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Sample records for metal hole arrays

  1. Formation of arrayed holes on metal foil and metal film by multibeam interfering femtosecond laser beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Quan-Zhong; Qiu Jian-Rong; Zhao Chong-Jun; Jiang Xiong-Wei; Zhu Cong-Shan

    2005-01-01

    We report on an optical interference method to fabricate arrayed holes on metal nickel foil and aluminum film deposited on glass substrate by means of five-beam interference of femtosecond laser pulses. Optical microscope and scanning electron microscope observations revealed that arrayed holes of micrometre-order were fabricated on both metal foil and metal film. The present technique allows one-step, large-area, micrometric processing of metal materials for potential industrial applications.

  2. Using a Semiconductor-to-Metal Transition to Control Optical Transmission through Subwavelength Hole Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. U. Donev

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a simple configuration in which the extraordinary optical transmission effect through subwavelength hole arrays in noble-metal films can be switched by the semiconductor-to-metal transition in an underlying thin film of vanadium dioxide. In these experiments, the transition is brought about by thermal heating of the bilayer film. The surprising reverse hysteretic behavior of the transmission through the subwavelength holes in the vanadium oxide suggest that this modulation is accomplished by a dielectric-matching condition rather than plasmon coupling through the bilayer film. The results of this switching, including the wavelength dependence, are qualitatively reproduced by a transfer matrix model. The prospects for effecting a similar modulation on a much faster time scale by using ultrafast laser pulses to trigger the semiconductor-to-metal transition are also discussed.

  3. Theory on the scattering of light and surface plasmon polaritons by arrays of holes and dimples in a metal film

    OpenAIRE

    de Leon-Perez, F.; Brucoli, G.; Garcia-Vidal, F.J.; Martin-Moreno, L

    2008-01-01

    The scattering of light and surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) by finite arrays of either holes or dimples in a metal film is treated theoretically. A modal expansion formalism, capable of handling real metals with up to thousands of indentations, is presented. Computations based on this method demonstrate that a single hole scatters a significant fraction of incoming light into SPPs. It is also observed that holes and dimples scatter SPPs into light with similar efficiencies, provided the dep...

  4. Metamaterial-based theoretical description of light scattering by metallic nano-hole array structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Mahi R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London N6A 3K7 (Canada); Najiminaini, Mohamadreza; Carson, Jeffrey J. L. [Lawson Health Research Institute, St. Joseph' s Health Care, 268 Grosvenor Street, London N6A 4V2 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London N6A 3K7 (Canada); Balakrishnan, Shankar [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London N6A 3K7 (Canada); Lawson Health Research Institute, St. Joseph' s Health Care, 268 Grosvenor Street, London N6A 4V2 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2015-05-14

    We have experimentally and theoretically investigated the light-matter interaction in metallic nano-hole array structures. The scattering cross section spectrum was measured for three samples each having a unique nano-hole array radius and periodicity. Each measured spectrum had several peaks due to surface plasmon polaritons. The dispersion relation and the effective dielectric constant of the structure were calculated using transmission line theory and Bloch's theorem. Using the effective dielectric constant and the transfer matrix method, the surface plasmon polariton energies were calculated and found to be quantized. Using these quantized energies, a Hamiltonian for the surface plasmon polaritons was written in the second quantized form. Working with the Hamiltonian, a theory of scattering cross section was developed based on the quantum scattering theory and Green's function method. For both theory and experiment, the location of the surface plasmon polariton spectral peaks was dependant on the array periodicity and radii of the nano-holes. Good agreement was observed between the experimental and theoretical results. It is proposed that the newly developed theory can be used to facilitate optimization of nanosensors for medical and engineering applications.

  5. Theory on the scattering of light and surface plasmon polaritons by arrays of holes and dimples in a metal film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Leon-Perez, F; Brucoli, G; Martin-Moreno, L [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragon and Departamento de FIsica de la Materia Condensada, CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009, Zaragoza (Spain); Garcia-Vidal, F J [Departamento de Fisica Teorica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: lmm@unizar.es

    2008-10-15

    The scattering of light and surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) by finite arrays of either holes or dimples in a metal film is treated theoretically. A modal expansion formalism, capable of handling real metals with up to thousands of indentations, is presented. Computations based on this method demonstrate that a single hole scatters a significant fraction of incoming light into SPPs. It is also observed that holes and dimples scatter SPPs into light with similar efficiencies, provided the depth of the dimple is larger than its radius. Finally, it is shown that in arrays the normalized-to-area emittances in the out-of-plane and SPP channels present different dependences with the number of holes.

  6. Extreme optical activity and circular dichroism of chiral metal hole arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Gorkunov, M V; Artemov, V V; Rogov, O Y; Yudin, S G

    2014-01-01

    We report extremely strong optical activity and circular dichroism exhibited by subwavelength arrays of four-start-screw holes fabricated with one-pass focused ion beam milling of freely suspended silver films. Having the fourth order rotational symmetry, the structures exhibit the polarization rotation up to 90 degrees and peaks of full circular dichroism and operate as circular polarizers within certain ranges of wavelengths in the visible. We discuss the observations on the basis of general principles (symmetry, reciprocity and reversibility) and conclude that the extreme optical chirality is determined by the chiral localized plasmonic resonances.

  7. Terahertz superconducting plasmonic hole array

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Zhen; Han, Jiaguang; Gu, Jianqiang; Xing, Qirong; Zhang, Weili

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate thermally tunable superconductor hole array with active control over their resonant transmission induced by surface plasmon polaritons . The array was lithographically fabricated on high temperature YBCO superconductor and characterized by terahertz-time domain spectroscopy. We observe a clear transition from the virtual excitation of the surface plasmon mode to the real surface plasmon mode. The highly tunable superconducting plasmonic hole arrays may have promising applications in the design of low-loss, large dynamic range amplitude modulation, and surface plasmon based terahertz devices.

  8. SPP-associated dual left-handed bands and field enhancement in metal-dielectric-metal metamaterial perforated by asymmetric cross hole arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, P; Liang, E J; Hu, W Q; Zhou, Q; Zhang, L; Yuan, Y X; Xue, Q Z

    2009-02-16

    Dual-band left-handed transmissions in the near infrared frequencies through the metal-dielectric-metal metamaterial perforated with an array of asymmetric cross holes are demonstrated. It is shown that the left-handed bands originate from the SPP-associated magnetic response excited by different polarized light and their frequencies can be tuned by the arm's length or width of the cross-gaps. The structures are further optimized at 1.064 microm laser light excitation for elucidating the mechanism and possible application in surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy in sandwiched architectures. This study provides valuable information for the design of compact optical devices with dual left-handed bands in a single structure and may also pave the way toward stable and reproducible substrate design for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

  9. Resonant Excitation of Terahertz Surface Plasmons in Subwavelength Metal Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weili Zhang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a review of experimental studies of resonant excitation of terahertz surface plasmons in two-dimensional arrays of subwavelength metal holes. Resonant transmission efficiency higher than unity was recently achieved when normalized to the area occupied by the holes. The effects of hole shape, hole dimensions, dielectric function of metals, polarization dependence, and array film thickness on resonant terahertz transmission in metal arrays were investigated by the state-of-the-art terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. In particular, extraordinary terahertz transmission was demonstrated in arrays of subwavelength holes made even from Pb, a generally poor metal, and having thickness of only one-third of skin depth. Terahertz surface plasmons have potential applications in terahertz imaging, biosensing, interconnects, and development of integrated plasmonic components for terahertz generation and detection.

  10. Plasmonic hole arrays for combined photon and electron management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liapis, Andreas C.; Sfeir, Matthew Y.; Black, Charles T.

    2016-11-01

    Material architectures that balance optical transparency and electrical conductivity are highly sought after for thin-film device applications. However, these are competing properties, since the electronic structure that gives rise to conductivity typically also leads to optical opacity. Nanostructured metal films that exhibit extraordinary optical transmission, while at the same time being electrically continuous, offer considerable flexibility in the design of their transparency and resistivity. Here, we present design guidelines for metal films perforated with arrays of nanometer-scale holes, discussing the consequences of the choice of nanostructure dimensions, of the type of metal, and of the underlying substrate on their electrical, optical, and interfacial properties. We experimentally demonstrate that such films can be designed to have broad-band optical transparency while being an order of magnitude more conductive than indium tin oxide. Prototypical photovoltaic devices constructed with perforated metal contacts convert ˜18% of the incident photons, compared to devices having contacts without the hole array.

  11. Evaporating metal nanocrystal arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue; Joy, James C.; Zhao, Chenwei; Kim, Jin Ho; Fernandes, Gustavo; Xu, J. M.; Valles, James M., Jr.

    2017-03-01

    Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) substrates with a self-ordered triangular array of nanopores provide the means to fabricate multiple forms of nano materials, such as nanowires and nanoparticles. This study focuses on nanostructures that emerge in thin films of metals thermally evaporated onto the surface of AAO. Previous work showed that films of different evaporated metals assume dramatically different structures, e.g. an ordered triangular array of nearly monodisperse nanoparticles forms for lead (Pb) while a polycrystalline nanohoneycomb structure forms for silver (Ag). Here, we present investigations of the effects of substrate temperature and deposition angle that reveal the processes controlling the nano particle array formation. Our findings indicate that arrays form provided the grain nucleation density exceeds the pore density and the atomic mobility is high enough to promote grain coalescence. They introduce a method for producing films with anisotropic grain array structure. The results provide insight into the influence of substrate nano-morphology on thin film growth energetics and kinetics that can be harnessed for creating films with other novel nano-structures.

  12. Measuring the wavelength-dependent divergence of transmission through sub-wavelength hole-arrays by spectral imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Docter, M.W.; Young, I.T.; Piciu, O.M.; Bossche, A.; Alkemade, P.F.A.; Van den Berg, P.M.; Garini, Y.

    2006-01-01

    We present a study on the far-field patterns of light transmitted through sub-wavelength metallic hole-arrays. Spectral imaging measurements are used here on hole arrays for the first time. It provides both spatial and spectral information of the transmission in far-field. The visibility of the imag

  13. Exploring plasmonic coupling in hole-cap arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Schmidt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The plasmonic coupling between gold caps and holes in thin films was investigated experimentally and through finite-difference time-domain (FDTD calculations. Sparse colloidal lithography combined with a novel thermal treatment was used to control the vertical spacing between caps and hole arrays and compared to separated arrays of holes or caps. Optical spectroscopy and FDTD simulations reveal strong coupling between the gold caps and both Bloch Wave-surface plasmon polariton (BW-SPP modes and localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR-type resonances in hole arrays when they are in close proximity. The interesting and complex coupling between caps and hole arrays reveals the details of the field distribution for these simple to fabricate structures.

  14. Complete polarimetry on the asymmetric transmission through subwavelength hole arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Oriol; Maoz, Ben M; Nichols, Shane; Markovich, Gil; Kahr, Bart

    2014-06-02

    Dissymmetric, periodically nanostructured metal films can show non-reciprocal transmission of polarized light, in apparent violation of the Lorentz reciprocity theorem. The wave vector dependence of the extraordinary optical transmission in gold films with square and oblique subwavelength hole arrays was examined for the full range of polarized light input states. In normal incidence, the oblique lattice, in contrast to square lattice, showed strong asymmetric, non-reciprocal transmission of circularly polarized light. By analyzing the polarization of the input and the output with a complete Mueller matrix polarimeter the mechanisms that permits asymmetric transmission while preserving the requirement of electromagnetic reciprocity is revealed: the coupling of the linear anisotropies induced by misaligned surface plasmons in the film. The square lattice also shows asymmetric transmission at non-normal incidence, whenever the plane of incidence does not coincide with a mirror line.

  15. Measurement of surface plasmon correlation length differences using Fibonacci deterministic hole arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tho Duc; Nahata, Ajay; Vardeny, Z Valy

    2012-07-02

    Using terahertz (THz) transmission measurements through two-dimensional Fibonacci deterministic subwavelength hole arrays fabricated in metal foils, we find that the surface plasmon-polariton (SPP) correlation lengths for aperiodic resonances are smaller than those associated with the underlying grid. The enhanced transmission spectra associated with these arrays contain two groups of Fano-type resonances: those related to the two-dimensional Fibonacci structure and those related to the underlying hole grid array upon which the aperiodic Fibonacci array is built. For both groups the destructive interference frequencies at which transmission minima occur closely match prominent reciprocal vectors in the hole array (HA) structure-factor in reciprocal space. However the Fibonacci-related transmission resonances are much weaker than both their calculated Fourier intensity in k space and the grid-related resonances. These differences may arise from the complex, multi-fractal dispersion relations and scattering from the underlying grid arrays. We also systematically studied and compared the transmission resonance strength of Fibonacci HA and periodic HA lattices as a function of the number of holes in the array structure. We found that the Fibonacci-related resonance strengths are an order of magnitude weaker than that of the periodic HA, consistent with the smaller SPP correlation length for the aperiodic structure.

  16. Ultrafast optical control of terahertz surface plasmons in subwavelength hole-arrays at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azad, Abul Kalam [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chen, Hou - Tong [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taylor, Antoinette [Los Alamos National Laboratory; O' Hara, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-10

    Extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength metallic hole-arrays has been an active research area since its first demonstration. The frequency selective resonance properties of subwavelength metallic hole arrays, generally known as surface plasmon polaritons, have potential use in functional plasmonic devices such as filters, modulators, switches, etc. Such plasmonic devices are also very promising for future terahertz applications. Ultrafast switching or modulation of the resonant behavior of the 2-D metallic arrays in terahertz frequencies is of particular interest for high speed communication and sensing applications. In this paper, we demonstrate optical control of surface plasmon enhanced resonant terahertz transmission in two-dimensional subwavelength metallic hole arrays fabricated on gallium arsenide based substrates. Optically pumping the arrays creates a conductive layer in the substrate reducing the terahertz transmission amplitude of both the resonant mode and the direct transmission. Under low optical fluence, the terahertz transmission is more greatly affected by resonance damping than by propagation loss in the substrate. An ErAs:GaAs nanoisland superlattice substrate is shown to allow ultrafast control with a switching recovery time of {approx}10 ps. We also present resonant terahertz transmission in a hybrid plasmonic film comprised of an integrated array of subwavelength metallic islands and semiconductor holes. A large dynamic transition between a dipolar localized surface plasmon mode and a surface plasmon resonance near 0.8 THz is observed under near infrared optical excitation. The reversal in transmission amplitude from a stopband to a passband and up to {pi}/2 phase shift achieved in the hybrid plasmonic film make it promising in large dynamic phase modulation, optical changeover switching, and active terahertz plasmonics.

  17. Interstitial vortex in superconducting film with periodic hole arrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Shi-Kun; Zhang Wei-Jun; Wen Zhen-Chao; Xiao Hong; Han Xiu-Feng; Gu Chang-Zhi; Qiu Xiang-Gang

    2012-01-01

    The response of superconducting Nb films with a diluted triangular and square array of holes to a perpendicular magnetic field are investigated.Due to small edge-to-edge separation of the holes,the patterned films are similar to multi-connected superconducting islands.Two regions in the magnetoresistance R(H) curves can be identified according to the field intervals of the resistance minima.Moreover,in between these two regions,variation of the minima spacing was observed.Our results provide strong evidence of the coexistence of interstitial vortices in the islands and fluxoids in the holes.

  18. Enhanced millimeter-wave transmission through subwavelength hole arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beruete, M; Sorolla, M; Campillo, I; Dolado, J S; Martín-Moreno, L; Bravo-Abad, J; García-Vidal, F J

    2004-11-01

    We explore, both experimentally and theoretically, the existence in the millimeter-wave range of the phenomenon of extraordinary light transmission through arrays of subwavelength holes. We have measured the transmission spectra of several samples made on aluminum wafers by use of an AB Millimetre quasi-optical vector network analyzer in the wavelength range 4.2-6.5 mm. Clear signals of the existence of resonant light transmission at wavelengths close to the period of the array appear in the spectra.

  19. Left-handed extraordinary optical transmission through a photonic crystal of subwavelength hole arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beruete, Miguel; Sorolla, Mario; Campillo, Igor

    2006-06-12

    Metamaterial structures are artificial materials that show unconventional electromagnetic properties such as photonic band-gap, extraordinary optical transmission and left-handed propagation. Up to now, relations of photonic crystals and negative refraction have been shown as well as of photonic crystals and sub-wavelength hole arrays. Here we report a left-handed metamaterial engineered by a combination of sub-wavelength hole array plates periodically stacked to form a photonic crystal structure. It is shown the possibility of fine-tuning the metamaterial in order to permit extraordinary optical transmission and left-handed behaviour. Our work demonstrates the feasibility of engineering left-handed metamaterials by just drilling holes in metallic plates and brings together single structure photonic crystals, extraordinary optical transmission and left-handed behaviour.

  20. A study of angle dependent surface plasmon polaritons in nano-hole array structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balakrishnan, Shankar [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Lawson Health Research Institute, St. Joseph' s Health Care, London, Ontario N6A 4V2 (Canada); Najiminaini, Mohamadreza; Carson, Jeffrey J. L. [Lawson Health Research Institute, St. Joseph' s Health Care, London, Ontario N6A 4V2 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Singh, Mahi R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2016-07-21

    We report that the light-matter interaction in metallic nano-hole array structures possess a subwavelength hole radius and periodicity. The transmission coefficient for nano-hole array structures was measured for different angles of incidence of light. Each measured transmission spectrum had several peaks due to surface plasmon polaritons. A theory of the transmission coefficient was developed based on the quantum density matrix method. It was found that the location of the surface plasmon polariton and the heights of the spectral peaks were dependent on the angle of incidence of light. Good agreement was observed between the experimental and theoretical results. This property of these structures has opened up new possibilities for sensing applications.

  1. Subwavelength hole arrays with nanoapertures fabricated by scanning probe nanolithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakšić Z.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to their surface plasmon-based operation, arrays of subwavelength holes show extraordinary electromagnetic transmission and intense field localizations of several orders of magnitude. Thus they were proposed as the basic building blocks for a number of applications utilizing the enhancement of nonlinear optical effects. We designed and simulated nanometer-sized subwavelength holes using an analytical approach. In our experiments we used the scanning probe method for nanolithographic fabrication of subwavelength hole arrays in silver layers sputtered on a positive photoresist substrate. We fabricated ordered nanohole patterns with different shapes, dispositions and proportions. The smallest width was about 60 nm. We characterized the fabricated samples by atomic force microscopy.

  2. Extraordinary transmission and left-handed propagation in miniaturized stacks of doubly periodic subwavelength hole arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beruete, Miguel; Sorolla, Mario; Navarro-Cía, Miguel; Falcone, Francisco; Campillo, Igor; Lomakin, Vitaliy

    2007-02-05

    Metallic plates embedded between dielectric slabs and perforated by rectangular arrays of subwavelength holes with a dense periodicity in one of the directions support extraordinary transmission (ET) phenomena, viz. strong peaks in the transmittance frequency dependence. Stacks of such perforated plates support ET phenomena with propagation along the stack axis that is characterized by the left handed behavior. The incorporation of the dielectric materials and dense periodicity allows significantly reducing the illuminated area of the perforated plate required experimentally to observe the ET phenomena as compared to the areas required in the case of free standing rectangular hole arrays. This facilitates the experimental investigation of ET under excitation in the Fresnel zone of Gaussian beams.

  3. Fabrication of 250-nm-hole arrays in glass and fused silica by UV laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstens, R.; Gödecke, A.; Prießner, A.; Ihlemann, J.

    2016-09-01

    Parallel nanohole drilling in glass using an ArF excimer laser (193 nm) is demonstrated. For the first time, hole arrays with 500 nm pitch and individual holes with 250 nm diameter and more than 100 nm depth are fabricated by phase mask imaging using a Schwarzschild objective. Holes in soda lime glass are drilled by direct ablation; fused silica is processed by depositing a SiOx-film on SiO2, patterning the SiOx by ablation, and finally oxidizing the remaining SiOx to SiO2. Thermally induced ordered dewetting of noble metal films deposited on such templates may be used for the fabrication of plasmonic devices.

  4. Polarization tomography of metallic nanohole arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altewischer, E.; Genet, C.; Van Exter, M.P.; Woerdman, J.P.; Alkemade, P.F.A.; Van Zuuk, A.; Van der Drift, E.W.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    We report polarization tomography experiments on metallic nanohole arrays with square and hexagonal symmetry. As a main result we find that a fully polarized input beam is partly depolarized after transmission through a nanohole array. This loss of polarization coherence is found to be anisotropic;

  5. Pulsar Timing Array Analysis for Black Hole Backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Cornish, Neil J

    2013-01-01

    An astrophysical population of supermassive black hole binaries is thought to be the strongest source of gravitational waves in the frequency range covered by Pulsar Timing Arrays (PTAs). A potential cause for concern is that the standard cross-correlation method used in PTA data analysis assumes that the signals are isotropically distributed and Gaussian random, while the signals from a black hole population are likely to be anisotropic and deterministic. Here we argue that while the conventional analysis is not optimal, it is not hopeless either, as the standard Hellings-Downs correlation curve turns out to hold for point sources, and the small effective number of signal samples blurs the distinction between Gaussian and deterministic signals. Possible improvements to the standard cross-correlation analysis that account for the anisotropy of the signal are discussed.

  6. Planoconcave lens by negative refraction of stacked subwavelength hole arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beruete, M; Navarro-Cía, M; Sorolla, M; Campillo, I

    2008-06-23

    This work presents the design of a planoconcave parabolic negative index metamaterial lens operating at millimeter wavelengths fabricated by using stacked subwavelength hole arrays. A staircase approximation to the ideal parabola profile has been done by removing step by step one lattice in each dimension of the transversal section. Theory predicts power concentration at the focal point of the parabola when the refractive index equals -1. Both simulation and measurement results exhibit an excellent agreement and an asymmetrical focus has been observed. The possibility to design similar planoconcave devices in the terahertz and optical wavelengths could be a reality in the near future.

  7. Coupling effects in bilayer thick metal films perforated with rectangular nanohole arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yuan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The coupling effects in bilayer thick metal (silver films perforated with rectangular nanohole arrays are investigated using the finite-difference time-domain technique. Many interesting light phenomena are observed as the distance between the metal rectangular nanohole arrays varies. Coupling effects are found to play very important roles on the optical and electronic properties of bilayer metal rectangular nanohole arrays: antisymmetric coupling between surface plasmon polaritons near the top and bottom film plane, and antisymmetric coupling between localized surface plasmon resonances near the two long sides of the rectangular hole, are probably excited in each layer of bilayer metal rectangular nanohole arrays; antisymmetric and symmetric magnetic coupling probably occur between the metal rectangular nanohole arrays.

  8. Polarization tomography of metallic nanohole arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Altewischer, E; Van Exter, M P; Woerdman, J P; Alkemade, P F A; Van Zuuk, A; Van der Drift, E

    2004-01-01

    We report polarization tomography experiments on metallic nanohole arrays with square and hexagonal symmetry. As a main result, we find that a fully polarized input beam is partly depolarized after transmission through a nanohole array. This loss of polarization coherence is found to be anisotropic, i.e. it depends on the polarization state of the input beam. The depolarization is ascribed to a combination of two factors: i) the nonlocal response of the array due to surface plasmon propagation, ii) the non-plane wave nature of a practical input beam.

  9. Negative refraction in a prism made of stacked subwavelength hole arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Cia, M; Beruete, M; Sorolla, M; Campillo, I

    2008-01-21

    Metamaterial structures are artificial materials that show unconventional electromagnetic properties such as negative refraction index, perfect lenses, and invisibility. However, losses are one of the big challenges to be surpassed in order to design practical devices at optical wavelengths. Here we report negative refraction in a prism engineered by stacked sub-wavelength hole arrays. These structures exhibit inherently an extraordinary optical transmission which could offer a solution to the problem of losses at optical wavelengths. It is shown the possibility to obtain negative indices of refraction starting from near to zero values. Our work demonstrates by a direct experiment the feasibility of engineering negative refraction by just drilling sub-wavelength holes in metallic plates and stacking them.

  10. Inter-slit Coupling in Gold Film Hole Arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Carmeli, Itai; Schneider, Reinhard; Gerthsen, Dagmar; Kaufman, Yaron; Shvarzman, Ayala; Richter, Shachar; Cohen, Hagai

    2012-01-01

    Inter-slit interactions across one-dimensional arrays of sub-micro meter rectangular holes in gold films are explored. Using electron energy loss spectroscopy combined with scanning transmission electron microscopy, a series of cavity standing waves is resolved, indicating particularly high interslit interactions, about an order of magnitude larger than the intra-slit edge to edge coupling. Pronounced signal enhancements are thus induced, dominated by short-range interactions and high mode-localization, while yet, relatively long-range coherence is retained. The sub-nm electron beam, in spite of principal differences from broad-area probes, yields results similar to extraordinary optical transmission (EOT). Implications to EOT mechanisms, including its sub-wavelength, off-resonance limit, are pointed out.

  11. Investigation of plasmon resonance tunneling through subwavelength hole arrays in highly doped conductive ZnO films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nader, Nima, E-mail: nima.nader@nist.gov; Vangala, Shivashankar [Solid State Scientific Corporation, 12 Simon St., Nashua, New Hampshire 03060 (United States); Air Force Research Laboratory, Sensors Directorate, 2241 Avionics Circle, Wright Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433 (United States); Hendrickson, Joshua R.; Leedy, Kevin D.; Cleary, Justin W. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Sensors Directorate, 2241 Avionics Circle, Wright Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433 (United States); Look, David C. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Sensors Directorate, 2241 Avionics Circle, Wright Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433 (United States); Wyle Laboratories, Inc., 2601 Mission Point Blvd., Suite 300, Dayton, Ohio 45435 (United States); Semiconductor Research Center, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio 45435 (United States); Guo, Junpeng [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alabama in Huntsville, 301 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, Alabama 35899 (United States)

    2015-11-07

    Experimental results pertaining to plasmon resonance tunneling through a highly conductive zinc oxide (ZnO) layer with subwavelength hole-arrays is investigated in the mid-infrared regime. Gallium-doped ZnO layers are pulsed-laser deposited on a silicon wafer. The ZnO has metallic optical properties with a bulk plasma frequency of 214 THz, which is equivalent to a free space wavelength of 1.4 μm. Hole arrays with different periods and hole shapes are fabricated via a standard photolithography process. Resonant mode tunneling characteristics are experimentally studied for different incident angles and compared with surface plasmon theoretical calculations and finite-difference time-domain simulations. Transmission peaks, higher than the baseline predicted by diffraction theory, are observed in each of the samples at wavelengths that correspond to the excitation of surface plasmon modes.

  12. Anderson localization in metallic nanoparticle arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Mai, Zhijie; Pang, Wei; Xu, Haitao; Tan, Suiyan; Fu, Shenhe; Li, Yongyao

    2016-01-01

    Anderson localization has been observed in various types of waves, such as matter waves, optical waves and acoustic waves. Here we reveal that the effect of Anderson localization can be also induced in metallic nonlinear nanoparticle arrays excited by a random electrically driving field. We find that the dipole-induced nonlinearity results in ballistic expansion of dipole intensity during evolution; while the randomness of the external driving field can suppress such an expansion. Increasing the strength of randomness above the threshold value, a localized pattern of dipole intensity can be generated in the metallic nanoparticle arrays. By means of statistics, the mean intensity distribution of the dipoles reveals the formation of Anderson localization. We further show that the generated Anderson localization is highly confined, with its size down to the scale of incident wavelength. The reported results might facilitate the manipulations of electromagnetic fields in the scale of wavelength.

  13. Enhanced transmission through arrays of subwavelength holes in gold films coated by a finite dielectric layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Sanshui; Mortensen, Niels Asger; Qiu, M.

    2007-01-01

    Enhanced transmissions through a gold film with arrays of subwavelength holes are theoretically studied, employing the rigid full vectorial three dimensional finite difference time domain method. Influence of air-holes shape to the transmission is firstly studied, which confirms two different...

  14. Pulsar Timing Array Based Search for Supermassive Black Hole Binaries in the Square Kilometer Array Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Mohanty, Soumya D

    2017-04-14

    The advent of next generation radio telescope facilities, such as the Square Kilometer Array (SKA), will usher in an era where a pulsar timing array (PTA) based search for gravitational waves (GWs) will be able to use hundreds of well timed millisecond pulsars rather than the few dozens in existing PTAs. A realistic assessment of the performance of such an extremely large PTA must take into account the data analysis challenge posed by an exponential increase in the parameter space volume due to the large number of so-called pulsar phase parameters. We address this problem and present such an assessment for isolated supermassive black hole binary (SMBHB) searches using a SKA era PTA containing 10^{3} pulsars. We find that an all-sky search will be able to confidently detect nonevolving sources with a redshifted chirp mass of 10^{10}  M_{⊙} out to a redshift of about 28 (corresponding to a rest-frame chirp mass of 3.4×10^{8}  M_{⊙}). We discuss the important implications that the large distance reach of a SKA era PTA has on GW observations from optically identified SMBHB candidates. If no SMBHB detections occur, a highly unlikely scenario in the light of our results, the sky-averaged upper limit on strain amplitude will be improved by about 3 orders of magnitude over existing limits.

  15. Domain wall energy landscapes in amorphous magnetic films with asymmetric arrays of holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alija, A; Perez-Junquera, A; RodrIguez-RodrIguez, G; Velez, M; Alameda, J M; MartIn, J I [Depto. Fisica, Fac. Ciencias, Universidad de Oviedo - CINN, Av. Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Marconi, V I; Kolton, A B; Parrondo, J M R [Depto. Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, and GISC, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Anguita, J V [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid, CNM-CSIC, Isaac Newton 8, PTM, Tres Cantos, 28760 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-02-21

    Arrays of asymmetric holes have been defined in amorphous Co-Si films by e-beam lithography in order to study domain wall motion across the array subject to the asymmetric pinning potential created by the holes. Experimental results on Kerr effect magnetooptical measurements and hysteresis loops are compared with micromagnetic simulations in films with arrays of triangular holes. These show that the potential asymmetry favours forward wall propagation for flat walls but, if the wall contains a kink, net backward wall propagation is preferred at low fields, in agreement with minor loop experiments. The difference between the fields needed for forward and backward flat wall propagation increases as the size of the triangular holes is reduced, becoming maximum for 1 {mu}m triangles, which is the characteristic length scale set by domain wall width.

  16. Gravitational waves from resolvable massive black hole binary systems and observations with Pulsar Timing Arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Sesana, A; Volonteri, M

    2008-01-01

    Massive black holes are key components of the assembly and evolution of cosmic structures and a number of surveys are currently on-going or planned to probe the demographics of these objects and to gain insight into the relevant physical processes. Pulsar Timing Arrays (PTAs) currently provide the only means to observe gravitational radiation from massive black hole binary systems with masses >10^7 solar masses. The whole cosmic population produces a stochastic background that could be detectable with upcoming Pulsar Timing Arrays. Sources sufficiently close and/or massive generate gravitational radiation that significantly exceeds the level of the background and could be individually resolved. We consider a wide range of massive black hole binary assembly scenarios, we investigate the distribution of the main physical parameters of the sources, such as masses and redshift, and explore the consequences for Pulsar Timing Arrays observations. Depending on the specific massive black hole population model, we est...

  17. Metallicity evolution in mergers of disk galaxies with black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantala, Antti; Johansson, Peter H.

    2016-10-01

    We use the TreeSPH simulation code Gadget-3 including a recently improved smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) module, a detailed metallicity evolution model and sophisticated subresolution feedback models for supernovae and supermassive black holes in order to study the metallicity evolution in disk galaxy mergers. In addition, we examine the simulated morphology, star formation histories, metallicity gradients and kinematic properties of merging galaxies and merger remnants. We will compare our simulation results with observations of the early-type Centaurus A galaxy and the currently colliding Antennae galaxies.

  18. Thin-film solar cells with InGaAs/GaAsP multiple quantum wells and a rear surface etched with light trapping micro-hole array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kentaroh; Inoue, Tomoyuki; Sodabanlu, Hassanet; Sugiyama, Masakazu; Nakano, Yoshiaki

    2015-08-01

    A light trapping effect in GaAs p-i-n solar cells with InGaAs/GaAsP multiple quantum wells (MQWs) in the i-layer was demonstrated by applying a light scattering texture to the rear surface of the cell. A thin-film MQW solar cell was successfully fabricated by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) to grow an inverted n-i-p photovoltaic (PV) structure; this structure was then transferred to a Si support substrate to prevent optical loss due to free carrier absorption. For the light scattering texture, the use of both the wet-etched micro-hole arrayed SiO2 dielectric layer on the rear surface of the cell and the secondarily etched micro hole array on the GaAs layer was attempted. On the SiO2 layer, the micro hole array pattern was obtained by the radio frequency sputtering of the layer followed by wet etching with photolithographic patterning. On the GaAs layer, the micro-hole array pattern was obtained by direct etching through a SiO2 template. Compared with the light scattering effects of the micro-hole-arrayed SiO2 layer, the secondarily etched GaAs rear contact layer showed a significant improvement in external quantum efficiency (EQE) in the wavelength range from 855 to 1000 nm that corresponds to the photon absorption wavelength in MQWs.

  19. Solution processed metal oxide thin film hole transport layers for high performance organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steirer, K. Xerxes; Berry, Joseph J.; Chesin, Jordan P.; Lloyd, Matthew T.; Widjonarko, Nicodemus Edwin; Miedaner, Alexander; Curtis, Calvin J.; Ginley, David S.; Olson, Dana C.

    2017-01-10

    A method for the application of solution processed metal oxide hole transport layers in organic photovoltaic devices and related organic electronics devices is disclosed. The metal oxide may be derived from a metal-organic precursor enabling solution processing of an amorphous, p-type metal oxide. An organic photovoltaic device having solution processed, metal oxide, thin-film hole transport layer.

  20. Broadband light absorption of silicon nanowires embedded in Ag nano-hole arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Lei; Ji, Chun-Lei; Li, Ming

    2016-09-01

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) embedded in Ag nano-hole arrays with broadband light absorption is proposed in this paper. Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) simulations were utilized to obtain absorptivity and band diagrams for both SiNWs and SiNWs embedded in Ag nano-hole arrays. A direct relationship between waveguide modes and extraordinary absorptivity is established qualitatively, which helps to optimal design the structure parameters to achieve broadband absorptivity. After introducing Ag nano-hole arrays at the rear side of SiNWs, the band modes are extended into leaky regions and light energy can be fully absorbed, resulting in high absorptivity at long wavelength. Severe reflection is also suppressed by light trapping capability of SiNWs at short wavelength. Over 70% average absorptivity from 400 nm to 1100 nm is realized finally. This kinds of design give promising route for high efficiency solar cells and optical absorbers.

  1. Broadband light absorption of silicon nanowires embedded in Ag nano-hole arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Rao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Silicon nanowires (SiNWs embedded in Ag nano-hole arrays with broadband light absorption is proposed in this paper. Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD simulations were utilized to obtain absorptivity and band diagrams for both SiNWs and SiNWs embedded in Ag nano-hole arrays. A direct relationship between waveguide modes and extraordinary absorptivity is established qualitatively, which helps to optimal design the structure parameters to achieve broadband absorptivity. After introducing Ag nano-hole arrays at the rear side of SiNWs, the band modes are extended into leaky regions and light energy can be fully absorbed, resulting in high absorptivity at long wavelength. Severe reflection is also suppressed by light trapping capability of SiNWs at short wavelength. Over 70% average absorptivity from 400 nm to 1100 nm is realized finally. This kinds of design give promising route for high efficiency solar cells and optical absorbers.

  2. Observing the dynamics of supermassive black hole binaries with pulsar timing arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingarelli, C M F; Grover, K; Sidery, T; Smith, R J E; Vecchio, A

    2012-08-24

    Pulsar timing arrays are a prime tool to study unexplored astrophysical regimes with gravitational waves. Here, we show that the detection of gravitational radiation from individually resolvable supermassive black hole binary systems can yield direct information about the masses and spins of the black holes, provided that the gravitational-wave-induced timing fluctuations both at the pulsar and at Earth are detected. This in turn provides a map of the nonlinear dynamics of the gravitational field and a new avenue to tackle open problems in astrophysics connected to the formation and evolution of supermassive black holes. We discuss the potential, the challenges, and the limitations of these observations.

  3. Constraints on Individual Supermassive Black Hole Binaries from Pulsar Timing Array Limits on Continuous Gravitational Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Schutz, Katelin

    2015-01-01

    Pulsar timing arrays (PTAs) are placing increasingly stringent constraints on the strain amplitude of continuous gravitational waves emitted by supermassive black hole binaries on subparsec scales. In this paper, we incorporate independent measurements of the dynamical masses $M_{\\rm bh}$ of supermassive black holes in specific galaxies at known distances and leverage this additional information to further constrain whether or not those galaxies could host a detectable supermassive black hole binary. We estimate the strain amplitudes from individual binaries as a function of binary mass ratio for two samples of nearby galaxies: (1) those with direct dynamical measurements of $M_{\\rm bh}$ in the literature, and (2) the 116 most massive early-type galaxies (and thus likely hosts of the most massive black holes) within 108 Mpc from the MASSIVE Survey. Our exploratory analysis shows that the current PTA upper limits on continuous waves can already constrain the mass ratios of hypothetical black hole binaries in a...

  4. Investigation of polarization-selective InGaAs sensor with elliptical two-dimensional holes array structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenbo; Fu, Dong; Hu, Xiaobin; Xu, Yun; Song, Guofeng; Wei, Xin

    2016-10-01

    Polarimetric imaging in infrared wavelengths have attracted more and more attention for broad applications in meteorological observations, medicine, remote sensing and many other fields. Metal metamaterial structures are used in nanophotonics in order to localize and enhance the incident electromagnetic field. Here we develop an elliptical gold Two-Dimensional Holes Array (2DHA) in which photons can be manipulated by surface plasmon resonance, and the ellipse introduce the asymmetry to realize a polarization selective function. Strong polarization dependence is observed in the simulated transmission spectra. To further understand the coupling mechanism between gold holes array and InP, the different parameters of the 2DHA are analyzed. It is shown that the polarization axis is perpendicular to the major axis of the ellipse, and the degree of polarization is determined by the aspect ratio of the ellipse. Furthermore, the resonance frequency of the 2DHA shows a linear dependence on the array period, the bandwidth of transmission spectra closely related to duty cycle of the ellipse in each period. This result will establish a basis for the development of innovative polarization selective infrared sensor.

  5. Plasmonic fluorescence enhancement of DBMBF2 monomers and DBMBF2-toluene exciplexes using al-hole arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, T.M.; Bochenkov, V.E.; Espinoza, J.D.A.; Smits, E.C.P.; Muzafarov, A.M.; Kononevich, Y.N.; Sutherland, D.S.

    2014-01-01

    The optical properties of aluminum hole arrays fabricated via colloidal lithography were investigated. By tuning the hole diameter and hole spacing independently, their influence on the Bloch wave-surface plasmon polariton (BW-SPP) and localized surface plasmon resonances resonances (LSPR) could be

  6. Strong optical transmission through the ellipsoid metal-film nanohole arrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The transmission characteristics of a metallic film with subwavelength ellipsoid nanohole arrays are investigated by using the three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (3D-FDTD) method. The extraordinary transmission is attributed to the collaboration of localized waveguide resonance and surface plasmon resonance. The influences of the lattice constant and the hole shape on the transmission are studied. By analyzing the picture of electric field and electromagnetic energy distribution, we show the mechanisms of the two different resonances: Localized waveguide resonance mode can be confined inside the ellipsoid holes region, while electric field and electromagnetic energy are localized separately at the two ends of ellipsoid holes for the surface plasma resonance mode.

  7. Highly uniform hole spacing micro brushes based on aligned carbon nanotube arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhi; Zhu, Xingzhong; Huang, Xiaolu; Cheng, Yingwu; Liu, Yun; Geng, Huijuan; Wu, Yue; Su, Yanjie; Wei, Hao; Zhang, Yafei

    2013-11-01

    Highly uniform hole spacing micro brushes were fabricated based on aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays synthesized by chemical vapor deposition method with the assistance of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template. Different micro brushes from CNT arrays were constructed on silicon, glass, and polyimide substrates, respectively. The micro brushes had highly uniform hole spacing originating from the regularly periodic pore structure of AAO template. The CNT arrays, serving as bristles, were firmly grafted on the substrates. The brushes can easily clean particles with scale of micrometer on the surface of silicon wafer and from the narrow spaces between the electrodes in a series of cleaning experiments. The results show the potential application of the CNT micro brushes as a cleaning tool in microelectronics manufacture field.

  8. CMOS array design automation techniques. [metal oxide semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramondetta, P.; Feller, A.; Noto, R.; Lombardi, T.

    1975-01-01

    A low cost, quick turnaround technique for generating custom metal oxide semiconductor arrays using the standard cell approach was developed, implemented, tested and validated. Basic cell design topology and guidelines are defined based on an extensive analysis that includes circuit, layout, process, array topology and required performance considerations particularly high circuit speed.

  9. Plasmonic hole arrays with extreme optical chirality in linear and nonlinear regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorkunov, Maxim V.; Kondratov, Alexei V.; Darinskii, Alexander N.; Artemov, Vladimir V.; Rogov, Oleg Y.; Gainutdinov, Radmir V.

    2016-04-01

    Metamaterials with high optical activity (OA) and circular dichroism (CD) are desired for various prospective applications ranging from circular light polarizing to enhanced chiral sensing and biosensing. Modern techniques allow fabricating subwavelength arrays of holes of complex chiral shapes that exhibit extreme optical chirality: their OA and CD take the whole range of possible values in the visible. In order to understand the nature of extreme chirality, we performed the electromagnetic finite difference time domain simulations for the hole shapes resolved by atomic force microscopy. The analysis of the simulation data allowed us to develop an analytical chiral coupled-mode model that nicely fits the results and explains the extreme chirality as determined by the Fano-type transmission resonance due to the interference of a weak background channel and a resonant plasmon channel. The model shows critical importance of the dissipation losses, the hole shape symmetry and chirality. In a planar 2D-chiral hole array, the mirror asymmetry can be induced by the difference of dielectric materials adjacent to the array sides and even their weak deviation results in remarkably strong OA and CD. We note that such deviations can arise due to the dielectric nonlinearity and discuss how 2D-chiral metamaterials in symmetric environment can acquire optical chirality due to the nonlinear symmetry breaking.

  10. Numerical study of rotating detonation engine with an array of injection holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, S.; Han, X.; Liu, Y.; Wang, J.

    2017-05-01

    This paper aims to adopt the method of injection via an array of holes in three-dimensional numerical simulations of a rotating detonation engine (RDE). The calculation is based on the Euler equations coupled with a one-step Arrhenius chemistry model. A pre-mixed stoichiometric hydrogen-air mixture is used. The present study uses a more practical fuel injection method in RDE simulations, injection via an array of holes, which is different from the previous conventional simulations where a relatively simple full injection method is usually adopted. The computational results capture some important experimental observations and a transient period after initiation. These phenomena are usually absent in conventional RDE simulations due to the use of an idealistic injection approximation. The results are compared with those obtained from other numerical studies and experiments with RDEs.

  11. Optical absorption enhancement in slanted silicon nanocone hole arrays for solar photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu-Yuan; Liu, Wen; Li, Zhao-Feng; Liu, Min; Liu, Yu-Sheng; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Yang, Fu-Hua

    2016-10-01

    We investigate slanted silicon nanocone hole arrays as light absorbing structures for solar photovoltaics via simulation. With only 1-μm equivalent thickness, a maximum short-circuit current density of 34.9 mA/cm2 is obtained. Moreover, by adding an Ag mirror under the whole structure, a short-circuit current density of 37.9 mA/cm2 is attained. It is understood that the optical absorption enhancement mainly results from three aspects. First, the silicon nanocone holes provide a highly efficient antireflection effect. Second, after breaking the geometric symmetry, the slanted silicon nanocone hole supports more resonant absorption modes than vertical structures. Third, the Fabry-Perot resonance enhances the light absorption after adding an Ag mirror. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61274066, 61474115, and 61504138) and the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2014AA032602).

  12. Viability of focusing effect by left-handed stacked subwavelength hole arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro-Cia, M.; Beruete, M. [Millimeter and Terahertz Waves Laboratory, Universidad Publica de Navarra, Campus Arrosadia, 31006 Pamplona (Spain); Sorolla, M., E-mail: mario@unavarra.e [Millimeter and Terahertz Waves Laboratory, Universidad Publica de Navarra, Campus Arrosadia, 31006 Pamplona (Spain); Campillo, I. [CIC nanoGUNE Consolider, Tolosa Hiribidea 76, 20018 Donostia (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    In this work we present advances in the design of lenses based on left-handed extraordinary transmission metamaterials which provide high transmission and focusing despite the subwavelength size of their constituent apertures. Due to the effective negative index of refraction of the close-stack of subwavelength hole arrays, concave profiles are required for focusing instead of the convex geometries of dielectric lenses. An analysis of the foci produced by plano- and bi-concave lens is carried out.

  13. The effect of cutting temperature on hole quality when drilling CFRP/metal stack

    OpenAIRE

    Kolesnyk, V.; Zajac, J.; Radchenko, S.; Adamian, M

    2015-01-01

    The carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) are widely used in stacks with metals. That allows obtaining components with high strength and reduces weight. Holes’ drilling is a basic operation of CFRP/metal and metal/CFRP stacks machining. The most common problems of CFRP/metal stacks drilling are CFRP delamination, fiber pull – out, thermal degradation and low quality of hole surface. In this study the effect of cut ting temperature on the hole quality was provided. It was experimentally estab...

  14. Polymer blend lithography for metal films: large-area patterning with over 1 billion holes/inch2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Huang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Polymer blend lithography (PBL is a spin-coating-based technique that makes use of the purely lateral phase separation between two immiscible polymers to fabricate large area nanoscale patterns. In our earlier work (Huang et al. 2012, PBL was demonstrated for the fabrication of patterned self-assembled monolayers. Here, we report a new method based on the technique of polymer blend lithography that allows for the fabrication of metal island arrays or perforated metal films on the nanometer scale, the metal PBL. As the polymer blend system in this work, a mixture of polystyrene (PS and poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA, dissolved in methyl ethyl ketone (MEK is used. This system forms a purely lateral structure on the substrate at controlled humidity, which means that PS droplets are formed in a PMMA matrix, whereby both phases have direct contact both to the substrate and to the air interface. Therefore, a subsequent selective dissolution of either the PS or PMMA component leaves behind a nanostructured film which can be used as a lithographic mask. We use this lithographic mask for the fabrication of metal patterns by thermal evaporation of the metal, followed by a lift-off process. As a consequence, the resulting metal nanostructure is an exact replica of the pattern of the selectively removed polymer (either a perforated metal film or metal islands. The minimum diameter of these holes or metal islands demonstrated here is about 50 nm. Au, Pd, Cu, Cr and Al templates were fabricated in this work by metal PBL. The wavelength-selective optical transmission spectra due to the localized surface plasmonic effect of the holes in perforated Al films were investigated and compared to the respective hole diameter histograms.

  15. Polymer blend lithography for metal films: large-area patterning with over 1 billion holes/inch(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng; Förste, Alexander; Walheim, Stefan; Schimmel, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Polymer blend lithography (PBL) is a spin-coating-based technique that makes use of the purely lateral phase separation between two immiscible polymers to fabricate large area nanoscale patterns. In our earlier work (Huang et al. 2012), PBL was demonstrated for the fabrication of patterned self-assembled monolayers. Here, we report a new method based on the technique of polymer blend lithography that allows for the fabrication of metal island arrays or perforated metal films on the nanometer scale, the metal PBL. As the polymer blend system in this work, a mixture of polystyrene (PS) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), dissolved in methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) is used. This system forms a purely lateral structure on the substrate at controlled humidity, which means that PS droplets are formed in a PMMA matrix, whereby both phases have direct contact both to the substrate and to the air interface. Therefore, a subsequent selective dissolution of either the PS or PMMA component leaves behind a nanostructured film which can be used as a lithographic mask. We use this lithographic mask for the fabrication of metal patterns by thermal evaporation of the metal, followed by a lift-off process. As a consequence, the resulting metal nanostructure is an exact replica of the pattern of the selectively removed polymer (either a perforated metal film or metal islands). The minimum diameter of these holes or metal islands demonstrated here is about 50 nm. Au, Pd, Cu, Cr and Al templates were fabricated in this work by metal PBL. The wavelength-selective optical transmission spectra due to the localized surface plasmonic effect of the holes in perforated Al films were investigated and compared to the respective hole diameter histograms.

  16. Astrophysical constraints on massive black hole binary evolution from Pulsar Timing Arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Middleton, Hannah; Farr, Will M; Sesana, Alberto; Vecchio, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    We consider massive black hole binary systems and information that can be derived about their population and formation history solely from current and possible future pulsar timing array (PTA) results. We use models of the stochastic gravitational-wave background from circular massive black hole binaries with chirp mass in the range $10^6 - 10^{11} M_\\odot$ evolving solely due to radiation reaction. Our parameterised models for the black hole merger history make only weak assumptions about the properties of the black holes merging over cosmic time. We show that current PTA results place a model-independent upper limit on the merger density of massive black hole binaries, but provide no information about their redshift or mass distribution. We show that even in the case of a detection resulting from a factor of 10 increase in amplitude sensitivity, PTAs will only put weak constraints on the source merger density as a function of mass, and will not provide any additional information on the redshift distribution...

  17. Silica needle template fabrication of metal hollow microneedle arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, M. W.; Li, H. W.; Chen, X. L.; Tang, Y. F.; Lu, M. H.; Chen, Y. F.

    2009-11-01

    Drug delivery through hollow microneedle (HMN) arrays has now been recognized as one of the most promising techniques because it minimizes the shortcomings of the traditional drug delivery methods and has many exciting advantages—pain free and tunable release rates, for example. However, this drug delivery method has been hindered greatly from mass clinical application because of the high fabrication cost of HMN arrays. Hence, we developed a simple and cost-effective procedure using silica needles as templates to massively fabricate HMN arrays by using popular materials and industrially applicable processes of micro- imprint, hot embossing, electroplating and polishing. Metal HMN arrays with high quality are prepared with great flexibility with tunable parameters of area, length of needle, size of hollow and array dimension. This efficient and cost-effective fabrication method can also be applied to other applications after minor alterations, such as preparation of optic, acoustic and solar harvesting materials and devices.

  18. Spin Filtering of Hot Holes in a Metallic Ferromagnet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banerjee, T.; Haq, E.; Siekman, M.H.; Lodder, J.C.; Jansen, R.

    2005-01-01

    Spin-dependent transport of nonequilibrium holes in ferromagnetic thin films and trilayers is investigated using ballistic hole magnetic microscopy. For Co, the hole attenuation length is short and increases from 6 to 10 Å in the energy range 0.8 to 2 eV. The hole transmission of a Ni81Fe19/Au/Co tr

  19. Direct measurement of radiative scattering of surface plasmon polariton resonance from metallic arrays by polarization-resolved reflectivity spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, H. Y.; Chan, C. Y.; Ong, H. C.

    2012-11-01

    We have measured the radiative scattering from two-dimensional metallic arrays by using polarization-resolved reflectivity spectroscopy. We find the reflectivity spectra follow the Fano-like model that can be derived from temporal coupled mode theory and Jones matrix calculus. By orthogonally orienting the incident polarizer and the detection analyzer, reflectivity dips flip into peaks and the radiative scattering efficiency can be determined accordingly. The dependence of total radiative scattering efficiency on wavelength and hole diameter is found to agree well with Rayleigh scattering by single hole.

  20. Selective metallization by seeded growth on patterned gold nanoparticle arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raza, M.A.; Zandvliet, H.J.W.; Poelsema, B.; Kooij, E.S.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the selective metallization by electroless gold deposition on pre-patterned arrays of seed particles. In the first step, highly selective deposition of seeds (gold nanoparticles) on silicon oxide surfaces is achieved using pure water. In the second step, employing an electroless seeded g

  1. Subwavelength plasmonic kinks in arrays of metallic nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Noskov, Roman E; Kivshar, Yuri S; 10.1364/OE.20.002733

    2012-01-01

    We analyze nonlinear effects in optically driven arrays of nonlinear metallic nanoparticles. We demonstrate that such plasmonic systems are characterized by a bistable response, and they can support the propagation of dissipative switching waves (or plasmonic kinks) connecting the states with different polarization. We study numerically the properties of such plasmonic kinks which are characterized by a subwavelength extent and a tunable velocity.

  2. EUV stochastic noise analysis and LCDU mitigation by etching on dense contact-hole array patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seo Min; Koo, Sunyoung; Park, Jun-Taek; Lim, Chang-Moon; Kim, Myoungsoo; Ahn, Chang-Nam; Fumar-Pici, Anita; Chen, Alek C.

    2014-04-01

    Experimental local CD uniformity (LCDU) of the dense contact-hole (CH) array pattern is statistically decomposed into stochastic noise, mask component, and metrology factor. Each component are compared quantitatively, and traced after etching to find how much improvement can be achieved by smoothing. Etch CDU gain factor is defined as the differential of etch CD by resist CD, and used to estimate etch CDU on resist CDU. Stochastic noise has influenced on not only LCDU but also local placement error (LPE) of each contact-hole. This LPE is also decomposed into its constituents in the same statistical way. As a result, stochastic noise is found to be the most dominant factor on LCDU and LPE. Etch LCDU is well expected by Etch Gain factor, but LPE seems to be kept same after etching. Fingerprints are derived from the repeating component and the boundary size for excluding proximity effect in analysis is investigated.

  3. Metallicity-constrained merger rates of binary black holes and the stochastic gravitational wave background

    CERN Document Server

    Dvorkin, Irina; Silk, Joseph; Uzan, Jean-Philippe; Olive, Keith A

    2016-01-01

    The recent detection of the binary black hole merger GW150914 demonstrates the existence of black holes more massive than previously observed in X-ray binaries in our Galaxy. This article explores different scenarios of black hole formation in the context of self-consistent cosmic chemical evolution models that simultaneously match observations of the cosmic star formation rate, optical depth to reionization and metallicity of the interstellar medium. This framework is used to calculate the mass distribution of merging black hole binaries and its evolution with redshift. We also study the implications of the black hole mass distribution for the stochastic gravitational wave background from mergers and from core collapse events.

  4. Pulsar timing arrays and the challenge of massive black hole binary astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Sesana, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Pulsar timing arrays (PTAs) are designed to detect gravitational waves (GWs) at nHz frequencies. The expected dominant signal is given by the superposition of all waves emitted by the cosmological population of supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries. Such superposition creates an incoherent stochastic background, on top of which particularly bright or nearby sources might be individually resolved. In this contribution I describe the properties of the expected GW signal, highlighting its dependence on the overall binary population, the relation between SMBHs and their hosts, and their coupling with the stellar and gaseous environment. I describe the status of current PTA efforts, and prospect of future detection and SMBH binary astrophysics.

  5. Constraints on the Dynamical Environments of Supermassive Black-Hole Binaries Using Pulsar-Timing Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Stephen R; Simon, Joseph; Sampson, Laura

    2017-05-05

    We introduce a technique for gravitational-wave analysis, where Gaussian process regression is used to emulate the strain spectrum of a stochastic background by training on population-synthesis simulations. This leads to direct Bayesian inference on astrophysical parameters. For pulsar timing arrays specifically, we interpolate over the parameter space of supermassive black-hole binary environments, including three-body stellar scattering, and evolving orbital eccentricity. We illustrate our approach on mock data, and assess the prospects for inference with data similar to the NANOGrav 9-yr data release.

  6. Plasmonic Bloch oscillations in cylindrical metal-dielectric waveguide arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, Ruei-Cheng; Lan, Yung-Chiang; Chen, Chin-Min

    2010-12-01

    This study investigates plasmonic Bloch oscillations (PBOs) in cylindrical metal-dielectric waveguide arrays (MDWAs) by performing numerical simulations and theoretical analyses. Optical conformal mapping is used to transform cylindrical MDWAs into equivalent chirped structures with permittivity and permeability gradients across the waveguide arrays, which is caused by the curvature of the cylindrical waveguide. The PBOs are attributed to the transformed structure. The period of oscillation increases with the wavelength of the incident Gaussian beam. However, the amplitude of oscillation is almost independent of wavelength.

  7. Fabrication of Arrays of Metal and Metal Oxide Nanotubes by Shadow Evaporation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickey, Michael D.; Weiss, Emily A.; Smythe, Elizabeth J.; Chiechi, Ryan C.; Capasso, Federico; Whitesides, George M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a simple technique for fabricating uniform arrays of metal and metal oxide nanotubes with controlled heights and diameters. The technique involves depositing material onto an anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane template using a collimated electron beam evaporation source. The

  8. ANALYSIS OF RESIDUAL STRESS IN THE METAL MATRIX COMPOSITE PLATES WITH CIRCULAR HOLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer TOPCU

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, elasto-plastic stress analysis have been made for metal matrix composite plates containing a central hole subjected to uniaxial tension under various uniformly distributed loads. In the solution, ısoparametric rectangular elements with nine nodes have been used. In the reinforcement angles 0 and 90 degrees for different diameters of the holes ın the vicinity of the holes residual stress variations have been investigated.

  9. Fabrication of micro hole array on the surface of CVD ZnS by scanning ultrafast pulse laser for antireflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yangping; Zhang, Tianhui; Fan, Siling; Cheng, Guanghua

    2017-04-01

    Chemical vapor deposited (CVD) ZnS is a promising long-wave infrared (8-12 μm) window material. Yet antireflection is necessary since Fresnel reflection from its surface is high due to the high refractive index of ZnS. Sub-wavelength structured surface of micro hole array was fabricated on CVD ZnS by scanning ultrafast pulse laser ablation. The effects of beam profile, pulse width and beam power on the radius and morphology of the holes were studied. Gaussian beam can cause severe melted-resolidified layers around the hole, yet Bessel beam only resulted in thin ribbon around the hole. The picosecond Bessel laser is more suitable than femtosecond laser for ablating holes on ZnS. The radius of the holes increases with increasing the Bessel beam pulse width and the beam power. But larger power may cause circle grooves around the central holes. Ordered hole array was fabricated on single side of CVD ZnS and antireflection was realized.

