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Sample records for metal allergy total

  1. The association between metal allergy, total hip arthroplasty, and revision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Jakobsen, Stig Storgaard; Engkilde, Kåre

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: It has been speculated that the prevalence of metal allergy may be higher in patients with implant failure. We compared the prevalence and cause of revisions following total hip arthroplasty (THA) in dermatitis patients suspected to have contact allergy and in patients...... in general with THA. Furthermore, we compared the prevalence of metal allergy in dermatitis patients with and without THA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Danish Hip Arthroplasty Registry (DHAR) contained detailed information on 90,697 operations. The Gentofte patch-test database contained test results...... was similar in cases (12%) and in patients from the DHAR (13%). The prevalence of metal allergy was similar in cases and controls. However, the prevalence of metal allergy was lower in cases who were patch-tested after operation (6%) than in those who were patch-tested before operation (16%) (OR = 2.9; 95% CI...

  2. The association between metal allergy, total knee arthroplasty, and revision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münch, Henrik J; Jakobsen, Stig Storgaard; Olesen, Jens T

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: It is unclear whether delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions against implanted metals play a role in the etiopathogenesis of malfunctioning total knee arthroplasties. We therefore evaluated the association between metal allergy, defined as a positive patch test reaction...... to common metal allergens, and revision surgery in patients who underwent knee arthroplasty. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The nationwide Danish Knee Arthroplasty Register, including all knee-implanted patients and revisions in Denmark after 1997 (n = 46,407), was crosslinked with a contact allergy patch test......, the prevalence of cobalt and chromium allergy was markedly higher. Metal allergy that was diagnosed before implant surgery appeared not to increase the risk of implant failure and revision surgery. INTERPRETATION: While we could not confirm that a positive patch test reaction to common metals is associated...

  3. Metal release and metal allergy after total hip replacement with resurfacing versus conventional hybrid prosthesis 5-year follow-up of 52 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafson, Klas; Jakobsen, Stig S; Lorenzen, Nina D

    2014-01-01

    to an increased incidence of metal allergy. METHODS: 52 hips in 52 patients (median age 60 (51-64) years, 30 women) were randomized to either a MOM hip resurfacing system (ReCap) or a standard MOP total hip arthoplasty (Mallory Head/Exeter). Spot urine samples were collected preoperatively, postoperatively, after....... RESULTS: A statistically significant 10- to 20-fold increase in urinary levels of cobalt and chromium was observed throughout the entire follow-up in the MOM group. The prevalence of metal allergy was similar between groups. INTERPRETATION: While we observed significantly increased levels of metal ions...

  4. Cobalt allergy in hard metal workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, T; Rystedt, I

    1983-03-01

    Hard metal contains about 10% cobalt. 853 hard metal workers were examined and patch tested with substances from their environment. Initial patch tests with 1% cobalt chloride showed 62 positive reactions. By means of secondary serial dilution tests, allergic reactions to cobalt were reproduced in 9 men and 30 women. Weak reactions could not normally be reproduced. A history of hand eczema was found in 36 of the 39 individuals with reproducible positive test reactions to cobalt, while 21 of 23 with a positive initial patch test but negative serial dilution test had never had any skin problems. Hand etching and hand grinding, mainly female activities and traumatic to the hands, were found to involve the greatest risk of cobalt sensitization. 24 individuals had an isolated cobalt allergy. They had probably been sensitized by hard metal work, while the individuals, all women, who had simultaneous nickel allergy had probably been sensitized to nickel before their employment and then became sensitized to cobalt by hard metal work. A traumatic occupation, which causes irritant contact dermatitis and/or a previous contact allergy or atopy is probably a prerequisite for the development of cobalt allergy.

  5. Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Allergies KidsHealth / For Teens / Allergies What's in this article? ... or Allergies? Dealing With Allergies Print What Are Allergies? Allergies are abnormal immune system reactions to things ...

  6. Diagnostic Utility of Total IgE in Foods, Inhalant, and Multiple Allergies in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mughales, Jamil A

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess the diagnostic significance of total IgE in foods, inhalant, and multiple allergies. Methods. Retrospective review of the laboratory records of patients who presented with clinical suspicion of food or inhalant allergy between January 2013 and December 2014. Total IgE level was defined as positive for a value >195 kU/L; and diagnosis was confirmed by the detection of specific IgE (golden standard) for at least one food or inhalant allergen and at least two allergens in multiple allergies. Results. A total of 1893 (male ratio = 0.68, mean age = 39.0 ± 19.2 years) patients were included. Total IgE had comparable sensitivity (55.8% versus 59.6%) and specificity (83.9% versus 84.4%) in food versus inhalant allergy, respectively, but a superior PPV in inhalant allergy (79.1% versus 54.4%). ROC curve analysis showed a better diagnostic value in inhalant allergies (AUC = 0.817 (95% CI = 0.796-0.837) versus 0.770 (95% CI = 0.707-0.833)). In multiple allergies, total IgE had a relatively good sensitivity (78.6%), while negative IgE testing (allergies with 91.5% certitude. Conclusion. Total IgE assay is not efficient as a diagnostic test for foods, inhalant, or multiple allergies. The best strategy should refer to specific IgE testing guided by a comprehensive atopic history.

  7. Metal Allergy and Systemic Contact Dermatitis: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Yoshihisa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Contact dermatitis is produced by external skin exposure to an allergen, but sometimes a systemically administered allergen may reach the skin and remain concentrated there with the aid of the circulatory system, leading to the production of systemic contact dermatitis (SCD. Metals such as nickel, cobalt, chromium, and zinc are ubiquitous in our environment. Metal allergy may result in allergic contact dermatitis and also SCD. Systemic reactions, such as hand dermatitis or generalized eczematous reactions, can occur due to dietary nickel or cobalt ingestion. Zinc-containing dental fillings can induce oral lichen planus, palmoplantar pustulosis, and maculopapular rash. A diagnosis of sensitivity to metal is established by epicutaneous patch testing and oral metal challenge with metals such as nickel, cobalt, chromium, and zinc. In vitro tests, such as the lymphocyte stimulating test (LST, have some advantages over patch testing to diagnose allergic contact dermatitis. Additionally, the determination of the production of several cytokines by primary peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures is a potentially promising in vitro method for the discrimination of metal allergies, including SCD, as compared with the LST.

  8. Metal allergy--a review on exposures, penetration, genetics, prevalence, and clinical implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Menné, Torkil

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of metal allergy is high in the general population, and it is estimated that up to 17% of women and 3% of men are allergic to nickel and that 1-3% are allergic to cobalt and chromium. Among dermatitis patients, the prevalence of metal allergy is even higher. Metal allergy is mainly......) dermatitis. Furthermore, metal allergy has been associated with device failure following insertion of intracoronary stents, hip and knee prostheses, as well as other implants. This area is in need of more research.......The prevalence of metal allergy is high in the general population, and it is estimated that up to 17% of women and 3% of men are allergic to nickel and that 1-3% are allergic to cobalt and chromium. Among dermatitis patients, the prevalence of metal allergy is even higher. Metal allergy is mainly...... an environmental disorder although null mutations in the filaggrin gene complex were recently found to be associated with nickel allergy and dermatitis. Environmental metal exposures include jewelry, buttons, clothing fasteners, dental restorations, mobile phones, and leather. Although consumer exposure...

  9. Making Sense of Metal Allergy and Hypersensitivity to Metallic Implants in Relation to Hand Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Thomas J; Samant, Shefali A; Shin, Alexander Y

    2017-09-01

    All metals implanted into a biological system undergo some degree of corrosion depending upon its composition. The electrochemical process of corrosion produces free metal ions, which may activate the host's immune system through a variety of mechanisms. Whereas dermal metal hypersensitivity is common, affecting 10% to 15% of the population, the immune reaction from implanted metals is much less common (allergy and hypersensitivity producing a multitude of patient symptoms. Superficial symptoms may be mild to severe forms of dermatitis, urticaria, pruritus, and vasculitis, whereas deep sequelae include metallosis-related pseudotumor, implant loosening, and joint stiffness. Currently, there are clinical tests to evaluate patients for metal hypersensitivity, but there is little agreement regarding the ideal timing and clinical situation prompting the work-up of a patient for a metal allergy or hypersensitivity. An understanding of the epidemiology, etiology, basic science, diagnostic testing, and treatment of patients with suspected metal allergy, as it pertains to the current literature, will aid orthopedic and plastic surgeons of all subspecialties in the management of patients requiring metallic implants. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Patient-reported allergies cause inferior outcomes after total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinarejos, Pedro; Ferrer, Tulia; Leal, Joan; Torres-Claramunt, Raul; Sánchez-Soler, Juan; Monllau, Joan Carles

    2016-10-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyse the outcomes after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) of a group of patients with at least one self-reported allergy and a group of patients without reported allergies. We hypothesized there is a significant negative influence on clinical outcome scores after TKA in patients with self-reported allergies. Four-hundred and seventy-five patients who had undergone TKA were analysed preoperatively and 1 year after surgery. The WOMAC, KSS and SF-36 scores were obtained. The patients' Yesavage depression questionnaire score was also recorded. The scores of the 330 (69.5 %) patients without self-reported allergies were compared to the scores of the 145 (30.5 %) patients with at least one self-reported allergy in the medical record. Preoperative scores were similar in both groups. The WOMAC post-operative scores (23.6 vs 20.4; p = 0.037) and the KSS-Knee score (91.1 vs 87.6; p = 0.027) were worse in the group of patients with self-reported allergies than in the group without allergies. The scores from the Yesavage depression questionnaire and in the SF-36 were similar in both groups. Patients with at least one self-reported allergy have worse post-operative outcomes in terms of the WOMAC and KSS-Knee scores after TKA than patients without allergies. These poor outcomes do not seem to be related to depression. Therefore, more research is needed to explain them. Reported allergies could be considered a prognostic factor and used when counselling TKA patients. I.

  11. Metal allergy--a review on exposures, penetration, genetics, prevalence, and clinical implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Menné, Torkil

    2010-01-01

    an environmental disorder although null mutations in the filaggrin gene complex were recently found to be associated with nickel allergy and dermatitis. Environmental metal exposures include jewelry, buttons, clothing fasteners, dental restorations, mobile phones, and leather. Although consumer exposure......) dermatitis. Furthermore, metal allergy has been associated with device failure following insertion of intracoronary stents, hip and knee prostheses, as well as other implants. This area is in need of more research....

  12. The tribology of metal-on-metal total hip replacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes, S C; Unsworth, A

    2006-02-01

    Total hip surgery is an effective way of alleviating the pain and discomfort caused by diseased or damaged joints. However, in the majority of cases, these joints have a finite life. The main reason for failure is osteolysis (bone resorption). It is well documented that an important cause of osteolysis, and therefore the subsequent loosening and failure of conventional metal- or ceramic-on-ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene joints, is the body's immunological response to the polyethylene wear particles. To avoid this, interest has been renewed in metal-on-metal joints. The intention of this paper is to review the studies that have taken place within different laboratories to determine the tribological performance of new-generation metal-on-metal total hip replacements. These types of joint offer a potential solution to enhance the longevity of prosthetic hip systems; however, problems may arise owing to the effects of metal ion release, which are, as yet, not fully understood.

  13. PATIENTS WITH SUSPECTED METAL IMPLANT ALLERGY: POTENTIAL CLINICAL PICTURES AND ALLERGOLOGICAL DIAGNOSTIC APPROACH (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this review are allergic complications following insertion of metallic orthopedic implants. Such potential allergic reactions encompass eczema, impaired wound and fracture healing, infection-mimicking reactions, effusions, pain and loosening. Nickel, cobalt and chromium seem to be the predominant eliciting allergens. Allergy might be considered prior to planned orthopaedic surgery or in patients with complications following arthroplasty We recommend, that differential diagnoses - in particular infection -should always be excluded in cooperation with surgery collegues. The clinical work up of a patient suspected of suffering from metal implant allergy should include a combined evaluation of medical history, clinical findings, patch testing and histology In vitro testing, namely the lymphocyte transformation test (LTT, can indicate metal sensitization, but needs careful interpretation.

  14. Patient reported allergies are a risk factor for poor outcomes in total hip and knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Christopher M; Otero, Jesse E; Gao, Yubo; Goetz, Devon D; Willenborg, Melissa D; Callaghan, John J

    2014-09-01

    We evaluated 459 patients undergoing THA or TKA who completed preoperative and postoperative WOMAC and/or SF36 surveys. Medical comorbidities and reported allergies were also recorded. Evaluation of surveys was compared for patients with or without 4 or more reported allergies using statistical methods. Patients with 4 or more reported allergies had less improvement on SF36 Physical Component Score (∆PCS=4.2) than those with 0-3 allergies (∆PCS=10.0, P=0.0002). Regression analysis showed that this change was independent of self-reported comorbidities. Patients reporting 4 or more allergies also had less improvement in WOMAC function (∆F=21.4) than those with 0-3 allergies (∆F = 27.2, P=0.036). Similar nonsignificant trends occurred in SF36 mental and WOMAC pain and stiffness scores. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. No clinical difference between large metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty and 28-mm-head total hip arthroplasty?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, Wierd P; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge; Zee, Mark J M; van Raay, Jos J A M

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: We aimed to test the claim of greater range of motion (ROM) with large femoral head metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty. METHODS: We compared 28-mm metal-on-polyethylene (MP) total hip arthroplasty with large femoral head metal-on-metal (MM) total hip arthroplasty in a randomised clinical

  16. Patellofemoral Joint Replacement and Nickel Allergy: An Unusual Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhan Syed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal allergy is an unusual complication of joint replacement that may cause aseptic loosening and necessitate joint revision surgery. We present the case of nickel allergy causing aseptic loosening following patellofemoral joint replacement (PFJR in a 54-year-old male. Joint revision surgery to a nickel-free total knee replacement was performed with good results. Our literature review shows that there is no evidence to guide the management of metal allergy in PFJR. The evidence from studies of total knee replacement is limited to retrospective case series and case reports and gives contradictory recommendations. The optimal management strategy for metal allergy in PFJR is not clear. We recommend allergy testing in patients with history of metal allergy and use of an allergen-free implant in those with positive tests. As there is no gold standard test to establish metal allergy, the choice of test should be guided by availability and recommendation from the local unit of dermatology and allergy testing. We recommend investigation for metal allergy in patients with implant loosening where other causes have been excluded.

  17. Metal-on-Metal Total Hip Resurfacing Arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of this review was to assess the safety and effectiveness of metal on metal (MOM) hip resurfacing arthroplasty for young patients compared with that of total hip replacement (THR) in the same population. Clinical Need Total hip replacement has proved to be very effective for late middle-aged and elderly patients with severe degenerative diseases of the hips. As indications for THR began to include younger patients and those with a more active life style, the longevity of the implant became a concern. Evidence suggests that these patients experience relatively higher rates of early implant failure and the need for revision. The Swedish hip registry, for example, has demonstrated a survival rate in excess of 80% at 20 years for those aged over 65 years, whereas this figure was 33% by 16 years in those aged under 55 years. Hip resurfacing arthroplasty is a bone-conserving alternative to THR that restores normal joint biomechanics and load transfer. The technique has been used around the world for more than 10 years, specifically in the United Kingdom and other European countries. The Technology Metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasty is an alternative procedure to conventional THR in younger patients. Hip resurfacing arthroplasty is less invasive than THR and addresses the problem of preserving femoral bone stock at the initial operation. This means that future hip revisions are possible with THR if the initial MOM arthroplasty becomes less effective with time in these younger patients. The procedure involves the removal and replacement of the surface of the femoral head with a hollow metal hemisphere, which fits into a metal acetabular cup. Hip resurfacing arthroplasty is a technically more demanding procedure than is conventional THR. In hip resurfacing, the femoral head is retained, which makes it much more difficult to access the acetabular cup. However, hip resurfacing arthroplasty has several advantages over a

  18. No association between pseudotumors, high serum metal-ion levels and metal hypersensitivity in large-head metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty at 5-7-year follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Mette Holm; Stilling, Maiken; Soballe, Kjeld

    2015-01-01

    -ion concentrations were measured, metal allergy and atopic dermatitis were evaluated, and the questionnaires of the Oxford Hip Score (OHS), Harris Hip Score (HHS) and the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) were completed. RESULTS: Pseudotumors were found in eight patients, but they were asymptomatic and their serum...... pseudotumor formation, serum metal-ion levels, metal patch test reactivity, and atopic dermatitis. However, clinicians should be aware of asymptomatic pseudotumors, and we advise further exploration into the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of pseudotumors.......OBJECTIVE: The relationship between metal wear debris, pseudotumor formation and metal hypersensitivity is complex and not completely understood. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of pseudotumor formation in a consecutive series of metal-on-metal (MoM) total hip arthroplasty...

  19. Repeated exposures to cobalt or chromate on the hands of patients with hand eczema and contact allergy to that metal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, N H; Kristiansen, J; Borg, L

    2000-01-01

    The present study aimed at evaluating the effects of daily repeated exposures to low cobalt or chromate concentrations on the hands of patients with hand eczema and cobalt or chromate allergy. For 2 weeks, the patients immersed a finger for 10 min daily into the appropriate metal salt solution in...... of providing evidence-based medicine in the area of allergic contact dermatitis in the future.......-sensitive patients. During the exposure period, accumulation of cobalt or chromate in the nail was demonstrated. Standardization of chemical methods of quantification of skin exposure to allergens, combined with experimental exposure studies in patients with specific contact allergy, will increase the possibility...

  20. Plasma trace metals during total parenteral alimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomons, N W; Layden, T J; Rosenberg, I H; Vo-Khactu, K; Sandstead, H H

    1976-06-01

    The plasma concentrations of the trace metals zinc and copper were studied prospectively in 13 patients with gastrointestinal diseases treated with parenteral alimentation (TPA) for periods of from 8 days to 7 1/2 weeks. Plasma copper levels fell rapidly and consistently in all patients, with an overall rate of - 11 mug per 100 ml per week. Zinc concentrations declined in 10 of 13 patients at a more gradual rate. Analysis of the standard parenteral alimentation fluids revealed zinc content equivalent to 50% of the daily requirement and a negligible content of copper. From combined analysis of plasma zinc, hair zinc, and taste acuity, there is evidence that increased utilization or redistribution within the body may effect plasma concentrations in some patients. Neither an increase in urinary excretion nor a primary decrease in plasma binding proteins appeared to be a major factor in lowering plasma trace metal concentrations. These findings indicate that a marked decrease in plasma copper is regular and a decline in plasma zinc is common during TPA using fluids unsupplemented with trace metals. Supplementation of parenteral alimentation fluids with the trace metals zinc and copper is recommended.

  1. Selective versus routine patch metal allergy testing to select bar material for the Nuss procedure in 932 patients over 10years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermeyer, Robert J; Gaffar, Sheema; Kelly, Robert E; Kuhn, M Ann; Frantz, Frazier W; McGuire, Margaret M; Paulson, James F; Kelly, Cynthia S

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the role of patch metal allergy testing to select bar material for the Nuss procedure. An IRB-approved (11-04-WC-0098) single institution retrospective, cohort study comparing selective versus routine patch metal allergy testing to select stainless steel or titanium bars for Nuss repair was performed. In Cohort A (9/2004-1/2011), selective patch testing was performed based on clinical risk factors. In Cohort B (2/2011-9/2014), all patients were patch tested. The cohorts were compared for incidence of bar allergy and resultant premature bar loss. Risk factors for stainless steel allergy or positive patch test were evaluated. Cohort A had 628 patients with 63 (10.0%) selected for patch testing, while all 304 patients in Cohort B were tested. Over 10years, 15 (1.8%) of the 842 stainless steel Nuss repairs resulted in a bar allergy, and 5 had a negative preoperative patch test. The incidence of stainless steel bar allergy (1.8% vs 1.7%, p=0.57) and resultant bar loss (0.5% vs 1.3%, p=0.23) was not statistically different between cohorts. An allergic reaction to a stainless steel bar or a positive patch test was more common in females (OR=2.3, pbar allergies occur at a low incidence with either routine or selective patch metal allergy testing. If selective testing is performed, it is advisable in females and patients with a personal or family history of metal sensitivity. A negative preoperative patch metal allergy test does not preclude the possibility of a postoperative stainless steel bar allergy. Level III Treatment Study and Study of Diagnostic Test. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Physical Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Autologous Stem Cell Transplant Additional Content Medical News Physical Allergy By Peter J. Delves, PhD, Professor of ... Disorders Exercise-Induced Allergic Reactions Food Allergy Mastocytosis Physical Allergy Seasonal Allergies Year-Round Allergies A physical ...

  3. High Re-Operation Rates Using Conserve Metal-On-Metal Total Hip Articulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, S L; Jakobsen, Thomas; Christoffersen, Hardy

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Metal-on-metal hip articulations have been intensely debated after reports of adverse reactions and high failure rates. The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the implant of a metal-on.metal total hip articulation (MOM THA) from a single manufacture in a two-center st......INTRODUCTION: Metal-on-metal hip articulations have been intensely debated after reports of adverse reactions and high failure rates. The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the implant of a metal-on.metal total hip articulation (MOM THA) from a single manufacture in a two...

  4. Diagnostic value of lipids, total antioxidants, and trace metals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: Anthropometric characteristics, total prostate specific antigen (tPSA), serum lipids (total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides), Vit. E, total antioxidant status (TAS), and trace metals (Se, Cu, Fe, Zn, and Mn) were determined in 40 patients with histopathological diagnosis of ...

  5. Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Food Allergies KidsHealth / For Kids / Food Allergies What's in this ... milk eggs soy wheat What Is a Food Allergy? Food allergies happen when the immune system makes ...

  6. Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook and Twitter . Play our Food Allergy Bubble Game with Mr. Nose-it-All. Test your knowledge ... oral allergy syndrome? » Video: What is a red meat allergy? » Vitamin D and Food Allergy » When Should ...

  7. Milk Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Milk Allergy KidsHealth / For Teens / Milk Allergy What's in this ... to find out. What Happens With a Milk Allergy? Food allergies involve the body's immune system, which ...

  8. Allergy testing - skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patch tests - allergy; Scratch tests - allergy; Skin tests - allergy; RAST test; Allergic rhinitis - allergy testing; Asthma - allergy testing; Eczema - allergy testing; Hayfever - allergy testing; Dermatitis - allergy testing; Allergy testing; ...

  9. Eye Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Eye Allergies Sections What Are Eye Allergies? Eye Allergy Symptoms ... allergy diagnosis Eye allergy treatment What Are Eye Allergies? Leer en Español: ¿Qué son las alergias de ...

  10. Total and allergen-specific IgE levels during and after pregnancy in relation to maternal allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Martina; Frykman, Anne; Jonsson, Yvonne; Persson, Marie; Ernerudh, Jan; Berg, Göran; Matthiesen, Leif; Ekerfelt, Christina; Jenmalm, Maria C

    2009-07-01

    Type 2 T-helper cell (Th2)-skewed immunity is associated with successful pregnancy and the ability to easily direct immune responses to a Th2-polarised profile may be an evolutionary benefit. The Th2-like immunity associated with allergic disease might generate favourable effects for the maintenance of pregnancy, but could also promote development of Th2-like immune responses and allergic disease in the offspring. The aim of this study was to explore, by using IgE as a stable proxy for Th2, the Th1/Th2 balance in allergic and non-allergic women by measuring allergen-specific and total IgE antibody levels in plasma during pregnancy and after delivery. Specific and total IgE antibody levels were determined by ImmunoCAP technology at five occasions during pregnancy (gestational weeks 10-12, 15-16, 25, 35 and 39), as well as at 2 and 12 months after delivery. Thirty-six women without and 20 women with allergic symptoms were included, of whom 13 were sensitised with allergic symptoms and 30 were non-sensitised without allergic symptoms. The levels of total IgE, but not allergen-specific IgE, were increased during early pregnancy when compared to 12 months after delivery in the sensitised women with allergic symptoms, but not in the non-sensitised women without allergic symptoms (ppregnancy only in the sensitised women with allergic symptoms indicates that allergy is associated with an enhanced Th2 deviation during pregnancy.

  11. Large head metal-on-metal cementless total hip arthroplasty versus 28mm metal-on-polyethylene cementless total hip arthroplasty: design of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Raaij Jos JAM

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoarthritis of the hip is successfully treated by total hip arthroplasty with metal-on-polyethylene articulation. Polyethylene wear debris can however lead to osteolysis, aseptic loosening and failure of the implant. Large head metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty may overcome polyethylene wear induced prosthetic failure, but can increase systemic cobalt and chromium ion concentrations. The objective of this study is to compare two cementless total hip arthroplasties: a conventional 28 mm metal-on-polyethylene articulation and a large head metal-on-metal articulation. We hypothesize that the latter arthroplasties show less bone density loss and higher serum metal ion concentrations. We expect equal functional scores, greater range of motion, fewer dislocations, fewer periprosthetic radiolucencies and increased prosthetic survival with the metal-on-metal articulation. Methods A randomized controlled trial will be conducted. Patients to be included suffer from non-inflammatory degenerative joint disease of the hip, are aged between 18 and 80 and are admitted for primary cementless unilateral total hip arthroplasty. Patients in the metal-on-metal group will receive a cementless titanium alloy acetabular component with a cobalt-chromium liner and a cobalt-chromium femoral head varying from 38 to 60 mm. Patients in the metal-on-polyethylene group will receive a cementless titanium alloy acetabular component with a polyethylene liner and a 28 mm cobalt-chromium femoral head. We will assess acetabular bone mineral density by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA, serum ion concentrations of cobalt, chromium and titanium, self reported functional status (Oxford hip score, physician reported functional status and range of motion (Harris hip score, number of dislocations and prosthetic survival. Measurements will take place preoperatively, perioperatively, and postoperatively (6 weeks, 1 year, 5 years and 10 years. Discussion

  12. Total and available metal contents in sediments by synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Silvana; Sobrinho, Gilmar A.; Jesus, Edgar F.O. de; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2002-01-01

    In this work the total and available contents of Al, Si, Cl, K, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Zr, Ba, Ce and Pb in sediments from river Atibaia were determined by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence technique. The detection limits for K series varies from 200 ng.mL -1 for Al to 2 ng.mL -1 for Zn while for L series the value varies from 20 ng.mL -1 for Ba to 10 ng.mL -1 for Pb. The samples were submitted to two different processes, in order to obtain the total and biological available metal contents. The information about metal content is a important parameter for a correct evaluation about the hydrologic cycle in Piracicaba basin. All the measure were carried out at the National Synchrotron Light Laboratory, Campinas, SP, Brazil, using a white beam for excitation. (author)

  13. Egg Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Egg Allergy KidsHealth / For Teens / Egg Allergy What's in ... but it's worth it. What Happens With an Egg Allergy? Eggs aren't bad. But when you' ...

  14. Fish Allergy

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    ... Cause Blog Vision Awards Common Allergens Fish Allergy Fish Allergy Learn about fish allergy, how to read ... that you must avoid both. Allergic Reactions to Fish Finned fish can cause severe and potentially life- ...

  15. Sun Allergy

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    Sun allergy Overview Sun allergy is a term often used to describe a number of conditions in which an itchy red rash occurs on skin that has been exposed to sunlight. The most common form of sun allergy is ...

  16. Drug Allergy

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    ... Loss of consciousness Other conditions resulting from drug allergy Less common drug allergy reactions occur days or ... you take the drug. Drugs commonly linked to allergies Although any drug can cause an allergic reaction, ...

  17. Cockroach Allergy

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    ... the Allergist Search Health Professionals Partners Media Donate Allergies Cockroach Allergy Cockroaches are insects that live in many locations ... other children with asthma. What Is a Cockroach Allergy? Cockroaches contain a protein that is an allergen ...

  18. Latex Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology Menu Search Main navigation Skip to content Conditions & Treatments Allergies Asthma Primary Immunodeficiency Disease Related Conditions Drug Guide Conditions Dictionary Just ...

  19. Patients with intolerance reactions to total knee replacement: combined assessment of allergy diagnostics, periprosthetic histology, and peri-implant cytokine expression pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Peter; von der Helm, Christine; Schopf, Christoph; Mazoochian, Farhad; Frommelt, Lars; Gollwitzer, Hans; Schneider, Josef; Flaig, Michael; Krenn, Veit; Thomas, Benjamin; Summer, Burkhard

    2015-01-01

    We performed a combined approach to identify suspected allergy to knee arthroplasty (TKR): patch test (PT), lymphocyte transformation test (LTT), histopathology (overall grading; T- and B-lymphocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils), and semiquantitative Real-time-PCR-based periprosthetic inflammatory mediator analysis (IFNγ, TNFα, IL1-β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL17, and TGFβ). We analyzed 25 TKR patients with yet unexplained complications like pain, effusion, and reduced range of motion. They consisted of 20 patients with proven metal sensitization (11 with PT reactions; 9 with only LTT reactivity). Control specimens were from 5 complicated TKR patients without metal sensitization, 12 OA patients before arthroplasty, and 8 PT patients without arthroplasty. Lymphocytic infiltrates were seen and fibrotic (Type IV membrane) tissue response was most frequent in the metal sensitive patients, for example, in 81% of the PT positive patients. The latter also had marked periprosthetic IFNγ expression. 8/9 patients with revision surgery using Ti-coated/oxinium based implants reported symptom relief. Our findings demonstrate that combining allergy diagnostics with histopathology and periprosthetic cytokine assessment could allow us to design better diagnostic strategies.

  20. Patients with Intolerance Reactions to Total Knee Replacement: Combined Assessment of Allergy Diagnostics, Periprosthetic Histology, and Peri-implant Cytokine Expression Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed a combined approach to identify suspected allergy to knee arthroplasty (TKR: patch test (PT, lymphocyte transformation test (LTT, histopathology (overall grading; T- and B-lymphocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils, and semiquantitative Real-time-PCR-based periprosthetic inflammatory mediator analysis (IFNγ, TNFα, IL1-β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL17, and TGFβ. We analyzed 25 TKR patients with yet unexplained complications like pain, effusion, and reduced range of motion. They consisted of 20 patients with proven metal sensitization (11 with PT reactions; 9 with only LTT reactivity. Control specimens were from 5 complicated TKR patients without metal sensitization, 12 OA patients before arthroplasty, and 8 PT patients without arthroplasty. Lymphocytic infiltrates were seen and fibrotic (Type IV membrane tissue response was most frequent in the metal sensitive patients, for example, in 81% of the PT positive patients. The latter also had marked periprosthetic IFNγ expression. 8/9 patients with revision surgery using Ti-coated/oxinium based implants reported symptom relief. Our findings demonstrate that combining allergy diagnostics with histopathology and periprosthetic cytokine assessment could allow us to design better diagnostic strategies.

  1. Particulate metallic debris in cemented total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvati, E A; Betts, F; Doty, S B

    1993-08-01

    Several studies conducted by the authors in the last six years demonstrate that the generation of metallic debris is more severe with titanium alloy than with cobalt-chrome alloy femoral components in cemented total hip arthroplasty (THA). The debris is generated from the articulating surface, particularly if entrapped acrylic debris produces three-body wear, and from the stem surface when the component loosens and abrades against fragmented cement. In selected cases in which the titanium metallic debris is copious, premature failure and severe progressive bone loss occurs. Electron microscopy demonstrates that the particles of metallic debris can be extremely small (a few hundredths of 1 micron). They are phagocytized by the macrophages and transported to the phagolysosomes. In this highly corrosive environment, the very high surface area of the particles may release toxic concentrations of the constituents of the alloy intracellularly, probably leading to progressive cell degeneration and death, with subsequent release of intracellular enzymes and ingested metallic debris. This cycle most likely repeats itself, leading to tissue necrosis. The results presented do not support the use of titanium alloy femoral components for cemented THA, particularly for the articulating surface.

  2. Optimization of heavy metals total emission, case study: Bor (Serbia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilić, Ivana; Bogdanović, Dejan; Živković, Dragana; Milošević, Novica; Todorović, Boban

    2011-07-01

    The town of Bor (Serbia) is one of the most polluted towns in southeastern Europe. The copper smelter which is situated in the centre of the town is the main pollutant, mostly because of its old technology, which leads to environmental pollution caused by higher concentrations of SO 2 and PM 10. These facts show that the word is about a very polluted region in Europe which, apart from harming human health in the region itself, poses a particular danger for wider area of southeastern Europe. Optimization of heavy metal's total emission was undertaken because years of long contamination of the soil with heavy metals of anthropogenic origin created a danger that those heavy metals may enter the food chains of animals and people, which can lead to disastrous consequences. This work represents the usage of Geographic Information System (GIS) for establishing a multifactor assessment model to quantitatively divide polluted zones and for selecting control sites in a linear programming model, combined with PROMETHEE/GAIA method, Screen View modeling system, and linear programming model. The results show that emissions at some control sites need to be cut for about 40%. In order to control the background of heavy metal pollution in Bor, the ecological environment must be improved.

  3. Total and specific serum IgE decreases with age in patients with allergic rhinitis, asthma and insect allergy but not in patients with atopic dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuber Karsten

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Concerning allergic diseases, the incidence of allergic symptoms, as well as their severity, seems to decrease with age. The decline of onset of allergic symptoms observed in ageing might result from a decrease of serum total and specific IgE. Atopic disorders are complex diseases that involve interactions among several physiological systems, e.g. skin, lung, mucosae, and the immune system. It was the aim of this study to compare the effects of age on total and specific IgE in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD, allergic rhinitis or asthma, and insect allergy, respectively. The study population consisted of 559 individuals (male: 229 and female: 330. Total and allergen specific IgE was measured in every individual. From the whole study population, 113 patients suffered from atopic dermatitis (AD, 132 had allergic rhinitis or asthma, and 314 were tested because of insect allergy. Total and specific serum IgE was significantly decreased as a function of age in patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma and with insect allergy. In contrast, no significant decrease of total and specific serum IgE in old individuals with AD was observed. Additionally, in the group of patients with a total IgE 300 kU/l showed no correlation with age. Immunosenescence does not affect increased IgE levels in atopic patients with AD and/or high serum IgE levels indicating that in these subgroups of patients the atopic propensity remains into advanced age. One may hypothesize that either onset of allergic sensitization during life or the kind of atopic disease influences the correlation between age and IgE synthesis.

  4. Fatal Cobalt Toxicity after a Non-Metal-on-Metal Total Hip Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinne M. Peters

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This case illustrates the potential for systemic cobalt toxicity in non-metal-on-metal bearings and its potentially devastating consequences. We present a 71-year-old male with grinding sensations in his right hip following ceramic-on-ceramic total hip arthroplasty (THA. After diagnosing a fractured ceramic liner, the hip prosthesis was revised into a metal-on-polyethylene bearing. At one year postoperatively, X-rays and MARS-MRI showed a fixed reversed hybrid THA, with periarticular densities, flattening of the femoral head component, and a pattern of periarticular metal wear debris and pseudotumor formation. Before revision could take place, the patient was admitted with the clinical picture of systemic cobalt toxicity, supported by excessively high serum cobalt and chromium levels, and ultimately died. At autopsy dilated cardiomyopathy as cause of death was hypothesized. A third body wear reaction between ceramic remnants and the metal femoral head very likely led to excessive metal wear, which contributed systemic cobalt toxicity leading to neurotoxicity and heart failure. This case emphasizes that fractured ceramic-on-ceramic bearings should be revised to ceramic-on-ceramic or ceramic-on-polyethylene bearings, but not to metal-on-polyethylene bearings. We aim to increase awareness among orthopedic surgeons for clinical clues for systemic cobalt intoxication, even when there is no metal-on-metal bearing surface.

  5. All about Allergies (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Allergies Egg Allergy Do Allergies Cause Asthma? Allergies Food Allergies and Travel 5 Ways to Be Prepared for an Allergy Emergency Serious Allergic Reactions (Anaphylaxis) Allergy Testing Food Allergies Food Allergies: How to Cope Egg Allergy ...

  6. Mold Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... asthma and allergies. Find certified asthma & allergy friendly® products on our certification program website or download our app on the App Store or Google Play . Medical Review October 2015. Types of Allergies Drug ... Allergy Certified Products Look for this mark to find products proven ...

  7. Fish Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Fish Allergy KidsHealth / For Parents / Fish Allergy What's in this ... Print en español Alergia al pescado About Fish Allergy A fish allergy is not exactly the same ...

  8. Shellfish Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Shellfish Allergy KidsHealth / For Parents / Shellfish Allergy What's in this ... Print en español Alergia al marisco About Shellfish Allergy A shellfish allergy is not exactly the same ...

  9. Trabecular metal acetabular components in primary total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laaksonen, Inari; Lorimer, Michelle; Gromov, Kirill

    2018-01-01

    Background and purpose - Trabecular metal (TM) cups have demonstrated favorable results in acetabular revision and their use in primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) is increasing. Some evidence show that TM cups might decrease periprosthetic infection (PPI) incidence. We compared the survivorship...... of TM cups with that of other uncemented cups in primary THA, and evaluated whether the use of TM cups is associated with a lower risk of PPI. Patients and methods - 10,113 primary THAs with TM cup and 85,596 THAs with other uncemented cups from 2 high-quality national arthroplasty registries were...

  10. [Contact allergic gastritis : Rare manifestation of a metal allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pföhler, C; Vogt, T; Müller, C S L

    2016-05-01

    Only a few cases of contact allergic gastritis in patients with nickel allergy have been reported in the literature. We report a case of probable contact-allergic gastritis in a 46-year-old woman. Clinical examination revealed lichenoid mucosal lesions of the gums adjacent to a bridge and crowns that had been implanted several weeks previously. Since implantation, the patient suffered from gastrointestinal complaints including stomach pain. Gastroscopy and histological investigation of stomach biopsies showed eosinophilic gastritis. Patch testing done under the diagnosis of contact allergic stomatitis showed positive reactions to gold sodium thiosulphate, manganese (II) chloride, nickel (II) sulphate, palladium chloride, vanadium (III) chloride, zirconium (IV) chloride, and fragrances. The crowns and the bridge contained gold, palladium, and zirconium, hence they were replaced by titan-based dentition. Shortly after replacing the artificial dentition, all gastrointestinal symptoms resolved spontaneously without further treatment. Delayed-type allergy to components in the artificial dentition seem to have caused the gastritis.

  11. Failure of total hip implants: metals and metal release in 52 cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Stig Storgaard; Lidén, Carola; Søballe, Kjeld

    2014-01-01

    Background . The pathogenesis of total joint replacement failure is multifactorial. One hypothesis suggests that corrosion and wear of alloys result in metal ion release, which may then cause sensitization and even implant failure, owing to the acquired immune reactivity. Objectives . To assess c...

  12. Peanut allergy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hourihane, Jonathan O'B

    2011-04-01

    Peanut allergy may affect up to 2% of children in some countries, making it one of the most common conditions of childhood. Peanut allergy is a marker of a broad and possibly severe atopic phenotype. Nearly all children with peanut allergy have other allergic conditions. Peanut accounts for a disproportionate number of fatal and near fatal food-related allergies. Families with a child or children with peanut allergy can struggle to adapt to the stringent avoidance measures required. Although oral induction of tolerance represents the cutting edge of peanut allergy management, it is not yet ready for routine practice.

  13. Early results of metal on metal articulation total hip arthroplasty in young patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, J A; Kwan, M K; Merican, A M; Abbas, A A; Kamari, Z H; Hisa, M K; Ismail, Z; Idrus, R M

    2004-12-01

    We report our early experience of 20 cases of metal on metal articulation total hip arthroplasty in 19 young patients. Avascular necrosis of the femoral head (63%) was the commonest diagnosis for patients undergoing this procedure, followed by osteoarthritis (21%). In general, most of the patients were young and physically active with an average age of 43.1 years (range, 25 to 58 years). The average follow-up period was 18 months (range, 7 to 46 months). The mean total Harris Hip Score preoperatively and at final follow-up was 31 points and 89 points respectively. The mean total Pain Score improved from an average of 11.5 to 41.1 points at final follow-up. Sixteen (84%) of the patients had a good to excellent hip score. There was one dislocation, which stabilized after reduction and conservative management. One case of early infection underwent a two-staged revision.

  14. Drug Allergy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EL-HAKIM

    Immunology Unit, Department of Pediatrics, Ain Shams University, Cairo ... the case with food allergies).7,8 The parentral route ..... molecular-weight agents. ... and lack positive controls. ..... Immunology; Joint Council of Allergy, Asthma and.

  15. Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1,3-galactose, a carbohydrate found on mammalian meat, and is associated with being bitten by the ... home. Treating Food Allergies There is currently no cure for food allergy, but there are many promising ...

  16. Allergies - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... used to treat food allergies because of the danger of a severe reaction. Allergy shots may need ... allergic or immunologic disease. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  17. Penicillin Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Seizures Loss of consciousness Other conditions resulting from penicillin allergy Less-common penicillin allergy reactions occur days ... immune system to create an antibody to it. Penicillins and related drugs Penicillins belong to a class ...

  18. Food allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... questions about the food you are served. When buying food, read package ingredients carefully. ... allergies in breastfed or other children to prevent future food allergies. Always discuss this with your child's ...

  19. Soy Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Many foods, such as meat products, bakery goods, chocolate and breakfast cereals, may contain soy. Symptoms For ... greater risk of developing a soy allergy: Family history. You're at increased risk of allergy to ...

  20. Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food allergy is an abnormal response to a food triggered by your body's immune system. In adults, the foods ... a severe reaction called anaphylaxis. Symptoms of food allergy include Itching or swelling in your mouth Vomiting, ...

  1. Allergy Capitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to face one of the season’s biggest problems: tree pollen . Common symptoms of springtime allergies include: Runny nose Itchy eyes Sneezing Congestion “Our Spring Allergy Capitals report is a valuable tool to help identify cities where seasonal allergy symptoms can create challenges,” ...

  2. Surgical Approach May Influence Survival of Large-Diameter Head Metal-on-Metal Total Hip Arthroplasty: A 6- to 10-Year Follow-Up Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chien Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Large-diameter head (LDH metal-on-metal (MoM total hip arthroplasty (THA has lost popularity because of metal allergy or ALTRs (adverse local tissue reactions in the past decade. Whether the surgical approach may influence the survival of LDH-MoM-THA has not been reported. From 2006 to 2009, we performed 96 LDH-MoM-THAs on 80 patients using an in situ head-neck assembly technique through a modified Watson-Jones approach. With a mean follow-up of 8.4 years (range, 6.3–10.1 years, the implant survival rate was 100%. All patients were satisfied with the results and the Harris Hip Score improved from 52 points to 98 points. No ALTRs were found, but 17.7% of the 96 hips (17 adverse events experienced adverse events related to the cup, including 5 cases of outlier cup malposition, 11 cases of inadequate cup seating, and 1 acetabular fracture. The tissue tension that was improved by a muscle-sparing approach might lessen the chance of microseparation or edge-loading that is taken as the major risk for early implant failure. Further investigation of whether these LDH-MoM-THAs would fail or not would require a longer follow-up or even retrieval analysis in the future.

  3. Metal allergen of the 21st century--a review on exposure, epidemiology and clinical manifestations of palladium allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurschou, Annesofie; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2011-01-01

    Consumers are mainly exposed to palladium from jewellery and dental restorations. Palladium contact allergy is nearly always seen together with nickel allergy, as palladium and nickel tend to cross-react. We aimed to analyse the available palladium patch test data and case reports to determine...

  4. Metallic Modular Taper Junctions in Total Hip Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy McTighe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of modularity in total hip arthroplasty (THA in the 1980s and 1990s was based on the fact that the benefit of these design features outweighed the risk. The use of metallic modular junctions presents a unique set of advantages and problems for use in THA. The advantages include improvement in fit and fill of the implant to bone, restoration of joint mechanics, reduced complications in revision surgery and reduction of costly inventory. However, the risks or concerns are a little harder to identify and deal with. Certainly corrosion, and fatigue failure are the two most prevalent concerns but now the specifics of fretting wear and corrosive wear increasing particulate debris and the potential biological response is having an impact on the design and potential longevity of the reconstructed hip. Material and designs are facing a shorter life expectancy than what was previously thought, mostly due to an increasing level of physical activity by the patient. Because there are no accurate laboratory test whereby the service life and performance of these implants can be predicted, early controlled clinical evaluations are necessary. Early publication of testing and clinical impressions should be encouraged in an attempt to reduce exposure to potential at risk patients, implants and material. The reduction and possible elimination of risks will require a balancing of all the variables requiring a multidisciplinary endeavor. This paper is designed to review the risk factors, and benefits of modular junctions in total hip arthroplasty (THA. Also some basic engineering principals that can reduce risk factors and improve functionality of modular junctions.

  5. [Radiographic appraisal between metal and bone interosculate backfill after total hip arthroplasty with trabecular metal cup].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Zhou, Yi-Xin; Wu, Jian; Xu, Hui; Ji, Song-Jie

    2009-02-15

    To evaluate the bone refilling in the interface between the trabecular metal (TM) acetabular shell and the bone surface according to consecutive X film measuring after surgery. From July 2006 to July 2007, 35 patients (40 hips) accepted total hip replacement using trabecular metal monoblock acetabular cup system (TM). The cup was made of a ellipse shaped press fit Tantalum shell and high cross-linked PE liner (Longevity) with 28 mm inner diameter. The patients demography was: 16 male (20 hips), 19 female (20 hips), 5 bilateral hip replacements, age from 41 - 71 (mean 53), including 18 avascular necrosis hips, 16 osteoarthritis hips (including those secondary to a dysplasia hip), 4 avascular necrosis hips after femoral neck fracture, 2 Ankylosis Spondylitis. All the 40 total hip replacements used posterior approach, using hemispherical acetabular reamer and 2 mm press fit of final metal shell without screw fixation. The consecutive X film was taken at the end time of surgery and 2, 6, 12, 24 weeks, and 12 months. The clinical results was evaluate according to Harris scoring system, and the standard pelvis AP X film was measured at the interface between metal shell and the acetabular bone surface, witch was divided into five regions (A, B, C, D, E). Totally 32 patients (37 hips) were followed with average 8.7 months (7 - 12 months). The Harris before surgery was 50.5 (32 - 85), promoted to 91.0 (72 - 100), including 29 excellent, 6 good, 2 fair, and the total excellent and good rate was 94.6%. Complications include 4 patients leg length discrepancy from 1 - 2 cm, 3 patients moderate thigh pain and released after conservative therapy. No infection and dislocation was found. Twenty-one patients (23 hips) were found lucent line at the bone-metal interface from 1 - 5 mm, most common in B region and BC boundary than C, D, and CD boundary. All the patients followed was found the lucent line disappeared and refilled with bone at X film 24 weeks after surgery, however, no

  6. Food allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngshin Han

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy is an important public health problem affecting 5% of infants and children in Korea. Food allergy is defined as an immune response triggered by food proteins. Food allergy is highly associated with atopic dermatitis and is one of the most common triggers of potentially fatal anaphylaxis in the community. Sensitization to food allergens can occur in the gastrointestinal tract (class 1 food allergy or as a consequence of cross reactivity to structurally homologous inhalant allergens (class 2 food allergy. Allergenicity of food is largely determined by structural aspects, including cross-reactivity and reduced or enhanced allergenicity with cooking that convey allergenic characteristics to food. Management of food allergy currently focuses on dietary avoidance of the offending foods, prompt recognition and treatment of allergic reactions, and nutritional support. This review includes definitions and examines the prevalence and management of food allergies and the characteristics of food allergens.

  7. Palladium allergy in relation to dentistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muris, J.

    2015-01-01

    Palladium is a metal that is used as alloying metal for dental crowns and bridges. This thesis focusses on the possible impact of oral exposure to this metal on the immune system, and allergy in particular. An alternative skin test allergen for diagnosing palladium allergy is introduced: (di)sodium

  8. Unusual presentation of failed metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty with features of neoplastic process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert P. Runner, MD

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Metal-on-metal (MoM total hip arthroplasty (THA is associated with increased incidence of failure from metallosis, adverse tissue reactions, and the formation of pseudotumors. This case highlights a 53-year-old female with an enlarging painful thigh mass 12 years status post MoM THA. Radiographs and advanced imaging revealed an atypical mass with cortical bone destruction and spiculation, concerning for periprosthetic malignancy. Open frozen section biopsy was performed before undergoing revision THA in a single episode of care. This case illustrates that massive pseudotumors can be locally aggressive causing significant femoral bone destruction and may mimic malignancy. It is important that orthopaedic surgeons, radiologists and pathologists understand the relative infrequency of periprosthetic malignancy in MoM THA to mitigate patient concerns, misdiagnosis, and allow for an evidence based discussion when treating massive pseudotumors.

  9. Acetabular bone density and metal ions after metal-on-metal versus metal-on-polyethylene total hip arthroplasty; short-term results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, Wierd P.; van der Veen, Hugo C.; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge; Zee, Mark J. M.; Bulstra, Sjoerd K.; van Raay, Jos J. A. M.

    Information on periprosthetic acetabular bone density is lacking for metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasties. These bearings use cobalt-chromium instead of titanium acetabular components, which could lead to stress shielding and hence periprosthetic bone loss. Cobalt and chromium ions have

  10. Pet Allergy Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatments ▸ Allergies ▸ Pet Allergy ▸ Pet Allergy Quiz Share | Pet Allergy Quiz More than half of U.S. households ... cat family. Yet, millions of people suffer from pet allergies. Take this quiz to test your knowledge ...

  11. Food allergy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maleki, Soheila J; Burks, A. Wesley; Helm, Ricki M

    2006-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Exploring Current and Novel Methods for the Detection and Diagnosis of Food Allergy: the Clinical Approach * Adriano Mari and Enrico Scala...

  12. Metal-on-Metal Total Hip Resurfacing Arthroplasty: An Evidence-Based Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this review was to assess the safety and effectiveness of metal on metal (MOM) hip resurfacing arthroplasty for young patients compared with that of total hip replacement (THR) in the same population. Total hip replacement has proved to be very effective for late middle-aged and elderly patients with severe degenerative diseases of the hips. As indications for THR began to include younger patients and those with a more active life style, the longevity of the implant became a concern. Evidence suggests that these patients experience relatively higher rates of early implant failure and the need for revision. The Swedish hip registry, for example, has demonstrated a survival rate in excess of 80% at 20 years for those aged over 65 years, whereas this figure was 33% by 16 years in those aged under 55 years. Hip resurfacing arthroplasty is a bone-conserving alternative to THR that restores normal joint biomechanics and load transfer. The technique has been used around the world for more than 10 years, specifically in the United Kingdom and other European countries. Metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasty is an alternative procedure to conventional THR in younger patients. Hip resurfacing arthroplasty is less invasive than THR and addresses the problem of preserving femoral bone stock at the initial operation. This means that future hip revisions are possible with THR if the initial MOM arthroplasty becomes less effective with time in these younger patients. The procedure involves the removal and replacement of the surface of the femoral head with a hollow metal hemisphere, which fits into a metal acetabular cup. Hip resurfacing arthroplasty is a technically more demanding procedure than is conventional THR. In hip resurfacing, the femoral head is retained, which makes it much more difficult to access the acetabular cup. However, hip resurfacing arthroplasty has several advantages over a conventional THR with a small (28 mm) ball. First, the large

  13. Beryllium allergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenherr, S.; Pevny, I.

    1989-12-01

    Beryllium is not only a high potent allergen, but also a fotoallergen and can provoke contact allergic reactions, fotoallergic reactions, granulomatous skin reactions, pulmonary granulomatous diseases and sometimes even systemic diseases. The authors present 9 own cases of a patch test positive beryllium allergy, 7 patients with relevant allergy and 5 patients with an allergic contact stomatitis. (author)

  14. Natural Remission of Major Periprosthetic Osteolysis following Total Hip Arthroplasty with Metal-on-Metal Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya Tamaki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural course of adverse events following the use of metal-on-metal (MoM bearings in total hip arthroplasty (THA is not well known. In this article, we report the case of a patient with asymptomatic major acetabular osteolysis following MoM THA that diminished gradually without any surgical intervention. A 58-year-old male underwent one-stage bilateral MoM THA for bilateral osteoarthritis. Four years after THA, major acetabular osteolysis developed in his right hip without any local or systemic symptoms. The patient underwent a careful radiographic and clinical observation without any surgical intervention because he did not want to undergo revision surgery. The lesion gradually diminished after 7 years, and most of the osteolytic area was replaced by newly formed bone at 10 years. He continues to be followed with no evidence of cup loosening or migration. Our observation suggests that a periprosthetic osteolytic change related to the use of MoM bearings has the potential for natural remission.

  15. Hazelnut allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortolani, Claudio; Ballmer-Weber, Barbara K; Hansen, Kirsten Skamstrup

    2000-01-01

    Background: Tree nuts are a common cause of food allergy in Europe. However, few studies deal with real food allergy to hazelnuts in subjects believed to be allergic to this food. Objective: We sought to select subjects with a history of allergic reactions on ingestion of hazelnut and determine how...... many of these have true allergy by means of the double-blind, placebo- controlled food challenge (DBPCFC). Methods: Eighty-six subjects with a history of symptoms after hazelnut ingestion were recruited from 3 allergy centers (Milan, Zurich, and Copenhagen). All subjects underwent skin prick tests...... (SPTs) with aeroallergens and hazelnut, as well as having their specific hazelnut IgE levels determined. Diagnosis of clinical relevant food allergy was made on the basis of the DBPCFC. Results: Sixty-seven (77.9%) of 86 subjects had a positive DBPCFC result; 8 were placebo responders, and 11 were...

  16. Nut and Peanut Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2014 More on this topic for: Teens Shellfish Allergy Food Allergies and Travel My Friend Has a Food Allergy. How Can I Help? My Girlfriend Has a ... for an Allergy Emergency Serious Allergic Reactions (Anaphylaxis) Food Allergies Egg Allergy Allergy Testing View more About Us ...

  17. Diagnostic value of lipids, total antioxidants, and trace metals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-05-28

    May 28, 2012 ... PSA assay could reduce the associated cost of care and give timely attention to prostate cancer patients ... Prostate cancer (Pca) and benign prostate hyperplasia ..... triglyceride and total cholesterol values in benign prostatic.

