WorldWideScience

Sample records for metal chloride battery

  1. Progress and recent developments in sodium, metal chloride batteries

    Ratnakumar, B.V.; Attia, A.I.; Halpert, G.

    1991-01-01

    A new class of rechargeable sodium batteries emerged in the last decade mainly due to the efforts in South Africa and the United Kingdom. These systems include solid transition metal chlorides in sodium tetrachloroaluminates as cathodes. Significant developments have been made on two systems, i.e., Na/NiCl 2 and Na/FeCl 2 ; high energy densities of the order of 130 Wh/Kg have been demonstrated at the cell level both with FeCl 2 and NiCl 2 cathodes. Long cycle life of over 2000 cycles was demonstrated with NiCl 2 , especially with a sulfur additive to the electrolyte to retain the sintered structure of the NiCl 2 electrode. Various environmental and safety tests have been successfully performed on the cells. Scale up efforts resulted in cells of 40 - 100 Ah, which were evaluated in an electric vehicle application. Additionally, it appears from a recent evaluation study carried out by European Space Agency on Na/NiCl 2 for GEO and LEO applications that energy densities of the order of 120 Wh/Kg and 100 Wh/Kg respectively at the cell level are feasible and long cycle lives (beyond 2800 cycles are possible). Several fundamental and developmental studies have been carried out at other laboratories aimed at understanding the reaction mechanisms, determining the kinetics and identifying various rate governing processes, and screening various other metal chlorides. Finally, the specific energies and especially the power densities projected for Na/FeCl 2 and Na/NiCl 2 systems based on alternate designs for beta alumina solid electrolyte, i.e., multiple tubes and flat plates are very attractive for electric vehicle and space applications. In this paper, the authors propose to present a detailed account of the developments made hither to as well as the key research issues being addressed in the sodium - metal chloride battery technology

  2. Current Status of Health and Safety Issues of Sodium/Metal Chloride (Zebra) Batteries

    David Trickett

    1998-01-01

    This report addresses environmental, health, and safety (EH ampersand S) issues associated with sodium/ metal chloride batteries, in general, although most references to specific cell or battery types refer to units developed or being developed under the Zebra trademark. The report focuses on issues pertinent to sodium/metal chloride batteries and their constituent components; however, the fact that some ''issues'' arise from interaction between electric vehicle (EV) and battery design com- pels occasional discussion amid the context of EV vehicle design and operation. This approach has been chosen to provide a reasonably comprehensive account of the topic from a cell technology perspective and an applications perspective

  3. Current Status of Health and Safety Issues of Sodium/Metal Chloride (Zebra) Batteries

    Trickett, D.

    1998-12-15

    This report addresses environmental, health, and safety (EH&S) issues associated with sodium/ metal chloride batteries, in general, although most references to specific cell or battery types refer to units developed or being developed under the Zebra trademark. The report focuses on issues pertinent to sodium/metal chloride batteries and their constituent components; however, the fact that some ''issues'' arise from interaction between electric vehicle (EV) and battery design compels occasional discussion amid the context of EV vehicle design and operation. This approach has been chosen to provide a reasonably comprehensive account of the topic from a cell technology perspective and an applications perspective.

  4. Transition-metal chlorides as conversion cathode materials for Li-ion batteries

    Li Ting; Chen, Zhong X.; Cao, Yu L.; Ai, Xin P.; Yang, Han X.

    2012-01-01

    Insoluble AgCl and soluble CuCl 2 were selected and investigated as model compounds of transition-metal chlorides for electrochemical conversion cathode materials. The experimental results demonstrated that the AgCl nanocrystals can convert reversibly to metallic Ag with nearly full utilization of its one-electron redox capacity (187 mAh g −1 ). Similarly, the CuCl 2 -filled mesoporous carbon can realize a reversible two-electron transfer reaction, giving a very high reversible capacity of 466 mAh g −1 after 20 cycles. These data imply that the metal chlorides can undergo complete electrochemical conversion utilizing their full oxidation states for electrical energy storage as previously reported metal fluorides, possibly being used as high capacity cathode materials for Li-ion batteries.

  5. Passive film formation on metals in thionyl-chloride electrolytes for lithium batteries

    Cieslak, W. R.; Delnick, F. M.; Peebles, D. E.; Rogers, J. W., Jr.

    We have studied the anodic behavior of Pt, Mo, Ni, and stainless steel (SS) electrodes in 1.5M LiAlCl/SOCl solution in order to determine the mechanisms by which these metals resist corrosion. Polarization and complex impedance indicate that Pt and Mo behave as inert electrodes, while Ni and SS form passive films in this electrolyte. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) confirms the lack of oxidized metal species on the Pt and Mo surfaces following anodic polarization. XPS results also show that the Ni and SS do form passive layers, and identifies these layers as predominantly metal chlorides.

  6. Passive film formation on metals in thionyl-chloride electrolytes for lithium batteries

    Cieslak, W.R.; Delnick, F.M.; Peebles, D.E.; Rogers, J.W. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    We have studied the anodic behavior of Pt, Mo, Ni, and stainless steel (SS) electodes in 1.5M LiAlCl/sub 4//SOCl/sub 2/ solution in order to determine the mechanisms by which these metals resist corrosion. Polarization and complex impedance indicate that Pt and Mo behave as inert electrodes, while Ni and SS form passive films in this electrolyte. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) confirms the lack of oxidized metal species on the Pt and Mo surfaces following anodic polarization. XPS results also show that the Ni and SS do form passive layers, and identifies these layers as predominantly metal chlorides.

  7. Passive film formation on metals in thionyl-chloride electrolytes for lithium batteries

    Cieslak, W.R.; Delnick, F.M.; Peebles, D.E.; Rogers, J.W. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have studied the anodic behavior of Pt, Mo, Ni, and stainless steel (SS) electrodes in 1.5M LiAlCl/sub 4//SOCl/sub 2/ solution in order to determine the mechanisms by which these metals resist corrosion. Polarization and complex impedance indicate that Pt and Mo behave as inert electrodes, while Ni and SS form passive films in this electrolyte. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) confirms the lack of oxidized metal species on the Pt and Mo surfaces following anodic polarization. XPS results also show that the Ni and SS do form passive layers, and identifies these layers as predominantly metal chlorides

  8. Advanced intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery

    Yang, Li-Ping; Liu, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Yi-Wei; Yang, Hui; Shen, Xiao-Dong

    2014-12-01

    Sodium metal chloride batteries, also called as ZEBRA batteries, possess many merits such as low cost, high energy density and high safety, but their high operation temperature (270-350 °C) may cause several issues and limit their applications. Therefore, decreasing the operation temperature is of great importance in order to broaden their usage. Using a room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) catholyte composed of sodium chloride buffered 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride-aluminum chloride and a dense β″-aluminates solid electrolyte film with 500 micron thickness, we report an intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery which can be operated at only 150 °C, therefore alleviating the corrosion issues, improving the material compatibilities and reducing the operating complexities associated with the conventional ZEBRA batteries. The RTIL presents a high ionic conductivity (0.247 S cm-1) at 150 °C and a wide electrochemical window (-2.6 to 2.18 vs. Al3+/Al). With the discharge plateau at 2.64 V toward sodium and the specific capacity of 285 mAh g-1, this intermediate temperature battery exhibits an energy density (750 mWh g-1) comparable to the conventional ZEBRA batteries (728-785 mWh g-1) and superior to commercialized Li-ion batteries (550-680 mWh g-1), making it very attractive for renewable energy integration and other grid related applications.

  9. Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles. Volume 3, Transport of sodium-sulfur and sodium-metal-chloride batteries

    Hammel, C J

    1992-09-01

    This report examines the shipping regulations that govern the shipment of dangerous goods. Since the elemental sodium contained in both sodium-sulfur and sodium-metal-chloride batteries is classified as a dangerous good, and is listed on both the national and international hazardous materials listings, both national and international regulatory processes are considered in this report The interrelationships as well as the differences between the two processes are highlighted. It is important to note that the transport regulatory processes examined in this report are reviewed within the context of assessing the necessary steps needed to provide for the domestic and international transport of sodium-beta batteries. The need for such an assessment was determined by the Shipping Sub-Working Group (SSWG) of the EV Battery Readiness Working Group (Working Group), created in 1990. The Working Group was created to examine the regulatory issues pertaining to in-vehicle safety, shipping, and recycling of sodium-sulfur batteries, each of which is addressed by a sub-working group. The mission of the SSWG is to establish basic provisions that will ensure the safe and efficient transport of sodium-beta batteries. To support that end, a proposal to the UN Committee of Experts was prepared by the SSWG, with the goal of obtaining a proper shipping name and UN number for sodium-beta batteries and to establish the basic transport requirements for such batteries (see the appendix for the proposal as submitted). It is emphasized that because batteries are large articles containing elemental sodium and, in some cases, sulfur, there is no existing UN entry under which they can be classified and for which modal transport requirements, such as the use of packaging appropriate for such large articles, are provided for. It is for this reason that a specific UN entry for sodium-beta batteries is considered essential.

  10. Lithium thionyl chloride battery

    Saathoff, D.J.; Venkatasetty, H.V.

    1982-10-19

    The discharge rate and internal conductivity of electrochemical cell including a lithium anode, and a cathode and an electrolyte including LiAlCl4 and SOC2 is improved by the addition of an amount of a mixture containing AlCl3 and butyl pyridinium chloride.

  11. Lithium-thionyl chloride battery

    Wong, D.; Bowden, W.; Hamilton, N.; Cubbison, D.; Dey, A. N.

    1981-04-01

    The main objective is to develop, fabricate, test, and deliver safe high rate lithium-thionyl chloride batteries for various U.S. Army applications such as manpack ratios and GLLD Laser Designators. We have devoted our efforts in the following major areas: (1) Optimization of the spirally wound D cell for high rate applications, (2) Development of a 3 inch diameter flat cylindrical cell for the GLLD laser designator application, and (3) Investigation of the reduction mechanism of SOCl2. The rate capability of the spirally wound D cell previously developed by us has been optimized for both the manpack radio (BA5590) battery and GLLD laser designator battery application in this program. A flat cylindrical cell has also been developed for the GLLD laser designator application. It is 3 inches in diameter and 0.9 inch in height with extremely low internal cell impedance that minimizes cell heating and polarization on the GLLD load. Typical cell capacity was found to be 18.0-19.0 Ahr with a few cells delivering up to about 21.0 Ahr on the GLLD test load. Study of the reduction mechanism of SOCl2 using electrochemical and spectroscopic techniques has also been carried out in this program which may be directly relevant to the intrinsic safety of the system.

  12. Catastrophic event modeling. [lithium thionyl chloride batteries

    Frank, H. A.

    1981-01-01

    A mathematical model for the catastrophic failures (venting or explosion of the cell) in lithium thionyl chloride batteries is presented. The phenomenology of the various processes leading to cell failure is reviewed.

  13. Hazards of lithium thionyl chloride batteries

    Parry, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    Two different topics which only relate in that they are pertinent to lithium thionyl chloride battery safety are discussed. The first topic is a hazards analysis of a system (risk assessment), a formal approach that is used in nuclear engineering, predicting oil spills, etc. It is a formalized approach for obtaining assessment of the degree of risk associated with the use of any particular system. The second topic is a small piece of chemistry related to the explosions that can occur with lithium thionyl chloride systems. After the two topics are presented, a discussion is generated among the Workshop participants.

  14. Lithium-thionyl chloride batteries - past, present and future

    McCartney, J.F.; Lund, T.J.; Sturgeon, W.J.

    1980-02-01

    Lithium based batteries have the highest theoretical energy density of known battery types. Of the lithium batteries, the lithium-thionyl chloride electrochemistry has the highest energy density of those which have been reduced to practice. The characteristics, development status, and performance of lithium-thionyl chloride batteries are treated in this paper. Safety aspects of lithium-thionyl chloride batteries are discussed along with impressive results of hazard/safety tests of these batteries. An orderly development plan of a minimum family of standard cells to avoid a proliferation of battery sizes and discharge rates is presented.

  15. Analysis of lithium/thionyl chloride batteries

    Jain, Mukul

    The lithium/thionyl chloride battery (Li/SOClsb2) has received considerable attention as a primary energy source due to its high energy density, high operating cell voltage, voltage stability over 95% of the discharge, large operating temperature range (-55sp°C to 70sp°C), long storage life, and low cost of materials. In this dissertation, a one-dimensional mathematical model of a spirally wound lithium/thionyl chloride primary battery has been developed. Mathematical models can be used to tailor a battery design to a specific application, perform accelerated testing, and reduce the amount of experimental data required to yield efficient, yet safe cells. The Model was used in conjunction with the experimental data for parameter estimation and to obtain insights into the fundamental processes occurring in the battery. The diffusion coefficient and the kinetic parameters for the reactions at the anode and the cathode are obtained as a function of temperature by fitting the simulated capacity and average cell voltage to experimental data over a wide range of temperatures (-55 to 49sp°C) and discharge loads (10 to 250 ohms). The experiments were performed on D-sized, cathode-limited, spirally wound lithium/thionyl chloride cells at Sandia National Laboratories. The model is also used to study the effect of cathode thickness and current and temperature pulsing on the cell capacity. Thionyl chloride reduction in the porous cathode is accompanied with a volume reduction. The material balance used previously in one-dimensional mathematical models of porous electrodes is invalid when the volume occupied by the reactants and the products is not equal. It is shown here how the material balance has to be modified to either account for the loss in volume, or to account for the inflow of electrolyte from the header into the active pores. The one-dimensional mathematical model of lithium/thionyl chloride primary battery is used to illustrate the effect of this material balance

  16. The DELTA 181 lithium thionyl chloride battery

    Sullivan, Ralph M.; Brown, Lawrence E.; Leigh, A. P.

    In 1986, the Johns Hopkins University/Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) undertook the development of a sensor module for the DELTA 181 spacecraft, a low earth orbit (LEO) mission of less than two months duration. A large lithium thionyl chloride battery was developed as the spacecraft's primary power source, the first known such use for this technology. The exceptionally high energy density of the lithium thionyl chloride cell was the primary driver for its use, resulting in a completed battery with a specific energy density of 120 Wh/lb. Safety requirements became the primary driver shaping all aspects of the power system design and development due to concerns about the potential hazards of this relatively new, high-energy technology. However, the program was completed without incident. The spacecraft was launched on February 8, 1988, from Kennedy Space Center (KSC) with over 60,000 Wh of battery energy. It reentered on April 2, 1988, still operating after 55 days, providing a successful, practical, and visible demonstration of the use of this technology for spacecraft applications.

  17. Improved electrolyte for lithium-thionyl chloride battery. [Patent application

    Shipman, W.H.; McCartney, J.F.

    1980-12-17

    A lithium, thionyl chloride battery is provided with an electrolyte which makes it safe under a reverse voltage condition. The electrolyte is niobium pentachloride which is dissolved in the thionyl chloride.

  18. Air and metal hydride battery

    Lampinen, M.; Noponen, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Applied Thermodynamics

    1998-12-31

    The main goal of the air and metal hydride battery project was to enhance the performance and manufacturing technology of both electrodes to such a degree that an air-metal hydride battery could become a commercially and technically competitive power source for electric vehicles. By the end of the project it was possible to demonstrate the very first prototype of the air-metal hydride battery at EV scale, achieving all the required design parameters. (orig.)

  19. Melting in trivalent metal chlorides

    Saboungi, M.L.; Price, D.L.; Scamehorn, C.; Tosi, M.P.

    1990-11-01

    We report a neutron diffraction study of the liquid structure of YCl 3 and combine the structural data with macroscopic melting and transport data to contrast the behaviour of this molten salt with those of SrCl 2 , ZnCl 2 and AlCl 3 as prototypes of different melting mechanisms for ionic materials. A novel melting mechanism for trivalent metal chlorides, leading to a loose disordered network of edge-sharing octahedral units in the liquid phase, is thereby established. The various melting behaviours are related to bonding character with the help of Pettifor's phenomenological chemical scale. (author). 25 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  20. Active primary lithium thionyl chloride battery for artillery applications

    Baldwin, A.R.; Delnick, F.M. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Miller, D.L. (Eagle-Picher Industries, Inc., Joplin, MO (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Eagle Picher Industries have successfully developed an Active Lithium Thionyl Chloride (ALTC) power battery for unique artillery applications. Details of the design and the results of safety and performance will be presented. 1 ref., 5 figs.

  1. Active primary lithium thionyl chloride battery for artillery applications

    Baldwin, Arlen R.; Delnick, Frank M.; Miller, David L.

    1990-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Eagle Picher Industries have successfully developed an Active Lithium Thionyl Chloride (ALTC) power battery for unique artillery applications. Details of the design and the results of safety and performance will be presented.

  2. Explosion of lithium-thionyl-chloride battery due to presence of lithium nitride

    Hennesø, E.; Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2015-01-01

    An explosion of a lithium–thionyl-chloride (Li–SOCl2) battery during production (assembly) leads to serious worker injury. The accident cell batch had been in a dry-air intermediate storage room for months before being readied with thionyl chloride electrolyte. Metallic lithium can react with atmospheric nitrogen to produce lithium nitride. Nodules of lithium nitride were found to be present on the lithium foil in other cells of the accident batch. The investigation attributed the explosion t...

  3. Process for making rare earth metal chlorides

    Kruesi, P.R.

    1981-01-01

    An uncombined metal or a metal compound such as a sulfide, oxide, carbonate or sulfate is converted in a liquid salt bath to the corresponding metal chloride by reacting it with chlorine gas or a chlorine donor. The process applies to metals of groups 1b, 2a, 2b, 3a, 3b, 4a, 5a and 8 of the periodic table and to the rare earth metals. The chlorine donor may be ferric or sulfur chloride. The liquid fused salt bath is made up of chlorides of alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, ammonia, zinc and ferric iron. Because the formed metal chlorides are soluble in the liquid fused salt bath, they can be recovered by various conventional means

  4. Advanced intermediate temperature sodium-nickel chloride batteries with ultra-high energy density

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Kim, Jin Y.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Chang, Hee Jung; Canfield, Nathan L.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2016-02-01

    Sodium-metal halide batteries have been considered as one of the more attractive technologies for stationary electrical energy storage, however, they are not used for broader applications despite their relatively well-known redox system. One of the roadblocks hindering market penetration is the high-operating temperature. Here we demonstrate that planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries can be operated at an intermediate temperature of 190 °C with ultra-high energy density. A specific energy density of 350 Wh kg-1, higher than that of conventional tubular sodium-nickel chloride batteries (280 °C), is obtained for planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries operated at 190 °C over a long-term cell test (1,000 cycles), and it attributed to the slower particle growth of the cathode materials at the lower operating temperature. Results reported here demonstrate that planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries operated at an intermediate temperature could greatly benefit this traditional energy storage technology by improving battery energy density, cycle life and reducing material costs.

  5. Reserve lithium-thionyl chloride battery for missile applications

    Planchat, J. P.; Descroix, J. P.; Sarre, G.

    A comparative performance study has been conducted for silver-zinc, thionyl chloride, and thermal batteries designed for such missile applications as ICBM guidance system power supplies. Attention is given to each of the three candidates' conformity to requirements concerning mechanical configuration, electrochemical design, electrolyte reservoir, external case, and gas generator. The silver-zinc and Li-SOCl2 candidates employ similar cell configurations and yield comparable performance. The thermal battery is found to be incapable of meeting battery case temperature-related requirements.

  6. Molten Triazolium Chloride Systems as New Aluminum Battery Electrolytes

    Vestergaard, B.; Bjerrum, Niels; Petrushina, Irina

    1993-01-01

    -170-degrees-C) depending on melt acidity and anode material. DMTC, being specifically adsorbed and reduced on the tungsten electrode surface, had an inhibiting effect on the aluminum reduction, but this effect was suppressed on the aluminum substrate. An electrochemical process with high current density (tens...... of milliamperes per square centimeter) was observed at 0.344 V on the acidic sodium tetrachloroaluminate background, involving a free triazolium radical mechanism. Molten DMTC-AlCl3 electrolytes are acceptable for battery performance and both the aluminum anode and the triazolium electrolyte can be used as active......The possibility of using molten mixtures of 1,4-dimethyl-1,2,4-triazolium chloride (DMTC) and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) as secondary battery electrolytes was studied, in some cases extended by the copresence of sodium chloride. DMTC-AlCl, mixtures demonstrated high specific conductivity in a wide...

  7. Chloride supporting electrolytes for all-vanadium redox flow batteries.

    Kim, Soowhan; Vijayakumar, M; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Jianlu; Chen, Baowei; Nie, Zimin; Chen, Feng; Hu, Jianzhi; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo

    2011-10-28

    This paper examines vanadium chloride solutions as electrolytes for an all-vanadium redox flow battery. The chloride solutions were capable of dissolving more than 2.3 M vanadium at varied valence states and remained stable at 0-50 °C. The improved stability appeared due to the formation of a vanadium dinuclear [V(2)O(3)·4H(2)O](4+) or a dinuclear-chloro complex [V(2)O(3)Cl·3H(2)O](3+) in the solutions over a wide temperature range. The all-vanadium redox flow batteries with the chloride electrolytes demonstrated excellent reversibility and fairly high efficiencies. Only negligible, if any, gas evolution was observed. The improved energy capacity and good performance, along with the ease in heat management, would lead to substantial reduction in capital cost and life-cycle cost, making the vanadium chloride redox flow battery a promising candidate for stationary applications. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2011

  8. Investigation of lithium-thionyl chloride battery safety hazards

    Attia, A. I.; Gabriel, K. A.; Burns, R. P.

    1983-01-01

    In the ten years since the feasibility of a lithium-thionyl chloride cell was first recognized (1) remarkable progress has been made in hardware development. Cells as large as 16,000 Ah (2) and batteries of 10.8 MWh (3) have been demonstrated. In a low rate configuration, energy densities of 500 to 600 Wh/kg are easily achieved. Even in the absence of reported explosions, safety would be a concern for such a dense energetic package; the energy density of a lithium-thionyl chloride cell is approaching that of dynamite (924 Wh/kg). In fact explosions have occurred. In general the hazards associated with lithium-thionyl chloride batteries may be divided into four categories: Explosions as a result of an error in battery design. Very large cells were in prototype development prior to a full appreciation of the hazards of the system. It is possible that some of the remaining safety issues are related to cell design; Explosions as a result of external physical abuse such as cell incineration and puncture; Explosions due to short circuiting which could lead to thermal runaway reactions. These problems appear to have been solved by changes in the battery design (4); and Explosions due to abnormal electrical operation (i.e., charging (5) and overdischarging (6) and in partially or fully discharged cells on storage (7 and 8).

  9. VOCl as a Cathode for Rechargeable Chloride Ion Batteries.

    Gao, Ping; Reddy, M Anji; Mu, Xiaoke; Diemant, Thomas; Zhang, Le; Zhao-Karger, Zhirong; Chakravadhanula, Venkata Sai Kiran; Clemens, Oliver; Behm, R Jürgen; Fichtner, Maximilian

    2016-03-18

    A novel room temperature rechargeable battery with VOCl cathode, lithium anode, and chloride ion transporting liquid electrolyte is described. The cell is based on the reversible transfer of chloride ions between the two electrodes. The VOCl cathode delivered an initial discharge capacity of 189 mAh g(-1) . A reversible capacity of 113 mAh g(-1) was retained even after 100 cycles when cycled at a high current density of 522 mA g(-1) . Such high cycling stability was achieved in chloride ion batteries for the first time, demonstrating the practicality of the system beyond a proof of concept model. The electrochemical reaction mechanism of the VOCl electrode in the chloride ion cell was investigated in detail by ex situ X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results confirm reversible deintercalation-intercalation of chloride ions in the VOCl electrode. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Optimization of reserve lithium thionyl chloride battery electrochemical design parameters

    Doddapaneni, N.; Godshall, N.A.

    1987-01-01

    The performance of Reserve Lithium Thionyl Chloride (RLTC) batteries was optimized by conducting a parametric study of seven electrochemical parameters: electrode compression, carbon thickness, presence of catalyst, temperature, electrode limitation, discharge rate, and electrolyte acidity. Increasing electrode compression (from 0 to 15%) improved battery performance significantly (10% greater carbon capacity density). Although thinner carbon cathodes yielded less absolute capacity than did thicker cathodes, they did so with considerably higher volume efficiencies. The effect of these parameters, and their synergistic interactions, on electrochemical cell peformance is illustrated. 5 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Optimization of reserve lithium thionyl chloride battery electrochemical design parameters

    Doddapaneni, N.; Godshall, N. A.

    The performance of Reserve Lithium Thionyl Chloride (RLTC) batteries was optimized by conducting a parametric study of seven electrochemical parameters: electrode compression, carbon thickness, presence of catalyst, temperature, electrode limitation, discharge rate, and electrolyte acidity. Increasing electrode compression (from 0 to 15 percent) improved battery performance significantly (10 percent greater carbon capacity density). Although thinner carbon cathodes yielded less absolute capacity than did thicker cathodes, they did so with considerably higher volume efficiencies. The effect of these parameters, and their synergistic interactions, on electrochemical cell performance is illustrated.

  12. Precipitation of metal nitrides from chloride melts

    Slater, S.A.; Miller, W.E.; Willit, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Precipitation of actinides, lanthanides, and fission products as nitrides from molten chloride melts is being investigated for use as a final cleanup step in treating radioactive salt wastes generated by electrometallurgical processing of spent nuclear fuel. The radioactive components (eg, fission products) need to be removed to reduce the volume of high-level waste that requires disposal. To extract the fission products from the salt, a nitride precipitation process is being developed. The salt waste is first contacted with a molten metal; after equilibrium is reached, a nitride is added to the metal phase. The insoluble nitrides can be recovered and converted to a borosilicate glass after air oxidation. For a bench-scale experimental setup, a crucible was designed to contact the salt and metal phases. Solubility tests were performed with candidate nitrides and metal nitrides for which there are no solubility data. Experiments were performed to assess feasibility of precipitation of metal nitrides from chloride melts

  13. Anodematerials for Metal Hydride Batteries

    Jensen, Jens Oluf

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the work on development of hydride forming alloys for use as electrode materials in metal hydride batteries. The work has primarily been concentrated on calcium based alloys derived from the compound CaNi5. This compound has a higher capacity compared with alloys used in today......’s hydride batteries, but a much poorer stability towards repeated charge/discharge cycling. The aim was to see if the cycleability of CaNi5 could be enhanced enough by modifications to make the compound a suitable electrode material. An alloying method based on mechanical alloying in a planetary ball mill...

  14. Heat generation in lithium/thionyl chloride batteries

    Gibbard, H.F.

    1980-01-01

    The flow of heat from lithium/thionyl chloride batteries has been measured in two conduction calorimeters. Several types of cells have been studied, both at rest and during low- and high-rate discharge. In contrast with other reports in the literature, no conditions were found under which the discharge of lithium/thionyl chloride batteries was endothermic. Results at low currents, which are described in terms of the thermodynamic formalism developed previously, are consistent with measurements of the temperature dependence of the open-circuit potential. Cells discharged at higher currents produced more heat flux than predicted by the simple thermodynamic treatment. The current and time variation of the additional heat is consistent with a current-dependent corrosion of the lithium electrode. 14 refs.

  15. Method for preparation of melts of alkali metal chlorides with highly volatile polyvalent metal chlorides

    Salyulev, A.B.; Kudyakov, V.Ya.

    1990-01-01

    A method for production of alkali metal (Cs, Rb, K) chloride melts with highly volatile polyvalent metal chlorides is suggested. The method consists, in saturation of alkali metal chlorides, preheated to the melting point, by volatile component vapours (titanium tetrachloride, molybdenum or tantalum pentachloride) in proportion, corresponding to the composition reguired. The saturation is realized in an evacuated vessel with two heating areas for 1-1.5 h. After gradual levelling of temperature in both areas the product is rapidly cooled. 1 fig.; 1 tab

  16. A high power lithium thionyl chloride battery for space applications

    Shah, Pinakin M.

    1993-03-01

    A high power, 28 V, 330 A h, active lithium thionyl chloride battery has been developed for use as main and payload power sources on an expendable launch vehicle. Nine prismatic cells, along with the required electrical components and a built-in heater system, are efficiently packaged resulting in significant weight savings over presently used silver-zinc batteries. The high rate capability is achieved by designing the cells with a large electrochemical surface area and impregnating an electrocatalyst, polymeric phthalocyanine, into the carbon cathodes. Passivation effects are reduced with the addition of sulfur dioxide into the thionyl chloride electrolyte solution. The results of conducting a detailed thermal analysis are utilized to establish the heater design parameters and the thermal insulation requirements of the battery. An analysis of cell internal pressure and vent characteristics clearly illustrates the margins of safety under different operating conditions. Performance of fresh cells is discussed using polarization scan and discharge data at different rates and temperatures. Self-discharge rate is estimated based upon test results on cells after storage. Results of testing a complete prototype battery are described.

  17. A high power lithium thionyl chloride battery for space applications

    Shah, P.M. (Alliant Techsystems, Inc., Power Sources Center, Horsham, PA (United States))

    1993-03-15

    A high power, 28 V, 330 A h, active lithium thinoyl chloride battery has been developed for use as main and payload power sources on an expendable launch vehicle. Nine prismatic cells, along with the required electrical components and a built-in heater system, are efficiently packaged resulting in significant weight savings (>40%) over presently used silver-zinc batteries. The high rate capability is achieved by designing the cells with a large electrochemical surface area and impregnating an electrocatalyst, polymeric phthalocyanine, (CoPC)[sub n], into the carbon cathodes. Passivation effects are reduced with the addition of sulfur dioxide into the thionyl chloride electrolyte solution. The results of conducting a detailed thermal analysis are utilized to establish the heater design parameters and the thermal insulation requirements of the battery. An analysis of cell internal pressure and vent characteristics clearly illustrates the margins of safety under different operating conditions. Performance of fresh cells is discussed using polarization scan and discharge data at different rates and temperatures. Self-discharge rate is estimated based upon test results on cells after storage. Finally, the results of testing a complete prototype battery are described in detail. (orig.)

  18. High shock load testing of lithium-thionyl chloride batteries

    Epstein, J.; Marincic, N.

    1983-10-01

    Low rate cylindrical cells have been developed, capable of withstanding mechanical shocks up to 23,000 g's for one millisecond. The cells were based on the lithium-thionyl chloride battery system and totally hermetic stainless steel hardware incorporating a glass sealed positive terminal. Four cells in series were required to deliver 25 mA pulses at a minimum voltage of 10 V before and after such exposure to one mechanical shock. Batteries were contained in a hardened steel housing and mounted within a projectile accelerated by means of a gas gun. The velocity of the projectile was measured with electronic probes immediately before impact and the deceleration was effected using a special aluminum honeycomb structure from which the g values were calculated. A high survival rate for the cells was achieved in spite of some mechanical damage to the battery housing still present.

  19. User safety considerations in lithium thionyl chloride batteries

    Johnson, L.J.; Willis, A.H.

    1981-01-01

    The mechanics of failure of lithium batteries with thionyl chloride as a catholyte are discussed, and methods available to provide user safety are outlined. Advantages of using the batteries are discussed, including a high cell voltage of 3.6 V, a high specific energy density greater than 200 W-hr per pound, excellent voltage stability over 95% of the discharge life of the cell, low cost materials, and a storage life up to 10 years. Safety problems such as explosion, venting, leaking, and short circuit overheating are also discussed. A fault matrix is presented to relate battery hazards to the possible use and disposal conditions, and to determine levels of safety for the user system. A test plan is also developed which includes mechanical, thermal, electrical and chemical considerations, and can be organized into categories convenient to various test facility capabilities.

  20. User safety considerations in lithium thionyl chloride batteries

    Johnson, L. J.; Willis, A. H.

    The mechanics of failure of lithium batteries with thionyl chloride as a catholyte are discussed, and methods available to provide user safety are outlined. Advantages of using the batteries are discussed, including a high cell voltage of 3.6 V, a high specific energy density greater than 200 W-hr per pound, excellent voltage stability over 95% of the discharge life of the cell, low cost materials, and a storage life up to 10 years. Safety problems such as explosion, venting, leaking, and short circuit overheating are also discussed. A fault matrix is presented to relate battery hazards to the possible use and disposal conditions, and to determine levels of safety for the user system. A test plan is also developed which includes mechanical, thermal, electrical and chemical considerations, and can be organized into categories convenient to various test facility capabilities.

  1. Determination of the heat capacities of Lithium/BCX (bromide chloride in thionyl chloride) batteries

    Kubow, Stephen A.; Takeuchi, Kenneth J.; Takeuchi, Esther S.

    1989-12-01

    Heat capacities of twelve different Lithium/BCX (BrCl in thionyl chloride) batteries in sizes AA, C, D, and DD were determined. Procedures and measurement results are reported. The procedure allowed simple, reproducible, and precise determinations of heat capacities of industrially important Lithium/BCX cells, without interfering with performance of the cells. Use of aluminum standards allowed the accuracy of the measurements to be maintained. The measured heat capacities were within 5 percent of calculated heat capacity values.

  2. Mathematical Model of a Lithium/Thionyl Chloride Battery

    Jain, M.; Jungst, R.G.; Nagasubramanian, G.; Weidner, J.W.

    1998-11-24

    A mathematical model of a spirally wound lithium/thionyl chloride primary battery has been developed ~d used for parameter estimation and design studies. The model formulation is based on the fimdarnental Consemation laws using porous electrode theory and concentrated solution theory. The model is used to estimate the difision coefficient and the kinetic parameters for the reactions at the anode and the cathode as a function of temperature. These parameters are obtained by fitting the simulated capacity and average cell voltage to experimental data over a wide range of temperatures (-55 to 49"C) and discharge loads (10 to 250 ohms). The experiments were performed on D-sized, cathode-limited, spirally wound lithium/thionyl chloride cells. The model is also used to study the effkct of cathode thickness on the cell capacity as a finction of temperature, and it was found that the optimum thickness for the cathode- limited design is temperature and load dependent.

  3. Development of lithium-thionyl chloride batteries for Centaur

    Halpert, G.; Frank, H.; Lutwack, R.

    1988-04-01

    Lithium thionyl chloride (LiSOCl2) primary cells and batteries have received considerable attention over the last several years because of their high theoretical specific energy and energy density. The objective was to develop a 300 wh/kg cell capable of safe operation at C/2 rate and active storage life for 5 to 10 years. This technology would replace other primary cell technologies in NASA applications mainly the silver zinc (AgZn) batteries presently in use. The LiSOCl2 system exceeds the capabilities of the AgZn in terms of specific energy of 300 wh/kg (compared with 100 wh/kg for AgZn), active storage life of 10 to 20 times the 3 to 6 months active storage and has a significantly lower projected cost.

  4. High-rate lithium thionyl-chloride battery development

    Cieslak, W.R.; Weigand, D.E.

    1993-12-31

    We have developed a lithium thionyl-chloride cell for use in a high rate battery application to provide power for a missile computer and stage separation detonators. The battery pack contains 20 high surface area ``DD`` cells wired in a series-parallel configuration to supply a nominal 28 volts with a continuous draw of 20 amperes. The load profile also requires six squib firing pulses of one second duration at a 20 ampere peak. Performance and safety of the cells were optimized in a ``D`` cell configuration before progressing to the longer ``DD` cell. Active surface area in the ``D`` cell is 735 cm{sup 2}, and 1650 cm{sup 2} in the ``DD`` cell. The design includes 1.5M LiAlCl{sub 4}/SOCl{sub 2} electrolyte, a cathode blend of Shawinigan Acetylene Black and Cabot Black Pearls 2000 carbons, Scimat ETFE separator, and photoetched current collectors.

  5. Prevention of overpressurization of lithium-thionyl chloride battery cells

    Ramsay, G. R.; Salmon, D. J.

    1984-12-25

    A method of preventing overpressurization of a lithium-thionyl chloride battery cell by formation of excessive SO/sub 2/ during high rate discharge. The method comprises the step of providing PCl/sub 5/ in the cathode. Alternatively, the PCl/sub 5/ may be provided in the electrolyte or in both the cathode and electrolyte as desired. The PCl/sub 5/ may be incorporated in the cathode by introduction thereof into the porous carbon structure of a preformed carbon element. Alternatively, the PCl/sub 5/ may be dry mixed with the carbon and the mixture formed into the desired cathode element.

  6. Metal Hydrides for Rechargeable Batteries

    Valoeen, Lars Ole

    2000-03-01

    Rechargeable battery systems are paramount in the power supply of modern electronic and electromechanical equipment. For the time being, the most promising secondary battery systems for the future are the lithium-ion and the nickel metal hydride (NiMH) batteries. In this thesis, metal hydrides and their properties are described with the aim of characterizing and improving those. The thesis has a special focus on the AB{sub 5} type hydrogen storage alloys, where A is a rare earth metal like lanthanum, or more commonly misch metal, which is a mixture of rare earth metals, mainly lanthanum, cerium, neodymium and praseodymium. B is a transition metal, mainly nickel, commonly with additions of aluminium, cobalt, and manganese. The misch metal composition was found to be very important for the geometry of the unit cell in AB{sub 5} type alloys, and consequently the equilibrium pressure of hydrogen in these types of alloys. The A site substitution of lanthanum by misch metal did not decrease the surface catalytic properties of AB{sub 5} type alloys. B-site substitution of nickel with other transition elements, however, substantially reduced the catalytic activity of the alloy. If the internal pressure within the electrochemical test cell was increased using inert argon gas, a considerable increase in the high rate charge/discharge performance of LaNi{sub 5} was observed. An increased internal pressure would enable the utilisation of alloys with a high hydrogen equivalent pressure in batteries. Such alloys often have favourable kinetics and high hydrogen diffusion rates and thus have a potential for improving the high current discharge rates in metal hydride batteries. The kinetic properties of metal hydride electrodes were found to improve throughout their lifetime. The activation properties were found highly dependent on the charge/discharge current. Fewer charge/discharge cycles were needed to activate the electrodes if a small current was used instead of a higher

  7. Explosion of lithium-thionyl-chloride battery due to presence of lithium nitride

    Hennesø, E.; Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2015-01-01

    An explosion of a lithium–thionyl-chloride (Li–SOCl2) battery during production (assembly) leads to serious worker injury. The accident cell batch had been in a dry-air intermediate storage room for months before being readied with thionyl chloride electrolyte. Metallic lithium can react...... with atmospheric nitrogen to produce lithium nitride. Nodules of lithium nitride were found to be present on the lithium foil in other cells of the accident batch. The investigation attributed the explosion to the formation of porous lithium nitride during intermediate storage and a violent exothermal...... decomposition with the SOCl2–LiAlCl4 electrolyte triggered by welding. The literature is silent on hazards of explosion of Li–SOCl2 cells associated with the presence of lithium nitride. The silence is intriguing. Possible causes may be that such explosions are very rare, that explosions go unpublished...

  8. The faradaic efficiency of the lithium-thionyl chloride battery

    Hoier, S.N.; Eisenmann, E.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Battery Research Dept.

    1996-04-01

    The efficiency of converting chemical energy into electrical energy has been studied for the case of D-size, low and medium rate lithium-thionyl chloride (Li/TC) cells, under DC and various pulsed loads. Microcalorimetric monitoring of the heat output during discharge allowed the direct measurement of the faradaic efficiency, and showed that self-discharge is far more pervasive than previously acknowledged by researchers and battery manufacturers. Evaluations of the cell dynamics prove that current load and temperature fluctuations combine to disrupt the lithium passivation and to greatly enhance self-discharge. Typical faradaic efficiencies for DC range from abut 30% at low current density to 90% at moderate and 75% at high current density. Pulsed current further depresses these efficiency levels, except at very low average current densities. The decreased faradaic efficiency of Li/TC batteries in certain pulse situations needs to be studied further to define the range of applications for which it can be successfully used.

  9. Catalytic Conversion of Cellulose to Levulinic Acid by Metal Chlorides

    Beixiao Zhang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic performance of various metal chlorides in the conversion of cellulose to levulinic acid in liquid water at high temperatures was investigated. The effects of reaction parameters on the yield of levulinic acid were also explored. The results showed that alkali and alkaline earth metal chlorides were not effective in conversion of cellulose, while transition metal chlorides, especially CrCl3, FeCl3 and CuCl2 and a group IIIA metal chloride (AlCl3, exhibited high catalytic activity. The catalytic performance was correlated with the acidity of the reaction system due to the addition of the metal chlorides, but more dependent on the type of metal chloride. Among those metal chlorides, chromium chloride was found to be exceptionally effective for the conversion of cellulose to levulinic acid, affording an optimum yield of 67 mol % after a reaction time of 180 min, at 200 °C, with a catalyst dosage of 0.02 M and substrate concentration of 50 wt %. Chromium metal, most of which was present in its oxide form in the solid sample and only a small part in solution as Cr3+ ion, can be easily separated from the resulting product mixture and recycled. Finally, a plausible reaction scheme for the chromium chloride catalyzed conversion of cellulose in water was proposed.

  10. Reaction of calcium chloride with alkali metal chlorides in melts

    Savin, V.D.; Mikhajlova, N.P.

    1984-01-01

    Thermochemical characteristics of CaCl 2 reaction with sodium, potassium, rubidium and cesium chlorides in melts at 890 deg C are determined. The values of formation enthalpies of infinitely diluted by CaCl 2 solutions (ΔH) in the chloride row increase from -22 in NaCl to -47 kJ/mol of CaCl 2 in CsCl. With increasing the concentration of calcium chloride in the solution the ΔH values decrease. The regularities of separation from the solution of the CaCl 2 -CsCl system at 890 deg C of the CaCl 2 x CsCl in solid are studied. Formation enthalpies under the given conditions constitutes -70+-3 kJ/mol

  11. Sources of pressure in lithium thionyl chloride batteries

    McDonald, R. C.

    1982-11-01

    The generation of pressure in Li/SOCl2 batteries has been investigated. Hydrogen, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen are the principal gases evolved. Reaction of lithium metal with protic species in the liquid electrolyte produces hydrogen gas on open circuit and more rapidly on discharge. Sulfur dioxide is a product of electrochemical discharge. Nitrogen, trapped in lithium metal as dissolved gas or as lithium nitride is released during discharge. In addition, smaller amounts of gas, trapped in cathode pores and adsorbed on the surface of carbon, are evolved when discharge products are deposited in the cathode. Hydrogen pressure is very sensitive to the care used in drying the electrolyte and cathodes. Alternate cycles of evacuation and backfill with SO2 eliminate much of the moisture and trapped gas from the cell prior to filling with electrolyte.

  12. Compatibility study of 316L stainless steel bellows for XMC3690 reserve lithium/thionyl-chloride battery

    Cieslak, W.R.; Delnick, F.M.; Crafts, C.C.

    1986-02-01

    Maintenance of the integrity of a battery's active electrochemical components throughout shelf life is essential to achieving acceptable performance characteristics. The electrolyte in the XMC3690 reserve lithium/thionyl-chloride (RLTC) battery is stored in a 316L stainless steel welded-bellows assembly. Corrosion of the bellows that might compromise battery performance must be avoided. Postmortem examination of welded bellows following electrolyte storage for 2 years, including up to 1 year at 70/sup 0/C, revealed no significant corrosion or any sign of stress-corrosion cracking. Transition metal ion concentrations in the electrolyte were very low and did not change with aging conditions. Based on these observations, we do not expect corrosion of the bellows assembly to limit shelf life of the XMC3690 RLTC battery.

  13. Recycling of spent lithium-ion battery with polyvinyl chloride by mechanochemical process.

    Wang, Meng-Meng; Zhang, Cong-Cong; Zhang, Fu-Shen

    2017-09-01

    In the present study, cathode materials (C/LiCoO 2 ) of spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and waste polyvinyl chloride (PVC) were co-processed via an innovative mechanochemical method, i.e. LiCoO 2 /PVC/Fe was co-grinded followed by water-leaching. This procedure generated recoverable LiCl from Li by the dechlorination of PVC and also generated magnetic CoFe 4 O 6 from Co. The effects of different additives (e.g. alkali metals, non-metal oxides, and zero-valent metals) on (i) the conversion rates of Li and Co and (ii) the dechlorination rate of PVC were investigated, and the reaction mechanisms were explored. It was found that the chlorine atoms in PVC were mechanochemically transformed into chloride ions that bound to the Li in LiCoO 2 to form LiCl. This resulted in reorganization of the Co and Fe crystals to form the magnetic material CoFe 4 O 6 . This study provides a more environmentally-friendly, economical, and straightforward approach for the recycling of spent LIBs and waste PVC compared to traditional processes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Gradient porous electrode architectures for rechargeable metal-air batteries

    Dudney, Nancy J.; Klett, James W.; Nanda, Jagjit; Narula, Chaitanya Kumar; Pannala, Sreekanth

    2016-03-22

    A cathode for a metal air battery includes a cathode structure having pores. The cathode structure has a metal side and an air side. The porosity decreases from the air side to the metal side. A metal air battery and a method of making a cathode for a metal air battery are also disclosed.

  15. A study on chlorination of uranium metal using ammonium chloride

    Eun, H.C.; Kim, T.J.; Jang, J.H.; Kim, G.Y.; Lee, S.J.; Hur, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the chlorination of uranium metal using ammonium chloride (NH 4 Cl) was conducted to derive an easy and simple uranium chloride production method without impurities. In thermodynamic equilibrium calculations, it was predicted that only uranium chlorides can be produced by the reactions between uranium metal and NH 4 Cl. Experimental conditions for the chlorination of uranium metal were determined using a chlorination test of cerium metal using NH 4 Cl. It was confirmed that UCl 3 and UCl 4 in the form of particles as uranium chlorination products can be obtained from the chlorination method using NH 4 Cl. (author)

  16. Two-electron oxidation of cobalt phthalocyanines by thionyl chloride: Implications for lithium/thionyl chloride batteries. Technical report

    Bernstein, P.A.; Lever, A.B.

    1989-10-20

    Cyclic voltammetry, DPV and electronic spectroscopy are used to study the reaction between thionyl chloride and cobalt phthalocyanine. SOCl2 reacts with (Co(I)Tn Pc(2-)) and Co(II)Tn Pc(2-) to give two-electron oxidized species. Implications for Li/SOCl2 batteries are discussed. Thionyl chloride also forms a mono SOCl2 adduct with Co(II)TnPc(2-). Driving forces (Delta E values) were calculated for CoTnPc comproportionation and CoTnPc + SOCl2 reactions. Rest potential measurements of a Li/SOCl2 cells show that addition of AlCl3 stabilizes the LiCl product as LiAlCl4. A catalytic two-electron mechanism is indicated for the reduction of thionyl chloride in a Li/SOCl2/(CoTnPc,C) battery.

  17. Lithium: Thionyl chloride battery state-of-the-art assessment

    Eisenmann, E.T.

    1996-03-01

    Models of the performance of primary Li/SOCl{sub 2} cells can provide for realistic comparisons between technical information from different sources, and set standards that electronic circuit designers may refer to in the generation of high-quality products. Data from various investigators were used to derive mathematical- statistical relationships with physical design features (e.g. size and materials), operating parameters (e.g. current and temperature) and storage conditions (time and temperature). These efforts were substantially promoted by normalization procedures. For example, current loads were converted into current densities, or if appropriate, into current per unit cathode volume. Similarly, cell capacities were standardized with the maximum values observed at low current and also with respect to the cathode volume. Particular emphasis was placed on evaluations of voltage-delay, cell capacity and self-discharge, for which several equations were established. In spite of a considerable expenditure in time to find high-quality datasets, the reality is that all of the reviewed studies are flawed in one way or another. Specifically, all datasets are afflicted with sizable experimental errors and the precision of the regression equations is much lower than is deemed necessary for a universal model of the lithium thionyl chloride cell. Each of the equations has some definite truth content, but is generally incapable of bridging the gap between different studies. The basic failure to come up with a unifying model for Li/SOCl{sub 2} batteries leaves only one benefit of the present analysis, namely to provide guidance for future investigations. Several recommendations are made based on the insight gained during the search for good data in the relevant literature.

  18. Interaction of calcium oxide with molten alkali metal chlorides

    Volkovich, A.V.; Zhuravlev, V.I.; Ermakov, D.S.; Magurina, M.V.

    1999-01-01

    Calcium oxide solubility in molten lithium, sodium, potassium, cesium chlorides and their binary mixtures is determined in a temperature range of 973-1173 K by the method of isothermal saturation. Mechanisms of calcium oxide interaction with molten alkali metal chlorides are proposed

  19. Lithium-Thionyl Chloride Batteries for the Mars Pathfinder Microrover

    Deligiannis, F.; Frank, H.; Staniewicz, R.J.; Willson, J. [SAFT America, Inc., Cockeysville, MD (United States)

    1996-02-01

    A discussion of the power requirements for the Mars Pathfinder Mission is given. Topics include: battery requirements; cell design; battery design; test descriptions and results. A summary of the results is also included.

  20. Lithium-Thionyl Chloride Batteries for the Mars Pathfinder Microrover

    Deligiannis, Frank; Frank, Harvey; Staniewicz, R. J.; Willson, John

    1996-01-01

    A discussion of the power requirements for the Mars Pathfinder Mission is given. Topics include: battery requirements; cell design; battery design; test descriptions and results. A summary of the results is also included.

  1. VOLATILE CHLORIDE PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF METAL VALUES

    Hanley, W.R.

    1959-01-01

    A process is presented for recovering uranium, iron, and aluminum from centain shale type ores which contain uranium in minute quantities. The ore is heated wiih a chlorinating agent. such as chlorine, to form a volatilized stream of metal chlorides. The chloride stream is then passed through granular alumina which preferentially absorbs the volatile uranium chloride and from which the uranium may later be recovered. The remaining volatilized chlorides, chiefly those of iron and aluminum, are further treated to recover chlorine gas for recycle, and to recover ferric oxide and aluminum oxide as valuable by-products.

  2. Lithium thionyl chloride cells and batteries Technical predictions versus 1994 realities

    Staniewicz, R.J. [Saft Research and Development Center, Hunt Valley, MD (United States)

    1995-04-01

    Lithium thionyl chloride D-cells, when discharged at moderate rates of 50 W/kg, provide an impressive energy density of > 350 Wh/kg; however, multiple cell batteries present serious challenges for thermal management when subjected to discharge to 0 V and overdischarge into voltage reversal at the 50 W/kg rate. This paper describes the important influence electrochemical cell balance and design has upon decreasing the heat generation within batteries. (orig.)

  3. Lithium thionyl chloride cells and batteries Technical predictions versus 1994 realities

    Staniewicz, R. J.

    Lithium thionyl chloride D-cells, when discharged at moderate rates of 50 W/kg, provide an impressive energy density of > 350 Wh/kg; however, multiple cell batteries present serious challenges for thermal management when subjected to discharge to 0 V and overdischarge into voltage reversal at the 50 W/kg rate. This paper describes the important influence electrochemical cell balance and design has upon decreasing the heat generation within batteries.

  4. Metal-air battery research and development

    Behrin, E.; Cooper, J. F.

    1982-05-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Metal-air Battery Program during the calendar year 1981. The principal objective is to develop a refuelable battery as an automotive energy source for general-purpose electric vehicles and to conduct engineering demonstrations of its ability to provide vehicles with the range, acceleration, and rapid refueling capability of current internal-combustion-engine automobiles. The second objective is to develop an electrically-rechargeable battery for specific-mission electric vehicles, such as commuter vehicles, that can provide low-cost transportation. The development progression is to: (1) develop a mechanically rechargeable aluminum-air power cell using model electrodes, (2) develop cost-effective anode and cathode materials and structures as required to achieve reliability and efficiency goals, and to establish the economic competitiveness of this technology, and (3) develop and integrated propulsion system utilizing the power cell.

  5. Optimization of the lithium/thionyl chloride battery

    White, Ralph E.

    1989-01-01

    A 1-D math model for the lithium/thionyl chloride primary cell is used in conjunction with a parameter estimation technique in order to estimate the electro-kinetic parameters of this electrochemical system. The electro-kinetic parameters include the anodic transfer coefficient and exchange current density of the lithium oxidation, alpha sub a,1 and i sub o,i,ref, the cathodic transfer coefficient and the effective exchange current density of the thionyl chloride reduction, alpha sub c,2 and a sup o i sub o,2,ref, and a morphology parameter, Xi. The parameter estimation is performed on simulated data first in order to gain confidence in the method. Data, reported in the literature, for a high rate discharge of an experimental lithium/thionyl chloride cell is used for an analysis.

  6. Reserve lithium-thionyl chloride battery for high rate extended mission applications

    Peabody, Mark; Brown, Robert A.

    An effort has been made to develop technology for lithium-thionyl chloride batteries whose emission times will extend beyond 20 min and whose power levels will be in excess of 1800 W, using the requirements for an existing silver-zinc battery's electrical requirements as a baseline. The target design encompasses separate 31- and 76-V sections; the design goal was the reduction of battery weight to 50 percent that of the present silver/zinc cell. A cell has been achieved whose mission can be conducted without container heat losses.

  7. Development and characterization of a high capacity lithium/thionyl chloride battery

    Boyle, Gerald H.; Goebel, Franz

    A 30 V lithium/thionyl chloride battery with 320 Ah capacity capable of operating at currents of 14 to 75 A has been developed and tested over a temperature range from 15 to 71 °C. The 81 lb battery consists of nine series connected cylindrical cells in a three-by-three arrangement within an aluminum case. The cells are of a parallel disc electrode design with a total active surface area of 10 200 cm 2. Cells and batteries have each been tested for safety, performance and to a space environment. The battery has clearly performed in excess of the specification requirements. The cell design is very adaptable to many battery design requirements.

  8. Development and characterization of a high capacity lithium/thionyl chloride battery

    Boyle, G.H. [Yardney Technical Products, Inc., Pawcatuck, CT (United States); Goebel, F. [Yardney Technical Products, Inc., Pawcatuck, CT (United States)

    1995-04-01

    A 30 V lithium/thionyl chloride battery with 320 Ah capacity capable of operating at currents of 14 to 75 A has been developed and tested over a temperature range from 15 to 71 C. The 81 lb battery consists of nine series connected cylindrical cells in a three-by-three arrangement within an aluminum case. The cells are of a parallel disc electrode design with a total active surface area of 10 200 cm{sup 2}. Cells and batteries have each been tested for safety, performance and to a space environment. The battery has clearly performed in excess of the specification requirements. The cell design is very adaptable to many battery design requirements. (orig.)

  9. Hydrometallurgical Recovery of Metal Values From Spent Dry Battery Cells

    Rabah, M.A.; Barakat, M.A.; Mahrous, Y.Sh.

    1999-01-01

    This study focuses on the recovery of metal values from spent dry battery cells (DBC) applying a hydro-pyrometallurgical method. A process flow sheet was followed up starting with cutting the DBC with toothed cutter disc followed by water soaking and rinsing. Water soluble ingredients were filtered. Solid residue was assorted with the help of magnetic separation and water flotation.The method utilizes hydrogen peroxide to enhance dissolution of these metals in acidic or alkaline leachants. Parameters affecting the recovery efficiency such as stoichiometric ratio, solid: liquid ratio, temperature, time and ph of the system were investigated. In this concern, experiments were executed with a battery sample weighing up to 15 kg. Atomic absorption analysis showed that the input DBC contain appreciable amounts of metal zinc, zinc chloride and manganese that are recoverable.Results obtained revealed that metallic parts, carbon rods and paper were safely separated for recycling. From the water-soluble salts, pure NH 4 CI, MnO 2 and ZnCI 2 salts are obtained meeting the standard specifications. Temperature up to 55 degree enhances the recovery process. Under the optimum conditions, maximum recovery efficiency obtained amounts to 93% for Mn, and 99.5% for Zn and NH 4 CI. A model for explaining the obtained results was also given. Dissolution of metals concerned increases in the order nitric> hydrochloric acid. Results were explained in the premise of the kinetic and thermodynamic properties of the reactions involved. Cost estimate of the products shows that the prices of the products are competitive to those of the market prices

  10. Electrolytes comprising metal amide and metal chlorides for multivalent battery

    Liao, Chen; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Burrell, Anthony; Vaughey, John T.

    2017-03-21

    An electrolyte includes compounds of formula M.sup.1X.sub.n and M.sup.2Z.sub.m; and a solvent wherein M.sup.1 is Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Sc, Ti, Al, or Zn; M.sup.2 is Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Sc, Ti, Al, or Zn; X is a group forming a covalent bond with M.sup.1; Z is a halogen or pseudo-halogen; n is 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6; and m is 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6.

  11. High rate lithium/thionyl chloride bipolar battery development

    Russell, P. G.; Goebel, F.

    The lithium/thionyl chloride ( {Li}/{SOCl2}) electrochemistry is capable of providing high power and high specific power, especially under pulse discharge conditions, when cells containing thin components are arranged in a bipolar configuration. This paper describes recent work concerned with bipolar cell design, cathode evaluation, component manufacturing methods, and the assembly and testing of bipolar modules containing up to 150 cells for Sonobuoy application.

  12. High rate lithium-thionyl chloride bipolar battery development

    Russell, P.G.; Goebel, F. [Yardney Technical Products, Inc., Pawcatuck, CT (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The lithium/thionyl chloride system is capable of providing both high power and high energy density when cells containing thin components are arranged in a bipolar configuration. Electrode current densities in excess of 300mA/cm{sup 2} are achieved during pulse discharge. The present work is concerned with bipolar cell design, cathode evaluation, component manufacturing methods, and the assembly and testing of bipolar modules containing up to 150 cells.

  13. High rate lithium/thionyl chloride bipolar battery development

    Russell, P.G. [Yardney Technical Products, Inc., Pawcatuck, CT (United States); Goebel, F. [Yardney Technical Products, Inc., Pawcatuck, CT (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The lithium/thionyl chloride (Li/SOCl{sub 2}) electrochemistry is capable of providing high power and high specific power, especially under pulse discharge conditions, when cells containing thin components are arranged in a bipolar configuration. This paper describes recent work concerned with bipolar cell design, cathode evaluation, component manufacturing methods, and the assembly and testing of bipolar modules containing up to 150 cells for Sonobuoy application. (orig.)

  14. Electrodeposition of platinum metals and alloys from chloride melts

    Saltykova N.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure of platinum metals and their alloys deposited by the electrolysis of chloride melts have been investigated. The cathodic deposits were both in the form of compact layers and dendrites. All the alloys of platinum metals obtained are solid solutions in the whole range of composition. Depending on the experimental conditions the layers had columnar, stratum and spiral (dissipative structures. The stratum and dissipative structures were observed in the case of alloys only.

  15. Redox flow batteries based on supporting solutions containing chloride

    Li, Liyu; Kim, Soowhan; Yang, Zhenguo; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Jianlu; Chen, Baowei; Nie, Zimin; Xia, Guanguang

    2014-01-14

    Redox flow battery systems having a supporting solution that contains Cl.sup.- ions can exhibit improved performance and characteristics. Furthermore, a supporting solution having mixed SO.sub.4.sup.2- and Cl.sup.- ions can provide increased energy density and improved stability and solubility of one or more of the ionic species in the catholyte and/or anolyte. According to one example, a vanadium-based redox flow battery system is characterized by an anolyte having V.sup.2+ and V.sup.3+ in a supporting solution and a catholyte having V.sup.4+ and V.sup.5+ in a supporting solution. The supporting solution can contain Cl.sup.- ions or a mixture of SO.sub.4.sup.2- and Cl.sup.- ions.

  16. Redox flow batteries based on supporting solutions containing chloride

    Li, Liyu; Kim, Soowhan; Yang, Zhenguo; Wang, Wei; Nie, Zimin; Chen, Baowei; Zhang, Jianlu; Xia, Guanguang

    2017-11-14

    Redox flow battery systems having a supporting solution that contains Cl.sup.- ions can exhibit improved performance and characteristics. Furthermore, a supporting solution having mixed SO.sub.4.sup.2- and Cl.sup.- ions can provide increased energy density and improved stability and solubility of one or more of the ionic species in the catholyte and/or anolyte. According to one example, a vanadium-based redox flow battery system is characterized by an anolyte having V.sup.2+ and V.sup.3+ in a supporting solution and a catholyte having V.sup.4+ and V.sup.5+ in a supporting solution. The supporting solution can contain Cl.sup.- ions or a mixture of SO.sub.4.sup.2- and Cl.sup.- ions.

  17. Recent progress in rechargeable alkali metalâair batteries

    Xin Zhang; Xin-Gai Wang; Zhaojun Xie; Zhen Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Rechargeable alkali metalâair batteries are considered as the most promising candidate for the power source of electric vehicles (EVs) due to their high energy density. However, the practical application of metalâair batteries is still challenging. In the past decade, many strategies have been purposed and explored, which promoted the development of metalâair batteries. The reaction mechanisms have been gradually clarified and catalysts have been rationally designed for air cathodes. In this ...

  18. Chloride-Reinforced Carbon Nanofiber Host as Effective Polysulfide Traps in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Fan, Lei; Zhuang, Houlong L; Zhang, Kaihang; Cooper, Valentino R; Li, Qi; Lu, Yingying

    2016-12-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is one of the most promising alternatives for the current state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries due to its high theoretical energy density and low production cost from the use of sulfur. However, the commercialization of Li-S batteries has been so far limited to the cyclability and the retention of active sulfur materials. Using co-electrospinning and physical vapor deposition procedures, we created a class of chloride-carbon nanofiber composites, and studied their effectiveness on polysulfides sequestration. By trapping sulfur reduction products in the modified cathode through both chemical and physical confinements, these chloride-coated cathodes are shown to remarkably suppress the polysulfide dissolution and shuttling between lithium and sulfur electrodes. From adsorption experiments and theoretical calculations, it is shown that not only the sulfide-adsorption effect but also the diffusivity in the vicinity of these chlorides materials plays an important role on the reversibility of sulfur-based cathode upon repeated cycles. Balancing the adsorption and diffusion effects of these nonconductive materials could lead to the enhanced cycling performance of an Li-S cell. Electrochemical analyses over hundreds of cycles indicate that cells containing indium chloride-modified carbon nanofiber outperform cells with other halogenated salts, delivering an average specific capacity of above 1200 mAh g -1 at 0.2 C.

  19. Cathode architectures for alkali metal / oxygen batteries

    Visco, Steven J; Nimon, Vitaliy; De Jonghe, Lutgard C; Volfkovich, Yury; Bograchev, Daniil

    2015-01-13

    Electrochemical energy storage devices, such as alkali metal-oxygen battery cells (e.g., non-aqueous lithium-air cells), have a cathode architecture with a porous structure and pore composition that is tailored to improve cell performance, especially as it pertains to one or more of the discharge/charge rate, cycle life, and delivered ampere-hour capacity. A porous cathode architecture having a pore volume that is derived from pores of varying radii wherein the pore size distribution is tailored as a function of the architecture thickness is one way to achieve one or more of the aforementioned cell performance improvements.

  20. Ferric chloride-graphite intercalation compounds as anode materials for Li-ion batteries.

    Wang, Lili; Zhu, Yongchun; Guo, Cong; Zhu, Xiaobo; Liang, Jianwen; Qian, Yitai

    2014-01-01

    Ferric chloride-graphite intercalation compounds (FeCl3 -GICs) with stage 1 and stage 2 structures were synthesized by reacting FeCl3 and expanded graphite (EG) in air in a stainless-steel autoclave. As rechargeable Li-ion batteries, these FeCl3 -GICs exhibit high capacity, excellent cycling stability, and superior rate capability, which could be attributed to their unique intercalation features. This work may enable new possibilities for the fabrication of Li-ion batteries. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Rechargeable dual-metal-ion batteries for advanced energy storage.

    Yao, Hu-Rong; You, Ya; Yin, Ya-Xia; Wan, Li-Jun; Guo, Yu-Guo

    2016-04-14

    Energy storage devices are more important today than any time before in human history due to the increasing demand for clean and sustainable energy. Rechargeable batteries are emerging as the most efficient energy storage technology for a wide range of portable devices, grids and electronic vehicles. Future generations of batteries are required to have high gravimetric and volumetric energy, high power density, low price, long cycle life, high safety and low self-discharge properties. However, it is quite challenging to achieve the above properties simultaneously in state-of-the-art single metal ion batteries (e.g. Li-ion batteries, Na-ion batteries and Mg-ion batteries). In this contribution, hybrid-ion batteries in which various metal ions simultaneously engage to store energy are shown to provide a new perspective towards advanced energy storage: by connecting the respective advantages of different metal ion batteries they have recently attracted widespread attention due to their novel performances. The properties of hybrid-ion batteries are not simply the superposition of the performances of single ion batteries. To enable a distinct description, we only focus on dual-metal-ion batteries in this article, for which the design and the benefits are briefly discussed. We enumerate some new results about dual-metal-ion batteries and demonstrate the mechanism for improving performance based on knowledge from the literature and experiments. Although the search for hybrid-ion batteries is still at an early age, we believe that this strategy would be an excellent choice for breaking the inherent disadvantages of single ion batteries in the near future.

  2. An integrated model of the lithium/thionyl chloride battery

    Jungst, R.G.; Nagasubramanian, G.; Ingersoll, D.; O`Gorman, C.C.; Paez, T.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jain, M.; Weidner, J.W. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    1998-06-08

    The desire to reduce the time and cost of design engineering on new components or to validate existing designs in new applications is stimulating the development of modeling and simulation tools. The authors are applying a model-based design approach to low and moderate rate versions of the Li/SOCl{sub 2} D-size cell with success. Three types of models are being constructed and integrated to achieve maximum capability and flexibility in the final simulation tool. A phenomenology based electrochemical model links performance and the cell design, chemical processes, and material properties. An artificial neural network model improves computational efficiency and fills gaps in the simulation capability when fundamental cell parameters are too difficult to measure or the forms of the physical relationships are not understood. Finally, a PSpice-based model provides a simple way to test the cell under realistic electrical circuit conditions. Integration of these three parts allows a complete link to be made between fundamental battery design characteristics and the performance of the rest of the electrical subsystem.