  10. Strain Mapping in Metals Using Ultrasonic Array Speckle Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, A. I.; Drinkwater, B. W.; Wilcox, P. D.

    2009-03-01

    The full-field non-destructive measurement of internal displacement and strain fields is of interest in many engineering applications. This paper describes an approach to measuring internal displacements and strains in metals which uses the correlation of ultrasonic speckle images of the internal structure of the material. This has the key advantage over optical surface displacement and strain measurement techniques in that internal information can be obtained. Experiments are described which use a 1-D ultrasonic array to map 2-D displacement fields for uniform translation and uniaxial tension of a metallic bar. The full matrix of transmit-receive signals from the array was post-processed to generate speckle images using a Fourier-domain imaging algorithm. Block-search cross-correlation was used to find the displacements of small sub-images corresponding to regions within the bar. Potential applications include characterising crack networks and creep damage detection.

  11. Scattering by an array of parallel metallic carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Afshin Moradi

    2013-01-01

    The scattering of electromagnetic wave by an array of parallel metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes is investigated based on the boundary-value method.Electronic excitations over each nanotube surface are modeled as an infinitesimally thin cylindrical layer of the free-electron gas.The scattering cross section of both transverse magnetic (TM) and transverse electric (TE) uniform plane waves by the system at normal incidences is obtained.

  12. Connection between extraordinary transmission and negative refraction in a prism of stacked sub-wavelength hole arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beruete, M; Navarro-Cia, M; Falcone, F; Sorolla, M [Millimetre and Terahertz Waves Laboratory, Universidad Publica de Navarra, 31006 Pamplona (Spain); Campillo, I, E-mail: mario@unavarra.e [CIC nanoGUNE Consolider, Tolosa Hiribidea 76, 20018 Donostia (Spain)

    2009-08-21

    A prism engineered by stacking sub-wavelength hole arrays is shown as a route to negative refraction in any frequency range. We analyse numerically and experimentally at the near field zone, several propagation regimes and bands with orthogonal polarizations, and find that negative refraction is intimately linked to the extraordinary transmission resonance of sub-wavelength hole arrays. Negative indices of refraction start from near to zero values for the lower mode while for the second one they are positive. The p-polarization component has a positive refractive index within both bands. The way to engineering negative refraction devices in any region of the spectrum is open.

  13. Subwavelength Plasmonic Lattice Solitons in Arrays of Metallic Nanowires

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, Fangwei; Hu, Bambi; Panoiu, Nicolae C

    2010-01-01

    We predict theoretically that stable subwavelength plasmonic lattice solitons (PLSs) are formed in arrays of metallic nanowires embedded in a nonlinear medium. The tight confinement of the guiding modes of the metallic nanowires, combined with the strong nonlinearity induced by the enhanced field at the metal surface, provide the main physical mechanisms for balancing the wave diffraction and the formation of PLSs. As the conditions required for the formation of PLSs are satisfied in a variety of plasmonic systems, we expect these nonlinear modes to have important applications to subwavelength nanophotonics. In particular, we show that the subwavelength PLSs can be used to optically manipulate with nanometer accuracy the power flow in ultracompact photonic systems.

  14. Fabrication of silicon nanowire arrays by near-field laser ablation and metal-assisted chemical etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodoceanu, D.; Alhmoud, H. Z.; Elnathan, R.; Delalat, B.; Voelcker, N. H.; Kraus, T.

    2016-02-01

    We present an elegant route for the fabrication of ordered arrays of vertically-aligned silicon nanowires with tunable geometry at controlled locations on a silicon wafer. A monolayer of transparent microspheres convectively assembled onto a gold-coated silicon wafer acts as a microlens array. Irradiation with a single nanosecond laser pulse removes the gold beneath each focusing microsphere, leaving behind a hexagonal pattern of holes in the gold layer. Owing to the near-field effects, the diameter of the holes can be at least five times smaller than the laser wavelength. The patterned gold layer is used as catalyst in a metal-assisted chemical etching to produce an array of vertically-aligned silicon nanowires. This approach combines the advantages of direct laser writing with the benefits of parallel laser processing, yielding nanowire arrays with controlled geometry at predefined locations on the silicon surface. The fabricated VA-SiNW arrays can effectively transfect human cells with a plasmid encoding for green fluorescent protein.

  15. Resolving multiple supermassive black hole binaries with pulsar timing arrays II: genetic algorithm implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Petiteau, Antoine; Sesana, Alberto; de Araujo, Mariana

    2012-01-01

    Pulsar timing arrays (PTAs) might detect gravitational waves (GWs) from massive black hole (MBH) binaries within this decade. The signal is expected to be an incoherent superposition of several nearly-monochromatic waves of different strength. The brightest sources might be individually resolved, and the overall deconvolved, at least partially, in its individual components. In this paper we extend the maximum-likelihood based method developed in Babak & Sesana 2012, to search for individual MBH binaries in PTA data. We model the signal as a collection of circular monochromatic binaries, each characterized by three free parameters: two angles defining the sky location, and the frequency. We marginalize over all other source parameters and we apply an efficient multi-search genetic algorithm to maximize the likelihood function and look for sources in synthetic datasets. On datasets characterized by white Gaussian noise plus few injected sources with signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the range 10-60, our search...

  16. Inflationary primordial black holes for the LIGO gravitational wave events and pulsar timing array experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Inomata, Keisuke; Mukaida, Kyohei; Tada, Yuichiro; Yanagida, Tsutomu T

    2016-01-01

    Primordial black holes (PBHs) are one of the candidates to explain the gravitational wave (GW) signals observed by the LIGO detectors. Among several phenomena in the early Universe, cosmic inflation is a major example to generate PBHs. In this paper, we discuss the possibility to interpret the observed GW events as mergers of PBHs which are produced by cosmic inflation. We point out that the current pulsar timing array (PTA) experiments already put severe constraints on GWs generated via the second-order effects. In particular, it is found that the scalar power spectrum should have a very sharp fall-off above $f \\gtrsim 10^{-9}$ Hz to evade these constraints. Simple inflation models that generate PBHs via fluctuations of slowly rolling inflaton could be probed/excluded in the future.

  17. A CANDIDATE MASSIVE BLACK HOLE IN THE LOW-METALLICITY DWARF GALAXY PAIR MRK 709

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reines, Amy E.; Condon, James J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Plotkin, Richard M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Russell, Thomas D. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Mezcua, Mar [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Sivakoff, Gregory R. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, CCIS 4-181, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1 (Canada); Johnson, Kelsey E., E-mail: areines@nrao.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The incidence and properties of present-day dwarf galaxies hosting massive black holes (BHs) can provide important constraints on the origin of high-redshift BH seeds. Here we present high-resolution X-ray and radio observations of the low-metallicity, star-forming, dwarf-galaxy system Mrk 709 with the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. These data reveal spatially coincident hard X-ray and radio point sources with luminosities suggesting the presence of an accreting massive BH (M {sub BH} ∼ 10{sup 5-7} M {sub ☉}). Based on imaging from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we find that Mrk 709 consists of a pair of compact dwarf galaxies that appear to be interacting with one another. The position of the candidate massive BH is consistent with the optical center of the southern galaxy (Mrk 709 S), while no evidence for an active BH is seen in the northern galaxy (Mrk 709 N). We derive stellar masses of M {sub *} ∼ 2.5 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉} and M {sub *} ∼ 1.1 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉} for Mrk 709 S and Mrk 709 N, respectively, and present an analysis of the SDSS spectrum of the BH host Mrk 709 S. At a metallicity of just ∼10% solar, Mrk 709 is among the most metal-poor galaxies with evidence for an active galactic nucleus. Moreover, this discovery adds to the growing body of evidence that massive BHs can form in dwarf galaxies and that deep, high-resolution X-ray and radio observations are ideally suited to reveal accreting massive BHs hidden at optical wavelengths.

  18. Optical Sensing with Simultaneous Electrochemical Control in Metal Nanowire Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janos Vörös

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This work explores the alternative use of noble metal nanowire systems in large-scale array configurations to exploit both the nanowires’ conductive nature and localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR. The first known nanowire-based system has been constructed, with which optical signals are influenced by the simultaneous application of electrochemical potentials. Optical characterization of nanowire arrays was performed by measuring the bulk refractive index sensitivity and the limit of detection. The formation of an electrical double layer was controlled in NaCl solutions to study the effect of local refractive index changes on the spectral response. Resonance peak shifts of over 4 nm, a bulk refractive index sensitivity up to 115 nm/RIU and a limit of detection as low as 4.5 × 10−4 RIU were obtained for gold nanowire arrays. Simulations with the Multiple Multipole Program (MMP confirm such bulk refractive index sensitivities. Initial experiments demonstrated successful optical biosensing using a novel form of particle-based nanowire arrays. In addition, the formation of an ionic layer (Stern-layer upon applying an electrochemical potential was also monitored by the shift of the plasmon resonance.

  19. Detecting eccentric supermassive black hole binaries with pulsar timing arrays: Resolvable source strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, S R; Gair, J R; McWilliams, S T

    2015-01-01

    The couplings between supermassive black-hole binaries and their environments within galactic nuclei have been well studied as part of the search for solutions to the final parsec problem. The scattering of stars by the binary or the interaction with a circumbinary disk may efficiently drive the system to sub-parsec separations, allowing the binary to enter a regime where the emission of gravitational-waves can drive it to merger within a Hubble time. However, these interactions can also affect the orbital parameters of the binary. In particular, they may drive an increase in binary eccentricity which survives until the system's gravitational-wave signal enters the pulsar-timing array band. Therefore, if we can measure the eccentricity from observed signals, we can potentially deduce some of the properties of the binary environment. To this end, we build on previous techniques to present a general Bayesian pipeline with which we can detect and estimate the parameters of an eccentric supermassive black-hole bi...

  20. Intensity correlations in metal films with periodic-on-average random nanohole arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Randhir; Mujumdar, Sushil

    2016-12-01

    We report detailed numerical studies based on three-dimensional finite-difference time domain computations of the intensity-intensity correlations in deliberately randomized, periodic-on-average systems. Correlation analyses are carried out in plasmonic thin films with nanohole arrays as a function of strength of disorder. We find that the intensity at certain uncharacteristic wavelengths remains strongly correlated with that in the periodic system, and these wavelengths do not match the global maxima of the periodic transmission spectrum. The study indicates that the strength of correlations is related to the pinning of the intensity to the holes. Since the intensity pinning is special characteristic of metals, the effect is only applicable in plasmonic systems.

  1. Tunable plasmon polaritons in arrays of interacting metallic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weick, Guillaume; Mariani, Eros

    2015-01-01

    We consider a simple cubic array of metallic nanoparticles supporting extended collective plasmons that arise from the near-field dipolar interaction between localized surface plasmons in each nanoparticle. We develop a fully analytical quantum theory of the strong-coupling regime between these collective plasmons and photons resulting in plasmon polaritons in the nanoparticle array. Remarkably, we show that the polaritonic band gap and the dielectric function of the metamaterial can be significantly modulated by the polarization of light. We unveil how such an anisotropic behavior in the plasmonic metamaterial is crucially mediated by the dipolar interactions between the nanoparticles despite the symmetry of the underlying lattice. Our results thus pave the way towards the realization of tunable quantum plasmonic metamaterials presenting interaction-driven birefringence.

  2. Pulsar timing array based search for supermassive black hole binaries in the SKA era

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    The advent of next generation radio telescope facilities, such as the Square Kilometer Array (SKA), will usher in an era where a Pulsar Timing Array (PTA) based search for gravitational waves (GWs) will be able to use hundreds of well timed millisecond pulsars rather than the few dozens in existing PTAs. A realistic assessment of the performance of such an extremely large PTA must take into account the data analysis challenge posed by an exponential increase in the parameter space volume due to the large number of so-called pulsar phase parameters. We address this problem and present such an assessment for isolated supermassive black hole binary (SMBHB) searches using a SKA era PTA containing $10^3$ pulsars. We find that an all-sky search will be able to confidently detect non-evolving sources with redshifted chirp mass of $10^{10}$ $M_\\odot$ out to a redshift of about $28$. The detection of GW signals from optically identified SMBHB candidates similar to PSO J334+01 is assured. If no SMBHB detections occur, ...

  3. Analysis Of Drilling Of A Metal Plate With Pilot Hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim K.S.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper performed a numerical analysis study of the cutting characteristics when drilling a taper hole whose upper and lower diameters are different, that is, a pilot hole. 3-dimensional drilling analysis was performed using a commercial code, and these results were used to determine analytically and compare the cutting temperature, the phenomenon of cutting chip formation, deformation and pressure, etc., for the tools, chips, and specimens during cutting. Also, cutting force and the required energy were calculated and compared. To verify the results of analysis, a cutting dynamometer was used to analyze 3-axis cutting force. Results of analysis showed that the specimen maintained a temperature of approximately 650°, with rapid cooling after chips were formed from the specimen. The tool reached a maximum of 700°, similarly to the chips. It is expected that these results will be utilized to optimize cutting processes and work conditions when drilling holes.

  4. Nanomolar Trace Metal Analysis of Copper at Gold Microband Arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahl, A; Dawson, K; Sassiat, N; Quinn, A J; O' Riordan, A, E-mail: alan.oriordan@tyndall.ie [Nanotechnology Group, Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Lee Maltings, Cork (Ireland)

    2011-08-17

    This paper describes the fabrication and electrochemical characterization of gold microband electrode arrays designated as a highly sensitive sensor for trace metal detection of copper in drinking water samples. Gold microband electrodes have been routinely fabricated by standard photolithographic methods. Electrochemical characterization were conducted in 0.1 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and found to display characteristic gold oxide formation and reduction peaks. The advantages of gold microband electrodes as trace metal sensors over currently used methods have been investigated by employing under potential deposition anodic stripping voltammetry (UPD-ASV) in Cu{sup 2+} nanomolar concentrations. Linear correlations were observed for increasing Cu{sup 2+} concentrations from which the concentration of an unknown sample of drinking water was estimated. The results obtained for the estimation of the unknown trace copper concentration in drinking was in good agreement with expected values.

  5. Arrays of holes fabricated by electron-beam lithography combined with image reversal process using nickel pulse reversal plating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Yousef; Lavallée, Eric; Lau, Kien Mun; Beauvais, Jacques; Drouin, Dominique; Cloutier, Melanie; Turcotte, David; Yang, Pan; Kelkar, Prasad

    2004-05-01

    A critical issue in fabricating arrays of holes is to achieve high-aspect-ratio structures. Formation of ordered arrays of nanoholes in silicon nitride was investigated by the use of ultrathin hard etch mask formed by nickel pulse reversal plating to invert the tonality of a dry e-beam resist patterned by e-beam lithography. Ni plating was carried out using a commercial plating solution based on nickel sulfamate salt without organic additives. Reactive ion etching using SF6/CH4 was found to be very effective for pattern transfer to silicon nitride. Holes array of 100 nm diam, 270 nm period, and 400 nm depth was fabricated on a 5×5 mm2 area. .

  6. Metallicity-constrained merger rates of binary black holes and the stochastic gravitational wave background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorkin, Irina; Vangioni, Elisabeth; Silk, Joseph; Uzan, Jean-Philippe; Olive, Keith A.

    2016-10-01

    The recent detection of the binary black hole merger GW150914 demonstrates the existence of black holes more massive than previously observed in X-ray binaries in our Galaxy. This article explores different scenarios of black hole formation in the context of self-consistent cosmic chemical evolution models that simultaneously match observations of the cosmic star formation rate, optical depth to reionization and metallicity of the interstellar medium. This framework is used to calculate the mass distribution of merging black hole binaries and its evolution with redshift. We also study the implications of the black hole mass distribution for the stochastic gravitational wave background from mergers and from core-collapse events.

  7. Metal nanodot arrays fabricated via seed-mediated electroless plating with block copolymer thin film scaffolding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komiyama, Hideaki; Iyoda, Tomokazu; Sanji, Takanobu

    2015-10-02

    We present an alternative approach to fabricating hexagonally arranged nanodot arrays of various metals by seed-mediated electroless plating with a cylinder-forming block copolymer thin film, PEO-b-PMA(Az), as a scaffold. Metal ions were selectively incorporated into PEO cylinders, followed by their reduction to metal and the etching of the scaffold to obtain highly ordered seed arrays of Au, Pd, and Pt. Nanodot arrays of the target metals (Au, Ag, and Ni) were selectively grown on the seed with their highly ordered arrangement by electroless plating. We studied the fabrication processes' suitability for control of the nanodot array size, as well as the plasmonic properties thereof.

  8. Transmission of light through slits array in a metal-insulator-metal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bo; Luo, Zhi; Wu, Xia; Yang, Huidong; He, Guannan

    2017-01-01

    Light transmission through slits array in a thin dielectric core layer sandwiched between two metallic cladding (MIM) is investigated using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The dispersion relation of surface plasmon polariton (SPP) in the MIM structure is analyzed. The results show that SPP modes on the core layer act as a resonator-coupler, which helps to couple the resonance energy in the upper slit arrays to that in the lower slit arrays, and there is an enhanced transmission peak under appropriate resonance conditions. Coupling process is verified by the field profiles of the SPP modes calculated by FDTD method. Different MIM structures are designed to control the light transmission.

  9. Targeting supermassive black hole binaries and gravitational wave sources for the pulsar timing array

    CERN Document Server

    Rosado, Pablo A

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a technique to search for supermassive black hole binaries (MBHBs) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The search is based on the peculiar properties of merging galaxies that are found in a mock galaxy catalog from the Millennium Simulation. MBHBs are expected to be the main gravitational wave (GW) sources for pulsar timing arrays (PTAs); however, it is still unclear if the observed GW signal will be produced by a few single MBHBs, or if it will have the properties of a stochastic background. The goal of this work is to produce a map of the sky in which each galaxy is assigned a probability of having suffered a recent merger, and of hosting a MBHB that could be detected by PTAs. This constitutes a step forward in the understanding of the expected PTA signal: the skymap can be used to investigate the clustering properties of PTA sources and the spatial distribution of the observable GW signal power; moreover, galaxies with the highest probabilities could be used as inputs in targeted se...

  10. Prospects for gravitational-wave detection and supermassive black hole astrophysics with pulsar timing arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Ravi, V; Shannon, R M; Hobbs, G

    2014-01-01

    [Abridged] Large-area sky surveys show that massive galaxies undergo at least one major merger in a Hubble time. If all massive galaxies host central supermassive black holes (SMBHs), as is inferred from observations in the local Universe, it is likely that there is a population of binary SMBHs at the centres of galaxy merger remnants. Numerous authors have proposed pulsar timing array (PTA) experiments to measure the gravitational wave (GW) emission from binary SMBHs. In this paper, using the latest observational estimates for a range of galaxy properties and scaling relations, we predict the amplitude of the GW background generated by the binary SMBH population. We also predict counts of individual binary SMBH GW sources. We assume that all binary SMBHs are in circular orbits evolving under GW emission alone, which is likely to be correct for binaries emitting GWs at frequencies >~10^-8 Hz. Our fiducial model results in a characteristic strain amplitude of the GW background of A_yr=1.2(+0.6-0.3)*10^-15 at a...

  11. Inflationary primordial black holes for the LIGO gravitational wave events and pulsar timing array experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, Keisuke; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Mukaida, Kyohei; Tada, Yuichiro; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.

    2017-06-01

    Primordial black holes (PBHs) are one of the candidates to explain the gravitational wave (GW) signals observed by the LIGO detectors. Among several phenomena in the early universe, cosmic inflation is a major example to generate PBHs from large primordial density perturbations. In this paper, we discuss the possibility to interpret the observed GW events as mergers of PBHs that are produced by cosmic inflation. The primordial curvature perturbation should be large enough to produce a sizable amount of PBHs, and thus we have several other probes to test this scenario. We point out that the current pulsar timing array (PTA) experiments already put severe constraints on GWs generated via the second-order effects, and that the observation of the cosmic microwave background puts severe restriction on its μ distortion. In particular, it is found that the scalar power spectrum should have a very sharp peak at k ˜1 06 Mpc-1 to fulfill the required abundance of PBHs while evading constraints from the PTA experiments together with the μ distortion. We propose a mechanism that can realize such a sharp peak. In the future, simple inflation models that generate PBHs via almost Gaussian fluctuations could be probed/excluded.

  12. Physics of Galactic Metals: Evolutionary Effects due to Production, Distribution, Feedback & Interaction with Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Ena; Naab, Thorsten; Somerville, Rachel S; Hirschmann, Michaela; Núñez, Alejandro; Hu, Chia-Yu; Oser, Ludwig

    2016-01-01

    We ask how the inclusion of various physical heating processes due to the metal content of gas affect the evolution of massive galaxies and compute a suite of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations that follow these systems and their supermassive black holes. We use a smoothed particle hydrodynamics code with a pressure-entropy formulation and a more accurate treatment of the metal production, turbulent diffusion and cooling rate based on individual element abundances. The feedback models include (1) AGN feedback via high velocity BAL winds and Compton/photoionization heating, (2) explicit stellar feedback from multiple processes including powerful winds from supernova events, stellar winds from young massive stars and AGB stars as well as radiative heating within Stromgren spheres around massive stars, and (3) additional heating effects due to the presence of metals including grain photoelectric heating, metallicity dependent X-ray heating by nearby accreting black holes and from the cosmic X-ray background...

  13. Carrying the physics of black-hole binary evolution into gravitational-wave models for pulsar-timing arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Stephen; Sampson, Laura; Simon, Joseph

    2016-03-01

    There has recently been significant interest in how the galactic environments of supermassive black-hole binaries influences the stochastic gravitational-wave background signal from a population of these systems, and in how the resulting detection prospects for pulsar-timing arrays are effected. Tackling these problems requires us to have robust and computationally-efficient models for the strain spectrum as a function of different environment influences or the binary orbital eccentricity. In this talk we describe a new method of constructing these models from a small number of synthesized black-hole binary populations which have varying input physics. We use these populations to train an interpolant via Gaussian-process regression, allowing us to carry real physics into our subsequent pulsar-timing array inferences, and to also correctly propagate forward uncertainties from our interpolation.

  14. Constraints on Black Hole/Host Galaxy Co-evolution and Binary Stalling Using Pulsar Timing Arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Pulsar timing arrays are now setting increasingly tight limits on the gravitational wave background from binary supermassive black holes. But as upper limits grow more constraining, what can be implied about galaxy evolution? We investigate which astrophysical parameters have the largest impact on strain spectrum predictions and provide a simple framework to directly translate between measured values for the parameters of galaxy evolution and PTA limits on the gravitational wave background of binary supermassive black holes. We find that the most influential observable is the relation between a host galaxy's central bulge and its central black hole, $\\mbox{$M_{\\bullet}$-$M_{\\rm bulge}$}$, which has the largest effect on the mean value of the characteristic strain amplitude. However, the variance of each prediction is dominated by uncertainties in the galaxy stellar mass function. Using this framework with the best published PTA limit, we can set limits on the shape and scatter of the $\\mbox{$M_{\\bullet}$-$M_{...

  15. Disorder-driven metal-insulator transitions from dirty black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study disorder-driven metal-insulator transition in the holographic disordered Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theories. We study analytically the DC conductivity of such holographic models in terms of black hole horizon data. As it is expected, the electrical conductivity does not obey the lower bound.

  16. Metal nanoparticle mediated space charge and its optical control in an organic hole-only device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligorio, G.; Nardi, M. V. [Institut für Physik & IRIS Adlershof, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Brook-Taylor Str. 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Steyrleuthner, R.; Neher, D. [Institute of Physics and Astronomy, Universität Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht Str. 24, 14476 Potsdam (Germany); Ihiawakrim, D. [Institut de Physique et de Chimie des Matériaux de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS UMR 7504, 23 rue du Loess, BP 43, 67034 Strasbourg, Cedex2 (France); Crespo-Monteiro, N.; Brinkmann, M. [Institut Charles Sadron CNRS, 23 rue du Loess, 67034 Strasbourg (France); Koch, N., E-mail: norbert.koch@physik.hu-berlin.de [Institut für Physik & IRIS Adlershof, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Brook-Taylor Str. 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Erneuerbare Energien, Albert-Einstein Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-04-11

    We reveal the role of localized space charges in hole-only devices based on an organic semiconductor with embedded metal nanoparticles (MNPs). MNPs act as deep traps for holes and reduce the current density compared to a device without MNPs by a factor of 10{sup 4} due to the build-up of localized space charge. Dynamic MNPs charged neutrality can be realized during operation by electron transfer from excitons created in the organic matrix, enabling light sensing independent of device bias. In contrast to the previous speculations, electrical bistability in such devices was not observed.

  17. Localization of CO2 Leakage from a Circular Hole on a Flat-Surface Structure Using a Circular Acoustic Emission Sensor Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiwang Cui

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Leak localization is essential for the safety and maintenance of storage vessels. This study proposes a novel circular acoustic emission sensor array to realize the continuous CO2 leak localization from a circular hole on the surface of a large storage vessel in a carbon capture and storage system. Advantages of the proposed array are analyzed and compared with the common sparse arrays. Experiments were carried out on a laboratory-scale stainless steel plate and leak signals were obtained from a circular hole in the center of this flat-surface structure. In order to reduce the influence of the ambient noise and dispersion of the acoustic wave on the localization accuracy, ensemble empirical mode decomposition is deployed to extract the useful leak signal. The time differences between the signals from the adjacent sensors in the array are calculated through correlation signal processing before estimating the corresponding distance differences between the sensors. A hyperbolic positioning algorithm is used to identify the location of the circular leak hole. Results show that the circular sensor array has very good directivity toward the circular leak hole. Furthermore, an optimized method is proposed by changing the position of the circular sensor array on the flat-surface structure or adding another circular sensor array to identify the direction of the circular leak hole. Experiential results obtained on a 100 cm × 100 cm stainless steel plate demonstrate that the full-scale error in the leak localization is within 0.6%.

  18. Dynamic screening of a localized hole during photoemission from a metal cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Koval, N E; Borisov, A G; Muiño, R Díez

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in attosecond spectroscopy techniques have fueled the interest in the theoretical description of electronic processes taking place in the subfemtosecond time scale. We here study the coupled dynamic screening of a localized hole and a photoelectron emitted from a metal cluster using a semi-classical model. Electron density dynamics in the cluster is calculated with Time Dependent Density Functional Theory and the motion of the photoemitted electron is described classically. We show that the dynamic screening of the hole by the cluster electrons affects the motion of the photoemitted electron. At the very beginning of the photoemission process, the emitted electron is accelerated by the cluster electrons that pile up to screen the hole. This is a velocity dependent effect that needs to be accounted for when calculating the energy lost by the electron due to inelastic processes.

  19. Hydrophobic Organic Hole Transporters for Improved Moisture Resistance in Metal Halide Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijtens, Tomas; Giovenzana, Tommaso; Habisreutinger, Severin N; Tinkham, Jonathan S; Noel, Nakita K; Kamino, Brett A; Sadoughi, Golnaz; Sellinger, Alan; Snaith, Henry J

    2016-03-09

    Solar cells based on organic-inorganic perovskite semiconductor materials have recently made rapid improvements in performance, with the best cells performing at over 20% efficiency. With such rapid progress, questions such as cost and solar cell stability are becoming increasingly important to address if this new technology is to reach commercial deployment. The moisture sensitivity of commonly used organic-inorganic metal halide perovskites has especially raised concerns. Here, we demonstrate that the hygroscopic lithium salt commonly used as a dopant for the hole transport material in perovskite solar cells makes the top layer of the devices hydrophilic and causes the solar cells to rapidly degrade in the presence of moisture. By using novel, low cost, and hydrophobic hole transporters in conjunction with a doping method incorporating a preoxidized salt of the respective hole transporters, we are able to prepare efficient perovskite solar cells with greatly enhanced water resistance.

  20. Design and array signal suggestion of array type pulsed eddy current probe for health monitoring of metal tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Young Kil [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Kunsan National University, Kunsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    An array type probe for monitoring metal tubes is proposed in this paper which utilizes peak value and peak time of a pulsed eddy current(PEC) signal. The probe consists of an array of encircling coils along a tube and the outside of coils is shielded by ferrite to prevent source magnetic fields from directly affecting sensor signals since it is the magnetic fields produced by eddy currents that reflect the condition of metal tubes. The positions of both exciter and sensor coils are consecutively moved automatically so that manual scanning is not necessary. At one position of send-receive coils, peak value and peak time are extracted from a sensor PEC signal and these data are accumulated for all positions to form an array type peak value signal and an array type peak time signal. Numerical simulation was performed using the backward difference method in time and the finite element method for spatial analysis. Simulation results showed that peak value increases and the peak appears earlier as the defect depth or length increases. The proposed array signals are shown to be excellent in reflecting the defect location as well as variations of defect depth and length within the array probe.

  1. COMPOSITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR SEEPAGE ANALYSIS OF GEOTECHNICAL STRUCTURES WITH DRAINAGE HOLE ARRAY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Sheng-hong; XU Qing; HU Jing

    2004-01-01

    Air element concept and Composite Element Method (CEM) were introduced in this paper firstly, and then an explicit drainage holes element model was developed. The main advantage of the new model is that it allows drainage holes to be located within soil elements. Therefore the mesh generation of complicated geotechnical structures with a large number of seepage drainage holes becomes relatively convenient and feasible. This will further facilitate the optimal design of seepage control system, and in this case the calculation mesh can be kept unchanged when the number, position and orientation of drainage holes are adjusted. The model was been implemented in software. A sluice foundation seepage control problem was studied, by which the validity and the robustness of the new model were verified.

  2. Worm-hole run-time reconfigurable processor field programmable gate array (FPGA)

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    Higher performance is gained through a new architecture which implements a new method of computational resource allocation, utilization and programming based on the concept of Worm-hole Run-Time Reconfiguration (RTR). A stream-driven Worm-hole RTR methodology extends contemporary data-flow paradigms to utilize the dynamic creation of operators and pathways, based upon stream processing in which parcels of data move through custom created pathways and interact with other parcels to achieve the...

  3. Proceedings of the flat-plate solar array project research forum on photovoltaic metallization systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1983-11-15

    A Photovoltaic Metallization Research Forum, under the sponsorship of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Flat-Plate Solar Array Project and the US Department of Energy, was held March 16-18, 1983 at Pine Mountain, Georgia. The Forum consisted of five sessions, covering (1) the current status of metallization systems, (2) system design, (3) thick-film metallization, (4) advanced techniques and (5) future metallization challenges. Twenty-three papers were presented.

  4. Laser fabrication of 2D and 3D metal nanoparticle structures and arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, A I; Kiyan, R; Chichkov, B N

    2010-09-27

    A novel method for fabrication of 2D and 3D metal nanoparticle structures and arrays is proposed. This technique is based on laser-induced transfer of molten metal nanodroplets from thin metal films. Metal nanoparticles are produced by solidification of these nanodroplets. The size of the transferred nanoparticles can be controllably changed in the range from 180 nm to 1500 nm. Several examples of complex 2D and 3D microstructures generated form gold nanoparticles are demonstrated.

  5. Fabrication of a micro through-hole array by gas-blowing a PDMS-treated polyamide screen for a flexible drag-reducing skin-like device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Zhou, Kai; Zhao, Xiang; Kong, Quancun

    2017-01-01

    We propose a method for fabricating a flexible skin-like device for generating and trapping micro bubbles with the aim of reducing underwater drag. This low-cost, efficient, high-pressure gas-blow method is used to fabricate a micro through-hole array in a flexible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) gel-based skin. The key parameters in the gas-blowing method are investigated, such as the viscosity of PDMS and the blowing pressure in order to optimize the quality of through-hole layer. Deviation of the linear dimensions of the obtained micro holes was less than 4.5%. In addition, multiphase computational fluid dynamics models were built to analyze the drag-reduction performance of bell-shaped holes made by this method. Compared with cylindrical through holes produced by molding, the drag-reduction effect of bell-shaped holes increased as much as 34%.

  6. The sub-micron hole array in sapphire produced by inductively-coupled plasma reactive ion etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiao, Ming-Hua; Chang, Chun-Ming; Huang, Su-Wei; Lee, Chao-Te; Wu, Tzung-Chen; Hsueh, Wen-Jeng; Ma, Kung-Jeng; Chiang, Donyau

    2012-02-01

    The sub-micron hole array in a sapphire substrate was fabricated by using nanosphere lithography (NSL) combined with inductively-coupled-plasma reactive ion etching (ICP-RIE) technique. Polystyrene nanospheres of about 600 nm diameter were self-assembled on c-plane sapphire substrates by the spin-coating method. The diameter of polystyrene nanosphere was modified by using oxygen plasma in ICP-RIE system. The size of nanosphere modified by oxygen plasma was varied from 550 to 450 nm with different etching times from 15 to 35 s. The chromium thin film of 100 nm thick was then deposited on the shrunk nanospheres on the substrate by electron-beam evaporation system. The honeycomb type chromium mask can be obtained on the sapphire substrate after the polystyrene nanospheres were removed. The substrate was further etched in two sets of chlorine/Argon and boron trichloride/Argon mixture gases at constant pressure of 50 mTorr in ICP-RIE processes. The 400 nm hole array in diameter can be successfully produced under suitable boron trichloride/Argon gas flow ratio.

  7. Persistent Luminescence Hole-Type Materials by Design: Transition-Metal-Doped Carbon Allotrope and Carbides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Bingyan; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Rulong; Zeng, Xiao Cheng; Li, Liang

    2016-03-02

    Electron traps play a crucial role in a wide variety of compounds of persistent luminescence (PL) materials. However, little attention has been placed on the hole-trap-type PL materials. In this study, a novel hole-dominated persistent luminescence (PL) mechanism is predicted. The mechanism is validated in the night pearl diamond (NPD) composed of lonsdaleite with ultralong persistent luminescence (PL) (more than 72 h). The computed band structures suggest that the Fe ion dopant in lonsdaleite is responsible for the luminescence of NPD due to the desired defect levels within the band gap for electronic transition. Other possible impurity defects in lonsdaleite, such as K, Ca, Mg, Zn, or Tl dopants, or C vacancy can also serve as the hole-trap centers to enhance the PL. Among other 3d transition-metal-ion dopants considered, Cr and Mn ions are predicted to give rise to PL property. The predicted PL mechanism via transition-metal doping of lonsdaleite offers an exciting opportunity for engineering new PL materials by design.

  8. Blue light absorption enhancement based on vertically channelling modes in nano-holes arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Gomard, Guillaume; Callard, Ségolène; Meng, Xianqin; Artinyan, Rémy; Deschamps, Thierry; Cabarrocas, Pere Roca I; Drouard, Emmanuel; Seassal, Christian

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the specific optical regime occurring at short wavelengths, in the high absorption regime, in silicon thin-films patterned by periodically arranged nano-holes. Near-field scanning optical microscopy indicates that the incoming light is coupled to vertically channelling modes. Optical modelling and simulations show that the light, travelling inside the low-index regions, is absorbed at the direct vicinity of the nano-holes sidewalls. This channelling regime should be taken into account for light management in optoelectronic devices.

  9. Surface-plasmon-polariton-induced suppressed transmission through ultrathin metal disk arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Sanshui; Mortensen, Asger

    2011-01-01

    We report surface-plasmon-polariton-induced suppressed transmission through two-dimensional arrays of isolated metal disks with a thickness comparable to optical skin depth of the metal. A transmittance dip of −17:5 dB is achieved at the resonant wavelength of 1524 nm, compared to −12 dB for closed...

  10. MOF Thin Film-Coated Metal Oxide Nanowire Array: Significantly Improved Chemiresistor Sensor Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ming-Shui; Tang, Wen-Xiang; Wang, Guan-E; Nath, Bhaskar; Xu, Gang

    2016-07-01

    A strategy for combining metal oxides and metal-organic frameworks is proposed to design new materials for sensing volatile organic compounds, for the first time. The prepared ZnO@ZIF-CoZn core-sheath nanowire arrays show greatly enhanced performance not only on its selectivity but also on its response, recovery behavior, and working temperature.

  11. Graphene circular polarization analyzer based on spiral metal triangle antennas arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bofeng; Ren, Guobin; Gao, Yixiao; Wu, Beilei; Wan, Chenglong; Jian, Shuisheng

    2015-09-21

    In this paper we propose a circular polarization analyzer based on spiral metal triangle antenna arrays deposited on graphene. Via the dipole antenna resonances, plasmons are excited on graphene surface and the wavefront can be tailed by arranging metal antennas into linetype, circular or spiral arrays. Especially, for spiral antenna arrays, the geometric phase effect can be cancelled by or superposed on the chirality carried within circular polarization incidence, producing spatially separated solid dot or donut shape fields at the center. Such a phenomenon enables the graphene based spiral metal triangle antennas arrays to achieve functionality as a circular polarization analyzer. Extinction ratio over 550 can be achieved and the working wavelength can be tuned by adjusting graphene Fermi level dynamically. The proposed analyzer may find applications in analyzing chiral molecules using different circularly polarized waves.

  12. A cross-reactive sensor array for the fluorescence qualitative analysis of heavy metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Huaizhi; Lin, Liping; Rong, Mingcong; Chen, Xi

    2014-11-01

    A cross-reactive sensor array using mercaptopropionic acid modified cadmium telluride (CdTe), glutathione modified CdTe, poly(methacrylic acid) modified silver nanoclusters, bovine serum albumin modified gold nanoclusters, rhodamine derivative and calcein blue as fluorescent indicators has been designed for the detection of seven heavy metal ions (Ag(+), Hg(2+), Pb(2+), Cu(2+), Cr(3+), Mn(2+) and Cd(2+)). The discriminatory capacity of the sensor array to different heavy metal ions in different pH solutions has been tested and the results have been analyzed with linear discriminant analysis. Results showed that the sensor array could be used to qualitatively analyze the selected heavy metal ions. The array performance was also evaluated in the identification of known and unknown samples and the preliminary results suggested the promising practicability of the designed sensor assay.

  13. Laser-drilled micro-hole arrays on polyurethane synthetic leather for improvement of water vapor permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Y. [State Key Laboratory of Material Processing and Die and Mould Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074 (China); Wang, A.H., E-mail: ahwang@mail.hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Material Processing and Die and Mould Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074 (China); Zheng, R.R. [State Key Laboratory of Material Processing and Die and Mould Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074 (China); Tang, H.Q.; Qi, X.Y.; Ye, B. [Wuhan Huagong Laser Engineering CO., Ltd, Wuhan, 430223 (China)

    2014-06-01

    Three kinds of lasers at 1064, 532 and 355 nm wavelengths respectively were adopted to construct micro-hole arrays on polyurethane (PU) synthetic leather with an aim to improve water vapor permeability (WVP) of PU synthetic leather. The morphology of the laser-drilled micro-holes was observed to optimize laser parameters. The WVP and slit tear resistance of the laser-drilled leather were measured. Results show that the optimized pulse energy for the 1064, 532 and 355 nm lasers are 0.8, 1.1 and 0.26 mJ, respectively. The diameters of the micro-holes drilled with the optimized laser pulse energy were about 20, 15 and 10 μm, respectively. The depths of the micro-holes drilled with the optimized pulse energy were about 21, 60 and 69 μm, respectively. Compared with the untreated samples, the highest WVP growth ratio was 38.4%, 46.8% and 53.5% achieved by the 1064, 532 and 355 nm lasers, respectively. And the highest decreasing ratio of slit tear resistance was 11.1%, 14.8%, and 22.5% treated by the 1064, 532 and 355 nm lasers, respectively. Analysis of the interaction mechanism between laser beams at three kinds of laser wavelengths and the PU synthetic leather revealed that laser micro-drilling at 355 nm wavelength displayed both photochemical ablation and photothermal ablation, while laser micro-drilling at 1064 and 532 nm wavelengths leaded to photothermal ablation only.

  14. Key Science with the Square Kilometer Array: Strong-field Tests of Gravity using Pulsars and Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, J. M.; Kramer, M.; Backer, D. C.; Lazio, T. J. W.; Science Working Groupthe Square Kilometer Array Team

    2005-12-01

    A Galactic census of pulsars with the SKA will discover most of the active pulsars in the Galaxy beamed toward us. The sheer number of pulsars discovered, along with the exceptional timing precision the SKA can provide, will revolutionize the field of pulsar astrophysics and will enable significant tests of theories of gravity. Census discoveries will almost certainly include pulsar-black hole binaries as well as pulsars orbiting the super-massive black hole in the Galactic center. These systems provide unique opportunties for probing the ultra-strong field limit of relativistic gravity and will complement future gravitational wave detections using LISA-like instruments. SKA measurements can be used to test the Cosmic Censorship Conjecture and the No-Hair theorem. The large number of millisecond pulsars discovered with the SKA will also provide a dense array of precision clocks on the sky that can be used as multiple arms of a cosmic gravitational wave detector, which can be used to detect and measure the stochastic cosmological gravitational wave background that is expected from a number of sources. In addition to gravitational tests, the large number of lines of sight will provide a detailed map of the Galaxy's electron density and magnetic fields and important information on the dynamics and evolutionary histories of neutron stars. The census will provide examples of nearly every possible outcome of the evolution of massive stars, including (as above) pulsar black-hole systems and sub-millisecond pulsars, if they exist. These objects will yield constraints on the equation of state of matter at super-nuclear densities. Masses of pulsars and their binary companions planets, white dwarfs, other neutron stars, and black holes will be determined to ˜ 1% for hundreds of objects. The SKA will also provide partial censuses of nearby galaxies through periodicity and giant-pulse detections, yielding important information on the intergalactic medium.

  15. Method for making conductors for ferrite memory arrays. [from pre-formed metal conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckler, C. H.; Baba, P. D.; Bhiwandker, N. C. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    The ferrite memory arrays are made from pre-formed metal conductors for the ferrite arrays. The conductors are made by forming a thin sheet of a metallizing paste of metal alloy powder, drying the paste layer, bisque firing the dried sheet at a first temperature, and then punching the conductors from the fired sheet. During the bisque firing, the conductor sheet shrinks to 58 percent of its pre-fired volume and the alloy particles sinter together. The conductors are embedded in ferrite sheet material and finally fired at a second higher temperature during which firing the conductors shrink approximately the same degree as the ferrite material.

  16. Reflective plasmonic waveplates based on metal-insulator-metal subwavelength rectangular annular arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhonghui; Wang, Chinhua; Xu, Fuyang; Lou, Yimin; Cao, Bing; Li, Xiaofeng

    2014-04-01

    We propose and present a quarter-wave plate using metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structure with sub-wavelength rectangular annular arrays (RAA) patterned in the upper Au film. It is found that by manipulating asymmetric width of the annular gaps along two orthogonal directions, the reflected amplitude and phase of the two orthogonal components can be well controlled via the RAA metasurface tuned by the MIM cavity effect, in which the localized surface plasmon resonance dip can be flattened with the cavity length. A quarter-wave plate has been realized through an optimized design at 1.55 μm, in which the phase difference variation of less than 2% of the π/2 between the two orthogonal components can be obtained in an ultra-wide wavelength range of about 130 nm, and the reflectivity is up to ˜90% within the whole working wavelength band. It provides a great potential for applications in advanced nanophotonic devices and integrated photonic systems.

  17. Half-metallicity in hole-doped nitrogenated honey graphene: A first-principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jingzhong; Zhao, Yinchang; Zeng, Shuming; Ni, Jun

    2017-03-01

    We have investigated the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of hole-doped nitrogenated honey graphene by first-principles calculations. Remarkably, there exists a stable half-metallic ferromagnetism phase with the average spin magnetic moment per carrier of near 1.0 μB in this monolayer system as the carrier density increases from 0 to 1.5 ×1014 cm-2. With further increase of carrier density, the half-metal state vanishes, while the magnetic state remains until the carrier density reaches 4.5 ×1014 cm-2. Our analysis reveals that the predicted itinerant magnetism arises from an exchange splitting of the electronic states at the top of the valence band, where the density of states shows a van Hove singularity. In addition, we have also studied the electron-doped nitrogenated honey graphene, and find the magnetic features are similar to those of the hole-doped system. As synthesis of monolayer nitrogenated honey graphene was reported, half-metallicity of nitrogenated honey graphene are feasible.

  18. Ultrathin, high-efficiency, broad-band, omni-acceptance, organic solar cells enhanced by plasmonic cavity with subwavelength hole array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Stephen Y; Ding, Wei

    2013-01-14

    Three of central challenges in solar cells are high light coupling into solar cell, high light trapping and absorption in a sub-absorption-length-thick active layer, and replacement of the indium-tin-oxide (ITO) transparent electrode used in thin-film devices. Here, we report a proposal and the first experimental study and demonstration of a new ultra-thin high-efficiency organic solar cell (SC), termed "plasmonic cavity with subwavelength hole-array (PlaCSH) solar cell", that offers a solution to all three issues with unprecedented performances. The ultrathin PlaCSH-SC is a thin plasmonic cavity that consists of a 30 nm thick front metal-mesh electrode with subwavelength hole-array (MESH) which replaces ITO, a thin (100 nm thick) back metal electrode, and in-between a polymer photovoltaic active layer (P3HT/PCBM) of 85 nm thick (1/3 average absorption-length). Experimentally, the PlaCSH-SCs have achieved (1) light coupling-efficiency/absorptance as high as 96% (average 90%), broad-band, and Omni acceptance (light coupling nearly independent of both light incident angle and polarization); (2) an external quantum efficiency of 69% for only 27% single-pass active layer absorptance; leading to (3) a 4.4% power conversion efficiency (PCE) at standard-solar-irradiation, which is 52% higher than the reference ITO-SC (identical structure and fabrication to PlaCSH-SC except MESH replaced by ITO), and also is among the highest PCE for the material system that was achievable previously only by using thick active materials and/or optimized polymer compositions and treatments. In harvesting scattered light, the Omni acceptance can increase PCE by additional 81% over ITO-SC, leading to a total 175% increase (i.e. 8% PCE). Furthermore, we found that (a) after formation of PlaCSH the light reflection and absorption by MESH are reduced by 2 to 6 fold from the values when it is alone; and (b) the sheet resistance of a 30 nm thick MESH is 2.2 ohm/sq or less-4.5 fold or more lower

  19. Tunable magneto-optical effects in hole-doped group-IIIA metal-monochalcogenide monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wanxiang; Guo, Guang-Yu; Yao, Yugui

    2017-03-01

    Because of unusual properties and fascinating prospects for next-generation device applications, two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted enormous attention since graphene was discovered in 2004. Among the 2D materials beyond graphene, group-IIIA metal-monochalcogenide (MX) monolayers (MLs), are receiving increasing interests because their excellent applications on electronics and optoelectronics. Recently, ferromagnetism and half-metallicity have been predicted in hole-doped GaS and GaSe MLs, which promise exciting potentials for semiconductor spintronics. Detection and measurement of spontaneous magnetization in these 2D materials will be essential for their spintronic applications. The magneto-optical (MO) effects not only are a powerful probe of magnetism in 2D materials but also have valuable applications in high-density data-storage technology. Furthermore, anomalous Hall effect is not only an ideal transport probe of itinerant magnetism but also of considerable current interest because of its topological nature. Here we perform a systematic first-principles density functional study on the MO Kerr and Faraday effects as well as such important magnetic and transport properties as magneto-crystalline anisotropy energy (MAE) and anomalous Hall conductivity (AHC) of all hole-doped MX (M = Ga, In; X = S, Se, Te) MLs. In this paper, we report the following important findings: (a) gate-tunable MO effects in MX MLs in a broad range of hole concentration; (b) large Kerr and Faraday rotation angles with Kerr angles comparable to well-known MO 3d-transition-metal multilayers and Faraday angles being among the largest ones reported; (c) tunable MAE and large AHC, making MX MLs suitable for magnetic memory devices current-driven via spin-transfer torque and also promising materials for magnetic field nanosensors with high sensitivity. Superior MO characteristics, together with the other interesting properties, would make MX MLs an excellent family of 2D materials for

  20. Long-Wavelength Infrared Surface Plasmons on Ga-Doped ZnO Films Excited via 2D Hole Arrays for Extraordinary Optical Transmission (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    AFRL-RY-WP-TP-2013-0180 LONG-WAVELENGTH INFRARED SURFACE PLASMONS ON Ga- DOPED ZnO FILMS EXCITED VIA 2D HOLE ARRAYS FOR EXTRAORDINARY OPTICAL...TITLE AND SUBTITLE LONG-WAVELENGTH INFRARED SURFACE PLASMONS ON Ga- DOPED ZnO FILMS EXCITED VIA 2D HOLE ARRAYS FOR EXTRAORDINARY OPTICAL TRANSMISSION...structure size such as period. Pulse laser deposited Ga- doped ZnO has been shown to have fluctuations in optical and electrical parameters based on

  1. Magnetization Reversal in an Fe Film with an Array of Elliptical Holes on a Square Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607 P. Vavassori INFM UdR of Ferrara–Dipartimento di Fisica , Università di Ferrara and INFM–National... vector , and the FIG. 3. Experimental D-MOKE loops vs angle ~f! between field and short ellipse axis: zeroth- and first-order longitudinal and first... vector at 󈨞° with respect to the initial saturation direction. These domains bridge next- nearest-neighboring holes along the lattice diagonal

  2. Large area metal nanowire arrays with tunable sub-20 nm nanogaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Thi Ngoc, Loan; Jin, Mingliang; Wiedemair, Justyna; van den Berg, Albert; Carlen, Edwin T

    2013-06-25

    We report a new top-down nanofabrication technology to realize large area metal nanowire (m-NW) arrays with tunable sub-20 nm separation nanogaps without the use of chemical etching or milling of the metal layer. The m-NW array nanofabrication technology is based on a self-regulating metal deposition process that is facilitated by closely spaced and isolated heterogeneous template surfaces that confine the metal deposition into two dimensions, and therefore, electrically isolated parallel arrays of m-NW can be realized with uniform and controllable nanogaps. Au-NW and Ag-NW arrays are presented with high-density ~10(5) NWs cm(-1), variable NW diameters down to ~50 nm, variable nanogaps down to ~5 nm, and very large nanogap length density ~1 km cm(-2). The m-NW arrays are designed and implemented as interdigitated nanoelectrodes for electrochemical applications and as plasmonic substrates where the coupled-mode localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) wavelength in the nanogaps between adjacent m-NW dimers can be precisely tuned to match any excitation source in the range from 500 to 1000 nm, thus providing optimal local electromagnetic field enhancement. A spatially averaged (n = 2500) surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) analytical enhancement factor of (1.2 ± 0.1) × 10(7) is demonstrated from a benzenethiol monolayer chemisorbed on a Au-NW array substrate with LSPR wavelength matched to a He-Ne laser source.

  3. Asymmetric light reflectance from metal nanoparticle arrays on dielectric surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, K.; Pan, W.; Zhu, J. F.; Li, J. C.; Gao, N.; Liu, C.; Ji, L.; Yu, E. T.; Kang, J.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Asymmetric light reflectance associated with localized surface plasmons excited in metal nanoparticles on a quartz substrate is observed and analyzed. This phenomenon is explained by the superposition of two waves, the wave reflected by the air/quartz interface and that reflected by the metal nanoparticles, and the resulting interference effects. Far field behavior investigation suggests that zero reflection can be achieved by optimizing the density of metal nanoparticles. Near field behavior investigation suggests that the coupling efficiency of localized surface plasmon can be additionally enhanced by separating the metal NPs from substrates using a thin film with refractive index smaller than the substrate. The latter behavior is confirmed via surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy studies using metal nanoparticles on Si/SiO2 substrates. PMID:26679353

  4. The r-Process in Metal Poor Stars and Black Hole Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, R N; Famiano, M A; Meyer, B S; Motizuki, Y; Kajino, T; Roederer, I U

    2011-11-30

    Nucleosynthesis of heavy nuclei in metal-poor stars is generally ascribed to the r-process, as the abundance pattern in many such stars agrees with the inferred Solar r-process abundances. Nonetheless, a significant number of these stars do not share this r-process template. they suggest that many such stars have begun an r-process, but it was prevented from running to completion in more massive stars by collapse to black holes, creating a 'truncated r-process,' or 'tr-process'. The observed fraction of tr-process stars is found to be consistent with expectations from the initial mass function (IMF), and they suggest that an apparent sharp truncation observed at around mass 160 could result from a combination of collapses to black holes and the difficulty of observing the higher mass rare earths. They test the tr-process hypothesis with calculations that are terminated before all r-process trajectories have been ejected. These produce qualitative agreement with observation when both black hole collapse and observational realities are taken into account.

  5. Selection bias in dynamically-measured super-massive black hole samples: consequences for pulsar timing arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Sesana, A; Bernardi, M; Sheth, R K

    2016-01-01

    Supermassive black hole -- host galaxy relations are key to the computation of the expected gravitational wave background (GWB) in the pulsar timing array (PTA) frequency band. It has been recently pointed out that standard relations adopted in GWB computations are in fact biased-high. We show that when this selection bias is taken into account, the expected GWB in the PTA band is a factor of about three smaller than previously estimated. Compared to other scaling relations recently published in the literature, the median amplitude of the signal at $f=1$yr$^{-1}$ drops from $1.3\\times10^{-15}$ to $4\\times10^{-16}$. Although this solves any potential tension between theoretical predictions and recent PTA limits without invoking other dynamical effects (such as stalling, eccentricity or strong coupling with the galactic environment), it also makes the GWB detection more challenging.

  6. Radiation Resistant, Reconfigurable, Shape Memory Metal Rubber Space Arrays Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NanoSonic has demonstrated that Shape Memory Metal RubberTM (SM-MR) adaptive skins exhibit reconfigurable and durable RF properties. It is hypothesized that such...

  7. Enhanced sensing of molecular optical activity with plasmonic nanohole arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Gorkunov, Maxim V; Kondratov, Alexey V

    2016-01-01

    Prospects of using metal hole arrays for the enhanced optical detection of molecular chirality in nanosize volumes are investigated. Light transmission through the holes filled with an optically active material is modeled and the activity enhancement by more than an order of magnitude is demonstrated. The spatial resolution of the chirality detection is shown to be of a few tens of nanometers. From comparing the effect in arrays of cylindrical holes and holes of complex chiral shape, it is concluded that the detection sensitivity is determined by the plasmonic near field enhancement. The intrinsic chirality of the arrays due to their shape appears to be less important.

  8. Near-Infrared Super Resolution Imaging with Metallic Nanoshell Particle Chain Array

    CERN Document Server

    Kong, Weijie; Cao, Penfei; Cheng, Lin; Gong, Li; Zhao, Xining; Yang, Lili

    2012-01-01

    We propose a near-infrared super resolution imaging system without a lens or a mirror but with an array of metallic nanoshell particle chain. The imaging array can plasmonically transfer the near-field components of dipole sources in the incoherent and coherent manners and the super resolution images can be reconstructed in the output plane. By tunning the parameters of the metallic nanoshell particle, the plasmon resonance band of the isolate nanoshell particle red-shifts to the near-infrared region. The near-infrared super resolution images are obtained subsequently. We calculate the field intensity distribution at the different planes of imaging process using the finite element method and find that the array has super resolution imaging capability at near-infrared wavelengths. We also show that the image formation highly depends on the coherence of the dipole sources and the image-array distance.

  9. Ultra-long metal nanowire arrays on solid substrate with strong bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Lan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ultra-long metal nanowire arrays with large circular area up to 25 mm in diameter were obtained by direct electrodeposition on metalized Si and glass substrates via a template-based method. Nanowires with uniform length up to 30 μm were obtained. Combining this deposition process with lithography technology, micrometre-sized patterned metal nanowire array pads were successfully fabricated on a glass substrate. Good adhesion between the patterned nanowire array pads and the substrate was confirmed using scanning acoustic microscopy characterization. A pull-off tensile test showed strong bonding between the nanowires and the substrate. Conducting atomic force microscopy (C-AFM measurements showed that approximately 95% of the nanowires were electrically connected with the substrate, demonstrating its viability to use as high-density interconnect.

  10. Pure Electric and Pure Magnetic Resonances in Near-Infrared Metal Double-Triangle Metamaterial Arrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Zhi-Shen; PAN Jian; CHEN Zhuo; ZHAN Peng; MIN Nai-Ben; WANG Zhen-Lin

    2011-01-01

    @@ We experimentally and numerically investigate the optical properties of metamaterial arrays composed of double partially-overlapped metallic nanotriangles fabricated by an angle-resolved nanosphere lithography.We demonstrate that each double-triangle can be viewed as an artificial magnetic element analogous to the conventional metal split-ring-resonator.It is shown that under normal-incidence conditions,individual double-triangle can exhibit a strong local magnetic resonance,but the collective response of the metamaterial arrays is purely electric because magnetic resonances of the two double-triangles in a unit cell having opposite openings are out of phase.For oblique incidences the metamaterial arrays are shown to support a pure magnetic response at the same frequency band.Therefore,switchable electric and magnetic resonances are achieved in double-triangle arrays.Moreover,both the electric and magnetic resonances axe shown to allow for a tunability over a large spectral range down to near-infrared.%We experimentally and numerically investigate the optical properties of metamaterial arrays composed of double partially-overlapped metallic nanotriangles fabricated by an angle-resolved nanosphere lithography. We demonstrate that each double-triable can be viewed as an artificial magnetic element analogous to the conventional metal split-ring-resonator. It is shown that under normal-incidence conditions, individual double-triangle can exhibit a strong local magnetic resonance, but the collective response of the metamaterial arrays is purely electric because magnetic resonances of the two double-triangles in a unit cell having opposite openings are out of phase.For oblique incidences the metamaterial arrays are shown to support a pure magnetic response at the same frequency band. Therefore, switchable electric and magnetic resonances are achieved in double-triangle arrays.Moreover, both the electric and magnetic resonances are shown to allow for a tunability over

  11. Plasmonic lasing of nanocavity embedding in metallic nanoantenna array

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Cheng; Ni, Yuan; Li, Mingzhuo; Mao, Lei; Liu, Chen; Zhang, Douguo; Ming, Hai; Wang, Pei

    2014-01-01

    Plasmonic nanolasers have ultrahigh lasing thresholds, especially those devices for which all three dimensions are truly subwavelength. Because of a momentum mismatch between the propagating light and localized optical field of the subwavelength nanocavity, poor optical pumping efficiency is another important reason for the ultrahigh threshold but is normally always ignored. Based on a cavity-embedded nanoantenna array design, we demonstrate a room-temperature low-threshold plasmonic nanolaser that is robust, reproducible, and easy-to-fabricate using chemical-template lithography. The mode volume of the device is~0.22({\\lambda}/2n)3 (here,{\\lambda} is resonant wavelength and n is the refractive index), and the experimental lasing threshold produced is ~2.70MW/mm2. The lasing polarization and the function of nanoantenna array are investigated in detail. Our work provides a new strategy to achieve room-temperature low-threshold plasmonic nanolasers of interest in applications to biological sensoring and informa...