  18. Total serum IgE level influences oral food challenge tests for IgE-mediated food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horimukai, K; Hayashi, K; Tsumura, Y; Nomura, I; Narita, M; Ohya, Y; Saito, H; Matsumoto, K

    2015-03-01

    Probability curves predicting oral food challenge test (OFC) results based on specific IgE levels are widely used to prevent serious allergic reactions. Although several confounding factors are known to affect probability curves, the main factors that affect OFC outcomes are currently unclear. We hypothesized that an increased total IgE level would reduce allergic reactivity. Medical records of 337 and 266 patients who underwent OFCs for 3.5 g boiled hen's egg white and 3.1 ml raw cow's milk, respectively, were examined retrospectively. We subdivided the patients into three groups based on total IgE levels and age by percentile (75th percentiles), and logistic regression analyses were performed on each group. Patients with higher total IgE levels were significantly less responsive. In addition, age did not significantly affect the OFC results. Therefore, total IgE levels should be taken into account when predicting OFC results based on food-specific IgE levels. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. CT-based quantification of bone stock in large head metal-on-metal unilateral total hip replacements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boomsma, Martijn F.; Slouwerhof, Inge; van Lingen, Christiaan; Pakvis, Dean F. M.; van Dalen, Jorn A.; Edens, Mireille A.; Ettema, Harmen B.; Verheyen, Cees C. P. M.; Maas, Mario

    2016-01-01

    To explore ipsilateral and contralateral acetabular roof bone stock density in unilateral large head MoM THA whether there is a significant lower acetabular bone stock in the hip with a metal-on-metal (MoM) total hip replacement compared to the contralateral side. Second part of this study is to

  20. A multisite interaction expansion of the total energy in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowa, E.C.; Gonis, A.

    1994-01-01

    The local-density approximation provides a proper setting for the decomposition of total energy into many-body (many-atom) contributions. Multiple scattering theory in turn provides a convenient framework for carrying out this process. We illustrate this concept with calculations on a linear chain of atoms in bulk copper

  1. Total concentration and speciation of heavy metals in biosolids from urban origin; Concentracion total y especiacion de metales pesados en biosolidos de origen urbano origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Flores, Eduardo [Laboratorio de Ingenieria Ambiental, Instituto Tecnologico de Puebla, Puebla, Puebla (Mexico)]. E-mail: egonz1962@yahoo.com.mx; Tornero Campante, Mario Alberto [Colegio de Postgraduados - Campus Puebla, San Pedro Cholula, Puebla (Mexico); Angeles Cruz, Yolanda [Laboratorio de Ingenieria Ambiental, Instituto Tecnologico de Puebla, Puebla, Puebla (Mexico); Bonilla y Fernandez, Noemi [Departamento de Agroecologia y Ambiente, Instituto de Ciencias - Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla, Puebla (Mexico)

    2009-02-15

    The analysis of heavy metals is a very important task to asses the potential environmental and health risk associated with biosolids deposition in agricultural soil. However, it is widely accepted that determination of total concentration of heavy metals does not give an accurate estimation of the potential environmental impact. So, it is necessary to apply speciation studies to obtain suitable information about their bioavailability. This study was carried out on sewage sludge samples collected in a municipal waste-water treatment plant, located in Puebla City (Mexico). They are used for amendment agricultural soil. The speciation of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) was made using a sequential extraction procedure. The aim was to determine their concentration in bioavailability fractions. It was got the total concentration of heavy metals using acid digestion in a closed system and was determined with atomic absorption spectrometry. The total concentrations of heavy metals were lower than that established by Mexican legislation. The heavy metals are mainly associated with the mineral fraction and organic matter and consequently they show low bioavailability. [Spanish] El analisis de metales pesados es una actividad importante cuando se quiere valorar el potencial riesgo ambiental y de salud asociado con la utilizacion de biosolidos en suelos agricolas. Sin embargo, es ampliamente aceptado que la determinacion del contenido total no da una valoracion apropiada del impacto ambiental causado. Por lo tanto, es necesario realizar estudios de especiacion para obtener informacion mas detallada sobre su biodisponibilidad. Este estudio se llevo a cabo con muestras de lodos residuales producidos en una planta de tratamiento de aguas residuales ubicada en la ciudad de Puebla (Mexico). Estos biosolidos son utilizados para enmendar suelos agricolas. La especiacion de metales pesados (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb y Zn) se realizo usando un procedimiento de extraccion secuencial

  2. Quantitative analysis of orthopedic metal artefact reduction in 64-slice computed tomography scans in large head metal-on-metal total hip replacement, a phantom study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boomsma, Martijn F.; Warringa, Niek; Edens, Mireille A.; Mueller, Dirk; Ettema, Harmen B.; Verheyen, Cees C. P. M.; Maas, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Quantification of the effect of O-MAR on decreasing metal artefacts caused by large head metal on metal total hip arthroplasty (MoM THA) in a dedicated phantom setup of the hip. Background: Pathological reactions of the hip capsule on Computed tomography (CT) can be difficult to diagnose

  3. Prevalence of food allergies in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakali, Schweta R; Green, Todd D; Dinakar, Chitra

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the published medical literature on the prevalence and types of food allergies in South Asia. A PubMed search was performed using the keywords India and food allergy, Asia and food allergy, and South Asia and food allergy for any period. Articles cited in selected studies were reviewed for their appropriateness of inclusion into this review. Publications were included that were original research and fit the topic of food allergy and South Asia. South Asia is defined as region inclusive of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka. A total of 169 articles were initially identified, and 47 were reviewed in detail for inclusion in this review. The primary focus was placed on 10 studies that consisted of case reports of newly reported or documented food allergy, survey studies that investigated food allergy prevalence in specific demographics, and prospective and cross-sectional studies with case controls, all of which investigated food allergy prevalence by allergy testing in a selected population. The medical literature on the prevalence and types of food allergy in South Asia indicates that there is a variety of unusual and unique allergens and an overall low incidence of food allergy. There is also an association of increased food allergy prevalence in individuals who live in metropolitan regions or who migrate to communities that have adopted westernization. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevalence of contact allergy to metals in the European general population with a focus on nickel sulfate and piercings: The EDEN Fragrance Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuttelaar, Marie L A; Ofenloch, Robert F; Bruze, Magnus; Cazzaniga, Simone; Elsner, Peter; Gonçalo, Margarida; Naldi, Luigi; Svensson, Åke; Diepgen, Thomas L

    2018-04-10

    Studies on sensitization to metals in the general population are scarce. To determine the prevalence of sensitization to metals in the general population, and factors associated with nickel sensitization. In 5 European countries (The Netherlands, Germany, Italy, Portugal and Sweden), a random sample (N = 3119) from the general population (aged 18-74 years) was patch tested and interviewed by use of a questionnaire on exposure to metals, piercing, and jewellery. Overall, the age-standardized prevalences of sensitization to nickel, cobalt and chromium were, respectively, 14.5%, 2.1%, and 0.8%. The highest prevalence of nickel sensitization was seen in Portugal (18.5%) and the lowest (8.3%) in Sweden. The prevalence of cobalt sensitization varied between 3.8% (The Netherlands) and 0.9% (Italy), and the prevalence of chromium sensitization varied between 1.3% (Portugal) and 0.2% (Sweden). Significant associations were observed between nickel allergy and female sex (odds ratio [OR] 5.19; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 3.99-6.74), past piercing use (OR 3.86; 95%CI: 2.85-5.24), and currently having ≥3 piercings (OR 5.58; 95%CI: 4.02-7.76). The prevalence of sensitization to metals in the European general population was high, mostly because of nickel. The lowest prevalence of contact allergy to nickel and chromium observed in Sweden supports the effectiveness of long-standing regulation. © 2018 The Authors. Contact Dermatitis published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Drug allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allergic reaction - drug (medication); Drug hypersensitivity; Medication hypersensitivity ... A drug allergy involves an immune response in the body that produces an allergic reaction to a medicine. The first time ...

  6. Egg Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with eggs. Prevention is the name of the game with food allergies, so it's important for kids ... protein from other foods. Some good ones are meat, poultry, fish, and legumes (beans and peanuts). If ...

  7. Milk Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... contain blood Abdominal cramps Runny nose Watery eyes Colic, in babies Milk allergy or milk intolerance? A ... fat milk, skim milk, buttermilk Butter Yogurt Ice cream, gelato Cheese and anything that contains cheese Half- ...

  8. Food allergy

    OpenAIRE

    Waserman Susan; Watson Wade

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Food allergy is defined as an adverse immunologic response to a dietary protein. Food-related reactions are associated with a broad array of signs and symptoms that may involve many bodily systems including the skin, gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts, and cardiovascular system. Food allergy is a leading cause of anaphylaxis and, therefore, referral to an allergist for appropriate and timely diagnosis and treatment is imperative. Diagnosis involves a careful history and diagnost...

  9. Allergies and Hay Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Allergies and Hay Fever Allergies and Hay Fever Patient ... life more enjoyable. Why does the body develop allergies? Allergy symptoms appear when the immune system reacts ...

  10. Do Allergies Cause Asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Do Allergies Cause Asthma? KidsHealth / For Parents / Do Allergies Cause Asthma? Print ... son la causa del asma? Do Allergies Cause Asthma? Allergies don't cause asthma. But kids who ...

  11. Medication/Drug Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Training Home Conditions Medication/Drug Allergy Medication/Drug Allergy Make an Appointment Find a Doctor Ask a ... risk for adverse reactions to medications. Facts about Allergies The tendency to develop allergies may be inherited. ...

  12. Allergy Shots (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Allergy Shots KidsHealth / For Parents / Allergy Shots What's in ... to help a child deal with them. Why Allergy Shots Are Used An allergy occurs when the ...

  13. Allergy, living and learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chivato, T; Valovirta, E; Dahl, R

    2012-01-01

    Allergy Living and Learning (ALL) is a European initiative designed to increase knowledge and understanding of people living with allergies in order to improve respiratory allergy care.......Allergy Living and Learning (ALL) is a European initiative designed to increase knowledge and understanding of people living with allergies in order to improve respiratory allergy care....

  14. Chromium allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M B; Johansen, J D; Menné, Torkil

    2003-01-01

    Most studies investigating chromium allergy have been performed with Cr(VI). However, real exposure to chromium from leather products includes both Cr(III) and Cr(VI). We have determined and compared the minimum elicitation threshold (MET) concentration for Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in Cr(VI)-sensitive ......Most studies investigating chromium allergy have been performed with Cr(VI). However, real exposure to chromium from leather products includes both Cr(III) and Cr(VI). We have determined and compared the minimum elicitation threshold (MET) concentration for Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in Cr......(III) was concluded to play an important role in chromium allergy, because Cr(III) and Cr(VI) were both capable of eliciting eczema at low concentrations. Rather than regarding chromium dermatitis as a result of Cr(VI) allergy alone, it may be more correct to consider it as a result of a combined Cr(III) and Cr......(VI) allergy....

  15. Nickel allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, L A; Johansen, J D; Menné, T

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The frequency of nickel allergy varies between different population groups. Exposure regulation has proven effective in decreasing the frequency. Experimental studies with other allergens have shown a significant relation between patch test reactivity and repeated open application test...... in a patch test and a dilution series of three concentrations in a ROAT, with duration of up to 21 days. Eighteen persons with no nickel allergy were included as control group for the ROAT. RESULTS: The predicted dose which will elicit a reaction in 10% of allergic individuals was calculated to be 0......-response; indeed, there was no statistically significant difference. CONCLUSIONS: For elicitation of nickel allergy the elicitation threshold for the patch test is higher than the elicitation threshold (per application) for the ROAT, but is approximately the same as the accumulated elicitation threshold...

  16. Bulk metal concentrations versus total suspended solids in rivers: Time-invariant & catchment-specific relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrabadi, Touraj; Ruegner, Hermann; Schwientek, Marc; Bennett, Jeremy; Fazel Valipour, Shahin; Grathwohl, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Suspended particles in rivers can act as carriers of potentially bioavailable metal species and are thus an emerging area of interest in river system monitoring. The delineation of bulk metals concentrations in river water into dissolved and particulate components is also important for risk assessment. Linear relationships between bulk metal concentrations in water (CW,tot) and total suspended solids (TSS) in water can be used to easily evaluate dissolved (CW, intercept) and particle-bound metal fluxes (CSUS, slope) in streams (CW,tot = CW + CSUS TSS). In this study, we apply this principle to catchments in Iran (Haraz) and Germany (Ammer, Goldersbach, and Steinlach) that show differences in geology, geochemistry, land use and hydrological characteristics. For each catchment, particle-bound and dissolved concentrations for a suite of metals in water were calculated based on linear regressions of total suspended solids and total metal concentrations. Results were replicable across sampling campaigns in different years and seasons (between 2013 and 2016) and could be reproduced in a laboratory sedimentation experiment. CSUS values generally showed little variability in different catchments and agree well with soil background values for some metals (e.g. lead and nickel) while other metals (e.g. copper) indicate anthropogenic influences. CW was elevated in the Haraz (Iran) catchment, indicating higher bioavailability and potential human and ecological health concerns (where higher values of CSUS/CW are considered as a risk indicator).

  17. Revision rates for metal-on-metal hip resurfacing and metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty – a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ras Sørensen, Sofie-amalie L.; Jørgensen, Henrik L.; Sporing, Sune L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare revision rates of metal-on-metal (MoM) hip resurfacing (HRS) and MoM total hip arthroplasty (THA), as well as the primary causes for revisions. Methods The PubMed database was queried for potentially relevant articles addressing MoMTHA and MoMHRS, a total of 51 articles were....... The odds ratio was 1.25 (1.03:1.53) 95% CI (p = 0.03) (MoMHRS vs. MoMTHA). The studies of hip prostheses were separated into 2 categories of short- and long-term (more or less than 5 years). Short-term revision rate for MoMTHA was 4.5% after 4.8 years, and for MoMHRS 4.0% after 4.2 years. The odds ratio...

  18. Comparison of reactivity to a metallic disc and 2% aluminium salt in 366 children, and reproducibility over time for 241 young adults with childhood vaccine-related aluminium contact allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gente Lidholm, Anette; Inerot, Annica; Gillstedt, Martin; Bergfors, Elisabet; Trollfors, Birger

    2018-07-01

    An aluminium hydroxide-adsorbed pertussis toxoid vaccine was studied in 76 000 children in the 1990s in Gothenburg, Sweden. Long-lasting itchy subcutaneous nodules at the vaccination site were seen in 745 participants. Of 495 children with itchy nodules who were patch tested for aluminium allergy, 377 were positive. In 2007-2008, 241 of the positive children were retested. Only in one third were earlier positive results reproduced. To further describe patch test reactions to different aluminium compounds in children with vaccine-induced aluminium allergy. Positive patch test results for metallic aluminium (empty Finn Chamber) and aluminium chloride hexahydrate 2% petrolatum (pet.) were analysed in 366 children with vaccine-induced persistent itching nodules tested in 1998-2002. Of those, 241 were tested a second time (2007-2008), and the patch test results of the two aluminium preparations were analysed. Patch testing with aluminium chloride hexahydrate 2% pet. is a more sensitive way to diagnose aluminium contact allergy than patch testing with metallic aluminium. A general decrease in the strength of reactions to both aluminium preparations in 241 children tested twice was observed. Aluminium contact allergy can be diagnosed by patch testing without using metallic aluminium. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. No association between metal allergy and cardiac in-stent restenosis in patients with dermatitis-results from a linkage study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Engkilde, Kåre; Menné, Torkil

    2011-01-01

    Background. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with implantation of a metal stent is a common procedure performed in patients with symptomatic ischaemic heart disease. Intracoronary stents typically have a backbone of stainless steel, which contains nickel, chromium, and molybdenum, and it ......Background. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with implantation of a metal stent is a common procedure performed in patients with symptomatic ischaemic heart disease. Intracoronary stents typically have a backbone of stainless steel, which contains nickel, chromium, and molybdenum......, and it remains unclear whether individuals who are allergic to these metals have an increased risk of restenosis after PCI with stent implantation. Objectives. To further evaluate whether dermatitis patients with nickel and/or chromium allergy had an increased risk of developing cardiac in-stent restenosis...... with stainless steel stents. Methods. An individual-level linkage study was performed to identify dermatitis patients who had been patch tested with the European baseline series between 1979 and 2007 at Gentofte University Hospital (N = 18794) and who had also undergone PCI at some point in a Danish hospital...

  20. Pseudotumor from Metal-on-Metal Total Hip Arthroplasty Causing Unilateral Leg Edema: Case Presentation and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caleb W. Grote

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Metal-on-metal (MoM total hip arthroplasty (THA can be associated with adverse metal reactions, including pseudotumors. This case report describes a 58-year-old female with an MoM THA-related pseudotumor that caused unilateral leg edema from compression of her external iliac vein. After thorough preoperative workup to rule out infection and deep vein thrombosis and consultation with a vascular surgeon, the patient underwent revision THA and excision of her pseudotumor. She had complete resolution of her swelling at 4 years after surgery. Review of all available case reports for this rare complication revealed that almost all patients were female. All patients underwent revision THA, with resolution of their symptoms. Literature review demonstrates that women are disproportionally affected by complications associated with MoM THA. We recommend close monitoring of patients with MoM THA, particularly women, for development of adverse metal reactions.

  1. Revision total knee arthroplasty with the use of trabecular metal cones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Claus L; Petersen, Michael Mygind; Schrøder, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    "Trabecular Metal Cone" (TM Cone) (Zimmer, Inc, Warsaw, Ind) for reconstruction of bone loss in the proximal tibia during revision total knee arthroplasty is now optional. Forty patients were randomized to receive revision total knee arthroplasty with or without TM Cone (No TM Cone). The Anderson...

  2. Food Allergies

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-23

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about the dangers of food allergies and the need to be aware if any friends or classmates have them.  Created: 4/23/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/23/2013.

  3. Methyldibromoglutaronitrile allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, L A; Johansen, J D; Menné, T

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Methyldibromoglutaronitrile (MDBGN) is a preservative, which was approved for use in cosmetics in the mid-1980s. The incidence of allergy to MDBGN rose during the 1990s, but is now decreasing due to regulatory intervention. Experimental studies with other allergens have shown a signif......BACKGROUND: Methyldibromoglutaronitrile (MDBGN) is a preservative, which was approved for use in cosmetics in the mid-1980s. The incidence of allergy to MDBGN rose during the 1990s, but is now decreasing due to regulatory intervention. Experimental studies with other allergens have shown...... to MDBGN were tested with a dilution series of MDBGN in a patch test and a ROAT (duration up to 21 days). Seventeen people with no MDBGN allergy were included as a control group for the ROAT. RESULTS: The response frequency for the ROAT (in microg MDBGN cm(-2) per application) was significantly higher than...... the response frequency for the patch test, while the response frequency for the accumulated ROAT dose, at 1, 2 and 3 weeks was very similar to the patch test response frequency; indeed there was no statistical significant difference. CONCLUSIONS: For elicitation of MDBGN allergy the response frequency...

  4. Heavy reading in heavy metal : Unraveling the mystery of hip tissue in metal on metal total hip arthroplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boomsma, M.F.

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis, we investigated the use of computer tomography (CT) for the screening of patients with a metal-on-metal (MoM) hip prosthesis in two patient cohorts. With a self-established CT grading scale, we have shown that CT is a reliable method for the diagnosis of postoperative pathological

  5. Spice allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, James L; Bahna, Sami L

    2011-09-01

    To provide a review on spice allergy and its implementation in clinical practice. PubMed searches were performed using spice allergy as the keyword for original and review articles. Selected references were also procured from the reviewed articles' references list. Articles were selected based on their relevance to the topic. Spices are available in a large variety and are widely used, often as blends. Spice allergy seems to be rare, reportedly affecting between 4 and 13 of 10,000 adults and occurring more often in women because of cosmetic use. No figures were available on children. Most spice allergens are degraded by digestion; therefore, IgE sensitization is mostly through inhalation of cross-reacting pollens, particularly mugwort and birch. The symptoms are more likely to be respiratory when exposure is by inhalation and cutaneous if by contact. Studies on skin testing and specific IgE assays are limited and showed low reliability. The diagnosis primarily depends on a good history taking and confirmation with oral challenge. The common use of spice blends makes identifying the particular offending component difficult, particularly because their components are inconsistent. Spices are widely used and contain multiple allergens, yet spice allergy is probably markedly underdiagnosed. There is a need for reliable skin testing extracts and serum specific IgE assays. Currently, the diagnosis depends on a good history taking and well-designed titrated challenge testing. Until immunotherapy becomes developed, treatment is strict avoidance, which may be difficult because of incomplete or vague labeling. Copyright © 2011 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Relationship between nickel allergy and diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Ashimav

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Nickel is a ubiquitous trace element and it occurs in soil, water, air and of the biosphere. It is mostly used to manufacture stainless steel. Nickel is the commonest cause of metal allergy. Nickel allergy is a chronic and recurring skin problem; females are affected more commonly than males. Nickel allergy may develop at any age. Once developed, it tends to persist life-long. Nickel is present in most of the dietary items and food is considered to be a major source of nickel exposure for the general population. Nickel content in food may vary considerably from place to place due to the difference in nickel content of the soil. However, certain foods are routinely high in nickel content. Nickel in the diet of a nickel-sensitive person can provoke dermatitis. Careful selection of food with relatively low nickel concentration can bring a reduction in the total dietary intake of nickel per day. This can influence the outcome of the disease and can benefit the nickel sensitive patient.

  7. Understanding Food Allergies: How to Prevent Peanut Allergy and More

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Subscribe March 2017 Print this issue Understanding Food Allergies How to Prevent Peanut Allergy and More En ... Allergy Therapy Seeking Allergy Relief Wise Choices Food Allergy Symptoms Pay attention to how you feel after ...

  8. Learning about Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Learning About Allergies KidsHealth / For Kids / Learning About Allergies What's in ... in the spring. Why Do Some Kids Get Allergies? People may be born with a genetic (say: ...

  9. Tree Nut Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blog Vision Awards Common Allergens Tree Nut Allergy Tree Nut Allergy Learn about tree nut allergy, how ... a Tree Nut Label card . Allergic Reactions to Tree Nuts Tree nuts can cause a severe and ...

  10. Nut and Peanut Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Nut and Peanut Allergy KidsHealth / For Kids / Nut and Peanut Allergy What's ... getting worse. How Is a Nut or Peanut Allergy Diagnosed? If your doctor thinks you might have ...

  11. All About Allergy Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology Menu Search Main navigation Skip to content Conditions & Treatments Allergies Asthma Primary Immunodeficiency Disease Related Conditions Drug Guide Conditions Dictionary Just ...

  12. Fire Ant Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology Menu Search Main navigation Skip to content Conditions & Treatments Allergies Asthma Primary Immunodeficiency Disease Related Conditions Drug Guide Conditions Dictionary Just ...

  13. Allergy-Friendly Gardening

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology Menu Search Main navigation Skip to content Conditions & Treatments Allergies Asthma Primary Immunodeficiency Disease Related Conditions Drug Guide Conditions Dictionary Just ...

  14. Asthma, Allergies and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology Menu Search Main navigation Skip to content Conditions & Treatments Allergies Asthma Primary Immunodeficiency Disease Related Conditions Drug Guide Conditions Dictionary Just ...

  15. Food allergies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Leary, Paula F G

    2012-02-03

    Adverse reactions to foods are commonly implicated in the causation of ill health. However, foreign antigens, including food proteins and commensal microbes encountered in the gastrointestinal tract, are usually well tolerated. True food allergies, implying immune-mediated adverse responses to food antigens, do exist, however, and are especially common in infants and young children. Allergic reactions to food manifest clinically in a variety of presentations involving the gastrointestinal, cutaneous, and respiratory systems and in generalized reactions such as anaphylaxis. Both IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated immune mechanisms are recognized. Important advances in the clinical features underlying specific food hypersensitivity disorders are reviewed.

  16. Towards a food-allergy-free world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, G.; Bilsen, J. van; Blom, M.; Kruizinga, A.; Verhoeckx, K.

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is one of the most common health disorders in the western world. It affects about three per cent of the total population. Food allergy is potentially lethal, and its health impact is higher than that posed by all known chemicals and microbes in food. It is also higher than that of many

  17. Applications of Total Scattering & Pair Distribution Function Analysis in Metal-Organic Framework Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Hui; Birgisson, Steinar; Sommer, Sanna

    structure. At the same time, there is an ongoing debate on whether the SBU is present prior, or during MOF crystallization in MOF chemistry. However, little is known about MOFs formation mechanism. Currently techniques to study the in situ MOF formation process mainly focused on after......-crystallization process, for example in situ XRD and SAXS/WAXS study on MOF formation. However, the pre-crystallization process in the early stage of MOF formation is still unexplored. In this project, total scattering and PDF study will be carried out to explore the MOF formation process in early stage. This includes......Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) is constructed by metal-oxide nodes and organic ligands. The formation of different structures of metal-oxide nodes (also called secondary building units, SBU) is crucial for MOF final structures, because the connectivity of SBU greatly influence the final MOF...

  18. Formation of a pseudotumor in total hip arthroplasty using a tribological metal-polyethylene pair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Fagotti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim here was to report a case of a young adult patient who evolved with tumor formation in the left thigh, 14 years after revision surgery on hip arthroplasty. Davies in 2005 made the first description of this disease in patients undergoing metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty. Over the last decade, however, pseudotumors around metal-on-polyethylene surfaces have become more prevalent. Our patient presented with increased volume of the left thigh 8 years after hip arthroplasty revision surgery. Two years before the arising of the tumor in the thigh, a nodule in the inguinal region was investigated to rule out a malignant neoplastic process, but the results were inconclusive. The main preoperative complaints were pain, functional limitation and marked reduction in the range of motion of the left hip. Plain radiographs showed loosening of acetabular and femoral, and a large mass between the muscle planes was revealed through magnetic resonance imaging of the left thigh. The surgical procedure consisted of resection of the lesion and removal of the components through lateral approach. In respect of total hip arthroplasty, pseudotumors are benign neoplasms in which the bearing surface consists of metal-on-metal, but they can also occur in different tribological pairs, as presented in this case.

  19. FOOD ALLERGY IN INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.I. Balabolkin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the etiology, growth mechanisms, clinical implications, diagnostics and treatment of the infant food allergy. The author highlights the status of the allergy to the proteins of cow milk within this age group of children. Alongside the article describes the modern approaches to the diet therapy of the infants with the allergy to the proteins of cow milk.Key words: infant, food allergy, allergy to the proteins of cow milk, diet therapy.

  20. Sweeping total reflection X-ray fluorescence optimisation to monitor the metallic contamination into IC manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borde, Yannick; Danel, Adrien; Roche, Agnes; Veillerot, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Among the methods available on the market today to control as metallic contamination in integrated circuit manufacturing, Sweeping Total reflection X-ray Fluorescence mode appears a very good method, providing fast and entire wafer mapping. With the goal of a pertinent use of Sweeping Total reflection X-ray Fluorescence in advanced Integrated Circuit manufacturing this work discusses how acceptable levels of contamination specified by the production (low levels to be detected) can be taken into account. The relation between measurement results (surface coverage, throughput, low limit of detection, limit of quantification, quantification of localized contamination) and Sweeping Total reflection X-ray Fluorescence parameters (number of measurement points and integration time per point) is presented in details. In particular, a model is proposed to explain the mismatch between actual surface contamination in a localized spot on wafer and Total reflection X-ray Fluorescence reading. Both calibration and geometric issues have been taken into account

  1. Allergy prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muche-Borowski, Cathleen; Kopp, Matthias; Reese, Imke; Sitter, Helmut; Werfel, Thomas; Schäfer, Torsten

    2010-09-01

    The further increase of allergies in industrialized countries demands evidence-based measures of primary prevention. The recommendations as published in the guideline of 2004 were updated and consented on the basis of a systematic literature search. Evidence from the period February 2003-May 2008 was searched in the electronic databases Cochrane and MEDLINE as well as in reference lists of recent reviews and by contacting experts. The retrieved citations were screened for relevance first by title and abstract and in a second step as full paper. Levels of evidence were assigned to each included study and the methodological quality of the studies was assessed as high or low. Finally the revised recommendations were formally consented (nominal group process) by representatives of relevant societies and organizations including a self-help group. Of originally 4556 hits, 217 studies (4 Cochrane Reviews, 14 meta-analyses, 19 randomized controlled trials, 135 cohort and 45 case-control studies) were included and critically appraised. Grossly unchanged remained the recommendations on avoiding environmental tobacco smoke, breast-feeding over 4 months (alternatively hypoallergenic formulas for children at risk), avoiding a mold-promoting indoor climate, vaccination according to current recommendations, and avoidance of furry pets (especially cats) in children at risk. The recommendation on reducing the house dust mite allergen exposure as a measure of primary prevention was omitted and the impact of a delayed introduction of supplementary food was reduced. New recommendations were adopted concerning fish consumption (during pregnancy / breast-feeding and as supplementary food in the first year), avoidance of overweight, and reducing the exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollutants. The revision of this guideline on a profound evidence basis led to (1) a confirmation of existing recommendations, (2) substantial revisions, and (3) new recommendations. Thereby it is possible

  2. Relationship between nickel allergy and diet

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma Ashimav

    2007-01-01

    Nickel is a ubiquitous trace element and it occurs in soil, water, air and of the biosphere. It is mostly used to manufacture stainless steel. Nickel is the commonest cause of metal allergy. Nickel allergy is a chronic and recurring skin problem; females are affected more commonly than males. Nickel allergy may develop at any age. Once developed, it tends to persist life-long. Nickel is present in most of the dietary items and food is considered to be a major source of nickel exposure for the...

  3. Determination of the total concentration and speciation of metal ions in river, estuarine and seawater samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Giancarla; Biesuz, Raffaela; Pesavento, Maria

    2008-12-01

    Different natural water samples were investigated to determine the total concentration and the distribution of species for Cu(II), Pb(II), Al(III) and U(VI). The proposed method, named resin titration (RT), was developed in our laboratory to investigate the distribution of species for metal ions in complex matrices. It is a competition method, in which a complexing resin competes with natural ligands present in the sample to combine with the metal ions. In the present paper, river, estuarine and seawater samples, collected during a cruise in Adriatic Sea, were investigated. For each sample, two RTs were performed, using different complexing resins: the iminodiacetic Chelex 100 and the carboxylic Amberlite CG50. In this way, it was possible to detect different class of ligands. Satisfactory results have been obtained and are commented on critically. They were summarized by principal component analysis (PCA) and the correlations with physicochemical parameters allowed one to follow the evolution of the metals along the considered transect. It should be pointed out that, according to our findings, the ligands responsible for metal ions complexation are not the major components of the water system, since they form considerably weaker complexes.

  4. Optimization of metal artefact reduction (MAR) sequences for MRI of total hip prostheses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toms, A.P., E-mail: andoni.toms@nnuh.nhs.u [Department of Radiology, Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital Trust, Norwich, Norfolk NR4 7UY (United Kingdom); Smith-Bateman, C.; Malcolm, P.N.; Cahir, J. [Department of Radiology, Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital Trust, Norwich, Norfolk NR4 7UY (United Kingdom); Graves, M. [University Department of Radiology, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15

    Aim: To describe the relative contribution of matrix size and bandwidth to artefact reduction in order to define optimal sequence parameters for metal artefact reduction (MAR) sequences for MRI of total hip prostheses. Methods and materials: A phantom was created using a Charnley total hip replacement. Mid-coronal T1-weighted (echo time 12 ms, repetition time 400 ms) images through the prosthesis were acquired with increasing bandwidths (150, 300, 454, 592, and 781 Hz/pixel) and increasing matrixes of 128, 256, 384, 512, 640, and 768 pixels square. Signal loss from the prosthesis and susceptibility artefact was segmented using an automated tool. Results: Over 90% of the achievable reduction in artefacts was obtained with matrixes of 256 x 256 or greater and a receiver bandwidth of approximately 400 Hz/pixel or greater. Thereafter increasing the receiver bandwidth or matrix had little impact on reducing susceptibility artefacts. Increasing the bandwidth produced a relative fall in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of between 49 and 56% for a given matrix, but, in practice, the image quality was still satisfactory even with the highest bandwidth and largest matrix sizes. The acquisition time increased linearly with increasing matrix parameters. Conclusion: Over 90% of the achievable metal artefact reduction can be realized with mid-range matrices and receiver bandwidths on a clinical 1.5 T system. The loss of SNR from increasing receiver bandwidth, is preferable to long acquisition times, and therefore, should be the main tool for reducing metal artefact.

  5. Inhalant allergies in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mims, James W; Veling, Maria C

    2011-06-01

    Children with chronic or recurrent upper respiratory inflammatory disease (rhinitis) should be considered for inhalant allergies. Risk factors for inhalant allergies in children include a first-degree relative with allergies, food allergy in infancy, and atopic dermatitis. Although inhalant allergies are rare in infancy, inhalant allergies are common in older children and impair quality of life and productivity. Differentiating between viral and allergic rhinitis can be challenging in children, but the child's age, history, and risk factors can provide helpful information. Allergic rhinitis is a risk factor for asthma, and if one is present, medical consideration of the other is warranted. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Esophagojejunal Anastomosis Fistula, Distal Esophageal Stenosis, and Metalic Stent Migration after Total Gastrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadim Al Hajjar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Esophagojejunal anastomosis fistula is the main complication after a total gastrectomy. To avoid a complex procedure on friable inflamed perianastomotic tissues, a coated self-expandable stent is mounted at the site of the anastomotic leak. A complication of stenting procedure is that it might lead to distal esophageal stenosis. However, another frequently encountered complication of stenting is stent migration, which is treated nonsurgically. When the migrated stent creates life threatening complications, surgical removal is indicated. We present a case of a 67-year-old male patient who was treated at our facility for a gastric adenocarcinoma which developed, postoperatively, an esophagojejunostomy fistula, a distal esophageal stenosis, and a metallic coated self-expandable stent migration. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an esophagojejunostomy fistula combined with a distal esophageal stenosis as well as with a metallic coated self-expandable stent migration.

  7. Total Contents and Sequential Extraction of Heavy Metals in Soils Irrigated with Wastewater, Akaki, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitamo, Daniel; Itana, Fisseha; Olsson, Mats

    2007-02-01

    The Akaki River, laden with untreated wastes from domestic, industrial, and commercial sources, serves as a source of water for irrigating vegetable farms. The purpose of this study is to identify the impact of waste-water irrigation on the level of heavy metals and to predict their potential mobility and bioavailability. Zn and V had the highest, whereas Hg the lowest, concentrations observed in the soils. The average contents of As, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, V, and Hg of both soils; and Pb and Se from Fluvisol surpassed the mean + 2 SD of the corresponding levels reported for their uncontaminated counterparts. Apparently, irrigation with waste water for the last few decades has contributed to the observed higher concentrations of the above elements in the study soils (Vertisol and Fluvisol) when compared to uncontaminated Vertisol and Fluvisol. On the other hand, Vertisol accommodated comparatively higher average levels of Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, etc V, and Cd, whereas high contents of Pb and Se were observed in Fluvisol. Alternatively, comparable levels of Co and Hg were found in either soil. Except for Ni, Cr, and Cd in contaminated Vertisol, heavy metals in the soils were not significantly affected by the depth (0-20 and 30-50 cm). When the same element from the two soils was compared, the levels of Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn, V, Cd at 0-20 cm; and Cr, Ni, Cu, Cd, and Zn at 30-50 cm were significantly different. Organic carbon (in both soils), CEC (Fluvisol), and clay (Vertisol) exhibited significant positive correspondences with the total heavy metal levels. Conversely, Se and Hg contents revealed perceptible associations with carbonate and pH. The exchangeable fraction was dominated by Hg and Cd, whereas the carbonate fraction was abounded with Cd, Pb, and Co. conversely, V and Pb displayed strong affinity to reducible fraction, where as Cr, Cu, Zn, and Ni dominated the oxidizable fraction. Cr, Hg, Se, and Zn (in both soils) showed preference to the residual fraction

  8. Tailored plasmon-induced transparency in attenuated total reflection response in a metal-insulator-metal structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Kouki; Hirai, Yusuke; Neo, Yoichiro; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Tomita, Makoto

    2017-12-19

    We demonstrated tailored plasmon-induced transparency (PIT) in a metal (Au)-insulator (SiO 2 )-metal (Ag) (MIM) structure, where the Fano interference between the MIM waveguide mode and the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) resonance mode induced a transparency window in an otherwise opaque wavenumber (k) region. A series of structures with different thicknesses of the Ag layer were prepared and the attenuated total reflection (ATR) response was examined. The height and width of the transparency window, as well as the relevant k-domain dispersion, were controlled by adjusting the Ag layer thickness. To confirm the dependency of PIT on Ag layer thickness, we performed numerical calculations to determine the electric field amplitude inside the layers. The steep k-domain dispersion in the transparency window is capable of creating a lateral beam shift known as the Goos-Hänchen shift, for optical device and sensor applications. We also discuss the Fano interference profiles in a ω - k two-dimensional domain on the basis of Akaike information criteria.

  9. Total vs. internal element concentrations in Scots pine needles along a sulphur and metal pollution gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautio, Pasi; Huttunen, Satu

    2003-01-01

    Different methods should be used for foliar analyses of trees used as bioindicators of pollution, than those analyses used in nutritional studies of trees. - Analysis of foliar elements is a commonly used method for studying tree nutrition and for monitoring the impacts of air pollutants on forest ecosystems. Interpretations based on the results of foliar element analysis may, however, be different in nutrition vs. monitoring studies. We studied the impacts of severe sulphur and metal (mainly Cu and Ni) pollution on the element concentrations (Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Ni, P, Pb, S and Zn) in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) foliage along an airborne sulphur and metal pollution gradient. Emphasis was put on determining the contribution of air-borne particles that have accumulated on needle surfaces to the total foliage concentrations. A comparison of two soil extraction methods was carried out in order to obtain a reliable estimate of plant-available element concentrations in the soil. Element concentrations in the soil showed only a weak relationship with internal foliar concentrations. There were no clear differences between the total and internal needle S concentrations along the gradient, whereas at the plot closest to the metal smelter complex the total Cu concentrations in the youngest needles were 1.3-fold and Ni concentrations over 1.6-fold higher than the internal needle concentrations. Chloroform-extracted surface wax was found to have Ni and Cu concentrations of as high as 3000 and 600 μg/g of wax, respectively. Our results suggest that bioindicator studies (e.g. monitoring studies) may require different foliar analysis techniques from those used in studies on the nutritional status of trees

  10. Self-Expandable Metal Stent for Closure of a Large Leak after Total Gastrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Curcio

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, self-expandable metallic stents (SEMSs have emerged as a promising treatment alternative for the bridging and sealing of esophageal perforations and extensive anastomotic leaks after esophageal resection or total gastrectomy. A 56-year-old woman underwent a total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y end-to-side esophagojejunostomy for a gastric signet ring cell carcinoma. Ten days later, esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed a 2 cm fistula in the distal end of the Roux limb of the anastomosis. This was confirmed by gastrografin esophagography. The patient was started on total parenteral nutrition. Having deemed clipping treatment for this fistula unfeasible, we decided to insert a partially silicone-coated SEMS (Evolution Controlled Release Esophageal Stent System, Cook Medical, Winston-Salem, N.C., USA. The stent was removed after ten days. Gastrografin esophagography showed no further contrast extravasation, and esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed closure of the fistula. No clinical complications were observed, and the patient was able to start normal per os nutrition. In conclusion, the treatment of symptomatic leaks in patients who have undergone esophagojejunostomy is challenging, and leakage from the jejunal stump can be a potentially serious complication. In the treatment of leakage after total gastrectomy, plastic stents (which are either too light or exercise too little radial force and totally covered metallic stents may not adhere sufficiently to the esophagojeujunal walls and, as a result, migrate beyond the anastomosis. The promising results of this report suggest that early stenting, using a partially silicone-coated SEMS, is a feasible alternative to surgical treatment in this category of patients.

  11. Nickel Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in many everyday items, such as coins, zippers, cellphones and eyeglass frames. It may take repeated or ... hooks Belt buckles Eyeglass frames Coins Metal tools Cellphones Keys Military "dog-tag" ID Chalk Medical devices ...

  12. Sorting Out Seasonal Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Close ‹ Back to Healthy Living Sorting Out Seasonal Allergies Sneezing, runny nose, nasal congestion. Symptoms of the ... How do I know if I have seasonal allergies? According to Dr. Georgeson, the best way to ...

  13. Multidisciplinary Approaches to Allergies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao Zhongshan,; Shen, Hua-Hao; Zheng, M.; Frewer, L.J.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.

    2012-01-01

    Allergy is an immunological disease caused by multiple factors and characterized by variability, specificity and complexity. "Multidisciplinary Approaches to Allergies" covers diverse aspects ranging from basic molecular mechanisms to societal issues within the framework of multidisciplinary

  14. Antihistamines for allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000549.htm Antihistamines for allergies To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Antihistamines are drugs that treat allergy symptoms . When taken by mouth, they come as ...

  15. Asthma and Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Asthma and Food Allergies Page Content Article Body A family history of ... child may develop asthma . Children with asthma and food allergies are at increased risk for anaphylaxis, a severe ...

  16. Do Allergies Cause Asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is to avoid being around those allergens. The doctor also may prescribe medicine for your allergies if you can't completely avoid ... Allergy-Triggered Asthma Your House: How to Make It Asthma-Safe Air Pollution & ...

  17. Do Allergies Cause Asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... Can I Deal With My Asthma? Allergy Testing Definition: Allergy-Triggered Asthma Asthma Center Asthma View more ...

  18. Allergies, asthma, and dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reactive airway disease - dust; Bronchial asthma - dust; Triggers - dust ... Things that make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Dust is a common trigger. When your asthma or allergies become worse due to dust, you are ...

  19. Allergies, asthma, and molds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reactive airway - mold; Bronchial asthma - mold; Triggers - mold; Allergic rhinitis - pollen ... Things that make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Mold is a common trigger. When your asthma or allergies become worse due to mold, you are ...

  20. Aerosol trace metals, particle morphology and total gaseous mercury in the atmosphere of Oxford, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, M. L. I.; Meheran, N.; Mather, T. A.; de Hoog, J. C. M.; Pyle, D. M.

    2010-04-01

    An investigation of atmospheric trace metals was conducted in Oxford, UK, a small city ˜60 miles northwest of London, in 2007 and 2008. Concentrations of Sr, Mo, Cd, Pb, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn in aerosol were measured in bulk and size segregated samples. In addition, total gaseous mercury (TGM) concentrations were monitored semi-continuously by cold vapour-atomic fluorescence spectroscopy. Metal concentrations in Oxford were intermediate between previously reported levels of UK rural and urban areas for most metals studied and levels of Cd, Ni and Pb were within European guidelines. Metal concentrations appeared to be influenced by higher traffic volume on a timescale of hours. The influence of traffic on the aerosols was also suggested by the observation of carbonaceous particles via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Air mass back trajectories suggest air masses arriving in Oxford from London and mainland Europe contained the highest metal concentrations. Aerosol samples collected over Bonfire Weekend, a period of intense firework use and lighting of bonfires in the UK, showed metal concentrations 6-46 times higher than at other times. Strontium, a tracer of firework release, was present at higher concentrations and showed a change in its size distribution from the coarse to fine mode over Bonfire Weekend. The presence of an abundance of spherical Sr particles was also confirmed in SEM images. The average TGM concentration in Oxford was 3.17 ng m -3 (st. dev. 1.59) with values recorded between 1.32 and 23.2 ng m -3. This is a higher average value than reported from nearby rural locations, although during periods when air was arriving from the west, similar concentrations to these rural areas were seen in Oxford. Comparison to meteorological data suggests that TGM in Oxford's air is highest when wind is arriving from the east/southeast. This may be due to emissions from London/mainland Europe with a possible contribution from emissions from a local

  1. Food allergy knowledge, perception of food allergy labeling, and level of dietary practice: A comparison between children with and without food allergy experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yongmi; Ju, Seyoung

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The prevalence of food allergies in Korean children aged 6 to 12 years increased from 10.9% in 1995 to 12.6% in 2012 according to nationwide population studies. Treatment for food allergies is avoidance of allergenic-related foods and epinephrine auto-injector (EPI) for accidental allergic reactions. This study compared knowledge and perception of food allergy labeling and dietary practices of students. SUBJECTS/METHODS The study was conducted with the fourth to sixth grade students from an elementary school in Yongin. A total of 437 response rate (95%) questionnaires were collected and statistically analyzed. RESULTS The prevalence of food allergy among respondents was 19.7%, and the most common food allergy-related symptoms were urticaria, followed by itching, vomiting and nausea. Food allergens, other than 12 statutory food allergens, included cheese, cucumber, kiwi, melon, clam, green tea, walnut, grape, apricot and pineapple. Children with and without food allergy experience had a similar level of knowledge on food allergies. Children with food allergy experience thought that food allergy-related labeling on school menus was not clear or informative. CONCLUSION To understand food allergies and prevent allergic reactions to school foodservice among children, schools must provide more concrete and customized food allergy education. PMID:25671074

  2. Seasonal Allergies (Hay Fever)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Seasonal Allergies (Hay Fever) KidsHealth / For Parents / Seasonal Allergies (Hay ... español Alergia estacional (fiebre del heno) About Seasonal Allergies "Achoo!" It's your son's third sneezing fit of ...

  3. Addressing Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVoe, Jeanne Jackson

    2008-01-01

    Since 1960, the incidence of food allergies in children has grown fivefold, from 1 in 100 children to 1 in 20 children, according to the Food Allergy Initiative. Food allergies cause anaphylactic shock, the most severe type of allergic reaction, which can lead to death within minutes if left untreated. While there are no standard guidelines from…

  4. Kids with Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To Recipe Substitutions Substitutions for Milk Substitutions for Egg Substitutions for Wheat and Gluten Substitutions for Soy Substitutions for Peanuts and Tree Nuts Substitutions for Corn Menu Planning for the Food Allergy Cook Food & Cooking Support Forum Allergy-Friendly Foods Allergy ...

  5. Coconut Allergy Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Anagnostou, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Despite concerns voiced often by food-allergic patients, allergy to coconut is rare, not directly associated with nut allergy and few cases are reported so far in the literature. We present an interesting case of coconut allergy in a child that was previously tolerant to coconut and regularly exposed via both the skin and gastrointestinal route.

  6. FOOD ALLERGY IN CHILDHOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Santalha

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: In these cases, most children had co-sensitization with other allergens, as well as another manifestation of concomitant allergy, showing the role of food allergy in allergic march. Food allergy diagnosis is extremely important, as it can be potentially serious if not prevented by food avoidance.

  7. Milk Allergy in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Milk Allergy in Infants KidsHealth / For Parents / Milk Allergy in ... Alergia a la leche en bebés About Milk Allergy People of any age can have a milk ...

  8. Prediction of contact mechanics in metal-on-metal Total Hip Replacement for parametrically comprehensive designs and loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Finn E; Nyman, Edward; Coburn, James C

    2015-07-16

    Manufacturers and investigators of Total Hip Replacement (THR) bearings require tools to predict the contact mechanics resulting from diverse design and loading parameters. This study provides contact mechanics solutions for metal-on-metal (MoM) bearings that encompass the current design space and could aid pre-clinical design optimization and evaluation. Stochastic finite element (FE) simulation was used to calculate the head-on-cup contact mechanics for five thousand combinations of design and loading parameters. FE results were used to train a Random Forest (RF) surrogate model to rapidly predict the contact patch dimensions, contact area, pressures and plastic deformations for arbitrary designs and loading. In addition to widely observed polar and edge contact, FE results included ring-polar, asymmetric-polar, and transitional categories which have previously received limited attention. Combinations of design and load parameters associated with each contact category were identified. Polar contact pressures were predicted in the range of 0-200 MPa with no permanent deformation. Edge loading (with subluxation) was associated with pressures greater than 500 MPa and induced permanent deformation in 83% of cases. Transitional-edge contact (with little subluxation) was associated with intermediate pressures and permanent deformation in most cases, indicating that, even with ideal anatomical alignment, bearings may face extreme wear challenges. Surrogate models were able to accurately predict contact mechanics 18,000 times faster than FE analyses. The developed surrogate models enable rapid prediction of MoM bearing contact mechanics across the most comprehensive range of loading and designs to date, and may be useful to those performing bearing design optimization or evaluation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Prevalence of food allergy/intolerance in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    1997-01-01

    Discussed in this paper is the prevalence of allergy and intolerance to foods in Europe. Prevalence of allergy to food additives is not included. A fully reliable estimate of the prevalence of food allergy/intolerance does not exist. Prevalence changes with age, as does the relative importance...... of the most common food allergens. The cumulative prevalence of allergy and intolerance to cow's milk during the first year of life is approximately 2%. The total prevalence of food allergy/intolerance in children is not as well documented. In 18-month-old infants the Danish estimate is 6.5%. The high...... prevalence of peanut allergy (0.5%) in British children is not reflected in the results from other European countries. Milk, egg, fish and oranges seem to be the most common causes of allergy and intolerance in European infants and children. Results from epidemiological studies combined with the knowledge...

  10. Total petroleum hydrocarbons and trace metals in tropical estuary of Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celino, Joil Jose; Oliveira, Olivia Maria Cordeiro de; Queiroz, Antonio Fernando de Souza [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Trigueis, Jorge Alberto [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil); Garcia, Karina Santos [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    As part of the environmental assessment within Todos os Santos Bay, State of Bahia - Brazil, in summer of 2005, superficial water and sediments samples of the mangrove were collected at five locations to determine the spatial distribution of anthropogenic pollutants in the Dom Joao estuary at the Sao Francisco do Conde Region. Sandy sediments with low organic matter content dominate the studied area. Trace metal levels indicated that sediments were moderately polluted with Cu (overall mean: 21.48 +/- 4.76 {mu}g.g-1 dry sediment), but not with Pb (15 +/- 8), Zn (38 +/- 10), Cr (15 +/- 7), Ni (13 +/- 6) and Cd (0.4 +/- 0.2). Depending on location, total petroleum hydrocarbons ranged from 1.6 to 10.6 {mu}g.g-1. To discriminate pattern differences and similarities among samples, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed using a correlation matrix. PCA revealed the latent relationships among all the stations investigated and confirmed our analytical results. Principal components analysis confirmed two regions according to their environmental quality. The results pointed out that almost all the area presented some substances that can cause adverse biological effects, especially in the outermost region where some metals are above TEL level. (author)

  11. Metal ions diffusion through polymeric matrices: A total reflection X-ray fluorescence study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeykens, S.; Caracciolo, N.; D'Angelo, M.V.; Vazquez, C.

    2006-01-01

    This work proposes the use of X-ray fluorescence with total reflection geometry to explore the metal ions transport in aqueous hydrophilic polymer solutions. It is centered in the study of polymer concentration influence on ion diffusion. This subject is relevant to various and diverse applications, such as drug controlled release, microbiologic corrosion protection and enhanced oil recovery. It is anticipated that diffusion is influenced by various factors in these systems, including those specific to the diffusing species, such as charge, shape, molecular size, and those related to the structural complexity of the matrix as well as any specific interaction between the diffusing species and the matrix. The diffusion of nitrate salts of Ba and Mn (same charge, different hydrodynamic radii) through water-swollen polymeric solutions and gels in the 0.01% to 1% concentration ranges was investigated. The measurements of the metal concentration were performed by TXRF analysis using the scattered radiation by the sample as internal standard. Results are discussed according to different physical models for solute diffusion in polymeric solutions

  12. Large Metal Heads and Vitamin E Polyethylene Increase Frictional Torque in Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghini, R Michael; Lovro, Luke R; Wallace, Joseph M; Ziemba-Davis, Mary

    2016-03-01

    Trunnionosis has reemerged in modern total hip arthroplasty for reasons that remain unclear. Bearing frictional torque transmits forces to the modular head-neck interface, which may contribute to taper corrosion. The purpose of this study is to compare frictional torque of modern bearing couples in total hip arthroplasty. Mechanical testing based on in vivo loading conditions was used to measure frictional torque. All bearing couples were lubricated and tested at 1 Hz for more than 2000 cycles. The bearing couples tested included conventional, highly crosslinked (XLPE) and vitamin E polyethylene, CoCr, and ceramic femoral heads and dual-mobility bearings. Statistical analysis was performed using Student t test for single-variable and analysis of variance for multivariant analysis. P ≤ .05 was considered statistically significant. Large CoCr metal heads (≥36 mm) substantially increased frictional torque against XLPE liners (P = .01), a finding not observed in ceramic heads. Vitamin E polyethylene substantially increased frictional torque compared with XLPE in CoCr and ceramic heads (P = .001), whereas a difference between conventional and XLPE was not observed (P = .69) with the numbers available. Dual-mobility bearing with ceramic inner head demonstrated the lowest mean frictional torque of all bearing couples. In this simulated in vivo model, large-diameter CoCr femoral heads and vitamin E polyethylene liners are associated with increased frictional torque compared with smaller metal heads and XLPE, respectively. The increased frictional torque of vitamin E polyethylene and larger-diameter femoral heads should be considered and further studied, along with reported benefits of these modern bearing couples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Patients with multiple contact allergies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Berit Christina; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Menné, Torkil

    2008-01-01

    Patients with multiple contact allergies, also referred to as polysensitized, are more frequent than predicted from prevalence of single sensitivities. The understanding of why some people develop multiple contact allergies, and characterization of patients with multiple contact allergies...... of developing multiple contact allergies. Evidence of allergen clusters among polysensitized individuals is also reviewed. The literature supports the idea that patients with multiple contact allergies constitute a special entity within the field of contact allergy. There is no generally accepted definition...... of patients with multiple contact allergies. We suggest that contact allergy to 3 or more allergens are defined as multiple contact allergies....