  3. Cell overcharge testing inside sodium metal halide battery

    Frutschy, Kris; Chatwin, Troy; Bull, Roger

    2015-09-01

    Testing was conducted to measure electrical performance and safety of the General Electric Durathon™ E620 battery module (600 V class 20 kWh) during cell overcharge. Data gathered from this test was consistent with SAE Electric Vehicle Battery Abuse Testing specification J2464 [1]. After cell overcharge failure and 24 A current flow for additional 60 minutes, battery was then discharged at 7.5 KW average power to 12% state of charge (SOC) and recharged back to 100% SOC. This overcharging test was performed on two cells. No hydrogen chloride (HCl) gas was detected during front cell (B1) test, and small amount (6.2 ppm peak) was measured outside the battery after center cell (F13) overcharge. An additional overcharge test was performed per UL Standard 1973 - Batteries for Use in Light Electric Rail (LER) Applications and Stationary Applications[2]. With the battery at 11% SOC and 280 °C float temperature, an individual cell near the front (D1) was deliberately imbalanced by charging it to 62% SOC. The battery was then recharged to 100% SOC. In all three tests, the battery cell pack was stable and individual cell failure did not propagate to other cells. Battery discharge performance, charge performance, and electrical isolation were normal after all three tests.

  4. Neural Network Modeling of the Lithium/Thionyl Chloride Battery System

    Ingersoll, D.; Jungst, R.G.; O' Gorman, C.C.; Paez, T.L.

    1998-10-29

    Battery systems have traditionally relied on extensive build and test procedures for product realization. Analytical models have been developed to diminish this reliance, but have only been partially successful in consistently predicting the performance of battery systems. The complex set of interacting physical and chemical processes within battery systems has made the development of analytical models a significant challenge. Advanced simulation tools are needed to more accurately model battery systems which will reduce the time and cost required for product realization. Sandia has initiated an advanced model-based design strategy to battery systems, beginning with the performance of lithiumhhionyl chloride cells. As an alternative approach, we have begun development of cell performance modeling using non-phenomenological models for battery systems based on artificial neural networks (ANNs). ANNs are inductive models for simulating input/output mappings with certain advantages over phenomenological models, particularly for complex systems. Among these advantages is the ability to avoid making measurements of hard to determine physical parameters or having to understand cell processes sufficiently to write mathematical functions describing their behavior. For example, ANN models are also being studied for simulating complex physical processes within the Li/SOC12 cell, such as the time and temperature dependence of the anode interracial resistance. ANNs have been shown to provide a very robust and computationally efficient simulation tool for predicting voltage and capacity output for Li/SOC12 cells under a variety of operating conditions. The ANN modeling approach should be applicable to a wide variety of battery chemistries, including rechargeable systems.

  5. A stable organic-inorganic hybrid layer protected lithium metal anode for long-cycle lithium-oxygen batteries

    Zhu, Jinhui; Yang, Jun; Zhou, Jingjing; Zhang, Tao; Li, Lei; Wang, Jiulin; Nuli, Yanna

    2017-10-01

    A stable organic-inorganic hybrid layer (OIHL) is direct fabricated on lithium metal surface by the interfacial reaction of lithium metal foil with 1-chlorodecane and oxygen/carbon dioxide mixed gas. This favorable OIHL is approximately 30 μm thick and consists of lithium alkyl carbonate and lithium chloride. The lithium-oxygen batteries with OIHL protected lithium metal anode exhibit longer cycle life (340 cycles) than those with bare lithium metal anode (50 cycles). This desirable performance can be ascribed to the robust OIHL which prevents the growth of lithium dendrites and the corrosion of lithium metal.

  6. Metal hydrides for hydrogen storage in nickel hydrogen batteries

    Bittner, H.F.; Badcock, C.C.; Quinzio, M.V.

    1984-01-01

    Metal hydride hydrogen storage in nickel hydrogen (Ni/H 2 ) batteries has been shown to increase battery energy density and improve battery heat management capabilities. However the properties of metal hydrides in a Ni/H 2 battery environment, which contains water vapor and oxygen in addition to the hydrogen, have not been well characterized. This work evaluates the use of hydrides in Ni/H 2 batteries by fundamental characterization of metal hydride properties in a Ni/H 2 cell environment. Hydrogen sorption properties of various hydrides have been measured in a Ni/H 2 cell environment. Results of detailed thermodynamic and kinetic studies of hydrogen sorption in LaNi 5 in a Ni/H 2 cell environment are presented. Long-term cycling studies indicate that degradation of the hydride can be minimized by cycling between certain pressure limits. A model describing the mechanism of hydride degradation is presented

  7. Nanoporous Polymer-Ceramic Composite Electrolytes for Lithium Metal Batteries

    Tu, Zhengyuan; Kambe, Yu; Lu, Yingying; Archer, Lynden A.

    2013-01-01

    A nanoporous composite material that offers the unique combination of high room-temperature ionic conductivity and high mechanical modulus is reported. When used as the separator/electrolyte in lithium batteries employing metallic lithium as anode

  8. Metal Fluorides, Metal Chlorides and Halogenated Metal Oxides as Lewis Acidic Heterogeneous Catalysts. Providing Some Context for Nanostructured Metal Fluorides.

    Lennon, David; Winfield, John M

    2017-01-28

    Aspects of the chemistry of selected metal fluorides, which are pertinent to their real or potential use as Lewis acidic, heterogeneous catalysts, are reviewed. Particular attention is paid to β-aluminum trifluoride, aluminum chlorofluoride and aluminas γ and η, whose surfaces become partially fluorinated or chlorinated, through pre-treatment with halogenating reagents or during a catalytic reaction. In these cases, direct comparisons with nanostructured metal fluorides are possible. In the second part of the review, attention is directed to iron(III) and copper(II) metal chlorides, whose Lewis acidity and potential redox function have had important catalytic implications in large-scale chlorohydrocarbons chemistry. Recent work, which highlights the complexity of reactions that can occur in the presence of supported copper(II) chloride as an oxychlorination catalyst, is featured. Although direct comparisons with nanostructured fluorides are not currently possible, the work could be relevant to possible future catalytic developments in nanostructured materials.

  9. Corrosion susceptibility study of candidate pin materials for ALTC (active lithium/thionyl chloride) batteries. [Active lithium/thionyl chloride

    Bovard, F.S.; Cieslak, W.R.

    1987-09-01

    (ALTC = active lithium/thionyl chloride.) We have investigated the corrosion susceptibilities of eight alternate battery pin materials in 1.5M LiAlCl/sub 4//SOCl/sub 2/ electrolyte using ampule exposure and electrochemical tests. The thermal expansion coefficients of these candidate materials are expected to match Sandia-developed Li-corrosion resistant glasses. The corrosion resistances of the candidate materials, which included three stainless steels (15-5 PH, 17-4 PH, and 446), three Fe-Ni glass sealing alloys (Kovar, Alloy 52, and Niromet 426), a Ni-based alloy (Hastelloy B-2) and a zirconium-based alloy (Zircaloy), were compared to the reference materials Ni and 316L SS. All of the candidate materials showed some evidence of corrosion and, therefore, did not perform as well as the reference materials. The Hastelloy B-2 and Zircaloy are clearly unacceptable materials for this application. Of the remaining alternate materials, the 446 SS and Alloy 52 are the most promising candidates.

  10. A new bonded catalyst for safe lithium-thionyl chloride batteries

    Walsh, F.; Hopewood, J.

    1982-08-01

    The goal of the research effort was to demonstrate that a new class of organometallic cathode catalysts, the TAAs, are stable in thionyl chloride and that they significantly improve the power performance of lithium-thionyl chloride primary batteries. A number of TAAs were evaluated and shown to be active catalysts. Included in this evaluation were TAAs which were covalently bonded to the supporting carbon electrode material; a covalently bonded catalyst has the potential advantage that it will not dissolve into the electrolyte and negatively affect anode performance. During the six month research program, the TAAS were shown to: significantly improve cathode performance in Li/SOCl2 cells; improve cathode capacity; improve cathode performance throughout long-term tests; and not affect anode performance. Further work is needed to develop data in cell studies on temperature range, shelf life, voltage delay effects, energy/power density as a function of rate, and factors affecting electrode capacity. Battery performance in stress tests to develop safety and cost data is also needed.

  11. Research in Nickel/Metal Hydride Batteries 2017

    Kwo-Hsiung Young

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Continuing from a special issue in Batteries in 2016, nineteen new papers focusing on recent research activities in the field of nickel/metal hydride (Ni/MH batteries have been selected for the 2017 Special Issue of Ni/MH Batteries. These papers summarize the international joint-efforts in Ni/MH battery research from BASF, Wayne State University, Michigan State University, FDK Corp. (Japan, Institute for Energy Technology (Norway, Central South University (China, University of Science and Technology Beijing (China, Zhengzhou University of Light Industry (China, Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology (China, Shenzhen Highpower (China, and University of the Witwatersrand (South Africa from 2016–2017 through reviews of AB2 metal hydride alloys, Chinese and EU Patent Applications, as well as descriptions of research results in metal hydride alloys, nickel hydroxide, electrolyte, and new cell type, comparison work, and projections of future works.

  12. Lithium-thionyl chloride battery. Final report, 1 October 1978-30 November 1980

    Wong, D.; Bowden, W.; Hamilton, N.; Cubbison, D.; Dey, A.N.

    1981-04-01

    The main objective is to develop, fabricate, test, and deliver safe high rate lithium-thionyl chloride batteries for various U.S. Army applications such as manpack ratios and GLLD Laser Designators. We have devoted our efforts in the following major areas: (1) Optimization of the spirally wound D cell for high rate applications, (2) Development of a 3 inch diameter flat cylindrical cell for the GLLD laser designator application, and (3) Investigation of the reduction mechanism of SOCl2. The rate capability of the spirally wound D cell previously developed by us has been optimized for both the manpack radio (BA5590) battery and GLLD laser designator battery application in this program. A flat cylindrical cell has also been developed for the GLLD laser designator application. It is 3 inches in diameter and 0.9 inch in height with extremely low internal cell impedance that minimizes cell heating and polarization on the GLLD load. Typical cell capacity was found to be 18.0-19.0 Ahr with a few cells delivering up to about 21.0 Ahr on the GLLD test load. Study of the reduction mechanism of SOCl2 using electrochemical and spectroscopic techniques has also been carried out in this program which may be directly relevant to the intrinsic safety of the system.

  13. Thermal management of Li-ion battery with liquid metal

    Yang, Xiao-Hu; Tan, Si-Cong; Liu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Liquid metal is used for power battery pack thermal management. • Better cooling performance and more uniform module temperature is obtained. • Less power consumption is needed. • The proposed liquid metal cooling system is robust and can cope with stressful conditions. - Abstract: Thermal management especially cooling of electric vehicles (EVs) battery pack is of great significance for guaranteeing the performance of the cells as well as safety and high-efficiency working of the EVs. Liquid cooling is a powerful way to keep the battery temperature in a proper range. However, the efficiency of conventional liquid cooling is still limited due to the inherently low thermal conductivity of the coolant which is usually water or aqueous ethanol. In this paper, a new kind of coolant, liquid metal, is proposed to be used for the thermal management of the battery pack. Mathematical analysis and numerical simulations are conducted to evaluate the cooling capability, pump power consumption and module temperature uniformity of the liquid metal cooling system, in comparison with that of water cooling. The results show that under the same flow conditions, a lower and more uniform module temperature can be obtained and less pump power consumption are needed in the liquid metal cooling system. In addition, liquid metal has an excellent cooling capability coping with stressful conditions, such as high power draw, defects in cells, and high ambient temperature. This makes it a promising coolant for the thermal management of high driving force EVs and quick charge batteries.

  14. Metal hydride compositions and lithium ion batteries

    Young, Kwo; Nei, Jean

    2018-04-24

    Heterogeneous metal hydride (MH) compositions comprising a main region comprising a first metal hydride and a secondary region comprising one or more additional components selected from the group consisting of second metal hydrides, metals, metal alloys and further metal compounds are suitable as anode materials for lithium ion cells. The first metal hydride is for example MgH.sub.2. Methods for preparing the composition include coating, mechanical grinding, sintering, heat treatment and quenching techniques.

  15. Alkali metal ion battery with bimetallic electrode

    Boysen, Dane A; Bradwell, David J; Jiang, Kai; Kim, Hojong; Ortiz, Luis A; Sadoway, Donald R; Tomaszowska, Alina A; Wei, Weifeng; Wang, Kangli

    2015-04-07

    Electrochemical cells having molten electrodes having an alkali metal provide receipt and delivery of power by transporting atoms of the alkali metal between electrode environments of disparate chemical potentials through an electrochemical pathway comprising a salt of the alkali metal. The chemical potential of the alkali metal is decreased when combined with one or more non-alkali metals, thus producing a voltage between an electrode comprising the molten the alkali metal and the electrode comprising the combined alkali/non-alkali metals.

  16. Sodium-metal halide and sodium-air batteries.

    Ha, Seongmin; Kim, Jae-Kwang; Choi, Aram; Kim, Youngsik; Lee, Kyu Tae

    2014-07-21

    Impressive developments have been made in the past a few years toward the establishment of Na-ion batteries as next-generation energy-storage devices and replacements for Li-ion batteries. Na-based cells have attracted increasing attention owing to low production costs due to abundant sodium resources. However, applications of Na-ion batteries are limited to large-scale energy-storage systems because of their lower energy density compared to Li-ion batteries and their potential safety problems. Recently, Na-metal cells such as Na-metal halide and Na-air batteries have been considered to be promising for use in electric vehicles owing to good safety and high energy density, although less attention is focused on Na-metal cells than on Na-ion cells. This Minireview provides an overview of the fundamentals and recent progress in the fields of Na-metal halide and Na-air batteries, with the aim of providing a better understanding of new electrochemical systems. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Development of battery management system for nickel-metal hydride batteries in electric vehicle applications

    Jung, Do Yang; Lee, Baek Haeng; Kim, Sun Wook

    Electric vehicle (EV) performance is very dependent on traction batteries. For developing electric vehicles with high performance and good reliability, the traction batteries have to be managed to obtain maximum performance under various operating conditions. Enhancement of battery performance can be accomplished by implementing a battery management system (BMS) that plays an important role in optimizing the control mechanism of charge and discharge of the batteries as well as monitoring the battery status. In this study, a BMS has been developed for maximizing the use of Ni-MH batteries in electric vehicles. This system performs several tasks: the control of charging and discharging, overcharge and over-discharge protection, the calculation and display of state-of-charge (SOC), safety, and thermal management. The BMS is installed in and tested in a DEV5-5 electric vehicle developed by Daewoo Motor Co. and the Institute for Advanced Engineering in Korea. Eighteen modules of a Panasonic nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) battery, 12 V, 95 A h, are used in the DEV5-5. High accuracy within a range of 3% and good reliability are obtained. The BMS can also improve the performance and cycle-life of the Ni-MH battery peak, as well as the reliability and the safety of the electric vehicles.

  18. Liquid structure and melting of trivalent metal chlorides

    Tosi, M.P.; Pastore, G.; Saboungi, M.L.; Price, D.L.

    1991-03-01

    Many divalent and trivalent metal ions in stoichiometric liquid mixtures of their halides with alkali halides are fourfold or sixfold coordinated by halogens into relatively long-lived ''complexes''. The stability of these local coordination states and the connectivity that arises between them in the approach to the pure polyvalent metal halide melt determines the character of its short-range and possible intermediate-range order. The available evidence on local coordination in some 140 mixtures has been successfully classified by a structure sorting method based on Pettifor's chemical scale of the elements. Within the general phenomenological frame provided by structure sorting, main attention is given in this work to the liquid structure and melting mechanisms of trivalent metal chlorides. The liquid structure of YCl 3 is first discussed on the basis of neutron diffraction measurements and of calculations within a simple ionic model, and the melting mechanisms of YCl 3 and AlCl 3 , which are structurally isomorphous in the crystalline state, are contrasted. By appeal to macroscopic melting parameters and transport coefficients and to liquid structure data on SbCl 3 , it is proposed that the melting mechanisms of these salts may be classified into three main types in correlation with the character of the chemical bond. (author). 31 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  19. Sythesis of rare earth metal - GIC graphite intercalation compound in molten chloride system

    Ito, Masafumi; Hagiwara, Rika; Ito, Yasuhiko

    1994-01-01

    Graphite intercalation compounds of ytterbium and neodymium have been prepared by interacting graphite and metals in molten chlorides. These rare earth metals can be suspended in molten chlorides in the presence of trichlorides via disproportionation reaction RE(0) + RE(III) = 2RE(II) at lower than 300 degC. Carbides-free compounds are obtained in these systems. (author)

  20. Co-N-macrocyclic modified graphene with excellent electrocatalytic activity for lithium-thionyl chloride batteries

    Li, Bimei; Yuan, Zhongzhi; Xu, Ying; Liu, Jincheng

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A Co-N-graphene catalyst composed of CoN 4 -macrocyclic-like (CoN x ) structure is synthesized. • Co-N x -Graphene has effective electrocatalytic activity for Li/SOCl 2 batteries. • The storage stability of the catalyst is attributed to its insolubility in electrolyte. - Abstract: A mixture of cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc) and graphene is thermally decomposed at 800 °C to synthesize a novel catalyst. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) show that the catalyst retains the lamellar structure of graphene. X-ray diffraction (XRD) reveals that the catalyst is no longer composed of CoPc and high-resolution TEM (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) prove that Co and N elements have entered the graphene molecular structure, thus forming a Co-N x -graphene (Co-N x -G) catalyst composed of a CoN 4 -macrocyclic-like structure. This catalyst serves as an excellent catalyst of thionyl chloride (SOCl 2 ) reduction. Cyclic voltammetry and battery discharge tests reveal that Co-N x -G-800 substantially increases the discharge voltage and capacity of a Li/SOCl 2 battery. Moreover, Co-N x -G-800 exhibits stable catalytic activity during battery storage. Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy shows that CoPc is soluble in a SOCl 2 electrolyte solution, whereas Co-N x -G-800 is not, this characteristic contributes to the stable catalytic property of Co-N x -G.

  1. Research in Nickel/Metal Hydride Batteries 2016

    Kwo-Hsiung Young

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen papers focusing on recent research investigations in the field of nickel/metal hydride (Ni/MH batteries have been selected for this Special Issue of Batteries. These papers summarize the joint efforts in Ni/MH battery research from BASF, Wayne State University, the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Michigan State University, and FDK during 2015–2016 through reviews of basic operational concepts, previous academic publications, issued US Patent and filed Japan Patent Applications, descriptions of current research results in advanced components and cell constructions, and projections of future works.

  2. Electrochemistry of metal chloride cathodes in sodium batteries

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Di Stefano, S.; Halpert, G.

    1990-01-01

    Fundamental electrochemical studies on three candidate materials, i.e., FeCl2, NiCl2, and CuCl2, were carried out using various techniques, such as cyclic voltammetry, linear polarization, potentiodynamic polarization, and ac impedance. These studies were aimed at identifying various rate processes in the reduction, elucidating the reaction mechanisms, and determining the kinetic parameters for the reduction. The limitations in the performance of these cathode materials in high power density applications were also examined. Finally, recommendations were made from these studies for the selection of a candidate system among these materials for future NASA applications.

  3. High rate lithium-thionyl chloride battery development for undersea weapon propulsion applications. Revised. Final report 1 Sep 77-30 Jun 78

    Merz, W.C.; Walk, C.R.

    1978-08-23

    This report describes the experimental results obtained in the development of a high rate lithium, thionyl chloride battery system. Initially, cell optimization studies were conducted with so-called neutral electrolyte, i.e., thionyl chloride containing equimolar quantities of LiCl and AlCl/sup 3/. This report is divided into four sections, Section I - Cell Performance in Neutral Electrolyte, Section II - Cell Performance in Acid Electrolyte, Section III - Discussions of Battery Characteristics and Section IV - Active Battery Considerations.

  4. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of a lithium/thionyl chloride battery with electrolyte flow

    Gu, W.B.; Wang, C.Y.; Weidner, J.W.; Jungst, R.G.; Nagasubramanian, G.

    2000-02-01

    A two-dimensional model is developed to simulate discharge of a lithium/thionyl chloride primary battery. As in earlier one-dimensional models, the model accounts for transport of species and charge, and electrode porosity variations and electrolyte flow induced by the volume reduction caused by electrochemical reactions. Numerical simulations are performed using a finite volume method of computational fluid dynamics. The predicted discharge curves for various temperatures show good agreement with published experimental data, and are essentially identical to results published for one-dimensional models. The detailed two-dimensional flow simulations show that the electrolyte is replenished from the cell head space predominantly through the separator into the front of the cathode during most parts of the discharge, especially for higher cell temperatures.

  5. An unusual self-discharge of a field lithium-thionyl chloride battery submodule

    Lewis, H.L.; Holloway, K.L. [Naval Surface Warfare Center, Crane, IN (United States)

    1995-07-01

    A lithium thionyl chloride submodule in a Peacekeeper site in May 1992 was found to be bulging to a considerable extent. When an attempt was made to discharge the submodule in place, the battery voltage was about 6.1 V in two hours, vs. the expected 10.2V. Thus, it appeared that at least one cell had experienced self-discharge. A subsequent discharge and dissection of the submodule conducted at NAVSURFWARCENDIV Crane showed that one cell in the submodule had indeed self-discharged, but no overt reason could be determined. A number of unusual observations did indicate however that the self-discharge had occurred very slowly, and was therefore a probable consequence of a soft short through a high resistance path. This paper will discuss the discharge and dissection processes and the failure analysis findings, along with the unusual attributes of this particular failure.

  6. Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of a Lithium/Thionyl Chloride Battery with Electrolyte Flow

    Gu, W.B.; Jungst, Rudolph G.; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Wang, C.Y.; Weidner, John.

    1999-06-11

    A two-dimensional model is developed to simulate discharge of a lithium/thionyl chloride primary battery. The model accounts for not only transport of species and charge, but also the electrode porosity variations and the electrolyte flow induced by the volume reduction caused by electrochemical reactions. Numerical simulations are performed using a finite volume method of computational fluid dynamics. The predicted discharge curves for various temperatures are compared to the experimental data with excellent agreement. Moreover, the simulation results. in conjunction with computer visualization and animation techniques, confirm that cell utilization in the temperature and current range of interest is limited by pore plugging or clogging of the front side of the cathode as a result of LiCl precipitation. The detailed two-dimensional flow simulation also shows that the electrolyte is replenished from the cell header predominantly through the separator into the front of the cathode during most parts of the discharge, especially for higher cell temperatures.

  7. Metal hydrides based high energy density thermal battery

    Fang, Zhigang Zak; Zhou, Chengshang; Fan, Peng; Udell, Kent S.; Bowman, Robert C.; Vajo, John J.; Purewal, Justin J.; Kekelia, Bidzina

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The principle of the thermal battery using advanced metal hydrides was demonstrated. • The thermal battery used MgH 2 and TiMnV as a working pair. • High energy density can be achieved by the use of MgH 2 to store thermal energy. - Abstract: A concept of thermal battery based on advanced metal hydrides was studied for heating and cooling of cabins in electric vehicles. The system utilized a pair of thermodynamically matched metal hydrides as energy storage media. The pair of hydrides that was identified and developed was: (1) catalyzed MgH 2 as the high temperature hydride material, due to its high energy density and enhanced kinetics; and (2) TiV 0.62 Mn 1.5 alloy as the matching low temperature hydride. Further, a proof-of-concept prototype was built and tested, demonstrating the potential of the system as HVAC for transportation vehicles

  8. High-energy metal air batteries

    Zhang, Ji-Guang; Xiao, Jie; Xu, Wu; Wang, Deyu; Williford, Ralph E.; Liu, Jun

    2013-07-09

    Disclosed herein are embodiments of lithium/air batteries and methods of making and using the same. Certain embodiments are pouch-cell batteries encased within an oxygen-permeable membrane packaging material that is less than 2% of the total battery weight. Some embodiments include a hybrid air electrode comprising carbon and an ion insertion material, wherein the mass ratio of ion insertion material to carbon is 0.2 to 0.8. The air electrode may include hydrophobic, porous fibers. In particular embodiments, the air electrode is soaked with an electrolyte comprising one or more solvents including dimethyl ether, and the dimethyl ether subsequently is evacuated from the soaked electrode. In other embodiments, the electrolyte comprises 10-20% crown ether by weight.

  9. Analysis of a lithium/thionyl chloride battery under moderate-rate discharge

    Jain, M.; Nagasubramanian, G.; Jungst, R.G.; Weidner, J.W.

    1999-11-01

    A one-dimensional mathematical model of a spirally wound lithium/thionyl chloride primary battery is developed and used for parameter estimation and design studies. The model formulation is based on the fundamental conservation laws using porous electrode theory and concentrated solution theory. The model is used to estimate the transference number, the diffusion coefficient, and the kinetic parameters for the reactions at the anode and the cathode as a function of temperature. These parameters are obtained by fitting the simulated capacity and average cell voltage to experimental data over a wide range of temperatures ({minus}55 to 49 C) and discharge loads (10--250 {Omega}). The experiments were performed on D-sized, cathode-limited, spirally wound lithium/thionyl chloride cells. The model is also used to study the effect of cathode thickness on the cell capacity as a function of temperature, and it was found that the optimum thickness for the cathode-limited design is temperature and load dependent.

  10. High-Energy-Density Metal-Oxygen Batteries: Lithium-Oxygen Batteries vs Sodium-Oxygen Batteries.

    Song, Kyeongse; Agyeman, Daniel Adjei; Park, Mihui; Yang, Junghoon; Kang, Yong-Mook

    2017-12-01

    The development of next-generation energy-storage devices with high power, high energy density, and safety is critical for the success of large-scale energy-storage systems (ESSs), such as electric vehicles. Rechargeable sodium-oxygen (Na-O 2 ) batteries offer a new and promising opportunity for low-cost, high-energy-density, and relatively efficient electrochemical systems. Although the specific energy density of the Na-O 2 battery is lower than that of the lithium-oxygen (Li-O 2 ) battery, the abundance and low cost of sodium resources offer major advantages for its practical application in the near future. However, little has so far been reported regarding the cell chemistry, to explain the rate-limiting parameters and the corresponding low round-trip efficiency and cycle degradation. Consequently, an elucidation of the reaction mechanism is needed for both lithium-oxygen and sodium-oxygen cells. An in-depth understanding of the differences and similarities between Li-O 2 and Na-O 2 battery systems, in terms of thermodynamics and a structural viewpoint, will be meaningful to promote the development of advanced metal-oxygen batteries. State-of-the-art battery design principles for high-energy-density lithium-oxygen and sodium-oxygen batteries are thus reviewed in depth here. Major drawbacks, reaction mechanisms, and recent strategies to improve performance are also summarized. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Dry cell battery poisoning

    Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries ...

  12. Corrosion susceptibility study of candidate pin materials for ALTC (Active Lithium/Thionyl Chloride) batteries

    Bovard, Francine S.; Cieslak, Wendy R.

    1987-09-01

    The corrosion susceptibilities of eight alternate battery pin material candidates for ALTC (Active Lithium/Thionyl Chloride) batteries in 1.5M LiAlCl4/SOCl2 electrolyte have been investigated using ampule exposure and electrochemical tests. The thermal expansion coefficients of these candidate materials are expected to match Sandia-developed Li-corrosion resistant glasses. The corrosion resistances of the candidate materials, which included three stainless steels (15-5 PH, 17-4 PH, and 446), three Fe-Ni glass sealing alloys (Kovar, Alloy 52, and Niromet 426), a Ni-based alloy (Hastelloy B-2) and a zirconium-based alloy (Zircaloy), were compared to the reference materials Ni and 316L SS. All of the candidate materials showed some evidence of corrosion and, therefore, did not perform as well as the reference materials. The Hastelloy B-2 and Zircaloy are clearly unacceptable materials for this application. Of the remaining alternate materials, the 446 SS and Alloy 52 are the most promising candidates.

  13. Bending-Tolerant Anodes for Lithium-Metal Batteries.

    Wang, Aoxuan; Tang, Shan; Kong, Debin; Liu, Shan; Chiou, Kevin; Zhi, Linjie; Huang, Jiaxing; Xia, Yong-Yao; Luo, Jiayan

    2018-01-01

    Bendable energy-storage systems with high energy density are demanded for conformal electronics. Lithium-metal batteries including lithium-sulfur and lithium-oxygen cells have much higher theoretical energy density than lithium-ion batteries. Reckoned as the ideal anode, however, Li has many challenges when directly used, especially its tendency to form dendrite. Under bending conditions, the Li-dendrite growth can be further aggravated due to bending-induced local plastic deformation and Li-filaments pulverization. Here, the Li-metal anodes are made bending tolerant by integrating Li into bendable scaffolds such as reduced graphene oxide (r-GO) films. In the composites, the bending stress is largely dissipated by the scaffolds. The scaffolds have increased available surface for homogeneous Li plating and minimize volume fluctuation of Li electrodes during cycling. Significantly improved cycling performance under bending conditions is achieved. With the bending-tolerant r-GO/Li-metal anode, bendable lithium-sulfur and lithium-oxygen batteries with long cycling stability are realized. A bendable integrated solar cell-battery system charged by light with stable output and a series connected bendable battery pack with higher voltage is also demonstrated. It is anticipated that this bending-tolerant anode can be combined with further electrolytes and cathodes to develop new bendable energy systems. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Investigation of lithium-thionyl chloride battery safety hazards. Final report 28 Sep 81-31 Dec 82

    Attia, A.I.; Gabriel, K.A.; Burns, R.P.

    1983-01-01

    In the ten years since the feasibility of a lithium-thionyl chloride cell was first recognized (1) remarkable progress has been made in hardware development. Cells as large as 16,000 Ah (2) and batteries of 10.8 MWh (3) have been demonstrated. In a low rate configuration, energy densities of 500 to 600 Wh/kg are easily achieved. Even in the absence of reported explosions, safety would be a concern for such a dense energetic package; the energy density of a lithium-thionyl chloride cell is approaching that of dynamite (924 Wh/kg). In fact explosions have occurred. In general the hazards associated with lithium-thionyl chloride batteries may be divided into four categories: Explosions as a result of an error in battery design. Very large cells were in prototype development prior to a full appreciation of the hazards of the system. It is possible that some of the remaining safety issues are related to cell design; Explosions as a result of external physical abuse such as cell incineration and puncture; Explosions due to short circuiting which could lead to thermal runaway reactions. These problems appear to have been solved by changes in the battery design (4); and Expolsions due to abnormal electrical operation (i.e., charging (5) and overdischarging (6) and in partially or fully discharged cells on storage (7 and 8).

  15. Ion conducting fluoropolymer carbonates for alkali metal ion batteries

    DeSimone, Joseph M.; Pandya, Ashish; Wong, Dominica; Balsara, Nitash P.; Thelen, Jacob; Devaux, Didier

    2017-09-05

    Liquid or solid electrolyte compositions are described that comprise a homogeneous solvent system and an alkali metal salt dissolved in said solvent system. The solvent system may comprise a fluoropolymer, having one or two terminal carbonate groups covalently coupled thereto. Batteries containing such electrolyte compositions are also described.

  16. Mathematical modeling of the nickel/metal hydride battery system

    Paxton, Blaine Kermit [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1995-09-01

    A group of compounds referred to as metal hydrides, when used as electrode materials, is a less toxic alternative to the cadmium hydroxide electrode found in nickel/cadmium secondary battery systems. For this and other reasons, the nickel/metal hydride battery system is becoming a popular rechargeable battery for electric vehicle and consumer electronics applications. A model of this battery system is presented. Specifically the metal hydride material, LaNi{sub 5}H{sub 6}, is chosen for investigation due to the wealth of information available in the literature on this compound. The model results are compared to experiments found in the literature. Fundamental analyses as well as engineering optimizations are performed from the results of the battery model. In order to examine diffusion limitations in the nickel oxide electrode, a ``pseudo 2-D model`` is developed. This model allows for the theoretical examination of the effects of a diffusion coefficient that is a function of the state of charge of the active material. It is found using present data from the literature that diffusion in the solid phase is usually not an important limitation in the nickel oxide electrode. This finding is contrary to the conclusions reached by other authors. Although diffusion in the nickel oxide active material is treated rigorously with the pseudo 2-D model, a general methodology is presented for determining the best constant diffusion coefficient to use in a standard one-dimensional battery model. The diffusion coefficients determined by this method are shown to be able to partially capture the behavior that results from a diffusion coefficient that varies with the state of charge of the active material.

  17. Use of submicron carbon filaments in place of carbon black as a porous reduction electrode in lithium batteries with a catholyte comprising bromine chloride in thionyl chloride

    Frysz, C.A. [Wilson Greatbatch, Ltd., Clarence, NY (United States); Shui, X.; Chung, D.D.L. [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States). Composite Materials Research Lab.

    1995-12-31

    Submicron carbon filaments used in place of carbon black as porous reduction electrodes in carbon limited lithium batteries in plate and jellyroll configurations with the BCX (bromine chloride in thionyl chloride) catholyte gave a specific capacity (at 2 V cut-off) of up to 8,700 mAh/g carbon, compared to a value of up to 2,900 mAh/g carbon for carbon black. The high specific capacity per g carbon (demonstrating superior carbon efficiency) for the filament electrode is partly due to the filaments` processability into sheets as thin as 0.2 mm with good porosity and without a binder, and partly due to the high catholyte absorptivity and high rate of catholyte absorption of the filament electrode.

  18. On the reliability of thionyl chloride/lithium batteries. [Li/SOCl sub 2 -battery]. Ueber die Zuverlaessigkeit der Thionylchlorid-Lithium-Batterien

    Bajenescu, T.I.

    1991-10-10

    Lithium batteries must be mentioned as the most sophisticated system for back-up functions, whose great advantage is the very low, self-discharge, ie: the stored energy is only consumed by the battery to a very small extent and is largely available for use. The normal working temperature is between -55 and +75deg C. Higher working temperatures are possible if one accepts a shorter service life, as the self-discharge rises more than proportionally. Some ideas are given on possible causes of failure, reliability tests, a complete qualification test, design test and final inspection. A specific failure definition, the concept of 'total quality' and non-destructive test methods are proposed in order to be able to check the reliability of the thionyl chloride/lithium battery in a better way. (orig./MM).

  19. Cathode Composition in a Saltwater Metal-Air Battery

    William Shen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal-air batteries consist of a solid metal anode and an oxygen cathode of ambient air, typically separated by an aqueous electrolyte. Here, simple saltwater-based models of aluminum-air and zinc-air cells are used to determine the differences between theoretical cell electric potentials and experimental electric potentials. A substantial difference is observed. It is also found that the metal cathode material is crucial to cell electric potential, despite the cathode not participating in the net reaction. Finally, the material composition of the cathode appears to have a more significant impact on cell potential than the submerged surface area of the cathode.

  20. Liquid metal batteries - materials selection and fluid dynamics

    Weier, T.; Bund, A.; El-Mofid, W.; Horstmann, G. M.; Lalau, C.-C.; Landgraf, S.; Nimtz, M.; Starace, M.; Stefani, F.; Weber, N.

    2017-07-01

    Liquid metal batteries are possible candidates for massive and economically feasible large-scale stationary storage and as such could be key components of future energy systems based mainly or exclusively on intermittent renewable electricity sources. The completely liquid interior of liquid metal batteries and the high current densities give rise to a multitude of fluid flow phenomena that will primarily influence the operation of future large cells, but might be important for today’s smaller cells as well. The paper at hand starts with a discussion of the relative merits of using molten salts or ionic liquids as electrolytes for liquid metal cells and touches the choice of electrode materials. This excursus into electrochemistry is followed by an overview of investigations on magnetohydrodynamic instabilities in liquid metal batteries, namely the Tayler instability and electromagnetically excited gravity waves. A section on electro-vortex flows complements the discussion of flow phenomena. Focus of the flow related investigations lies on the integrity of the electrolyte layer and related critical parameters.

  1. Dendrite-Free Sodium-Metal Anodes for High-Energy Sodium-Metal Batteries.

    Sun, Bing; Li, Peng; Zhang, Jinqiang; Wang, Dan; Munroe, Paul; Wang, Chengyin; Notten, Peter H L; Wang, Guoxiu

    2018-05-31

    Sodium (Na) metal is one of the most promising electrode materials for next-generation low-cost rechargeable batteries. However, the challenges caused by dendrite growth on Na metal anodes restrict practical applications of rechargeable Na metal batteries. Herein, a nitrogen and sulfur co-doped carbon nanotube (NSCNT) paper is used as the interlayer to control Na nucleation behavior and suppress the Na dendrite growth. The N- and S-containing functional groups on the carbon nanotubes induce the NSCNTs to be highly "sodiophilic," which can guide the initial Na nucleation and direct Na to distribute uniformly on the NSCNT paper. As a result, the Na-metal-based anode (Na/NSCNT anode) exhibits a dendrite-free morphology during repeated Na plating and striping and excellent cycling stability. As a proof of concept, it is also demonstrated that the electrochemical performance of sodium-oxygen (Na-O 2 ) batteries using the Na/NSCNT anodes show significantly improved cycling performances compared with Na-O 2 batteries with bare Na metal anodes. This work opens a new avenue for the development of next-generation high-energy-density sodium-metal batteries. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Nanoporous Polymer-Ceramic Composite Electrolytes for Lithium Metal Batteries

    Tu, Zhengyuan

    2013-09-16

    A nanoporous composite material that offers the unique combination of high room-temperature ionic conductivity and high mechanical modulus is reported. When used as the separator/electrolyte in lithium batteries employing metallic lithium as anode, the material displays unprecedented cycling stability and excellent ability to prevent premature cell failure by dendrite-induced short circuits © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Metal hydrides based high energy density thermal battery

    Fang, Zhigang Zak, E-mail: zak.fang@utah.edu [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, The University of Utah, 135 South 1460 East, Room 412, Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0114 (United States); Zhou, Chengshang; Fan, Peng [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, The University of Utah, 135 South 1460 East, Room 412, Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0114 (United States); Udell, Kent S. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, The University of Utah, 50 S. Central Campus Dr., Room 2110, Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0114 (United States); Bowman, Robert C. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, The University of Utah, 135 South 1460 East, Room 412, Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0114 (United States); Vajo, John J.; Purewal, Justin J. [HRL Laboratories, LLC, 3011 Malibu Canyon Road, Malibu, CA 90265 (United States); Kekelia, Bidzina [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, The University of Utah, 50 S. Central Campus Dr., Room 2110, Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0114 (United States)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • The principle of the thermal battery using advanced metal hydrides was demonstrated. • The thermal battery used MgH{sub 2} and TiMnV as a working pair. • High energy density can be achieved by the use of MgH{sub 2} to store thermal energy. - Abstract: A concept of thermal battery based on advanced metal hydrides was studied for heating and cooling of cabins in electric vehicles. The system utilized a pair of thermodynamically matched metal hydrides as energy storage media. The pair of hydrides that was identified and developed was: (1) catalyzed MgH{sub 2} as the high temperature hydride material, due to its high energy density and enhanced kinetics; and (2) TiV{sub 0.62}Mn{sub 1.5} alloy as the matching low temperature hydride. Further, a proof-of-concept prototype was built and tested, demonstrating the potential of the system as HVAC for transportation vehicles.

  4. Recovering metal values hydrometallurgically from spent dry battery cells

    Rabah, M. A.; Barakat, M. A.; Mahrous, Y. Sh.

    1999-12-01

    A hydro-pyrometallurgical method was used to recover metal values from spent dry battery cells. Water-soluble ingredients were filtered, and solid residue was sorted by magnetic separation and water flotation. Parameters affecting the recovery efficiency were also studied. Results revealed that metallic parts, carbon rods, and paper were safely recovered; pure NH4Cl, MnO2, and ZnCl2 salts were obtained. Maximum recovery efficiencies reached 93 percent for manganese and 99.5 percent for zinc and NH4.

  5. Metals recovery of spent household batteries using a hydrometallurgical process

    Souza, K.P.; Tenorio, J.A.S.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the work is to study a method for metals recovery from a sample composed by a mixture of the main types of spent household batteries. Segregation of the main metals is investigated using a treatment route consisting of the following steps: manual identified and dismantling, grinding, electric furnace reduction, acid leaching and selective precipitation with sodium hydroxide with and without hydrogen peroxide. Before and after precipitations the solutions had been analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP/OES) and the precipitated analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) with Spectrometry of Energy Dispersion Spectroscopy (EDS). The results had indicated that the great majority of metals had been precipitated in pHs studied, also had co-precipitation or simultaneous precipitation of metals in some pHs. (author)

  6. A metal-free organic-inorganic aqueous flow battery

    Huskinson, B; Marshak, MP; Suh, C; Er, S; Gerhardt, MR; Galvin, CJ; Chen, XD; Aspuru-Guzik, A; Gordon, RG; Aziz, MJ

    2014-01-08

    As the fraction of electricity generation from intermittent renewable sources-such as solar or wind-grows, the ability to store large amounts of electrical energy is of increasing importance. Solid-electrode batteries maintain discharge at peak power for far too short a time to fully regulate wind or solar power output(1,2). In contrast, flow batteries can independently scale the power (electrode area) and energy (arbitrarily large storage volume) components of the system by maintaining all of the electro-active species in fluid form(3-5). Wide-scale utilization of flow batteries is, however, limited by the abundance and cost of these materials, particularly those using redox-active metals and precious-metal electrocatalysts(6,7). Here we describe a class of energy storage materials that exploits the favourable chemical and electro-chemical properties of a family of molecules known as quinones. The example we demonstrate is ametal-free flow battery based on the redox chemistry of 9,10-anthraquinone-2,7-disulphonic acid (AQDS). AQDS undergoes extremely rapid and reversible two-electron two-proton reduction on a glassy carbon electrode in sulphuric acid. An aqueous flow battery with inexpensive carbon electrodes, combining the quinone/hydroquinone couple with the Br-2/Br- redox couple, yields a peak galvanic power density exceeding 0.6 W cm(-2) at 1.3 A cm(-2). Cycling of this quinone-bromide flow battery showed >99 per cent storage capacity retention per cycle. The organic anthraquinone species can be synthesized from inexpensive commodity chemicals(8). This organic approach permits tuning of important properties such as the reduction potential and solubility by adding functional groups: for example, we demonstrate that the addition of two hydroxy groups to AQDS increases the open circuit potential of the cell by 11% and we describe a pathway for further increases in cell voltage. The use of p-aromatic redox-active organic molecules instead of redox-active metals

  7. Metal-organic frameworks for lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors

    Ke, Fu-Sheng; Wu, Yu-Shan; Deng, Hexiang

    2015-01-01

    Porous materials have been widely used in batteries and supercapacitors attribute to their large internal surface area (usually 100–1000 m 2 g −1 ) and porosity that can favor the electrochemical reaction, interfacial charge transport, and provide short diffusion paths for ions. As a new type of porous crystalline materials, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have received huge attention in the past decade due to their unique properties, i.e. huge surface area (up to 7000 m 2 g −1 ), high porosity, low density, controllable structure and tunable pore size. A wide range of applications including gas separation, storage, catalysis, and drug delivery benefit from the recent fast development of MOFs. However, their potential in electrochemical energy storage has not been fully revealed. Herein, the present mini review appraises recent and significant development of MOFs and MOF-derived materials for rechargeable lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors, to give a glimpse into these potential applications of MOFs. - Graphical abstract: MOFs with large surface area and high porosity can offer more reaction sites and charge carriers diffusion path. Thus MOFs are used as cathode, anode, electrolyte, matrix and precursor materials for lithium ion battery, and also as electrode and precursor materials for supercapacitors. - Highlights: • MOFs have potential in electrochemical area due to their high porosity and diversity. • We summarized and compared works on MOFs for lithium ion battery and supercapacitor. • We pointed out critical challenges and provided possible solutions for future study

  8. Metal-organic frameworks for lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors

    Ke, Fu-Sheng; Wu, Yu-Shan; Deng, Hexiang, E-mail: hdeng@whu.edu.cn

    2015-03-15

    Porous materials have been widely used in batteries and supercapacitors attribute to their large internal surface area (usually 100–1000 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) and porosity that can favor the electrochemical reaction, interfacial charge transport, and provide short diffusion paths for ions. As a new type of porous crystalline materials, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have received huge attention in the past decade due to their unique properties, i.e. huge surface area (up to 7000 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}), high porosity, low density, controllable structure and tunable pore size. A wide range of applications including gas separation, storage, catalysis, and drug delivery benefit from the recent fast development of MOFs. However, their potential in electrochemical energy storage has not been fully revealed. Herein, the present mini review appraises recent and significant development of MOFs and MOF-derived materials for rechargeable lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors, to give a glimpse into these potential applications of MOFs. - Graphical abstract: MOFs with large surface area and high porosity can offer more reaction sites and charge carriers diffusion path. Thus MOFs are used as cathode, anode, electrolyte, matrix and precursor materials for lithium ion battery, and also as electrode and precursor materials for supercapacitors. - Highlights: • MOFs have potential in electrochemical area due to their high porosity and diversity. • We summarized and compared works on MOFs for lithium ion battery and supercapacitor. • We pointed out critical challenges and provided possible solutions for future study.

  9. Metal chloride-treated graphene oxide to produce high-performance polymer solar cells

    Choi, Eun-Su; Noh, Yong-Jin; Kwon, Sung-Nam; Na, Seok-In, E-mail: nsi12@jbnu.ac.kr [Professional Graduate School of Flexible and Printable Electronics and Polymer Materials Fusion Research Center, Chonbuk National University, 664-14, Deokjin-dong, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju-si, Jeollabuk-do 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Ye-Jin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seok-Soon, E-mail: sskim@kunsan.ac.kr [Department of Nano and Chemical Engineering, Kunsan National University, Kunsan, Jeollabuk-do 753-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae-Wook [Soft Innovative Materials Research Center, Institute of Advanced Composite Materials, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, San 101, Eunha-ri, Bongdong-eup, Wanju-gun, Jeollabuk-do 565-905 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-13

    We introduce a simple but effective graphene oxide (GO) modification with metal chloride treatments to produce high-performance polymer solar cells (PSCs). The role of various metal chlorides on GO and their effects on device performances of PSCs was investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy, and current-voltage measurement studies demonstrated that metal chloride can induce a p-doping effect and increase the GO work-function, thus resulting in an improved built-in potential and interfacial resistance in PSCs. The resultant PSCs with metal chloride exhibited improved device efficiency than those with the neat GO. Furthermore, with the metal chloride-doped GO, we finally achieved an excellent PSC-efficiency of 6.58% and a very desirable device stability, which constitute a highly similar efficiency but much better PSC life-time to conventional device with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). This study could be a valuable way to produce various PEDOT:PSS alternatives and beneficial for producing high-performance and cost-efficient polymeric devices.

  10. Metal oxide/hydrogen battery; Kinzoku sankabutsu/suiso denchi

    Kanda, M.; Niki, H. [Toshiba Research and Development Centre, Komukai, Kawasaki (Japan)

    1995-07-04

    The metal oxide-hydrogen battery consisting mainly of hydrogen storage alloy has high energy density and high volume efficiency. However, it is disadvantageous that the self-discharge takes place since the discharge capacity is lowered due to the delivery of stored hydrogen from the hydrogen electrode. This invention relates to the metal oxide-hydrogen battery consisting of hydrogen storage alloy. Hydrogen storage alloy which is composed of LaNi5 system homogeneous solid solution having an equilibrium plateau pressure of less than 1 atm at 20{degree}C is used. As a result, the battery voltage change and the self-discharge can be reduced, and the cell performance can be improved. Examples of LaNi5 system hydrogen storage alloy are ANi(5-x)Mx (A = La, Mm, and Ca, M = Al, Mn, Si, Ge, Fe, B, Ga, Cu, In, and Co). LaNi(4.7)Al(0.3) and MmNi(4.2)Mn(0.8) are preferable. 3 figs.

  11. Calcium-Antimony Alloys as Electrodes for Liquid Metal Batteries

    Ouchi, T; Kim, H; Ning, XH; Sadoway, DR

    2014-08-08

    The performance of a calcium-antimony (Ca-Sb) alloy serving as the positive electrode in a Ca vertical bar vertical bar Sb liquid metal battery was investigated in an electrochemical cell, Ca(in Bi) vertical bar LiCl-NaCl-CaCl2 vertical bar Ca(in Sb). The equilibrium potential of the Ca-Sb electrode was found to lie on the interval, 1.2-0.95 V versus Ca, in good agreement with electromotive force (emf) measurements in the literature. During both alloying and dealloying of Ca at the Sb electrode, the charge transfer and mass transport at the interface are facile enough that the electrode potential varies linearly from 0.95 to 0.75 V vs Ca(s) as current density varies from 50 to 500 mA cm(-2). The discharge capacity of the Ca vertical bar vertical bar Sb cells increases as the operating temperature increases due to the higher solubility and diffusivity of Ca in Sb. The cell was successfully cycled with high coulombic efficiency (similar to 100%) and small fade rate (<0.01% cycle(-1)). These data combined with the favorable costs of these metals and salts make the Ca vertical bar vertical bar Sb liquid metal battery attractive for grid-scale energy storage. (C) The Author(s) 2014. Published by ECS. All rights reserved.

  12. Ceramic/metal seals. [refractory materials for hermetic seals for lighium-metal sulfide batteries

    Bredbenner, A. M.

    1977-01-01

    Design criteria are discussed for a hermetic seal capable of withstanding the 450 C operating temperature of a lithium-metal sulfide battery system. A mechanical seal consisting of two high strength alloy metal sleeves welded or brazed to a conductor assembly and pressed onto a ceramic is described. The conductor center passes through the ceramic but is not sealed to it. The seal is effected on the outside of the taper where the tubular part is pressed down over and makes contact.

  13. Lithium/thionyl chloride batteries for the small intercontinental ballistic missile

    Chang, V. D. A.; Wilson, J. P.; Bruckner, J.; Inenaga, B.; Hall, J. C.

    The Small ICBM (SICBM) requires two batteries for flight testing; while power for the instrumentation and range safety system (IRSS) is furnished by a five-function battery set, the guidance and control system is powered by a three-function airborne power supply (APS). The activated stand requirements of the IRSS are met by the use of LiAlCl4/SOCl2 electrolyte in all cells. The APS cells employ a slightly acidic electrolyte. The SICBM's IRSS battery has already completed a formal certification program, and is accordingly the first spaceflight-qualified reserve Li battery.

  14. Separation of magnesium from magnesium chloride and zirconium and/or hafnium subchlorides in the production of zirconium and/or hafnium sponge metal

    Abodishish, H.A.M.; Adams, R.J.; Kearl, S.R.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes the producing of a refractory metal wherein a sponge refractory metal is produced as an intermediate product by the use of magnesium with the incidental production of magnesium chloride, and wherein residual magnesium is separated from the magnesium chloride and from refractory metal to a vacuum distillation step which fractionally distills the magnesium, the magnesium chloride, and the metal sub-chlorides; the steps of: recovering fractionally distilled vapors of magnesium chloride and metal sub-chlorides from a sponge refractory metal; separately condensing the vapors as separately recovered; and recycling the separately recovered magnesium at a purity of at least about 96%

  15. Adsorption properties of cationic rhodamine B dye onto metals chloride-activated castor bean residue carbons.

    Zhi, Lee Lin; Zaini, Muhammad Abbas Ahmad

    2017-02-01

    This work was aimed to evaluate the feasibility of castor bean residue based activated carbons prepared through metals chloride activation. The activated carbons were characterized for textural properties and surface chemistry, and the adsorption data of rhodamine B were established to investigate the removal performance. Zinc chloride-activated carbon with specific surface area of 395 m 2 /g displayed a higher adsorption capacity of 175 mg/g. Magnesium chloride and iron(III) chloride are less toxic and promising agents for composite chemical activation. The adsorption data obeyed Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second-order kinetics model. The rate-limiting step in the adsorption of rhodamine B is film diffusion. The positive values of enthalpy and entropy indicate that the adsorption is endothermic and spontaneous at high temperature.

  16. Protected Lithium-Metal Anodes in Batteries: From Liquid to Solid.

    Yang, Chunpeng; Fu, Kun; Zhang, Ying; Hitz, Emily; Hu, Liangbing

    2017-09-01

    High-energy lithium-metal batteries are among the most promising candidates for next-generation energy storage systems. With a high specific capacity and a low reduction potential, the Li-metal anode has attracted extensive interest for decades. Dendritic Li formation, uncontrolled interfacial reactions, and huge volume effect are major hurdles to the commercial application of Li-metal anodes. Recent studies have shown that the performance and safety of Li-metal anodes can be significantly improved via organic electrolyte modification, Li-metal interface protection, Li-electrode framework design, separator coating, and so on. Superior to the liquid electrolytes, solid-state electrolytes are considered able to inhibit problematic Li dendrites and build safe solid Li-metal batteries. Inspired by the bright prospects of solid Li-metal batteries, increasing efforts have been devoted to overcoming the obstacles of solid Li-metal batteries, such as low ionic conductivity of the electrolyte and Li-electrolyte interfacial problems. Here, the approaches to protect Li-metal anodes from liquid batteries to solid-state batteries are outlined and analyzed in detail. Perspectives regarding the strategies for developing Li-metal anodes are discussed to facilitate the practical application of Li-metal batteries. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Aqueous phase catalytic conversion of agarose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural by metal chlorides

    Yan, Lishi; Laskar, Dhrubojyoti D.; Lee, Suh-Jane; Yang, Bin

    2013-12-14

    Abstract: 5-HMF is a key intermediate for producing chemicals and fuels that can substitute for today’s petroleum-derived feedstocks. A series of metal chlorides, including NaCl, CaCl2, MgCl2, ZnCl2, CuCl2, FeCl3, and CrCl3, were comparatively investigated to catalyze agarose degradation for production of 5-HMF at temperature 180 oC, 200 oC, and 220 oC for 30 min, with catalyst concentration of 0.5% (w/w), 1% (w/w) and 5% (w/w), and substrate concentration of 2% (w/w). Our results revealed that alkali metal chlorides and alkali earth metal chlorides such as NaCl, CaCl2 and MgCl2 gave better 5-HMF yield compared with transition metal chlorides including ZnCl2, CrCl3, CuCl2 and FeCl3. 1% (w/w) MgCl2 was the more favorable catalyst for 5-HMF production from agarose, and resulted in 40.7% 5-HMF yield but no levulinic acid or lactic acid at 200 oC, 35 min. The reaction pathways of agarose degradation catalyzed by MgCl2 were also discussed.

  18. Alkali metal bismuth(III) chloride double salts

    Kelly, Andrew W. [Department of Chemistry, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23187 (United States); Nicholas, Aaron; Ahern, John C. [Department of Chemistry, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469 (United States); Chan, Benny [Department of Chemistry, College of New Jersey, Ewing, NJ 08628-0718 (United States); Patterson, Howard H. [Department of Chemistry, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469 (United States); Pike, Robert D., E-mail: rdpike@wm.edu [Department of Chemistry, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23187 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Evaporative co-crystallization of MCl (M = Na, K, Rb, Cs) with BiOCl in aqueous HCl produces double salts: M{sub x}Bi{sub y}Cl{sub (x+3y)}·zH{sub 2}O. The sodium salt, Na{sub 2}BiCl{sub 5}·5H{sub 2}O (monoclinic P2{sub 1}/c, a = 8.6983(7) Å, b = 21.7779(17) Å, c = 7.1831(6) Å, β = 103.0540(10)°, V = 1325.54(19) Å{sup 3}, Z = 4) is composed of zigzag chains of μ{sub 2}-Cl-cis-linked (BiCl{sub 5}){sub n}{sup 2n–} chains. Edge-sharing chains of NaCl{sub n}(OH{sub 2}){sub 6−n} octahedra (n = 0, 2, 3) are linked through μ{sub 3}-Cl to Bi. The potassium salt, K{sub 7}Bi{sub 3}Cl{sub 16} (trigonal R−3c, a = 12.7053(9) Å, b = 12.7053(9) Å, c = 99.794(7) Å, V = 13,951(2) Å{sup 3}, Z = 18) contains (Bi{sub 2}Cl{sub 10}){sup 4–} edge-sharing dimers of octahedra and simple (BiCl{sub 6}){sup 3–} octahedra. The K{sup +} ions are 5- to 8-coordinate and the chlorides are 3-, 4-, or 5-coordinate. The rubidium salt, Rb{sub 3}BiCl{sub 6}·0.5H{sub 2}O (orthorhombic Pnma, a = 12.6778(10) Å, b = 25.326(2) Å, c = 8.1498(7) Å, V = 2616.8(4) Å{sup 3}, Z = 8) contains (BiCl{sub 6}){sup 3–} octahedra. The Rb{sup +} ions are 6-, 8-, and 9-coordinate, and the chlorides are 4- or 5-coordinate. Two cesium salts were formed: Cs{sub 3}BiCl{sub 6} (orthorhombic Pbcm, a = 8.2463(9) Å, b = 12.9980(15) Å, c = 26.481(3) Å, V = 2838.4(6) Å{sup 3}, Z = 8) being comprised of (BiCl{sub 6}){sup 3–} octahedra, 8-coordinate Cs{sup +}, and 3-, 4-, and 5-coordinate Cl{sup −}. In Cs{sub 3}Bi{sub 2}Cl{sub 9} (orthorhombic Pnma, a = 18.4615(15) Å, b = 7.5752(6) Å, c = 13.0807(11) Å, V = 1818.87(11) Å{sup 3}, Z = 4) Bi octahedra are linked by μ{sub 2}-bridged Cl into edge-sharing Bi{sub 4} squares which form zigzag (Bi{sub 2}Cl{sub 9}){sub n}{sup 3n–} ladders. The 12-coordinate Cs{sup +} ions bridge the ladders, and the Cl{sup −} ions are 5- and 6-coordinate. Four of the double salts are weakly photoluminescent at 78 K, each showing a series of three excitation peaks

  19. Lithium-thionyl chloride battery design concepts for maximized power applications

    Kane, P.; Marincic, N.

    The need for primary batteries configured to deliver maximized power has been asserted by many different procuring activities. Battery Engineering Inc. has developed some specific design concepts and mastered some specialized techniques utilized in the production of this type of power source. The batteries have been successfully bench tested during the course of virtually all of these programs, with ultimate success coming in the form of two successful test launches under the USAF Plasma Effects Decoy Program. This paper briefly discusses some of these design concepts and the rationale behind them.

  20. Effect of metal chloride solutions on coloration and biaxial flexural strength of yttria-stabilized zirconia

    Oh, Gye-Jeong; Lee, Kwangmin; Lee, Doh-Jae; Lim, Hyun-Pil; Yun, Kwi-Dug; Ban, Jae-Sam; Lee, Kyung-Ku; Fisher, John G.; Park, Sang-Won

    2012-10-01

    The effect of three kinds of transition metal dopants on the color and biaxial flexural strength of zirconia ceramics for dental applications was evaluated. Presintered zirconia discs were colored through immersion in aqueous chromium, molybdenum and vanadium chloride solutions and then sintered at 1450 °C. The color of the doped specimens was measured using a digital spectrophotometer. For biaxial flexural strength measurements, specimens infiltrated with 0.3 wt% of each aqueous chloride solution were used. Uncolored discs were used as a control. Zirconia specimens infiltrated with chromium, molybdenum and vanadium chloride solutions were dark brown, light yellow and dark yellow, respectively. CIE L*, a*, and b* values of all the chromium-doped specimens and the specimens infiltrated with 0.1 wt% molybdenum chloride solution were in the range of values for natural teeth. The biaxial flexural strengths of the three kinds of metal chloride groups were similar to the uncolored group. These results suggest that chromium and molybdenum dopants can be used as colorants to fabricate tooth colored zirconia ceramic restorations.

  1. Metallic oxide reduction in molten chlorides: electrochemical solvent regeneration

    Martin, A.

    2005-11-01

    We consider the reaction MeO 2 + 2 Ca → Me + 2 CaO in CaCl 2 at 850 C. We want to re-use the molten media, which is a CaO-CaCl 2 melt at the end of the reaction. For that we want to de-oxidize it. When we electrolyse CaO we obtain Ca and O 2 ; it presents three difficult points that we want to solve: (1) it is difficult to oxidize O 2 - without oxidizing Cl - because their oxidation potential are very closed, (2) the chemical or electrochemical anodic corrosion, (3) the anodically produced gas dissolution in the mell One way of avoiding chlorine gas evolution is to prevent chloride ions from reaching the anode, for example using a selective membrane. Furthermore, the best prevention of the anodically produced gas dissolution in the melt can be done with a compartment, physically separating the anode from the rest of the reactional media. Thus in this work we have used an yttria stabilized zirconia membrane as a selective membrane for the deoxidation of a CaO-CaCl 2 melt at 850 C. (author)

  2. Extraction of heavy metals from MSWI fly ash using hydrochloric acid and sodium chloride solution.

    Weibel, Gisela; Eggenberger, Urs; Kulik, Dmitrii A; Hummel, Wolfgang; Schlumberger, Stefan; Klink, Waldemar; Fisch, Martin; Mäder, Urs K

    2018-03-17

    Fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration contains a large potential for recyclable metals such as Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd. The Swiss Waste Ordinance prescribes the treatment of fly ash and recovery of metals to be implemented by 2021. More than 60% of the fly ash in Switzerland is acid leached according to the FLUWA process, which provides the basis for metal recovery. The investigation and optimization of the FLUWA process is of increasing interest and an industrial solution for direct metal recovery within Switzerland is in development. With this work, a detailed laboratory study on different filter cakes from fly ash leaching using HCl 5% (represents the FLUWA process) and concentrated sodium chloride solution (300 g/L) is described. This two-step leaching of fly ash is an efficient combination for the mobilization of a high percentage of heavy metals from fly ash (Pb, Cd ≥ 90% and Cu, Zn 70-80%). The depletion of these metals is mainly due to a combination of redox reaction and metal-chloride-complex formation. The results indicate a way forward for an improved metal depletion and recovery from fly ash that has potential for application at industrial scale. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The measurement of metallic uranium solubility in lithium chloride molten salt

    Park, K. K.; Choi, I. K.; Yeon, J. W.; Choi, K. S.; Park, Y. J.

    2002-01-01

    For the purpose of more precise solubility measurement of metallic uranium in lithium chloride melt, the effect of lithium chloride on uranium determination and and the change of oxidation state of metallic uranium in the media were investigated. Uranium of higher than 10 μg/g could be directly determined by ICP-AES. In the case of the lower concentration, the separation and concentration of uranium by anion exchanger was followed by ICP-AES, thereby extending the measurable concentration to 0.1 μg/g. The effects of lithium oxide, uranium oxides(UO 2 or U 3 O 8 ) and metallic lithium on the solubility of metallic uranium were individually investigated in glassy carbon or stainless steel crucibles under argon gas atmosphere. Since metallic uranium is oxidized to uranium(III) in the absence of metallic lithium, causing an increase in the solubility, metallic lithium as reducing agent should be present in the reaction media to obtain the more precise solubility. The metallic uranium solubilities measured at 660 and 690 .deg. C were both lower than 10 μg/g

  4. A review of flexible lithium-sulfur and analogous alkali metal-chalcogen rechargeable batteries.

    Peng, Hong-Jie; Huang, Jia-Qi; Zhang, Qiang

    2017-08-29

    Flexible energy storage systems are imperative for emerging flexible devices that are revolutionizing our life. Lithium-ion batteries, the current main power sources, are gradually approaching their theoretical limitation in terms of energy density. Therefore, alternative battery chemistries are urgently required for next-generation flexible power sources with high energy densities, low cost, and inherent safety. Flexible lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries and analogous flexible alkali metal-chalcogen batteries are of paramount interest owing to their high energy densities endowed by multielectron chemistry. In this review, we summarized the recent progress of flexible Li-S and analogous batteries. A brief introduction to flexible energy storage systems and general Li-S batteries has been provided first. Progress in flexible materials for flexible Li-S batteries are reviewed subsequently, with a detailed classification of flexible sulfur cathodes as those based on carbonaceous (e.g., carbon nanotubes, graphene, and carbonized polymers) and composite (polymers and inorganics) materials and an overview of flexible lithium anodes and flexible solid-state electrolytes. Advancements in other flexible alkali metal-chalcogen batteries are then introduced. In the next part, we emphasize the importance of cell packaging and flexibility evaluation, and two special flexible battery prototypes of foldable and cable-type Li-S batteries are highlighted. In the end, existing challenges and future development of flexible Li-S and analogous alkali metal-chalcogen batteries are summarized and prospected.