  12. Vast Hole- and Electron-Polaron Spatial Extent in Oligomeric π-Conjugated Porphyrin Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angiolillo, Paul; Rawson, Jeff; Therien, Michael

    meso-Ethyne bridged π-conjugated zinc porphyrin oligomers (PZnn compounds) have been demonstrated to evince lowest excited singlet states that are globally delocalized. It has also previously been shown that hole-polaron states of these oligomers exhibit delocalization lengths that mirror the molecular spatial dimension, 7.5 nm in the case of the heptamer. Here we demonstrate that the electron-polaron states in PZnn compounds also feature vast areal delocalization. This finding is evidenced by concurrent optical and electron spin resonance measurements, coupled with electronic structure calculations that suggest atypically small reorganization energies for one-electron reduction of these materials. These results are buttressed by electron spin relaxation measurements of PZnn electron polarons that show that both T1 and T2 relaxation times are unusually large, on the order of 103 ns and 102 ns, respectively. Since rapid charge delocalization defines an important mechanism that mitigates Coulombic stabilization of photogenerated electron-hole pairs to create separated free charge carriers, and spin polarization lifetimes feature prominently in spin currents, these findings identify conjugated materials with exceptional optical, electronic, and spintronic properties.

  13. Fabrication of sub-10 nm metal nanowire arrays with sub-1 nm critical dimension control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Shuang; Lin, Peng; Xia, Qiangfei

    2016-11-01

    Sub-10 nm metal nanowire arrays are important electrodes for building high density emerging ‘beyond CMOS’ devices. We made Pt nanowire arrays with sub-10 nm feature size using nanoimprint lithography on silicon substrates with 100 nm thick thermal oxide. We further studied the critical dimension (CD) evolution in the fabrication procedure and achieved 0.4 nm CD control, providing a viable solution to the imprint lithography CD challenge as specified by the international technology roadmap for semiconductors. Finally, we fabricated Pt/TiO2/Pt memristor crossbar arrays with the 8 nm electrodes, demonstrating great potential in dimension scaling of this emerging device.

  14. A microwave transmission-line network guiding electromagnetic fields through a dense array of metallic objects

    CERN Document Server

    Alitalo, Pekka; Vehmas, Joni; Tretyakov, Sergei

    2008-01-01

    We present measurements of a transmission-line network, designed for cloaking applications in the microwave region. The network is used for channelling microwave energy through an electrically dense array of metal objects, which is basically impenetrable to the impinging electromagnetic radiation. With the designed transmission-line network the waves emitted by a source placed in an air-filled waveguide, are coupled into the network and guided through the array of metallic objects. Our goal is to illustrate the simple manufacturing, assembly, and the general feasibility of these types of cloaking devices.

  15. Near-unity transparency of a continuous metal film via cooperative effects of double plasmonic arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng-qi; Liu, Gui-qiang; Zhou, Hai-qing; Liu, Xiao-shan; Huang, Kuan; Chen, Yuan-hao; Fu, Guo-lan

    2013-04-19

    Metal structures with high optical transparency and conductivity are of great importance for practical applications in optoelectronic devices. Here we investigate the transparency response of a continuous metal film sandwiched by double plasmonic nanoparticle arrays. The upper nanoparticle array shows efficient light trapping of the incident field, acting as a light input coupler, and the lower nanoparticle array shows a light release gate opening at the other side, acting as the light output coupler. The strong near-field light-matter interactions of the nano-scale separated plasmonic nanoparticles, the excitation of surface plasmon waves of the metal film, and their cooperative coupling effects result in broadband scattering cancellation and near-unity transparency (up to 96%) in the optical regime. The transparency response in such a structure can be efficiently modified by varying the gap distance of adjacent nanoparticles, dielectric environments, and the distance between the plasmonic array and the metal film. This motif may provide a new alternative approach to obtain transparent and highly conducting metal structures with potential applications in transparent conductors, plasmonic filters, and highly integrated light input and output components.

  16. Printable nanoscale metal ring arrays via vertically aligned carbon nanotube platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Ho; Yoon, Seungha; Jeong, Huisu; Han, Mingu; Choi, Sung Mook; Kim, Jong Guk; Park, Ji-Woong; Jung, Gun Young; Cho, Beong Ki; Kim, Won Bae

    2013-11-01

    This paper reports a novel and efficient strategy for fabricating sub-100 nm metal ring arrays using a simple printing process. Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes that are supported by hexagonally ordered channels of alumina matrices are used as a stamp to print nanoscale ring patterns, which is a very unique stamping platform that has never been reported. Using this strategy, uniform nanoring patterns of various metals can be directly printed onto a wide range of substrate surfaces under ambient conditions. Significantly, the size and interval of the printed nanorings can be systematically tuned by controlling the ring-shaped tip dimensions of the pristine stamps. An advanced example of these printable nanoscale metal ring arrays is explicitly embodied in this work by investigation of the plasmon resonances of metal nanorings with different sizes and intervals.

  17. High-sensitivity high-throughput chip based biosensor array for multiplexed detection of heavy metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hai; Tang, Naimei; Jairo, Grace A.; Chakravarty, Swapnajit; Blake, Diane A.; Chen, Ray T.

    2016-03-01

    Heavy metal ions released into the environment from industrial processes lead to various health hazards. We propose an on-chip label-free detection approach that allows high-sensitivity and high-throughput detection of heavy metals. The sensing device consists of 2-dimensional photonic crystal microcavities that are combined by multimode interferometer to form a sensor array. We experimentally demonstrate the detection of cadmium-chelate conjugate with concentration as low as 5 parts-per-billion (ppb).

  18. Plasmon hybridization in silver nanoislands as semishell arrays coupled to a thin metallic film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maaroof, Abbas; Nygaard, Jens Vinge; Sutherland, Duncan S

    2011-01-01

    interactions for such a nanosystem exhibits two pronounced resonances and interpret the coupling in terms of Fano resonances. The higher energy resonance is identified as a symmetric hybridization mode between localized plasmon resonances in the island semishell array and surface plasmon polaritons...... in the metal film and while the lower energy resonance is identified as a corresponding anti-symmetric hybridization mode. Increasing the size of the particle arrays enhances and red shifts the resonances. We show that adding a dielectric spacer between the semishell island array and the metal film results...... in a red shifting of the resonances and introduce an additional high energy spectral peak. The effect of the spacer layer is interpreted as a reduced hybridization and the generation of additional localized surface plasmon resonances....

  19. The correlation of black hole mass with metallicity index of host spheroid

    CERN Document Server

    Kisaka, Shota; Otani, Yosuke

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the correlation between the mass of the supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and metal abundance, using existing data sets. The SMBH mass $M_{bh}$ is well correlated with integrated stellar feature of Mgb. For 28 galaxies, the best-fit $M_{bh}$-Mgb relation has a small scatter, which is an equivalent level with other well-known relation, such as a correlation between the stellar velocity dispersion and the mass. An averaged iron index $$ also positively correlates with $M_{bh}$, but the best-fit $M_{bh}$-$$ relation has a larger scatter. The difference comes from the synthesis and evolution mechanisms, and may be important for the SMBH and star formation history in the host spheroid.

  20. Laser cutting of holes in thick sheet metals: Development of stress field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Arif, A. F. M.; Aleem, B. J. Abdul

    2009-09-01

    Laser cutting of hole in a mild steel thick sheet metal is investigated. Temperature and stress fields developed around the cutting section are simulated using the finite element method. An experimental is carried out accommodating the simulation parameters. The residual stress developed in the cutting section is measured using the XRD technique and findings are compared with the predictions. Optical microscopy and SEM are carried out to examine the morphological changes in the cutting sections. It is found that temperature decays sharply in the region of the laser heat source, which results in high temperature gradient in this region. This causes the development of high stress levels around the cut edges. The residual stresses predicted are in agreement with the measured results.

  1. European Pulsar Timing Array Limits on Continuous Gravitational Waves from Individual Supermassive Black Hole Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Babak, Stanislav; Sesana, Alberto; Brem, Patrick; Rosado, Pablo A; Taylor, Stephen R; Lassus, Antoine; Hessels, Jason W T; Bassa, Cees G; Burgay, Marta; Caballero, R Nicolas; Champion, David J; Cognard, Ismael; Desvignes, Gregory; Gair, Jonathan R; Guillemot, Lucas; Janssen, Gemma H; Karuppusamy, Ramesh; Kramer, Michael; Lazarus, Patrick; Lee, K J; Lentati, Lindley; Liu, Kuo; Mingarelli, Chiara M F; Oslowsky, Stefan; Perrodin, Delphine; Possenti, Andrea; Purver, Mark B; Sanidas, Sotiris; Smits, Roy; Stappers, Ben; Theureau, Gilles; Tiburzi, Caterina; van Haasteren, Rutger; Vecchio, Alberto; Verbiest, Joris P W

    2015-01-01

    We have searched for continuous gravitational wave (CGW) signals produced by individually resolvable, circular supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) in the latest EPTA dataset, which consists of ultra-precise timing data on 41 millisecond pulsars. We develop frequentist and Bayesian detection algorithms to search both for monochromatic and frequency-evolving systems. None of the adopted algorithms show evidence for the presence of such a CGW signal, indicating that the data are best described by pulsar and radiometer noise only. Depending on the adopted detection algorithm, the 95\\% upper limit on the sky-averaged strain amplitude lies in the range $6\\times 10^{-15}10^9$M$_\\odot$ out to a distance of about 25Mpc, and with $\\cal{M}_c>10^{10}$M$_\\odot$ out to a distance of about 1Gpc ($z\\approx0.2$). We show that state-of-the-art SMBHB population models predict $<1\\%$ probability of detecting a CGW with the current EPTA dataset, consistent with the reported non-detection. We stress, however, that PTA lim...

  2. Damage detection in multilayered fiber-metal laminates using guided-wave phased array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maghsoodi, Ameneh; Ohadi, Abdolrezap; Sadighi, Mojtaba; Amindavar, Hamidreza [Amirkabir University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    This study employs the Lamb wave method to detect damage in Fiber-metal laminates (FMLs). The method is based on quasiisotropic behavior approximation and beam forming techniques. Delay and sum and minimum variance distorsionless response beam formers are applied to a uniform linear phased array. The simulation in finite element software is conducted to evaluate the performance of the presented procedure. The two types of damage studied are the following: (1) Delamination between fiber-epoxy and metal layers and (2) crack on the metal layer. The present study has the following important contributions: (1) Health monitoring of multi-damaged FMLs using Lamb waves and beam forming technique, (2) detection of damage type, (3) detection of damage size by 1D phased array, and (4) identification of damages that occurred very close to the laminate edges or close to each other.

  3. The BlackGEM array in search of black hole mergers: integrated performance modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelfsema, Ronald; Klein Wolt, Marc; Bloemen, Steven; Groot, Paul; Bettonvil, Felix; Balster, Harry; Dolron, Peter; van Elteren, Arjen; Engels, Arno; de Haan, Menno; ter Horst, Rik; Kragt, Jan; Navarro, Ramon; Nelemans, Gijs; Paalberends, Willem Jelle; Pal, Sari; Raskin, Gert; Rutten, Harrie; Scheers, Bart; Schuil, Menno; Sybilski, Piotr

    2016-07-01

    The Radboud University Nijmegen in collaboration with the NOVA Optical Infrared Instrumentation group at ASTRON is currently leading the development and realization of the BlackGEM observing facility. The BlackGEM science team aims to be the first to catch the optical counterpart of a gravitational wave event. The BlackGEM project will put an array of three medium-sized optical telescopes at the La Silla site of the European Southern Observatory in Chile. It is uniquely equipped to achieve a combination of wide-field and high sensitivity through its array-like approach. Each BlackGEM unit telescope is a modified Dall-Kirkham-type telescope consisting of a 65cm primary mirror, a 21cm spherical secondary mirror and a triplet corrector lens. The spatial resolution on the sky will be 0.56 asec/pixel and the total field-of-view per telescope is 2.7 square degrees. The main requirement is to achieve a 5-sigma sensitivity of 23rd magnitude within a 5-minute exposure under 15 m/s wind gust conditions. This demands a very stable optical system with tight control of all the error contributions. This has been realized with a spreadsheet based integrated instrument model. The model contains all relevant telescope instrument parameters and environmental conditions. The spreadsheet is partly used for performance calculations and partly used to combine and integrate the output from several other sources. The spreadsheet model calculates the overall performance based on an Exposure Time Calculator using the Noise Equivalent Area metric (NEA). The NEA is further budgeted over 7 main High Level Requirements. The spreadsheet model is coupled to 1) a ZEMAX telescope optical model 2) a telescope FEM analysis to predict the optomechanical response under various gravity, temperature and wind load conditions, 3) a Matlab Simulink thermal model to predict the transient temperature behaviour of the most important telescope elements and 4) a Matlab Simulink control model to predict the

  4. The effect of holes in the dispersion relation of propagative surface plasmon modes of nanoperforated semitransparent metallic films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kekesi, R., E-mail: renata.kekesi@csic.es; Meneses-Rodríguez, D.; García-Pérez, F.; González, M. U.; García-Martín, A.; Cebollada, A.; Armelles, G., E-mail: gaspar@imm.cnm.csic.es [IMM-Instituto de Microelectrónica de Madrid (CNM-CSIC), Isaac Newton 8, PTM, E-28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain)

    2014-10-07

    We have analysed the effect that holes have on the properties of propagative surface plasmon modes in semitransparent nanoperforated Au films. The modes have been excited in Kretschmann configuration. Contrary to continuous films, where only one mode is excited, two modes are observed in Au nanohole array. The origin of this different behavior is discussed using effective optical properties for the nanoperforated films. The presence of the holes affects the effective optical constants of the membranes in two ways: it changes the contribution of the free electrons, and it gives rise to a localized transition due to a hole induced plasmon resonance. This localized transition interacts with the propagative surface plasmon modes, originating the two detected modes.

  5. A Very Large Array Search for Intermediate-Mass Black Holes in Globular Clusters in M81

    CERN Document Server

    Wrobel, J M; Middleton, M J

    2016-01-01

    Nantais et al. used the Hubble Space Telescope to localize probable globular clusters (GCs) in M81, a spiral galaxy at a distance of 3.63 Mpc. Theory predicts that GCs can host intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) with masses M_BH \\sim 100 - 100,000 M_sun. Finding IMBHs in GCs could validate a formation channel for seed BHs in the early universe, bolster gravitational-wave predictions for space missions, and test scaling relations between stellar systems and the central BHs they host. We used the NRAO Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) to search for the radiative signatures of IMBH accretion from 206 probable GCs in a mosaic of M81. The observing wavelength was 5.5 cm and the spatial resolution was 1.5 arcsec (26.4 pc). None of the individual GCs are detected, nor are weighted-mean image stacks of the 206 GCs and the 49 massive GCs with stellar masses M_star \\gtrsim 200,000 M_sun. We apply a semi-empirical model to predict the mass of an IMBH that, if undergoing accretion in the long-lived hard X-ray stat...

  6. Deep 3 GHz Observations of the Lockman Hole North with the Very Large Array - 1. Source extraction and uncertainty analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Vernstrom, Tessa; Wall, Jasper; Condon, Jim; Cotton, Bill; Perley, Rick

    2016-01-01

    This is the first of two papers describing the observations and cataloguing of deep 3-GHz observations of the Lockman Hole North using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. The aim of this paper is to investigate, through the use of simulated images, the uncertainties and accuracy of source finding routines, as well as to quantify systematic effects due to resolution, such as source confusion and source size. While these effects are not new, this work is intended as a particular case study that can be scaled and translated to other surveys. We use the simulations to derive uncertainties in the fitted parameters, as well as bias corrections for the actual catalogue (presented in Paper 2). We compare two different source-finding routines, OBIT and AEGEAN, and two different effective resolutions, 8 and 2.75 arcsec. We find that the two routines perform comparably well, with OBIT being slightly better at de-blending sources, but slightly worse at fitting resolved sources. We show that 30 to 70 per cent of sources ...

  7. Microfluidic-based metal enhanced fluorescence for capillary electrophoresis by Ag nanorod arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Chenyu; Cao, Zhen; Deng, Junhong; Huang, Zhifeng; Xu, Zheng; Fu, Junxue; Yobas, Levent

    2014-06-01

    As metal nanorods show much higher metal enhanced fluorescence (MEF) than metal nanospheres, microfluidic-based MEF is first explored with Ag nanorod (ND) arrays made by oblique angle deposition. By measuring the fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) solution sandwiched between the Ag NDs and a piece of cover slip, the enhancement factors (EFs) are found as 3.7 ± 0.64 and 6.74 ± 2.04, for a solution thickness at 20.8 μm and 10 μm, respectively. Because of the strong plasmonic coupling between the adjacent Ag NDs, only the emission of the fluorophores present in the three-dimensional NDs array gets enhanced. Thus, the corresponding effective enhancement factors (EEFs) are revealed to be relatively close, 259 ± 92 and 340 ± 102, respectively. To demonstrate the application of MEF in microfluidic systems, a multilayer of SiO2 NDs/Ag NDs is integrated with a capillary electrophoresis device. At a microchannel depth of 10 μm, an enhancement of 6.5 fold is obtained for amino acids separation detection. These results are very encouraging and open the possibility of MEF applications for the Ag ND arrays decorated microchannels. With the miniaturization of microfluidic devices, microfluidic-based MEF by Ag ND arrays will likely find more applications with further enhancement.

  8. Bilayer–metal assisted chemical etching of silicon microwire arrays for photovoltaic applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. W. Wu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Silicon microwires with lateral dimension from 5 μm to 20 μm and depth as long as 20 μm are prepared by bilayer metal assisted chemical etching (MaCE. A bilayer metal configuration (Metal 1 / Metal 2 was applied to assist etching of Si where metal 1 acts as direct catalyst and metal 2 provides mechanical support. Different metal types were investigated to figure out the influence of metal catalyst on morphology of etched silicon. We find that silicon microwires with vertical side wall are produced when we use Ag/Au bilayer, while cone–like and porous microwires formed when Pt/Au is applied. The different micro-/nano-structures in as-etched silicon are demonstrated to be due to the discrepancy of work function of metal catalyst relative to Si. Further, we constructed a silicon microwire arrays solar cells in a radial p–n junction configurations in a screen printed aluminum paste p–doping process.

  9. High-temperature solar selective absorbers based on a transparent conductive oxide film coated periodic micro-hole array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Makoto; Abe, Toshiro; Iguchi, Fumitada; Yugami, Hiroo

    2017-06-01

    A transparent conductive oxide (TCO) film coated metal microstructures as solar selective absorbers for high-temperature usage exceeding 700°C is introduced. Steep absorption cutoff property and low-emittance at infrared range owing to TCO characteristic can be seen, whereas high-absorptance explained by interaction of incident light and microstructures of which size is submicron is appeared. Honeycomb array cylindrical microcavity of which an absorptance peak appeared at around 0.8 µm was fabricated on a tungsten (W) surface with interference lithography technique. The fabricated sample consist of 1.0 µm indium tin oxide film and W microstructure showed solar absorptance αs = 0.83, hemispherical emittance ɛht = 0.16 assuming the absorber temperature at 700°C, and performance factor η= 0.76. Short duration thermal stability was confirmed at 700°C for 2 h in vacuum condition.

  10. Accumulation of atmospheric radionuclides and heavy metals in cryoconite holes on an Arctic glacier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łokas, Edyta; Zaborska, Agata; Kolicka, Małgorzata; Różycki, Michał; Zawierucha, Krzysztof

    2016-10-01

    Surface of glaciers is covered by mineral and organic dust, together with microorganisms forming cryoconite granules. Despite fact that glaciers and ice sheets constitute significance part of land surface, reservoir of freshwater, and sites of high biological production, the knowledge on the cryoconite granules still remain unsatisfactory. This study presents information on radionuclide and heavy metal contents in cryoconites. Cryoconites collected from the Hans Glacier in SW Spitsbergen reveal high activity concentrations of anthropogenic ((238,239,240)Pu, (137)Cs, (90)Sr) and natural ((210)Pb) radionuclides. The (238)Pu/(239+240)Pu activity ratios in these cryoconites significantly exceed the mean global fallout ratio (0.025). The (238)Pu/(239+240)Pu ranged from 0.064 to 0.118. The (239+240)Pu/(137)Cs varied from 0.011 ± 0.003 to 0.030 ± 0.007. Such activity ratios as observed in these cryoconites were significantly higher than the values characterizing global fallout, pointing to possible contributions of these radionuclides from other sources. Heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Fe, and Mn) in cryoconites exceed both UCC concentrations and local rocks' concentrations, particularly for cadmium. The concentration ratios of stable lead isotopes ((206)Pb/(207)Pb, (208)Pb/(206)Pb) were determined to discriminate between the natural and anthropogenic sources of Pb in cryoconites and to confirm the strong anthropogenic contribution to heavy metal deposition in the Arctic. In investigated cryoconite holes, two groups of invertebrates, both extremophiles, Tardigrada and Rotifera were detected. Our study indicate that cryoconites are aggregates of mineral and organic substances on surfaces of glaciers are able to accumulate large amounts of airborne pollutants bound to extracellular polymeric substances secreted by microorganisms.

  11. Sulphide mineral evolution and metal mobility during alteration of the oceanic crust: Insights from ODP Hole 1256D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, C. G. C.; Pitcairn, I. K.; Teagle, D. A. H.; Harris, M.

    2016-11-01

    Fluxes of metals during the hydrothermal alteration of the oceanic crust have far reaching effects including buffering of the compositions of the ocean and lithosphere, supporting microbial life and the formation of sulphide ore deposits. The mechanisms responsible for metal mobilisation during the evolution of the oceanic crust are complex and are neither fully constrained nor quantified. Investigations into the mineral reactions that release metals, such as sulphide leaching, would generate better understanding of the controls on metal mobility in the oceanic crust. We investigate the sulphide and oxide mineral paragenesis and the extent to which these minerals control the metal budget in samples from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Hole 1256D. The ODP Hole 1256D drill core provides a unique sample suite representative of a complete section of a fast-spreading oceanic crust from the volcanic section down to the plutonic complex. The sulphide population at Hole 1256D is divided into five groups based on mineralogical assemblage, lithological location and texture: the magmatic, metasomatised, high temperature hydrothermal, low temperature and patchy sulphides. The initiation of hydrothermal alteration by downward flow of moderate temperature (250-350 °C) hydrothermal fluids under oxidising conditions leads to metasomatism of the magmatic sulphides in the sheeted dyke and plutonic complexes. Subsequent increase in the degree of hydrothermal alteration at temperatures >350 °C under reducing conditions then leads to the leaching of the metasomatised sulphides by rising hydrothermal fluids. Mass balance calculations show that the mobility of Cu, Se and Au occurs through sulphide leaching during high temperature hydrothermal alteration and that the mobility of Zn, As, Sb and Pb is controlled by silicate rather than sulphide alteration. Sulphide leaching is not complete at Hole 1256D and more advanced alteration would mobilise greater masses of metals. Alteration of oxide

  12. In situ fabrication of inorganic nanowire arrays grown from and aligned on metal substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weixin; Yang, Shihe

    2009-10-20

    The full potential of nanotechnology can be unleashed only when one is able not only to synthesize a rich variety of nanoscale building blocks but also assemble them into various patterns at the supramolecular and supracluster levels. In particular, the application of nanoparticle and nanowire materials often requires their assembly in the form of thin films, preferably on conductive surfaces for electrical addressing, control, and detection. Although a dazzling array of nanostructures has been fabricated by bottom-up approaches, one of the contemporary challenges is to assemble these nanostructures so that they introduce and realize functionalities. An alluring avenue is to simultaneously accomplish both the nanostructure synthesis and assembly on a useful substrate in a parallel fashion, affording the advantages of simplicity, low cost, and high throughput. In this Account, we review our recent work on growing inorganic nanowires (for example, metal sulfides, metal oxides, and so forth) directly from and on metal substrates in arrays without using templates and catalysts. This method of engineering nanowire arrays on metal substrates integrates the nanowire synthesis and assembly into a parallel process, both in time and in space, by exploiting in situ chemistry on the metal substrates. Both gas-phase and solution-phase approaches have been developed to synthesize the aligned nanowires; here, full advantage is taken of interfacial kinetics of restricted diffusion and surface-specific reactions, often accompanied by new interfacial growth mechanisms. The setting of nanowire arrays on metal substrates has allowed exploration of their application potentials in areas such as field electron emission and chemical sensing. The approaches described here are general, and we predict that they will be extended to more inorganic materials, such as metal halides. Moreover, as more control is achieved with synthetic methods, inorganic nanowire arrays should provide unusual

  13. Leaky domino-modes in regular arrays of substantially thick metal nanostrips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voroshilov, Pavel M.; Simovski, Constantin R.

    2016-07-01

    In previous works, an efficient light trapping performed by arrays of metal nanoantennas whose building block was a slightly tapered (trapezoidal) substantially thick nanostrip was revealed. This light trapping implied a broad spectrum of solar light concentrated in a subwavelength depth of the semiconductor substrate. This is a very advantageous feature allowing our structure to enhance thin-film solar cells. However, the physics of the broadband resonant absorption in the substrate was not investigated. In the present paper, we show that our arrays support so-called leaky domino-modes, responsible for such the light trapping. These modes are multipole oscillations of the array of substantially thick nanostrips. In this work we have thoroughly studied these leaky modes relating them to resonances of high-order multipole moments and to broadband light-trapping effect.

  14. Flexible complementary metal oxide semiconductor microelectrode arrays with applications in single cell characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajouhi, H.; Jou, A. Y.; Jain, R.; Ziabari, A.; Shakouri, A.; Savran, C. A.; Mohammadi, S.

    2015-11-01

    A highly flexible microelectrode array with an embedded complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) instrumentation amplifier suitable for sensing surfaces of biological entities is developed. The array is based on ultrathin CMOS islands that are thermally isolated from each other and are interconnected by meandered nano-scale wires that can adapt to cellular surfaces with micro-scale curvatures. CMOS temperature sensors are placed in the islands and are optimally biased to have high temperature sensitivity. While no live cell thermometry is conducted, a measured temperature sensitivity of 0.15 °C in the temperature range of 35 to 40 °C is achieved by utilizing a low noise CMOS lock-in amplifier implemented in the same technology. The monolithic nature of CMOS sensors and amplifier circuits and their versatile flexible interconnecting wires overcome the sensitivity and yield limitations of microelectrode arrays fabricated in competing technologies.

  15. Fabrication of porous silicon by metal-assisted etching using highly ordered gold nanoparticle arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheeler, Sebastian P.; Ullrich, Simon; Kudera, Stefan; Pacholski, Claudia

    2012-08-01

    A simple method for the fabrication of porous silicon (Si) by metal-assisted etching was developed using gold nanoparticles as catalytic sites. The etching masks were prepared by spin-coating of colloidal gold nanoparticles onto Si. An appropriate functionalization of the gold nanoparticle surface prior to the deposition step enabled the formation of quasi-hexagonally ordered arrays by self-assembly which were translated into an array of pores by subsequent etching in HF solution containing H2O2. The quality of the pattern transfer depended on the chosen preparation conditions for the gold nanoparticle etching mask. The influence of the Si surface properties was investigated by using either hydrophilic or hydrophobic Si substrates resulting from piranha solution or HF treatment, respectively. The polymer-coated gold nanoparticles had to be thermally treated in order to provide a direct contact at the metal/Si interface which is required for the following metal-assisted etching. Plasma treatment as well as flame annealing was successfully applied. The best results were obtained for Si substrates which were flame annealed in order to remove the polymer matrix - independent of the substrate surface properties prior to spin-coating (hydrophilic or hydrophobic). The presented method opens up new resources for the fabrication of porous silicon by metal-assisted etching. Here, a vast variety of metal nanoparticles accessible by well-established wet-chemical synthesis can be employed for the fabrication of the etching masks.

  16. Formation and manipulation of regular metallic nanoparticle arrays on bacterial surface layers: an advanced TEM study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertig, M.; Wahl, R.; Lehmann, M.; Simon, P.; Pompe, W.

    The template-directed formation of regular nanoparticle arrays on two-dimensional crystalline protein layers after their treatment with metal salt complexes was studied by transmission electron microscopy. For these investigations, bacterial surface layers (S layers), recrystallized in vitro into sheets and tube-shaped protein crystals with typical dimensions in the micrometer range, were used as the template. As identified by electron holography and scanning force microscopy, the S-layer tubes form alternating double layers when deposited onto a solid substrate surface. Two distinct pathways for the metal particle formation at the templates have been found: the site-specific growth of metal clusters by chemical reduction of the metal salt complexes, and the electron-beam induced growth of nanoparticles in the transmission electron microscope. Both mechanisms lead to regular arrays with particle densities > 6×1011cm-2. Nanoparticle formation by electron exposure takes exclusively place in the flat-lying double-layered protein tubes, where a sufficient amount of metal complexes can be accumulated during sample preparation.

  17. Metal-mediated Multiporphyrin Arrays at Interfaces:Preparation, Electrochemistry, Catalytic Oxidation of Nitrite and NO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Manganese porphyrins have attracted growing interest because of their unique physical and chemical properties,such as mimicking the role of Mn complex in photosystem Ⅱ and acting as electrocatalysts towards the oxidation of nitric oxide and nitrite.As one of the bottom-up techniques,we are currently investigating the design,preparation and opto-electrochemical properties of metal-mediated multiporphyrin arrays on the solid surfaces.Because the porphyrins are connected by metal ions via coordin...

  18. Nanogroove array on thin metallic film as planar lens with tunable focusing

    OpenAIRE

    Wellems, L. David; Huang, Danhong; Leskova, T. A; Maradudin, A. A.

    2012-01-01

    Numerical results for the distributions of light transmitted through metallic planar lenses composed of symmetric nanogroove arrays on the surfaces of a gold film are presented and explained. Both the near- and far-field distributions of the intensity of light transmitted are calculated by using a Green's function formalism. Results for an optimal transverse focus based on a quadratic variation of groove width are obtained. Meanwhile, a significant dependence of the focal length on the wavele...

  19. SOI metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor photon detector based on single-hole counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wei; Inokawa, Hiroshi; Satoh, Hiroaki; Ono, Atsushi

    2011-08-01

    In this Letter, a scaled-down silicon-on-insulator (SOI) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) is characterized as a photon detector, where photogenerated individual holes are trapped below the negatively biased gate and modulate stepwise the electron current flowing in the bottom channel induced by the positive substrate bias. The output waveforms exhibit clear separation of current levels corresponding to different numbers of trapped holes. Considering this capability of single-hole counting, a small dark count of less than 0.02 s(-1) at room temperature, and low operation voltage of 1 V, SOI MOSFET could be a unique photon-number-resolving detector if the small quantum efficiency were improved.

  20. Gold nanodisc arrays as near infrared metal-enhanced fluorescence platforms with tuneable enhancement factors

    KAUST Repository

    Pang, J.

    2016-12-28

    Metal enhanced fluorescence (MEF) is a physical effect through which the near-field interaction of fluorophores with metallic nanoparticles can lead to large fluorescence enhancement. MEF can be exploited in many fluorescence-based biomedical applications, with potentially significant improvement in detection sensitivity and contrast enhancement. Offering lower autofluorescence and minimal photoinduced damage, the development of effective and multifunctional MEF platforms in the near-infrared (NIR) region, is particularly desirable. In this work, the enhancement of NIR fluorescence caused by interaction with regular arrays of cylindrical gold (Au) nanoparticles (nanodiscs), fabricated through nanosphere lithography, is reported. Significant MEF of up to 235 times is obtained, with tuneable enhancement factors. The effect of array structure on fluorescence enhancement is investigated by semi-quantitatively de-convoluting excitation enhancement from emission enhancement, and modelling the local electric field enhancement. By considering arrays of Au nanodiscs with the same extinction maximum, it is shown that the excitation enhancement, due to increased electric field, is not significantly different for the particle sizes and separation distances considered. Rather, it is seen that the emission from the fluorophore is strongly enhanced, and is dependent on the topography, in particular particle size. The results show that the structural characteristics of Au nanodisc arrays can be manipulated to tune their enhancement factor, and hence their sensitivity.

  1. Deep 3-GHz observations of the Lockman Hole North with the Very Large Array - I. Source extraction and uncertainty analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernstrom, T.; Scott, Douglas; Wall, J. V.; Condon, J. J.; Cotton, W. D.; Perley, R. A.

    2016-09-01

    This is the first of two papers describing the observations and cataloguing of deep 3-GHz observations of the Lockman Hole North using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. The aim of this paper is to investigate, through the use of simulated images, the uncertainties and accuracy of source-finding routines, as well as to quantify systematic effects due to resolution, such as source confusion and source size. While these effects are not new, this work is intended as a particular case study that can be scaled and translated to other surveys. We use the simulations to derive uncertainties in the fitted parameters, as well as bias corrections for the actual catalogue (presented in Paper II). We compare two different source-finding routines, OBIT and AEGEAN, and two different effective resolutions, 8 and 2.75 arcsec. We find that the two routines perform comparably well, with OBIT being slightly better at de-blending sources, but slightly worse at fitting resolved sources. We show that 30-70 per cent of sources are missed or fit inaccurately once the source size becomes larger than the beam, possibly explaining source count errors in high-resolution surveys. We also investigate the effect of blending, finding that any sources with separations smaller than the beam size are fit as single sources. We show that the use of machine-learning techniques can correctly identify blended sources up to 90 per cent of the time, and prior-driven fitting can lead to a 70 per cent improvement in the number of de-blended sources.

  2. Metal-insulator transition and nanoscale phase separation in a hole-doped surface reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulugeta, Daniel; Snijders, Paul; Weitering, Hanno

    2014-03-01

    Doping, the deliberate introduction of impurities to alter electronic or magnetic properties, has been a tremendously successful method to study and understand systems with multiple competing interactions, as reflected in both the widespread use of doped semiconductors and in the large number of emergent electronic phases in doping-dependent phase diagrams of e.g. complex oxides. In low dimensional systems, however, the perturbation to the crystal lattice by the dopant atoms can overwhelm a delicate balance of interactions in e.g. a ground state with coexisting phases. Here we introduce a modulation doping technique used to dope holes in a surface reconstruction of Sn on Si(111). Using variable and low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy, we observe a doping-induced metal-insulator phase transition that is of a displacive nature, contrasting with the order-disorder nature of other surface phase transitions. Moreover, the transition leads to an intrinsic nanoscale phase coexistence at 5 K never before observed on semiconductor surfaces. Clearly, modulation doping allows us to study the delicate balance of interactions in the phase diagram of low-dimensional electronic surface systems that is otherwise experimentally inaccessible. Funded by NSF DMR.

  3. Simulation Based Investigation of Focusing Phased Array Ultrasound in Dissimilar Metal Welds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hun-Hee Kim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Flaws at dissimilar metal welds (DMWs, such as reactor coolant systems components, Control Rod Drive Mechanism (CRDM, Bottom Mounted Instrumentation (BMI etc., in nuclear power plants have been found. Notably, primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC in the DMWs could cause significant reliability problems at nuclear power plants. Therefore, phased array ultrasound is widely used for inspecting surface break cracks and stress corrosion cracks in DMWs. However, inspection of DMWs using phased array ultrasound has a relatively low probability of detection of cracks, because the crystalline structure of welds causes distortion and splitting of the ultrasonic beams which propagates anisotropic medium. Therefore, advanced evaluation techniques of phased array ultrasound are needed for improvement in the probability of detection of flaws in DMWs. Thus, in this study, an investigation of focusing and steering phased array ultrasound in DMWs was carried out using a time reversal technique, and an adaptive focusing technique based on finite element method (FEM simulation. Also, evaluation of focusing performance of three different focusing techniques was performed by comparing amplitude of phased array ultrasonic signals scattered from the targeted flaw with three different time delays.

  4. Spatially correlated two-dimensional arrays of semiconductor and metal quantum dots in GaAs-based heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nevedomskiy, V. N., E-mail: nevedom@mail.ioffe.ru; Bert, N. A.; Chaldyshev, V. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Preobrazhernskiy, V. V.; Putyato, M. A.; Semyagin, B. R. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    A single molecular-beam epitaxy process is used to produce GaAs-based heterostructures containing two-dimensional arrays of InAs semiconductor quantum dots and AsSb metal quantum dots. The twodimensional array of AsSb metal quantum dots is formed by low-temperature epitaxy which provides a large excess of arsenic in the epitaxial GaAs layer. During the growth of subsequent layers at a higher temperature, excess arsenic forms nanoinclusions, i.e., metal quantum dots in the GaAs matrix. The two-dimensional array of such metal quantum dots is created by the δ doping of a low-temperature GaAs layer with antimony which serves as a precursor for the heterogeneous nucleation of metal quantum dots and accumulates in them with the formation of AsSb metal alloy. The two-dimensional array of InAs semiconductor quantum dots is formed via the Stranski–Krastanov mechanism at the GaAs surface. Between the arrays of metal and semiconductor quantum dots, a 3-nm-thick AlAs barrier layer is grown. The total spacing between the arrays of metal and semiconductor quantum dots is 10 nm. Electron microscopy of the structure shows that the arrangement of metal quantum dots and semiconductor quantum dots in the two-dimensional arrays is spatially correlated. The spatial correlation is apparently caused by elastic strain and stress fields produced by both AsSb metal and InAs semiconductor quantum dots in the GaAs matrix.

  5. Ultrathin metal-organic framework array for efficient electrocatalytic water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jingjing; Chen, Sheng; Zhao, Chuan

    2017-06-01

    Two-dimensional metal-organic frameworks represent a family of materials with attractive chemical and structural properties, which are usually prepared in the form of bulk powders. Here we show a generic approach to fabricate ultrathin nanosheet array of metal-organic frameworks on different substrates through a dissolution-crystallization mechanism. These materials exhibit intriguing properties for electrocatalysis including highly exposed active molecular metal sites owning to ultra-small thickness of nanosheets, improved electrical conductivity and a combination of hierarchical porosity. We fabricate a nickel-iron-based metal-organic framework array, which demonstrates superior electrocatalytic performance towards oxygen evolution reaction with a small overpotential of 240 mV at 10 mA cm-2, and robust operation for 20,000 s with no detectable activity decay. Remarkably, the turnover frequency of the electrode is 3.8 s-1 at an overpotential of 400 mV. We further demonstrate the promise of these electrodes for other important catalytic reactions including hydrogen evolution reaction and overall water splitting.

  6. Super-Resolution Imaging by using a Metallic Rod Array in the Near Infrared Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Jie; YE Yong-Hong

    2012-01-01

    An array of metallic rods can transport details below the diffraction limit of an object from the front face to the back face. This super-resolution imaging system has been studied in the microwave, mid-infrared and optical range. We investigate its performance in the near infrared (1550 nm) region. Numerical simulations show that the near-field components of dipole sources are transferred by the excitation and propagation of the surface plasmon mode of the rods. The appropriate length of rods is determined by the excited surface plasmon mode. The spatial resolution is greatly affected by the loss of metal.%An array of metallic rods can transport details below the diffraction limit of an object from the front face to the back face.This super-resolution imaging system has been studied in the microwave,mid-infrared and optical range.We investigate its performance in the near infrared (1550nm) region.Numerical simulations show that the near-field components of dipole sources are transferred by the excitation and propagation of the surface plasmon mode of the rods.The appropriate length of rods is determined by the excited surface plasmon mode.The spatial resolution is greatly affected by the loss of metal.

  7. Surface nano-patterning in realizing large-scale ordered arrays of metallic nanoshells with controllable structures and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shikuan; Xu, Feng; Winkler, Nina; Zhao, Huaping; Lei, Yong [Institute of Materials Physics, University of Muenster (Germany); Center for Nanotechnology (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Surface patterns of metallic nanostructure arrays play an important role in many application areas such as surface-enhanced Raman scattering sensors, lithium-ion batteries, solar cells, and optical devices. Here we present an innovative surface nano-patterning technique in our group for realizing large-scale ordered arrays of metallic spherical nanoshells with well-defined structures. Silver nanoshell arrays are synthesized using polystyrene sphere templates by an electrophoretic process. The fabricated Ag nanoshell arrays have a high controllability of the structural parameters, including the diameter, the surface roughness, and the inter-shell spacing. And the properties of the synthesized nanoshell arrays can be controlled based on the adjustment of the structural parameters. As an example, tunable surface-enhanced Raman scattering and localized surface plasmon resonance of the nanoshell arrays are demonstrated by controlling the structural parameters. The presented surface nano-patterning technique is a general fabrication process in achieving not only metallic nanoshell arrays, but also nanoshell arrays of other materials, such as semiconductors and metallic oxides.

  8. Detection of light pulses using an avalanche-photodiode array with a metal-resistor-semiconductor structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akindinov, AV; Bondarenko, GB; Voloshin, KG; Golovin, VM; Grigoriev, EA; Mal'kevich, DB; Martemiyanov, AN; Smirnitskiy, AV

    2005-01-01

    The results from tests of avalanche-photodiode (APD) arrays with a metal-resistor-semiconductor (MRS) structure are presented. The photodiodes, having a working area of 1 X 1 mm(2), operated in the Geiger mode. MRS APD arrays were tested using light-emitting diodes and as components of scintillation

  9. Detection of light pulses using an avalanche-photodiode array with a metal-resistor-semiconductor structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akindinov, AV; Bondarenko, GB; Voloshin, KG; Golovin, VM; Grigoriev, EA; Mal'kevich, DB; Martemiyanov, AN; Smirnitskiy, AV

    2005-01-01

    The results from tests of avalanche-photodiode (APD) arrays with a metal-resistor-semiconductor (MRS) structure are presented. The photodiodes, having a working area of 1 X 1 mm(2), operated in the Geiger mode. MRS APD arrays were tested using light-emitting diodes and as components of scintillation

  10. Unified theory of surface-plasmonic enhancement and extinction of light transmission through metallic nanoslit arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jae Woong; Lee, Jun Hyung; Song, Seok Ho; Magnusson, Robert

    2014-07-14

    Metallic nanostructures are of immense scientific interest owing to unexpectedly strong interaction with light in deep subwavelength scales. Resonant excitations of surface and cavity plasmonic modes mediate strong light localization in nanoscale objects. Nevertheless, the role of surface plasmon-polaritons (SPP) in light transmission through a simple one-dimensional system with metallic nanoslits has been the subject of longstanding debates. Here, we propose a unified theory that consistently explains the controversial effects of SPPs in metallic nanoslit arrays. We show that the SPPs excited on the entrance and exit interfaces induce near-total internal reflection and abrupt phase change of the slit-guided mode. These fundamental effects quantitatively describe positive and negative effects of SPP excitation in a self-consistent manner. Importantly, the theory shows excellent agreement with rigorous numerical calculations while providing profound physical insight into the properties of nanoplasmonic systems.

  11. Commentary on the Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Model of the Sun: Insight Relative to Coronal Holes, Sunspots, and Solar Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robitaille P.-M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available While mankind will always remain unable to sample the interior of the Sun, the presence of sunspots and coronal holes can provide clues as to its subsurface structure. Insight relative to the solar body can also be gained by recognizing that the Sun must exist in the condensed state and support a discrete lattice structure, as required for the production of its continuous spectrum. In this regard, the layered liquid metallic hydrogen lattice advanced as a condensed model of the Sun (Robitaille P.M. Liquid Metallic Hydrogen: A Building Block for the Liquid Sun. Progr. Phys ., 2011, v. 3, 60–74; Robitaille P.M. Liquid Metallic Hydrogen II: A Critical Assessment of Current and Primordial Helium Levels in Sun. Progr. Phys ., 2013, v. 2, 35–47; Robitaille J.C. and Robitaille P.M. Liquid Metallic Hydrogen III. Intercalation and Lattice Exclusion Versus Gravitational Settling and Their Consequences Relative to Internal Structure, Surface Activity, and Solar Winds in the Sun. Progr. Phys ., 2013, v. 2, in press provides the ability to add structure to the solar interior. This constitutes a significant advantage over the gaseous solar models. In fact, a layered liquid metallic hydrogen lattice and the associated intercalation of non-hydrogen elements can help to account for the position of sunspots and coronal holes. At the same time, this model provides a greater understanding of the mechanisms which drive solar winds and activity.

  12. An Exploration of the Metal Dependent Selectivity of a Metalloporphyrins Coated Quartz Microbalances Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandro Catini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Several studies in the last two decades have demonstrated that metalloporphyrins coated quartz microbalances can be fruitfully used in many diverse applications, spanning from medical diagnosis to environmental control. This large versatility is due to the combination of the flexibility of metalloporphyrins molecular design with the independence of the quartz microbalance signal from the interaction mechanisms. The nature of the metal atom in the metalloporphyrins is often indicated as one of the most effective tools to design differently selective sensors. However, the properties of sensors are also strongly affected by the characteristics of the transducer. In this paper, the role of the metal atom is investigated studying the response, to various volatile compounds, of six quartz microbalance sensors that are based on the same porphyrin but with different metals. Results show that, since quartz microbalances (QMB transducers can sense all the interactions between porphyrin and volatile compounds, the metal ion does not completely determine the sensor behaviour. Rather, the sensors based on the same molecular ring but with different metal ions show a non-negligible common behaviour. However, even if limited, the different metals still confer peculiar properties to the sensors and might drive the sensor array identification of the pool of tested volatile compounds.

  13. An Exploration of the Metal Dependent Selectivity of a Metalloporphyrins Coated Quartz Microbalances Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catini, Alexandro; Kumar, Raj; Capuano, Rosamaria; Martinelli, Eugenio; Paolesse, Roberto; di Natale, Corrado

    2016-01-01

    Several studies in the last two decades have demonstrated that metalloporphyrins coated quartz microbalances can be fruitfully used in many diverse applications, spanning from medical diagnosis to environmental control. This large versatility is due to the combination of the flexibility of metalloporphyrins molecular design with the independence of the quartz microbalance signal from the interaction mechanisms. The nature of the metal atom in the metalloporphyrins is often indicated as one of the most effective tools to design differently selective sensors. However, the properties of sensors are also strongly affected by the characteristics of the transducer. In this paper, the role of the metal atom is investigated studying the response, to various volatile compounds, of six quartz microbalance sensors that are based on the same porphyrin but with different metals. Results show that, since quartz microbalances (QMB) transducers can sense all the interactions between porphyrin and volatile compounds, the metal ion does not completely determine the sensor behaviour. Rather, the sensors based on the same molecular ring but with different metal ions show a non negligible common behaviour. However, even if limited, the different metals still confer peculiar properties to the sensors and might drive the sensor array identification of the pool of tested volatile compounds. PMID:27782032

  14. Arrays of metallic micro-/nano-structures by means of colloidal lithography and laser dewetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinescu, C.; Deepak, K. L. N.; Delaporte, P.; Utéza, O.; Grojo, D.

    2016-06-01

    Long-range arrays of prismatoid metal nanostructures are fabricated by a hybrid methodology, i.e. using Langmuir microsphere films and laser-assisted dewetting. As the initial step, we use colloidal lithography. Monolayers of 1-5 μm polystyrene microspheres covered with a thermally evaporated Ag or Au thin film of controlled thickness (5-50 nm) are then used as masks to pattern the surface of quartz, BK7 glass or silicon substrates, typically in the order of cm2. When removing the spheres by physico-chemical means (ultrasound bath and solvent wash), the resulting surface shows an array of nm-size prismatoid structures (Fischer patterns), that can be further processed by laser. Thus, by using two different lasers (355-nm wavelength, 50-ps duration and 193-nm wavelength, 15-ns duration) for the metal dewetting, we control the shape of the deposited nanostructures. A detailed study is presented here on the reshaping of such metal structures through laser annealing. This new hybrid methodology expands the panel of microsphere-assisted technologies employed in preparing surface nanomaterials.

  15. Extrinsic 2D chirality: giant circular conversion dichroism from a metal-dielectric-metal square array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Tun; Wei, Chenwei; Mao, Libang; Li, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Giant chiroptical responses routinely occur in three dimensional chiral metamaterials (MMs), but their resonance elements with complex subwavelength chiral shapes are challenging to fabricate in the optical region. Here, we propose a new paradigm for obtaining strong circular conversion dichroism (CCD) based on extrinsic 2D chirality in multilayer achiral MMs, showing that giant chiroptical response can be alternatively attained without complex structures. Our structure consists of an array of thin Au squares separated from a continuous Au film by a GaAs dielectric layer, where the Au squares occupy the sites of a rectangular lattice. This structure gives rise to a pronounced extrinsically 2D-chiral effect (CCD) in the mid-infrared (M-IR) region under an oblique incidence, where the 2D-chiral effect is due to the mutual orientation of the Au squares array and the incident light propagation direction; the large magnitude of CCD due to the large difference between left-to-left and right-to-right circularly polarized reflectance conversion efficiencies. PMID:25501766

  16. Amplification of resonant field enhancement by plasmonic lattice coupling in metallic slit arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille Klarskov; Tarekegne, Abebe Tilahun; Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof;

    2016-01-01

    nonlinear spectroscopy. It is well known that local enhancement of the THz field can be obtained for instance in narrow apertures in metallic films. Here we show by simulation, analytical modelling and experiment that the achievable field enhancement in a two-dimensional array of slits with micrometer...... for THz spectroscopy with slit arrays manufactured by standard UV photolithography, with local field strengths in the multi-ten-MV/cm range at kHz repetition rates, and tens of kV/cm at oscillator repetition rates.......Nonlinear spectroscopic investigation in the terahertz (THz) range requires significant field strength of the light fields. It is still a challenge to obtain the required field strengths in free space from table-top laser systems at sufficiently high repetition rates to enable quantitative...

  17. Detection of Trace Heavy Metals Ions by Arrays of Titania Nanotubes Annealed in Nitrogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Zhi-man; XIAO Peng; CAO Guo-zhong

    2009-01-01

    Redox response of trace heavy metals ions(THMIs) has better performance on highly ordered vertically oriented titania nanotube arrays(TNA) annealed in nitrogen. Experimental data showed that different THMIs possess different reaction peak shapes and charge and discharge capacities. Therefore, the TNA will become an important tool used for environmental protection and facilitating the rapid determination of THMIs. THMIs of 5×10~(-4) mol/L concentration were measured at a scan rate of 100 mV/s. The analytical utility of TNA is demonstrated in a neutral 0.5 mol/L Na_2SO_4 solution. The results sufficiently show that titania nanotube arrays electrodes(TNAE) will be used to measure THMIs.

  18. Large Absorption Enhancement in Ultrathin Solar Cells Patterned by Metallic Nanocavity Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zhang, Jiasen; Che, Xiaozhou; Qin, Guogang

    2016-01-01

    A new type of light trapping structure utilizing ring-shaped metallic nanocavity arrays is proposed for the absorption enhancement in ultrathin solar cells with few photonic waveguide modes. Dozens of times of broadband absorption enhancement in the spectral range of 700 to 1100 nm is demonstrated in an ultrathin Si3N4/c-Si/Ag prototype solar cell by means of finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation, and this dramatic absorption enhancement can be attributed to the excitation of plasmonic cavity modes in these nanocavity arrays. The cavity modes optimally compensate for the lack of resonances in the longer wavelength range for ultrathin solar cells, and eventually a maximum Jsc enhancement factor of 2.15 is achieved under AM 1.5G solar illumination. This study opens a new perspective for light management in thin film solar cells and other optoelectronic devices. PMID:27703176

  19. Fabrication of silicon nanowire arrays by macroscopic galvanic cell-driven metal catalyzed electroless etching in aerated HF solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Peng, Kui-Qing; Hu, Ya; Wu, Xiao-Ling; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2014-03-05

    Macroscopic galvanic cell-driven metal catalyzed electroless etching (MCEE) of silicon in aqueous hydrofluoric acid (HF) solution is devised to fabricate silicon nanowire (SiNW) arrays with dissolved oxygen acting as the one and only oxidizing agent. The key aspect of this strategy is the use of a graphite or other noble metal electrode that is electrically coupled with silicon substrate.

  20. Hole-induced insulator-to-metal transition in La1-xSrxCrO3 epitaxial films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hongliang; Du, Yingge; Sushko, Petr; Bowden, Mark E.; Shutthanandan, V.; Sallis, Shawn; Piper, Louis F. J.; Chambers, Scott A.

    2015-04-01

    We have investigated the evolution of the structural and electronic properties of La1-xSrxCrO3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) epitaxial films deposited by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) using x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoemission spectroscopy, x-ray absorption spectroscopy, electrical transport, and ab initio modeling. LaCrO3 is an antiferromagnetic Mott insulator whereas stoichiometric SrCrO3 is a metal. Substituting Sr2+ for La3+ in LaCrO3 effectively dopes holes into the top of valence band, leading to Cr4+ (3d2) local electron configurations. Core-level and valence-band features monotonically shift to lower binding energy with increasing x, indicating downward movement of the Fermi level toward the valence band maximum. An insulator-to-metal like transition is observed at x ≥ 0. 65 even as the material becomes a p-type semiconductor at lower doping level and eventually becomes degenerately doped. Valence band x-ray photoemission spectroscopy reveals diminution of electronic state density at the top of the valence band while O K-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy shows the development of a new unoccupied state above the Fermi level as holes are doped into LaCrO3. These results indicate a pronounced redistribution of electronic state density of states upon hole doping, a result that is also obtained by density functional theory with a Hubbard U correction.

  1. Nanogroove array on thin metallic film as planar lens with tunable focusing

    CERN Document Server

    Wellems, L David; Leskova, T A; Maradudin, A A

    2012-01-01

    Numerical results for the distributions of light transmitted through metallic planar lenses composed of symmetric nanogroove arrays on the surfaces of a gold film are presented and explained. Both the near- and far-field distributions of the intensity of light transmitted are calculated by using a Green's function formalism. Results for an optimal transverse focus based on a quadratic variation of groove width are obtained. Meanwhile, a significant dependence of the focal length on the wavelength of light incident from the air side through the gold film into a dielectric substrate is found for this detector configuration.

  2. Beam Focusing by a Non-Uniformly-Spaced Nanoslit Array in a Metallic Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO Xiao-Jin; WANG Pei; ZHANG Dou-Guo; LU Yong-Hua; XIE Jian-Ping; MING Hai

    2006-01-01

    @@ A finite difference time domain simulation has been performed to analyse the optical transmission through a non-uniformly-spaced nanoslit array in silver film. The phase change of surface plasmons propagating on the silver film is used to modulate the initial phase of the output beam. The beam deflection and focusing function are designed, and the focal depth of the focusing metallic structure are mainly considered. It is found that the focal depth can be controlled by altering the effective width of this structure, i.e. the number of slits, when the relative spacing is fixed.

  3. Funnel-Shaped Arrays of Metal Nano-Cylinders for Nano-Focusing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xiu-Li; FU Yong-Qi; WANG Shi-Yong; PENG An-Jin; CAI Zhong-Heng

    2008-01-01

    We analyse funnel-shaped arrays of metal nanocylinders that can be potentially used as waveguides for nanofocusing of light. The proposed structures consist of Ag nanocylinders with gradually changed radii and discrete spacing arranged like side-view funnels with different angles. Finite-difference and time-domain simulations demonstrate that the proposed structures with different spacings and funnel angles have versatile light propagation characteristics. These structures can focus the incident Gaussian light beam (20Ohm at its full width at half maximum) into beam sizes of 10nm, 15nm, and 20nm, respectively, which corresponds to the transmission efficiencies of 38%, 40%, and 80%.

  4. Elucidating gigahertz acoustic modulation of extraordinary optical transmission through a two-dimensional array of nano-holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbricht, R.; Sakuma, H.; Imade, Y.; Otsuka, P. H.; Tomoda, M.; Matsuda, O.; Kim, H.; Park, G.-W.; Wright, O. B.

    2017-02-01

    The ultrafast modulation of light transmitted by a metamaterial making up an extraordinary optical transmission geometry is investigated by means of optical pump-probe spectroscopy. Using a sample consisting of a lattice of square nano-holes in a gold film on a glass substrate, we monitor the high-frequency oscillations in the intensity of transmitted infrared light. A variety of gigahertz acoustic modes, involving the opening and shutting motion of the holes as well as the straining of the glass substrate below the holes, are revealed to be active in the optical modulation. Numerical simulations of the transient deformations and strain fields elucidate the nature of the vibrational modes contributing most strongly to the variations in optical transmission, and point to the hole-area modulation as the dominant effect. Potential applications include ultrafast acousto-optic modulators.

  5. On the estimation of target depth using the single transmit multiple receive metal detector array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, K. C.; Gader, P. D.

    2012-06-01

    This paper investigates the use of the Single Transmit Multiple Receive (STMR) metal detector (MD) array to estimate the depth of metal targets, such as 155mm shells. The depth estimation problem using MD has been investigated by a number of researchers and the processing was performed along the down-track. The proposed method takes a different approach by exploring the MD responses in cross-track to achieve the depth estimation. It is found that the normalized energy spread of the MD output is narrower for shallow targets and wider for deeper targets. Based on this observation, a method is derived to estimate the depth of a target. Experimental results from the data collected at an U.S. Army test site validate the performance of the proposed depth estimator.