  14. Allergy test outcomes in patients self-reported as having penicillin allergy: Two-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Juan; Thursfield, David; Lukawska, Joanna J

    2016-09-01

    Penicillin allergy is associated with increased antibiotic resistance and health care costs. However, most patients with self-reported penicillin allergy are not truly allergic. To summarize our experience with allergy tests in patients with a history of penicillin allergy and to compare them with the results of other groups. We retrospectively reviewed all patients with a suspected clinical history of penicillin allergy referred to the Drug Allergy Unit at University College London Hospital between March 2013 and June 2015. In total, 84 patients were reviewed. The index drugs included: unidentified penicillin (n = 44), amoxicillin (n = 17), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (n = 13), flucloxacillin (n = 4), and other penicillins (ampicillin, benzylpenicillin, piperacillin-tazobactam; n = 7). Allergy diagnoses were confirmed in 24 patients (28.6%) (16 to penicillin, 3 to flucloxacillin, 5 to clavulanic acid). Twenty-two patients (91.7%) had allergy diagnosed by positive skin test results. Two patients (8.3%) developed IgE-mediated allergic symptoms during oral challenge (although the skin test results were negative). In vitro specific IgE test results for penicilloyl V, penicilloyl G, and amoxicilloyl were positive in 3 of 16 patients (18.8%). Moreover, reactions to cefuroxime were observed in 3 of 15 patients with penicillin allergy (20%). Selective clavulanic acid and flucloxacillin responders tolerated amoxicillin challenge. The interval between the index reaction and evaluation was shorter (P penicillin allergy were confirmed to be allergic. Importantly, when the index drug is amoxicillin-clavulanic acid or flucloxacillin, the patients may tolerate amoxicillin. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Allergy to tartrazine in psychotropic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, M S

    2000-07-01

    High psychiatric morbidity has been reported among those who complain of food intolerance or allergy. Many cases of food allergy or intolerance to drugs are not due to allergy to the food or drugs themselves, but to the additives used for coloring, flavoring, preserving, thickening, emulsifying, or stabilizing the product. Of various coloring dyes used, tartrazine (FD & C yellow no. 5) is the color most frequently incriminated in producing allergic reactions. The exact epidemiology and pattern of allergic reactions to tartrazine in psychotropic drugs have not been frequently studied and reported. The present study included consecutive outpatients (May 1996 to April 1998) who developed allergic reactions or intolerance to tartrazine in psychotropic drugs. Total patients exposed to tartrazine-containing drugs were also recorded. The subjects showing allergic reactions to tartrazine were then exposed to non-tartrazine-containing brands. Of 2210 patients exposed to tartrazine-containing drugs, 83 (3.8%) developed allergic reactions. The symptoms subsided within 24 to 48 hours of stopping the drug. None of the patients showed allergy to non-tartrazine-containing brands. History of allergy to tartrazine was present in 13.2%, and 15.7% of patients had a history of aspirin sensitivity. Tartrazine allergy should be considered in patients developing drug allergy, because it would require changing the brand rather than stopping treatment with that drug.

  16. Pseudotumour incidence, cobalt levels and clinical outcome after large head metal-on-metal and conventional metal-on-polyethylene total hip arthroplasty MID-TERM RESULTS OF A RANDOMISED CONTROLLED TRIAL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, H. C.; Reininga, I. H. F.; Zijlstra, W. P.; Boomsma, M. F.; Bulstra, S. K.; van Raay, J. J. A. M.

    2015-01-01

    We compared the incidence of pseudotumours after large head metal-on-metal (MoM) total hip arthroplasty (THA) with that after conventional metal-on-polyethylene (MoP) THA and assessed the predisposing factors to pseudotumour formation. From a previous randomised controlled trial which compared large

  17. Analysis of total and dissolved heavy metals in surface water of a Mexican polluted river by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarazua, G. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Gerencia de Ciencias Ambientales, Apartado Postal 18-1027, Mexico D.F., C.P. 11801 (Mexico)]. E-mail: gzo@nuclear.inin.mx; Avila-Perez, P. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Gerencia de Ciencias Ambientales, Apartado Postal 18-1027, Mexico D.F., C.P. 11801 (Mexico); Tejeda, S. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Gerencia de Ciencias Ambientales, Apartado Postal 18-1027, Mexico D.F., C.P. 11801 (Mexico); Barcelo-Quintal, I. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Azcapotzalco, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Martinez, T. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Facultad de Quimica, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-11-15

    The present area of study is located in the Upper Course of the Lerma River (UCLR). The Lerma is one of the most important rivers of Mexico, where it drains highly populated and industrialized regions. The aim of the present study is to determine the heavy metal concentration of Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu and Pb in dissolved and total phases of the UCLR by means of Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (TXRF). The surface water samples were collected at 8 sites distributed following the stream flow direction of the river. Four sampling campaigns were carried out in each site in a 1-year period. A sample preparation method was applied in order to obtain the total and dissolved fraction and to destroy the organic matter. The total heavy metal average concentration decrease in the following order: Fe (2566 {mu}g/L) > Mn (300 {mu}g/L) > Cu (66 {mu}g/L) > Cr (21 {mu}g/L) > Pb (15 {mu}g/L). In general, the heavy metal concentrations in water of the UCLR are below the maximum permissible limits.

  18. Analysis of total and dissolved heavy metals in surface water of a Mexican polluted river by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarazua, G.; Ávila-Pérez, P.; Tejeda, S.; Barcelo-Quintal, I.; Martínez, T.

    2006-11-01

    The present area of study is located in the Upper Course of the Lerma River (UCLR). The Lerma is one of the most important rivers of Mexico, where it drains highly populated and industrialized regions. The aim of the present study is to determine the heavy metal concentration of Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu and Pb in dissolved and total phases of the UCLR by means of Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (TXRF). The surface water samples were collected at 8 sites distributed following the stream flow direction of the river. Four sampling campaigns were carried out in each site in a 1-year period. A sample preparation method was applied in order to obtain the total and dissolved fraction and to destroy the organic matter. The total heavy metal average concentration decrease in the following order: Fe (2566 μg/L) > Mn (300 μg/L) > Cu (66 μg/L) > Cr (21 μg/L) > Pb (15 μg/L). In general, the heavy metal concentrations in water of the UCLR are below the maximum permissible limits.

  19. Analysis of total and dissolved heavy metals in surface water of a Mexican polluted river by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarazua, G.; Avila-Perez, P.; Tejeda, S.; Barcelo-Quintal, I.; Martinez, T.

    2006-01-01

    The present area of study is located in the Upper Course of the Lerma River (UCLR). The Lerma is one of the most important rivers of Mexico, where it drains highly populated and industrialized regions. The aim of the present study is to determine the heavy metal concentration of Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu and Pb in dissolved and total phases of the UCLR by means of Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (TXRF). The surface water samples were collected at 8 sites distributed following the stream flow direction of the river. Four sampling campaigns were carried out in each site in a 1-year period. A sample preparation method was applied in order to obtain the total and dissolved fraction and to destroy the organic matter. The total heavy metal average concentration decrease in the following order: Fe (2566 μg/L) > Mn (300 μg/L) > Cu (66 μg/L) > Cr (21 μg/L) > Pb (15 μg/L). In general, the heavy metal concentrations in water of the UCLR are below the maximum permissible limits

  20. Attitudes and preferences of consumers toward food allergy labeling practices by diagnosis of food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Se-Young; Park, Jong-Hwan; Kwak, Tong-Kyoung; Kim, Kyu-Earn

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate food allergens and prevalence rates of food allergies, followed by comparison of consumer attitudes and preferences regarding food allergy labeling by diagnosis of food allergies. A total of 543 individuals living in Seoul and Gyeonggi area participated in the survey from October 15 to 22 in 2013. The results show that the prevalence of doctor-diagnosed food allergies was 17.5%, whereas 6.4% of respondents self-reported food allergies. The most common allergens of doctor-diagnosed and self-reported food allergy respondents were peaches (30.3%) and eggs (33.3%), respectively, followed by peanuts, cow's milk, and crab. Regarding consumer attitudes toward food labeling, checking food allergens as an item was only significantly different between allergic and non-allergic respondents among all five items (P label, and addition of potential allergens) were necessary for an improved food allergen labeling system. PLSR analysis determined that the doctor-diagnosed group and checking of food allergens were positively correlated, whereas the non-allergy group was more concerned with checking product brands. An effective food labeling system is very important for health protection of allergic consumers. Additionally, government agencies must develop policies regarding prevalence of food allergies in Korea. Based on this information, the food industry and government agencies should provide clear and accurate food labeling practices for consumers.

  1. Attitudes and preferences of consumers toward food allergy labeling practices by diagnosis of food allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Se-young; Park, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Kyu-earn

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to investigate food allergens and prevalence rates of food allergies, followed by comparison of consumer attitudes and preferences regarding food allergy labeling by diagnosis of food allergies. SUBJECTS/METHODS A total of 543 individuals living in Seoul and Gyeonggi area participated in the survey from October 15 to 22 in 2013. RESULTS The results show that the prevalence of doctor-diagnosed food allergies was 17.5%, whereas 6.4% of respondents self-reported food allergies. The most common allergens of doctor-diagnosed and self-reported food allergy respondents were peaches (30.3%) and eggs (33.3%), respectively, followed by peanuts, cow's milk, and crab. Regarding consumer attitudes toward food labeling, checking food allergens as an item was only significantly different between allergic and non-allergic respondents among all five items (P food allergen labeling system. PLSR analysis determined that the doctor-diagnosed group and checking of food allergens were positively correlated, whereas the non-allergy group was more concerned with checking product brands. CONCLUSIONS An effective food labeling system is very important for health protection of allergic consumers. Additionally, government agencies must develop policies regarding prevalence of food allergies in Korea. Based on this information, the food industry and government agencies should provide clear and accurate food labeling practices for consumers. PMID:26425282

  2. Allergies, antibiotics use, and multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jinma; Ni, Huijuan; Kim, Minchul; Cooley, Kimberly L; Valenzuela, Reuben M; Asche, Carl V

    2017-08-01

    The associations between allergies, antibiotics use, and multiple sclerosis (MS) remain controversial and their mediating or moderating effects have not yet been examined. We aimed to assess the direct and indirect influences of allergies and antibiotics use on MS development, and their interactions. A 1:3 matched case-control study was performed using the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey database from 2006 to 2013 in the USA. Multiple sclerosis was identified based on the ICD-9 code (340.0) in any position. Cases were matched to their controls based on survey year, age, gender, race, payer type, region, and tobacco use. Allergy diseases and antibiotics prescriptions were extracted by ICD-9 code and drug classification code, respectively. Both generalized structural equation model and MacArthur approach were used to examine their intrinsic relationships. The weighted prevalence of MS was 133.7 per 100,000 visits. A total of 829 MS patients and 2441 controls were matched. Both respiratory tract allergies (OR = 0.29, 95% CI: 0.18, 0.49) and other allergies (OR = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.19, 0.77) were associated with a reduction of the risk of MS. Patients with respiratory tract allergies were more likely to use penicillin (OR = 8.73, 95% CI: 4.12, 18.53) and other antibiotics (OR = 3.77, 95% CI: 2.72, 5.21), and those with other allergies had a higher likelihood of penicillin use (OR = 4.15, 95% CI: 1.27, 13.54); however, the link between antibiotics use and MS was not confirmed although penicillin use might mediate the relationship between allergies and MS. The findings supported allergy as a protective factor for MS development. We also suggest antibiotics use might not be a suitable indicator of bacterial infection to investigate the cause of MS.

  3. Research needs in allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G; Agache, Ioana; Bavbek, Sevim

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: In less than half a century, allergy, originally perceived as a rare disease, has become a major public health threat, today affecting the lives of more than 60 million people in Europe, and probably close to one billion worldwide, thereby heavily impacting the budgets of public health...... in the field of allergy, in order to achieve sustainable results on prevention, diagnosis and treatment of this most prevalent chronic disease of the 21st century.The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is the leading professional organization in the field of allergy, promoting...... excellence in clinical care, education, training and basic and translational research, all with the ultimate goal of improving the health of allergic patients. The European Federation of Allergy and Airways Diseases Patients' Associations (EFA) is a non-profit network of allergy, asthma and Chronic...

  4. Allergy Relief for Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Allergy Relief for Your Child Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... at the FDA. Avoid Pollen, Mold and Other Allergy Triggers If your child has seasonal allergies, pay ...

  5. Heavy metal pollution in vegetables grown in the vicinity of a multi-metal mining area in Gejiu, China: total concentrations, speciation analysis, and health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanyan; Wang, Hongbin; Wang, Haijuan; Yin, Fei; Yang, Xiaoyan; Hu, Yongjun

    2014-11-01

    A field survey was conducted to investigate the present situation and health risk of arsenic (As), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) in soils and vegetables in a multi-metal mining area, Gejiu, China. Furthermore, three vegetables (water spinach, potato, and summer squash) containing high metal concentrations were selected to further analyze metal speciation. The results showed that the average concentrations of five metals in soil exceeded the limiting values, and their bioavailable concentrations were significantly positively correlated to the total ones. Heavy metals in the edible parts of vegetables also exceeded the corresponding standards. The leaves of pakchoi, peppermint, and coriander had a strong metal-accumulative ability and they were not suitable for planting. Except the residue forms, the main forms of metals in the edible parts of three selected vegetables were ethanol-, NaCl-, and HAc-extractable fractions for As, Pb, and Cd, respectively; however, Cu was mainly presented as NaCl-extractable and Zn as HAc-extractable fractions. A high proportion of ethanol-extractable As showed that As bioactivity and toxic effects were the highest. Although the total and bioavailable Cd were high in soil, its speciation in vegetables was mainly presented as HAc-extractable fraction, which has a relatively low bioactivity. Lead and arsenic were imposing a serious threat on the local residents via vegetable consumption.

  6. Asthma, Allergies and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and immunology. © 2018 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. All Rights Reserved. Legal Notices | Site ... navigation Find an Allergist/Immunologist Search Your Symptoms Ask the Expert

  7. Biomaterial Hypersensitivity: Is It Real? Supportive Evidence and Approach Considerations for Metal Allergic Patients following Total Knee Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Mitchelson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The prospect of biomaterial hypersensitivity developing in response to joint implant materials was first presented more than 30 years ago. Many studies have established probable causation between first-generation metal-on-metal hip implants and hypersensitivity reactions. In a limited patient population, implant failure may ultimately be related to metal hypersensitivity. The examination of hypersensitivity reactions in current-generation metal-on-metal knee implants is comparatively limited. The purpose of this study is to summarize all available literature regarding biomaterial hypersensitivity after total knee arthroplasty, elucidate overall trends about this topic in the current literature, and provide a foundation for clinical approach considerations when biomaterial hypersensitivity is suspected.

  8. A method for thickness determination of thin films of amalgamable metals by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennun, L.; Greaves, E.D.; Barros, H.; Diaz-Valdes, J.

    2009-01-01

    A method for thickness determination of thin amalgamable metallic films by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) is presented. The peak's intensity in TXRF spectra are directly related to the surface density of the sample, i.e. to its thickness in a homogeneous film. Performing a traditional TXRF analysis on a thin film of an amalgamated metal, and determining the relative peak intensity of a specific metal line, the layer thickness can be precisely obtained. In the case of gold thickness determination, mercury and gold peaks overlap, hence we have developed a general data processing scheme to achieve the most precise results.

  9. Radioimmunoassay of total IgE and allergen-specific IgE antibodies with a uniform indicator system in allergies of childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struy, H.; Schuster, R.; Sollich, V.; Thal, W.; Morenz, J.

    1984-01-01

    Solid-phase radioimmunoassays for the determination of allergen-specific and total IgE have been developed. In an indirect solid-phase radioimmunoassay for the measurement of allergen-specific antibodies PVC blisters coated with allergens and in a sandwich solid-phase radioimmunoassay blisters coated with antihuman IgE antibodies are incubated sequentially with patient serum, unlabelled antihuman IgE from rabbits purified by affinity chromatography, and finally with antirabbitglobulin from sheep. Antirabbitglobuline was purified by immunoadsorption. The 125 I-labelled antibody with a specific activity of 30 kBq/μg antibody protein could be used universally for the determination of antibodies of each immunoglobulin class. In 160 patients mostly with seasonal asthma these assays supported RAST and PRIST kits and were helpful in the diagnosis of atopic diseases. (author)

  10. Prevalence of Seafood Allergy in Student Living in Bushehr and Borazjan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shockrolla Farrokhi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Seafood allergy is potentially severe, but the prevalence of this group of food allergies in Iran, has not been determined. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of seafood allergy in student living in Bushehr and Borazjan. Materials and Methods: We performed a cross-sectional, random school survey by using a questionnaire in 2012-13. A total of 608 (36% male, and 64% female were asked questions about personal and family history of allergies, food and seafood allergy. Results: The overall prevalence of food allergy was 12% (Total 73 subjects, 69.8% male and 30.2% female, and seafood allergy was 4.4% (Total 27 subjects, 36.6% male, 43.4% female. Fish allergy (1.4% and shrimp and shellfish allergy (3.5% were reported. The most frequently reported symptoms were skin (49.3%, gastrointestinal (28.7%, and respiratory reactions (2.7%. Seafood allergy was not associated with subjects reporting atopic diseases, significantly (P> 0.05, while the other food allergy was positively associated (P=0.00. Conclusion: Our study is the first report on prevalence estimates for seafood allergy in Bushehr province. Findings indicated high prevalence of seafood allergy in student, therefore further studies and significant health concern is needed.

  11. Fighting Allergies at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2008-01-01

    In the last decade, the number of children diagnosed with food allergies has increased significantly--to an estimated 3 million affected in the United States alone (Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network, n.d.). As that number increases, so do the articles, legislation, and policies that are designed to address how to best deal with peanut allergies…

  12. Clinical and radiological evolution of Intervened patients of total arthroplasty of hip with prostheses of resuperficialization metal-metal - Preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvan Villamarin, Fernando; Bernal Torres, Fabio A; Paez, Jose Mauricio and others

    2006-01-01

    The articular degeneration of the hip in young patients requires including therapeutical alternatives for the management of this population. The resurfacing prostheses with metal-metal surfaces is an alternative for this type of patients. Reports with short and medium follow up are very promising, besides the different studies of laboratory that bear, the theoretical bases for their success. In this descriptive study, observational cases series type is described the radiological and clinical evolution of patients intervened of total arthroplasty of hip with resurfacing prostheses metal-metal in the hospital el Tunal of Bogota. The results of 31 hips are presented (27 patients) with an age average of 50 years old and a medium follow up of 16 months, with a good post surgical functional result with a median of 96 in the Harris Scores. The complications presented in the patient series are described and their relation with the different factors analyzed

  13. What fraction of the total metal flux into lakes is retained in the sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nriagu, J O; Wong, H K.T.

    1986-12-01

    The concentrations of, and deposition rates for, the pollutant metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, and Cd) and the rare earth elements are reported for the sediments and settling particulates in a large, remote lake (Lake Opeongo) in the Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario. Using a mass conservation model based on the rare earth elements, it is estimated that only 40 to 60% of pollutant metals getting into the lake is retained by the sediments. The low retention rate may explain the widely reported intrabasin and intra-lake differences in metal contents of sediments and casts some doubt on the use of pollutant metal profiles in retrospective assessment of the human contribution to the metal flux into many lake basins. 22 references.

  14. Immunology of Food Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tordesillas, Leticia; Berin, M Cecilia; Sampson, Hugh A

    2017-07-18

    Many consider food allergy as the "second wave" of the allergy epidemic following the "first wave" of respiratory allergy, i.e., asthma and allergic rhinitis, plaguing westernized countries, with up to 8% of young children and 2%-3% of adults in the United States now affected by hypersensitivity reactions to various foods. In the past decade, there have been great strides in our understanding of the underlying immunopathogenesis of these disorders, which have led to improved diagnostic techniques, management strategies, and therapeutic approaches. Here we will review the most recent understanding of basic mechanisms underlying IgE-mediated food allergies and novel therapeutic approaches under investigation for both the prevention and treatment of IgE-mediated food allergies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Metallic attenuated total reflection infrared hollow fibers for robust optical transmission systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, Chengbin; Guo, Hong; Hu, Zhigao; Yang, Pingxiong [Key Laboratory of Polar Materials and Devices, Ministry of Education, Department of Electronic Engineering, East China Normal University, 500 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200241 (China); Chu, Junhao [Key Laboratory of Polar Materials and Devices, Ministry of Education, Department of Electronic Engineering, East China Normal University, 500 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200241 (China); National Laboratory for Infrared Physics, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 500 Yu-tian Road, Shanghai 200083 (China); Liu, Aiyun [Department of Physics, Shanghai Normal University, 100 Gui Lin Road, Shanghai 200234 (China); Shi, Yiwei [School of Information Science and Engineering, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2014-07-07

    A durable metallic attenuated total reflection (ATR) hollow fiber (bore size: 1.45 mm, wall thickness: 50 μm) was designed and fabricated based on a nickel capillary tube and hexagonal germanium dioxide (GeO{sub 2}). The anomalous dispersion of the hexagonal GeO{sub 2} layer grown inside a nickel tube achieves low-loss light transmission at two peak-power wavelengths for CO{sub 2} laser devices (10.2 and 10.6 μm). An 11–28 W, 10.2 or 10.6 μm CO{sub 2} laser power was steadily delivered via a fiber elastically bent from 0° to 90° (radius: 45 cm) for over 40 min (transmission loss: 0.22 to 4.2 dB/m). Theoretically fitting the measured temperatures showed that front-end clipping caused greater thermal loading than the distributed mode absorption. The maximum external temperature of a nickel ATR fiber is much lower than that of a silica glass ATR fiber owing to their different heat dissipation abilities. The HE{sub 11} mode purity of the output beam profiles decreased from 90.3% to 44.7% as the bending angle increased from 0° to 90°. Large core sizes and wall roughnesses (scattering loss 0.04 dB/m) contributed to mode mixing and excess losses that were above the value predicted by the classical Marcatili and Schmeltzer equation (0.024–0.037 dB/m).

  16. Referrals to a regional allergy clinic - an eleven year audit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hewson Paul

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allergy is a serious and apparently increasing public health problem yet relatively little is known about the types of allergy seen in routine tertiary practice, including their spatial distribution, co-occurrence or referral patterns. This study reviewed referrals over an eleven year period to a regional allergy clinic that had a well defined geographical boundary. For those patients confirmed as having an allergy we explored: (i differences over time and by demographics, (ii types of allergy, (iii co-occurrence, and (iv spatial distributions. Methods Data were extracted from consultant letters to GPs, from September 1998 to September 2009, for patients confirmed as having an allergy. Other data included referral statistics and population data by postcode. Simple descriptive analysis was used to describe types of allergy. We calculated 11 year standardised morbidity ratios for postcode districts and checked for spatial clustering. We present maps showing 11 year rates by postcode, and 'difference' maps which try to separate referral effect from possible environmental effect. Results Of 5778 referrals, 961 patients were diagnosed with an allergy. These were referred by a total of 672 different GPs. There were marked differences in referral patterns between GP practices and also individual GPs. The mean age of patients was 35 and there were considerably more females (65% than males. Airborne allergies were the most frequent (623, and there were very high rates of co-occurrence of pollen, house dust mite, and animal hair allergies. Less than half (410 patients had a food allergy, with nuts, fruit, and seafood being the most common allergens. Fifteen percent (142 had both a food and a non-food allergy. Certain food allergies were more likely to co-occur, for example, patients allergic to dairy products were more likely to be allergic to egg. There were age differences by types of allergy; people referred with food allergies were

  17. [Food allergy in adulthood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werfel, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Food allergies can newly arise in adulthood or persist following a food allergy occurring in childhood. The prevalence of primary food allergy is basically higher in children than in adults; however, in the routine practice food allergies in adulthood appear to be increasing and after all a prevalence in Germany of 3.7 % has been published. The clinical spectrum of manifestations of food allergies in adulthood is broad. Allergy symptoms of the immediate type can be observed as well as symptoms occurring after a delay, such as indigestion, triggering of hematogenous contact eczema or flares of atopic dermatitis. The same principles for diagnostics apply in this group as in childhood. In addition to the anamnesis, skin tests and in vitro tests, as a rule elimination diets and in particular provocation tests are employed. Molecular allergy diagnostics represent a major step forward, which allow a better assessment of the risk of systemic reactions to certain foodstuffs (e.g. peanuts) and detection of cross-reactions in cases of apparently multiple sensitivities. Current German and European guidelines from 2015 are available for the practical approach to clarification of food allergies. The most frequent food allergies in adults are nuts, fruit and vegetables, which can cross-react with pollen as well as wheat, shellfish and crustaceans. The therapy of allergies involves a consistent avoidance of the allogen. Detailed dietary plans are available with avoidance strategies and instructions for suitable food substitutes. A detailed counseling of affected patients by specially trained personnel is necessary especially in order to avoid nutritional deficiencies and to enable patients to enjoy a good quality of life.

  18. Dynamic re-weighted total variation technique and statistic Iterative reconstruction method for x-ray CT metal artifact reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chengtao; Qiu, Bensheng; Zhang, Cheng; Ma, Changyu; Yuan, Gang; Li, Ming

    2017-07-01

    Over the years, the X-ray computed tomography (CT) has been successfully used in clinical diagnosis. However, when the body of the patient to be examined contains metal objects, the image reconstructed would be polluted by severe metal artifacts, which affect the doctor's diagnosis of disease. In this work, we proposed a dynamic re-weighted total variation (DRWTV) technique combined with the statistic iterative reconstruction (SIR) method to reduce the artifacts. The DRWTV method is based on the total variation (TV) and re-weighted total variation (RWTV) techniques, but it provides a sparser representation than TV and protects the tissue details better than RWTV. Besides, the DRWTV can suppress the artifacts and noise, and the SIR convergence speed is also accelerated. The performance of the algorithm is tested on both simulated phantom dataset and clinical dataset, which are the teeth phantom with two metal implants and the skull with three metal implants, respectively. The proposed algorithm (SIR-DRWTV) is compared with two traditional iterative algorithms, which are SIR and SIR constrained by RWTV regulation (SIR-RWTV). The results show that the proposed algorithm has the best performance in reducing metal artifacts and protecting tissue details.

  19. What Are Normal Metal Ion Levels After Total Hip Arthroplasty? A Serologic Analysis of Four Bearing Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Brian T; Ortiz, Philippe A; Boles, John W; Lee, Yuo-Yu; Padgett, Douglas E; Westrich, Geoffrey H

    2017-05-01

    The recent experiences with adverse local tissue reactions have highlighted the need to establish what are normal serum levels of cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), and titanium (Ti) after hip arthroplasty. Serum Co, Cr, and Ti levels were measured in 80 nonconsecutive patients with well-functioning unilateral total hip arthroplasty and compared among 4 bearing surfaces: ceramic-on-ceramic (CoC); ceramic-on-polyethylene (CoP); metal-on-polyethylene (MoP), and dual mobility (DM). The preoperative and most recent University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) scores were compared among the different bearing surfaces. No significant difference was found among serum Co and Cr levels between the 4 bearing surface groups (P = .0609 and P = .1577). Secondary analysis comparing metal and ceramic femoral heads demonstrated that the metal group (MoP, modular dual mobility (Stryker Orthopedics, Mahwah, NJ) [metal]) had significant higher serum Co levels compared with the ceramic group (CoC, CoP, MDM [ceramic]) (1.05 mg/L ± 1.25 vs 0.59 mg/L ± 0.24; P = .0411). Spearman coefficient identified no correlation between metal ion levels and patient-reported outcome scores. No serum metal ion level differences were found among well-functioning total hip arthroplasty with modern bearing couples. Significantly higher serum Co levels were seen when comparing metal vs ceramic femoral heads in this study and warrants further investigation. Metal ion levels did not correlate with patient-reported outcome measures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. INITIAL ALLERGY PREVENTION IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Pampura

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergy prevention is an urgent pediatric issue. Food allergy spread among infants amounts to 6–8%. This review highlights the modern viewpoints on diet prevention of this pathology among children, including by means of the hypoallergic nutritional formulas.Key words: food allergy, prevention, allergies, prebiotics, children.

  1. Competition effects in cation binding to humic acid: Conditional affinity spectra for fixed total metal concentration conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Calin; Mongin, Sandrine; Rey-Castro, Carlos; Galceran, Josep; Companys, Encarnació; Garcés, José Luis; Salvador, José; Puy, Jaume; Cecilia, Joan; Lodeiro, Pablo; Mas, Francesc

    2010-09-01

    Information on the Pb and Cd binding to a purified Aldrich humic acid (HA) is obtained from the influence of different fixed total metal concentrations on the acid-base titrations of this ligand. NICA (Non-Ideal Competitive Adsorption) isotherm has been used for a global quantitative description of the binding, which has then been interpreted by plotting the Conditional Affinity Spectra of the H + binding at fixed total metal concentrations (CAScTM). This new physicochemical tool, here introduced, allows the interpretation of binding results in terms of distributions of proton binding energies. A large increase in the acidity of the phenolic sites as the total metal concentration increases, especially in presence of Pb, is revealed from the shift of the CAScTM towards lower affinities. The variance of the CAScTM distribution, which can be used as a direct measure of the heterogeneity, also shows a significant dependence on the total metal concentration. A discussion of the factors that influence the heterogeneity of the HA under the conditions of each experiment is provided, so that the smoothed pattern exhibited by the titration curves can be justified.

  2. Seasonal variations of total suspended particles (TSP) and heavy metals under tropical conditions in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiffer, W.C.; Trindade, H.A.; Costa-Ribeiro, C.; Londres, H.; Oliveira, A.E.

    The total suspended particle (TSP) and heavy metal concentrations are studied in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil from 1974 until 1981. The principal aims are to determine how these things vary in two different areas and how meteorological parameters responsible for the transport and dilution of atmospheric pollutants affect these areas. (M.A.C.) [pt

  3. Allergenicity in food allergy : influence of food processing and immunomodulation by lactic acid bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, Y.M.

    2011-01-01


    Allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma, atopic eczema and food allergy have become an increasing health problem world-wide, affecting between 20-30% of the total population. Peanut allergy (prevalence ~1%) is a common and persistent food allergy accounting for severe

  4. Management of Food Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Maleknejad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Although food allergy is a major public health problem, currently there is no effective and safe treatment except to avoid the foods .But the need for new options is critical now as the number of children diagnosed with food allergies rises. Avoiding the offending allergen in the diet is the primary treatment of food allergy. Once a food to which the patient is sensitive has been identified, the food must be removed from the diet. People with severe food allergies must be prepared to treat an anaphylactic reaction. These individuals also always should carry a syringe of adrenaline (epinephrine [EpiPen], and be prepared to self-administer it if they think they are developing an allergic reaction. Several medications are available for treating the other symptoms of food allergy. For example, antihistamines can relieve gastrointestinal symptoms, hives, sneezing, and a runny nose. Bronchodilators can relieve the symptoms of asthma. They are not effective, however, in preventing an allergic reaction when taken prior to eating the food. In fact, no medication in any form is available to reliably prevent an allergic reaction to a certain food before eating that food.Novel therapeutic approaches to food allergy can be classified as food allergen-specific therapy(immunotherapy with native or modified recombinant allergens, or oral desensitization or food allergen-nonspecifictherapy (anti-IgE, traditional Chinese medicine.   Key Words: Children, Food Allergy, Management.  

  5. Total and available heavy metal concentrations in soils of the Thriassio plain (Greece) and assessment of soil pollution indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massas, Ioannis; Kalivas, Dionisios; Ehaliotis, Constantions; Gasparatos, Dionisios

    2013-08-01

    The Thriassio plain is located 25 km west of Athens city, the capital of Greece. Two major towns (Elefsina and Aspropyrgos), heavy industry plants, medium to large-scale manufacturing, logistics plants, and agriculture comprise the main land uses of the studied area. The aim of the present study was to measure the total and available concentrations of Cr, Zn, Ni, Pb, Co, Mn, Ba, Cu, and Fe in the top soils of the plain, and to asses soil contamination by these metals by using the geoaccumulation index (I geo), the enrichment factor (EF), and the availability ratio (AR) as soil pollution indexes. Soil samples were collected from 90 sampling sites, and aqua regia and DTPA extractions were carried out to determine total and available metal forms, respectively. Median total Cr, Zn, Ni, Pb, Co, Mn, Ba, Cu, and Fe concentrations were 78, 155, 81, 112, 24, 321, 834, 38, and 16 × 10(3) mg kg(-1), respectively. The available fractions showed much lower values with medians of 0.4, 5.6, 1.7, 6.9, 0.8, 5.7, 19.8, 2.1, and 2.9 mg kg(-1). Though median total metal concentrations are not considered as particularly high, the I geo and the EF values indicate moderate to heavy soil enrichment. For certain metals such as Cr, Ni, Cu, and Ba, the different distribution patterns between the EFs and the ARs suggest different origin of the total and the available metal forms. The evaluation of the EF and AR data sets for the soils of the two towns further supports the argument that the EFs can well demonstrate the long-term history of soil pollution and that the ARs can adequately portray the recent history of soil pollution.

  6. Using total suspended solids (TSS) and turbidity as proxies for evaluation of metal transport in river water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasrabadi, T.; Ruegner, H.; Sirdari, Z.Z.; Schwientek, M.; Grathwohl, P.

    2016-01-01

    The present study was carried out in Haraz basin (Iran) that is located in south of the Caspian Sea. The goal of this study was to establish correlations amongst total suspended solids concentration (TSS) and turbidity with total pollutant concentrations to evaluate the dissolved and particle-bound concentrations of major toxic metals. It also aimed to validate TSS and/or turbidity measurements as proxies to monitor pollutant fluxes. Eight metals, namely nickel, lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, cobalt, arsenic and strontium were analyzed for dissolved and total concentrations in water at ten locations within the catchment. TSS and turbidity were also measured. Sampling campaigns were designed to cover both the rainy (December) and the dry (May) season within the basin. The robust relationship between TSS (202–1212 mg/l) and turbidity (63–501 NTUs) in both seasons warranted their interchangeable potential as proxies within the observed ranges. Total element concentrations were plotted in separate attempts versus TSS and turbidity for all locations and both events. Very good linear correlations were attained where the slopes represent the metals concentration on suspended solids and the intercept the dissolved concentration in water. The results achieved by these linear regressions were in very good agreement with independently measured values for dissolved concentration and concentrations on river bed sediments taken at the same locations. This demonstrates that turbidity and/or TSS measurements may be used for monitoring of metal loads if once calibrated against total concentration of metals. The results also revealed that in the lower Haraz catchment metal concentrations on suspended and river bed sediment were homogeneously distributed along the investigated river stretch. This is assumed to be due to intensive gravel and sand mining activities in the upper and middle part of the catchment. - Highlights: • Turbidity is evaluated as a feasible proxy to predict

  7. Radioassay in allergy and immunology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gluck, J.

    1983-01-01

    The discovering of IgE and the development of RIA to measure the amount of total IgE and assay IgE to specific allergens opened up a new dimension in the study of allergy. PRIST and RAST have been helpful in diagnosis as well as definition of new diseases and quality control of allergen extracts. A clinical diagnosis should not be based on an in vitro measurement alone, but must be combined with a clinical history, physical exam, and other diagnostic tests, such as skin tests. This combination of examinations is probably sufficient to make a diagnosis in the majority of cases, thus obviating the need for provocation testing, except where there are discrepancies in the data or no definitive results. Since provocation testing is time-consuming, uncomfortable, and potentially hazardous for the patient, any decrease in its frequency of use is significant. The standardization, purification, and separation of active fractions of allergens is essential to the further understanding and treatment of allergy and RAST is instrumental in this effort. It must always be kept in mind that the RAST is only as accurate and significant as the antigen that is linked to the disc. In cases where a purified, well-tested antigen is used, the results are excellent as with the codfish study. When the antigen is more variable and contains several proteins, results with RAST will be variable also. As more allergens are studied and purified, RAST will become a more important tool in allergy management

  8. Diet and nutritional status of children with food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flammarion, Sophie; Santos, Clarisse; Guimber, Dominique; Jouannic, Lyne; Thumerelle, Caroline; Gottrand, Frédéric; Deschildre, Antoine

    2011-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the food intakes and nutritional status of children with food allergies following an elimination diet. We conducted a cross sectional study including 96 children (mean age 4.7 ± 2.5 years) with food allergies and 95 paired controls (mean age 4.7 ± 2.7 years) without food allergies. Nutritional status was assessed using measurements of weight and height and Z scores for weight-for-age, height-for-age and weight-for-height. Nutrient intakes assessment was based on a 3-day diet record. Children with food allergies had weight-for-age and height-for-age Z scores lower than controls (0.1 versus 0.6 and 0.2 versus 0.8 respectively). Children with 3 or more food allergies were smaller than those with 2 or less food allergies (p = 0.04). A total of 62 children with food allergies and 52 controls completed usable diet records. Energy, protein and calcium intakes were similar in the two groups. Children with food allergies were smaller for their age than controls even when they received similar nutrient intakes. Nutritional evaluation is essential for the follow up of children with food allergies. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Edge loading has a paradoxical effect on wear in metal-on-polyethylene total hip arthroplasties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, William H

    2012-11-01

    Edge wear is an adverse factor that can negatively impact certain THAs. In some metal-on-metal THAs, it can lead to adverse tissue reactions including aseptic lymphocytic vasculitis-associated lesions and even to pseudotumor formation. In some ceramic-on-ceramic THAs, it can lead to squeaking and/or stripe wear. Edge wear in metal-on-metal and ceramic-on-ceramic THAs can also be associated with accelerated wear across the articulation of these joints. I asked: Does edge wear occur in metal-on-polyethylene (MOP) articulations? And if so, does it increase joint wear? I examined the evidence in the literature for edge wear occurring in MOP THA and then assessed the evidence in the literature for data supporting the concept that edge wear in MOP hips could accelerate wear across the articulation over time. Extensive data in the literature confirm edge wear is common in MOP THA. Surprisingly, the evidence does not support that it accelerates wear across the articulation. In fact, substantial data support the concept that it does not. These observations suggest, in terms of edge wear accelerating overall wear, MOP articulation may have a privileged position compared to hard-on-hard THA articulations.

  10. Airborne concentrations of metals and total dust during solid catalyst loading and unloading operations at a petroleum refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ryan C; Gaffney, Shannon H; Le, Matthew H; Unice, Ken M; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2012-09-01

    Workers handle catalysts extensively at petroleum refineries throughout the world each year; however, little information is available regarding the airborne concentrations and plausible exposures during this type of work. In this paper, we evaluated the airborne concentrations of 15 metals and total dust generated during solid catalyst loading and unloading operations at one of the largest petroleum refineries in the world using historical industrial hygiene samples collected between 1989 and 2006. The total dust and metals, which included aluminum, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, platinum, silicon, silver, vanadium, and zinc, were evaluated in relation to the handling of four different types of solid catalysts associated with three major types of catalytic processes. Consideration was given to the known components of the solid catalysts and any metals that were likely deposited onto them during use. A total of 180 analytical results were included in this analysis, representing 13 personal and 54 area samples. Of the long-term personal samples, airborne concentrations of metals ranged from refinery and perhaps other modern refineries during the timeframe examined. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Publication trends of Allergy, Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, and Clinical and Translational Allergy journals: a MeSH term-based bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinho-Dias, Daniel; Sousa-Pinto, Bernardo; Botelho-Souza, Júlio; Soares, António; Delgado, Luís; Fonseca, João Almeida

    2018-01-01

    We performed a MeSH term-based bibliometric analysis aiming to assess the publication trends of EAACI journals, namely Allergy, Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (PAI) (from 1990 to 2015) and Clinical and Translational Allergy (CTA) (from its inception in 2011 to 2015). We also aimed to discuss the impact of the creation of CTA in the publication topics of Allergy and PAI. We analysed a total of 1973 articles and 23,660 MeSH terms. Most MeSH terms in the three journals fell in the category of "basic immunology and molecular biology" (BIMB). During the studied period, we observed an increase in the proportion of MeSH terms on BIMB, and a decreasing proportion of terms on allergic rhinitis and aeroallergens. The observed changes in Allergy and PAI publication topics hint at a possible impact from CTA creation.

  12. Nasal allergies hayfever among young adults in Melbourne, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Abramson

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there is wide variation in the prevalence of nasal allergies internationally, the extent to which this is due to variation in etiological factors is not known. The purpose of the present study was to define the relative importance of atopy and other risk factors for nasal allergies, including hayfever, among young adults in Melbourne. The subjects were participants in the second phase of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey; 876 adults between 20 and 45 years of age completed a detailed respiratory questionnaire, 745 had skin prick testing with common aeroallergens and 675 underwent methacholine challenge. Total and allergen-specific IgE levels were measured in 701 and 693 subjects by radioimmunoassay and RAST, respectively. Nasal allergies, including hayfever, were reported by 47.5% of randomly selected participants. Females, non- smokers, subjects with a family history of allergies, those with current asthma, a history of eczema and nasal symptoms induced by dust, pollen or food were significantly more likely to have nasal allergies. Oral antihistamines had been used by 45.7% of those reporting nasal allergies and 12.4% had received allergen immunotherapy. The risk of nasal allergies, including hayfever, was increased 6.1-fold by atopy, particularly by positive skin tests to outdoor allergens such as Birch, Timothy grass, plantain, olive, Cladosporium and Rye grass pollen. Total serum IgE was significantly higher in subjects reporting nasal allergies than in those who did not report such allergies. There were significant trends in the prevalence of nasal allergies with increasing titers of specific IgE directed against all allergens tested. In conclusion, the significant independent risk factors for nasal allergies, including hayfever, in young adults were atopy, particularly sensitization to Timothy grass, house dust mites and plantain, current asthma, not smoking, a history of eczema and female gender. Future research

  13. Use of Raman spectroscopy in the analysis of nickel allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alda, Javier; Castillo-Martinez, Claudio; Valdes-Rodriguez, Rodrigo; Hernández-Blanco, Diana; Moncada, Benjamin; González, Francisco J.

    2013-06-01

    Raman spectra of the skin of subjects with nickel allergy are analyzed and compared to the spectra of healthy subjects to detect possible biochemical differences in the structure of the skin that could help diagnose metal allergies in a noninvasive manner. Results show differences between the two groups of Raman spectra. These spectral differences can be classified using principal component analysis. Based on these findings, a novel computational technique to make a fast evaluation and classification of the Raman spectra of the skin is presented and proposed as a noninvasive technique for the detection of nickel allergy.

  14. Food allergies (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... upon subsequent exposure to the substance. An actual food allergy, as opposed to simple intolerance due to the lack of digesting enzymes, is indicated by the production of antibodies to the food allergen, and by the release of histamines and ...

  15. Occupational Animal Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stave, Gregg M

    2018-02-16

    This review explores animal allergen exposure in research laboratories and other work settings, focusing on causes and prevention. (1) Consistent with the hygiene hypothesis, there is new evidence that early childhood exposure to pets produces changes in the gut microbiome that likely lead to a lower risk of allergy. (2) Anaphylaxis from laboratory animal bites occurs more frequently than suggested by prior literature. (3) Animal allergens represent an occupational hazard in a wide variety of work settings ranging from fields that work with animals to public settings like schools and public transportation where allergens are brought into or are present in the workplace. Exposure to animal allergens can result in allergy, asthma, and anaphylaxis. Animal allergy has been most studied in the research laboratory setting, where exposure reduction can prevent the development of allergy. Similar prevention approaches need to be considered for other animal work environments and in all settings where animal allergens are present.

  16. Preventing food allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Silva, Debra; Panesar, Sukhmeet S; Thusu, Sundeep

    2013-01-01

    The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology is developing guidelines about how to prevent and manage food allergy. As part of the guidelines development process, a systematic review is planned to examine published research about the prevention of food allergy. This systematic review...... is one of seven inter-linked evidence syntheses that are being undertaken in order to provide a state-of-the-art synopsis of the current evidence base in relation to epidemiology, prevention, diagnosis and clinical management, and impact on quality of life, which will be used to inform clinical...... recommendations. The aim of this systematic review will be to assess the effectiveness of approaches for the primary prevention of food allergy....

  17. Traveling with Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on traveling and dining out at restaurants with food allergies. Travel Tips for the U.S. and Other Countries Get information about medications and food labeling practices in select countries. Spam Control Text: ...

  18. Allergies, asthma, and pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reactive airway - pollen; Bronchial asthma - pollen; Triggers - pollen; Allergic rhinitis - pollen ... Things that make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. It is important to know your triggers because avoiding them is your first step toward feeling better. ...

  19. Allergy and allergic diseases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kay, A. B

    2008-01-01

    ... and Other Tolerogenic Mechanisms in Allergy and Asthma, 83 Catherine Hawrylowicz and Cezmi A. Akdis 5 IgE and IgE Receptors, 103 Brian J. Sutton, Andrew J. Beavil, Rebecca L. Beavil and James Hunt...

  20. Contact allergy to lanolin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fransen, Marloes; Overgaard, Line E K; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lanolin has been tested as lanolin alcohols (30% pet.) in baseline patch test series since 1969, and this has shown clinically relevant allergic contact dermatitis cases. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the temporal development of lanolin allergy (i.e. positive reaction to lanolin alcohols...... and/or Amerchol™ L-101), and the association between contact allergy to lanolin and patient characteristics from the MOAHLFA index. METHODS: A retrospective observational study of consecutively patch tested dermatitis patients (n = 9577) between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2015 with lanolin...... alcohols 30% pet. and Amerchol™ L-101 50% pet. was performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of lanolin allergy increased from 0.45% in 2004 to 1.81% in 2015. In age-adjusted and sex-adjusted analyses, weak, significant associations were found between atopic dermatitis and lanolin and lanolin alcohols allergy...

  1. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in the earthworms Lumbricus rubellus and Aporrectodea caliginosa in relation to total and available metal concentrations in field soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbelen, P.H.F.; Koolhaas, J.E.; Gestel, C.A.M. van

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine important metal pools for bioaccumulation by the earthworms Lumbricus rubellus and Aporrectodea caliginosa in soils with high binding capacity. Cd, Cu and Zn concentrations in soil, pore water and CaCl 2 extracts of soil, in leaves of the plant species Urtica dioica and in earthworms were determined at 15 field sites constituting a gradient in metal pollution. Variations in the Cu and Cd concentrations in L. rubellus and Cu concentrations in A. caliginosa were best explained by total soil concentrations, while variation in Cd concentration in A. caliginosa was best explained by pore water concentrations. Zn concentrations in L. rubellus and A. caliginosa were not significantly correlated to any determined variable. It is concluded that despite low availability, earthworms in floodplain soils contain elevated concentrations of Cu and Cd, suggesting that uptake takes place not only from the soluble metal concentrations. - Earthworms in floodplain soils not only accumulate heavy metals from soluble metal pools

  2. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in the earthworms Lumbricus rubellus and Aporrectodea caliginosa in relation to total and available metal concentrations in field soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbelen, P.H.F. [Department of Animal Ecology, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: phobbelen@usgs.gov; Koolhaas, J.E. [Department of Animal Ecology, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gestel, C.A.M. van [Department of Animal Ecology, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2006-11-15

    The aim of this study was to determine important metal pools for bioaccumulation by the earthworms Lumbricus rubellus and Aporrectodea caliginosa in soils with high binding capacity. Cd, Cu and Zn concentrations in soil, pore water and CaCl{sub 2} extracts of soil, in leaves of the plant species Urtica dioica and in earthworms were determined at 15 field sites constituting a gradient in metal pollution. Variations in the Cu and Cd concentrations in L. rubellus and Cu concentrations in A. caliginosa were best explained by total soil concentrations, while variation in Cd concentration in A. caliginosa was best explained by pore water concentrations. Zn concentrations in L. rubellus and A. caliginosa were not significantly correlated to any determined variable. It is concluded that despite low availability, earthworms in floodplain soils contain elevated concentrations of Cu and Cd, suggesting that uptake takes place not only from the soluble metal concentrations. - Earthworms in floodplain soils not only accumulate heavy metals from soluble metal pools.

  3. Fragrance contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeanne D

    2003-01-01

    . This gives a positive patch-test reaction in about 10% of tested patients with eczema, and the most recent estimates show that 1.7-4.1% of the general population are sensitized to ingredients of the fragrance mix. Fragrance allergy occurs predominantly in women with facial or hand eczema. These women...... development to identify contact allergy to new allergens, reflecting the continuous developments and trends in exposure....

  4. Current status of managing food allergies in schools in Seoul, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soyoung; Yoon, Jihyun; Kwon, Sooyoun; Kim, Jihyun; Han, Youngshin

    2012-12-01

    Recently the need to manage food allergies in schools has been growing. This study aimed to examine the current status of managing food allergies in schools in Seoul, Korea. A questionnaire survey was conducted in cooperation with the School Dietician Association during April 2009. Among the participating 154 schools, a total of 109 (71%) were determining students' food allergy status through parental surveys based on self-reported food allergies. A total of 72 (47%) had experienced student visits to a school health room due to food allergies within one year before the survey. Over 80 percent of the schools relied on self-care only without any school-wide measures for food allergies in place. Among the 890 menu items most frequently served in school lunch programs, a total of 664 (75%) were found to contain more than one food allergen. It is highly suggested that preventive plans and treatment measures should be established to manage food allergies in schools.

  5. Lettuce contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus E

    2016-01-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and its varieties are important vegetable crops worldwide. They are also well-known, rarely reported, causes of contact allergy. As lettuce allergens and extracts are not commercially available, the allergy may be underdiagnosed. The aims of this article are to present...... person who is occupationally exposed to lettuce for longer periods, especially atopics, amateur gardeners, and persons keeping lettuce-eating pets, is potentially at risk of developing lettuce contact allergy.......Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and its varieties are important vegetable crops worldwide. They are also well-known, rarely reported, causes of contact allergy. As lettuce allergens and extracts are not commercially available, the allergy may be underdiagnosed. The aims of this article are to present...... new data on lettuce contact allergy and review the literature. Lettuce is weakly allergenic, and occupational cases are mainly reported. Using aimed patch testing in Compositae-allergic patients, two recent Danish studies showed prevalence rates of positive lettuce reactions of 11% and 22...

  6. Fish and shellfish allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalayasingam, Meera; Lee, Bee-Wah

    2015-01-01

    Fish and shellfish consumption has increased worldwide, and there are increasing reports of adverse reactions to fish and shellfish, with an approximate prevalence of 0.5-5%. Fish allergy often develops early in life, whilst shellfish allergy tends to develop later, from adolescence onwards. Little is known about the natural history of these allergies, but both are thought to be persistent. The clinical manifestations of shellfish allergy, in particular, may vary from local to life-threatening 'anaphylactic' reactions within an individual and between individuals. Parvalbumin and tropomyosin are the two major allergens, but several other allergens have been cloned and described. These allergens are highly heat and biochemically stable, and this may in part explain the persistence of these allergies. Diagnosis requires a thorough history, skin prick and in-vitro-specific IgE tests, and oral challenges may be needed for diagnostic confirmation. Strict avoidance of these allergens is the current standard of clinical care for allergic patients, and when indicated, an anaphylactic plan with an adrenaline auto-injector is prescribed. There are no published clinical trials evaluating specific oral immunotherapy for fish or shellfish allergy. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Allergy in severe asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giacco, S R; Bakirtas, A; Bel, E; Custovic, A; Diamant, Z; Hamelmann, E; Heffler, E; Kalayci, Ö; Saglani, S; Sergejeva, S; Seys, S; Simpson, A; Bjermer, L

    2017-02-01

    It is well recognized that atopic sensitization is an important risk factor for asthma, both in adults and in children. However, the role of allergy in severe asthma is still under debate. The term 'Severe Asthma' encompasses a highly heterogeneous group of patients who require treatment on steps 4-5 of GINA guidelines to prevent their asthma from becoming 'uncontrolled', or whose disease remains 'uncontrolled' despite this therapy. Epidemiological studies on emergency room visits and hospital admissions for asthma suggest the important role of allergy in asthma exacerbations. In addition, allergic asthma in childhood is often associated with severe asthma in adulthood. A strong association exists between asthma exacerbations and respiratory viral infections, and interaction between viruses and allergy further increases the risk of asthma exacerbations. Furthermore, fungal allergy has been shown to play an important role in severe asthma. Other contributing factors include smoking, pollution and work-related exposures. The 'Allergy and Asthma Severity' EAACI Task Force examined the current evidence and produced this position document on the role of allergy in severe asthma. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. IgE-mediated allergy to chlorhexidine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garvey, Lene Heise; Krøigaard, Mogens; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2007-01-01

    Investigations at the Danish Anesthesia Allergy Centre have included testing for allergy to chlorhexidine since 1999.......Investigations at the Danish Anesthesia Allergy Centre have included testing for allergy to chlorhexidine since 1999....

  9. Determination of the concentration of total suspends solids (TSS) and heavy metals in basin rio Morote, Nicoya, Guanacaste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Murillo, Ricardo; Leon, Sandra; Saravia, Ana Yuri; Mena Sanchez, Carlos de

    2009-01-01

    The total concentration of suspends solids and heavy metals were determined of the Basin of rio Morote. The study spanned six sampling campaigns between April 2003 and May 2005. Sampling points were selected to correspond to places from the high basin to the mouth of the rio Morote in the Golfo de Nicoya. Suspends total solids concentration (TSS) on average exceeds 200 mg/L during the rainy season at the mouth. Enrichment of metals as: Cu, Ni, Cd and Fe was found in riverbed sediments; but not in Pb. The concentration of Zn has been near the limit value (200 mg/kg) in the dry season, value which has been established for the Environmental Protection Agency of United States (EPA). (author) [es

  10. Optimization of scan time in MRI for total hip prostheses. SEMAC tailoring for prosthetic implants containing different types of metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deligianni, X. [University of Basel Hospital, Basel (Switzerland). Div. of Radiological Physics; Merian Iselin Klinik, Basel (Switzerland). Inst. of Radiology; Bieri, O. [University of Basel Hospital, Basel (Switzerland). Div. of Radiological Physics; Elke, R. [Orthomerian, Basel (Switzerland); Wischer, T.; Egelhof, T. [Merian Iselin Klinik, Basel (Switzerland). Inst. of Radiology

    2015-12-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of soft tissues after total hip arthroplasty is of clinical interest for the diagnosis of various pathologies that are usually invisible with other imaging modalities. As a result, considerable effort has been put into the development of metal artifact reduction MRI strategies, such as slice encoding for metal artifact correction (SEMAC). Generally, the degree of metal artifact reduction with SEMAC directly relates to the overall time spent for acquisition, but there is no specific consensus about the most efficient sequence setup depending on the implant material. The aim of this article is to suggest material-tailored SEMAC protocol settings. Five of the most common total hip prostheses (1. Revision prosthesis (S-Rom), 2. Titanium alloy, 3. Mueller type (CoNiCRMo alloy), 4. Old Charnley prosthesis (Exeter/Stryker), 5. MS-30 stem (stainless-steel)) were scanned on a 1.5 T MRI clinical scanner with a SEMAC sequence with a range of artifact-resolving slice encoding steps (SES: 2 - 23) along the slice direction (yielding a total variable scan time ranging from 1 to 10 min). The reduction of the artifact volume in comparison with maximal artifact suppression was evaluated both quantitatively and qualitatively in order to establish a recommended number of steps for each case. The number of SES that reduced the artifact volume below approximately 300 mm{sup 3} ranged from 3 to 13, depending on the material. Our results showed that although 3 SES steps can be sufficient for artifact reduction for titanium prostheses, at least 11 SES should be used for prostheses made of materials such as certain alloys of stainless steel. Tailoring SES to the implant material and to the desired degree of metal artifact reduction represents a simple tool for workflow optimization of SEMAC imaging near total hip arthroplasty in a clinical setting.

