens broken at low temperatures showed about 30% intergranular failure in combination with transgranular cleavage. Predictions have been made of the ductile-brittle transition curves for the weld metal (sharp crack) fracture toughness in degraded and non-degraded states, based on the notched-bar test results and on finite element analyses of the stress distributions ahead of the notches and sharp cracks. The ductile-brittle transition temperature shift (ΔT=110 deg. C) between non-degraded and degraded weld metal at a notch opening displacement of 0.31 mm was combined with the Ritchie, Knott and Rice (RKR) model to predict an equivalent shift of 115 deg. C for sharp-crack specimens at a toughness level of 70 MN/m 3/2

  4. Transcriptional analysis and molecular dynamics simulations reveal the mechanism of toxic metals removal and efflux pumps in Lysinibacillus sphaericus OT4b.31

    KAUST Repository

    Shaw, Dario Rangel

    2017-11-23

    Lysinibacillus sphaericus strain OT4b.31 is a bacterium widely applied in bioremediation processes of hydrocarbon and metal polluted environments. In this study, we identified the molecular mechanism underlying the Pb2+ and Cr6+ resistance. Metal uptake and temporal transcription patterns of metal resistance operons were evaluated using reverse-transcribed quantitative PCR amplification. The function of the resistance determinants was studied applying docking and in silico mutagenesis methods. The results revealed that the adaptation of Lysinibacillus sphaericus OT4b.31 to elevated levels of lead and chromium involves the pbr and chr operons which comprise a transcriptional regulatory component (pbrR and chrB) and efflux ATPases (pbrA and chrA) to expel ions from the cytoplasm. Expression of metal resistance genes was constitutive and specifically inducible to the exposure of Pb2+ and Cr6+. The simultaneous presence of cations didn\\'t affect the bioaccumulation of metals, evidencing the multimetal resistance of L. sphaericus. Docking analysis revealed the key metal-protein interactions and the conformational changes after metal or ATP binding. Results showed that residues with aromatic rings or imidazole in the catalytic domain are crucial for metal binding and achievement of the function. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a specific mechanism for lead and chromium resistance in Lysinibacillus genus. From the findings of this study, it is possible to suggest the bacterium as a suitable candidate for rapid toxic metals bioremediation processes.

  5. Proceedings of the international conference on advances in metallic materials and manufacturing processes for strategic sectors: souvenir and book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Topics like materials processing, ultrafine grained materials, powder metallurgical processing, composite materials,, mechanical processing, materials characterisation, materials joining, failure analysis and corrosion and functional and nano materials are covered in this symposium. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  6. Enhanced Mechanical Properties of MgZnCa Bulk Metallic Glass Composites with Ti-Particle Dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Chun Wong

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rod samples of Mg60Zn35Ca5 bulk metallic glass composites (BMGCs dispersed with Ti particles have been successfully fabricated via injection casting. The glass forming ability (GFA and the mechanical properties of these Mg-based BMGCs have been systematically investigated as a function of the volume fraction (Vf of Ti particles. The results showed that the compressive ductility increased with Vf. The mechanical performance of these BMGCs, with up to 5.4% compressive failure strain and 1187 MPa fracture strength at room temperature, can be obtained for the Mg-based BMGCs with 50 vol % Ti particles, suggesting that these dispersed Ti particles can absorb the energy of the crack propagations and can induce branches of the primary shear band into multiple secondary shear bands. It follows that further propagation of the shear band is blocked, enhancing the overall plasticity.

  7. Acoustic emission generated by dislocation mechanisms during the deformation of metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiple, C.R.

    1978-01-01

    Acoustic emission is a transient elastic wave generated by the rapid release of energy within a material. A wide variety of mechanisms have been proposed as possible sources of acoustic emission. Proposed mechanisms have included crack propagation, precipitate fracture, twin formation, martensite formation, dislocation motion and/or multiplication. This paper is concerned with acoustic emission generated by dislocation mechanisms operating during plastic deformation. Twinning and martensitic phase transformations are excluded even though dislocation motion is involved in the nucleation and growth of twins and the growth of martensite.

  8. Acoustic emission generated by dislocation mechanisms during the deformation of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiple, C.R.

    1978-01-01

    Acoustic emission is a transient elastic wave generated by the rapid release of energy within a material. A wide variety of mechanisms have been proposed as possible sources of acoustic emission. Proposed mechanisms have included crack propagation, precipitate fracture, twin formation, martensite formation, dislocation motion and/or multiplication. This paper is concerned with acoustic emission generated by dislocation mechanisms operating during plastic deformation. Twinning and martensitic phase transformations are excluded even though dislocation motion is involved in the nucleation and growth of twins and the growth of martensite

  9. The direct heat measurement of mechanical energy storage metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Julien; Beurroies, Isabelle; Loiseau, Thierry; Denoyel, Renaud; Llewellyn, Philip L

    2015-04-07

    In any process, the heat exchanged is an essential property required in its development. Whilst the work related to structural transitions of some flexible metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has been quantified and linked with potential applications such as molecular springs or shock absorbers, the heat related to such transitions has never been directly measured. This has now been carried out with MIL-53(Al) using specifically devised calorimetry experiments. We project the importance of these heats in devices such as molecular springs or dampers. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. ULTRASONIC STUDIES OF THE FUNDAMENTAL MECHANISMS OF RECRYSTALLIZATION AND SINTERING OF METALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TURNER, JOSEPH A.

    2005-11-30

    The purpose of this project was to develop a fundamental understanding of the interaction of an ultrasonic wave with complex media, with specific emphases on recrystallization and sintering of metals. A combined analytical, numerical, and experimental research program was implemented. Theoretical models of elastic wave propagation through these complex materials were developed using stochastic wave field techniques. The numerical simulations focused on finite element wave propagation solutions through complex media. The experimental efforts were focused on corroboration of the models developed and on the development of new experimental techniques. The analytical and numerical research allows the experimental results to be interpreted quantitatively.

  11. Analysis of fluid lubrication mechanisms in metal forming at mesoscopic scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubar, L.; Hubert, C.; Christiansen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The lubricant entrapment and escape phenomena in metal forming are studied experimentally as well as numerically. Experiments are carried out in strip reduction of aluminium sheet applying a transparent die to study the fluid flow between mesoscopic cavities. The numerical analysis involves two...... computation steps. The first one is a fully coupled fluid-structure Finite Element computation, where pockets in the surface are plastically deformed leading to the pressurization of the entrapped fluid. The second step computes the fluid exchange between cavities through the plateaus of asperity contacts...

  12. Dissolution Rate And Mechanism Of <