  6. Investigation on Photoelectric Behavior of Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor Structure Based on Titania Nanotubes Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lili; Panaitescu, Eugen; Richter, Christiaan; Menon, Latika

    2014-03-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has attracted great interest as an inexpensive, earth-abundant and environment-friendly anode material for next generation photovoltaic devices and the metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) concept is one of the most promising approaches for improving solar cell cost effectiveness (in /W). We investigated hybrid MIS structures of semiconducting ordered titania nanotube arrays integrated with insulating iron oxide or copper oxide layers and metallic copper. The morphological and structural properties of the samples were analyzed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy with elemental mapping, and X-ray diffraction. The nanotubular morphology represents a step change from the current thin film approach, providing significantly larger surface area while facilitating the charge separation and electron transport. Photoelectric behavior of the new structures was estimated by transient response, quantum efficiency and spectral response, and a solar simulator was used for recording the photovoltaic response.

  7. Wolf-Rayet spin at low metallicity and its implication for black hole formation channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, Jorick S.; Harries, Tim J.

    2017-07-01

    Context. The spin of Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars at low metallicity (Z) is most relevant for our understanding of gravitational wave sources, such as GW 150914, and of the incidence of long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Two scenarios have been suggested for both phenomena: one of them involves rapid rotation and quasi-chemical homogeneous evolution (CHE) and the other invokes classical evolution through mass loss in single and binary systems. Aims: The stellar spin of WR stars might enable us to test these two scenarios. In order to obtain empirical constraints on black hole progenitor spin we infer wind asymmetries in all 12 known WR stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) at Z = 1 / 5 Z⊙ and within a significantly enlarged sample of single and binary WR stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC at Z = 1 / 2 Z⊙), thereby tripling the sample of Vink from 2007. This brings the total LMC sample to 39, making it appropriate for comparison to the Galactic sample. Methods: We measured WR wind asymmetries with VLT-FORS linear spectropolarimetry, a tool that is uniquely poised to perform such tasks in extragalactic environments. Results: We report the detection of new line effects in the LMC WN star BAT99-43 and the WC star BAT99-70, along with the well-known WR LBV HD 5980 in the SMC, which might be undergoing a chemically homogeneous evolution. With the previous reported line effects in the late-type WNL (Ofpe/WN9) objects BAT99-22 and BAT99-33, this brings the total LMC WR sample to four, i.e. a frequency of 10%. Perhaps surprisingly, the incidence of line effects amongst low Z WR stars is not found to be any higher than amongst the Galactic WR sample, challenging the rotationally induced CHE model. Conclusions: As WR mass loss is likely Z-dependent, our Magellanic Cloud line-effect WR stars may maintain their surface rotation and fulfill the basic conditions for producing long GRBs, both via the classical post-red supergiant or luminous blue variable channel, or

  8. Microplasma devices fabricated in silicon, ceramic, and metal/polymer structures: arrays, emitters and photodetectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eden, J G [Laboratory for Optical Physics and Engineering, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Park, S-J [Laboratory for Optical Physics and Engineering, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Ostrom, N P [Laboratory for Optical Physics and Engineering, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); McCain, S T [Laboratory for Optical Physics and Engineering, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Wagner, C J [Laboratory for Optical Physics and Engineering, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Vojak, B A [Laboratory for Optical Physics and Engineering, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Chen, J [Microelectronics Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Liu, C [Microelectronics Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Allmen, P von [Motorola Laboratories, Solid State Research Center, Tempe, AZ 85284 (United States); Zenhausern, F [Motorola Laboratories, Solid State Research Center, Tempe, AZ 85284 (United States); Sadler, D J [Motorola Laboratories, Solid State Research Center, Tempe, AZ 85284 (United States); Jensen, C [Motorola Laboratories, Solid State Research Center, Tempe, AZ 85284 (United States); Wilcox, D L [Motorola Laboratories, Solid State Research Center, Tempe, AZ 85284 (United States); Ewing, J J [Ewing Technology Associates, 5416 143rd Avenue, SE, Bellevue, WA 98006 (United States)

    2003-12-07

    Recent advances in the development of microplasma devices fabricated in a variety of materials systems (Si, ceramic multilayers, and metal/polymer structures) and configurations are reviewed. Arrays of microplasma emitters, having inverted pyramidal Si electrodes or produced in ceramic multilayer sandwiches with integrated ballasting for each pixel, have been demonstrated and arrays as large as 30 x 30 pixels are described. A new class of photodetectors, hybrid semiconductor/microplasma devices, is shown to exhibit photoresponsivities in the visible and near-infrared that are more than an order of magnitude larger than those typical of semiconductor avalanche photodiodes. Microdischarge devices having refractory or piezoelectric dielectric films such as Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} or BN have extended lifetimes ({approx}86% of initial radiant output after 100 h with an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} dielectric) and controllable electrical characteristics. A segmented, linear array of microdischarges, fabricated in a ceramic multilayer structure and having an active length of {approx}1 cm and a clear aperture of 80 x 360 {mu}m{sup 2}, exhibits evidence of gain on the 460.3 nm transition of Xe{sup +}, making it the first example of a microdischarge-driven optical amplifier.

  9. Microplasma devices fabricated in silicon, ceramic, and metal/polymer structures: arrays, emitters and photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eden, J. G.; Park, S.-J.; Ostrom, N. P.; McCain, S. T.; Wagner, C. J.; Vojak, B. A.; Chen, J.; Liu, C.; von Allmen, P.; Zenhausern, F.; Sadler, D. J.; Jensen, C.; Wilcox, D. L.; Ewing, J. J.

    2003-12-01

    Recent advances in the development of microplasma devices fabricated in a variety of materials systems (Si, ceramic multilayers, and metal/polymer structures) and configurations are reviewed. Arrays of microplasma emitters, having inverted pyramidal Si electrodes or produced in ceramic multilayer sandwiches with integrated ballasting for each pixel, have been demonstrated and arrays as large as 30 × 30 pixels are described. A new class of photodetectors, hybrid semiconductor/microplasma devices, is shown to exhibit photoresponsivities in the visible and near-infrared that are more than an order of magnitude larger than those typical of semiconductor avalanche photodiodes. Microdischarge devices having refractory or piezoelectric dielectric films such as Al2O3 or BN have extended lifetimes (~86% of initial radiant output after 100 h with an Al2O3 dielectric) and controllable electrical characteristics. A segmented, linear array of microdischarges, fabricated in a ceramic multilayer structure and having an active length of ~1 cm and a clear aperture of 80 × 360 µm2, exhibits evidence of gain on the 460.3 nm transition of Xe+, making it the first example of a microdischarge-driven optical amplifier.

  10. Stable field emission from arrays of vertically aligned free-standing metallic nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xavier, S.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan; Ferain, E.

    2008-01-01

    We present a fully elaborated process to grow arrays of metallic nanowires with controlled geometry and density, based on electrochemical filling of nanopores in track-etched templates. Nanowire growth is performed at room temperature, atmospheric pressure and is compatible with low cost fabricat......We present a fully elaborated process to grow arrays of metallic nanowires with controlled geometry and density, based on electrochemical filling of nanopores in track-etched templates. Nanowire growth is performed at room temperature, atmospheric pressure and is compatible with low cost...... and a density of ∼10 cm. The electron field emission measurements and total energy distributions show that the as-grown nanowires exhibit a complex behaviour, first with emission activation under high field, followed by unstable emission. A model taking into account the effect of an oxide layer covering...... the nanowire surface is developed to explain this particular field emission behaviour. Finally, we present an in situ cleaning procedure by ion bombardment that collectively removes this oxide layer, leading to a stable and reproducible emission behaviour. After treatment, the emission current density is ∼1 m...

  11. Amplification of resonant field enhancement by plasmonic lattice coupling in metallic slit arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarskov, Pernille; Tarekegne, Abebe T.; Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Zhang, X.-C.; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2016-11-01

    Nonlinear spectroscopic investigation in the terahertz (THz) range requires significant field strength of the light fields. It is still a challenge to obtain the required field strengths in free space from table-top laser systems at sufficiently high repetition rates to enable quantitative nonlinear spectroscopy. It is well known that local enhancement of the THz field can be obtained for instance in narrow apertures in metallic films. Here we show by simulation, analytical modelling and experiment that the achievable field enhancement in a two-dimensional array of slits with micrometer dimensions in a metallic film can be increased by at least 60% compared to the enhancement in an isolated slit. The additional enhancement is obtained by optimized plasmonic coupling between the lattice modes and the resonance of the individual slits. Our results indicate a viable route to sensitive schemes for THz spectroscopy with slit arrays manufactured by standard UV photolithography, with local field strengths in the multi-ten-MV/cm range at kHz repetition rates, and tens of kV/cm at oscillator repetition rates.

  12. Nanosphere lithography based technique for fabrication of large area well ordered metal particle arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelo, Steven J.; Lam, Si-Ty; Gibson, Gary A.; Sheng, Xia; Henze, Dick

    2012-03-01

    Nanosphere lithography is an effective technique for high throughput fabrication of well-ordered patterns, but expanding the method to large area coverage of nanoparticles less than 300 nm in diameter while maintaining good order has proven challenging. Here we demonstrate a nanosphere lithography based technique for fabricating large area, wellordered arrays of hemispherical metal particles which pushes the limits of these size constraints. First, large area monolayers of polystyrene (PS) nanospheres are assembled at an air-water interface and then transferred to a submerged substrate. The submerged substrate is supported at a 10° angle so that the water draining speed can be used to control the transfer rate, which is essential for hydrophobic substrates such as the polymer-coated glass used in our work. A double liftoff procedure was used to transfer the PS pattern to a silver particle array on an arbitrary substrate, achieving tunable control over the final metal particle diameter and spacing in the range of 50-150 nm and 100-200 nm, respectively. Additional control over particle shape and diameter can be obtained by modifying the substrate surface energy. For example, depositing silver on ITO-coated glass rather than a more hydrophilic clean glass substrate leads to a more hemispherical particle shape and a diameter reduction of 20%. Peak wavelength-selective reflection greater than 70% and total extinction greater than 90% were measured. The intensity, position and bandwidth of the main plasmon resonance of the arrays were shown to have minimal angle dependence up to at least 30° off normal.

  13. A method for the formation of Pt metal nanoparticle arrays using nanosecond pulsed laser dewetting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owusu-Ansah, Ebenezer; Horwood, Corie A.; Birss, Viola I.; Shi, Yujun J., E-mail: shiy@ucalgary.ca [Department of Chemistry, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); El-Sayed, Hany A. [Institute for Technical Electrochemistry, Technische Universität München, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-05-18

    Nanosecond pulsed laser dewetting of Pt thin films, deposited on a dimpled Ta (DT) surface, has been studied here in order to form ordered Pt nanoparticle (NP) arrays. The DT substrate was fabricated via a simple electrochemical anodization process in a highly concentrated H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and HF solution. Pt thin films (3–5 nm) were sputter coated on DT and then dewetted under vacuum to generate NPs using a 355 nm laser radiation (6–9 ns, 10 Hz). The threshold laser fluence to fully dewet a 3.5 nm thick Pt film was determined to be 300 mJ/cm{sup 2}. Our experiments have shown that shorter irradiation times (≤60 s) produce smaller nanoparticles with more uniform sizes, while longer times (>60 s) give large nanoparticles with wider size distributions. The optimum laser irradiation time of 1 s (10 pulses) has led to the formation of highly ordered Pt nanoparticle arrays with an average nanoparticle size of 26 ± 3 nm with no substrate deformation. At the optimum condition of 1 s and 500 mJ/cm{sup 2}, as many as 85% of the dewetted NPs were found neatly in the well-defined dimples. This work has demonstrated that pulsed laser dewetting of Pt thin films on a pre-patterned dimpled substrate is an efficient and powerful technique to produce highly ordered Pt nanoparticle arrays. This method can thus be used to produce arrays of other high-melting-point metal nanoparticles for a range of applications, including electrocatalysis, functionalized nanomaterials, and analytical purposes.

  14. Experimental Verification of the Use of Metal Filled Via Hole Fences for Crosstalk Control of Microstrip Lines in LTCC Packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponchak, George E.; Chun, Donghoon; Yook, Jong-Gwan; Katehi, Linda P. B.

    2001-01-01

    Coupling between microstrip lines in dense RF packages is a common problem that degrades circuit performance. Prior three-dimensional-finite element method (3-D-FEM) electromagnetic simulations have shown that metal filled via hole fences between two adjacent microstrip lines actually Increases coupling between the lines: however, if the top of the via posts are connected by a metal strip, coupling is reduced. In this paper, experimental verification of the 3-D-FEM simulations is demonstrated for commercially fabricated low temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) packages. In addition, measured attenuation of microstrip lines surrounded by the shielding structures is presented and shows that shielding structures do not change the attenuation characteristics of the line.

  15. Strange Metallic Behaviour and the Thermodynamics of Charged Dilatonic Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Rene; Kim, Bom Soo

    2011-01-01

    We review a recent holographic analysis arXiv:1005.4690 of charged black holes with scalar hair in view of their applications to the cuprate high temperature superconductors. We show in particular that these black holes show an interesting phase structure including critical behaviour at zero temperature or charge, describe both conductors and insulators (including holographic Mott-like insulators), generically have no residual entropy and exhibit experimentally observed scaling relations between electronic entropy, specific heat and (linear) DC resistivity. Transport properties are discussed in the companion contribution to these proceedings.

  16. Simultaneous determination of pH, urea, acetylcholine and heavy metals using array-based enzymatic optical biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hsiao-chung; Doong, Ruey-an

    2005-03-15

    An array-based optical biosensor for the simultaneous analysis of multiple samples in the presence of unrelated multi-analytes was fabricated. Urease and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were used as model enzymes and were co-entrapped with the sensing probe, FITC-dextran, in the sol-gel matrix to measure pH, urea, acetylcholine (ACh) and heavy metals (enzyme inhibitors). Environmental and biological samples spiked with metal ions were also used to evaluate the application of the array biosensor to real samples. The biosensor exhibited high specificity in identifying multiple analytes. No obvious cross-interference was observed when a 50-spot array biosensor was used for simultaneous analysis of multiple samples in the presence of multiple analytes. The sensing system can determine pH over a dynamic range from 4 to 8.5. The limits of detection (LODs) of 2.5-50 microM with a dynamic range of 2-3 orders of magnitude for urea and ACh measurements were obtained. Moreover, the urease-encapsulated array biosensor was used to detect heavy metals. The analytical ranges of Cd(II), Cu(II), and Hg(II) were between 10 nM and 100 mM. When real samples were spiked with heavy metals, the array biosensor also exhibited potential effectiveness in screening enzyme inhibitors.

  17. Effect of metallation, substituents and inter/intra-molecular polarization on electronic couplings for hole transport in stacked porphyrin dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Fernández, F; Pavanello, M; Visscher, L

    2016-08-03

    We carried out a systematic study of the hole transport properties for a series of symmetrically stacked porphyrin dimers. In the first part of this study, we evaluated the sensitivity of electronic couplings to orbital relaxation due to molecular ionization and intermolecular interactions for a series of halogenated porphyrins. The effect of polarization was estimated by comparing electronic couplings from fragment orbital density functional theory (FODFT) and frozen density embedding electron transfer (FDE-CT). For the dimers considered, the effect of polarization was estimated to be less than 20%, in line with previous studies on different molecular dimers. Thus, we decided to employ a computationally cheaper FODFT method to continue our study of the effect of metals and substituents on the electronic couplings for hole transfer. We find that, compared to the non-metallated porphyrins, Ni, Fe and Pt significantly reduce the coupling, while Zn, Ti, Cd and Pd increase it. The effect of substituents was studied on a series of meso-substituted porphyrins (meso-tetrapyridineporphyrin, meso-tetraphenylporphyrin and derivatives) for which we could relate a reduction of the coupling to steric effects that reduce the overlap between the frontier orbitals of the monomers.

  18. Chemiresistive Sensor Arrays from Conductive 2D Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Michael G; Liu, Sophie F; Swager, Timothy M; Dincă, Mircea

    2015-11-04

    Applications of porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) in electronic devices are rare, owing in large part to a lack of MOFs that display electrical conductivity. Here, we describe the use of conductive two-dimensional (2D) MOFs as a new class of materials for chemiresistive sensing of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). We demonstrate that a family of structurally analogous 2D MOFs can be used to construct a cross-reactive sensor array that allows for clear discrimination between different categories of VOCs. Experimental data show that multiple sensing mechanisms are operative with high degrees of orthogonality, establishing that the 2D MOFs used here are mechanistically unique and offer advantages relative to other known chemiresistor materials.

  19. Coating and enhanced photocurrent of vertically aligned zinc oxide nanowire arrays with metal sulfide materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volokh, Michael; Diab, Mahmud; Magen, Osnat; Jen-La Plante, Ilan; Flomin, Kobi; Rukenstein, Pazit; Tessler, Nir; Mokari, Taleb

    2014-08-27

    Hybrid nanostructures combining zinc oxide (ZnO) and a metal sulfide (MS) semiconductor are highly important for energy-related applications. Controlled filling and coating of vertically aligned ZnO nanowire arrays with different MS materials was achieved via the thermal decomposition approach of single-source precursors in the gas phase by using a simple atmospheric-pressure chemical vapor deposition system. Using different precursors allowed us to synthesize multicomponent structures such as nanowires coated with alloy shell or multishell structures. Herein, we present the synthesis and structural characterization of the different structures, as well as an electrochemical characterization and a photovoltaic response of the ZnO-CdS system, in which the resulting photocurrent upon illumination indicates charge separation at the interface.

  20. Phased array ultrasonic testing of dissimilar metal welds using geometric based referencing delay law technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Taeyoung; Schubert, Frank; Hillmann, Susanne; Meyendorf, Norbert

    2015-03-01

    Phased array ultrasonic testing (PAUT) techniques are widely used for the non-destructive testing (NDT) of austenitic welds to find defects like cracks. However, the propagation of ultrasound waves through the austenitic material is intricate due to its inhomogeneous and anisotropic nature. Such a characteristic leads beam path distorted which causes the signal to be misinterpreted. By employing a reference block which is cutout from the mockup of which the structure is a dissimilar metal weld (DMW), a new method of PAUT named as Referencing Delay Law Technique (RDLT) is introduced. With the RDLT, full matrix capture (FMC) was used for data acquisition. To reconstruct the images, total focusing method (TFM) was used. After the focal laws were calculated, PAUT was then performed. As a result, the flaws are more precisely positioned with significantly increased signal-to-noise ratio (SNR).

  1. Development of Ultra-Low Power Metal Oxide Sensors and Arrays for Embedded Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Brent; Wind, Rikard; Kostelecky, Clayton; Routkevitch, Dmitri; Deininger, Debra

    2011-09-01

    Metal oxide semiconductor sensors are widely used as individual sensors and in arrays, and a variety of designs for low power microhotplates have been demonstrated.1 Synkera Technologies has developed an embeddable chemical microsensor platform, based on a unique ceramic MEMS technology, for practical implementation in cell phones and other mobile electronic devices. Key features of this microsensor platform are (1) small size, (2) ultra-low power consumption, (3) high chemical sensitivity, (4) accurate response to a wide-range of threats, and (5) low cost. The sensor platform is enabled by a combination of advances in ceramic micromachining, and precision deposition of sensing films inside the high aspect ratio pores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO).

  2. Plasmonic nanopatch array with integrated metal-organic framework for enhanced infrared absorption gas sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Xinyuan; Kim, Ki-joong; Zhang, Yujing; Li, Erwen; Ohodnicki, Paul R.; Chang, Chih-Hung; Wang, Alan X.

    2017-06-01

    In this letter, we present a nanophotonic device consisting of plasmonic nanopatch array (NPA) with integrated metal-organic framework (MOF) for enhanced infrared absorption gas sensing. By designing a gold NPA on a sapphire substrate, we are able to achieve enhanced optical field that spatially overlaps with the MOF layer, which can adsorb carbon dioxide (CO2) with high capacity. Experimental results show that this hybrid plasmonic-MOF device can effectively increase the infrared absorption path of on-chip gas sensors by more than 1100-fold. The demonstration of infrared absorption spectroscopy of CO2 using the hybrid plasmonic-MOF device proves a promising strategy for future on-chip gas sensing with ultra-compact size.

  3. Study of metal magnetic memory (MMM) technique using permanently installed magnetic sensor arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhichao; Dixon, Steve; Cawley, Peter; Jarvis, Rollo; Nagy, Peter B.

    2017-02-01

    The metal magnetic memory (MMM) effect has been reported to be a non-destructive testing technique capable of evaluating stress concentration and detecting defects in steel. This method has been shown to work well in some instances, but has failed in other trials. Its mechanism has been explained widely but the sensitivity to stress concentration has not been satisfactorily investigated. In this paper, both the normal and tangential components of the stress induced MMM signal were measured by two permanently installed magnetic sensor arrays on two types of notched L80 steel specimens. As expected, the results show that an externally applied magnetic field changes the magnetic field perturbation due to the notches linearly. Plastic deformation and residual stress around notches will increase the remnant flux leakage but the effects are small, which suggests that the MMM effect is very small in the material tested and that it will not be useful in practice.

  4. Terahertz epsilon-near-zero cut-through metal-slit array antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takehito; Kimura, Tatsuya; Togashi, Takahisa; Kitahara, Hideaki; Ishihara, Koki; Sato, Tatsuya

    2017-02-01

    Metamaterials can give rise to unprecedented refractive indices and drive the rapid development of metadevices with on-demand electromagnetic properties. Recent advances in terahertz science demand high-performance optical elements beyond conventional designs of naturally occurring materials in the terahertz wave band. However, how an epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) structure can exploit terahertz metadevices is still not fully demonstrated based on a physical analysis. Here, inspired by the ENZ concept, we demonstrate a design guideline of a terahertz ENZ cut-through metal-slit array antenna. Measurements by a terahertz imager visualize the beam profile of a terahertz wave, and the measured permittivity of 0.26 agrees well with that of 0.27 obtained by simulation and theory. The terahertz ENZ antenna provides a wide range of potential applications such as high-directivity antennas, beam dividers, beam-steering elements, phase-control devices, and novel filters.

  5. Intelligent Design of Metal Oxide Gas Sensor Arrays Using Reciprocal Kernel Support Vector Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Andrew W.

    Metal oxides are a staple of the sensor industry. The combination of their sensitivity to a number of gases, and the electrical nature of their sensing mechanism, make the particularly attractive in solid state devices. The high temperature stability of the ceramic material also make them ideal for detecting combustion byproducts where exhaust temperatures can be high. However, problems do exist with metal oxide sensors. They are not very selective as they all tend to be sensitive to a number of reduction and oxidation reactions on the oxide's surface. This makes sensors with large numbers of sensors interesting to study as a method for introducing orthogonality to the system. Also, the sensors tend to suffer from long term drift for a number of reasons. In this thesis I will develop a system for intelligently modeling metal oxide sensors and determining their suitability for use in large arrays designed to analyze exhaust gas streams. It will introduce prior knowledge of the metal oxide sensors' response mechanisms in order to produce a response function for each sensor from sparse training data. The system will use the same technique to model and remove any long term drift from the sensor response. It will also provide an efficient means for determining the orthogonality of the sensor to determine whether they are useful in gas sensing arrays. The system is based on least squares support vector regression using the reciprocal kernel. The reciprocal kernel is introduced along with a method of optimizing the free parameters of the reciprocal kernel support vector machine. The reciprocal kernel is shown to be simpler and to perform better than an earlier kernel, the modified reciprocal kernel. Least squares support vector regression is chosen as it uses all of the training points and an emphasis was placed throughout this research for extracting the maximum information from very sparse data. The reciprocal kernel is shown to be effective in modeling the sensor

  6. Flexible Organic Phototransistor Array with Enhanced Responsivity via Metal-Ligand Charge Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xien; Lee, Eun Kwang; Kim, Dong Yeong; Yu, Hojeong; Oh, Joon Hak

    2016-03-23

    Phototransistors based on organic photoactive materials combine tunable light absorption in the spectral region from ultraviolet to near-infrared with low-temperature processability over large areas on flexible substrates. However, they often exhibit low photoresponsivity because of low molar extinction coefficient of photoactive components. We report a simple, yet highly efficient solution method for enhancing the performance of organic phototransistors using ruthenium complex 1 (Ru-complex 1). An air-stable n-type organic semiconductor, N,N'-bis(2-phenylethyl)-perylene-3,4:9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide (BPE-PTCDI), has been deposited on a silicon wafer and a transparent polyimide (PI) substrate via thermal evaporation under vacuum. The BPE-PTCDI phototransistors functionalized with Ru-complex 1 exhibit ∼5000 times higher external quantum efficiency (EQE) than that of pristine BPE-PTCDI phototransistors, owing to the metal-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) from Ru-complex 1 to the active component of the device. In addition, a large 10 × 10 phototransistor array (2.5 × 2.5 cm(2)) has been prepared on a transparent PI substrate, showing distinct light mapping. The fabricated phototransistor array is highly flexible and twistable and works well under tensile and compressive strains. We believe that our simple method will pave a viable way for improvements in the photoresponsivity of organic semiconductors for applications in wearable organic optoelectronic devices.

  7. Enhanced Sensitivity of Surface Acoustic Wave-Based Rate Sensors Incorporating Metallic Dot Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A new surface acoustic wave (SAW-based rate sensor pattern incorporating metallic dot arrays was developed in this paper. Two parallel SAW delay lines with a reverse direction and an operation frequency of 80 MHz on a same X-112°Y LiTaO3 wafer are fabricated as the feedback of two SAW oscillators, and mixed oscillation frequency was used to characterize the external rotation. To enhance the Coriolis force effect acting on the SAW propagation, a copper (Cu dot array was deposited along the SAW propagation path of the SAW devices. The approach of partial-wave analysis in layered media was referred to analyze the response mechanisms of the SAW based rate sensor, resulting in determination of the optimal design parameters. To improve the frequency stability of the oscillator, the single phase unidirectional transducers (SPUDTs and combed transducer were used to form the SAW device to minimize the insertion loss and accomplish the single mode selection, respectively. Excellent long-term (measured in hours frequency stability of 0.1 ppm/h was obtained. Using the rate table with high precision, the performance of the developed SAW rate sensor was evaluated experimentally; satisfactory detection sensitivity (16.7 Hz∙deg∙s−1 and good linearity were observed.

  8. Enhanced sensitivity of surface acoustic wave-based rate sensors incorporating metallic dot arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen; Shao, Xiuting; Liu, Xinlu; Liu, Jiuling; He, Shitang

    2014-02-26

    A new surface acoustic wave (SAW)-based rate sensor pattern incorporating metallic dot arrays was developed in this paper. Two parallel SAW delay lines with a reverse direction and an operation frequency of 80 MHz on a same X-112°Y LiTaO3 wafer are fabricated as the feedback of two SAW oscillators, and mixed oscillation frequency was used to characterize the external rotation. To enhance the Coriolis force effect acting on the SAW propagation, a copper (Cu) dot array was deposited along the SAW propagation path of the SAW devices. The approach of partial-wave analysis in layered media was referred to analyze the response mechanisms of the SAW based rate sensor, resulting in determination of the optimal design parameters. To improve the frequency stability of the oscillator, the single phase unidirectional transducers (SPUDTs) and combed transducer were used to form the SAW device to minimize the insertion loss and accomplish the single mode selection, respectively. Excellent long-term (measured in hours) frequency stability of 0.1 ppm/h was obtained. Using the rate table with high precision, the performance of the developed SAW rate sensor was evaluated experimentally; satisfactory detection sensitivity (16.7 Hz∙deg∙s(-1)) and good linearity were observed.

  9. Heat Transport in the Precursor of Carbon and Metallic Wire Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Jack; Lebedev, Sergey; Bennett, Matthew; Bland, Simon; Burdiak, Guy; Suttle, Lee; Suzuki-Vidal, Francisco; Swadling, George; Velikovich, Alexander

    2014-10-01

    The complex interplay between the transport of heat and magnetic fields in high- β, magnetised plasmas is crucial to the feasibility of Magnetised Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF). We consider using the precursor plasma in a cylindrical wire array to reach the relevant dimensionless parameters for the initial state of the MagLIF plasma. The precursor is a hot, dense, stable plasma formed on the axis by the collision of material ablated from the wires. Simple models show that an axial magnetic field of ~ 5 T could magnetise the precursor (ωeτe ~ 10) at high-beta (β ~ 10). In this regime, the Nernst term may dominate the transport of the magnetic field, affecting the heat transport. The experiments are conducted on MAGPIE (1.4 MA, 250 ns rise time). Metallic wire arrays are standard, but to reduce radiative losses and the electron-ion thermalisation time, we will also consider carbon in the form of 0.3 mm diameter graphite rods. The axial magnetic field can either be provided by external coils or by the drive current. We study the evolution of the plasma density and temperature using laser interferometry and Schlieren imaging, an optical streak camera and Thomson scattering. The magnetic field can be studied using fibre-based polarimetry.

  10. Multispectral optical enhanced transmission of a continuous metal film coated with a plasmonic core-shell nanoparticle array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gui-qiang; Hu, Ying; Liu, Zheng-qi; Cai, Zheng-jie; Zhang, Xiang-nan; Chen, Yuan-hao; Huang, Kuan

    2014-04-01

    We propose and show multispectral optical enhanced transmission in the visible and near-infrared region in a continuous metal film coated with a two-dimensional (2D) hexagonal non-close-packed plasmonic array. The plasmonic array consists of metal/dielectric multilayer core-shell nanoparticles. The excitation of near-field plasmon resonance coupling between adjacent core-shell nanoparticles, plasmon resonance coupling between adjacent metal layers in the nanoparticle, and surface plasmon (SP) waves on the metal film are mainly responsible for the multispectral optical enhanced transmission behavior. The multispectral optical enhanced transmission response could be highly modified in the wavelength range, transparent bandwidth and transmission intensity by varying the geometry parameters including the gap distance between adjacent plasmonic nanoparticles, the size of metal core and the thickness of dielectric layer between the metal layers. In addition, the number of optical enhanced transmission bands increases with the number of metal layers in the plasmonic nanoparticle. The proposed structure shows many merits such as the deep sub-wavelength size, multispectral optical enhanced transmission bands as well as fully retained electric and mechanical properties of the natural metal. These merits may provide promising applications for highly integrated optoelectronic devices including plasmonic filters, nanoscale multiplexers, and nonlinear optics.

  11. Repetitive operation of an L-band magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator with metal array cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Fen; Wang, Dong; Xu, Sha; Zhang, Yong; Fan, Zhi-kai

    2016-04-01

    We present the repetitive operation research results of an L-band magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator with metal array cathode (MAC-MILO) in this paper. To ensure a more uniform emission of electrons emitted from the cathode, metal plates with different outer radii and thicknesses are periodically arranged in longitudinal direction on the cathode substrate to act as emitters. The higher order mode depressed MILO (HDMILO) structure is applied to ensure stability of the tube. Comparison experiments are carried out between velvet cathode and MAC MILO driven by a 20 GW/40 Ω/40 ns/20 Hz pulse power system. Experimental results reveal that the MAC has much lower outgassing rate, much longer life time, and higher repetitive stability. The MAC-MILO could work stably with a rep-rate up to 20 Hz at a power level of 550 MW when employing a 350 kV/35 kA electric pulse. The TE11 mode radiation pattern in the farfield region reveals the tube works steadily on the dominant mode. More than 2000 shots have been tested in repetitive mode without any obvious degradation of the detected microwave parameters.

  12. Plasmonic black metals via radiation absorption by two-dimensional arrays of ultra-sharp convex grooves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beermann, Jonas; Eriksen, René L.; Stær, Tobias Holmgaard;

    2014-01-01

    Plasmonic black surfaces formed by two-dimensional arrays of ultra-sharp convex metal grooves, in which the incident radiation is converted into gap surface plasmon polaritons (GSPPs) and subsequently absorbed (via adiabatic nanofocusing), are fabricated and investigated experimentally for gold...

  13. Percussion hole drilling of metals with a fourth-harmonic Nd:YAG laser studied by defocused laser speckle correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroshnikova, Natalia; Sjödahl, Mikael; Gren, Per; Sárady, Istvan

    2005-06-10

    Defocused speckle correlation is introduced as a tool for measuring the response in metal sheets during percussion laser drilling. For this procedure the fourth-harmonic Nd:YAG wavelength (266 nm) was used in pulsed mode. The method provides a cost-efficient and robust alternative to speckle interferometry for the study of the small deformations that appear during laser processing. The accuracy was shown to be of the order of a few tens of microradians for the tilt component that is measured, which translates to a few nanometers in deflection when the component is spatially integrated. In the measurements, deflections in the form of craters as large as 50 nm were detected on the back sides of silver and copper sheets. The diameters of the craters were 300 microm in the silver and 150 microm in the copper sheet; the output diameter of the hole was -5 microm.

  14. Constraining the Rate of Primordial Black-Hole Explosions and Extra Dimension Scale using a Low-Frequency Radio Antenna Array

    CERN Document Server

    Cutchin, Sean E; Ellingson, Steven W; Larracuente, Amanda S; Kavic, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    An exploding primordial black-hole (PBH) may produce a single pulse of electromagnetic radiation detectable at the low-frequency end of the radio spectrum. Furthermore, a radio transient from an exploding PBH could be a signature of an extra spatial dimension. We describe here an approach for searching for PBH explosions using a low-frequency radio antenna array, and as a practical example, the results of a such a search using the Eight-meter-wavelength Transient Array (ETA). No compelling astrophysical signal was detected in $\\approx 4$ hours of data implying an observational upper limit on the rate of exploding PBHs is $2.3 \\times 10^{-7} \\,\\rm{pc}^{-3}\\,\\rm{yr}^{-1}$ for an exploding PBH with a fireball Lorentz factor of $10^{4.3}$ for the standard scenario of Page and Hawking. This rate is an order of magnitude higher than that set using the Arecibo Observatory during $\\sim 300$~hours of observations, but implies a considerably lower limit can be established with more observing time and a larger number of...

  15. Ultrasonic fingerprint sensor using a piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducer array integrated with complementary metal oxide semiconductor electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Y.; Fung, S.; Wang, Q.; Horsley, D. A. [Berkeley Sensor and Actuator Center, University of California, Davis, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Tang, H.; Boser, B. E. [Berkeley Sensor and Actuator Center, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Tsai, J. M.; Daneman, M. [InvenSense, Inc., 1745 Technology Drive, San Jose, California 95110 (United States)

    2015-06-29

    This paper presents an ultrasonic fingerprint sensor based on a 24 × 8 array of 22 MHz piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducers (PMUTs) with 100 μm pitch, fully integrated with 180 nm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) circuitry through eutectic wafer bonding. Each PMUT is directly bonded to a dedicated CMOS receive amplifier, minimizing electrical parasitics and eliminating the need for through-silicon vias. The array frequency response and vibration mode-shape were characterized using laser Doppler vibrometry and verified via finite element method simulation. The array's acoustic output was measured using a hydrophone to be ∼14 kPa with a 28 V input, in reasonable agreement with predication from analytical calculation. Pulse-echo imaging of a 1D steel grating is demonstrated using electronic scanning of a 20 × 8 sub-array, resulting in 300 mV maximum received amplitude and 5:1 contrast ratio. Because the small size of this array limits the maximum image size, mechanical scanning was used to image a 2D polydimethylsiloxane fingerprint phantom (10 mm × 8 mm) at a 1.2 mm distance from the array.

  16. Integrated microelectrode arrays for trace-metal analysis of aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saban, S.B.; Darling, R.B. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1995-12-31

    Stripping Voltammetry (SV) at microelectrodes has gained increased interest in the analysis of aqueous solutions due to its ability to analyze low concentrations (ppb) of electroactive metallic species in solution. Existing integrated circuit (IC) technology allows the inexpensive fabrication of microelectrodes with dimensions on the order of microns and with a high degree of uniformity and reproducibility. Additional circuitry, both multiplexing and signal conditioning, can be placed directly onto the sensor offering increased sensitivity and flexibility. Multi-element electrochemical sensors containing arrays of Pt, Au, and Ag electrodes and capable of individual measurement through built-in multiplexing or simultaneous measurement at the appropriate potential ranges for each individual electrode were fabricated using existing 2 micron IC technology. Results of simultaneous measurements of low concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cu, As, and Hg in solution indicate that interferences due to intermetallic compound formation at electrode surfaces can be isolated by the extra information provided by the differences in the formation of these compounds at different electrode surfaces.

  17. Direct formation of supermassive black holes in metal-enriched gas at the heart of high-redshift galaxy mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Mayer, Lucio; Bonoli, Silvia; Quinn, Thomas; Roskar, Rok; Shen, Sijing; Wadsley, James

    2014-01-01

    We present novel 3D multi-scale SPH simulations of gas-rich galaxy mergers between the most massive galaxies at $z \\sim 8 - 10$, designed to scrutinize the direct collapse formation scenario for massive black hole seeds proposed in \\citet{mayer+10}. The simulations achieve a resolution of 0.1 pc, and include both metallicity-dependent optically-thin cooling and a model for thermal balance at high optical depth. We consider different formulations of the SPH hydrodynamical equations, including thermal and metal diffusion. When the two merging galaxy cores collide, gas infall produces a compact, optically thick nuclear disk with densities exceeding $10^{-10}$ g cm$^3$. The disk rapidly accretes higher angular momentum gas from its surroundings reaching $\\sim 5$ pc and a mass of $\\gtrsim 10^9$ $M_{\\odot}$ in only a few $10^4$ yr. Outside $\\gtrsim 2$ pc it fragments into massive clumps. Instead, supersonic turbulence prevents fragmentation in the inner parsec region, which remains warm ($\\sim 3000-6000$ K) and dev...

  18. Mechanisms of formation of sub- and micrometre-scale holes in thin metal films by single nano- and femtosecond laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danilov, P A; Zayarnyi, D A; Ionin, A A; Kudryashov, S I; Makarov, S V; Rudenko, A A; Yurovskikh, V I [P N Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kulchin, Yu N; Vitrik, O B; Kuchmizhak, A A [Institute for Automation and Control Processes, Far-Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Drozdova, E A; Odinokov, S B [N.E. Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-06-30

    Mechanisms of formation of sub- and micrometre-scale holes in thin silver and chromium films of variable thickness by tightly-focused single nanosecond IR laser pulses with fluences in the range of 10 – 10{sup 4} J cm{sup -2} are studied by means of optical and scanning electron microscopy. At the minimal fluences above 5 J cm{sup -2}, the micrometre (2 – 5 μm in radius) holes are produced in these films, accompanying the lateral heat conduction in the film during the pump laser pulse, cavitation at the metallic/glass interface and subsequent explosive removal of the molten film. At the fluences of ∼1 – 10 kJ cm{sup -2} much larger (20 – 40 μm in radius) holes are formed in the film as a result of its heating by the erosive surface microplasma through the lateral heat conduction in the film during the plasma lifetime of the order of a few microseconds. Finally, at the maximal fluences (well above 10 kJ cm{sup -2}), the submillimetre holes were produced in these films by intense shock waves, generated in the erosive microplasmas. The comparative analysis of the formation mechanisms for sub- and micrometrescale holes in the same thin metal films by the single nano- and femtosecond laser pulses is provided. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  19. Amperometric detection of heavy metal ions in ion pair chromatography at an array of water/nitrobenzene micro interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilke, S. [Martin-Luther-Univ. Halle-Wittenberg, Merseburg (Germany). Fachbereich Chemie; Wang, H. [Martin-Luther-Univ. Halle-Wittenberg, Merseburg (Germany). Fachbereich Chemie; Muraczewska, M. [Martin-Luther-Univ. Halle-Wittenberg, Merseburg (Germany). Fachbereich Chemie; Mueller, H. [Martin-Luther-Univ. Halle-Wittenberg, Merseburg (Germany). Fachbereich Chemie

    1996-10-01

    A novel amperometric detector for heavy metal ions has been developed and successfully applied for ion pair chromatography. The detector is based on the electrochemical transfer of the metal ions across an array of water/nitrobenzene micro interfaces. The ion transfer is facilitated by the neutral ionophores methylenebis(diphenylphosphineoxide) and methylenebis(di- phenylphosphinesulfide). More than eight metals are separated in less than 15 min on an RP18 column using octyl sulfonate as ion pair reagent. For the heavy metals, the limits of decision are 19(Pb{sup 2+}), 9(Zn{sup 2+}), 9l (Co{sup 2+}), 8(Cd{sup 2+}) and 1.6(Mn{sup 2+}) {mu}g/L. The applicability of the new method for water samples is demonstrated. (orig.). With 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Measuring Mass Accretion Rate onto the Supermassive Black Hole in M 87 Using Faraday Rotation Measure with the Submillimeter Array

    CERN Document Server

    Kuo, C Y; Rao, R; Nakamura, M; Algaba, J C; Liu, H B; Inoue, M; Koch, P M; Ho, P T P; Matsushita, S; Pu, H -Y; Akiyama, K; Nishioka, H; Pradel, N

    2014-01-01

    We present the first constraint on Faraday rotation measure (RM) at submillimeter wavelengths for the nucleus of M 87. By fitting the polarization position angles ($\\chi$) observed with the SMA at four independent frequencies around $\\sim$230 GHz and interpreting the change in $\\chi$ as a result of \\emph{external} Faraday rotation associated with accretion flow, we determine the rotation measure of the M 87 core to be between $-$7.5$\\times$10$^{5}$ and 3.4$\\times$10$^{5}$ rad/m$^{2}$. Assuming a density profile of the accretion flow that follows a power-law distribution and a magnetic field that is ordered, radial, and has equipartition strength, the limit on the rotation measure constrains the mass accretion rate $\\dot{M}$ to be below 9.2$\\times$10$^{-4}$ M$_{\\odot}$~yr$^{-1}$ at a distance of 21 Schwarzchild radii from the central black hole. This value is at least two orders of magnitude smaller than the Bondi accretion rate, suggesting significant suppression of the accretion rate in the inner region of t...

  1. Combinatorial electrochemical cell array for high throughput screening of micro-fuel-cells and metal/air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rongzhong

    2007-07-01

    An electrochemical cell array was designed that contains a common air electrode and 16 microanodes for high throughput screening of both fuel cells (based on polymer electrolyte membrane) and metal/air batteries (based on liquid electrolyte). Electrode materials can easily be coated on the anodes of the electrochemical cell array and screened by switching a graphite probe from one cell to the others. The electrochemical cell array was used to study direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs), including high throughput screening of electrode catalysts and determination of optimum operating conditions. For screening of DMFCs, there is about 6% relative standard deviation (percentage of standard deviation versus mean value) for discharge current from 10to20mA/cm2. The electrochemical cell array was also used to study tin/air batteries. The effect of Cu content in the anode electrode on the discharge performance of the tin/air battery was investigated. The relative standard deviations for screening of metal/air battery (based on zinc/air) are 2.4%, 3.6%, and 5.1% for discharge current at 50, 100, and 150mA/cm2, respectively.

  2. Combinatorial electrochemical cell array for high throughput screening of micro-fuel-cells and metal/air batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rongzhong

    2007-07-01

    An electrochemical cell array was designed that contains a common air electrode and 16 microanodes for high throughput screening of both fuel cells (based on polymer electrolyte membrane) and metal/air batteries (based on liquid electrolyte). Electrode materials can easily be coated on the anodes of the electrochemical cell array and screened by switching a graphite probe from one cell to the others. The electrochemical cell array was used to study direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs), including high throughput screening of electrode catalysts and determination of optimum operating conditions. For screening of DMFCs, there is about 6% relative standard deviation (percentage of standard deviation versus mean value) for discharge current from 10 to 20 mAcm(2). The electrochemical cell array was also used to study tin/air batteries. The effect of Cu content in the anode electrode on the discharge performance of the tin/air battery was investigated. The relative standard deviations for screening of metal/air battery (based on zinc/air) are 2.4%, 3.6%, and 5.1% for discharge current at 50, 100, and 150 mAcm(2), respectively.

  3. THE RESPONSE OF METAL-RICH GAS TO X-RAY IRRADIATION FROM A MASSIVE BLACK HOLE AT HIGH REDSHIFT: PROOF OF CONCEPT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aykutalp, A.; Meijerink, R.; Spaans, M. [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 800, 9700-AV Groningen (Netherlands); Wise, J. H., E-mail: aycin.aykutalp@sns.it, E-mail: meijerink@astro.rug.nl, E-mail: spaans@astro.rug.nl, E-mail: jwise@physics.gatech.edu [Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, Georgia Institute of Technology, 837 State Street, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Observational studies show that there is a strong link between the formation and evolution of galaxies and the growth of their supermassive black holes. However, the underlying physics behind this observed relation is poorly understood. In order to study the effects of X-ray radiation on black hole surroundings, we implement X-ray-dominated region physics into Enzo and use the radiation transport module Moray to calculate the radiative transfer for a polychromatic spectrum. In this work, we investigate the effects of X-ray irradiation, produced by a central massive black hole (MBH) with a mass of M = 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} M{sub Sun }, on ambient gas with solar and zero metallicity. We find that in the solar metallicity case, the energy deposition rate in the central region ({<=}20 pc) is high due to the high opacity of the metals. Hence, the central temperatures are on the order of 10{sup 5}-10{sup 7} K. Moreover, due to the cooling ability and high intrinsic opacity of solar metallicity gas, column densities of 10{sup 24} cm{sup -2} are reached at a radius of 20 pc from the MBH. These column densities are about three orders of magnitudes higher than in the zero metallicity case. Furthermore, in the zero metallicity case, an X-ray-induced H II region is already formed after 5.8 Myr. This causes a significant outflow of gas ({approx}8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} M{sub Sun }) from the central region; the gas reaches outflow velocities up to {approx}100 km s{sup -1}. At later times, {approx}23 Myr after we insert the MBH, we find that the solar metallicity case also develops an X-ray-induced H II region, but it is delayed by {approx}17 Myr compared to the zero metallicity case.

  4. Atomically precise arrays of fluorescent silver clusters: a modular approach for metal cluster photonics on DNA nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copp, Stacy M; Schultz, Danielle E; Swasey, Steven; Gwinn, Elisabeth G

    2015-03-24

    The remarkable precision that DNA scaffolds provide for arraying nanoscale optical elements enables optical phenomena that arise from interactions of metal nanoparticles, dye molecules, and quantum dots placed at nanoscale separations. However, control of ensemble optical properties has been limited by the difficulty of achieving uniform particle sizes and shapes. Ligand-stabilized metal clusters offer a route to atomically precise arrays that combine desirable attributes of both metals and molecules. Exploiting the unique advantages of the cluster regime requires techniques to realize controlled nanoscale placement of select cluster structures. Here we show that atomically monodisperse arrays of fluorescent, DNA-stabilized silver clusters can be realized on a prototypical scaffold, a DNA nanotube, with attachment sites separated by <10 nm. Cluster attachment is mediated by designed DNA linkers that enable isolation of specific clusters prior to assembly on nanotubes and preserve cluster structure and spectral purity after assembly. The modularity of this approach generalizes to silver clusters of diverse sizes and DNA scaffolds of many types. Thus, these silver cluster nano-optical elements, which themselves have colors selected by their particular DNA templating oligomer, bring unique dimensions of control and flexibility to the rapidly expanding field of nano-optics.

  5. A Customized Metal Oxide Semiconductor-Based Gas Sensor Array for Onion Quality Evaluation: System Development and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharun Konduru

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A gas sensor array, consisting of seven Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS sensors that are sensitive to a wide range of organic volatile compounds was developed to detect rotten onions during storage. These MOS sensors were enclosed in a specially designed Teflon chamber equipped with a gas delivery system to pump volatiles from the onion samples into the chamber. The electronic circuit mainly comprised a microcontroller, non-volatile memory chip, and trickle-charge real time clock chip, serial communication chip, and parallel LCD panel. User preferences are communicated with the on-board microcontroller through a graphical user interface developed using LabVIEW. The developed gas sensor array was characterized and the discrimination potential was tested by exposing it to three different concentrations of acetone (ketone, acetonitrile (nitrile, ethyl acetate (ester, and ethanol (alcohol. The gas sensor array could differentiate the four chemicals of same concentrations and different concentrations within the chemical with significant difference. Experiment results also showed that the system was able to discriminate two concentrations (196 and 1964 ppm of methlypropyl sulfide and two concentrations (145 and 1452 ppm of 2-nonanone, two key volatile compounds emitted by rotten onions. As a proof of concept, the gas sensor array was able to achieve 89% correct classification of sour skin infected onions. The customized low-cost gas sensor array could be a useful tool to detect onion postharvest diseases in storage.

  6. A Customized Metal Oxide Semiconductor-Based Gas Sensor Array for Onion Quality Evaluation: System Development and Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konduru, Tharun; Rains, Glen C.; Li, Changying

    2015-01-01

    A gas sensor array, consisting of seven Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) sensors that are sensitive to a wide range of organic volatile compounds was developed to detect rotten onions during storage. These MOS sensors were enclosed in a specially designed Teflon chamber equipped with a gas delivery system to pump volatiles from the onion samples into the chamber. The electronic circuit mainly comprised a microcontroller, non-volatile memory chip, and trickle-charge real time clock chip, serial communication chip, and parallel LCD panel. User preferences are communicated with the on-board microcontroller through a graphical user interface developed using LabVIEW. The developed gas sensor array was characterized and the discrimination potential was tested by exposing it to three different concentrations of acetone (ketone), acetonitrile (nitrile), ethyl acetate (ester), and ethanol (alcohol). The gas sensor array could differentiate the four chemicals of same concentrations and different concentrations within the chemical with significant difference. Experiment results also showed that the system was able to discriminate two concentrations (196 and 1964 ppm) of methlypropyl sulfide and two concentrations (145 and 1452 ppm) of 2-nonanone, two key volatile compounds emitted by rotten onions. As a proof of concept, the gas sensor array was able to achieve 89% correct classification of sour skin infected onions. The customized low-cost gas sensor array could be a useful tool to detect onion postharvest diseases in storage. PMID:25587975

  7. A customized metal oxide semiconductor-based gas sensor array for onion quality evaluation: system development and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konduru, Tharun; Rains, Glen C; Li, Changying

    2015-01-12

    A gas sensor array, consisting of seven Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) sensors that are sensitive to a wide range of organic volatile compounds was developed to detect rotten onions during storage. These MOS sensors were enclosed in a specially designed Teflon chamber equipped with a gas delivery system to pump volatiles from the onion samples into the chamber. The electronic circuit mainly comprised a microcontroller, non-volatile memory chip, and trickle-charge real time clock chip, serial communication chip, and parallel LCD panel. User preferences are communicated with the on-board microcontroller through a graphical user interface developed using LabVIEW. The developed gas sensor array was characterized and the discrimination potential was tested by exposing it to three different concentrations of acetone (ketone), acetonitrile (nitrile), ethyl acetate (ester), and ethanol (alcohol). The gas sensor array could differentiate the four chemicals of same concentrations and different concentrations within the chemical with significant difference. Experiment results also showed that the system was able to discriminate two concentrations (196 and 1964 ppm) of methlypropyl sulfide and two concentrations (145 and 1452 ppm) of 2-nonanone, two key volatile compounds emitted by rotten onions. As a proof of concept, the gas sensor array was able to achieve 89% correct classification of sour skin infected onions. The customized low-cost gas sensor array could be a useful tool to detect onion postharvest diseases in storage.

  8. The Response of Metal Rich Gas to X-Ray Irradiation from a Massive Black Hole at High Redshift: Proof of Concept

    CERN Document Server

    Aykutalp, A; Meijerink, R; Spaans, M

    2013-01-01

    Observational studies show that there is a strong link between the formation and evolution of galaxies and the growth of supermassive black holes (SMBH) at their centers. However, the underlying physics of this observed relation is poorly understood. In order to study the effects of X-ray radiation on the surroundings of the black hole, we implement X-ray Dominated Region (XDR) physics into Enzo and use the radiation transport module Moray to calculate the radiative transfer for a polychromatic spectrum. In this work, we investigate the effects of X-ray irradiation, produced by a central massive black hole (MBH) with a mass of M = 5x10^4 M_(solar), on ambient gas with solar and zero metallicity. We find that in the solar metallicity case, due to high opacity of the metals, the energy deposition rate in the central region (< 20 pc) is high and hence the temperatures in the center are on the order of 10^(5-7) K. Moreover, due to the cooling ability and high intrinsic opacity of solar metallicity gas, column ...

  9. All-Metal Flared-Notch Array Radiator for Ultrawideband Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    2. Lewis, L., M. Fassett, and J. Hunt, A broadband stripline array element. Dig. IEEE Antennas Propagation Symp., 1974. 12: p. 335-337. 3. Holter ...Technology, 2003: p. 383-386. 8. Holter , H., Dual-Polarized Broadband Array Antenna With BOR-Elements, Mechanical Design and Measurements. IEEE...Application Symp., Allerton Park, IL, 2001: p. 561–587. 14. Thors, B., H. Steyskal, and H. Holter , Broad-band fragmented aperture phased array

  10. Deep 3 GHz Observations of the Lockman Hole North with the Very Large Array -2. Catalogue and $\\mu$Jy source properties

    CERN Document Server

    Vernstrom, Tessa; Wall, Jasper; Condon, Jim; Cotton, Bill; Kellermann, Ken; Perley, Rick

    2016-01-01

    This is the second of two papers describing the observations and source catalogues derived from sensitive 3 GHz images of the Lockman Hole North using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. We describe the reduction and cataloguing process, which yielded an image with 8 arcsec resolution and instrumental noise of $\\sigma_{\\rm n}=1.01\\,\\mu$Jy beam$^{-1}$ rms (before primary beam corrections) and a catalogue of sources detected above $5\\sigma_{\\rm n}$. We include details of how we estimate source spectral indices across the 2 GHz VLA bandwidth, finding a median index of -0.76. We present a source count derived from the catalogue. We show a traditional count estimate compared with a completely independent estimate made via a P(D) confusion analysis, and find very good agreement. Cross-matches of the catalogue with optical, infrared, radio, and redshift catalogues are presented. The optical and infrared colours and AGN selection criteria indicates that 10 to 50 per cent of the sources with matches are classified as...

  11. Deep 3-GHz observations of the Lockman Hole North with the Very Large Array - II. Catalogue and μJy source properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernstrom, T.; Scott, Douglas; Wall, J. V.; Condon, J. J.; Cotton, W. D.; Kellermann, K. I.; Perley, R. A.

    2016-11-01

    This is the second of two papers describing the observations and source catalogues derived from sensitive 3-GHz images of the Lockman Hole North using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). We describe the reduction and cataloguing process, which yielded an image with 8 arcsec resolution and instrumental noise of σn = 1.01 μJy beam-1 rms (before primary-beam corrections) and a catalogue of 558 sources detected above 5σn. We include details of how we estimate source spectral indices across the 2-GHz VLA bandwidth, finding a median index of -0.76 ± 0.04. Stacking of source spectra reveals a flattening of spectral index with decreasing flux density. We present a source count derived from the catalogue. We show a traditional count estimate compared with a completely independent estimate made via a P(D) confusion analysis, and find very good agreement. Cross-matches of the catalogue with X-ray, optical, infrared, radio, and redshift catalogues are also presented. The X-ray, optical and infrared data, as well as active galactic nuclei (AGN) selection criteria allow us to classify 10 per cent as radio-loud AGN, 28 per cent as radio-quiet AGN, and 58 per cent as star-forming galaxies, with only 4 per cent unclassified.

  12. Arrays of hollow out-of-plane microneedles made by metal electrodeposition onto solvent cast conductive polymer structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, I.; Liu, Y.; Häfeli, U. O.; Stoeber, B.

    2013-08-01

    Transdermal drug delivery using microneedles is a technique to potentially replace hypodermic needles for injection of many vaccines and drugs. Fabrication of hollow metallic microneedles so far has been associated with time-consuming steps that restrict batch production of these devices. Here, we are presenting a novel method for making metallic microneedles with any desired height, spacing, and lumen size. In our process, we use solvent casting to coat a mold, which contains an array of pillars, with a conductive polymer composite layer. The conductive layer is then used as a seed layer in a metal electrodeposition process. To characterize the process, the conductivity of the polymer composite with respect to different filler concentrations was investigated. In addition, plasma etching of the polymer was characterized. The electroplating process was also studied further to control the thickness of the microneedle array plate. The strength of the microneedle devices was evaluated through a series of compression tests, while their performance for transdermal drug delivery was tested by injection of 2.28 µm fluorescent microspheres into animal skin. The fabricated metallic microneedles seem appropriate for subcutaneous delivery of drugs and microspheres.

  13. Strong electron-hole symmetric Rashba spin-orbit coupling in graphene/monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bowen; Lohmann, Mark; Barroso, David; Liao, Ingrid; Lin, Zhisheng; Liu, Yawen; Bartels, Ludwig; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Shi, Jing

    2017-07-01

    Despite its extremely weak intrinsic spin-orbit coupling (SOC), graphene has been shown to acquire considerable SOC by proximity coupling with exfoliated transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). Here we demonstrate strong induced Rashba SOC in graphene that is proximity coupled to a monolayer TMD film, Mo S2 or WS e2 , grown by chemical-vapor deposition with drastically different Fermi level positions. Graphene/TMD heterostructures are fabricated with a pickup-transfer technique utilizing hexagonal boron nitride, which serves as a flat template to promote intimate contact and therefore a strong interfacial interaction between TMD and graphene as evidenced by quenching of the TMD photoluminescence. We observe strong induced graphene SOC that manifests itself in a pronounced weak-antilocalization (WAL) effect in the graphene magnetoconductance. The spin-relaxation rate extracted from the WAL analysis varies linearly with the momentum scattering time and is independent of the carrier type. This indicates a dominantly Dyakonov-Perel spin-relaxation mechanism caused by the induced Rashba SOC. Our analysis yields a Rashba SOC energy of ˜1.5 meV in graphene/WS e2 and ˜0.9 meV in graphene/Mo S2 . The nearly electron-hole symmetric nature of the induced Rashba SOC provides a clue to possible underlying SOC mechanisms.