  11. Optimization of scan time in MRI for total hip prostheses. SEMAC tailoring for prosthetic implants containing different types of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deligianni, X.; Wischer, T.; Egelhof, T.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of soft tissues after total hip arthroplasty is of clinical interest for the diagnosis of various pathologies that are usually invisible with other imaging modalities. As a result, considerable effort has been put into the development of metal artifact reduction MRI strategies, such as slice encoding for metal artifact correction (SEMAC). Generally, the degree of metal artifact reduction with SEMAC directly relates to the overall time spent for acquisition, but there is no specific consensus about the most efficient sequence setup depending on the implant material. The aim of this article is to suggest material-tailored SEMAC protocol settings. Five of the most common total hip prostheses (1. Revision prosthesis (S-Rom), 2. Titanium alloy, 3. Mueller type (CoNiCRMo alloy), 4. Old Charnley prosthesis (Exeter/Stryker), 5. MS-30 stem (stainless-steel)) were scanned on a 1.5 T MRI clinical scanner with a SEMAC sequence with a range of artifact-resolving slice encoding steps (SES: 2 - 23) along the slice direction (yielding a total variable scan time ranging from 1 to 10 min). The reduction of the artifact volume in comparison with maximal artifact suppression was evaluated both quantitatively and qualitatively in order to establish a recommended number of steps for each case. The number of SES that reduced the artifact volume below approximately 300 mm 3 ranged from 3 to 13, depending on the material. Our results showed that although 3 SES steps can be sufficient for artifact reduction for titanium prostheses, at least 11 SES should be used for prostheses made of materials such as certain alloys of stainless steel. Tailoring SES to the implant material and to the desired degree of metal artifact reduction represents a simple tool for workflow optimization of SEMAC imaging near total hip arthroplasty in a clinical setting.

  12. Assessment of the characteristic of nutrients, total metals, and fecal coliform in Sibu Laut River, Sarawak, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, Chen-Lin; Ling, Teck-Yee; Lee, Nyanti; Apun, Kasing

    2016-03-01

    The concentrations of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), total metals, and fecal coliform (FC) coupling with chlorophyll- a (chl- a), 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and other general environmental parameters were evaluated at the sub-surface and near-bottom water columns of 13 stations in the Sibu Laut River during low and high slack waters. The results indicated that inorganic nitrogen (mainly nitrate) was the primary form of nitrogen whereas organic phosphorus was the major form of phosphorus. The abundance of total heavy metals in Sibu Laut River and its tributaries was in the order of Pb < Cu < Zn < Cd. Fecal coliform concentration was relatively low along Sibu Laut River. The shrimp farm effluents contributed a substantial amount of chl- a, BOD5, nutrients, and FC to the receiving creek except for total metals. Nevertheless, the influence was merely noticeable in the intake creek and amended rapidly along Selang Sibu River and brought minimal effects on the Sibu Laut River. Besides, the domestic sewage effluents from villages nearby also contributed a substantial amount of pollutants.

  13. Prevalence of contact allergy in the general population: Sensitization to metals with a focus on nickel sulfate, the EDEN Fragrance Study Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuttelaar, M.-L.; Ofenloch, R.; Bruze, M.; Cazzaniga, S.; Elsner, P.; Gonçalo, M.; Naldi, L.; Svensson, Å.; Diepgen, T.

    2016-01-01

    Sensitization to metals is assessed mostly in clinical populations. Studies in the general population are scarce. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of metal sensitization in the general population and to determine risk factors for nickel sensitization. In five European countries (the

  14. The research of a method for determination of total carbon, combination carbon and free carbon in beryllium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xingzhong; Zhu Xiaohong

    1996-02-01

    A method for determination of total carbon, combination carbon and free carbon in beryllium metal with LECO CS-344 carbon/sulphur determinant has been studied. Tungsten-copper mixed pellets are used as flux to the determination of total carbon. Ratio of weight of the flux to the sample is greater than 20:1. Good analytical results are got. By this method the relative standard deviation is <10% when the content of total carbon in the range of 0.050%∼0.080% in beryllium. A standard steel sample of carbon is added into beryllium, the recoveries are 94%∼106%. For determination of free carbon, the sample are decomposed with 3 mol/L HCl, filtered and followed determination. By this method the relative standard deviation is ≤10% when the content of free carbon in the range of 0.006%∼0.020% in beryllium. the balance of total carbon and free carbon is equal to combination carbon. The method is used to determine the sample of content of total carbon in the range of 0.050%∼1.00%, free carbon in the range of 0.006%∼0.500% in metal beryllium. (6 refs., 1 fig., 13 tabs.)

  15. Sesame allergy: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adatia A

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Adil Adatia,1 Ann Elaine Clarke,2 Yarden Yanishevsky,3 Moshe Ben-Shoshan4 1Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, 2Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, 3Section of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, 4Division of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, Montreal Children’s Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada Abstract: Sesame is an important global allergen affecting ~0.1% of the North American population. It is a major cause of anaphylaxis in the Middle East and is the third most common food allergen in Israel. We conducted a systematic review of original articles published in the last 10 years regarding the diagnosis and management of sesame allergy. Skin prick testing appears to be a useful predictor of sesame allergy in infants, although data are less consistent in older children and adults. The diagnostic capacity of serum-specific immunoglobulin E is poor, especially in studies that used oral food challenges to confirm the diagnosis. Double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge thus remains the diagnostic gold standard for sesame allergy. The cornerstone of sesame allergy management is allergen avoidance, though accidental exposures are common and patients must be prepared to treat the consequent reactions with epinephrine. Novel diagnostic and treatment options such as component-resolved diagnostics, basophil activation testing, and oral immunotherapy are under development but are not ready for mainstream clinical application. Keywords: sesame allergy, skin prick testing, specific IgE, component-resolved diagnostics, epinephrine autoinjector

  16. Oral allergy syndrome to chicory associated with birch pollen allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cadot, P.; Kochuyt, A.-M.; van Ree, R.; Ceuppens, J. L.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A few cases of IgE-mediated chicory allergy with oral, cutaneous, and/or respiratory symptoms are reported. We present 4 patients with inhalant birch pollen allergy and oral allergy syndrome to chicory. IgE-binding proteins in chicory and cross-reactivity with birch pollen were studied.

  17. Seasonal Allergies: Diagnosis, Treatment & Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Seasonal Allergies Diagnosis, Treatment & Research Past Issues / Spring 2015 Table of Contents Diagnosis Testing for Allergies Knowing exactly what you are allergic to can ...

  18. Allergy and orthodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthi, Sunitha; Padmanabhan, Sridevi; Chitharanjan, Arun B.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to review the current literature on allergy in orthodontics and to identify the predisposing factors and the implications of the allergic reaction in the management of patients during orthodontic treatment. A computerized literature search was conducted in PubMed for articles published on allergy in relation to orthodontics. The MeSH term used was allergy and orthodontics. Allergic response to alloys in orthodontics, particularly nickel, has been extensively studied and several case reports of nickel-induced contact dermatitis have been documented. Current evidence suggests that the most common allergic reaction reported in orthodontics is related to nickel in orthodontic appliances and allergic response is more common in women due to a previous sensitizing exposure from nickel in jewellery. Studies have implicated allergy in the etiology of hypo-dontia. It has also been considered as a high-risk factor for development of extensive root resorption during the course of orthodontic treatment. This review discusses the relationship and implications of allergy in orthodontics. PMID:24987632

  19. Lettuce contact allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus E

    2016-02-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and its varieties are important vegetable crops worldwide. They are also well-known, rarely reported, causes of contact allergy. As lettuce allergens and extracts are not commercially available, the allergy may be underdiagnosed. The aims of this article are to present new data on lettuce contact allergy and review the literature. Lettuce is weakly allergenic, and occupational cases are mainly reported. Using aimed patch testing in Compositae-allergic patients, two recent Danish studies showed prevalence rates of positive lettuce reactions of 11% and 22%. The majority of cases are non-occupational, and may partly be caused by cross-reactivity. The sesquiterpene lactone mix seems to be a poor screening agent for lettuce contact allergy, as the prevalence of positive reactions is significantly higher in non-occupationally sensitized patients. Because of the easy degradability of lettuce allergens, it is recommended to patch test with freshly cut lettuce stem and supplement this with Compositae mix. As contact urticaria and protein contact dermatitis may present as dermatitis, it is important to perform prick-to-prick tests, and possibly scratch patch tests as well. Any person who is occupationally exposed to lettuce for longer periods, especially atopics, amateur gardeners, and persons keeping lettuce-eating pets, is potentially at risk of developing lettuce contact allergy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. [Allergy - an environmental disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia

    2017-06-01

    The increase in allergies is a phenomenon that is being observed in all fast-developing countries. For a long time, science has taken as a starting point that solely a genetic predisposition is a precondition for the development of an allergy. Today, knowledge of environmental factors that can alter genes or the transcription of genes in the cells, has improved. Epidemiological studies have meanwhile identified several environmental factors that have a protective or supporting effect on allergy development. The environmental microbiome has recently gained central interest. A common theme in most of the studies is diversity: reduced diversity is correlated with enhanced risk for chronic inflammatory diseases and allergy.It is now of great interest for research to further analyze such environment-gene and/or environment-human interactions on all levels - from organs to cells to small and microstructures such as genes. For immunologists, it is specifically about understanding the influencing factors and effector pathways of allergens, and to apply thereby obtained insights in the follow-up for the ultimate goal of allergy research - prevention.

  1. Fish allergy: in review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Michael F; Lopata, Andreas L

    2014-06-01

    Globally, the rising consumption of fish and its derivatives, due to its nutritional value and divergence of international cuisines, has led to an increase in reports of adverse reactions to fish. Reactions to fish are not only mediated by the immune system causing allergies, but are often caused by various toxins and parasites including ciguatera and Anisakis. Allergic reactions to fish can be serious and life threatening and children usually do not outgrow this type of food allergy. The route of exposure is not only restricted to ingestion but include manual handling and inhalation of cooking vapors in the domestic and occupational environment. Prevalence rates of self-reported fish allergy range from 0.2 to 2.29 % in the general population, but can reach up to 8 % among fish processing workers. Fish allergy seems to vary with geographical eating habits, type of fish processing, and fish species exposure. The major fish allergen characterized is parvalbumin in addition to several less well-known allergens. This contemporary review discusses interesting and new findings in the area of fish allergy including demographics, novel allergens identified, immunological mechanisms of sensitization, and innovative approaches in diagnosing and managing this life-long disease.

  2. Trace metal determinations by total-reflection x-ray fluorescence analysis in the open Atlantic Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, D.; Gerwinski, W.; Radke, I.

    1993-01-01

    The Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC), as a major component of its programme ''Global Investigation of Pollution in the Marine Environment'' (GIPME), maintains a long-standing project on ''Open Ocean Baseline Studies of Trace Contaminants''. Initially, the Atlantic Ocean and trace metals were selected. Four deep-water stations in the Cape Basin, Angola Basin, Cape Verde Abyssal Plain and Seine Abyssal Plain were regularly sampled for at least 36 depths. Additional samples were taken between stations. Samples were distributed to participants and a similar number of additional laboratories. As a central part of our own contribution to the project, we determined the trace heavy metals manganese, nickel, copper, zinc and lead and the lighter selenium by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis. For the TXRF, the pre-enrichment of the trace metals and the separation from the salt matrix were performed by complexation with sodium dibenzyldithiocarbamate and reverse-phase chromatography. Generally, very low levels of trace elements were found in filtered and unfiltered water samples from these remote areas of the open Atlantic Ocean. Typical examples of the distributions of trace metal concentrations on depth profiles from the four deep-water stations as well as intercomparisons between the stations are presented. (author)

  3. Is the Total Concentration of a Heavy Metal in Soil a Suitable Tool for Assessing the Environmental Risk? Considering the Case of Copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Calviño, David; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paula; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Estévez, Manuel Arias

    2017-01-01

    National legislation concerning soil pollution by heavy metals in different countries is mostly based on the total heavy metal concentration levels allowed in different soils. As soil pollution is an issue of worldwide concern, here we develop a laboratory exercise for students in which they must check the suitability of a total metal…

  4. [Protocols Related to Food Allergies and Intolerances in Preschools in Reykjavik, Iceland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrastardottir, Adalheidur Ran; Thordardottir, Frida Run; Torfadottir, Johanna

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore prevalence of food allergies and intolerances among children in preschools in Reykjavik, Iceland. Also, to investigate how well preschools maintain a safe environment for children with food allergies. In 2014, a questionnaire designed specifically for this study, was sent to 65 preschools. Forty-nine participated (75%) representing a total of 4225 children. Prevalence of food allergy and intolerance was determined based on medical certificates from physi-cians delivered to the preschools. Descriptive statistics were used to assess whether there were protocols related to food allergy, and if there was a difference between schools based on staff's education and number of children. The prevalence of documented food allergies/intolerances in children aged 2-6 years was 5%, 1% had severe allergy and 1% had multiple food allergies. Lactose intolerance was most frequent (2%), then milk allergy (2%) and egg allergy (1%). Only 41% preschools had a protocol that was activated if food with an allergen was accidentally given. Moreover, only 55% of preschools with children with severe -allergy reported all of their staff to have knowledge of symptoms related to anaphylaxis and only 64% were trained to respond to an anaphylactic shock. The education of preschool principals, kitchen employees and number of children in preschool were not related to having an active protocol at site. Prevalence of food allergy and intolerance was 5% in preschools in Reykjavik. Strategy for an active protocol related to food allergy was lacking in 59% of pre-schools.

  5. Determination of platinum group metal catalyst residues in active pharmaceutical ingredients by means of total reflection X-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marguí, Eva; Queralt, Ignasi; Hidalgo, Manuela

    2013-01-01

    The control of metal catalyst residues (i.e., platinum group metals (PGMs)) in different stages of the manufacturing processes of the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and, especially, in the final product is crucial. For API specimens, there are strict guidelines to limit the levels of metal residues based on their individual levels of safety concern. For PGMs the concentration limit has been established at 10 mg/kg in the API. Therefore great effort is currently being devoted to the development of new and simple procedures to control metals in pharmaceuticals. In the present work, an analytical methodology based on benchtop total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF) has been developed for the rapid and simple determination of some PGM catalyst impurities (Rh, Pd, Ir and Pt) in different types of API samples. An evaluation of different sample treatments (dissolution and digestion of the solid pharmaceutical samples) has been carried out and the developed methodologies have been validated according to the analytical parameters to be considered and acceptance criteria for PGM determination according to the United States Pharmacopeia (USP). Limits of quantification obtained for PGM metals were in the range of 2–4 mg/kg which are satisfactory according to current legislation. From the obtained results it is shown that the developed TXRF method can be implemented in the pharmaceutical industries to increase productivity of the laboratory; offering an interesting and complementary analytical tool to other atomic spectroscopic methods. - Highlights: • A TXRF method for PGM catalyst residue determination in API samples is presented. • Analysis can be performed using 10 μL of the internal standardized dissolved API. • The method is rapid, simple and suitable according to the USP requirements

  6. Indoor and Outdoor Allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Madhavi; Hays, Amy

    2016-09-01

    In last 30 to 40 years there has been a significant increase in the incidence of allergy. This increase cannot be explained by genetic factors alone. Increasing air pollution and its interaction with biological allergens along with changing lifestyles are contributing factors. Dust mites, molds, and animal allergens contribute to most of the sensitization in the indoor setting. Tree and grass pollens are the leading allergens in the outdoor setting. Worsening air pollution and increasing particulate matter worsen allergy symptoms and associated morbidity. Cross-sensitization of allergens is common. Treatment involves avoidance of allergens, modifying lifestyle, medical treatment, and immunotherapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Food Allergy Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    Developed the content of this website in collaboration with a group of leading allergy experts from the food industry, patient organisations, clinical centres, and research institutions in Europe. This has been undertaken as part of the EuroPrevall project coordinated by Clare Mills at the Instit......Developed the content of this website in collaboration with a group of leading allergy experts from the food industry, patient organisations, clinical centres, and research institutions in Europe. This has been undertaken as part of the EuroPrevall project coordinated by Clare Mills...

  8. Smoking might be a risk factor for contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Allan; Nielsen, Niels Henrik; Menné, Torkil

    2003-01-01

    was defined as a positive patch test result to at least 1 of 23 allergens. Nickel contact allergy was defined as a positive patch test reaction to nickel. Allergic nickel contact dermatitis was defined as a history of eczema on exposure to metallic objects and a positive patch test reaction to nickel...... associated with a smoking history of more than 15 pack-years. Moreover, these associations showed a significant dose-response relation, and they were independent of sex, age, and exposure to nickel, as reflected by a history of ear piercing. CONCLUSIONS: These data raise the hypothesis that smoking increases......BACKGROUND: Contact allergy is a major public health problem in industrialized countries. Hitherto, known risk factors for contact allergy have mainly included increased exposure to allergens. There are no published data on the relation between smoking and contact allergy. OBJECTIVE: To investigate...

  9. Environmental allergies and respiratory morbidities in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collaco, Joseph M; Morrow, Christopher B; Green, Deanna M; Cutting, Garry R; Mogayzel, Peter J

    2013-09-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is characterized by recurrent respiratory infections and progressive lung disease. Although environmental factors account for 50% of the variation in CF lung function, few specific exposures have been identified. Studies using small study samples focusing on environmental allergies in CF have had inconsistent results. Our objective was to examine the role of environmental allergies in upper and lower respiratory tract morbidities in CF. A total of 1,321 subjects with CF were recruited through the U.S. CF Twin-Sibling Study. Questionnaires were used to determine the presence/absence of environmental allergies. Questionnaires, chart review, and U.S. CF Foundation Patient Registry data were used to track outcomes. Within the study sample 14% reported environmental allergies. Environmental allergies were associated with a higher risk of sinus disease (adjusted OR: 2.68; P allergies were also associated with a more rapid decline in lung function (additional -1.1%/year; P = 0.001). However, allergies were associated with a later median age of acquisition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6.6 years vs. 4.4 years; log rank P = 0.027). The reported use of common allergy medications, anti-histamines and leukotriene inhibitors, did not alter the frequency of respiratory morbidities. Environmental allergies are associated with an increased risk of sinus disease and nasal polyps and a more rapid decline in CF lung function, but may have a protective effect against the acquisition of P. aeruginosa. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these associations which have implications for more aggressive management of allergies. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Total and Available Heavy Metal Concentrations and Assessment of Soil Pollution Indices in Selected Soils of Zanjan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Taheri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Soil is a hardly renewable natural resource. Although soil degradation, caused by either human activities and natural processes is a relatively slow procedure, but its effects are long lasting and most often, irreversible in the time scale of man's life. Among the most significant soil contaminants resulting from both natural and human sources, heavy metals are more important due to their long- term toxicity effects. For evaluating soil's enrichment rate by heavy metals, a wide and full study of soils background values, including total and available fractions of heavy metal contents should be done. Zanjan province has some great mines and concentrating industries of lead and zinc especially in Angoran, Mahneshan. Unfortunately produced waste materials of these industries spread over the adjacent areas. Investigations showed that accumulation of some heavy metals in vegetables and crops planted in this region had occurred. Therefore, performing some investigations in these polluted areas and assessing pollution rate and heavy metals distribution in arable lands had prime importance. Our goals were: 1 determining the total and available amounts of Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd in the soils of arable lands in polluted areas of Zanjan city, 2 producing the distribution map for the metals mentioned above and 3 calculating pollution indices in the soils. Materials and Methods: The study area was in south west of Zanjan city. For soil sampling, a 1 Km by 1 Km grid defined in ArcGIS software on landuse layer and totally 144 points that placed on agricultural lands, due to our goals, were sampled. For sampling, in a 5m radius around the point we collected some subsamples from depth of 0 - 15 cm, and after mixing the subsamples, finally a 1Kg soil sample prepared and sent to the laboratory. Sampled soils were air dried and were passed through a 2mm sieve. Soils organic matter (OM content and texture were determined by Walkely-Black and Bouyoucos

  11. Determination of heavy metals in Damascus drinking water using total reflection x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakraji, E. H.; Karajo, J.

    2000-01-01

    Total reflection x-ray fluorescence spectrometry and chemical preconcentration have applied for multi-elemental analysis of Damascus drinking water. Water was taken directly from taps of several city sectors and analyzed for the following trace elements: Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se and Pb. The detection limits were found to be in the range of 0.1 to 0.4 μg/l. The mean levels of trace elements in the Damascus drinking water were below the World Health Organization drinking water quality guidelines. (author)

  12. Heavy metal, total arsenic, and inorganic arsenic contents of algae food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almela, C; Algora, S; Benito, V; Clemente, M J; Devesa, V; Súñer, M A; Vélez, D; Montoro, R

    2002-02-13

    The total arsenic, inorganic arsenic, lead, cadmium, and mercury contents of 18 algae food products currently on sale in Spain were determined. The suitability of the analytical methodologies for this type of matrix was confirmed by evaluating their analytical characteristics. The concentration ranges found for each contaminant, expressed in milligrams per kilogram of dry weight, were as follows: total arsenic, 2.3-141; inorganic arsenic, 0.15-88; lead, mercury, 0.004-0.04. There is currently no legislation in Spain regarding contaminants in algae food products, but some of the samples analyzed revealed Cd and inorganic As levels higher than those permitted by legislation in other countries. Given the high concentrations of inorganic As found in Hizikia fusiforme, a daily consumption of 1.7 g of the product would reach the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake recommended by the WHO for an average body weight of 68 kg. A more comprehensive study of the contents and toxicological implications of the inorganic As present in the algae food products currently sold in Spain may be necessary, which might then be the basis for the introduction of specific sales restrictions.

  13. The prevalence of food allergy: A meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rona, Roberto J.; Keil, Thomas; Summers, Colin

    2007-01-01

    Background: There is uncertainty about the prevalence of food allergy in communities. Objective: To assess the prevalence of food allergy by performing a meta-analysis according to the method of assessment used. Methods: The foods assessed were cow's milk, hen's egg, peanut, fish, shellfish....... The meta-analysis included only original studies. They were stratified by age groups: infant/preschool, school children, and adults. Results: A total of 934 articles were identified, but only 51 were considered appropriate for inclusion. The prevalence of self-reported food allergy was very high compared...

  14. Going Nuts over Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Furlong, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Some 600,000 children in the US are allergic to peanuts. Of 400 elementary school nurses, 44% cite increased food-allergic students in the past five years. Peanut allergy doubled in children from 1997 to 2002, and yet peanuts are only one of six foods most often causing allergic reactions in children, including milk, eggs, wheat, soy, and tree…

  15. RN AND ALLERGY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cells are one of the few types of immune cells found in the brain'. MANAGEMENT OF AllERGIES IN HIV-INFECTED. PATIENTS. Atopy is an ever-increasing problem in HIV-infected individuals and is becoming even more prominent in the highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) era. Not only are the patients developing ...

  16. Testing children for allergies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eigenmann, P A; Atanaskovic-Markovic, M; O'B Hourihane, J

    2013-01-01

    Allergic diseases are common in childhood and can cause a significant morbidity and impaired quality-of-life of the children and their families. Adequate allergy testing is the prerequisite for optimal care, including allergen avoidance, pharmacotherapy and immunotherapy. Children with persisting...

  17. Allergy - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... XYZ List of All Topics All Allergy - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated on 23 May 2018

  18. Drug allergy REVIEW ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    disease. The :most dangerous but least co:m:mon for:m of drug allergy is .... immune response, and allergic reaction occur in only ... mental sensitisation by milk and aerosol.11,19 ... requires cross-linking of the high-affinity specific IgE Fc.

  19. Contact allergy to spices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Van den Akker Th. (W.); I.D. Roesyanto-Mahadi (I.); A.W. van Toorenenbergen (Albert); Th. van Joost (Theo)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractA group of 103 patients suspected of contact allergy was tested with the European standard series, wood tars and spices; paprika, cinnamon, laurel, celery seed, nutmeg, curry, black pepper, cloves, while pepper, coriander, cacao and garlic. 32 patients (Group I) were selected on the

  20. Contact allergy to cosmetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Held, E; Johansen, J D; Agner, T

    1999-01-01

    In a 2-year period, 1527 patients with contact dermatitis were investigated in the patch-test clinic. In 531 patients, allergy to cosmetics was suspected from the history and they were tested with their own cosmetic products. 40 (7.5%) (of the 531 patients) had 1 or more positive reactions, 82 (15...

  1. Allergy in severe asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Del Giacco, Stefano R.; Bakirtas, A.; Bel, E.; Custovic, A.; Diamant, Z.; Hamelmann, E.; Heffler, E.; Kalayci, O.; Saglani, S.; Sergejeva, S.; Seys, S.; Simpson, A.; Bjermer, Leif

    It is well recognized that atopic sensitization is an important risk factor for asthma, both in adults and in children. However, the role of allergy in severe asthma is still under debate. The term 'Severe Asthma' encompasses a highly heterogeneous group of patients who require treatment on steps

  2. Total reflection x-ray analysis of metals in blood samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Takuya; Matsui, Hiroshi; Kawamata, Masaya

    2009-01-01

    The sample preparation for TXRF (total reflection X-ray fluorescence) quantitative analysis of trace elements in human blood samples was investigated. In the TXRF analysis, a solution sample is dropped and dried on a flat substrate, and then the dried residue is measured. In this case, the dried residue should be flat not to disturb X-ray total reflection on the substrate. In addition, it is required to simply measure the whole blood sample by TXRF method, although a serum is analyzed in many cases. Thus, we studied the optimum conditions of the sample preparation of the whole blood by adding the pure water to apply Hemolysis phenomenon, where blood cells are destroyed due to different of the osmotic pressure, leading to flat residue. It was found that the best S/B ratio was obtained when the whole blood was diluted 8 times with pure water. Moreover, it was investigated the influence of the surface chemical condition of the glass substrate on the shape of the dried reside of the blood sample. When the surface of the glass substrate was hydrophilic, the shape of the dried residues was not uniform, as a result, the quantitative data of TXRF analysis gave a large deviation. On the other hand, when the surface of the glass was hydrophobic, the shape of the residue was almost uniform, as a result, a good reproducibility was obtained. Another problem was an outer ring of the dried residue of the blood. This uneven ring absorbs the primary X-rays, caused to low determined quantitative data. Thus, we tried the heating way of the dropped blood sample at a high temperature of 200 degrees. In this case, the blood sample was dried immediately, and a flat homogeneous dried residue was obtained without the outer ring. Using the optimized conditions for sample preparation, human blood sample was quantitatively measured by TXRF and ICP-AES. A good agreement was obtained in TXRF and ICP-AES determinations; however, the measurement of Cl and Br will be an advantage of TXRF, because

  3. Metals determination in coffee sample by total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (TXRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the inorganic concentration in five brands of coffee, three of them nationally marketed and the others of an exportation kind. The samples were prepared by infusion with deionized water. To carry out the calibration, standard solutions were prepared with different concentrations of Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn and Se. The measurements were carried out using a white beam of synchrotron radiation for excitation and a Si (Li) semiconductor detector for detection. By employing Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (SR-TXRF) it was possible to evaluate the concentrations of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Ba. The detection limits for 300 s counting time were in the range of 0.03 (Ca) to 30 ng.g -1 (Rb), respectively. (author)

  4. Metals determination in coffee sample by total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (TXRF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br; Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: Silvana@fec.unicamp.br; Brienza, Sandra Maria Boscolo [ Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Matematicas, da Natureza e de Tecnologia da Informacao]. E-mail: sbrienza@unimep.br; Zucchi, Orgheda Luiza Araujo Domingues [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: olzucchi@fcfrp.usp.br; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio Franco do [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: virgilio@cena.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the inorganic concentration in five brands of coffee, three of them nationally marketed and the others of an exportation kind. The samples were prepared by infusion with deionized water. To carry out the calibration, standard solutions were prepared with different concentrations of Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn and Se. The measurements were carried out using a white beam of synchrotron radiation for excitation and a Si (Li) semiconductor detector for detection. By employing Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (SR-TXRF) it was possible to evaluate the concentrations of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Ba. The detection limits for 300 s counting time were in the range of 0.03 (Ca) to 30 ng.g{sup -1} (Rb), respectively. (author)

  5. Winter-time size distribution and source apportionment of total suspended particulate matter and associated metals in Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Arun; Gupta, Sandeep; Jain, V. K.

    2009-03-01

    A study of the winter time size distribution and source apportionment of total suspended particulate matter (TSPM) and associated heavy metal concentrations have been carried out for the city of Delhi. This study is important from the point of view of implementation of compressed natural gas (CNG) as alternate of diesel fuel in the public transport system in 2001 to reduce the pollution level. TSPM were collected using a five-stage cascade impactor at six sites in the winters of 2005-06. The results of size distribution indicate that a major portion (~ 40%) of TSPM concentration is in the form of PM0.7 (heavy metals associated with various size fractions of TSPM. A very good correlation between coarse and fine size fraction of TSPM was observed. It was also observed that the metals associated with coarse particles have more chances of correlation with other metals; rather they are associated with fine particles. Source apportionment was carried out separately in coarse and fine size modes of TSPM by Chemical Mass Balance Receptor Model (CMB8) as well as by Principle Component Analysis (PCA) of SPSS. Source apportionment by PCA reveals that there are two major sources (possibly vehicular and crustal re-suspension) in both coarse and fine size fractions. Results obtained by CMB8 show the dominance of vehicular pollutants and crustal dust in fine and coarse size mode respectively. Noticeably the dominance of vehicular pollutants are now confined to fine size only whilst during pre CNG era it dominated both coarse and fine size mode. An increase of 42.5, 44.4, 48.2, 38.6 and 38.9% in the concentrations of TSPM, PM10.9, coarse particles, fine particles and lead respectively was observed during pre (2001) to post CNG (2005-06) period.

  6. Bioaccumulation of trace metals and total petroleum and genotoxicity responses in an edible fish population as indicators of marine pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Costa, Avelyno; Shyama, S K; Praveen Kumar, M K

    2017-08-01

    The present study reports the genetic damage and the concentrations of trace metals and total petroleum hydrocarbons prevailing in natural populations of an edible fish, Arius arius in different seasons along the coast of Goa, India as an indicator of the pollution status of coastal water. Fish were collected from a suspected polluted site and a reference site in the pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. Physico-chemical parameters as well as the concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and trace metals in the water and sediment as well as the tissues of fish collected from these sites were recorded. The genotoxicity status of the fish was assessed employing the micronucleus test and comet assay. A positive correlation (p<0.001) was observed between the tail DNA and micronuclei in all the fish collected. Multiple regression analysis revealed that tissue and environmental pollutant concentrations and genotoxicity were positively associated and higher in the tissues of the fish collected from the polluted site. Pollution indicators and genotoxicity tests, combined with other physiological or biochemical parameters represent an essential integrated approach for efficient monitoring of aquatic ecosystems in Goa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Children with atopic dermatitis may have unacknowledged contact allergies contributing to their skin symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, A B; Johansen, J D; Deleuran, M

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Whether children with atopic dermatitis have an altered risk of contact allergy than children without atopic dermatitis is frequently debated and studies have been conflicting. Theoretically, the impaired skin barrier in AD facilitates the penetration of potential allergens and several...... authors have highlighted the risk of underestimating and overlooking contact allergy in children with atopic dermatitis. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of contact allergy in Danish children with atopic dermatitis and explore the problem of unacknowledged allergies maintaining or aggravating...... one contact allergy that was relevant to the current skin symptoms. The risk of contact allergy was significantly correlated to the severity of atopic dermatitis. Metals and components of topical skin care products were the most frequent sensitizers. CONCLUSION: Patch testing is relevant...

  8. Nível sérico de IgE total em alergia respiratória: estudo em pacientes com alto risco de infecção por helmintos Total IgE level in respiratory allergy: study of patients at high risk for helminthic infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Décio Medeiros

    2006-08-01

    and anti-Ascaris IgE, and 0.26 (p = 0.01 between eosinophil count and anti-Ascaris IgE. The final multiple linear regression model pointed out that anti-Ascaris IgE contributed to a total serum IgE level with a coefficient of determination (adjusted R² of 0.25 (F = 12.35; p < 0.001. This effect occurred regardless of eosinophil count and of the presence of intestinal helminthic infection. CONCLUSION: In patients with respiratory allergy and increased total serum IgE levels living in areas where there is a high risk for helminthic infections, the quantification of anti-Ascaris IgE can be more useful and more insightful than the parasitological stool examination.

  9. Allergies and suicidal behaviors: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kõlves, Kairi; Barker, Emma; De Leo, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Allergies are among the most common chronic conditions. In addition to physical and social impacts, a number of studies have consistently linked allergies to poor psychological outcomes, including depression and anxiety. The aim of the present systematic literature review was to analyze the existing literature about the relationship between allergies and fatal and nonfatal suicidal behaviors. Data sources include articles retrieved from Scopus, PubMed, ProQuest, and Web of Knowledge. Search terms: "suicid* and (allerg* or hay fever or atop* or eczema or aeroallergen*)" in English-language peer-reviewed journals between 1990 and 2014. Original research articles that provide empiric evidence about the potential link between allergies and suicidal behaviors. The initial search identified a total of 769 articles with 17 original research articles that present empiric evidence. Nine articles analyzed the relationship between allergies and fatal suicidal behavior, and nine analyzed nonfatal suicidal behaviors (one article included both). There currently is little research into the relationship between allergies and suicidal behavior. The review was restricted to English-language articles published within the chosen time period; other limitations included the small number of articles that involve suicide mortality, and the fact that the majority of articles originated from the United States and Scandinavia. Analysis of the results indicates a link between allergies and suicidality, particularly suicide mortality; however, results for nonfatal suicidal behaviors are mixed. It is important that further research by using more rigorous study designs be carried out to lend strength to these findings.

  10. Lactose intolerance and cow's milk protein allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Henrique do Nascimento RANGEL

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Adverse reactions to food intake have very diverse etiology and symptomatology. Regarding milk, its food allergy is presented as lactose intolerance, the sugar in milk, or allergy to milk protein. Despite having different symptomatology, confusions among allergic conditions to dairy and its mediators are common. Milk protein allergy originates from protein components present in milk, causing reactions to either the protein fractions in emulsion (caseins or in whey (milk albumin. The allergic reaction is type IV mediated by T lymphocytes. The allergic reaction produces severe cellular damage and it triggers physical, mental and emotional symptomatology that may vary in time, intensity and severity. Lactose intolerance is originated by total or partial absence of the enzyme that digests this disaccharide. Lactose intolerance can be primary or congenital and secondary; the former being more rare and severe, the latter being more common. Lactase deficiency can be diagnosed by symptoms associated with cramping and diarrhea. Thus, the objective of this study was to conduct a review of available literature on cow’s milk protein allergy and lactose intolerance.

  11. Does Choice of Head Size and Neck Geometry Affect Stem Migration in Modular Large-Diameter Metal-on-Metal Total Hip Arthroplasty? A Preliminary Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Cs; Evangelou, Kg; Theodorou, Eg; Provatidis, Cg; Megas, Pd

    2012-01-01

    Due to their theoretical advantages, hip systems combining modular necks and large diameter femoral heads have gradually gained popularity. However, among others, concerns regarding changes in the load transfer patterns were raised. Recent stress analyses have indeed shown that the use of modular necks and big femoral heads causes significant changes in the strain distribution along the femur. Our original hypothesis was that these changes may affect early distal migration of a modular stem. We examined the effect of head diameter and neck geometry on migration at two years of follow-up in a case series of 116 patients (125 hips), who have undergone primary Metal-on-Metal total hip arthroplasty with the modular grit-blasted Profemur®E stem combined with large-diameter heads (>36 mm). We found that choice of neck geometry and head diameter has no effect on stem migration. A multivariate regression analysis including the potential confounding variables of the body mass index, bone quality, canal fill and stem positioning revealed only a negative correlation between subsidence and canal fill in midstem area. Statistical analysis, despite its limitations, did not confirm our hypothesis that choice of neck geometry and/or head diameter affects early distal migration of a modular stem. However, the importance of correct stem sizing was revealed.

  12. The Importance of Prolonged Provocation in Drug Allergy - Results From a Danish Allergy Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransson, Sara; Mosbech, Holger; Kappel, Mogens; Hjortlund, Janni; Poulsen, Lars K; Kvisselgaard, Ask D; Garvey, Lene H

    Drug provocation is the "Gold Standard" in drug allergy investigation. Recent studies suggest that a negative drug provocation on first dose should be followed by a prolonged provocation over several days. To evaluate drug allergy investigations on the basis of drug provocation, including prolonged provocation. Data from adult patients investigated for drug allergy in a Danish Allergy Clinic during the period 2010 to 2014 were entered into a database. Data included clinical details and results of provocations with suspected culprit drug (for penicillins performed only in specific IgE-negative patients). If provocation was negative on first dose, treatment was continued for 3 to 10 days. A total of 1,913 provocations were done in 1,659 patients, median age 46 years, of whom 1,237 (74.6%) were females. Drugs investigated were antibiotics, 1,776 (92.8%), of which 1,590 (89.5%) were penicillins; analgesics, 59 (3.1%); local anesthetics, 33 (1.7%); and other drugs, 45 (2.4%). In total, 211 of 1,913 (11.0%) provocations were positive. Causes were antibiotics, 198 (93.8%), of which 167 (84.3%) were penicillins; analgesics, 7 (3.3%); local anesthetics, 0; and other drugs, 6 (2.8%). Only 43 (20.4%) provocations were positive on first dose, whereas 95 (45.0%) turned positive more than 3 days later. Only 11.0% of the provocations were positive. Importantly, only 1 of 5 patients tested positive on the first dose, indicating that prolonged exposure should always be considered when drug provocation is included in allergy investigations. Most provocations were with penicillins, reflecting the pattern of antibiotic use in Denmark, which differs from that in other countries, especially outside Northern Europe. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Detection and quantitative determination of heavy metals in electronic cigarette refill liquids using Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamilari, Eleni; Farsalinos, Konstantinos; Poulas, Konstantinos; Kontoyannis, Christos G; Orkoula, Malvina G

    2018-06-01

    Electronic cigarettes are considered healthier alternatives to conventional cigarettes containing tobacco. They produce vapor through heating of the refill liquids (e-liquids) which consist of propylene glycol, vegetable glycerin, nicotine (in various concentrations), water and flavoring agents. Heavy metals may enter the refill liquid during the production, posing a risk for consumer's health due to their toxicity. The objective of the present study was the development of a methodology for the detection and quantitative analysis of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), arsenic (As) and chromium (Cr), employing Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (TXRF) as an alternative technique to ICP-MS or ICP-OES commonly used for this type of analysis. TXRF was chosen due to its advantages, which include short analysis time, promptness, simultaneous multi-element analysis capability and minimum sample preparation, low purchase and operational cost. The proposed methodology was applied to a large number of electronic cigarette liquids commercially available, as well as their constituents, in order to evaluate their safety. TXRF may be a valuable tool for probing heavy metals in electronic cigarette refill liquids to serve for the protection of human health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Determination of total Betta-activity and heavy metals in biomonitor species (phytomonitors) from the area of ITR-Sofia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, S.; Yovchev, M.; Geleva, E.

    2010-01-01

    For the purposes of environmental assessment of the area around the Research reactor in Sofia, species from monitored control points, selected in a certain way (habitat, population, air and hydrogeological parameters) are examined. Samples from following phytomonitored species: Betula pendula (silver birch) popullus canadensis (Canadian populus), Quercus sp. (Oak), Dactilus glomerata (Cock's-foot), Abies alba (Silver Fir) and Sequoia sempervirens (Coast Redwood) were analyzed. The total beta activity was determined by radiometric analysis and heavy metals content was measured using X-ray fluorescence analysis. The results are discussed in terms of radiation monitoring program of INRNE (gamma-background, aerosols, surface and groundwater, soil, plants) and obtained values are compared with reference points in the country

  15. Silica Supported Platinum Catalysts for Total Oxidation of the Polyaromatic Hydrocarbon Naphthalene: An Investigation of Metal Loading and Calcination Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Sellick

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A range of catalysts comprising of platinum supported on silica, prepared by an impregnation method, have been studied for the total oxidation of naphthalene, which is a representative Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon. The influence of platinum loading and calcination temperature on oxidation activity was evaluated. Increasing the platinum loading up to 2.5 wt.% increased the catalyst activity, whilst a 5.0 wt.% catalyst was slightly less active. The catalyst containing the optimum 2.5 wt.% loading was most active after calcination in air at 550 °C. Characterisation by carbon monoxide chemisorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that low platinum dispersion to form large platinum particles, in combination with platinum in metallic and oxidised states was important for high catalyst activity. Catalyst performance improved after initial use in repeat cycles, whilst there was slight deactivation after prolonged time-on-stream.

  16. Gastrointestinal food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Ralf G

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal food allergies present during early childhood with a diverse range of symptoms. Cow's milk, soy and wheat are the three most common gastrointestinal food allergens. Several clinical syndromes have been described, including food protein-induced enteropathy, proctocolitis and enterocolitis. In contrast with immediate, IgE-mediated food allergies, the onset of gastrointestinal symptoms is delayed for at least 1-2 hours after ingestion in non-IgE-mediated allergic disorders. The pathophysiology of these non-IgE-mediated allergic disorders is poorly understood, and useful in vitro markers are lacking. The results of the skin prick test or measurement of the food-specific serum IgE level is generally negative, although low-positive results may occur. Diagnosis therefore relies on the recognition of a particular clinical phenotype as well as the demonstration of clear clinical improvement after food allergen elimination and the re-emergence of symptoms upon challenge. There is a significant clinical overlap between non-IgE-mediated food allergy and several common paediatric gastroenterological conditions, which may lead to diagnostic confusion. The treatment of gastrointestinal food allergies requires the strict elimination of offending food allergens until tolerance has developed. In breast-fed infants, a maternal elimination diet is often sufficient to control symptoms. In formula-fed infants, treatment usually involves the use an extensively hydrolysed or amino acid-based formula. Apart from the use of hypoallergenic formulae, the solid diets of these children also need to be kept free of specific food allergens, as clinically indicated. The nutritional progress of infants and young children should be carefully monitored, and they should undergo ongoing, regular food protein elimination reassessments by cautious food challenges to monitor for possible tolerance development. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Facts and Statistics about Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Statistics with References What Is a Food Allergy? A food allergy is a medical condition in ... an emerging concern. How Many People Have Food Allergies? Researchers estimate that up to 15 million Americans ...

  18. ORAL ALLERGY SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Sergeev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Oral allergy syndrome (OAS is defined as a set of clinical manifestations caused by IgE-mediated allergic  reactions  that  occur  at  oral  and  pharyngeal  mucosae  in  the  patients  with  pollen  sensitization  after ingestion of certain fruits, vegetables, nuts and spices. OAS arises from cross-reactivity between specific pollen and food allergens, due to similarity of a configuration and amino acid sequence of allergenic molecules. OAS is considered as class II food allergy, being caused by thermo- and chemolabile allergens, and it is rarely combined with generalized manifestations of food allergy. Prevalence and spectrum of the causal allergens depend on a kind of pollen sensitization. In Moscow region, as well as in Northern Europe, allergic sensitization most commonly occurs to the pollen of leaf trees, whereas OAS is mostly connected with ingestion of fruits from Rosaceae family and nuts. Since last years, a newly developed technique of component-resolved molecular diagnosis (CR diagnostics allows of more precise detection of OAS-causing allergen molecules. These data are of extreme importance for administration of adequate nutritional therapy and prediction of SIT efficiency. (Med. Immunol., 2011, vol. 13, N 1, pp 17-28

  19. Soy sauce allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, K; Sugiura, M

    2010-07-01

    Soy sauce is well-known as a Japanese traditional seasoning, namely shoyu. Usually, shoyu means sauce made from soy. Shoyu does have not only benefits but also adverse effects. Soy sauce allergy which is not caused by soy or wheat allergy is rare. Our four patients developed cellulites and dermatitis around lips with irritation after a meal with shoyu. The age of the patients was 10, 35, 46 and 51 years; they were all female. These inflammations can be developed by two causes; first it can be caused by allergic reactions to shoyu; the second, it can be caused by histamine poisoning. It is important to determine whether inflammation is caused by allergic reactions or histamine poisoning. We determined the volume of histamine in some sauces and performed prick test and laboratory tests. Four patients had positive reactions by prick test after using some sauces. We suspected that histamine caused their symptoms, but nine normal volunteers had negative reactions. Patient's specific IgE score to soy and wheat was class 0. The results showed that the sauce made from soybean and broad bean contained histamine, but histamine in other sauces was not detected. In this study, we confirmed by prick test, four cases of soy sauce allergy, which was caused by some products during brewing. When patients with inflammations around mouth, after a meal containing or using soy sauce, are examined, it should be considered whether dermatitis or cellulites were developed by allergic reaction or by histamine poisoning.

  20. Globalisation and allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelain, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Globalisation brings patients more and more into contact with products or food from other cultures or countries. Europeans may be confronted with allergens not yet known in Europe - such as dimethylfumarate - responsible for contact allergy epidemics. Moreover, "low cost" goods, not always legally imported into Europe, sometimes may lead to European legislation being circumvented and thus bring our patients into contact with components that have been banned from manufacturing processes or strongly regulated, such as nickel in jewelry or telephones, some colouring agents in clothes or preservatives in cosmetics. Disinfection measures for freight containers arriving from other continents into our harbours lead to fumigants and other toxic products contaminating the air and the transported products or goods. Globalisation can not only elicit contact allergy but also airborne contact dermatitis or food allergy. The aim of this paper is not to make an exhaustive review of cutaneous allergic problems elicited by globalisation, but to illustrate this new worldwide problem with a few meaningful examples.

  1. Apheresis in food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahdah, Lamia; Leone, Giovanna; Artesani, Mariacristina; Riccardi, Carla; Mazzina, Oscar

    2017-06-01

    The prevalence of IgE-mediated food allergy and anaphylaxis has risen rapidly in developed countries, and countries with rapid industrialization may follow. Therapies include elimination diets, Oral ImmunoTherapy, and the administration of biologics, but high serum IgE levels may preclude their use. Consequently, decreasing IgE becomes a rational approach and could be obtained by immunoapheresis. The aim of this review is to evaluate the rationale and advantages of immunoapheresis. The majority of the available adsorbers remove aspecifically all classes of immunoglobulins. Recently, IgE-specific adsorbers have been approved. Data on immunoapheresis for the treatment of allergic diseases with pathologically elevated IgE levels are emerging. In atopic dermatitis, this therapy alone seems to be beneficial. IgE-selective apheresis appears to be sufficient to reduce the risk of anaphylaxis in multiple food allergy (MFA) and, when IgE titers are high, to open the way to treatment with Omalizumab. Prospective studies, with well designed protocols, are needed to assess the efficacy, tolerability, and cost-effectiveness of immunoapheresis in the field of food allergy.

  2. Nannies' knowledge, attitude, and management of food allergies of children: an online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiwe, Justin C; Pazheri, Fouseena; Schroer, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Rates of food allergies in children as well as the rate of families who employ nannies have increased dramatically over the past decade. It is essential that nannies have the knowledge and tools necessary to recognize and treat food allergy reactions. To identify gaps in knowledge in the nanny population with regard to food allergy in children. A Web-based survey was sent by e-mail to 709 nannies. A total of 153 nannies (22%) completed the online survey: 26% of respondents had formal educational training at a nanny school; 99% recognized food allergy as a potentially fatal event; 37% reported caring for a child with food allergies. Of these, 71% had food allergy action plans, and 63% had epinephrine available. A total of 71% reported training on administering epinephrine. The nannies' major concerns included accidental ingestion and discomfort in administering epinephrine. A total of 36% were uncomfortable with recognizing a food allergy emergency, whereas 46% were uncomfortable administering epinephrine; 6% thought that a sensitized child could safely eat a small amount of allergenic food, whereas 14% believed that dilution with water might reduce an allergic reaction. A total of 66% desired additional information about recognizing food allergies, and 71% agreed that food allergy training should be required for all nannies. Nannies demonstrated gaps in knowledge with regard to food allergy in children, which reflects the need for more stringent training and education. Increased communication among parents, nannies, and physicians is needed to protect children with food allergy. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. European symposium on precision medicine in allergy and airways diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muraro, A; Fokkens, W J; Pietikainen, S

    2015-01-01

    David Borrelli and with active participation of the European Respiratory Society (ERS), the European Federations of Allergy and Airways Diseases Patients Associations (EFA), the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (Ga2len), Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) and the Respiratory....... This report summarizes the key messages delivered during the symposium by the speakers, including the EU Commissioner for Health and Food Safety Vitenys Andriukaitis. The Commissioner underscored the need for optimal patient care in Europe, supporting joint action plans for disease prevention, patient...... the epidemic of Allergy and Asthma in Europe. The socio-economic impact of allergies and chronic airways diseases cannot be underestimated, as they represent the most frequently diagnosed chronic non-communicable diseases in the EU. Despite the fact that 30% of the total European population is nowadays...

  4. Prevention of Allergies and Asthma in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology Menu Search Main navigation Skip to content Conditions & Treatments Allergies Asthma Primary Immunodeficiency Disease Related Conditions Drug Guide Conditions Dictionary Just ...

  5. Single and multiple food allergies in infants with proctocolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koksal, B T; Barıs, Z; Ozcay, F; Yilmaz Ozbek, O

    Food protein-induced allergic proctocolitis is a frequent cause of rectal bleeding in infants. Characteristics of infants with multiple food allergies have not been defined. This study aimed to identify characteristics of infants with proctocolitis and compare infants with single and multiple food allergies. A total of 132 infants with proctocolitis were evaluated retrospectively. All of the infants were diagnosed by a paediatric allergist and/or a paediatric gastroenterologist according to guidelines. Clinical features of the infants, as well as results of a complete blood count, skin prick test, specific immunoglobulin E, and stool examinations or colonoscopy were recorded. Cow's milk (97.7%) was the most common allergen, followed by egg (22%). Forty-five (34.1%) infants had allergies to more than one food. Infants with multiple food allergies had a higher eosinophil count (613±631.2 vs. 375±291.9) and a higher frequency of positive specific IgE and/or positive skin prick test results than that of patients with a single food allergy. Most of the patients whose symptoms persisted after two years of age had multiple food allergies. There is no difference in clinical presentations between infants with single and multiple food allergies. However, infants with multiple food allergies have a high blood total eosinophil count and are more likely to have a positive skin prick test and/or positive specific IgE results. Copyright © 2017 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Bearing Change to Metal-On-Polyethylene for Ceramic Bearing Fracture in Total Hip Arthroplasty; Does It Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soong Joon; Kwak, Hong Suk; Yoo, Jeong Joon; Kim, Hee Joong

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the short-term to midterm results of reoperation with bearing change to metal-on-polyethylene (MoP) after ceramic bearing fracture in ceramic-on-ceramic total hip arthroplasty. Nine third-generation ceramic bearing fractures (6 heads and 3 liners) were treated with bearing change to MoP. Mean age at reoperation was 52.7 years. Mean follow-up was 4.3 years. During follow-up, 2 of 3 liner-fractured hips and 1 of 6 head-fractured hips showed radiologic signs of metallosis and elevated serum chromium levels. Re-reoperation with bearing rechange to a ceramic head was performed for the hips with metallosis. One liner-fractured hip had periprosthetic joint infection. Dislocation occurred in 3 hips. From our experience, bearing change to MoP is not a recommended treatment option for ceramic bearing fracture in total hip arthroplasty. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Tribo-biological deposits on the articulating surfaces of metal-on-polyethylene total hip implants retrieved from patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhiwei; Tian, Yi-Xing; Yue, Wen; Yang, Lei; Li, Qunyang

    2016-06-01

    Artificial total hip arthroplasty (THA) is one of the most effective orthopaedic surgeries that has been used for decades. However, wear of the articulating surfaces is one of the key failure causes limiting the lifetime of total hip implant. In this paper, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were employed to explore the composition and formation mechanism of the tribo-layer on the articulating surfaces of metal-on-polyethylene (MoPE) implants retrieved from patients. Results showed that, in contrast to conventional understanding, the attached tribo-layer contained not only denatured proteins but also a fraction of polymer particles. The formation of the tribo-layer was believed to relate to lubrication regime, which was supposed to be largely affected by the nature of the ultra-high-molecule-weight-polyethylene (UHMWPE). Wear and formation of tribo-layer could be minimized in elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) regime when the UHMWPE was less stiff and have a morphology containing micro-pits; whereas the wear was more severe and tribo-layer formed in boundary lubrication. Our results and analyses suggest that enhancing interface lubrication may be more effective on reducing wear than increasing the hardness of material. This finding may shed light on the design strategy of artificial hip joints.

  8. Allergy to uncommon pets: new allergies but the same allergens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli eDiaz-Perales

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of exotic pet allergies has been increasing over the last decade. Years ago, the main allergy-causing domestic animals were dogs and cats, although nowadays there is an increasing number of allergic diseases related to insects, rodents, amphibians, fish, and birds, among others. The current socio-economic situation, in which more and more people have to live in small apartments, might be related to this tendency. The main allergic symptoms related to exotic pets are the same as those described for dog and cat allergy: respiratory symptoms. Animal allergens are therefore, important sensitizing agents and an important risk factor for asthma. There are 3 main protein families implicated in these allergies, which are the lipocalin superfamily, serum albumin family, and secretoglobin superfamily. Detailed knowledge of the characteristics of allergens is crucial to improvement treatment of uncommon-pet allergies.

  9. Quantifying metal artefact reduction using virtual monochromatic dual-layer detector spectral CT imaging in unilateral and bilateral total hip prostheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, R. H. H.; Boomsma, M. F.; van Osch, J. A. C.; Vlassenbroek, A.; Milles, J.; Edens, M. A.; Streekstra, G. J.; Slump, C. H.; Maas, M.