  5. Highly reversible zinc metal anode for aqueous batteries

    Wang, Fei; Borodin, Oleg; Gao, Tao; Fan, Xiulin; Sun, Wei; Han, Fudong; Faraone, Antonio; Dura, Joseph A.; Xu, Kang; Wang, Chunsheng

    2018-06-01

    Metallic zinc (Zn) has been regarded as an ideal anode material for aqueous batteries because of its high theoretical capacity (820 mA h g-1), low potential (-0.762 V versus the standard hydrogen electrode), high abundance, low toxicity and intrinsic safety. However, aqueous Zn chemistry persistently suffers from irreversibility issues, as exemplified by its low coulombic efficiency (CE) and dendrite growth during plating/ stripping, and sustained water consumption. In this work, we demonstrate that an aqueous electrolyte based on Zn and lithium salts at high concentrations is a very effective way to address these issues. This unique electrolyte not only enables dendrite-free Zn plating/stripping at nearly 100% CE, but also retains water in the open atmosphere, which makes hermetic cell configurations optional. These merits bring unprecedented flexibility and reversibility to Zn batteries using either LiMn2O4 or O2 cathodes—the former deliver 180 W h kg-1 while retaining 80% capacity for >4,000 cycles, and the latter deliver 300 W h kg-1 (1,000 W h kg-1 based on the cathode) for >200 cycles.

  6. Competing forces in liquid metal electrodes and batteries

    Ashour, Rakan F.; Kelley, Douglas H.; Salas, Alejandro; Starace, Marco; Weber, Norbert; Weier, Tom

    2018-02-01

    Liquid metal batteries are proposed for low-cost grid scale energy storage. During their operation, solid intermetallic phases often form in the cathode and are known to limit the capacity of the cell. Fluid flow in the liquid electrodes can enhance mass transfer and reduce the formation of localized intermetallics, and fluid flow can be promoted by careful choice of the locations and topology of a battery's electrical connections. In this context we study four phenomena that drive flow: Rayleigh-Bénard convection, internally heated convection, electro-vortex flow, and swirl flow, in both experiment and simulation. In experiments, we use ultrasound Doppler velocimetry (UDV) to measure the flow in a eutectic PbBi electrode at 160 °C and subject to all four phenomena. In numerical simulations, we isolate the phenomena and simulate each separately using OpenFOAM. Comparing simulated velocities to experiments via a UDV beam model, we find that all four phenomena can enhance mass transfer in LMBs. We explain the flow direction, describe how the phenomena interact, and propose dimensionless numbers for estimating their mutual relevance. A brief discussion of electrical connections summarizes the engineering implications of our work.

  7. Facile Preparation of Chloride-Conducting Membranes : First Step towards a Room-Temperature Solid-State Chloride-Ion Battery

    Gschwind, Fabienne; Steinle, Dominik; Sandbeck, Daniel; Schmidt, Celine; von Hauff, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Three types of chloride-conducting membranes based on polyvinyl chloride, commercial gelatin, and polyvinyldifluoride-hexafluoropolymer are introduced in this report. The polymers are mixed with chloride-containing salts, such as tetrabutylammonium chloride, and cast to form membranes. We studied

  8. Similarities and differences of alkali metal chlorides applied in organic light-emitting diodes

    Lü, Zhaoyue; Deng, Zhenbo; Hou, Ying; Xu, Haisheng

    2012-01-01

    The similarities and differences of alkali metal chlorides (sodium chloride (NaCl), potassium chloride (KCl), rubidium chloride (RbCl) and cesium chloride (CsCl)) applied in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are investigated. The behavior is similar for the OLEDs with these four chlorides as electron injection layer (EIL). Their maximum luminance and efficiency at 100 mA/cm 2 are within the ranges of 18 550 ± 600 (cd/m 2 ) with an error of 3.23% and 4.09 ± 0.15 (cd/A) within an error of 3.67%, respectively. The similar performance is due to almost identical electron injection barrier for NaCl, KCl, RbCl and CsCl as EIL. Interestingly, the properties are different for devices with chlorides inserted inside tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum at the position of 20 nm away from aluminum cathode, labeled as NaCl-, KCl-, RbCl- and CsCl- devices. The relation of luminance is CsCl- > RbCl- = KCl- > NaCl-, where “>” and “=” mean “better than” and “the same as”, respectively. And the device efficiencies are decreased from CsCl to NaCl. That is, the sort order of the efficiencies is CsCl- > RbCl- > KCl- > NaCl-. The mechanism is explained by tunneling model in terms of various energy gaps estimated by optical electronegativity of NaCl, KCl, RbCl and CsCl. - Highlights: ► Effects of NaCl, KCl, RbCl and CsCl in organic light-emitting diodes are compared. ► The similar performance is due to almost identical electron injection barrier. ► The different behavior of chlorides inside Alq 3 is explained by tunneling model. ► The different behavior is attributed to various energy gaps of different chlorides. ► The efficiency of device with chlorides inside Alq 3 is decreased from CsCl to NaCl.

  9. New Aptes Cross-linked Polymers from Poly(ethylene oxide)s and Cyanuric Chloride for Lithium Batteries

    Tigelaar, Dean M.; Meador, Mary Ann B.; Kinder, James D.; Bennett, William R.

    2005-01-01

    A new series of polymer electrolytes for use as membranes for lithium batteries are described. Electrolytes were made by polymerization between cyanuric chloride and diamino-terminated poly(ethylene oxide)s, followed by cross-linking via a sol-gel process. Thermal analysis and lithium conductivity of freestanding polymer films were studied. The effects of several variables on conductivity were investigated, such as length of backbone PEO chain, length of branching PEO chain, extent of branching, extent of cross-linking, salt content, and salt counterion. Polymer films with the highest percentage of PEO were found to be the most conductive, with a maximum lithium conductivity of 3.9 x 10(exp -5) S/cm at 25 C. Addition of plasticizer to the dry polymers increased conductivity by an order of magnitude.

  10. Electrolyte additives for lithium metal anodes and rechargeable lithium metal batteries: progresses and perspectives.

    Zhang, Heng; Eshetu, Gebrekidan Gebresilassie; Judez, Xabier; Li, Chunmei; Rodriguez-Martínez, Lide M; Armand, Michel

    2018-02-14

    Lithium metal (Li°) - based rechargeable batteries (LMBs), such as Li° anode vs. intercalation and/or conversion type cathode batteries, lithium-sulphur (Li-S), and lithium-oxygen (O2)/air (Li-O2/air) are becoming increasingly important for electrifying the modern transportation system, enabling sustainable mobility in the near future. Though some rechargeable LMBs batteries (e.g., Li°/LiFePO4 batteries from Bolloré Bluecar®, Li-S batteries from OXIS Energy and Sion Power) are already commercially viable in niche applications, their large-scale deployment is still hampered due to the existence of a number of formidable challenges, including lithium dendrite growth, electrolyte instability towards high voltage intercalation type cathode, poor electronic and ionic conductivities of sulphur (S8) and O2, as well as their corresponding reduction products (e.g., Li2S and Li2O), dissolution and shuttling of polysulphide (PS) intermediates etc. This ultimately results in short cycle life, low coulombic/energy efficiency, poor safety, and a high self-discharge rate. Among other mitigating strategies, the use of electrolyte additives is considered as one of the most economical, and effective approach for circumventing these dilemmas. Set out to offer an in-depth insight into the rapidly growing research on the account of electrolyte additives for rechargeable LMBs, this review presents an overview of the various functional additives, that are being applied in Li-anode/intercalation cathode-based, Li-S and Li-O2 batteries. This review is believed to assess the status quo of the research and thereby arouse new thoughts and opportunities, opening new avenues for the practical realization of these appealing devices. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. The rechargeable aluminum-ion battery

    Jayaprakash, N.; Das, S. K.; Archer, L. A.

    2011-01-01

    We report a novel aluminium-ion rechargeable battery comprised of an electrolyte containing AlCl3 in the ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, and a V2O5 nano-wire cathode against an aluminium metal anode. The battery delivered a

  12. Two-Dimensional Metal Oxide Nanomaterials for Next-Generation Rechargeable Batteries.

    Mei, Jun; Liao, Ting; Kou, Liangzhi; Sun, Ziqi

    2017-12-01

    The exponential increase in research focused on two-dimensional (2D) metal oxides has offered an unprecedented opportunity for their use in energy conversion and storage devices, especially for promising next-generation rechargeable batteries, such as lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and sodium-ion batteries (NIBs), as well as some post-lithium batteries, including lithium-sulfur batteries, lithium-air batteries, etc. The introduction of well-designed 2D metal oxide nanomaterials into next-generation rechargeable batteries has significantly enhanced the performance of these energy-storage devices by providing higher chemically active interfaces, shortened ion-diffusion lengths, and improved in-plane carrier-/charge-transport kinetics, which have greatly promoted the development of nanotechnology and the practical application of rechargeable batteries. Here, the recent progress in the application of 2D metal oxide nanomaterials in a series of rechargeable LIBs, NIBs, and other post lithium-ion batteries is reviewed relatively comprehensively. Current opportunities and future challenges for the application of 2D nanomaterials in energy-storage devices to achieve high energy density, high power density, stable cyclability, etc. are summarized and outlined. It is believed that the integration of 2D metal oxide nanomaterials in these clean energy devices offers great opportunities to address challenges driven by increasing global energy demands. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Lithium thionyl chloride batteries: Small cells are great. Lithium-Thionylchlorid-Batterien: Kleine Zelle ganz gross

    Dittrich, T. (Sonnenschein, Buedingen (Germany))

    This is a report on the new development of a Li/SOCl[sub 2] battery series from the firm of Sonnenschein at Buedingen (Germany) with a supply voltage of 3.6 V and rated capacities of 1.1 - 19 Ah. While retaining the previous design, the period of operation has been extended to 8 to 10 years. (MM)

  14. Mg/O2 Battery Based on the Magnesium-Aluminum Chloride Complex (MACC) Electrolyte

    Vardar, Galin; Smith, Jeffrey G.; Thomson, Travis

    2016-01-01

    Mg/O2 cells employing a MgCl2/AlCl3/DME (MACC/DME) electrolyte are cycled and compared to cells with modified Grignard electrolytes, showing that performance of magnesium/oxygen batteries depends strongly on electrolyte composition. Discharge capacity is far greater for MACC/DME-based cells, whil...

  15. Quick charge battery

    Parise, R.J.

    1998-07-01

    Electric and hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and HEVs) will become a significant reality in the near future of the automotive industry. Both types of vehicles will need a means to store energy on board. For the present, the method of choice would be lead-acid batteries, with the HEV having auxiliary power supplied by a small internal combustion engine. One of the main drawbacks to lead-acid batteries is internal heat generation as a natural consequence of the charging process as well as resistance losses. This limits the re-charging rate to the battery pack for an EV which has a range of about 80 miles. A quick turnaround on recharge is needed but not yet possible. One of the limiting factors is the heat buildup. For the HEV the auxiliary power unit provides a continuous charge to the battery pack. Therefore heat generation in the lead-acid battery is a constant problem that must be addressed. Presented here is a battery that is capable of quick charging, the Quick Charge Battery with Thermal Management. This is an electrochemical battery, typically a lead-acid battery, without the inherent thermal management problems that have been present in the past. The battery can be used in an all-electric vehicle, a hybrid-electric vehicle or an internal combustion engine vehicle, as well as in other applications that utilize secondary batteries. This is not restricted to only lead-acid batteries. The concept and technology are flexible enough to use in any secondary battery application where thermal management of the battery must be addressed, especially during charging. Any battery with temperature constraints can benefit from this advancement in the state of the art of battery manufacturing. This can also include nickel-cadmium, metal-air, nickel hydroxide, zinc-chloride or any other type of battery whose performance is affected by the temperature control of the interior as well as the exterior of the battery.

  16. Study of electrochemical behaviour of tantalum in molten alkali metal chlorides

    Bajmakov, A.N.; Ezrokhina, A.M.; Sashinina, O.A.; Shkol'nikov, S.N.

    1985-01-01

    Equilibrium potentials of metallic tantalum in the melt TaCl 5 +KCl-NaCl are studied. Are average degree of tantalum ion oxidation, which are in equilibrium with metallic tantalum, is determined. Anodic behaviour of tantalum in equimolar mixture of potassium and sodium chlorides with Ta and F ion additions is considered. An average degree of oxidation of Ta ions, which transfer into the melt, depending on current density, is determined. It is established that tantalum is dissolved in the regime of diffusional kinetics. It is shown that tantalum corrodes in equimolar mixture of potassium and sodiUm chlorides, at that, corrosion rate increases with introdUction of Ta and F ions into solution. The corrosion is of electrochemical nature and it proceeds in the regime of diffusional kinetics

  17. Computational Analysis and Design of New Materials for Metal-Air Batteries

    Mekonnen, Yedilfana Setarge; Hummelshøj, Jens Strabo

    In the last decade, great effort has been paid to the development of next generation batteries. Metal-O2 /Air batteries (Li-, Na-, Mg-, Al-, Fe- and Zn-O2 batteries) in both aqueous and nonaqueous (aprotic) electrolytes have gained much attention. Metal-air batteries have high theoretical specific...... gravimetric energy. In the case of Li-O2, it is comparable to that of gasoline. Thus, Li-O2 batteries could be attractive for electric vehicle manufacturers since the energy storage capacity accessible by commercially available Li-ion technology is too low to solve increasing capacity demands. However......, current Li-O2 batteries suffer from several drawbacks, e.g. dendrite formation, poor rechargeability and low capacity caused by the so-called “sudden death” at its cathode during the discharge process due to insulating discharge products. This thesis is devoted to understand the charge transport...

  18. Alkali metal and ammonium chlorides in water and heavy water (binary systems)

    Cohen-Adad, R

    1991-01-01

    This volume surveys the data available in the literature for solid-fluid solubility equilibria plus selected solid-liquid-vapour equilibria, for binary systems containing alkali and ammonium chlorides in water or heavy water. Solubilities covered are lithium chloride, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, rubidium chloride, caesium chloride and ammonium chloride in water and heavy water.

  19. Design of Hydrogen Storage Alloys/Nanoporous Metals Hybrid Electrodes for Nickel-Metal Hydride Batteries

    Li, M. M.; Yang, C. C.; Wang, C. C.; Wen, Z.; Zhu, Y. F.; Zhao, M.; Li, J. C.; Zheng, W. T.; Lian, J. S.; Jiang, Q.

    2016-06-01

    Nickel metal hydride (Ni-MH) batteries have demonstrated key technology advantages for applications in new-energy vehicles, which play an important role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and the world’s dependence on fossil fuels. However, the poor high-rate dischargeability of the negative electrode materials—hydrogen storage alloys (HSAs) limits applications of Ni-MH batteries in high-power fields due to large polarization. Here we design a hybrid electrode by integrating HSAs with a current collector of three-dimensional bicontinuous nanoporous Ni. The electrode shows enhanced high-rate dischargeability with the capacity retention rate reaching 44.6% at a discharge current density of 3000 mA g-1, which is 2.4 times that of bare HSAs (18.8%). Such a unique hybrid architecture not only enhances charge transfer between nanoporous Ni and HSAs, but also facilitates rapid diffusion of hydrogen atoms in HSAs. The developed HSAs/nanoporous metals hybrid structures exhibit great potential to be candidates as electrodes in high-performance Ni-MH batteries towards applications in new-energy vehicles.

  20. Recovery of valuable metals from spent HEV NiMH battery leach solutions

    Ricknell, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    As the demand on resources is increasing worldwide, the process of recycling material has become more important. The specific recycling of metals used in car batteries, and more specifically in the large batteries used in hybrid electric vehicles, is a rising concern where the industrially implemented recycling processes concerning these batteries that exist today are often highly pollutant and energy consuming. In the present study, an alternative hydrometallurgical recycling process of the ...

  1. Saturated vapor pressure over molten mixtures of GaCl3 and alkali metal chlorides

    Salyulev, A.B.; Smolenskij, V.V.; Moskalenko, N.I.

    2004-01-01

    Volatilities of GaCl 3 and alkali metal chlorides over diluted (up to 3 mol %) solutions of GaCl 3 in LiCl, NaCl, KCl, RbCl, and CsCl were measured at 1100 K by dynamic and indirect static methods. Chemical composition of saturated vapor over the mixed melts was determined. Partial pressures of the components were calculated. Their values depend essentially on specific alkali metal cation and on concentration of GaCl 3 ; their variation permits altering parameters of GaCl 3 distillation from the salt melt in a wide range [ru

  2. Lithium-thionyl chloride battery. Quarterly report no. 1, 1 October-31 December 1978

    Dey, A.N.; Bowden, W.; Miller, J.; Witalis, P.

    1979-04-01

    The Li/SOCl/sup 2/ inorganic electrolyte system is the highest energy density system known to date. It consists of a Li anode, a carbon cathode and SOCl/sup 2/, which acts both as a solvent and as a cathode active material. The electrolyte salt that has been used most extensively is LiAlCl/sup 4/, but salts such as Li/sup 2/B/sup 10/Cl/sup 10/ and Li/sup 2/ (OAlC/sup 3/) /sup 2/ have also been used successfully in this system for improving the shelf-life characteristics. The main objective of this program is to develop high-rate Li/SOCl/sup 2/ cells and batteries for various portable applications of the U. S. Army. The cells and batteries must deliver higher energy densities than are presently available and must be safe to handle under U. S. Army field conditions.

  3. Lithium-thionyl chloride battery. Quarterly report No. 5, 1 November 1979-31 January 1980

    Dey, A.N.; Hamilton, N.; Bowden, W.; Witalis, P.; Cubbison, D.

    1980-06-01

    The Li/SOCl2 inorganic electrolyte system is the highest energy density system known to data. It consists of a Li anode, a carbon cathode and SOCl2, which acts both as a solvent and cathode active material. The electrolyte salt that has been used most extensively is LiAlCl4, but salts such as Li2B10Cl10 and Li2O(AlCl3)2 have also been used successfully in this system for improving the shelf life characteristics. The main objective of this program is to develop high rate Li/SOCl2 cells and batteries for portable applications of the U.S. Army. The cells and batteries must deliver higher energy densities than are presently available and must be safe to handle under field conditions.

  4. Impedance-Based Battery Management for Metal-O2 Systems

    Christensen, Andreas Elkjær; Højberg, Jonathan; Norby, Poul

    2015-01-01

    In electric vehicles, reliable estimation of the state-of-charge (SoC) is crucial to determine the remaining capacity, but the electrochemical processes in metal-O2 batteries are very different to the Li-ion batteries used today, and current SoC-estimation methods prove insufficient. In Li-O2 bat...

  5. Recent Progress in Graphite Intercalation Compounds for Rechargeable Metal (Li, Na, K, Al)-Ion Batteries.

    Xu, Jiantie; Dou, Yuhai; Wei, Zengxi; Ma, Jianmin; Deng, Yonghong; Li, Yutao; Liu, Huakun; Dou, Shixue

    2017-10-01

    Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) with higher energy density are very necessary to meet the increasing demand for devices with better performance. With the commercial success of lithiated graphite, other graphite intercalation compounds (GICs) have also been intensively reported, not only for LIBs, but also for other metal (Na, K, Al) ion batteries. In this Progress Report, we briefly review the application of GICs as anodes and cathodes in metal (Li, Na, K, Al) ion batteries. After a brief introduction on the development history of GICs, the electrochemistry of cationic GICs and anionic GICs is summarized. We further briefly summarize the use of cationic GICs and anionic GICs in alkali ion batteries and the use of anionic GICs in aluminium-ion batteries. Finally, we reach some conclusions on the drawbacks, major progress, emerging challenges, and some perspectives on the development of GICs for metal (Li, Na, K, Al) ion batteries. Further development of GICs for metal (Li, Na, K, Al) ion batteries is not only a strong supplement to the commercialized success of lithiated-graphite for LIBs, but also an effective strategy to develop diverse high-energy batteries for stationary energy storage in the future.

  6. Anthraquinone with Tailored Structure for Nonaqueous Metal-Organic Redox Flow Battery

    Wang, Wei; Xu, Wu; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Choi, Daiwon; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-06-08

    A nonaqueous, hybrid metal-organic redox flow battery based on tailored anthraquinone structure is demonstrated to have an energy efficiency of {approx}82% and a specific discharge energy density similar to aqueous redox flow batteries, which is due to the significantly improved solubility of anthraquinone in supporting electrolytes.

  7. Anthraquinone with tailored structure for a nonaqueous metal-organic redox flow battery.

    Wang, Wei; Xu, Wu; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Choi, Daiwon; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-07-07

    A nonaqueous, hybrid metal-organic redox flow battery based on tailored anthraquinone structure is demonstrated to have an energy efficiency of ~82% and a specific discharge energy density similar to those of aqueous redox flow batteries, which is due to the significantly improved solubility of anthraquinone in supporting electrolytes.

  8. Metal-air batteries: from oxygen reduction electrochemistry to cathode catalysts.

    Cheng, Fangyi; Chen, Jun

    2012-03-21

    Because of the remarkably high theoretical energy output, metal-air batteries represent one class of promising power sources for applications in next-generation electronics, electrified transportation and energy storage of smart grids. The most prominent feature of a metal-air battery is the combination of a metal anode with high energy density and an air electrode with open structure to draw cathode active materials (i.e., oxygen) from air. In this critical review, we present the fundamentals and recent advances related to the fields of metal-air batteries, with a focus on the electrochemistry and materials chemistry of air electrodes. The battery electrochemistry and catalytic mechanism of oxygen reduction reactions are discussed on the basis of aqueous and organic electrolytes. Four groups of extensively studied catalysts for the cathode oxygen reduction/evolution are selectively surveyed from materials chemistry to electrode properties and battery application: Pt and Pt-based alloys (e.g., PtAu nanoparticles), carbonaceous materials (e.g., graphene nanosheets), transition-metal oxides (e.g., Mn-based spinels and perovskites), and inorganic-organic composites (e.g., metal macrocycle derivatives). The design and optimization of air-electrode structure are also outlined. Furthermore, remarks on the challenges and perspectives of research directions are proposed for further development of metal-air batteries (219 references).

  9. Crown Ether Complexes of Alkali-Metal Chlorides from SO2.

    Reuter, Kirsten; Rudel, Stefan S; Buchner, Magnus R; Kraus, Florian; von Hänisch, Carsten

    2017-07-18

    The structures of alkali-metal chloride SO 2 solvates (Li-Cs) in conjunction with 12-crown-4 or 1,2-disila-12-crown-4 show strong discrepancies, despite the structural similarity of the ligands. Both types of crown ethers form 1:1 complexes with LiCl to give [Li(1,2-disila-12-crown-4)(SO 2 Cl)] (1) and [Li(12-crown-4)Cl]⋅4 SO 2 (2). However, 1,2-disila-12-crown-4 proved unable to coordinate cations too large for the cavity diameter, for example, by the formation of sandwich-type complexes. As a result, 12-crown-4 reacts exclusively with the heavier alkali-metal chlorides NaCl, KCl and RbCl. Compounds [Na(12-crown-4) 2 ]Cl⋅4 SO 2 (3) and [M(12-crown-4) 2 (SO 2 )]Cl⋅4 SO 2 (4: M=K; 5: M=Rb) all showed S-coordination to the chloride ions through four SO 2 molecules. Compounds 4 and 5 additionally exhibit the first crystallographically confirmed non-bridging O,O'-coordination mode of SO 2 . Unexpectedly, the disila-crown ether supports the dissolution of RbCl and CsCl in the solvent and gives the homoleptic SO 2 -solvated alkali-metal chlorides [MCl⋅3 SO 2 ] (6: M=Rb; 7: M=Cs), which incorporate bridging μ-O,O'-coordinating moieties and the unprecedented side-on O,O'-coordination mode. All compounds were characterised by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The crown ether complexes were additionally studied by using NMR spectroscopy, and the presence of SO 2 at ambient temperature was revealed by IR spectroscopy of the neat compounds. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. P and Si functionalized MXenes for metal-ion battery applications

    Zhu, Jiajie; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2017-01-01

    MXenes are a family of two-dimensional materials, composed of early transition metal carbides, nitrides, and carbonitrides, with great potential in energy storage systems, in particular in electrodes for Li, Na, K-ion batteries. However, so far

  11. Ionic Liquid-Nanoparticle Hybrid Electrolytes and their Application in Secondary Lithium-Metal Batteries

    Lu, Yingying; Das, Shyamal K.; Moganty, Surya S.; Archer, Lynden A.

    2012-01-01

    Ionic liquid-tethered nanoparticle hybrid electrolytes comprised of silica nanoparticles densely grafted with imidazolium-based ionic liquid chains are shown to retard lithium dendrite growth in rechargeable batteries with metallic lithium anodes

  12. Recovery of metal chlorides from their complexes by molten salt displacement

    McLaughlin, D.F.; Stoltz, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes a process for recovering zirconium or hafnium chloride from a complex of zirconium or hafnium tetrachloride and phosphorus oxychloride. The process comprising: introducing liquid complex of zirconium or hafnium tetrachloride and phosphorus oxychloride into an upper portion of a feed column containing zirconium or hafnium tetrachloride vapor and phosphorus oxychloride vapor. The liquid complex absorbing zirconium or hafnium tetrachloride vapor and producing a bottoms liquid and also producing a phosphorus oxychloride vapor stripped of zirconium or hafnium tetrachloride; introducing the bottoms liquid into a molten salt containing displacement reactor, the reactor containing molten salt comprising at least 30 mole percent lithium chloride and at least 30 mole percent of at least one other alkali metal chloride, the reactor being heated to 30-450 0 C to displace phosphorus oxychloride from the complex and product zirconium or hafnium tetrachloride vapor and phosphorus oxychloride vapor and zirconium or hafnium tetrachloride-containing molten salt; introducing the zirconium or hafnium tetrachloride vapor and the phosphorus oxychloride vapor into the feed column below the point of introduction of the liquid stream; introducing the zirconium or hafnium tetrachloride containing-molten salt into a recovery vessel where zirconium or hafnium tetrachloride is removed from the molten salt to produce zirconium or hafnium tetrachloride product and zirconium or hafnium chloride-depleted molten salt; and recycling the zirconium or hafnium tetachloride-depleted molten salt to the displacement reactor

  13. Hierarchically Nanostructured Transition Metal Oxides for Lithium‐Ion Batteries

    Zheng, Mingbo; Tang, Hao; Li, Lulu; Hu, Qin; Zhang, Li; Xue, Huaiguo

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Lithium‐ion batteries (LIBs) have been widely used in the field of portable electric devices because of their high energy density and long cycling life. To further improve the performance of LIBs, it is of great importance to develop new electrode materials. Various transition metal oxides (TMOs) have been extensively investigated as electrode materials for LIBs. According to the reaction mechanism, there are mainly two kinds of TMOs, one is based on conversion reaction and the other is based on intercalation/deintercalation reaction. Recently, hierarchically nanostructured TMOs have become a hot research area in the field of LIBs. Hierarchical architecture can provide numerous accessible electroactive sites for redox reactions, shorten the diffusion distance of Li‐ion during the reaction, and accommodate volume expansion during cycling. With rapid research progress in this field, a timely account of this advanced technology is highly necessary. Here, the research progress on the synthesis methods, morphological characteristics, and electrochemical performances of hierarchically nanostructured TMOs for LIBs is summarized and discussed. Some relevant prospects are also proposed. PMID:29593962

  14. Piperidinium tethered nanoparticle-hybrid electrolyte for lithium metal batteries

    Korf, Kevin S.

    2014-06-23

    We report on the synthesis of novel piperidinium-based ionic liquid tethered nanoparticle hybrid electrolytes and investigate their physical and electrochemical properties. Hybrid electrolytes based on the ionic liquid 1-methyl-1-propylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfone) imide covalently tethered to silica nanoparticles (SiO2-PP-TFSI) were blended with propylene carbonate-1 M lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfone) imide (LiTFSI). We employed NMR analysis to confirm the successful creation of the hybrid material. Dielectric and rheological measurements show that these electrolytes exhibit exceptional room-temperature DC ionic conductivity (10-2 to 10 -3 S cm-1) as well as high shear mechanical moduli (105 to 106 Pa). Lithium transference numbers were found to increase with particle loading and to reach values as high as 0.22 at high particle loadings where the particle jam to form a soft glassy elastic medium. Analysis of lithium electrodeposits obtained in the hybrid electrolytes using SEM and EDX spectra show that the SiO2-PP-TFSI nanoparticles are able to smooth lithium deposition and inhibit lithium dendrite proliferation in Li metal batteries. LTOSiO2-PP-TFSI/PC in 1 M LiTFSILi half-cells based on the SiO2-PP-TFSI hybrid electrolytes exhibit attractive voltage profiles and trouble-free extended cycling behavior over more than 1000 cycles of charge and discharge. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  15. Characteristics of a lithium-thionyl chloride battery as a memory back-up power source

    Iwamaru, T.; Uetani, Y.

    An Li/SOCl 2 battery of R6 size (ER6C) has been evaluated as a memory back-up power source for CMOS RAM. The working voltage is 3.6 V and the discharge capacity is 1900 mA h on a 1OK-ohm load. The cell exhibits satisfactory working voltage and discharge capacity over the temperature range -40 °C to 85 °C. The discharge reaction mechanism has been elucidated. Cumulative self discharge during 10 years discharge at 20 μA is estimated to be 3.5%. No serious problems have been observed during abuse tests.

  16. Characteristics of a lithium-thionyl chloride battery as a memory back-up power source

    Iwamaru, T.; Uetani, Y.

    1987-05-01

    An Li/SOCl/sub 2/ battery of R6 size (ER6C) has been evaluated as a memory back-up power source for CMOS RAM. The working voltage is 3.6 V and the discharge capacity is 1900 mA h on a 10K-ohm load. The cell exhibits satisfactory working voltage and discharge capacity over the temperature range -40/sup 0/C to 85/sup 0/C. The discharge reaction mechanism has been elucidated. Cumulative self discharge during 10 years discharge at 20 ..mu..A is estimated to be 3.5%. No serious problems have been observed during abuse tests.

  17. Solidification of metal chloride waste from pyrochemical process via dechlorination-chlorination reaction system

    Park, H.S.; Cho, I.H.; Lee, K.R.; Choi, J.H.; Eun, H.C.; Kim, I.T.; Park, G.I. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Deajeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    The metal chloride wastes generated from the pyro-chemical process to recover uranium and TRUs has been considered as a problematic waste due to the high volatility and low compatibility with conventional silicate glass. Our research group has suggested the dechlorination approach for the solidification of this kind of waste by using a synthetic composite, SAP (SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}). During the dechlorination, metal elements are chemically interacted with the inorganic composite, SAP, while chlorine is vaporized as gaseous chlorine. Metal elements in the salt were immobilized into phosphate and silicate glass which are uniformly distributed in tens of nm scale. During the dechlorination, gaseous chlorine is captured by Li{sub 2}O-Li{sub 2}O{sub 2} composite that can be converted into metal chloride (LiCl). About 98wt% of oxide composite was converted into LiCl that can be used as an electrolyte in the electrochemical process. The method suggested in this study can provide a chance to minimize the waste volume for the final disposal of salt wastes from a pyro-chemical process. (author)

  18. Ion conducting polymers and polymer blends for alkali metal ion batteries

    DeSimone, Joseph M.; Pandya, Ashish; Wong, Dominica; Vitale, Alessandra

    2017-08-29

    Electrolyte compositions for batteries such as lithium ion and lithium air batteries are described. In some embodiments the compositions are liquid compositions comprising (a) a homogeneous solvent system, said solvent system comprising a perfluropolyether (PFPE) and polyethylene oxide (PEO); and (b) an alkali metal salt dissolved in said solvent system. In other embodiments the compositions are solid electrolyte compositions comprising: (a) a solid polymer, said polymer comprising a crosslinked product of a crosslinkable perfluropolyether (PFPE) and a crosslinkable polyethylene oxide (PEO); and (b) an alkali metal ion salt dissolved in said polymer. Batteries containing such compositions as electrolytes are also described.

  19. Complexes of metal chlorides with proton donors — promising polyfunctional catalysts for electrophilic processes

    Minsker, Karl S.; Ivanova, S. R.; Biglova, Raisa Z.

    1995-05-01

    The Bronsted acids formed as a result of the interaction of aluminium chlorides with Group I and II metal chlorides in the presence of proton-donating compounds are promising polyfunctional catalysts for electrophilic processes (polymerisation, depolymerisation and degradation of macromolecules, alkylation, desulfurisation, and hydrogenation). The factor determing the electrophilic activity and selectivity of the action of the catalysts is their acidity. This makes it possible to predict the direction of the changes in the activity and selectivity of the catalyst in specific chemical processes in conformity with the opposite variation rule: with increase in the acidity of the electrophilic catalyst, their activity increases but the selectivity of their action diminishes. The bibliography includes 72 references.

  20. Effect of chloride contamination in MON-1 propellant on crack growth properties of metals

    Moran, C. M.; Toth, L. R.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of a high level of chloride content (800 ppm) in MON-1 propellant on the crack growth properties of seven materials was investigated. Sustained load tests were conducted at 49 C (120 F) temperature with thin gauge tensile specimens having a semi-elliptical surface flaw. Alloys included aluminum 1100, 3003, 5086 and 6061; corrosion resistant steel types A286 and 347; and titanium 6Al-4V. The configurations tested with precracked flaws exposed to MON-1 were: parent or base metal, center weld, and heat affected zone. It was concluded that this chloride level in MON-1 does not affect the stress corrosion, crack growth properties of these alloys after 1000 hour exposure duration under high stresses.

  1. Separation of hafnium from zirconium in their tetrachloride solution in molten alkali metal chlorides

    Salyulev, A B; Kudyakov, V Ya; Smirnov, M V; Moskalenko, N I [AN SSSR, Sverdlovsk. Inst. Ehlektrokhimii

    1984-08-01

    The coefficient of HfCl/sub 4/ and ZrCl/sub 4/ separation in the process of vapour sublimation from their solutions in molten NaCl, KCl, CsCl, NaCl-KCl and NaCl-CsCl equimolar mixtures is found to vary in the series from approximately 1.10 to approximately 1.22 and practically not to depend on the temperature (in the 600-910 deg) range and concentration (2-25 mol.% ZrCl/sub 4/+HfCl/sub 4/). HfCl/sub 4/ and ZrCl/sub 4/ are shown to form almost perfect solutions with each other, which in their turn form imperfect solutions with molten alkali metal chlorides, with the strength of hafnium complex chloride anions increasing higher than that of zirconium in the series from NaCl to CsCl.

  2. Separation of hafnium from zirconium in their tetrachloride solution in molten alkali metal chlorides

    Salyulev, A.B.; Kudyakov, V.Ya.; Smirnov, M.V.; Moskalenko, N.I.

    1984-01-01

    The coefficient of HfCl 4 and ZrCl 4 separation in the process of vapour sublimation from their solutions in molten NaCl, KCl, CsCl, NaCl-KCl and NaCl-CsCl equimolar mixtures is found to vary in the series from approximately 1.10 to approximately 1.22 and practically not to depend on the temperature (in the 600-910 deg) range and concentration (2-25 mol.% ZrCl 4 +HfCl 4 ). HfCl 4 and ZrCl 4 are shown to form almost perfect solutions with each other, which in their turn form imperfect solutions with molten alkali metal chlorides, with the strength of hafnium complex chloride anions increasing higher than that of zirconium in the series from NaCl to CsCl

  3. Innovative leaching of cobalt and lithium from spent lithium-ion batteries and simultaneous dechlorination of polyvinyl chloride in subcritical water

    Liu, Kang; Zhang, Fu-Shen, E-mail: fszhang@rcees.ac.cn

    2016-10-05

    Highlights: • A co-treatment process for recovery of Co and Li and simultaneous detoxification of PVC in subcritical water was proposed. • PVC was used as a hydrochloric acid source. • More than 95% Co and nearly 98% Li were leached under the optimum conditions. • Neither corrosive acid nor reducing agent was used. • The co-treatment process has technical, economic and environmental benefits over the traditional recovery processes. - Abstract: In this work, an effective and environmentally friendly process for the recovery of cobalt (Co) and lithium (Li) from spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and simultaneously detoxification of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) in subcritical water was developed. Lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO{sub 2}) power from spent LIBs and PVC were co-treated by subcritical water oxidation, in which PVC served as a hydrochloric acid source to promote metal leaching. The dechlorination of PVC and metal leaching was achieved simultaneously under subcritical water oxidation. More than 95% Co and nearly 98% Li were recovered under the optimum conditions: temperature 350 °C, PVC/LiCoO{sub 2} ratio 3:1, time 30 min, and a solid/liquid ratio 16:1 (g/L), respectively. Moreover, PVC was completely dechlorinated at temperatures above 350 °C without any release of toxic chlorinated organic compounds. Assessment on economical and environmental impacts revealed that the PVC and LiCoO{sub 2} subcritical co-treatment process had significant technical, economic and environmental benefits over the traditional hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy processes. This innovative co-treatment process is efficient, environmentally friendly and adequate for Co and Li recovery from spent LIBs and simultaneous dechlorination of PVC in subcritical water.

  4. Solar photovoltaic charging of high voltage nickel metal hydride batteries using DC power conversion

    Kelly, Nelson A.; Gibson, Thomas L.

    There are an increasing number of vehicle choices available that utilize batteries and electric motors to reduce tailpipe emissions and increase fuel economy. The eventual production of electricity and hydrogen in a renewable fashion, such as using solar energy, can achieve the long-term vision of having no tailpipe environmental impact, as well as eliminating the dependence of the transportation sector on dwindling supplies of petroleum for its energy. In this report we will demonstrate the solar-powered charging of the high-voltage nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) battery used in the GM 2-mode hybrid system. In previous studies we have used low-voltage solar modules to produce hydrogen via the electrolysis of water and to directly charge lithium-ion battery modules. Our strategy in the present work was to boost low-voltage PV voltage to over 300 V using DC-DC converters in order to charge the high-voltage NiMH battery, and to regulate the battery charging using software to program the electronic control unit supplied with the battery pack. A protocol for high-voltage battery charging was developed, and the solar to battery charging efficiency was measured under a variety of conditions. We believe this is the first time such high-voltage batteries have been charged using solar energy in order to prove the concept of efficient, solar-powered charging for battery-electric vehicles.

  5. Composite metal-hydrogen electrodes for metal-hydrogen batteries. Final report, October 1, 1993 - April 15, 1997

    Ruckman, M.W.; Strongin, M.; Weismann, H.

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop and conduct a feasibility study of metallic thin films (multilayered and alloy composition) produced by advanced sputtering techniques for use as anodes in Ni-metal hydrogen batteries that would be deposited as distinct anode, electrolyte and cathode layers in thin film devices. The materials could also be incorporated in secondary consumer batteries (i.e. type AF(4/3 or 4/5)) which use electrodes in the form of tapes. The project was based on pioneering studies of hydrogen uptake by ultra-thin Pd-capped Nb films, these studies suggested that materials with metal-hydrogen ratios exceeding those of commercially available metal hydride materials and fast hydrogen charging and discharging kinetics could be produced. The project initially concentrated on gas phase and electrochemical studies of Pd-capped niobium films in laboratory-scale NiMH cells. This extended the pioneering work to the wet electrochemical environment of NiMH batteries and exploited advanced synchrotron radiation techniques not available during the earlier work to conduct in-situ studies of such materials during hydrogen charging and discharging. Although batteries with fast charging kinetics and hydrogen-metal ratios approaching unity could be fabricated, it was found that oxidation, cracking and corrosion in aqueous solutions made pure Nb films and multilayers poor candidates for battery application. The project emphasis shifted to alloy films based on known elemental materials used for NiMH batteries. Although commercial NiMH anode materials contain many metals, it was found that 0.24 μm thick sputtered Zr-Ni films cycled at least 50 times with charging efficiencies exceeding 95% and [H]/[M] ratios of 0.7-1.0. Multilayered or thicker Zr-Ni films could be candidates for a thin film NiMH battery that may have practical applications as an integrated power source for modern electronic devices

  6. Corrosion potentials of hafnium in molten alkaline-earth metal chlorides

    Kovalik, O.Yu.; Tkhaj, V.D.

    2000-01-01

    Corrosion potentials of hafnium in molten calcium, strontium and barium chlorides are measured and their temperature dependences are determined. It is stated that the corrosion potential of hafnium becomes more electropositive with an increase of the environment temperature. If the temperature is the same the potential shifts to the interval of more electronegative values in the row of CaCl 2 , SrCl 2 , BaCl 2 which corresponds to a lesser corrosion rate in environments positioned from left to right. the comparison of hafnium corrosion potentials with previously measured values for titanium and zirconium shows that a metal activity decrease results in a more electronegative corrosion potential [ru

  7. Chlorination of uranium oxides in melts of alkali metal chlorides and their mixtures

    Vorobej, M.P.; Bevz, A.S.; Skiba, O.V.

    1978-01-01

    Chlorination of UO 2 , U 3 O 8 , and UO 3 in melts of chlorides of alkali metals and of their mixtures has been studied by thermogravimetric, X-ray phase, and spectrophotometric methods. The thermogravimetric method has been proposed for evaluating the state of uranylcation in the melt; the effect of the composition of the oxide being chlorinated and of the salt-solvent on the composition of the chlorination products has been studied. The effect of the composition of the chlorination products on the stoichiometry of the electrolytic uranium dioxide has been shown

  8. Nano sized bismuth oxy chloride by metal organic chemical vapour deposition

    Jagdale, Pravin, E-mail: pravin.jagdale@polito.it [Department of Applied Science and Technology (DISAT), Politecnico di Torino, 10129 (Italy); Castellino, Micaela [Center for Space Human Robotics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Corso Trento 21, 10129 Torino (Italy); Marrec, Françoise [Laboratory of Condensed Matter Physics, University of Picardie Jules Verne (UPJV), Amiens 80039 (France); Rodil, Sandra E. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexicom (UNAM), Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Tagliaferro, Alberto [Department of Applied Science and Technology (DISAT), Politecnico di Torino, 10129 (Italy)

    2014-06-01

    Metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) method was used to prepare thin films of bismuth based nano particles starting from bismuth salts. Nano sized bismuth oxy chloride (BiOCl) crystals were synthesized from solution containing bismuth chloride (BiCl{sub 3}) in acetone (CH{sub 3}-CO-CH{sub 3}). Self-assembly of nano sized BiOCl crystals were observed on the surface of silicon, fused silica, copper, carbon nanotubes and aluminium substrates. Various synthesis parameters and their significant impact onto the formation of self-assembled nano-crystalline BiOCl were investigated. BiOCl nano particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Micro-Raman spectroscopy. These analyses confirm that bismuth nanometer-sized crystal structures showing a single tetragonal phase were indeed bismuth oxy chloride (BiOCl) square platelets 18–250 nm thick and a few micrometres wide.

  9. Safety and performance of a long life lithium-thionyl chloride battery

    Cieslak, W. R.; Street, H. K.

    A Li/SOCl2 'D' cell for applications requiring 10 to 15 years life at very low drain rates, typically less than 150 microA, were developed. Maximizing cell safety and reliability, while delivering very good energy density, were the goals. These goals were achieved by designing the cell to be application specific. The low-rate cell was optimized to deliver up to 16 Ah at drain rates of less than 70 mA. By virtue of its low surface area, 145 cm(sup 2), the cell demonstrated excellent safety behavior. Safety testing was performed on individual cells as well as on two-cell and four-cell batteries. Single cells did not vent when short-circuited. Benign venting in a two cell string was produced, but only when the string was partially discharged before shorting. The vent mechanism is a 300 psi rupture pressure burst disc manufactured by BS&B Safety Systems. Benign venting is defined as full opening of the 3/8 in. dia vent hole without deformation of the case. Material is expelled from the cell without flame, and the cell stack remains largely intact. Venting of the Sandia-designed low rate cell was not produced under any other abuse test conditions. The vent functions as an ultimate safety mechanism in the case of severe abuse, but resistance to venting under normal use and mild abuse conditions is key to the achievement of high reliability.

  10. Lithium alloys and metal oxides as high-capacity anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Liang, Chu; Gao, Mingxia; Pan, Hongge; Liu, Yongfeng; Yan, Mi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Progress in lithium alloys and metal oxides as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries is reviewed. •Electrochemical characteristics and lithium storage mechanisms of lithium alloys and metal oxides are summarized. •Strategies for improving electrochemical lithium storage properties of lithium alloys and metal oxides are discussed. •Challenges in developing lithium alloys and metal oxides as commercial anodes for lithium-ion batteries are pointed out. -- Abstract: Lithium alloys and metal oxides have been widely recognized as the next-generation anode materials for lithium-ion batteries with high energy density and high power density. A variety of lithium alloys and metal oxides have been explored as alternatives to the commercial carbonaceous anodes. The electrochemical characteristics of silicon, tin, tin oxide, iron oxides, cobalt oxides, copper oxides, and so on are systematically summarized. In this review, it is not the scope to retrace the overall studies, but rather to highlight the electrochemical performances, the lithium storage mechanism and the strategies in improving the electrochemical properties of lithium alloys and metal oxides. The challenges and new directions in developing lithium alloys and metal oxides as commercial anodes for the next-generation lithium-ion batteries are also discussed

  11. Boosting catalytic activity of metal nanoparticles for 4-nitrophenol reduction: Modification of metal naoparticles with poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)

    You, Jyun-Guo; Shanmugam, Chandirasekar [Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-sen University, Taiwan (China); Liu, Yao-Wen; Yu, Cheng-Ju [Department of Applied Physics and Chemistry, University of Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tseng, Wei-Lung, E-mail: tsengwl@mail.nsysu.edu.tw [Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-sen University, Taiwan (China); School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Taiwan (China); Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Sun Yat-sen University, Taiwan (China)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • The choice of capping ligand determines catalytic activity of metal nanocatalysts. • PDDA-capped metal nanoparticles electrostatically interact with 4-NP and BH4{sup −}. • PDDA-capped metal nanoparticles have good recyclability and large scalability. • PDDA-capped Pd nanoparticles show the highest rate constant and activity parameter. - Abstract: Most of the previously reported studies have focused on the change in the size, morphology, and composition of metal nanocatalysts for improving their catalytic activity. Herein, we report poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) [PDDA]-stabilized nanoparticles (NPs) of platinum (Pt) and palladium (Pd) as highly active and efficient catalysts for hydrogenation of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) in the presence of NaBH4. PDDA-stabilized Pt and Pd NPs possessed similar particle size and same facet with citrate-capped Pt and Pd NPs, making this study to investigate the inter-relationship between catalytic activity and surface ligand without the consideration of the effects of particle size and facet. Compared to citrate-capped Pt and Pd NPs, PDDA-stabilized Pt and Pd NPs exhibited excellent pH and salt stability. PDDA could serve as an electron acceptor for metal NPs to produce the net positive charges on the metal surface, which provide strong electrostatic attraction with negatively charged nitrophenolate and borohydride ions. The activity parameter and rate constant of PDDA-stabilized metal NPs were higher than those of citrate-capped metal NPs. Compared to the previously reported Pd nanomaterials for the catalysis of NaBH4-mediated reduction of 4-NP, PDDA-stabilized Pd NPs exhibited the extremely high activity parameter (195 s{sup −1} g{sup −1}) and provided excellent scalability and reusability.

  12. Safety and performance of a long life lithium-thionyl chloride battery

    Cieslak, W.R.; Street, H.K.

    1992-12-31

    We have developed a Li/SOCl{sub 2} ``D`` cell for applications requiring 10 to 15 years life at very low drain rates, typically less than 150 {mu}A. Maximizing cell safety and reliability, while delivering very good energy density, have been the goals of our study. We have achieved these goals by designing the cell to be application specific. The low-rate cell has been optimized to deliver up to 16 Ah at drain rates of less than 70 mA. By virtue of its low surface area, 145 cm{sub 2}, the cell has demonstrated excellent safety behavior. Safety testing has been performed on individual cells as well as on two-cell and four-cell batteries. Single cells did not vent when short-circuited. We were able to produce benign venting in a two cell string, but only when the string was partially discharged before shorting. The vent mechanism is a 300 psi rupture pressure burst disc manufactured by BS&B Safety Systems. We define benign venting as full opening of the 3/8 in. dia vent hole without deformation of the case. Material is expelled from the cell without flame, and the cell stack remains largely intact. We have not produced venting of the Sandia-designed low rate cell under any other abuse test conditions. The vent functions as an ultimate safety mechanism in the case of severe abuse, but resistance to venting under normal use and mild abuse conditions is key to the achievement of high reliability.

  13. Safety and performance of a long life lithium-thionyl chloride battery

    Cieslak, W.R.; Street, H.K.

    1992-01-01

    We have developed a Li/SOCl[sub 2] D'' cell for applications requiring 10 to 15 years life at very low drain rates, typically less than 150 [mu]A. Maximizing cell safety and reliability, while delivering very good energy density, have been the goals of our study. We have achieved these goals by designing the cell to be application specific. The low-rate cell has been optimized to deliver up to 16 Ah at drain rates of less than 70 mA. By virtue of its low surface area, 145 cm[sub 2], the cell has demonstrated excellent safety behavior. Safety testing has been performed on individual cells as well as on two-cell and four-cell batteries. Single cells did not vent when short-circuited. We were able to produce benign venting in a two cell string, but only when the string was partially discharged before shorting. The vent mechanism is a 300 psi rupture pressure burst disc manufactured by BS B Safety Systems. We define benign venting as full opening of the 3/8 in. dia vent hole without deformation of the case. Material is expelled from the cell without flame, and the cell stack remains largely intact. We have not produced venting of the Sandia-designed low rate cell under any other abuse test conditions. The vent functions as an ultimate safety mechanism in the case of severe abuse, but resistance to venting under normal use and mild abuse conditions is key to the achievement of high reliability.

  14. Effect of alkaline earth metal and magnesium cations on cadmium extraction from chloride solutions by tributyl phosphate

    Prokuev, V.A.; Belousov, E.A.

    1985-01-01

    At 298 K thermodynamic constants of cadmium (2) extraction from chloride solutions of magnesium, calcium, strontium and barium by tributyl phosphate are calculated. It is established, that logarithm of the thermodynamic extraction constant is in a linear dependence from the change in the cation hydration enthalpy in agqueous solution. It is shown, that activity coefficient of neutral complex CdVCl 2 differs from one, and it is the higher the more stable the complex is in alkaline earth metal chloride solutions

  15. Corrosion behaviour of 2124 aluminium alloy-silicon carbide metal matrix composites in sodium chloride environment

    Singh, Nirbhay; Vadera, K.K.; Ramesh Kumar, A.V.; Singh, R.S.; Monga, S.S.; Mathur, G.N.

    1999-01-01

    Aluminium alloy based particle reinforced metal matrix composites (MMCs) are being considered for a range of applications. Their mechanical properties have been investigated in detail, but more information about their corrosion resistance is needed. In this investigation, the corrosion behaviour of silicon carbide particulates (SiC p )-2124 aluminium metal matrix composites was studied in 3 wt% sodium chloride solution by means of electrochemical technique and optical microscope. The effects of weight percentages and particle size of silicon carbide particulates on corrosion behaviour of the composite were studied in NaCl and it was observed that corrosion rate increases linearly with the increasing weight percentage of SiC p . The corrosion rate of the MMC increases by increasing the size of SiC particles. Anodization improved corrosion resistance of the composites. (author)

  16. Atomic size effects on local coordination and medium range order in molten trivalent metal chlorides

    Tatlipinar, H.; Akdeniz, Z.; Pastore, G.

    1992-08-01

    Structural correlations in molten trivalent metal chlorides are evaluated as functions of the metal ion size R M across the range from LaCl 3 (R M approx. 1.4 A) to AlCl 3 (R M approx. 0.8 A), using a charged soft-sphere model and the hypernetted chain approximation. Main attention is given to trends in the local liquid structure (partial radial distribution functions, coordination numbers and bond lengths) and in the intermediate range order (first sharp diffraction peak in the number-number and partial structure factors). The trend towards fourfold local coordination of the metal ions, the stabilization of their first-neighbour chlorine cage and the growth of medium range order are found to proceed in parallel as the size of the metal ion is allowed to decrease at constant number density and temperature. A tendency to molecular-type local structure and liquid-vapour phase separation is found within the hypernetted chain scheme at small metal ion sizes corresponding to AlCl 3 and is emphasized by decreasing the number density of the fluid. The predicted molecular units are rather strongly distorted Al 2 Cl 6 dimers, in agreement with observation. The calculated structural trends for other trichlorides are compared with diffraction and transport data. (author). 17 refs, 8 figs, 1 tab

  17. Reviews on the Japanese Patent Applications Regarding Nickel/Metal Hydride Batteries

    Taihei Ouchi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Japanese Patent Applications filed on the topic of nickel/metal hydride (Ni/MH batteries have been reviewed. Patent applications filed by the top nine battery manufacturers (Matsushita, Sanyo, Hitachi Maxell, Yuasa, Toshiba, FDK, Furukawa, Japan Storage, and Shin-kobe, five component suppliers (Tanaka, Mitsui, Santoku, Japan Metals & Chemicals Co. (JMC, and Shin-Etsu, and three research institutes (Industrial Research Institute (ISI, Agency of Industrial Science and Technology (AIST, and Toyota R & D were chosen as the main subjects for this review, based on their production volume and contribution to the field. By reviewing these patent applications, we can have a clear picture of the technology development in the Japanese battery industry. These patent applications also provide insights, know-how, and future directions for engineers and scientists working in the rechargeable battery field.

  18. Research on Computer Integrated Manufacturing of Sheet Metal Parts for Lithium Battery

    Pan Wei-Min

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lithium battery has been widely used as the main driving force of the new energy vehicle in recent years. Sheet metal parts are formed by means of pressure forming techniques with the characteristics of light weight, small size and high structural strength. The sheet metal forming has higher productivity and material utilization than the mechanical cutting, therefore sheet metal parts are widely used in many fields, such as modern automotive industry, aviation, aerospace, machine tools, instruments and household appliances. In this paper, taking a complex lithium battery box as an example, the integrated manufacturing of sheet metal parts is studied, and the digital integrated design and manufacturing process system is proposed. The technology is studied such as sheet metal design, unfolding, sheet nesting and laser cutting, CNC turret punch stamping programming, CNC bending etc. The feasibility of the method is verified through the examples of products and the integrated manufacturing of sheet metal box is completed.

  19. Ionic Liquid-Nanoparticle Hybrid Electrolytes and their Application in Secondary Lithium-Metal Batteries

    Lu, Yingying

    2012-07-12

    Ionic liquid-tethered nanoparticle hybrid electrolytes comprised of silica nanoparticles densely grafted with imidazolium-based ionic liquid chains are shown to retard lithium dendrite growth in rechargeable batteries with metallic lithium anodes. The electrolytes are demonstrated in full cell studies using both high-energy Li/MoS2 and high-power Li/TiO2 secondary batteries. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Challenges and issues facing lithium metal for solid-state rechargeable batteries

    Mauger, A.; Armand, M.; Julien, C. M.; Zaghib, K.

    2017-06-01

    The commercial use of lithium metal batteries was delayed because of dendrite formation on the surface of the lithium electrode, and the difficulty finding a suitable electrolyte that has both the mechanical strength and ionic conductivity required for solid electrolytes. Recently, strategies have developed to overcome these difficulties, so that these batteries are currently an option for different applications, including electric cars. In this work, we review these strategies, and discuss the different routes that are promising for progress in the near future.

  1. Recovery concept of value metals from automotive lithium-ion batteries

    Traeger, Thomas; Friedrich, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    A recycling process for automotive lithium-ion batteries was developed. The process combines a mechanical pretreatment with pyrometallurgical recycling process step to recover all battery components, and realize cost-neutral and sustainable recycling. The focus of the research work is the development of a pyrometallurgical process step to recover especially Li out of electrode mass powder which is the fine fraction extracted mechanically from spent Li-ion batteries. Two metallurgical treatment technologies were investigated: direct vacuum evaporation of Li and recovery of metallic Li by distillation, and a selective entraining gas evaporation of Li and recovery of lithium oxide.

  2. The role of transition metal interfaces on the electronic transport in lithium–air batteries

    Chen, Jingzhe; Hummelshøj, Jens S.; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2011-01-01

    Low electronic conduction is expected to be a main limiting factor in the performance of reversible lithium–air, Li–O2, batteries. Here, we apply density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green's function calculations to determine the electronic transport through lithium peroxide, Li2O2, formed...... at the cathode during battery discharge. We find the transport to depend on the orientation and lattice matching of the insulator–metal interface in the presence of Au and Pt catalysts. Bulk lithium vacancies are found to be available and mobile under battery charging conditions, and found to pin the Fermi level...

  3. Zinc composite anode for batteries with solid electrolyte

    Tedjar, F.; Melki, T.; Zerroual, L.

    A new negative composite anode for batteries with a solid electrolyte is studied. Using a complex of zinc ammonium chloride mixed with zinc metal powder, the advantage of the Zn/Zn 2+ electrode ( e = -760 mV) is kept while the energy density and the shelf-life of the battery are increased.

  4. Zinc composite anode for batteries with solid electrolyte

    Tedjar, F.; Melki, T.; Zerroual, L. (Setif Univ. (Algeria). Unite de Recherche Electrochimie)

    1992-05-01

    A new negative composite anode for batteries with a solid electrolyte is studied. Using a complex of zinc ammonium chloride mixed with zinc metal powder, the advantage of the Zn/Zn[sup 2+] electrode (e = -760 mV) is kept while the energy density and the shelf-life of the battery are increased. (orig.).

  5. Electroplating Ni-63 metal ions in chloride bath on the Cu-plate

    Yoo, Kwon Mo; Uhm, Young Rang; Son, Kwang Jae; Park, Keun Yung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Ni-63 plating is similar to other electroplating processes that employ soluble metal anodes. The nickel plating solution described by Watts in 1916 eventually replaced all other strategies in use up to that time. Charged Ni ions are formed by sulfate, sulfamate, chloride, and a Watts bath. However, charged Ni-63 ions are formed by dissolving metal Ni-63. Specifically, it requires the passage of direct current (DC) between two electrodes that are immersed in a conductive, aqueous solution of nickel salts. The flow of a DC causes one of the electrodes (the anode) to dissolve and the other electrode (the cathode) to become covered with nickel. The nickel in the solution is present in the form of divalent positively charged ions (Ni{sup 2+}). When the current flows, the positive ions react with two electrons (2e{sup -}) and are converted into metallic nickel (Ni{sup 0}) at the cathode surface. In the present study, we optimize and established process for the electroplating Ni-63 on Cu-plate. Nanocrystalline nickel (Ni) coatings were synthesized by DC electro deposition at a current density of 15 mA/cm{sup 2}. The bath was primarily composed of 0.2 M Ni ions, prepared by dissolving Ni-63 metal particles in HCl. The prototype for electroplating radioactive Ni-63 has been established. The electroplating was carried out by two-step processes such as preparation of ionic solution including Ni-63, and coating processes on the substrate.

  6. Electroplating Ni-63 metal ions in chloride bath on the Cu-plate

    Yoo, Kwon Mo; Uhm, Young Rang; Son, Kwang Jae; Park, Keun Yung

    2014-01-01

    Ni-63 plating is similar to other electroplating processes that employ soluble metal anodes. The nickel plating solution described by Watts in 1916 eventually replaced all other strategies in use up to that time. Charged Ni ions are formed by sulfate, sulfamate, chloride, and a Watts bath. However, charged Ni-63 ions are formed by dissolving metal Ni-63. Specifically, it requires the passage of direct current (DC) between two electrodes that are immersed in a conductive, aqueous solution of nickel salts. The flow of a DC causes one of the electrodes (the anode) to dissolve and the other electrode (the cathode) to become covered with nickel. The nickel in the solution is present in the form of divalent positively charged ions (Ni 2+ ). When the current flows, the positive ions react with two electrons (2e - ) and are converted into metallic nickel (Ni 0 ) at the cathode surface. In the present study, we optimize and established process for the electroplating Ni-63 on Cu-plate. Nanocrystalline nickel (Ni) coatings were synthesized by DC electro deposition at a current density of 15 mA/cm 2 . The bath was primarily composed of 0.2 M Ni ions, prepared by dissolving Ni-63 metal particles in HCl. The prototype for electroplating radioactive Ni-63 has been established. The electroplating was carried out by two-step processes such as preparation of ionic solution including Ni-63, and coating processes on the substrate

  7. Recovery Of Electrodic Powder From Spent Nickel-Metal Hydride Batteries (NiMH

    Shin S.M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was focused on recycling process newly proposed to recover electrodic powder enriched in nickel (Ni and rare earth elements (La and Ce from spent nickel-metal hydride batteries (NiMH. In addition, this new process was designed to prevent explosion of batteries during thermal treatment under inert atmosphere. Spent nickel metal hydride batteries were heated over range of 300°C to 600°C for 2 hours and each component was completely separated inside reactor after experiment. Electrodic powder was successfully recovered from bulk components containing several pieces of metals through sieving operation. The electrodic powder obtained was examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX and image of the powder was taken by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. It was finally found that nickel and rare earth elements were mainly recovered to about 45 wt.% and 12 wt.% in electrodic powder, respectively.

  8. Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of nickel metal-hydride batteries for electric vehicles

    Corbus, D; Hammel, C J; Mark, J

    1993-08-01

    This report identifies important environment, health, and safety issues associated with nickel metal-hydride (Ni-MH) batteries and assesses the need for further testing and analysis. Among the issues discussed are cell and battery safety, workplace health and safety, shipping requirements, and in-vehicle safety. The manufacture and recycling of Ni-MH batteries are also examined. This report also overviews the ``FH&S`` issues associated with other nickel-based electric vehicle batteries; it examines venting characteristics, toxicity of battery materials, and the status of spent batteries as a hazardous waste.

  9. Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of nickel metal-hydride batteries for electric vehicles

    Corbus, D.; Hammel, C.J.; Mark, J.

    1993-08-01

    This report identifies important environment, health, and safety issues associated with nickel metal-hydride (Ni-MH) batteries and assesses the need for further testing and analysis. Among the issues discussed are cell and battery safety, workplace health and safety, shipping requirements, and in-vehicle safety. The manufacture and recycling of Ni-MH batteries are also examined. This report also overviews the ''FH ampersand S'' issues associated with other nickel-based electric vehicle batteries; it examines venting characteristics, toxicity of battery materials, and the status of spent batteries as a hazardous waste

  10. A metal-free organic-inorganic aqueous flow battery

    Huskinson, B.; Marshak, M.P.; Suh, C.; Er, S.; Gerhardt, M.R.; Galvin, C.J.; Chen, X.; Aspuru-Guzik, A.; Gordon, R.G.; Aziz, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    As the fraction of electricity generation from intermittent renewable sources-such as solar or wind-grows, the ability to store large amounts of electrical energy is of increasing importance. Solid-electrode batteries maintain discharge at peak power for far too short a time to fully regulate wind

  11. Metal Chlorides Supported Solid Catalysts for F-C Acylations of Arenes

    李阳; 刘云龙; 穆曼曼; 陈立功

    2015-01-01

    A series of metal chlorides supported solid catalysts were prepared by simple wet impregnation method. Their catalytic performances for Friedel-Crafts acylation of toluene with benzoyl chloride were evaluated and the excellent results were obtained over FeCl3/SiO2. These catalysts were characterized by BET, NH3-TPD and FT-IR of pyridine adsorption to clarify the structure-activity relationship. It was found that FeCl3/SiO2 has larger pore size and pore volume than other catalysts, which increased the accessibility of the catalyst. In addition, FeCl3/SiO2 ex-hibited higher molar ratio of Lewis acid sites and Brφnsted acid sites, which might be another reason for the in-crease of toluene conversion. Furthermore, the reaction parameters, including temperature, time and molar ratio, were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, 91.2%, conversion and 82.0%, selectivity were obtained. Mean-while, the generality of the catalyst was demonstrated by the acylations of alkyl substituted aromatics. Finally, the catalyst was reused for four runs with slight loss in catalytic activity, which attributed to the drain of the active component.

  12. Electrolyte Chemistry for Simultaneous Stabilization of Potassium Metal and Superoxide in K-O₂ Batteries.

    Xiao, Neng; Gourdin, Gerald; Wu, Yiying

    2018-05-22

    In the superoxide batteries based on O2/O2- redox chemistry, identifying an electrolyte to stabilize both alkali metal and superoxide remains challenging due to their reactivity towards electrolyte components. Bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (FSI-) has been recognized as a "magical anion" for passivating alkali metals. Herein, we illustrate the chemical reactions between FSI- and superoxide, and the resultant dilemma when considering an anode-compatible electrolyte vs. a cathode-compatible one in K-O2 batteries. On one side, the KFSI-dimethoxyethane (DME) electrolyte passivates the potassium metal anode via the cleavage of S-F bond and formation of a KF-rich solid electrolyte interface (SEI). Nevertheless, the KFSI salt is chemically unstable due to the nucleophilic attack by superoxide and/or hydroxide species. On the other hand, potassium bis(trifluorosulfonyl)imide (KTFSI) is stable for KO2, but results in mossy deposition and irreversible plating and stripping. In order to circumvent this dilemma, we develop an artificial SEI for K metal anode to achieve long cycle-life K-O2 batteries. This work contributes to the understanding of electrolyte chemistry and guides the development of stable electrolytes and artificial SEI in metal-O2 batteries. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Process optimization and kinetics for leaching of rare earth metals from the spent Ni-metal hydride batteries.