  14. High conductivity Ag-based metal organic complexes as dopant-free hole-transport materials for perovskite solar cells with high fill factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yong; Xu, Bo; Liu, Peng; Chen, Hong; Tian, Haining; Cheng, Ming; Kloo, Lars; Sun, Licheng

    2016-04-21

    Hole-transport materials (HTMs) play an important role as hole scavenger materials in the most efficient perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Here, for the first time, two Ag-based metal organic complexes (HA1 and HA2) are employed as a new class of dopant-free hole-transport material for application in PSCs. These HTMs show excellent conductivity and hole-transport mobility. Consequently, the devices based on these two HTMs exhibit unusually high fill factors of 0.76 for HA1 and 0.78 for HA2, which are significantly higher than that obtained using spiro-OMeTAD (0.69). The cell based on HA1-HTM in its pristine form achieved a high power conversion efficiency of 11.98% under air conditions, which is comparable to the PCE of the cell employing the well-known doped spiro-MeOTAD (12.27%) under the same conditions. More importantly, their facile synthesis and purification without using column chromatography makes these new silver-based HTMs highly promising for future commercial applications of PSCs. These results provide a new way to develop more low-cost and high conductivity metal-complex based HTMs for efficient PSCs.

  15. Effects of substrate voltage on noise characteristics and hole lifetime in SOI metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor photon detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putranto, Dedy Septono Catur; Priambodo, Purnomo Sidi; Hartanto, Djoko; Du, Wei; Satoh, Hiroaki; Ono, Atsushi; Inokawa, Hiroshi

    2014-09-08

    Low-frequency noise and hole lifetime in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) are analyzed, considering their use in photon detection based on single-hole counting. The noise becomes minimum at around the transition point between front- and back-channel operations when the substrate voltage is varied, and increases largely on both negative and positive sides of the substrate voltage showing peculiar Lorentzian (generation-recombination) noise spectra. Hole lifetime is evaluated by the analysis of drain current histogram at different substrate voltages. It is found that the peaks in the histogram corresponding to the larger number of stored holes become higher as the substrate bias becomes larger. This can be attributed to the prolonged lifetime caused by the higher electric field inside the body of SOI MOSFET. It can be concluded that, once the inversion channel is induced for detection of the photo-generated holes, the small absolute substrate bias is favorable for short lifetime and low noise, leading to high-speed operation.

  16. Metal impurity-assisted formation of nanocone arrays on Si by low energy ion-beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeves Lloyd, Kayla; Bolotin, Igor L.; Schmeling, Martina; Hanley, Luke; Veryovkin, Igor V.

    2016-10-01

    Fabrication of nanocone arrays on Si surfaces was demonstrated using grazing incidence irradiation with 1 keV Ar+ ions concurrently sputtering the surface and depositing metal impurity atoms on it. Among three materials compared as co-sputtering targets Si, Cu and stainless steel, only steel was found to assist the growth of dense arrays of nanocones at ion fluences between 1018 and 1019 ions/cm2. The structural characterization of samples irradiated with these ion fluences using Scanning Electron Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy revealed that regions far away from co-sputtering targets are covered with nanoripples, and that nanocones popped-up out of the rippled surfaces when moving closer to co-sputtering targets, with their density gradually increasing and reaching saturation in the regions close to these targets. The characterization of the samples' chemical composition with Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy revealed that the concentration of metal impurities originating from stainless steel (Fe, Cr and Ni) was relatively high in the regions with high density of nanocones (Fe reaching a few atomic percent) and much lower (factor of 10 or so) in the region of nanoripples. Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry measurements showed that higher concentrations of these impurities are accumulated under the surface in both regions. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy experiments showed no direct evidence of metal silicide formation occurring on one region only (nanocones or nanoripples) and thus showed that this process could not be the driver of nanocone array formation. Also, these measurements indicated enhancement in oxide formation on regions covered by nanocones. Overall, the results of this study suggest that the difference in concentration of metal impurities in the thin near-surface layer forming under ion irradiation might be responsible for the differences in surface structures.

  17. Plasmonic nanoantenna array with single-chip integrated metal-organic framework for infrared absorption gas sensing (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Xinyuan; Kim, Ki-Joong; Li, Erwen; Zhang, Yujing; Ohodnicki, Paul R.; Chang, Chih-Hung; Wang, Alan X.

    2017-03-01

    Surface-enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) is a spectroscopic technique used to identify molecular fingerprints by resonant detection of infrared vibrational modes through coupling with the plasmonic modes of metallic nanostructures. Many reported works have demonstrated its capability to enhance the infrared absorption of solid or liquid samples. However, this technique has not been successfully applied to gas sensing yet due to the short light-matter interaction length and intrinsically weak absorption of gas compared to solid or liquid materials. Usually, IR gas sensing is conducted in a gas cell with a long absorption path. In the paper, we propose an integrated photonic device to expand the application of SEIRA to gas sensing by combining metal-organic framework (MOF) ZIF-8 (zeolitic imidazole framework) with plasmonic nanoantenna array. The device consists of an Au nanopatch array on sapphire substrate and is covered by a thin layer of MOF material. The MOF thin film, which is a new class of highly nanoporous material, serves as a gas absorber to selectively adsorb and concentrate CO2 from ambient environment into the thin layer, which has a high spatial overlap with the high intensity optical field of the plasmonic nanopatch antenna array. Namely, we can effectively increase the gas molecule concentration at the hot-spots for the SEIRA device. The experimentally demonstrated peak IR enhancement factor of the device for carbon dioxide sensing is over 1,100 times.

  18. Electrochemical pore filling strategy for controlled growth of magnetic and metallic nanowire arrays with large area uniformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arefpour, M; Kashi, M Almasi; Ramazani, A; Montazer, A H

    2016-06-01

    While a variety of template-based strategies have been developed in the fabrication of nanowires (NWs), a uniform pore filling across the template still poses a major challenge. Here, we present a large area controlled pore filling strategy in the reproducible fabrication of various magnetic and metallic NW arrays, embedded inside anodic aluminum oxide templates. Using a diffusive pulsed electrodeposition (DPED) technique, this versatile strategy relies on the optimized filling of branched nanopores at the bottom of templates with Cu. Serving the Cu filled nanopores as appropriate nucleation sites, the DPED is followed by a uniform and homogeneous deposition of magnetic (Ni and Fe) and metallic (Cu and Zn) NWs at a current density of 50 mA cm(-2) for an optimal thickness of alumina barrier layer (∼18 nm). Our strategy provides large area uniformity (exceeding 400 μm(2)) in the fabrication of 16 μm long free-standing NW arrays. Using hysteresis loop measurements and scanning electron microscopy images, the electrodeposition efficiency (EE) and pore filling percentage (F p) are evaluated, leading to maximum EE and F p values of 91% and 95% for Ni and Zn, respectively. Moreover, the resulting NW arrays are found to be highly crystalline. Accordingly, the DPED technique is capable of cheaply and efficiently controlling NW growth over a large area, providing a tool for various nanoscale applications including biomedical devices, electronics, photonics, magnetic storage medium and nanomagnet computing.

  19. Electrochemical pore filling strategy for controlled growth of magnetic and metallic nanowire arrays with large area uniformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arefpour, M.; Almasi Kashi, M.; Ramazani, A.; Montazer, A. H.

    2016-07-01

    While a variety of template-based strategies have been developed in the fabrication of nanowires (NWs), a uniform pore filling across the template still poses a major challenge. Here, we present a large area controlled pore filling strategy in the reproducible fabrication of various magnetic and metallic NW arrays, embedded inside anodic aluminum oxide templates. Using a diffusive pulsed electrodeposition (DPED) technique, this versatile strategy relies on the optimized filling of branched nanopores at the bottom of templates with Cu. Serving the Cu filled nanopores as appropriate nucleation sites, the DPED is followed by a uniform and homogeneous deposition of magnetic (Ni and Fe) and metallic (Cu and Zn) NWs at a current density of 50 mA cm-2 for an optimal thickness of alumina barrier layer (˜18 nm). Our strategy provides large area uniformity (exceeding 400 μm2) in the fabrication of 16 μm long free-standing NW arrays. Using hysteresis loop measurements and scanning electron microscopy images, the electrodeposition efficiency (EE) and pore filling percentage (F p) are evaluated, leading to maximum EE and F p values of 91% and 95% for Ni and Zn, respectively. Moreover, the resulting NW arrays are found to be highly crystalline. Accordingly, the DPED technique is capable of cheaply and efficiently controlling NW growth over a large area, providing a tool for various nanoscale applications including biomedical devices, electronics, photonics, magnetic storage medium and nanomagnet computing.

  20. Hydrothermal synthesis of mesoporous metal oxide arrays with enhanced properties for electrochemical energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Anguo, E-mail: hixiaoanguo@126.com; Zhou, Shibiao; Zuo, Chenggang; Zhuan, Yongbing; Ding, Xiang

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • NiO mesoporous nanowall arrays are prepared via hydrothermal method. • Mesoporous nanowall arrays are favorable for fast ion/electron transfer. • NiO mesoporous nanowall arrays show good supercapacitor performance. - Abstract: Mesoporous nanowall NiO arrays are prepared by a facile hydrothermal synthesis method with a following annealing process. The NiO nanowall shows continuous mesopores ranging from 5 to 10 nm and grows vertically on the substrate forming a porous net-like structure with macropores of 20–300 nm. A plausible mechanism is proposed for the growth of mesoporous nanowall NiO arrays. As cathode material of pseudocapacitors, the as-prepared mesoporous nanowall NiO arrays show good pseudocapacitive performances with a high capacitance of 600 F g{sup −1} at 2 A g{sup −1} and impressive high-rate capability with a specific capacitance of 338 F g{sup −1} at 40 A g{sup −1}. In addition, the mesoporous nanowall NiO arrays possess good cycling stability. After 6000 cycles at 2 A g{sup −1}, a high capacitance of 660 F g{sup −1} is attained, and no obvious degradation is observed. The good electrochemical performance is attributed to its highly porous morphology, which provides large reaction surface and short ion diffusion paths, leading to enhanced electrochemical properties.

  1. Non-metal doped TiO2 nanotube arrays for high efficiency photocatalytic decomposition of organic species in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szkoda, Mariusz; Siuzdak, Katarzyna; Lisowska-Oleksiak, Anna

    2016-10-01

    Titanium dioxide is a well-known photoactive semiconductor with a variety of possible applications. The procedure of pollutant degradation is mainly performed using TiO2 powder suspension. It can also be exploited an immobilized catalyst on a solid support. Morphology and chemical doping have a great influence on TiO2 activity under illumination. Here we compare photoactivity of titania nanotube arrays doped with non-metal atoms: nitrogen, iodine and boron applied for photodegradation of organic dye - methylene blue and terephtalic acid. The doped samples act as a much better photocatalyst in the degradation process of methylene blue and lead to the formation of much higher amount of hydroxyl radicals (•OH) than undoped TiO2 nanotube arrays. The use of a catalyst active under solar light illumination in the form of thin films on a stable substrate can be scaled up for an industrial application.

  2. Surface plasmon enhanced quantum transport in a hybrid metal nanoparticle array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Lin; Nan, Yali; Xu, Shang; Zhang, Sishi; Han, Min, E-mail: sjhanmin@nju.edu.cn

    2014-07-18

    Hybrid Pd–Ag nanoparticle arrays composed of randomly distributed Pd nanoparticles in dense packing and a small number of dispersed Ag nanoparticles were fabricated with controlled coverage. Photo-enhanced conductance was observed in the nanoparticle arrays. Largest enhancement, which can be higher than 20 folds, was obtained with 450 nm light illumination. This wavelength was found to correlate with the surface plasmon resonance of the Ag nanoparticles. Electron transport measurements showed there were significant Coulomb blockade in the nanoparticle arrays and the blockade could be overcome with the surface plasmon enhanced local field of Ag nanoparticles induced by light illumination. - Highlights: • We study photo-enhanced electron conductance of a hybrid Pd–Ag nanoparticle array. • The light-induced conductance enhancement is as high as 20 folds at 10 K. • The enhancement is correlate with the surface plasmon resonance of Ag nanoparticles. • Coulomb blockades is overcome with the surface plasmon enhanced local field.

  3. 金膜上亚波长小孔阵列表面等离激元颜色滤波器偏振性质*%Polarization properties of plasmonic color filters comprised of arrays of subwavelength size holes on Au films*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王培培; 杨超杰; 李洁; 唐鹏; 林峰; 朱星

    2013-01-01

      金属薄膜上制备的表面等离激元颜色滤波器具有很强的颜色可调性。在200 nm厚的金膜上,通过聚焦离子束刻蚀,制备一系列周期逐渐变化的圆形、方形、矩形亚波长尺寸小孔方阵列表面等离激元颜色滤波器,改变入射光的偏振方向,观察其超透射滤波现象。研究发现:对于矩形小孔阵列,其透射光颜色随入射光偏振方向的变化而改变;而对于圆形、方形的小孔阵列,其透射光颜色对入射光的偏振方向并不敏感。分析表明,对于金膜上刻蚀的小孔结构,虽然结构的周期性导致的表面等离激元极化子会对透射光的颜色变化产生一定影响,但是随小孔形状变化的局域表面等离激元共振才是影响透射光颜色的决定性因素。如果入射光没有在小孔中激发出局域表面等离激元,则表面等离激元极化子对透射光的影响也会消失。根据不同形状小孔周期结构透射光颜色随入射光的偏振变化特点,制备出了包含两种小孔形状的复合周期结构。随着入射光偏振方向的改变,该结构会显示出不同的颜色图案。%Plasmonic color filters comprised of metal films can be adjusted easily. Periodic arrays of subwavelength size holes with circle, square and rectangular shape are fabricated on 200 nm thick Au films by using focused ion beam. The structures are utilized as plasmonic color filters for exhibiting color variation under the illumination of white light in different polarization directions. We find that for rectangular hole arrays, the color of the transmitted light changes greatly with polarization direction. However, for arrays of circle and square holes, color of the transmitted light is not sensitive to the polarization direction of incident light. We conclude that localized surface plasmon around a single hole is a key factor in influencing the color of transmission light, rather than surface

  4. Analysis of Subwavelength Metal Hole Array Structure for the Enhancement of Back-Illuminated Quantum Dot Infrared Photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    Woo-Yong Jang,2,5,6 Jiangfeng Zhou,3,5 Jun Oh Kim,2 Ajit V. Barve,2 Sinhara Silva,3 Sanjay Krishna,2 S. R. J. Brueck,2 Robert Nelson,1 Augustine Urbas...dots,” C. R. Phys. 4(10), 1133–1154 (2003). 4. G. T. Liu, A. Stintz, H. Li, T. C. Newell, G. L. Gray, P. M. Varangis, K. J. Malloy , and L. F. Lester

  5. Tunable plasmonic response of metallic nanoantennna heterodimer arrays modified by atomic-layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wambold, Raymond A.; Borst, Benjamin D.; Qi, Jie; Weisel, Gary J.; Willis, Brian G.; Zimmerman, Darin T.

    2016-04-01

    We present a systematic study of tunable, plasmon extinction characteristics of arrays of nanoscale antennas that have potential use as sensors, energy-harvesting devices, catalytic converters, in near-field optical microscopy, and in surface-enhanced spectroscopy. Each device is composed of a palladium triangular-prism antenna and a flat counter-electrode. Arrays of devices are fabricated on silica using electron-beam lithography, followed by atomic-layer deposition of copper. Optical extinction is measured by employing a broadband light source in a confocal, transmission arrangement. We characterize the plasmon resonance behavior by examining the dependence on device length, the gap spacing between the electrodes, material properties, and the device array density, all of which contribute in varying degrees to the measured response. We employ finite-difference time-domain simulations to demonstrate good qualitative agreement between experimental trends and theory and use scanning electron microscopy to correlate plasmonic extinction characteristics with changes in morphology.

  6. Quasi-periodic distribution of plasmon modes in two-dimensional Fibonacci arrays of metal nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallapiccola, Ramona; Gopinath, Ashwin; Stellacci, Francesco; Dal Negro, Luca

    2008-04-14

    In this paper we investigate for the first time the near-field optical behavior of two-dimensional Fibonacci plasmonic lattices fabricated by electron-beam lithography on transparent quartz substrates. In particular, by performing near-field optical microscopy measurements and three dimensional Finite Difference Time Domain simulations we demonstrate that near-field coupling of nanoparticle dimers in Fibonacci arrays results in a quasi-periodic lattice of localized nanoparticle plasmons. The possibility to accurately predict the spatial distribution of enhanced localized plasmon modes in quasi-periodic Fibonacci arrays can have a significant impact for the design and fabrication of novel nano-plasmonics devices.

  7. Odour Mapping Under Strong Backgrounds With a Metal Oxide Sensor Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziyatdinov, Andrey; Calvo, José María Blanco; Lechón, Miguel; Bermúdez i Badia, Sergi; Verschure, Paul F. M. J.; Marco, Santiago; Perera, Alexandre

    2011-09-01

    This work describes the data from navigation experiments with the mobile robot, equipped with the sensor array of three MOX gas sensors. Performed four series of measurements aim to explore the capabilities of sensor array to build the odour map with one or two odour sources in the wind tunnel space. It was demonstrated that the method based on Independent Component Analysis (ICA) is able to discriminate two odour sources, that in future can be used in the surge-and-cast robot navigation algorithm.

  8. Design of crossing metallic metasurface arrays based on high sensitivity of gap enhancement and transmittance shift for plasmonic sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou Chau, Yuan-Fong; Syu, Jhih-Yu; Chou Chao, Chung-Ting; Chiang, Hai-Pang; Lim, Chee Ming

    2017-02-01

    We have systematically investigated a general approach to optimize the optical performances of a 2D array of crossing metal nanoparticle (MNP) thin film. These functionalized metasurface MNPs are designed for use as wavelength-selection filters in high-sensitivity infrared spectroscopic plasmonic sensors. The effects of different structural parameters corresponding to the gap-enhancement and bonded transmittance modes on MNP arrays are studied. Two types of sensor configurations based on gold MNP arrays are thoroughly investigated by using the finite element method. The calculated transmittance spectra of the proposed metasurfaces demonstrate near-infrared transmittance dips with a sensitivity range of 120-700 nm RIU-1 in a dielectric constant (ɛ) ranging from 1.0-3.0. We illustrate that it is possible to increase their sensitivity in the detection of chemical and biological substances. The proposed metasurfaces supporting both core-medium sensitivity and bonded-mode resonances are desirable for label-free sensing applications.

  9. Investigation of the effects of metal-wire resonators in sub-wavelength array based on time-reversal technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Hui-Lin; Xiao, Shao-Qiu

    2016-05-01

    The resonant metalens consisting of metal-wire resonators with equally finite length can break the diffraction barrier well suited for super-resolution imaging. In this study, a basic combination constructed by two metal-wire resonators with different lengths is proposed, and its resonant characteristics is analyzed using the method of moments (MoM). Based on the time reversal (TR) technique, this kind of combination can be applied to a sub-wavelength two-element antenna array with a 1/40-wavelength interval to make the elements work simultaneously with little interference in the frequency band of 1.0-1.5 GHz and 1.5-2.0 GHz, respectively. The simulations and experiments show that analysis of MoM and the application of the resonators can be used to design multi-frequency sub-wavelength antenna arrays efficiently. This general design method is convenient and can be used for many applications, such as weakening jamming effectiveness in communication systems, and sub-wavelength imaging in a broad frequency band.

  10. Building one-dimensional oxide nanostructure arrays on conductive metal substrates for lithium-ion battery anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jian; Li, Yuanyuan; Liu, Jinping; Huang, Xintang

    2011-01-01

    Lithium ion battery (LIB) is potentially one of the most attractive energy storage devices. To meet the demands of future high-power and high-energy density requirements in both thin-film microbatteries and conventional batteries, it is challenging to explore novel nanostructured anode materials instead of conventional graphite. Compared to traditional electrodes based on nanostructure powder paste, directly grown ordered nanostructure array electrodes not only simplify the electrode processing, but also offer remarkable advantages such as fast electron transport/collection and ion diffusion, sufficient electrochemical reaction of individual nanostructures, enhanced material-electrolyte contact area and facile accommodation of the strains caused by lithium intercalation and de-intercalation. This article provides a brief overview of the present status in the area of LIB anodes based on one-dimensional nanostructure arrays growing directly on conductive inert metal substrates, with particular attention to metal oxides synthesized by an anodized alumina membrane (AAM)-free solution-based or hydrothermal methods. Both the scientific developments and the techniques and challenges are critically analyzed.

  11. Enhanced transmission of slit arrays in an extremely thin metallic film

    CERN Document Server

    Moreau, A; Laurent, N; Edee, K; Granet, G; Moreau, Antoine; Lafarge, Christophe; Laurent, Nicolas; Edee, Kofi

    2006-01-01

    We explore the behaviour of slit arrays for very low thicknesses and found that they could constitute very interesting filters. Two mechanisms are responsible for the enhanced transmission depending on the thickness : first, cavity resonances, for a suprisingly low thickness and a resonance whose nature still has to be understood for extremely small thicknesses.

  12. 3D Finite Element Modelling of Cutting Forces in Drilling Fibre Metal Laminates and Experimental Hole Quality Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giasin, Khaled; Ayvar-Soberanis, Sabino; French, Toby; Phadnis, Vaibhav

    2017-02-01

    Machining Glass fibre aluminium reinforced epoxy (GLARE) is cumbersome due to distinctively different mechanical and thermal properties of its constituents, which makes it challenging to achieve damage-free holes with the acceptable surface quality. The proposed work focuses on the study of the machinability of thin ( 2.5 mm) GLARE laminate. Drilling trials were conducted to analyse the effect of feed rate and spindle speed on the cutting forces and hole quality. The resulting hole quality metrics (surface roughness, hole size, circularity error, burr formation and delamination) were assessed using surface profilometry and optical scanning techniques. A three dimensional (3D) finite-element (FE) model of drilling GLARE laminate was also developed using ABAQUS/Explicit to help understand the mechanism of drilling GLARE. The homogenised ply-level response of GLARE laminate was considered in the FE model to predict cutting forces in the drilling process.

  13. 3D Finite Element Modelling of Cutting Forces in Drilling Fibre Metal Laminates and Experimental Hole Quality Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giasin, Khaled; Ayvar-Soberanis, Sabino; French, Toby; Phadnis, Vaibhav

    2016-07-01

    Machining Glass fibre aluminium reinforced epoxy (GLARE) is cumbersome due to distinctively different mechanical and thermal properties of its constituents, which makes it challenging to achieve damage-free holes with the acceptable surface quality. The proposed work focuses on the study of the machinability of thin (~2.5 mm) GLARE laminate. Drilling trials were conducted to analyse the effect of feed rate and spindle speed on the cutting forces and hole quality. The resulting hole quality metrics (surface roughness, hole size, circularity error, burr formation and delamination) were assessed using surface profilometry and optical scanning techniques. A three dimensional (3D) finite-element (FE) model of drilling GLARE laminate was also developed using ABAQUS/Explicit to help understand the mechanism of drilling GLARE. The homogenised ply-level response of GLARE laminate was considered in the FE model to predict cutting forces in the drilling process.

  14. Growth of Vertically Aligned ZnO Nanowire Arrays Using Bilayered Metal Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Qi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertically aligned, high-density ZnO nanowires (NWs were grown for the first time on c-plane sapphire using binary alloys of Ni/Au or Cu/Au as the catalyst. The growth was performed under argon gas flow and involved the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS growth process. We have investigated various ratios of catalyst components for the NWs growth and results indicate that very thin adhesion layers of Ni or Cu deposited prior to the Au layer are not deleterious to the ZnO NW array growth. Significant improvement of the Au adhesion on the substrate was noted, opening the potential for direct catalyst patterning of Au and subsequent NW array growth. Additionally, we found that an increase of in thickness of the Cu adhesion layer results in the simultaneous growth of NWs and nanoplates (NPs, indicating that in this case the growth involves both the VLS and vapor-solid (VS growth mechanisms. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS studies were also performed to characterize the resulting ZnO NW arrays, indicating that the NWs grown using a thin adhesion layer of Ni or Cu under the Au show comparable SERS enhancement to those of the pure Au-catalyzed NWs.

  15. Comparison of junctionless and inversion-mode p-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors in presence of hole-phonon interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dib, E., E-mail: elias.dib@for.unipi.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Università di Pisa, 56122 Pisa (Italy); Carrillo-Nuñez, H. [Integrated Systems Laboratory ETH Zürich, Gloriastrasse 35, 8092 Zürich (Switzerland); Cavassilas, N.; Bescond, M. [IM2NP, UMR CNRS 6242, Bât. IRPHE, Technopôle de Château-Gombert, 13384 Marseille Cedex 13 (France)

    2016-01-28

    Junctionless transistors are being considered as one of the alternatives to conventional metal-oxide field-effect transistors. In this work, it is then presented a simulation study of silicon double-gated p-type junctionless transistors compared with its inversion-mode counterpart. The quantum transport problem is solved within the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism, whereas hole-phonon interactions are tackled by means of the self-consistent Born approximation. Our findings show that junctionless transistors should perform as good as a conventional transistor only for ultra-thin channels, with the disadvantage of requiring higher supply voltages in thicker channel configurations.

  16. Field emission from laterally aligned carbon nanotube flower arrays for low turn-on field emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroe Kimura

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Laterally aligned carbon nanotube (CNT arrays “blossomed” homogeneously in honeycomb holes of a metal grid substrate were explored as rational architecture for field emission. A low turn-on field (TOF of 1.09 V/μm for 10 μA/cm2 emission was achieved, which approaches or exceeds the lowest reported TOF values for field emitter arrays. We interpret that these lateral CNT arrays act as source of CNT “loop” arrays enabling a structure suited toward low TOF field emission.

  17. Strained Germanium-Tin (GeSn) P-Channel Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors Featuring High Effective Hole Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Yan, Jing; Wang, Hongjuan; Cheng, Buwen; Han, Genquan

    2015-06-01

    Compressively strained and p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) are fabricated with low-temperature surface passivation. High crystallinity GeSn films epitaxially grown on a Ge(001) substrate are used for the device fabrication. The impacts of the Sn composition on the subthreshold swing , threshold voltage , on-state current , and effective hole mobility of the devices are investigated. GeSn pMOSFETs with different Sn compositions show a similar , indicating almost the same midgap density of interface states . A positive shift of with an increase of the Sn composition is observed. A pMOSFET exhibits a significant improvement in as compared to a device with a lower Sn composition, which is due to the superior hole mobility in a device with a higher Sn composition. pMOSFETs achieve a peak effective hole mobility of , which is much higher than that of devices. The enhancement of the compressive strain and chemical effect in the channel region with increased Sn composition leads to an improvement of.

  18. Field Emission from an Array of Free-standing Metallic Nanowires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张耿民; Emmanuel ROY; 刘虹雯; 刘惟敏; 侯士敏; Kui YU-ZHANG; 薛增泉

    2002-01-01

    Arrays of single crystalline gold nanowires were synthesized electrochemically in porous polycarbonate mem-branes. The polycarbonate membrane was then removed to obtain free-standing nanowires for field emissionmeasurements. The turn-on electric field strength for field emission is found to be lower than 2V/μm. The actualelectric field that extracted electrons out of the gold nanowires is estimated to be about 1 03 times higher than thefield directly expected in the model of a parallel plate condenser. The availability of the field emission is thereforeattributed to the strong electric field at the tips resulting from smallcurvature radius of the gold nanowires.

  19. Assessment of weld quality of aerospace grade metals by using ultrasonic matrix phased array technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Jeong K.; Gleeson, Sean T.

    2014-03-01

    Advantages of two dimensional electronic ultrasonic beam focusing, steering and scanning with the matrix phased array (MPA) technology has been used to visualize the conditions of resistance spot welds in auto vehicle grade advanced high strength steel carbon steels nondestructively. Two of the commonly used joining techniques, resistance spot welding and resistance seam welding, for thin aerospace grade plates made of aluminum, titanium, and stainless steels have also been inspected with the same MPA NDE system. In this study, a detailed discussions of the current MPA based ultrasonic real time imaging methodology has been made followed by some of the NDT results obtained with various welded test coupons.

  20. Transmission enhancement through square coaxial apertures arrays in metallic film: when leaky modes filter infrared light

    CERN Document Server

    Vial, Benjamin; Dallaporta, Hervé; Commandré, Mireille; Demésy, Guillaume; Nicolet, André; Zolla, Frédéric; Tisserand, Stéphane; Roux, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    We consider arrays of square coaxial apertures in a gold layer and study their diffractive behavior in the far infrared region. These structures exhibit a resonant transmission enhancement that is used to design tunable bandpass filters. We provide a study of their spectral features and show by a modal analysis that the resonance peak is due to the excitation of leaky modes of the open photonic structure. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometry transmission measurements of samples deposited on Si substrate show good agreement with numerical results and demonstrate angular tolerance up to 30 degrees of the fabricated filters.

  1. Physisorption-induced electron scattering on the surface of carbon-metal core-shell nanowire arrays for hydrogen sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yick, S.; Yajadda, M. M. A.; Bendavid, A.; Han, Z. J.; Ostrikov, K.

    2013-06-01

    Palladium is sputtered on multi-walled carbon nanotube forests to form carbon-metal core-shell nanowire arrays. These hybrid nanostructures exhibited resistive responses when exposed to hydrogen with an excellent baseline recovery at room temperature. The magnitude of the response is shown to be tuneable by an applied voltage. Unlike the charge-transfer mechanism commonly attributed to Pd nanoparticle-decorated carbon nanotubes, this demonstrates that the hydrogen response mechanism of the multi-walled carbon nanotube-Pd core-shell nanostructure is due to the increase in electron scattering induced by physisorption of hydrogen. These hybrid core-shell nanostructures are promising for gas detection in hydrogen storage applications.

  2. Similar structures, different characteristics: circular dichroism of metallic helix arrays with single-, double-, and triple-helical structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Yang, Zhenyu; Zhao, Ming; Wu, Lin; Lu, Zeqin; Cheng, Yongzhi; Gong, Rongzhou; Zheng, Yu; Duan, Jian

    2013-04-01

    We fabricated three-dimensional metallic helix arrays with single-, double-, and triple-helical structures. The transmission performances with the normal incident angle were measured in the microwave frequency of 12-18 GHz. For the single- and double-helical structures, giant circular dichroism with fairly wide bands is observed in the transmission spectra. However, the triple-helical structure does not exhibit circular dichroism. Based on the phenomenon of circular dichroism, the single- and double-helical structures can be used as broadband circular polarizers in the microwave region, but triple-helical ones cannot. The experiments have a good agreement with our simulation results, which were studied by the finite-difference time domain method.

  3. Plasmonic Bandgaps in 1D Arrays of Slits on Metal Layers Excited by Out-of-Plane Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Marani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the effective opening of finite bands of inhibited transmission in realistic systems excited by actual out-of-plane sources. We first observe how the excitation of surface plasmon polaritons in one-dimensional arrays of metal slits depends on the angle of incidence of the source field. Then, the well-known grating-coupling equation is revised in order to find an asymmetric structure with equivalent parameters which, under perfectly normal excitation, is able to exhibit surface plasmon polariton modes at the same wavelengths of the original structure which undergoes a nonorthogonal incidence of the light. In this way we demonstrate through finite-element simulations that a realistic system, probed by a source beam in a finite light-cone, can be effectively decomposed in several equivalent systems with different physical and geometrical parameters, with results in the enlargement of the theoretically expected punctual minimum of transmission.

  4. Metallic nanocone array photonic substrate for high-uniformity surface deposition and optical detection of small molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppé, Jean-Philippe; Xu, Zhida; Chen, Yi; Logan Liu, G.

    2011-06-01

    Molecular probe arrays printed on solid surfaces such as DNA, peptide, and protein microarrays are widely used in chemical and biomedical applications especially genomic and proteomic studies (Pollack et al 1999 Nat. Genet. 23 41-6, Houseman et al 2002 Nat. Biotechnol. 20 270-4, Sauer et al 2005 Nat. Rev. Genet. 6 465-76) as well as surface imaging and spectroscopy (Mori et al 2008 Anal. Biochem. 375 223-31, Liu et al 2006 Nat. Nanotechnol. 1 47-52, Liu 2010 IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16 662-71). Unfortunately the printed molecular spots on solid surfaces often suffer low distribution uniformity due to the lingering 'coffee stain' (Deegan et al 1997 Nature 389 827-9) problem of molecular accumulations and blotches, especially around the edge of deposition spots caused by solvent evaporation and convection processes. Here we present, without any surface chemistry modification, a unique solid surface of high-aspect-ratio silver-coated silicon nanocone arrays that allows highly uniform molecular deposition and thus subsequent uniform optical imaging and spectroscopic molecular detection. Both fluorescent Rhodamine dye molecules and unlabeled oligopeptides are printed on the metallic nanocone photonic substrate surface as circular spot arrays. In comparison with the printed results on ordinary glass slides and silver-coated glass slides, not only high printing density but uniform molecular distribution in every deposited spot is achieved. The high-uniformity and repeatability of molecular depositions on the 'coffee stain'-free nanocone surface is confirmed by laser scanning fluorescence imaging and surface enhanced Raman imaging experiments. The physical mechanism for the uniform molecular deposition is attributed to the superhydrophobicity and localized pinned liquid-solid-air interface on the silver-coated silicon nanocone surface. The unique surface properties of the presented nanocone surface enabled high-density, high-uniformity probe spotting beneficial

  5. Metallic nanocone array photonic substrate for high-uniformity surface deposition and optical detection of small molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppe, Jean-Philippe [Kinogea Inc., 2168 Shattuck Ave, Berkeley, CA 94704 (United States); Xu Zhida; Chen Yi; Logan Liu, G, E-mail: loganliu@illinois.edu [Micro and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States)

    2011-06-17

    Molecular probe arrays printed on solid surfaces such as DNA, peptide, and protein microarrays are widely used in chemical and biomedical applications especially genomic and proteomic studies (Pollack et al 1999 Nat. Genet. 23 41-6, Houseman et al 2002 Nat. Biotechnol. 20 270-4, Sauer et al 2005 Nat. Rev. Genet. 6 465-76) as well as surface imaging and spectroscopy (Mori et al 2008 Anal. Biochem. 375 223-31, Liu et al 2006 Nat. Nanotechnol. 1 47-52, Liu 2010 IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16 662-71). Unfortunately the printed molecular spots on solid surfaces often suffer low distribution uniformity due to the lingering 'coffee stain' (Deegan et al 1997 Nature 389 827-9) problem of molecular accumulations and blotches, especially around the edge of deposition spots caused by solvent evaporation and convection processes. Here we present, without any surface chemistry modification, a unique solid surface of high-aspect-ratio silver-coated silicon nanocone arrays that allows highly uniform molecular deposition and thus subsequent uniform optical imaging and spectroscopic molecular detection. Both fluorescent Rhodamine dye molecules and unlabeled oligopeptides are printed on the metallic nanocone photonic substrate surface as circular spot arrays. In comparison with the printed results on ordinary glass slides and silver-coated glass slides, not only high printing density but uniform molecular distribution in every deposited spot is achieved. The high-uniformity and repeatability of molecular depositions on the 'coffee stain'-free nanocone surface is confirmed by laser scanning fluorescence imaging and surface enhanced Raman imaging experiments. The physical mechanism for the uniform molecular deposition is attributed to the superhydrophobicity and localized pinned liquid-solid-air interface on the silver-coated silicon nanocone surface. The unique surface properties of the presented nanocone surface enabled high-density, high-uniformity probe

  6. Phased Array Ultrasonic Examination of Reactor Coolant System (Carbon Steel-to-CASS) Dissimilar Metal Weld Mockup Specimen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, S. L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cinson, A. D. [US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Washington, DC (United States); Diaz, A. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Anderson, M. T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-11-23

    In the summer of 2009, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) staff traveled to the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) NDE Center in Charlotte, North Carolina, to conduct phased-array ultrasonic testing on a large bore, reactor coolant pump nozzle-to-safe-end mockup. This mockup was fabricated by FlawTech, Inc. and the configuration originated from the Port St. Lucie nuclear power plant. These plants are Combustion Engineering-designed reactors. This mockup consists of a carbon steel elbow with stainless steel cladding joined to a cast austenitic stainless steel (CASS) safe-end with a dissimilar metal weld and is owned by Florida Power & Light. The objective of this study, and the data acquisition exercise held at the EPRI NDE Center, were focused on evaluating the capabilities of advanced, low-frequency phased-array ultrasonic testing (PA-UT) examination techniques for detection and characterization of implanted circumferential flaws and machined reflectors in a thick-section CASS dissimilar metal weld component. This work was limited to PA-UT assessments using 500 kHz and 800 kHz probes on circumferential flaws only, and evaluated detection and characterization of these flaws and machined reflectors from the CASS safe-end side only. All data were obtained using spatially encoded, manual scanning techniques. The effects of such factors as line-scan versus raster-scan examination approaches were evaluated, and PA-UT detection and characterization performance as a function of inspection frequency/wavelength, were also assessed. A comparative assessment of the data is provided, using length-sizing root-mean-square-error and position/localization results (flaw start/stop information) as the key criteria for flaw characterization performance. In addition, flaw signal-to-noise ratio was identified as the key criterion for detection performance.

  7. Bottom-Up Nanofabrication of Supported Noble Metal Alloy Nanoparticle Arrays for Plasmonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugroho, Ferry A A; Iandolo, Beniamino; Wagner, Jakob B; Langhammer, Christoph

    2016-02-23

    Mixing different elements at the nanoscale to obtain alloy nanostructures with fine-tuned physical and chemical properties offers appealing opportunities for nanotechnology and nanoscience. However, despite widespread successful application of alloy nanoparticles made by colloidal synthesis in heterogeneous catalysis, nanoalloy systems have been used very rarely in solid-state devices and nanoplasmonics-related applications. One reason is that such applications require integration in arrays on a surface with compelling demands on nanoparticle arrangement, uniformity in surface coverage, and optimization of the surface density. These cannot be fulfilled even using state-of-the-art self-assembly strategies of colloids. As a solution, we present here a generic bottom-up nanolithography-compatible fabrication approach for large-area arrays of alloy nanoparticles on surfaces. To illustrate the concept, we focus on Au-based binary and ternary alloy systems with Ag, Cu, and Pd, due to their high relevance for nanoplasmonics and complete miscibility, and characterize their optical properties. Moreover, as an example for the relevance of the obtained materials for integration in devices, we demonstrate the superior and hysteresis-free plasmonic hydrogen-sensing performance of the AuPd alloy nanoparticle system.

  8. Ground-state oxygen holes and the metal-insulator transition in the negative charge-transfer rare-earth nickelates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisogni, Valentina; Catalano, Sara; Green, Robert J.; Gibert, Marta; Scherwitzl, Raoul; Huang, Yaobo; Strocov, Vladimir N.; Zubko, Pavlo; Balandeh, Shadi; Triscone, Jean-Marc; Sawatzky, George; Schmitt, Thorsten

    2016-10-01

    The metal-insulator transition and the intriguing physical properties of rare-earth perovskite nickelates have attracted considerable attention in recent years. Nonetheless, a complete understanding of these materials remains elusive. Here we combine X-ray absorption and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) spectroscopies to resolve important aspects of the complex electronic structure of rare-earth nickelates, taking NdNiO3 thin film as representative example. The unusual coexistence of bound and continuum excitations observed in the RIXS spectra provides strong evidence for abundant oxygen holes in the ground state of these materials. Using cluster calculations and Anderson impurity model interpretation, we show that distinct spectral signatures arise from a Ni 3d8 configuration along with holes in the oxygen 2p valence band, confirming suggestions that these materials do not obey a conventional positive charge-transfer picture, but instead exhibit a negative charge-transfer energy in line with recent models interpreting the metal-insulator transition in terms of bond disproportionation.

  9. Plasmonic metamaterials based on holey metallic films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mary, A; GarcIa-Vidal, F J [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Rodrigo, Sergio G; Martin-Moreno, L [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada-ICMA, Universidad de Zaragoza-CSIC, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain)], E-mail: fj.garcia@uam.es

    2008-07-30

    In this paper we address from the fundamental point of view the links and relations between three different phenomena that emerge when metallic films are perforated with periodic arrays of holes: (i) the phenomenon of extraordinary optical transmission in single metallic layers, (ii) the appearance of surface electromagnetic modes (the so-called spoof surface plasmons) when an array of holes is drilled on the surface of a perfect electrical conductor and (iii) the negative refractive index behavior observed in double-fishnet (DF) structures in which a periodic hole array is perforated on a metal-dielectric-metal stack. By using a very simple theoretical framework, we show how the physical origin of the negative refractive index in these DF structures is due to the excitation of spoof gap surface plasmon modes that propagate within the dielectric slab. We also demonstrate that the electrical response of the DF system is mainly controlled by the cut-off frequency of the hole waveguide. Finally, we present some results for multilayered DF structures that illustrate how the negative refractive index is maintained when several DF units are stacked together.

  10. Research on an FM/cw ladar system using a 64 × 64 InGaAs metal-semiconductor-metal self-mixing focal plane array of detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jian; Sun, Jianfeng; Cong, Mingyu

    2017-04-01

    Frequency-modulated/continuous-wave imaging systems are a focal plane array (FPA) ladar architecture that is applicable to smart munitions, reconnaissance, face recognition, robotic navigation, etc. In this paper, we report a 64×64 pixel FPA ladar system we built using a 1550 nm amplified laser diode transmitter and an InAlAs/InGaAs metal-semiconductor-metal self-mixing detector array and the test results attained over the years it was constructed. Finally, we gained 4D imaging (3D range + 1D intensity) of the target with the range of 220 m.

  11. Bottom-Up Nanofabrication of Supported Noble Metal Alloy Nanoparticle Arrays for Plasmonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nugroho, Ferry A. A.; Iandolo, Beniamino; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal;

    2016-01-01

    Mixing different elements at the nanoscale to obtain alloy nanostructures with fine-tuned physical and chemical properties offers appealing opportunities for nanotechnology and nanoscience. However, despite widespread successful application of alloy nanoparticles made by colloidal synthesis...... in heterogeneous catalysis, nanoalloy systems have been used very rarely in solid-state devices and nanoplasmonics-related applications. One reason is that such applications require integration in arrays on a surface with compelling demands on nanoparticle arrangement, uniformity in surface coverage...... the concept, we focus on Au-based binary and ternary alloy systems with Ag, Cu, and Pd, due to their high relevance for nanoplasmonics and complete miscibility, and characterize their optical properties. Moreover, as an example for the relevance of the obtained materials for integration in devices, we...

  12. Effective-medium description of a metasurface composed of a periodic array of nanoantennas coupled to a metallic film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, P. T.; Baron, A.; Smith, D. R.

    2017-03-01

    We compute the reflectance properties of a metasurface that consists of a doubly periodic array of patch nanoantennas strongly coupled to a metallic film. Each plasmonic patch antenna can be accurately modeled as a polarizable, radiating, magnetic dipole. By accounting for interactions amongst the dipoles, an equivalent surface polarizability can be obtained, from which the effective surface impedance, reflectivity, and other homogenized quantities of interest can be obtained. When the metasurface is extremely close to the metal film, the interaction between constituent dipoles is dominated by surface plasmon mediation. We calculate analytically the dipole interaction constant by explicitly evaluating the infinite sum of fields from all the dipoles in the lattice. While a single film-coupled nanoparticle exhibits anomalous loss due to coupling to surface plasmons, we find that for the lattice of dipoles, the radiation reaction force due to the coupling to the surface plasmon modes is exactly canceled by the interaction constant; the lattice thereby conserves energy in the limit of zero Ohmic loss. When Ohmic losses are present, absorption to surface plasmons reemerges and can be compared with the losses to radiation and Ohmic absorption in the metasurface.

  13. Stretchable array of metal nanodisks on a 3D sinusoidal wavy elastomeric substrate for frequency tunable plasmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Di; Zhang, Hui; Xu, Siyi; Tian, Limei; Song, Ningfang

    2017-03-01

    Metal nanostructures integrated with soft, elastomeric substrates provide an unusual platform with capabilities in plasmonic frequency tuning of mechanical strain. In this paper, we have prepared a tunable optical device, dense arrays of plasmonic nanodisks on a low-modulus, and high-elongation elastomeric substrate with a three-dimensional (3D) sinusoidal wavy, and their optical characteristics have been measured and analyzed in detail. Since surface plasmon is located and propagates along metal surfaces with sub-wavelength structures, and those dispersive properties are determined by the coupling strength between the individual structures, in this study, a 3D sinusoidal curve elastomeric substrate is used to mechanically control the inter-nanodisk spacing by applying straining and creating a frequency tunable plasmonic device. Here we study the optical resonance peak shifting generated by stretching this type of flexible device, and the role that 3D sinusoidal curve surface configuration plays in determining the tunable properties. Since only the hybrid dipolar mode has been observed in experiments, the coupled dipole approximation (CDA) method is employed to simulate the optical response of these devices, and the experimental and simulation results show that these devices have high tunability to shift optical resonance peaks at near-infrared wavelengths, which will provide strong potential for new soft optical sensors and wearable plasmonic sensors.

  14. Vertically Aligned Two-Dimensional Graphene-Metal Hydroxide Hybrid Arrays for Li-O2 Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jixin; Metzger, Michael; Antonietti, Markus; Fellinger, Tim-Patrick

    2016-10-05

    Lithium oxygen batteries (LOBs) are a very promising upcoming technology which, however, still suffers from low lifespan and dramatic capacities fading. Solid discharge products increase the contact resistance and block the electrochemically active electrodes. The resulting high oxidative potentials and formation of Li2CO3 due to electrolyte and carbon electrode decomposition at the positive electrode lead to irreversible deactivation of oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) sites. Here we demonstrate a facile strategy for the scalable production of a new electrode structure constituted of vertically aligned carbon nanosheets and metal hydroxide (M(OH)x@CNS) hybrid arrays, integrating both favorable ORR and OER active materials to construct bifunctional catalysts for LOBs. Excellent lithium-oxygen battery properties with high specific capacity of 5403 mAh g(-1) and 12123 mAh g(-1) referenced to the carbon and M(OH)x weight, respectively, long cyclability, and low charge potentials are achieved in the resulting M(OH)x@CNS cathode architecture. The properties are explained by improved O2/ion transport properties and spatially limited precipitation of Li2O2 nanoparticles inside interstitial cavities resulting in high reversibility. The strategy of creating ORR and OER bifunctional catalysts in a single conductive hybrid component may pave the way to new cathode architectures for metal air batteries.

  15. Comparative study of multimode CYTOP graded index and single-mode silica fibre Bragg grating array for the mode shape capturing of a free-free metal beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodosiou, A.; Polis, M.; Lacraz, A.; Kalli, K.; Komodromos, M.; Stassis, A.

    2016-04-01

    The work described in this paper involved two different material fibre Bragg grating (FBG) arrays, investigating their performance as quasi-distributed sensors by capturing the vibrating response of a free-free metal beam close to its resonance frequencies. A six meter length of low-loss, gradient-index, multimode CYTOP fibre and of SMF-28 were used for the inscription of multiple FBG sensors using a femtosecond laser inscription method. The FBG arrays were multiplexed in the wavelength domain using a high-speed commercial demodulator, from which we recovered wavelengthand time-dependent displacement information. We compared the vibration response of the two arrays and using a novel computation algorithm we extract the first mode shape of the free-free metal beam that was exited at its first resonance frequency using a vibrating force.

  16. High and stable photoelectrochemical activity of ZnO/ZnSe/CdSe/Cu(x)S core-shell nanowire arrays: nanoporous surface with Cu(x)S as a hole mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Wei-Xin; Yu, Yu-Xiang; Zhang, Wei-De

    2015-06-14

    Advanced materials for electrocatalytic and photoelectrochemical water splitting are key for taking advantage of renewable energy. In this study, ZnO/ZnSe/CdSe/Cu(x)S core-shell nanowire arrays with a nanoporous surface were fabricated via ion exchange and successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) processes. The ZnO/ZnSe/CdSe/Cu(x)S sample displays a high photocurrent density of 12.0 mA cm(-2) under AM 1.5G illumination, achieves the highest IPCE value of 89.5% at 500 nm at a bias potential of 0.2 V versus Ag/AgCl, and exhibits greatly improved photostability. The functions of the ZnSe, CdSe, and Cu(x)S layers in the ZnO/ZnSe/CdSe/Cu(x)S heterostructure were clarified. ZnSe is used as a passivation layer to reduce the trapping and recombination of charge carriers at the interfaces of the semiconductors. CdSe functions as a highly efficient visible light absorber and builds heterojunctions with the other components to improve the separation and transportation of the photoinduced electrons and holes. Cu(x)S serves as a passivation layer and an effective p-type hole mediator, which passivates the defects and surface states of the semiconductors and forms p-n junctions with CdSe to promote the hole transportation at the semiconductor-electrolyte interface. The nanoporous surface of the ZnO/ZnSe/CdSe/Cu(x)S core-shell nanowire arrays, together with the tunnel transportation of the charge carriers in the thin films of ZnSe and CdSe, also facilitates the kinetics of photoelectrochemical reactions and improves the optical absorption as well.

  17. Light extinction and scattering from individual and arrayed high-aspect-ratio trenches in metal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Alexander; Søndergaard, Thomas; Chirumamilla, Manohar

    2016-01-01

    for a two-dimensional scatterer. We construct a simple resonator model which predicts the wavelength-dependent extinction, scattering, and absorption cross section of the trench and compare the model findings with full numerical simulations. Both extinction and scattering cross sections are mainly...... determined by the wavelength and can reach highly supergeometric values. At wavelengths where the metal exhibits near perfect electrical conductor behavior, such trenches lend themselves to be used as self-normalizing scatterers, as their scattering cross section is independent of their geometry and depend...... and two-photon luminescence that the resonant behavior of the vertical trenches is preserved....

  18. Metal micro-arrays for collimating neutrons and X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allman, B.E.; Cimmino, A.; Klein, A.G. [Univ. of Melbourne, Parkville (Australia). School of Physics; Hamilton, W.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Neutron Scattering Group

    1998-08-01

    The authors describe the theory, fabrication and experimental results of novel, compact optical elements for collimating and/or focusing beams of X-rays or thermal neutrons. These optical elements are solid composites consisting of regular stacks of alternating micro-foils, analogous in action to Soller slits. They are made out of pairs of metals with suitable refractive indices for reflection and/or absorption of the radiation. The performance of these proof-in-principle collimating elements is limited only by the choice of micro-foil materials and the uniformity of their interfaces.

  19. Cross-Reactive Sensor Array for Metal Ion Sensing Based on Fluorescent SAMs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Crego-Calama

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescent self assembled monolayers (SAMs on glass were previouslydeveloped in our group as new sensing materials for metal ions. These fluorescent SAMs arecomprised by fluorophores and small molecules sequentially deposited on a monolayer onglass. The preorganization provided by the surface avoids the need for complex receptordesign, allowing for a combinatorial approach to sensing systems based on small molecules.Now we show the fabrication of an effective microarray for the screening of metal ions andthe properties of the sensing SAMs. A collection of fluorescent sensing SAMs wasgenerated by combinatorial methods and immobilized on the glass surfaces of a custom-made 140 well microtiter-plate. The resulting libraries are easily measured and show variedresponses to a series cations such as Cu2+ , Co2+ , Pb2+ , Ca2+ and Zn2+ . These surfaces are notdesigned to complex selectively a unique analyte but rather they are intended to producefingerprint type responses to a range of analytes by less specific interactions. The unselectiveresponses of the library to the presence of different cations generate a characteristic patternfor each analyte, a “finger print” response.

  20. Cross-Reactive Sensor Array for Metal Ion Sensing Based on Fluorescent SAMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basabe-Desmonts, Lourdes; van der Baan, Frederieke; Zimmerman, Rebecca S.; Reinhoudt, David N.; Crego-Calama, Mercedes

    2007-01-01

    Fluorescent self assembled monolayers (SAMs) on glass were previously developed in our group as new sensing materials for metal ions. These fluorescent SAMs are comprised by fluorophores and small molecules sequentially deposited on a monolayer on glass. The preorganization provided by the surface avoids the need for complex receptor design, allowing for a combinatorial approach to sensing systems based on small molecules. Now we show the fabrication of an effective microarray for the screening of metal ions and the properties of the sensing SAMs. A collection of fluorescent sensing SAMs was generated by combinatorial methods and immobilized on the glass surfaces of a custom-made 140 well microtiter-plate. The resulting libraries are easily measured and show varied responses to a series cations such as Cu2+, Co2+, Pb2+, Ca2+ and Zn2+. These surfaces are not designed to complex selectively a unique analyte but rather they are intended to produce fingerprint type responses to a range of analytes by less specific interactions. The unselective responses of the library to the presence of different cations generate a characteristic pattern for each analyte, a “finger print” response.

  1. Metal capped polystyrene nanotubes arrays as super-hydrophobic substrates for SERS applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovera, Pierre; Creedon, Niamh; Alatawi, Hanan; O'Riordan, Alan

    2014-05-01

    We present a low-cost and rapid fabrication and characterisations of polymer nanotubes based substrates inspired by a Gecko's foot, and demonstrate its suitability for Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) applications. Substrates are fabricated in a simple, scalable and cost efficient way by melt wetting of polystyrene (PS) in an anodised alumina (AAO) template, followed by silver or gold evaporation. Scanning electron microscopy reveals the substrates are composed of a dense array of free-standing polystyrene nanotubes topped by silver nanocaps. The gaps (electromagnetic hot spots) between adjacent nanotubes are measured to be 30nm +/-15nm. SERS characterisation of the substrates, employing a monolayer of 4-aminothiophenol (4-ABT) as a model molecule, exhibits an enhancement factor of ~1.6 × 106. This value is consistent with the one obtained from 3D-Finite Difference Time Domain (3D-FDTD) simulations of a simplified version of the sample. The contact angle of the substrates is measured to be 150°, making them super-hydrophobic. This later property renders the samples compatible to very low sample volumes and highly sensitive detection (down to 408ppt) of the environmental pollutant crystal violet in water is demonstrated.

  2. Chromatic aberration of light focusing in hyperbolic anisotropic metamaterial made of metallic slit array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kai; Liu, Jianlong; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Shutian

    2012-12-17

    The dispersion of a hyperbolic anisotropic metamaterial (HAM) and the chromatic aberration of light focusing in this kind of HAM are studied. The HAM is formed by alternately stacking metal and dielectric layers. The rules of materials and filling factors affecting the optical property of HAM are given. The chromatic aberration of light focusing is demonstrated both theoretically and numerically. By comparing the theory with the simulation results, the factors influencing the focal length, including the heat loss of material and low spatial frequency modes, are discussed. The investigation emphasizes the anomalous properties, such as chromatic aberration and low spatial frequency modes influencing focus position, of HAM compared with that in conventional lens. Based on the analysis, the possibility of using HAM to focus light with two different wavelengths at the same point is studied.

  3. Structural control of nonlinear optical absorption and refraction in dense metal nanoparticle arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlgraf-Owens, Dana C; Kik, Pieter G

    2009-08-17

    The linear and nonlinear optical properties of a composite containing interacting spherical silver nanoparticles embedded in a dielectric host are studied as a function of interparticle separation using three dimensional frequency domain simulations. It is shown that for a fixed amount of metal, the effective third-order nonlinear susceptibility of the composite chi((3))(omega) can be significantly enhanced with respect to the linear optical properties, due to a combination of resonant surface plasmon excitation and local field redistribution. It is shown that this geometry-dependent susceptibility enhancement can lead to an improved figure of merit for nonlinear absorption. Enhancement factors for the nonlinear susceptibility of the composite are calculated, and the complex nature of the enhancement factors is discussed.

  4. Lunar Metal Oxide Electrolysis with Oxygen and Photovoltaic Array Production Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curreri, P. A.; Ethridge, E.; Hudson, S.; Sen, S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a Marshall Space Flight Center funded effort to conduct an experimental demonstration of the processing of simulated lunar resources by the molten oxide electrolysis (MOE) process to produce oxygen and metal from lunar resources to support human exploration of space. Oxygen extracted from lunar materials can be used for life support and propellant, and silicon and metallic elements produced can be used for in situ fabrication of thin-film solar cells for power production. The Moon is rich in mineral resources, but it is almost devoid of chemical reducing agents, therefore, molten oxide electrolysis, MOE, is chosen for extraction, since the electron is the most practical reducing agent. MOE was also chosen for following reasons. First, electrolytic processing offers uncommon versatility in its insensitivity to feedstock composition. Secondly, oxide melts boast the twin key attributes of highest solubilizing capacity for regolith and lowest volatility of any candidate electrolytes. The former is critical in ensuring high productivity since cell current is limited by reactant solubility, while the latter simplifies cell design by obviating the need for a gas-tight reactor to contain evaporation losses as would be the case with a gas or liquid phase fluoride reagent operating at such high temperatures. In the experiments reported here, melts containing iron oxide were electrolyzed in a low temperature supporting oxide electrolyte (developed by D. Sadoway, MIT). The production of oxygen and reduced iron were observed. Electrolysis was also performed on the supporting electrolyte with JSC-1 Lunar Simulant. The cell current for the supporting electrolyte alone is negligible while the current for the electrolyte with JSC-1 shows significant current and a peak at about -0.6 V indicating reductive reaction in the simulant.

  5. Porous ZnO nanosheet arrays constructed on weaved metal wire for flexible dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Hui; Zhou, Yong; Chen, Liang; Guo, Binglei; Li, Aidong; Liu, Jianguo; Yu, Tao; Zou, Zhigang

    2013-06-07

    Porous zinc oxide (ZnO) nanosheet (NS) arrays constructed by connected nanocrystallites were built on weaved metal wire (WMW) via hydrothermal treatment followed by calcination, and used as photoanodes for flexible dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). An overall light-to-electricity conversion efficiency (η) of 2.70% was achieved for the DSSC under 100 mW cm(-2) illumination, and this η was found to be much higher than that of the DSSC with ZnO nanowire (NW) as the photoanode (0.71%). The far superior performance of the DSSC with ZnO-NS is essentially attributed to: (i) the film consisting of nanosheets with interconnected nanocrystallites can allow relatively direct pathways for the transportation of electrons as the nanosheets have a regular structure with the sheets being oriented to the electrode; (ii) the nanocrystallites assembly and porous character of the nanosheets can provide a large surface area for dye adsorption, which is in favor of enhancing the light absorption and the light propagation; (iii) the nanopores embedded in the nanosheet can act as "branch lines" for more efficient electrolyte diffusion into the interstice of the densely packed nanosheets in the array. A further improvement in the efficiency of the DSSC with ZnO-NS was achieved through the atomic layer deposition (ALD) of an ultrathin titanium oxide (TiO2) layer onto the ZnO-NS layer. The larger charge transfer resistance along with the introduction of a TiO2 shell is thought to reduce the surface recombination and thus contribute to the increase in the open circuit voltage (Voc) of the DSCs and higher conversion efficiency (3.09%).