    2017-01-01

    To quantify the impact of prosthesis material and design on the reduction of metal artefacts in total hip arthroplasties using virtual monochromatic dual-layer detector Spectral CT imaging. The water-filled total hip arthroplasty phantom was scanned on a novel 128-slice Philips IQon dual-layer

  10. Size distribution and source identification of total suspended particulate matter and associated heavy metals in the urban atmosphere of Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Arun; Jain, V K

    2007-06-01

    A study of the atmospheric particulate size distribution of total suspended particulate matter (TSPM) and associated heavy metal concentrations has been carried out for the city of Delhi. Urban particles were collected using a five-stage impactor at six sites in three different seasons, viz. winter, summer and monsoon in the year 2001. Five samples from each site in each season were collected. Each sample (filter paper) was extracted with a mixture of nitric acid, hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid. The acid solutions of the samples were analysed in five-particle fractions by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The impactor stage fractionation of particles shows that a major portion of TSPM concentration is in the form of PM0.7 (i.e. metal mass viz. Mn, Cr, Cd, Pb, Ni, and Fe are also concentrated in the PM0.7 mode. The only exceptions are size distributions pertaining to Cu and Ca. Though, Cu is more in PM0.7 mode, its presence in size intervals 5.4-1.6microm and 1.6-0.7microm is also significant, whilst in case of Ca there is no definite pattern in its distribution with size of particles. The average PM10.9 (i.e. Source apportionment reveals that there are two sources of TSPM and PM10.9, while three and four sources were observed for PM1.6 (i.e. <1.6microm) and PM0.7, respectively. Results of regression analyses show definite correlations between PM10.9 and other fine size fractions, suggesting PM10.9 may adequately act as a surrogate for both PM1.6 and PM0.7, while PM1.6 may adequately act as a surrogate for PM0.7.

  11. Drug allergies documented in electronic health records of a large healthcare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L; Dhopeshwarkar, N; Blumenthal, K G; Goss, F; Topaz, M; Slight, S P; Bates, D W

    2016-09-01

    The prevalence of drug allergies documented in electronic health records (EHRs) of large patient populations is understudied. We aimed to describe the prevalence of common drug allergies and patient characteristics documented in EHRs of a large healthcare network over the last two decades. Drug allergy data were obtained from EHRs of patients who visited two large tertiary care hospitals in Boston from 1990 to 2013. The prevalence of each drug and drug class was calculated and compared by sex and race/ethnicity. The number of allergies per patient was calculated and the frequency of patients having 1, 2, 3…, or 10+ drug allergies was reported. We also conducted a trend analysis by comparing the proportion of each allergy to the total number of drug allergies over time. Among 1 766 328 patients, 35.5% of patients had at least one reported drug allergy with an average of 1.95 drug allergies per patient. The most commonly reported drug allergies in this population were to penicillins (12.8%), sulfonamide antibiotics (7.4%), opiates (6.8%), and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (3.5%). The relative proportion of allergies to angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and HMG CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) have more than doubled since early 2000s. Drug allergies were most prevalent among females and white patients except for NSAIDs, ACE inhibitors, and thiazide diuretics, which were more prevalent in black patients. Females and white patients may be more likely to experience a reaction from common medications. An increase in reported allergies to ACE inhibitors and statins is noteworthy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Food allergy: is prevalence increasing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mimi L K; Mullins, Raymond J

    2017-03-01

    It is generally accepted that the prevalence of food allergy has been increasing in recent decades, particularly in westernised countries, yet high-quality evidence that is based on challenge confirmed diagnosis of food allergy to support this assumption is lacking because of the high cost and potential risks associated with conducting food challenges in large populations. Accepting this caveat, the use of surrogate markers for diagnosis of food allergy (such as nationwide data on hospital admissions for food anaphylaxis or clinical history in combination with allergen-specific IgE (sIgE) measurement in population-based cohorts) has provided consistent evidence for increasing prevalence of food allergy at least in western countries, such as the UK, United States and Australia. Recent reports that children of East Asian or African ethnicity who are raised in a western environment (Australia and United States respectively) have an increased risk of developing food allergy compared with resident Caucasian children suggest that food allergy might also increase across Asian and African countries as their economies grow and populations adopt a more westernised lifestyle. Given that many cases of food allergy persist, mathematical principles would predict a continued increase in food allergy prevalence in the short to medium term until such time as an effective treatment is identified to allow the rate of disease resolution to be equal to or greater than the rate of new cases. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  13. Clinical Management of Food Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Benjamin L; Walkner, Madeline; Vickery, Brian P; Gupta, Ruchi S

    2015-12-01

    Food allergies have become a growing public health concern. At present the standard of care focuses on avoidance of trigger foods, education, and treatment of symptoms following accidental ingestions. This article provides a framework for primary care physicians and allergists for the diagnosis, management, and treatment of pediatric food allergy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Managing latex allergies at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Associate Clinical Professor of Medicine, Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Rheumatology, Georgetown University Medical School, Washington, DC. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Latex Allergy Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A. ...

  15. Managing Food Allergies in School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Furlong, Anne

    1997-01-01

    The number of students with food allergies is increasing, with peanuts the leading culprit. Peer pressure and allergens hidden in baked goods can pose problems for school staff. Children with documented life-threatening allergies are covered by the Americans with Disabilities Act. Principals should reassure parents and use Section 504 guidelines…

  16. Fish allergy in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Cristina Y; Reche, Marta; Fiandor, Ana; Valbuena, Teresa; Cuevas, Teresa; Esteban, Manuel Martin

    2008-11-01

    Fish and its derived products play an important role in human nutrition, but they may also be a potent food allergen. Fish can be an ingested, contact, and inhalant allergen. Gad c I, a Parvalbumin, the major allergen in codfish, is considered as fish and amphibian pan-allergen. Prevalence of fish allergy appears to depend on the amount of fish eaten in the local diet. In Europe, the highest consumption occurs in Scandinavian countries, Spain and Portugal. In Spain, fish is the third most frequent allergen in children under 2 yr of age after egg and cow's milk. An adverse reaction to fish may be of non-allergic origin, due to food contamination or newly formed toxic products, but the most frequent type of adverse reactions to fish are immunologic-mediated reactions (allergic reactions). Such allergic reactions may be both IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated. Most cases are IgE-mediated, due to ingestion or contact with fish or as a result of inhalation of cooking vapors. Some children develop non-IgE-mediated type allergies such as food protein induced enterocolitis syndrome. The clinical symptoms related to IgE-mediated fish allergy are most frequently acute urticaria and angioedema as well as mild oral symptoms, worsening of atopic dermatitis, respiratory symptoms such as rhinitis or asthma, and gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea and vomiting. Anaphylaxis may also occur. Among all the species studied, those from the Tunidae and Xiphiidae families appear to be the least allergenic.

  17. Antenatal risk factors for peanut allergy in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binkley Karen E

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prenatal factors may contribute to the development of peanut allergy. We evaluated the risk of childhood peanut allergy in association with pregnancy exposure to Rh immune globulin, folic acid and ingestion of peanut-containing foods. Methods We conducted a web-based case-control survey using the Anaphylaxis Canada Registry, a pre-existing database of persons with a history of anaphylaxis. A total of 1300 case children with reported peanut allergy were compared to 113 control children with shellfish allergy. All were evaluated for maternal exposure in pregnancy to Rh immune globulin and folic acid tablet supplements, as well as maternal avoidance of dietary peanut intake in pregnancy. Results Receipt of Rh immune globulin in pregnancy was not associated with a higher risk of peanut allergy (odds ratio [OR] 0.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.51 to 1.45, nor was initiation of folic acid tablet supplements before or after conception (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.19 to 1.48. Complete avoidance of peanut-containing products in pregnancy was associated with a non-significantly lower risk of peanut allergy (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.27 to 1.03. Conclusion The risk of childhood peanut allergy was not modified by the following common maternal exposures in pregnancy: Rh immune globulin, folic acid or peanut-containing foods. Clinical implications Rh immune globulin, folic acid supplement use and peanut avoidance in pregnancy have yet to be proven to modulate the risk of childhood anaphylaxis to peanuts. Capsule Summary Identification of prenatal factors that contribute to peanut allergy might allow for prevention of this life-threatening condition. This article explores the role of three such factors.

  18. The contact mechanics and occurrence of edge loading in modular metal-on-polyethylene total hip replacement during daily activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Xijin; Li, Junyan; Jin, Zhongmin; Fisher, John

    2016-06-01

    The occurrence of edge loading in hip joint replacement has been associated with many factors such as prosthetic design, component malposition and activities of daily living. The present study aimed to quantify the occurrence of edge loading/contact at the articulating surface and to evaluate the effect of cup angles and edge loading on the contact mechanics of a modular metal-on-polyethylene (MoP) total hip replacement (THR) during different daily activities. A three-dimensional finite element model was developed based on a modular MoP bearing system. Different cup inclination and anteversion angles were modelled and six daily activities were considered. The results showed that edge loading was predicted during normal walking, ascending and descending stairs activities under steep cup inclination conditions (≥55°) while no edge loading was observed during standing up, sitting down and knee bending activities. The duration of edge loading increased with increased cup inclination angles and was affected by the cup anteversion angles. Edge loading caused elevated contact pressure at the articulating surface and substantially increased equivalent plastic strain of the polyethylene liner. The present study suggested that correct positioning the component to avoid edge loading that may occur during daily activities is important for MoP THR in clinical practice. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Prevalence of Contact Allergy to p-Phenylenediamine in the European General Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepgen, Thomas L.; Naldi, Luigi; Bruze, Magnus; Cazzaniga, Simone; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise; Elsner, Peter; Goncalo, Margarida; Ofenloch, Robert; Svensson, Ake

    Population-based studies on contact allergy to p-phenylenediamine (PPD) are scarce. A cross-sectional study was performed to assess the prevalence of contact allergy to PPD and its risk factors in the general population of 5 European countries. A total of 10,425 subjects were interviewed, and a

  20. Allergies and Learning/Behavioral Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoughlin, James A.; Nall, Michael

    1994-01-01

    This article describes various types of allergies, how they are diagnosed medically, and the different forms of medical treatment. It also considers how allergies may affect school learning and behavior, the connection between allergies and learning and behavioral disorders, the impact of allergy medications upon classroom performance, and various…

  1. Environmental pollution and allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Hirohisa; Inoue, Ken-Ichiro

    2017-07-01

    Environmental changes are thought to be the main factor in the rapid increase and worsening of allergic diseases. While there have been significant changes in many environmental factors, including in environments such as residential, health and sanitation, food, and water/soil/atmospheric environments, the root of each of these changes is likely an increase in chemical substances. In fact, various environmental pollutants, such as air pollutants and chemical substances, have been shown to worsen various allergies in experimental studies. For example, diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), which are an agglomeration of particles and a wide array of chemical substances, aggravate asthma, primarily due to the principle organic chemical components of DEPs. In addition, environmental chemicals such as phthalate esters, which are commonly used as plasticizers in plastic products, also aggravate atopic dermatitis. It has also become evident that extremely small nanomaterials and Asian sand dust particles can enhance allergic inflammation. While the underlying mechanisms that cause such aggravation are becoming clearer at the cellular and molecular levels, methods to easily and quickly evaluate (screen) the ever-increasing amount of environmental pollutants for exacerbating effects on allergies are also under development. To eliminate and control allergic diseases, medical measures are necessary, but it is also essential to tackle this issue by ameliorating environmental changes.

  2. Food allergy: epidemiology and natural history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Jessica; Johns, Christina B

    2015-02-01

    The prevalence of food allergy is rising for unclear reasons, with prevalence estimates in the developed world approaching 10%. Knowledge regarding the natural course of food allergies is important because it can aid the clinician in diagnosing food allergies and in determining when to consider evaluation for food allergy resolution. Many food allergies with onset in early childhood are outgrown later in childhood, although a minority of food allergy persists into adolescence and even adulthood. More research is needed to improve food allergy diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Primary Prevention of Food Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhawt, Matthew J; Fleischer, David M

    2017-04-01

    Food allergy is estimated to affect approximately 8% of children in the USA. This is a disease without any known treatment or cure and, for some, a disease that can be quite severe, even life-threatening. While recent advances in potential treatment have made remarkable strides, with two food-targeted immunotherapy products now in phase III trials, perhaps the biggest gains in the field have come in the advent of potential preventative strategies to avoid the development of food allergy in high-risk individuals. There have been multiple, randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) performed in the past 5 years that have demonstrated significant risk reduction from early allergen introduction. These include two trials for early peanut introduction and five trials for early egg introduction in the first year of life. The results indicate that primary prevention of food allergy through early allergen introduction may represent a strategy that could potentially avert tens of thousands of children from becoming food allergic. In support of the data for peanut, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases recently sponsored an addendum to the 2010 food allergy guidelines, specifically recommending peanut be introduced in both high- and standard-risk infants to reduce the risk of developing peanut allergy. To date, no formal recommendations have been made for egg, however. This review will focus on the latest evidence supporting early introduction as a strategy to prevent food allergy, as well as on practical aspects for its successful implementation.

  4. Severe forms of food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarinho, Emanuel; Lins, Maria das Graças Moura

    To guide the diagnostic and therapeutic management of severe forms of food allergy. Search in the Medline database using the terms "severe food allergy," "anaphylaxis and food allergy," "generalized urticaria and food allergy," and "food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome" in the last ten years, searching in the title, abstract, or keyword fields. Food allergy can be serious and life-threatening. Milk, eggs, peanuts, nuts, walnuts, wheat, sesame seeds, shrimp, fish, and fruit can precipitate allergic emergencies. The severity of reactions will depend on associated cofactors such as age, drug use at the onset of the reaction, history and persistence of asthma and/or severe allergic rhinitis, history of previous anaphylaxis, exercise, and associated diseases. For generalized urticaria and anaphylaxis, intramuscular epinephrine is the first and fundamental treatment line. For the treatment in acute phase of food-induced enterocolitis syndrome in the emergency setting, prompt hydroelectrolytic replacement, administration of methylprednisolone and ondansetron IV are necessary. It is important to recommend to the patient with food allergy to maintain the exclusion diet, seek specialized follow-up and, in those who have anaphylaxis, to emphasize the need to carry epinephrine. Severe food allergy may occur in the form of anaphylaxis and food-protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome, which are increasingly observed in the pediatric emergency room; hence, pediatricians must be alert so they can provide the immediate diagnosis and treatment. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Allergy associations with the adult fecal microbiota: Analysis of the American Gut Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Xing; Goedert, James J; Pu, Angela; Yu, Guoqin; Shi, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    Alteration of the gut microbial population (dysbiosis) may increase the risk for allergies and other conditions. This study sought to clarify the relationship of dysbiosis with allergies in adults. Publicly available American Gut Project questionnaire and fecal 16S rRNA sequence data were analyzed. Fecal microbiota richness (number of observed species) and composition (UniFrac) were used to compare adults with versus without allergy to foods (peanuts, tree nuts, shellfish, other) and non-foods (drug, bee sting, dander, asthma, seasonal, eczema). Logistic and Poisson regression models adjusted for potential confounders. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for lowest vs highest richness tertile. Taxonomy associations considered 122 non-redundant taxa (of 2379 total taxa) with ≥ 0.1% mean abundance. Self-reported allergy prevalence among the 1879 participants (mean age, 45.5 years; 46.9% male) was 81.5%, ranging from 2.5% for peanuts to 40.5% for seasonal. Fecal microbiota richness was markedly lower with total allergies (P = 10(-9)) and five particular allergies (P ≤ 10(-4)). Richness odds ratios were 1.7 (CI 1.3-2.2) with seasonal, 1.8 (CI 1.3-2.5) with drug, and 7.8 (CI 2.3-26.5) with peanut allergy. These allergic participants also had markedly altered microbial community composition (unweighted UniFrac, P = 10(-4) to 10(-7)). Total food and non-food allergies were significantly associated with 7 and 9 altered taxa, respectively. The dysbiosis was most marked with nut and seasonal allergies, driven by higher Bacteroidales and reduced Clostridiales taxa. American adults with allergies, especially to nuts and seasonal pollen, have low diversity, reduced Clostridiales, and increased Bacteroidales in their gut microbiota. This dysbiosis might be targeted to improve treatment or prevention of allergy.

  6. Total and cytosolic concentrations of twenty metals/metalloids in the liver of brown trout Salmo trutta (Linnaeus, 1758) from the karstic Croatian river Krka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragun, Zrinka; Filipović Marijić, Vlatka; Krasnići, Nesrete; Ivanković, Dušica; Valić, Damir; Žunić, Jakov; Kapetanović, Damir; Smrzlić, Irena Vardić; Redžović, Zuzana; Grgić, Ivana; Erk, Marijana

    2018-01-01

    Total and cytosolic concentrations of twenty metals/metalloids in the liver of brown trout Salmo trutta (Linnaeus, 1758) were studied in the period from April 2015 to May 2016 at two sampling sites on Croatian river Krka, to establish if river water contamination with metals/metalloids downstream of Knin town has influenced metal bioaccumulation in S. trutta liver. Differences were observed between two sites, with higher concentrations of several elements (Ag, As, Ca, Co, Na, Se, Sr, V) found downstream of Knin town, whereas few others (Cd, Cs, Mo, Tl) were, unexpectedly, increased at the Krka River spring. However, total metal/metalloid concentrations in the liver of S. trutta from both sites of the Krka River were still mainly below previously reported levels for pristine freshwaters worldwide. The analysis of seasonal changes of metal/metalloid concentrations in S. trutta liver and their association with fish sex and size mostly indicated their independence of fish physiology, making them good indicators of water contamination and exposure level. Metal/metalloid concentrations in the metabolically available hepatic cytosolic fractions reported in this study are the first data of that kind for S. trutta liver, and the majority of analyzed elements were present in the cytosol in the quantity higher than 50% of their total concentrations, thus indicating their possible availability for toxic effects. However, the special attention should be directed to As, Cd, Cs, and Tl, which under the conditions of increased exposure tended to accumulate more within the cytosol. Although metal/metalloid concentrations in S. trutta liver were still rather low, monitoring of the Krka River water quality and of the health status of its biota is essential due to a trend of higher metal/metalloid bioaccumulation downstream of Knin town, especially taking into consideration the proximity of National Park Krka and the need for its conservation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All

  7. International Consensus on drug allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoly, P; Adkinson, N F; Brockow, K; Castells, M; Chiriac, A M; Greenberger, P A; Khan, D A; Lang, D M; Park, H-S; Pichler, W; Sanchez-Borges, M; Shiohara, T; Thong, B Y- H

    2014-04-01

    When drug reactions resembling allergy occur, they are called drug hypersensitivity reactions (DHRs) before showing the evidence of either drug-specific antibodies or T cells. DHRs may be allergic or nonallergic in nature, with drug allergies being immunologically mediated DHRs. These reactions are typically unpredictable. They can be life-threatening, may require or prolong hospitalization, and may necessitate changes in subsequent therapy. Both underdiagnosis (due to under-reporting) and overdiagnosis (due to an overuse of the term ‘allergy’) are common. A definitive diagnosis of such reactions is required in order to institute adequate treatment options and proper preventive measures. Misclassification based solely on the DHR history without further testing may affect treatment options, result in adverse consequences, and lead to the use of more-expensive or less-effective drugs, in contrast to patients who had undergone a complete drug allergy workup. Several guidelines and/or consensus documents on general or specific drug class-induced DHRs are available to support the medical decision process. The use of standardized systematic approaches for the diagnosis and management of DHRs carries the potential to improve outcomes and should thus be disseminated and implemented. Consequently, the International Collaboration in Asthma, Allergy and Immunology (iCAALL), formed by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI), the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (AAAAI), the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (ACAAI), and the World Allergy Organization (WAO), has decided to issue an International CONsensus (ICON) on drug allergy. The purpose of this document is to highlight the key messages that are common to many of the existing guidelines, while critically reviewing and commenting on any differences and deficiencies of evidence, thus providing a comprehensive reference document for the diagnosis and management of

  8. No cases of perioperative allergy to local anaesthetics in the Danish Anaesthesia Allergy Centre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvisselgaard, A D; Krøigaard, M; Mosbech, H F

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Local anaesthetics (LA) are often suspected as possible causes of allergic reactions. The Danish Anaesthesia Allergy Centre (DAAC) is the national reference centre for investigation of perioperative allergic reactions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of Ig......E-mediated immediate type perioperative allergic reactions to LA. METHODS: In the period 2004-2013, a total of 409 patients (244 women/165 men; median age 49 years, range 1-86 years) were investigated in DAAC on suspicion of allergy associated with anaesthesia and surgery. A total of 162 (40%) patients were exposed...... were carried out on 162 patients (89 women/73 men; mean age 49 years, range 2-85 years) with the following drugs: Lidocaine n = 80 (49%), bupivacaine n = 82 (51%), ropivacaine n = 31 (19%) and mepivacaine n = 10 (6%). All 162 patients had negative subcutaneous provocation for all tested LA (95% CI: 0...

  9. Inhibitory function of NKT cells during early induction phase of nickel allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, Hironori; Satoh, Masashi; Takeuchi, Emiko; Eshima, Koji; Terashima, Masazumi; Komotori, Jun; Habu, Sonoko; Tamauchi, Hidekazu; Iwabuchi, Kazuya

    2016-07-01

    Until now, metal allergies have been regarded as a Th1-type immune response. However, because the contribution of a Th2-type immune response has been suggested by clinical findings, we previously examined the Th2-type immune response during the development of metal allergies using a GATA-3 transgenic (GATA-3 Tg) mouse model. As a result, a Th2-type immunization reaction was suggested to be involved in the early phase of metal allergies. Recently, the involvement of NKT cells in metal allergies has been suggested. We examined this possibility using the activation of NKT cells and an NKT cell-deficient mouse model to determine the contribution of NKT cells to nickel allergy in the present study. In NKT cell-deficient mice, ear swelling was remarkably increased, compared with that in control mice. Also, in mice that had been treated with α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) to activate NKT cells, the ear swelling response was remarkably inhibited, compared with that in untreated mice. These facts show that NKT cells are involved in the inhibition of nickel allergy-induced ear swelling responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Parent-Reported Penicillin Allergy Symptoms in the Pediatric Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyles, David; Chiu, Asriani; Simpson, Pippa; Nimmer, Mark; Adams, Juan; Brousseau, David C

    2017-04-01

    Children often present to the pediatric emergency department (ED) with a reported penicillin allergy. The true incidence of pediatric penicillin allergy is low, and patients may be inappropriately denied first-line antibiotics. We hypothesized that more than 70% of reported penicillin allergies in the pediatric ED are low risk for true allergy. Parents of children presenting to the pediatric ED with parent-reported penicillin allergy completed an allergy questionnaire. The questionnaire included age at allergy diagnosis, symptoms of allergy, and time to allergic reaction from first dose. The allergy symptoms were dichotomized into high and low risk in consultation with a pediatric allergist before questionnaire implementation. A total of 605 parents were approached; 500 (82.6%) completed the survey. The median (interquartile range) age of the children at diagnosis was 1 year (7 months, 2 years); 75% were diagnosed before their third birthday. Overall, 380 (76%) (95% confidence interval 72.3, 79.7) children had exclusively low-risk symptoms. The most commonly reported symptoms were rash (466, 92.8%) and itching (203, 40.6%). Of the 120 children with one or more high-risk symptom, facial swelling (50, 10%) was the most common. Overall, 354 children (71%) were diagnosed after their first exposure to penicillin. Symptom onset within 24 hours of medication administration occurred in 274 children (54.8%). Seventy-six percent of patients with parent-reported penicillin allergy have symptoms unlikely to be consistent with true allergy. Determination of true penicillin allergy in patients with low-risk symptoms may permit the increased use of first-line penicillin antibiotics. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Sunflower seed allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukleja-Sokołowska, Natalia; Gawrońska-Ukleja, Ewa; Żbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew; Sokołowski, Łukasz

    2016-01-01

    Sunflower seeds are a rare source of allergy, but several cases of occupational allergies to sunflowers have been described. Sunflower allergens on the whole, however, still await precise and systematic description. We present an interesting case of a 40-year-old male patient, admitted to hospital due to shortness of breath and urticaria, both of which appeared shortly after the patient ingested sunflower seeds. Our laryngological examination revealed swelling of the pharynx with retention of saliva and swelling of the mouth and tongue. During diagnostics, 2 months later, we found that skin prick tests were positive to mugwort pollen (12/9 mm), oranges (6/6 mm), egg protein (3/3 mm), and hazelnuts (3/3 mm). A native prick by prick test with sunflower seeds was strongly positive (8/5 mm). Elevated concentrations of specific IgE against weed mix (inc. lenscale, mugwort, ragweed) allergens (1.04 IU/mL), Artemisia vulgaris (1.36 IU/mL), and Artemisia absinthium (0.49 IU/mL) were found. An ImmunoCap ISAC test found an average level of specific IgE against mugwort pollen allergen component Art v 1 - 5,7 ISU-E, indicating an allergy to mugwort pollen and low to medium levels of specific IgE against lipid transfer proteins (LTP) found in walnuts, peanuts, mugwort pollen, and hazelnuts. Through the ISAC inhibition test we proved that sunflower seed allergen extracts contain proteins cross-reactive with patients’ IgE specific to Art v 1, Art v 3, and Jug r 3. Based on our results and the clinical pattern of the disease we confirmed that the patient is allergic to mugwort pollen and that he had an anaphylactic reaction as a result of ingesting sunflower seeds. We suspected that hypersensitivity to sunflower LTP and defensin-like proteins, both cross-reactive with mugwort pollen allergens, were the main cause of the patient’s anaphylactic reaction. PMID:27222528

  12. Invited Article: An active terahertz polarization converter employing vanadium dioxide and a metal wire grating in total internal reflection geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xudong; Chen, Xuequan; Parrott, Edward P. J.; Han, Chunrui; Humbert, Georges; Crunteanu, Aurelian; Pickwell-MacPherson, Emma

    2018-05-01

    Active broadband terahertz (THz) polarization manipulation devices are challenging to realize, but also of great demand in broadband terahertz systems. Vanadium dioxide (VO2) shows a promising phase transition for active control of THz waves and provides broadband polarization characteristics when integrated within grating-type structures. We creatively combine a VO2-based grating structure with a total internal reflection (TIR) geometry providing a novel interaction mechanism between the electromagnetic waves and the device, to realize a powerful active broadband THz polarization-controlling device. The device is based on a Si-substrate coated with a VO2 layer and a metal grating structure on top, attached to a prism for generating the TIR condition on the Si-VO2-grating interface. The grating is connected to electrodes for electrically switching the VO2 between its insulating and conducting phases. By properly selecting the incident angle of the THz waves, the grating direction, and the incident polarization state, we first achieved a broadband intensity modulator under a fused silica prism with an average modulation depth of 99.75% in the 0.2-1.1 THz region. Additionally, we realized an active ultra-broadband quarter-wave converter under a Si prism that can be switched between a 45° linear rotator and a quarter wave converter in the 0.8-1.5 THz region. This is the first demonstration of an active quarter-wave converter with ultra-broad bandwidth performance. Our work shows a highly flexible and multifunctional polarization-controlling device for broadband THz applications.

  13. Global issues in allergy and immunology: Parasitic infections and allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Alvaro A; Cooper, Philip J; Figueiredo, Camila A; Alcantara-Neves, Neuza M; Rodrigues, Laura C; Barreto, Mauricio L

    2017-11-01

    Allergic diseases are on the increase globally in parallel with a decrease in parasitic infection. The inverse association between parasitic infections and allergy at an ecological level suggests a causal association. Studies in human subjects have generated a large knowledge base on the complexity of the interrelationship between parasitic infection and allergy. There is evidence for causal links, but the data from animal models are the most compelling: despite the strong type 2 immune responses they induce, helminth infections can suppress allergy through regulatory pathways. Conversely, many helminths can cause allergic-type inflammation, including symptoms of "classical" allergic disease. From an evolutionary perspective, subjects with an effective immune response against helminths can be more susceptible to allergy. This narrative review aims to inform readers of the most relevant up-to-date evidence on the relationship between parasites and allergy. Experiments in animal models have demonstrated the potential benefits of helminth infection or administration of helminth-derived molecules on chronic inflammatory diseases, but thus far, clinical trials in human subjects have not demonstrated unequivocal clinical benefits. Nevertheless, there is sufficiently strong evidence to support continued investigation of the potential benefits of helminth-derived therapies for the prevention or treatment of allergic and other inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Update on equine allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadok, Valerie A

    2013-12-01

    Horses develop many skin and respiratory disorders that have been attributed to allergy. These disorders include pruritic skin diseases, recurrent urticaria, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and reactive airway disease. Allergen-specific IgE has been detected in these horses, and allergen-specific immunotherapy is used to ameliorate clinical signs. The best understood atopic disease in horses is insect hypersensitivity, but the goal of effective treatment with allergen-specific immunotherapy remains elusive. In this review, updates in pathogenesis of allergic states and a brief mention of the new data on what is known in humans and dogs and how that relates to equine allergic disorders are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cow's Milk Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Arne; Halken, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1930's the scientific literature on cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) has accumulated. Over the last decade new diagnostic tools and treatment approaches have been developed. The diagnosis of reproducible adverse reactions to cow's milk proteins (CMP), i.e. CMPA, still has to be confirmed...... by controlled elimination and challenge procedures. Advanced diagnostic testing using epitope and microarray technology may in the future improve the diagnostic accuracy of CMPA by determination of specific IgE against specific allergen components of cow's milk protein. The incidence of CMPA in early childhood...... is approximately 2-3% in developed countries. Symptoms suggestive of CMPA may be encountered in 5-15% of infants emphasizing the importance of controlled elimination/milk challenge procedures. Reproducible clinical reactions to CMP in human milk have been reported in 0.5% of breastfed infants. Most infants...

  16. Chemical allergy in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimber, Ian; Basketter, David A; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2014-01-01

    Abstract There is considerable interest in the immunobiological processes through which the development of allergic sensitization to chemicals is initiated and orchestrated. One of the most intriguing issues is the basis for the elicitation by chemical sensitizers of different forms of allergic...... reaction; that is, allergic contact dermatitis or sensitization of the respiratory tract associated with occupational asthma. Studies in rodents have revealed that differential forms of allergic sensitization to chemicals are, in large part at least, a function of the selective development of discrete...... functional sub-populations of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-lymphocytes. Evidence for a similar association of chemical allergy in humans with discrete T-lymphocyte populations is, however, limited. It is of some interest, therefore, that two recent articles from different teams of investigators have shed new light...

  17. [Allergy to cow's milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourrier, E

    1997-04-01

    After recalling the medical reluctance as well as the risks that there are in complete elimination of milk in infants, the author presents several clinical pictures and then a classification of the immunological types: Allergic shock of neonates, digestive and extra-digestive (skin and respiratory airways) symptoms finally the rare chronic gastro-enteritis to cow milk. Non-reaginic food allergies: Acute gastro-enteropathy to cow milk, with villous atrophy and Heiner's syndrome, delayed hypersensitivities are studied, of difficult diagnosis that may cover almost all pathologies. They may be found in the digestive system, respiratory, the kidneys and even in the organs of behaviour. Migraine of food origin must be remembered. Development in regressive rules is a function of the type of allergy and the suddenness of the symptoms. Diagnosis is above all by questioning and confirmation or not by skin and in vitro tests. Certainty can only be shown by tests of elimination and re-introduction. The diet, at the same time of both diagnostic and therapeutic value, is based on the replacement of cow milk by foods that contain the same amount of proteins. It is essential, especially in the very small, to have perfect match of food so as to avoid any risk of a dramatic hypoprotinemia, which may happen if the child does not like the suggested diet, or if the parents cannot buy the substitution products. In such conditions great care must be taken to avoid provoking a crisis. Care must be taken to decide: If the elimination of cow milk is always justified each time. If it is, always check that the substituted protein is properly made, the family may change the diet mistakenly.

  18. Cow's milk allergy in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cow's milk allergy is more common in children than in adults. CaSSim ... adverse reactions to cow's milk protein such as lactose intolerance. .... possible hormonal effects on the reproductive ... formula in humans – such studies are much.

  19. Food Allergy Treatment for Hyperkinesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Doris J.

    1979-01-01

    Eleven hyperactive children (6 to 15 years old) were treated with a food extract after titration food allergy testing. They remained improved for 1 to 3 months while ingesting the foods to which they were sensitive. (Author)

  20. House Dust Mite Respiratory Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderón, Moisés A; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Linneberg, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Although house dust mite (HDM) allergy is a major cause of respiratory allergic disease, specific diagnosis and effective treatment both present unresolved challenges. Guidelines for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma are well supported in the literature, but specific evidence on the e......Although house dust mite (HDM) allergy is a major cause of respiratory allergic disease, specific diagnosis and effective treatment both present unresolved challenges. Guidelines for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma are well supported in the literature, but specific evidence...... not extend beyond the end of treatment. Finally, allergen immunotherapy has a poor but improving evidence base (notably on sublingual tablets) and its benefits last after treatment ends. This review identifies needs for deeper physician knowledge on the extent and impact of HDM allergy in respiratory disease...... and therapy of HDM respiratory allergy in practice....

  1. Latex allergies - for hospital patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000499.htm Latex allergies - for hospital patients To use the sharing features on this page, ... ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

  2. Allergy Medications: Know Your Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as peanuts, or if you're allergic to bee or wasp venom. A second injection is often ... eligible candidate to mite immunotherapy in the real world. Allergy, Asthma & Clinical Immunology. 2017;13:11. Overview ...

  3. Insect (food) allergy and allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gier, Steffie; Verhoeckx, Kitty

    2018-05-03

    Insects represent an alternative for meat and fish in satisfying the increasing demand for sustainable sources of nutrition. Approximately two billion people globally consume insects. They are particularly popular in Asia, Latin America, and Africa. Most research on insect allergy has focussed on occupational or inhalation allergy. Research on insect food safety, including allergenicity, is therefore of great importance. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of cases reporting allergy following insect ingestion, studies on food allergy to insects, proteins involved in insect allergy including cross-reactive proteins, and the possibility to alter the allergenic potential of insects by food processing and digestion. Food allergy to insects has been described for silkworm, mealworm, caterpillars, Bruchus lentis, sago worm, locust, grasshopper, cicada, bee, Clanis bilineata, and the food additive carmine, which is derived from female Dactylopius coccus insects. For cockroaches, which are also edible insects, only studies on inhalation allergy have been described. Various insect allergens have been identified including tropomyosin and arginine kinase, which are both pan-allergens known for their cross-reactivity with homologous proteins in crustaceans and house dust mite. Cross-reactivity and/or co-sensitization of insect tropomyosin and arginine kinase has been demonstrated in house dust mite and seafood (e.g. prawn, shrimp) allergic patients. In addition, many other (allergenic) species (various non-edible insects, arachnids, mites, seafoods, mammals, nematoda, trematoda, plants, and fungi) have been identified with sequence alignment analysis to show potential cross-reactivity with allergens of edible insects. It was also shown that thermal processing and digestion did not eliminate insect protein allergenicity. Although purified natural allergens are scarce and yields are low, recombinant allergens from cockroach, silkworm, and Indian mealmoth are

  4. Advances in mechanisms of allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochner, Bruce S; Busse, William W

    2004-05-01

    This review summarizes selected Mechanisms of Allergy articles appearing between 2002 and 2003 in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. Articles chosen include those dealing with human airways disease pathophysiology, pharmacology, cell biology, cell recruitment, and genetics, as well as information from allergen challenge models in both human and nonhuman systems. When appropriate, articles from other journals have been included to supplement the topics being presented.

  5. Advances in food allergy in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Robert A

    2016-12-01

    This review highlights research advances in food allergy that were published in the Journal in 2015. The world of food allergy research continues to rapidly accelerate, with increasing numbers of outstanding submissions to the Journal. In 2015, important studies on the epidemiology of food allergy were published, suggesting differential rates of food allergy in specific racial and ethnic groups. Even more importantly, studies were published identifying specific risk factors for the development of peanut allergy, as well as specific prevention strategies. We also saw new studies on the diagnosis of food allergy and potential approaches to the treatment of food allergy, as well as novel mechanistic studies helping to explain the immunologic correlates of food allergy and food desensitization. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Sesame seed allergy: Clinical manifestations and laboratory investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazlollahi MR.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Plant-origin foods are among the most important sources of food allergic reactions. An increase in the incidence of sesame seed allergy among children and adults has been reported in recent years. The aim of this preliminary study was to investigate the prevalence, importance and clinical manifestations of sesame allergy among Iranian patients.Methods: In a cross-sectional survey, 250 patients with suspected IgE-mediated food allergies completed a questionnaire and underwent skin prick tests with sesame extract as well as cross-reacting foods (walnut, soya and peanut. Total IgE and sesame-specific IgE levels were measured. Patients with positive skin test reactions and/or IgE specific for sesame without clinical symptoms were considered sensitive to sesame. The patients who also had clinical symptoms with sesame consumption were diagnosed as allergic to sesame.Results: Of the 250 patients enrolled in this study, 129 were male and 121 female, with a mean age of 11.7 years. The most common food allergens were cow's milk, egg, curry, tomato and sesame. Sesame sensitivity was found in 35 patients (14.1%. Only five patients (2% had sesame allergy. Sesame-sensitive patients had a significantly higher frequency of positive prick test to cross-reacting foods when compared to non-sensitized patients (p=0.00. The type of symptom was independent of gender and age of the patients, but urticaria and dermatitis-eczema were significantly more frequent in sensitized patients (p=0.008.Conclusions: This is the first study addressing the prevalence of sesame seed allergy in Iranian population. We found sesame to be a common and important cause of food allergy. The panel of foods recommended for use in diagnostic allergy tests should be adjusted.

  7. The prevalence of food allergy: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rona, Roberto J; Keil, Thomas; Summers, Colin; Gislason, David; Zuidmeer, Laurian; Sodergren, Eva; Sigurdardottir, Sigurveig T; Lindner, Titia; Goldhahn, Klaus; Dahlstrom, Jorgen; McBride, Doreen; Madsen, Charlotte

    2007-09-01

    There is uncertainty about the prevalence of food allergy in communities. To assess the prevalence of food allergy by performing a meta-analysis according to the method of assessment used. The foods assessed were cow's milk, hen's egg, peanut, fish, shellfish, and an overall estimate of food allergy. We summarized the information in 5 categories: self-reported symptoms, specific IgE positive, specific skin prick test positive, symptoms combined with sensitization, and food challenge studies. We systematically searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for publications since 1990. The meta-analysis included only original studies. They were stratified by age groups: infant/preschool, school children, and adults. A total of 934 articles were identified, but only 51 were considered appropriate for inclusion. The prevalence of self-reported food allergy was very high compared with objective measures. There was marked heterogeneity between studies regardless of type of assessment or food item considered, and in most analyses this persisted after age stratification. Self-reported prevalence of food allergy varied from 1.2% to 17% for milk, 0.2% to 7% for egg, 0% to 2% for peanuts and fish, 0% to 10% for shellfish, and 3% to 35% for any food. There is a marked heterogeneity in the prevalence of food allergy that could be a result of differences in study design or methodology, or differences between populations. We recommend that measurements be made by using standardized methods, if possible food challenge. We need to be cautious in estimates of prevalence based only on self-reported food allergy.

  8. [Allergy to cosmetics. I. Fragrances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieć-Swierczyńska, Marta; Krecisz, Beata; Swierczyńska-Machura, Dominika

    2004-01-01

    The authors report current information on allergy to aromatic agents present in cosmetics and products of household chemistry. In the perfume industry, about 3000 aromas are used. Single products may contain from 10 to 300 compounds. The problem of difficulties encountered in the diagnosis of hypersensitivity to odors is addressed. The mixture of 8 such products used in diagnostic screening is able to detect allergy only in about 30% of patients who do not tolerate cosmetics. Changing frequency of allergy to individual aromas is discussed. It has been now observed that cinnamon products are less allergic than chemical compounds present in oak moss. Since the 1990s of the last century, allergy to a synthetic aromatic agent, Lyral is the subject of interest in many research centers involved in studies of contact allergy. Half the cosmetics present in European markets, especially deodorants, after shave cosmetics, hand and body lotions contain this agent. It induces positive reactions in about 10% of patients allergic to aromatic agents. Detection of allergy to Lyral is difficult as it is not included in the set of commercial allergens used to diagnose hypersensitivity to aromatic agents.

  9. Geographical differences in food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartra, Joan; García-Moral, Alba; Enrique, Ernesto

    2016-06-01

    Food allergy represents a health problem worldwide and leads to life-threatening reactions and even impairs quality of life. Epidemiological data during the past decades is very heterogeneous because of the use of different diagnostic procedures, and most studies have only been performed in specific geographical areas. The aim of this article is to review the available data on the geographical distribution of food allergies at the food source and molecular level and to link food allergy patterns to the aeroallergen influence in each area. Systematic reviews, meta-analysis, studies performed within the EuroPrevall Project and EAACI position papers regarding food allergy were analysed. The prevalence of food allergy sensitization differs between geographical areas, probably as a consequence of differences among populations, their habits and the influence of the cross-reactivity of aeroallergens and other sources of allergens. Geographical differences in food allergy are clearly evident at the allergenic molecular level, which seems to be directly influenced by the aeroallergens of each region and associated with specific clinical patterns.

  10. An examination of the association of selected toxic metals with total and central obesity indices: NHANES 99-02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Miguel A; Elobeid, Mai; Ruden, Douglas M; Allison, David B

    2010-09-01

    It is conceivable that toxic metals contribute to obesity by influencing various aspects of metabolism, such as by substituting for essential micronutrients and vital metals, or by inducing oxidative stress. Deficiency of the essential metal zinc decreases adiposity in humans and rodent models, whereas deficiencies of chromium, copper, iron, and magnesium increases adiposity. This study utilized the NHANES 99-02 data to explore the association between waist circumference and body mass index with the body burdens of selected toxic metals (barium, cadmium, cobalt, cesium, molybdenum, lead, antimony, thallium, and tungsten). Some of the associations were significant direct relationships (barium and thallium), and some of the associations were significant inverse relationships (cadmium, cobalt, cesium, and lead). Molybdenum, antimony, and tungsten had mostly insignificant associations with waist circumference and body mass index. This is novel result for most of the toxic metals studied, and a surprising result for lead because high stored lead levels have been shown to correlate with higher rates of diabetes, and obesity may be a key risk factor for developing diabetes. These associations suggest the possibility that environmental exposure to metals may contribute to variations in human weight gain/loss. Future research, such as prospective studies rather than the cross-sectional studies presented here, is warranted to confirm these findings.

  11. An Examination of the Association of Selected Toxic Metals with Total and Central Obesity Indices: NHANES 99-02

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas M. Ruden

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available It is conceivable that toxic metals contribute to obesity by influencing various aspects of metabolism, such as by substituting for essential micronutrients and vital metals, or by inducing oxidative stress. Deficiency of the essential metal zinc decreases adiposity in humans and rodent models, whereas deficiencies of chromium, copper, iron, and magnesium increases adiposity. This study utilized the NHANES 99-02 data to explore the association between waist circumference and body mass index with the body burdens of selected toxic metals (barium, cadmium, cobalt, cesium, molybdenum, lead, antimony, thallium, and tungsten. Some of the associations were significant direct relationships (barium and thallium, and some of the associations were significant inverse relationships (cadmium, cobalt, cesium, and lead. Molybdenum, antimony, and tungsten had mostly insignificant associations with waist circumference and body mass index. This is novel result for most of the toxic metals studied, and a surprising result for lead because high stored lead levels have been shown to correlate with higher rates of diabetes, and obesity may be a key risk factor for developing diabetes. These associations suggest the possibility that environmental exposure to metals may contribute to variations in human weight gain/loss. Future research, such as prospective studies rather than the cross-sectional studies presented here, is warranted to confirm these findings.

  12. Coping with Food Allergies | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Food Allergies Coping with Food Allergies Past Issues / Spring 2011 Table of Contents Allergic ... timing and location of the reaction. How Food Allergies Develop Food allergies are more common in children ...

  13. Understanding Food Allergy | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... contents Understanding Food Allergy Follow us Understanding Food Allergy Latest Updates from NIH Food allergies are often ... to diagnose, prevent, and treat the disease.” Food allergy studies With so many unanswered questions surrounding food ...

  14. Does Local Allergy (Entopy Exists in Asthyma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol Kilic

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available   Although elevated serum IgE is accepted as a sign of atopy, high total IgE level may accompany with non-allergic asthma and contribute to pathogenesis and severity of the disease independently from atopy. Some case reports shows that   omelizumab can be effective in patients  with high  or  even low IgE level non atopic severe asthyma. Non atopic patients with severe asthyma having dramatic beneficial effect from omalizumab treatment show us that concept of local allergy (entopy is worth discussing in asthyma.        

  15. Patient-Reported Allergies Predict Worse Outcomes After Hip and Knee Arthroplasty: Results From a Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Jesse E; Graves, Christopher M; Gao, Yubo; Olson, Tyler S; Dickinson, Christopher C; Chalus, Rhonda J; Vittetoe, David A; Goetz, Devon D; Callaghan, John J

    2016-12-01

    Retrospective analyses have demonstrated correlation between patient-reported allergies and negative outcomes after total joint arthroplasty. We sought to validate these observations in a prospective cohort. One hundred forty-four patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty and 302 patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty were prospectively enrolled. Preoperatively, patients listed their allergies and completed the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) and the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) Questionnaire. At a mean of 17 months (range 12-25 months) postoperatively, SF-36, CCI, and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) were obtained by telephone survey. Regression analysis was used to determine the strength of correlation between patient age, comorbidity burden, and number of allergies and outcome measurements. In 446 patients, 273 reported at least 1 allergy. The number of allergies reported ranged from 0 to 33. Penicillin or its derivative was the most frequently reported allergy followed by sulfa, environmental allergen, and narcotic pain medication. Patients reporting at least 1 allergy had a significantly lower postoperative SF-36 Physical Component Score compared to those reporting no allergies (51.3 vs 49.4, P = .01). The SF-36 postoperative Mental Component Score was no different between groups. Multivariate regression analysis showed that age and patient reported allergies, but not comorbidities, were independently associated with worse postoperative SF-36 Physical Component Summary (PCS) and WOMAC score. Patients with allergies experienced the same improvement in SF-36 PCS as those without an allergy. Comorbidities did not correlate with patient-reported function postoperatively. Patients who report allergies have lower postoperative outcome scores but may experience the same increment in improvement after total joint arthroplasty. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Similar prevalence, different spectrum: IgE-mediated food allergy among Turkish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafayev, R; Civelek, E; Orhan, F; Yüksel, H; Boz, A B; Sekerel, B E

    2013-01-01

    Scarcity of reliable data on food allergy prevalence exists in Turkey. We aimed to assess reported and confirmed IgE-mediated food allergy prevalence, and define the spectrum of allergenic food. We prospectively evaluated the ISAAC Phase II study population for food allergy. Participants that reported experiencing food allergy symptom in the last year and/or were skin prick test positive for a predefined list of food allergens, were interviewed via telephone, and those considered as having food allergy were invited to undergo clinical investigation, including challenge tests. A total of 6963 questionnaires were available. Parental reported food allergy prevalence and skin prick sensitisation rate were 20.2 ± 0.9% and 5.9 ± 0.6%. According to the above-defined criteria, 1162 children (symptom positive n=909, skin prick test positive n=301, both positive n=48) were selected and 813 (70.0%) were interviewed via telephone. Out of 152 adolescents reporting a current complaint, 87 accepted clinical investigation. There were 12 food allergies diagnosed in nine adolescents, with food allergy prevalence of 0.16 ± 0.11%. The most common foods involved in allergic reactions were walnut (n=3) and beef meat (n=2), followed by hen's egg (n=1), peanut (n=1), spinach (n=1), kiwi (n=1), cheese (n=1), hazelnut (n=1) and peach (n=1). While parental reported food allergy prevalence was within the range reported previously, confirmed IgE-mediated food allergy prevalence among adolescents was at least 0.16%, and the spectrum of foods involved in allergy differed from Western countries, implying environmental factors may play a role. Copyright © 2012 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Food Allergy and Anxiety and Depression among Ethnic Minority Children and Their Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Renee D; Rodgin, Sandra; Goldman, Rachel; Rodriguez, Juliana; deVos, Gabriele; Serebrisky, Denise; Feldman, Jonathan M

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the relationship between food allergy and symptoms of anxiety and depression among ethnic minority, low socioeconomic status (SES) children and their caregivers. Pediatric patients ages 4-12 years with and without food allergy and their caregivers were recruited from urban pediatric outpatient clinics. Statistical analyses were used to examine the prevalence of symptoms of anxiety and depression among patients and their caregivers with and without food allergy, adjusting for asthma. Eighty patients ranging from ages 4 to 12 years, with a mean age of 8.1 years, and their caregivers participated in the study. Food allergy was associated with significantly higher t scores on the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) Total (P = .007), MASC Humiliation Rejection, (P = .02) and MASC Social Anxiety (P = .02) among pediatric patients, adjusting for asthma. Food allergy was not associated with child depression symptoms, nor was there a significant difference in anxiety or depression symptoms among caregivers of patients with and without food allergy. Food allergy appears to be associated with increased symptoms of social anxiety and higher levels of anxiety overall, but not depression, in ethnic minority children of lower socioeconomic status. This finding was not due to confounding by asthma. Food allergy was not associated with higher levels of depression or anxiety symptoms among caregivers of pediatric patients with food allergy. Future studies should investigate potential pathways between food allergy and anxiety that may be unique to children in underserved populations, and develop interventions to reduce anxiety in children with food allergy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. European Symposium on Precision Medicine in Allergy and Airways Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muraro, A; Fokkens, W J; Pietikainen, S

    2016-01-01

    : personalized care based on molecular, immunologic and functional endotyping of the disease, with participation of the patient in the decision making process of therapeutic actions, and considering predictive and preventive aspects of the treatment. Implementation of Precision Medicine into clinical practice......The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI), the European Rhinologic Society (ERS) and the European Medical Association (EMA) organized, on 14 October 2015, a symposium in the European Parliament in Brussels on Precision Medicine in Allergy and Airways Diseases, hosted by MEP...... the most frequently diagnosed chronic non-communicable diseases in the EU. 30% of the total European population is suffering from allergies and asthma, and more than half are deprived from adequate diagnosis and treatment. Precision Medicine represents a novel approach, embracing 4 key features...

  19. Severe forms of food allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Sarinho

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: To guide the diagnostic and therapeutic management of severe forms of food allergy. Data sources: Search in the Medline database using the terms “severe food allergy,” “anaphylaxis and food allergy,” “generalized urticaria and food allergy,” and “food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome” in the last ten years, searching in the title, abstract, or keyword fields. Summary of data: Food allergy can be serious and life-threatening. Milk, eggs, peanuts, nuts, walnuts, wheat, sesame seeds, shrimp, fish, and fruit can precipitate allergic emergencies. The severity of reactions will depend on associated cofactors such as age, drug use at the onset of the reaction, history and persistence of asthma and/or severe allergic rhinitis, history of previous anaphylaxis, exercise, and associated diseases. For generalized urticaria and anaphylaxis, intramuscular epinephrine is the first and fundamental treatment line. For the treatment in acute phase of food-induced enterocolitis syndrome in the emergency setting, prompt hydroelectrolytic replacement, administration of methylprednisolone and ondansetron IV are necessary. It is important to recommend to the patient with food allergy to maintain the exclusion diet, seek specialized follow-up and, in those who have anaphylaxis, to emphasize the need to carry epinephrine. Conclusion: Severe food allergy may occur in the form of anaphylaxis and food-protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome, which are increasingly observed in the pediatric emergency room; hence, pediatricians must be alert so they can provide the immediate diagnosis and treatment.

  20. Food Allergies: The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenta, Rudolf; Hochwallner, Heidrun; Linhart, Birgit; Pahr, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    IgE-associated food allergy affects approximately 3% of the population and has severe effects on the daily life of patients—manifestations occur not only in the gastrointestinal tract but also affect other organ systems. Birth cohort studies have shown that allergic sensitization to food allergens develops early in childhood. Mechanisms of pathogenesis include cross-linking of mast cell– and basophil-bound IgE and immediate release of inflammatory mediators, as well as late-phase and chronic allergic inflammation, resulting from T-cell, basophil, and eosinophil activation. Researchers have begun to characterize the molecular features of food allergens and have developed chip-based assays for multiple allergens. These have provided information about cross-reactivity among different sources of food allergens, identified disease-causing food allergens, and helped us to estimate the severity and types of allergic reactions in patients. Importantly, learning about the structure of disease-causing food allergens has allowed researchers to engineer synthetic and recombinant vaccines. PMID:25680669

  1. Allergoids for allergy treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnes, Jeronimo; Gallego, Maria T; Moya, Raquel; Iraola, Victor

    2018-02-21

    Background Chemically modified allergen extracts, known as allergoids, are commonly used for treating allergic patients. In general terms, the concept of allergoids implies allergen extracts with a reduction of their allergenicity maintaining their immunogenicity. Different methods to obtain allergoids have been developed in the past years, opening attractive lines of research. Objective To review the different approaches to allergoid development as well as their characterization, mechanism of action and efficacy and safety issues. Methods A revision and analysis of the different types of allergoids has been performed, with special attention to patents submitted and granted in the last years. Additionally, updated information about the mechanism of action and clinical evidence and safety of allergoids has been discussed. Results Principally, allergoids are obtained by the polymerization of native allergen extracts with aldehydes, including formaldehyde or glutaraldehyde. However, recent patents and publications about different chemical modifications have been presented, as well as about the use of new adjuvants with allergoids. Regarding the characterization, allergoids require more sophisticated analytical methods than native extracts, as a consequence of their properties and characteristics. Conclusion In the last years, the partial understanding of the mechanism of action and the generation of clinical evidence of different types of allergoids, linked to their excellent safety profile and their convenience for a quick build up phase, have made of allergoids an excellent product for allergy treatment. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. Anaphylaxis and insect allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demain, Jeffrey G; Minaei, Ashley A; Tracy, James M

    2010-08-01

    Anaphylaxis is an acute-onset and potentially life-threatening allergic reaction that can be caused by numerous allergic triggers including stinging insects. This review focuses on recent advances, natural history, risk factors and therapeutic considerations. Recent work suggests that concerns over insect allergy diagnosis continue to exist. This is especially true with individuals who have a convincing history of a serious life-threatening anaphylactic event, but lack the necessary diagnostic criteria of venom-specific IgE by skin test or in-vitro diagnostic methods to confirm the diagnosis. The role of occult mastocytosis or increased basophile reactivity may play a role in this subset population. Additionally, epinephrine continues to be underutilized as the primary acute intervention for an anaphylactic reaction in the emergent setting. The incidence of anaphylaxis continues to rise across all demographic groups, especially those less than 20 years of age. Fortunately, the fatalities related to anaphylaxis appear to have decreased over the past decades. Our understanding of various triggers, associated risk factors, as well as an improved understanding and utilization of biological markers such as serum tryptase have improved. Our ability to treat insect anaphylaxis by venom immunotherapy is highly effective. Unfortunately, anaphylaxis continues to be underappreciated and undertreated especially in regard to insect sting anaphylaxis. This includes the appropriate use of injectable epinephrine as the primary acute management tool. These findings suggest that continued education of the general population, primary care healthcare providers and emergency departments is required.