    Meshram, Pratima; Pandey, B D; Mankhand, T R

    2016-05-01

    Nickel-metal hydride batteries (Ni-MH) contain not only the base metals, but valuable rare earth metals (REMs) viz. La, Sm, Nd, Pr and Ce as well. In view of the importance of resource recycling and assured supply of the contained metals in such wastes, the present study has focussed on the leaching of the rare earth metals from the spent Ni-MH batteries. The conditions for the leaching of REMs from the spent batteries were optimized as: 2M H2SO4, 348K temperature and 120min of time at a pulp density (PD) of 100g/L. Under this condition, the leaching of 98.1% Nd, 98.4% Sm, 95.5% Pr and 89.4% Ce was achieved. Besides the rare earth metals, more than 90% of base metals (Ni, Co, Mn and Zn) were also leached out in this condition. Kinetic data for the dissolution of all the rare earth metals showed the best fit to the chemical control shrinking core model. The leaching of metals followed the mechanism involving the chemical reaction proceeding on the surface of particles by the lixiviant, which was corroborated by the XRD phase analysis and SEM-EDS studies. The activation energy of 7.6, 6.3, 11.3 and 13.5kJ/mol was acquired for the leaching of neodymium, samarium, praseodymium and cerium, respectively in the temperature range 305-348K. From the leach liquor, the mixed rare earth metals were precipitated at pH∼1.8 and the precipitated REMs was analyzed by XRD and SEM studies to determine the phases and the morphological features. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Corrosion performance of SiCsubp/6061 Al metal matrix composites in sodium chloride solution

    Mohmad Soib bin Selamat

    1995-01-01

    The corrosion performance of silicon carbide particle/aluminium metal matrix composites (SiCsubp/Al) were studied in sodium chloride solution by means of electrochemical, microscopic, gravimetric and analytical techniques. The materials under investigation were compocasting processed 6061 Al reinforced with increasing amounts of SiC particles. Potentiostatic polarization tests were done in 0.1M NaCl solutions that were aerated or deaerated to observe overall corrosion behaviour. It was seen that the corrosion potentials did not vary greatly in relation to the amounts of SiCsubp reinforcement. Corrosion tests showed that the degree of corrosion increased with increasing SiCsubp content. SEM analysis technique was used to study the corroded samples and the pitting morphology. By TEM, no intermetallic layer was found at SiC/Al interface. A model for pitting process was proposed

  15. Metal Chloride Induced Formation of Porous Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) Films: Morphology, Thermal Properties and Crystallinity

    Tan, W. L.; Yaakob, N. N.; Zainal Abidin, A.; Abu Bakar, M.; Abu Bakar, N. H. H.

    2016-06-01

    Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) films with highly porous structures were synthesized using a one phase system comprising of metal chloride/methanol/PHB/chloroform (MCl2/CH3OH/PHB/CHCl3). SEM analyses confirmed that the MCl2 (where M = Cu2+ or Ni2+) induced porous structures with pore sizes ranging from 0.3 - 2.0 μm. The average pore size increased with the increasing MCl2 content. There existed weak physical interactions between the PHB chains and MCl2 as revealed by FTIR and NMR spectroscopies. The residue of MCl2 in the porous PHB film does not exert significant influence on the thermal stability of PHB. Nevertheless, the crystallinity of the prepared film is enhanced, as MCl2 acts as the nucleation sites to promote the growth of spherullites.

  16. Soil contamination of toxic metals from zinc carbon batteries inadequate disposal

    Gazano, Vanessa Santos Oliveira

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the concentration of Zn, Mn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Cr, and Ni in an oxisol column contaminated with zinc-carbon batteries. Two control and two contaminated columns, and batteries alone were leached for a periods of six months and one year with aqueous solution of HNO3 and H2SO4 (1:1, pH 4,0) to simulate rainwater. The metal concentrations in effluent and soil were measured by means of ICP-OES technique. Results from the contaminated column showed enhanced concentrations in both effluent and soil (mainly zinc, manganese and lead). In addition, the total amount of metals in effluent and soil showed similar sequence order as observed for batteries alone (Zn > Mn > Pb > Cr > Cu > Ni > Cd) indicating that batteries can be considered the main source of contamination. We also observed migration of Zn and Mn from the top to the lower layers of the soil columns. The study gives further evidence that batteries can significantly contaminate the soil with metals like Zn, Mn and Pb, and maybe Cd too. This soil contamination combined with the enhanced concentrations found in the effluent can point out a probable groundwater contamination. (author)

  17. Metal oxide-hydrogen secondary battery; Kinzoku sankabutsu-suiso niji denchi

    Hosobuchi, H.; Edoi, M.; Katsumata, T.

    1995-06-06

    Recently, the metal oxide - hydrogen secondary battery characterized by employing the hydrogen storage alloy as the hydrogen negative electrode draws attention. However, the secondary batteries equipped with the negative electrode composed of hydrogen storage alloy powder have such shortcoming that the charge-discharge cycle life is rather short and it changes widely from battery to battery, as the hydrogen storage alloy is disintegrated. This invention solves the problem. Employing the alloy having a composition expressed as LmNi(w)Co(X)Mn(y)Al(z) (Lm = rare earth elements including La) can suppress the disintegration of hydrogen storage alloy powder during the charge-discharge cycle. In addition, controlling the oxygen content in the hydrogen storage alloy powder to 500 - 1500ppm can reduce the oxidation corrosion of the hydrogen storage alloy, resulting in suppression of its deterioration. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  18. High-energy redox-flow batteries with hybrid metal foam electrodes.

    Park, Min-Sik; Lee, Nam-Jin; Lee, Seung-Wook; Kim, Ki Jae; Oh, Duk-Jin; Kim, Young-Jun

    2014-07-09

    A nonaqueous redox-flow battery employing [Co(bpy)3](+/2+) and [Fe(bpy)3](2+/3+) redox couples is proposed for use in large-scale energy-storage applications. We successfully demonstrate a redox-flow battery with a practical operating voltage of over 2.1 V and an energy efficiency of 85% through a rational cell design. By utilizing carbon-coated Ni-FeCrAl and Cu metal foam electrodes, the electrochemical reactivity and stability of the nonaqueous redox-flow battery can be considerably enhanced. Our approach intoduces a more efficient conversion of chemical energy into electrical energy and enhances long-term cell durability. The cell exhibits an outstanding cyclic performance of more than 300 cycles without any significant loss of energy efficiency. Considering the increasing demands for efficient energy storage, our achievement provides insight into a possible development pathway for nonaqueous redox-flow batteries with high energy densities.

  19. High-energy-density, aqueous, metal-polyiodide redox flow batteries

    Li, Bin; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Wei; Liu, Jun; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2017-08-29

    Improved metal-based redox flow batteries (RFBs) can utilize a metal and a divalent cation of the metal (M.sup.2+) as an active redox couple for a first electrode and electrolyte, respectively, in a first half-cell. For example, the metal can be Zn. The RFBs can also utilize a second electrolyte having I.sup.-, anions of I.sub.x (for x.gtoreq.3), or both in an aqueous solution, wherein the I.sup.- and the anions of I.sub.x (for x.gtoreq.3) compose an active redox couple in a second half-cell.

  20. A highly reversible room-temperature lithium metal battery based on crosslinked hairy nanoparticles.

    Choudhury, Snehashis; Mangal, Rahul; Agrawal, Akanksha; Archer, Lynden A

    2015-01-01

    Rough electrodeposition, uncontrolled parasitic side-reactions with electrolytes and dendrite-induced short-circuits have hindered development of advanced energy storage technologies based on metallic lithium, sodium and aluminium electrodes. Solid polymer electrolytes and nanoparticle-polymer composites have shown promise as candidates to suppress lithium dendrite growth, but the challenge of simultaneously maintaining high mechanical strength and high ionic conductivity at room temperature has so far been unmet in these materials. Here we report a facile and scalable method of fabricating tough, freestanding membranes that combine the best attributes of solid polymers, nanocomposites and gel-polymer electrolytes. Hairy nanoparticles are employed as multifunctional nodes for polymer crosslinking, which produces mechanically robust membranes that are exceptionally effective in inhibiting dendrite growth in a lithium metal battery. The membranes are also reported to enable stable cycling of lithium batteries paired with conventional intercalating cathodes. Our findings appear to provide an important step towards room-temperature dendrite-free batteries.

  1. A highly reversible room-temperature lithium metal battery based on crosslinked hairy nanoparticles.

    Choudhury, Snehashis

    2015-12-04

    Rough electrodeposition, uncontrolled parasitic side-reactions with electrolytes and dendrite-induced short-circuits have hindered development of advanced energy storage technologies based on metallic lithium, sodium and aluminium electrodes. Solid polymer electrolytes and nanoparticle-polymer composites have shown promise as candidates to suppress lithium dendrite growth, but the challenge of simultaneously maintaining high mechanical strength and high ionic conductivity at room temperature has so far been unmet in these materials. Here we report a facile and scalable method of fabricating tough, freestanding membranes that combine the best attributes of solid polymers, nanocomposites and gel-polymer electrolytes. Hairy nanoparticles are employed as multifunctional nodes for polymer crosslinking, which produces mechanically robust membranes that are exceptionally effective in inhibiting dendrite growth in a lithium metal battery. The membranes are also reported to enable stable cycling of lithium batteries paired with conventional intercalating cathodes. Our findings appear to provide an important step towards room-temperature dendrite-free batteries.

  2. Lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide synthesized using alkali chloride flux: morphology and performance as a cathode material for lithium ion batteries.

    Kim, Yongseon

    2012-05-01

    Li(Ni(0.8)Co(0.1)Mn(0.1))O(2) (NCM811) was synthesized using alkali chlorides as a flux and the performance as a cathode material for lithium ion batteries was examined. Primary particles of the powder were segregated and grown separately in the presence of liquid state fluxes, which induced each particle to be composed of one primary particle with well-developed facet planes, not the shape of agglomerates as appears with commercial NCMs. The new NCM showed far less gas emission during high temperature storage at charged states, and higher volumetric capacity thanks to its high bulk density. The material is expected to provide optimal performances for pouch type lithium ion batteries, which require high volumetric capacity and are vulnerable to deformation caused by gas generation from the electrode materials.

  3. Reductive mineralization of cellulose with vanadium, iron and tungsten chlorides and access to MxOy metal oxides and MxOy/C metal oxide/carbon composites.

    Henry, Aurélien; Hesemann, Peter; Alauzun, Johan G; Boury, Bruno

    2017-10-15

    M x O y and M x O y /C composites (M=V, Fe and W) were obtained by mineralization of cellulose with several metal chlorides. Cellulose was used both as a templating agent and as an oxygen and a carbon source. Soluble chloride molecules (VOCl 3 and WCl 6 ) and a poorly soluble ionic chloride compound (FeCl 3 ) were chosen as metal oxide precursors. In a first time, primary metal oxide/cellulose composites were obtained via a thermal treatment by reacting urea impregnated filter paper with the corresponding metal chlorides in an autoclave at 150°C after 3days. After either pyrolysis or calcination steps of these intermediate materials, interesting metal oxides with various morphologies were obtained (V 2 O 5, V 2 O 3 , Fe 3 O 4 , WO 3, H 0.23 WO 3 ), composites (V 2 O 3 /C) as well as carbides (hexagonal W 2 C and WC, Fe 3 C) This result highlight the reductive role that can play cellulose during the pyrolysis step that allows to tune the composition of M x O y /C composites. The materials were characterized by FTIR, Raman, TGA, XRD and SEM. This study highlights that cellulose can be used for a convenient preparation of a variety of highly demanded M x O y and M x O y /C composites with original shapes and morphologies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Understanding the molecular mechanism of pulse current charging for stable lithium-metal batteries

    Li, Qi; Tan, Shen; Li, Linlin; Lu, Yingying; He, Yi

    2017-01-01

    High energy and safe electrochemical storage are critical components in multiple emerging fields of technologies. Rechargeable lithium-metal batteries are considered to be promising alternatives for current lithium-ion batteries, leading to as much as a 10-fold improvement in anode storage capacity (from 372 to 3860 mAh g−1). One of the major challenges for commercializing lithium-metal batteries is the reliability and safety issue, which is often associated with uneven lithium electrodeposition (lithium dendrites) during the charging stage of the battery cycling process. We report that stable lithium-metal batteries can be achieved by simply charging cells with square-wave pulse current. We investigated the effects of charging period and frequency as well as the mechanisms that govern this process at the molecular level. Molecular simulations were performed to study the diffusion and the solvation structure of lithium cations (Li+) in bulk electrolyte. The model predicts that loose association between cations and anions can enhance the transport of Li+ and eventually stabilize the lithium electrodeposition. We also performed galvanostatic measurements to evaluate the cycling behavior and cell lifetime under pulsed electric field and found that the cell lifetime can be more than doubled using certain pulse current waveforms. Both experimental and simulation results demonstrate that the effectiveness of pulse current charging on dendrite suppression can be optimized by choosing proper time- and frequency-dependent pulses. This work provides a molecular basis for understanding the mechanisms of pulse current charging to mitigating lithium dendrites and designing pulse current waveforms for stable lithium-metal batteries. PMID:28776039

  5. Stabilized Lithium-Metal Surface in a Polysulfide-Rich Environment of Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Zu, Chenxi; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2014-08-07

    Lithium-metal anode degradation is one of the major challenges of lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries, hindering their practical utility as next-generation rechargeable battery chemistry. The polysulfide migration and shuttling associated with Li-S batteries can induce heterogeneities of the lithium-metal surface because it causes passivation by bulk insulating Li2S particles/electrolyte decomposition products on a lithium-metal surface. This promotes lithium dendrite formation and leads to poor lithium cycling efficiency with complicated lithium surface chemistry. Here, we show copper acetate as a surface stabilizer for lithium metal in a polysulfide-rich environment of Li-S batteries. The lithium surface is protected from parasitic reactions with the organic electrolyte and the migrating polysulfides by an in situ chemical formation of a passivation film consisting of mainly Li2S/Li2S2/CuS/Cu2S and electrolyte decomposition products. This passivation film also suppresses lithium dendrite formation by controlling the lithium deposition sites, leading to a stabilized lithium surface characterized by a dendrite-free morphology and improved surface chemistry.

  6. Thermal battery. [solid metal halide electrolytes with enhanced electrical conductance after a phase transition

    Carlsten, R.W.; Nissen, D.A.

    1973-03-06

    The patent describes an improved thermal battery whose novel design eliminates various disadvantages of previous such devices. Its major features include a halide cathode, a solid metal halide electrolyte which has a substantially greater electrical conductance after a phase transition at some temperature, and a means for heating its electrochemical cells to activation temperature.

  7. Overexpression of afsR and Optimization of Metal Chloride to Improve Lomofungin Production in Streptomyces lomondensis S015.

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Huasheng; Hu, Hongbo; Peng, Huasong; Zhang, Xuehong

    2015-05-01

    As a global regulatory gene in Streptomyces, afsR can activate the biosynthesis of many secondary metabolites. The effect of afsR on the biosynthesis of a phenazine metabolite, lomofungin, was studied in Streptomyces lomondensis S015. There was a 2.5-fold increase of lomofungin production in the afsR-overexpressing strain of S. lomondensis S015 N1 compared with the wild-type strain. Meanwhile, the transcription levels of afsR and two important genes involved in the biosynthesis of lomofungin (i.e., phzC and phzE) were significantly upregulated in S. lomondensis S015 N1. The optimization of metal chlorides was investigated to further increase the production of lomofungin in the afsR-overexpressing strain. The addition of different metal chlorides to S. lomondensis S015 N1 cultivations showed that CaCl2, FeCl2, and MnCl2 led to an increase in lomofungin biosynthesis. The optimum concentrations of these metal chlorides were obtained using response surface methodology. CaCl2 (0.04 mM), FeCl2 (0.33 mM), and MnCl2 (0.38 mM) gave a maximum lomofungin production titer of 318.0 ± 10.7 mg/l, which was a 4.1-fold increase compared with that of S. lomondensis S015 N1 without the addition of a metal chloride. This work demonstrates that the biosynthesis of phenazine metabolites can be induced by afsR. The results also indicate that metal chlorides addition might be a simple and useful strategy for improving the production of other phenazine metabolites in Streptomyces.

  8. Recovery of metals from a mixture of various spent batteries by a hydrometallurgical process.

    Tanong, Kulchaya; Coudert, Lucie; Mercier, Guy; Blais, Jean-Francois

    2016-10-01

    Spent batteries contain hazardous materials, including numerous metals (cadmium, lead, nickel, zinc, etc.) that are present at high concentrations. Therefore, proper treatment of these wastes is necessary to prevent their harmful effects on human health and the environment. Current recycling processes are mainly applied to treat each type of spent battery separately. In this laboratory study, a hydrometallurgical process has been developed to simultaneously and efficiently solubilize metals from spent batteries. Among the various chemical leaching agents tested, sulfuric acid was found to be the most efficient and cheapest reagent. A Box-Behnken design was used to identify the influence of several parameters (acid concentration, solid/liquid ratio, retention time and number of leaching steps) on the removal of metals from spent batteries. According to the results, the solid/liquid ratio and acid concentration seemed to be the main parameters influencing the solubilization of zinc, manganese, nickel, cadmium and cobalt from spent batteries. According to the results, the highest metal leaching removals were obtained under the optimal leaching conditions (pulp density = 180 g/L (w/v), [H2SO4] = 1 M, number of leaching step = 3 and leaching time = 30 min). Under such optimum conditions, the removal yields obtained were estimated to be 65% for Mn, 99.9% for Cd, 100% for Zn, 74% for Co and 68% for Ni. Further studies will be performed to improve the solubilization of Mn and to selectively recover the metals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. NASICON Open Framework Structured Transition Metal Oxides for Lithium Batteries

    Begam, K.M.; Michael, M.S.; Prabaharan, S.R.S.

    2010-01-01

    We identified a group of NASICON open framework structured polyanion materials and examined the materials for rechargeable lithium battery application. We found that the open framework structure of these materials facilitated easy insertion/extraction of lithium into/from their structure. We synthesized the materials in lithium-rich [Li2M2(MoO4)3] and lithium-free [LixM2(MoO4)3] (M= Ni, Co) phases, for the first time, by means of a low temperature soft-combustion technique. The soft-combustio...

  10. Stabilization of molten salt materials using metal chlorides for solar thermal storage.

    Dunlop, T O; Jarvis, D J; Voice, W E; Sullivan, J H

    2018-05-29

    The effect of a variety of metal-chlorides additions on the melting behavior and thermal stability of commercially available salts was investigated. Ternary salts comprised of KNO 3, NaNO 2, and NaNO 3 were produced with additions of a variety of chlorides (KCl, LiCl, CaCl 2 , ZnCl 2 , NaCl and MgCl 2 ). Thermogravimetric analysis and weight loss experiments showed that the quaternary salt containing a 5 wt% addition of LiCl and KCl led to an increase in short term thermal stability compared to the ternary control salts. These additions allowed the salts to remain stable up to a temperature of 630 °C. Long term weight loss experiments showed an upper stability increase of 50 °C. A 5 wt% LiCl addition resulted in a weight loss of only 25% after 30 hours in comparison to a 61% loss for control ternary salts. Calorimetry showed that LiCl additions allow partial melting at 80 °C, in comparison to the 142 °C of ternary salts. This drop in melting point, combined with increased stability, provided a molten working range increase of almost 100 °C in total, in comparison to the control ternary salts. XRD analysis showed the oxidation effect of decomposing salts and the additional phase created with LiCl additions to allow melting point changes to occur.

  11. Hydrogen-absorbing alloys for the nickel-metal hydride battery

    Mingming Geng; Jianwen Han; Feng Feng [University of Windsor, Ontario (Canada). Mechanical and Materials Engineering; Northwood, D.O. [University of Windsor, Ontario (Canada). Mechanical and Materials Engineering]|[Ryerson Polytechnic University, Toronto (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    In recent years, owing to the rapid development of portable electronic and electrical appliances, the market for rechargeable batteries has increased at a high rate. The nickel-metal hydride battery (Ni/MH) is one of the more promising types, because of its high capacity, high-rate charge/discharge capability and non-polluting nature. This type of battery uses a hydrogen storage alloy as its negative electrode. The characteristics of the Ni/MH battery, including discharge voltage, high-rate discharge capability and charge/discharge cycle lifetime are mainly determined by the construction of the negative electrode and the composition of the hydrogen-absorbing alloy. The negative electrode of the Ni/MH battery described in this paper was made from a mixture of hydrogen-absorbing alloy, nickel powder and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). A multicomponent MmNi{sub 5}-based alloy (Mm{sub 0.95}Ti{sub 0.05}Ni{sub 3.85} Co{sub 0.45}Mn{sub 0.35}Al{sub 0.35}) was used as the hydrogen-absorbing alloy. The discharge characteristics of the negative electrode, including discharge capacity, cycle lifetime, and polarization overpotential, were studied by means of electrochemical experiments and analysis. The decay of the discharge capacity for the Ni/MH battery (AA size, 1 Ah) was about 1% after 100 charge/discharge cycles and 10% after 500 charge/discharge cycles. (author)

  12. Metal-air batteries with high energy density: Li-air versus Zn-air

    Lee, Jang-Soo; Sun, Tai Kim; Cao, Ruiguo; Choi, Nam-Soon; Lee, Kyu Tae; Cho, Jaephil [Interdisciplinary School of Green Energy, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Liu, Meilin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2011-01-01

    In the past decade, there have been exciting developments in the field of lithium ion batteries as energy storage devices, resulting in the application of lithium ion batteries in areas ranging from small portable electric devices to large power systems such as hybrid electric vehicles. However, the maximum energy density of current lithium ion batteries having topatactic chemistry is not sufficient to meet the demands of new markets in such areas as electric vehicles. Therefore, new electrochemical systems with higher energy densities are being sought, and metal-air batteries with conversion chemistry are considered a promising candidate. More recently, promising electrochemical performance has driven much research interest in Li-air and Zn-air batteries. This review provides an overview of the fundamentals and recent progress in the area of Li-air and Zn-air batteries, with the aim of providing a better understanding of the new electrochemical systems. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. The rechargeable aluminum-ion battery

    Jayaprakash, N.

    2011-01-01

    We report a novel aluminium-ion rechargeable battery comprised of an electrolyte containing AlCl3 in the ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, and a V2O5 nano-wire cathode against an aluminium metal anode. The battery delivered a discharge capacity of 305 mAh g-1 in the first cycle and 273 mAh g-1 after 20 cycles, with very stable electrochemical behaviour. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011.

  14. Electrolyte additive enabled fast charging and stable cycling lithium metal batteries

    Zheng, Jianming; Engelhard, Mark H.; Mei, Donghai; Jiao, Shuhong; Polzin, Bryant J.; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Xu, Wu

    2017-03-01

    Lithium (Li) metal battery is an attractive energy storage system owing to the ultrahigh specific capacity and the lowest redox potential of Li metal anode. However, safety concern associated with dendrite growth and limited cycle life especially at a high charge current density are two critical challenges hindering the practical applications of rechargeable Li metal batteries. Here, we report for the first time that an optimal amount (0.05 M) of LiPF6 as additive in the LiTFSI-LiBOB dual-salt/carbonate-based electrolyte can significantly enhance the charging capability and the long-term cycle life of Li metal batteries with a moderately high cathode loading of 1.75 mAh cm-2. Unprecedented stable-cycling (97.1% capacity retention after 500 cycles) along with very limited increase in electrode over-potential has been achieved at a high current density of 1.75 mA cm-2. This unparalleled fast charging and stable cycling performance is contributed from both the stabilized Al cathode current collector, and, more importantly, the robust and conductive SEI layer formed on Li metal anode in the presence of the LiPF6 additive.

  15. Facile synthesis of nanostructured transition metal oxides as electrodes for Li-ion batteries

    Opra, Denis P.; Gnedenkov, Sergey V.; Sokolov, Alexander A.; Minaev, Alexander N.; Kuryavyi, Valery G.; Sinebryukhov, Sergey L.

    2017-09-01

    At all times, energy storage is one of the greatest scientific challenge. Recently, Li-ion batteries are under special attention due to high working voltage, long cycle life, low self-discharge, reliability, no-memory effect. However, commercial LIBs usage in medium- and large-scale energy storage are limited by the capacity of lithiated metal oxide cathode and unsafety of graphite anode at high-rate charge. In this way, new electrode materials with higher electrochemical performance should be designed to satisfy a requirement in both energy and power. As it known, nanostructured transition metal oxides are promising electrode materials because of their elevated specific capacity and high potential vs. Li/Li+. In this work, the perspective of an original facile technique of pulsed high-voltage plasma discharge in synthesis of nanostructured transition metal oxides as electrodes for lithium-ion batteries has been demonstrated.

  16. Performance and safety to NAVSEA instruction 9310.1A of lithium-thionyl chloride reserve batteries

    Hall, J. C.

    1984-09-01

    The design, performance and safety of a fully engineered, selfcontained Li/SOCl2 battery as the power source for underwater applications. In addition to meeting the performance standards of the end user this battery is successfully tested under the rigorous safety conditions of NAVSEA Instruction 9310.1A for use on land, aircraft and surface ships.

  17. Recovery and Separation of Valuable Metals from Spent Nickel-Metal Hydride Batteries using some Organophosphorus Extractants

    Aly, M.I.; Daoud, J.A.; ALy, H.F.

    2012-01-01

    The separation of cobalt, nickel, and rare earth elements from NiMH battery residues is evaluated in this paper. A hydrometallurgical process is developed for the recovery of metals from spent batteries and a selective separation of RE by precipitation of sodium RE double sulfate is performed. The methodology used benefits the solubility of the battery electrode materials in sulfuric or hydrochloric acids. The results obtained show that sulfuric acid is slightly less powerful in leaching (NiMH) compared to HCl acid. However, sulfuric acid was used on economic basis. Leaching solution was obtained by using 3 M H 2 SO 4 at 70 +1 degree C + 3% wt. H 2 O 2 for 5 hours. It has been shown that it is possible to recover about 98 % of the RE contained in spent NiMH batteries. The maximum recovery of nickel and cobalt metals was 99.9% and 99.4%, respectively. The effects of the main operating variables of both leaching and solvent extraction steps of nickel (II) and cobalt (II) from the leach solution using HDEHP (di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid) and CYANEX 272 (di-(2,4,4 trimethyl pentyl) phosphinic acid) in kerosene were investigated aiming to maximize metal separation for recycling purposes. The developed process for the recovery and separation of nickel (II) , cobalt (II), and rare earth from spent NiMH batteries is tested and the obtained sulfate salts CoSO 4 and NiSO 4 have a high purity, suggesting that these recovered products could be used as chemical materials without further purification

  18. Electrochemically Formed Ultrafine Metal Oxide Nanocatalysts for High-Performance Lithium–Oxygen Batteries

    Liu, Bin; Yan, Pengfei; Xu, Wu; Zheng, Jianming; He, Yang; Luo, Langli; Bowden, Mark E.; Wang, Chong-Min; Zhang, Ji-Guang

    2016-08-10

    Lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) battery has an extremely high theoretical specific energy density as compared with conventional energy storage systems. However, practical application of Li-O2 battery system still faces significant challenges, especially its poor cyclability. In this work, we report a new approach to synthesis ultrafine metal oxide nanocatalysts through an electrochemical pre-lithiation process. This process reduces the size of NiCo2O4 (NCO) particles from 20~30 nm to a uniformly distributed domain of ~ 2 nm and largely improved their catalytic activity. Structurally, the pre-lithiated NCO NWs are featured by ultrafine NiO/CoO nanoparticles, which show high stability during prolonged cycles in terms of morphology and the particle size, therefore maintaining an excellent catalytic effect to oxygen reduction and evolution reactions. Li-O2 battery using this catalyst has demonstrated an initial capacity of 29,280 mAh g-1 and has retained a stable capacity of over 1,000 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles based on the weight of NCO active material. Direct in-situ TEM observation conclusively reveals the lithiation/delithiation process of as-prepared NCO NWs, clarifying the NCO/Li electrochemical reaction mechanism that can be extended to other transition-metal oxides and providing the in depth understandings on the catalysts and battery chemistries of other ternary transition-metal oxides.

  19. Thermogravimetric method of estimation of uranyl cation state in melts of alkali metal chlorides and their mixtures

    Vorobej, M.P.; Desyatnik, V.N.

    1979-01-01

    The thermogravimetric method was used to study the chloridizing of uranium oxides in molten media. The study of the uranium oxide chloridizing served as a basis for evaluating comparatively, using the DTA method, the uranyl-cation state in a melt. Using the alkali metals as example, it was shown that the decomposition of the frozen uranium oxychlorides proceeds with the formation of intermediate chlorouranates. The final product of the thermolysis are uranates Me 2 U 2 O 7 (Me-Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs). The time and the conditions of the change of uranium oxides to the oxyanion [UO 2 Cl 4 ] 2- were determined as a function of the chloridizing agent. The method can be employed for evaluating uranyl-ions in molten media where they are used as electrolytes in the extraction of uranium dioxide

  20. Study of the factors influencing the metals solubilisation from a mixture of waste batteries by response surface methodology.

    Tanong, Kulchaya; Coudert, Lucie; Chartier, Myriam; Mercier, Guy; Blais, Jean-François

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents an innovative process for the recovery of valuable metals from a mixture of spent batteries. Different types of batteries, including alkaline, zinc-carbon (Zn-C), nickel cadmium (Ni-Cd), nickel metal hydride (Ni-MH), lithium ion (Li-ion) and lithium metallic (Li-M) batteries, were mixed according to the proportion of the Canadian sales of batteries. A Box-Behnken design was applied to find the optimum leaching conditions allowing a maximum of valuable metal removals from a mixture of spent batteries in the presence of an inorganic acid and a reducing agent. The results highlighted the positive effect of sodium metabisulfite on the performance of metals removal, especially for Mn. The solid/liquid ratio and the concentration of H 2 SO 4 were the main factors affecting the leaching behavior of valuable metals (Zn, Mn, Cd, Ni) present in spent batteries. Finally, the optimum leaching conditions were found as follows: one leaching step, solid/liquid ratio = 10.9%, [H 2 SO 4 ] = 1.34 M, sodium metabisulfite (Na 2 S 2 O 5 ) = 0.45 g/g of battery powder and retention time = 45 min. Under such conditions, the removal yields achieved were 94% for Mn, 81% for Cd, 99% for Zn, 96% for Co and 68% for Ni.

  1. Electrolyte additive enabled fast charging and stable cycling lithium metal batteries

    Zheng, Jianming; Engelhard, Mark H.; Mei, Donghai; Jiao, Shuhong; Polzin, Bryant J.; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Xu, Wu

    2017-03-01

    Batteries using lithium (Li) metal as anodes are considered promising energy storage systems because of their high energy densities. However, safety concerns associated with dendrite growth along with limited cycle life, especially at high charge current densities, hinder their practical uses. Here we report that an optimal amount (0.05 M) of LiPF6 as an additive in LiTFSI-LiBOB dual-salt/carbonate-solvent-based electrolytes significantly enhances the charging capability and cycling stability of Li metal batteries. In a Li metal battery using a 4-V Li-ion cathode at a moderately high loading of 1.75mAh cm(-2), a cyclability of 97.1% capacity retention after 500 cycles along with very limited increase in electrode overpotential is accomplished at a charge/discharge current density up to 1.75 mA cm(-2). The fast charging and stable cycling performances are ascribed to the generation of a robust and conductive solid electrolyte interphase at the Li metal surface and stabilization of the Al cathode current collector.

  2. Highly Stable Lithium Metal Batteries Enabled by Regulating the Solvation of Lithium Ions in Nonaqueous Electrolytes.

    Zhang, Xue-Qiang; Chen, Xiang; Cheng, Xin-Bing; Li, Bo-Quan; Shen, Xin; Yan, Chong; Huang, Jia-Qi; Zhang, Qiang

    2018-05-04

    Safe and rechargeable lithium metal batteries have been difficult to achieve because of the formation of lithium dendrites. Herein an emerging electrolyte based on a simple solvation strategy is proposed for highly stable lithium metal anodes in both coin and pouch cells. Fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) and lithium nitrate (LiNO 3 ) were concurrently introduced into an electrolyte, thus altering the solvation sheath of lithium ions, and forming a uniform solid electrolyte interphase (SEI), with an abundance of LiF and LiN x O y on a working lithium metal anode with dendrite-free lithium deposition. Ultrahigh Coulombic efficiency (99.96 %) and long lifespans (1000 cycles) were achieved when the FEC/LiNO 3 electrolyte was applied in working batteries. The solvation chemistry of electrolyte was further explored by molecular dynamics simulations and first-principles calculations. This work provides insight into understanding the critical role of the solvation of lithium ions in forming the SEI and delivering an effective route to optimize electrolytes for safe lithium metal batteries. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Hydrogen storage alloys for nickel/metal hydride battery

    Kuriyama, Nobuhiro; Sakai, Tetsuo; Myamura, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Hideaki; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Uehara, Itsuki [Osaka National Research Inst. (Japan)

    1996-06-01

    Efforts to improve performance of metal hydride electrodes such as substitution of alloy components, heat treatment, and surface treatment intended to change surface and bulk structure of hydrogen storage alloys, mainly LaNi{sub 5} based alloys, are reviewed. The importance of control of morphology is emphasized. (author)

  4. Stationary potentials and corrosion of metals and steels in sodium and potassium chloride eutectic melts saturated with hydrogen chloride

    Belov, V.N.; Ershova, T.K.; Kochergin, V.P.

    1978-01-01

    Stationary potentials have been measured at 850 deg C and corrosion rates found gravimetrically for a number of metals and steels in the eutectic NaCl-KCl melt saturated with HCl. Periodic shifts of the stationary potentials towards positive values have been established in the Ti-V-Cr-Fe-Ni, Cu-Zr-Nb-Mo, Ag-Ta-W-Pt systems, with the corrosion rate of metals decreasing in them. The stationary potentials are shown to shift towards positive values in the series: st.08 KP, st.3, Kh17N2, Kh22N6T, Kh13NChG9, 1Kh18N10T, Kh17N13M2T, OKh17N16M3T, Kh23N18, Kh25N16G7, Kh23N28M3D3T, with corrosive resistance in this series increasing

  5. Recent Progress in Graphite Intercalation Compounds for Rechargeable Metal (Li, Na, K, Al)‐Ion Batteries

    Xu, Jiantie; Dou, Yuhai; Wei, Zengxi; Li, Yutao; Liu, Huakun; Dou, Shixue

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Lithium‐ion batteries (LIBs) with higher energy density are very necessary to meet the increasing demand for devices with better performance. With the commercial success of lithiated graphite, other graphite intercalation compounds (GICs) have also been intensively reported, not only for LIBs, but also for other metal (Na, K, Al) ion batteries. In this Progress Report, we briefly review the application of GICs as anodes and cathodes in metal (Li, Na, K, Al) ion batteries. After a brief introduction on the development history of GICs, the electrochemistry of cationic GICs and anionic GICs is summarized. We further briefly summarize the use of cationic GICs and anionic GICs in alkali ion batteries and the use of anionic GICs in aluminium‐ion batteries. Finally, we reach some conclusions on the drawbacks, major progress, emerging challenges, and some perspectives on the development of GICs for metal (Li, Na, K, Al) ion batteries. Further development of GICs for metal (Li, Na, K, Al) ion batteries is not only a strong supplement to the commercialized success of lithiated‐graphite for LIBs, but also an effective strategy to develop diverse high‐energy batteries for stationary energy storage in the future. PMID:29051856

  6. Development of nickel/metal-hydride batteries for EVs and HEVs

    Taniguchi, Akihiro; Fujioka, Noriyuki; Ikoma, Munehisa; Ohta, Akira

    This paper is to introduce the nickel/metal-hydride (Ni/MH) batteries for electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) developed and mass-produced by our company. EV-95 for EVs enables a vehicle to drive approximately 200 km per charge. As the specific power is extremely high, more than 200 W/kg at 80% depth of discharge (DOD), the acceleration performance is equivalent to that of gasoline fuel automobiles. The life characteristic is also superior. This battery gives the satisfactory result of more than 1000 cycles in bench tests and approximately 4-year on-board driving. EV-28 developed for small EVs comprises of a compact and light battery module with high specific power of 300 W/kg at 80% DOD by introducing a new technology for internal cell connection. Meanwhile, our cylindrical battery for the HEV was adopted into the first generation Toyota Prius in 1997 which is the world's first mass-product HEV, and has a high specific power of 600 W/kg. Its life characteristic was found to be equivalent to more than 100,000 km driving. Furthermore, a new prismatic module in which six cells are connected internally was used for the second generation Prius in 2000. The prismatic battery comprises of a compact and light battery pack with a high specific power of 1000 W/kg, which is approximately 1.7 times that of conventional cylindrical batteries, as a consequence of the development of a new internal cell connection and a new current collection structure.

  7. Hydrometallurgical separation of rare earth elements, cobalt and nickel from spent nickel-metal-hydride batteries

    Rodrigues, Luiz Eduardo Oliveira Carmo; Mansur, Marcelo Borges

    The separation of rare earth elements, cobalt and nickel from NiMH battery residues is evaluated in this paper. Analysis of the internal content of the NiMH batteries shows that nickel is the main metal present in the residue (around 50% in weight), as well as potassium (2.2-10.9%), cobalt (5.1-5.5%), rare earth elements (15.3-29.0%) and cadmium (2.8%). The presence of cadmium reveals that some Ni-Cd batteries are possibly labeled as NiMH ones. The leaching of nickel and cobalt from the NiMH battery powder with sulfuric acid is efficient; operating variables temperature and concentration of H 2O 2 has no significant effect for the conditions studied. A mixture of rare earth elements is separated by precipitation with NaOH. Finally, solvent extraction with D2EHPA (di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid) followed by Cyanex 272 (bis-2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinic acid) can separate cadmium, cobalt and nickel from the leach liquor. The effect of the main operating variables of both leaching and solvent extraction steps are discussed aiming to maximize metal separation for recycling purposes.

  8. Hollow carbon sphere/metal oxide nanocomposites anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Wenelska, K.; Ottmann, A.; Schneider, P.; Thauer, E.; Klingeler, R.; Mijowska, E.

    2016-01-01

    HCS (Hollow carbon spheres) covered with metal oxide nanoparticles (SnO_2 and MnO_2, respectively) were successfully synthesized and investigated regarding their potential as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Raman spectroscopy shows a high degree of graphitization for the HCS host structure. The mesoporous nature of the nanocomposites is confirmed by Brunauer–Emmett–Teller analysis. For both metal oxides under study, the metal oxide functionalization of HCS yields a significant increase of electrochemical performance. The charge capacity of HCS/SnO_2 is 370 mA hg"−"1 after 45 cycles (266 mA hg"−"1 in HCS/MnO_2) which clearly exceeds the value of 188 mA hg"−"1 in pristine HCS. Remarkably, the data imply excellent long term cycling stability after 100 cycles in both cases. The results hence show that mesoporous HCS/metal oxide nanocomposites enable exploiting the potential of metal oxide anode materials in Lithium-ion batteries by providing a HCS host structure which is both conductive and stable enough to accommodate big volume change effects. - Highlights: • Strategy to synthesize hollow carbon spheres decorated by metal oxides nanoparticles. • High-performance of HCS/MOx storage as mesoporous hybrid material. • The results hence demonstrate high electrochemical activity of the HCS/MOx.

  9. Environmental and energy gains from using molten magnesium–sodium–potassium chlorides for electro-metallisation of refractory metal oxides

    Wei Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The molten eutectic mixture of magnesium, sodium and potassium chlorides (MgCl2–NaCl–KCl has inappreciable solubility for oxide ions, and can help disengage a carbon anode from the oxide ions generated at a metal oxide cathode, and effectively avoid carbon dioxide formation. This “disengaging strategy” was successfully demonstrated in electro-reduction of solid oxides of zirconium and tantalum. It has led to significantly higher current efficiency (93%, and lower energy consumption (1.4 kW h kg−1 in electrolysis of tantalum oxide to tantalum metal compared to the conventional electrolysis in molten calcium chloride (e.g. 78% and 2.4 kW h/kg-Ta.

  10. Assessment of high-temperature battery systems

    Sen, R K

    1989-02-01

    Three classes of high-temperature batteries are being developed internationally with transportation and stationary energy storage applications in mind: sodium/sulfur, lithium/metal sulfide, and sodium/metal chloride. Most attention is being given to the sodium/sulfur system. The Office of Energy Storage and Distribution (OESD) and the Office of Transportation Systems (OTS) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) are actively supporting the development of this battery system. It is anticipated that pilot-scale production facilities for sodium/sulfur batteries will be in operation in the next couple of years. The lithium/metal sulfide and the sodium/metal chloride systems are not receiving the same level of attention as the sodium/sulfur battery. Both of these systems are in an earlier stage of development than sodium/sulfur. OTS and OESD are supporting work on the lithium/iron sulfide battery in collaboration with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); the work is being carried out at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The sodium/metal chloride battery, the newest member of the group, is being developed by a Consortium of South African and British companies. Very little DOE funds are presently allocated for research on this battery. The purpose of this assessment is to evaluate the present status of the three technologies and to identify for each technology a prioritized list of R and D issues. Finally, the assessment includes recommendations to DOE for a proposed high-temperature battery research and development program. 18 figs., 21 tabs.

  11. A new class of solid oxide metal-air redox batteries for advanced stationary energy storage

    Zhao, Xuan

    Cost-effective and large-scale energy storage technologies are a key enabler of grid modernization. Among energy storage technologies currently being researched, developed and deployed, rechargeable batteries are unique and important that can offer a myriad of advantages over the conventional large scale siting- and geography- constrained pumped-hydro and compressed-air energy storage systems. However, current rechargeable batteries still need many breakthroughs in material optimization and system design to become commercially viable for stationary energy storage. This PhD research project investigates the energy storage characteristics of a new class of rechargeable solid oxide metal-air redox batteries (SOMARBs) that combines a regenerative solid oxide fuel cell (RSOFC) and hydrogen chemical-looping component. The RSOFC serves as the "electrical functioning unit", alternating between the fuel cell and electrolysis mode to realize discharge and charge cycles, respectively, while the hydrogen chemical-looping component functions as an energy storage unit (ESU), performing electrical-chemical energy conversion in situ via a H2/H2O-mediated metal/metal oxide redox reaction. One of the distinctive features of the new battery from conventional storage batteries is the ESU that is physically separated from the electrodes of RSOFC, allowing it to freely expand and contract without impacting the mechanical integrity of the entire battery structure. This feature also allows an easy switch in the chemistry of this battery. The materials selection for ESU is critical to energy capacity, round-trip efficiency and cost effectiveness of the new battery. Me-MeOx redox couples with favorable thermodynamics and kinetics are highly preferable. The preliminary theoretical analysis suggests that Fe-based redox couples can be a promising candidate for operating at both high and low temperatures. Therefore, the Fe-based redox-couple systems have been selected as the baseline for this

  12. Metallic lithium: state-of-art, production and perspectives for the Brazil

    Ogasawara, Tsuneharu; Almendra, Ericksson Rocha e; Silva, Flavio Teixeira da

    1995-01-01

    After consideration on the main lithium minerals, the metallic lithium production by lithium chloride in molten salts is reviewed. The perspective and the strategic relevance for the Brazil are examined, taking into consideration the various applications, specifically high energy density batteries with emphasis on thermal batteries, and batteries operating at ambient temperature

  13. Nanocluster metal films as thermoelectric material for radioisotope mini battery unit

    Borisyuk, P.V.; Krasavin, A.V.; Tkalya, E.V.; Lebedinskii, Yu.Yu.; Vasiliev, O.S.; Yakovlev, V.P.; Kozlova, T.I.; Fetisov, V.V.

    2016-01-01

    The paper is devoted to studying the thermoelectric and structural properties of films based on metal nanoclusters (Au, Pd, Pt). The experimental results of the study of single nanoclusters’ tunneling conductance obtained with scanning tunneling spectroscopy are presented. The obtained data allowed us to evaluate the thermoelectric power of thin film consisting of densely packed individual nanoclusters. It is shown that such thin films can operate as highly efficient thermoelectric materials. A scheme of miniature thermoelectric radioisotope power source based on the thorium-228 isotope is proposed. The efficiency of the radioisotope battery using thermoelectric converters based on nanocluster metal films is shown to reach values up to 1.3%. The estimated characteristics of the device are comparable with the parameters of up-to-date radioisotope batteries based on nickel-63.

  14. EVALUATION OF FERRIC CHLORIDE AND ALUM EFFICIENCIES IN ENHANCED COAGULATION FOR TOC REMOVAL AND RELATED RESIDUAL METAL CONCENTRATIONS

    A. Mesdaghinia, M. T. Rafiee, F. Vaezi and A. H. Mahvi

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Although the removal of colloidal particles continues to be an important reason for using coagulation, a newer objective, the removal of natural organic matter (NOM to reduce the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs, is growing in importance. Enhanced coagulation is thus introduced to most water utilities treating surface water. Bench-scale experiments were conducted to compare the effectiveness of alum and ferric chloride in removing DBPs precursors from eight synthetic water samples, each representing a different element of the USEPA’s 3×3 enhanced coagulation matrix. The effect of enhanced coagulation on the residual metal (aluminum/iron concentration in the treated water was assessed as well. The removal of total organic carbon (TOC was dependent on the coagulant type and was enhanced with increasing coagulant dose, but the latter had no further considerable effect in case of increasing to high levels. For all the treated samples coagulation with ferric chloride proved to be more effective than alum at similar doses and the mean values of treatment efficiencies were 51% and 32% for ferric chloride and alum, respectively. Ferric chloride was therefore considered the better chemical for enhancing the coagulation process. Besides, due to less production of sludge by this coagulant, it would be predicted that treatment plants would be confronted to fewer problems with respect to final sludge disposal. Measurements of residual metal in treated water indicated that iron and aluminum concentrations had been increased as expected but the quality of water concerning the residual metal deteriorated much more in cases of under-dosing. Despite expecting high residual Al and Fe concentrations under enhanced coagulation, metal concentrations were frequently remained low and were not increased appreciably.

  15. Passivation of metals in thionyl-chloride electrolytes for lithium batteries: Summary abstract

    Peebles, D. E.; Rogers, J. W., Jr.; Cieslak, W. R.; Delnick, F. M.

    1986-10-01

    Electrochemical methods have indicated that Ni and SS form passive films in SOCl2 electrolytes. The presence of a passive film has been verified by XPS, while the content of the films confirms that they were formed in situ, not prior to immersion in the electrolyte. In contrast, the electrochemical experiments have shown that both Pt and Mo behave kinetically as film-free inert electrodes, a result which has been confirmed by XPS.

  16. Passivation of metals in thionyl-chloride electrolytes for lithium batteries. Summary abstract

    Peebles, D.E.; Rogers, J.W. Jr.; Cieslak, W.R.; Delnick, F.M.

    1986-01-01

    Electrochemical methods have indicated that Ni and SS form passive films in SOCl/sub 2/ electrolytes. The presence of a passive film has been verified by XPS, while the content of the films confirms that they were formed in situ, not prior to immersion in the electrolyte. In contrast, the electrochemical experiments have shown that both Pt and Mo behave kinetically as film-free inert electrodes, a result which has been confirmed by XPS.

  17. Twenty Golden Years of Battery R&D at CSIR,1974–1994 ...

    ... the innovative materials science and engineering research conducted during this period is highlighted by the later successful implementation of batteries in powering practical systems, as well as in technology licensing. Keywords: CSIR, battery, Zebra, sodium-metal chloride, sodium-sulphur, LiAl/FeSx, lithium-ion, spinel ...

  18. Dendrite-Free Electrodeposition and Reoxidation of Lithium-Sodium Alloy for Metal-Anode Battery

    2011-11-01

    Dendrite-Free Electrodeposition and Reoxidation of Lithium-Sodium Alloy for Metal-Anode Battery Johanna K. Star 1 , Yi Ding 2 , and Paul A. Kohl ,1, * 1...Journal Article 3. DATES COVERED 01-11-2011 to 01-11-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE DENDRITE-FREE ELECTRODEPOSITION AND REOXIDATION OF LITHIUM-SODIUM...can short circuit the anode and cathode . Anode- cathode short circuits are especially dangerous when a flammable organic solvent is used as the

  19. Low temperature sulfur and sodium metal battery for grid-scale energy storage application

    Liu, Gao; Wang, Dongdong

    2018-03-27

    A re-chargeable battery comprising a non-dendrite forming sodium (Na)/potassium (K) liquid metal alloy anode, a sulfur and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) conductive polymer composite cathode, a polyethyleneoxide (PEO) solid electrolyte, a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) formed on the PEO solid electrolyte; and a cell housing, wherein the anode, cathode, and electrolyte are assembled into the cell housing with the PEO solid electrolyte disposed between the cathode and anode.

  20. One-dimensional manganese-cobalt oxide nanofibres as bi-functional cathode catalysts for rechargeable metal-air batteries

    Jung, Kyu-Nam; Hwang, Soo Min; Park, Min-Sik; Kim, Ki Jae; Kim, Jae-Geun; Dou, Shi Xue; Kim, Jung Ho; Lee, Jong-Won

    2015-01-01

    Rechargeable metal-air batteries are considered a promising energy storage solution owing to their high theoretical energy density. The major obstacles to realising this technology include the slow kinetics of oxygen reduction and evolution on the cathode (air electrode) upon battery discharging and charging, respectively. Here, we report non-precious metal oxide catalysts based on spinel-type manganese-cobalt oxide nanofibres fabricated by an electrospinning technique. The spinel oxide nanof...

  1. Electrolytic reduction of Lithium chloride from mixtures with Alkali and Alkali earth metal salts

    Park, B. H.; Lim, J. S.; Lee, C. S. [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    Electrolytic reduction of lithium chloride in lithium/lithium chloride system was experimentally studied. The electrolytic cell was made of alumina in which graphite anode and stainless steel cathode were used. Cell and electrodes were placed in a glove box. Current was measured against the linearly varying applied potential. Preliminary results were presented. (author). 9 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Behavior of Lithium Metal Anodes under Various Capacity Utilization and High Current Density in Lithium Metal Batteries

    Jiao, Shuhong; Zheng, Jianming; Li, Qiuyan; Li, Xing; Engelhard, Mark H.; Cao, Ruiguo; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Xu, Wu

    2018-01-01

    Lithium (Li) metal batteries (LMBs) are regarded as the most promising power sources for electric vehicles. Besides the Li dendrite growth and low Li Coulombic efficiency, how to well match Li metal anode with a high loading (normally over 3.0 mAh cm-2) cathode is another key challenge to achieve the real high energy density battery. In this work, we systematically investigate the effects of the Li metal capacity usage in each cycle, manipulated by varying the cathode areal loading, on the stability of Li metal anode and the cycling performance of LMBs using the LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC) cathode and an additive-containing dual-salt/carbonate-solvent electrolyte. It is demonstrated that the Li||NMC cells show decent long-term cycling performance even with NMC areal capacity loading up to ca. 4.0 mAh cm-2 and at a charge current density of 1.0 mA cm-2. The increase of the Li capacity usage in each cycle causes variation in the components of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer on Li metal anode and generates more ionic conductive species from this electrolyte. Further study reveals for the first time that the degradation of Li metal anode and the thickness of SEI layer on Li anode show linear relationship with the areal capacity of NMC cathode. Meanwhile, the expansion rate of consumed Li and the ratio of SEI thickness to NMC areal loading are kept almost the same value with increasing cathode loading, respectively. These fundamental findings provide new perspectives on the rational evaluation of Li metal anode stability for the development of rechargeable LMBs.

  3. Bioleaching of valuable metals from spent lithium-ion mobile phone batteries using Aspergillus niger

    Horeh, N. Bahaloo; Mousavi, S. M.; Shojaosadati, S. A.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, a bio-hydrometallurgical route based on fungal activity of Aspergillus niger was evaluated for the detoxification and recovery of Cu, Li, Mn, Al, Co and Ni metals from spent lithium-ion phone mobile batteries under various conditions (one-step, two-step and spent medium bioleaching). The maximum recovery efficiency of 100% for Cu, 95% for Li, 70% for Mn, 65% for Al, 45% for Co, and 38% for Ni was obtained at a pulp density of 1% in spent medium bioleaching. The HPLC results indicated that citric acid in comparison with other detected organic acids (gluconic, oxalic and malic acid) had an important role in the effectiveness of bioleaching using A. niger. The results of FTIR, XRD and FE-SEM analysis of battery powder before and after bioleaching process confirmed that the fungal activities were quite effective. In addition, bioleaching achieved higher removal efficiency for heavy metals than the chemical leaching. This research demonstrated the great potential of bio-hydrometallurgical route to recover heavy metals from spent lithium-ion mobile phone batteries.

  4. Cell Concepts of Metal-Sulfur Batteries (Metal = Li, Na, K, Mg): Strategies for Using Sulfur in Energy Storage Applications.

    Medenbach, Lukas; Adelhelm, Philipp

    2017-09-29

    There is great interest in using sulfur as active component in rechargeable batteries thanks to its low cost and high specific charge (1672 mAh/g). The electrochemistry of sulfur, however, is complex and cell concepts are required, which differ from conventional designs. This review summarizes different strategies for utilizing sulfur in rechargeable batteries among membrane concepts, polysulfide concepts, all-solid-state concepts as well as high-temperature systems. Among the more popular lithium-sulfur and sodium-sulfur batteries, we also comment on recent results on potassium-sulfur and magnesium-sulfur batteries. Moreover, specific properties related to the type of light metal are discussed.

  5. The Incorporation of Lithium Alloying Metals into Carbon Matrices for Lithium Ion Battery Anodes

    Hays, Kevin A.

    An increased interest in renewable energies and alternative fuels has led to recognition of the necessity of wide scale adoption of the electric vehicle. Automotive manufacturers have striven to produce an electric vehicle that can match the range of their petroleum-fueled counterparts. However, the state-of-the-art lithium ion batteries used to power the current offerings still do not come close to the necessary energy density. The energy and power densities of the lithium ion batteries must be increased significantly if they are going to make electric vehicles a viable option. The chemistry of the lithium ion battery, based on lithium cobalt oxide cathodes and graphite anodes, is limited by the amount of lithium the cathode can provide and the anode will accept. While these materials have proven themselves in portable electronics over the past two decades, plausible higher energy alternatives do exist. The focus is of this study is on anode materials that could achieve a capacity of more than 3 times greater than that of graphite anodes. The lithium alloying anode materials investigated and reported herein include tin, arsenic, and gallium arsenide. These metals were synthesized with nanoscale dimensions, improving their electrochemical and mechanical properties. Each exhibits their own benefits and challenges, but all display opportunities for incorporation in lithium ion batteries. Tin is incorporated in multilayer graphene nanoshells by introducing small amounts of metal in the core and, separately, on the outside of these spheres. Electrolyte decomposition on the anode limits cycle life of the tin cores, however, tin vii oxides introduced outside of the multilayer graphene nanoshells have greatly improved long term battery performance. Arsenic is a lithium alloying metal that has largely been ignored by the research community to date. One of the first long term battery performance tests of arsenic is reported in this thesis. Anodes were made from nanoscale

  6. Advances in the development of ovonic nickel metal hydride batteries for industrial and electric vehicles

    Venkatesan, S.; Fetcenko, M.A.; Dhar, S.K.; Ovshinsky, S.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that increasing concerns over urban pollution and continued uncertainties about oil supplies have forced the government and industry to refocus their attention on electric vehicles. Despite enormous expenditures in research and development for the ideal battery system, no commercially viable candidate has emerged. The battery systems being considered today due to renewed environmental concerns are still the same systems that were so extensively tested over the last 15 years. For immediate application, an electric vehicle designer has very little choice other than the lead-acid battery despite the fact that energy density is so low as to make vehicle range inadequate, as well as the need for replacement every 20,000 miles. The high energy density projections of Na-S and other so-called high energy batteries have proven to be significantly less in practical modules and there are still concern over cycle life which can be attained under aggressive conditions, reliability under freeze/thaw cycling and consequences resulting from high temperature operation. The conventional nickel-based systems (Ni- Zn, Ni-Fe, Ni-Cd) provide near term higher energy density as compared to lead-acid, but still do not address other important issues such as long life, the need for maintenance-free operation, the use of nontoxic materials and low cost. Against this background, the development of Ovonic Nickel-Metal Hydride (Ni-MH) batteries for electric vehicles has been rapid and successful. Ovonic No-Mh battery technology is uniquely qualified for electric vehicles due to its high energy density, high discharge rate capability, non-toxic alloys, long cycle life. low cost, tolerance to abuse and ability to be sealed for totally maintenance free operation

  7. Directly Formed Alucone on Lithium Metal for High-Performance Li Batteries and Li-S Batteries with High Sulfur Mass Loading.

    Chen, Lin; Huang, Zhennan; Shahbazian-Yassar, Reza; Libera, Joseph A; Klavetter, Kyle C; Zavadil, Kevin R; Elam, Jeffrey W

    2018-02-28

    Lithium metal is considered the "holy grail" of next-generation battery anodes. However, severe parasitic reactions at the lithium-electrolyte interface deplete the liquid electrolyte and the uncontrolled formation of high surface area and dendritic lithium during cycling causes rapid capacity fading and battery failure. Engineering a dendrite-free lithium metal anode is therefore critical for the development of long-life batteries using lithium anodes. In this study, we deposit a conformal, organic/inorganic hybrid coating, for the first time, directly on lithium metal using molecular layer deposition (MLD) to alleviate these problems. This hybrid organic/inorganic film with high cross-linking structure can stabilize lithium against dendrite growth and minimize side reactions, as indicated by scanning electron microscopy. We discovered that the alucone coating yielded several times longer cycle life at high current rates compared to the uncoated lithium and achieved a steady Coulombic efficiency of 99.5%, demonstrating that the highly cross-linking structured material with great mechanical properties and good flexibility can effectively suppress dendrite formation. The protected Li was further evaluated in lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries with a high sulfur mass loading of ∼5 mg/cm 2 . After 140 cycles at a high current rate of ∼1 mA/cm 2 , alucone-coated Li-S batteries delivered a capacity of 657.7 mAh/g, 39.5% better than that of a bare lithium-sulfur battery. These findings suggest that flexible coating with high cross-linking structure by MLD is effective to enable lithium protection and offers a very promising avenue for improved performance in the real applications of Li-S batteries.

  8. Highly Stable Operation of Lithium Metal Batteries Enabled by the Formation of a Transient High Concentration Electrolyte Layer

    Zheng, Jianming; Yan, Pengfei; Mei, Donghai; Engelhard, Mark H.; Cartmell, Samuel S.; Polzin, Bryant; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang; Xu, Wu

    2016-02-08

    Lithium (Li) metal has been extensively investigated as an anode for rechargeable battery applications due to its ultrahigh specific capacity and the lowest redox potential. However, significant challenges including dendrite growth and low Coulombic efficiency are still hindering the practical applications of rechargeable Li metal batteries. Here, we demonstrate that long-term cycling of Li metal batteries can be realized by the formation of a transient high concentration electrolyte layer near the surface of Li metal anode during high rate discharge process. The highly concentrated Li+ ions in this transient layer will immediately solvate with the available solvent molecules and facilitate the formation of a stable and flexible SEI layer composed of a poly(ethylene carbonate) framework integrated with other organic/inorganic lithium salts. This SEI layer largely suppresses the corrosion of Li metal anode by free organic solvents and enables the long-term operation of Li metal batteries. The fundamental findings in this work provide a new direction for the development and operation of Li metal batteries that could be operated at high current densities for a wide range of applications.

  9. Theoretical evaluation of high-energy lithium metal phosphate cathode materials in Li-ion batteries

    Howard, Wilmont F.; Spotnitz, Robert M.

    Lithium metal phosphates (olivines) are emerging as long-lived, safe cathode materials in Li-ion batteries. Nano-LiFePO 4 already appears in high-power applications, and LiMnPO 4 development is underway. Current and emerging Fe- and Mn-based intercalants, however, are low-energy producers compared to Ni and Co compounds. LiNiPO 4, a high voltage olivine, has the potential for superior energy output (>10.7 Wh in 18650 batteries), compared with commercial Li(Co,Ni)O 2 derivatives (up to 9.9 Wh). Speculative Co and Ni olivine cathode materials charged to above 4.5 V will require significant advances in electrolyte compositions and nanotechnology before commercialization. The major drivers toward 5 V battery chemistries are the inherent abuse tolerance of phosphates and the economic benefit of LiNiPO 4: it can produce 34% greater energy per dollar of cell material cost than LiAl 0.05Co 0.15Ni 0.8O 2, today's "standard" cathode intercalant in Li-ion batteries.

  10. Metal-Free Aqueous Flow Battery with Novel Ultrafiltered Lignin as Electrolyte

    Mukhopadhyay, Alolika [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Northeastern University, 360 Huntington Avenue, 334 Snell Engineering, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, United States; Hamel, Jonathan [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Northeastern University, 360 Huntington Avenue, 334 Snell Engineering, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, United States; Katahira, Rui [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Denver West Parkway, Golden, Colorado 80401, United States; Zhu, Hongli [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Northeastern University, 360 Huntington Avenue, 334 Snell Engineering, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, United States

    2018-03-05

    As the number of generation sources from intermittent renewable technologies on the electric grid increases, the need for large-scale energy storage devices is becoming essential to ensure grid stability. Flow batteries offer numerous advantages over conventional sealed batteries for grid storage. In this work, for the first time, we investigated lignin, the second most abundant wood derived biopolymer, as an anolyte for the aqueous flow battery. Lignosulfonate, a water-soluble derivative of lignin, is environmentally benign, low cost and abundant as it is obtained from the byproduct of paper and biofuel manufacturing. The lignosulfonate utilizes the redox chemistry of quinone to store energy and undergoes a reversible redox reaction. Here, we paired lignosulfonate with Br2/Br-, and the full cell runs efficiently with high power density. Also, the large and complex molecular structure of lignin considerably reduces the electrolytic crossover, which ensures very high capacity retention. The flowcell was able to achieve current densities of up to 20 mA/cm2 and charge polarization resistance of 15 ohm cm2. This technology presents a unique opportunity for a low-cost, metal-free flow battery capable of large-scale sustainable energy storage.

  11. Role of perfluoropolyether-based electrolytes in lithium metal batteries: Implication for suppressed Al current collector corrosion and the stability of Li metal/electrolytes interfaces

    Cong, Lina; Liu, Jia; Armand, Michel; Mauger, Alain; Julien, Christian M.; Xie, Haiming; Sun, Liqun

    2018-03-01

    The development of safe and high performance lithium metal batteries represents a major technological challenge for this new century. Historically, intrinsic instabilities of conventional liquid organic electrolytes induced battery failures and safety issues that hinder the practical utilization of advanced rechargeable lithium metal batteries. Herein, we report a multifunctional perfluoropolyether-based liquid polymer electrolyte (PFPE-MC/LiTFSI), presenting a unique "anion-solvent" interaction. This interaction optimizes the interfacial chemistry of lithium metal batteries, which effectively inhibits the corrosion of aluminum current collectors, suppresses lithium dendrite growth, and also facilitates the formation of a thin and stable SEI layer on Li anode. Even at a high current density of 0.7 mA cm-2, the lithium dendrites do not form after 1360 h of continuous operation. The LiFePO4|PFPE-MC/LiTFSI|Li cell delivers a stable cycling performance with over 99.9% columbic efficiency either at ambient temperature or high temperature, which is significantly superior to those using traditional carbonate electrolytes. In addition, PFPE-MC/LiTFSI electrolyte also possesses eye-catching properties, such as being non-flammable, non-volatile, non-hygroscopic, and existing in the liquid state between -90 °C and 200 °C, which further ensures the high safety of the lithium metal batteries, making this electrolyte promising for the development of high energy lithium metal batteries.

  12. Capacity extended bismuth-antimony cathode for high-performance liquid metal battery

    Dai, Tao; Zhao, Yue; Ning, Xiao-Hui; Lakshmi Narayan, R.; Li, Ju; Shan, Zhi-wei

    2018-03-01

    Li-Bi based liquid metal batteries (LMBs) have attracted interest due to their potential for solving grid scale energy storage problems. In this study, the feasibility of replacing the bismuth cathode with a bismuth-antimony alloy cathode in lithium based LMBs is investigated. The influence of the Bi:Sb ratio on voltage characteristics is evaluated via the constant current discharge method and electrochemical titration. On observing the cross section of the electrode at various stages of discharge, it is determined that both Sb and Bi form solid intermetallics with Li on the cathode. Additionally, the addition of Bi not only reduces the melting temperature of the Bi:Sb intermetallic but also actively contributes to the electrode capacity. Thereafter, a Li|LiCl-LiF|Sb-Bi liquid metal battery with 3 A h nameplate capacity, assembled and cycled at 1 C rate, is found to possess a stable capacity for over 160 cycles. The overall performance of this battery is discussed in the context of cost effectiveness, energy and coulombic efficiencies.