  6. 金属表面腐蚀孔的矩形模拟算法%Rectangle Simulation Algorithm for Etched Hole on Metal Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨振威; 滕奇志; 何小海

    2011-01-01

    In order to compute the parameters of etched hole on metal surface accurately, as a example of etched holes on high voltage anode aluminum foil by DC, a rectangle simulation algorithm was designed based on the shape feature of the etched area. With the use of computer image processing techniques, the concave points were extracted on each hole's contour and used to construct rectangles on the sample images to simulate these overlapping hole. Acceptable results of experiments had been obtained, further studies and analyses were based on the simulation results.%为准确计算金属材料表面腐蚀孔的参数,以高压阳极铝箔在直流电侵蚀下形式的表面腐蚀孔为例,提出了一种根据腐蚀孔形状特征设计的矩形模拟算法。利用计算机图像处理技术,提取腐蚀并孔轮廓上的特征凹点,将这些点根据算法进行矩形模拟,从而达到在试样腐蚀孔图像上用矩形块来模拟腐蚀孔的目的。通过试验证明该算法有较好的效果,可为下一步的分析研究工作提供依据。

  7. Magnonic Black Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán-Molina, A; Nunez, Alvaro S; Duine, R A

    2017-02-10

    We show that the interaction between the spin-polarized current and the magnetization dynamics can be used to implement black-hole and white-hole horizons for magnons-the quanta of oscillations in the magnetization direction in magnets. We consider three different systems: easy-plane ferromagnetic metals, isotropic antiferromagnetic metals, and easy-plane magnetic insulators. Based on available experimental data, we estimate that the Hawking temperature can be as large as 1 K. We comment on the implications of magnonic horizons for spin-wave scattering and transport experiments, and for magnon entanglement.

  8. Magnonic Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán-Molina, A.; Nunez, Alvaro S.; Duine, R. A.

    2017-02-01

    We show that the interaction between the spin-polarized current and the magnetization dynamics can be used to implement black-hole and white-hole horizons for magnons—the quanta of oscillations in the magnetization direction in magnets. We consider three different systems: easy-plane ferromagnetic metals, isotropic antiferromagnetic metals, and easy-plane magnetic insulators. Based on available experimental data, we estimate that the Hawking temperature can be as large as 1 K. We comment on the implications of magnonic horizons for spin-wave scattering and transport experiments, and for magnon entanglement.

  9. Energy Dissipation during Diffusion at Metal Surfaces: Disentangling the Role of Phonons versus Electron-Hole Pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittmeyer, Simon P.; Ward, David J.; Gütlein, Patrick; Ellis, John; Allison, William; Reuter, Karsten

    2016-11-01

    Helium spin echo experiments combined with ab initio based Langevin molecular dynamics simulations are used to quantify the adsorbate-substrate coupling during the thermal diffusion of Na atoms on Cu(111). An analysis of trajectories within the local density friction approximation allows the contribution from electron-hole pair excitations to be separated from the total energy dissipation. Despite the minimal electronic friction coefficient of Na and the relatively small mass mismatch to Cu promoting efficient phononic dissipation, about (20 ±5 )% of the total energy loss is attributable to electronic friction. The results suggest a significant role of electronic nonadiabaticity in the rapid thermalization generally relied upon in adiabatic diffusion theories.

  10. Template-assisted fabrication of free-standing nanorod arrays of a hole-conducting cross-linked triphenylamine derivative: toward ordered bulk-heterojunction solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberkorn, Niko; Gutmann, Jochen S; Theato, Patrick

    2009-06-23

    Free-standing nanorod arrays of a thermally cross-linked semiconducting triphenylamine were fabricated on conductive ITO/glass substrates via an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template-assisted approach. By using a solution wetting method combined with a subsequent thermal imprinting step to fill the nanoporous structure of the template with a cross-linkable triphenylamine derivative, a polymeric replication of the AAO was obtained after thermal curing and selective removal of the template. To obtain well-aligned and free-standing nanorod arrays, aggregation and collapse of the nanorods were prevented by optimizing their aspect ratio and applying a freeze-drying technique to remove the aqueous medium after the etching step. Because of their electrochemical properties and their resistance against organic solvents after curing, these high density nanorod arrays have potential application in organic photovoltaics.

  11. Metal-cluster-decorated TiO2 nanotube arrays: a composite heterostructure toward versatile photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fang-Xing; Hung, Sung-Fu; Miao, Jianwei; Wang, Hsin-Yi; Yang, Hongbin; Liu, Bin

    2015-02-04

    Recent years have witnessed increasing interest in the solution-phase synthesis of atomically precise thiolate-protected gold clusters (Aux ); nonetheless, research on the photocatalytic properties of Aux -semiconductor nanocomposites is still in its infancy. In this work, recently developed glutathione-capped gold clusters and highly ordered nanoporous layer-covered TiO2 nanotube arrays (NP-TNTAs) are employed as nanobuilding blocks for the construction of a well-defined Aux /NP-TNTA heterostructure via a facile electrostatic self-assembly strategy. Versatile photocatalytic performances of the Aux /NP-TNTA heterostructure which acts as a model catalyst, including photocatalytic oxidation of organic pollutant, photocatalytic reduction of aromatic nitro compounds and photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting under simulated solar light irradiation, are systematically exploited. It is found that synergistic interaction stemming from monodisperse coverage of Aux clusters on NP-TNTAs in combination with hierarchical nanostructure of NP-TNTAs reinforce light absorption of Aux /NP-TNTA heterostructure especially within visible region, hence contributing to the significantly enhanced photocatalytic and PEC water splitting performances. Moreover, photocatalytic and PEC mechanisms over Aux /NP-TNTA heterostructure are elucidated and corresponding reaction models were presented. It is anticipated that this work could boost new insight for photocatalytic properties of metal-cluster-sensitized semiconductor nanocomposites. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. The Nature Of Radio Continuum Emission At Very Low Metallicity: Very Large Array Observations of I Zw 18

    CERN Document Server

    Cannon, J M; Skillman, E D; Van Zee, L; Cannon, John M.; Walter, Fabian; Skillman, Evan D.; Zee, Liese van

    2005-01-01

    We present the first resolved study of the radio continuum properties of I Zw 18, the dwarf galaxy with the lowest known nebular metal abundance in the local universe. New Very Large Array radio continuum images at 20 and 3.6 cm are compared to various Hubble Space Telescope images, and we find a striking morphological similarity between high-resolution H alpha and short wavelength radio continuum emission, especially in the H alpha shell in the northwest region. We separate thermal and nonthermal components of the emission, and find a large synchrotron halo surrounding the galaxy. Comparison between H alpha and X-band fluxes suggests that the emission at 3.6 cm is dominated by thermal processes; an additional synchrotron component dominates the flux at 20 cm and produces a modest fraction of the detected flux at 3.6 cm. The fluxes of three of the four major emission peaks show a mix of thermal and nonthermal processes, while one shows a nearly flat spectral index. The strong synchrotron component argues for ...

  13. CsSnI3: Semiconductor or metal? High electrical conductivity and strong near-infrared photoluminescence from a single material. High hole mobility and phase-transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, In; Song, Jung-Hwan; Im, Jino; Androulakis, John; Malliakas, Christos D; Li, Hao; Freeman, Arthur J; Kenney, John T; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2012-05-23

    CsSnI(3) is an unusual perovskite that undergoes complex displacive and reconstructive phase transitions and exhibits near-infrared emission at room temperature. Experimental and theoretical studies of CsSnI(3) have been limited by the lack of detailed crystal structure characterization and chemical instability. Here we describe the synthesis of pure polymorphic crystals, the preparation of large crack-/bubble-free ingots, the refined single-crystal structures, and temperature-dependent charge transport and optical properties of CsSnI(3), coupled with ab initio first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations. In situ temperature-dependent single-crystal and synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction studies reveal the origin of polymorphous phase transitions of CsSnI(3). The black orthorhombic form of CsSnI(3) demonstrates one of the largest volumetric thermal expansion coefficients for inorganic solids. Electrical conductivity, Hall effect, and thermopower measurements on it show p-type metallic behavior with low carrier density, despite the optical band gap of 1.3 eV. Hall effect measurements of the black orthorhombic perovskite phase of CsSnI(3) indicate that it is a p-type direct band gap semiconductor with carrier concentration at room temperature of ∼ 10(17) cm(-3) and a hole mobility of ∼585 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). The hole mobility is one of the highest observed among p-type semiconductors with comparable band gaps. Its powders exhibit a strong room-temperature near-IR emission spectrum at 950 nm. Remarkably, the values of the electrical conductivity and photoluminescence intensity increase with heat treatment. The DFT calculations show that the screened-exchange local density approximation-derived band gap agrees well with the experimentally measured band gap. Calculations of the formation energy of defects strongly suggest that the electrical and light emission properties possibly result from Sn defects in the crystal structure, which arise

  14. Nanoparticle-Assisted Diffusion Brazing of Metal Microchannel Arrays: Nanoparticle Synthesis, Deposition, and Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eluri, Ravindranadh T.

    Microchannel process technology (MPT) offers several advantages to the field of nanomanufacturing: 1) improved process control over very short time intervals owing to shorter diffusional distances; and 2) reduced reactor size due to high surface area to volume ratios and enhanced heat and mass transfer. The objective of this thesis was to consider how nanomaterials, produced in part using MPT, could be used to solve problems associated with the fabrication of MPT devices. Specifically, many MPT devices are produced using transient liquid-phase brazing involving an electroplated interlayer consisting of a brazing alloy designed for melting temperature suppression. Unfortunately, these alloys can form brittle secondary phases which significantly reduce bond strength. In contrast, prior efforts have shown that it is possible to leverage the size-dependent properties of nanomaterials to suppress brazing temperatures. In this prior work, thin films of off-the-shelf elemental nanoparticles were used as interlayers yielding joints with improved mechanical properties. In the present investigation, efforts have been made to characterize the synthesis and deposition of various elemental nanoparticle suspensions for use in the transient liquid-phase brazing of aluminum and stainless steel. Advances were used to demonstrate the nanoparticle-assisted diffusion brazing of a microchannel array. In the first section, a silver nanoparticle (AgNP) interlayer was produced for the diffusion brazing of heat exchanger aluminum. Efforts are made to examine the effect of braze filler particle size (˜5 nm and ˜50 nm) and processing parameters (heating rate: 5ºC/min and 25ºC/min; brazing temperature: 550ºC and 570ºC) on thin coupons of diffusion-brazed 3003 Al. A tensile strength of 69.7 MPa was achieved for a sample brazed at 570°C for 30 min under 1 MPa with an interlayer thickness of approximately 7 microm. Further suppression of the brazing temperature to 500ºC was achieved by

  15. Supported noble metals on hydrogen-treated TiO2 nanotube arrays as highly ordered electrodes for fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changkun; Yu, Hongmei; Li, Yongkun; Gao, Yuan; Zhao, Yun; Song, Wei; Shao, Zhigang; Yi, Baolian

    2013-04-01

    Hydrogen-treated TiO2 nanotube (H-TNT) arrays serve as highly ordered nanostructured electrode supports, which are able to significantly improve the electrochemical performance and durability of fuel cells. The electrical conductivity of H-TNTs increases by approximately one order of magnitude in comparison to air-treated TNTs. The increase in the number of oxygen vacancies and hydroxyl groups on the H-TNTs help to anchor a greater number of Pt atoms during Pt electrodeposition. The H-TNTs are pretreated by using a successive ion adsorption and reaction (SIAR) method that enhances the loading and dispersion of Pt catalysts when electrodeposited. In the SIAR method a Pd activator can be used to provide uniform nucleation sites for Pt and leads to increased Pt loading on the H-TNTs. Furthermore, fabricated Pt nanoparticles with a diameter of 3.4 nm are located uniformly around the pretreated H-TNT support. The as-prepared and highly ordered electrodes exhibit excellent stability during accelerated durability tests, particularly for the H-TNT-loaded Pt catalysts that have been annealed in ultrahigh purity H2 for a second time. There is minimal decrease in the electrochemical surface area of the as-prepared electrode after 1000 cycles compared to a 68 % decrease for the commercial JM 20 % Pt/C electrode after 800 cycles. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that after the H-TNT-loaded Pt catalysts are annealed in H2 for the second time, the strong metal-support interaction between the H-TNTs and the Pt catalysts enhances the electrochemical stability of the electrodes. Fuel-cell testing shows that the power density reaches a maximum of 500 mWcm(-2) when this highly ordered electrode is used as the anode. When used as the cathode in a fuel cell with extra-low Pt loading, the new electrode generates a specific power density of 2.68 kWg(Pt) (-1) . It is indicated that H-TNT arrays, which have highly ordered nanostructures, could be used as ordered electrode supports

  16. Large-Scale Precise Printing of Ultrathin Sol-Gel Oxide Dielectrics for Directly Patterned Solution-Processed Metal Oxide Transistor Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won-June; Park, Won-Tae; Park, Sungjun; Sung, Sujin; Noh, Yong-Young; Yoon, Myung-Han

    2015-09-09

    Ultrathin and dense metal oxide gate di-electric layers are reported by a simple printing of AlOx and HfOx sol-gel precursors. Large-area printed indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) thin-film transistor arrays, which exhibit mobilities >5 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and gate leakage current of 10(-9) A cm(-2) at a very low operation voltage of 2 V, are demonstrated by continuous simple bar-coated processes.

  17. Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luminet, Jean-Pierre

    1992-09-01

    Foreword to the French edition; Foreword to the English edition; Acknowledgements; Part I. Gravitation and Light: 1. First fruits; 2. Relativity; 3. Curved space-time; Part II. Exquisite Corpses: 4. Chronicle of the twilight years; 5. Ashes and diamonds; 6. Supernovae; 7. Pulsars; 8. Gravitation triumphant; Part III. Light Assassinated: 9. The far horizon; 10. Illuminations; 11. A descent into the maelstrom; 12. Map games; 13. The black hole machine; 14. The quantum black hole; Part IV. Light Regained: 15. Primordial black holes; 16. The zoo of X-ray stars; 17. Giant black holes; 18. Gravitational light; 19. The black hole Universe; Appendices; Bibliography; Name index; Subject index.

  18. Sustained hole inversion layer in a wide-bandgap metal-oxide semiconductor with enhanced tunnel current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoute, Gem; Afshar, Amir; Muneshwar, Triratna; Cadien, Kenneth; Barlage, Douglas

    2016-02-04

    Wide-bandgap, metal-oxide thin-film transistors have been limited to low-power, n-type electronic applications because of the unipolar nature of these devices. Variations from the n-type field-effect transistor architecture have not been widely investigated as a result of the lack of available p-type wide-bandgap inorganic semiconductors. Here, we present a wide-bandgap metal-oxide n-type semiconductor that is able to sustain a strong p-type inversion layer using a high-dielectric-constant barrier dielectric when sourced with a heterogeneous p-type material. A demonstration of the utility of the inversion layer was also investigated and utilized as the controlling element in a unique tunnelling junction transistor. The resulting electrical performance of this prototype device exhibited among the highest reported current, power and transconductance densities. Further utilization of the p-type inversion layer is critical to unlocking the previously unexplored capability of metal-oxide thin-film transistors, such applications with next-generation display switches, sensors, radio frequency circuits and power converters.

  19. Sustained hole inversion layer in a wide-bandgap metal-oxide semiconductor with enhanced tunnel current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoute, Gem; Afshar, Amir; Muneshwar, Triratna; Cadien, Kenneth; Barlage, Douglas

    2016-02-01

    Wide-bandgap, metal-oxide thin-film transistors have been limited to low-power, n-type electronic applications because of the unipolar nature of these devices. Variations from the n-type field-effect transistor architecture have not been widely investigated as a result of the lack of available p-type wide-bandgap inorganic semiconductors. Here, we present a wide-bandgap metal-oxide n-type semiconductor that is able to sustain a strong p-type inversion layer using a high-dielectric-constant barrier dielectric when sourced with a heterogeneous p-type material. A demonstration of the utility of the inversion layer was also investigated and utilized as the controlling element in a unique tunnelling junction transistor. The resulting electrical performance of this prototype device exhibited among the highest reported current, power and transconductance densities. Further utilization of the p-type inversion layer is critical to unlocking the previously unexplored capability of metal-oxide thin-film transistors, such applications with next-generation display switches, sensors, radio frequency circuits and power converters.

  20. Ultra-luminous X-ray sources and neutron-star-black-hole mergers from very massive close binaries at low metallicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Pablo; Langer, Norbert; Podsiadlowski, Philipp; Tauris, Thomas M.; de Mink, Selma; Mandel, Ilya; Moriya, Takashi J.

    2017-08-01

    The detection of gravitational waves from the binary black hole (BH) merger GW150914 may enlighten our understanding of ultra-luminous X-ray sources (ULXs), as BHs of masses >30 M⊙ can reach luminosities >4 × 1039 erg s-1 without exceeding their Eddington luminosities. It is then important to study variations of evolutionary channels for merging BHs, which might instead form accreting BHs and become ULXs. It was recently shown that very massive binaries with mass ratios close to unity and tight orbits can undergo efficient rotational mixing and evolve chemically homogeneously, resulting in a compact BH binary. We study similar systems by computing 120 000 detailed binary models with the MESA code covering a wide range of masses, orbital periods, mass ratios, and metallicities. For initial mass ratios q ≡ M2/M1 ≃ 0.1-0.4, primaries with masses above 40 M⊙ can evolve chemically homogeneously, remaining compact and forming a BH without experiencing Roche-lobe overflow. The secondary then expands and transfers mass to the BH, initiating a ULX phase. At a given metallicity this channel is expected to produce the most massive accreting stellar BHs and the brightest ULXs. We predict that 1 out of 104 massive stars evolves this way, and that in the local universe 0.13 ULXs per M⊙ yr-1 of star formation rate are observable, with a strong preference for low metallicities. An additional channel is still required to explain the less luminous ULXs and the full population of high-mass X-ray binaries. At metallicities log Z> -3, BH masses in ULXs are limited to 60 M⊙, due to the occurrence of pair-instability supernovae which leave no remnant, resulting in an X-ray luminosity cut-off for accreting BHs. At lower metallicities, very massive stars can avoid exploding as pair-instability supernovae and instead form BHs with masses above 130 M⊙, producing a gap in the ULX luminosity distribution. After the ULX phase, neutron star BH binaries that merge in less than a

  1. The development of Ti6Al4V based anti bacterial dental implant modified with TiO2 nanotube arrays doped silver metal (Ag)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slamet, Bachtiar, B. M.; Wulan, P. P. D. K.; Setiadi, Sari, D. P.

    2017-05-01

    The development of Ti6Al4V based anti bacterial dental implant, modified with dopanted silver metal (Ag) TiO2 nanotube arrays (TiNTAs), is studied in this research. The condition inside the mouth is less foton energy, the dental implant material need to be modified with silver metal (Ag) dopanted TiNTAs. Modified TiNTAs used silver metal dopanted with Photo Assisted Deposition (PAD) method can be used as an electron trapper and produced hydroxyl radical, therefore it has antibacterial properties. The verification of antibacterial properties developed with biofilm static test using Streptococcus mutans bacteria model within 3 and 16 hours incubation, was characterized with XRD and SEM-EDX. Properties test result that resisting the biofilm growth effectively is TiNTAs/Ag/0,15, with 97,62 % disinfection bacteria sampel.

  2. All-Metal Dual-Polarized W-band Patch Element for Phased Array Antenna Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Metal patches were developed for the Juno Microwave radiometer instrument at P-band and L-band. The absence of dielectric in the metal patch design obviated issues...

  3. 30 CFR 56.7055 - Intersecting holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7055 Intersecting holes. Holes shall not be drilled where there is a danger...

  4. 30 CFR 57.7055 - Intersecting holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7055 Intersecting holes. Holes shall not be...

  5. Improving light harvesting in polymer photodetector devices through nanoindented metal mask films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macedo, A. G.; Zanetti, F.; Mikowski, A.; Hummelen, J. C.; Lepienski, C. M.; da Luz, M. G. E.; Roman, L. S.

    2008-01-01

    To enhance light harvesting in organic photovoltaic devices, we propose the incorporation of a metal (aluminum) mask film in the system's usual layout. We fabricate devices in a sandwich geometry, where the mask (nanoindented with a periodic array of holes of sizes d and spacing s) is added between

  6. Rational design of binder-free noble metal/metal oxide arrays with nanocauliflower structure for wide linear range nonenzymatic glucose detection

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Zhenzhen

    2015-06-12

    One-dimensional nanocomposites of metal-oxide and noble metal were expected to present superior performance for nonenzymatic glucose detection due to its good conductivity and high catalytic activity inherited from noble metal and metal oxide respectively. As a proof of concept, we synthesized gold and copper oxide (Au/CuO) composite with unique one-dimensional nanocauliflowers structure. Due to the nature of the synthesis method, no any foreign binder was needed in keeping either Au or CuO in place. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt in combining metal oxide and noble metal in a binder-free style for fabricating nonenzymatic glucose sensor. The Au/CuO nanocauliflowers with large electrochemical active surface and high electrolyte contact area would promise a wide linear range and high sensitive detection of glucose with good stability and reproducibility due to its good electrical conductivity of Au and high electrocatalytic activity of CuO.

  7. Nanoscale arrays of antimony telluride single crystals by selective chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ruomeng; Benjamin, Sophie L.; Gurnani, Chitra; Wang, Yudong; Hector, Andrew L.; Levason, William; Reid, Gillian; De Groot, C. H. (Kees)

    2016-01-01

    Arrays of individual single nanocrystals of Sb2Te3 have been formed using selective chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from a single source precursor. Crystals are self-assembled reproducibly in confined spaces of 100 nm diameter with pitch down to 500 nm. The distribution of crystallite sizes across the arrays is very narrow (standard deviation of 15%) and is affected by both the hole diameter and the array pitch. The preferred growth of the crystals in the orientation along the diagonal of the square holes strongly indicates that the diffusion of adatoms results in a near thermodynamic equilibrium growth mechanism of the nuclei. A clear relationship between electrical resistivity and selectivity is established across a range of metal selenides and tellurides, showing that conductive materials result in more selective growth and suggesting that electron donation is of critical importance for selective deposition. PMID:27283116

  8. High-efficiency thin and compact concentrator photovoltaics using micro-solar cells with via-holes sandwiched between thin lens-array and circuit board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itou, Akihiro; Asano, Tetsuya; Inoue, Daijiro; Arase, Hidekazu; Matsushita, Akio; Hayashi, Nobuhiko; Futakuchi, Ryutaro; Inoue, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Masaki; Fujii, Eiji; Nakagawa, Tohru; Anda, Yoshiharu; Ishida, Hidetoshi; Ueda, Tetsuzo; Fidaner, Onur; Wiemer, Michael; Ueda, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a compact concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) module that comprises micro-solar cells with an area of ≈0.6 × 0.6 mm2 sandwiched between a 20-mm-thick lens array and a 1-mm-thick circuit board with no air gap. To establish electrical connections between the circuit board and the micro-solar cells, we developed a micro-solar cell with positive and negative electrodes on the lower face of the cell. In this study, we demonstrated the photovoltaic performance of the micro-solar cell closely approaches that of the standard solar cell measuring ≈5 × 5 mm2 commonly used in conventional CPVs under concentrated illumination. Our study showed that the negative effect on PV performance of perimeter carrier recombination in the micro-solar cell was insignificant under concentrated illumination. Finally, we assembled our micro-solar cells into a CPV module and achieved the module energy conversion efficiency of 34.7% under outdoor solar illumination.

  9. Assessing the potential of group 13 and 14 metal/metalloid phthalocyanines as hole transport layers in organic light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plint, Trevor; Lessard, Benoît H. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto, 200 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E5 (Canada); Bender, Timothy P. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto, 200 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E5 (Canada); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Toronto, 184 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E4 (Canada); Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 80 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H6 (Canada)

    2016-04-14

    In this study, we have assessed the potential application of group 13 and 14 metal and metalloid phthalocyanines ((X){sub n}-MPcs) and their axially substituted derivatives as hole-transporting layers in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). OLEDs studied herein have the generic structure of glass/ITO/(N,N′-di(1-naphthyl)-N,N′-diphenyl-(1,1′-biphenyl)-4,4′-diamine (NPB) or (X){sub n}-MPc)(50 nm)/Alq{sub 3} (60 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/Al (80 nm), where X is an axial substituent group. OLEDs using chloro aluminum phthalocyanine (Cl-AlPc) showed good peak luminance values of 2620 ± 113 cd/m{sup 2} at 11 V. To our knowledge, Cl-AlPc has not previously been shown to work as a hole transport material (HTL) in OLEDs. Conversely, the di-chlorides of silicon, germanium, and tin phthalocyanine (Cl{sub 2}-SiPc, Cl{sub 2}-GePc, and Cl{sub 2}-SnPc, respectively) showed poor performance compared to Cl-AlPc, having peak luminances of only 38 ± 4 cd/m{sup 2} (12 V), 23 ± 1 cd/m{sup 2} (8.5 V), and 59 ± 5 cd/m{sup 2} (13.5 V), respectively. However, by performing a simple axial substitution of the chloride groups of Cl{sub 2}-SiPc with pentafluorophenoxy groups, the resulting bis(pentafluorophenoxy) silicon phthalocyanine (F{sub 10}-SiPc) containing OLED had a peak luminance of 5141 ± 941 cd/m{sup 2} (10 V), a two order of magnitude increase over its chlorinated precursor. This material showed OLED characteristics approaching those of a baseline OLED based on the well-studied triarylamine NPB. Attempts to attach the pentafluorophenoxy axial group to both SnPc and GePc were hindered by synthetic difficulties and low thermal stability, respectively. In light of the performance improvements observed by simple axial substitution of SiPc in OLEDs, the use of axially substituted MPcs in organic electronic devices remains of continuing interest to us and potentially the field in general.

  10. Assessing the potential of group 13 and 14 metal/metalloid phthalocyanines as hole transport layers in organic light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plint, Trevor; Lessard, Benoît H.; Bender, Timothy P.

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we have assessed the potential application of group 13 and 14 metal and metalloid phthalocyanines ((X)n-MPcs) and their axially substituted derivatives as hole-transporting layers in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). OLEDs studied herein have the generic structure of glass/ITO/(N,N'-di(1-naphthyl)-N,N'-diphenyl-(1,1'-biphenyl)-4,4'-diamine (NPB) or (X)n-MPc)(50 nm)/Alq3 (60 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/Al (80 nm), where X is an axial substituent group. OLEDs using chloro aluminum phthalocyanine (Cl-AlPc) showed good peak luminance values of 2620 ± 113 cd/m2 at 11 V. To our knowledge, Cl-AlPc has not previously been shown to work as a hole transport material (HTL) in OLEDs. Conversely, the di-chlorides of silicon, germanium, and tin phthalocyanine (Cl2-SiPc, Cl2-GePc, and Cl2-SnPc, respectively) showed poor performance compared to Cl-AlPc, having peak luminances of only 38 ± 4 cd/m2 (12 V), 23 ± 1 cd/m2 (8.5 V), and 59 ± 5 cd/m2 (13.5 V), respectively. However, by performing a simple axial substitution of the chloride groups of Cl2-SiPc with pentafluorophenoxy groups, the resulting bis(pentafluorophenoxy) silicon phthalocyanine (F10-SiPc) containing OLED had a peak luminance of 5141 ± 941 cd/m2 (10 V), a two order of magnitude increase over its chlorinated precursor. This material showed OLED characteristics approaching those of a baseline OLED based on the well-studied triarylamine NPB. Attempts to attach the pentafluorophenoxy axial group to both SnPc and GePc were hindered by synthetic difficulties and low thermal stability, respectively. In light of the performance improvements observed by simple axial substitution of SiPc in OLEDs, the use of axially substituted MPcs in organic electronic devices remains of continuing interest to us and potentially the field in general.

  11. The Response of Metal-rich Gas to X-Ray Irradiation from a Massive Black Hole at High Redshift : Proof of Concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aykutalp, A.; Wise, J. H.; Meijerink, R.; Spaans, M.

    2013-01-01

    Observational studies show that there is a strong link between the formation and evolution of galaxies and the growth of their supermassive black holes. However, the underlying physics behind this observed relation is poorly understood. In order to study the effects of X-ray radiation on black hole

  12. The Response of Metal-rich Gas to X-Ray Irradiation from a Massive Black Hole at High Redshift: Proof of Concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aykutalp, A.; Wise, J. H.; Meijerink, R.; Spaans, M.

    2013-01-01

    Observational studies show that there is a strong link between the formation and evolution of galaxies and the growth of their supermassive black holes. However, the underlying physics behind this observed relation is poorly understood. In order to study the effects of X-ray radiation on black hole

  13. Simple, Fast, and Cost-Effective Fabrication of Wafer-Scale Nanohole Arrays on Silicon for Antireflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Di

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, fast, and cost-effective method was developed in this paper for the high-throughput fabrication of nanohole arrays on silicon (Si, which is utilized for antireflection. Wafer-scale polystyrene (PS monolayer colloidal crystal was developed as templates by spin-coating method. Metallic shadow mask was prepared by lifting off the oxygen etched PS beads from the deposited chromium film. Nanohole arrays were fabricated by Si dry etching. A series of nanohole arrays were fabricated with the similar diameter but with different depth. It is found that the maximum depth of the Si-hole was determined by the diameter of the Cr-mask. The antireflection ability of these Si-hole arrays was investigated. The results show that the reflection decreases with the depth of the Si-hole. The deepest Si-hole arrays show the best antireflection ability (reflection 600 nm, which was about 28 percent of the nonpatterned silicon wafer’s reflection. The proposed method has the potential for high-throughput fabrication of patterned Si wafer, and the low reflectivity allows the application of these wafers in crystalline silicon solar cells.

  14. Real-time, multiplexed electrochemical DNA detection using an active complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor biosensor array with integrated sensor electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Peter M; Gong, Ping; Levicky, Rastislav; Shepard, Kenneth L

    2009-03-15

    Optical biosensing based on fluorescence detection has arguably become the standard technique for quantifying extents of hybridization between surface-immobilized probes and fluorophore-labeled analyte targets in DNA microarrays. However, electrochemical detection techniques are emerging which could eliminate the need for physically bulky optical instrumentation, enabling the design of portable devices for point-of-care applications. Unlike fluorescence detection, which can function well using a passive substrate (one without integrated electronics), multiplexed electrochemical detection requires an electronically active substrate to analyze each array site and benefits from the addition of integrated electronic instrumentation to further reduce platform size and eliminate the electromagnetic interference that can result from bringing non-amplified signals off chip. We report on an active electrochemical biosensor array, constructed with a standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology, to perform quantitative DNA hybridization detection on chip using targets conjugated with ferrocene redox labels. A 4 x 4 array of gold working electrodes and integrated potentiostat electronics, consisting of control amplifiers and current-input analog-to-digital converters, on a custom-designed 5 mm x 3 mm CMOS chip drive redox reactions using cyclic voltammetry, sense DNA binding, and transmit digital data off chip for analysis. We demonstrate multiplexed and specific detection of DNA targets as well as real-time monitoring of hybridization, a task that is difficult, if not impossible, with traditional fluorescence-based microarrays.

  15. Plasmonic spectrum on 1D and 2D periodic arrays of rod-shape metal nanoparticle pairs with different core patterns for biosensor and solar cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumara, N. T. R. N.; Chou Chau, Yuan-Fong; Huang, Jin-Wei; Huang, Hung Ji; Lin, Chun-Ting; Chiang, Hai-Pang

    2016-11-01

    Simulations of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) on the near field intensity and absorption spectra of one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) periodic arrays of rod-shape metal nanoparticle (MNP) pairs using the finite element method (FEM) and taking into account the different core patterns for biosensor and solar cell applications are investigated. A tunable optical spectrum corresponding to the transverse SPR modes is observed. The peak resonance wavelength (λ res) can be shifted to red as the core patterns in rod-shape MNPs have been changed. We find that the 2D periodic array of core-shell MNP pairs (case 2) exhibit a red shifted SPR that can be tuned the gap enhancement and absorption efficiency simultaneously over an extended wavelength range. The tunable optical performances give us a qualitative idea of the geometrical properties of the periodic array of rod-shape MNP pairs on SPRs that can be as a promising candidate for plasmonic biosensor and solar cell applications.

  16. 金属粒子阵列共振的偏振特性∗%Polarization characteristics of the lattice resonance of metal nanoparticle array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷澄; 许田; 陈秉岩; 韩庆邦

    2015-01-01

    A special lattice resonance can be observed when the array period of a metal nanoparticle array matches the resonant wavelength of the localized plasmon resonance of an isolated particle. The lattice resonance is sharper and its linewidth is narrower than the localized plasmonics resonance of a single particle. According to the modified long wavelength approximation approach, we discuss the extinction cross-section of the rectangular array in terms of the array factor and the particle polarizability. In this paper we emphasize the polarization characteristics of the regular array when the laser is incident vertically under different polarizations, and we also discuss in detail the variation of the array factor with the direction of electric dipole, and its influence on extinction cross section of the particle array. The square lattice with big size is polarization independent, while the rectangular lattice is polarization dependent. The coupling between the neighboring particle dipoles along the two lattice vectors of the regular array gives rise to a maximum value of its array factor, which determines a minimum value of the extinction cross section. When the incident light is polarized along one of the lattice vectors, the dipole coupling along that direction can be ignored since the particles are located in the far field of its neighboring particles, and the relevant peak in the array factor disappears.%当金属纳米粒子形成规则分布且阵列周期与单粒子的共振波长近似匹配时,会形成一种特殊的阵列共振,这种共振比单粒子的局域表面等离子体共振具有更窄的共振线宽和更高的共振强度。基于修正的长波近似方法,讨论了矩形阵列的消光截面与阵列因子和单粒子的极化率之间的关系;并详细研究了在不同偏振的入射光照射下,阵列因子随着电偶极子方向的改变而产生的变化,以及这一效应对阵列共振和消光截面所产生的影响

  17. Rational design of binder-free noble metal/metal oxide arrays with nanocauliflower structure for wide linear range nonenzymatic glucose detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenzhen; Xin, Yanmei; Zhang, Zhonghai; Wu, Hongjun; Wang, Peng

    2015-01-01

    One-dimensional nanocomposites of metal-oxide and noble metal were expected to present superior performance for nonenzymatic glucose detection due to its good conductivity and high catalytic activity inherited from noble metal and metal oxide respectively. As a proof of concept, we synthesized gold and copper oxide (Au/CuO) composite with unique one-dimensional nanocauliflowers structure. Due to the nature of the synthesis method, no any foreign binder was needed in keeping either Au or CuO in place. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt in combining metal oxide and noble metal in a binder-free style for fabricating nonenzymatic glucose sensor. The Au/CuO nanocauliflowers with large electrochemical active surface and high electrolyte contact area would promise a wide linear range and high sensitive detection of glucose with good stability and reproducibility due to its good electrical conductivity of Au and high electrocatalytic activity of CuO. PMID:26068705

  18. Black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Chrúsciel, P T

    2002-01-01

    This paper is concerned with several not-quantum aspects of black holes, with emphasis on theoretical and mathematical issues related to numerical modeling of black hole space-times. Part of the material has a review character, but some new results or proposals are also presented. We review the experimental evidence for existence of black holes. We propose a definition of black hole region for any theory governed by a symmetric hyperbolic system of equations. Our definition reproduces the usual one for gravity, and leads to the one associated with the Unruh metric in the case of Euler equations. We review the global conditions which have been used in the Scri-based definition of a black hole and point out the deficiencies of the Scri approach. Various results on the structure of horizons and apparent horizons are presented, and a new proof of semi-convexity of horizons based on a variational principle is given. Recent results on the classification of stationary singularity-free vacuum solutions are reviewed. ...

  19. Driven evolution of a constitutional dynamic library of molecular helices toward the selective generation of [2 x 2] gridlike arrays under the pressure of metal ion coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuseppone, Nicolas; Schmitt, Jean-Louis; Lehn, Jean-Marie

    2006-12-27

    Constitutional dynamics, self-assembly, and helical-folding control are brought together in the efficient Sc(OTf)3/microwave-catalyzed transimination of helical oligohydrazone strands, yielding highly diverse dynamic libraries of interconverting constituents through assembly, dissociation, and exchange of components. The transimination-type mechanism of the ScIII-promoted exchange, as well as its regioselectivity, occurring only at the extremities of the helical strands, allow one to perform directional terminal polymerization/depolymerization processes when starting with dissymmetric strands. A particular library is subsequently brought to express quantitatively [2 x 2] gridlike metallosupramolecular arrays in the presence of ZnII ions by component recombination generating the correct ligand from the dynamic set of interconverting strands. This behavior represents a process of driven evolution of a constitutional dynamic chemical system under the pressure (coordination interaction) of an external effector (metal ions).

  20. Coronal Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven R. Cranmer

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Coronal holes are the darkest and least active regions of the Sun, as observed both on the solar disk and above the solar limb. Coronal holes are associated with rapidly expanding open magnetic fields and the acceleration of the high-speed solar wind. This paper reviews measurements of the plasma properties in coronal holes and how these measurements are used to reveal details about the physical processes that heat the solar corona and accelerate the solar wind. It is still unknown to what extent the solar wind is fed by flux tubes that remain open (and are energized by footpoint-driven wave-like fluctuations, and to what extent much of the mass and energy is input intermittently from closed loops into the open-field regions. Evidence for both paradigms is summarized in this paper. Special emphasis is also given to spectroscopic and coronagraphic measurements that allow the highly dynamic non-equilibrium evolution of the plasma to be followed as the asymptotic conditions in interplanetary space are established in the extended corona. For example, the importance of kinetic plasma physics and turbulence in coronal holes has been affirmed by surprising measurements from the UVCS instrument on SOHO that heavy ions are heated to hundreds of times the temperatures of protons and electrons. These observations point to specific kinds of collisionless Alfvén wave damping (i.e., ion cyclotron resonance, but complete theoretical models do not yet exist. Despite our incomplete knowledge of the complex multi-scale plasma physics, however, much progress has been made toward the goal of understanding the mechanisms ultimately responsible for producing the observed properties of coronal holes.

  1. Current transport mechanism at metal-semiconductor nanoscale interfaces based on ultrahigh density arrays of p-type NiO nano-pillars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandy, Suman; Gonçalves, Gonçalo; Pinto, Joana Vaz; Busani, Tito; Figueiredo, Vitor; Pereira, Luís; Paiva Martins, Rodrigo Ferrão; Fortunato, Elvira

    2013-12-07

    The present work focuses on a qualitative analysis of localised I-V characteristics based on the nanostructure morphology of highly dense arrays of p-type NiO nano-pillars (NiO-NPs). Vertically aligned NiO-NPs have been grown on different substrates by using a glancing angle deposition (GLAD) technique. The preferred orientation of as grown NiO-NPs was controlled by the deposition pressure. The NiO-NPs displayed a polar surface with a microscopic dipole moment along the (111) plane (Tasker's type III). Consequently, the crystal plane dependent surface electron accumulation layer and the lattice disorder at the grain boundary interface showed a non-uniform current distribution throughout the sample surface, demonstrated by a conducting AFM technique (c-AFM). The variation in I-V for different points in a single current distribution grain (CD-grain) has been attributed to the variation of Schottky barrier height (SBH) at the metal-semiconductor (M-S) interface. Furthermore, we observed that the strain produced during the NiO-NPs growth can modulate the SBH. Inbound strain acts as an external field to influence the local electric field at the M-S interface causing a variation in SBH with the NPs orientation. This paper shows that vertical arrays of NiO-NPs are potential candidates for nanoscale devices because they have a great impact on the local current transport mechanism due to its nanostructure morphology.

  2. Radiofrequency current source (RFCS) drive and decoupling technique for parallel transmit arrays using a high-power metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonje; Boskamp, Eddy; Grist, Thomas; Kurpad, Krishna

    2009-07-01

    A radiofrequency current source (RFCS) design using a high-power metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) that enables independent current control for parallel transmit applications is presented. The design of an RFCS integrated with a series tuned transmitting loop and its associated control circuitry is described. The current source is operated in a gated class AB push-pull configuration for linear operation at high efficiency. The pulsed RF current amplitude driven into the low impedance transmitting loop was found to be relatively insensitive to the various loaded loop impedances ranging from 0.4 to 10.3 ohms, confirming current mode operation. The suppression of current induced by a neighboring loop was quantified as a function of center-to-center loop distance, and was measured to be 17 dB for nonoverlapping, adjacent loops. Deterministic manipulation of the B(1) field pattern was demonstrated by the independent control of RF phase and amplitude in a head-sized two-channel volume transmit array. It was found that a high-voltage rated RF power MOSFET with a minimum load resistance, exhibits current source behavior, which aids in transmit array design.

  3. Highly enhanced hard x-ray emission from oriented metal nanorod arrays excited by intense femtosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Sudipta; Chakraborty, Indrani; Ahmad, Saima; Carvalho, Daniel; Singh, Prashant; Lad, Amit D.; Narayanan, V.; Ayyub, Pushan; Kumar, G. Ravindra; Zheng, J.; Sheng, Z. M.

    2011-01-01

    We report a 43-fold enhancement in the hard x-ray emission (in the 150-300 keV range) from copper nanorod arrays (compared to a polished Cu surface) when excited by 30-fs, 800-nm laser pulses with an intensity of 1016 W/cm2. The temperature of the hot electrons that emit the x rays is 11 times higher. Significantly, the x-ray yield enhancement is found to depend on both the aspect ratio as well as the cluster size of the nanorods. We show that the higher yield arises from enhanced laser absorption owing to the extremely high local electric fields around the nanorod tips. Particle-in-cell plasma simulations reproduce these observations and provide pointers to further optimization of the x-ray emission.

  4. Ordered silicon microwire arrays grown from substrates patterned using imprint lithography and electrodeposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audesirk, Heather A; Warren, Emily L; Ku, Jessie; Lewis, Nathan S

    2015-01-28

    Silicon microwires grown by the vapor-liquid-solid process have attracted a great deal of interest as potential light absorbers for solar energy conversion. However, the research-scale techniques that have been demonstrated to produce ordered arrays of micro and nanowires may not be optimal for use as high-throughput processes needed for large-scale manufacturing. Herein we demonstrate the use of microimprint lithography to fabricate patterned templates for the confinement of an electrodeposited Cu catalyst for the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth of Si microwires. A reusable polydimethylsiloxane stamp was used to pattern holes in silica sol-gels on silicon substrates, and the Cu catalyst was electrodeposited into the holes. Ordered arrays of crystalline p-type Si microwires were grown across the sol-gel-patterned substrates with materials quality and performance comparable to microwires fabricated with high-purity metal catalysts and cleanroom processing.

  5. Carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng; Lin, Yuehe; Yantasee, Wassana; Liu, Guodong; Lu, Fang; Tu, Yi

    2008-11-18

    The present invention relates to microelectode arrays (MEAs), and more particularly to carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays (CNT-NEAs) for chemical and biological sensing, and methods of use. A nanoelectrode array includes a carbon nanotube material comprising an array of substantially linear carbon nanotubes each having a proximal end and a distal end, the proximal end of the carbon nanotubes are attached to a catalyst substrate material so as to form the array with a pre-determined site density, wherein the carbon nanotubes are aligned with respect to one another within the array; an electrically insulating layer on the surface of the carbon nanotube material, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the electrically insulating layer; a second adhesive electrically insulating layer on the surface of the electrically insulating layer, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the second adhesive electrically insulating layer; and a metal wire attached to the catalyst substrate material.

  6. Coronal Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Cranmer, Steven R

    2009-01-01

    Coronal holes are the darkest and least active regions of the Sun, as observed both on the solar disk and above the solar limb. Coronal holes are associated with rapidly expanding open magnetic fields and the acceleration of the high-speed solar wind. This paper reviews measurements of the plasma properties in coronal holes and how these measurements are used to reveal details about the physical processes that heat the solar corona and accelerate the solar wind. It is still unknown to what extent the solar wind is fed by flux tubes that remain open (and are energized by footpoint-driven wave-like fluctuations), and to what extent much of the mass and energy is input intermittently from closed loops into the open-field regions. Evidence for both paradigms is summarized in this paper. Special emphasis is also given to spectroscopic and coronagraphic measurements that allow the highly dynamic non-equilibrium evolution of the plasma to be followed as the asymptotic conditions in interplanetary space are establish...

  7. Transparent, double-sided, ITO-free, flexible dye-sensitized solar cells based on metal wire/ZnO nanowire arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei; Zhao, Qing; Li, Heng; Yu, Dapeng [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics and Electron Microscopy Laboratory, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wu, Hongwei; Zou, Dechun [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Key Laboratory of Polymer Chemistry and Physics of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2012-07-10

    Transparent, double-sided, flexible, ITO-free dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are fabricated in a simple, facile, and controllable way. Highly ordered, high-crystal-quality, high-density ZnO nanowire arrays are radially grown on stainless steel, Au, Ag, and Cu microwires, which serve as working electrodes. Pt wires serve as the counter electrodes. Two metal wires are encased in electrolyte between two poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) films (or polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) films) to render the device both flexible and highly transparent. The effect of the dye thickness on the photovoltaic performance of the DSSCs as a function of dye-loading time is investigated systematically. Shorter dye-loading times lead to thinner dye layers and better device performance. A dye-loading time of 20 min results in the best device performance. An oxidation treatment of the metal wires is developed effectively to avoid the galvanic-battery effect found in the experiment, which is crucial for real applications of double-metal-wire DSSC configurations. The device shows very good transparency and can increase sunlight use efficiency through two-sided illumination. The double-wire DSSCs remain stable for a long period of time and can be bent at large angles, up to 107 , reversibly, without any loss of performance. The double-wire-PET, planar solar-cell configuration can be used as window stickers and can be readily realized for large-area-weave roll-to-roll processing. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Dumb holes: analogues for black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, W G

    2008-08-28

    The use of sonic analogues to black and white holes, called dumb or deaf holes, to understand the particle production by black holes is reviewed. The results suggest that the black hole particle production is a low-frequency and low-wavenumber process.

  9. Thermoelectric DC conductivities from black hole horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Donos, Aristomenis

    2014-01-01

    An analytic expression for the DC electrical conductivity in terms of black hole horizon data was recently obtained for a class of holographic black holes exhibiting momentum dissipation. We generalise this result to obtain analogous expressions for the DC thermoelectric and thermal conductivities. We illustrate our results using some holographic Q-lattice black holes as well as for some black holes with linear massless axions, in both $D=4$ and $D=5$ bulk spacetime dimensions, which include both spatially isotropic and anisotropic examples. We show that some recently constructed ground states of holographic Q-lattices, which can be either electrically insulating or metallic, are all thermal insulators.

  10. Cobalt phosphide nanowall arrays supported on carbon cloth: an efficient monolithic non-noble-metal hydrogen evolution catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Libin; Wang, Kunyang; Du, Gu; Zhu, Wenxin; Cui, Liang; Zhang, Chengxiao; Sun, Xuping; Asiri, Abdullah M.

    2016-11-01

    Hydrogen has been considered as an ideal energy carrier for replacing fossil fuels to mitigate global energy crises. Hydrolysis of sodium borohydride (NaBH4) is simple and effective for hydrogen production but needs active and durable catalysts to accelerate the kinetics. In this paper, we demonstrate that cobalt phosphide nanowall arrays supported on carbon cloth (CoP NAs/CC) efficiently catalyze the hydrolytic dehydrogenation of NaBH4 with an activation energy of 42.1 kJ mol-1 in alkaline media. These monolithic CoP NAs/CC show a maximum hydrogen generation rate of 5960 {{ml}} {{{\\min }}}-1 {{{{g}}}-1}({{CoP})} and are robust with superior durability and reusability. They are also excellent in activity and durability for electrochemical hydrogen evolution in 1.0 M KOH, with the need of an overpotential of only 80 mV to drive 10 mA cm-2. They offer us a promising low-cost hydrogen-generating catalyst for applications.

  11. Plasmon resonance enhanced optical transmission and magneto-optical Faraday effects in nanohole arrays blocked by metal antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Chengxin; Tang, Zhixiong; Wang, Sihao; Li, Daoyong; Chen, Leyi; Tang, Shaolong; Du, Youwei

    2017-07-01

    The properties of the optical and magneto-optical effects of an improved plasmonic nanohole arrays blocked by gold mushroom caps are investigated by using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. It is most noteworthy that the strongly enhanced Faraday rotation along with high transmittance has been achieved simultaneously by optimizing the parameters of nanostructure in a broad spectrum spanning visible to near-infrared frequencies, which is very important in practical application for designing novel optical and magneto-optical devices. In our designed structure, we obtained two extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) resonant peaks along with enhanced Faraday rotation and two peaks of the figure of merit (FOM). By optimizing the geometrical parameters of the structure, we can obtain an almost 10-fold enhancement of Faraday rotation with a corresponding transmittance 50%, and the FOM of 0.752 at the same wavelength. As expected, the optical and magneto-optical effects sensitively depends on the geometrical parameters of our structure, which can be simply tailored by the height of pillar, the diameter of mushroom cap, and the period of the structure, and so on. The physical mechanism of these physical phenomena in the paper has been explained in detail. These research findings are of great theoretical significance in developing the novel magneto-optical devices in the future.

  12. Room temperature oxidative intercalation with chalcogen hydrides: Two-step method for the formation of alkali-metal chalcogenide arrays within layered perovskites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranmohotti, K.G. Sanjaya; Montasserasadi, M. Dariush; Choi, Jonglak; Yao, Yuan; Mohanty, Debasish; Josepha, Elisha A.; Adireddy, Shiva; Caruntu, Gabriel [Department of Chemistry and the Advanced Materials Research Institute, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA 70148-2820 (United States); Wiley, John B., E-mail: jwiley@uno.edu [Department of Chemistry and the Advanced Materials Research Institute, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA 70148-2820 (United States)

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: ► Topochemical reactions involving intercalation allow construction of metal chalcogenide arrays within perovskite hosts. ► Gaseous chalcogen hydrides serve as effect reactants for intercalation of sulfur and selenium. ► New compounds prepared by a two-step intercalation strategy are presented. -- Abstract: A two-step topochemical reaction strategy utilizing oxidative intercalation with gaseous chalcogen hydrides is presented. Initially, the Dion-Jacobson-type layered perovskite, RbLaNb{sub 2}O{sub 7}, is intercalated reductively with rubidium metal to make the Ruddlesden-Popper-type layered perovskite, Rb{sub 2}LaNb{sub 2}O{sub 7}. This compound is then reacted at room-temperature with in situ generated H{sub 2}S gas to create Rb-S layers within the perovskite host. Rietveld refinement of X-ray powder diffraction data (tetragonal, a = 3.8998(2) Å, c = 15.256(1) Å; space group P4/mmm) shows the compound to be isostructural with (Rb{sub 2}Cl)LaNb{sub 2}O{sub 7} where the sulfide resides on a cubic interlayer site surrounded by rubidium ions. The mass increase seen on sulfur intercalation and the refined S site occupation factor (∼0.8) of the product indicate a higher sulfur content than expected for S{sup 2−} alone. This combined with the Raman studies, which show evidence for an H-S stretch, indicate that a significant fraction of the intercalated sulfide exists as hydrogen sulfide ion. Intercalation reactions with H{sub 2}Se{sub (g)} were also carried out and appear to produce an isostructural selenide compound. The utilization of such gaseous hydride reagents could significantly expand multistep topochemistry to a larger number of intercalants.

  13. Monolithic integration of a silicon nanowire field-effect transistors array on a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor chip for biochemical sensor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livi, Paolo; Kwiat, Moria; Shadmani, Amir; Pevzner, Alexander; Navarra, Giulio; Rothe, Jörg; Stettler, Alexander; Chen, Yihui; Patolsky, Fernando; Hierlemann, Andreas

    2015-10-06

    We present a monolithic complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-based sensor system comprising an array of silicon nanowire field-effect transistors (FETs) and the signal-conditioning circuitry on the same chip. The silicon nanowires were fabricated by chemical vapor deposition methods and then transferred to the CMOS chip, where Ti/Pd/Ti contacts had been patterned via e-beam lithography. The on-chip circuitry measures the current flowing through each nanowire FET upon applying a constant source-drain voltage. The analog signal is digitized on chip and then transmitted to a receiving unit. The system has been successfully fabricated and tested by acquiring I-V curves of the bare nanowire-based FETs. Furthermore, the sensing capabilities of the complete system have been demonstrated by recording current changes upon nanowire exposure to solutions of different pHs, as well as by detecting different concentrations of Troponin T biomarkers (cTnT) through antibody-functionalized nanowire FETs.

  14. Functional metal-insulator-metal top contacts for Si-based color photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butun, Serkan; Aydin, Koray

    2016-12-01

    Here, we report on Si-based color photodetectors using monolithically integrated metal-insulator-metal Fabry-Perot cavity top contacts. Contacts were formed by depositing Ag/SiO2/Ag layers with different oxide thicknesses for each color. This allowed controlling the transmission band position and width while maintaining the high conductivity. We have obtained over 55% external quantum efficiency for different colors both numerically and experimentally. The FWHM was less than 50 nm and the rejection ratio was an order of magnitude for each color. The total transmission through these top contacts exceeded that of dye filters used in conventional color CCDs and CMOS imaging arrays. In addition, these contacts performed similarly to recently proposed plasmonic hole array filters without the necessity of complicated fabrication steps like FIB milling and e-beam lithography. This type of top contacts can serve as a cheap alternative to dye filters used in contemporary devices without making the fabrication complicated.

  15. Controlled Synthesis of Si Nanowire Arrays through Metal Assisted Silicon Chemical Etching%金属援助硅化学刻蚀法可控制备硅纳米线阵列

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕文辉; 张帅

    2011-01-01

    A reasonable method is developed for synthesis of Si nanowire(SiNW) arrays with controlled morphology on the basis of the mechanism of metal-assisted silicon chemical etching. In this method, SiNW arrays have been synthesized by metal (a discontiguous Ag thin film) assisted silicon chemical etching and the morphology of the arrays is controlled by the structure of discontiguous Ag thin film and Si chemical etching time. Detailed scanning electron microscopy(SEM) observations demonstrate that the array density depends on morphology of the Ag thin film and the array height depends on the etching time. The investigation results provid a simple and efficient way to controllable preparation of silicon nanowire arrays for various nano-electron devices, such as silicon nanowire solar cells.%基于金属援助硅化学刻蚀机理,成功地发展了一种形貌可控地制备硅纳米线阵列的有效方法.在该方法中,通过银纳米颗粒催化层的微结构和硅化学刻蚀的时间来调控硅纳米线阵列的形貌.扫描电子显微镜(SEM)形貌表征的实验结果证实:硅纳米线阵列的孔隙率依赖银纳米颗粒催化层的微结构,硅纳米线阵列的高度依赖于硅的刻蚀时间.这种形貌可控地制备单晶硅纳米线阵列的方法简单、有效,可用于构筑硅纳米线光伏电池等各种硅基纳米电子器件.

  16. Bottom-up fabrication of nanohole arrays loaded with gold nanoparticles: extraordinary plasmonic sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Markus; Quint, Stefan B; Klenk, Simon; Pacholski, Claudia

    2014-12-18

    A chemical route to periodic hole arrays in gold films whose holes are loaded with single gold nanoparticles is presented, paving the road to mass production of highly sensitive plasmonic sensors on large areas.

  17. Hole-Hole Interaction Effect in the Conductance of the Two-Dimensional Hole Gas in the Ballistic Regime

    OpenAIRE

    Proskuryakov, Y. Y.; Savchenko, A. K.; Safonov, S. S.; Pepper, M; Simmons, M.Y.; Ritchie, D. A.

    2001-01-01

    On a high mobility two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG) in a GaAs/GaAlAs heterostructure we study the interaction correction to the Drude conductivity in the ballistic regime, $k_BT\\tau /\\hbar $ $>1$. It is shown that the 'metallic' behaviour of the resistivity ($d\\rho /dT>0$) of the low-density 2DHG is caused by hole-hole interaction effect in this regime. We find that the temperature dependence of the conductivity and the parallel-field magnetoresistance are in agreement with this description, a...

  18. Technical Letter Report, An Evaluation of Ultrasonic Phased Array Testing for Reactor Piping System Components Containing Dissimilar Metal Welds, JCN N6398, Task 2A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, Aaron A.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Crawford, Susan L.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2009-11-30

    Research is being conducted for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to assess the effectiveness and reliability of advanced nondestructive examination (NDE) methods for the inspection of light-water reactor components. The scope of this research encom¬passes primary system pressure boundary materials including dissimilar metal welds (DMWs), cast austenitic stainless steels (CASS), piping with corrosion-resistant cladding, weld overlays, inlays and onlays, and far-side examinations of austenitic piping welds. A primary objective of this work is to evaluate various NDE methods to assess their ability to detect, localize, and size cracks in steel components that challenge standard and/or conventional inspection methodologies. This interim technical letter report provides a summary of a technical evaluation aimed at assessing the capabilities of phased-array (PA) ultrasonic testing (UT) methods as applied to the inspection of small-bore DMW components that exist in the reactor coolant systems (RCS) of pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Operating experience and events such as the circumferential cracking in the reactor vessel nozzle-to-RCS hot leg pipe at V.C. Summer nuclear power station, identified in 2000, show that in PWRs where primary coolant water (or steam) are present under normal operation, Alloy 82/182 materials are susceptible to pressurized water stress corrosion cracking. The extent and number of occurrences of DMW cracking in nuclear power plants (domestically and internationally) indicate the necessity for reliable and effective inspection techniques. The work described herein was performed to provide insights for evaluating the utility of advanced NDE approaches for the inspection of DMW components such as a pressurizer surge nozzle DMW, a shutdown cooling pipe DMW, and a ferritic (low-alloy carbon steel)-to-CASS pipe DMW configuration.