  3. Food allergies: the basics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenta, Rudolf; Hochwallner, Heidrun; Linhart, Birgit; Pahr, Sandra

    2015-05-01

    IgE-associated food allergy affects approximately 3% of the population and has severe effects on the daily life of patients-manifestations occur not only in the gastrointestinal tract but also affect other organ systems. Birth cohort studies have shown that allergic sensitization to food allergens develops early in childhood. Mechanisms of pathogenesis include cross-linking of mast cell- and basophil-bound IgE and immediate release of inflammatory mediators, as well as late-phase and chronic allergic inflammation, resulting from T-cell, basophil, and eosinophil activation. Researchers have begun to characterize the molecular features of food allergens and have developed chip-based assays for multiple allergens. These have provided information about cross-reactivity among different sources of food allergens, identified disease-causing food allergens, and helped us to estimate the severity and types of allergic reactions in patients. Importantly, learning about the structure of disease-causing food allergens has allowed researchers to engineer synthetic and recombinant vaccines. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Allergy to iguana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, J M; Fox, R W; Jones, R T; Yunginger, J W

    2000-08-01

    Furry animals produce allergens that can cause allergic rhinitis and asthma. In contrast, scaly animals, such as lizards, are assumed not to be allergenic. We sought to evaluate a 32-year-old man who complained of allergic rhinitis and asthma symptoms that occurred exclusively in his own home. He had dogs and cats at home but denied any increase in symptoms specifically associated with these pets. Skin prick testing initially performed to 42 common aeroallergens, including cat, dog, and house dust mite, elicited negative results. He later reported that the symptoms were worse on exposure to his pet iguanas. Skin prick tests were subsequently performed to an extract made from scales from his pet iguana. Extracts were also prepared from several zoo reptiles. Immunoassays for IgE antibody, as well as IgE immunoblots, were performed by using these extracts and the patient's serum. The skin prick test result with the pet iguana scale extract was positive. The patient's serum contained IgE antibody to his own pet iguana and to a zoo iguana. Our patient's history, skin test results, and in vitro studies clearly demonstrate that he is allergic to iguana. Physicians should be aware that such allergy to scaly pets may occur and should not restrict history taking to questions about furry pets.

  5. Total mercury, methyl mercury, and heavy metal concentrations in Hyeongsan River and its tributaries in Pohang city, South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailon, Mark Xavier; David, Anneschel Sheehan; Park, Yeongeon; Kim, Eunhee; Hong, Yongseok

    2018-04-11

    Heavy metal contamination in aquatic systems is a big problem in many areas around the world. In 2016, high mercury concentrations were reported in bivalves (Corbicula leana) and sediments near the confluence of the Hyeongsan River and Chilseong Creek located in Pohang, a steel industrial city in the south-east coast of the Korean peninsula. Given that both the Chilseong and Gumu creeks run through the Pohang industrial complex and ultimately flow to the Hyeongsan River, it is imperative to determine if the industrial effluents have any impact on the mercury contamination in these two streams and the Hyeongsan River. In this work, we investigated the concentration levels of different heavy metals using cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy. The metal concentration in the water samples from the Hyeongsan River, Gumu Creek, and Chilseong Creek did not exceed the limits for drinking water quality set by the US EPA and World Health Organization. However, the sediment samples were found to be heavily contaminated by Hg with levels exceeding the toxic effect threshold. Gumu Creek was found to be heavily contaminated. The concentrations of the different heavy metals increased downstream, and the samples collected from the sites in the Hyeongsan River near the Gumu Creek, an open channel for wastewater discharge of companies in the Pohang Industrial Complex, showed higher contamination levels, indicating that the effluents from the industrial complex are a possible source of contamination in the river.

  6. Allergy to jackfruit: a novel example of Bet v 1-related food allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhaar, S. T. H. P.; Ree, R.; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, C. A. F. M.; Knulst, A. C.; Zuidmeer, L.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Jackfruit allergy has been reported just once. It is unknown whether this food allergy is caused by direct sensitization or cross-sensitization to pollen allergens. OBJECTIVE: Establish whether jackfruit allergy is linked to birchpollen allergy. METHODS: Two jackfruit allergic patients

  7. On the road to metallic nanoparticles by rational design: bridging the gap between atomic-level theoretical modeling and reality by total scattering experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasai, Binay; Wilson, A. R.; Wiley, B. J.; Ren, Y.; Petkov, Valeri

    2015-10-01

    The extent to which current theoretical modeling alone can reveal real-world metallic nanoparticles (NPs) at the atomic level was scrutinized and demonstrated to be insufficient and how it can be improved by using a pragmatic approach involving straightforward experiments is shown. In particular, 4 to 6 nm in size silica supported Au100-xPdx (x = 30, 46 and 58) explored for catalytic applications is characterized structurally by total scattering experiments including high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) coupled to atomic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis. Atomic-level models for the NPs are built by molecular dynamics simulations based on the archetypal for current theoretical modeling Sutton-Chen (SC) method. Models are matched against independent experimental data and are demonstrated to be inaccurate unless their theoretical foundation, i.e. the SC method, is supplemented with basic yet crucial information on the length and strength of metal-to-metal bonds and, when necessary, structural disorder in the actual NPs studied. An atomic PDF-based approach for accessing such information and implementing it in theoretical modeling is put forward. For completeness, the approach is concisely demonstrated on 15 nm in size water-dispersed Au particles explored for bio-medical applications and 16 nm in size hexane-dispersed Fe48Pd52 particles explored for magnetic applications as well. It is argued that when ``tuned up'' against experiments relevant to metals and alloys confined to nanoscale dimensions, such as total scattering coupled to atomic PDF analysis, rather than by mere intuition and/or against data for the respective solids, atomic-level theoretical modeling can provide a sound understanding of the synthesis-structure-property relationships in real-world metallic NPs. Ultimately this can help advance nanoscience and technology a step closer to producing metallic NPs by rational design.The extent to which current theoretical modeling alone can

  8. Determination of metals by total reflection X-ray fluorescence and evaluation of toxicity of a river impacted by coal mining in the south of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattuada, R M; Menezes, C T B; Pavei, P T; Peralba, M C R; Dos Santos, J H Z

    2009-04-30

    Metal (Fe, Mn, Zn, Ni, Cd, and Pb) concentrations in the region of Criciuma (Brazil), a region impacted by coal mining, were determined in water and sediments using total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectroscopy. Samples were collected from the Mãe Luzia River (south Brazil) at five different stations, from the source down to the river mouth (Ararangua estuary). Water and sediment toxicity were also evaluated using bioassays with Daphnia magna as the bioindicator. The metal present in the highest concentrations both in water (1.3-11 mg L(-1)) and in sediments (34-142 mg L(-1)) was iron. Results suggest an influence of coal mining on the aquatic receptors, showing a clear relationship between metal content (mostly Fe) and ecotoxicity.

  9. Flu Vaccine and People with Egg Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pandemic Other Flu Vaccine and People with Egg Allergies Language: English (US) Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... for Recommendations This page contains information about egg allergy and flu vaccination. Summary: CDC and its Advisory ...

  10. Fighting Allergies with Research and Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Fighting Allergies with Research and Information Past Issues / Summer 2006 ... Director An interview with Anthony S. Fauci Are seasonal allergies on the rise? If so, why? There has ...

  11. FastStats: Allergies/Hay Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Allergies and Hay Fever Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... 12 months: 7.5% Number with reported respiratory allergies in the past 12 months: 7.6 million ...

  12. Allergies and Asthma: They Often Occur Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Asthma information. American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology. http://acaai.org/asthma/about. Accessed Dec. 8, ... Asthma symptoms. American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology. http://acaai.org/asthma/symptoms. Accessed Dec. 8, ...

  13. Aspirin Allergy: What Are the Symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exacerbated respiratory disease. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice. In Press. Accessed March 20, 2017. June 02, 2017 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/drug-allergy/ ...

  14. Intensive educational course in allergy and immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizalde, A; Perez, E E; Sriaroon, P; Nguyen, D; Lockey, R F; Dorsey, M J

    2012-09-01

    A one-day intensive educational course on allergy and immunology theory and diagnostic procedure significantly increased the competency of allergy and immunology fellows-in-training. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Clinical characteristics of soybean allergy in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballmer-Weber, Barbara K; Holzhauser, Thomas; Scibilia, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Soybean is a relevant allergenic food, but little is known about individual threshold doses in soy allergy.......Soybean is a relevant allergenic food, but little is known about individual threshold doses in soy allergy....

  16. American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Professionals Find an Allergist American College of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology Seeking Relief? Find an Allergist ... shots? View All Postings Ask the Allergist Index Allergy & Asthma News Let it snow, but don’t ...

  17. GASTROINTESTINAL FOOD ALLERGY IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana G. Makarova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the prevalence  of food allergies. Pathological conditions associated  with a food intolerance are becoming an increasingly urgent problem of pediatrics. According to different researchers, allergic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract occurs in 25–50% of patients with such common pathology as an allergy to cow's milk proteins. The severity of diseases  associated  with food allergies and their prognosis  depend largely on early diagnosis and adequate treatment. Difficulties and errors  in the diagnosis  of gastrointestinal  food allergies  are associated  with both subjective  and objective  reasons,  primarily due to the fact that gastrointestinal  reactions to food are often delayed and non-IgE-mediated. The article describes clinical forms of gastrointestinal food allergy according to the existing classification. Diagnostic algorithms and modern approaches  to differential diagnosis of disease based on evidence-based  medicine and corresponding to international consensus papers are given.

  18. Managing food allergies in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, Jay M; Shroba, Jodi

    2014-10-01

    Food allergies are estimated to affect as many as 8 % of children with 2.5 % being allergic to peanut products. Based on the results of recent surveys, this prevalence has been increasing over the last few decades for unknown reasons. As children with food allergies reach school age, the issue is becoming more common in schools. For that reason, schools are now required to be prepared to take responsibility for the safety of food-allergic students. This review discusses the common problems surrounding management of food allergies in the school setting along with reasonable recommendations for addressing those problems. The most important component of food allergy management is for the student to get an accurate diagnosis and to then discuss development of an anaphylaxis action plan with their health-care provider. Each school should insist that a copy of such a plan be provided for each student with food allergy and that epinephrine is readily available should a student have an anaphylactic reaction. In addition to epinephrine, it is essential that school personnel be properly trained to recognize and treat allergic reactions should they occur. Known deficiencies in school preparedness have been documented in previous literature, and consequently, both state and the federal government have begun to implement policies to help with school preparedness.

  19. Ocular allergy latin american consensus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna Serapião dos Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To establish current definition, classification and staging, and to develop diagnosis and treatment recommendations for ocular allergy, by using Delphi approach. METHODS: Ten Latin American experts on ocular allergy participated in a 4-round Delphi panel approach. Four surveys were constructed and answered by panelists. A two-thirds majority was defined as consensus. Definition, classification, staging and diagnosis and treatment recommendations were the main outcomes. RESULTS: "Ocular allergy" was proposed as the general term to describe ocular allergic diseases. Consensus regarding classification was not reached. Signs and symptoms were considered extremely important for the diagnosis. It was consensus that a staging system should be proposed based on the disease severity. Environmental control, avoidance of allergens and the use of artificial tears were recommended as first line treatment. The secondary treatment should include topical anti-histamines, mast cell stabilizers and multi actions drugs. Topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and vasoconstrictors were not recommended. Topical corticosteroids were recommended as third line of treatment for the most severe keratoconjunctivitis. Consensus was not reached regarding the use of systemic corticosteroids or immunosuppressant. Surgical approach and unconventional treatments were not recommended as routine. CONCLUSION: The task of creating guidelines for ocular allergies showed to be very complex. Many controversial topics remain unsolved. A larger consensus including experts from different groups around the world may be needed to further improve the current recommendations for several aspects of ocular allergy.

  20. Teicoplanin allergy - an emerging problem in the anaesthetic allergy clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, L C; Garcez, T; Hopkins, P M; Harper, N J N; Savic, S

    2015-10-01

    Anaphylaxis to teicoplanin appears to be extremely rare, with only one confirmed case report worldwide. Two anaesthetic allergy clinics in the UK have received a number of suspected cases referred for investigation, and we present here the first case series of teicoplanin allergy. We investigated 20 cases of suspected teicoplanin allergy, identified from the two clinics over a period of two years. We devised a set of five criteria to categorize the certainty of their diagnosis. These included: (1) reaction within 15 min of administration of teicoplanin, (2) ≥2 features of anaphylaxis present, (3) positive skin testing or challenge testing, (4) raised serum mast cell tryptase (MCT), (5) alternative diagnosis excluded. Based on these criteria we defined the likelihood of IgE-mediated allergy to teicoplanin as: definite-met all criteria; probable-met criteria 1.2 and 5, plus 3 or 4; uncertain-met criteria 1.2 and 5; excluded- any others. We identified 7 'definite', 7 'probable' and 2 'uncertain' cases of teicoplanin allergy. Four cases were excluded. IgE-mediated anaphylaxis to teicoplanin appears to be more common than previously thought. This is true even if only definitive cases are considered. Investigation of teicoplanin allergy is hampered by the lack of standardized skin test concentrations. In some cases, there was a severe clinical reaction, but without any skin test evidence of histamine release. The mechanism of reaction in these cases is not known and requires further study. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. [Determination of total mass and morphology analysis of heavy metal in soil with potassium biphthalate-sodium hydroxide by ICP-AES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jiao; Yuan, Xing; Cong, Qiao; Wang, Shuang

    2008-11-01

    Blank soil was used as quality controlling samples, soil sample dealt by potassium biphthalate-sodium hydroxide buffer solution was used as check sample, mixed acid HNO3-HF-HClO4 was chosen to nitrify soil samples, and plasma emission spectrometer (ICP-AES) was used as detecting method. The authors determined the total metal mass of Mo, Pb, As, Hg, Cr, Cd, Zn, Cu and Ni in the extracted and dealt soil samples, and determined the mass of Mo, Pb, As, Hg, Cr, Cd, Zn, Cu and Ni in the three chemical morphologies, including acid extractable morphology, oxide associated morphology, and organics associated modality. The experimental results indicated that the different pH of potassium biphthalate-sodium hydroxide buffer solution had obvious influence on the total mass of heavy metal and morphology transformation. Except for metal element Pb and Zn, the addition of different pH potassium dihydrogen phosphate-sodium hydroxide buffer solution could accelerate the soil samples nitrification and the total mass determination of heavy metal in the soil samples. The potassium biphthalate-sodium hydroxide buffer solution could facilitate the acid extractable morphology of Cr, Cu, Hg and Pb, oxidation associated morphology of As, Hg, Pb and Zn and the organic associated morphology transforming of As and Hg. At pH 5.8, the maximum acid extractable morphology contents of Cu and Hg were 2.180 and 0.632 mg x kg(-1), respectively; at pH 6.2, the maximal oxidation associated morphology content of Pb could achieve 27.792 mg x kg(-1); at pH 6.0, the maximum organic associated morphology content of heavy metal Hg was 4.715 mg x kg(-1).

  2. Effect of heavy metals on the level of vitamin E, total lipid and glycogen reserves in the liver of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinodhini Rajamanickam

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine some changes in the biochemical profile of the liver tissue of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. exposed to a sublethal concentration of heavy metal mixture (cadmium, chromium, nickel and lead. The biochemical profile, specifically glycogen, total lipid and vitamin E content in the liver tissue was examined and compared to that of the control group. The exposed group showed a marked decline in glycogen and vitamin E reserves. Conversely an increase in total lipid in comparison to control was observed. The result reflects the sensitivity of these biochemical parameters to the effects of sublethal levels of combined heavy metals for this the widely consumed freshwater fish.

  3. Communicating with Parents about Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Belinda

    2008-01-01

    About 3 million children in the United States have food allergies. Each year violent reactions to food kill almost 150 people. For teachers dealing with the food allergies of young children these can be frightening statistics. To keep students safe, they must familiarize themselves with food allergy facts so they can communicate openly and often…

  4. A Principal's Guide to Children's Allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Furlong, Anne

    1999-01-01

    Discusses several common children's allergies, including allergic rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis, food allergies, and anaphylactic shock. Principals should become familiar with various medications and should work with children's parents and physicians to determine how to manage their allergies at school. Allergen avoidance is the best…

  5. Systematic review on cashew nut allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Valk, J. P. M.; Dubois, A. E. J.; van Wijk, R. Gerth; Wichers, H. J.; de Jong, N. W.

    Recent studies on cashew nut allergy suggest that the prevalence of cashew nut allergy is increasing. Cashew nut consumption by allergic patients can cause severe reactions, including anaphylaxis. This review summarizes current knowledge on cashew nut allergy to facilitate timely clinical

  6. Systematic review on cashew nut allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, van der J.P.M.; Dubois, A.E.J.; Wichers, H.J.; Jong, de N.W.; Wijk, van R.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies on cashew nut allergy suggest that the prevalence of cashew nut allergy is increasing. Cashew nut consumption by allergic patients can cause severe reactions, including anaphylaxis. This review summarizes current knowledge on cashew nut allergy to facilitate timely clinical

  7. Getting the Facts on Food Allergy Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getting the Facts on Food Allergy Testing This article has been reviewed by Thanai Pongdee, MD, FAAAAI If you have ever experienced red, itchy skin, swell- ... food, you may wonder if you have a food allergy. While diagnosing food allergies can be tricky, an ...

  8. Managing the Student with Severe Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Joanne M.; Ficca, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    School nurses play a key role in managing students with food allergies. It is becoming more common to encounter students with severe allergies to multiple foods, putting them at risk for anaphylaxis. It is essential that the school nurse have a clear understanding of food allergies and how to effectively manage students in the school setting.…

  9. EDITORIALS Latex allergy: 'Plight, rights and fights'

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    anaphylaxis and life-threatening food allergies to cross-reacting fruit allergens such as kiwi, banana, tomato and chestnuts). Latex allergy is also encountered more frequently in children with spina bifida than in other hospitalised children.[7] Sensitisation is usually confirmed by commercial latex allergy skinprick testing or by ...

  10. Managing Food Allergies at School: School Administrators

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast highlights the importance of ensuring that comprehensive school plans are in place to manage food allergies. It also identifies some key actions school administrators can take to support students with food allergies, and highlights CDC food allergy resources for schools.

  11. Managing Food Allergies at School: School Superintendents

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast highlights the importance of ensuring that comprehensive school district plans are in place to manage food allergies. It also identifies some key actions school superintendents can take to support students with food allergies, and highlights CDC food allergy resources for schools.

  12. Environmental and occupational allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peden, David; Reed, Charles E

    2010-02-01

    Airborne allergens are the major cause of allergic rhinitis and asthma. Daily exposure comes from indoor sources, chiefly at home but occasionally at schools or offices. Seasonal exposure to outdoor allergens, pollens, and molds is another important source. Exposure to unusual substances at work causes occupational asthma, accounting for about 5% of asthma in adults. Indoor and outdoor air pollutants trigger airway inflammation and increase the severity of asthma. Diesel exhaust particles increase the production of IgE antibodies. Identification and reduction of exposure to allergens is a very important part of the management of respiratory allergic diseases. The first section of this chapter discusses domestic allergens, arthropods (mites and cockroaches), molds, and mammals (pets and mice). Indoor humidity and water damage are important factors in the production of mite and mold allergens, and discarded human food items are important sources of proliferation of cockroaches and mice. Means of identifying and reducing exposure are presented. The second section discusses outdoor allergens: pollens and molds. The particular plants or molds and the amount of exposure to these allergens is determined by the local climate, and local pollen and mold counts are available to determine the time and amount of exposure. Climate change is already having an important effect on the distribution and amount of outdoor allergens. The third section discusses indoor and outdoor air pollution and methods that individuals can take to reduce indoor pollution in addition to eliminating cigarette smoking. The fourth section discusses the diagnosis and management of occupational asthma. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Methylisothiazolinone contact allergy - A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundov, M D; Krongaard, Teddy; L Menné, T

    2011-01-01

    In the early 2000s the preservative methylisothiazolinone (MI) was released as an individual preservative for industrial products and in 2005 permitted for use in cosmetic products. Up till then MI had only been used in combination with methylcholoroisthiazolinone (MCI). MCI/MI is one of the most...... frequent causes of preservative contact allergy and early studies showed that both MI and MCI are sensitizers. The prevalence of MI contact allergy is already around 1·5% and sources of exposure are associated with occupation, cosmetic products or household products. Use of MI in industrial products...... is not restricted and cases of occupational contact allergy to MI e.g. in painters are reported. The frequency of use of MI in cosmetics is low, around 1%, while up to 16·5% of household products were preserved with MI. We found 19 (1·5%) out of 1272 cosmetic products labelled with MI, primarily rinse-off products...

  14. Methylisothiazolinone contact allergy: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundov, M D; Krongaard, T; Menné, T L

    2011-01-01

    In the early 2000s the preservative methylisothiazolinone (MI) was released as an individual preservative for industrial products and in 2005 permitted for use in cosmetic products. Up till then MI had only been used in combination with methylcholoroisthiazolinone (MCI). MCI/MI is one of the most...... frequent causes of preservative contact allergy and early studies showed that both MI and MCI are sensitizers. The prevalence of MI contact allergy is already around 1·5% and sources of exposure are associated with occupation, cosmetic products or household products. Use of MI in industrial products...... is not restricted and cases of occupational contact allergy to MI e.g. in painters are reported. The frequency of use of MI in cosmetics is low, around 1%, while up to 16·5% of household products were preserved with MI. We found 19 (1·5%) out of 1272 cosmetic products labelled with MI, primarily rinse-off products...

  15. Goiter and Multiple Food Allergies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Leniszewski

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe iodine deficiency results in impaired thyroid hormone synthesis and thyroid enlargement. In the United States, adequate iodine intake is a concern for women of childbearing age and pregnant women. Beyond this high risk group iodine deficiency is not considered to be a significant problem. This case report describes a 12-year-old male with severe iodine deficiency disorder (IDD resulting from restricted dietary intake due to multiple food allergies. We describe iodine replacement for this patient and continued monitoring for iodine sufficiency. Children with multiple food allergies, in particular those with restrictions to iodized salt and seafood, should be considered high risk for severe iodine deficiency.

  16. FOOD ALLERGY PREVENTION IN INFANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. Makarova

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with new data about food tolerance induction among the children, belonging to the high risk groups disposed to atopy. Authors show the role of gut microflora in formation of child immune system, effect of breast feeding on activation of local immune response, growth stimulation of bifid bacteria and lactic acid bacilli. The present work gives the randomized research findings, which confirm the effectiveness of prolonged breast feeding, use of highly or partially hydrolyzed mixtures and timely introduction of supplemental feeding in food allergy prevention.Key words: prevention, food allergy, children, breast feeding, hypo allergic mixtures, milk protein hydrolysates, supplemental feeding, gut microflora, probiotics.

  17. Clinical update on contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uter, Wolfgang; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Orton, David I

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this article is to review recent findings in contact allergy, regarding clinical research. RECENT FINDINGS: The biocide methyldibromo glutaronitrile was identified to be an important sensitizer. Subsequently, it was banned from leave-on cosmetics in the European Union...... a classification of newly introduced chemicals; increasingly, the local lymph node assay is supplementing and potentially replacing the guinea pig maximization test. Recent advances in occupational contact allergy include, for example, some attempts to improve diagnostics for epoxy resin and other plastic, glue...

  18. Hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, L A; Menné, T; Avnstorp, C

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (HICC) is a synthetic fragrance ingredient. Case reports of allergy to HICC appeared in the 1980s, and HICC has recently been included in the European baseline series. Human elicitation dose-response studies performed with different allergens...... to 21 days). Seventeen persons with no HICC allergy were included as control group for the ROAT. Results The response frequency to the ROAT (in microg HICC cm(-2) per application) was significantly higher than the response frequency to the patch test at one of the tested doses. Furthermore the response...

  19. Quantifying metal artefact reduction using virtual monochromatic dual-layer detector spectral CT imaging in unilateral and bilateral total hip prostheses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellenberg, R.H.H., E-mail: r.h.wellenberg@amc.uva.nl [Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Boomsma, M.F., E-mail: m.f.boomsma@isala.nl [Department of Radiology, Isala, Zwolle (Netherlands); Osch, J.A.C. van, E-mail: j.a.c.van.osch@isala.nl [Department of Radiology, Isala, Zwolle (Netherlands); Vlassenbroek, A., E-mail: alain.vlassenbroek@philips.com [Philips Medical Systems, Brussels (Belgium); Milles, J., E-mail: julien.milles@philips.com [Philips Medical Systems, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Edens, M.A., E-mail: m.a.edens@isala.nl [Department of Innovation and Science, Isala, Zwolle (Netherlands); Streekstra, G.J., E-mail: g.j.streekstra@amc.uva.nl [Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Slump, C.H., E-mail: c.h.slump@utwente.nl [MIRA Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands); Maas, M., E-mail: m.maas@amc.uva.nl [Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Dual-layer detector CT reduces metal artefacts at high monochromatic energies (keV). • 130 keV images were optimal based on quantitative analysis on CNRs. • Optimal keVs varied from 74 to 150 keV for different hip prostheses configurations. • The Titanium alloy resulted in less severe artefacts compared to the Cobalt alloy. • Severe metal artefacts, caused by extensive photon-starvation, were not reduced. - Abstract: Purpose: To quantify the impact of prosthesis material and design on the reduction of metal artefacts in total hip arthroplasties using virtual monochromatic dual-layer detector Spectral CT imaging. Methods: The water-filled total hip arthroplasty phantom was scanned on a novel 128-slice Philips IQon dual-layer detector Spectral CT scanner at 120-kVp and 140-kVp at a standard computed tomography dose index of 20.0 mGy. Several unilateral and bilateral hip prostheses consisting of different metal alloys were inserted and combined which were surrounded by 18 hydroxyapatite calcium carbonate pellets representing bone. Images were reconstructed with iterative reconstruction and analysed at monochromatic energies ranging from 40 to 200 keV. CT numbers in Hounsfield Units (HU), noise measured as the standard deviation in HU, signal-to-noise-ratios (SNRs) and contrast-to-noise-ratios (CNRs) were analysed within fixed regions-of-interests placed in and around the pellets. Results: In 70 and 74 keV virtual monochromatic images the CT numbers of the pellets were similar to 120-kVp and 140-kVp polychromatic results, therefore serving as reference. A separation into three categories of metal artefacts was made (no, mild/moderate and severe) where pellets were categorized based on HU deviations. At high keV values overall image contrast was reduced. For mild/moderate artefacts, the highest average CNRs were attained with virtual monochromatic 130 keV images, acquired at 140-kVp. Severe metal artefacts were not reduced. In 130 keV images

  20. A Proactive Approach to Penicillin Allergy Testing in Hospitalized Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Justin R; Tarver, Scott A; Alvarez, Kristin S; Tran, Trang; Khan, David A

    Penicillin allergy testing is underutilized in inpatients despite its potential to immediately impact antibiotic treatment. Although most tested patients are able to tolerate penicillin, limited availability and awareness of this tool leads to the use of costly and harmful substitutes. We established an inpatient service at a large academic hospital to identify and test patients with a history of penicillin allergy with the goals of removing inaccurate diagnoses, reducing the use of beta-lactam alternatives, and educating patients and clinicians about the procedure. Eligible inpatients were flagged daily through the electronic medical record and prioritized via a specialized algorithm. A trained clinical pharmacist performed penicillin skin tests and challenges preemptively or by provider request. Clinical characteristics and antibiotic use were analyzed in tested patients. A total of 1203 applicable charts were detected by our system leading to 252 direct evaluations over 18 months. Overall, 228 subjects (90.5%) had their penicillin allergy removed. Of these, 223 were cleared via testing and 5 by discovery of prior penicillin tolerance. Among patients testing negative, 85 (38%) subsequently received beta-lactams, preventing 504 inpatient days and 648 outpatient days on alternative agents. Penicillin allergy testing using a physician-pharmacist team model effectively removes reported allergies in hospitalized patients. The electronic medical record is a valuable asset for locating and stratifying individuals who benefit most from intervention. Proactive testing substantially reduces unnecessary inpatient and outpatient use of beta-lactam alternatives that may otherwise go unaddressed. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Evaluation of Food Allergy on Behavior in Autistic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Khakzad

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite many efforts, the etiology of autism remains unknown. Food allergy has been suggested as a pathogenic factor in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD. Our aim in this study was to determine whether food allergy could be considered as a risk factor for autistic children. Methods: Thirty-nine autistic children were examined by the skin prick test (SPT, and total serum IgE was evaluated by ELISA. SPTs were performed for egg whites, oranges, peanuts, tomatoes, tuna fish, walnuts, aubergines, melons, grapes, and cow milk. Parents and teachers were then asked to exclude these items from the childrens’ diets for six months. After the treatment period, the autistic children who tested positive for food allergies were re-assessed by a standard questionnaire to obtain further information about their medical histories. Results: Three of the study’s 39 autistic children (7.7% tested positive on the SPT. Total serum IgE levels were elevated in 56.4% of the subjects (mean=164±24.5, cut-off >155 IU/ml. The results showed a decreased mean in the childrens’ autistic behaviors on the Children Autism Rating Scale (CARS after both eight weeks and six months; however, this decrease was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Food allergy may play a role in the pathophysiology of autism. We conclude that avoidance of certain foods benefits the behavior of autistic children.

  2. The Natural History of Food Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Jessica; Sicherer, Scott; Wood, Robert

    2016-01-01

    On a population level, it is well recognized that some IgE-mediated childhood food allergies, such as milk and egg allergies, are more likely to resolve than others, such as peanut and tree nuts allergies. Unfortunately, some studies suggest that resolution rates may have slowed compared with impressions from past decades. The clinician can apply the knowledge of the epidemiology of these allergies to describe likely patient outcomes, and direct management in a general manner. However, the ability to evaluate and predict the natural course of specific food allergies for individual patients is essential to inform personalized patient care. Data are accumulating to assist in identifying whether a child's allergy has likely resolved, informing the timing of oral food challenges or subsequent testing. Exciting recent studies are increasingly identifying early prognostic markers as well. Emerging food allergy therapies carry risks and costs. Identifying which egg-allergic patient has likely persistent allergy, and which patient with peanut allergy may experience natural resolution, is becoming an important goal to identify the best candidates for these therapies. Although more work needs to be done to identify reliable predictive markers and validate them, there is already much known about the natural course of food allergies that can be applied by the clinician to improve patient care. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Time series models for prediction the total and dissolved heavy metals concentration in road runoff and soil solution of roadside embankments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljoumani, Basem; Kluge, Björn; sanchez, Josep; Wessolek, Gerd

    2017-04-01

    Highways and main roads are potential sources of contamination for the surrounding environment. High traffic rates result in elevated heavy metal concentrations in road runoff, soil and water seepage, which has attracted much attention in the recent past. Prediction of heavy metals transfer near the roadside into deeper soil layers are very important to prevent the groundwater pollution. This study was carried out on data of a number of lysimeters which were installed along the A115 highway (Germany) with a mean daily traffic of 90.000 vehicles per day. Three polyethylene (PE) lysimeters were installed at the A115 highway. They have the following dimensions: length 150 cm, width 100 cm, height 60 cm. The lysimeters were filled with different soil materials, which were recently used for embankment construction in Germany. With the obtained data, we will develop a time series analysis model to predict total and dissolved metal concentration in road runoff and in soil solution of the roadside embankments. The time series consisted of monthly measurements of heavy metals and was transformed to a stationary situation. Subsequently, the transformed data will be used to conduct analyses in the time domain in order to obtain the parameters of a seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model. Four phase approaches for identifying and fitting ARIMA models will be used: identification, parameter estimation, diagnostic checking, and forecasting. An automatic selection criterion, such as the Akaike information criterion, will use to enhance this flexible approach to model building

  4. Diagnosing and managing common food allergies: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafen, Jennifer J Schneider; Newberry, Sydne J; Riedl, Marc A; Bravata, Dena M; Maglione, Margaret; Suttorp, Marika J; Sundaram, Vandana; Paige, Neil M; Towfigh, Ali; Hulley, Benjamin J; Shekelle, Paul G

    2010-05-12

    There is heightened interest in food allergies but no clear consensus exists regarding the prevalence or most effective diagnostic and management approaches to food allergies. To perform a systematic review of the available evidence on the prevalence, diagnosis, management, and prevention of food allergies. Electronic searches of PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Searches were limited to English-language articles indexed between January 1988 and September 2009. Diagnostic tests were included if they had a prospective, defined study population, used food challenge as a criterion standard, and reported sufficient data to calculate sensitivity and specificity. Systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for management and prevention outcomes were also used. For foods where anaphylaxis is common, cohort studies with a sample size of more than 100 participants were included. Two investigators independently reviewed all titles and abstracts to identify potentially relevant articles and resolved discrepancies by repeated review and discussion. Quality of systematic reviews and meta-analyses was assessed using the AMSTAR criteria, the quality of diagnostic studies using the QUADAS criteria most relevant to food allergy, and the quality of RCTs using the Jadad criteria. A total of 12,378 citations were identified and 72 citations were included. Food allergy affects more than 1% to 2% but less than 10% of the population. It is unclear if the prevalence of food allergies is increasing. Summary receiver operating characteristic curves comparing skin prick tests (area under the curve [AUC], 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.81-0.93) and serum food-specific IgE (AUC, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.78-0.91) to food challenge showed no statistical superiority for either test. Elimination diets are the mainstay of therapy but have been rarely studied

  5. Aerobiology and pollen allergy in Islamabad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, S [Allergy and Asthma Centre, Islamabad (Pakistan); Raza, S M [Rawalpindi Medical College, Rawalpindi (Pakistan); Khan, M A [Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Plant Sciences

    2009-10-15

    Pollen allergies affect a significant proportion of Islamabad residents. Many patients with pollen allergy Are hospitalized in Islamabad in spring (February to April), fall seasons (July to September) and after monsoons. To determine the type and concentration of airborne pollens causing allergic diseases in the susceptible patients in Islamabad. The study was conducted from January 2005 to December 2006 and Burkard Volumetric Spore Trap' provided by the World Allergy Organization was used. This spore trap was placed in the F-10 area of Islamabad and samples were collected on weekly basis during the whole study period. To obtain the sample, the spore trap drum was loaded with a strip of sticky tape every week. The sampled sticky tape was then collected each week at a specified time and replaced with a fresh strip of sticky tape, which was then collected next week. This cycle , continued for whole study period. From each sample seven permanent slides were made and mounted with gelevitol mounting media; The slides were then examined microscopically. A total of 702 individuals irrespective of age or gender were included in the study. Skin prick tests were performed for pollens using allergen extracts of Hollister-Steir, USA and the results were recorded. The two flowering seasons in Islamabad i.e., spring and fall caused maximum pollen allergies. The Broussonetia papyrifera (paper mulberry) tree in spring, and the Cannabis sativa (bhang) weed in the fall season, Produced the highest seasonal pollen counts. In the spring season of 2005, Broussonetia papyrifera produced the highest pollen count, (73%) of the total pollen count, with a maximum count of 1390 pollen/cu meter of air/hour on 20th of March, while in 2006, it accounted for 75% of the total pollen-count with a maximum count of 1430 pollen/cu meter of air/hour on 10th of March. in fall Season of 2005, Cannabis sativa produced maximum pollen counts of 85 pollens/cu meter of air/hr on 18th of August, while in 2006

  6. Aerobiology and pollen allergy in Islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, S.; Raza, S.M.; Khan, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Pollen allergies affect a significant proportion of Islamabad residents. Many patients with pollen allergy Are hospitalized in Islamabad in spring (February to April), fall seasons (July to September) and after monsoons. To determine the type and concentration of airborne pollens causing allergic diseases in the susceptible patients in Islamabad. The study was conducted from January 2005 to December 2006 and Burkard Volumetric Spore Trap' provided by the World Allergy Organization was used. This spore trap was placed in the F-10 area of Islamabad and samples were collected on weekly basis during the whole study period. To obtain the sample, the spore trap drum was loaded with a strip of sticky tape every week. The sampled sticky tape was then collected each week at a specified time and replaced with a fresh strip of sticky tape, which was then collected next week. This cycle , continued for whole study period. From each sample seven permanent slides were made and mounted with gelevitol mounting media; The slides were then examined microscopically. A total of 702 individuals irrespective of age or gender were included in the study. Skin prick tests were performed for pollens using allergen extracts of Hollister-Steir, USA and the results were recorded. The two flowering seasons in Islamabad i.e., spring and fall caused maximum pollen allergies. The Broussonetia papyrifera (paper mulberry) tree in spring, and the Cannabis sativa (bhang) weed in the fall season, Produced the highest seasonal pollen counts. In the spring season of 2005, Broussonetia papyrifera produced the highest pollen count, (73%) of the total pollen count, with a maximum count of 1390 pollen/cu meter of air/hour on 20th of March, while in 2006, it accounted for 75% of the total pollen-count with a maximum count of 1430 pollen/cu meter of air/hour on 10th of March. in fall Season of 2005, Cannabis sativa produced maximum pollen counts of 85 pollens/cu meter of air/hr on 18th of August, while in 2006

  7. Allergy and allergic mediators in tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Andrea

    2013-12-01

    The identification of inflammatory mediators in the tear fluid have been extensively used in ocular allergy to find either a 'disease marker', to better understand the immune mechanisms involved in the ocular surface inflammation, or to identify potential targets for therapeutic interventions. While the clinical characteristics allow a relatively convincing diagnosis of ocular allergic diseases, in the initial, non active phases, or in the chronic stages, the diagnosis may not be clear. Although not highly specific, total tear IgE can be measured with local tests by inserting a paper strip in the lower meniscus. The measurement of tear specific inflammatory markers, such as histamine, tryptase, ECP, IL-4, IL-5 and eotaxin, may be useful for the diagnosis or monitoring ocular allergy. New technologies such as multiplex bead assays, membrane-bound antibody array and proteomic techniques can characterize the distribution of a wide range of bioactive trace proteins in tears. Dozens of mediators, cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, angiogenic modulators, enzymes and inhibitors were thus identified in small tear samples using these techniques, providing the possible identification of specific biomarker for either specific disease or disease activity. However, to date, there is no a single specific laboratory test suitable for the diagnosis and monitoring of allergic conjunctivitis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The relationship of metals, bifenthrin, physical habitat metrics, grain size, total organic carbon, dissolved oxygen and conductivity to Hyalella sp. abundance in urban California streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Lenwood W; Anderson, Ronald D

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship between Hyalella sp. abundance in four urban California streams and the following parameters: (1) 8 bulk metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Hg, Ni, and Zn) and their associated sediment Threshold Effect Levels (TELs); (2) bifenthrin sediment concentrations; (3) 10 habitat metrics and total score; (4) grain size (% sand, silt and clay); (5) Total Organic Carbon (TOC); (6) dissolved oxygen; and (7) conductivity. California stream data used for this study were collected from Kirker Creek (2006 and 2007), Pleasant Grove Creek (2006, 2007 and 2008), Salinas streams (2009 and 2010) and Arcade Creek (2009 and 2010). Hyalella abundance in the four California streams generally declined when metals concentrations were elevated beyond the TELs. There was also a statistically significant negative relationship between Hyalella abundance and % silt for these 4 California streams as Hyalella were generally not present in silt areas. No statistically significant relationships were reported between Hyalella abundance and metals concentrations, bifenthrin concentrations, habitat metrics, % sand, % clay, TOC, dissolved oxygen and conductivity. The results from this study highlight the complexity of assessing which factors are responsible for determining the abundance of amphipods, such as Hyalella sp., in the natural environment.

  9. Severe forms of food allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Sarinho

    2017-11-01

    Conclusion: Severe food allergy may occur in the form of anaphylaxis and food‐protein‐induced enterocolitis syndrome, which are increasingly observed in the pediatric emergency room; hence, pediatricians must be alert so they can provide the immediate diagnosis and treatment.

  10. Diagnosis of Hymenoptera venom allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilo, BM; Rueff, F; Mosbech, H; Bonifazi, F; Oude Elberink, JNG

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of diagnostic procedure is to classify a sting reaction by history, identify the underlying pathogenetic mechanism, and identify the offending insect. Diagnosis of Hymenoptera venom allergy thus forms the basis for the treatment. In the central and northern Europe vespid (mainly Vespula

  11. [Inappropriate test methods in allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleine-Tebbe, J; Herold, D A

    2010-11-01

    Inappropriate test methods are increasingly utilized to diagnose allergy. They fall into two categories: I. Tests with obscure theoretical basis, missing validity and lacking reproducibility, such as bioresonance, electroacupuncture, applied kinesiology and the ALCAT-test. These methods lack both the technical and clinical validation needed to justify their use. II. Tests with real data, but misleading interpretation: Detection of IgG or IgG4-antibodies or lymphocyte proliferation tests to foods do not allow to separate healthy from diseased subjects, neither in case of food intolerance, allergy or other diagnoses. The absence of diagnostic specificity induces many false positive findings in healthy subjects. As a result unjustified diets might limit quality of life and lead to malnutrition. Proliferation of lymphocytes in response to foods can show elevated rates in patients with allergies. These values do not allow individual diagnosis of hypersensitivity due to their broad variation. Successful internet marketing, infiltration of academic programs and superficial reporting by the media promote the popularity of unqualified diagnostic tests; also in allergy. Therefore, critical observation and quick analysis of and clear comments to unqualified methods by the scientific medical societies are more important than ever.

  12. Latex allergy in health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Virtič

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasing use of natural rubber latex medical gloves in the last three decades has caused an increase in latex allergy. The majority of risk groups for allergy development include health care workers, workers in the rubber industry, atopic individuals and children with congenital malformations. Three types of pathological reactions can occur in people using latex medical gloves: irritant contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis and immediate hypersensitivity. The latex allergy is caused by constituent components of latex gloves and added powders; there are also numerous latex allergens involved in cross-reactivity between latex and fruits and vegetables, the so-called latex-fruit syndrome. The diagnosis is based on an accurate history of exposure, clinical presentation and confirmatory in vivo and in vitro tests. Prevention is the easiest, most effective and least expensive way to avoid latex allergy. Powder-free latex gloves with reduced levels of proteins and chemicals, and synthetic gloves for allergic workers must be provided in the work environment. There are already many health care institutions around the world where all latex products have been replaced by synthetic material products.

  13. [Contact allergy to henna tattoos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinkjer, Bjarte; Stangeland, Katarina Zak; Mikkelsen, Carsten Sauer

    2011-03-18

    Tattoos with henna colours have become very popular and the prevalence of contact allergy seems to increase. This is a short review article based on our own clinical experience and literature identified through a search in PubMed with the words "henna", "paraphenylendiamin" and "allergic contact dermatitis." A case report is included. It is well documented that many experience skin reactions after henna tattoos. The cause is almost always contact allergy to the azo compound paraphenylendiamin, which is added to speed up the process and make the colour darker. Most people, including children, get henna tattoos during vacations in Asia or the Mediterranean. Established contact allergy is permanent. Many hair-colour products contain paraphenylendiamin, and persons with contact allergy against the product may develop a very strong contact allergic eczema by use of such substances. Acute reactions are treated with local cortisone products, or with systemic steroids. Cross reaction to substances with a similar chemical structure may occur. Tattoos with paraphenylendiamin-containing henna colours should be avoided.

  14. Contact Allergy to Neem Oil.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Anton; Jagtman, Berend A; Woutersen, Marjolijn

    2018-01-01

    A case of allergic contact dermatitis from neem oil is presented. Neem oil (synonyms: Melia azadirachta seed oil [INCI name], nim oil, margosa oil) is a vegetable (fixed) oil obtained from the seed of the neem tree Azadirachta indica by cold pressing. Contact allergy to neem oil has been described

  15. Better use of allergy reagentia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nijhof, W.; Penders, T.

    1988-01-01

    In this article the use of the Phadiatoptest as a first screening for atopy is described. An allergy is developed. In this strategy unnecessary RAST for inhalation allergens is avoided. Reuse of the Phadiatoptest reagentia is possible but with a loss of result

  16. Japanese guidelines for food allergy 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebisawa, Motohiro; Ito, Komei; Fujisawa, Takao

    2017-04-01

    Five years have passed since the Japanese Pediatric Guideline for Food Allergy (JPGFA) was first revised in 2011 from its original version. As many scientific papers related to food allergy have been published during the last 5 years, the second major revision of the JPGFA was carried out in 2016. In this guideline, food allergies are generally classified into four clinical types: (1) neonatal and infantile gastrointestinal allergy, (2) infantile atopic dermatitis associated with food allergy, (3) immediate-type of food allergy (urticaria, anaphylaxis, etc.), and (4) special forms of immediate-type of food allergy such as food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis and oral allergy syndrome (OAS). Much of this guideline covers the immediate-type of food allergy that is seen during childhood to adolescence. Infantile atopic dermatitis associated with food allergy type is especially important as the onset of most food allergies occurs during infancy. We have discussed the neonatal and infantile gastrointestinal allergy and special forms of immediate type food allergy types separately. Diagnostic procedures are highlighted, such as probability curves and component-resolved diagnosis, including the recent advancement utilizing antigen-specific IgE. The oral food challenge using a stepwise approach is recommended to avoid complete elimination of causative foods. Although oral immunotherapy (OIT) has not been approved as a routine treatment by nationwide insurance, we included a chapter for OIT, focusing on efficacy and problems. Prevention of food allergy is currently the focus of interest, and many changes were made based on recent evidence. Finally, the contraindication between adrenaline and antipsychotic drugs in Japan was discussed among related medical societies, and we reached an agreement that the use of adrenaline can be allowed based on the physician's discretion. In conclusion, this guideline encourages physicians to follow the principle to let patients

  17. Latex allergy in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toraason, M; Sussman, G; Biagini, R; Meade, J; Beezhold, D; Germolec, D

    2000-11-01

    While less than 1% of the general population is sensitized to latex, the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration estimates that 8-12% of health-care workers are sensitized. The major source of workplace exposure is powdered natural rubber latex (NRL) gloves. NRL is harvested from HEVEA: brasiliensis trees and ammoniated to prevent coagulation resulting in the hydrolysis of the latex proteins. Prior to use in manufacturing, the latex is formulated by the addition of multiple chemicals. Thus, human exposure is to a mixture of residual chemicals and hydrolyzed latex peptides. Clinical manifestations include irritant contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis (type IV), and type I immediate hypersensitivity response. Type I (IgE-mediated) NRL allergy includes contact urticaria, systemic urticaria, angioedema, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, bronchospasm, and anaphylaxis. Taking an accurate history, including questions on atopic status, food allergy, and possible reactions to latex devices makes diagnosis of type-I latex allergy possible. To confirm a diagnosis, either in vivo skin prick testing (SPT) or in vitro assays for latex-specific IgE are performed. While the SPT is regarded as a primary confirmatory test for IgE-mediated disease, the absence of a U.S. Food and Drug Administration-licensed HEVEA: brasiliensis latex extract has restricted its use in diagnosis. Serological tests have, therefore, become critically important as alternative diagnostic tests. Three manufacturers currently have FDA clearance for in vitro tests, to detect NRL-specific IgE. The commercially available assays may disagree on the antibody status of an individual serum, which may be due to the assay's detecting anti-NRL IgEs to different allergenic NRL proteins. Sensitized individuals produce specific IgE antibody to at least 10 potent HEVEA: allergens, Hev b 1-Hev b 10, each of which differs in its structure, size, and net charge. The relative content and ratios of Hevs in the

  18. Total external reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of protein-metal ion interactions in biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikova, N. N.; Kovalchuk, M. V.; Yur'eva, E. A.; Konovalov, O. V.; Rogachev, A. V.; Stepina, N. D.; Sukhorukov, V. S.; Tsaregorodtsev, A. D.; Chukhrai, E. S.; Yakunin, S. N.

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation into hemoglobin-based protein films that were formed on a liquid surface. X-ray standing wave measurements were performed at the ID 10 beamline of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) and at the Langmuir station of the Kurchatov Synchrotron Radiation Source. It was found that the ability of the protein to bind metal ions is substantially increased due to the conformational rearrangements of protein macromolecules caused by various damaging effects. The elemental composition of protein preparations, which were isolated from children and adults with chronic metabolic diseases accompanied by endogenous intoxication, was analyzed. The results of the investigations offer evidence that an increase in the ligand-binding properties of the protein molecules, which was observed in model experiments using protein films, is a common trait and corresponds to in vivo processes accompanying metabolic disturbances in the body.

  19. Monitoring of total metal concentration in sludge samples: Case study for the mechanical–biological wastewater treatment plant in Velika Gorica, Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipović, Josip; Grčić, Ivana; Bermanec, Vladimir; Kniewald, Goran

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, monitoring of total metal concentration in sludge samples from wastewater treatment process is elaborated. The presented results summarize the analyses of sludge samples in a period from 2008 to 2012. Possible sources of pollutions are given. Primarily, waste solid samples were collected from different pretreatment steps: (A) coarse grid, (B) fine grid and (C) aerated sand grease grid. Samples of A and B followed a repeatable pattern in 2008 and 2010. According to the results from 2008, samples of C contained measurable concentration of the following metals (mg/kg dry matter): Zn (21), Ni (1.05) and Ba (14.9). Several types of sludge samples were analyzed: fresh raw sludge (PS; 6–12 hour old), the sludge from the digester for anaerobic sludge treatment (DS; 48–72 hour old), samples from lagoons where the sludge is temporarily deposited (DOS and DOSold; 30–120 days) and sludge samples from agricultural areas (AA; aged over 180 days). Additionally, samples of dehydrated sludge (DEHS and DEHSold; 90–180 days) were collected upon construction of equipment for sludge dehydration in 2011. An analysis of total metal concentrations for Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Ni, Hg, Cd, Ba, As, Se, Sb, Co, Mo, Fe and Mn was performed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The most recent results (year 2011) indicated a high concentration of heavy metals in PS samples, exceeding the MCLs (mg/kg dry matter): Cu (2122), Zn (5945), Hg (13.67) and Cd (6.29). In 2012 (until July), only a concentration of Cu exceeded MCL (928.75 and 1230.5 in DS and DEHS, respectively). A composition of sludge was variable through time, offering the limited possibility for future prediction. The sludge is being considered as a hazardous waste and a subject of discussion regarding disposal. - Highlights: ► Summarized 5-year monitoring data for heavy metals in sludge ► Partially determined sources of pollution by

  20. Monitoring of total metal concentration in sludge samples: Case study for the mechanical–biological wastewater treatment plant in Velika Gorica, Croatia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filipović, Josip [Town Office for Physical Planning and Environmental Protection, Velika Gorica County, Trg kralja Tomislava 34, 10410 Velika Gorica (Croatia); Grčić, Ivana, E-mail: igrcic@fkit.hr [Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, University of Zagreb Marulićev trg 19, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Bermanec, Vladimir [Institute of Mineralogy and Petrology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Horvatovac bb, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Kniewald, Goran [Division for Marine and Environmental Research, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, monitoring of total metal concentration in sludge samples from wastewater treatment process is elaborated. The presented results summarize the analyses of sludge samples in a period from 2008 to 2012. Possible sources of pollutions are given. Primarily, waste solid samples were collected from different pretreatment steps: (A) coarse grid, (B) fine grid and (C) aerated sand grease grid. Samples of A and B followed a repeatable pattern in 2008 and 2010. According to the results from 2008, samples of C contained measurable concentration of the following metals (mg/kg dry matter): Zn (21), Ni (1.05) and Ba (14.9). Several types of sludge samples were analyzed: fresh raw sludge (PS; 6–12 hour old), the sludge from the digester for anaerobic sludge treatment (DS; 48–72 hour old), samples from lagoons where the sludge is temporarily deposited (DOS and DOSold; 30–120 days) and sludge samples from agricultural areas (AA; aged over 180 days). Additionally, samples of dehydrated sludge (DEHS and DEHSold; 90–180 days) were collected upon construction of equipment for sludge dehydration in 2011. An analysis of total metal concentrations for Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Ni, Hg, Cd, Ba, As, Se, Sb, Co, Mo, Fe and Mn was performed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The most recent results (year 2011) indicated a high concentration of heavy metals in PS samples, exceeding the MCLs (mg/kg dry matter): Cu (2122), Zn (5945), Hg (13.67) and Cd (6.29). In 2012 (until July), only a concentration of Cu exceeded MCL (928.75 and 1230.5 in DS and DEHS, respectively). A composition of sludge was variable through time, offering the limited possibility for future prediction. The sludge is being considered as a hazardous waste and a subject of discussion regarding disposal. - Highlights: ► Summarized 5-year monitoring data for heavy metals in sludge ► Partially determined sources of pollution by

  1. Food Allergy 101 | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... issue contents Food Allergy 101 Follow us Food Allergy 101 What is a food allergy? In a person with a food allergy, the ... be life-threatening. What foods commonly cause an allergy? Foods that often cause allergic reactions in adults ...

  2. Nasal allergies in the Latin American population: results from the Allergies in Latin America survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neffen, Hugo; Mello, Joao F; Sole, Dirceu; Naspitz, Charles K; Dodero, Alberto Eduardo; Garza, Héctor León; Guerra, Edgard Novelo; Baez-Loyola, Carlos; Boyle, John M; Wingertzahn, Mark A

    2010-01-01

    Allergies in Latin America is the first cross-national survey that describes the symptoms, impact, and treatment of nasal allergies (NAs) in individuals >or=4 years old in Latin America (LA). In total, 22,012 households across the Latin American countries of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, and Venezuela were screened for children, adolescents, and adults with a diagnosis of NA and either symptoms or treatment in the past 12 months. A total of 1088 adults and 457 children and adolescents were included and the sample was probability based to ensure valid statistical inference to the population. Approximately 7% of the LA population was diagnosed with NAs with two of three respondents stating that their allergies were seasonal or intermittent in nature. A general practice physician or otolaryngologist diagnosed the majority of individuals surveyed. Nasal congestion was the most common and bothersome symptom of NAs. Sufferers indicated that their symptoms affected productivity and sleep and had a negative impact on quality of life. Two-thirds of patients reported taking some type of medication for their NAs, with a roughly equal percentage of patients reporting taking over-the-counter versus prescription medications. Changing medications was most commonly done in those reporting inadequate efficacy. The most common reasons cited for dissatisfaction with current medications were related to inadequate effectiveness, effectiveness wearing off with chronic use, failure to provide 24-hour relief, and bothersome side effects (e.g., unpleasant taste and retrograde drainage into the esophagus). Findings from this cross-national survey on NAs have confirmed a high prevalence of physician-diagnosed NAs and a considerable negative impact on daily quality of life and work productivity as well as substantial disease management challenges in LA. Through identification of disease impact on the LA population and further defining treatment gaps, clinicians in

  3. Post-transplantation Development of Food Allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Erik N; Firszt, Rafael

    2018-01-29

    The development of food allergies is increasingly being recognized as a post-solid organ transplant complication. In this article, we review the spectrum of post-transplant food allergy development and the proposed mechanisms for de novo food allergies and the clinical significance they pose. The development of new food allergies is disproportionately associated with pediatric liver transplants, where it occurs in up to 38% of select populations. The mechanism of food allergy development is not completely understood; however, it is likely promoted by unbalanced immune suppression. De novo food allergy development is a common complication of solid organ transplants with the highest risk occurring in pediatric liver transplant recipients. There are likely multiple mechanisms for food allergy development including passive transfer of membrane-bound IgE and lymphocytes from donor to recipient, as well as loss of food tolerance and active development of new food allergies. The optimal management of food allergies following organ transplants has not been well researched but may include changing the immune suppression regimen if the food allergy does not resolve without intervention.