  13. Hydrometallurgical recovery of metal values from sulfuric acid leaching liquor of spent lithium-ion batteries.

    Chen, Xiangping; Chen, Yongbin; Zhou, Tao; Liu, Depei; Hu, Hang; Fan, Shaoyun

    2015-04-01

    Environmentally hazardous substances contained in spent Li-ion batteries, such as heavy metals and nocuous organics, will pose a threat to the environment and human health. On the other hand, the sustainable recycling of spent lithium-ion batteries may bring about environmental and economic benefits. In this study, a hydrometallurgical process was adopted for the comprehensive recovery of nickel, manganese, cobalt and lithium from sulfuric acid leaching liquor from waste cathode materials of spent lithium-ion batteries. First, nickel ions were selectively precipitated and recovered using dimethylglyoxime reagent. Recycled dimethylglyoxime could be re-used as precipitant for nickel and revealed similar precipitation performance compared with fresh dimethylglyoxime. Then the separation of manganese and cobalt was conducted by solvent extraction method using cobalt loaded D2EHPA. And McCabe-Thiele isotherm was employed for the prediction of the degree of separation and the number of extraction stages needed at specific experimental conditions. Finally, cobalt and lithium were sequentially precipitated and recovered as CoC2O4 ⋅ 2H2O and Li2CO3 using ammonium oxalate solution and saturated sodium carbonate solution, respectively. Recovery efficiencies could be attained as follows: 98.7% for Ni; 97.1% for Mn, 98.2% for Co and 81.0% for Li under optimized experimental conditions. This hydrometallurgical process may promise a candidate for the effective separation and recovery of metal values from the sulfuric acid leaching liquor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Preparation of a microporous polymer electrolyte based on poly(vinyl chloride)/poly(acrylonitrile-butyl acrylate) blend for Li-ion batteries

    Tian, Zheng; Pu, Weihua; He, Xiangming; Wan, Chunrong; Jiang, Changyin

    2007-01-01

    Poly(acrylonitrile-co-butyl acrylate) (P(AN-co-BuA))/poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) blend-based gel polymer electrolyte (BGPE) was prepared for lithium-ion batteries. The P(AN-co-BuA)/PVC BGPE consists of an electrolyte-rich phase, which is mainly composed of P(AN-co-BuA) and liquid electrolyte, acting as a conducting channel and a PVC-rich phase that provides mechanical strength. The dual phase was just simply developed by the difference of miscibility properties in solvent, PC, between P(AN-co-BuA) and PVC. The mechanical strength of this new blend electrolyte was found to be much higher, with a fracture stress as high as 29 MPa in dry membrane and 21 MPa in gel state, than that of a previously reported P(AN-co-BuA)-based gel polymer electrolyte. The blended gel polymer electrolyte showed ionic conductivity of higher than 1.5 x 10 -3 S cm -1 and electrochemical stability up to at least 4.8 V. The results showed that the as-prepared gel polymer electrolytes were promising materials for lithium-ion batteries

  15. Preparation of a microporous polymer electrolyte based on poly(vinyl chloride)/poly(acrylonitrile-butyl acrylate) blend for Li-ion batteries

    Tian, Zheng; Pu, Weihua; He, Xiangming; Wan, Chunrong; Jiang, Changyin [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2007-02-15

    Poly(acrylonitrile-co-butyl acrylate) (P(AN-co-BuA))/poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) blend-based gel polymer electrolyte (BGPE) was prepared for lithium-ion batteries. The P(AN-co-BuA)/PVC BGPE consists of an electrolyte-rich phase, which is mainly composed of P(AN-co-BuA) and liquid electrolyte, acting as a conducting channel and a PVC-rich phase that provides mechanical strength. The dual phase was just simply developed by the difference of miscibility properties in solvent, PC, between P(AN-co-BuA) and PVC. The mechanical strength of this new blend electrolyte was found to be much higher, with a fracture stress as high as 29 MPa in dry membrane and 21 MPa in gel state, than that of a previously reported P(AN-co-BuA)-based gel polymer electrolyte. The blended gel polymer electrolyte showed ionic conductivity of higher than 1.5 x 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} and electrochemical stability up to at least 4.8 V. The results showed that the as-prepared gel polymer electrolytes were promising materials for lithium-ion batteries. (author)

  16. Batteries

    Yang Lijuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fe3O4/carbon microspheres (Fe3O4/C were prepared by a facile hydrothermal reaction using cellulose and ferric trichloride as precursors. The resultant composite spheres have been investigated as anode materials for the lithium-ion batteries, and they show high capacity and good cycle stability (830mAhg−1 at a current density of 0.1C up to 70 cycles, as well as enhanced rate capability. The excellent electrochemical performance is attributed to the high structural stability and high rate of ionic/electronic conduction arising from the porous character and the synergetic effect of the carbon coated Fe3O4 structure and conductive carbon coating.

  17. Novel method to deposit metal particles on transition metal oxide films and its application in lithium-ion batteries

    Pan Qinmin; Wang Min; Wang Hongbo; Zhao Jianwei; Yin Geping

    2008-01-01

    A novel method to modify the surfaces of transition metal oxides (MO) film-electrode was proposed in this study. At first, a monolayer of terephthalic acid was covalently bonded to the surfaces of Cu 2 O films. Then silver (Ag) particles were electrodeposited on the monolayer-grafted films by a potential-step process. The resulting Ag-Cu 2 O films exhibited improved electrochemical performance as negative electrodes in lithium-ion batteries compared to the original Cu 2 O films. An increase in electrical contact between Cu 2 O particles was considered to be responsible for the improvement in the electrochemical properties

  18. Enhanced brightness of organic light-emitting diodes based on Mg:Ag cathode using alkali metal chlorides as an electron injection layer

    Zou Ye; Deng Zhenbo; Xu Denghui; Lü Zhaoyue; Yin Yuehong; Du Hailiang; Chen Zheng; Wang Yongsheng

    2012-01-01

    Different thicknesses of cesium chloride (CsCl) and various alkali metal chlorides were inserted into organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) as electron injection layers (EILs). The basic structure of OLED is indium tin oxide (ITO)/N,N′-diphenyl-N,N′-bis(1-napthyl-phenyl)-1.1′-biphenyl-4.4′-diamine (NPB)/tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq 3 )/Mg:Ag/Ag. The electroluminescent (EL) performance curves show that both the brightness and efficiency of the OLEDs can be obviously enhanced by using a thin alkali metal chloride layer as an EIL. The electron injection barrier height between the Alq 3 layer and Mg:Ag cathode is reduced by inserting a thin alkali metal chloride as an EIL, which results in enhanced electron injection and electron current. Therefore, a better balance of hole and electron currents at the emissive interface is achieved and consequently the brightness and efficiency of OLEDs are improved. - Highlights: ► Alkaline metal chlorides were used as electron injection layers in organic light-emitting diodes based on Mg:Ag cathode. ► Brightness and efficiency of OLEDs with alkaline metal chlorides as electron injection layers were all greatly enhanced. ► The Improved OLED performance was attributed to the possible interfacial chemical reaction. ► Electron-only devices are fabricated to demonstrate the electron injection enhancement.

  19. Development of high-capacity nickel-metal hydride batteries using superlattice hydrogen-absorbing alloys

    Yasuoka, Shigekazu; Magari, Yoshifumi; Murata, Tetsuyuki; Tanaka, Tadayoshi; Ishida, Jun; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Nohma, Toshiyuki; Kihara, Masaru; Baba, Yoshitaka; Teraoka, Hirohito

    New R-Mg-Ni (R: rare earths) superlattice alloys with higher-capacity and higher-durability than the conventional Mm-Ni alloys with CaCu 5 structure have been developed. The oxidation resistibility of the superlattice alloys has been improved by optimizing the alloy composition by such as substituting aluminum for nickel and optimizing the magnesium content in order to prolong the battery life. High-capacity nickel-metal hydride batteries for the retail market, the Ni-MH2500/900 series (AA size type 2500 mAh, AAA size type 900 mAh), have been developed and commercialized by using an improved superlattice alloy for negative electrode material.

  20. Development of high-capacity nickel-metal hydride batteries using superlattice hydrogen-absorbing alloys

    Yasuoka, Shigekazu; Magari, Yoshifumi; Murata, Tetsuyuki; Tanaka, Tadayoshi; Ishida, Jun; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Nohma, Toshiyuki; Kihara, Masaru; Baba, Yoshitaka; Teraoka, Hirohito

    2006-01-01

    New R-Mg-Ni (R: rare earths) superlattice alloys with higher-capacity and higher-durability than the conventional Mm-Ni alloys with CaCu 5 structure have been developed. The oxidation resistibility of the superlattice alloys has been improved by optimizing the alloy composition by such as substituting aluminum for nickel and optimizing the magnesium content in order to prolong the battery life. High-capacity nickel-metal hydride batteries for the retail market, the Ni-MH2500/900 series (AA size type 2500mAh, AAA size type 900mAh), have been developed and commercialized by using an improved superlattice alloy for negative electrode material. alized by using an improved superlattice alloy for negative electrode material. (author)

  1. Direct chemical reduction of neptunium oxide to neptunium metal using calcium and calcium chloride

    Squires, Leah N.; Lessing, Paul

    2016-01-01

    A process of direct reduction of neptunium oxide to neptunium metal using calcium metal as the reducing agent is discussed. After reduction of the oxide to metal, the metal is separated by density from the other components of the reaction mixture and can be easily removed upon cooling. The direct reduction technique consistently produces high purity (98%–99% pure) neptunium metal.

  2. Applications of porous electrodes to metal-ion removal and the design of battery systems

    Trost, G.G.

    1983-09-01

    This dissertation treats the use of porous electrodes as electrochemical reactors for the removal of dilute metal ions. A methodology for the scale-up of porous electrodes used in battery applications is given. Removal of 4 μg Pb/cc in 1 M sulfuric acid was investigated in atmospheric and high-pressure, flow-through porous reactors. The atmospheric reactor used a reticulated vitreous carbon porous bed coated in situ with a mercury film. Best results show 98% removal of lead from the feed stream. Results are summarized in a dimensionless plot of Sherwood number vs Peclet number. High-pressure, porous-electrode experiments were performed to investigate the effect of pressure on the current efficiency. Pressures were varied up to 120 bar on electrode beds of copper or lead-coated spheres. The copper spheres showed high hydrogen evolution rates which inhibited lead deposition, even at high cathodic overpotentials. Use of lead spheres inhibited hydrogen evolution but often resulted in the formation of lead sulfate layers; these layers were difficult to reduce back to lead. Experimental data of one-dimensional porous battery electrodes are combined with a model for the current collector and cell connectors to predict ultimate specific energy and maximum specific power for complete battery systems. Discharge behavior of the plate as a whole is first presented as a function of depth of discharge. These results are combined with the voltage and weight penalties of the interconnecting bus and post, positive and negative active material, cell container, etc. to give specific results for the lithium-aluminum/iron sulfide high-temperature battery. Subject to variation is the number of positive electrodes, grid conductivity, minimum current-collector weight, and total delivered capacity. The battery can be optimized for maximum energy or power, or a compromise design may be selected

  3. Applications of porous electrodes to metal-ion removal and the design of battery systems

    Trost, G.G.

    1983-09-01

    This dissertation treats the use of porous electrodes as electrochemical reactors for the removal of dilute metal ions. A methodology for the scale-up of porous electrodes used in battery applications is given. Removal of 4 ..mu..g Pb/cc in 1 M sulfuric acid was investigated in atmospheric and high-pressure, flow-through porous reactors. The atmospheric reactor used a reticulated vitreous carbon porous bed coated in situ with a mercury film. Best results show 98% removal of lead from the feed stream. Results are summarized in a dimensionless plot of Sherwood number vs Peclet number. High-pressure, porous-electrode experiments were performed to investigate the effect of pressure on the current efficiency. Pressures were varied up to 120 bar on electrode beds of copper or lead-coated spheres. The copper spheres showed high hydrogen evolution rates which inhibited lead deposition, even at high cathodic overpotentials. Use of lead spheres inhibited hydrogen evolution but often resulted in the formation of lead sulfate layers; these layers were difficult to reduce back to lead. Experimental data of one-dimensional porous battery electrodes are combined with a model for the current collector and cell connectors to predict ultimate specific energy and maximum specific power for complete battery systems. Discharge behavior of the plate as a whole is first presented as a function of depth of discharge. These results are combined with the voltage and weight penalties of the interconnecting bus and post, positive and negative active material, cell container, etc. to give specific results for the lithium-aluminum/iron sulfide high-temperature battery. Subject to variation is the number of positive electrodes, grid conductivity, minimum current-collector weight, and total delivered capacity. The battery can be optimized for maximum energy or power, or a compromise design may be selected.

  4. Hydrogenation of the rare earth alloys for production negative electrodes of nickel-metal hydride batteries

    Casini, Julio Cesar Serafim

    2011-01-01

    In this work were studied of La 0.7-x Mg x Pr 0.3 Al 0.3 Mn 0.4 Co 0.5 Ni 3.8 (X = 0 and 0.7) alloys for negative electrodes of the nickel-metal hydride batteries. The hydrogenation of the alloys was performed varying pressing of H 2 (2 and 10 bar) and temperature (room and 500 ℃). The discharge capacity of the nic kel-metal hydride batteries were analyzed in ARBIN BT- 4 electrical test equipment. The as-cast alloys were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy disperse spectroscopy (EDX) and X-Ray diffraction. The increasing Mg addition in the alloy increases maximum discharge capacity but decrease cycle life of the batteries. The maximum discharge capacity was obtained with the Mg 0.7 Pr 0.3 Al 0.3 Mn 0.4 Co 0.5 Ni 3.8 alloy (60 mAh) and the battery which presented the best performance was La 0.4 Mg 0.3 Pr 0.3 Al 0.3 Mn 0.4 Co 0.5 Ni 3.8 alloy (53 mAh and 150 cycles). The H 2 capability of absorption was diminished for increased Mg addition and no such effect occurs for Mg 0.7 Pr 0.3 Al 0.3 Mn 0.4 Co 0.5 Ni 3.8 alloy. (author)

  5. Theoretical investigation of the use of nanocages with an adsorbed halogen atom as anode materials in metal-ion batteries.

    Razavi, Razieh; Abrishamifar, Seyyed Milad; Rajaei, Gholamreza Ebrahimzadeh; Kahkha, Mohammad Reza Rezaei; Najafi, Meysam

    2018-02-21

    The applicability of C 44 , B 22 N 22 , Ge 44 , and Al 22 P 22 nanocages, as well as variants of those nanocages with an adsorbed halogen atom, as high-performance anode materials in Li-ion, Na-ion, and K-ion batteries was investigated theoretically via density functional theory. The results obtained indicate that, among the nanocages with no adsorbed halogen atom, Al 22 P 22 would be the best candidate for a novel anode material for use in metal-ion batteries. Calculations also suggest that K-ion batteries which utilize these nanocages as anode materials would give better performance and would yield higher cell voltages than the corresponding Li-ion and Na-ion batteries with nanocage-based anodes. Also, the results for the nanocages with an adsorbed halogen atom imply that employing them as anode materials would lead to higher cell voltages and better metal-ion battery performance than if the nanocages with no adsorbed halogen atom were to be used as anode materials instead. Results further implied that nanocages with an adsorbed F atom would give higher cell voltages and better battery performance than nanocages with an adsorbed Cl or Br atom. We were ultimately able to conclude that a K-ion battery that utilized Al 21 P 22 with an adsorbed F atom as its anode material would afford the best metal-ion battery performance; we therefore propose this as a novel highly efficient metal-ion battery. Graphical abstract The results of a theoretical investigation indicated that Al 22 P 22 is a better candidate for a high-performance anode material in metal-ion batteries than Ge 44 is. Calculations also showed that K-ion batteries with nanocage-based anodes would produce higher cell voltages and perform better than the equivalent Li-ion and Na-ion batteries with nanocage-based anodes, and that anodes based on nanocages with an adsorbed F atom would perform better than anodes based on nanocages with an adsorbed Cl or Br atom.

  6. Performance and stability of a liquid anode high-temperature metal-air battery

    Otaegui, L.; Rodriguez-Martinez, L. M.; Wang, L.; Laresgoiti, A.; Tsukamoto, H.; Han, M. H.; Tsai, C.-L.; Laresgoiti, I.; López, C. M.; Rojo, T.

    2014-02-01

    A High-Temperature Metal-Air Battery (HTMAB) that operates based on a simple redox reaction between molten metal and atmospheric oxygen at 600-1000 °C is presented. This innovative HTMAB concept combines the technology of conventional metal-air batteries with that of solid oxide fuel cells to provide a high energy density system for many applications. Electrochemical reversibility is demonstrated with 95% coulomb efficiency. Cell sealing has been identified as a key issue in order to determine the end-of-charge voltage, enhance coulomb efficiency and ensure long term stability. In this work, molten Sn is selected as anode material. Low utilization of the stored material due to precipitation of the SnO2 on the electrochemically active area limits the expected capacity, which should theoretically approach 903 mAh g-1. Nevertheless, more than 1000 charge/discharge cycles are performed during more than 1000 h at 800 °C, showing highly promising results of stability, reversibility and cyclability.

  7. Hydrometallurgical recovery of metal values from sulfuric acid leaching liquor of spent lithium-ion batteries

    Chen, Xiangping; Chen, Yongbin; Zhou, Tao, E-mail: zhoutao@csu.edu.cn; Liu, Depei; Hu, Hang; Fan, Shaoyun

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Selective precipitation and solvent extraction were adopted. • Nickel, cobalt and lithium were selectively precipitated. • Co-D2EHPA was employed as high-efficiency extraction reagent for manganese. • High recovery percentages could be achieved for all metal values. - Abstract: Environmentally hazardous substances contained in spent Li-ion batteries, such as heavy metals and nocuous organics, will pose a threat to the environment and human health. On the other hand, the sustainable recycling of spent lithium-ion batteries may bring about environmental and economic benefits. In this study, a hydrometallurgical process was adopted for the comprehensive recovery of nickel, manganese, cobalt and lithium from sulfuric acid leaching liquor from waste cathode materials of spent lithium-ion batteries. First, nickel ions were selectively precipitated and recovered using dimethylglyoxime reagent. Recycled dimethylglyoxime could be re-used as precipitant for nickel and revealed similar precipitation performance compared with fresh dimethylglyoxime. Then the separation of manganese and cobalt was conducted by solvent extraction method using cobalt loaded D2EHPA. And McCabe–Thiele isotherm was employed for the prediction of the degree of separation and the number of extraction stages needed at specific experimental conditions. Finally, cobalt and lithium were sequentially precipitated and recovered as CoC{sub 2}O{sub 4}⋅2H{sub 2}O and Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} using ammonium oxalate solution and saturated sodium carbonate solution, respectively. Recovery efficiencies could be attained as follows: 98.7% for Ni; 97.1% for Mn, 98.2% for Co and 81.0% for Li under optimized experimental conditions. This hydrometallurgical process may promise a candidate for the effective separation and recovery of metal values from the sulfuric acid leaching liquor.

  8. Health risk assessment of heavy metals in vegetables grown around battery production area

    Ying Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Battery production is one of the main sources of heavy metals that present great harm to human health even in low concentrations. Chromium (Cr, Cadmium (Cd and Lead (Pb were measured in edible portions of vegetables and soils around a battery production area in China, and the potential health risk of heavy metal contamination to the local population via vegetable consumption was evaluated. Their concentrations in edible portions of vegetables were 2.354 (0.078-14.878, 0.035 (0.003-0.230 and 0.039 (0.003-0.178 mg kg-1, respectively. Approximately 3 % of the Cd in the vegetable samples exceeded the maximum concentration allowable by national food safety criteria, although Pb content in all samples were within the criteria. Transfer factors (TF from soils to vegetables were dependent on vegetable species. Leguminous vegetables were more likely to accumulate Cr, while leaf vegetables tended to show higher levels of concentration of Cd and Pb. Melon vegetables demonstrated a relatively low capacity for accumulating the heavy metals studied. TF were positively correlated with soil organic matter and negatively correlated with soil pH. The mean estimated daily intake of Cr, Cd and Pb via dietary consumption of vegetables was 0.011, 1.65 × 10-4 and 1.84 × 10-4 mg kg-1 of body weight per day, respectively, levels that were much lower than the reference doses recommended by USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and JECFA (Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives, indicating that the potential health risk of Cr, Cd and Pb exposure via vegetable consumption to the local population around this battery production area could be negligible.

  9. Hydrometallurgical recovery of metal values from sulfuric acid leaching liquor of spent lithium-ion batteries

    Chen, Xiangping; Chen, Yongbin; Zhou, Tao; Liu, Depei; Hu, Hang; Fan, Shaoyun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Selective precipitation and solvent extraction were adopted. • Nickel, cobalt and lithium were selectively precipitated. • Co-D2EHPA was employed as high-efficiency extraction reagent for manganese. • High recovery percentages could be achieved for all metal values. - Abstract: Environmentally hazardous substances contained in spent Li-ion batteries, such as heavy metals and nocuous organics, will pose a threat to the environment and human health. On the other hand, the sustainable recycling of spent lithium-ion batteries may bring about environmental and economic benefits. In this study, a hydrometallurgical process was adopted for the comprehensive recovery of nickel, manganese, cobalt and lithium from sulfuric acid leaching liquor from waste cathode materials of spent lithium-ion batteries. First, nickel ions were selectively precipitated and recovered using dimethylglyoxime reagent. Recycled dimethylglyoxime could be re-used as precipitant for nickel and revealed similar precipitation performance compared with fresh dimethylglyoxime. Then the separation of manganese and cobalt was conducted by solvent extraction method using cobalt loaded D2EHPA. And McCabe–Thiele isotherm was employed for the prediction of the degree of separation and the number of extraction stages needed at specific experimental conditions. Finally, cobalt and lithium were sequentially precipitated and recovered as CoC 2 O 4 ⋅2H 2 O and Li 2 CO 3 using ammonium oxalate solution and saturated sodium carbonate solution, respectively. Recovery efficiencies could be attained as follows: 98.7% for Ni; 97.1% for Mn, 98.2% for Co and 81.0% for Li under optimized experimental conditions. This hydrometallurgical process may promise a candidate for the effective separation and recovery of metal values from the sulfuric acid leaching liquor

  10. Structure-Property of Metal Organic Frameworks Calcium Terephthalates Anodes for Lithium-ion Batteries

    Wang, Liping; Mou, Chengxu; Sun, Yang; Liu, Wei; Deng, Qijiu; Li, Jingze

    2015-01-01

    Graphical Abstract: Effects of hydration water in calcium terephthalates anodes on the structure, operational voltage and electrochemical performance are systematically studied. Display Omitted -- Highlights: •Metal organic frameworks CaC 8 H 4 O 4 ·3H 2 O and CaC 8 H 4 O 4 are applied as anodes for lithium ion batteries. •Appearance of hydration water leads different crystallography structures and electrochemical performance. •Anhydrous CaC 8 H 4 O 4 has a spacious ordered layer structure, a higher Ca-O chemical bonding interaction and a higher transparent lithium ion diffusion coefficient, delivering a higher capacity, better cycling performance and rate performance than CaC 8 H 4 O 4 ·3H 2 O. -- Abstract: Metal organic frameworks have attracted considerable interest as electrode materials for lithium ion batteries. In this paper, the metal organic frameworks hydrated calcium terephthalate (CaC 8 H 4 O 4 ·3H 2 O) and anhydrous calcium terephthalate (CaC 8 H 4 O 4 ) as anodes for lithium ion batteries are comparatively studied. Crystallography and local chemical bond analysis are combined to interpret the structure-property of calcium terephthalates. Results show that the anhydrous CaC 8 H 4 O 4 has a spacious ordered layer structure and a higher Ca-O chemical bonding interaction, delivering a higher capacity, better cycling performance and rate performance than CaC 8 H 4 O 4 ·3H 2 O

  11. Wetting of a Charged Surface of Glassy Carbon by Molten Alkali-Metal Chlorides

    Stepanov, V. P.

    2018-03-01

    Values of the contact angle of wetting of a surface of glassy carbon by molten chlorides of lithium, sodium, potassium, and cesium are measured by the meniscus weight method to determine the common factors of wettability of solid surfaces by ionic melts upon a change in the salt phase composition and a jump in electric potential. It is found that with a potential shift in the positive direction the shape of the curve of the contact angle's dependence on the potential varies upon substitution of one salt by another: the angle of wetting shrinks monotonously in lithium chloride but remains constant in molten cesium chloride. This phenomenon is explained by the hypothesis that the nature of the halide anion adsorption on the positively charged surface of an electrode is chemical and not electrostatic. It is shown that the adsorption process is accompanied by charge transfer through the interface, with covalent bonding between the adsorbent and adsorbate.

  12. Lithium salts for advanced lithium batteries: Li–metal, Li–O2, and Li–S

    Younesi, Reza; Veith, Gabriel M.; Johansson, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    Presently lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) is the dominant Li-salt used in commercial rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) based on a graphite anode and a 3–4 V cathode material. While LiPF6 is not the ideal Li-salt for every important electrolyte property, it has a uniquely suitable...... combination of properties (temperature range, passivation, conductivity, etc.) rendering it the overall best Li-salt for LIBs. However, this may not necessarily be true for other types of Li-based batteries. Indeed, next generation batteries, for example lithium–metal (Li–metal), lithium–oxygen (Li–O2......), and lithium–sulfur (Li–S), require a re-evaluation of Li-salts due to the different electrochemical and chemical reactions and conditions within such cells. This review explores the critical role Li-salts play in ensuring in these batteries viability....

  13. Thermally-responsive, nonflammable phosphonium ionic liquid electrolytes for lithium metal batteries: operating at 100 degrees celsius.

    Lin, X; Kavian, R; Lu, Y; Hu, Q; Shao-Horn, Y; Grinstaff, M W

    2015-11-13

    Rechargeable batteries such as Li ion/Li metal batteries are widely used in the electronics market but the chemical instability of the electrolyte limits their use in more demanding environmental conditions such as in automotive, oil exploration, or mining applications. In this study, a series of alkyl phosphonium ionic liquid electrolyte are described with high thermal stability and solubility for LiTFSI. A lithium metal battery (LMB) containing a tailored phosphonium ionic liquid/LiTFSI electrolyte operates at 100 °C with good specific capacities and cycling stability. Substantial capacity is maintained during 70 cycles or 30 days. Instant on-off battery operation is realized via the significant temperature dependence of the electrolyte material, demonstrating the robustness and potential for use at high temperature.

  14. Hierarchical Chitin Fibers with Aligned Nanofibrillar Architectures: A Nonwoven-Mat Separator for Lithium Metal Batteries.

    Kim, Joong-Kwon; Kim, Do Hyeong; Joo, Se Hun; Choi, Byeongwook; Cha, Aming; Kim, Kwang Min; Kwon, Tae-Hyuk; Kwak, Sang Kyu; Kang, Seok Ju; Jin, Jungho

    2017-06-27

    Here, we introduce regenerated fibers of chitin (Chiber), the second most abundant biopolymer after cellulose, and propose its utility as a nonwoven fiber separator for lithium metal batteries (LMBs) that exhibits an excellent electrolyte-uptaking capability and Li-dendrite-mitigating performance. Chiber is produced by a centrifugal jet-spinning technique, which allows a simple and fast production of Chibers consisting of hierarchically aligned self-assembled chitin nanofibers. Following the scrutinization on the Chiber-Li-ion interaction via computational methods, we demonstrate the potential of Chiber as a nonwoven mat-type separator by monitoring it in Li-O 2 and Na-O 2 cells.

  15. Novel modified poly vinyl chloride blend membranes for removal of heavy metals from mixed ion feed sample

    Nayak, Vignesh; Jyothi, M.S. [Centre for Nano and Material Sciences, Jain University, Jain Global Campus, Kanakapura Ramanagaram, Bangalore, 562112 (India); Balakrishna, R. Geetha, E-mail: br.geetha@jainuniversity.ac.in [Centre for Nano and Material Sciences, Jain University, Jain Global Campus, Kanakapura Ramanagaram, Bangalore, 562112 (India); Padaki, Mahesh, E-mail: sp.mahesh@jainuniversity.ac.in [Centre for Nano and Material Sciences, Jain University, Jain Global Campus, Kanakapura Ramanagaram, Bangalore, 562112 (India); National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Moscow, 119049 (Russian Federation); Deon, Sebastien [Institut UTINAM, UMR CNRS 6213, Université de Bourgogne-Franche-Comté,16 route de Gray, Besançon Cedex 25030 (France)

    2017-06-05

    Highlights: • Work reports the novel modification of poly vinyl chloride (PVC) using newly developed method. • Blend membranes were prepared using modified PVC and polysulfone in different compositions. • The prepared blend membranes were used for separation of different heavy metal ions. • The blend membranes showed improved rejection of heavy metal ions in comparison to Commercial NF 270 membrane. - Abstract: Herein, an attempt has been made to prepare a novel membrane with good efficiency for removal of heavy metal ions namely lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and chromium (Cr). 4-amino benzoic acid (ABA) was covalently grafted onto the poly vinyl chloride (PVC) backbone by C−N bond to enhance the hydrophilicity. {sup 1}H NMR and ATR-IR spectroscopy analysis confirmed the chemical modification of PVC. Further the modified polymer was blended in different compositions with polysulfone (PSf) for optimization. Morphological changes that occurred in blend membranes, due to the incorporation of modified PVC was studied by AFM and SEM techniques. The effect on hydrophilicity and performance of blends owing to incorporation of modified PVC was evaluated by water uptake, contact angle and flux studies. The density of functional groups in blends was analyzed by its ion-exchange capacity. Batch wise filtration of metal ions was carried out and the effect of pressure, feed pH and interference of ions was thoroughly investigated. Essentially, 100% rejection was obtained for all the metal ions in acidic pH with a productivity of 2.56 l/m{sup 2} h. The results were correlated with the results of commercially available NF 270 membrane under the same operating conditions.

  16. Novel modified poly vinyl chloride blend membranes for removal of heavy metals from mixed ion feed sample

    Nayak, Vignesh; Jyothi, M.S.; Balakrishna, R. Geetha; Padaki, Mahesh; Deon, Sebastien

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Work reports the novel modification of poly vinyl chloride (PVC) using newly developed method. • Blend membranes were prepared using modified PVC and polysulfone in different compositions. • The prepared blend membranes were used for separation of different heavy metal ions. • The blend membranes showed improved rejection of heavy metal ions in comparison to Commercial NF 270 membrane. - Abstract: Herein, an attempt has been made to prepare a novel membrane with good efficiency for removal of heavy metal ions namely lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and chromium (Cr). 4-amino benzoic acid (ABA) was covalently grafted onto the poly vinyl chloride (PVC) backbone by C−N bond to enhance the hydrophilicity. 1 H NMR and ATR-IR spectroscopy analysis confirmed the chemical modification of PVC. Further the modified polymer was blended in different compositions with polysulfone (PSf) for optimization. Morphological changes that occurred in blend membranes, due to the incorporation of modified PVC was studied by AFM and SEM techniques. The effect on hydrophilicity and performance of blends owing to incorporation of modified PVC was evaluated by water uptake, contact angle and flux studies. The density of functional groups in blends was analyzed by its ion-exchange capacity. Batch wise filtration of metal ions was carried out and the effect of pressure, feed pH and interference of ions was thoroughly investigated. Essentially, 100% rejection was obtained for all the metal ions in acidic pH with a productivity of 2.56 l/m 2 h. The results were correlated with the results of commercially available NF 270 membrane under the same operating conditions.

  17. Mapping the Galvanic Corrosion of Three Coupled Metal Alloys Using Coupled Multielectrode Array: Influence of Chloride Ion Concentration

    Hong Ju

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The galvanic corrosion behavior of three metal alloys commonly used in water desalination plants was investigated using coupled multielectrode arrays consisting of aluminum-brass (HAl77-2, titanium alloy (TA2, and 316L stainless steel (316L SS. The three electrode types were coupled galvanically and arranged in different geometric configurations. Their corrosion behavior was characterized as a function of the chloride concentration. The potential and current distributions of the three-electrode coupling systems display electrochemical inhomogeneity. Generally, the aluminum-brass wires are anodic versus the titanium alloy and stainless steel. The titanium alloy acts as a primary cathode, and the 316L SS acts as a secondary cathode. The corrosion rate of aluminum-brass depends on the concentration of chloride ion, with a maximum corrosion rate at a chloride concentration of 2.3 wt %. In terms of geometrical arrangements, when the anodic HAl77-2 wires are located on the edge and are connected to the 316L SS wires in the coupling system, the main anodic area enlarges, especially in the area adjacent to the 316L SS wires. When the HAl77-2 wires are located between (in the middle of the two other types of wires, the corrosion rates are higher than the corrosion rates observed from the other two geometrical arrangements.

  18. Mapping the Galvanic Corrosion of Three Coupled Metal Alloys Using Coupled Multielectrode Array: Influence of Chloride Ion Concentration.

    Ju, Hong; Duan, JinZhuo; Yang, Yuanfeng; Cao, Ning; Li, Yan

    2018-04-20

    The galvanic corrosion behavior of three metal alloys commonly used in water desalination plants was investigated using coupled multielectrode arrays consisting of aluminum-brass (HAl77-2), titanium alloy (TA2), and 316L stainless steel (316L SS). The three electrode types were coupled galvanically and arranged in different geometric configurations. Their corrosion behavior was characterized as a function of the chloride concentration. The potential and current distributions of the three-electrode coupling systems display electrochemical inhomogeneity. Generally, the aluminum-brass wires are anodic versus the titanium alloy and stainless steel. The titanium alloy acts as a primary cathode, and the 316L SS acts as a secondary cathode. The corrosion rate of aluminum-brass depends on the concentration of chloride ion, with a maximum corrosion rate at a chloride concentration of 2.3 wt %. In terms of geometrical arrangements, when the anodic HAl77-2 wires are located on the edge and are connected to the 316L SS wires in the coupling system, the main anodic area enlarges, especially in the area adjacent to the 316L SS wires. When the HAl77-2 wires are located between (in the middle of) the two other types of wires, the corrosion rates are higher than the corrosion rates observed from the other two geometrical arrangements.

  19. Metallic lithium: state-of-art, production and perspectives for the Brazil; Litio metalico: o estado da arte de sua obtencao e perspectivas para o Brasil

    Ogasawara, Tsuneharu; Almendra, Ericksson Rocha e; Silva, Flavio Teixeira da [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia

    1995-01-01

    After consideration on the main lithium minerals, the metallic lithium production by lithium chloride in molten salts is reviewed. The perspective and the strategic relevance for the Brazil are examined, taking into consideration the various applications, specifically high energy density batteries with emphasis on thermal batteries, and batteries operating at ambient temperature 3 tabs.

  20. Prelithiation of silicon-carbon nanotube anodes for lithium ion batteries by stabilized lithium metal powder (SLMP).

    Forney, Michael W; Ganter, Matthew J; Staub, Jason W; Ridgley, Richard D; Landi, Brian J

    2013-09-11

    Stabilized lithium metal powder (SLMP) has been applied during battery assembly to effectively prelithiate high capacity (1500-2500 mAh/g) silicon-carbon nanotube (Si-CNT) anodes, eliminating the 20-40% first cycle irreversible capacity loss. Pressure-activation of SLMP is shown to enhance prelithiation and enable capacity matching between Si-CNT anodes and lithium nickel cobalt aluminum oxide (NCA) cathodes in full batteries with minimal added mass. The prelithiation approach enables high energy density NCA/Si-CNT batteries achieving >1000 cycles at 20% depth-of-discharge.

  1. A new battery capacity indicator for nickel-metal hydride battery powered electric vehicles using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system

    Chau, K.T.; Wu, K.C.; Chan, C.C.; Shen, W.X.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach to estimate accurately the battery residual capacity (BRC) of the nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) battery for modern electric vehicles (EVs). The key to this approach is to model the Ni-MH battery in EVs by using the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) with newly defined inputs and output. The inputs are the temperature and the discharged capacity distribution describing the discharge current profile, while the output is the state of available capacity (SOAC) representing the BRC. The estimated SOAC from ANFIS model and the measured SOAC from experiments are compared, and the results confirm that the proposed approach can provide an accurate estimation of the SOAC under variable discharge currents

  2. Stabilization/solidification of battery debris ampersand lead impacted material at Schuylkill Metals, Plant City, Florida

    Anguiano, T.; Floyd, D.

    1997-01-01

    The Schuylkill Metals facility in Plant City Florida (SMPCI) operated as a battery recycling facility for approximately 13 years. During its operation, the facility disposed of battery components in surrounding wetland areas. In March of 1991 the U.S. EPA and SMPCI entered into a Consent Decree for the remediation of the SMPCI site using stabilization/solidification and on-site disposal. In November of 1994, ENTACT began remediation at the facility and to date has successfully stabilized/solidified over 228,000 tons of lead impacted battery components and lead impacted material. The ENTACT process reduces the size of the material to be treated to ensure that complete mixing of the phosphate/cement additive is achieved thereby promoting the chemical reactions of stabilization and solidification. ENTACT has met the following performance criteria for treated material at the SMPCI site: (1) Hydraulic Conductivity less than 1x10 -6 cm/s, (2) Unconfined Compressive Strength greater than 50 psi, (3) Lead, Cadmium, Arsenic, Chromium TCLP Leachability below hazardous levels

  3. Pulse power 350 V nickel-metal hydride battery power-D-005-00181

    Eskra, Michael D.; Ralston, Paula; Salkind, Alvin; Plivelich, Robert F.

    Energy-storage devices are needed for applications requiring very high-power over short periods of time. Such devices have various military (rail guns, electromagnetic launchers, and DEW) and commercial applications, such as hybrid electric vehicles, vehicle starting (SLI), and utility peak shaving. The storage and delivery of high levels of burst power can be achieved with a capacitor, flywheel, or rechargeable battery. In order to reduce the weight and volume of many systems they must contain advanced state-of-the-art electrochemical or electromechanical power sources. There is an opportunity and a need to develop energy-storage devices that have improved high-power characteristics compared to existing ultra capacitors, flywheels or rechargeable batteries. Electro Energy, Inc. has been engaged in the development of bipolar nickel-metal hydride batteries, which may fulfil the requirements of some of these applications. This paper describes a module rated at 300 V (255 cells) (6 Ah). The volume of the module is 23 L and the mass is 56 kg. The module is designed to deliver 50 kW pulses of 10 s duration at 50% state-of-charge. Details of the mechanical design of the module, safety considerations, along with the results of initial electrical characterization testing by the customer will be discussed. Some discussion of the possibilities for design optimization is also included.

  4. Behavior of Lithium Metal Anodes under Various Capacity Utilization and High Current Density in Lithium Metal Batteries

    Jiao, Shuhong; University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei; Zheng, Jianming; Li, Qiuyan; Li, Xing

    2017-01-01

    We report that lithium (Li) metal batteries (LMBs) have recently attracted extensive interest in the energy-storage field after silence from the public view for several decades. However, many challenges still need to be overcome before their practical application, especially those that are related to the interfacial instability of Li metal anodes. Here, we reveal for the first time that the thickness of the degradation layer on the metallic Li anode surface shows a linear relationship with Li areal capacity utilization up to 4.0 mAh cm -2 in a practical LMB system. The increase in Li capacity utilization in each cycle causes variations in the morphology and composition of the degradation layer on the Li anode. Under high Li capacity utilization, the current density for charge (i.e., Li deposition) is identified to be a key factor controlling the corrosion of the Li metal anode. Lastly, these fundamental findings provide new perspectives for the development of rechargeable LMBs.

  5. Oxidized graphene as an electrode material for rechargeable metal-ion batteries – a DFT point of view

    Dobrota, Ana S.; Pašti, Igor A.; Skorodumova, Natalia V.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: In line with a growing interest in the use of graphene-based materials for energy storage applications and active research in the field of rechargeable metal-ion batteries we have performed a DFT based computational study of alkali metal atoms (Li, Na and K) interaction with an oxidized graphene. The presence of oxygen surface groups (epoxy and hydroxyl) alters the chemisorption properties of graphene. In particular, we observe that the epoxy groups are redox active and enhance the alkali metal adsorption energies by a factor of 2 or more. When an alkali metal atom interacts with hydroxyl-graphene the formation of metal-hydroxide is observed. In addition to a potential boost of metal ion storage capability, oxygen functional groups also prevent the precipitation of the metal phase. By simulating lithiation/de-lithiation process on epoxy-graphenes, it was concluded that the oxidized graphene can undergo structural changes during battery operation. Our results suggest that the content and the type of oxygen surface groups should be carefully tailored to maximize the performance of metal-ion batteries. This is mainly related to the control of the oxidation level in order to provide enough active centers for metal ion storage while preserving sufficient electrical conductivity

  6. Rapid hydrogen charging on metal hydride negative electrode of Fuel Cell/Battery (FCB) systems

    Choi, Bokkyu; Lee, Sunmook; Kawai, Hiroyuki; Fushimi, Chihiro; Tsutsumi, Atsushi [Collaborative Research Center for Energy Engineering, Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan)

    2009-02-15

    The characteristics of rapid gaseous H{sub 2} charging/electrochemical discharging of the metal hydride negative electrode were investigated for the application in Fuel Cell/Battery (FCB) systems. They were evaluated with the H{sub 2} gas absorption, followed by the subsequent electrochemical discharging in the electrolyte solution (6M KOH). Then, the cyclability of charge-discharge was also examined. It was observed that more than 70% of the theoretical capacity was charged within 10 min with 0.3 MPa and 0.5 MPa of the initial H{sub 2} pressures. The electrochemical discharge curve showed that more than 86% of the absorbed H{sub 2} was discharged. Furthermore, the cycled charge-discharge process indicated that the H{sub 2} gas charge and electrochemical discharge process is an effective way to rapidly charge and activate the metal hydride without degeneration. (author)

  7. Effect of Different Binders on the Electrochemical Performance of Metal Oxide Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Wang, Rui; Feng, Lili; Yang, Wenrong; Zhang, Yinyin; Zhang, Yanli; Bai, Wei; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Wei; Chuan, Yongming; Zheng, Ziguang; Guan, Hongjin

    2017-10-01

    When testing the electrochemical performance of metal oxide anode for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), binder played important role on the electrochemical performance. Which binder was more suitable for preparing transition metal oxides anodes of LIBs has not been systematically researched. Herein, five different binders such as polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) HSV900, PVDF 301F, PVDF Solvay5130, the mixture of styrene butadiene rubber and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (SBR+CMC), and polyacrylonitrile (LA133) were studied to make anode electrodes (compared to the full battery). The electrochemical tests show that using SBR+CMC and LA133 binder which use water as solution were significantly better than PVDF. The SBR+CMC binder remarkably improve the bonding capacity, cycle stability, and rate performance of battery anode, and the capacity retention was about 87% after 50th cycle relative to the second cycle. SBR+CMC binder was more suitable for making transition metal oxides anodes of LIBs.

  8. Poly(vinyl chloride) membrane alkali metal ion-selective electrodes based on crystalline synthetic zeolite of the Faujasite type

    Aghai, H.; Giahi, M.; Arvand Barmehi, M.

    2002-01-01

    Potentiometric electrodes based on the incorporation of zeolite particle in to poly (vinyl chloride) (pvc) membranes are described. The electrodes characteristics are evaluated regarding the response towards alkali ions. Pvc membranes plasticised with dibutyl phthalate and without lipophilic additives (co-exchanger) were used throughout this study. The electrode exhibits a Nernst ion response over the alkali metal cations concentration a range of 1.0x10 - 4 - 1.0 x 10 1 M with a slop of 57.0 ± 0.9 mV per decade of concentration a working ph range (3.0- 9.0) and a fast response time (≤15 c). The selective coefficients for cesium ion as test species with respect to alkaline earth, ammonium and some heavy metal ions were determined. Zeolite-PVC electrodes were applied to the determination of ionic surfactant

  9. Standard practice for exposure of metals and alloys by alternate immersion in neutral 3.5% Sodium Chloride solution

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for making alternate immersion stress corrosion tests in 3.5 % sodium chloride (NaCl) (). It is primarily for tests of aluminum alloys (Test Method G 47) and ferrous alloys, but may be used for other metals exhibiting susceptibility to chloride ions. It sets forth the environmental conditions of the test and the means for controlling them. Note 1 Alternate immersion stress corrosion exposures are sometimes made in substitute ocean water (without heavy metals) prepared in accordance with Specification D 1141. The general requirements of this present practice are also applicable to such exposures except that the reagents used, the solution concentration, and the solution pH should be as specified in Specification D 1141. 1.2 This practice can be used for both stressed and unstressed corrosion specimens. Historically, it has been used for stress-corrosion cracking testing, but is often used for other forms of corrosion, such as uniform, pitting, intergranular, and galvanic. ...

  10. Development of high capacity, high rate lithium ion batteries utilizing metal fiber conductive additives

    Ahn, Soonho; Kim, Youngduk; Kim, Kyung Joon; Kim, Tae Hyung; Lee, Hyungkeun; Kim, Myung H.

    As lithium ion cells dominate the battery market, the performance improvement is an utmost concern among developers and researchers. Conductive additives are routinely employed to enhance electrode conductivity and capacity. Carbon particulates—graphite or carbon black powders—are conventional and popular choices as conductive fillers. However, percolation requirements of particles demand significant volumetric content of impalpable, and thereby high area conductive fillers. As might be expected, the electrode active surface area escalates unnecessarily, resulting in overall increase in reaction with electrolytes and organic solvents. The increased reactions usually manifest as an irreversible loss of anode capacity, gradual oxidation and consumption of electrolyte on the cathode—which causes capacity decline during cycling—and an increased threat to battery safety by gas evolution and exothermic solvent oxidation. In this work we have utilized high aspect ratio, flexible, micronic metal fibers as low active area and high conductivity additives. The metal fibers appear well dispersed within the electrode and to satisfy percolation requirements very efficiently at very low volumetric content compared to conventional carbon-based conductive additives. Results from 18650-type cells indicate significant enhancements in electrode capacity and high rate capability while the irreversible capacity loss is negligible.

  11. P and Si functionalized MXenes for metal-ion battery applications

    Zhu, Jiajie

    2017-04-10

    MXenes are a family of two-dimensional materials, composed of early transition metal carbides, nitrides, and carbonitrides, with great potential in energy storage systems, in particular in electrodes for Li, Na, K-ion batteries. However, so far the capacities are not competitive. In this context, we investigate P and Si functionalized MXenes for metal-ion battery applications, using first-principles calculations, since P and Si provide reaction products with high ion content. Replacement of the F and OH ligands of Ti2C and V2C with P and Si is demonstrated to be feasible (energy barriers of less than 0.128 eV) and the ion diffusion barriers turn out to be less than 0.32 eV. Importantly, the Li, Na, and K capacities are predicted to be 1767 mAh g−1, 711 mAh g−1, and 711 mAh g−1, respectively, thus being much higher than in the case of F and OH functionalization.

  12. An in situ method of creating metal oxide–carbon composites and their application as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Yang, Zichao; Shen, Jingguo; Archer, Lynden A.

    2011-01-01

    Transition metal oxides are actively investigated as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), and their nanocomposites with carbon frequently show better performance in galvanostatic cycling studies, compared to the pristine metal oxide

  13. Comprehensive evaluation on effective leaching of critical metals from spent lithium-ion batteries.

    Gao, Wenfang; Liu, Chenming; Cao, Hongbin; Zheng, Xiaohong; Lin, Xiao; Wang, Haijuan; Zhang, Yi; Sun, Zhi

    2018-05-01

    Recovery of metals from spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) has attracted worldwide attention because of issues from both environmental impacts and resource supply. Leaching, for instance using an acidic solution, is a critical step for effective recovery of metals from spent LIBs. To achieve both high leaching efficiency and selectivity of the targeted metals, improved understanding on the interactive features of the materials and leaching solutions is highly required. However, such understanding is still limited at least caused by the variation on physiochemical properties of different leaching solutions. In this research, a comprehensive investigation and evaluation on the leaching process using acidic solutions to recycle spent LIBs is carried out. Through analyzing two important parameters, i.e. leaching speed and recovery rate of the corresponding metals, the effects of hydrogen ion concentration, acid species and concentration on these two parameters were evaluated. It was found that a leachant with organic acids may leach Co and Li from the cathode scrap and leave Al foil as metallic form with high leaching selectivity, while that with inorganic acids typically leach all metals into the solution. Inconsistency between the leaching selectivity and efficiency during spent LIBs recycling is frequently noticed. In order to achieve an optimal status with both high leaching selectivity and efficiency (especially at high solid-to-liquid ratios), it is important to manipulate the average leaching speed and recovery rate of metals to optimize the leaching conditions. Subsequently, it is found that the leaching speed is significantly dependent on the hydrogen ion concentration and the capability of releasing hydrogen ions of the acidic leachant during leaching. With this research, it is expected to improve understanding on controlling the physiochemical properties of a leaching solution and to potentially design processes for spent LIBs recycling with high industrial

  14. Novel composite membrane coated with a poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)/urushi semi-interpenetrating polymer network for non-aqueous redox flow battery application

    Cho, Eunhae; Won, Jongok

    2016-12-01

    Novel composite membranes of a semi-interpenetrating network (semi-IPN) coated on the surfaces of a porous Celgard 2400 support are prepared and investigate for application in a non-aqueous redox flow battery (RFB). A natural polymer, urushi, is used for the matrix because of its high mechanical robustness, and poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) provides anionic exchange sites. The PDDA/urushi (P/U) semi-IPN film is prepared by the photo polymerization of urushiol in the presence of PDDA. The thin layer composed of the P/U semi-IPN on the porous support provides selectivity while maintaining the ion conductivity. The coulombic and energy efficiencies increase with increasing amounts of PDDA in the P/U semi-IPN layer, and the values reach 69.5% and 42.5%, respectively, for the one containing 40 wt% of PDDA. These values are substantially higher than those of the Neosepta AHA membrane and the Celgard membrane, indicating that the selective layer reduces the crossover of the redox active species through the membrane. This result implies that the formation of composite membranes using semi-IPN selective layers on the dimensionally stable porous membrane enable the successful use of a non-aqueous RFB for future energy storage systems.

  15. The extraction of zinc and other minor metals from concentrated ammonium chloride solutions with D2EHPA and Cyanex 272

    Amer, S.

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study is made of the extractants D2EHPA and Cyanex 272 for the zinc and minor metal extraction from aqueous concentrated ammonium chloride solutions, as those of the leaching liquors of the CENIM-LNETI process. Extraction equilibrium data for zinc are presented as extraction isotherms at constant pH and at a temperature of 50 °C. Zinc extraction and coextraction of minor metal ions as Cu, Ca, Pb, Mg, Cd, Co, Ni and Hg are studied. Mercury does not extract from concentrated ammonium chloride solutions. Cyanex 272 shows a better selectivity for zinc with regard to the minor metals than D2EHPA, which is especially remarkable for calcium, the most coextracted element by D2EHPA. Nickel and cadmium coextraction is negligible for both extractants. The possible use of the Cyanex 272 as an alternative to D2EHPA is considered.

    Se realiza un estudio comparativo del comportamiento del D2EHPA y del Cyanex 272 durante la extracción del cinc y otros metales minoritarios de soluciones acuosas concentradas de cloruro amónico, como las de las soluciones de lixiviación del proceso CENIM-LNETI. Se presentan los datos de equilibrio de extracción del cinc en forma de isotermas de extracción a una temperatura de 50 °C y pH constante y se estudia la coextracción de los metales minoritarios Cu, Ca, Pb, Mg, Cd, Co, Ni y Hg. El mercurio no se extrae de las soluciones concentradas de cloruro amónico. La selectividad del Cyanex 272 para el cinc respecto de esos metales minoritarios es mejor que la del D2EHPA, siendo verdaderamente notable para el calcio, que es la impureza que más se coextrae con el D2EHPA. La coextracción de níquel y de cadmio es muy pequeña para ambos extractantes. Se considera la posibilidad del uso alternativo del Cyanex 272 en lugar del D2EHPA.

  16. Optical amplifier operating at 1.3 microns useful for telecommunications and based on dysprosium-doped metal chloride host materials

    Page, R.H.; Schaffers, K.I.; Payne, S.A.; Krupke, W.F.; Beach, R.J.

    1997-12-02

    Dysprosium-doped metal chloride materials offer laser properties advantageous for use as optical amplifiers in the 1.3 {micro}m telecommunications fiber optic network. The upper laser level is characterized by a millisecond lifetime, the host material possesses a moderately low refractive index, and the gain peak occurs near 1.31 {micro}m. Related halide materials, including bromides and iodides, are also useful. The Dy{sup 3+}-doped metal chlorides can be pumped with laser diodes and yield 1.3 {micro}m signal gain levels significantly beyond those currently available. 9 figs.

  17. Optical amplifier operating at 1.3 microns useful for telecommunications and based on dysprosium-doped metal chloride host materials

    Page, Ralph H. (San Ramon, CA); Schaffers, Kathleen I. (Pleasanton, CA); Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA); Krupke, William F. (Pleasanton, CA); Beach, Raymond J. (Livermore, CA)

    1997-01-01

    Dysprosium-doped metal chloride materials offer laser properties advantageous for use as optical amplifiers in the 1.3 .mu.m telecommunications fiber optic network. The upper laser level is characterized by a millisecond lifetime, the host material possesses a moderately low refractive index, and the gain peak occurs near 1.31 .mu.m. Related halide materials, including bromides and iodides, are also useful. The Dy.sup.3+ -doped metal chlorides can be pumped with laser diodes and yield 1.3 .mu.m signal gain levels significantly beyond those currently available.

  18. Equivalent circuit parameters of nickel/metal hydride batteries from sparse impedance measurements

    Nelatury, Sudarshan Rao; Singh, Pritpal

    In a recent communication, a method for extracting the equivalent circuit parameters of a lead acid battery from sparse (only three) impedance spectroscopy observations at three different frequencies was proposed. It was based on an equivalent circuit consisting of a bulk resistance, a reaction resistance and a constant phase element (CPE). Such a circuit is a very appropriate model of a lead-acid cell at high state of charge (SOC). This paper is a sequel to it and presents an application of it in case of nickel/metal hydride (Ni/MH) batteries, which also at high SOC are represented by the same circuit configuration. But when the SOC of a Ni/MH battery under interrogation goes low, The EIS curve has a positive slope at the low frequency end and our technique yields complex values for the otherwise real circuit parameters, suggesting the need for additional elements in the equivalent circuit and a definite relationship between parameter consistency and SOC. To improvise the previous algorithm, in order that it works reasonably well at both high and low SOCs, we propose three more measurements—two at very low frequencies to include the Warburg response and one at a high frequency to model the series inductance, in addition to the three in the mid frequency band—totally six measurements. In most of the today's instrumentation, it is the user who should choose the circuit configuration and the number of frequencies where impedance should be measured and the accompanying software performs data fitting by complex nonlinear least squares. The proposed method has built into it an SOC-based decision-making capability—both to choose the circuit configuration and to estimate the values of the circuit elements.

  19. Life cycle environmental assessment of lithium-ion and nickel metal hydride batteries for plug-in hybrid and battery electric vehicles.

    Majeau-Bettez, Guillaume; Hawkins, Troy R; Strømman, Anders Hammer

    2011-05-15

    This study presents the life cycle assessment (LCA) of three batteries for plug-in hybrid and full performance battery electric vehicles. A transparent life cycle inventory (LCI) was compiled in a component-wise manner for nickel metal hydride (NiMH), nickel cobalt manganese lithium-ion (NCM), and iron phosphate lithium-ion (LFP) batteries. The battery systems were investigated with a functional unit based on energy storage, and environmental impacts were analyzed using midpoint indicators. On a per-storage basis, the NiMH technology was found to have the highest environmental impact, followed by NCM and then LFP, for all categories considered except ozone depletion potential. We found higher life cycle global warming emissions than have been previously reported. Detailed contribution and structural path analyses allowed for the identification of the different processes and value-chains most directly responsible for these emissions. This article contributes a public and detailed inventory, which can be easily be adapted to any powertrain, along with readily usable environmental performance assessments.

  20. Ionic conductivity of metal oxides : an essential property for all-solid-state Lithium-ion batteries

    Chen, C.; Eichel, R.-A.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2017-01-01

    Essential progress has been made for adopting metal oxides (MeO) in various energy storage and energy conversion applications. Among these, utilizing MeO in Lithium-ions batteries (LIBs) seems to be one of the most promising applications. In particular, conductive Li-containing oxides or

  1. Metallic Sn-Based Anode Materials: Application in High-Performance Lithium-Ion and Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Ying, Hangjun; Han, Wei-Qiang

    2017-11-01

    With the fast-growing demand for green and safe energy sources, rechargeable ion batteries have gradually occupied the major current market of energy storage devices due to their advantages of high capacities, long cycling life, superior rate ability, and so on. Metallic Sn-based anodes are perceived as one of the most promising alternatives to the conventional graphite anode and have attracted great attention due to the high theoretical capacities of Sn in both lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) (994 mA h g -1 ) and sodium-ion batteries (847 mA h g -1 ). Though Sony has used Sn-Co-C nanocomposites as its commercial LIB anodes, to develop even better batteries using metallic Sn-based anodes there are still two main obstacles that must be overcome: poor cycling stability and low coulombic efficiency. In this review, the latest and most outstanding developments in metallic Sn-based anodes for LIBs and SIBs are summarized. And it covers the modification strategies including size control, alloying, and structure design to effectually improve the electrochemical properties. The superiorities and limitations are analyzed and discussed, aiming to provide an in-depth understanding of the theoretical works and practical developments of metallic Sn-based anode materials.

  2. Predictive values of some atherogenic risk factors in young workers occupationally exposed to vinyl chloride and heavy metals

    Aziza Abdel Azim Saad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional risk factors do not explain all of the risk for incident coronary heart disease (CHD events. Human susceptibility to atherosclerosis and consequently coronary heart disease is maximally exhibited when the environment is unfavorable, especially in workplace. Thus, the present work was undertaken to study the relation of lipoprotein (a to the other atherogenic risk factors in young workers occupationally exposed to vinyl chloride or some heavy metals by studying the effect of exposure to these agents on the lipid profiles, immunological parameters and the antioxidant defense enzyme system. The results of this study revealed that, in metalists, the cluster features of dyslipidemia, impairment in antioxidant defense mechanism and high levels of Lp (a, CICs, C3 and C4 represent unfortunate events on their cardiovascular system. In VCW, vinyl chloride metabolites caused severe oxidative stress reflected by impairment in the antioxidant defense accompanied by propagation of lipid peroxidation. Additionally, the elevated levels of Lp (a, CICs, C3 and C4 may point out to their role as atherogenic risk factors in those workers. In conclusion, young workers occupationally exposed to VC may be at high risk of developing cardiovascular disease in spite of having normolipidemia.

  3. Equilibrium electrode U(4)-U and redox U(4)-U(3) potentials in molten alkali metal chlorides medium

    Smirnov, M V; Kudyakov, V Ya; Komarov, V E; Salyulev, A B [AN SSSR, Sverdlovsk. Inst. Ehlektrokhimii

    1979-02-01

    Conditional standard electrode potentials of uranium are determined for diluted solutions of its tetrachloride in alkali metal chloride melts (LiCl, NaCl, NaCl-KCl, KCl, RbCl and CsCl) when using U(4) ion activity coefficient values experimentally found by the tensimetric method. These potentials shift to the electronegative side at the temperature decrease and alkali cation radius increase rsub(Msup(+)) according to the empiric ratio E*U(4)-U= -3.06+6.87x10/sup -4/ T-(1.67-10/sup -4/T-0.44) 1/rsub(Msup(+)) +-0.01. The temperature dependences of formal conditional redox potentials of the U(4)-U(3) system for above melted chlorides are estimated. The E*U(4)-U(3) value also becomes more electronegative in the series LiCl, NaCl, NaCl-KCl, KCl, RbCl and CsCl. This alternation is satisfactorily described by the empiric expression E*U(4)-U(3)= -1.74+1.74x10/sup -4/T-(0.71x10/sup -4/T-0.20) 1rsub(Msup(+)) +-0.05. The calculated values Eu*(4)-U(3) are compared with those directly measured for the NaCl-KCl equimolar mixture and 3LiCl-2KCl eutectic mixture. A satisfactory confirmity has been observed.

  4. Equilibrium electrode U(4)-U and redox U(4)-U(3) potentials in molten alkali metal chlorides medium

    Smirnov, M.V.; Kudyakov, V.Ya.; Komarov, V.E.; Salyulev, A.B.

    1979-01-01

    Conditional standard electrode potentials of uranium are determined for diluted solutions of its tetrachloride in alkali metal chloride melts (LiCl, NaCl, NaCl-KCl, KCl, RbCl and CsCl) when using U(4) ion activity coefficient values experimentally found by the tensimetric method. These potentials shift to the electronegative side at the temperature decrease and alkali cation radius increase rsub(Msup(+)) according to the empiric ratio E*U(4)-U= -3.06+6.87x10 -4 T-(1.67-10 -4 T-0.44) 1/rsub(Msup(+)) +-0.01. The temperature dependences of formal conditional redox potentials of the U(4)-U(3) system for above melted chlorides are estimated. The E*U(4)-U(3) value also becomes more electronegative in the series LiCl, NaCl, NaCl-KCl, KCl, RbCl and CsCl. This alternation is satisfactorily described by the empiric expression E*U(4)-U(3)= -1.74+1.74x10 -4 T-(0.71x10 -4 T-0.20) 1rsub(Msup(+)) +-0.05. The calculated values Eu*(4)-U(3) are compared with those directly measured for the NaCl-KCl equimolar mixture and 3LiCl-2KCl eutectic mixture. A satisfactory confirmity has been observed

  5. Metallic MoN layer and its application as anode for lithium-ion batteries

    Zhang, Qiaoxuan; Ma, Jiachen; Lei, Ming; Quhe, Ruge

    2018-04-01

    Recently, two-dimensional (2D) metallic MoN was manufactured successfully in experiment. Its intrinsic properties remain to be explored theoretically, in depth. The intrinsic properties of a MoN monolayer are investigated by first-principles calculations. The distinct geometric properties of the outermost Mo and N surfaces are discovered. We predict an extremely high work function of 6.3 eV of the N surface, which indicates the great value of the 2D MoN for application in the semiconductor industry. We further explore the potential of 2D MoN as anode material for lithium-ion batteries. It is found that the adsorption energy of a single Li atom on an MoN surface can be as low as -4.04 eV. The small diffusion barriers (0.41 eV) and high theoretical maximum capacity (406 mAh · g-1 with the inclusion of multilayer adsorption) all imply an outstanding lithium-ion battery performance by 2D MoN.

  6. Metal oxide/hydrogen secondary battery; Kinzoku sankabutsu/suiso niji denchi

    Hosobuchi, H.; Ema, M.

    1995-12-12

    Since the shape of powder produced by crushing the hydrogen storage alloy containing rare earth element varies widely, the density of the negative electrode made by packing the alloy powder is low. As a result, the secondary battery employing this negative electrode has a small discharge capacity. This invention solves the problem. Employing the hydrogen storage alloy containing rare earth element composed of particle shape of aspect ratio, A, of over 1.0 and below 3.0 gives rise to the negative electrode with high packing density, improving the discharge capacity of the metal oxide - hydrogen secondary battery. The more the shape of powder of hydrogen storage alloy containing rare earth element is near to sphere, the higher the packing density of negative electrode made of the hydrogen storage alloy containing rare earth element becomes. The preferable aspect ratio, A, of the powder is 1.0 {le} A {le} 2.0. Such alloy powder can be produced by mechanically grinding the rare-earth-element-containing hydrogen alloy ingot, or grinding by hydration, or grinding by atomizing followed by sieving. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  7. Layered lithium transition metal nitrides as novel anodes for lithium secondary batteries

    Liu Yu; Horikawa, Kumi; Fujiyosi, Minako; Imanishi, Nobuyuki; Hirano, Atsushi; Takeda, Yasuo

    2004-01-01

    We report the approach to overcome the deterrents of the hexagonal Li 2.6 Co 0.4 N as potential insertion anode for lithium ion batteries: the rapid capacity fading upon long cycles and the fully Li-rich state before cycling. Research reveals that the appropriate amount of Co substituted by Cu can greatly improve the cycling performance of Li 2.6 Co 0.4 N. It is attributed to the enhanced electrochemical stability and interfacial comparability. However, doped Cu leads to a slightly decreased capacity. High energy mechanical milling (HEMM) was found to effectively improve the reversible capacity associated with the electrochemical kinetics by modifying the active hosts' morphology characteristics. Moreover, the composite based on mesocarbon microbead (MCMB) and Li 2.6 Co 0.4 N was developed under HEMM. The composite demonstrates a high first cycle efficiency at 100% and a large reversible capacity of ca. 450 mAh g -1 , as well as a stable cycling performance. This work may contribute to a development of the lithium transition metal nitrides as novel anodes for lithium ion batteries

  8. Kinetic study on recovery of metal values in anode slime from used lead batteries

    Itoh, S.; Nagasaka, T. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Environmental Studies; Ono, J.; Hino, M. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Metallurgy

    2004-07-01

    Oxidation experiments were conducted with pure antimony and antimony-lead bismuth alloys to examine the oxidation kinetics and mechanisms used to treat the anode slime produced during lead electrorefining and recovery of antimony from used lead batteries. In order to recycle and recover valuable metals from the used lead batteries, the oxidation experiments were conducted with pure liquid antimony at temperatures between 973 and 1373 K. The study showed that the gas phase mass transfer step is the basic mechanisms that controls the oxidation rate for pure antimony. It was noted that the oxidation rate of the alloy was identical to that of the pure antimony, suggesting that an oxidation reaction of the anode slime proceeds at the same rate as pure antimony. This is one of the advantages of treating anode slime through oxidation. Mass transfer in the gas phase was the rate-determining step in the alloy oxidation reaction. It was concluded that a higher oxygen partial pressure and sufficient gas flow rate at temperature of 1073 K is needed to conserve energy and recovery antimony oxide. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 12 figs.

  9. Redox-Flow Batteries: From Metals to Organic Redox-Active Materials.

    Winsberg, Jan; Hagemann, Tino; Janoschka, Tobias; Hager, Martin D; Schubert, Ulrich S

    2017-01-16

    Research on redox-flow batteries (RFBs) is currently experiencing a significant upturn, stimulated by the growing need to store increasing quantities of sustainably generated electrical energy. RFBs are promising candidates for the creation of smart grids, particularly when combined with photovoltaics and wind farms. To achieve the goal of "green", safe, and cost-efficient energy storage, research has shifted from metal-based materials to organic active materials in recent years. This Review presents an overview of various flow-battery systems. Relevant studies concerning their history are discussed as well as their development over the last few years from the classical inorganic, to organic/inorganic, to RFBs with organic redox-active cathode and anode materials. Available technologies are analyzed in terms of their technical, economic, and environmental aspects; the advantages and limitations of these systems are also discussed. Further technological challenges and prospective research possibilities are highlighted. © 2016 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  10. Multistage leaching of metals from spent lithium ion battery waste using electrochemically generated acidic lixiviant.