  19. Deburring small intersecting holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, L.K.

    1980-08-01

    Deburring intersecting holes is one of the most difficult deburring tasks faced by many industries. Only 14 of the 37 major deburring processes are applicable to most intersecting hole applications. Only five of these are normally applicable to small or miniature holes. Basic process capabilities and techniques used as a function of hole sizes and intersection depths are summarized.

  20. Life inside black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Dokuchaev, V I

    2012-01-01

    We consider test planet and photon orbits of the third kind inside a black hole, which are stable, periodic and neither come out of the black hole nor terminate at the singularity. Interiors of supermassive black holes may be inhabited by advanced civilizations living on planets with the third-kind orbits. In principle, one can get information from the interiors of black holes by observing their white hole counterparts.

  1. Electronic Switch Arrays for Managing Microbattery Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojarradi, Mohammad; Alahmad, Mahmoud; Sukumar, Vinesh; Zghoul, Fadi; Buck, Kevin; Hess, Herbert; Li, Harry; Cox, David

    2008-01-01

    Integrated circuits have been invented for managing the charging and discharging of such advanced miniature energy-storage devices as planar arrays of microscopic energy-storage elements [typically, microscopic electrochemical cells (microbatteries) or microcapacitors]. The architecture of these circuits enables implementation of the following energy-management options: dynamic configuration of the elements of an array into a series or parallel combination of banks (subarrarys), each array comprising a series of parallel combination of elements; direct addressing of individual banks for charging/or discharging; and, disconnection of defective elements and corresponding reconfiguration of the rest of the array to utilize the remaining functional elements to obtain the desited voltage and current performance. An integrated circuit according to the invention consists partly of a planar array of field-effect transistors that function as switches for routing electric power among the energy-storage elements, the power source, and the load. To connect the energy-storage elements to the power source for charging, a specific subset of switches is closed; to connect the energy-storage elements to the load for discharging, a different specific set of switches is closed. Also included in the integrated circuit is circuitry for monitoring and controlling charging and discharging. The control and monitoring circuitry, the switching transistors, and interconnecting metal lines are laid out on the integrated-circuit chip in a pattern that registers with the array of energy-storage elements. There is a design option to either (1) fabricate the energy-storage elements in the corresponding locations on, and as an integral part of, this integrated circuit; or (2) following a flip-chip approach, fabricate the array of energy-storage elements on a separate integrated-circuit chip and then align and bond the two chips together.

  2. Design of Circle Array Pattern for Transparent Nanomesh-Type Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seungsu; Ganorkar, Shraddha; Kim, Jungyoon; Kim, Young-Hwan; Kim, Yong Tae; Kim, Seong-Il

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we report simulation results for the optical properties of nanomesh-type electrodes for transparent electrode. Usually, indium tin oxide (ITO) is commonly used for transparent conductor to solar cell, display, LED and other electronic modules. However, the cost is high due to the rarity of indium. An alternative way is use of transparent nanomesh-type metal electrode for solar cell. Finite different time domain (FDTD) method was used to simulate and analyze their optical properties. Various array patterns (square, circle and circle hexagonal array) of metal on glass (SiO2) substrates were designed and their properties of transmission and reflection were simulated by using the broad band (λ = 300~1200 nm) plane wave source. To compare basic characteristics of each pattern, various structural parameters such as hole diameter, pitch and metal thickness were applied. The effect of three typical metals, such as Ag, Au, and Al was also compared. In the results, we will discuss about large dip of transmission appeared at the particular wavelength region from the circle array pattern, which is design with pitch of 500 nm at the wavelength range 700 to 800 nm. The surface plasmonpolaritons (SPP) effect can be the cause of large dip and we could find a broad and high transmission from the properly designed in nanomesh-type electrodes, which was calculated as a function of wavelength.

  3. Spin-orbit coupling induced semi-metallic state in the 1/3 hole-doped hyper-kagome Na3Ir3O8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Tomohiro; Yaresko, Alexander; Matsumoto, Akiyo; Nuss, Jürgen; Ishii, Kenji; Yoshida, Masahiro; Mizuki, Junichiro; Takagi, Hidenori

    2014-10-29

    The complex iridium oxide Na3Ir3O8 with a B-site ordered spinel structure was synthesized in single crystalline form, where the chiral hyper-kagome lattice of Ir ions, as observed in the spin-liquid candidate Na4Ir3O8, was identified. The average valence of Ir is 4.33+ and, therefore, Na3Ir3O8 can be viewed as a doped analogue of the hyper-kagome spin liquid with Ir(4+). The transport measurements, combined with the electronic structure calculations, indicate that the ground state of Na3Ir3O8 is a low carrier density semi-metal. We argue that the semi-metallic state is produced by a competition of the molecular orbital splitting of t2g orbitals on Ir3 triangles with strong spin-orbit coupling inherent to heavy Ir ions.

  4. Black Holes Have Simple Feeding Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    properties of these black holes should be very helpful. In addition to Chandra, three radio arrays (the Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope, the Very Large Array and the Very Long Baseline Array), two millimeter telescopes (the Plateau de Bure Interferometer and the Submillimeter Array), and Lick Observatory in the optical were used to monitor M81. These observations were made simultaneously to ensure that brightness variations because of changes in feeding rates did not confuse the results. Chandra is the only X-ray satellite able to isolate the faint X-rays of the black hole from the emission of the rest of the galaxy. This result confirms less detailed earlier work by Andrea Merloni from the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE) in Garching, Germany and colleagues that suggested that the basic properties of larger black holes are similar to the smaller ones. Their study, however, was not based on simultaneous, multi-wavelength observations nor the application of a detailed physical model. These results will appear in an upcoming issue of The Astrophysical Journal. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for the agency's Science Mission Directorate. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls science and flight operations from the Chandra X-ray Center in Cambridge, Mass.

  5. Localization-driven metal-insulator transition in epitaxial hole-doped Nd1-x Sr x NiO3 ultrathin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Le; Chang, Lei; Yin, Xinmao; Rusydi, Andrivo; You, Lu; Zhou, Yang; Fang, Liang; Wang, Junling

    2017-01-01

    Advances in thin film growth technologies make it possible to obtain ultra-thin perovskite oxide films and open the window for controlling novel electronic phases for use in functional nanoscale electronics, such as switches and sensors. Here, we study the thickness-dependent transport characteristics of high-quality ultrathin Nd0.9Sr0.1NiO3 (Sr-NNO) films, which were grown on LaAlO3 (0 0 1) single-crystal substrates by using pulsed laser deposition method. Thick Sr-NNO films (25 unit cells) exhibit metallic behavior with the electrical resistivity following the T  n (n  system, while a temperature driven metal-insulator transition (MIT) is observed with films of less than 15 unit cells. The transition temperature increases with reducing film thickness, until the insulating characteristic is observed even at room temperature. The emergence of the insulator ground state can be attributed to weak localization driven MIT expected by considering Mott-Ioffe-Regel limit. Furthermore, the magneto-transport study of Sr-NNO ultrathin films also confirms that the observed MIT is due to the disorder-induced localization rather than the electron-electron interactions.

  6. Tuning the surface morphology in self-organized ion beam nanopatterning of Si(001) via metal incorporation: from holes to dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-GarcIa, J A; Vazquez, L; Gago, R; Albella, J M [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones CientIficas, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Redondo-Cubero, A [Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Czigany, Zs [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, PO Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary)

    2008-09-03

    We report on the selective production of self-organized nanohole and nanodot patterns on Si(001) surfaces by ion beam sputtering (IBS) under normal-incidence of 1 keV Ar{sup +} ions extracted with a cold cathode ion source. For a fixed ion fluence, nanohole patterns are induced for relatively low ion current densities (50-110 {mu}A cm{sup -2}), evolving towards nanodot patterns for current densities above 190 {mu}A cm{sup -2}. Both patterns display similar characteristics in terms of wavelength, short-range hexagonal order and roughness. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry measurements show that the surface morphology is tuned by the incorporation of metals coming from the ion source and sample surroundings during the IBS process. The metal content measured in nanohole patterns is almost twice that found in nanodot morphologies. Thus, the pattern morphology results from the balance between the dependences of the erosion rate on the ion flux, the local surface topography and composition. These nanostructures have promising applications as growth templates for preferential growth on either hillocks or cavities.

  7. Higher spin black holes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gutperle, Michael; Kraus, Per

    2011-01-01

    .... We find solutions that generalize the BTZ black hole and carry spin-3 charge. The black hole entropy formula yields a result for the asymptotic growth of the partition function at finite spin-3 chemical potential...

  8. Black hole hair removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Mandal, Ipsita; Sen, Ashoke

    2009-07-01

    Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair — degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.

  9. Black Hole Hair Removal

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Sen, Ashoke

    2009-01-01

    Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair, -- degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.

  10. Fundamental research on the label-free detection of protein adsorption using near-infrared light-responsive plasmonic metal nanoshell arrays with controlled nanogap

    OpenAIRE

    Uchida, Shuhei; Zettsu, Nobuyuki; Endo, Katsuyoshi; Yamamura, Kazuya

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we focused on the label-free detection of simple protein binding using near-infrared light-responsive plasmonic nanoshell arrays with a controlled interparticle distance. The nanoshell arrays were fabricated by a combination of colloidal self-assembly and subsequent isotropic helium plasma etching under atmospheric pressure. The diameter, interparticle distance, and shape of nanoshells can be tuned with nanometric accuracy by changing the experimental conditions. The Au, Ag, and...

  11. Noncommutative black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-DomInguez, J C [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); Obregon, O [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); RamIrez, C [Facultad de Ciencias FIsico Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, PO Box 1364, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Sabido, M [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    We study noncommutative black holes, by using a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Through the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular, we calculate Hawking's temperature and entropy for the 'noncommutative' Schwarzschild black hole.

  12. Black Hole Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Werner

    This chapter reviews the conceptual developments on black hole thermodynamics and the attempts to determine the origin of black hole entropy in terms of their horizon area. The brick wall model and an operational approach are discussed. An attempt to understand at the microlevel how the quantum black hole acquires its thermal properties is included. The chapter concludes with some remarks on the extension of these techniques to describing the dynamical process of black hole evaporation.

  13. Galaxy bulges and their massive black holes: a review

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, Alister W

    2015-01-01

    With references to both key and oft-forgotten pioneering works, this article starts by presenting a review into how we came to believe in the existence of massive black holes at the centres of galaxies. It then presents the historical development of the near-linear (black hole)-(host spheroid) mass relation, before explaining why this has recently been dramatically revised. Past disagreement over the slope of the (black hole)-(velocity dispersion) relation is also explained, and the discovery of sub-structure within the (black hole)-(velocity dispersion) diagram is discussed. As the search for the fundamental connection between massive black holes and their host galaxies continues, the competing array of additional black hole mass scaling relations for samples of predominantly inactive galaxies are presented.

  14. Monopole black hole skyrmions

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, I. G.; Shiiki, N.; Winstanley, E.

    2000-01-01

    Charged black hole solutions with pion hair are discussed. These can be\\ud used to study monopole black hole catalysis of proton decay.\\ud There also exist\\ud multi-black hole skyrmion solutions with BPS monopole behaviour.

  15. Monopole Black Hole Skyrmions

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, I. G.; Shiiki, N.; Winstanley, E.

    2000-01-01

    Charged black hole solutions with pion hair are discussed. These can be\\ud used to study monopole black hole catalysis of proton decay.\\ud There also exist\\ud multi-black hole skyrmion solutions with BPS monopole behaviour.

  16. Ballistic hole magnetic microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haq, E.; Banerjee, T.; Siekman, M.H.; Lodder, J.C.; Jansen, R.

    2005-01-01

    A technique to study nanoscale spin transport of holes is presented: ballistic hole magnetic microscopy. The tip of a scanning tunneling microscope is used to inject hot electrons into a ferromagnetic heterostructure, where inelastic decay creates a distribution of electron-hole pairs. Spin-dependen

  17. Ballistic hole magnetic microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haq, E.; Banerjee, T.; Siekman, M.H.; Lodder, J.C.; Jansen, R.

    2005-01-01

    A technique to study nanoscale spin transport of holes is presented: ballistic hole magnetic microscopy. The tip of a scanning tunneling microscope is used to inject hot electrons into a ferromagnetic heterostructure, where inelastic decay creates a distribution of electron-hole pairs.

  18. Optical investigations of high pressure glow discharges based on MSE arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penache, C.; Hohn, O.; Schmidt-Boecking, H. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany); Spielberger, L. [Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Technische Zusammenarbeit GmbH (GTZ), Eschborn (Germany); Braeuning-Demian, A.; Penache, D. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    The micro-structure-electrode (MSE) arrays are providing a non-thermal high pressure plasma. These arrays consist of a matrix of holes perforated in a thin multilayer made out of two metallic foils separated by a dielectric. The holes diameter and the thickness of the insulator spacer need to be around 100 {mu}m to allow for the MSE operation at pressure ranging from 0.1 to 1 bar and above. In this work single direct current microdischarges and systems of parallel operated holes in argon at 0.2 bar have been optically investigated. The spatial distribution of the emitted light has been monitored by a digital camera connected to an optical microscope. The UV photon emission has been recorded by a position sensitive photon detector allowing for space and time resolved measurements. Its time resolution of about 1 nsec makes possible the investigation of fast processes, e.g. the constriction of the discharge. Due to its typical position resolution of 100 {mu}m, this detector needs to be used in combination with an optical system allowing for the magnification of the discharge area. The optical appearance show a stable, volume filling glow discharge, fact proved also by the typical current-voltage characteristic.

  19. 带金属脱料器的螺纹内孔翻边模具设计%Design of flanging die which is use in threaded hole of metallic ejector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾朝上

    2014-01-01

    在金融自助设备、地铁设备和电信家电等产品的薄板零件中,螺纹底孔翻边,是较为常见的加工工序,翻边后,增加了螺纹旋合长度,提高螺纹联接强度,减轻材料重量,降低材料费用。本文着重讨论螺纹底孔翻边冲压成形工艺、计算方法以及带金属脱料器的螺纹内孔翻边模具设计。%The technology of underport flanging is common technical in manufacturing activity.It has been widespread use of component which is used for financial self-service equipments, metro equipments, telecommunication equipment , household electrical appliances etc . Using this technology will increase the length of thread engagement , improve the con-nection strength and reducing the weight of material .So this technology is beneficial to reducing material costs .This paper is mainly discussed about the stamping forming process、computing method and the design of flanging die which is use in threaded hole of metallic ejector.

  20. Sound Hole Sound

    CERN Document Server

    Politzer, David

    2015-01-01

    The volume of air that goes in and out of a musical instrument's sound hole is related to the sound hole's contribution to the volume of the sound. Helmholtz's result for the simplest case of steady flow through an elliptical hole is reviewed. Measurements on multiple holes in sound box geometries and scales relevant to real musical instruments demonstrate the importance of a variety of effects. Electric capacitance of single flat plates is a mathematically identical problem, offering an alternate way to understand the most important of those effects. The measurements also confirm and illuminate aspects of Helmholtz's "bottle" resonator model as applied to musical instrument sound boxes and sound holes.

  1. Black holes in binary stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, R.A.M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction Distinguishing neutron stars and black holes Optical companions and dynamical masses X-ray signatures of the nature of a compact object Structure and evolution of black-hole binaries High-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black holes Formation of black holes

  2. On Accelerated Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Letelier, P S; Letelier, Patricio S.; Oliveira, Samuel R.

    1998-01-01

    The C-metric is revisited and global interpretation of some associated spacetimes are studied in some detail. Specially those with two event horizons, one for the black hole and another for the acceleration. We found that the spacetime fo an accelerated Schwarzschild black hole is plagued by either conical singularities or lack of smoothness and compactness of the black hole horizon. By using standard black hole thermodynamics we show that accelerated black holes have higher Hawking temperature than Unruh temperature. We also show that the usual upper bound on the product of the mass and acceleration parameters (<1/sqrt(27)) is just a coordinate artifact. The main results are extended to accelerated Kerr black holes. We found that they are not changed by the black hole rotation.

  3. Mesostructured Metal Germanium Sulfide and Selenide Materials Based on the Tetrahedral [Ge 4S 10] 4- and [Ge 4Se 10] 4- Units: Surfactant Templated Three-Dimensional Disordered Frameworks Perforated with Worm Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachhold, Michael; Kasthuri Rangan, K.; Lei, Ming; Thorpe, M. F.; Billinge, Simon J. L.; Petkov, Valeri; Heising, Joy; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2000-06-01

    The polymerization of [Ge4S10]4- and [Ge4Se10]4- unit clusters with the divalent metal ions Zn2+, Cd2+, Hg2+, Ni2+, and Co2+ in the presence of various surfactant cations leads to novel mesostructured phases. The surfactants are the quaternary ammonium salts C12H25NMe3Br, C14H29NMe3Br, C16H33NMe3Br, and C18H37NMe3Br, which play the role of templates, helping to assemble a three-dimensional mesostructured metal-germanium chalcogenide framework. These materials are stoichiometric in nature and have the formula of (R-NMe3)2[MGe4Q10] (Q=S, Se). The local atomic structure was probed by X-ray diffuse scattering and pair distribution function analysis methods and indicates that the adamantane clusters stay intact while the linking metal atoms possess a tetrahedral coordination environment. A model can be derived, from the comparison of measured and simulated X-ray powder diffraction patterns, describing the structure as an amorphous three-dimensional framework consisting of adamantane [Ge4Q10]4- units that are bridged by tetrahedral coordinated M2+ cations. The network structures used in the simulations were derived from corresponding disordered structures developed for amorphous silicon. The frameworks in (R-NMe3)2[MGe4Q10] are perforated with worm hole-like tunnels, occupied by the surfactant cations, which show no long-range order. This motif is supported by transmission electron microscopy images of these materials. The pore sizes of these channels were estimated to lie in the range of 20-30 Å, depending on the appointed surfactant cation length. The framework wall thickness of ca. 10 Å is thereby independent from the surfactant molecules used. Up to 80% of the surfactant molecules can be removed by thermal degradation under vacuum without loss of mesostructural integrity. Physical, chemical, and spectroscopic properties of these materials are discussed.

  4. Lung counting: comparison of detector performance with a four detector array that has either metal or carbon fibre end caps, and the effect on mda calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Asm Sabbir; Hauck, Barry; Kramer, Gary H

    2012-08-01

    This study described the performance of an array of high-purity Germanium detectors, designed with two different end cap materials-steel and carbon fibre. The advantages and disadvantages of using this detector type in the estimation of the minimum detectable activity (MDA) for different energy peaks of isotope (152)Eu were illustrated. A Monte Carlo model was developed to study the detection efficiency for the detector array. A voxelised Lawrence Livermore torso phantom, equipped with lung, chest plates and overlay plates, was used to mimic a typical lung counting protocol with the array of detectors. The lung of the phantom simulated the volumetric source organ. A significantly low MDA was estimated for energy peaks at 40 keV and at a chest wall thickness of 6.64 cm.

  5. Interferometric Plasmonic Lensing with Nanohole Arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Yu; Joly, Alan G.; El-Khoury, Patrick Z.; Hess, Wayne P.

    2014-12-18

    Nonlinear photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM) of nanohole arrays in gold films maps propagating surface plasmons (PSPs) launched from lithographically patterned structures. Strong near field photoemission patterns are observed in the PEEM images, recorded following low angle of incidence irradiation of nanohole arrays with sub-15 fs laser pulses centered at 780 nm. The recorded photoemission patterns are attributed to constructive and destructive interferences between PSPs launched from the individual nanoholes which comprise the array. By exploiting the wave nature of PSPs, we demonstrate how varying the array geometry (hole diameter, pitch, and number of rows/columns) ultimately yields intense localized photoemission. Through a combination of PEEM and finite-difference time-domain simulations, we identify the optimal array geometry for efficient light coupling and interferometric plasmonic lensing. We show a preliminary application of inteferometric plasmonic lensing by enhancing the photoemission from the vertex of a gold triangle using nanohole array.

  6. Multi-hole Optical Fiber Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan Chunying; Wang Yang; Yuan Libo, E-mail: cyguan@163.com [College of Science, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2011-02-01

    A microstructured-fiber containing six large air holes is proposed to construct the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor. The finite element method is used to analyze characteristics of the surface plasmon resonance sensor. The effects of the thickness of metal films, pitch between air holes, diameter of air hole, and refractive index of liquid on the resonance wavelength are elucidated. The results show that the resonance wavelength is sensitive to the thickness of metal film and refractive index of liquid, while the resonance wavelength doesn't change basically when the pitch between air holes and diameter of air holes vary. The proposed surface plasmon resonance sensor exhibits high sensitivity up to 10{sup -4}.

  7. Minimal model for optical transmission through holey metal films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MartIn-Moreno, L [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada-ICMA, Universidad de Zaragoza-CSIC, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); GarcIa-Vidal, F J [Departamento de Fisica Teorica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: lmm@unizar.es

    2008-07-30

    This paper presents a tutorial on the computation of both extraordinary optical transmission and surface electromagnetic modes in holey metal films. Our model consists of a square array of square holes in a perfect conductor. It is shown that considering just the fundamental waveguide mode inside the holes captures the main features of the optical transmission, which allows us to obtain quasi-analytical results. Extraordinary optical transmission is unambiguously linked to the presence of surface electromagnetic modes in the corrugated structure. The particular case of surface electromagnetic modes in a perfect conductor is analyzed, paying attention to different strategies for increasing their confinement to the surface. The use of the energy loss of a charged particle passing close to the surface as a spectroscopic tool for these surface modes is also discussed.

  8. Braneworld Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Whisker, Richard

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis we investigate black holes in the Randall-Sundrum braneworld scenario. We begin with an overview of extra-dimensional physics, from the original proposal of Kaluza and Klein up to the modern braneworld picture of extra dimensions. A detailed description of braneworld gravity is given, with particular emphasis on its compatibility with experimental tests of gravity. We then move on to a discussion of static, spherically symmetric braneworld black hole solutions. Assuming an equation of state for the ``Weyl term'', which encodes the effects of the extra dimension, we are able to classify the general behaviour of these solutions. We then use the strong field limit approach to investigate the gravitational lensing properties of some candidate braneworld black hole solutions. It is found that braneworld black holes could have significantly different observational signatures to the Schwarzschild black hole of standard general relativity. Rotating braneworld black hole solutions are also discussed, an...

  9. Astrophysical black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gorini, Vittorio; Moschella, Ugo; Treves, Aldo; Colpi, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Based on graduate school lectures in contemporary relativity and gravitational physics, this book gives a complete and unified picture of the present status of theoretical and observational properties of astrophysical black holes. The chapters are written by internationally recognized specialists. They cover general theoretical aspects of black hole astrophysics, the theory of accretion and ejection of gas and jets, stellar-sized black holes observed in the Milky Way, the formation and evolution of supermassive black holes in galactic centers and quasars as well as their influence on the dynamics in galactic nuclei. The final chapter addresses analytical relativity of black holes supporting theoretical understanding of the coalescence of black holes as well as being of great relevance in identifying gravitational wave signals. With its introductory chapters the book is aimed at advanced graduate and post-graduate students, but it will also be useful for specialists.

  10. Extremal Hairy Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, P A; Saavedra, Joel; Vasquez, Yerko

    2014-01-01

    We consider a gravitating system consisting of a scalar field minimally coupled to gravity with a self-interacting potential and an U(1) electromagnetic field. Solving the coupled Einstein-Maxwell-scalar system we find exact hairy charged black hole solutions with the scalar field regular everywhere. We go to the zero temperature limit and we study the effect of the scalar field on the near horizon geometry of an extremal black hole. We find that except a critical value of the charge of the black hole there is also a critical value of the charge of the scalar field beyond of which the extremal black hole is destabilized. We study the thermodynamics of these solutions and we find that if the space is flat then at low temperature the Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black hole is thermodynamically preferred, while if the space is AdS the hairy charged black hole is thermodynamically preferred at low temperature.

  11. Charged Lifshitz Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Dehghani, M. H.; Pourhasan, R.; Mann, R. B.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate modifications of the Lifshitz black hole solutions due to the presence of Maxwell charge in higher dimensions for arbitrary $z$ and any topology. We find that the behaviour of large black holes is insensitive to the topology of the solutions, whereas for small black holes significant differences emerge. We generalize a relation previously obtained for neutral Lifshitz black branes, and study more generally the thermodynamic relationship between energy, entropy, and chemical pot...

  12. Perturbations around black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, B

    2005-01-01

    Perturbations around black holes have been an intriguing topic in the last few decades. They are particularly important today, since they relate to the gravitational wave observations which may provide the unique fingerprint of black holes' existence. Besides the astrophysical interest, theoretically perturbations around black holes can be used as testing grounds to examine the proposed AdS/CFT and dS/CFT correspondence.

  13. Physics of black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Thorne, Kip S.

    1982-01-01

    The activity at the galactic center might be fuelled by energy release near a large black hole. In this talk I describe some relativistic effects which may be relevant to this process. I use Newtonian language so far as possible and illustrate the effects with simple  analogies. Specifically, I describe the gravitational field near a black hole, Lens‐Thirring and geodetic precession, electro‐magnetic energy extraction of the spin energy of a black hole and the structure of accretion tori arou...

  14. Asymptotic black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Pei-Ming

    2017-04-01

    Following earlier works on the KMY model of black-hole formation and evaporation, we construct the metric for a matter sphere in gravitational collapse, with the back-reaction of pre-Hawking radiation taken into consideration. The mass distribution and collapsing velocity of the matter sphere are allowed to have an arbitrary radial dependence. We find that a generic gravitational collapse asymptote to a universal configuration which resembles a black hole but without horizon. This approach clarifies several misunderstandings about black-hole formation and evaporation, and provides a new model for black-hole-like objects in the universe.

  15. Asymptotic Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, Pei-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Following earlier works on the KMY model of black-hole formation and evaporation, we construct the metric for a matter sphere in gravitational collapse, with the back-reaction of pre-Hawking radiation taken into consideration. The mass distribution and collapsing velocity of the matter sphere are allowed to have an arbitrary radial dependence. We find that a generic gravitational collapse asymptote to a universal configuration which resembles a black hole but without horizon. This approach clarifies several misunderstandings about black-hole formation and evaporation, and provides a new model for black-hole-like objects in the universe.

  16. Formation of the First Supermassive Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Bromm, V; Bromm, Volker; Loeb, Abraham

    2003-01-01

    We consider the physical conditions under which supermassive black holes could have formed inside the first galaxies. Our SPH simulations indicate that metal-free galaxies with a virial temperature ~10^4 K and with suppressed H2 formation (due to an intergalactic UV background) tend to form a binary black hole system which contains a substantial fraction (>10%) of the total baryonic mass of the host galaxy. Fragmentation into stars is suppressed without substantial H2 cooling. Our simulations follow the condensation of ~5x10^6 M_sun around the two centers of the binary down to a scale of 10 that would be detectable by LISA.

  17. Ultrasonic stair case array for NDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, K.; Tittmann, B. R.; Kropf, M.

    2006-03-01

    In this paper we present the results on the design of a unique two-dimensional phased array with low channel applications for imaging defects on a metal surface. First, basic transducer calculations will be shown. Followed by the results of important phased array variables, such as focusing, and angle beam sweeping ability, The final design will be given. Next the computer simulation results will be discussed. These results will indicate the performance of the actual array. The second half of the paper will be devoted to a discussion on the phased array testing results with a demonstration phased array.

  18. Comparison of negative refractive index materials with circular, elliptical and rectangular holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Zahyun; Brueck, S R J

    2007-04-16

    Negative-index metamaterials (NIMs) at near infrared wavelengths (~2 mum) are fabricated with circular, elliptical and rectangular holes penetrating through metal/dielectric/metal films. All three NIM structures exhibit similar figures of merit; however, the transmission is higher for the NIM with rectangular holes as a result of an improved impedance match with the substrate-superstrate (air-glass) combination.

  19. Diacritical study of light, electrons and sound scattering by particles and holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javier Garcia de Abajo, F [Instituto de Optica-CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Estrada, Hector; Meseguer, Francisco [Unidad Asociada ICMM-CSIC/Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Av. de los Naranjos s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain)], E-mail: jga@cfmac.csic.es

    2009-09-15

    We discuss the differences and similarities in the interaction of scalar and vector wave fields with particles and holes. Analytical results are provided for the transmission of isolated and arrayed small holes as well as surface modes in hole arrays for light, electrons and sound. In contrast to the optical case, small-hole arrays in perforated perfect screens cannot produce acoustic or electronic surface-bound states. However, unlike electrons and light, sound is transmitted through individual holes approximately in proportion to their area, regardless of their size. We discuss these issues with a systematic analysis that allows one to explore both common properties and unique behavior in wave phenomena for different material realizations.

  20. Optical Transmission Properties of Dielectric Aperture Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao

    Optical detection devices such as optical biosensors and optical spectrometers are widely used in many applications for the functions of measurements, inspections and analysis. Due to the large dimension of prisms and gratings, the traditional optical devices normally occupy a large space with complicated components. Since cheaper and smaller optical devices are always in demand, miniaturization has been kept going for years. Thanks to recent fabrication advances, nanophotonic devices such as semiconductor laser chips have been growing in number and diversity. However, the optical biosensor chips and the optical spectrometer chips are seldom reported in the literature. For the reason of improving system integration, the study of ultra-compact, low-cost, high-performance and easy-alignment optical biosensors and optical spectrometers are imperative. This thesis is an endeavor in these two subjects and will present our research work on studying the optical transmission properties of dielectric aperture arrays and developing new optical biosensors and optical spectrometers. The first half of the thesis demonstrates that the optical phase shift associated with the surface plasmon (SP) assisted extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) in nano-hole arrays fabricated in a metal film has a strong dependence on the material refractive index value in close proximity to the holes. A novel refractive index sensor based on detecting the EOT phase shift is proposed by building a model. This device readily provides a 2-D biosensor array platform for non-labeled real-time detection of a variety of organic and biological molecules in a sensor chip format, which leads to a high packing density, minimal analyte volumes, and a large number of parallel channels while facilitating high resolution imaging and supporting a large space-bandwidth product (SBP). Simulation (FDTD Solutions, Lumerical Solutions Inc) results indicate an achievable sensitivity limit of 4.37x10-9 refractive index

  1. Hole-hole interaction effect in the conductance of the two-dimensional hole gas in the ballistic regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proskuryakov, Y Y; Savchenko, A K; Safonov, S S; Pepper, M; Simmons, M Y; Ritchie, D A

    2002-08-12

    On a high-mobility two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG) in a GaAs/GaAlAs heterostructure we study the interaction correction to the Drude conductivity in the ballistic regime, k(B)Ttau/ variant Planck's over 2pi >1. It is shown that the "metallic" behavior of the resistivity (drho/dT>0) of the low-density 2DHG is caused by the hole-hole interaction effect in this regime. We find that the temperature dependence of the conductivity and the parallel-field magnetoresistance are in agreement with this description, and determine the Fermi-liquid interaction constant Fsigma0 which controls the sign of drho/dT.

  2. Filter arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, Ralph H.; Doty, Patrick F.

    2017-08-01

    The various technologies presented herein relate to a tiled filter array that can be used in connection with performance of spatial sampling of optical signals. The filter array comprises filter tiles, wherein a first plurality of filter tiles are formed from a first material, the first material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a first wavelength band pass therethrough. A second plurality of filter tiles is formed from a second material, the second material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a second wavelength band pass therethrough. The first plurality of filter tiles and the second plurality of filter tiles can be interspersed to form the filter array comprising an alternating arrangement of first filter tiles and second filter tiles.

  3. Integrated lithography to prepare periodic arrays of nano-objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipos, Áron; Szalai, Anikó; Csete, Mária

    2013-08-01

    We present an integrated lithography method to prepare versatile nano-objects with variable shape and nano-scaled substructure, in wavelength-scaled periodic arrays with arbitrary symmetry. The idea is to illuminate colloid sphere monolayers by polarized beams possessing periodic lateral intensity modulations. Finite element method was applied to determine the effects of the wavelength, polarization and angle of incidence of the incoming beam, and to predict the characteristics of nano-objects, which can be fabricated on thin metal layer covered substrates due to the near-field enhancement under silica colloid spheres. The inter-object distance is controlled by varying the relative orientation of the periodic intensity modulation with respect to the silica colloid sphere monolayer. It is shown that illuminating silica colloid sphere monolayers by two interfering beams, linear patterns made of elliptical holes appear in case of linear polarization, while circularly polarized beams result in co-existent rounded objects, as more circular nano-holes and nano-crescents. The size of the nano-objects and their sub-structure is determined by the spheres diameter and by the wavelength. We present various complex plasmonic patterns made of versatile nano-objects that can be uniquely fabricated applying the inherent symmetry breaking possibilities in the integrated lithography method.

  4. Achieving an ultra-uniform diffraction pattern of stray light with metallic meshes by using ring and sub-ring arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhengang; Wang, Heyan; Tan, Jiubin; Ma, Limin; Lin, Shen

    2016-05-01

    We provide theoretical and experimental evidence that introducing metallic rings and sub-rings in mesh unit cells significantly decreases the high-order diffraction energy. Moreover, rotating the sub-rings results in increased uniformity in the diffraction distribution without affecting the transmittance. Experiments show that the triangular ring mesh with rotated sub-rings exhibits a normalized visible transmittance greater than 95% as well as an ultra-uniform diffraction pattern of stray light, whose maximal normalized high-order diffraction energy is lower than 0.0167%. This kind of metallic mesh will be favorable in transparent electromagnetic interference shielding devices and touch screens.

  5. Black Hole Dynamic Potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Koustubh Ajit Kabe

    2012-09-01

    In the following paper, certain black hole dynamic potentials have been developed definitively on the lines of classical thermodynamics. These potentials have been refined in view of the small differences in the equations of the laws of black hole dynamics as given by Bekenstein and those of thermodynamics. Nine fundamental black hole dynamical relations have been developed akin to the four fundamental thermodynamic relations of Maxwell. The specific heats , and , have been defined. For a black hole, these quantities are negative. The d equation has been obtained as an application of these fundamental relations. Time reversible processes observing constancy of surface gravity are considered and an equation connecting the internal energy of the black hole , the additional available energy defined as the first free energy function , and the surface gravity , has been obtained. Finally as a further application of the fundamental relations, it has been proved for a homogeneous gravitational field in black hole space times or a de Sitter black hole that $C_{\\Omega,\\Phi}-C_{J,Q}=\\kappa \\left[\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial J}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{\\Omega,\\Phi}\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial \\Omega}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{J,Q}+\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial Q}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{\\Omega,\\Phi}\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial\\Phi}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{J,Q}\\right]$. This is dubbed as the homogeneous fluid approximation in context of the black holes.

  6. Black holes matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Helge Stjernholm

    2016-01-01

    Review essay, Marcia Bartusiak, Black Hole: How an Idea Abandoned by Newtonians, Hated by Einstein, and Gambled On by Hawking Became Loved (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015).......Review essay, Marcia Bartusiak, Black Hole: How an Idea Abandoned by Newtonians, Hated by Einstein, and Gambled On by Hawking Became Loved (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015)....

  7. Perturbing supersymmetric black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Onozawa, H; Mishima, T; Ishihara, H; Onozawa, Hisashi; Okamura, Takashi; Mishima, Takashi; Ishihara, Hideki

    1996-01-01

    An investigation of the perturbations of the Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m black hole in the N=2 supergravity is presented. In the extreme case, the black hole responds to the perturbation of each field in the same manner. This is possibly because we can match the modes of the graviton, gravitino, and photon using supersymmetry transformations.

  8. Black hole levitron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arsiwalla, X.D.; Verlinde, E.P.

    2010-01-01

    We study the problem of spatially stabilizing four dimensional extremal black holes in background electric/magnetic fields. Whilst looking for stationary stable solutions describing black holes placed in external fields we find that taking a continuum limit of Denef et al.’s multicenter

  9. Newborn Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Scientists using NASA's Swift satellite say they have found newborn black holes, just seconds old, in a confused state of existence. The holes are consuming material falling into them while somehow propelling other material away at great speeds. "First comes a blast of gamma rays followed by intense pulses of x-rays. The energies involved are much…

  10. Scattering by Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, N

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter on Black-hole Scattering that was commissioned for an Encyclopaedia on Scattering edited by Pike and Sabatier, to be published by Academic Press. The chapter surveys wave propagation in black-hole spacetimes, diffraction effects in wave scattering, resonances, quasinormal modes and related topics.

  11. Disregarding the 'Hole Argument'

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, Bryan W

    2014-01-01

    Jim Weatherall has suggested that Einstein's hole argument, as presented by Earman and Norton (1987), is based on a misleading use of mathematics. I argue on the contrary that Weatherall demands an implausible restriction on how mathematics is used. The hole argument, on the other hand, is in no new danger at all.

  12. Lifshitz Topological Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Mann, R B

    2009-01-01

    I find a class of black hole solutions to a (3+1) dimensional theory gravity coupled to abelian gauge fields with negative cosmological constant that has been proposed as the dual theory to a Lifshitz theory describing critical phenomena in (2+1) dimensions. These black holes are all asymptotic to a Lifshitz fixed point geometry and depend on a single parameter that determines both their area (or size) and their charge. Most of the solutions are obtained numerically, but an exact solution is also obtained for a particular value of this parameter. The thermodynamic behaviour of large black holes is almost the same regardless of genus, but differs considerably for small black holes. Screening behaviour is exhibited in the dual theory for any genus, but the critical length at which it sets in is genus-dependent for small black holes.

  13. Cosmological Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Stornaiolo, C

    2002-01-01

    In this letter we propose the existence of low density black holes and discuss its compatibility with the cosmological observations. The origin of these black holes can be traced back to the collapse of long wavelength cosmological perturbations during the matter dominated era, when the densities are low enough to neglect any internal and thermal pressure. By introducing a threshold density $\\hat{\\rho}$ above which pressure and non-gravitational interactions become effective, we find the highest wavelength for the perturbations that can reach an equilibrium state instead of collapsing to a black hole. The low density black holes introduced here, if they exist, can be observed through weak and strong gravitational lensing effects. Finally we observe that we obtained here a cosmological model which is capable to explain in a qualitative way the void formation together with the value $\\Omega=1$. But we remark that it needs to be improved by considering non spherical symmetric black holes.

  14. Primordial Black Hole Baryogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Baumann, D; Turok, N G; Baumann, Daniel; Steinhardt, Paul J.; Turok, Neil

    2007-01-01

    We reconsider the possibility that the observed baryon asymmetry was generated by the evaporation of primordial black holes that dominated the early universe. We present a simple derivation showing that the baryon asymmetry is insensitive to the initial black hole density and the cosmological model but is sensitive to the temperature-dependence of the CP and baryon-violating (or lepton-violating) interactions. We also consider the possibility that black holes stop evaporating and form Planck-mass remnants that act as dark matter. We show that primordial black holes cannot simultaneously account for both the observed baryon asymmetry and the (remnant) dark matter density unless the magnitude of CP violation is much greater than expected from most particle physics models. Finally, we apply these results to ekpyrotic/cyclic models, in which primordial black holes may form when branes collide. We find that obtaining the observed baryon asymmetry is compatible with the other known constraints on parameters.

  15. 30 CFR 56.7013 - Covering or guarding drill holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Covering or guarding drill holes. 56.7013 Section 56.7013 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling...

  16. 30 CFR 57.7013 - Covering or guarding drill holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Covering or guarding drill holes. 57.7013 Section 57.7013 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  17. Plasmonic excitations on metallic nanowires embedded in silica photonic crystal fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prill Sempere, Luis

    2010-06-17

    This thesis describes the theoretical and experimental investigation of metal-filled photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) and their fabrication. The thesis explains how to overcome the obstacles when infiltrating molten metals into sub-micron holes in fused silica (SiO{sub 2}) PCF. The optical properties of such filled fibers are theoretically and experimentally investigated, focusing on the coupling between the core mode of the fibers and the surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) on the metal wires. The thesis introduces the ideas, physical challenges and results of two new filling techniques: the pressure cell technique and the splicing technique. These techniques make it possible for the first time to fill different fiber structures with sub-micron sized holes, such as PCFs and single-hole capillaries, with different metals like gold (Au) and silver (Ag). Samples with hole diameters between 120 nm and 20 {mu}m and aspect ratios as high as 75000 have been realized. Theoretical simulations and models have been developed in order to understand the optical behavior of these novel structures. The light guided in the core of the filled PCF structure will couple to SPP modes on the wires. Several measurements have been performed to determine the resonance wavelengths and losses of such filled PCF structures. Also, different phenomena such as the shift of the resonance position with the wire diameter or pitch and the polarization dependence of SPP in polarization maintaining (PM)-PCF have been investigated. The fabrication of free standing metal arrays was another focus of this work. The critical question was how to remove the surrounding SiO{sub 2} from the metal wires. Two different approaches have been tried: etching of the SiO{sub 2} and cleaving the PCF. (orig.)

  18. Black Hole Critical Phenomena Without Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Liebling, S L

    2000-01-01

    Studying the threshold of black hole formation via numerical evolution has led to the discovery of fascinating nonlinear phenomena. Power-law mass scaling, aspects of universality, and self-similarity have now been found for a large variety of models. However, questions remain. Here I briefly review critical phenomena, discuss some recent results, and describe a model which demonstrates similar phenomena without gravity.

  19. Self-supported spinel FeCo2O4 nanowire array: an efficient non-noble-metal catalyst for the hydrolysis of NaBH4 toward on-demand hydrogen generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Shuai; Yang, Libin; Cui, Liang; Lu, Wenbo; Yang, Yingchun; Sun, Xuping; Asiri, Abdullah M.

    2016-11-01

    NaBH4 has been considered as one of the most advantageous candidates for chemical hydrogen storage, but it is still a huge challenge to design efficient non-noble-metal catalysts for on-demand hydrogen generation from NaBH4 hydrolysis. In this paper, we demonstrate for the first time that a spinel FeCo2O4 nanowire array supported on carbon cloth (FeCo2O4 NA/CC) behaves as an efficient earth-abundant catalyst toward NaBH4 hydrolysis in alkaline solutions with an activation energy of 44.98 kJ mol-1. Such FeCo2O4 NA/CC offers a hydrogen generation rate of 2551 ml min-1 g-1 under ambient conditions, with good stability and reusability. Its use as an ON/OFF switch for on-demand hydrogen generation is also demonstrated successfully.

  20. Creating a urine black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Randy; Pan, Zhao; Meritt, Andrew; Belden, Jesse; Truscott, Tadd

    2015-11-01

    Since the mid-nineteenth century, both enlisted and fashion-conscious owners of khaki trousers have been plagued by undesired speckle patterns resulting from splash-back while urinating. In recent years, industrial designers and hygiene-driven entrepreneurs have sought to limit this splashing by creating urinal inserts, with the effectiveness of their inventions varying drastically. From this large assortment of inserts, designs consisting of macroscopic pillar arrays seem to be the most effective splash suppressers. Interestingly this design partially mimics the geometry of the water capturing moss Syntrichia caninervis, which exhibits a notable ability to suppress splash and quickly absorb water from impacting rain droplets. With this natural splash suppressor in mind, we search for the ideal urine black hole by performing experiments of simulated urine streams (water droplet streams) impacting macroscopic pillar arrays with varying parameters including pillar height and spacing, draining and material properties. We propose improved urinal insert designs based on our experimental data in hopes of reducing potential embarrassment inherent in wearing khakis.

  1. Array gain for a cylindrical array with baffle scatter effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertilone, Derek C; Killeen, Damien S; Bao, Chaoying

    2007-11-01

    Cylindrical arrays used in sonar for passive underwater surveillance often have sensors surrounding a cylindrical metal baffle. In some operational sonars, the phones in each stave (i.e., each line of phones aligned with the cylinder axis) are hardwired together so that the array is equivalent to a baffled circular array of directional elements, where each element corresponds to a line array of omnidirectional phones steered to broadside. In this paper a model is introduced for computing the array gain of such an array at high frequencies, which incorporates baffle scatter using infinite, rigid cylinder scattering theory, and with ambient noise described by an angular spectral density function. In practice the phones are often offset from the baffle surface, and the acoustic field sampled by the staves is distorted at high frequencies due to interference between the incident and scattered fields. Examples are given to illustrate the resulting array gain degradation, using three noise distributions that are frequently used in sonar performance modeling: three-dimensional isotropic, two-dimensional isotropic, and surface dipole noise.

  2. Scalarized Hairy Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Kleihaus, Burkhard; Yazadjiev, Stoytcho

    2015-01-01

    In the presence of a complex scalar field scalar-tensor theory allows for scalarized rotating hairy black holes. We exhibit the domain of existence for these scalarized black holes, which is bounded by scalarized rotating boson stars and ordinary hairy black holes. We discuss the global properties of these solutions. Like their counterparts in general relativity, their angular momentum may exceed the Kerr bound, and their ergosurfaces may consist of a sphere and a ring, i.e., form an ergo-Saturn.

  3. Primordial Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    MacGibbon, Jane H; Linnemann, J T; Marinelli, S S; Stump, D; Tollefson, K

    2015-01-01

    Primordial Black Holes (PBHs) are of interest in many cosmological contexts. PBHs lighter than about 1012 kg are predicted to be directly detectable by their Hawking radiation. This radiation should produce both a diffuse extragalactic gamma-ray background from the cosmologically-averaged distribution of PBHs and gamma-ray burst signals from individual light black holes. The Fermi, Milagro, Veritas, HESS and HAWC observatories, in combination with new burst recognition methodologies, offer the greatest sensitivity for the detection of such black holes or placing limits on their existence.

  4. Black Hole Entropy

    OpenAIRE

    P. Mitra

    1994-01-01

    In the talk different definitions of the black hole entropy are discussed and compared. It is shown that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy $S^{BH}$ (defined by the response of the free energy of a system containing a black hole on the change of the temperature) differs from the statistical- mechanical entropy $S^{SM}=-\\mbox{Tr}(\\hat{\\rho}\\ln \\hat{\\rho})$ (defined by counting internal degrees of freedom of a black hole). A simple explanation of the universality of the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy (...

  5. Black hole entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Frolov, V

    1994-01-01

    In the talk different definitions of the black hole entropy are discussed and compared. It is shown that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy S^{BH} (defined by the response of the free energy of a system containing a black hole on the change of the temperature) differs from the statistical- mechanical entropy S^{SM}=-\\mbox{Tr}(\\hat{\\rho}\\ln \\hat{\\rho}) (defined by counting internal degrees of freedom of a black hole). A simple explanation of the universality of the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy (i.e. its independence of the number and properties of the fields which might contribute to S^{SM}) is given.

  6. Scalarized hairy black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleihaus, Burkhard, E-mail: b.kleihaus@uni-oldenburg.de [Institut für Physik, Universität Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Kunz, Jutta [Institut für Physik, Universität Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Yazadjiev, Stoytcho [Department of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, Sofia University, Sofia 1164 (Bulgaria)

    2015-05-11

    In the presence of a complex scalar field scalar–tensor theory allows for scalarized rotating hairy black holes. We exhibit the domain of existence for these scalarized black holes, which is bounded by scalarized rotating boson stars and hairy black holes of General Relativity. We discuss the global properties of these solutions. Like their counterparts in general relativity, their angular momentum may exceed the Kerr bound, and their ergosurfaces may consist of a sphere and a ring, i.e., form an ergo-Saturn.

  7. Scalarized hairy black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkhard Kleihaus

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the presence of a complex scalar field scalar–tensor theory allows for scalarized rotating hairy black holes. We exhibit the domain of existence for these scalarized black holes, which is bounded by scalarized rotating boson stars and hairy black holes of General Relativity. We discuss the global properties of these solutions. Like their counterparts in general relativity, their angular momentum may exceed the Kerr bound, and their ergosurfaces may consist of a sphere and a ring, i.e., form an ergo-Saturn.

  8. Black holes new horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Hayward, Sean Alan

    2013-01-01

    Black holes, once just fascinating theoretical predictions of how gravity warps space-time according to Einstein's theory, are now generally accepted as astrophysical realities, formed by post-supernova collapse, or as supermassive black holes mysteriously found at the cores of most galaxies, powering active galactic nuclei, the most powerful objects in the universe. Theoretical understanding has progressed in recent decades with a wider realization that local concepts should characterize black holes, rather than the global concepts found in textbooks. In particular, notions such as trapping h

  9. Black Hole Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Carlip, S

    2014-01-01

    The discovery in the early 1970s that black holes radiate as black bodies has radically affected our understanding of general relativity, and offered us some early hints about the nature of quantum gravity. In this chapter I will review the discovery of black hole thermodynamics and summarize the many independent ways of obtaining the thermodynamic and (perhaps) statistical mechanical properties of black holes. I will then describe some of the remaining puzzles, including the nature of the quantum microstates, the problem of universality, and the information loss paradox.

  10. Bolometric Arrays for Millimeter Wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, E.; Serrano, A.; Torres-Jácome, A.

    2009-11-01

    During last years, semiconductor bolometers using thin films have been developed at INAOE, specifically boron-doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon films. The characteristics shown by these devices made them attractive to be used in astronomical instrumentation, mainly in two-dimentional arrays. These detector arrays used at the Large Millimeter Telescope will make possible to obtain astronomical images in millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelengths. With this in mind, we are developing a method to produce, with enough reliability, bolometer arrays at INAOE. Until now, silicon nitride diaphragm arrays, useful as radiation absorbers, have succesfully been obtained. Sizes going from one to four millimeter by element in a consistent way; however we have not tested thermometers and metallic contact deposition yet. At the same time, we are working on two possible configurations for the readout electronics; one of them using commercial components while the other will be an integrated circuit specifically designed for this application. Both versions will work below 77K.

  11. High-frequency QPO in black hole binaries (Belloni+, 2012)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belloni, T. M.; Sanna, A.; Mendez, M.

    2013-01-01

    We selected all RXTE observations of known transient black hole binaries available in the archive from the start of the mission until MJD 55601 (2011 February 9), concentrating on the data from the Proportional Counter Array (PCA) instrument. We analysed 22 sources, for a total of 7108 observations.

  12. Simulation and experiment for the inspection of stainless steel bolts in servicing using an ultrasonic phased array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinzhong; He, Renyang; Kang, Xiaowei; Yang, Xuyun

    2015-10-01

    The non-destructive testing of small-sized (M12-M20) stainless steel bolts in servicing is always a technical problem. This article focuses on the simulation and experimental research of stainless steel bolts with an artificial defect reflector using ultrasonic phased array inspection. Based on the observation of the sound field distribution of stainless steel bolts in ultrasonic phased array as well as simulation modelling and analysis of the phased array probes' detection effects with various defect sizes, different artificial defect reflectors of M16 stainless steel bolts are machined in reference to the simulation results. Next, those bolts are tested using a 10-wafer phased array probe with 5 MHz. The test results finally prove that ultrasonic phased array can detect 1-mm cracks in diameter with different depths of M16 stainless steel bolts and a metal loss of Φ1 mm of through-hole bolts, which provides technical support for future non-destructive testing of stainless steel bolts in servicing.

  13. Triple-band metamaterial absorption utilizing single rectangular hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung Jik; Yoo, Young Joon; Kim, Young Ju; Lee, YoungPak

    2017-01-01

    In the general metamaterial absorber, the single absorption band is made by the single meta-pattern. Here, we introduce the triple-band metamaterial absorber only utilizing single rectangular hole. We also demonstrate the absorption mechanism of the triple absorption. The first absorption peak was caused by the fundamental magnetic resonance in the metallic part between rectangular holes. The second absorption was generated by induced tornado magnetic field. The process of realizing the second band is also presented. The third absorption was induced by the third-harmonic magnetic resonance in the metallic region between rectangular holes. In addition, the visible-range triple-band absorber was also realized by using similar but smaller single rectangular-hole structure. These results render the simple metamaterials for high frequency in large scale, which can be useful in the fabrication of metamaterials operating in the optical range.

  14. Black hole critical phenomena without black holes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Steven L Liebling

    2000-10-01

    Studying the threshold of black hole formation via numerical evolution has led to the discovery of fascinating nonlinear phenomena. Power-law mass scaling, aspects of universality, and self-similarity have now been found for a large variety of models. However, questions remain. Here I briefly review critical phenomena, discuss some recent results, and describe a model which demonstrates similar phenomena without gravity.

  15. Black hole quantum spectrum

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Corda, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Introducing a black hole (BH) effective temperature, which takes into account both the non-strictly thermal character of Hawking radiation and the countable behavior of emissions of subsequent Hawking quanta, we recently re...

  16. Holographic black hole chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karch, Andreas; Robinson, Brandon

    2015-01-01

    Thermodynamic quantities associated with black holes in Anti-de Sitter space obey an interesting identity when the cosmological constant is included as one of the dynamical variables, the generalized Smarr relation...

  17. Braneworld black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gregory, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    In these lectures, I give an introduction to and overview of braneworlds and black holes in the context of warped compactifications. I first describe the general paradigm of braneworlds, and introduce the Randall-Sundrum model. I discuss braneworld gravity, both using perturbation theory, and also non perturbative results. I then discuss black holes on the brane, the obstructions to finding exact solutions, and ways of tackling these difficulties. I describe some known solutions, and conclude with some open questions and controversies.

  18. Holes in Heisenberg antiferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang

    1990-05-01

    In this Brief Report we show that a recent model proposed by Shankar [Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 203 (1989)], describing the motion of holes in quantum antiferromagnets is equivalent to the Schwinger model [Phys. Rev. 128, 2425 (1962)] in 1+1 dimensions. Some exact results are deduced. In addition to the superconducting long-range order found by Shankar, it is shown that there is a 2pF hole density wave existing with the superconducting pairing instability.

  19. Life Inside Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokuchaev, Vyacheslav

    2013-11-01

    It is considered the test planet and photon orbits of the third kind inside the black hole (BH), which are stable, periodic and neither come out the BH nor terminate at the central singularity. Interiors of the supermassive BHs may be inhabited by advanced civilizations living on the planets with the third kind orbits. In principle, one can get information from the interiors of BHs by observing their white hole counterparts.

  20. Modelling quantum black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Govindarajan, T R

    2016-01-01

    Novel bound states are obtained for manifolds with singular potentials. These singular potentials require proper boundary conditions across boundaries. The number of bound states match nicely with what we would expect for black holes. Also they serve to model membrane mechanism for the black hole horizons in simpler contexts. The singular potentials can also mimic expanding boundaries elegantly, there by obtaining appropriately tuned radiation rates.

  1. Hydrodynamics and black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Oz, Yaron

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes how the AdS/CFT correspondence (the Holographic Principle) relates field theory hydrodynamics to perturbations of black hole (brane) gravitational backgrounds. The hydrodynamics framework is first presented from the field theory point of view, after which the dual gravitational description is outlined, first for relativistic fluids and then for the nonrelativistic case. Further details of the fluid/gravity correspondence are then discussed, including the bulk geometry and the dynamics of the black hole horizon.

  2. Black hole geometrothermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo, Hernando

    2017-03-01

    We review the main aspects of geometrothermodynamics which is a geometric formalism to describe thermodynamic systems, taking into account the invariance of classical thermodynamics with respect to Legendre transformations. We focus on the particular case of black holes, and present a Riemannian metric which describes the corresponding space of equilibrium states. We show that this metric can be used to describe the stability properties and phase transition structure of black holes in different gravity theories.

  3. Helical superconducting black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donos, Aristomenis; Gauntlett, Jerome P

    2012-05-25

    We construct novel static, asymptotically five-dimensional anti-de Sitter black hole solutions with Bianchi type-VII(0) symmetry that are holographically dual to superconducting phases in four spacetime dimensions with a helical p-wave order. We calculate the precise temperature dependence of the pitch of the helical order. At zero temperature the black holes have a vanishing entropy and approach domain wall solutions that reveal homogenous, nonisotropic dual ground states with an emergent scaling symmetry.

  4. Black Hole Induced Ejections

    OpenAIRE

    Pelletier, G.

    2004-01-01

    Black Holes generate a particular kind of environments dominated by an accretion flow which concentrates a magnetic field. The interplay of gravity and magnetism creates this paradoxical situation where relativistic ejection is allowed and consequently high energy phenomena take place. Therefore Black Holes, which are very likely at the origin of powerfull astrophysical phenomena such as AGNs, micro- quasars and GRBs where relativistic ejections are observed, are at the heart of high energy a...

  5. Charged Galileon black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babichev, Eugeny; Charmousis, Christos; Hassaine, Mokhtar

    2015-05-01

    We consider an Abelian gauge field coupled to a particular truncation of Horndeski theory. The Galileon field has translation symmetry and couples non minimally both to the metric and the gauge field. When the gauge-scalar coupling is zero the gauge field reduces to a standard Maxwell field. By taking into account the symmetries of the action, we construct charged black hole solutions. Allowing the scalar field to softly break symmetries of spacetime we construct black holes where the scalar field is regular on the black hole event horizon. Some of these solutions can be interpreted as the equivalent of Reissner-Nordstrom black holes of scalar tensor theories with a non trivial scalar field. A self tuning black hole solution found previously is extended to the presence of dyonic charge without affecting whatsoever the self tuning of a large positive cosmological constant. Finally, for a general shift invariant scalar tensor theory we demonstrate that the scalar field Ansatz and method we employ are mathematically compatible with the field equations. This opens up the possibility for novel searches of hairy black holes in a far more general setting of Horndeski theory.

  6. Ultramassive Black Hole Coalescence

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Fazeel; Berczik, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Although supermassive black holes (SMBHs) correlate well with their host galaxies, there is an emerging view that outliers exist. Henize 2-10, NGC 4889, and NGC1277 are examples of SMBHs at least an order of magnitude more massive than their host galaxy suggests. The dynamical effects of such ultramassive central black holes is unclear. Here, we perform direct N-body simulations of mergers of galactic nuclei where one black hole is ultramassive to study the evolution of the remnant and the black hole dynamics in this extreme regime. We find that the merger remnant is axisymmetric near the center, while near the large SMBH influence radius, the galaxy is triaxial. The SMBH separation shrinks rapidly due to dynamical friction, and quickly forms a binary black hole; if we scale our model to the most massive estimate for the NGC1277 black hole, for example, the timescale for the SMBH separation to shrink from nearly a kiloparsec to less than a parsec is roughly 10 Myr. By the time the SMBHs form a hard binary, gr...