  4. Evaluation of heavy metals in atmospheric emissions from automotive industry by total reflection X-ray fluorescence with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Silvana; Weber Neto, Jose; Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de

    2009-01-01

    This study had as goal to determine heavy metals and other elements (Ba, Br, Ca, Pb, Cl, Cr, Sr, Fe, Mn, Ni, K, Si, Ti and Zn) in atmospheric pollutants generated by an automotive industry located in the city of Engenheiro Coelho, state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The sampling and sample preparation procedures were based on methods established by the Company of Sanitation and Technology (CETESB L9.234) and also by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA - Method 29). The analysis was performed at XRF Beamline (D09B-XRF) in the Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory (Campinas/SP). A white beam of synchrotron radiation was used for sample and standard excitation which were irradiated by 100 seconds. For X-ray lines detection, a Ge (HP) detector with 150 eV of resolution at 5.9 keV was employed. For zinc, iron, barium, calcium and potassium, the values obtained were in the range of 30 mg/Nm 3 and, for other elements, the concentrations were approximately 1 mg/Nm 3 . The sum of As, Be, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Te and Zn concentration was compared with the limits established by CONAMA 264/1999 and SEMA 041/2002 resolutions (7.0 mg/Nm 3 ) and it was observed that, for all samples, sums are higher than the permissive value mainly due to the high concentration of zinc. Detection limits for SR-TXRF technique were 0.10 μg/Nm 3 for Pb and 0.02 μg/Nm 3 for Zn. (author)

  5. Evaluation of heavy metals in atmospheric emissions from automotive industry by total reflection X-ray fluorescence with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Silvana; Weber Neto, Jose, E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.b [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo. Dept. de Saneamento e Ambiente; Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de, E-mail: aesvives@unimep.b [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo

    2009-07-01

    This study had as goal to determine heavy metals and other elements (Ba, Br, Ca, Pb, Cl, Cr, Sr, Fe, Mn, Ni, K, Si, Ti and Zn) in atmospheric pollutants generated by an automotive industry located in the city of Engenheiro Coelho, state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The sampling and sample preparation procedures were based on methods established by the Company of Sanitation and Technology (CETESB L9.234) and also by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA - Method 29). The analysis was performed at XRF Beamline (D09B-XRF) in the Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory (Campinas/SP). A white beam of synchrotron radiation was used for sample and standard excitation which were irradiated by 100 seconds. For X-ray lines detection, a Ge (HP) detector with 150 eV of resolution at 5.9 keV was employed. For zinc, iron, barium, calcium and potassium, the values obtained were in the range of 30 mg/Nm{sup 3} and, for other elements, the concentrations were approximately 1 mg/Nm{sup 3}. The sum of As, Be, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Te and Zn concentration was compared with the limits established by CONAMA 264/1999 and SEMA 041/2002 resolutions (7.0 mg/Nm{sup 3}) and it was observed that, for all samples, sums are higher than the permissive value mainly due to the high concentration of zinc. Detection limits for SR-TXRF technique were 0.10 mug/Nm{sup 3} for Pb and 0.02 mug/Nm{sup 3} for Zn. (author)

  6. Impact of maternal allergy and use of probiotics during pregnancy on breast milk cytokines and food antibodies and development of allergy in children until 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuitunen, Mikael; Kukkonen, Anna Kaarina; Savilahti, Erkki

    2012-01-01

    Whether breast milk (BM) can protect against allergy has been studied extensively, with conflicting results. Variations in mothers' BM composition may explain some of the conflicting results. Our aim was to assess the impact of maternal allergy and probiotic intervention on BM food antibodies, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β(2) and interleukin (IL)-10 and their impact on allergy development in children until the ages of 2 and 5. We measured total IgA, IgA antibodies to cow's milk (CM), casein, β-lactoglobulin and ovalbumin (OVA), TGF-β(2) and IL-10 in 364 colostrum samples and 321 BM samples taken at 3 months from mothers participating in a prospective study evaluating the allergy-preventive effect of probiotics in a cohort with an increased risk for allergy. CM, casein and OVA antibodies, TGF-β(2) and IL-10 were detectable in most samples. Maternal allergy was associated with raised levels of IgA to casein (p = 0.04) and lower levels of TGF-β(2) (p = 0.006) in mature BM. Probiotic supplementation was associated with increased IL-10 (p = 0.046) and decreased casein IgA antibodies (p = 0.027) in mature BM. High OVA IgA antibodies in colostrum were associated with the development of atopy by the age of 2, while low levels in mature BM were a significant risk factor for the development of eczema by the age of 2. TGF-β(2) levels in BM constituted a risk for development of allergy by the age of 2. The immunologic composition of BM was only slightly affected by maternal atopy and could be altered by probiotic supplementation. Small effects of BM components on allergy development in children were evident. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Contact allergy to isoeugenol and its derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanaka, Susumu; Royds, C; Buckley, Christopher D

    2004-01-01

    A total of 2261 (808 male, 1453 female) consecutive patients attending contact dermatitis clinics were patch tested to isoeugenol and its derivatives listed in the EU Inventory of Fragrance Ingredients. Positive reactions were found to isoeugenol in 40, transisoeugenol in 40, isoeugenyl acetate...... and 15/16 of those to isoeugenyl phenylacetate but in none of those 6 positive to isoeugenyl methyl ether and in neither of those 2 positive to benzyl isoeugenyl ether. Concomitant contact allergy between isoeugenol and its derivatives may occur through chemical cross-reactivity or local skin metabolism...... of the derivatives. It is more commonly observed with the esters rather than the ethers. Isoeugenyl acetate has been proposed as an alternative to isoeugenol, but there is a high degree of concomitant reactivity with isoeugenol....

  8. A survey of inpatient practitioner knowledge of penicillin allergy at 2 community teaching hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staicu, Mary L; Soni, Dipekka; Conn, Kelly M; Ramsey, Allison

    2017-07-01

    The negative effect of the penicillin allergy label on antibiotic use and patient outcomes has brought to light the need for thorough penicillin allergy assessments and heightened practitioner education. To evaluate practitioner knowledge of penicillin allergy and the clinical approach to the patients with penicillin allergy. An electronic survey was distributed to attending physicians, residents, pharmacists, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants practicing adult inpatient medicine at 2 community-based teaching hospitals from February to April 2016. A total of 276 (39%) of 716 practitioners completed surveys were analyzed. Most respondents were attending physicians (45%) with more than 10 years of experience (53%). Approximately half of the respondents indicated that they were unfamiliar with the rate of cross-reactivity between penicillin and cephalosporin (46%), carbapenem (42%), and monobactam (48%) antibiotics. When evaluating the role of penicillin skin testing and temporary induction of drug tolerance in the case vignettes, only 41% and 19% of respondents appropriately considered these options as the leading antibiotic management plan, respectively. Despite acknowledging the need for allergy/immunology consultation in clinical scenarios, 86% of respondents indicated that they never consult an allergist or immunologist or do so only once per year. Overall, pharmacists had a better understanding of the natural history of penicillin allergy and antibiotic cross-reactivity (P penicillin allergy in the hospital setting, where collaborative efforts between allergy and nonallergy health care practitioners are sparse. The expansion of a multidisciplinary approach may optimize antimicrobial prescribing in this subset of patients. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Peanut allergy as a family project: social relations and transitions in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stensgaard, Anette; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten; Nielsen, Dorthe

    2017-11-01

    To explore and better understand the impact that peanut allergy can have on family experiences in everyday life through interviews with individual family members. Peanut allergy affects adolescents' quality of life through the need to avoid eating peanut-containing food and the risk of anaphylaxis. Adolescence is a period of increasing separation from parents and has the highest risk of food fatalities. A qualitative interview study taking a phenomenological-hermeneutical approach. Data were generated through semi-structured individual interviews with the adolescent with peanut allergy, and both parents and a sibling. Five families were interviewed, with 20 participants in total. The theoretical foundation was the family as an interactive system, and data were analysed with Ricoeur's theory of interpretation. The consequences of peanut allergy appeared to affect all family members and required knowledge and understanding, especially in the social network. Siblings took responsibility and had concerns for the well-being of the adolescent with allergy, while parents expressed difficulties with their child's transition to independence and their subsequent loss of control. Social relations with new family members or friends were challenged by lack of knowledge about the potential seriousness of peanut allergy. Risk and uncertainty were permanent companions for the adolescents with peanut allergy and their families. It takes time to acquire the necessary understanding about peanut allergy and the risk of anaphylaxis. The adolescent's social network also needs this knowledge during the transition to independent living. In the management of peanut allergy in adolescence, it is important to consider not only the smaller biological family unit (mothers, fathers and siblings) but to also take a wider perspective to include others such as stepfamily and friends. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Patterns of suspected wheat-related allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junker Christensen, Morten; Eller, Esben; Mortz, Charlotte G

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allergy to wheat can present clinically in different forms: Sensitization to ingested wheat via the gastrointestinal tract can cause traditional food allergy or in combination with exercise, Wheat-Dependent Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis (WDEIA). Sensitization to inhaled wheat flour may......). All children had atopic dermatitis, and most (13/15) outgrew their wheat allergy. Most children (13/15) had other food allergies. Challenge positive patients showed significantly higher levels of sIgE to wheat and significantly more were SPT positive than challenge negative. Group 2: Eleven out of 13...... of sIgE to ω-5-gliadin. The natural course is presently unknown. CONCLUSION: Wheat allergy can manifest in different disease entities, rendering a detailed case history and challenge mandatory. Patient age, occupation, concomitant allergies (food or inhalant) and atopic dermatitis are important factors...

  11. Risk Management for Food Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risk Management for Food Allergy is developed by a team of scientists and industry professionals who understand the importance of allergen risk assessment and presents practical, real-world guidance for food manufacturers. With more than 12 million Americans suffering from food allergies and little...... appropriate "safe" thresholds of ingredients, the food industry must take increasingly proactive steps to avoid direct or cross-contamination as well as ensuring that their products are appropriately labeled and identified for those at risk. This book covers a range of critical topics in this area, including...... indication of what is causing that number to continue to grow, food producers, packagers and distributors need to appropriately process, label and deliver their products to ensure the safety of customers with allergic conditions. By identifying risk factors during processing as well as determining...

  12. Fish allergy and fish allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuehn, A; Hilger, Christiane; Ollert, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Fish is one of the main elicitors for food allergies. For a long time, the clinical picture of fish allergy was reduced to the following features. First, fish-allergic patients suffer from a high IgE cross-reactivity among fishes so that they have to avoid all species. Second, clinically relevant...... symptoms are linked to the presence of IgE-antibodies recognizing parvalbumin, the fish panallergen. This view was challenged by results from recent studies as follows. 1. Allergic reactions which are limited to single or several fish species (mono-or oligosensitisations) apply not only to single cases...... but patients with this phenotype constitute an important sub-group among fish-allergic individuals. 2. Newly identified fish allergens, enolases, aldolases, and fish gelatin, are of high relevance as the majority of the fish-allergic individuals seem to develop specific IgE against these proteins. The present...

  13. Clinical update on contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uter, Wolfgang; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Orton, David I

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this article is to review recent findings in contact allergy, regarding clinical research. RECENT FINDINGS: The biocide methyldibromo glutaronitrile was identified to be an important sensitizer. Subsequently, it was banned from leave-on cosmetics in the European Union....... Another group of important allergens that have been studied extensively included the fragrances oak moss absolute, isoeugenol, hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde and farnesol. A new fragrance mix II has been developed for standard testing, which includes the two latter compounds. Dose response...... a classification of newly introduced chemicals; increasingly, the local lymph node assay is supplementing and potentially replacing the guinea pig maximization test. Recent advances in occupational contact allergy include, for example, some attempts to improve diagnostics for epoxy resin and other plastic, glue...

  14. [Diagnostic workup of fragrance allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, J; Uter, W

    2015-09-01

    The diagnostic workup of contact allergy to fragrances must not be limited to patch testing with the two well-established fragrance mixes. False-positive reactions to these mixes occur in up to 50 % of the patch tested patients. For the diagnostic work-up of positive reactions, and in cases of suspected fragrance allergy, patch testing with the single mix components and additional fragrances is mandatory. Frequently sensitizing fragrance materials are the 14 components of the two fragrance mixes and tree moss (Evernia furfuracea), ylang ylang oil (I + II; Cananga odorata), lemongrass oil (Cymbopogon schoenanthus), sandalwood oil (Santalum album), jasmine absolute (Jasminum spp.), and, less frequently, clove oil (Eugenia caryophyllus), cedarwood oil (Cedrus atlantica/deodara, Juniperus virginiana), Neroli oil (Citrus aurantium amara flower oil), salicylaldehyde, narcissus absolute (Narcissus spp.), and patchouli oil (Pogostemon cablin).

  15. Allergy and asthma prevention 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieto, Antonio; Wahn, Ulrich; Bufe, Albrecht

    2014-01-01

    Asthma and allergic diseases have become one of the epidemics of the 21st century in developed countries. Much of the success of other areas of medicine, such as infectious diseases, lies on preventive measures. Thus, much effort is also being placed lately in the prevention of asthma and allergy....... This manuscript reviews the current evidence, divided into four areas of activity. Interventions modifying environmental exposure to allergens have provided inconsistent results, with multifaceted interventions being more effective in the prevention of asthma. Regarding nutrition, the use of hydrolyzed formulas...... that antiviral vaccines could be useful in the future. Allergen-specific immunotherapy is effective for the treatment of allergic patients with symptoms; the study of its value for primary and secondary prevention of asthma and allergy is in its very preliminary phases. The lack of success in the prevention...

  16. Managing Your Seasonal Allergies | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Seasonal Allergies Managing Your Seasonal Allergies Past Issues / Spring 2015 Table of Contents Allergic ... and avoid collecting pollen on them. Fast Facts Allergies are reactions of your immune system to one ...

  17. Feature: Controlling Seasonal Allergies | NIH Medlineplus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Seasonal Allergies Controlling Seasonal Allergies Past Issues / Spring 2012 Table of Contents In ... to allergens, helping to prevent allergic reactions. Seasonal Allergy Research at NIH Allergen and T-Cell Reagent ...

  18. Temporal trends of preservative allergy in Denmark (1985-2008)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Engkilde, Kåre; Lundov, Michael D

    2010-01-01

    Most cosmetics and industrial products contain preservatives. Preservative allergy is common and, historically, changing contact allergy epidemics caused by preservatives have been observed. In 1997, Alan Dillarstone predicted a stable development of preservative allergy following mandatory...

  19. Cold, Flu, or Allergy? Know the Difference for Best Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... October 2014 Print this issue Cold, Flu, or Allergy? Know the Difference for Best Treatment En español ... Peanut Allergy Therapy Wise Choices Cold, Flu, or Allergy? Treatment depends on which you have. A health ...

  20. Allergy Diagnosis and Treatment | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Managing Allergies Allergy Diagnosis and Treatment Past Issues / Spring 2013 Table of Contents Diagnosis Testing for Allergies Knowing exactly what you are allergic to can ...

  1. Allergy Blood Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/allergybloodtest.html Allergy Blood Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is an Allergy Blood Test? Allergies are a common and chronic ...

  2. Genetics of allergy and allergic sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønnelykke, Klaus; Sparks, Rachel; Waage, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    information about shared genetics between allergy, related phenotypes and autoimmunity. Studies of monogenic diseases have elucidated critical cellular pathways and protein functions responsible for allergy. These complementary approaches imply genetic mechanisms involved in Th2 immunity, T......Our understanding of the specific genetic lesions in allergy has improved in recent years due to identification of common risk variants from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and studies of rare, monogenic diseases. Large-scale GWAS have identified novel susceptibility loci and provided...

  3. Managing Food Allergies at School: School Administrators

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-15

    This podcast highlights the importance of ensuring that comprehensive school plans are in place to manage food allergies. It also identifies some key actions school administrators can take to support students with food allergies, and highlights CDC food allergy resources for schools.  Created: 1/15/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/15/2015.

  4. Managing Food Allergies at School: School Superintendents

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-13

    This podcast highlights the importance of ensuring that comprehensive school district plans are in place to manage food allergies. It also identifies some key actions school superintendents can take to support students with food allergies, and highlights CDC food allergy resources for schools.  Created: 1/13/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/20/2015.

  5. Stress and food allergy: mechanistic considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Schreier, Hannah M.C.; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have seen a marked increase in food allergy prevalence among children, particularly in Western countries, that cannot be explained by genetic factors alone. This has resulted in an increased effort to identify environmental risk factors underlying food allergies and to understand how these factors may be modified through interventions. Food allergy is an immune-mediated adverse reaction to food. Consequently, considerations of candidate risk factors have begun to focus on environ...

  6. Food Allergy and Attentional Coping in Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Gauchel, Jessica A.

    2017-01-01

    Food allergy affects approximately 9 million adults in the Unites States. The only medically approved treatment is avoidance of the allergenic food. Research has found food allergy to be associated with anxiety, depression, and lower quality of life, but has primarily focused on children. Little research has explored these associations in adults, and even less has examined the relationship between coping and food allergy in adults. Attentional coping is associated with ongoing symptom managem...

  7. Contact allergy epidemics and their controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Menné, Torkil

    2007-01-01

    Contact dermatitis can be severe and lead to sick leave as well as significant healthcare expenses. The aim of this review is to present the published knowledge on 6 historical epidemics of contact allergy to apply this knowledge on the prevention and control of future contact allergy epidemics. ...... to prevent contact allergy epidemics. It is essential that dermatologist, scientists, administrators, and consumers organize and structure known methods to accelerate the control of emerging contact allergens....

  8. Blood histamine release: A new allergy blood test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faraj, B.A.; Gottlieb, G.R.; Camp, V.M.; Lollies, P.

    1985-01-01

    Allergen-mediated histamine release from human leukocytes represents an important model for in vitro studies of allergic reactions. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the measurement of histamine released in allergic patients (pts) by radioenzymatic assay following mixing of their blood with common allergens represents a reliable index for diagnosis of atopic allergy. Three categories of allergies were used: (1) housedust and mite; (2) cat and dog dander; (3) trees and grasses and ragweed mixture. The presence of allergy was established by intradermal skin testing in the study group of 82 pts. Significant atopy was defined as ≥ 3+ (overall range 0-4 +, negative to maximum) on skin testing. The test was carried out in tubes with 0.5 ml heparinized blood, 0.5 ml tris albumin buffer, and one of the allergens (60-100 PNU/ml). In 20 controls without allergy, there always was ≤ 4% histamine release (normal response). A significant allergen-mediated histamine release, ranging from 12 to 30% of the total blood histamine content, was observed in 96% of the pts with skin test sensitivity of ≥ 3+. There was good agreement between skin testing and histamine release in terms of the allergen causing the response. Thus, measurement of histamine release in blood in response to allergen challenge represents a clinically useful in vitro test for the diagnosis of atopic allergy. Because data can be obtained from a single sample and are highly quantitative, this new method should have application to the longitudinal study of allergic pts and to the assessment of interventions

  9. Microbiome/microbiota and allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yuzaburo; Shimojo, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    Allergies are characterized by a hypersensitive immune reaction to originally harmless antigens. In recent decades, the incidence of allergic diseases has markedly increased, especially in developed countries. The increase in the frequency of allergic diseases is thought to be primarily due to environmental changes related to a westernized lifestyle, which affects the commensal microbes in the human body. The human gut is the largest organ colonized by bacteria and contains more than 1000 bacterial species, called the "gut microbiota." The recent development of sequencing technology has enabled researchers to genetically investigate and clarify the diversity of all species of commensal microbes. The collective genomes of commensal microbes are together called the "microbiome." Although the detailed mechanisms remain unclear, it has been proposed that the microbiota/microbiome, especially that in the gut, impacts the systemic immunity and metabolism, thus affecting the development of various immunological diseases, including allergies. In this review, we summarize the recent findings regarding the importance of the microbiome/microbiota in the development of allergic diseases and also the results of interventional studies using probiotics or prebiotics to prevent allergies.

  10. Active treatment for food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobernick, Aaron K; Burks, A Wesley

    2016-10-01

    Food allergy has grown in rapidly in prevalence, currently affecting 5% of adults and 8% of children. Management strategy is currently limited to 1) food avoidance and 2) carrying and using rescue intramuscular epinephrine/adrenaline and oral antihistamines in the case of accidental ingestion; there is no FDA approved treatment. Recently, oral, sublingual and epicutaneous immunotherapy have been developed as active treatment of food allergy, though none have completed phase 3 study. Efficacy and safety studies of immunotherapy have been variable, though there is clearly signal that immunotherapy will be a viable option to desensitize patients. The use of bacterial adjuvants, anti-IgE monoclonal antibodies, and Chinese herbal formulations either alone or in addition to immunotherapy may hold promise as future options for active treatment. Active prevention of food allergy through early introduction of potentially offending foods in high-risk infants will be an important means to slow the rising incidence of sensitization. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Recent advances in food allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Julio Caruso Alcocer

    Full Text Available Summary Food allergy is a public health issue that has significantly increased worldwide in the past decade, affecting consumers’ quality of life and making increasing demands on health service resources. Despite recent advances in many areas of diagnosis and treatment, our general knowledge of the basic mechanisms of the disease remain limited i.e., not at pace with the exponential number of new cases and the explosion of new technologies. Many important key questions remain: What defines a major allergen? Why do some individuals develop food allergies and others do not? Which are the environmental factors? Could the environmental factors be monitored through epigenetics or modified by changes in the microbiome? Can tolerance to food be induced? Why are some foods more likely to trigger allergies than others? Does the route and timing of exposure have any role on sensitization? These and many other related questions remain unanswered. In this short review some of these topics are addressed in the light of recent advances in the area.

  12. Allergies Galore! Managing Allergies Is More Than a Call to 911.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Cassandra; Rebull, Helen

    2002-01-01

    Food allergies can kill a child, and camp offers many opportunities for things to go wrong. One camp with many allergic campers gathered information from parents on the extent of allergies and medications needed; educated staff about the seriousness of allergies, food preparation procedures, and snacks; and prepared an emergency plan. Family,…

  13. EAACI food allergy and anaphylaxis guidelines: diagnosis and management of food allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muraro, A.; Werfel, T.; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K.; Roberts, G.; Beyer, K.; Bindslev-Jensen, C.; Cardona, V.; Dubois, A.; duToit, G.; Eigenmann, P.; Fernandez Rivas, M.; Halken, S.; Hickstein, L.; Høst, A.; Knol, E.; Lack, G.; Marchisotto, M. J.; Niggemann, B.; Nwaru, B. I.; Papadopoulos, N. G.; Poulsen, L. K.; Santos, A. F.; Skypala, I.; Schoepfer, A.; van Ree, R.; Venter, C.; Worm, M.; Vlieg-Boerstra, B.; Panesar, S.; de Silva, D.; Soares-Weiser, K.; Sheikh, A.; Ballmer-Weber, B. K.; Nilsson, C.; de Jong, N. W.; Akdis, C. A.

    2014-01-01

    Food allergy can result in considerable morbidity, impact negatively on quality of life, and prove costly in terms of medical care. These guidelines have been prepared by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology's (EAACI) Guidelines for Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Group, building on

  14. EAACI Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Guidelines: managing patients with food allergy in the community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muraro, A.; Agache, I.; Clark, A.; Sheikh, A.; Roberts, G.; Akdis, C. A.; Borrego, L. M.; Higgs, J.; Hourihane, J. O.'B.; Jorgensen, P.; Mazon, A.; Parmigiani, D.; Said, M.; Schnadt, S.; van Os-Medendorp, H.; Vlieg-Boerstra, B. J.; Wickman, M.

    2014-01-01

    The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Guidelines, managing patients with food allergy (FA) in the community, intend to provide guidance to reduce the risk of accidental allergic reactions to foods in the community. This document is intended to

  15. EAACI Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Guidelines : Food allergy health-related quality of life measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muraro, A.; Dubois, Anthony; DunnGalvin, A.; Hourihane, J. O'B.; de Jong, N. W.; Meyer, R.; Panesar, S. S.; Roberts, G.; Salvilla, S.; Sheikh, A.; Worth, A.; Flokstra-de Blok, B. M. J.

    Instruments have been developed and validated for the measurement of health-related quality of life in patients with food allergy. This guideline has been prepared by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology's (EAACI) Guidelines for Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Group. It draws on a

  16. Standardized testing with chlorhexidine in perioperative allergy – a large single-centre evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjørring Opstrup, Morten; Malling, Hans-Jørgen; Krøigaard, Mogens

    2014-01-01

    the diameter of negative control. Chlorhexidine allergy was post hoc defined as a relevant clinical reaction to chlorhexidine combined with two or more positive tests. Based on this definition, sensitivity and specificity were estimated for each test. RESULTS: In total, 22 out of 228 patients (9.6%) met...... the definition of allergy to chlorhexidine. Estimated sensitivity and specificity: specific IgE (sensitivity 100% and specificity 97%), HR (sensitivity 55% and specificity 99%), SPT (sensitivity 95% and specificity 97%) and IDT (sensitivity 68% and specificity 100%). CONCLUSIONS: In patients investigated...... for suspected perioperative allergic reactions, 9.6% were diagnosed with allergy to chlorhexidine. Using our definition of chlorhexidine allergy, the highest combined estimated sensitivity and specificity was found for specific IgE and SPT. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  17. Japanese Guideline for Food Allergy 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urisu, Atsuo; Ebisawa, Motohiro; Ito, Komei; Aihara, Yukoh; Ito, Setsuko; Mayumi, Mitsufumi; Kohno, Yoichi; Kondo, Naomi

    2014-09-01

    A food allergy is defined as "a phenomenon in which adverse reactions are caused through antigen-specific immunological mechanisms after exposure to given food." Various symptoms of food allergy occur in many organs. Food allergies are classified roughly into 4 clinical types: (1) neonatal and infantile gastrointestinal allergy, (2) infantile atopic dermatitis associated with food allergy, (3) immediate-type food allergy (urticaria, anaphylaxis, etc.), and (4) food dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis and oral allergy syndrome (i.e., specific forms of immediate food allergy). The therapy for food allergies includes treatment of and prophylactic measures against hypersensitivity such as anaphylaxis. A fundamental prophylactic measure is the elimination diet. However, elimination diets should be used only if necessary because of the patient-related burden. For this purpose, it is very important that causative foods be accurately identified. There are a number of means available to identify causative foods, including the history taking, a skin prick test, detection of antigen-specific IgE antibodies in the blood, the basophil histamine release test, the elimination diet test, and the oral challenge test, etc. Of these, the oral challenge test is the most reliable. However, it should be conducted under the supervision of experienced physicians because it may cause adverse reactions, such as anaphylaxis.

  18. Immunotherapy in allergy and cellular tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirumbolo, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    The basophil activation test (BAT) is an in vitro assay where the activation of basophils upon exposure to various IgE-challenging molecules is measured by flow cytometry. It is a cellular test able to investigate basophil behavior during allergy and allergy immunotherapy. A panoply of critical issues and suggestive advances have rendered this assay a promising yet puzzling tool to endeavor a full comprehension of innate immunity of allergy desensitization and manage allergen or monoclonal anti-IgE therapy. In this review a brief state of art of BAT in immunotherapy is described focusing onto the analytical issue pertaining BAT performance in allergy specific therapy. PMID:24717453

  19. US antibiotic stewardship and penicillin allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Kara J; Calhoun, Karen H

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this review is to improve otolaryngologists' antibiotic stewardship by detailing current approaches to penicillin allergy. Although up to 15% of hospitalized patients in the United States have a penicillin allergy recorded on their charts, fewer than 10% of these have a true penicillin allergy. Using a combination of a detailed allergy history, skin testing and graded-dose administration, many patients whose charts say 'penicillin-allergic' can safely be treated with penicillin and cross-reacting antibiotics. This permits use of narrower-spectrum antibiotics and saves money.

  20. Systematic review on cashew nut allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Valk, J P M; Dubois, A E J; Gerth van Wijk, R; Wichers, H J; de Jong, N W

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies on cashew nut allergy suggest that the prevalence of cashew nut allergy is increasing. Cashew nut consumption by allergic patients can cause severe reactions, including anaphylaxis. This review summarizes current knowledge on cashew nut allergy to facilitate timely clinical recognition and to promote awareness of this emerging food allergy amongst clinicians. The goal of this study is to present a systematic review focused on the clinical aspects of allergy to cashew nut including the characteristics of cashew nut, the prevalence, allergenic components, cross-reactivity, diagnosis and management of cashew nut allergy. The literature search yielded 255 articles of which 40 met our selection criteria and were considered to be relevant for this review. The 40 articles included one prospective study, six retrospective studies and seven case reports. The remaining 26 papers were not directly related to cashew nut allergy. The literature suggests that the prevalence of cashew nut allergy is increasing, although the level of evidence for this is low. A minimal amount of cashew nut allergen may cause a severe allergic reaction, suggesting high potency comparable with other tree nuts and peanuts. Cashew allergy is clearly an underestimated important healthcare problem, especially in children. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The epidemiology of contact allergy. Allergen exposure and recent trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, J P

    2009-01-01

    that the prevalence of nickel allergy is decreasing among young women whereas the prevalence of cobalt allergy remains stable. The prevalence of chromium allergy is currently increasing significantly in both sexes, mainly as a result of leather exposure. The epidemiology of fragrance allergy is changing...... high whereas the prevalence of methyldibromo glutaronitrile allergy has decreased following regulatory intervention. Finally, the prevalence of thiuram allergy is decreasing as a result of improved rubber glove production....

  2. Allergy Testing in Children With Low-Risk Penicillin Allergy Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyles, David; Adams, Juan; Chiu, Asriani; Simpson, Pippa; Nimmer, Mark; Brousseau, David C

    2017-08-01

    Penicillin allergy is commonly reported in the pediatric emergency department (ED). True penicillin allergy is rare, yet the diagnosis results from the denial of first-line antibiotics. We hypothesize that all children presenting to the pediatric ED with symptoms deemed to be low-risk for immunoglobulin E-mediated hypersensitivity will return negative results for true penicillin allergy. Parents of children aged 4 to 18 years old presenting to the pediatric ED with a history of parent-reported penicillin allergy completed an allergy questionnaire. A prespecified 100 children categorized as low-risk on the basis of reported symptoms completed penicillin allergy testing by using a standard 3-tier testing process. The percent of children with negative allergy testing results was calculated with a 95% confidence interval. Five hundred ninety-seven parents completed the questionnaire describing their child's reported allergy symptoms. Three hundred two (51%) children had low-risk symptoms and were eligible for testing. Of those, 100 children were tested for penicillin allergy. The median (interquartile range) age at testing was 9 years (5-12). The median (interquartile range) age at allergy diagnosis was 1 year (9 months-3 years). Rash (97 [97%]) and itching (63 [63%]) were the most commonly reported allergy symptoms. Overall, 100 children (100%; 95% confidence interval 96.4%-100%) were found to have negative results for penicillin allergy and had their labeled penicillin allergy removed from their medical record. All children categorized as low-risk by our penicillin allergy questionnaire were found to have negative results for true penicillin allergy. The utilization of this questionnaire in the pediatric ED may facilitate increased use of first-line penicillin antibiotics. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. Long-term observation of water-soluble chemical components and acid-digested metals in the total suspended particles collected at Okinawa, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, D.; Okada, K.; Kuroki, Y.; Nakama, Y.; Nakajima, H.; Somada, Y.; Ijyu, M.; Azechi, S.; Oshiro, Y.; Nakaema, F.; Miyagi, Y.; Arakaki, T.; Tanahara, A.

    2011-12-01

    The economic growth and population increase in recent Asia have been increasing air pollution. Emission rate of air pollutants from Asia, in particular oxides of nitrogen, surpassed those from North America and Europe and should continue to exceed them for decades. Okinawa Island is situated approximately 1500 km south of Tokyo, Japan, 2000 km southeast of Beijing, China, and 1000 km south of South Korea. Its location is ideal in observing East Asia's air quality because maritime air mass prevails during summer, while continental air mass dominates during fall, winter, and spring. The maritime air mass data can be seen as background clean air and can be compared with continental air masses which have been affected by anthropogenic activities. We collected total suspended particles (TSP) on quartz filters by using a high volume air sampler at the Cape Hedo Atmosphere and Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS), Okinawa, Japan during August 2005 and August 2010. Sampling duration was one week for each sample. We determined the concentrations of water-soluble anions, cations, water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and acid-digested metals in TSP samples using ion chromatography, atomic absorption spectrometry, total organic carbon analyzer and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), respectively. Seasonal variation of water-soluble chemical components and acid-digested metals showed that the concentrations were the lowest in summer, higher in fall and winter, and the highest in spring. When air mass came from Asian continent, the concentrations of water-soluble chemical components and acid-digested metals were much higher compared to the other directions, suggesting long-range transport of air pollutants from Asian continent. Also, when the air mass came from Asian continent (75-100% dominant), the mean concentrations of non-sea salt sulfate and nitrate increased ca. 1.8 times and ca. 3.7 times, respectively between 2005 and 2010, and the ratio of nitrate to

  4. Compacted sewage sludge as a barrier for tailings: the heavy metal speciation and total organic carbon content in the compacted sludge specimen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huyuan Zhang

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD was the main environmental problem facing the mining industry. For AMD had high heavy metals content and low pH, the compacted sewage sludge might be a barrier for tailings whose oxidation and weathering produced AMD, with its own carbon source, microorganism reduction ability and impermeability. To study the heavy metals environmental risk, under the simulate AMD, the deionized water (DW, and the pH 2.1 sulfuric acid water (SA seepage conditions, respectively, the changes of the chemical speciation of heavy metals Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Zn and total organic carbon (TOC content in the compacted sewage sludge were assessed in the different periods. The results indicated according to the distribution of heavy metals, the potential mobility was for Cd: 6.08 under AMD, 7.48 under SA, ∞ under DW; for Cu: 0.08 under AMD, 0.17 under SA, 0.59 under DW; for Fe: 0.15 under AMD, 0.22 under SA, 0.22 under DW; for Ni: 2.60 under AMD, 1.69 under SA, 1.67 under DW; and for Zn: 0.15 under AMD, 0.23 under SA and 0.21 under DW at the second checking time. TOC content firstly decreased from 67.62±0% to 66.29±0.35%, then increased to 67.74±0.65% under the AMD seepage while TOC decreased to 63.30±0.53%, then to 61.33±0.37% under the DW seepage, decreased to 63.86±0.41%, then to 63.28±0.49% under SA seepage. That indicated under the AMD seepage, the suitable microorganisms communities in the compacted sewage sludge were activated. And the heavy metals environmental risk of compacted sewage sludge was lower with AMD condition than with other two. So the compacted sewage sludge as a barrier for tailings was feasible as the aspect of environmental risk assessment.

  5. The changing geoepidemiology of food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Patrick S C; Shu, Shang-An; Chang, Christopher

    2014-06-01

    The science of food allergy has been rapidly evolving before our eyes in the past half century. Like other allergic disorders, the prevalence of food allergies has dramatically increased, and coupled with the increased public awareness of anaphylaxis due to food allergy, this has driven an explosion in basic and clinical research in this extremely broad subject. Treatment of food allergies has evolved and practices such as food challenges have become an integral part of an allergy practice. The impact of the increase of food allergy has driven package labeling laws, legislation on emergency treatment availability in schools and other public places, and school policy. But to this day, our knowledge of the pathogenesis of food allergy is still incomplete. There are the most obvious IgE-mediated immediate hypersensitivity reactions, but then multiple previously unidentified conditions such as eosinophilic esophagitis, food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome, milk protein allergy, food-induced atopic dermatitis, oral allergy syndrome, and others have complicated the diagnosis and management of many of our patients who are unable to tolerate certain foods. Many of these conditions are not IgE-mediated, but may be T cell-driven diseases. The role of T regulatory cells and immune tolerance and the newly discovered immunological role of vitamin D have shed light on the variable clinical presentation of food allergy and the development of new methods of immunotherapy in an example of bench-to-bedside research. Component-resolved diagnostic techniques have already begun to allow us to more precisely define the epitopes that are targeted in food allergic patients. The development of biological modulators, research on genomics and proteomics, and epigenetic techniques all offer promising avenues for new modes of therapy of food allergy in the twenty-first century.

  6. Self-Expandable Metal Stent Placement for Closure of a Leak after Total Gastrectomy for Gastric Cancer: Report on Three Cases and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Raimondo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the setting of the curative oncological surgery, the gastric surgery is exposed to complicated upper gastrointestinal leaks, and consequently the management of this problem has become more critically focused than was previously possible. We report here three cases of placement of a partially silicone-coated SEMS (Evolution Controlled Release Esophageal Stent System, Cook Medical, Winston-Salem, NC, USA in patients who underwent total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y end-to-side esophagojejunostomy for a gastric adenocarcinoma. The promising results of our report, despite the small number of patients, suggest that early stenting (through a partially silicone-coated SEMS is a feasible alternative to surgical treatment in this subset of patients. In fact, in the treatment of leakage after total gastrectomy, plastic stents and totally covered metallic stents may not adhere sufficiently to the esophagojejunal walls and, as a result, migrate beyond the anastomosis. However, prospective studies with a larger number of patients might assess the real effectiveness and safety of this procedure.

  7. Total and labile metals in surface sediments of the tropical river-estuary system of Marabasco (Pacific coast of Mexico): Influence of an iron mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmolejo-Rodríguez, Ana Judith; Prego, Ricardo; Meyer-Willerer, Alejandro; Shumilin, Evgueni; Cobelo-García, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Marabasco is a tropical river-estuary system comprising the Marabasco river and the Barra de Navidad Lagoon. The river is impacted by the Peña Colorada iron mine, which produces 3.5 million tons of pellets per year. Thirteen surface sediment samples were collected in May 2005 (dry season) in order to establish background levels of Al, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the system and to ascertain the potential mobility of metals in the sediments. Analyses were carried out in the fraction finer than 63 microm, and labile metals extracted according the BCR procedure. Certified reference materials were used for validation of methods. Total concentrations of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were in the range of 0.05-0.34, 6-95, 0.7-31, 9-26, 2-18, and 53-179 mgkg(-1), respectively; Al and Fe ranges of 24-127, and 26-69 mgg(-1) correspondingly. Cadmium was found to be significantly labile in the sediments (20-100%), followed by Co (0-35%), Ni (3-16%) and Zn (0-25%), whereas the labile fraction for Cu, Fe and Pb was almost negligible (iron mine on the Marabasco system is lower than expected when compared with other similar World systems influenced by mining activities.

  8. Total petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals in the surface sediments of Bohai Bay, China: long-term variations in pollution status and adverse biological risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ran; Qin, Xuebo; Peng, Shitao; Deng, Shihuai

    2014-06-15

    Surface sediments collected from 2001 to 2011 were analyzed for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and five heavy metals. The sediment concentration ranges of TPH, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd and Hg were 6.3-535 μg/g, 58-332 μg/g, 7.2-63 μg/g, 4.3-138 μg/g, 0-0.98μg/g, and 0.10-0.68 μg/g, respectively. These results met the highest marine sediment quality standards in China, indicating that the sediment was fairly clean. However, based on the effects range-median (ERM) quotient method, the calculated values for all of the sampling sites were higher than 0.10, suggesting that there was a potential adverse biological risk in Bohai Bay. According to the calculated results, the biological risk decreased from 2001 to 2007 and increased afterwards. High-risk sites were mainly distributed along the coast. This study suggests that anthropogenic influences might be responsible for the potential risk of adverse biological effects from TPH and heavy metals in Bohai Bay. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of heavy metals and minerals elements in the turmeric using Total-Reflection X-ray Fluorescence analysis technique and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriamisetra, V.M.Z.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, many studies demonstrate anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory benefits of turmeric. The aims of this work is to perform analysis of metals such as calcium, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, bromine, rubidium, strontium, cadmium and lead in the turmeric collected from various places in Madagascar. The analysis by total reflection X-ray fluorescence technique is used to determine the concentrations of heavy metals, while the atomic absorption spectrometry is used for the determination of trace elements. Analysis results show that the concentration of calcium in the turmeric is very high, its average concentration is 1025.8 mg.kg -1 . The average concentrations of manganese, of copper and of iron are respectively 44.7 mg.kg -1 ; 19.7 mg.kg -1 and 53.6 mg.kg -1 . The average concentrations of zinc, of rubidium and of strontium are respectively 17.3 mg.kg -1 ; 35.2 mg.kg -1 and 21.7 mg.kg -1 [fr

  10. Outcome of revision total knee arthroplasty with the use of trabecular metal cone for reconstruction of severe bone loss at the proximal tibia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Claus L; Olsen, Nikolaj Winther; Schrøder, Henrik M

    2014-01-01

    technology (TMT) cones for the reconstruction of tibial bone loss at the time of rTKA. METHODS: Thirty-six patients had rTKA with the use of a TMT Cone. Bone loss was classified according to the AORI classification and 25% of the patients suffered from T3 AORI defects and 75% of the patients from T2 AORI...... defects. Implants used were from the NexGen series. At follow-up, radiographs were evaluated according to the Knee Society Roentgenographic Scoring System. Knee and function score was calculated using the Knee Society Clinical Rating System. Average follow-up time was 47 months (range 3-84 months......BACKGROUND: The relative effectiveness of different methods for reconstructing large bone loss at the proximal tibia in revision total knee arthroplasty (rTKA) has not been established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiological outcome after the use of trabecular metal...

  11. Quality of life measures for food allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flokstra-de Blok, B. M. J.; Dubois, A. E. J.

    Food allergy has become an emerging health problem in Western societies. Although food allergy is characterized by a relatively low mortality and an almost continual absence of physical symptoms, food allergic patients are continually confronted with the possibility of potentially severe reactions

  12. Managing Food Allergies at School: School Nurses

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-20

    This podcast highlights the leadership role of school nurses in the management of food allergies in schools. It also identifies CDC food allergy resources for schools.  Created: 1/20/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/20/2015.

  13. Fragrance allergy and quality of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisterberg, Maria V; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fragrance ingredients can cause contact allergy, which may affect quality of life (QoL). However, few studies have investigated this topic. OBJECTIVES: To investigate QoL life among subjects with a fragrance allergy as compared with other eczema patients. METHODS: A case-control survey...

  14. Allergy to Rosaceae fruits without related pollinosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernández-Rivas, M.; van Ree, R.; Cuevas, M.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rosaceae fruit allergy is frequently associated with birch pollinosis in Central and Northern Europe and with grass pollen allergy in Central Spain. The main cross-reactive structures involved for birch pollinosis are Bet v 1 and profilin, and for grass pollinosis they are profilin and

  15. Diagnosing food allergy in children, peanuts?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, F.C. van

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy has a major impact on quality of life of children and their parents. Although food allergic patients usually do not experience daily symptoms, they are faced with dietary restrictions and the risk for a severe reaction every day. A correct diagnosis of food allergy is important to

  16. Pooling birth cohorts in allergy and asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, Jean; Anto, Josep; Sunyer, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Long-term birth cohort studies are essential to understanding the life course and childhood predictors of allergy and the complex interplay between genes and the environment (including lifestyle and socioeconomic determinants). Over 100 cohorts focusing on asthma and allergy have been initiated...

  17. Developmental trajectories in food allergy: a review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    DunnGalvin, A

    2009-01-01

    Increasing recognition of the importance of the relationships between perceptions, emotions, behaviors and health has changed the way health and disease are portrayed and researched. A chronic condition may affect and\\/or interact with already existing normative demands and changes in socialization. Although the prevalence of food allergy and anaphylaxis have been reportedly increasing, the emotional and social impact of growing up with food allergy has received little emphasis. In this paper, we present current findings on the biopsychosocial impact of food allergy on children in order to gain insight into the food allergy experience, from the perspective of the child, teen, and parent living with food allergy, with particular attention to developmental aspects. Due to the scarcity of publications on the psychosocial dimensions of food allergy, we also draw on selected literature on children\\'s and parent\\'s experience of, and coping with chronic disease that may inform research into food allergy. To this end, we review some general developmental mechanisms that may underpin and explain normative age-graded shifts in patterns of coping across childhood and adolescence. We also highlight gaps in the literature and assess implications of current research in food allergy and other chronic diseases for intervention and prevention of negative short and long term outcomes.

  18. Some stars are totally metal: a new mechanism driving dust across star-forming clouds, and consequences for planets, stars, and galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, Philip F.

    2014-01-01

    Dust grains in neutral gas behave as aerodynamic particles, so they can develop large local density fluctuations entirely independent of gas density fluctuations. Specifically, gas turbulence can drive order-of-magnitude 'resonant' fluctuations in the dust density on scales where the gas stopping/drag timescale is comparable to the turbulent eddy turnover time. Here we show that for large grains (size ≳ 0.1 μm, containing most grain mass) in sufficiently large molecular clouds (radii ≳ 1-10 pc, masses ≳ 10 4 M ☉ ), this scale becomes larger than the characteristic sizes of prestellar cores (the sonic length), so large fluctuations in the dust-to-gas ratio are imprinted on cores. As a result, star clusters and protostellar disks formed in large clouds should exhibit significant abundance spreads in the elements preferentially found in large grains (C, O). This naturally predicts populations of carbon-enhanced stars, certain highly unusual stellar populations observed in nearby open clusters, and may explain the 'UV upturn' in early-type galaxies. It will also dramatically change planet formation in the resulting protostellar disks, by preferentially 'seeding' disks with an enhancement in large carbonaceous or silicate grains. The relevant threshold for this behavior scales simply with cloud densities and temperatures, making straightforward predictions for clusters in starbursts and high-redshift galaxies. Because of the selective sorting by size, this process is not necessarily visible in extinction mapping. We also predict the shape of the abundance distribution—when these fluctuations occur, a small fraction of the cores may actually be seeded with abundances Z ∼ 100 (Z) such that they are almost 'totally metal' (Z ∼ 1)! Assuming the cores collapse, these totally metal stars would be rare (1 in ∼10 4 in clusters where this occurs), but represent a fundamentally new stellar evolution channel.

  19. Some stars are totally metal: a new mechanism driving dust across star-forming clouds, and consequences for planets, stars, and galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, Philip F., E-mail: phopkins@caltech.edu [TAPIR, Mailcode 350-17, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-12-10

    Dust grains in neutral gas behave as aerodynamic particles, so they can develop large local density fluctuations entirely independent of gas density fluctuations. Specifically, gas turbulence can drive order-of-magnitude 'resonant' fluctuations in the dust density on scales where the gas stopping/drag timescale is comparable to the turbulent eddy turnover time. Here we show that for large grains (size ≳ 0.1 μm, containing most grain mass) in sufficiently large molecular clouds (radii ≳ 1-10 pc, masses ≳ 10{sup 4} M {sub ☉}), this scale becomes larger than the characteristic sizes of prestellar cores (the sonic length), so large fluctuations in the dust-to-gas ratio are imprinted on cores. As a result, star clusters and protostellar disks formed in large clouds should exhibit significant abundance spreads in the elements preferentially found in large grains (C, O). This naturally predicts populations of carbon-enhanced stars, certain highly unusual stellar populations observed in nearby open clusters, and may explain the 'UV upturn' in early-type galaxies. It will also dramatically change planet formation in the resulting protostellar disks, by preferentially 'seeding' disks with an enhancement in large carbonaceous or silicate grains. The relevant threshold for this behavior scales simply with cloud densities and temperatures, making straightforward predictions for clusters in starbursts and high-redshift galaxies. Because of the selective sorting by size, this process is not necessarily visible in extinction mapping. We also predict the shape of the abundance distribution—when these fluctuations occur, a small fraction of the cores may actually be seeded with abundances Z ∼ 100 (Z) such that they are almost 'totally metal' (Z ∼ 1)! Assuming the cores collapse, these totally metal stars would be rare (1 in ∼10{sup 4} in clusters where this occurs), but represent a fundamentally new stellar evolution channel.

  20. Fragrance contact allergy in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firooz, A; Nassiri-Kashani, M; Khatami, A; Gorouhi, F; Babakoohi, S; Montaser-Kouhsari, L; Davari, P; Dowlati, Y

    2010-12-01

    Fragrances are considered as one of the most common causes of allergic contact dermatitis. About 1-4% of the general population suffer from fragrance contact allergy (FCA). To determine the frequency of FCA and its clinical relevance in a sample of Iranian patients with history of contact and/or atopic dermatitis from January 2004 to December 2008. Standardized patch testing with 28-allergen screening series recommended by the German Contact Dermatitis Research Group and European Standard Series was used at six dermatological clinics in Iran. Fragrance allergens comprised of fragrance mix I (FM I), Myroxylon pereirae (MP; balsam of Peru), Lyral, turpentine and FM II. Fragrance contact allergy was detected in 7.2% of the patients. The frequency of positive reactions to FM I, MP and FM II were 3.7% (41/1105), 2.8% (32/1135) and 1.1% (3/267) respectively. 82.4% of the reactions to fragrance allergens were clinically relevant. The most common involved areas were hands (68.4%) and face (35.4%). Fragrance allergy predominantly affected women aged more than 40 years (P=0.008). Positive reaction to more than two allergens was significantly higher in FCA patients compared with other contact dermatitis patients (P<0.0001), and FM I, nickel and MP were the most frequent allergens in these patients. Despite less frequency of FCA in comparison with some European countries, its clinical relevance in Iranian patients seems to be high. It mostly affects the hands and the face predominantly in women aged more than 40 years. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  1. New insights into seafood allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopata, Andreas L; Lehrer, Samuel B

    2009-06-01

    Seafood plays an important role in human nutrition worldwide, sustained by international trade of a variety of new seafood products. Increased production and consumption have resulted in more frequent reports of adverse reactions, highlighting the need for more specific diagnosis and treatment of seafood allergy. This review discusses recent literature in this field. The most recent prevalence data from Asia highlight seafood as a significant sensitizer in up to 40% of children and 33% of adults. Furthermore, the demonstration of species-specific sensitization to salt-water and fresh-water prawns and processed prawn extract should improve diagnosis. Studies on humans demonstrated for the first time that biologically active fish allergens can be detected in serum samples as early as 10 min after ingestion. These studies highlight that minute amounts of ingested seafood allergens can quickly trigger allergic symptoms; also, inhaled airborne allergens seem to induce sensitization and reactions. In the past 2 years, over 10 additional seafood allergens have been characterized. Allergen-specific detection assays in food products are available for crustacean tropomyosin; however, many specific mollusk and some fish allergens are not readily identified. Although cross-reactivity between crustacean and mollusks as well as mites is demonstrated, the often poor correlation of IgE reactivity and clinical symptoms calls for more detailed investigations. The recent development of hypoallergenic parvalbumin from carp could form the basis for safer vaccination products for treatment of fish allergy. Molecular characterization of more universal marker allergens for the three major seafood groups will improve current component-resolved clinical diagnosis and have a significant impact on the management of allergic patients, on food labeling and on future immunotherapy for seafood allergy.

  2. Evaluation of the air quality regarding total suspended particles and heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Ni, Cu, Cr) in the Hermosillo city, Sonora, Mexico, during a yearly period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz C, M. E.; Quintero N, M.; Gomez A, A.; Varela S, J.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the air quality of the city of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico was assessed considering total suspended particulates (tsp) and heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Ni, Cu, Cr) from June 2001 through May 2002 in three monitoring sites Centro (Mazon), Nor este (CESUES) and Noroeste (CBTIS). The filter-samples used for that purpose were provided by the Air Quality Evaluation and Improvement Program (PEMCA) of the municipality of Hermosillo. The sampling method was based on high volume sampling frequency set every 6 days with non-simultaneous sampling among the three sampling sites. Filters were dissolved for metal determination by acidic-extraction, and then analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results indicate that tsp concentrations at Centro and Noroeste sites were frequently higher than the maximum daily permissible level (260 μg/m 3 ), while in the three sites the annual average was higher than the maximum annual permissible level (75 μg/m 3 ) both established in the standard NOM-024-Ssa-1993 (Ssa 1994a). According to the Air Quality Standard Index (US EPA 1992a), used in Mexico by Air Quality Metropolitan Index (IMECA) the results indicate that the air quality in the city of Hermosillo regarding tsp was placed between no satisfactory and poor. In regard to heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Ni, Cu, Cr), concentrations detected were below the maximum permissible levels and/or criteria taking into account the standard NOM-026-Ssa-1993 (Ssa 1994b), the Who criterion (2000), the European Union criterion (Cec 2003), and the European Environmental Agency criteria (EEA 2004). Such findings would mean that airborne metals are of no concern; however, air quality is still classified as no satisfactory due to high particulate matter concentrations. Keeping air quality parameters monitoring is recommended in order to get extensive data for use in risk studies of air quality and health (morbidity/mortality), as well as topographic conditions, meteorological and

  3. European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uter, W; Amario-Hita, J C; Balato, A

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Contact allergy is a common condition and can severely interfere with daily life or professional activities. Due to changes in exposures, such as introduction of new substances, new products or formulations and regulatory intervention, the spectrum of contact sensitization changes....... OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the current spectrum of contact allergy to allergens present in the European baseline series (EBS) across Europe. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of data collected by the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA, www.essca-dc.org) in consecutively patch-tested patients......, 2013/14, in 46 departments in 12 European countries. RESULTS: Altogether, 31 689 patients were included in the analysis. Compared to a similar analysis in 2004, the prevalence of contact allergy to methylisothiazolinone went up to around 20% in several departments. In comparison, contact allergy...