    Boxall, N J; Adamek, N; Cheng, K Y; Haque, N; Bruckard, W; Kaksonen, A H

    2018-04-01

    Lithium ion battery (LIB) waste contains significant valuable resources that could be recovered and reused to manufacture new products. This study aimed to develop an alternative process for extracting metals from LIB waste using acidic solutions generated by electrolysis for leaching. Results showed that solutions generated by electrolysis of 0.5 M NaCl at 8 V with graphite or mixed metal oxide (MMO) electrodes were weakly acidic and leach yields obtained under single stage (batch) leaching were poor (leaching with the graphite electrolyte solution improved leach yields overall, but the electrodes corroded over time. Though yields obtained with both electrolyte leach solutions were low when compared to the 4 M HCl control, there still remains potential to optimise the conditions for the generation of the acidic anolyte solution and the solubilisation of valuable metals from the LIB waste. A preliminary value proposition indicated that the process has the potential to be economically feasible if leach yields can be improved, especially based on the value of recoverable cobalt and lithium. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Recent Progress in Self-Supported Metal Oxide Nanoarray Electrodes for Advanced Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Zhang, Feng; Qi, Limin

    2016-09-01

    The rational design and fabrication of electrode materials with desirable architectures and optimized properties has been demonstrated to be an effective approach towards high-performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Although nanostructured metal oxide electrodes with high specific capacity have been regarded as the most promising alternatives for replacing commercial electrodes in LIBs, their further developments are still faced with several challenges such as poor cycling stability and unsatisfying rate performance. As a new class of binder-free electrodes for LIBs, self-supported metal oxide nanoarray electrodes have many advantageous features in terms of high specific surface area, fast electron transport, improved charge transfer efficiency, and free space for alleviating volume expansion and preventing severe aggregation, holding great potential to solve the mentioned problems. This review highlights the recent progress in the utilization of self-supported metal oxide nanoarrays grown on 2D planar and 3D porous substrates, such as 1D and 2D nanostructure arrays, hierarchical nanostructure arrays, and heterostructured nanoarrays, as anodes and cathodes for advanced LIBs. Furthermore, the potential applications of these binder-free nanoarray electrodes for practical LIBs in full-cell configuration are outlined. Finally, the future prospects of these self-supported nanoarray electrodes are discussed.

  12. Local coordination and medium range order in molten trivalent metal chlorides: The role of screening by the chlorine component

    Pastore, G.; Tosi, M.P.

    1995-11-01

    Earlier work has identified the metal ion size R M as a relevant parameter in determining the evolution of the liquid structure of trivalent metal chlorides across the series from LaCl 3 (R M approx. 1.4 A) to AlCl 3 (R M approx. 0.8 A). Here we highlight the structural role of the chlorines by contrasting the structure of fully equilibrated melts with that of disordered systems obtained by quenching the chlorine component. Main attention is given to how the suppression of screening of the polyvalent ions by the chlorines changes trends in the local liquid structure (first neighbour coordination and partial radial distribution functions) and in the intermediate range order (first sharp diffraction peak in the partial structure factors). The main microscopic consequences of structural quenching of the chlorine component are a reduction in short range order and an enhancement of intermediate range order in the metal ion component, as well as the suppression of a tendency to molecular-type states at the lower end of the range of R M . (author). 23 refs, 6 figs

  13. Synthesis, characterization and metal adsorption properties of the new ion exchanger polymer 3-n-propyl(4-methylpyridinium) silsesquioxane chloride.

    Magosso, H A; Panteleimonov, A V; Kholin, Y V; Gushikem, Y

    2006-11-01

    The preparation and anion exchange properties of 3-n-propyl(4-methylpyridinium) silsesquioxane chloride polymer are described. This new polymer was prepared by the sol-gel processing method and is designated as SiPic+Cl-. It is insoluble in water and showed an anion exchange capacity of 1.46x10(-3) mol g-1. The adsorption isotherms of ZnCl2, CdCl2 and HgCl2 were determined from aqueous solutions and the adsorption equilibria simulations fit the model of fixed bidentate centers with the absence of lateral interactions and energetic heterogeneity between them. The metal ions diffuse into the solid solution interface and are dominantly present as MCl2-(4) species for Zn(II), MCl(2-)4 and MCl-3 species for Cd(II) and MCl-3 species for Hg(II).

  14. Concurrent coordination of ligand in metal chloride complexes with 1-vinyl-2-(2-pyridyl)benzimidazole

    Bajkalov, L.V.; Domnina, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    The properties and structure of bivalent cadmium and 1-vinyl-2-(2-pyridyl)benzimidazole chloride complexes, which have been prepared for the first time, have been studied by the methods of potentiometric titration and PMR, 35 Cl NQR, UV and IR spectroscopy. For the complexes above di- and polymeric structures in crystal phase are suggested, where ligand plays the role of a bridge. N,N-bidentate ligand. In solution the complexes dissociate with formation of monomeric coordination compounds, their metal being bound by different ways, stemming from participation of N benzimidazole or pyridine fragment of the ligand. Adducts of ionic type with second sphere 1-vinyl-2-(2-pyridyl)benzimidazole cation have been obtained in the course of hydrochlorination of the complexes prepared

  15. Galvanic reduction of uranium(III) chloride from LiCl-KCl eutectic salt using gadolinium metal

    Bagri, Prashant; Zhang, Chao; Simpson, Michael F.

    2017-09-01

    The drawdown of actinides is an important unit operation to enable the recycling of electrorefiner salt and minimization of waste. A new method for the drawdown of actinide chlorides from LiCl-KCl molten salt has been demonstrated here. Using the galvanic interaction between the Gd/Gd(III) and U/U(III) redox reactions, it is shown that UCl3 concentration in eutectic LiCl-KCl can be reduced from 8.06 wt.% (1.39 mol %) to 0.72 wt.% (0.12 mol %) in about an hour via plating U metal onto a steel basket. This is a simple process for returning actinides to the electrorefiner and minimizing their loss to the salt waste stream.

  16. Investigation of Impedance-Based Parameters in Metal-O2 Batteries for Next Generation of Battery Management Systems

    Christensen, Andreas Elkjær; Højberg, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    -of-health of lithium-ion batteries. Applied Energy, 86(9), 1506–1511. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2008.11.021 [4] McCloskey, B. D., Garcia, J. M., & Luntz, A. C. (2014). Chemical and Electrochemical Differences in Nonaqueous Li–O 2and Na–O2 Batteries. The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, 5(7), 1230–1235. doi:10...... electrolyte. Journal of Power Sources, 272(c), 415–421. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2014.08.056 [Figure]...

  17. All-solid-state lithium-ion and lithium metal batteries - paving the way to large-scale production

    Schnell, Joscha; Günther, Till; Knoche, Thomas; Vieider, Christoph; Köhler, Larissa; Just, Alexander; Keller, Marlou; Passerini, Stefano; Reinhart, Gunther

    2018-04-01

    Challenges and requirements for the large-scale production of all-solid-state lithium-ion and lithium metal batteries are herein evaluated via workshops with experts from renowned research institutes, material suppliers, and automotive manufacturers. Aiming to bridge the gap between materials research and industrial mass production, possible solutions for the production chains of sulfide and oxide based all-solid-state batteries from electrode fabrication to cell assembly and quality control are presented. Based on these findings, a detailed comparison of the production processes for a sulfide based all-solid-state battery with conventional lithium-ion cell production is given, showing that processes for composite electrode fabrication can be adapted with some effort, while the fabrication of the solid electrolyte separator layer and the integration of a lithium metal anode will require completely new processes. This work identifies the major steps towards mass production of all-solid-state batteries, giving insight into promising manufacturing technologies and helping stakeholders, such as machine engineering, cell producers, and original equipment manufacturers, to plan the next steps towards safer batteries with increased storage capacity.

  18. A Stable, Magnetic, and Metallic Li3O4 Compound as a Discharge Product in a Li-Air Battery.

    Yang, Guochun; Wang, Yanchao; Ma, Yanming

    2014-08-07

    The Li-air battery with the specific energy exceeding that of a Li ion battery has been aimed as the next-generation battery. The improvement of the performance of the Li-air battery needs a full resolution of the actual discharge products. Li2O2 has been long recognized as the main discharge product, with which, however, there are obvious failures on the understanding of various experimental observations (e.g., magnetism, oxygen K-edge spectrum, etc.) on discharge products. There is a possibility of the existence of other Li-O compounds unknown thus far. Here, a hitherto unknown Li3O4 compound as a discharge product of the Li-air battery was predicted through first-principles swarm structure searching calculations. The new compound has a unique structure featuring the mixture of superoxide O2(-) and peroxide O2(2-), the first such example in the Li-O system. The existence of superoxide O2(-) creates magnetism and hole-doped metallicity. Findings of Li3O4 gave rise to direct explanations of the unresolved experimental magnetism, triple peaks of oxygen K-edge spectra, and the Raman peak at 1125 cm(-1) of the discharge products. Our work enables an opportunity for the performance of capacity, charge overpotential, and round-trip efficiency of the Li-air battery.

  19. Low Cost Metal Carbide Nanocrystals as Binding and Electrocatalytic Sites for High Performance Li-S Batteries.

    Zhou, Fei; Li, Zheng; Luo, Xuan; Wu, Tong; Jiang, Bin; Lu, Lei-Lei; Yao, Hong-Bin; Antonietti, Markus; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2018-02-14

    Lithium sulfur (Li-S) batteries are considered as promising energy storage systems for the next generation of batteries due to their high theoretical energy densities and low cost. Much effort has been made to improve the practical energy densities and cycling stability of Li-S batteries via diverse designs of materials nanostructure. However, achieving simultaneously good rate capabilities and stable cycling of Li-S batteries is still challenging. Herein, we propose a strategy to utilize a dual effect of metal carbide nanoparticles decorated on carbon nanofibers (MC NPs-CNFs) to realize high rate performance, low hysteresis, and long cycling stability of Li-S batteries in one system. The adsorption experiments of lithium polysulfides (LiPS) to MC NPs and corresponding theoretical calculations demonstrate that LiPS are likely to be adsorbed and diffused on the surface of MC NPs because of their moderate chemical bonding. MC NPs turn out to have also an electrocatalytic role and accelerate electrochemical redox reactions of LiPS, as proven by cyclic voltammetry analysis. The fabricated Li-S batteries based on the W 2 C NPs-CNFs hybrid electrodes display not only high specific capacity of 1200 mAh/g at 0.2C but also excellent rate performance and cycling stability, for example, a model setup can be operated at 1C for 500 cycles maintaining a final specific capacity of 605 mAh/g with a degradation rate as low as 0.06%/cycle.

  20. Development of a heterogeneous catalyst for lignocellulosic biomass conversion : glucose dehydration by metal chlorides in a silica-supported ionic liquid layer

    Degirmenci, V.; Hensen, E.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    An attempt is made to immobilize the homogeneous metal chloride/EMIMCl catalyst for glucose dehydration to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural. To this end, ionic liquid fragments were grafted to the surface of SBA-15 to generate a heterogenized mimick of the homogeneous reaction medium. Despite a decrease in

  1. Activation energy of tracer-diffusion of manganese ions (Mn2+) in alkali metal chloride solutions

    Borhade, A.V.

    2000-01-01

    The activation energy of the tracer diffusion of Mn 2+ ions in alkali chloride solutions (0.1M) has been determined in agar gel medium (1-2.5%) over the temperature range of 25 - 45 deg C. The decrease in the value of the Arrhenius parameters, E and D 0 , with gel percentage is explained on the basis of the transition state theory. Further, the activation energy as a function of electrolyte concentration is also investigated using 1% agar gel in the temperature range of 25 - 45 deg C. In both the cases, the activation energies are determined by the least square fitting of the diffusion coefficient data obtained at various temperatures through the Arrhenius plots. (author)

  2. Investigation of lithium thionyl chloride battery safety hazards. Quarterly technical progress report 29 Sep-31 Dec 81

    McDonald, R.C.

    1981-12-31

    Glass Li/SOCl2 cells have been designed and built which will be used to discharge and overdischarge flat electrodes in sufficient but not excess electrolyte. The cells will be used for generation of electrolyte samples for chemical spectroscopy and overdischarged cathodes for morphological studies. A metal cell has been designed and built for overdischarge of flat electrodes. E.S.R., Raman, FTIR, and UV/VIS fluorescence spectra have been taken of electrolyte at various stages of discharge and overdischarge. Two chemical species detectable with ESR are generated on discharge. The first resonance found also in electrolyte solutions saturated with sulfur, develops uniformly through discharge. The second as yet unidentified species becomes evident towards the second half of discharge increasing species becomes evident towards the second half of discharge increasing in concentration faster than sulfur. Following removal from the cell, the second species disappears as visible fluorescence increases in intensity the sulfur related peak remains. Raman and FTIR spectra show a profusion of emission and absorption peaks respectively. Analysis of this data is still in process. Preliminary optical studies of overdischarged cathode studies in cathode limited cells show that lithium dendrites do grow on the surface of carbon.

  3. Acquisition of Co metal from spent lithium-ion battery using emulsion liquid membrane technology and emulsion stability test

    Yuliusman; Wulandari, P. T.; Amiliana, R. A.; Huda, M.; Kusumadewi, F. A.

    2018-03-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are the most common type to be used as energy source in mobile phone. The amount of lithium-ion battery wastes is approximated by 200 – 500 ton/year. In one lithium-ion battery, there are 5 – 20% of cobalt metal, depend on the manufacturer. One of the way to recover a valuable metal from waste is leaching process then continued with extraction, which is the aim of this study. Spent lithium-ion batteries will be characterized with EDX and AAS, the result will show the amount of cobalt metal with form of LiCoO2 in the cathode. Hydrochloric acid concentration used is 4 M, temperature 80°C, and reaction time 1 hour. This study will discuss the emulsion stability test on emulsion liquid membrane. The purpose of emulsion stability test in this study was to determine optimum concentration of surfactant and extractant to produce a stable emulsion. Surfactant and extractant used were SPAN 80 and Cyanex 272 respectively with both concentrations varied. Membrane and feed phase ratios used in this experiment was 1 : 2. The optimum results of this study were SPAN 80 concentrations of 10% w/v and Cyanex 272 0.7 M.

  4. Targeting high value metals in lithium-ion battery recycling via shredding and size-based separation.

    Wang, Xue; Gaustad, Gabrielle; Babbitt, Callie W

    2016-05-01

    Development of lithium-ion battery recycling systems is a current focus of much research; however, significant research remains to optimize the process. One key area not studied is the utilization of mechanical pre-recycling steps to improve overall yield. This work proposes a pre-recycling process, including mechanical shredding and size-based sorting steps, with the goal of potential future scale-up to the industrial level. This pre-recycling process aims to achieve material segregation with a focus on the metallic portion and provide clear targets for subsequent recycling processes. The results show that contained metallic materials can be segregated into different size fractions at different levels. For example, for lithium cobalt oxide batteries, cobalt content has been improved from 35% by weight in the metallic portion before this pre-recycling process to 82% in the ultrafine (6mm). However, size fractions across multiple battery chemistries showed significant variability in material concentration. This finding indicates that sorting by cathode before pre-treatment could reduce the uncertainty of input materials and therefore improve the purity of output streams. Thus, battery labeling systems may be an important step towards implementation of any pre-recycling process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A bifunctional electrolyte additive for separator wetting and dendrite suppression in lithium metal batteries

    Zheng, Hao; Xie, Yong; Xiang, Hongfa; Shi, Pengcheng; Liang, Xin; Xu, Wu

    2018-04-01

    Reformulation of electrolyte systems and improvement of separator wettability are vital to electrochemical performances of rechargeable lithium (Li) metal batteries, especially for suppressing Li dendrites. In this work we report a bifunctional electrolyte additive that improves separator wettability and suppresses Li dendrite growth in LMBs. A triblock polyether (Pluronic P123) was introduced as an additive into a commonly used carbonate-based electrolyte. It was found that addition of 0.2~1% (by weight) P123 into the electrolyte could effectively enhance the wettability of polyethylene separator. More importantly, the adsorption of P123 on Li metal surface can act as an artificial solid electrolyte interphase layer and contribute to suppress the growth of Li dendrites. A smooth and dendritic-free morphology can be achieved in the electrolyte with 0.2% P123. The Li||Li symmetric cells with the 0.2% P123 containing electrolyte exhibit a relatively stable cycling stability at high current densities of 1.0 and 3.0 mA cm-2.

  6. Leaching of chloride, sulphate, heavy metals, dissolved organic carbon and phenolic organic pesticides from contaminated concrete.

    Van Praagh, M; Modin, H

    2016-10-01

    Concrete samples from demolition waste of a former pesticide plant in Sweden were analysed for total contents and leachate concentrations of potentially hazardous inorganic substances, TOC, phenols, as well as for pesticide compounds such as phenoxy acids, chlorophenols and chlorocresols. Leachates were produced by means of modified standard column leaching tests and pH-stat batch tests. Due to elevated contents of chromium and lead, as well as due to high chloride concentrations in the first leachate from column tests at L/S 0.1, recycling of the concrete as a construction material in groundworks is likely to be restricted according to Swedish guidelines. The studied pesticide compounds appear to be relatively mobile at the materials own pH>12, 12, 9 and 7. Potential leaching of pesticide residues from recycled concrete to ground water and surface water might exceed water quality guidelines for the remediation site and the EU Water Framework Directive. Results of this study stress the necessity to systematically study the mechanism behind mobility of organic contaminants from alkaline construction and demolition wastes rather than rely on total content limit values. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Discharge capacity and microstructures of La Mg Pr Al Mn Co Ni alloys for nickel-metal hydride batteries

    Casini, J.C.S.; Galdino, G.S.; Ferreira, E.A.; Takiishi, H.; Faria, R.N.

    2010-01-01

    La 0.7-x Mg x Pr 0.3 Al 0.3 Mn 0.4 Co 0.5 Ni 3.8 (x = 0.0, 0.3 and 0.7) alloys have been investigated aiming the production of negative electrodes for nickel-metal hydride batteries. The alloys employed in this work were used in the as cast state. The results showed that the substitution of magnesium by lanthanum increased the discharge capacity of the Ni-MH batteries. A battery produced with the La 0.4 Mg 0.3 Pr 0.3 Al 0.3 Mn 0.4 Co 0.5 Ni 3.8 alloy shown a high discharge capacity (380mAh/g) also good stability compared to other alloys. The electrode materials were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). (author)

  8. Thermal Rayleigh-Marangoni convection in a three-layer liquid-metal-battery model

    Köllner, Thomas; Boeck, Thomas; Schumacher, Jörg

    2017-05-01

    The combined effects of buoyancy-driven Rayleigh-Bénard convection (RC) and surface tension-driven Marangoni convection (MC) are studied in a triple-layer configuration which serves as a simplified model for a liquid metal battery (LMB). The three-layer model consists of a liquid metal alloy cathode, a molten salt separation layer, and a liquid metal anode at the top. Convection is triggered by the temperature gradient between the hot electrolyte and the colder electrodes, which is a consequence of the release of resistive heat during operation. We present a linear stability analysis of the state of pure thermal conduction in combination with three-dimensional direct numerical simulations of the nonlinear turbulent evolution on the basis of a pseudospectral method. Five different modes of convection are identified in the configuration, which are partly coupled to each other: RC in the upper electrode, RC with internal heating in the molten salt layer, and MC at both interfaces between molten salt and electrode as well as anticonvection in the middle layer and lower electrode. The linear stability analysis confirms that the additional Marangoni effect in the present setup increases the growth rates of the linearly unstable modes, i.e., Marangoni and Rayleigh-Bénard instability act together in the molten salt layer. The critical Grashof and Marangoni numbers decrease with increasing middle layer thickness. The calculated thresholds for the onset of convection are found for realistic current densities of laboratory-sized LMBs. The global turbulent heat transfer follows scaling predictions for internally heated RC. The global turbulent momentum transfer is comparable with turbulent convection in the classical Rayleigh-Bénard case. In summary, our studies show that incorporating Marangoni effects generates smaller flow structures, alters the velocity magnitudes, and enhances the turbulent heat transfer across the triple-layer configuration.

  9. Removal Of Heavy Metals From Industrial Wastewaters Using Local ...

    Wastewater samples from battery, paint and textile industries were treated with different doses of locally available alum, aluminum sulphate and ferric chloride in order to determine and compare their effectiveness in removing heavy metal contents from the wastewaters. The percentage removal of the metals from the ...

  10. A basic study on electrodeposition of metal halogen mixture in fluoride/chloride molten salts

    Shim, Z. H.; Kang, Y. H.; Hwang, S. C.; Woo, M. S.; Yoo, J. H.

    2001-01-01

    The electrodeposition experiments of metal mixture composed of U, Y, Gd, Nd and Ce were carried out in the KCl-LiCl and LiF-NaF-KF (FLINAK) eutectic melts at 500 .deg. C and 600 .deg. C, respectively. Uranium was major component in the cathode deposits, and the separation factors of uranium with respect to the rare earths (REs) are nearly same in both electrolytes. REs content in the cathode deposits increased sharply below -1.9V which is the decomposition voltage of the halogen compounds of REs. The current efficiency for electrodeposition of metals was inversely in proportion to the applied voltage in the range of -1.0 V to -1.9 V(vs. S.S. 304 or Ni)

  11. Ternary alkali-metal and transition metal or metalloid acetylides as alkali-metal intercalation electrodes for batteries

    Nemeth, Karoly; Srajer, George; Harkay, Katherine C; Terdik, Joseph Z

    2015-02-10

    Novel intercalation electrode materials including ternary acetylides of chemical formula: A.sub.nMC.sub.2 where A is alkali or alkaline-earth element; M is transition metal or metalloid element; C.sub.2 is reference to the acetylide ion; n is an integer that is 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4 when A is alkali element and 0, 1, or 2 when A is alkaline-earth element. The alkali elements are Lithium (Li), Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), Rubidium (Rb), Cesium (Cs) and Francium (Fr). The alkaline-earth elements are Berilium (Be), Magnesium (Mg), Calcium (Ca), Strontium (Sr), Barium (Ba), and Radium (Ra). M is a transition metal that is any element in groups 3 through 12 inclusive on the Periodic Table of Elements (elements 21 (Sc) to element 30 (Zn)). In another exemplary embodiment, M is a metalloid element.

  12. Genotoxicity of two heavy metal compounds: lead nitrate and cobalt chloride in Polychaete Perinereis cultrifera.

    Singh, Nisha; Bhagat, Jacky; Ingole, Baban S

    2017-07-01

    The present study explores the in vivo and in vitro genotoxic effects of lead nitrate, [Pb(NO 3 ) 2 ] a recognized environmental pollutant and cobalt chloride (CoCl 2 ), an emerging environmental pollutant in polychaete Perinereis cultrifera using comet assay. Despite widespread occurrence and extensive industrial applications, no previous published reports on genotoxicity of these compounds are available in polychaete as detected by comet assay. Polychaetes were exposed in vivo to Pb(NO 3 ) 2 (0, 100, 500, and 1000 μg/l) and CoCl 2 (0, 100, 300, and 500 μg/l) for 5 days. At 100 μg/l Pb(NO 3 ) 2 concentration, tail DNA (TDNA) values in coelomocytes were increase by 1.16, 1.43, and 1.55-fold after day 1, day 3, and day 5, whereas, OTM showed 1.12, 2.33, and 2.10-fold increase in in vivo. Pb(NO 3 ) 2 showed a concentration and time-dependent genotoxicity whereas CoCl 2 showed a concentration-dependent genotoxicity in in vivo. A concentration-dependent increase in DNA damage was observed in in vitro studies for Pb(NO 3 ) 2 and CoCl 2 . DNA damage at 500 μg/L showed almost threefold increase in TDNA and approximately fourfold increase in OTM as compared to control in in vitro. Our studies suggest that Pb(NO 3 ) 2 and CoCl 2 have potential to cause genotoxic damage, with Pb(NO 3 ) 2 being more genotoxic in polychaete and should be used more carefully in industrial and other activities. Graphical abstract.

  13. Battery with a microcorrugated, microthin sheet of highly porous corroded metal

    LaFollette, Rodney M.

    2005-09-27

    Microthin sheet technology is disclosed by which superior batteries are constructed which, among other things, accommodate the requirements for high load rapid discharge and recharge, mandated by electric vehicle criteria. The microthin sheet technology has process and article overtones and can be used to form thin electrodes used in batteries of various kinds and types, such as spirally-wound batteries, bipolar batteries, lead acid batteries silver/zinc batteries, and others. Superior high performance battery features include: (a) minimal ionic resistance; (b) minimal electronic resistance; (c) minimal polarization resistance to both charging and discharging; (d) improved current accessibility to active material of the electrodes; (e) a high surface area to volume ratio; (f) high electrode porosity (microporosity); (g) longer life cycle; (h) superior discharge/recharge characteristics; (i) higher capacities (A.multidot.hr); and (j) high specific capacitance.

  14. Combinatorial electrochemical cell array for high throughput screening of micro-fuel-cells and metal/air batteries.

    Jiang, Rongzhong

    2007-07-01

    An electrochemical cell array was designed that contains a common air electrode and 16 microanodes for high throughput screening of both fuel cells (based on polymer electrolyte membrane) and metal/air batteries (based on liquid electrolyte). Electrode materials can easily be coated on the anodes of the electrochemical cell array and screened by switching a graphite probe from one cell to the others. The electrochemical cell array was used to study direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs), including high throughput screening of electrode catalysts and determination of optimum operating conditions. For screening of DMFCs, there is about 6% relative standard deviation (percentage of standard deviation versus mean value) for discharge current from 10 to 20 mAcm(2). The electrochemical cell array was also used to study tin/air batteries. The effect of Cu content in the anode electrode on the discharge performance of the tin/air battery was investigated. The relative standard deviations for screening of metal/air battery (based on zinc/air) are 2.4%, 3.6%, and 5.1% for discharge current at 50, 100, and 150 mAcm(2), respectively.

  15. Cobalt- and Cadmium-Based Metal-Organic Frameworks as High-Performance Anodes for Sodium Ion Batteries and Lithium Ion Batteries.

    Dong, Caifu; Xu, Liqiang

    2017-03-01

    Two multifunctional metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with the same coordination mode, [Co(L)(H 2 O)] n ·2nH 2 O [defined as "Co(L) MOF"] and [Cd(L)(H 2 O)] n ·2nH 2 O [defined as "Cd(L) MOF"] (L = 5-aminoisophthalic acid) have been fabricated via a simple and versatile scalable solvothermal approach at 85 °C for 24 h. The relationship between the structure of the electrode materials (especially the coordination water and different metal ions) and the electrochemical properties of MOFs have been investigated for the first time. And then the possible electrochemical mechanisms of the electrodes have been studied and proposed. In addition, MOFs/RGO hybrid materials were prepared via ball milling, which demonstrated better electrochemical performances than those of individual Co(L) MOF and Cd(L) MOF. For example, when Co(L) MOF/RGO was applied as anode for sodium ion batteries (SIBs), it retained 206 mA h g -1 after 330 cycles at 500 mA g -1 and 1185 mA h g -1 could be obtained after 50 cycles at 100 mA g -1 for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The high-discharge capacity, excellent cyclic stability combined with the facile synthesis procedure enable Co(L) MOF- and Cd(L) MOF-based materials to be prospective anode materials for SIBs and LIBs.

  16. Adsorption and purification of radiogallium in hydrochloric acid and metal chloride solutions by non-ionic resin of macro-reticular type

    Imai, Kiyoko; Watari, Kazuo; Ohno, Shigeru; Ohmiya, Toshinobu; Kuroda, Emi; Izawa, Masami.

    1986-01-01

    Adsorption behavior of radiogallium ( 67 Ga, 68 Ga) on non-ionic MR resin (XAD-7) from hydrochloric acid, lithium chloride and other metal chloride solutions, and purification of 68 Ga by this resin were studied. Radiogallium was adsorbed on XAD-7 rapidly and quantitatively from the solution of higher chloride concentration than 6M. The adsorption behavior is similar to that obtained with 59 Fe and 195 Au previously. Based on adsorption data, elimination of trace amount of 68 Ge commonly contained in 68 Ga milked from a 68 Ge/ 68 Ga generator was tried. When 68 Ga-6M hydrochloric acid solution containing 68 Ge was passed through a XAD-7 column, all the activity was transferred on the column. After eliminating 68 Ge fraction with 3M hydrochloric acid, 68 Ga was obtained in high purity by eluting with 0.1M hydrochloric acid. (author)

  17. Thermal Analysis of Surrogate Simulated Molten Salts with Metal Chloride Impurities for Electrorefining Used Nuclear Fuel

    Toni Y. Gutknecht; Guy L. Fredrickson; Vivek Utgikar

    2012-04-01

    This project is a fundamental study to measure thermal properties (liquidus, solidus, phase transformation, and enthalpy) of molten salt systems of interest to electrorefining operations, which are used in both the fuel cycle research & development mission and the spent fuel treatment mission of the Department of Energy. During electrorefining operations the electrolyte accumulates elements more active than uranium (transuranics, fission products and bond sodium). The accumulation needs to be closely monitored because the thermal properties of the electrolyte will change as the concentration of the impurities increases. During electrorefining (processing techniques used at the Idaho National Laboratory to separate uranium from spent nuclear fuel) it is important for the electrolyte to remain in a homogeneous liquid phase for operational safeguard and criticality reasons. The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely affected by the buildup of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided are: (i) build up of fissile elements in the salt approaching the criticality limits specified for the vessel (ii) freezing of the salts due to change in the liquidus temperature and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution) of elements. The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can potentially be monitored through the thermal characterization of the salts, which can be a function of impurity concentration. This work describes the experimental results of typical salts compositions, consisting of chlorides of strontium, samarium, praseodymium, lanthanum, barium, cerium, cesium, neodymium, sodium and gadolinium (as a surrogate for both uranium and plutonium), used in the processing of used nuclear fuels. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to analyze numerous salt samples providing results on the thermal properties. The property of most interest to pyroprocessing is the liquidus temperature. It was

  18. Chemical Reduction of SIM MOX in Molten Lithium Chloride Using Lithium Metal Reductant

    Kato, Tetsuya; Usami, Tsuyoshi; Kurata, Masaki; Inoue, Tadashi; Sims, Howard E.; Jenkins, Jan A.

    2007-09-01

    A simulated spent oxide fuel in a sintered pellet form, which contained the twelve elements U, Pu, Am, Np, Cm, Ce, Nd, Sm, Ba, Zr,Mo, and Pd, was reduced with Li metal in a molten LiCl bath at 923 K. More than 90% of U and Pu were reduced to metal to form a porous alloy without significant change in the Pu/U ratio. Small fractions of Pu were also combined with Pd to form stable alloys. In the gap of the porous U-Pu alloy, the aggregation of the rare-earth (RE) oxide was observed. Some amount of the RE elements and the actinoides leached from the pellet. The leaching ratio of Am to the initially loaded amount was only several percent, which was far from about 80% obtained in the previous ones on simple MOX including U, Pu, and Am. The difference suggests that a large part of Am existed in the RE oxide rather than in the U-Pu alloy. The detection of the RE elements and actinoides in the molten LiCl bath seemed to indicate that they dissolved into the molten LiCl bath containing the oxide ion, which is the by-product of the reduction, as solubility of RE elements was measured in the molten LiCl-Li2O previously.

  19. Electrochemical separation of cerium and yttrium in molten chlorides on liquid-metallic electrodes

    Yamshchikov, L.F.; Lebedev, V.A.; Nichkov, I.F.

    1978-01-01

    An estimating calculation of the coefficients of separation of cerium and yttrium in the process of electrolysis in molten salts on liquid electrodes of aluminium, gallium, indium, lead, tin, antimonium and zinc is carried out. The calculation of the separation coefficients was carried out according to the known values of activation coefficients of cerium and yttrium in fusible metals. The electrolysis was carried out at 973 K in the argon air in the cell with an eutectic mixture of NaCl and KCl as an elactrolyte. It is shown that the salten phase is concentrated by yttrium, and the melallic one- by cerium on all the electrodes. The value of the separation coefficient of Ce and Y is considerably high and continuously increases on the fusible metals in the Zn, In, Ga, Al, Pb, Sn, Sb series. The experimental values of the separation coefficients practically coincide with the theoretically calculated ones, testifying to the possibility of the effective separation of elements even in a single-staged possibility of the effective separation of elements even in a single-staged process. An electrolysis of molten salts is not inferior in its selectivity to the universally recognized methods of the fine purification of substances permitting to separate Ce and Y with the Ksub(sep) approximately equal to 10

  20. Spent lithium-ion battery recycling - Reductive ammonia leaching of metals from cathode scrap by sodium sulphite.

    Zheng, Xiaohong; Gao, Wenfang; Zhang, Xihua; He, Mingming; Lin, Xiao; Cao, Hongbin; Zhang, Yi; Sun, Zhi

    2017-02-01

    Recycling of spent lithium-ion batteries has attracted wide attention because of their high content of valuable and hazardous metals. One of the difficulties for effective metal recovery is the separation of different metals from the solution after leaching. In this research, a full hydrometallurgical process is developed to selectively recover valuable metals (Ni, Co and Li) from cathode scrap of spent lithium ion batteries. By introducing ammonia-ammonium sulphate as the leaching solution and sodium sulphite as the reductant, the total selectivity of Ni, Co and Li in the first-step leaching solution is more than 98.6% while it for Mn is only 1.36%. In detail understanding of the selective leaching process is carried out by investigating the effects of parameters such as leaching reagent composition, leaching time (0-480min), agitation speed (200-700rpm), pulp density (10-50g/L) and temperature (323-353K). It was found that Mn is primarily reduced from Mn 4+ into Mn 2+ into the solution as [Formula: see text] while it subsequently precipitates out into the residue in the form of (NH 4 ) 2 Mn(SO 3 ) 2 ·H 2 O. Ni, Co and Li are leached and remain in the solution either as metallic ion or amine complexes. The optimised leaching conditions can be further obtained and the leaching kinetics is found to be chemical reaction control under current leaching conditions. As a result, this research is potentially beneficial for further optimisation of the spent lithium ion battery recycling process after incorporating with metal extraction from the leaching solution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Electrochemical behavior of lithium imide/cyclic ether electrolytes for 4 V lithium metal rechargeable batteries

    Wang, X.; Yasukawa, Eiki; Mori, Shoichiro

    1999-11-01

    To develop organic electrolytes for 4 V lithium metal rechargeable batteries, LiN(SO{sub 2}CF{sub 3}){sub 2} electrolytes with five-, six-, and seven-membered cyclic ether solvents were characterized. Among these examined electrolytes, LiN(SO{sub 2}CF{sub 3}){sub 2}/tetrahydropyran (THP) electrolyte was found to possess the most advantages, such as high cycling efficiency, good oxidation stability, and high boiling point. Furthermore, lithium cycling efficiency and conductivity were improved by mixing 50% ethylene carbonate (EC) in 1 mol/dm{sup 3} LiN(SO{sub 2}CF{sub 3}){sub 2}/THP electrolyte. By using LiN(SO{sub 2}C{sub 2}F{sub 5}){sub 2} solute as an alternative to LiN(SO{sub 2}CF{sub 3}){sub 2} in EC + THP (1:1) electrolyte, corrosion of the aluminum current collector was inhibited and therefore, excellent cycling performance of a Li/LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} coin cell was realized. It was also found that lithium cycling efficiency increased with decreasing deposition current density or increasing dissolution current density. Especially at deposition/dissolution current densities of 0.2/0.6 mA/cm{sup 2}, the observed lithium cycling efficiency in 1 mol/dm{sup 3} LiN(SO{sub 2}C{sub 2}F{sub 5}){sub 2}/EC + THP (1:1) electrolyte was above 99%. Thermal tests further disclosed that this mixed electrolyte has good thermal stability even in the presence of lithium metal or cathode materials.

  2. Rare earth element recycling from waste nickel-metal hydride batteries.

    Yang, Xiuli; Zhang, Junwei; Fang, Xihui

    2014-08-30

    With an increase in number of waste nickel-metal hydride batteries, and because of the importance of rare earth elements, the recycling of rare earth elements is becoming increasingly important. In this paper, we investigate the effects of temperature, hydrochloric acid concentration, and leaching time to optimize leaching conditions and determine leach kinetics. The results indicate that an increase in temperature, hydrochloric acid concentration, and leaching time enhance the leaching rate of rare earth elements. A maximum rare earth elements recovery of 95.16% was achieved at optimal leaching conditions of 70°C, solid/liquid ratio of 1:10, 20% hydrochloric acid concentration, -74μm particle size, and 100min leaching time. The experimental data were best fitted by a chemical reaction-controlled model. The activation energy was 43.98kJ/mol and the reaction order for hydrochloric acid concentration was 0.64. The kinetic equation for the leaching process was found to be: 1-(1-x)(1/3)=A/ρr0[HCl](0.64)exp-439,8008.314Tt. After leaching and filtration, by adding saturated oxalic solution to the filtrate, rare earth element oxalates were obtained. After removing impurities by adding ammonia, filtering, washing with dilute hydrochloric acid, and calcining at 810°C, a final product of 99% pure rare earth oxides was obtained. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Nanoscale zinc-based metal-organic framework with high capacity for lithium-ion batteries

    Shi, Changdong [Changzhou University, School of Petrochemical Engineering, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Catalytic Materials and Technology, and Advanced Catalysis and Green Manufacturing Collaborative Innovation Center (China); Gao, Yuanrui; Liu, Lili [Shanghai University, Department of Chemistry, College of Science (China); Song, Yidan; Wang, Xianmei [Changzhou University, School of Petrochemical Engineering, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Catalytic Materials and Technology, and Advanced Catalysis and Green Manufacturing Collaborative Innovation Center (China); Liu, Hong-Jiang, E-mail: liuhj@shu.edu.cn [Shanghai University, Department of Chemistry, College of Science (China); Liu, Qi, E-mail: liuqi62@163.com [Changzhou University, School of Petrochemical Engineering, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Catalytic Materials and Technology, and Advanced Catalysis and Green Manufacturing Collaborative Innovation Center (China)

    2016-12-15

    Layered zinc-based metal-organic framework ([Zn(4,4′-bpy)(tfbdc)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}], Zn-LMOF) nanosheets were synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method (4,4′-bpy = 4,4′-bipyridine, H{sub 2}tfbdc = tetrafluoroterephthalic acid). The materials were characterized by IR spectrum, elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface. When the Zn-LMOF nanosheets with the thickness of about 24 ± 8 nm were used as an anode material of lithium-ion batteries, not only the Zn-LMOF electrode shows a high reversible capacity, retaining 623 mAh g{sup −1} after 100 cycles at a current density of 50 mA g{sup −1} but also exhibits an excellent cyclic stability and a higher rate performance.

  4. Corrosion of metals exposed to 25% magnesium chloride solution and tensile stress: Field and laboratory studies

    Xianming Shi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of chemicals for snow and ice control operations is a common practice for improving the safety and mobility of roadways in cold climate, but brings significant concerns over their risks including the corrosive effects on transportation infrastructure and motor vehicles. The vast majority of existing studies and methods to test the deicer corrosivity have been restricted to laboratory environments and unstressed metals, which may not reliably simulate actual service conditions. As such, we report a case study in which stainless steel SS 304 (unstressed and externally tensile stressed, aluminum (Al 1100 and low carbon steel (C1010 coupons were exposed to 25% MgCl2 under field conditions for six weeks. A new corrosion test-bed was developed in Montana to accelerate the field exposure to this deicer. To further investigate the observed effect of tensile stress on the corrosion of stainless steel, SS 304 (unstressed and externally stressed coupons were exposed to 25% MgCl2 solution under the laboratory conditions. The C 1010 exhibited the highest percentage of rust area and suffered the most weight loss as a result of field exposure and MgCl2 sprays. In terms of ultimate tensile strength, the Al 1100 coupons saw the greatest reduction and the unstressed and externally stressed SS 304 coupons saw the least. The ability of MgCl2 to penetrate deep into the matrix of aluminum alloy poses great risk to such structural material. Tensile stressed SS 304 suffered more corrosion than unstressed SS 304 in both the field and laboratory conditions. Results from this case study may shed new light on the deicer corrosion issue and help develop improved field testing methods to evaluate the deicer corrosivity to metals in service.

  5. Crystal growth, characterization and theoretical studies of alkaline earth metal-doped tetrakis(thiourea)nickel(II) chloride.

    Agilandeshwari, R; Muthu, K; Meenatchi, V; Meena, K; Rajasekar, M; Aditya Prasad, A; Meenakshisundaram, S P

    2015-02-25

    The influence of Sr(II)-doping on the properties of tetrakis(thiourea)nickel(II) chloride (TTNC) has been described. The reduction in the intensity observed in powder X-ray diffraction of doped specimen and slight shifts in vibrational frequencies of doped specimens confirm the lattice stress as a result of doping. Surface morphological changes due to doping of the Sr(II) are observed by scanning electron microscopy. The incorporation of metal into the host crystal lattice was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Lattice parameters are determined by single crystal XRD analysis. The thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis studies reveal the purity of the materials and no decomposition is observed up to the melting point. The nonlinear optical properties of the doped and undoped specimens were studied. Theoretical calculations were performed using the Density functional theory (DFT) method with B3LYP/LANL2DZ as the basis set. The molecular geometry and vibrational frequencies of TTNC in the ground state were calculated and the observed structural parameters of TTNC are compared with parameters obtained from single crystal X-ray studies. The atomic charge distributions are obtained by Mulliken charge population analysis. The first-order molecular hyperpolarizability, polarizability and dipole moment were derived. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. R and D on metal hydride materials and Ni-MH batteries in Japan

    Sakai, T.; Uehara, I.; Ishikawa, H.

    1999-01-01

    The production of small-sized Ni-MH batteries, which amounts to some 40% of market share for portable appliances, is still growing because of an increase in the energy density per volume and also a reduction in price. Highly efficient electric vehicles (EV) propelled by a large-sized Ni-MH battery have been commercialized and have twice the driving range of a conventional EV with a Pb-acid battery. A hybrid vehicle with a high-powered Ni-MH battery has been brought onto the market, providing twice the gas mileage and half the CO 2 emissions of a gasoline vehicle. A fuel cell electric vehicle with hydrogen tank or methanol reformer, power-assisted by a Ni-MH battery, is under development. The Ni-MH battery will be a key component for the next generation of vehicles in addition to advanced information and telecommunication systems. (orig.)

  7. Analysis of Pressure Variations in a Low-Pressure Nickel-Hydrogen Battery- Part 2: Cells with Metal Hydride Storage.

    Purushothaman, B K; Wainright, J S

    2012-05-15

    A sub-atmospheric pressure nickel hydrogen (Ni-H(2)) battery with metal hydride for hydrogen storage is developed for implantable neuroprosthetic devices. Pressure variations during charge and discharge of the cell are analyzed at different states of charge and are found to follow the desorption curve of the pressure composition isotherm (PCI) of the metal hydride. The measured pressure agreed well with the calculated theoretical pressure based on the PCI and is used to predict the state of charge of the battery. Hydrogen equilibration with the metal hydride during charge/discharge cycling is fast when the pressure is in the range from 8 to 13 psia and slower in the range from 6 to 8 psia. The time constant for the slower hydrogen equilibration, 1.37h, is similar to the time constant for oxygen recombination and therefore pressure changes due to different mechanisms are difficult to estimate. The self-discharge rate of the cell with metal hydride is two times lower in comparison to the cell with gaseous hydrogen storage alone and is a result of the lower pressure in the cell when the metal hydride is used.

  8. Recovery of Platinum Group Metals from Spent Catalysts Using Iron Chloride Vapor Treatment

    Taninouchi, Yu-ki; Okabe, Toru H.

    2018-05-01

    The recovery of platinum group metals (PGMs) from spent automobile catalysts is a difficult process because of their relatively low contents in the scrap. In this study, to improve the efficiency of the existing recycling techniques, a novel physical concentration method involving treatment with FeCl2 vapor has been examined. The reactions occurring between typical catalyst components and FeCl2 vapor are discussed from the thermodynamic point of view, and the validity of the proposed technique was experimentally verified. The obtained results indicate that the vapor treatment at around 1200 K (927 °C) can effectively alloy PGMs (Pt, Pd, and Rh) with Fe, resulting in the formation of a ferromagnetic alloy. It was also confirmed that cordierite and alumina (the major catalyst components) remained unreacted after the vapor treatment, while ceria species were converted into oxychlorides. The samples simulating the automobile catalyst were also subjected to magnetic separation after the treatment with FeCl2 vapor; as a result, PGMs were successfully extracted and concentrated in the form of a magnetic powder. Thus, the FeCl2 vapor treatment followed by magnetic separation can be utilized for recovering PGMs directly from spent catalysts as an effective pretreatment for the currently used recycling methods.

  9. Metal hydrides: an innovative and challenging conversion reaction anode for lithium-ion batteries

    Luc Aymard

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The state of the art of conversion reactions of metal hydrides (MH with lithium is presented and discussed in this review with regard to the use of these hydrides as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. A focus on the gravimetric and volumetric storage capacities for different examples from binary, ternary and complex hydrides is presented, with a comparison between thermodynamic prediction and experimental results. MgH2 constitutes one of the most attractive metal hydrides with a reversible capacity of 1480 mA·h·g−1 at a suitable potential (0.5 V vs Li+/Li0 and the lowest electrode polarization (2, TiH2, complex hydrides Mg2MHx and other Mg-based hydrides. The reversible conversion reaction mechanism of MgH2, which is lithium-controlled, can be extended to others hydrides as: MHx + xLi+ + xe− in equilibrium with M + xLiH. Other reaction paths—involving solid solutions, metastable distorted phases, and phases with low hydrogen content—were recently reported for TiH2 and Mg2FeH6, Mg2CoH5 and Mg2NiH4. The importance of fundamental aspects to overcome technological difficulties is discussed with a focus on conversion reaction limitations in the case of MgH2. The influence of MgH2 particle size, mechanical grinding, hydrogen sorption cycles, grinding with carbon, reactive milling under hydrogen, and metal and catalyst addition to the MgH2/carbon composite on kinetics improvement and reversibility is presented. Drastic technological improvement in order to the enhance conversion process efficiencies is needed for practical applications. The main goals are minimizing the impact of electrode volume variation during lithium extraction and overcoming the poor electronic conductivity of LiH. To use polymer binders to improve the cycle life of the hydride-based electrode and to synthesize nanoscale composite hydride can be helpful to address these drawbacks. The development of high-capacity hydride anodes should be inspired by the emergent

  10. Metal hydrides: an innovative and challenging conversion reaction anode for lithium-ion batteries.

    Aymard, Luc; Oumellal, Yassine; Bonnet, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The state of the art of conversion reactions of metal hydrides (MH) with lithium is presented and discussed in this review with regard to the use of these hydrides as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. A focus on the gravimetric and volumetric storage capacities for different examples from binary, ternary and complex hydrides is presented, with a comparison between thermodynamic prediction and experimental results. MgH2 constitutes one of the most attractive metal hydrides with a reversible capacity of 1480 mA·h·g(-1) at a suitable potential (0.5 V vs Li(+)/Li(0)) and the lowest electrode polarization (lithium are subsequently detailed for MgH2, TiH2, complex hydrides Mg2MH x and other Mg-based hydrides. The reversible conversion reaction mechanism of MgH2, which is lithium-controlled, can be extended to others hydrides as: MH x + xLi(+) + xe(-) in equilibrium with M + xLiH. Other reaction paths-involving solid solutions, metastable distorted phases, and phases with low hydrogen content-were recently reported for TiH2 and Mg2FeH6, Mg2CoH5 and Mg2NiH4. The importance of fundamental aspects to overcome technological difficulties is discussed with a focus on conversion reaction limitations in the case of MgH2. The influence of MgH2 particle size, mechanical grinding, hydrogen sorption cycles, grinding with carbon, reactive milling under hydrogen, and metal and catalyst addition to the MgH2/carbon composite on kinetics improvement and reversibility is presented. Drastic technological improvement in order to the enhance conversion process efficiencies is needed for practical applications. The main goals are minimizing the impact of electrode volume variation during lithium extraction and overcoming the poor electronic conductivity of LiH. To use polymer binders to improve the cycle life of the hydride-based electrode and to synthesize nanoscale composite hydride can be helpful to address these drawbacks. The development of high-capacity hydride anodes should

  11. Spent NiMH batteries-The role of selective precipitation in the recovery of valuable metals

    Bertuol, Daniel Assumpção; Bernardes, Andréa Moura; Tenório, Jorge Alberto Soares

    The production of electronic equipment, such as computers and cell phones, and, consequently, batteries, has increased dramatically. One of the types of batteries whose production and consumption has increased in recent times is the nickel metal hydride (NiMH) battery. This study evaluated a hydrometallurgical method of recovery of rare earths and a simple method to obtain a solution rich in Ni-Co from spent NiMH batteries. The active materials from both electrodes were manually removed from the accumulators and leached. Several acid and basic solutions for the recovery of rare earths were evaluated. Results showed that more than 98 wt.% of the rare earths were recovered as sulfate salts by dissolution with sulfuric acid, followed by selective precipitation at pH 1.2 using sodium hydroxide. The complete process, precipitation at pH 1.2 followed by precipitation at pH 7, removed about 100 wt.% of iron and 70 wt.% of zinc from the leaching solution. Results were similar to those found in studies that used solvent extraction. This method is easy, economic, and does not pose environmental threats of solvent extraction.

  12. Influence of surface coating on structure and properties of metallic lithium anode for rechargeable Li-O2 battery

    Chen, Q.; Wang, Q.; Ma, Q.; Song, Q.; Chen, Q.

    2017-07-01

    Amorphous lithium phosphorous oxynitride film was coated directly on pre-treated lithium metal as anode of lithium air battery by radio-frequency sputtering technique from a Li3PO4 target. The structure and composition of modified anode was analyzed before and after charge/discharge test in a lithium-air battery, which comprises 0.5M LiNO3/TEGDME as the electrolyte and super P carbon as cathode. Batteries were galvanostatically discharged by an Arbin BT-2000 battery tester between open current voltage and 2.15V vs. Li+/Li at various current regimes ranging from 0.1–0.4mA/cm2. Compared with fresh lithium, LIPON-coated anode exhibited better electrochemical performance. Good charging efficiency of 90% at a narrower voltage gap with high ionic conductivity of 9.4×10−5S/cm was achieved through optimizing lithium pre-treated conditions, sputtering N2 flows and suitable solute for electrolyte. (Author)

  13. Tuning the Morphology of Li2O2 by Noble and 3d metals: A Planar Model Electrode Study for Li-O2 Battery.

    Yang, Yao; Liu, Wei; Wu, Nian; Wang, Xiaochen; Zhang, Tao; Chen, Linfeng; Zeng, Rui; Wang, Yingming; Lu, Juntao; Fu, Lei; Xiao, Li; Zhuang, Lin

    2017-06-14

    In this work, a planar model electrode method has been used to investigate the structure-activity relationship of multiple noble and 3d metal catalysts for the cathode reaction of Li-O 2 battery. The result shows that the battery performance (discharge/charge overpotential) strongly depends not only on the type of catalysts but also on the morphology of the discharge product (Li 2 O 2 ). Specifically, according to electrochemical characterization and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation, noble metals (Pd, Pt, Ru, Ir, and Au) show excellent battery performance (smaller discharge/charge overpotential), with wormlike Li 2 O 2 particles with size less than 200 nm on their surfaces. On the other hand, 3d metals (Fe, Co, Ni, and Mn) offered poor battery performance (larger discharge/charge overpotential), with much larger Li 2 O 2 particles (1 μm to a few microns) on their surfaces after discharging. Further research shows that a "volcano plot" is found by correlating the discharging/charging plateau voltage with the adsorption energy of LiO 2 on different metals. The metals with better battery performance and worm-like-shaped Li 2 O 2 are closer to the top of the "volcano", indicating adsorption energy of LiO 2 is one of the key characters for the catalyst to reach a good performance for the oxygen electrode of Li-O 2 battery, and it has a strong influence on the morphology of the discharge product on the electrode surface.

  14. Lithium metal microreference electrodes and their applications to Li-ion batteries

    Zhou, J.

    2007-01-01

    Li-ion batteries are nowadays widely used as power sources for a wide variety of electronic devices by virtue of their high cell voltage, high energy density and excellent cyclability. Though the performance of Li-ion batteries has been greatly improved during the last decade, it is still, to some

  15. Recovery of metals from simulant spent lithium-ion battery as organophosphonate coordination polymers in aqueous media

    Perez, Emilie; Andre, Marie-Laure; Navarro Amador, Ricardo [ICSM, Institut de Chimie Séparative de Marcoule, UMR 5257, CEA/CNRS/ENSCM/UM, Bât 426, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze cedex (France); Hyvrard, François; Borrini, Julien [SARPI VEOLIA, Direction Technique et Innovations, Zone portuaire de Limay-Porcheville, 427 route du Hazay, 78520 Limay (France); Carboni, Michaël, E-mail: michael.carboni@cea.fr [ICSM, Institut de Chimie Séparative de Marcoule, UMR 5257, CEA/CNRS/ENSCM/UM, Bât 426, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze cedex (France); Meyer, Daniel [ICSM, Institut de Chimie Séparative de Marcoule, UMR 5257, CEA/CNRS/ENSCM/UM, Bât 426, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze cedex (France)

    2016-11-05

    Highlights: • Original waste disposal strategies for battery. • Precipitation of metals as coordination polymers. • Organo-phosphonate coordination polymers. • Selective extraction of manganese or co-precipitation of manganese/cobalt. • The recycling process give a promising application on any waste solution. - Abstract: An innovative approach is proposed for the recycling of metals from a simulant lithium-ion battery (LIBs) waste aqueous solution. Phosphonate organic linkers are introduced as precipitating agents to selectively react with the metals to form coordination polymers from an aqueous solution containing Ni, Mn and Co in a hydrothermal process. The supernatant is analyzed by ICP-AES to quantify the efficiency and the selectivity of the precipitation and the materials are characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Powder X-Ray Diffraction (PXRD), Thermogravimetric Analyses (TGA) and nitrogen gas sorption (BET). Conditions have been achieved to selectively precipitate Manganese or Manganese/Cobalt from this solution with a high efficiency. This work describes a novel method to obtain potentially valuable coordination polymers from a waste metal solution that can be generalized on any waste solution.

  16. General access to metal oxide (Metal = Mn, Co, Ni) double-layer nanospheres for application in lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors

    Xia, Yuan; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Xing; Wang, Beibei; Wang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A series of metal oxide double layer nanospheres were prepared. • The obtained materials show excellent performances in lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors. • The unique structure of double layers is beneficial for superior electrochemical performances. - Abstract: In this work, a series of metal oxide double-layer nanospheres (DLNs), such as Mn 2 O 3 , Co 3 O 4 , NiO, NiCo 2 O 4 , and MnCo 2 O 4 have been successfully synthesized through a general template method. The layers of nanospheres were assembled by different nanostructure units and the removing of the SiO 2 template formed a void of several ten nanometers between the double layers, resulting large specific surface areas for them. The energy storage performances of the as-prepared double-layer nanospheres were further investigated in lithium ion battery and supercapacitor systems. Based on their unique nanostructures, the double-layer nanospheres exhibit excellent electrochemical performance with long cycle stability and high specific capacities or capacitances. The best of these, DLNs-NiCo 2 O 4 can deliver a reversible capacity of 1107 mAh g −1 at 0.25C after 200 cycles in lithium ion battery system, and shows a capacitance of 1088 F g −1 with capacitance loss of less than 3% at 5 A g −1 after 5000 cycles in supercapacitors.

  17. Rare earth element recycling from waste nickel-metal hydride batteries

    Yang, Xiuli; Zhang, Junwei; Fang, Xihui

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Leaching kinetics of REEs has rarely been reported. • A new method, including hydrochloric acid leaching and oxalic acid precipitation, was proposed. • REEs recovery rate of 95.16% and pure rare earth oxides of 99% were obtained. • Leaching process was controlled by chemical reaction. • The kinetic equation was determined. - Abstract: With an increase in number of waste nickel-metal hydride batteries, and because of the importance of rare earth elements, the recycling of rare earth elements is becoming increasingly important. In this paper, we investigate the effects of temperature, hydrochloric acid concentration, and leaching time to optimize leaching conditions and determine leach kinetics. The results indicate that an increase in temperature, hydrochloric acid concentration, and leaching time enhance the leaching rate of rare earth elements. A maximum rare earth elements recovery of 95.16% was achieved at optimal leaching conditions of 70 °C, solid/liquid ratio of 1:10, 20% hydrochloric acid concentration, −74 μm particle size, and 100 min leaching time. The experimental data were best fitted by a chemical reaction-controlled model. The activation energy was 43.98 kJ/mol and the reaction order for hydrochloric acid concentration was 0.64. The kinetic equation for the leaching process was found to be: 1−(1−x) 1/3 =A/ρr 0 [HCl] 0.64 exp((−439,800)/(8.314T) )t. After leaching and filtration, by adding saturated oxalic solution to the filtrate, rare earth element oxalates were obtained. After removing impurities by adding ammonia, filtering, washing with dilute hydrochloric acid, and calcining at 810 °C, a final product of 99% pure rare earth oxides was obtained

  18. Alloying in an Intercalation Host: Metal Titanium Niobates as Anodes for Rechargeable Alkali-Ion Batteries.

    Das, Suman; Swain, Diptikanta; Araujo, Rafael B; Shi, Songxin; Ahuja, Rajeev; Row, Tayur N Guru; Bhattacharyya, Aninda J

    2018-02-02

    We discuss here a unique flexible non-carbonaceous layered host, namely, metal titanium niobates (M-Ti-niobate, M: Al 3+ , Pb 2+ , Sb 3+ , Ba 2+ , Mg 2+ ), which can synergistically store both lithium ions and sodium ions via a simultaneous intercalation and alloying mechanisms. M-Ti-niobate is formed by ion exchange of the K + ions, which are specifically located inside galleries between the layers formed by edge and corner sharing TiO 6 and NbO 6 octahedral units in the sol-gel synthesized potassium titanium niobate (KTiNbO 5 ). Drastic volume changes (approximately 300-400 %) typically associated with an alloying mechanism of storage are completely tackled chemically by the unique chemical composition and structure of the M-Ti-niobates. The free space between the adjustable Ti/Nb octahedral layers easily accommodates the volume changes. Due to the presence of an optimum amount of multivalent alloying metal ions (50-75 % of total K + ) in the M-Ti-niobate, an efficient alloying reaction takes place directly with ions and completely eliminates any form of mechanical degradation of the electroactive particles. The M-Ti-niobate can be cycled over a wide voltage range (as low as 0.01 V) and displays remarkably stable Li + and Na + ion cyclability (>2 Li + /Na + per formula unit) for widely varying current densities over few hundreds to thousands of successive cycles. The simultaneous intercalation and alloying storage mechanisms is also studied within the density functional theory (DFT) framework. DFT expectedly shows a very small variation in the volume of Al-titanium niobate following lithium alloying. Moreover, the theoretical investigations also conclusively support the occurrence of the alloying process of Li ions with the Al ions along with the intercalation process during discharge. The M-Ti-niobates studied here demonstrate a paradigm shift in chemical design of electrodes and will pave the way for the development of a multitude of improved electrodes

  19. Enhancement of the lithium cycling capability using Li–Zn alloy substrate for lithium metal batteries

    Chen, Chen; Yang, Yifu; Shao, Huixia

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Li-Zn alloy substrate is novelly formed by Li electrodeposition on the Zn substrate precursor. • The coulombic efficiency of Li deposition/stripping on the Li-Zn alloy substrate remains high at 96.7% after 400 cycles. • The SEI film formed during the formation of Li-Zn alloy is stable during Li deposition/stripping cycling on the Li-Zn substrate. • The exchange current density of Li deposition on the Li-Zn substrate is 9.21 × 10 −4 A cm −2 which is nearly eight times larger than that on the Cu substrate. - Abstract: The cycling performance of a Li metal electrode in rechargeable Li batteries is studied using a novelly formed Li–Zn alloy as a substrate. A Zn layer electrodeposited on a Cu disk with ultrasonic assistance is used as a substrate precursor. Li electrodeposition followed to form the Li–Zn alloy. The morphologies of the substrate before and after Li deposition and stripping are investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the electrochemical properties of the substrate are investigated by galvanostatic charge-discharge and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The growth states of solid electrolyte interface (SEI) films of Li deposits on the Li–Zn alloy and Cu surfaces are compared by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS); exchange current densities of Li electrodeposition on Cu, Zn, and Li–Zn alloy substrates are also compared based on tests of constant current pulse deposition. The efficiency of Li deposition/stripping on the Li–Zn alloy substrate remains high at 96.7% after 400 cycles at a current density of 0.1 mA cm −2 and 250 cycles at the current density of 0.2 mA cm −2 . These results can be attributed to the formation of a stable SEI film on the Li–Zn substrate and the high exchange current density of Li deposition and stripping on this substrate. The Li–Zn alloy proposed in this work may be a perfect substrate for enhancing the cycling capability of Li metal electrode

  20. General Synthesis of Transition-Metal Oxide Hollow Nanospheres/Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Hybrids by Metal-Ammine Complex Chemistry for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Chen, Jiayuan; Wu, Xiaofeng; Gong, Yan; Wang, Pengfei; Li, Wenhui; Mo, Shengpeng; Peng, Shengpan; Tan, Qiangqiang; Chen, Yunfa

    2018-02-09

    We present a general and facile synthesis strategy, on the basis of metal-ammine complex chemistry, for synthesizing hollow transition-metal oxides (Co 3 O 4 , NiO, CuO-Cu 2 O, and ZnO)/nitrogen-doped graphene hybrids, potentially applied in high-performance lithium-ion batteries. The oxygen-containing functional groups of graphene oxide play a prerequisite role in the formation of hollow transition-metal oxides on graphene nanosheets, and a significant hollowing process occurs only when forming metal (Co 2+ , Ni 2+ , Cu 2+ , or Zn 2+ )-ammine complex ions. Moreover, the hollowing process is well correlated with the complexing capacity between metal ions and NH 3 molecules. The significant hollowing process occurs for strong metal-ammine complex ions including Co 2+ , Ni 2+ , Cu 2+ , and Zn 2+ ions, and no hollow structures formed for weak and/or noncomplex Mn 2+ and Fe 3+ ions. Simultaneously, this novel strategy can also achieve the direct doping of nitrogen atoms into the graphene framework. The electrochemical performance of two typical hollow Co 3 O 4 or NiO/nitrogen-doped graphene hybrids was evaluated by their use as anodic materials. It was demonstrated that these unique nanostructured hybrids, in contrast with the bare counterparts, solid transition-metal oxides/nitrogen-doped graphene hybrids, perform with significantly improved specific capacity, superior rate capability, and excellent capacity retention. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. From battery modeling to battery management

    Notten, P.H.L.; Danilov, D.

    2011-01-01

    The principles of rechargeable battery operation form the basis of the electronic network models developed for Nickel-based aqueous battery systems, including Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH), and non-aqueous battery systems, such as the well-known Li-ion. These electronic network models are based on

  2. Investigation into the role of sodium chloride deposited on oxide and metal substrates in the initiation of hot corrosion

    Birks, N.

    1983-01-01

    Sodium chloride is deposited on the surface of alumina substrates and exposed to air containing 1% SO2 at temperatures between 500 C and 700 C. In all cases the sodium chloride was converted to sodium sulfate. The volatilization of sodium chloride from the original salt particles was responsible for the development of a uniform coating of sodium sulfate on the alumina substrate. At temperatures above 625 C, a liquid NaCl-Na2SO4 autectic was formed on the substrate. The mechanisms for these reactions are given. One of the main roles of NaCl in low temperature hot corrosion lies in enabling a corrosive liquid to form.

  3. Producing ammonium chloride from coal or shale

    Christenson, O L

    1921-02-25

    Process of producing ammonium chloride consists of mixing the substance to be treated with a chloride of an alkali or alkaline earth metal, free silica, water and free hydrochloric acid, heating the mixture until ammonium chloride distills off and collecting the ammonium chloride.

  4. New Alkali Metal Flow Battery for Terrestrial and Aerospace Energy Storage Applications

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This seedling task is to develop new lithium-based flow batteries that will provide several fold improvements in specific energy, cost, simplicity and lifetimes,...