  7. Surface modes at metallic an photonic crystal interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Weitao [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2009-01-01

    A surface mode is an electromagnetic field distribution bounded at a surface. It decays exponentially with the distance from the surface on both sides of the surface and propagates at the surface. The surface mode exists at a metal-dielectric interface as surface plasmon (1) or at a photonic crystal surface terminated properly (34; 35; 36). Besides its prominent near-filed properties, it can connect structures at its propagation surface and results in far-field effects. Extraordinary transmission (EOT) and beaming are two examples and they are the subjects I am studying in this thesis. EOT means the transmission through holes in an opaque screen can be much larger than the geometrical optics limitation. Based on our everyday experience about shadows, the transmission equals the filling ratio of the holes in geometrical optics. The conventional diffraction theory also proved that the transmission through a subwavelength circular hole in an infinitely thin perfect electric conductor (PEC) film converges to zero when the hole's dimension is much smaller than the wavelength (40). Recently it is discovered that the transmission can be much larger than the the filling ratio of the holes at some special wavelengths (41). This cannot be explained by conventional theories, so it is called extraordinary transmission. It is generally believed that surface plasmons play an important role (43; 44) in the EOT through a periodic subwavelength hole array in a metallic film. The common theories in literatures are based on these arguments. The surface plasmons cannot be excited by incident plane waves directly because of momentum mismatch. The periodicity of the hole arrays will provide addition momentum. When the momentum-matching condition of surface plasmons is satisfied, the surface plasmons will be excited. Then these surface plasmons will collect the energy along the input surface and carry them to the holes. So the transmission can be bigger than the filling ratio. Based

  8. 预调制电子注激励孔阵列中的Smith-Purcell相干太赫兹超辐射研究%Coherent Terahertz Superradiation Smith-Purcell Radiation from Subwavelength Hole Array Drived by Premodulated Electron Beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董亮

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of Smith-Purcell superradiation from subwavelength holes array(SHA) is carried out with the help of three-dimensional Particle-In-Cell code. The two-asymmetric grating is applied to modulate the electron beam and the dispersion curve of the two-asymmetric grating is numerical calculated by MATLAB while the dispersion equation calculated in theory. Using emission voltage U=50 kV, emission current I=30 A/cm2, the wave interaction frequency point is about 0. 3 THz which fall into the terahertz regime. The final simulation result is 0. 31 THz which matches the theoretical value well. We choose 0. 3 mm as the period of the subwavelength hole array. According to the S-P radiation formula, the second harmonic at the frequency of 0. 62 THz would radiate at the angle of 60. 7° which has good agreement with the simulation result. In the radiation zone, the amplitude of second harmonic wave is five times more than the amplitude of the fundamental wave, which most of the energy is the second harmonic at the frequency 0. 62 THz.%研究了在预调制成团的电子注经过孔阵列时所激发的Smith-Purcell超辐射现象.基于Smith-Purcell辐射公式,利用三维模拟软件对采用的结构进行模拟仿真,得到在太赫兹频率段的超辐射电磁波.采用对冲光栅来对直流电子注进行调制,理论求解了对冲光栅中的色散方程,并对其进行数值计算,得其色散曲线.选取发射电压U=50 kV,发射电流I=30 A/cm2,通过色散曲线得到该对冲光栅的注波互作用频率点在0.3 THz,最终的仿真结果为0.31 THz,两者有较好的吻合度.孔阵列采用的是周期为0.3 mm的单排孔阵列,由Smith-Purcell辐射公式计算电子注二次谐波0.62 THz的辐射角度为60°,仿真结果与理论分析保持高度一致.通过对辐射区Ez(t)场的观察,发现二次谐波场的幅值是其基波场幅值的5倍多,说明大部分能量集中在二倍频0.62 THz上,这与理论分析吻合较好.

  9. Cosmic censorship inside black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Thorlacius, L

    2006-01-01

    A simple argument is given that a traversable Cauchy horizon inside a black hole is incompatible with unitary black hole evolution. The argument assumes the validity of black hole complementarity and applies to a generic black hole carrying angular momentum and/or charge. In the second part of the paper we review recent work on the semiclassical geometry of two-dimensional charged black holes.

  10. Supermassive black holes, large scale structure and holography

    CERN Document Server

    Mongan, T R

    2013-01-01

    A holographic analysis of large scale structure in the universe estimates the mass of supermassive black holes at the center of large scale structures with matter density varying inversely as the square of the distance from their center. The estimate is consistent with two important test cases involving observations of the supermassive black hole with mass 3.6\\times10^{-6} times the galactic mass in Sagittarius A^{*} near the center of our Milky Way and the 2\\times10^{9} solar mass black hole in the quasar ULAS J112001.48+064124.3 at redshift z=7.085. It is also consistent with upper bounds on central black hole masses in globular clusters M15, M19 and M22 developed using the Jansky Very Large Array in New Mexico.

  11. Black holes and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    Belief in the existence of black holes is the ultimate act of faith for a physicist. First suggested by the English clergyman John Michell in the year 1784, the gravitational pull of a black hole is so strong that nothing - not even light - can escape. Gravity might be the weakest of the fundamental forces but black-hole physics is not for the faint-hearted. Black holes present obvious problems for would-be observers because they cannot, by definition, be seen with conventional telescopes - although before the end of the decade gravitational-wave detectors should be able to study collisions between black holes. Until then astronomers can only infer the existence of a black hole from its gravitational influence on other matter, or from the X-rays emitted by gas and dust as they are dragged into the black hole. However, once this material passes through the 'event horizon' that surrounds the black hole, we will never see it again - not even with X-ray specs. Despite these observational problems, most physicists and astronomers believe that black holes do exist. Small black holes a few kilometres across are thought to form when stars weighing more than about two solar masses collapse under the weight of their own gravity, while supermassive black holes weighing millions of solar masses appear to be present at the centre of most galaxies. Moreover, some brave physicists have proposed ways to make black holes - or at least event horizons - in the laboratory. The basic idea behind these 'artificial black holes' is not to compress a large amount of mass into a small volume, but to reduce the speed of light in a moving medium to less than the speed of the medium and so create an event horizon. The parallels with real black holes are not exact but the experiments could shed new light on a variety of phenomena. The first challenge, however, is to get money for the research. One year on from a high-profile meeting on artificial black holes in London, for

  12. Global Arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Daily, Jeffrey A.; Vishnu, Abhinav; Palmer, Bruce J.

    2015-11-01

    Global Arrays (GA) is a distributed-memory programming model that allows for shared-memory-style programming combined with one-sided communication, to create a set of tools that combine high performance with ease-of-use. GA exposes a relatively straightforward programming abstraction, while supporting fully-distributed data structures, locality of reference, and high-performance communication. GA was originally formulated in the early 1990’s to provide a communication layer for the Northwest Chemistry (NWChem) suite of chemistry modeling codes that was being developed concurrently.

  13. Charged Galileon black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Babichev, Eugeny; Hassaine, Mokhtar

    2015-01-01

    We consider an Abelian gauge field coupled to a particular truncation of Horndeski theory. The Galileon field has translation symmetry and couples non minimally both to the metric and the gauge field. When the gauge-scalar coupling is zero the gauge field reduces to a standard Maxwell field. By taking into account the symmetries of the action, we construct charged black hole solutions. Allowing the scalar field to softly break symmetries of spacetime we construct black holes where the scalar field is regular on the black hole event horizon. Some of these solutions can be interpreted as the equivalent of Reissner-Nordstrom black holes of scalar tensor theories with a non trivial scalar field. A self tuning black hole solution found previously is extended to the presence of dyonic charge without affecting whatsoever the self tuning of a large positive cosmological constant. Finally, for a general shift invariant scalar tensor theory we demonstrate that the scalar field Ansatz and method we employ are mathematic...

  14. Merging Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella, Joan

    2009-05-01

    The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest gravitational wave source for ground-based interferometers such as LIGO, VIRGO, and GEO600, as well as the space-based LISA. Observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors requires that we know the radiation waveforms they emit. And, when the black holes merge in the presence of gas and magnetic fields, various types of electromagnetic signals may also be produced. Since these mergers take place in regions of extreme gravity, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute black hole mergers using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Within the past few years, however, this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of remarkable breakthroughs. This talk will focus on new simulations that are revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics.

  15. Black Holes and Beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Mathur, Samir D

    2012-01-01

    The black hole information paradox forces us into a strange situation: we must find a way to break the semiclassical approximation in a domain where no quantum gravity effects would normally be expected. Traditional quantizations of gravity do not exhibit any such breakdown, and this forces us into a difficult corner: either we must give up quantum mechanics or we must accept the existence of troublesome `remnants'. In string theory, however, the fundamental quanta are extended objects, and it turns out that the bound states of such objects acquire a size that grows with the number of quanta in the bound state. The interior of the black hole gets completely altered to a `fuzzball' structure, and information is able to escape in radiation from the hole. The semiclassical approximation can break at macroscopic scales due to the large entropy of the hole: the measure in the path integral competes with the classical action, instead of giving a subleading correction. Putting this picture of black hole microstates ...

  16. Drilling Technology for Deep Inclined Hole in Chengjiagou-Shagou Silver Multi-metal Mine%洛宁程家沟-沙沟银多金属矿中深斜孔钻探技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时志兴

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence is steep with ore concentrating in Chengjiagou-Shagou silver polymetallic ore deposit.Because drilling designs are mostly branch holes with medium depth and large slope, the borehole quality is the key technology.By the construction case of 1550m inclined hole, the paper introduces the selection of medium-depth inclined hole drilling technology and the concrete measures for ensuring drilling hole curvature.%洛宁程家沟-沙沟银多金属矿区矿床产状陡,矿体集中,钻探设计多为分支孔,钻孔中深、斜度大。如何要在保证效益的情况下确保钻孔质量成为关键技术。通过1550 m斜孔施工实例,介绍了矿区中深斜孔钻探工艺的选择及保证钻孔弯曲度的具体措施。

  17. Microchannel cross load array with dense parallel input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swierkowski, Stefan P.

    2004-04-06

    An architecture or layout for microchannel arrays using T or Cross (+) loading for electrophoresis or other injection and separation chemistry that are performed in microfluidic configurations. This architecture enables a very dense layout of arrays of functionally identical shaped channels and it also solves the problem of simultaneously enabling efficient parallel shapes and biasing of the input wells, waste wells, and bias wells at the input end of the separation columns. One T load architecture uses circular holes with common rows, but not columns, which allows the flow paths for each channel to be identical in shape, using multiple mirror image pieces. Another T load architecture enables the access hole array to be formed on a biaxial, collinear grid suitable for EDM micromachining (square holes), with common rows and columns.

  18. Black hole entropy quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Corichi, A; Fernandez-Borja, E; Corichi, Alejandro; Diaz-Polo, Jacobo; Fernandez-Borja, Enrique

    2006-01-01

    Ever since the pioneer works of Bekenstein and Hawking, black hole entropy has been known to have a quantum origin. Furthermore, it has long been argued by Bekenstein that entropy should be quantized in discrete (equidistant) steps given its identification with horizon area in (semi-)classical general relativity and the properties of area as an adiabatic invariant. This lead to the suggestion that black hole area should also be quantized in equidistant steps to account for the discrete black hole entropy. Here we shall show that loop quantum gravity, in which area is not quantized in equidistant steps can nevertheless be consistent with Bekenstein's equidistant entropy proposal in a subtle way. For that we perform a detailed analysis of the number of microstates compatible with a given area and show that an observed oscillatory behavior in the entropy-area relation, when properly interpreted yields an entropy that has discrete, equidistant values that are consistent with the Bekenstein framework.

  19. Black hole gravitohydromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Punsly, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Black hole gravitohydromagnetics (GHM) is developed from the rudiments to the frontiers of research in this book. GHM describes plasma interactions that combine the effects of gravity and a strong magnetic field, in the vicinity (ergosphere) of a rapidly rotating black hole. This topic was created in response to the astrophysical quest to understand the central engines of radio loud extragalactic radio sources. The theory describes a "torsional tug of war" between rotating ergospheric plasma and the distant asymptotic plasma that extracts the rotational inertia of the black hole. The recoil from the struggle between electromagnetic and gravitational forces near the event horizon is manifested as a powerful pair of magnetized particle beams (jets) that are ejected at nearly the speed of light. These bipolar jets feed large-scale magnetized plasmoids on scales as large as millions of light years (the radio lobes of extragalactic radio sources). This interaction can initiate jets that transport energy fluxes exc...

  20. The closest black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Fender, Rob; Heywood, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Starting from the assumption that there is a large population (> 10^8) of isolated, stellar-mass black holes (IBH) distributed throughout our galaxy, we consider the detectable signatures of accretion from the interstellar medium (ISM) that may be associated with such a population. We simulate the nearby (radius 250 pc) part of this population, corresponding to the closest ~35 000 black holes, using current best estimates of the mass distribution of stellar mass black holes combined with two models for the velocity distribution of stellar-mass IBH which bracket likely possibilities. We distribute this population of objects appropriately within the different phases of the ISM and calculate the Bondi-Hoyle accretion rate, modified by a further dimensionless efficiency parameter \\lambda. Assuming a simple prescription for radiatively inefficient accretion at low Eddington ratios, we calculate the X-ray luminosity of these objects, and similarly estimate the radio luminosity from relations found empirically for b...

  1. Turbulent black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Zimmerman, Aaron; Lehner, Luis

    2015-02-27

    We demonstrate that rapidly spinning black holes can display a new type of nonlinear parametric instability-which is triggered above a certain perturbation amplitude threshold-akin to the onset of turbulence, with possibly observable consequences. This instability transfers from higher temporal and azimuthal spatial frequencies to lower frequencies-a phenomenon reminiscent of the inverse cascade displayed by (2+1)-dimensional fluids. Our finding provides evidence for the onset of transitory turbulence in astrophysical black holes and predicts observable signatures in black hole binaries with high spins. Furthermore, it gives a gravitational description of this behavior which, through the fluid-gravity duality, can potentially shed new light on the remarkable phenomena of turbulence in fluids.

  2. Merging Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella, Joan

    2012-01-01

    The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest source of gravitational waves for both ground-based detectors such as LIGO and VIRGO, as well as future. space-based detectors. Since the merger takes place in the regime of strong dynamical gravity, computing the resulting gravitational waveforms requires solving the full Einstein equations of general relativity on a computer. For many years, numerical codes designed to simulate black hole mergers were plagued by a host of instabilities. However, recent breakthroughs have conquered these instabilities and opened up this field dramatically. This talk will focus on.the resulting 'gold rush' of new results that is revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics

  3. Janus black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Dongsu; Gutperle, Michael; Janik, Romuald A.

    2011-10-01

    In this paper Janus black holes in A dS 3 are considered. These are static solutions of an Einstein-scalar system with broken translation symmetry along the horizon. These solutions are dual to interface conformal field theories at finite temperature. An approximate solution is first constructed using perturbation theory around a planar BTZ blackhole. Numerical and exact solutions valid for all sets of parameters are then found and compared. Using the exact solution the thermodynamics of the system is analyzed. The entropy associated with the Janus black hole is calculated and it is found that the entropy of the black Janus is the sum of the undeformed black hole entropy and the entanglement entropy associated with the defect.

  4. Black Hole Induced Ejections

    CERN Document Server

    Pelletier, G

    2004-01-01

    Black Holes generate a particular kind of environments dominated by an accretion flow which concentrates a magnetic field. The interplay of gravity and magnetism creates this paradoxical situation where relativistic ejection is allowed and consequently high energy phenomena take place. Therefore Black Holes, which are very likely at the origin of powerfull astrophysical phenomena such as AGNs, micro- quasars and GRBs where relativistic ejections are observed, are at the heart of high energy astrophysics. The combination of General Relativity and Magneto-HydroDynamics (MHD) makes theory difficult; however great pionneers opened beautiful tracks in the seventies and left important problems to be solved for the next decades. These lectures will present the status of these issues. They have a tutorial aspect together with critical review aspect and contain also some new issues. Most of these lectures has been presented at the "School on Black Hole in the Universe" at Cargese, in May 2003.

  5. Black hole accretion discs

    CERN Document Server

    Lasota, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This is an introduction to models of accretion discs around black holes. After a presentation of the non-relativistic equations describing the structure and evolution of geometrically thin accretion discs we discuss their steady-state solutions and compare them to observation. Next we describe in detail the thermal-viscous disc instability model and its application to dwarf novae for which it was designed and its X-ray irradiated-disc version which explains the soft X--ray transients, i.e. outbursting black-hole low-mass X-ray binaries. We then turn to the role of advection in accretion flow onto black holes illustrating its action and importance with a toy model describing both ADAFs and slim discs. We conclude with a presentation of the general-relativistic formalism describing accretion discs in the Kerr space-time.

  6. Growth of Primordial Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Tomohiro

    Primordial black holes have important observational implications through Hawking evaporation and gravitational radiation as well as being a candidate for cold dark matter. Those black holes are assumed to have formed in the early universe typically with the mass scale contained within the Hubble horizon at the formation epoch and subsequently accreted mass surrounding them. Numerical relativity simulation shows that primordial black holes of different masses do not accrete much, which contrasts with a simplistic Newtonian argument. We see that primordial black holes larger than the 'super-horizon' primordial black holes have decreasing energy and worm-hole like struture, suggesting the formation through quamtum processes.

  7. Over spinning a black hole?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouhmadi-Lopez, Mariam; Cardoso, Vitor; Nerozzi, Andrea; Rocha, Jorge V, E-mail: mariam.bouhmadi@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: vitor.cardoso@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: andrea.nerozzi@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: jorge.v.rocha@ist.utl.pt [CENTRA, Department de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-09-22

    A possible process to destroy a black hole consists on throwing point particles with sufficiently large angular momentum into the black hole. In the case of Kerr black holes, it was shown by Wald that particles with dangerously large angular momentum are simply not captured by the hole, and thus the event horizon is not destroyed. Here we reconsider this gedanken experiment for black holes in higher dimensions. We show that this particular way of destroying a black hole does not succeed and that Cosmic Censorship is preserved.

  8. Superfluid Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Hennigar, Robie A; Tjoa, Erickson

    2016-01-01

    We present what we believe is the first example of a "$\\lambda$-line" phase transition in black hole thermodynamics. This is a line of (continuous) second order phase transitions which in the case of liquid $^4$He marks the onset of superfluidity. The phase transition occurs for a class of asymptotically AdS hairy black holes in Lovelock gravity where a real scalar field is conformally coupled to gravity. We discuss the origin of this phase transition and outline the circumstances under which it (or generalizations of it) could occur.

  9. Correlated Multiphoton Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Afek, Itai; Silberberg, Yaron

    2010-01-01

    We generate bipartite states of light which exhibit an absence of multiphoton coincidence events between two modes amid a constant background flux. These `correlated photon holes' are produced by mixing a coherent state and relatively weak spontaneous parametric down-conversion using a balanced beamsplitter. Correlated holes with arbitrarily high photon numbers may be obtained by adjusting the relative phase and amplitude of the inputs. We measure states of up to five photons and verify their nonclassicality. The scheme provides a route for observation of high-photon-number nonclassical correlations without requiring intense quantum resources.

  10. Are Black Holes Springy?

    OpenAIRE

    Good, Michael R. R.; Ong, Yen Chin

    2014-01-01

    A $(3+1)$-dimensional asymptotically flat Kerr black hole angular speed $\\Omega_+$ can be used to define an effective spring constant, $k=m\\Omega_+^2$. Its maximum value is the Schwarzschild surface gravity, $k = \\kappa $, which rapidly weakens as the black hole spins down and the temperature increases. The Hawking temperature is expressed in terms of the spring constant: $2\\pi T = \\kappa - k$. Hooke's law, in the extremal limit, provides the force $F = 1/4$, which is consistent with the conj...

  11. Are Black Holes Springy?

    CERN Document Server

    Good, Michael R R

    2014-01-01

    A $(3+1)$-dimensional asymptotically flat Kerr black hole angular speed $\\Omega_+$ can be used to define an effective spring constant, $k=m\\Omega_+^2$. Its maximum value is the Schwarzschild surface gravity, $k = \\kappa $, which rapidly weakens as the black hole spins down and the temperature increases. The Hawking temperature is expressed in terms of the spring constant: $2\\pi T = \\kappa - k$. Hooke's law, in the extremal limit, provides the force $F = 1/4$, which is consistent with the conjecture of maximum force in general relativity.

  12. Characterizing Black Hole Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John; Boggs, William Darian; Kelly, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Binary black hole mergers are a promising source of gravitational waves for interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Recent advances in numerical relativity have revealed the predictions of General Relativity for the strong burst of radiation generated in the final moments of binary coalescence. We explore features in the merger radiation which characterize the final moments of merger and ringdown. Interpreting the waveforms in terms of an rotating implicit radiation source allows a unified phenomenological description of the system from inspiral through ringdown. Common features in the waveforms allow quantitative description of the merger signal which may provide insights for observations large-mass black hole binaries.

  13. Superfluid Black Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennigar, Robie A; Mann, Robert B; Tjoa, Erickson

    2017-01-13

    We present what we believe is the first example of a "λ-line" phase transition in black hole thermodynamics. This is a line of (continuous) second order phase transitions which in the case of liquid ^{4}He marks the onset of superfluidity. The phase transition occurs for a class of asymptotically anti-de Sitter hairy black holes in Lovelock gravity where a real scalar field is conformally coupled to gravity. We discuss the origin of this phase transition and outline the circumstances under which it (or generalizations of it) could occur.

  14. Horndeski black hole geodesics

    CERN Document Server

    Tretyakova, D A

    2016-01-01

    We examine geodesics for the scalar-tensor black holes in the Horndeski-Galileon framework. Our analysis shows that first kind relativistic orbits may not be present within some model parameters range. This is a highly pathological behavior contradicting to the black hole accretion and Solar System observations. We also present a new (although very similar to those previously known) solution, which contains the orbits we expect from a compact object, admits regular scalar field at the horizon and and can fit into the known stability criteria.

  15. Modeling black hole evaporation

    CERN Document Server

    Fabbri, Alessandro

    2005-01-01

    The scope of this book is two-fold: the first part gives a fully detailed and pedagogical presentation of the Hawking effect and its physical implications, and the second discusses the backreaction problem, especially in connection with exactly solvable semiclassical models that describe analytically the black hole evaporation process. The book aims to establish a link between the general relativistic viewpoint on black hole evaporation and the new CFT-type approaches to the subject. The detailed discussion on backreaction effects is also extremely valuable.

  16. Acoustic black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Visser, M

    1999-01-01

    Acoustic propagation in a moving fluid provides a conceptually clean and powerful analogy for understanding black hole physics. As a teaching tool, the analogy is useful for introducing students to both General Relativity and fluid mechanics. As a research tool, the analogy helps clarify what aspects of the physics are kinematics and what aspects are dynamics. In particular, Hawking radiation is a purely kinematical effect, whereas black hole entropy is intrinsically dynamical. Finally, I discuss the fact that with present technology acoustic Hawking radiation is almost experimentally testable.

  17. A new class of transition metal pincer ligand: tantalum complexes that feature a [CCC] X3-donor array derived from a terphenyl ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, Aaron; Parkin, Gerard

    2012-02-01

    A new class of [CCC] X(3)-donor pincer ligand for transition metals has been constructed via cyclometalation of a 2,6-di-p-tolylphenyl ([Ar(Tol(2))]) derivative. Specifically, addition of PMe(3) to [Ar(Tol(2))]TaMe(3)Cl induces elimination of methane and formation of the pincer complex, [κ(3)-Ar(Tol'(2))]Ta(PMe(3))(2)MeCl (Tol' = C(6)H(3)Me), which may also be obtained by treatment of Ta(PMe(3))(2)Me(3)Cl(2) with [Ar(Tol(2))]Li. Solutions of [κ(3)-Ar(Tol'(2))]Ta(PMe(3))(2)MeCl undergo ligand redistribution with the formation of [κ(3)-Ar(Tol'(2))]Ta(PMe(3))(2)Me(2)and [κ(3)-Ar(Tol'(2))]Ta(PMe(3))(2)Cl(2), which may also be synthesized by the reactions of [κ(3)-Ar(Tol'(2))]Ta(PMe(3))(2)MeCl with MeMgBr and ZnCl(2), respectively. Reduction of [κ(3)-Ar(Tol'(2))]Ta(PMe(3))(2)Cl(2) with KC(8) in benzene gives the benzene complex [κ(3)-Ar(Tol'(2))]Ta(PMe(3))(2)(η(6)-C(6)H(6)) that is better described as a 1,4-cyclohexadienediyl derivative. Deuterium labeling employing Ta(PMe(3))(2)(CD(3))(3)Cl(2) demonstrates that the pincer ligand is created by a pair of Ar-H/Ta-Me sigma-bond metathesis transformations, rather than by a mechanism that involves α-H abstraction by a tantalum methyl ligand.

  18. Electron hole tracking PIC simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuteng; Hutchinson, Ian

    2016-10-01

    An electron hole is a coherent BGK mode solitary wave. Electron holes are observed to travel at high velocities relative to bulk plasmas. The kinematics of a 1-D electron hole is studied using a novel Particle-In-Cell simulation code with fully kinetic ions. A hole tracking technique enables us to follow the trajectory of a fast-moving solitary hole and study quantitatively hole acceleration and coupling to ions. The electron hole signal is detected and the simulation domain moves by a carefully designed feedback control law to follow its propagation. This approach has the advantage that the length of the simulation domain can be significantly reduced to several times the hole width, which makes high resolution simulations tractable. We observe a transient at the initial stage of hole formation when the hole accelerates to several times the cold-ion sound speed. Artificially imposing slow ion speed changes on a fully formed hole causes its velocity to change even when the ion stream speed in the hole frame greatly exceeds the ion thermal speed, so there are no reflected ions. The behavior that we observe in numerical simulations agrees very well with our analytic theory of hole momentum conservation and energization effects we call ``jetting''. The work was partially supported by the NSF/DOE Basic Plasma Science Partnership under Grant DE-SC0010491. Computer simulations were carried out on the MIT PSFC parallel AMD Opteron/Infiniband cluster Loki.

  19. Wind Load Reduction in Hollow Panel Arrayed Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalina Markousi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reducing the wind loading of photovoltaic structures is crucial for their structural stability. In this study, two solar panel arrayed sets were numerically tested for load reduction purposes. All panel surface areas of the arrayed set are exposed to the wind similarly. The first set was comprised of conventional panels. The second one was fitted with square holes located right at the gravity center of each panel. Wind flow analysis on standalone arrayed set of panels at fixed inclination was carried out to calculate the wind loads at various flow velocities and directions. The panels which included holes reduced the velocity in the downwind flow region and extended the low velocity flow region when compared to the nonhole panels. The loading reduction, in the arrayed set of panels with holes ranged from 0.8% to 12.53%. The maximum load reduction occurred at 6.0 m/s upwind velocity and 120.0° approach angle. At 30.00 approach angle, wind load increased but marginally. Current research work findings suggest that the panel holes greatly affect the flow pattern and subsequently the wind load reduction. The computational analysis indicates that it is possible to considerably reduce the wind loading using panels with holes.

  20. Rotating regular black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Bambi, Cosimo

    2013-01-01

    The formation of spacetime singularities is a quite common phenomenon in General Relativity and it is regulated by specific theorems. It is widely believed that spacetime singularities do not exist in Nature, but that they represent a limitation of the classical theory. While we do not yet have any solid theory of quantum gravity, toy models of black hole solutions without singularities have been proposed. So far, there are only non-rotating regular black holes in the literature. These metrics can be hardly tested by astrophysical observations, as the black hole spin plays a fundamental role in any astrophysical process. In this letter, we apply the Newman-Janis algorithm to the Hayward and to the Bardeen black hole metrics. In both cases, we obtain a family of rotating solutions. Every solution corresponds to a different matter configuration. Each family has one solution with special properties, which can be written in Kerr-like form in Boyer-Lindquist coordinates. These special solutions are of Petrov type ...

  1. Rotating black hole hair

    CERN Document Server

    Gregory, Ruth; Wills, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    A Kerr black hole sporting cosmic string hair is studied in the context of the abelian Higgs model vortex. It is shown that a such a system displays much richer phenomenology than its static Schwarzschild or Reissner--Nordstrom cousins, for example, the rotation generates a near horizon `electric' field. In the case of an extremal rotating black hole, two phases of the Higgs hair are possible: Large black holes exhibit standard hair, with the vortex piercing the event horizon. Small black holes on the other hand, exhibit a flux-expelled solution, with the gauge and scalar field remaining identically in their false vacuum state on the event horizon. This solution however is extremely sensitive to confirm numerically, and we conjecture that it is unstable due to a supperradiant mechanism similar to the Kerr-adS instability. Finally, we compute the gravitational back reaction of the vortex, which turns out to be far more nuanced than a simple conical deficit. While the string produces a conical effect, it is con...

  2. Moulting Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bena, Iosif; Chowdhury, Borun D.; de Boer, Jan; El-Showk, Sheer; Shigemori, Masaki

    2012-03-01

    We find a family of novel supersymmetric phases of the D1-D5 CFT, which in certain ranges of charges have more entropy than all known ensembles. We also find bulk BPS configurations that exist in the same range of parameters as these phases, and have more entropy than a BMPV black hole; they can be thought of as coming from a BMPV black hole shedding a "hair" condensate outside of the horizon. The entropy of the bulk configurations is smaller than that of the CFT phases, which indicates that some of the CFT states are lifted at strong coupling. Neither the bulk nor the boundary phases are captured by the elliptic genus, which makes the coincidence of the phase boundaries particularly remarkable. Our configurations are supersymmetric, have non-Cardy-like entropy, and are the first instance of a black hole entropy enigma with a controlled CFT dual. Furthermore, contrary to common lore, these objects exist in a region of parameter space (between the "cosmic censorship bound" and the "unitarity bound") where no black holes were thought to exist.

  3. Twistors and Black Holes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neitzke, A.; Pioline, B.; Vandoren, S.

    2007-01-01

    Motivated by black hole physics in N = 2,D = 4 supergravity, we study the geometry of quaternionic-K¨ahler manifolds Mobtained by the c-map construction from projective special Kähler manifolds Ms. Improving on earlier treatments, we compute the Käahler potentials on the twistor space Z and Swann sp

  4. Rotating regular black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bambi, Cosimo, E-mail: bambi@fudan.edu.cn; Modesto, Leonardo, E-mail: lmodesto@fudan.edu.cn

    2013-04-25

    The formation of spacetime singularities is a quite common phenomenon in General Relativity and it is regulated by specific theorems. It is widely believed that spacetime singularities do not exist in Nature, but that they represent a limitation of the classical theory. While we do not yet have any solid theory of quantum gravity, toy models of black hole solutions without singularities have been proposed. So far, there are only non-rotating regular black holes in the literature. These metrics can be hardly tested by astrophysical observations, as the black hole spin plays a fundamental role in any astrophysical process. In this Letter, we apply the Newman–Janis algorithm to the Hayward and to the Bardeen black hole metrics. In both cases, we obtain a family of rotating solutions. Every solution corresponds to a different matter configuration. Each family has one solution with special properties, which can be written in Kerr-like form in Boyer–Lindquist coordinates. These special solutions are of Petrov type D, they are singularity free, but they violate the weak energy condition for a non-vanishing spin and their curvature invariants have different values at r=0 depending on the way one approaches the origin. We propose a natural prescription to have rotating solutions with a minimal violation of the weak energy condition and without the questionable property of the curvature invariants at the origin.

  5. When Black Holes Collide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John

    2010-01-01

    Among the fascinating phenomena predicted by General Relativity, Einstein's theory of gravity, black holes and gravitational waves, are particularly important in astronomy. Though once viewed as a mathematical oddity, black holes are now recognized as the central engines of many of astronomy's most energetic cataclysms. Gravitational waves, though weakly interacting with ordinary matter, may be observed with new gravitational wave telescopes, opening a new window to the universe. These observations promise a direct view of the strong gravitational dynamics involving dense, often dark objects, such as black holes. The most powerful of these events may be merger of two colliding black holes. Though dark, these mergers may briefly release more energy that all the stars in the visible universe, in gravitational waves. General relativity makes precise predictions for the gravitational-wave signatures of these events, predictions which we can now calculate with the aid of supercomputer simulations. These results provide a foundation for interpreting expect observations in the emerging field of gravitational wave astronomy.

  6. Nonsingular black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamseddine, Ali H. [American University of Beirut, Physics Department, Beirut (Lebanon); I.H.E.S., Bures-sur-Yvette (France); Mukhanov, Viatcheslav [Niels Bohr Institute, Niels Bohr International Academy, Copenhagen (Denmark); Ludwig-Maximilians University, Theoretical Physics, Munich (Germany); MPI for Physics, Munich (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    We consider the Schwarzschild black hole and show how, in a theory with limiting curvature, the physical singularity ''inside it'' is removed. The resulting spacetime is geodesically complete. The internal structure of this nonsingular black hole is analogous to Russian nesting dolls. Namely, after falling into the black hole of radius r{sub g}, an observer, instead of being destroyed at the singularity, gets for a short time into the region with limiting curvature. After that he re-emerges in the near horizon region of a spacetime described by the Schwarzschild metric of a gravitational radius proportional to r{sub g}{sup 1/3}. In the next cycle, after passing the limiting curvature, the observer finds himself within a black hole of even smaller radius proportional to r{sub g}{sup 1/9}, and so on. Finally after a few cycles he will end up in the spacetime where he remains forever at limiting curvature. (orig.)

  7. "Holes": Folklore Redux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascia, Elizabeth G.

    2001-01-01

    Demonstrates that a careful reading of the book for young adults, "Holes" by Louis Sachar, reveals how this contemporary story is grounded in folklore, and that it is this debt to folk literature that allows readers to accept an improbable plot. Shows how the story weaves together elements from traditional folk literature and stretches them across…

  8. Laser bottom hole assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Lance D; Norton, Ryan J; McKay, Ryan P; Mesnard, David R; Fraze, Jason D; Zediker, Mark S; Faircloth, Brian O

    2014-01-14

    There is provided for laser bottom hole assembly for providing a high power laser beam having greater than 5 kW of power for a laser mechanical drilling process to advance a borehole. This assembly utilizes a reverse Moineau motor type power section and provides a self-regulating system that addresses fluid flows relating to motive force, cooling and removal of cuttings.

  9. UV-enhanced CO sensing using Ga2O3-based nanorod arrays at elevated temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui-Jan; Gao, Haiyong; Gao, Pu-Xian

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring and control of the gaseous combustion process are critically important in advanced energy systems such as power plants, gas turbines, and automotive engines. However, very limited gas sensing solutions are available in the market for such applications due to the inherent high temperature of the combustion gaseous atmosphere. In this study, we fabricated and demonstrated high-performance metal oxide based nanorod array sensors assisted with ultra-violet (UV) illumination for in situ and real-time high-temperature gas detection. Without UV-illumination, it was found that surface decoration of either 5 nm LSFO or 1 nm Pt nanoparticles can enhance the sensitivity over CO at 500 °C by an order of magnitude. Under the 254 nm UV illumination, the CO gas-sensing performance of Ga2O3-based nanorod array sensors was further enhanced with the sensitivity boosted by 125% and the response time reduced by 30% for the La0.8Sr0.2FeO3(LSFO)-decorated sample. The UV-enhanced detection of CO might be due to the increased population of photo-induced electron-hole pairs, whereas for LSFO-decorated nanorod array sensor under UV illumination, the enhancement is through a combination of the sensitizing effect and photocurrent effect.

  10. Quantum aspects of black holes

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Beginning with an overview of the theory of black holes by the editor, this book presents a collection of ten chapters by leading physicists dealing with the variety of quantum mechanical and quantum gravitational effects pertinent to black holes. The contributions address topics such as Hawking radiation, the thermodynamics of black holes, the information paradox and firewalls, Monsters, primordial black holes, self-gravitating Bose-Einstein condensates, the formation of small black holes in high energetic collisions of particles, minimal length effects in black holes and small black holes at the Large Hadron Collider. Viewed as a whole the collection provides stimulating reading for researchers and graduate students seeking a summary of the quantum features of black holes.

  11. Formation of Supermassive Black Hole Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Muhammad A.; Ferrara, Andrea

    2016-10-01

    The detection of quasars at z > 6 unveils the presence of supermassive black holes of a few billion solar masses. The rapid formation process of these extreme objects remains a fascinating and open issue. Such discovery implies that seed black holes must have formed early on, and grown via either rapid accretion or BH/galaxy mergers. In this theoretical review, we discuss in detail various BH seed formation mechanisms and the physical processes at play during their assembly. We discuss the three most popular BH formation scenarios, involving the (i) core-collapse of massive stars, (ii) dynamical evolution of dense nuclear star clusters, (iii) collapse of a protogalactic metal free gas cloud. This article aims at giving a broad introduction and an overview of the most advanced research in the field.

  12. Formation of supermassive black hole seeds

    CERN Document Server

    Latif, Muhammad A

    2016-01-01

    The detection of quasars at $z>6$ unveils the presence of supermassive black holes (BHs) of a few billion solar masses. The rapid formation process of these extreme objects remains a fascinating and open issue. Such discovery implies that seed black holes must have formed early on, and grown via either rapid accretion or BH/galaxy mergers. In this theoretical review, we discuss in detail various BH seed formation mechanisms and the physical processes at play during their assembly. We discuss the three most popular BH formation scenarios, involving the (i) core-collapse of massive stars, (ii) dynamical evolution of dense nuclear star clusters, (iii) collapse of a protogalactic metal free gas cloud. This article aims at giving a broad introduction and an overview of the most advanced research in the field.

  13. Towards Noncommutative Quantum Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez-Dominguez, J C; Ramírez, C; Sabido, M

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we study noncommutative black holes. We use a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Trough the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular we calculate the Hawking's temperature and entropy for the Noncommutative Schwarzschild black hole.

  14. Black Hole: The Interior Spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Ong, Yen Chin

    2016-01-01

    The information loss paradox is often discussed from the perspective of the observers who stay outside of a black hole. However, the interior spacetime of a black hole can be rather nontrivial. We discuss the open problems regarding the volume of a black hole, and whether it plays any role in information storage. We also emphasize the importance of resolving the black hole singularity, if one were to resolve the information loss paradox.

  15. Surface modes at metallic an photonic crystal interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Weitao [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2009-01-01

    A surface mode is an electromagnetic field distribution bounded at a surface. It decays exponentially with the distance from the surface on both sides of the surface and propagates at the surface. The surface mode exists at a metal-dielectric interface as surface plasmon (1) or at a photonic crystal surface terminated properly (34; 35; 36). Besides its prominent near-filed properties, it can connect structures at its propagation surface and results in far-field effects. Extraordinary transmission (EOT) and beaming are two examples and they are the subjects I am studying in this thesis. EOT means the transmission through holes in an opaque screen can be much larger than the geometrical optics limitation. Based on our everyday experience about shadows, the transmission equals the filling ratio of the holes in geometrical optics. The conventional diffraction theory also proved that the transmission through a subwavelength circular hole in an infinitely thin perfect electric conductor (PEC) film converges to zero when the hole's dimension is much smaller than the wavelength (40). Recently it is discovered that the transmission can be much larger than the the filling ratio of the holes at some special wavelengths (41). This cannot be explained by conventional theories, so it is called extraordinary transmission. It is generally believed that surface plasmons play an important role (43; 44) in the EOT through a periodic subwavelength hole array in a metallic film. The common theories in literatures are based on these arguments. The surface plasmons cannot be excited by incident plane waves directly because of momentum mismatch. The periodicity of the hole arrays will provide addition momentum. When the momentum-matching condition of surface plasmons is satisfied, the surface plasmons will be excited. Then these surface plasmons will collect the energy along the input surface and carry them to the holes. So the transmission can be bigger than the filling ratio. Based

  16. Extraordinary mid-infrared transmission of subwavelength holes in gold films

    KAUST Repository

    Yue, Weisheng

    2014-04-01

    Gold (Au) nanoholes are fabricated with electron-beam lithography and used for the investigation of extraordinary transmission in mid-infrared regime. Transmission properties of the nanoholes are studied as the dependence on hole-size. Transmittance spectra are characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and enhanced transmittance through the subwavelength holes is observed. The transmission spectra exhibit well-defined maximum and minimum of which the position are determined by the lattice of the hole array. The hole-size primarily influence the transmission intensity and bandwidth of the resonance peak. With an increase of hole-size, while keep lattice constant fixed, the intensity of the resonance peak and the bandwidth increases, which are due to the localized surface plasmons. Numerical simulation for the transmission through the subwavelength holes is performed and the simulated results agree with the experimental observations. Copyright © 2014 American Scientific Publishers.

  17. Simulations of coalescing black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Janiuk, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    We describe the methods and results of numerical simulations of coalescing black holes. The simulation in dynamical spacetime covers the inspiral, merger, and ringdown phases. We analyze the emission of gravitational waves and properties of a black hole being the merger product. We discuss the results in the context of astrophysical environment of black holes that exist in the Universe.

  18. "Exotic" black holes with torsion

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    In the context of three-dimensional gravity with torsion, the concepts of standard and "exotic" Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black holes are generalized by going over to black holes with torsion. This approach provides a unified insight into thermodynamics of black holes, with or without torsion.

  19. Advanced hole patterning technology using soft spacer materials (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong Keun; Hustad, Phillip D.; Aqad, Emad; Valeri, David; Wagner, Mike D.; Li, Mingqi

    2017-03-01

    A continuing goal in integrated circuit industry is to increase density of features within patterned masks. One pathway being used by the device manufacturers for patterning beyond the 80nm pitch limitation of 193 immersion lithography is the self-aligned spacer double patterning (SADP). Two orthogonal line space patterns with subsequent SADP can be used for contact holes multiplication. However, a combination of two immersion exposures, two spacer deposition processes, and two etch processes to reach the desired dimensions makes this process expensive and complicated. One alternative technique for contact hole multiplication is the use of an array of pillar patterns. Pillars, imaged with 193 immersion photolithography, can be uniformly deposited with spacer materials until a hole is formed in the center of 4 pillars. Selective removal of the pillar core gives a reversal of phases, a contact hole where there was once a pillar. However, the highly conformal nature of conventional spacer materials causes a problem with this application. The new holes, formed between 4 pillars, by this method have a tendency to be imperfect and not circular. To improve the contact hole circularity, this paper presents the use of both conventional spacer material and soft spacer materials. Application of soft spacer materials can be achieved by an existing coating track without additional cost burden to the device manufacturers.

  20. Through nanohole formation in thin metallic film by single nanosecond laser pulses using optical dielectric apertureless probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulchin, Y N; Vitrik, O B; Kuchmizhak, A A; Nepomnyashchii, A V; Savchuk, A G; Ionin, A A; Kudryashov, S I; Makarov, S V

    2013-05-01

    Separate nanoholes with the minimum size down to 35 nm (~λ/15) and nanohole arrays with the hole size about 100 nm (~λ/5) were fabricated in a 50 nm optically "thick" Au/Pd film, using single 532 nm pump nanosecond laser pulses focused to diffraction-limited spots by a specially designed apertureless dielectric fiber probe. Nanohole fabrication in the metallic film was found to result from lateral heat diffusion and center-symmetrical lateral expulsion of the melt by its vapor recoil pressure. The optimized apertureless dielectric microprobe was demonstrated to enable laser fabrication of deep through nanoholes.

  1. A low cost azomethine-based hole transporting material for perovskite photovoltaics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrus, M.L.; Bein, T.; Dingemans, T.J.; Docampo, P.

    2015-01-01

    Most hole transporting materials (HTMs) prepared for perovskite solar cell applications are synthesized via cross-coupling reactions that require expensive transition metal catalysts, inert reaction conditions and extensive product purification; making large-scale production cost-prohibitive. Here,

  2. A low cost azomethine-based hole transporting material for perovskite photovoltaics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrus, M.L.; Bein, T.; Dingemans, T.J.; Docampo, P.

    2015-01-01

    Most hole transporting materials (HTMs) prepared for perovskite solar cell applications are synthesized via cross-coupling reactions that require expensive transition metal catalysts, inert reaction conditions and extensive product purification; making large-scale production cost-prohibitive. Here,

  3. BPASS predictions for Binary Black-Hole Mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Eldridge, J J

    2016-01-01

    Using the Binary Population and Spectral Synthesis code BPASS, we have calculated the rates, timescales and mass distributions for binary black hole mergers as a function of metallicity. We consider these in the context of the recently reported 1st LIGO event detection. We find that the event has a low probability of arising from a stellar population with initial metallicity mass fraction above $Z=0.010$. Binary black hole merger events with the reported masses are most likely in populations between Z=0.0001 and 0.002 (Z < 0.1Z_sun). The masses inferred for the black holes in the binary progenitor of GW 150914 are close to the predicted peak in the mass distribution for such events. We discuss the implications of our analysis for the electromagnetic follow-up of future LIGO event detections.

  4. Electrical Conductivity in Transition Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Christopher; Vickneson, Kishanda

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this "Science Note" is to describe how to test the electron-sea model to determine whether it accurately predicts relative electrical conductivity for first-row transition metals. In the electron-sea model, a metal crystal is viewed as a three-dimensional array of metal cations immersed in a sea of delocalised valence…

  5. Ordered Au Nanodisk and Nanohole Arrays: Fabrication and Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Yue Bing

    2010-01-01

    We have utilized nanosphere lithography (NSL) to fabricate ordered Au nanodisk and nanohole arrays on substrates and have studied the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of the arrays. Through these investigations, we demonstrate that the angle- dependent behavior of the LSPR in the Au nanodisk arrays enables real-time observation of exciton-plasmon couplings. In addition, we show that the NSL-fabricated Au nanohole arrays can be applied as templates for patterning micro-/nanoparticles under capillary force. The unique structural and plasmonic characteristics of the Au nanodisk and nano- hole arrays, as well as the low-cost and high-throughput NSL-based nanofabrication technique, render these arrays excellent platforms for numerous engineering applications. © 2010 by ASME.

  6. Optical black hole lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Faccio, Daniele; Lamperti, Marco; Leonhardt, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    Using numerical simulations we show how to realise an optical black hole laser, i.e. an amplifier formed by travelling refractive index perturbations arranged so as to trap light between a white and a black hole horizon. The simulations highlight the main features of these lasers: the growth inside the cavity of positive and negative frequency modes accompanied by a weaker emission of modes that occurs in periodic bursts corresponding to the cavity round trips of the trapped modes. We then highlight a new regime in which the trapped mode spectra broaden until the zero-frequency points on the dispersion curve are reached. Amplification at the horizon is highest for zero-frequencies, therefore leading to a strong modification of the structure of the trapped light. For sufficiently long propagation times, lasing ensues only at the zero-frequency modes.

  7. Presentism meets black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Romero, Gustavo E

    2014-01-01

    Presentism is, roughly, the metaphysical doctrine that maintains that whatever exists, exists in the present. The compatibility of presentism with the theories of special and general relativity was much debated in recent years. It has been argued that at least some versions of presentism are consistent with time-orientable models of general relativity. In this paper we confront the thesis of presentism with relativistic physics, in the strong gravitational limit where black holes are formed. We conclude that the presentist position is at odds with the existence of black holes and other compact objects in the universe. A revision of the thesis is necessary, if it is intended to be consistent with the current scientific view of the universe.

  8. Photon Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández, X; Mendoza, S; Sussman, R A

    2005-01-01

    We study the relationship between the energy and entropy of a black body photon gas, within an idealised spherical adiabatic enclosure of radius R, as this is compressed into a self-gravitating regime. We show that this regime approximately coincides with the black hole regime for the system, i.e., R ~ R_{s}, where R_{s} denotes the Schwarzschild radius of the system. The entropy of this system is always below the suggested Holographic bound, even as R \\to R_{s}. A plausible quantum configuration for the photon gas at R \\to R_{s} is suggested, which satisfies all energy, entropy and temperature black hole conditions. Finally we examine our results from the point of view of recent Loop Quantum Gravity ideas.

  9. Philosophical Issues of Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Romero, Gustavo E

    2014-01-01

    Black holes are extremely relativistic objects. Physical processes around them occur in a regime where the gravitational field is extremely intense. Under such conditions, our representations of space, time, gravity, and thermodynamics are pushed to their limits. In such a situation philosophical issues naturally arise. In this chapter I review some philosophical questions related to black holes. In particular, the relevance of black holes for the metaphysical dispute between presentists and eternalists, the origin of the second law of thermodynamics and its relation to black holes, the problem of information, black holes and hypercomputing, the nature of determinisim, and the breakdown of predictability in black hole space-times. I maintain that black hole physics can be used to illuminate some important problems in the border between science and philosophy, either epistemology and ontology.

  10. Color filters based on enhanced optical transmission of subwavelength-structured metallic film for multicolor organic light-emitting diode display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao; Zhan, Li; Xia, Yuxing

    2008-08-10

    Using metallic film perforated with a subwavelength periodic structure, a novel concept of a color filter for multicolor organic light-emitting diode (OLED) display is proposed. Based on the phase-matching condition for extraordinary optical transmission, three primary color emissions can be obtained by optimizing the structure's periodicity. Two periodic structures, an array of one-dimensional periodic slits and a two-dimensional periodic hole array, are studied using coupled mode theory. Also, the feasibility of applying these structures as color filters is analyzed. The relative intensity at the unwanted wavelength, which is generated by higher resonant transmission, had been calculated to eliminate its effect on the purity of these filters. It is important that this type of color filter simultaneously solves the low emission efficiency problem for OLEDs with the aid of enhanced transmission of metal film.

  11. Noncommutative Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Bastos, C; Dias, N C; Prata, J N

    2010-01-01

    One considers phase-space noncommutativity in the context of a Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model to study the interior of a Schwarzschild black hole. It is shown that the potential function of the corresponding quantum cosmology problem has a local minimum. One deduces the thermodynamics and show that the Hawking temperature and entropy exhibit an explicit dependence on the momentum noncommutativity regime and it is shown that the wave function vanishes in this limit.

  12. Artificial ozone holes

    OpenAIRE

    Dolya, S. N.

    2014-01-01

    This article considers an opportunity of disinfecting a part of the Earth surface, occupying a large area of ten thousand square kilometers. The sunlight will cause dissociation of molecular bromine into atoms; each bromine atom kills thirty thousand molecules of ozone. Each bromine plate has a mass of forty milligrams grams and destroys ozone in the area of hundred square meters. Thus, to form the ozone hole over the area of ten thousand square kilometers, it is required to have the total ma...

  13. Linear dilaton black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Clément, G; Leygnac, C; Clement, Gerard; Gal'tsov, Dmitri; Leygnac, Cedric

    2003-01-01

    We present new solutions to Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton-axion (EMDA) gravity in four dimensions describing black holes which asymptote to the linear dilaton background. In the non-rotating case they can be obtained as the limiting geometry of dilaton black holes. The rotating solutions (possibly endowed with a NUT parameter) are constructed using a generating technique based on the Sp(4,R) duality of the EMDA system. In a certain limit (with no event horizon present) our rotating solutions coincide with supersymmetric Israel-Wilson-Perjes type dilaton-axion solutions. In presence of an event horizon supersymmetry is broken. The temperature of the static black holes is constant, and their mass does not depend on it, so the heat capacity is zero. We investigate geodesics and wave propagation in these spacetimes and find superradiance in the rotating case. Because of the non-asymptotically flat nature of the geometry, certain modes are reflected from infinity, in particular, all superradiant modes are confined. Thi...

  14. Moulting Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Bena, Iosif; de Boer, Jan; El-Showk, Sheer; Shigemori, Masaki

    2011-01-01

    We find a family of novel supersymmetric phases of the D1-D5 CFT, which in certain ranges of charges have more entropy than all known ensembles. We also find bulk BPS configurations that exist in the same range of parameters as these phases, and have more entropy than a BMPV black hole; they can be thought of as coming from a BMPV black hole shedding a "hair" condensate outside of the horizon. The entropy of the bulk configurations is smaller than that of the CFT phases, which indicates that some of the CFT states are lifted at strong coupling. Neither the bulk nor the boundary phases are captured by the elliptic genus, which makes the coincidence of the phase boundaries particularly remarkable. Our configurations are supersymmetric, have non-Cardy-like entropy, and are the first instance of a black hole entropy enigma with a controlled CFT dual. Furthermore, contrary to common lore, these objects exist in a region of parameter space (between the "cosmic censorship bound" and the "unitarity bound") where no b...

  15. Slowly balding black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Lyutikov, Maxim

    2011-01-01

    The "no hair" theorem, a key result in General Relativity, states that an isolated black hole is defined by only three parameters: mass, angular momentum, and electric charge; this asymptotic state is reached on a light-crossing time scale. We find that the "no hair" theorem is not formally applicable for black holes formed from collapse of a rotating neutron star. Rotating neutron stars can self-produce particles via vacuum breakdown forming a highly conducting plasma magnetosphere such that magnetic field lines are effectively "frozen-in" the star both before and during collapse. In the limit of no resistivity, this introduces a topological constraint which prohibits the magnetic field from sliding off the newly-formed event horizon. As a result, during collapse of a neutron star into a black hole, the latter conserves the number of magnetic flux tubes $N_B = e \\Phi_\\infty /(\\pi c \\hbar)$, where $\\Phi_\\infty \\approx 2 \\pi^2 B_{NS} R_{NS}^3 /(P_{\\rm NS} c)$ is the initial magnetic flux through the hemisphere...

  16. Black hole's quantum levels

    CERN Document Server

    Corda, Christian

    2012-01-01

    By introducing a black hole's effective temperature, which takes into account both of the non-strictly thermal and non-strictly continuous characters of Hawking radiation, we recently re-analyzed black hole's quasi-normal modes and interpreted them naturally in terms of quantum levels for emissions of particles. After a careful review of previous results, in this work we improve such an analysis by removing an approximation that we implicitly used in our previous work and by obtaining the corrected expressions for the formulas of the horizon's area quantization and the number of quanta of area and hence also for Bekenstein-Hawking entropy, its sub-leading corrections and the number of micro-states, i.e. quantities which are fundamental to realize unitary quantum gravity theory, like functions of the quantum overtone number e (emission) and, in turn,of the black hole's quantum excited level. Another approximation concerning the maximum value of e is also corrected. We also consider quasi-normal modes in terms ...

  17. Incoherent thermal transport from dirty black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Grozdanov, Sašo; Schalm, Koenraad

    2015-01-01

    We study thermal transport in strongly disordered, strongly interacting quantum field theories without quasiparticles using gauge-gravity duality. We analyze linear perturbations of black holes with broken translational symmetry in Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theories of gravity. Using general geometric arguments in the bulk, we derive bounds on thermal conductivity for the dual disordered field theories in one and two spatial dimensions. In the latter case, the thermal conductivity is always non-zero at finite temperature, so long as the dilaton potential is bounded from below. Hence, generic holographic models make non-trivial predictions about the thermal conductivity in a strongly disordered, strongly coupled metal in two spatial dimensions.

  18. Electromagnetically Clean Solar Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem, Theodore G.; Kenniston, Anthony E.

    2008-01-01

    wiring on the back of the panel. Each step increases the potential for occurrence of latent defects, loss of process control, and attrition of components. An EMCSA panel includes an integral cover made from a transparent material. The silicone cover supplants the individual cover glasses on the cells and serves as an additional unitary structural support that offers the advantage, relative to glass, of the robust, forgiving nature of the silcone material. The cover contains pockets that hold the solar cells in place during the lamination process. The cover is coated with indium tin oxide to make its surface electrically conductive, so that it serves as a contiguous, electrically grounded shield over the entire panel surface. The cells are mounted in proximity to metallic printed wiring. The painted-wiring layer comprises metal-film traces on a sheet of Kapton (or equivalent) polyimide. The traces include contact pads on one side of the sheet for interconnecting the cells. Return leads are on the opposite side of the sheet, positioned to form the return currents substantially as mirror images of, and in proximity to, the cell sheet currents, thereby minimizing magnetic moments. The printed-wiring arrangement mimics the back-wiring arrangement of conventional solar arrays, but the current-loop areas and the resulting magnetic moments are much smaller because the return-current paths are much closer to the solar-cell sheet currents. The contact pads are prepared with solder fo electrical and mechanical bonding to the cells. The pocketed cover/shield, the solar cells, the printed-wiring layer, an electrical bonding agent, a mechanical-bonding agent, a composite structural front-side face sheet, an aluminum honeycomb core, and a composite back-side face sheet are all assembled, then contact pads are soldered to the cells and the agents are cured in a single lamination process.

  19. Semiconductor assisted metal deposition for nanolithography applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajh, Tijana; Meshkov, Natalia; Nedelijkovic, Jovan M.; Skubal, Laura R.; Tiede, David M.; Thurnauer, Marion

    2001-01-01

    An article of manufacture and method of forming nanoparticle sized material components. A semiconductor oxide substrate includes nanoparticles of semiconductor oxide. A modifier is deposited onto the nanoparticles, and a source of metal ions are deposited in association with the semiconductor and the modifier, the modifier enabling electronic hole scavenging and chelation of the metal ions. The metal ions and modifier are illuminated to cause reduction of the metal ions to metal onto the semiconductor nanoparticles.

  20. Generation of speckle vortices by Archimedes' spiral micro-holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haibin; Liu, Tingting; Chen, Jun; Sun, Ping

    2016-10-01

    Speckle plays an important role in the optical field. Optical vortices which exist in random speckle fields usually contain useful phase information. The distribution of speckle field is determined by these optical vortices. In order to study speckle vortices quantitatively, we established a micro-holes array model based on the law of Archimedes' spiral arrangement. Speckle vortices can be generated by the random diffuse reflection points (spiral micro-holes). In the experiments, the gray image of Archimedes' spiral micro-holes are displayed on the screen of liquid crystal spatial light modulator (LC-SLM), and the output optical field is captured by a CCD camera. The numerical simulations and experimental results show that the model can be used to generate speckle vortices.