  4. Association between Contact allergy and Psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsgaard, Nannie

    2011-01-01

    6. SUMMERY 6.1 Summery in English Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and psoriasis are the two most prevalent skin diseases in the western world. ACD is the clinical manifestation of contact allergy. Contact allergy and psoriasis are both due to inflammatory mechanisms involving the innate...... and adaptive immune system. Psoriasis is conceived to be an autoimmune disease. Recent studies have suggested an inverse relation between contact allergy and autoimmune diseases. The association between contact allergy and psoriasis could reveal mechanistic insights into both inflammatory processes....... The overall aim of this PhD study was to investigate the association between contact allergy and autoimmune disease, with focus on psoriasis. The work was done in three study parts. Part I Epidemiological studies. Part II Sensitization study and Part III Experimental studies. In part I the association between...

  5. Food allergies developing after solid organ transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, J M; Nicholas, S K; Davis, C M

    2015-12-01

    The development of food allergy is an increasingly recognized form of morbidity after solid organ transplant. It occurs more commonly in liver transplant recipients, although it has also been reported in heart, lung, kidney, and intestinal transplants. Pediatric transplant recipients are more likely to develop symptoms compared to adults, and reports of frequency vary widely from 5% to 38% in pediatric liver transplant recipients. Multiple mechanisms have been proposed in the literature, although no single mechanism can yet account for all reported observations. As food allergy can have at worst potentially fatal consequences, and at best require lifestyle adjustment through food avoidance, it is important for recipients to be aware of the donor's food allergies and particularly in pediatrics, the possibility of completely de novo allergies. This review explores the recent reports surrounding food allergy after solid organ transplant, including epidemiology, proposed mechanisms, and implications for practice. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Contact allergy to epoxy resin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsgaard, Nannie; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Menné, Torkil

    2012-01-01

    Background. Epoxy resin monomers are strong skin sensitizers that are widely used in industrial sectors. In Denmark, the law stipulates that workers must undergo a course on safe handling of epoxy resins prior to occupational exposure, but the effectiveness of this initiative is largely unknown...... in an educational programme. Conclusion. The 1% prevalence of epoxy resin contact allergy is equivalent to reports from other countries. The high occurrence of epoxy resin exposure at work, and the limited use of protective measures, indicate that reinforcement of the law is required....

  7. Contact allergy to toothpaste flavors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1978-01-01

    Toothpaste flavors are fragrance mixtures. Oil of peppermint and spearmint, carvone and anethole are ingredients with a low sensitizing potential, but they are used in almost every brand of toothpaste and caused seven cases of contact allergy in a 6-year period at Gentofte Hospital. Toothpaste...... reactions are rare due to several reasons; local factors in the mouth, the low sensitizing potential of the flavors generally used, and the lack of recognition. It is emphasized that the toothpaste battery for patch testing has to be relevant and changed according to the consumers' and manufacturers' taste...

  8. Contact allergy to oak moss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernard, Guillaume; Gimenéz-Arnau, Elena; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra

    2003-01-01

    In addition to pure synthetic fragrance materials several natural extracts are still in use in the perfume industry. Among them oak moss absolute, prepared from the lichen Evernia prunastri (L.) Arch., is considered a major contact sensitizer and is therefore included in the fragrance mix used...... for diagnosing perfume allergy. The process of preparing oak moss absolute has changed during recent years and, even though several potential sensitizers have been identified from former benzene extracts, its present constituents and their allergenic status are not clear. In the study reported here, we applied...

  9. Are both early egg introduction and eczema treatment necessary for primary prevention of egg allergy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kenji; Mori, Rintaro; Miyazaki, Celine; Ohya, Yukihiro; Saito, Hirohisa

    2018-06-01

    The Learning Early About Peanut Allergy (LEAP) study proved that early introduction of peanut significantly prevented the development of peanut allergy. However, in regard to similar attempts to prevent egg allergy through early egg introduction, the Prevention of Egg Allergy in High-risk Infants with Eczema (PETIT) study is the only randomized intervention trial to show a statistically significant effect. Meta-analysis of those studies indicated that neither the total amount nor pretreatment of egg showed any effect on egg allergy at the age of 12 months. However, raw egg powder resulted in a significantly higher prevalence of allergic reactions at initial introduction, whereas use of boiled egg was much safer. The prevalence of atopic dermatitis/eczema at introduction of egg correlated significantly with the subsequent prevalence of allergic reactions at initial introduction. In addition, the prevalence of egg allergy in the late introduction group correlated significantly with the prevalence of atopic dermatitis at introduction, even when the atopic dermatitis was proactively treated with a topical corticosteroid ointment. It is definitely true that the number of trials and number of participants in each trial are insufficient for drawing firm conclusions, especially regarding the optimal dose, raw versus boiled, when to start, and for whom to intervene. Therefore we propose various studies that should be performed to generate stronger data and conclusions. However, on the basis of the most recent results, we postulate that simultaneous intervention by both early boiled egg introduction and eczema treatment is probably indispensable for primary prevention of egg allergy. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Patients’ experience of a regional allergy service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Jones

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The principle reason for referral to specialist allergy clinics is to establish diagnoses and provide treatment plans to help patients manage their allergy. If patients do not accept, understand, or remember diagnoses or treatment, clinic visits may have been a waste of time. Few specialist allergy clinics follow up patients after diagnosis.Design and Methods. This was a postal survey to assess patients’ i perception of usefulness of specialist allergy clinic visits, ii under- standing of their allergy, iii confidence in managing it, and iv response to joining a regional online forum. Data for patients with confirmed allergy who attended the Peninsula Allergy Service (PAS from 1998-2009 were extracted from consultant letters to general practitioners. Postal questionnaires were sent to 933 patients; 39% (336 responded.Results. Two-thirds (63% thought their clinic visit useful and resulted in them being more in control of their allergy; 9% thought it useful but they still had problems, 26% thought it had not been much use. One in six (16%, 55 respondents had major differences in their view of their allergy compared to that recorded by PAS. Over half (56% had had further symptoms since their clinic visit and 120 patients, who were not confident in coping with their allergy, listed aspects of their lives that gave concern.Conclusions. Specialist clinics need routine feedback from patients if they are to monitor their effectiveness and some better form of follow up for patients is needed to reinforce education and support patients. Public education is important.

  11. Impact of Penicillin Allergy on Time to First Dose of Antimicrobial Therapy and Clinical Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Erin L; Lin, Ken; Sellick, John A; Kurtzhalts, Kari; Carbo, James; Ott, Michael C; Mergenhagen, Kari A

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of a listed penicillin allergy on the time to first dose of antibiotic in a Veterans Affairs hospital. Additional clinical outcomes of patients with penicillin allergies were compared with those of patients without a penicillin allergy. A retrospective chart review of veterans admitted through the emergency department with a diagnosis of pneumonia, urinary tract infection, bacteremia, and sepsis from January 2006 to December 2015 was conducted. The primary outcome was time to first dose of antibiotic treatment, defined as the time from when the patient presented to the emergency department to the medication administration time. Secondary outcomes included total antibiotic therapy duration and treatment outcomes, including mortality, length of stay, and 30-day readmission rate. A total of 403 patients were included in the final analysis; 57 patients (14.1%) had a listed penicillin allergy. The average age of the population was 75 years and 99% of the population was male. The mean time to first dose of antibiotic treatment for patients with a penicillin allergy was prolonged compared with those without a penicillin allergy (236.1 vs 186.6 minutes; P = 0.03), resulting in an approximately 50-minute delay. Penicillin-allergic patients were more likely to receive a carbapenem or fluoroquinolone antibiotic (P penicillin allergy had a prolonged time to first dose of antibiotic therapy. No significant differences were found in total antibiotic duration, length of stay, or 30-day readmission rate. The small sample size, older population, and single-center nature of this study may limit the generalizability of the present findings to other populations. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Fexofenadine Suppresses Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity in the Murine Model of Palladium Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryota Matsubara

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Palladium is frequently used in dental materials, and sometimes causes metal allergy. It has been suggested that the immune response by palladium-specific T cells may be responsible for the pathogenesis of delayed-type hypersensitivity in study of palladium allergic model mice. In the clinical setting, glucocorticoids and antihistamine drugs are commonly used for treatment of contact dermatitis. However, the precise mechanism of immune suppression in palladium allergy remains unknown. We investigated inhibition of the immune response in palladium allergic mice by administration of prednisolone as a glucocorticoid and fexofenadine hydrochloride as an antihistamine. Compared with glucocorticoids, fexofenadine hydrochloride significantly suppressed the number of T cells by interfering with the development of antigen-presenting cells from the sensitization phase. Our results suggest that antihistamine has a beneficial effect on the treatment of palladium allergy compared to glucocorticoids.

  13. Cow’s milk protein allergy in infants

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Daly, Deirdre

    2016-05-01

    Cow’s Milk Protein Allergy (CMPA) is the most common food allergy in early childhood in the developed world next to egg allergy. The prevalence is estimated at three to seven per cent, with a resolution rate of 80 to 90 per cent at six years. Accurate diagnosis rests on a good clear allergy focused history.

  14. Mastocytosis and insect venom allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonadonna, Patrizia; Zanotti, Roberta; Müller, Ulrich

    2010-08-01

    To analyse the association of systemic allergic hymenoptera sting reactions with mastocytosis and elevated baseline serum tryptase and to discuss diagnosis and treatment in patients with both diseases. In recent large studies on patients with mastocytosis a much higher incidence of severe anaphylaxis following hymenoptera stings than in the normal population was documented. In patients with hymenoptera venom allergy, elevated baseline tryptase is strongly associated with severe anaphylaxis. Fatal sting reactions were reported in patients with mastocytosis, notably after stopping venom immunotherapy. During venom immunotherapy most patients with mastocytosis are protected from further sting reactions. Based on these observations immunotherapy for life is recommended for patients with mastocytosis and venom allergy. The incidence of allergic side-effects is increased in patients with mastocytosis and elevated baseline tryptase, especially in those allergic to Vespula venom. Premedication with antihistamines, or omalizumab in cases with recurrent severe side-effects, can be helpful. In all patients with anaphylaxis following hymenoptera stings, baseline serum tryptase should be determined. A value above 11.4 microg/l is often due to mastocytosis and indicates a high risk of very severe anaphylaxis following re-stings. Venom immunotherapy is safe and effective in this situation.

  15. The Infection Rate of Metal-on-Metal Total Hip Replacement Is Higher When Compared to Other Bearing Surfaces as Documented by the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Phil; Lyons, Matt; O'Sullivan, Michael

    2018-02-01

    Despite the well-documented decline in the use of metal-on-metal (MoM) implants over the last decade, there are still controversies regarding whether all MoM implants are created equally. Complications such as elevated serum metal ion levels, aseptic lymphocyte-dominated vasculitis-associated lesion (ALVAL) and pseudotumours have all been well documented, but recent studies suggest increased risk of infection with MoM bearing surfaces. Most of these studies however have small patient numbers. The purpose of this study was to examine the cumulative incidence of revision for infection of MoM bearing surfaces in primary hip arthroplasty at a national and single-surgeon level. Data was collected from the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry, which contains over 98% of all arthroplasties performed in Australia since 2001. The cumulative incidence of revision for infection was extracted at a national level and single-surgeon level. Two hundred seventy-six thousand eight hundred seventy-eight subjects were documented in the Australian registry. The 10-year cumulative percent revision for infection of MoM bearing surfaces in primary total hip replacement (THR) was 2.5% at a national level, compared to 0.8% for other bearing surfaces. The senior author contributed 1755 subjects with 7-year follow-up and a cumulative percent revision for infection of MoM bearing surfaces in primary THR of 36.9%, compared to 2.0% for other bearing surfaces. The cumulative percent of revision of MoM bearing surfaces is higher compared to other bearing surfaces; this is especially pronounced in cumulative percent of revision for infection. There was a higher cumulative percent of revision for infection in MoM bearings surfaces (in particular, large-head MoM) compared to other bearing surfaces at both the national and individual-surgeon level.

  16. Cannabis sativa allergy: looking through the fog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decuyper, I I; Van Gasse, A L; Cop, N; Sabato, V; Faber, M A; Mertens, C; Bridts, C H; Hagendorens, M M; De Clerck, L; Rihs, H P; Ebo, D G

    2017-02-01

    IgE-mediated Cannabis (C. sativa, marihuana) allergy seems to be on the rise. Both active and passive exposure to cannabis allergens may trigger a C. sativa sensitization and/or allergy. The clinical presentation of a C. sativa allergy varies from mild to life-threatening reactions and often seems to depend on the route of exposure. In addition, sensitization to cannabis allergens can result in various cross-allergies, mostly for plant foods. This clinical entity, designated as the 'cannabis-fruit/vegetable syndrome', might also imply cross-reactivity with tobacco, natural latex and plant-food-derived alcoholic beverages. Hitherto, these cross-allergies are predominantly reported in Europe and appear mainly to rely upon cross-reactivity between nonspecific lipid transfer proteins or thaumatin-like proteins present in C. sativa and their homologues, ubiquitously distributed throughout plant kingdom. At present, diagnosis of cannabis-related allergies predominantly rests upon a thorough history completed with skin testing using native extracts from crushed buds and leaves. However, quantification of specific IgE antibodies and basophil activation tests can also be helpful to establish correct diagnosis. In the absence of a cure, treatment comprises absolute avoidance measures. Whether avoidance of further use will halt the extension of related cross-allergies remains uncertain. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Penicillin allergy-getting the label right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Penicillin i allergy is a potentially serious adverse reaction that impacts on antibacterial treatment options. Although it is commonly reported and recorded in medical records, only a minority of patients with a label of penicillin allergy actually have the condition confirmed. The term 'allergy' may be incorrectly applied to adverse reactions that do not have an immunological basis and inappropriate labelling of penicillin allergy can lead to the unnecessary avoidance of penicillins and other beta-lactam antibacterials. Here, we discuss key features that help to distinguish patients at low or high risk of having a true penicillin allergy, summarise what is known about the risk of allergic reactions to other beta-lactam antibacterials in patients with penicillin allergy and discuss the steps to consider when assessing a label of penicillin allergy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Stress and food allergy: mechanistic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Hannah M C; Wright, Rosalind J

    2014-04-01

    Recent years have seen a marked increase in food allergy prevalence among children, particularly in Western countries, that cannot be explained by genetic factors alone. This has resulted in an increased effort to identify environmental risk factors underlying food allergies and to understand how these factors may be modified through interventions. Food allergy is an immune-mediated adverse reaction to food. Consequently, considerations of candidate risk factors have begun to focus on environmental influences that perturb the healthy development of the emerging immune system during critical periods of development (eg, prenatally and during early childhood), particularly in the gut. Given that psychosocial stress is known to play an important role in other allergic and inflammatory diseases, such as asthma, its potential role in food allergy is a growing area of research. However, research to date has largely focused on animal studies. This review synthesizes relevant animal research and epidemiological data, providing proof of concept for moderating influences of psychological stress on food allergy outcomes in humans. Pathways that may underlie associations between psychosocial stress and the expression of food allergy are discussed. Copyright © 2014 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Cost of Penicillin Allergy Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Kimberly G; Li, Yu; Banerji, Aleena; Yun, Brian J; Long, Aidan A; Walensky, Rochelle P

    2017-09-22

    Unverified penicillin allergy leads to adverse downstream clinical and economic sequelae. Penicillin allergy evaluation can be used to identify true, IgE-mediated allergy. To estimate the cost of penicillin allergy evaluation using time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC). We implemented TDABC throughout the care pathway for 30 outpatients presenting for penicillin allergy evaluation. The base-case evaluation included penicillin skin testing and a 1-step amoxicillin drug challenge, performed by an allergist. We varied assumptions about the provider type, clinical setting, procedure type, and personnel timing. The base-case penicillin allergy evaluation costs $220 in 2016 US dollars: $98 for personnel, $119 for consumables, and $3 for space. In sensitivity analyses, lower cost estimates were achieved when only a drug challenge was performed (ie, no skin test, $84) and a nurse practitioner provider was used ($170). Adjusting for the probability of anaphylaxis did not result in a changed estimate ($220); although other analyses led to modest changes in the TDABC estimate ($214-$246), higher estimates were identified with changing to a low-demand practice setting ($268), a 50% increase in personnel times ($269), and including clinician documentation time ($288). In a least/most costly scenario analyses, the lowest TDABC estimate was $40 and the highest was $537. Using TDABC, penicillin allergy evaluation costs $220; even with varied assumptions adjusting for operational challenges, clinical setting, and expanded testing, penicillin allergy evaluation still costs only about $540. This modest investment may be offset for patients treated with costly alternative antibiotics that also may result in adverse consequences. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Diagnosis of Food Allergy Based on Oral Food Challenge Test

    OpenAIRE

    Komei Ito; Atsuo Urisu

    2009-01-01

    Diagnosis of food allergy should be based on the observation of allergic symptoms after intake of the suspected food. The oral food challenge test (OFC) is the most reliable clinical procedure for diagnosing food allergy. The OFC is also applied for the diagnosis of tolerance of food allergy. The Japanese Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology issued the 'Japanese Pediatric Guideline for Oral Food Challenge Test in Food Allergy 2009' in April 2009, to provide information on a sa...

  1. Food allergy: opportunities and challenges in the clinical practice of allergy and immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John M

    2004-10-01

    Food allergy offers numerous opportunities and challenges for the allergy and clinical immunology specialist. Physicians with board certification in allergy and clinical immunology should be the main source of reliable clinical information to educate patients with food-related disorders. There has been a wealth of reliable information published related to food allergy that can be utilized by health care providers in clinical practice. This includes information about the cross-reactivity of food allergens, the evaluation of potential new therapies, and the practical application of new diagnostic methods and management strategies. This article addresses some of the new developments in food allergy, with an emphasis on cross-reactvity of food allergens, recombinant food allergens, and potential future therapies for food allergy.

  2. EAACI Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Guidelines. Food allergy health-related quality of life measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraro, A; Dubois, A E J; DunnGalvin, A; Hourihane, J O'B; de Jong, N W; Meyer, R; Panesar, S S; Roberts, G; Salvilla, S; Sheikh, A; Worth, A; Flokstra-de Blok, B M J

    2014-07-01

    Instruments have been developed and validated for the measurement of health-related quality of life in patients with food allergy. This guideline has been prepared by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology's (EAACI) Guidelines for Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Group. It draws on a systematic review of the literature on quality of life instruments for food allergy and the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation (AGREE II) guideline development process. Guidance is provided on the use of such instruments in research, and the current limitations of their use in clinical practice are described. Gaps in current knowledge as well as areas of future interest are also discussed. This document is relevant to healthcare workers dealing with food-allergic patients, scientists engaging in food allergy research and policy makers involved in regulatory aspects concerning food allergy and safety. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Development of the clinic of pulmonology and allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokic, D

    2013-01-01

    University Pulmology and Allergy Clinic was founded in 1975 when the Depertment of Internal Medicine, directed by Prof. Dr. Dimitar Arsov, later member of the Macedonian Academy of Sciencies and Arts, was divided into eight separate and independent clinics. The first head of the Pulmonology and Allergy Clinic was Prof. Dr. Ljubomir Kotevski. He had a very difficult goal: to establish and further develop the newly formed clinic. The Clinic flourished and became one of the leading Clinics in the Clinical Centre during the directorship of Prof. dr. Dejan Dokic.. He completely rebuilt and refurbished the Clinic, which became a modern Clinic providing excellent working conditions for the employees and, most importantly, provided a first class service to the patients. During his mandate he obtained a grant from the Japanese Government worth $1,000,000 which was used to obtain a new, modern and sophisticated medical equipment. Since the establishment of the clinic, many national and international scientific projects were carried out and many scientific papers were published as well as many monographs, and chapters in scientific books. As a result of continuous education, of the total number of 24 doctors there are 16 subspecialists in respiratory medicine and 4 specialists in internal medicine. There are 9 professors in internal medicine at the University of Pulmonology and Allergy Clinic lecturing at the Medical Faculty in Skopje. The University Pulmonology and Allergy Clinic has an international reputation due to many contacts with famous European Institutions. All these international interrelations have resulted in honouring 3 professors: Prof. Dr. Gert Kunkel from Berlin, Germany, Prof. Dr. Robert Loddenkemper from Berlin, Germany and Prof. Dr. Peter Howard from Southampton, UK.

  4. Enzyme-potentiated desensitization in otolaryngic allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulec, Jack L

    2002-03-01

    This is a preliminary report of a new method of treating otolaryngic allergy with enzyme-potentiated desensitization (EPD). The nature of EPD and its use in otolaryngology are described. Thirty-six patients have been treated and followed in a private medical practice since February 1997. This article reviews the clinical features of EPD and provides six cases as examples; the clinical features described include allergic rhinitis, serous otitis media, asthma, dermatitis, fixed food allergy, and Ménière's disease. EPD is an effective technique for the treatment of otolaryngic allergy and offers advantages over conventional techniques.

  5. Breast-milk characteristics protecting against allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minniti, Federica; Comberiati, Pasquale; Munblit, Daniel; Piacentini, Giorgio L; Antoniazzi, Elisa; Zanoni, Laura; Boner, Attilio L; Peroni, Diego G

    2014-03-01

    Breast milk and colostrum are the first feeding sources for a child, providing nutrients, growth factors and immunological components, which are crucial for the newborn's correct development and health. Length of exclusive breastfeeding and time of solid foods introduction is a key factor that may influence allergy development. There is an emerging evidence of a relationship between breastfeeding, milk composition and lower risk of chronic diseases, such as diabetes, obesity, hypertension and allergies. This review examines current evidence regarding humoral and cellular characteristics of breast-milk, and potential role of environment, maternal diet and breastfeeding on the allergy development in children.

  6. Allergen immunotherapy for insect venom allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhami, S; Zaman, H; Varga, E-M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is in the process of developing the EAACI Guidelines on Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for the management of insect venom allergy. To inform this process, we sought to assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety...... of AIT in the management of insect venom allergy. METHODS: We undertook a systematic review, which involved searching 15 international biomedical databases for published and unpublished evidence. Studies were independently screened and critically appraised using established instruments. Data were...

  7. Probiotics in allergy treatment: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Crovesy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Allergy is a exacerbate response of immune system to a triggering element. A probable cause of allergies is gut microbiota composition. It has strong relationship with development of human immune system and this is formed in intrauterine life and early childhood, crucial periods for formation adequate microbiota. In this sense modulation gut microbiota by probiotics could prevent or help in the treatment of allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis and food allergy. Studies published to date are controversial. It is difficult to determine whether the probiotic can be used in the treatment and prevention of allergic diseases.

  8. Designing Predictive Models for Beta-Lactam Allergy Using the Drug Allergy and Hypersensitivity Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiriac, Anca Mirela; Wang, Youna; Schrijvers, Rik; Bousquet, Philippe Jean; Mura, Thibault; Molinari, Nicolas; Demoly, Pascal

    Beta-lactam antibiotics represent the main cause of allergic reactions to drugs, inducing both immediate and nonimmediate allergies. The diagnosis is well established, usually based on skin tests and drug provocation tests, but cumbersome. To design predictive models for the diagnosis of beta-lactam allergy, based on the clinical history of patients with suspicions of allergic reactions to beta-lactams. The study included a retrospective phase, in which records of patients explored for a suspicion of beta-lactam allergy (in the Allergy Unit of the University Hospital of Montpellier between September 1996 and September 2012) were used to construct predictive models based on a logistic regression and decision tree method; a prospective phase, in which we performed an external validation of the chosen models in patients with suspicion of beta-lactam allergy recruited from 3 allergy centers (Montpellier, Nîmes, Narbonne) between March and November 2013. Data related to clinical history and allergy evaluation results were retrieved and analyzed. The retrospective and prospective phases included 1991 and 200 patients, respectively, with a different prevalence of confirmed beta-lactam allergy (23.6% vs 31%, P = .02). For the logistic regression method, performances of the models were similar in both samples: sensitivity was 51% (vs 60%), specificity 75% (vs 80%), positive predictive value 40% (vs 57%), and negative predictive value 83% (vs 82%). The decision tree method reached a sensitivity of 29.5% (vs 43.5%), specificity of 96.4% (vs 94.9%), positive predictive value of 71.6% (vs 79.4%), and negative predictive value of 81.6% (vs 81.3%). Two different independent methods using clinical history predictors were unable to accurately predict beta-lactam allergy and replace a conventional allergy evaluation for suspected beta-lactam allergy. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Monoclonal antibodies in pediatric allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Licari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Production of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs involving human-mouse hybrid cells was first described in 1970s, but these biologics are now used for a variety of diseases including cancers, autoimmune disorders and allergic diseases. The aim of this article is to review current and future applications of mAbs, in particular focusing on anti-IgE therapy, in the field of pediatric allergy. Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Neonatology and Satellite Meetings · Cagliari (Italy · October 26th-31st, 2015 · From the womb to the adultGuest Editors: Vassilios Fanos (Cagliari, Italy, Michele Mussap (Genoa, Italy, Antonio Del Vecchio (Bari, Italy, Bo Sun (Shanghai, China, Dorret I. Boomsma (Amsterdam, the Netherlands, Gavino Faa (Cagliari, Italy, Antonio Giordano (Philadelphia, USA

  10. Asthma and allergy in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, M; Zeiger, R S

    1997-06-01

    Rhinitis is extremely common during pregnancy, and asthma is one of the most common potentially serious medical problems to complicate pregnancy. Cutaneous allergy (urticaria/angioedema and eczema) also may occur during pregnancy. All of these entities may worsen with pregnancy in some patients and appear to improve in others. Uncontrolled asthma may directly threaten the fetus, and morbidity from the other illnesses may indirectly affect pregnancy through an effect on eating, sleeping, or emotional well-being. Appropriate diagnosis, avoiding triggering factors when possible; appropriate use of pharmacotherapy; and, when indicated, allergen immunotherapy usually allow these chronic conditions to be controlled during pregnancy so as to optimize both the health of the mother and that of her baby.

  11. The diagnosis of food allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares-Weiser, K; Takwoingi, Y; Panesar, S S

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We investigated the accuracy of tests used to diagnose food allergy. METHODS: Skin prick tests (SPT), specific-IgE (sIgE), component-resolved diagnosis and the atopy patch test (APT) were compared with the reference standard of double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge. Seven......, the pooled sensitivities were 53% (95% CI 33-72), 88% (95 % CI 76-94), and 87% (95% CI 75-94), and specificities were 88% (95% CI 76-95), 68% (95% CI 56-77), and 48% (95% CI 36-59) for APT, SPT, and sIgE, respectively. For egg, pooled sensitivities were 92% (95% CI 80-97) and 93% (95% CI 82...

  12. Japanese Guideline for Food Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuo Urisu

    2011-01-01

    Therapy for food allergy includes treatments of and prophylactic measures against hypersensitivity like anaphylaxis. A fundamental prophylactic measure is the elimination diet. However, elimination diets should be conducted only if they are inevitable because they places a burden on patients. For this purpose, it is highly important that causative foods are accurately identified. Many means to determine the causative foods are available, including history taking, skin prick test, antigen specific IgE antibodies in blood, basophil histamine release test, elimination diet test, oral food challenge test, etc. Of these, the oral food challenge test is the most reliable. However, it should be conducted under the supervision of experienced physicians because it may cause adverse reactions such as anaphylaxis.

  13. Dog and Cat Allergies and Allergen Avoidance Measures in Korean Adult Pet Owners Who Participated in a Pet Exhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min Suk; Lee, Sang Pyo; Kwon, Young Jae; Lee, Sang Min

    2018-03-01

    This study evaluated dog and cat allergies and their association with allergen avoidance measures in Korean adults. The study population consisted of 537 adults who currently kept dogs or cats and participated in a pet exhibition in Korea. The subjects were asked to complete questionnaires regarding pet ownership, allergen avoidance, and allergy symptoms, and underwent skin prick tests. They were considered to have a dog or cat allergy if they suffered from one or more of allergy symptoms during contact with their pets. In total, 103 of 407 dog owners (25.3%) and 45 of 130 cat owners (34.6%) had a dog or cat allergy, respectively. Dog owners kept 1.3±1.5 dogs; this number did not differ according to the presence of dog allergy. Dog owners with a dog allergy had owned their dogs longer than those without (88.0±72.0 vs 67.5±72.7 months, PCat owners kept 2.1±3.6 cats; this number did not differ according to the presence of cat allergy, nor did the duration of cat ownership. Cat owners with a cat allergy had facial contact and slept with their cats less frequently (8.6±11.9 vs 18.3±27.0 times/day, Pcats shaved and beds cleaned less frequently than those without (1.8±3.3 vs 3.2±4.4 times/year, PCat owners with a cat allergy tried to minimize contact with their cats, but efforts to avoid indoor cat allergens were lower than those without. In comparison, dog owners with a dog allergy had kept their dogs for longer time than those without; however, current contact with their dogs and allergen avoidance measures did not differ between the 2 groups. Copyright © 2018 The Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology · The Korean Academy of Pediatric Allergy and Respiratory Disease

  14. Excessive nickel release from mobile phones--a persistent cause of nickel allergy and dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Peter; Johansen, Jeanne D; Zachariae, Claus; Menné, Torkil; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2011-12-01

    Despite the political intention to limit nickel allergy and dermatitis in Europeans, nickel allergy remains frequent. There are several explanations for the persistence of nickel allergy and dermatitis, including the increasing use of mobile phones. Before regulation of nickel release from mobile phones, we showed that eight (19.5%) of 41 mobile phones marketed in Denmark between 2003 and 2007 released nickel in concentrations that may result in nickel allergy and dermatitis. In 2009, the EU Nickel Directive was revised to include nickel-releasing mobile phones. To investigate the proportion of mobile phones sold in Denmark that release nickel after regulation. Metallic parts from 50 randomly selected mobile phones currently for sale in Denmark were tested for nickel release by use of the dimethylglyoxime (DMG)-nickel spot test. Nine (18%) phones showed at least one positive DMG test reaction and two phones had more than one DMG test-positive spot. Apparently, the proportion of mobile phones with significant nickel release remains unchanged, despite the 2009 revision of the EU Nickel Directive. We encourage manufacturers to measure nickel release from metallic components used in the assembly of mobile phones to ensure safe products. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Prevalence of Wheat Allergy in Japanese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eishin Morita

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: The prevalence of wheat allergy in Japanese adults was found to be 0.21% by using a combination of questionnaire-based examination, skin prick test and serum omega-5 gliadin-specific IgE test.

  16. Next generation immunotherapy for tree pollen allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yan; Romeu-Bonilla, Eliezer; Heiland, Teri

    2017-10-03

    Tree pollen induced allergies are one of the major medical and public health burdens in the industrialized world. Allergen-Specific Immunotherapy (AIT) through subcutaneous injection or sublingual delivery is the only approved therapy with curative potential to pollen induced allergies. AIT often is associated with severe side effects and requires long-term treatment. Safer, more effective and convenient allergen specific immunotherapies remain an unmet need. In this review article, we discuss the current progress in applying protein and peptide-based approaches and DNA vaccines to the clinical challenges posed by tree pollen allergies through the lens of preclinical animal models and clinical trials, with an emphasis on the birch and Japanese red cedar pollen induced allergies.

  17. National Allergy Bureau Pollen and Mold Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search AAAAI National Allergy Bureau Pollen and Mold Report Date: May 19, 2018 Location: San Antonio (2), ... 18/2018 ( click here to view ). Our Allergen Report Email Service can automatically email you daily pollen ...

  18. Food Allergy: What We Know Now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Lindsey E; Stewart, Patricia H; deShazo, Richard D

    2017-04-01

    Food allergy is an adverse immune reaction that occurs reproducibly on exposure to a given food. Prevalence rates of food allergy continue to increase worldwide, sparking continual research efforts in finding a suitable and safe cure. Food avoidance, the current standard of care, can be difficult to achieve. This review aims to provide a broad overview of immunoglobulin E-mediated food allergy, highlighting its epidemiology, masqueraders, immunopathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic work-up and available preventative and treatment strategies. This review also discusses novel, investigative therapies that offer promising therapeutic options, yet require continued research efforts to determine safety effects. Inducing tolerance, whether by immunotherapy or by the administration of monoclonal antibodies, allows us to move toward a cure for food allergy, which could vastly change this field of allergic diseases in the coming decades. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevention of food allergy - Early dietary interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Toit, George; Foong, Ru-Xin M; Lack, Gideon

    2016-10-01

    The prevalence of food allergy has increased over the last 30 years and remains a disease, which significantly impacts on the quality of life of children and their families. Several hypotheses have been formulated to explain the increasing prevalence; this review will focus on the hypothesis that dietary factors may influence the development of food allergy. Historically, the prevention of food allergy has focused on allergen avoidance. However, recent findings from interventional studies have prompted a shift in the mind set from avoidance to early introduction of potentially allergenic foods. This review aims to facilitate a better understanding of contemporary research studies that make use of early introduction of common allergenic foods into infant diets as a preventative strategy against the development of food allergy. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The). Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 13, No 1 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  1. Towards a food allergy free world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, G.

    2016-01-01

    The international food industry appreciates the benefits of sharing its research load via collaborative programs with partners. TNO offers you the opportunity to participate in its strategic Shared Research Program (SRP) ‘Towards a Food Allergy Free World’.

  2. Sulfa Allergy: Which Medications Should I Avoid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... no diagnostic tests for sulfa allergy. However, sulfa desensitization might be an option, especially if medication containing ... of Privacy Practices Notice of Nondiscrimination Manage Cookies Advertising Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization ...

  3. South African food allergy consensus document 2014

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for the South African Food Allergy Working Group (SAFAWG) .... [21] The choice of allergens to be tested should ... no clear cause and effect between ingestion of food and symptoms. ... cultural views, and the cost and palatability of the food.

  4. EAACI Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muraro, A; Werfel, T; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K

    2014-01-01

    on previous EAACI position papers on adverse reaction to foods and three recent systematic reviews on the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of food allergy, and provide evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis and management of food allergy. While the primary audience is allergists......, this document is relevant for all other healthcare professionals, including primary care physicians, and pediatric and adult specialists, dieticians, pharmacists and paramedics. Our current understanding of the manifestations of food allergy, the role of diagnostic tests, and the effective management...... of patients of all ages with food allergy is presented. The acute management of non-life-threatening reactions is covered in these guidelines, but for guidance on the emergency management of anaphylaxis, readers are referred to the related EAACI Anaphylaxis Guidelines....

  5. [Immunological background and pathomechanisms of food allergies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schülke, Stefan; Scheurer, Stephan

    2016-06-01

    Recent advances in immunology have greatly improved our understanding of the pathomechanisms of food allergies. Food allergies are caused and maintained by complex interactions of the innate and adaptive immune system involving antigen-presenting cells (APC), T cells, group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), epithelial cells (EC) and effectors cells. Additionally, epigenetic factors, the intestinal microbiome and nutritional factors modulating the gastrointestinal lymphatic tissue probably have a significant impact on allergy development. However, why certain individuals develop tolerance while others mount allergic responses, the factors defining the allergenicity of food proteins, as well as the immunological mechanisms triggering allergy development have yet to be analyzed in detail.

  6. American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reasons to celebrate its journals. Learn More about the American Academy Of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Life Spectrum of Asthma Meeting School-based Asthma Management Program – (SAMPRO TM ) This central resource focuses on ...

  7. Evaluating standard terminologies for encoding allergy information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Foster R; Zhou, Li; Plasek, Joseph M; Broverman, Carol; Robinson, George; Middleton, Blackford; Rocha, Roberto A

    2013-01-01

    Allergy documentation and exchange are vital to ensuring patient safety. This study aims to analyze and compare various existing standard terminologies for representing allergy information. Five terminologies were identified, including the Systemized Nomenclature of Medical Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT), National Drug File-Reference Terminology (NDF-RT), Medication Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA), Unique Ingredient Identifier (UNII), and RxNorm. A qualitative analysis was conducted to compare desirable characteristics of each terminology, including content coverage, concept orientation, formal definitions, multiple granularities, vocabulary structure, subset capability, and maintainability. A quantitative analysis was also performed to compare the content coverage of each terminology for (1) common food, drug, and environmental allergens and (2) descriptive concepts for common drug allergies, adverse reactions (AR), and no known allergies. Our qualitative results show that SNOMED CT fulfilled the greatest number of desirable characteristics, followed by NDF-RT, RxNorm, UNII, and MedDRA. Our quantitative results demonstrate that RxNorm had the highest concept coverage for representing drug allergens, followed by UNII, SNOMED CT, NDF-RT, and MedDRA. For food and environmental allergens, UNII demonstrated the highest concept coverage, followed by SNOMED CT. For representing descriptive allergy concepts and adverse reactions, SNOMED CT and NDF-RT showed the highest coverage. Only SNOMED CT was capable of representing unique concepts for encoding no known allergies. The proper terminology for encoding a patient's allergy is complex, as multiple elements need to be captured to form a fully structured clinical finding. Our results suggest that while gaps still exist, a combination of SNOMED CT and RxNorm can satisfy most criteria for encoding common allergies and provide sufficient content coverage.

  8. Latex allergy and filaggrin null mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Berit C; Meldgaard, Michael; Hamann, Dathan

    2011-01-01

    to aeroallergens and it is possible that filaggrin null mutations also increase the risk of latex allergy. The aim of this paper was to examine the association between filaggrin null mutations and type I latex allergy. Methods Twenty latex allergic and 24 non-latex allergic dentists and dental assistants...... in the cases in this study may not have occurred through direct skin contact but through the respiratory organs via latex proteins that are absorbed in glove powder and aerosolized...

  9. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Antonio; Mazon, Angel; Martin-Mateos, Maria Anunciacion; Plaza, Ana-Maria; Garde, Jesus; Alonso, Elena; Martorell, Antonio; Boquete, Manuel; Lorente, Felix; Ibero, Marcel; Bone, Javier; Pamies, Rafael; Garcia, Juan Miguel; Echeverria, Luis; Nevot, Santiago; Martinez-Cañavate, Ana; Fernandez-Benitez, Margarita; Garcia-Marcos, Luis

    2011-11-01

    The data of the ISAAC project in Spain show a prevalence of childhood asthma ranging from 7.1% to 15.3%, with regional differences; a higher prevalence, 22.6% to 35.8%, is described for rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis is found in 4.1% to 7.6% of children. The prevalence of food allergy is 3%. All children in Spain have the right to be visited in the National Health System. The medical care at the primary level is provided by pediatricians, who have obtained their titles through a 4-yr medical residency training program. The education on pediatric allergy during that period is not compulsory and thus very variable. There are currently 112 certified European pediatric allergists in Spain, who have obtained the accreditation of the European Union of Medical Specialist for proven skills and experience in pediatric allergy. Future specialists in pediatric allergy should obtain their titles through a specific education program to be developed in one of the four accredited training units on pediatric allergy, after obtaining the title on pediatrics. The Spanish Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology (SEICAP) gathers over 350 pediatric allergists and pediatricians working in this field. SEICAP has a growing activity including yearly congresses, continued education courses, elaboration of technical clinical documents and protocols, education of patients, and collaboration with other scientific societies and associations of patients. The official journal of SEICAP is Allergologia et Immunophatologia, published every 2 months since 1972. The web site of SEICAP, http://www.seicap.es, open since 2004, offers information for professionals and extensive information on pediatric allergic and immunologic disorders for the lay public; the web site is receiving 750 daily visits during 2011. The pediatric allergy units are very active in clinical work, procedures as immunotherapy or induction of oral tolerance in food allergy, contribution to scientific literature, and

  10. Study of air pollution in terms of heavy metals and particulate matter at Ambodin'isotry using the technique of total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AHMED, H.

    2011-01-01

    The present work is devoted to study the air pollution in terms of particulate matters and heavy metals in Ambodin'isotry in Antananarivo city by the method of total reflection X-ray fluorescence. This work has been done within the Institut National des Sciences et Techniques Nucleaires (Madagascar-INSTN). GENT air sampler has been used for the collections of the aerosol samples. This air sampler is placed at about 7 meters above the ground in order to avoid the contaminations. The samplings were carried out from 14 April to 29 August 2008. The duration of sampling is 24 hours. The results show that the analyzed aerosol samples contain the elements like the titanium , the chromium, the manganese, the iron, the nickel, the copper, the zinc, the bromine, the strontium and the lead. The average concentrations in element lead are lower than the standards ones adopted by the World Health Organization (WHO) (500 ng.m -3 ) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) (1500 ng.m -3 ). The total average concentrations in element lead are lower than the standards ones adopted by the World Health Organization (WHO) (500 ng.m -3 ). The total of average concentrations in lead doesn't present a danger for the population of Ambodin'isotry. The average concentrations of PM10 in the aerosols do not respect the guideline values of 50μg.m -3 adopted by the WHO and the European Union according to the directive 2005 and those of PM 2.5 exceed extensively the guideline values of the WHO (25μg.m -3 ) and of the US EPA (35μg.m -3 ). Consequently, the site of Ambodin'Isotry is polluted in term of airborne particulate matters. The calculation of enrichment factors by Mason's model shows the titanium, the iron, the nickel and the strontium are natural origin while the chromium, the nickel, the copper, the zinc, the bromine and the lead are from anthropogenic sources. [fr

  11. Analyses of heavy metals in sewage and sludge from treatment plants in the cities of Campinas and Jaguariúna, using synchrotron radiation total reflection X-rayfluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, L.C.F.; Canteras, F.B.; Moreira, S.

    2014-01-01

    A major consequence of accelerated urban and industrial development in the last decades is water pollution. In particular, metal contamination is a significant problem, causing serious changes to the environment and adversely affecting human health. The cities of Campinas and Jaguariúna are inserted in the Campinas Metropolitan Region (CMR), one of the most dynamic regions in the Brazilian economy, accounting for 2.7% of Gross National Product (GNP) and 7.83% of São Paulo State Product—or approximately $ 70.7 billion per year. Besides having a strong economy, the region also presents an infrastructure that provides the development of the entire metropolitan area. Therefore, to study the anthropogenic influences of the cities, the evaluation of the quality of raw and treated effluent and, the sludge generated in sewage treatment plants (STP), especially with regard to heavy metals was performed by Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence with Synchrotron Radiation technique. The results were compared with the allowed values established by Brazilian Legislation. For raw and treated effluents collected in Jaguariúna and Campinas city in the Stations of Treatment of Sewage (Camanducaia and Anhumas), Cr presented higher concentrations than the maximum allowed values established by CONAMA 357. However, it is necessary to do other studies to define the fraction of Cr +3 and Cr +6 to compare to the new legislation. The other elements were in agreement with established regulations. For sludge sampled in the same locations, the concentrations of Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn were compared with the CONAMA 375 and showed values smaller than the maximum allowed values, indicating the possibility to re-use the sludge. - Highlights: ► Analysis of sewage and sludge composition using SR-TXRF. ► Determination of the potentially toxic elements like Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb. ► Concentrations determined were compared with Brazilian quality standards. ► It was discovered possible illegal

  12. Association between IgE-mediated allergies and diabetes mellitus type 1 in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klamt, Sabine; Vogel, Mandy; Kapellen, Thomas M; Hiemisch, Andreas; Prenzel, Freerk; Zachariae, Silke; Ceglarek, Uta; Thiery, Joachim; Kiess, Wieland

    2015-11-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is characterized by an immunological reaction that is dominated by type-1 T helper (Th1) cells, whereas immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergies are associated with Th2 cell. According to the Th1/Th2-hypothesis, the immune system is said to either develop into the direction of Th1 or Th2 cells. This would mean that a child developing T1DM is unlikely to develop an IgE-mediated allergy and vice versa. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between the prevalence of T1DM and IgE-mediated allergies. We designed a prospective case control study with 94 children and adolescents with T1DM and 188 age- and sex-matched control children. The basis of our investigations was a questionnaire concerning the family and children's history as to the presence of IgE-mediated allergies. Moreover, the following blood investigations were done: total serum IgE, specific IgE antibodies to major inhalant allergens, and a multiplex cytokine analysis measuring levels of specific cytokines representing either Th1- or Th2- cytokines. Children with T1DM reported the presence of IgE-mediated allergies significantly more often than children of the control group. Children with T1DM had significantly higher tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) levels than healthy controls. Levels of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-6 were higher in the groups of children with the presence of a personal history of allergies, regardless of the presence of T1DM. Our results suggest that T1DM is associated with a higher risk of a self-reported presence of IgE-mediated allergies and that the Th1/Th2-hypothesis may be an oversimplification. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Cesarean section delivery and development of food allergy and atopic dermatitis in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papathoma, Evangelia; Triga, Maria; Fouzas, Sotirios; Dimitriou, Gabriel

    2016-06-01

    Delivery by Cesarean section (CS) may predispose to allergic disorders, presumably due to alterations in the establishment of normal gut microbiota in early infancy. In this study, we sought to investigate the association between CS and physician-diagnosed food allergy and atopic dermatitis during the first 3 years of life, using data from a homogeneous, population-based, birth cohort. A total of 459 children born and cared for in the same tertiary maternity unit were examined at birth and followed up at 1, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30 and 36 months of age. Participants with symptoms suggestive of food allergy or atopic dermatitis were evaluated by a pediatric allergy specialist to confirm the diagnosis based on well-defined criteria. The rate of CS was 50.8% (n = 233). Food allergy was diagnosed in 24 participants (5.2%) while atopic dermatitis was diagnosed in 62 children (13.5%). Cesarean section (OR 3.15; 95% CI 1.14-8.70), atopic dermatitis of the child (OR 3.01; 95% CI 1.18-7.80), parental atopy (OR 4.33; 95% CI 1.73-12.1), and gestational age (OR 1.57; 95% CI 1.07-2.37) were significant and independent predictors of food allergy. Children with at least one allergic parent delivered by CS had higher probability of developing food allergy compared with vaginally delivered children of non-allergic parents (OR 10.0; 95% CI 3.06-32.7). Conversely, the effect of CS on atopic dermatitis was not significant (OR 1.35; 95% CI 0.74-2.47). Delivery by CS predisposes to the development of food allergy but not atopic dermatitis in early childhood. Cesarean section delivery seems to upregulate the immune response to food allergens, especially in children with allergic predisposition. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Outcomes of allergy/immunology follow-up after an emergency department evaluation for anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ronna L; Park, Miguel A; Kueber, Michael A; Lee, Sangil; Hagan, John B

    2015-01-01

    Anaphylaxis guidelines currently recommend referring patients with anaphylaxis seen in the emergency department (ED) to an allergist for follow up. The objective of our study was to evaluate outcomes of allergy/immunology follow-up after an ED visit for anaphylaxis. A retrospective health records review was conducted from April 2008 to August 2012. Charts were reviewed independently by 2 allergists to determine outcomes. Descriptive statistics with corresponding 95% CIs were calculated. Among 573 patients seen in the ED who met anaphylaxis diagnostic criteria, 217 (38%) had a documented allergy/immunology follow-up. After allergy/immunology evaluation, 16 patients (7% [95% CI, 5%-12%]) had anaphylaxis ruled out. Among those with an unknown ED trigger (n = 74), 24 (32% [95% CI, 23%-44%]) had a trigger identified; and, among those who had a specific suspected ED trigger (n = 143), 9 (6% [95% CI, 3%-12%]) had a trigger identified in a category other than the one suspected in the ED, and 28 (20% [95% CI, 14%-27%]) had an unknown trigger. Thus, there were a total of 77 patients (35% [95% CI, 29%-42%]) who had an alteration in the diagnosis of anaphylaxis or trigger after allergy/immunology evaluation. Four patients (2% [95% CI, 0.7%-4.6%]) were diagnosed with a mast cell activation disorder, and 13 patients (6% [95% CI, 4%-10%]) underwent immunotherapy or desensitization. Overall, 35% of the patients with suspected anaphylaxis in the ED had an alteration in the diagnosis or suspected trigger after allergy/immunology evaluation. These results underscore the importance of allergy/immunology follow-up after an ED visit for anaphylaxis. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. New allergies after cord blood transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Leigh Ann; Vu, Mary; Sengsayadeth, Salyka; Lucid, Catherine; Clifton, Carey; McCarty, Karen; Hagaman, David; Domm, Jennifer; Kassim, Adetola; Chinratanalab, Wichai; Goodman, Stacey; Greer, John; Frangoul, Haydar; Engelhardt, Brian G; Jagasia, Madan; Savani, Bipin N

    2013-10-01

    Umbilical cord blood transplantation (CBT) is an effective treatment for benign and malignant diseases. Late effects of CBT are not well described in the literature. In the present study, we present our experience of new-onset allergies in long-term survivors after CBT. After an initial patient had a severe peanut allergic reaction after CBT, all CBT patients were prospectively followed for new allergy development. Fifty patients received CBT between March 2006 and June 2011. The median follow-up after CBT was 447 days (range, 12-2022). At the time of analysis, 30 patients were alive, with 3-year survival of 55.5%; median follow-up of surviving patients was 910 days (range, 68-2022). The allergic syndrome developed in five patients, with the cumulative incidence of new allergies at 2 years of 18.4% (95% confidence interval, 10.8-26). The median time to onset of new allergy after transplantation was 298 days (range, 250-809). Allergy development has been linked to a delayed maturation of the immune system in several studies. We present the first case series of patients who had new allergies after CBT. Further study of this novel complication as well as counseling of patients after CBT would be important. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Use of biologics in severe food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiocchi, Alessandro; Pecora, Valentina; Valluzzi, Rocco L; Fierro, Vincenzo; Mennini, Maurizio

    2017-06-01

    Severe cases of food allergy account for the majority of the burden in terms of risks, quality of life, and resource expenditure. The traditional approach to these forms has been strict avoidance. More recently, Oral ImmunoTherapy (OIT) has gained a role in their management. However, in severe food allergies OIT is often infeasible. Case reports, observational, and prospective studies have recently proposed different approaches to severe food allergy. The majority of them include the use of biologics. Omalizumab has been the most studied drug for severe food allergies, and its role as adjuvant treatment to OIT is well established. Interest has been raised on other biologics, as dupilumab, reslizumab, and mepolizumab. Toll-like receptor agonists, and gene therapy using adeno-associated virus coding for Omalizumab are promising alternatives. The recent studies are deeply influencing the clinical practice. We review the modifications of the clinical approach to severe food allergies so far available. We indicate the possible evolutions of treatment with biologics in severe food allergies.

  17. Therapeutic modalities for cow's milk allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Ernest G; Singer, Sanford

    2003-06-01

    To discuss current therapeutic modalities for cow's milk allergy and its prevention. The sources of data include original clinical studies carried out at Ste. Justine Hospital, as well as a systematic search of the published English and French language scientific literature restricted to human subjects using computerized searches (National Public Library of Medicine, Cochrane Database Systems Review) from 1997 to 2002. Search terms for article retrieval included food allergy, milk allergy, therapy, and prevention. The therapy of food allergies depends upon an accurate diagnosis, which remains a challenge in non--IgE-mediated cases. Dietary exclusion remains the mainstay of therapy, with medications reserved for exceptional patients. Preliminary evidence suggests that pancreatic enzyme supplementation may be of benefit for cases with multiple food allergies and severe eczema. Hydrolysate formula use is currently recommended for dietary allergy prevention in infants at an increased risk when maternal milk is insufficient or unavailable. The use of partially hydrolyzed formulas to prevent allergic disorders, including atopic dermatitis, is supported by clinical studies, but cannot be used in the already sensitized, milk-allergic child. Probiotics show enormous potential in preventing food allergic disorders as well.

  18. Oral tolerance induction for human food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Geunwoong; Lee, Jae Ho

    2012-04-01

    Food allergies are classified as IgE-mediated and non-IgE mediated type. The number of successful reports of immunotherapy, namely tolerance induction for food allergy (TIFA) are increasing, bringing hope for meaningful positive and radical treatment of food allergy. Therapeutic characteristics of the clinical course in TIFA for NFA are different from TIFA for IFA. Cytokines including IL-10, TGF-β and IFN-γ and regulatory cells such as Treg and Breg, are involved in immune tolerance. IFN-γ has been used for tolerance induction of food allergy as an immunomodulatory biologics. A definitive distinction between IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated food allergies is absolutely essential for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Original SOTI using IFN-γ is more effective then conventional SOTI without IFN-γ. Especially, IFN-γ is absolutely necessary for the tolerance induction of NFA. This review highlights and updates the advances in the conceptual immunological background and the clinical characteristics of oral tolerance induction for food allergy.

  19. Pediatric allergy and immunology in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Gary W K; Li, Jing; Bao, Yi-Xiao; Wang, Jiu-Yao; Leung, Ting Fan; Li, Luan-Luan; Shao, Jie; Huang, Xin-Yuan; Liu, En-Mei; Shen, Kun-Ling; Chen, Yu-Zhi

    2018-03-01

    Over the past 30 years, China has enjoyed rapid economic development along with urbanization at a massive scale that the world has not experienced before. Such development has also been associated with a rapid rise in the prevalence of allergic disorders. Because of the large childhood population in the country, the burden of childhood allergic disorders has become one of the major challenges in the healthcare system. Among the Chinese centers participating in the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood, the data clearly showed a continuing rise in the prevalence of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic eczema. However, the discipline of pediatric allergy in mainland China is still in its infancy due to the lack of formal training program and subspecialty certification. Clinicians and researchers are increasingly interested in providing better care for patients with allergies by establishing pediatric allergy centers in different regions of the country. Many of them have also participated in national or international collaborative projects hoping to answer the various research questions related to the discipline of pediatric allergy and immunology. It is our hope that the research findings from China will not only improve the quality of care of affected children within this country but also the millions of patients with allergies worldwide. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  20. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller-Bernstein, Carmi; Etzioni, Amos

    2013-03-01

    After the geographic and sociodemographic settings as well as the health care in Israel are briefly described, the scope of pediatric allergy and immunology in Israel is presented. This includes specific disorders commonly encountered, the environment that induces symptoms, the specialists who treat them, and the common challenges of patients, parents, doctors, and allied health personnel who collaborate to manage the maladies and patient care. Allergies usually affect some overall 15-20% of the pediatric population. The main allergens are inhaled, ingested, or injected (insects stings). Generally, the incidence of the various allergens affecting children in Israel, is similar to other parts of the Western world. Owing to the high consanguinity rate in the Israeli population, the prevalence of the various immunodeficiency conditions (in the adaptive as well as the innate system) is higher than that reported worldwide. Pediatric allergists/immunologists also treat autoimmune disorders affecting the pediatric group. Pediatric allergy and clinical immunology are not separate specialties. The 25 specialists who treat children with allergic/immunologic diseases have undergone a basic training in Pediatrics. They also received an additional 2-yr training in allergy and clinical immunology and then have to pass the board examinations. They work mainly in pediatric allergy units, in several hospitals that are affiliated to the five medical schools in the country. Aside from clinical work, most of the centers are also heavily involved in clinical and basic research in allergy and immunology. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.