  5. Interface-modulated approach toward multilevel metal oxide nanotubes for lithium-ion batteries and oxygen reduction reaction

    Jiashen Meng; Chaojiang Niu; Xiong Liu; Ziang Liu; Hongliang Chen; Xuanpeng Wang; Jiantao Li

    2016-01-01

    Metal oxide hollow structures with multilevel interiors are of great interest for potential applications such as catalysis,chemical sensing,drug delivery,and energy storage.However,the controlled synthesis of multilevel nanotubes remains a great challenge.Here we develop a facile interface-modulated approach toward the synthesis of complex metal oxide multilevel nanotubes with tunable interior structures through electrospinning followed by controlled heat treatment.This versatile strategy can be effectively applied to fabricate wire-in-tube and tubein-tube nanotubes of various metal oxides.These multilevel nanotubes possess a large specific surface area,fast mass transport,good strain accommodation,and high packing density,which are advantageous for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs)and the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR).Specifically,shrinkable CoMn2O4 tube-in-tube nanotubes as a lithium-ion battery anode deliver a high discharge capacity of ~565 mAh.g-1 at a high rate of 2 A.g-1,maintaining 89% of the latter after 500 cycles.Further,as an oxygen reduction reaction catalyst,these nanotubes also exhibit excellent stability with about 92% current retention after 30,000 s,which is higher than that of commercial Pt/C (81%).Therefore,this feasible method may push the rapid development of one-dimensional (1D) nanomaterials.These multifunctional nanotubes have great potential in many frontier fields.

  6. Electrochemical characterization of melt spun AB{sub 5} alloys for metal hydride batteries

    Brateng, Randi

    2003-05-01

    This thesis is part of a larger research project where two metal hydride forming AB{sub 5} type alloys have been investigated. A slightly non-stoichiometric alloy with mischmetal on A-site and nickel, cobalt, manganese and aluminium on B-site has been characterized. The composition of this material, which will be referred to as Mm(NiCoMnA1){sub 5.15}, is close to the normal battery composition. The other alloy characterized is LaNi{sub 5} based, where nickel is partly substituted with tin. This material will later be referred to as La(NiSn){sub 5}. These materials were produced by melt spinning to vary the cooling rate during solidification. The main purpose of the study has been to characterize the electrochemical properties related to battery performance. The production as well as the metallurgical and structural characterization of the materials were performed in another part of the project. For Mm(NiCoMnA1){sub 5.15} the unit cell volume was dependent on the cooling rate before heat treatment, while the unit cell volume was almost independent of the cooling rate for La(NiSn){sub 5}. For both alloy compositions, the electrochemical properties seemed to change with varying cooling rate. The desorption equilibrium potential, the discharge capacity when discharging at a low current and the deterioration rate were found to be reduced with decreasing unit cell volume and increased with increasing unit cell volume, before heat treatment of Mm(NiCoMnA1){sub 5.15}. The self discharge rate was observed to be inversely proportional to the unit cell volume for this material. For not heat treated La(NiSn){sub 5}, produced at different cooling rates, the desorption equilibrium potential decreased when the self discharge rate and the discharge capacity increased after cycling for 300 cycles. The deterioration rate decreased when the desorption equilibrium potential was reduced for La(NiSn){sub 5}. The electrochemical parameters both before and after heat treatment of La

  7. Multiple Electron Charge Transfer Chemistries for Electrochemical Energy Storage Systems: The Metal Boride and Metal Air Battery

    Stuart, Jessica F.

    The primary focus of this work has been to develop high-energy capacity batteries capable of undergoing multiple electron charge transfer redox reactions to address the growing demand for improved electrical energy storage systems that can be applied to a range of applications. As the levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) increase in the Earth's atmosphere, the effects on climate change become increasingly apparent. According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA), the U.S. electric power sector is responsible for the release of 2,039 million metric tons of CO2 annually, equating to 39% of total U.S. energy-related CO2 emissions. Both nationally and abroad, there are numerous issues associated with the generation and use of electricity aside from the overwhelming dependence on fossil fuels and the subsequent carbon emissions, including reliability of the grid and the utilization of renewable energies. Renewable energy makes up a relatively small portion of total energy contributions worldwide, accounting for only 13% of the 3,955 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity produced each year, as reported by the EIA. As the demand to reduce our dependence on fossils fuels and transition to renewable energy sources increases, cost effective large-scale electrical energy storage must be established for renewable energy to become a sustainable option for the future. A high capacity energy storage system capable of leveling the intermittent nature of energy sources such as solar, wind, and water into the electric grid and provide electricity at times of high demand will facilitate this transition. In 2008, the Licht Group presented the highest volumetric energy capacity battery, the vanadium diboride (VB2) air battery, exceedingly proficient in transferring eleven electrons per molecule. This body of work focuses on new developments to this early battery such as fundamentally understanding the net discharge mechanism of the system, evaluation of the properties and

  8. Highly efficient transition metal-free coupling of acid chlorides with terminal alkynes in [bmim]Br: A rapid route to access ynones using MgCl2

    Mohammad Navid Soltani Rad

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A simple, mild, highly efficient and transition metal-free protocol for synthesis of ynones in an ionic liquid is described. In this approach, the coupling reaction of different acid chlorides with terminal alkynes was efficiently carried out using 0.05 mol% MgCl2 in the presence of triethylamine in [bmim]Br at room temperature to afford the corresponding ynones in good to excellent yields. This method is highly efficient for various acid chlorides and alkynes including aliphatic, aromatic, and heteroaromatic substrates bearing different functional groups. The influence of some parameters in this reaction including type of ionic liquid, base and catalyst has been discussed.

  9. Self-assembled nitrogen-doped fullerenes and their catalysis for fuel cell and rechargeable metal-air battery applications.

    Noh, Seung Hyo; Kwon, Choah; Hwang, Jeemin; Ohsaka, Takeo; Kim, Beom-Jun; Kim, Tae-Young; Yoon, Young-Gi; Chen, Zhongwei; Seo, Min Ho; Han, Byungchan

    2017-06-08

    In this study, we report self-assembled nitrogen-doped fullerenes (N-fullerene) as non-precious catalysts, which are active for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER), and thus applicable for energy conversion and storage devices such as fuel cells and metal-air battery systems. We screen the best N-fullerene catalyst at the nitrogen doping level of 10 at%, not at the previously known doping level of 5 or 20 at% for graphene. We identify that the compressive surface strain induced by doped nitrogen plays a key role in the fine-tuning of catalytic activity.

  10. Nitrogen-modified carbon nanostructures derived from metal-organic frameworks as high performance anodes for Li-ion batteries

    Shen, Cai; Zhao, Chongchong; Xin, Fengxia; Cao, Can; Han, Wei-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report preparation of nitrogen-modified nanostructure carbons through carbonization of Cu-based metal organic nanofibers at 700 °C under argon gas atmosphere. After removal of copper through chemical treatment with acids, pure N-modified nanostructure carbon with a nitrogen content of 8.62 wt% is obtained. When use as anodes for lithium-ion battery, the nanostructure carbon electrode has a discharge capacity of 853.1 mAh g −1 measured at a current of 500 mA g −1 after 800 cycles.

  11. Effects of Imide–Orthoborate Dual-Salt Mixtures in Organic Carbonate Electrolytes on the Stability of Lithium Metal Batteries

    Li, Xing [Energy and Environment; School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610500, China; Zheng, Jianming [Energy and Environment; Engelhard, Mark H. [Environmental Molecular; Mei, Donghai [Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Li, Qiuyan [Energy and Environment; Jiao, Shuhong [Energy and Environment; Liu, Ning [Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing, 100029, China; Zhao, Wengao [Energy and Environment; School of Energy Research, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361102, China; Zhang, Ji-Guang [Energy and Environment; Xu, Wu [Energy and Environment

    2018-01-09

    The effects of lithium imide and lithium orthoborate dual-salt electrolytes of different salt chemistries in carbonate solvents on the cycling stability of Li metal batteries were systematically and comparatively investigated. Two imide salts (LiTFSI and LiFSI) and two orthoborate salts (LiBOB and LiDFOB) were chosen for this study and compared with the conventional LiPF6 salt. The cycling stability of the Li metal cells with the electrolytes follows the order from good to poor as LiTFSI-LiBOB > LiTFSI-LiDFOB > LiPF6 > LiFSI-LiBOB > LiFSI-LiDFOB, indicating that LiTFSI behaves better than LiFSI and LiBOB over LiDFOB in these four dual-salt mixtures. The LiTFSI-LiBOB can effectively protect the Al substrate and form a more robust surface film on Li metal anode, while the LiFSI-LiBOB results in serious corrosion to the stainless steel cell case and a thicker and looser surface film on Li anode. Computational calculations indicate that the chemical and electrochemical stabilities also follow the order of LiTFSI-LiBOB > LiTFSI-LiDFOB > LiFSI-LiBOB > LiFSI-LiDFOB. The key findings of this work emphasize that the salt chemistry is critically important for enhancing the interfacial stability of Li metal anode and should be carefully manipulated in the development of high performance Li metal batteries.

  12. Improved rapidly-quenched hydrogen-absorbing alloys for development of improved-capacity nickel metal hydride batteries

    Ise, Tadashi; Hamamatsu, Takeo; Imoto, Teruhiko; Nogami, Mitsuzo; Nakahori, Shinsuke

    The effects of annealing a rapidly-quenched hydrogen-absorbing alloy with a stoichiometric ratio of 4.76 were investigated concerning its hydrogen-absorbing properties, crystal structure and electrochemical characteristics. Annealing at 1073 K homogenized the alloy microstructure and flattened its plateau slope in the P-C isotherms. However, annealing at 1273 K segregated a second phase rich in rare earth elements, increased the hydrogen-absorbing pressure and decreased the hydrogen-absorbing capacity. As the number of charge-discharge cycles increases, the particle size distribution of the rapidly-quenched alloy became broad due to partial pulverization. However, particle size distribution of the rapidly-quenched, annealed, alloy was sharp, since the annealing homogenized the microstructure, thereby improving the cycle characteristics. A high-capacity rectangular nickel metal hydride battery using a rapidly-quenched, annealed, surface-treated alloy for the negative electrode and an active material coated with cobalt compound containing sodium for the positive electrode was developed. The capacity of the resulting battery was 30% greater than that of a conventional battery.

  13. Graphene-wrapped sulfur/metal organic framework-derived microporous carbon composite for lithium sulfur batteries

    Chen, Renjie, E-mail: kx210@cam.ac.uk, E-mail: chenrj@bit.edu.cn; Zhao, Teng [Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and Environment, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Tian, Tian; Fairen-Jimenez, David [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3RA (United Kingdom); Cao, Shuai; Coxon, Paul R.; Xi, Kai, E-mail: kx210@cam.ac.uk, E-mail: chenrj@bit.edu.cn; Vasant Kumar, R.; Cheetham, Anthony K. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-01

    A three-dimensional hierarchical sandwich-type graphene sheet-sulfur/carbon (GS-S/C{sub ZIF8-D}) composite for use in a cathode for a lithium sulfur (Li-S) battery has been prepared by an ultrasonic method. The microporous carbon host was prepared by a one-step pyrolysis of Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework-8 (ZIF-8), a typical zinc-containing metal organic framework (MOF), which offers a tunable porous structure into which electro-active sulfur can be diffused. The thin graphene sheet, wrapped around the sulfur/zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 derived carbon (S/C{sub ZIF8-D}) composite, has excellent electrical conductivity and mechanical flexibility, thus facilitating rapid electron transport and accommodating the changes in volume of the sulfur electrode. Compared with the S/C{sub ZIF8-D} sample, Li-S batteries with the GS-S/C{sub ZIF8-D} composite cathode showed enhanced capacity, improved electrochemical stability, and relatively high columbic efficiency by taking advantage of the synergistic effects of the microporous carbon from ZIF-8 and a highly interconnected graphene network. Our results demonstrate that a porous MOF-derived scaffold with a wrapped graphene conductive network structure is a potentially efficient design for a battery electrode that can meet the challenge arising from low conductivity and volume change.

  14. Graphene-wrapped sulfur/metal organic framework-derived microporous carbon composite for lithium sulfur batteries

    Renjie Chen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional hierarchical sandwich-type graphene sheet-sulfur/carbon (GS-S/CZIF8-D composite for use in a cathode for a lithium sulfur (Li-S battery has been prepared by an ultrasonic method. The microporous carbon host was prepared by a one-step pyrolysis of Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework-8 (ZIF-8, a typical zinc-containing metal organic framework (MOF, which offers a tunable porous structure into which electro-active sulfur can be diffused. The thin graphene sheet, wrapped around the sulfur/zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 derived carbon (S/CZIF8-D composite, has excellent electrical conductivity and mechanical flexibility, thus facilitating rapid electron transport and accommodating the changes in volume of the sulfur electrode. Compared with the S/CZIF8-D sample, Li-S batteries with the GS-S/CZIF8-D composite cathode showed enhanced capacity, improved electrochemical stability, and relatively high columbic efficiency by taking advantage of the synergistic effects of the microporous carbon from ZIF-8 and a highly interconnected graphene network. Our results demonstrate that a porous MOF-derived scaffold with a wrapped graphene conductive network structure is a potentially efficient design for a battery electrode that can meet the challenge arising from low conductivity and volume change.

  15. Organic oxalate as leachant and precipitant for the recovery of valuable metals from spent lithium-ion batteries

    Sun Liang; Qiu Keqiang

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Vacuum pyrolysis as a pretreatment was used to separate cathode material from aluminum foils. ► Cobalt and lithium can be leached using oxalate while cobalt can be directly precipitated as cobalt oxalate. ► Cobalt and lithium can be separated efficiently from each other only in the oxalate leaching process. ► High reaction efficiency of LiCoO 2 was obtained with oxalate. - Abstract: Spent lithium-ion batteries containing lots of strategic resources such as cobalt and lithium are considered as an attractive secondary resource. In this work, an environmentally compatible process based on vacuum pyrolysis, oxalate leaching and precipitation is applied to recover cobalt and lithium from spent lithium-ion batteries. Oxalate is introduced as leaching reagent meanwhile as precipitant which leaches and precipitates cobalt from LiCoO 2 and CoO directly as CoC 2 O 4 ·2H 2 O with 1.0 M oxalate solution at 80 °C and solid/liquid ratio of 50 g L −1 for 120 min. The reaction efficiency of more than 98% of LiCoO 2 can be achieved and cobalt and lithium can also be separated efficiently during the hydrometallurgical process. The combined process is simple and adequate for the recovery of valuable metals from spent lithium-ion batteries.

  16. Discharge capacity and microstructures of La Mg Pr Al Mn Co Ni alloys for nickel-metal hydride batteries

    Casini, J.C.S.; Galdino, G.S.; Ferreira, E.A.; Takiishi, H.; Faria, R.N., E-mail: jcasini@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (DM/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Metalurgia

    2010-07-01

    La{sub 0.7-x}Mg{sub x}Pr{sub 0.3}Al{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.5}Ni{sub 3.8} (x = 0.0, 0.3 and 0.7) alloys have been investigated aiming the production of negative electrodes for nickel-metal hydride batteries. The alloys employed in this work were used in the as cast state. The results showed that the substitution of magnesium by lanthanum increased the discharge capacity of the Ni-MH batteries. A battery produced with the La{sub 0.4}Mg{sub 0.3}Pr{sub 0.3}Al{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.5}Ni{sub 3.8} alloy shown a high discharge capacity (380mAh/g) also good stability compared to other alloys. The electrode materials were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). (author)

  17. Chloride Test

    ... metabolic acidosis ) or when a person hyperventilates (causing respiratory alkalosis ). A decreased level of blood chloride (called hypochloremia) ... disease , emphysema or other chronic lung diseases (causing respiratory ... metabolic alkalosis). An increased level of urine chloride can indicate ...

  18. A novel process for recovering valuable metals from waste nickel-cadmium batteries.

    Huang, Kui; Li, Jia; Xu, Zhenming

    2009-12-01

    The environment is seriously polluted due to improper and inefficient recycling of waste nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd) batteries in China. The aim of this work is aimed to seek an environmentally friendly recycling process for resolving the negative impacts on environmental and human health resulting from waste Ni-Cd batteries. This work investigates the fundamentals of waste Ni-Cd batteries recycling through vacuum metallurgy separation (VMS) and magnetic separation (MS). The results obtained demonstrate that the optimal temperature, the addition of carbon powder, and heating time in VMS are 1023 K, 1 wt %, 1.5 h, respectively. More than 99.2 wt % Cd is recovered under the optimal experimental condition, and the Cd purity is 99.98%. Around 98.0 wt % ferromagnetic materials are recovered through MS under 60 rpm rotational speed and the recovery ratios of Fe, Ni and Co are 99.2 wt %, 96.1 wt %, and 86.4 wt %, respectively. The composition of ferromagnetic fractions in the residue after VMS increases from 82.3 to 99.6%. Based on these results, a process (including dismantling and crushing, VMS and MS) for recycling of waste Ni-Cd batteries is proposed. This novel process provides a possibility for recycling waste Ni-Cd batteries in a large industrial scale.

  19. Recycling metals from lithium ion battery by mechanical separation and vacuum metallurgy.

    Xiao, Jiefeng; Li, Jia; Xu, Zhengming

    2017-09-15

    The large-batch application of lithium ion batteries leads to the mass production of spent batteries. So the enhancement of disposal ability of spent lithium ion batteries is becoming very urgent. This study proposes an integrated process to handle bulk spent lithium manganese (LiMn 2 O 4 ) batteries to in situ recycle high value-added products without any additives. By mechanical separation, the mixed electrode materials mainly including binder, graphite and LiMn 2 O 4 are firstly obtained from spent batteries. Then, the reaction characteristics for the oxygen-free roasting of mixed electrode materials are analyzed. And the results show that mixed electrode materials can be in situ converted into manganese oxide (MnO) and lithium carbonate (Li 2 CO 3 ) at 1073K for 45min. In this process, the binder is evaporated and decomposed into gaseous products which can be collected to avoid disposal cost. Finally, 91.30% of Li resource as Li 2 CO 3 is leached from roasted powders by water and then high value-added Li 2 CO 3 crystals are further gained by evaporating the filter liquid. The filter residues are burned in air to remove the graphite and the final residues as manganous-manganic oxide (Mn 3 O 4 ) is obtained. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Quantitative probe of the transition metal redox in battery electrodes through soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Li, Qinghao; Chen, Jun; Chen, Yanxue; Yan, Shishen; Qiao, Ruimin; Zhuo, Zengqing; Hussain, Zahid; Yang, Wanli; Wray, L Andrew; Pan, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Most battery positive electrodes operate with a 3 d transition-metal (TM) reaction centre. A direct and quantitative probe of the TM states upon electrochemical cycling is valuable for understanding the detailed cycling mechanism and charge diffusion in the electrodes, which is related with many practical parameters of a battery. This review includes a comprehensive summary of our recent demonstrations of five different types of quantitative analysis of the TM states in battery electrodes based on soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy and multiplet calculations. In LiFePO 4 , a system of a well-known two-phase transformation type, the TM redox could be strictly determined through a simple linear combination of the two end-members. In Mn-based compounds, the Mn states could also be quantitatively evaluated, but a set of reference spectra with all the three possible Mn valences needs to be deliberately selected and considered in the fitting. Although the fluorescence signals suffer the self-absorption distortion, the multiplet calculations could consider the distortion effect, which allows a quantitative determination of the overall Ni oxidation state in the bulk. With the aid of multiplet calculations, one could also achieve a quasi-quantitative analysis of the Co redox evolution in LiCoO 2 based on the energy position of the spectroscopic peak. The benefit of multiplet calculations is more important for studying electrode materials with TMs of mixed spin states, as exemplified by the quantitative analysis of the mixed spin Na 2−x Fe 2 (CN) 6 system. At the end, we showcase that such quantitative analysis could provide valuable information for optimizing the electrochemical performance of Na 0.44 MnO 2 electrodes for Na-ion batteries. The methodology summarized in this review could be extended to other energy application systems with TM redox centre for detailed analysis, for example, fuel cell and catalytic materials. (topical review)

  1. Quantitative probe of the transition metal redox in battery electrodes through soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Li, Qinghao; Qiao, Ruimin; Wray, L. Andrew; Chen, Jun; Zhuo, Zengqing; Chen, Yanxue; Yan, Shishen; Pan, Feng; Hussain, Zahid; Yang, Wanli

    2016-10-01

    Most battery positive electrodes operate with a 3d transition-metal (TM) reaction centre. A direct and quantitative probe of the TM states upon electrochemical cycling is valuable for understanding the detailed cycling mechanism and charge diffusion in the electrodes, which is related with many practical parameters of a battery. This review includes a comprehensive summary of our recent demonstrations of five different types of quantitative analysis of the TM states in battery electrodes based on soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy and multiplet calculations. In LiFePO4, a system of a well-known two-phase transformation type, the TM redox could be strictly determined through a simple linear combination of the two end-members. In Mn-based compounds, the Mn states could also be quantitatively evaluated, but a set of reference spectra with all the three possible Mn valences needs to be deliberately selected and considered in the fitting. Although the fluorescence signals suffer the self-absorption distortion, the multiplet calculations could consider the distortion effect, which allows a quantitative determination of the overall Ni oxidation state in the bulk. With the aid of multiplet calculations, one could also achieve a quasi-quantitative analysis of the Co redox evolution in LiCoO2 based on the energy position of the spectroscopic peak. The benefit of multiplet calculations is more important for studying electrode materials with TMs of mixed spin states, as exemplified by the quantitative analysis of the mixed spin Na2-x Fe2(CN)6 system. At the end, we showcase that such quantitative analysis could provide valuable information for optimizing the electrochemical performance of Na0.44MnO2 electrodes for Na-ion batteries. The methodology summarized in this review could be extended to other energy application systems with TM redox centre for detailed analysis, for example, fuel cell and catalytic materials.

  2. Cumulative effects of using pin fin heat sink and porous metal foam on thermal management of lithium-ion batteries

    Mohammadian, Shahabeddin K.; Zhang, Yuwen

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • 3D transient thermal analysis of a pouch Li-ion cell has been carried out. • Using pin fin heat sink improves the temperature reduction at low pumping powers. • Using pin fin heat sink enhances the temperature uniformity at low air flow rates. • Porous aluminum foam insertion with pin fins improves temperature reduction. • Porous aluminum foam insertion with pin fins enhances temperature uniformity. - Abstract: Three-dimensional transient thermal analysis of an air-cooled module was carried out to investigate cumulative effects of using pin fin heat sink and porous metal foam on thermal management of a Li-ion (lithium-ion) battery pack. Five different cases were designed as Case 1: flow channel without any pin fin or porous metal foam insertion, Case 2: flow channel with aluminum pin fins, Case 3: flow channel with porous aluminum foam pin fins, Case 4: fully inserted flow channel with porous aluminum foam, and Case 5: fully inserted flow channel with porous aluminum foam and aluminum pin fins. The effects of porous aluminum insertions, pin fin types, air flow inlet temperature, and air flow inlet velocity on the temperature uniformity and maximum temperature inside the battery pack were systematically investigated. The results showed that using pin fin heat sink (Case 2) is appropriate only for low air flow velocities. In addition, the use of porous aluminum pin fins or embedding porous aluminum foam inside the air flow channel (Cases 3 and 4) are not beneficial for thermal management improvement. The combination of aluminum pin fins and porous aluminum foam insertion inside the air flow channel (Case 5) is a proper option that improves both temperature reduction and temperature uniformity inside the battery cell.

  3. Hierarchical structured graphene/metal oxide/porous carbon composites as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Guo, Rong; Yue, Wenbo; Ren, Yu; Zhou, Wuzong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • CeO 2 and Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles display different behavior within CMK-3. • CMK-3-CeO 2 and Co 3 O 4 show various electrochemical properties • CMK-3-CeO 2 and Co 3 O 4 are further wrapped by graphene nanosheets. • Graphene-encapsulated composites show better electrochemical performances. - Abstract: As a novel anode material for lithium-ion batteries, CeO 2 displays imperceptible volumetric and morphological changes during the lithium insertion and extraction processes, and thereby exhibits good cycling stability. However, the low theoretical capacity and poor electronic conductivity of CeO 2 hinder its practical application. In contrast, Co 3 O 4 possesses high theoretical capacity, but undergoes huge volume change during cycling. To overcome these issues, CeO 2 and Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles are formed inside the pores of CMK-3 and display various electrochemical behaviors due to the different morphological structures of CeO 2 and Co 3 O 4 within CMK-3. Moreover, the graphene/metal oxide/CMK-3 composites with a hierarchical structure are then prepared and exhibit better electrochemical performances than metal oxides with or without CMK-3. This novel synthesis strategy is hopefully employed in the electrode materials design for Li-ion batteries or other energy conversion and storage devices.

  4. Metal current collector-free freestanding silicon–carbon 1D nanocomposites for ultralight anodes in lithium ion batteries

    Choi, Jang Wook

    2010-12-15

    Although current collectors take up more weight than active materials in most lithium ion battery cells, so far research has been focused mainly on improving gravimetric capacities of active materials. To address this issue of improving gravimetric capacities based on overall cell components, we develop freestanding nanocomposites made of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and silicon nanowires (SiNWs) as metal current collector-free anode platforms. Intrinsically large capacities of SiNWs as active materials in conjunction with the light nature of freestanding CNF films allow the nanocomposites to achieve 3-5 times improved gravimetric capacities compared to what have been reported in the literature. Moreover, three-dimensional porous structures in the CNF films facilitate increased mass loadings of SiNWs when compared to flat substrates and result in good cycle lives over 40 cycles. This type of nanocomposite cell suggests that 3D porous platforms consisting of light nanomaterials can provide for higher gravimetric and areal capacities when compared to conventional battery cells based on flat, heavy metal substrates. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Metal chloride precursor synthesization of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} solar cell materials

    Yeh, Min-Yen; Huang, Yu-Fong; Huang, Cheng-Liang; Yang, Chyi-Da [National Kaohsiung Marine University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Wuu, Dong-Sing [National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lei, Po-Hsun [National Formosa University, Yunlin, Taiwan (China)

    2014-07-15

    Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) thin films with kesterite structures were prepared by directly sol-gel synthesizing spin-coated precursors on soda-lime-glass (SLG) substrates. The CZTS precursors were prepared by using solutions of copper (II) chloride, zinc (II) chloride, tin (IV) chloride, and thiourea. The ratio of SnCl{sub 4} in the precursors was found to play a critical role in the synthesization of CZTS. CZTS phases of SnS and SnS{sub 2} were observed in the synthesized films as prepared using precursors with a close to stoichiometric ratio of CuCl{sub 2}:ZnCl{sub 2}:SnCl{sub 4}:CH{sub 4}N{sub 2}S = 4:1:1:8, where SnCl{sub 4} was 1 mol/l. The amounts of the educed SnS and SnS{sub 2} phases observed in the SEM images could be readily reduced by decreasing the volume of SnCl{sub 4} in the mixed solution. With decreasing amount of SnCl{sub 4} from 1 mol/l, the as prepared CZTS reveals a significant improvement in its crystalline properties. In this work, CZTS with an average absorption coefficient and an optical energy gap of over 10{sup 4} cm{sup -1} and ∼1.5 eV, respectively, was obtained using precursors of copper (II) chloride, zinc (II) chloride, tin (IV) chloride, and thiourea mixed in a ratio of 2:1:0.25:8, and it had good crystallinity revealing a Cu-poor composition.

  6. The hydrogen evolution and oxidation kinetics during overdischarging of sealed nickel-metal hydride batteries

    Ayeb, A.; Otten, W.M.; Mank, A.J.G.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2006-01-01

    The hydrogen evolution and oxidation kinetics in NiMH batteries have been investigated under temperature-controlled, steady-state, overdischarging conditions within a temperature range of 10 and 50°C and at discharging currents of 1–330 mA (0.0009 to 0.3 C rate). In situ Raman spectroscopic analyses

  7. Si composite electrode with Li metal doping for advanced lithium-ion battery

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent

    2015-12-15

    A silicon electrode is described, formed by combining silicon powder, a conductive binder, and SLMP.TM. powder from FMC Corporation to make a hybrid electrode system, useful in lithium-ion batteries. In one embodiment the binder is a conductive polymer such as described in PCT Published Application WO 2010/135248 A1.

  8. Metal oxides and lithium alloys as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Kebede, M

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available -generation anode materials for lithium–ion batteries with high prospect of replacing graphite. Most of these anode materials have higher specific capacities between the range of 600-1000 mA h g(sup-1) compared with 340 mA h g(sup-1) of graphite. These high...

  9. Mercury uptake in vivo by normal and acatalasemic mice exposed to metallic mercury vapor (203Hg degrees) and injected with metallic mercury or mercuric chloride (203HgCl2)

    Ogata, M.; Kenmotsu, K.; Hirota, N.; Meguro, T.; Aikoh, H.

    1985-01-01

    Levels of mercury in the brain and liver of acatalasemic mice immediately following exposure to metallic mercury vapor or injection of metallic mercury were higher than those found in normal mice. Acatalasemic mice had decreased levels of mercury in the blood and kidneys when the levels were compared with those of normal mice, which indicated that catalase plays a role in oxidizing and taking up mercury. Thus, the brain/blood or liver/blood ratio of mercury concentration in acatalasemic mice was significantly higher than that of normal mice. These results suggest that metallic mercury in the blood easily passed through the blood-brain or blood-liver barrier. The levels of mercury distribution to the kidneys of normal and acatalasemic mice, 1 hr after injection of mercuric chloride solution, were higher than that of normal and acatalasemic mice, respectively, 1 hr after injection of metallic mercury

  10. Progress in aqueous rechargeable batteries

    Jilei Liu; Chaohe Xu; Zhen Chen; Shibing Ni; Ze Xiang Shen

    2018-01-01

    Over the past decades, a series of aqueous rechargeable batteries (ARBs) were explored, investigated and demonstrated. Among them, aqueous rechargeable alkali-metal ion (Li+, Na+, K+) batteries, aqueous rechargeable-metal ion (Zn2+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Al3+) batteries and aqueous rechargeable hybrid batteries are standing out due to peculiar properties. In this review, we focus on the fundamental basics of these batteries, and discuss the scientific and/or technological achievements and challenges. B...

  11. Incorporation mechanism for doping of metal ions into a passivating film at the lithium/thionyl chloride interface

    Danilov, V. G.; Shikin, V. I.

    1993-05-01

    Effects of iron and titanium ions on corrosion processes of lithium in thionyl chloride electrolytes have been studied. Laws for the growth of the passivating film on the type and concentration of doped ions have been established, and equations for these are suggested. A stepwise mechanism of dopant incorporation into passivating film structure is presented.

  12. Incorporation mechanism for doping of metal ions into a passive film at the lithium/thionyl chloride interface

    Danilov, V.G. (Siberian Inst. of Tech., Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation). Lab. of Electrochemistry); Shilkin, V.I. (Siberian Inst. of Tech., Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation). Lab. of Electrochemistry)

    1993-05-01

    Effects of iron and titanium ions on corrosion processes of lithium in thionyl chloride electrolytes have been studied. Laws for the growth of the passivating film on the type and concentration of doped ions have been established, and equations for these are suggested. A stepwise mechanism of dopant incorporation into passivating film structure is presented. (orig.)

  13. Electrochemical Characteristics of Layered Transition Metal Oxide Cathode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries: Surface, Bulk Behavior, and Thermal Properties.

    Tian, Chixia; Lin, Feng; Doeff, Marca M

    2018-01-16

    Layered lithium transition metal oxides, in particular, NMCs (LiNi x Co y Mn z O 2 ) represent a family of prominent lithium ion battery cathode materials with the potential to increase energy densities and lifetime, reduce costs, and improve safety for electric vehicles and grid storage. Our work has focused on various strategies to improve performance and to understand the limitations to these strategies, which include altering compositions, utilizing cation substitutions, and charging to higher than usual potentials in cells. Understanding the effects of these strategies on surface and bulk behavior and correlating structure-performance relationships advance our understanding of NMC materials. This also provides information relevant to the efficacy of various approaches toward ensuring reliable operation of these materials in batteries intended for demanding traction and grid storage applications. In this Account, we start by comparing NMCs to the isostructural LiCoO 2 cathode, which is widely used in consumer batteries. Effects of changing the metal content (Ni, Mn, Co) upon structure and performance of NMCs are briefly discussed. Our early work on the effects of partial substitution of Al, Fe, and Ti for Co on the electrochemical and bulk structural properties is then covered. The original aim of this work was to reduce the Co content (and thus the raw materials cost) and to determine the effect of the substitutions on the electrochemical and bulk structural properties. More recently, we have turned to the application of synchrotron and advanced microscopy techniques to understand both bulk and surface characteristics of the NMCs. Via nanoscale-to-macroscale spectroscopy and atomically resolved imaging techniques, we were able to determine that the surfaces of NMC undergo heterogeneous reconstruction from a layered structure to rock salt under a variety of conditions. Interestingly, formation of rock salt also occurs under abuse conditions. The surface

  14. 2D MoS2 as an efficient protective layer for lithium metal anodes in high-performance Li-S batteries

    Cha, Eunho; Patel, Mumukshu D.; Park, Juhong; Hwang, Jeongwoon; Prasad, Vish; Cho, Kyeongjae; Choi, Wonbong

    2018-04-01

    Among the candidates to replace Li-ion batteries, Li-S cells are an attractive option as their energy density is about five times higher ( 2,600 Wh kg-1). The success of Li-S cells depends in large part on the utilization of metallic Li as anode material. Metallic lithium, however, is prone to grow parasitic dendrites and is highly reactive to several electrolytes; moreover, Li-S cells with metallic Li are also susceptible to polysulfides dissolution. Here, we show that 10-nm-thick two-dimensional (2D) MoS2 can act as a protective layer for Li-metal anodes, greatly improving the performances of Li-S batteries. In particular, we observe stable Li electrodeposition and the suppression of dendrite nucleation sites. The deposition and dissolution process of a symmetric MoS2-coated Li-metal cell operates at a current density of 10 mA cm-2 with low voltage hysteresis and a threefold improvement in cycle life compared with using bare Li-metal. In a Li-S full-cell configuration, using the MoS2-coated Li as anode and a 3D carbon nanotube-sulfur cathode, we obtain a specific energy density of 589 Wh kg-1 and a Coulombic efficiency of 98% for over 1,200 cycles at 0.5 C. Our approach could lead to the realization of high energy density and safe Li-metal-based batteries.

  15. Redox‐Flow Batteries: From Metals to Organic Redox‐Active Materials

    Winsberg, Jan; Hagemann, Tino; Janoschka, Tobias; Hager, Martin D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Research on redox‐flow batteries (RFBs) is currently experiencing a significant upturn, stimulated by the growing need to store increasing quantities of sustainably generated electrical energy. RFBs are promising candidates for the creation of smart grids, particularly when combined with photovoltaics and wind farms. To achieve the goal of “green”, safe, and cost‐efficient energy storage, research has shifted from metal‐based materials to organic active materials in recent years. This Review presents an overview of various flow‐battery systems. Relevant studies concerning their history are discussed as well as their development over the last few years from the classical inorganic, to organic/inorganic, to RFBs with organic redox‐active cathode and anode materials. Available technologies are analyzed in terms of their technical, economic, and environmental aspects; the advantages and limitations of these systems are also discussed. Further technological challenges and prospective research possibilities are highlighted. PMID:28070964

  16. Alloys for hydrogen storage in nickel/hydrogen and nickel/metal hydride batteries

    Anani, Anaba; Visintin, Arnaldo; Petrov, Konstantin; Srinivasan, Supramaniam; Reilly, James J.; Johnson, John R.; Schwarz, Ricardo B.; Desch, Paul B.

    1993-01-01

    Since 1990, there has been an ongoing collaboration among the authors in the three laboratories to (1) prepare alloys of the AB(sub 5) and AB(sub 2) types, using arc-melting/annealing and mechanical alloying/annealing techniques; (2) examine their physico-chemical characteristics (morphology, composition); (3) determine the hydrogen absorption/desorption behavior (pressure-composition isotherms as a function of temperature); and (4) evaluate their performance characteristics as hydride electrodes (charge/discharge, capacity retention, cycle life, high rate capability). The work carried out on representative AB(sub 5) and AB(sub 2) type modified alloys (by partial substitution or with small additives of other elements) is presented. The purpose of the modification was to optimize the thermodynamics and kinetics of the hydriding/dehydriding reactions and enhance the stabilities of the alloys for the desired battery applications. The results of our collaboration, to date, demonstrate that (1) alloys prepared by arc melting/annealing and mechanical alloying/annealing techniques exhibit similar morphology, composition and hydriding/dehydriding characteristics; (2) alloys with the appropriate small amounts of substituent or additive elements: (1) retain the single phase structure, (2) improve the hydriding/dehydriding reactions for the battery applications, and (3) enhance the stability in the battery environment; and (3) the AB(sub 2) type alloys exhibit higher energy densities than the AB(sub 5) type alloys but the state-of-the-art, commercialized batteries are predominantly manufactured using Ab(sub 5) type alloys.

  17. Polyethylene oxide film coating enhances lithium cycling efficiency of an anode-free lithium-metal battery.

    Assegie, Addisu Alemayehu; Cheng, Ju-Hsiang; Kuo, Li-Ming; Su, Wei-Nien; Hwang, Bing-Joe

    2018-03-29

    The practical implementation of an anode-free lithium-metal battery with promising high capacity is hampered by dendrite formation and low coulombic efficiency. Most notably, these challenges stem from non-uniform lithium plating and unstable SEI layer formation on the bare copper electrode. Herein, we revealed the homogeneous deposition of lithium and effective suppression of dendrite formation using a copper electrode coated with a polyethylene oxide (PEO) film in an electrolyte comprising 1 M LiTFSI, DME/DOL (1/1, v/v) and 2 wt% LiNO3. More importantly, the PEO film coating promoted the formation of a thin and robust SEI layer film by hosting lithium and regulating the inevitable reaction of lithium with the electrolyte. The modified electrode exhibited stable cycling of lithium with an average coulombic efficiency of ∼100% over 200 cycles and low voltage hysteresis (∼30 mV) at a current density of 0.5 mA cm-2. Moreover, we tested the anode-free battery experimentally by integrating it with an LiFePO4 cathode into a full-cell configuration (Cu@PEO/LiFePO4). The new cell demonstrated stable cycling with an average coulombic efficiency of 98.6% and capacity retention of 30% in the 200th cycle at a rate of 0.2C. These impressive enhancements in cycle life and capacity retention result from the synergy of the PEO film coating, high electrode-electrolyte interface compatibility, stable polar oligomer formation from the reduction of 1,3-dioxolane and the generation of SEI-stabilizing nitrite and nitride upon lithium nitrate reduction. Our result opens up a new route to realize anode-free batteries by modifying the copper anode with PEO to achieve ever more demanding yet safe interfacial chemistry and control of dendrite formation.

  18. Effect of cation nature of Cl2- yields in pulse radiolysis of alkali metal chloride aqueous solutions

    Kabakchi, S.A.; Zansokhova, A.A.; Pikaev, A.K.

    1975-01-01

    A study is made of the amount of Cl 2 - formed during a pulsating radiolysis of potassium, rubidium and cesium chlorides in aqueous solutions saturated with air. An equation is presented relating the yield of Cl 2 - and the concentration of the starting materials. Various mechanisms describing the radiolysis of neutral aqueous solutions of the chlorides are proposed. The observed effect of the cation on the efficiency of Cl 2 - formations favours the mechanism according to which Cl 2 - forms through the reaction of Cl - ion with a ''hole''. Due to charge migration in the conductivity zone the electron transfer reaction either goes steadily by jumps. As a result of the interaction between the ''hole'' and water [H 3 O + ...OH] a complex is formed from a hydrogen ion and OH radical, which are united trhough the hydrogen bond. Disturbance of the hydrogen bond structure should increase the probability of disintegration of the complex

  19. Dechlorination Reaction of Metal Chloride Wastes with Inorganic Composite (SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}- P{sub 2}O{sub 5}) at 650 .deg. C

    Ahn, Soo Na; Park, Hwan Seo; Cho, In Hak; Kim, In Tae; Cho, Yong Zun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Pyrochemical process to recover uranium and transuranic elements from the spent nuclear fuel indispensably generates radioactive metal chlorides waste containing fission products. These wastes are difficult to solidify and stabilize by conventional method due to their volatility and low comparability with silicate glass. Our research group is under development of dechlorination method to remove Clinduced problems. For dechlorination of metal chloride waste, an inorganic composite, SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-P{sub 2}O{sub 5} (SAP), has been investigated as dechlorination agent. The composite reacts with metal chloride to produce aluminosilicates, alumino phosphate and orthophosphate. The products are thermally stable up to 1200 .deg. C and compatible with silicate glass. In this study, modified SAP containing Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} as another component was investigated to enhance the dechlorination reaction and characterize the reaction behavior of LiCl

  20. BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF LIPID METABOLISM IN ANIMALS AFFECTED BY HEAVY METAL SALTS AND TREATED WITH CARNITINE CHLORIDE AND SODIUM ALGINATE

    I. R. Bekus

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lipid metabolism disorders in the organism affected by environmental pollutants, including poisoning with cadmium and lead salts are of topical matter nowadays. Objective. The study was aimed to examine biochemical features of lipid metabolism in rats subjected to toxic damage by lead and cadmium salts and treated with carnitine chloride and Algigel. Methods. Experiments were carried out on white mature outbred male rats weighing 180-200 g. To cause the toxic damage the animals were administered with aqueous solution of cadmium chloride and lead acetate daily for the period of 30 days using intra-gastric lavage. The indices of lipid metabolism were detected by biochemical methods. Results. In animals treated with cadmium chloride and lead acetate the following changes were observed: HDL-cholesterol concentrations significantly decreased, resulting in 87% of the levels in the intact animals on the third day, 84% on the fifth and 80% on the seventh day. Conversely, concentrations of HDL-cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol significantly increased during the experiment. Respectively, the ratios for HDL-cholesterol are 240%, 352%, and 388%; and for VLDL-cholesterol 108%, 116%, and 132%. Conclusions. Lipids profile of the rats displayed changes in the levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and lipoproteins of low, high and very low density.

  1. Silver decorated LaMnO3 nanorod/graphene composite electrocatalysts as reversible metal-air battery electrodes

    Hu, Jie; Liu, Qiunan; Shi, Lina; Shi, Ziwei; Huang, Hao

    2017-04-01

    Perovskite LaMnO3 nanorod/reduced graphene oxides (LMO-NR/RGO) decorated with Ag nanoparticles are studied as a bifunctional catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in alkaline electrolyte. LMO-NR/RGO composites are synthesized by using cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as template via a simple hydrothermal reaction followed by heat treatment; overlaying of Ag nanoparticles is obtained through a traditional silver mirror reaction. Electron microscopy reveals that LMO-NR is embedded between the sheets of RGO, and the material is homogeneously overlaid with Ag nanoparticles. The unique composite morphology of Ag/LMO-NR/RGO not only enhances the electron transport property by increasing conductivity but also facilitates the diffusion of electrolytes and oxygen. As confirmed by electrochemical testing, Ag/LMO-NR/RGO exhibits very strong synergy with Ag nanoparticles, LMO-NR, and RGO, and the catalytic activities of Ag/LMO-NR/RGO during ORR and OER are significantly improved. With the novel catalyst, the homemade zinc-air battery can be reversibly charged and discharged and display a stable cycle performance, indicating the great potential of this composite as an efficient bifunctional electrocatalyst for metal-air batteries.

  2. The medical sodium chloride

    Mirsaidov, U.M.

    2002-01-01

    In the institute was investigated the chemical composition of rock salt of some deposits of Tajikistan and was show the presence in it admixture of ions of Ca 2 + , Mg 2 + a nd SO 2 - a nd absence of heavy metals, ammonium salts, iron, potassium and arsenic. Was elaborated the fundamental instrument-technologic scheme of sodium chloride receiving

  3. Hydrometallurgical process for the recovery of metal values from spent lithium-ion batteries in citric acid media.

    Chen, Xiangping; Zhou, Tao

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, a hydrometallurgical process has been proposed to recover valuable metals from spent lithium-ion batteries in citric acid media. Leaching efficiencies as high as 97%, 95%, 94%, and 99% of Ni, Co, Mn, and Li were achieved under the optimal leaching experimental conditions of citric acid concentration of 2 mol L(-1), leaching temperature of 80 °C, leaching time of 90 min, liquid-solid ratio of 30 ml g(-1), and 2 vol. % H2O2. For the metals recovery process, nickel and cobalt were selectively precipitated by dimethylglyoxime reagent and ammonium oxalate sequentially. Then manganese was extracted by Na-D2EHPA and the manganese-loaded D2EHPA was stripped with sulfuric acid. The manganese was recovered as MnSO4 in aqueous phase and D2EHPA could be reused after saponification. Finally, lithium was precipitated by 0.5 mol L(-1) sodium phosphate. Under their optimal conditions, the recovery percentages of Ni, Co, Mn, and Li can reach 98%, 97%, 98%, and 89%, respectively. This is a relatively simple route in which all metal values could be effectively leached and recovered in citric acid media. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Metal hydride electrode and nickel hydrogen storage battery; Suiso kyuzo gokin denkyoku oyobi nikkeru-suiso chikudenchi

    Kobayashi, Y.; Tamagawa, H. [Shin-Kobe Electric Machinery Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Ikawa, A.; Muranaka, R. [Hitachi Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan). Hitachi Research Lab.

    1996-04-16

    Water soluble polymers such as cellulose derivatives and polyvinylalcohol have been used conventionally as binders for metal hydride electrode used for nickel-hydrogen storage batteries. The shortcomings of those binders, however, are low flexibility, and poor binding property for hydrogen absorbing alloy powder and the conductive supporting substrate. This invention relates to the use of ethylene-vinyl copolymer with less than -10{degree}C Tg as the binder for hydrogen absorbing alloy powder. It is desirable that the ethylene-vinylacetate copolymer is selected out of ethylene-vinyl acetate-acryl copolymer and ethylene-vinyl acetate-long chain vinyl ester copolymer, and that the addition is larger than 0.1wt% and less than 1wt% against the weight of hydrogen absorbing alloy in the electrode. The use of this binder results in strong binding of hydrogen absorbing alloy powder to the conductive supporting substrate, providing flexibility as well. 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Solid state electrolyte composites based on complex hydrides and metal doped fullerenes/fulleranes for batteries and electrochemical applications

    Zidan, Ragaiy; Teprovich, Jr., Joseph A.; Colon-Mercado, Hector R.; Greenway, Scott D.

    2018-05-01

    A LiBH4--C60 nanocomposite that displays fast lithium ionic conduction in the solid state is provided. The material is a homogenous nanocomposite that contains both LiBH4 and a hydrogenated fullerene species. In the presence of C60, the lithium ion mobility of LiBH4 is significantly enhanced in the as prepared state when compared to pure LiBH4. After the material is annealed the lithium ion mobility is further enhanced. Constant current cycling demonstrated that the material is stable in the presence of metallic lithium electrodes. The material can serve as a solid state electrolyte in a solid-state lithium ion battery.

  6. Metal-Organic Framework Derived Iron Sulfide-Carbon Core-Shell Nanorods as a Conversion-Type Battery Material

    Huang, Wei; Li, Shuo; Cao, Xianyi

    2017-01-01

    of a redox conversion-type lithium-ion battery, this composite material has demonstrated high lithium-ion storage capacity at 1148 mA h g-1 under the current rate of 500 mA g-1 for 170 cycles and an impressive rate-retention capability at 657 mA h g-1 with a current density of 2000 mA g-1. On the basis......We report the design and nanoengineering of carbon-film-coated iron sulfide nanorods (C@Fe7S8) as an advanced conversion-type lithium-ion storage material. The structural advantages of the iron-based metal-organic framework (MIL-88-Fe) as both a sacrificed template and a precursor are explored...

  7. Hierarchical structured graphene/metal oxide/porous carbon composites as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Guo, Rong [Beijing Key Laboratory of Energy Conversion and Storage Materials, College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Yue, Wenbo, E-mail: wbyue@bnu.edu.cn [Beijing Key Laboratory of Energy Conversion and Storage Materials, College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Ren, Yu [National Institute of Clean-and-Low-Carbon Energy, Beijing 102209 (China); Zhou, Wuzong [School of Chemistry, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews, Fite KY16 9ST (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • CeO{sub 2} and Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles display different behavior within CMK-3. • CMK-3-CeO{sub 2} and Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} show various electrochemical properties • CMK-3-CeO{sub 2} and Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} are further wrapped by graphene nanosheets. • Graphene-encapsulated composites show better electrochemical performances. - Abstract: As a novel anode material for lithium-ion batteries, CeO{sub 2} displays imperceptible volumetric and morphological changes during the lithium insertion and extraction processes, and thereby exhibits good cycling stability. However, the low theoretical capacity and poor electronic conductivity of CeO{sub 2} hinder its practical application. In contrast, Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} possesses high theoretical capacity, but undergoes huge volume change during cycling. To overcome these issues, CeO{sub 2} and Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles are formed inside the pores of CMK-3 and display various electrochemical behaviors due to the different morphological structures of CeO{sub 2} and Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} within CMK-3. Moreover, the graphene/metal oxide/CMK-3 composites with a hierarchical structure are then prepared and exhibit better electrochemical performances than metal oxides with or without CMK-3. This novel synthesis strategy is hopefully employed in the electrode materials design for Li-ion batteries or other energy conversion and storage devices.

  8. A Desalination Battery

    Pasta, Mauro; Wessells, Colin D.; Cui, Yi; La Mantia, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    Water desalination is an important approach to provide fresh water around the world, although its high energy consumption, and thus high cost, call for new, efficient technology. Here, we demonstrate the novel concept of a "desalination battery", which operates by performing cycles in reverse on our previously reported mixing entropy battery. Rather than generating electricity from salinity differences, as in mixing entropy batteries, desalination batteries use an electrical energy input to extract sodium and chloride ions from seawater and to generate fresh water. The desalination battery is comprised by a Na 2-xMn 5O 10 nanorod positive electrode and Ag/AgCl negative electrode. Here, we demonstrate an energy consumption of 0.29 Wh l -1 for the removal of 25% salt using this novel desalination battery, which is promising when compared to reverse osmosis (∼ 0.2 Wh l -1), the most efficient technique presently available. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  9. A desalination battery.

    Pasta, Mauro; Wessells, Colin D; Cui, Yi; La Mantia, Fabio

    2012-02-08

    Water desalination is an important approach to provide fresh water around the world, although its high energy consumption, and thus high cost, call for new, efficient technology. Here, we demonstrate the novel concept of a "desalination battery", which operates by performing cycles in reverse on our previously reported mixing entropy battery. Rather than generating electricity from salinity differences, as in mixing entropy batteries, desalination batteries use an electrical energy input to extract sodium and chloride ions from seawater and to generate fresh water. The desalination battery is comprised by a Na(2-x)Mn(5)O(10) nanorod positive electrode and Ag/AgCl negative electrode. Here, we demonstrate an energy consumption of 0.29 Wh l(-1) for the removal of 25% salt using this novel desalination battery, which is promising when compared to reverse osmosis (~ 0.2 Wh l(-1)), the most efficient technique presently available. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  10. A Desalination Battery

    Pasta, Mauro

    2012-02-08

    Water desalination is an important approach to provide fresh water around the world, although its high energy consumption, and thus high cost, call for new, efficient technology. Here, we demonstrate the novel concept of a "desalination battery", which operates by performing cycles in reverse on our previously reported mixing entropy battery. Rather than generating electricity from salinity differences, as in mixing entropy batteries, desalination batteries use an electrical energy input to extract sodium and chloride ions from seawater and to generate fresh water. The desalination battery is comprised by a Na 2-xMn 5O 10 nanorod positive electrode and Ag/AgCl negative electrode. Here, we demonstrate an energy consumption of 0.29 Wh l -1 for the removal of 25% salt using this novel desalination battery, which is promising when compared to reverse osmosis (∼ 0.2 Wh l -1), the most efficient technique presently available. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  11. Health risk assessment of various metal(loid)s via multiple exposure pathways on children living near a typical lead-acid battery plant, China

    Cao, Suzhen; Duan, Xiaoli; Zhao, Xiuge; Wang, Beibei; Ma, Jin; Fan, Delong; Sun, Chengye; He, Bin; Wei, Fusheng; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-01-01

    Manufacture of lead-acid batteries is of widespread interest because of its emissions of heavy metals and metalloids into environment, harming environmental quality and consequently causing detrimental effects on human health. In this study, exposure pathways and health risks of children to heavy metal(loid)s (Pb, Cd, As, etc) were investigated based on field sampling and questionnaire. Pb was one of the most abundant elements in children's blood, with an elevated blood lead level of 12.45 μg dL −1 . Soil/dust and food were heavily polluted by targeted metal(loid)s. Food ingestion accounted for more than 80% of the total exposure for most metal(loid)s. The non-cancer risks to children were 3–10 times higher than the acceptable level of 1, while the cancer risks were 5–200 times higher than the maximum acceptable level of 1.0 × 10 −4 . The study emphasized the significance of effective environmental management, particularly to ensure food security near battery facilities. - Highlights: • The health risks of children living around a typical lead-acid battery was analyzed. • The exposure pathways of children to 12 heavy metal(loid)s were assessed. • Courtyard soil and indoor dust and duplicate food were contaminated by metal(loid)s. • Food ingestion was the major pathway for children's exposure to most metal(loid)s. • Higher potentially non-cancer and cancer risks happened to the local children. - The children living around a typical lead-acid battery plant suffered from serious health risks, which mainly attributed to food ingestion and air inhalation exposure

  12. Magnesium-based hydrogen alloy anodes for a nickel metal hydrides secondary battery

    Cui, N.; Luan, B.; Zhao, H.J.; Liu, H.K.; Dou, S.X. [Univ of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW (Australia). Centre for Superconducting and Electronic Materials

    1996-12-31

    Extensive work has been carried out in our group to try utilizing magnesium-based hydrogen storage alloys as a low cost and high performance anode materials for Ni-MH battery. It was found that the modified Mg{sub 2}Ni alloy anodes were able to be charged-discharged effectively in a KOH aqueous solution at ambient temperature. The discharge capacity and cycle have been substantially improved in four ways: (1) by partial substitution of La, Ti, V, Zr, Ca for Mg and Fe, Co, Cu, Al, Si, Y, Mn for Ni in Mg{sub 2}Ni; (2) by composite of Mg{sub 2}Ni with another hydrogen storage alloys; (3) by room-temperature surface microencapsulation and, (4) by ultrasound treatment of alloy powders. A discharge capacity of 170 mAh/g has been obtained from the modified Mg{sub 2}Ni-type alloy electrode, and the cycle life has exceeded 350 cycles. The high rate dischargeability was also significantly improved by the modification. It was concluded that magnesium-based hydrogen storage alloys would become promising anode materials for Ni- MH secondary battery with further improvement of discharge capacity and cycling performance

  13. Magnesium-based hydrogen alloy anodes for a nickel metal hydrides secondary battery

    Cui, N.; Luan, B.; Zhao, H.J.; Liu, H.K.; Dou, S.X.

    1996-01-01

    Extensive work has been carried out in our group to try utilizing magnesium-based hydrogen storage alloys as a low cost and high performance anode materials for Ni-MH battery. It was found that the modified Mg 2 Ni alloy anodes were able to be charged-discharged effectively in a KOH aqueous solution at ambient temperature. The discharge capacity and cycle have been substantially improved in four ways: (1) by partial substitution of La, Ti, V, Zr, Ca for Mg and Fe, Co, Cu, Al, Si, Y, Mn for Ni in Mg 2 Ni; (2) by composite of Mg 2 Ni with another hydrogen storage alloys; (3) by room-temperature surface microencapsulation and, (4) by ultrasound treatment of alloy powders. A discharge capacity of 170 mAh/g has been obtained from the modified Mg 2 Ni-type alloy electrode, and the cycle life has exceeded 350 cycles. The high rate dischargeability was also significantly improved by the modification. It was concluded that magnesium-based hydrogen storage alloys would become promising anode materials for Ni- MH secondary battery with further improvement of discharge capacity and cycling performance

  14. Alkali Metal-O2 Batteries. Performance and Lifetime Limiting Effects

    Knudsen, Kristian Bastholm

    The rechargeable Na-O2 and Li-O2 batteries are attractive battery technologies as they potentially are very cheap and as they theoretically possess about 3 and 10 times higher energy density than the current Li-ion technologies. This PhD thesis is dedicated to studying the effects that limit cell...... product, Li2O2, was investigated. This was done by using of a conventional three electrode cell in which the heterogeneous electron transfer rate of three different redox couples were studied on Li2O2 coated glassy carbon electrodes to provide a measure of the conductivity of the Li2O2 layers. Charge....... The capacitance of the cathode was shown to be sensitive to the thickness of the deposited Li2O2 layer. These investigations also explored the influence of the composition of the electrolyte and conditions, which favors a solution mediated Li2O2 deposition mechanism. On charge, an electrochemical “safe” operating...

  15. Simulations of thermal Rayleigh-Marangoni convection in a three-layer liquid-metal-battery model

    Köllner, Thomas; Boeck, Thomas; Schumacher, Jörg

    2017-11-01

    Operating a liquid-metal battery produces Ohmic losses in the electrolyte layer that separates both metal electrodes. As a consequence, temperature gradients establish which potentially cause thermal convection since density and interfacial tension depend on the local temperature. In our numerical investigations, we considered three plane, immiscible layers governed by the Navier-Stokes-Boussinesq equations held at a constant temperature of 500°C at the bottom and top. A homogeneous current is applied that leads to a preferential heating of the mid electrolyte layer. We chose a typical material combination of Li separated by LiCl-KCl (a molten salt) from Pb-Bi for which we analyzed the linear stability of pure thermal conduction and performed three-dimensional direct-numerical simulations by a pseudospectral method probing different: electrolyte layer heights, overall heights, and current densities. Four instability mechanisms are identified, which are partly coupled to each other: buoyant convection in the upper electrode, buoyant convection in the molten salt layer, and Marangoni convection at both interfaces between molten salt and electrode. The global turbulent heat transfer follows scaling predictions for internally heated buoyant convection. Financial support by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft under Grant No. KO 5515/1-1 is gratefully acknowledged.

  16. Single-ion triblock copolymer electrolytes based on poly(ethylene oxide) and methacrylic sulfonamide blocks for lithium metal batteries

    Porcarelli, Luca; Aboudzadeh, M. Ali; Rubatat, Laurent; Nair, Jijeesh R.; Shaplov, Alexander S.; Gerbaldi, Claudio; Mecerreyes, David

    2017-10-01

    Single-ion conducting polymer electrolytes represent the ideal solution to reduce concentration polarization in lithium metal batteries (LMBs). This paper reports on the synthesis and characterization of single-ion ABA triblock copolymer electrolytes comprising PEO and poly(lithium 1-[3-(methacryloyloxy)propylsulfonyl]-1-(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide) blocks, poly(LiMTFSI). Block copolymers are prepared by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization, showing low glass transition temperature (-55 to 7 °C) and degree of crystallinity (51-0%). Comparatively high values of ionic conductivity are obtained (up to ≈ 10-4 S cm-1 at 70 °C), combined with a lithium-ion transference number close to unity (tLi+ ≈ 0.91) and a 4 V electrochemical stability window. In addition to these promising features, solid polymer electrolytes are successfully tested in lithium metal cells at 70 °C providing long lifetime up to 300 cycles, and stable charge/discharge cycling at C/2 (≈100 mAh g-1).

  17. LiCl-LiI molten salt electrolyte with bismuth-lead positive electrode for liquid metal battery

    Kim, Junsoo; Shin, Donghyeok; Jung, Youngjae; Hwang, Soo Min; Song, Taeseup; Kim, Youngsik; Paik, Ungyu

    2018-02-01

    Liquid metal batteries (LMBs) are attractive energy storage device for large-scale energy storage system (ESS) due to the simple cell configuration and their high rate capability. The high operation temperature caused by high melting temperature of both the molten salt electrolyte and metal electrodes can induce the critical issues related to the maintenance cost and degradation of electrochemical properties resulting from the thermal corrosion of materials. Here, we report a new chemistry of LiCl-LiI electrolyte and Bi-Pb positive electrode to lower the operation temperature of Li-based LMBs and achieve the long-term stability. The cell (Li|LiCl-LiI|Bi-Pb) is operated at 410 °C by employing the LiCl-LiI (LiCl:LiI = 36:64 mol %) electrolyte and Bi-Pb alloy (Bi:Pb = 55.5:44.5 mol %) positive electrode. The cell shows excellent capacity retention (86.5%) and high Coulombic efficiencies over 99.3% at a high current density of 52 mA cm-2 during 1000th cycles.

  18. Novel Solid Polymer Nanocomposite Electrolyte to Enable Lithium Metal Safely Cycling for Next Generation High Energy Battery

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA future missions demand safe, high specific energy (>400 Wh/kg) batteries. Current state-of-the-art (SOA) lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) can only provide...

  19. Lithium batteries, anodes, and methods of anode fabrication

    Li, Lain-Jong; Wu, Feng-Yu; Kumar, Pushpendra; Ming, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Prelithiation of a battery anode carried out using controlled lithium metal vapor deposition. Lithium metal can be avoided in the final battery. This prelithiated electrode is used as potential anode for Li- ion or high energy Li-S battery

  20. Electroactive materials for rechargeable batteries

    Wu, Huiming; Amine, Khalil; Abouimrane, Ali

    2015-04-21

    An as-prepared cathode for a secondary battery, the cathode including an alkaline source material including an alkali metal oxide, an alkali metal sulfide, an alkali metal salt, or a combination of any two or more thereof.

  1. An in situ method of creating metal oxide–carbon composites and their application as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Yang, Zichao

    2011-01-01

    Transition metal oxides are actively investigated as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), and their nanocomposites with carbon frequently show better performance in galvanostatic cycling studies, compared to the pristine metal oxide. An in situ, scalable method for creating a variety of transition metal oxide-carbon nanocomposites has been developed based on free-radical polymerization and cross-linking of poly(acrylonitrile) in the presence of the metal oxide precursor containing vinyl groups. The approach yields a cross-linked polymer network, which uniformly incorporates nanometre-sized transition metal oxide particles. Thermal treatment of the organic-inorganic hybrid material produces nearly monodisperse metal oxide nanoparticles uniformly embedded in a porous carbon matrix. Cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic cycling electrochemical measurements in a lithium half-cell are used to evaluate the electrochemical properties of a Fe3O 4-carbon composite created using this approach. These measurements reveal that when used as the anode in a lithium battery, the material exhibits stable cycling performance at both low and high current densities. We further show that the polymer/nanoparticle copolymerization approach can be readily adapted to synthesize metal oxide/carbon nanocomposites based on different particle chemistries for applications in both the anode and cathode of LIBs. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  2. Investigation of the resistance of several new metallic reinforcing bars to chloride-induced corrosion in concrete.

    2003-01-01

    The Virginia Department of Transportation recently initiated a search for metallic reinforcing bars that are not only more durable and corrosion resistant than the epoxy-coated bars currently used, but also economical. In the last few years, several ...

  3. Sustainable recovery of valuable metals from spent lithium-ion batteries using DL-malic acid: Leaching and kinetics aspect.

    Sun, Conghao; Xu, Liping; Chen, Xiangping; Qiu, Tianyun; Zhou, Tao

    2018-02-01

    An eco-friendly and benign process has been investigated for the dissolution of Li, Co, Ni, and Mn from the cathode materials of spent LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 batteries, using DL-malic acid as the leaching agent in this study. The leaching efficiencies of Li, Co, Ni, and Mn can reach about 98.9%, 94.3%, 95.1%, and 96.4%, respectively, under the leaching conditions of DL-malic acid concentration of 1.2 M, hydrogen peroxide content of 1.5 vol.%, solid-to-liquid ratio of 40 g l -1 , leaching temperature of 80°C, and leaching time of 30 min. In addition, the leaching kinetic was investigated based on the shrinking model and the results reveal that the leaching reaction is controlled by chemical reactions within 10 min with activation energies (Ea) of 21.3 kJ·mol -1 , 30.4 kJ·mol -1 , 27.9 kJ·mol -1 , and 26.2 kJ·mol -1 for Li, Co, Ni, and Mn, respectively. Diffusion process becomes the controlled step with a prolonged leaching time from 15 to 30 min, and the activation energies (Ea) are 20.2 kJ·mol -1 , 28.9 kJ·mol -1 , 26.3 kJ·mol -1 , and 25.0 kJ·mol -1 for Li, Co, Ni, and Mn, respectively. This hydrometallurgical route was found to be effective and environmentally friendly for leaching metals from spent lithium batteries.

  4. Silver decorated LaMnO_3 nanorod/graphene composite electrocatalysts as reversible metal-air battery electrodes

    Hu, Jie; Liu, Qiunan; Shi, Lina; Shi, Ziwei; Huang, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Silver decorated LaMnO_3 nanorod/reduced graphene oxide composite possess excellent bifunctional electrocatalytic activity and good electrochemical stability in alkaline medium. - Highlights: • Silver decorated LaMnO_3 nanorod/graphene composite were synthesized for the first time. • The ORR and OER of composite in alkaline medium were evaluated. • This composite as an efficient bifunctional catalyst has a good cycle performance. - Abstract: Perovskite LaMnO_3 nanorod/reduced graphene oxides (LMO-NR/RGO) decorated with Ag nanoparticles are studied as a bifunctional catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in alkaline electrolyte. LMO-NR/RGO composites are synthesized by using cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as template via a simple hydrothermal reaction followed by heat treatment; overlaying of Ag nanoparticles is obtained through a traditional silver mirror reaction. Electron microscopy reveals that LMO-NR is embedded between the sheets of RGO, and the material is homogeneously overlaid with Ag nanoparticles. The unique composite morphology of Ag/LMO-NR/RGO not only enhances the electron transport property by increasing conductivity but also facilitates the diffusion of electrolytes and oxygen. As confirmed by electrochemical testing, Ag/LMO-NR/RGO exhibits very strong synergy with Ag nanoparticles, LMO-NR, and RGO, and the catalytic activities of Ag/LMO-NR/RGO during ORR and OER are significantly improved. With the novel catalyst, the homemade zinc-air battery can be reversibly charged and discharged and display a stable cycle performance, indicating the great potential of this composite as an efficient bifunctional electrocatalyst for metal-air batteries.

  5. Silver decorated LaMnO{sub 3} nanorod/graphene composite electrocatalysts as reversible metal-air battery electrodes

    Hu, Jie [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science & Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, 066004 (China); Hebei Key Laboratory of Applied Chemistry, Department of Environment and Chemistry, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, 066004 (China); Liu, Qiunan; Shi, Lina; Shi, Ziwei [Hebei Key Laboratory of Applied Chemistry, Department of Environment and Chemistry, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, 066004 (China); Huang, Hao, E-mail: huanghao@ysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science & Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, 066004 (China); Henan Huanghe Whirlwind Co. Ltd., Changge, 461500 (China)

    2017-04-30

    Graphical abstract: Silver decorated LaMnO{sub 3} nanorod/reduced graphene oxide composite possess excellent bifunctional electrocatalytic activity and good electrochemical stability in alkaline medium. - Highlights: • Silver decorated LaMnO{sub 3} nanorod/graphene composite were synthesized for the first time. • The ORR and OER of composite in alkaline medium were evaluated. • This composite as an efficient bifunctional catalyst has a good cycle performance. - Abstract: Perovskite LaMnO{sub 3} nanorod/reduced graphene oxides (LMO-NR/RGO) decorated with Ag nanoparticles are studied as a bifunctional catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in alkaline electrolyte. LMO-NR/RGO composites are synthesized by using cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as template via a simple hydrothermal reaction followed by heat treatment; overlaying of Ag nanoparticles is obtained through a traditional silver mirror reaction. Electron microscopy reveals that LMO-NR is embedded between the sheets of RGO, and the material is homogeneously overlaid with Ag nanoparticles. The unique composite morphology of Ag/LMO-NR/RGO not only enhances the electron transport property by increasing conductivity but also facilitates the diffusion of electrolytes and oxygen. As confirmed by electrochemical testing, Ag/LMO-NR/RGO exhibits very strong synergy with Ag nanoparticles, LMO-NR, and RGO, and the catalytic activities of Ag/LMO-NR/RGO during ORR and OER are significantly improved. With the novel catalyst, the homemade zinc-air battery can be reversibly charged and discharged and display a stable cycle performance, indicating the great potential of this composite as an efficient bifunctional electrocatalyst for metal-air batteries.

  6. Battery Technology Stores Clean Energy

    2008-01-01

    Headquartered in Fremont, California, Deeya Energy Inc. is now bringing its flow batteries to commercial customers around the world after working with former Marshall Space Flight Center scientist, Lawrence Thaller. Deeya's liquid-cell batteries have higher power capability than Thaller's original design, are less expensive than lead-acid batteries, are a clean energy alternative, and are 10 to 20 times less expensive than nickel-metal hydride batteries, lithium-ion batteries, and fuel cell options.

  7. Organic reductants based leaching: A sustainable process for the recovery of valuable metals from spent lithium ion batteries.

    Chen, Xiangping; Guo, Chunxiu; Ma, Hongrui; Li, Jiazhu; Zhou, Tao; Cao, Ling; Kang, Duozhi

    2018-05-01

    It is significant to recover metal values from spent lithium ion batteries (LIBs) for the alleviation or prevention of potential risks towards environmental pollution and public health, as well as for the conservation of valuable metals. Herein a hydrometallurgical process was proposed to explore the possibility for the leaching of different metals from waste cathodic materials (LiCoO 2 ) of spent LIBs using organics as reductant in sulfuric acid medium. According to the leaching results, about 98% Co and 96% Li can be leached under the optimal experimental conditions of reaction temperature - 95 °C, reaction time - 120 min, reductive agent dosage - 0.4 g/g, slurry density - 25 g/L, concentration of sulfuric acid-3 mol/L in H 2 SO 4  + glucose leaching system. Similar results (96% Co and 100% Li) can be obtained in H 2 SO 4  + sucrose leaching system under optimized leaching conditions. Despite a complete leaching of Li (∼100%), only 54% Co can be dissolved in the H 2 SO 4  + cellulose leaching system under optimized leaching conditions. Finally, different characterization methods, including UV-Vis, FT-IR, SEM and XRD, were employed for the tentative exploration of reductive leaching reactions using organic as reductant in sulfuric acid medium. All the leaching and characterization results confirm that both glucose and sucrose are effective reductants during leaching, while cellulose should be further degraded to organics with low molecular weights to achieve a satisfactory leaching performance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Alkali-Metal-Ion-Functionalized Graphene Oxide as a Superior Anode Material for Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Wan, Fang; Li, Yu-Han; Liu, Dai-Huo; Guo, Jin-Zhi; Sun, Hai-Zhu; Zhang, Jing-Ping; Wu, Xing-Long

    2016-06-06

    Although graphene oxide (GO) has large interlayer spacing, it is still inappropriate to use it as an anode for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) because of the existence of H-bonding between the layers and ultralow electrical conductivity which impedes the Na(+) and e(-) transformation. To solve these issues, chemical, thermal, and electrochemical procedures are traditionally employed to reduce GO nanosheets. However, these strategies are still unscalable, consume high amounts of energy, and are expensive for practical application. Here, for the first time, we describe the superior Na storage of unreduced GO by a simple and scalable alkali-metal-ion (Li(+) , Na(+) , K(+) )-functionalized process. The various alkali metals ions, connecting with the oxygen on GO, have played different effects on morphology, porosity, degree of disorder, and electrical conductivity, which are crucial for Na-storage capabilities. Electrochemical tests demonstrated that sodium-ion-functionalized GO (GNa) has shown outstanding Na-storage performance in terms of excellent rate capability and long-term cycle life (110 mAh g(-1) after 600 cycles at 1 A g(-1) ) owing to its high BET area, appropriate mesopore, high degree of disorder, and improved electrical conductivity. Theoretical calculations were performed using the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) to further study the Na-storage capabilities of functionalized GO. These calculations have indicated that the Na-O bond has the lowest binding energy, which is beneficial to insertion/extraction of the sodium ion, hence the GNa has shown the best Na-storage properties among all comparatives functionalized by other alkali metal ions. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Characterization of the Unusual Product from the Reaction between Cobalt(II) Chloride, Ethane-1,2-diamine, and Hydrochloric Acid: An Undergraduate Project Involving an Unknown Metal Complex.

    Curtis, Neil F.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the need for student research-type chemistry projects based upon "unknown" metal complexes. Describes an experiment involving the product from the reaction between cobalt(II) chloride, ethane-1,2-diamine (en) and concentrated hydrochloric acid. Outlines the preparation of the cobalt complex, along with procedure, results and…

  10. Stabilization of Li Metal Anode in DMSO-Based Electrolytes via Optimization of Salt-Solvent Coordination for Li-O 2 Batteries

    Liu, Bin [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Xu, Wu [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Yan, Pengfei [Environmental and Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Kim, Sun Tai [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Department of Energy Engineering, School of Energy and Chemical Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan 689-798 South Korea; Engelhard, Mark H. [Environmental and Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Sun, Xiuliang [Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Mei, Donghai [Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Cho, Jaephil [Department of Energy Engineering, School of Energy and Chemical Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan 689-798 South Korea; Wang, Chong-Min [Environmental and Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Zhang, Ji-Guang [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA

    2017-03-08

    The conventional DMSO-based electrolyte (1 M lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) in DMSO) is unstable against the Li metal anode and therefore cannot be used directly in practical Li-O2 batteries. Here, we demonstrate that a highly concentrated electrolyte based on LiTFSI in DMSO (with a molar ratio of 1:3) can greatly improve the stability of the Li metal anode against DMSO and significantly improve the cycling stability of Li-O2 batteries. This highly concentrated electrolyte contains no free DMSO solvent molecules, but only complexes of (TFSI–)a-Li+-(DMSO)b (where a + b = 4), and thus enhances their stability with Li metal anodes. In addition, such salt-solvent complexes have higher Gibbs activation energy barriers than the free DMSO solvent molecules, indicating improved stability of the electrolyte against the attack of superoxide radical anions. Therefore, the stability of this highly concentrated electrolyte at both Li metal anodes and carbon-based air electrodes has been greatly enhanced, resulting in improved cyclic stability of Li-O2 batteries. The fundamental stability of the electrolyte with free-solvent against the chemical and electrochemical reactions can also be used to enhance the stability of other electrochemical systems.

  11. Solid state cathode materials for secondary magnesium-ion batteries that are compatible with magnesium metal anodes in water-free electrolyte

    Crowe, Adam J.; Bartlett, Bart M.

    2016-01-01

    With high elemental abundance, large volumetric capacity, and dendrite-free metal deposition, magnesium metal anodes offer promise in beyond-lithium-ion batteries. However, the increased charge density associated with the divalent magnesium-ion (Mg 2+ ), relative to lithium-ion (Li + ) hinders the ion-insertion and extraction processes within many materials and structures known for lithium-ion cathodes. As a result, many recent investigations incorporate known amounts of water within the electrolyte to provide temporary solvation of the Mg 2+ , improving diffusion kinetics. Unfortunately with the addition of water, compatibility with magnesium metal anodes disappears due to forming an ion-insulating passivating layer. In this short review, recent advances in solid state cathode materials for rechargeable magnesium-ion batteries are highlighted, with a focus on cathode materials that do not require water contaminated electrolyte solutions for ion insertion and extraction processes. - Graphical abstract: In this short review, we present candidate materials for reversible Mg-battery cathodes that are compatible with magnesium metal in water-free electrolytes. The data suggest that soft, polarizable anions are required for reversible cycling.

  12. Electrochemical investigations and characterization of a metal hydride alloy (MmNi3.6Al0.4Co0.7Mn0.3) for nickel metal hydride batteries

    Begum, S. Nathira; Muralidharan, V.S.; Basha, C. Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    The use of new hydrogen absorbing alloys as negative electrodes in rechargeable batteries has allowed the consideration of nickel/metal hydride (Ni/MH) batteries to replace the conventional nickel cadmium alkaline or lead acid batteries. In this study the performance of trisubstituted hydrogen storage alloy (MmNi 3.6 Al 0.4 Co 0.7 Mn 0.3 ) electrodes used as anodes in Ni/MH secondary batteries were evaluated. MH electrodes were prepared and the electrochemical utilization of the active material was investigated. Cyclic voltammetric technique was used to analyze the beneficial effect of the alloy by various substitutions. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopic measurements of the Ni/MH battery were made at various states of depth of discharge. The effect of temperature on specific capacity is studied and specific capacity as a function of discharge current density was also studied and the results were analyzed. The alloy metal hydride electrode was subjected to charge/discharge cycle for more than 200 cycles. The discharge capacities of the alloy remains at 250 mAh/g with a nominal fading in capacity (to the extent of ∼20 mAh/g) on prolonged cycling

  13. Facile and large-scale preparation of sandwich-structured graphene-metal oxide composites as anode materials for Li-ion batteries

    Fang, Hongmei; Zhao, Li; Yue, Wenbo; Wang, Yuan; Jiang, Yang; Zhang, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Graphene-based metal oxides are desirable as potential anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) owing to their superior electrochemical properties. In this work, sandwich-structured graphene-metal oxide (ZnO, NiO) composites are facilely synthesized on a large scale through self-assembly of graphene oxide nanosheets and metal ammine complexes, and then thermal decomposition of the self-assembled products. ZnO or NiO nanoparticles with diameters of 5∼10 nm are immobilized between the layers of graphene nanosheets, which may provide the space for accommodating the volume change of metal oxides during cycles, and highly improve the electronic conductivity of the composites. Accordingly, these sandwich-structured composites exhibit enhanced electrochemical performances compared to metal oxide particles or stacked graphene nanosheets. This facile synthesis method is very suitable for the large-scale production of three-dimensional graphene-based composites as high-performance anodes for LIBs.

  14. Synthesis-microstructure-performance relationship of layered transition metal oxides as cathode for rechargeable sodium batteries prepared by high-temperature calcination.

    Xie, Man; Luo, Rui; Lu, Jun; Chen, Renjie; Wu, Feng; Wang, Xiaoming; Zhan, Chun; Wu, Huiming; Albishri, Hassan M; Al-Bogami, Abdullah S; El-Hady, Deia Abd; Amine, Khalil

    2014-10-08

    Research on sodium batteries has made a comeback because of concern regarding the limited resources and cost of lithium for Li-ion batteries. From the standpoint of electrochemistry and economics, Mn- or Fe-based layered transition metal oxides should be the most suitable cathode candidates for affordable sodium batteries. Herein, this paper reports a novel cathode material, layered Na1+x(Fey/2Niy/2Mn1-y)1-xO2 (x = 0.1-0.5), synthesized through a facile coprecipitation process combined with subsequent calcination. For such cathode material calcined at 800 °C for 20 h, the Na/Na1+x(Fey/2Niy/2Mn1-y)1-xO2 (x = 0.4) electrode exhibited a good capacity of 99.1 mAh g(-1) (cycled at 1.5-4.0 V) and capacity retention over 87% after 50 cycles. Optimization of this material would make layered transition metal oxides a strong candidate for the Na-ion battery cathode.

  15. First-Principles Investigations of the Working Mechanism of 2D h-BN as an Interfacial Layer for the Anode of Lithium Metal Batteries.

    Shi, Le; Xu, Ao; Zhao, Tianshou

    2017-01-18

    An issue with the use of metallic lithium as an anode material for lithium-based batteries is dendrite growth, causing a periodic breaking and repair of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer. Adding 2D atomic crystals, such as h-BN, as an interfacial layer between the lithium metal anode and liquid electrolyte has been demonstrated to be effective to mitigate dendrite growth, thereby enhancing the Columbic efficiency of lithium metal batteries. But the underlying mechanism leading to the reduced dendrite growth remains unknown. In this work, with the aid of first-principle calculations, we find that the interaction between the h-BN and lithium metal layers is a weak van der Waals force, and two atomic layers of h-BN are thick enough to block the electron tunneling from lithium metal to electrolyte, thus prohibiting the decomposition of electrolyte. The interlayer spacing between the h-BN and lithium metal layers can provide larger adsorption energies toward lithium atoms than that provided by bare lithium or h-BN, making lithium atoms prefer to intercalate under the cover of h-BN during the plating process. The combined high stiffness of h-BN and the low diffusion energy barriers of lithium at the Li/h-BN interfaces induce a uniform distribution of lithium under h-BN, therefore effectively suppressing dendrite growth.

  16. Monitoring the solid-state electrochemistry of Cu(2,7-AQDC) (AQDC = anthraquinone dicarboxylate) in a lithium battery: coexistence of metal and ligand redox activities in a metal-organic framework.

    Zhang, Zhongyue; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Awaga, Kunio

    2014-11-19

    By adopting a facile synthetic strategy, we obtained a microporous redox-active metal-organic framework (MOF), namely, Cu(2,7-AQDC) (2,7-H2AQDC = 2,7-anthraquinonedicarboxylic acid) (1), and utilized it as a cathode active material in lithium batteries. With a voltage window of 4.0-1.7 V, both metal clusters and anthraquinone groups in the ligands exhibited reversible redox activity. The valence change of copper cations was clearly evidenced by in situ XANES analysis. By controlling the voltage window of operation, extremely high recyclability of batteries was achieved, suggesting the framework was robust. This MOF is the first example of a porous material showing independent redox activity on both metal cluster nodes and ligand sites.

  17. Sodium-Metal-Halide Battery Energy Storage for DoD Installations

    2017-10-24

    electrical equipment for AC interface PDE Pacific Data Electric V&F Voltage and Frequency, power quality measurements VA Volt-Amp, units for apparent...Metal-Halide technology could operate at extreme ambient temperatures, but the early prototypes did struggle with managing sand ingress.  The...peak power Not tested 3. PV smoothing Measure improvement in power quality Power meter measurements Power quality improvements 15-min

  18. Leaching Behavior of Slags from AN Old Lead Smelter in Chihuahua, Mexico: Metals, Chlorides, Nitrates, Sulfates and Tds Analyses

    Espejel-Garcia, D.; Wenglas-Lara, G.; Villalobos-Aragon, A.; Espejel-Garcia, V. V.

    2013-05-01

    Waste materials (such as, smelter slags, waste glass, tires, plastics, rubbish, ashes, etc.), have a large potential to substitute natural materials, reducing costs, especially for the construction industry. Smelter slags are resistant and have better compression strength values in comparison to natural aggregates, and generally are far beyond of what the standard ratios need to qualify a material as a good one for construction. But this material has a big problem within it: the existence of toxic elements and compounds in high concentrations, which means that water and soil contamination can be present after water infiltrates through this material; so we perform leaching experiments to characterize and measure the possible contamination under controlled conditions. To perform the slags-leaching experiments, we used an EA-NEN-7375-2004 tank test standard from Netherlands. This test was selected because to our knowledge it is the only one which allows the use of coarse material, as the one utilized in construction. The leaching experiments sampling was performed at different times: 6, 24, 168 and 360 hours, to compare the leachate concentration at the two different pH's values (5 and 8) selected to simulate real conditions. For the leaching experiments, the slags were mixed with natural road base material (gravel-sands from volcanic rocks) at different proportions of 30% and 50%. In order to understand the slags' leaching behavior, other experiments were carried out with the pure material, for both (slags and natural aggregates). After analyses by ICP-OES , the slags from this smelter in Chihuahua contain Pb (0.5 - 4 wt.%), Zn (15-35 wt.%) and As (0.6 wt.%), as well such as: bicarbonates, chlorides, nitrates, sulfates, Mg, K, Na, Ca and TDS. Based on the results of the leaching analyses, via atomic absorption technique, we conclude that Pb and As concentrations are provided by the slags, meanwhile, the bicarbonates, chlorides, Na and Ca are contributed by the road

  19. Site-specific transition metal occupation in multicomponent pyrophosphate for improved electrochemical and thermal properties in lithium battery cathodes: a combined experimental and theoretical study.

    Shakoor, Rana A; Kim, Heejin; Cho, Woosuk; Lim, Soo Yeon; Song, Hannah; Lee, Jung Woo; Kang, Jeung Ku; Kim, Yong-Tae; Jung, Yousung; Choi, Jang Wook

    2012-07-18

    As an attempt to develop lithium ion batteries with excellent performance, which is desirable for a variety of applications including mobile electronics, electrical vehicles, and utility grids, the battery community has continuously pursued cathode materials that function at higher potentials with efficient kinetics for lithium insertion and extraction. By employing both experimental and theoretical tools, herein we report multicomponent pyrophosphate (Li(2)MP(2)O(7), M = Fe(1/3)Mn(1/3)Co(1/3)) cathode materials with novel and advantageous properties as compared to the single-component analogues and other multicomponent polyanions. Li(2)Fe(1/3)Mn(1/3)Co(1/3)P(2)O(7) is formed on the basis of a solid solution among the three individual transition-metal-based pyrophosphates. The unique crystal structure of pyrophosphate and the first principles calculations show that different transition metals have a tendency to preferentially occupy either octahedral or pyramidal sites, and this site-specific transition metal occupation leads to significant improvements in various battery properties: a single-phase mode for Li insertion/extraction, improved cell potentials for Fe(2+)/Fe(3+) (raised by 0.18 eV) and Co(2+)/Co(3+) (lowered by 0.26 eV), and increased activity for Mn(2+)/Mn(3+) with significantly reduced overpotential. We reveal that the favorable energy of transition metal mixing and the sequential redox reaction for each TM element with a sufficient redox gap is the underlying physical reason for the preferential single-phase mode of Li intercalation/deintercalation reaction in pyrophosphate, a general concept that can be applied to other multicomponent systems. Furthermore, an extremely small volume change of ~0.7% between the fully charged and discharged states and the significantly enhanced thermal stability are observed for the present material, the effects unseen in previous multicomponent battery materials.

  20. Adsorption of benzyldimethylhexadecylammonium chloride at the hydrophobic silica-water interface studied by total internal reflection Raman spectroscopy: effects of silica surface properties and metal salt addition.

    Grenoble, Zlata; Baldelli, Steven

    2013-08-29

    The adsorption of the cationic surfactant benzyldimethylhexadecylammonium (BDMHA(+)) chloride was studied at an octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS)-monolayer-modified silica-water interface by Raman spectroscopy in total internal reflection (TIR) geometry. The present study demonstrates the capabilities of this spectroscopic technique to evaluate thermodynamic and kinetic BDMHA(+)Cl(-) adsorption properties at the hydrophobic silica surface. The surface coverage of BDMHA(+) decreased by 50% at the hydrophobic OTS-silica surface relative to the surface coverage on bare silica; the dominating driving mechanisms for surfactant adsorption were identified as hydrophobic effects and head group charge screening by the electrolyte counterions. Addition of magnesium metal salt (MgCl2) to the aqueous solution (∼ neutral pH) lowered the surface coverage and moderately increased the Langmuir adsorption constants relative to those of the pure surfactant. These trends were previously observed at the hydrophilic, negatively charged silica surface but with a smaller change in the Gibbs free energy of adsorption at the hydrophobic silica surface. The hydrophobic OTS-silica surface properties resulted in shorter times for the surfactant to reach steady-state adsorption conditions compared to the slow adsorption kinetics previously seen with the surfactant at the hydrophilic surface. Adsorption isotherms, based on Raman signal intensities from spectral analysis, were developed according to the Langmuir adsorption model for the pure surfactant at the OTS-silica-water interface; the modified Langmuir model was applied to the surfactant adsorption in the presence of 5, 10, 50, and 100 mM magnesium chloride. Spectral analysis of the Raman scattering intensities and geometric considerations suggests a hemimicelle-type surface aggregate as the most likely surfactant structure at the OTS-silica surface. The different kinetics observed at the hydrophilic versus the hydrophobic silica surface

  1. High capacity V-based metal hydride electrodes for rechargeable batteries

    Yang, Heng; Weadock, Nicholas J.; Tan, Hongjin; Fultz, Brent

    2017-01-01

    We report the successful development of Ti_(29)V_(62−x)Ni_9Cr_x (x = 0, 6, 12) body centered cubic metal hydride (MH) electrodes by addressing vanadium corrosion and dissolution in KOH solutions. By identifying oxygen as the primary source of corrosion and eliminating oxygen with an Ar-purged cell, the Cr-free Ti_(29)V_(62)Ni_9 alloy electrode achieved a maximum capacity of 594 mAh g^(-1), double the capacity of commercial AB_5 MH electrodes. With coin cells designed to minimize oxygen evolut...

  2. Compact-Nanobox Engineering of Transition Metal Oxides with Enhanced Initial Coulombic Efficiency for Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes.

    Zhu, Yanfei; Hu, Aiping; Tang, Qunli; Zhang, Shiying; Deng, Weina; Li, Yanhua; Liu, Zheng; Fan, Binbin; Xiao, Kuikui; Liu, Jilei; Chen, Xiaohua

    2018-03-14

    A novel strategy is proposed to construct a compact-nanobox (CNB) structure composed of irregular nanograins (average diameter ≈ 10 nm), aiming to confine the electrode-electrolyte contact area and enhance initial Coulombic efficiency (ICE) of transition metal oxide (TMO) anodes. To demonstrate the validity of this attempt, CoO-CNB is taken as an example which is synthesized via a carbothermic reduction method. Benefiting from the compact configuration, electrolyte can only contact the outer surface of the nanobox, keeping the inner CoO nanograins untouched. Therefore, the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation is reduced. Furthermore, the internal cavity leaves enough room for volume variation upon lithiation and delithiation, resulting in superior mechanical stability of the CNB structure and less generation of fresh SEI. Consequently, the SEI remains stable and spatially confined without degradation, and hence, the CoO-CNB electrode delivers an enhanced ICE of 82.2%, which is among the highest values reported for TMO-based anodes in lithium-ion batteries. In addition, the CoO-CNB electrode also demonstrates excellent cyclability with a reversible capacity of 811.6 mA h g -1 (90.4% capacity retention after 100 cycles). These findings open up a new way to design high-ICE electrodes and boost the practical application of TMO anodes.

  3. Metal-Organic Frameworks as Highly Active Electrocatalysts for High-Energy Density, Aqueous Zinc-Polyiodide Redox Flow Batteries.

    Li, Bin; Liu, Jian; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Wei; Reed, David; Liu, Jun; McGrail, Pete; Sprenkle, Vincent

    2016-07-13

    The new aqueous zinc-polyiodide redox flow battery (RFB) system with highly soluble active materials as well as ambipolar and bifunctional designs demonstrated significantly enhanced energy density, which shows great potential to reduce RFB cost. However, the poor kinetic reversibility and electrochemical activity of the redox reaction of I3(-)/I(-) couples on graphite felts (GFs) electrode can result in low energy efficiency. Two nanoporous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), MIL-125-NH2 and UiO-66-CH3, that have high surface areas when introduced to GF surfaces accelerated the I3(-)/I(-) redox reaction. The flow cell with MOF-modified GFs serving as a positive electrode showed higher energy efficiency than the pristine GFs; increases of about 6.4% and 2.7% occurred at the current density of 30 mA/cm(2) for MIL-125-NH2 and UiO-66-CH3, respectively. Moreover, UiO-66-CH3 is more promising due to its excellent chemical stability in the weakly acidic electrolyte. This letter highlights a way for MOFs to be used in the field of RFBs.

  4. Vanadium oxide based cpd. useful as a cathode active material - is used in lithium or alkali metal batteries to prolong life cycles

    1997-01-01

    A mixt. of metallic iron particles and vanadium pentoxide contg. V in its pentavalent state in a liq. is reacted to convert at least some of the pentavalent V to its tetravalent state and form a gel. The liq. phase is then sepd. from the oxide based gel to obtain a solid material(I) comprising Fe......, V and oxygen where at least some of the V is in the tetravalent state. USE-(I) is a cathode active material in electric current producing storage cells. ADVANTAGE-Use of (I) in Li or alkali metal batteries gives prolonged life cycles.Storage cells using (I) have improved capacity during charge...

  5. Chloride removal from plutonium alloy

    Holcomb, H.P.

    1983-01-01

    SRP is evaluating a program to recover plutonium from a metallic alloy that will contain chloride salt impurities. Removal of chloride to sufficiently low levels to prevent damaging corrosion to canyon equipment is feasible as a head-end step following dissolution. Silver nitrate and mercurous nitrate were each successfully used in laboratory tests to remove chloride from simulated alloy dissolver solution containing plutonium. Levels less than 10 ppM chloride were achieved in the supernates over the precipitated and centrifuged insoluble salts. Also, less than 0.05% loss of plutonium in the +3, +4, or +6 oxidation states was incurred via precipitate carrying. These results provide impetus for further study and development of a plant-scale process to recover plutonium from metal alloy at SRP

  6. Nanoporous Hybrid Electrolytes for High-Energy Batteries Based on Reactive Metal Anodes

    Tu, Zhengyuan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca NY 14850 USA; Zachman, Michael J. [School of Applied and Engineering Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca NY 14850 USA; Choudhury, Snehashis [School of Chemical Engineering and Biomolecular Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca NY 14850 USA; Wei, Shuya [School of Chemical Engineering and Biomolecular Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca NY 14850 USA; Ma, Lin [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca NY 14850 USA; Yang, Yuan [Department of Chemistry and Geochemistry, Colorado School of Mines, Golden CO 80401 USA; Kourkoutis, Lena F. [School of Applied and Engineering Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca NY 14850 USA; Kavli Institute at Cornell for Nanoscale Science, Cornell University, Ithaca NY 14853 USA; Archer, Lynden A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca NY 14850 USA; School of Chemical Engineering and Biomolecular Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca NY 14850 USA

    2017-01-06

    Successful strategies for stabilizing electrodeposition of reactive metals, including lithium, sodium, and aluminum are a requirement for safe, high-energy electrochemical storage technologies that utilize these metals as anodes. Unstable deposition produces high-surface area dendritic structures at the anode/electrolyte interface, which causes premature cell failure by complex physical and chemical processes that have presented formidable barriers to progress. Here, it is reported that hybrid electrolytes created by infusing conventional liquid electrolytes into nanoporous membranes provide exceptional ability to stabilize Li. Electrochemical cells based on γ-Al2O3 ceramics with pore diameters below a cut-off value above 200 nm exhibit long-term stability even at a current density of 3 mA cm-2. The effect is not limited to ceramics; similar large enhancements in stability are observed for polypropylene membranes with less monodisperse pores below 450 nm. These findings are critically assessed using theories for ion rectification and electrodeposition reactions in porous solids and show that the source of stable electrodeposition in nanoporous electrolytes is fundamental.

  7. Nanoporous Hybrid Electrolytes for High-Energy Batteries Based on Reactive Metal Anodes

    Tu, Zhengyuan

    2017-01-06

    Successful strategies for stabilizing electrodeposition of reactive metals, including lithium, sodium, and aluminum are a requirement for safe, high-energy electrochemical storage technologies that utilize these metals as anodes. Unstable deposition produces high-surface area dendritic structures at the anode/electrolyte interface, which causes premature cell failure by complex physical and chemical processes that have presented formidable barriers to progress. Here, it is reported that hybrid electrolytes created by infusing conventional liquid electrolytes into nanoporous membranes provide exceptional ability to stabilize Li. Electrochemical cells based on γ-Al2O3 ceramics with pore diameters below a cut-off value above 200 nm exhibit long-term stability even at a current density of 3 mA cm−2. The effect is not limited to ceramics; similar large enhancements in stability are observed for polypropylene membranes with less monodisperse pores below 450 nm. These findings are critically assessed using theories for ion rectification and electrodeposition reactions in porous solids and show that the source of stable electrodeposition in nanoporous electrolytes is fundamental.

  8. Nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) battery using Mg{sub 2}Ni-type hydrogen storage alloy

    Cui, N.; Luo, J.L.; Chuang, K.T. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2000-04-28

    The performance of a sealed prismatic prototype Ni-MH battery having a Mg-Ni-Y-Al alloy anode was investigated. The materials were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The laboratory tests run on this prototype battery as well as the single electrode was compared. The electrochemical behavior was determined using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The battery has a good dischargeability but a high self-discharge rate during storage at open-circuit state. (orig.)

  9. Metals recovery of spent household batteries using a hydrometallurgical process; Recuperacao de metais de sucatas de pilhas e baterias pos-consumo utilizando processamento hidrometalurgico

    Souza, K.P.; Tenorio, J.A.S., E-mail: kprovazi@gmail.co [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    The objective of the work is to study a method for metals recovery from a sample composed by a mixture of the main types of spent household batteries. Segregation of the main metals is investigated using a treatment route consisting of the following steps: manual identified and dismantling, grinding, electric furnace reduction, acid leaching and selective precipitation with sodium hydroxide with and without hydrogen peroxide. Before and after precipitations the solutions had been analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP/OES) and the precipitated analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) with Spectrometry of Energy Dispersion Spectroscopy (EDS). The results had indicated that the great majority of metals had been precipitated in pHs studied, also had co-precipitation or simultaneous precipitation of metals in some pHs. (author)

  10. Improved Accuracy of Density Functional Theory Calculations for CO2 Reduction and Metal-Air Batteries

    Christensen, Rune; Hansen, Heine Anton; Vegge, Tejs

    2015-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations have greatly contributed to the atomic level understanding of electrochemical reactions. However, in some cases, the accuracy can be prohibitively low for a detailed understanding of, e.g. reaction mechanisms. Two cases are examined here, i.e. the elec......Density functional theory (DFT) calculations have greatly contributed to the atomic level understanding of electrochemical reactions. However, in some cases, the accuracy can be prohibitively low for a detailed understanding of, e.g. reaction mechanisms. Two cases are examined here, i.......47 eV and 0.17 eV using metals as reference. The presented approach for error identification is expected to be applicable to a very broad range of systems. References: [1] A. A. Peterson, F. Abild-Pedersen, F. Studt, J. Rossmeisl, and J. K. Nørskov, Energy Environ. Sci., 3,1311 (2010) [2] F. Studt, F...

  11. Recovery of valuable metals from waste cathode materials of spent lithium-ion batteries using mild phosphoric acid

    Chen, Xiangping, E-mail: chenxiangping101@163.com [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science & Technology, Xi’an 710021 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Ma, Hongrui, E-mail: mahr@sust.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science & Technology, Xi’an 710021 (China); Luo, Chuanbao; Zhou, Tao [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2017-03-15

    Graphical abstract: Cobalt can be directly recovered as Co{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} from waste LiCoO{sub 2} using H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} as leaching and precipitating agent. - Highlights: • Phosphoric acid was innovatively used as leaching and precipitating agent. • Over 99% Co and Li can be separated and recovered in a single leaching step. • Co and Li can be separated under mild conditions of 40 °C and 0.7 M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. • Activation energy values for Co and Li are 7.3 and 10.168 kJ/mol. • Cobalt phosphate (97.1% in purity) can be obtained as the leaching product. - Abstract: Sustainable recycling of valuable metals from spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) may be necessary to alleviate the depletion of strategic metal resources and potential risk of environmental pollution. Herein a hydrometallurgical process was proposed to explore the possibility for the recovery of valuable metals from the cathode materials (LiCoO{sub 2}) of spent LIBs using phosphoric acid as both leaching and precipitating agent under mild leaching conditions. According to the leaching results, over 99% Co can be separated and recovered as Co{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} in a short-cut process involved merely with leaching and filtrating, under the optimized leaching conditions of 40 °C (T), 60 min (t), 4 vol.% H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, 20 mL g{sup −1} (L/S) and 0.7 mol/L H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. Then leaching kinetics was investigated based on the logarithmic rate kinetics model and the obtained results indicate that the leaching of Co and Li fits well with this model and the activation energies (Ea) for Co and Li are 7.3 and 10.2 kJ/mol, respectively. Finally, it can be discovered from characterization results that the obtained product is 97.1% pure cobalt phosphate (Co{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}).

  12. Gas atomization processing of tin and silicon modified LaNi5 for nickel-metal hydride battery applications

    Ting, Jason [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1999-02-12

    Numerous researchers have studied the relevant material properties of so-called AB5 alloys for battery applications. These studies involved LaNi5 substituted alloys which were prepared using conventional cast and crush alloying techniques. While valuable to the understanding of metal hydride effects, the previous work nearly ignored the potential for alternative direct powder production methods, like high pressure gas atomization (HPGA). Thus, there is a need to understand the relationship between gas atomization processes, powder particle solidification phases, and hydrogen absorption properties of ultra fine (< 25 μm) atomized powders with high surface area for enhanced battery performance. Concurrently, development of a gas atomization nozzle that is more efficient than all current designs is needed to increase the yield of ultrafine AB5 alloy powder for further processing advantage. Gas atomization processing of the AB5 alloys was demonstrated to be effective in producing ultrafine spherical powders that were resilient to hydrogen cycling for the benefit of improving corrosion resistance in battery application. These ultrafine powders benefited from the rapid solidification process by having refined solute segregation in the microstructure of the gas atomized powders which enabled a rapid anneal treatment of the powders. The author has demonstrated the ability to produce high yields of ultrafine powder efficiently and cost effectively, using the new HPGA-III technology. Thus, the potential benefits of processing AB5 alloys using the new HPGA technology could reduce manufacturing cost of nickel-metal hydride powder. In the near future, the manufacture of AB5 alloy powders could become a continuous and rapid production process. The economic benefit of an improved AB5 production process may thereby encourage the use of nickel-metal hydride rechargeable batteries in electrical vehicle

  13. Reactivity of Cu with poly(tetrafluoroethylene) and poly(vinyl chloride): Effect of pre- and post-metallization modification on the metal/polymer interface

    Perry, C.C.; Torres, J.; Carlo, S.R.; Fairbrother, D. Howard

    2002-01-01

    The reactivity of Cu with poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) and poly(vinylchloride) (PVC) during thermal evaporation, as well as the effect of pre- and post-metallization Ar + ion and x-ray mediated surface modification treatments on the metal/polymer interface, have been studied using in situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ex situ atomic force microscopy (AFM). During thermal evaporation, copper was unreactive on PTFE but reacted with PVC to form CuCl. Pretreatment of PTFE or PVC surfaces by Ar + ion or x-ray irradiation did not modify the chemical reactivity of the polymer surface during subsequent Cu deposition, although significant morphological changes were observed on PTFE by AFM. In contrast, post-metallization modification of the Cu/PTFE interface by Ar + ion or x-ray irradiation lead to the production of CuF 2 , and increased the yield of CuCl in the Cu/PVC system. In either the Cu/PTFE or Cu/PVC systems, the maximum concentration of copper halide formed and dependence upon treatment time was found to be similar for either Ar + ion or x-ray irradiation post-metallization treatment strategies, suggesting a common reaction mechanism

  14. Button batteries

    Swallowing batteries ... These devices use button batteries: Calculators Cameras Hearing aids Penlights Watches ... If a person puts the battery up their nose and breathes it further in, ... problems Cough Pneumonia (if the battery goes unnoticed) ...

  15. Stress corrosion crack growth studies on nitrogen added AISI type 316 stainless steel and its weld metal in boiling acidified sodium chloride solution using the fracture mechanics approach

    Shaikh, H.; George, G.; Khatak, H.S. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Div. of Metallurgy; Schneider, F.; Mummert, K. [Institut fuer Festkoerper- und Werkstofforschung Dresden e.V. (Germany). Inst. fuer Metallische Werkstoffe

    2000-10-01

    Compact tension specimens of nitrogen-added AISI type 316 austenitic stainless steel and its weld metal were subject to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) testing in a boiling solution containing 5 M sodium chloride + 0.15 M sodium sulphate + 2.5 ml/l hydrochloric acid solution using the constant extension rate testing (CERT) technique. The extension rate of testing was 10 microns per hour. The threshold values of stress intensify factor (K{sub ISCC}) and J-integral (J{sub ISCC}) were taken as those values of K{sub I} and J{sub I} at which about 25 microns of SCC crack growth was observed. These threshold values were about four times higher and plateau crack growth rates (PCGR) were nearly one order of magnitude lower for the base metal vis-a-vis the weld metal. Fractographic observations indicated failure by transgranular SCC (TGSCC) of austenite in both the base and weld metal. No stress-assisted dissolution of delta-ferrite or its interface with austenite, was observed. (orig.) [German] CT-Proben von Grund- und Schweissnahtwerkstoff des stickstoffhaltigen Stahles AISI 316 LN wurden Spannungsrisskorrosionstests in siedender chloridhaltiger Loesung (5 M Natriumchlorid/0,15 M Natriumsulfat/0,03 M Salzsaeure) unterzogen. Die Tests erfolgten bei konstanter Dehnrate (CERT-Test) von 10 {mu}m/h. Als Schwellwerte der Initiierung von Spannungsrisskorrosion K{sub ISCC} und I{sub ISCC} wurden die Werte des Spannungsintensitaetsfaktors K{sub I} und des J-Integrals J{sub I} ermittelt, bei denen ein Risswachstum von 25 {mu}m auftrat. Dabei wies der Grundwerkstoff 4-fach hoehere Schwellwerte K{sub ISCC} und J{sub ISCC} auf als der Schweissnahtwerkstoff. Auch die Risswachstumsraten im Plateaubereich der Risswachstumsrate-Spannungsintensitaetskruven waren am Grundwerkstoff um eine Groessenordnung geringer als am Schweissnahtwerkstoff. Die fraktorgrahischen Untersuchungen zeigten an beiden Materialien Schaedigung durch transkristalline Spannungsrisskorrosion. Eine

  16. Metal-Organic Frameworks Derived Okra-like SnO2 Encapsulated in Nitrogen-Doped Graphene for Lithium Ion Battery.

    Zhou, Xiangyang; Chen, Sanmei; Yang, Juan; Bai, Tao; Ren, Yongpeng; Tian, Hangyu

    2017-04-26

    A facile process is developed to prepare SnO 2 -based composites through using metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as precursors. The nitrogen-doped graphene wrapped okra-like SnO 2 composites (SnO 2 @N-RGO) are successfully synthesized for the first time by using Sn-based metal-organic frameworks (Sn-MOF) as precursors. When utilized as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, the SnO 2 @N-RGO composites possess a remarkably superior reversible capacity of 1041 mA h g -1 at a constant current of 200 mA g -1 after 180 charge-discharge processes and excellent rate capability. The excellent performance can be primarily ascribed to the unique structure of 1D okra-like SnO 2 in SnO 2 @N-RGO which are actually composed of a great number of SnO 2 primary crystallites and numerous well-defined internal voids, can effectively alleviate the huge volume change of SnO 2 , and facilitate the transport and storage of lithium ions. Besides, the structural stability acquires further improvement when the okra-like SnO 2 are wrapped by N-doped graphene. Similarly, this synthetic strategy can be employed to synthesize other high-capacity metal-oxide-based composites starting from various metal-organic frameworks, exhibiting promising application in novel electrode material field of lithium-ion batteries.

  17. A self-supported metal-organic framework derived Co3O4 film prepared by an in-situ electrochemically assistant process as Li ion battery anodes

    Zhao, Guangyu; Sun, Xin; Zhang, Li; Chen, Xuan; Mao, Yachun; Sun, Kening

    2018-06-01

    Derivates of metal-organic frameworks are promising materials of self-supported Li ion battery anodes due to the good dispersion of active materials, conductive scaffold, and mass transport channels in them. However, the discontinuous growth and poor adherence of metal-organic framework films on substrates hamper their development in self-supported electrodes. In the present study, cobalt-based metal-organic frameworks are anchored on Ti nanowire arrays through an electrochemically assistant method, and then the metal-organic framework films are pyrolyzed to carbon-containing, porous, self-supported anodes of Li ion battery anodes. Scanning electron microscope images indicate that, a layer cobaltosic oxide polyhedrons inserted by the nanowires are obtained with the controllable in-situ synthesis. Thanks to the good dispersion and adherence of cobaltosic oxide polyhedrons on Ti substrates, the self-supported anodes exhibit remarkable rate capability and durability. They possess a capacity of 300 mAh g-1 at a rate current of 20 A g-1, and maintain 2000 charge/discharge cycles without obvious decay.

  18. Metal chloride hydrates as Lewis acid catalysts in multicomponent synthesis of 2,4,5-triarylimidazoles or 2,4,5-triaryloxazoles

    Marques, Marcelo V. [Departamento de Engenharia de Processos, Fundacao de Ciencia e Tecnologia, Cachoeirinha, RS (Brazil); Russowsky, Dennis, E-mail: dennis@iq.ufrgs.br [Laboratorio de Sinteses Organicas, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre-RS (Brazil); Ruthner, Marcelo M.; Fontoura, Luiz A.M. [Curso de Quimica, Universidade Luterana do Brasil, Canoas, RS (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    A series of nine metal chloride hydrates (ZnCl{sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O, SnCl{sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O, CdCl{sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O, MnCl{sub 2}.4H{sub 2}O, CoCl{sub 2}.6H{sub 2}O, SrCl{sub 2}.6H{sub 2}O, NiCl{sub 2}.6H{sub 2}O, CrCl{sub 3}.6H{sub 2}O and CeCl{sub 3}.7H{sub 2}O) was investigated as mild and inexpensive Lewis acid catalysts to promote the multicomponent synthesis of triarylimidazoles. Reactions starting from benzil showed the best results when SnCl{sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O was used, while for benzoin as the starting material, CeCl{sub 3}.7H{sub 2}O was more efficient. All reactions were performed in EtOH as solvent. These catalysts were also successfully employed in the synthesis of triaryloxazoles. (author)

  19. Highly active, bi-functional and metal-free B4C-nanoparticle-modified graphite felt electrodes for vanadium redox flow batteries

    Jiang, H. R.; Shyy, W.; Wu, M. C.; Wei, L.; Zhao, T. S.

    2017-10-01

    The potential of B4C as a metal-free catalyst for vanadium redox reactions is investigated by first-principles calculations. Results show that the central carbon atom of B4C can act as a highly active reaction site for redox reactions, due primarily to the abundant unpaired electrons around it. The catalytic effect is then verified experimentally by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests, both of which demonstrate that B4C nanoparticles can enhance the kinetics for both V2+/V3+ and VO2+/VO2+ redox reactions, indicating a bi-functional effect. The B4C-nanoparticle-modified graphite felt electrodes are finally prepared and tested in vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). It is shown that the batteries with the prepared electrodes exhibit energy efficiencies of 88.9% and 80.0% at the current densities of 80 and 160 mA cm-2, which are 16.6% and 18.8% higher than those with the original graphite felt electrodes. With a further increase in current densities to 240 and 320 mA cm-2, the batteries can still maintain energy efficiencies of 72.0% and 63.8%, respectively. All these results show that the B4C-nanoparticle-modified graphite felt electrode outperforms existing metal-free catalyst modified electrodes, and thus can be promising electrodes for VRFBs.

  20. Thermal treatment and ammoniacal leaching for the recovery of valuable metals from spent lithium-ion batteries.

    Chen, Yongming; Liu, Nannan; Hu, Fang; Ye, Longgang; Xi, Yan; Yang, Shenghai

    2018-05-01

    The recycling of spent commercial lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) generates numerous environmental and economic benefits. In this research, a thermal treatment-ammoniacal leaching process is proposed to recover valuable metals from cathode active powder. Based on the thermal behavior by TG-DSC analysis, the cathode active powder is calcined at 300 °C and 550 °C in air atmosphere, and the crystalline phase characterization indicates that a new phase of Co 3 O 4 appears in the cathode active powder calcined at 550 °C, which signifies that the layer structure of LiCoO 2 collapses. The valence of manganese increases to form Li 4 Mn 5 O 12 in spinel structure of LiMn 2 O 4 . Using calcined cathode powder as feed material, ammoniacal leaching is carried out in (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 -(NH 4 ) 2 SO 3 solution. Under the optimum conditions, Ni, Co, Mn and Li can be completely leached out with efficiencies of 98%, 81%, 92% and 98%, respectively. However, with the increase of ammonia concentration, the leaching efficiency of Mn decreases dramatically to 4% due to the formation of double salts. It is found that Co and Mn can be precipitated into residues in the form of (NH 4 ) 2 Co(SO 4 ) 2 ·H 2 O, (NH 4 ) 2 Mn(SO 3 ) 2 ·H 2 O and (NH 4 ) 2 Mn(SO 4 ) 2 ·6H 2 O under different leaching parameters. Based on the corresponding relationship between the leaching efficiency and phase evolution of object element, selective leaching can be achieved by controlling the formation of double salts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Hydrometallurgical method for recycling rare earth metals, cobalt, nickel, iron, and manganese from negative electrodes of spent Ni-MH mobile phone batteries

    Santos, Vinicius Emmanuel de Oliveira dos; Lelis, Maria de Fatima Fontes; Freitas, Marcos Benedito Jose Geraldo de

    2014-01-01

    A hydrometallurgical method for the recovery of rare earth metals, cobalt, nickel, iron, and manganese from the negative electrodes of spent Ni-MH mobile phone batteries was developed. The rare earth compounds were obtained by chemical precipitation at pH 1.5, with sodium cerium sulfate (NaCe(SO 4 ) 2 .H 2 O) and lanthanum sulfate (La 2 (SO 4 ) 3 .H 2 O) as the major recovered components. Iron was recovered as Fe(OH) 3 and FeO. Manganese was obtained as Mn 3 O 4 .The recovered Ni(OH) 2 and Co(OH) 2 were subsequently used to synthesize LiCoO 2 , LiNiO 2 and CoO, for use as cathodes in ion-Li batteries. The anodes and recycled materials were characterized by analytical techniques. (author)

  2. SBIR reports on the chemistry of lithium battery technology

    Kilroy, W. P.

    1989-11-01

    The following contents are included: Identification of an Improved Mixed Solvent Electrolyte for a Lithium Secondary Battery; Catalyzed Cathodes for Lithium-Thionyl Chloride Batteries; Improved Lithium/Thionyl Chloride Cells Using New Electrolyte Salts; Development of Calcium Primary Cells With Improved Anode Stability and Energy Density.

  3. Metal-Organic Frameworks Triggered High-Efficiency Li storage in Fe-Based Polyhedral Nanorods for Lithium-ion Batteries

    Shen, Lisha; Song, Huawei; Wang, Chengxin

    2017-01-01

    Recently, metal organic framework (MOF) nanostructures have been frequently reported in the field of energy storage, specifically for Li-ion or Na-ion storage. By inter-separating the active sites of metal cluster and organic ligands, MOF nanostructures are exceptionally promising for realizing fast ion exchange and high-efficiency transportation and addressing the intricate issues that the energy-intensive Li-ion batteries have faced over many years. The related ion-storage mechanism remains to be explored. Is the traditional redox reaction mechanism operative for these nanostructure, as it is for transitional metal oxide? Herein, taking [Fe_3O(BDC)_3(H_2O)_2(NO_3)]n (Fe-MIL-88B) as an example, an Fe-based metal organic polyhedral nanorods of MIL–88 B structure was designed as an anode for Li-ion storage. When tested at 60 mA g"−"1, the nanoporous Fe-MIL–88 B polyhedral nanorods retained a reversible capacity of 744.5 mAh g"−"1 for more than 400 cycles. Ex situ characterizations of the post-cycled electrodes revealed that both the transition metal ions and the organic ligands contributed to the high reversible specific capacity. The polyhedral nanorods electrodes held the metal-organic skeleton together throughout the battery operation, although in a somewhat different manner than the pristine ones. This further substantiated that some MOF nanostructures are more appropriate than others for stable lithiation/delithiation processes. State-of-the-art CR2032 full cells showed that a high capacity of 86.8 mAh g"−"1 that was retained after 100 cycles (herein, the capacity for the full cell was calculated based on both the weight of the anode and the cathode, and the charge-discharge rate was 0.25C), when commercial LiFePO_4 powders were used as the cathode.

  4. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    Doeff, Marca M

    2010-07-12

    The very high theoretical capacity of lithium (3829 mAh/g) provided a compelling rationale from the 1970's onward for development of rechargeable batteries employing the elemental metal as an anode. The realization that some transition metal compounds undergo reductive lithium intercalation reactions reversibly allowed use of these materials as cathodes in these devices, most notably, TiS{sub 2}. Another intercalation compound, LiCoO{sub 2}, was described shortly thereafter but, because it was produced in the discharged state, was not considered to be of interest by battery companies at the time. Due to difficulties with the rechargeability of lithium and related safety concerns, however, alternative anodes were sought. The graphite intercalation compound (GIC) LiC{sub 6} was considered an attractive candidate but the high reactivity with commonly used electrolytic solutions containing organic solvents was recognized as a significant impediment to its use. The development of electrolytes that allowed the formation of a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on surfaces of the carbon particles was a breakthrough that enabled commercialization of Li-ion batteries. In 1990, Sony announced the first commercial batteries based on a dual Li ion intercalation system. These devices are assembled in the discharged state, so that it is convenient to employ a prelithiated cathode such as LiCoO{sub 2} with the commonly used graphite anode. After charging, the batteries are ready to power devices. The practical realization of high energy density Li-ion batteries revolutionized the portable electronics industry, as evidenced by the widespread market penetration of mobile phones, laptop computers, digital music players, and other lightweight devices since the early 1990s. In 2009, worldwide sales of Li-ion batteries for these applications alone were US$ 7 billion. Furthermore, their performance characteristics (Figure 1) make them attractive for traction applications such as

  5. Saturated vapor pressure over molten mixtures of GaCl{sub 3} and alkali metal chlorides; Davlenie nasyshchennykh parov rasplavlennykh smesej CaCl{sub 3} s khloridami shchelochnykh metallov

    Salyulev, A B; Smolenskij, V V; Moskalenko, N I [UrO RAN, Inst. Vysokotemperaturnoj Ehlektrokhimii, Elaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    Volatilities of GaCl{sub 3} and alkali metal chlorides over diluted (up to 3 mol %) solutions of GaCl{sub 3} in LiCl, NaCl, KCl, RbCl, and CsCl were measured at 1100 K by dynamic and indirect static methods. Chemical composition of saturated vapor over the mixed melts was determined. Partial pressures of the components were calculated. Their values depend essentially on specific alkali metal cation and on concentration of GaCl{sub 3}; their variation permits altering parameters of GaCl{sub 3} distillation from the salt melt in a wide range.

  6. Metal current collector-free freestanding silicon–carbon 1D nanocomposites for ultralight anodes in lithium ion batteries

    Choi, Jang Wook; Hu, Liangbing; Cui, Lifeng; McDonough, James R.; Cui, Yi

    2010-01-01

    Although current collectors take up more weight than active materials in most lithium ion battery cells, so far research has been focused mainly on improving gravimetric capacities of active materials. To address this issue of improving gravimetric

  7. Process optimization and leaching kinetics of zinc and manganese metals from zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries using citric acid reagent

    Yuliusman; Amiliana, R. A.; Wulandari, P. T.; Huda, M.; Kusumadewi, F. A.

    2018-03-01

    Zn-Carbon and Alkaline spent batteries contains heavy metals, such as zinc and manganese, which can causes environmental problem if not handled properly. Usually the recovery of these metals were done by leaching method using strong acid, but the use of strong acids as leaching reagents can be harmful to the environment. This paper concerns the recovery of Zn and Mn metals from Zn-C and alkaline spent batteries with leaching method using citric acid as the environmental friendly leaching reagent. The leaching conditions using citric acid were optimized and the leaching kinetics of Zn and Mn in citric acid solution was investigated. The leaching of 89.62% Zn and 63.26% Mn was achieved with 1.5 M citric acid, 90°C temperature, and 90 minutes stirring time. Kinetics data for the dissolution of Zn showed the best fit to chemical control shrinking core model, while the diffusion controlled model was suitable for the dissolution of Mn kinetics data. The activation energy of 6.12 and 1.73 kcal/mol was acquired for the leaching of Zn and Mn in the temperature range 60°C-90°C.

  8. Thermally-responsive, nonflammable phosphonium ionic liquid electrolytes for lithium metal batteries: operating at 100 degrees celsius† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Detailed ionic liquids synthesis, characterization, conductivity, cyclic voltammetry, battery cycling and those of other compositions; SEM images; energy density calculation. See DOI: 10.1039/c5sc01518a Click here for additional data file.

    Lin, X.; Kavian, R.; Lu, Y.; Hu, Q.; Shao-Horn, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Rechargeable batteries such as Li ion/Li metal batteries are widely used in the electronics market but the chemical instability of the electrolyte limits their use in more demanding environmental conditions such as in automotive, oil exploration, or mining applications. In this study, a series of alkyl phosphonium ionic liquid electrolyte are described with high thermal stability and solubility for LiTFSI. A lithium metal battery (LMB) containing a tailored phosphonium ionic liquid/LiTFSI electrolyte operates at 100 °C with good specific capacities and cycling stability. Substantial capacity is maintained during 70 cycles or 30 days. Instant on-off battery operation is realized via the significant temperature dependence of the electrolyte material, demonstrating the robustness and potential for use at high temperature. PMID:28757963

  9. Preparation and electrochemical properties of core-shell carbon coated Mn-Sn complex metal oxide as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Zhang, Ruixue; Fang, Guoqing; Liu, Weiwei; Xia, Bingbo; Sun, Hongdan; Zheng, Junwei; Li, Decheng

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we synthesized a carbon coated Mn-Sn metal oxide composite with core-shell structure (MTO@C) via a simple glucose hydrothermal reaction and subsequent carbonization approach. When the MTO@C composite was applied as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, it maintained a reversible capacity of 409 mA h g-1 after 200 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g-1. The uniformed and continuous carbon layer formed on the MTO nanoparticles, effectively buffered the volumetric change of the active material and increased electronic conductivity, which thus prolonged the cycling performance of the MTO@C electrode.

  10. Polyvinyl chloride resin

    Kim, Hong Jae

    1976-06-01

    This book contains polyvinyl chloride resin industry with present condition such as plastic industry and polyvinyl chloride in the world and Japan, manufacture of polyvinyl chloride resin ; suspension polymerization and solution polymerization, extruding, injection process, hollow molding vinyl record, vacuum forming, polymer powders process, vinyl chloride varnish, vinyl chloride latex, safety and construction on vinyl chloride. Each chapter has descriptions on of process and kinds of polyvinyl chloride resin.

  11. Structural, mechanical and electronic properties of 3d transition metal nitrides in cubic zincblende, rocksalt and cesium chloride structures: a first-principles investigation

    Liu, Z T Y; Khare, S V; Zhou, X; Gall, D

    2014-01-01

    We report systematic results from ab initio calculations with density functional theory on three cubic structures, zincblende (zb), rocksalt (rs) and cesium chloride (cc), of the ten 3d transition metal nitrides. We computed lattice constants, elastic constants, their derived moduli and ratios that characterize mechanical properties. Experimental measurements exist in the literature of lattice constants for rs-ScN, rs-TiN and rs-VN and of elastic constants for rs-TiN and rs-VN, all of which are in good agreement with our computational results. Similarly, computed Vickers hardness (H V ) values for rs-TiN and rs-VN are consistent with earlier experimental results. Several trends were observed in our rich data set of 30 compounds. All nitrides, except for zb-CrN, rs-MnN, rs-FeN, cc-ScN, cc-CrN, cc-NiN and cc-ZnN, were found to be mechanically stable. A clear correlation in the atomic density with the bulk modulus (B) was observed with maximum values of B around FeN, MnN and CrN. The shear modulus, Young’s modulus, H V and indicators of brittleness showed similar trends and all showed maxima for cc-VN. The calculated value of H V for cc-VN was about 30 GPa, while the next highest values were for rs-ScN and rs-TiN, about 24 GPa. A relation (H V ∝θ D 2 ) between H V and Debye temperature (θ D ) was investigated and verified for each structure type. A tendency for anti-correlation of the elastic constant C 44 , which strongly influences stability and hardness, with the number of electronic states around the Fermi energy was observed. (paper)

  12. Lithium-thionyl chloride battery safety

    Carter, B.; Williams, R.; Tsay, F.; Rodriguez, A.; Frank, H.

    1982-01-01

    Primary lithium cells which use LiAlCl4/SOCl2 electrolyte exhibit high energy density and long life. Currently these cells pose a safety problem since they have been found to vent or explode. This paper summarizes experiments to resolve the safety problem of Li-SOCl2 cells by thermal modeling and identification of possibly hazardous intermediates formed during discharge of these cells. A thermal model and mechanism for the reduction of SOCl2 are presented, as well as a discussion of their application to Li-SOCl2 cell safety.

  13. Lithium-thionyl chloride battery safety

    Carter, B.; Frank, H.; Rodriquez, A.; Tsay, F.; Williams, R.

    1982-08-01

    Primary lithium cells which use LiAlCl/sub 4// SOCl/sub 2/ electrolyte exhibit high energy density and long life. Currently these cells pose a safety problem since they have been found to vent or explode. This paper summarizes experiments to resolve the safety problem of Li-SOCl/sub 2/ cells by thermal modeling and identification of possibly hazardous intermediates formed during discharge of these cells. A thermal model and mechanism for the reduction of SOCl/sub 2/ are presented, as well as a discussion of their application to Li-SOCl/sub 2/ cell safety.

  14. Lithium-thionyl chloride battery safety

    Carter, B.; Williams, R.; Tsay, F.; Rodriguez, A.; Frank, H.

    Primary lithium cells which use LiAlCl4/SOCl2 electrolyte exhibit high energy density and long life. Currently these cells pose a safety problem since they have been found to vent or explode. This paper summarizes experiments to resolve the safety problem of Li-SOCl2 cells by thermal modeling and identification of possibly hazardous intermediates formed during discharge of these cells. A thermal model and mechanism for the reduction of SOCl2 are presented, as well as a discussion of their application to Li-SOCl2 cell safety.

  15. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    Alamgir, Mohamed; Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.

    1993-01-01

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride).

  16. Synthesis of electroplated {sup 63}Ni source and betavoltaic battery

    Uhm, Young Rang; Yoo, Kwon Mo; Choi, Sang Mu; Kim, Jin Joo; Son, Kwang Jae [Radioisotope Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Radioisotope (Nuclear) battery using {sup 63}Ni was prepared as beta cell. The electroplated {sup 63}Ni on Ni foil is fabricated, and beta cell and photovoltaic hybrid battery was designed to use at both day and night in space project. A Ni-plating solution is prepared by dissolving metal particles including {sup 62}Ni and {sup 63}Ni from neutron irradiation of (n,γ). Electroplating solution of a chloride bath consists on nickel ions in HCl, H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}, and KOH. The deposition was carried out at current density of 10 mA cm{sup -2}. The prepared beta source was attached on a PN junction and measured I-V properties. The power output at activity of 0.07 mCi and 0.45 mCi were 0.55 pW and 2.69 nW, respectively.

  17. Synthesis of electroplated 63Ni source and betavoltaic battery

    Uhm, Young Rang; Yoo, Kwon Mo; Choi, Sang Mu; Kim, Jin Joo; Son, Kwang Jae

    2015-01-01

    Radioisotope (Nuclear) battery using 63 Ni was prepared as beta cell. The electroplated 63 Ni on Ni foil is fabricated, and beta cell and photovoltaic hybrid battery was designed to use at both day and night in space project. A Ni-plating solution is prepared by dissolving metal particles including 62 Ni and 63 Ni from neutron irradiation of (n,γ). Electroplating solution of a chloride bath consists on nickel ions in HCl, H 3 BO 3 , and KOH. The deposition was carried out at current density of 10 mA cm -2 . The prepared beta source was attached on a PN junction and measured I-V properties. The power output at activity of 0.07 mCi and 0.45 mCi were 0.55 pW and 2.69 nW, respectively

  18. Carbon-Coated Fe3O4/VOx Hollow Microboxes Derived from Metal-Organic Frameworks as a High-Performance Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Zhao, Zhi-Wei; Wen, Tao; Liang, Kuang; Jiang, Yi-Fan; Zhou, Xiao; Shen, Cong-Cong; Xu, An-Wu

    2017-02-01

    As the ever-growing demand for high-performance power sources, lithium-ion batteries with high storage capacities and outstanding rate performance have been widely considered as a promising storage device. In this work, starting with metal-organic frameworks, we have developed a facile approach to the synthesis of hybrid Fe 3 O 4 /VO x hollow microboxes via the process of hydrolysis and ion exchange and subsequent calcination. In the constructed architecture, the hollow structure provides an efficient lithium ion diffusion pathway and extra space to accommodate the volume expansion during the insertion and extraction of Li + . With the assistance of carbon coating, the obtained Fe 3 O 4 /VO x @C microboxes exhibit excellent cyclability and enhanced rate performance when employed as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. As a result, the obtained Fe 3 O 4 /VO x @C delivers a high Coulombic efficiency (near 100%) and outstanding reversible specific capacity of 742 mAh g -1 after 400 cycles at a current density of 0.5 A g -1 . Moreover, a remarkable reversible capacity of 556 mAh g -1 could be retained even at a current density of 2 A g -1 . This study provides a fundamental understanding for the rational design of other composite oxides as high-performance electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

  19. From Metal-Organic Framework to Li2S@C-Co-N Nanoporous Architecture: A High-Capacity Cathode for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    He, Jiarui; Chen, Yuanfu; Lv, Weiqiang; Wen, Kechun; Xu, Chen; Zhang, Wanli; Li, Yanrong; Qin, Wu; He, Weidong

    2016-12-27

    Owing to the high theoretical specific capacity (1166 mAh g -1 ), lithium sulfide (Li 2 S) has been considered as a promising cathode material for Li-S batteries. However, the polysulfide dissolution and low electronic conductivity of Li 2 S limit its further application in next-generation Li-S batteries. In this report, a nanoporous Li 2 S@C-Co-N cathode is synthesized by liquid infiltration-evaporation of ultrafine Li 2 S nanoparticles into graphitic carbon co-doped with cobalt and nitrogen (C-Co-N) derived from metal-organic frameworks. The obtained Li 2 S@C-Co-N architecture remarkably immobilizes Li 2 S within the cathode structure through physical and chemical molecular interactions. Owing to the synergistic interactions between C-Co-N and Li 2 S nanoparticles, the Li 2 S@C-Co-N composite delivers a reversible capacity of 1155.3 (99.1% of theoretical value) at the initial cycle and 929.6 mAh g -1 after 300 cycles, with nearly 100% Coulombic efficiency and a capacity fading of 0.06% per cycle. It exhibits excellent rate capacities of 950.6, 898.8, and 604.1 mAh g -1 at 1C, 2C, and 4C, respectively. Such a cathode structure is promising for practical applications in high-performance Li-S batteries.

  20. A general salt-templating method to fabricate vertically aligned graphitic carbon nanosheets and their metal carbide hybrids for superior lithium ion batteries and water splitting.

    Zhu, Jixin; Sakaushi, Ken; Clavel, Guylhaine; Shalom, Menny; Antonietti, Markus; Fellinger, Tim-Patrick

    2015-04-29

    The synthesis of vertically aligned functional graphitic carbon nanosheets (CNS) is challenging. Herein, we demonstrate a general approach for the fabrication of vertically aligned CNS and metal carbide@CNS composites via a facile salt templating induced self-assembly. The resulting vertically aligned CNS and metal carbide@CNS structures possess ultrathin walls, good electrical conductivity, strong adhesion, excellent structural robustness, and small particle size. In electrochemical energy conversion and storage such unique features are favorable for providing efficient mass transport as well as a large and accessible electroactive surface. The materials were tested as electrodes in a lithium ion battery and in electrochemical water splitting. The vertically aligned nanosheets exhibit remarkable lithium ion storage properties and, concurrently, excellent properties as electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution.