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Sample records for metabolic syndrome prevention

  1. Metabolic Syndrome

    Sevil Ikinci

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic Syndrome is a combination of risk factors including common etiopathogenesis. These risk factors play different roles in occurence of atherosclerotic diseases, type 2 diabetes, and cancers. Although a compromise can not be achieved on differential diagnosis for MS, the existence of any three criterias enable to diagnose MS. These are abdominal obesity, dislipidemia (hypertrigliceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, and reduced high density lipoprotein hypertension, and elevated fasting blood glucose. According to the results of Metabolic Syndrome Research (METSAR, the overall prevalence of MS in Turkey is 34%; in females 40%, and in males it is 28%. As a result of “Western” diet, and increased frequency of obesity, MS is observed in children and in adolescents both in the world and in Turkey. Resulting in chronic diseases, it is thought that the syndrome can be prevented by healthy lifestyle behaviours. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(5.000: 535-540

  2. Metabolic Syndrome

    Metabolic syndrome is a group of conditions that put you at risk for heart disease and diabetes. These conditions ... agree on the definition or cause of metabolic syndrome. The cause might be insulin resistance. Insulin is ...

  3. Interactions between prebiotics, probiotics, polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols: diet or supplementation for metabolic syndrome prevention?

    Peluso, Ilaria; Romanelli, Luca; Palmery, Maura

    2014-05-01

    The metabolic syndrome can be prevented by the Mediterranean diet, characterized by fiber, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols. However, the composition of the Mediterranean diet, which can be viewed as a natural multiple supplement, is poorly controlled, and its beneficial effects poorly predictable. The metabolic syndrome is associated with intestinal dysbiosis and the gut microbioma seems to be the main target and player in the interactions occurring between probiotics, prebiotics, omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and polyphenols. From the reviewed evidence, it is reasonable to manage growth and metabolism of gut microflora with specific prebiotics and polyphenols. Even though the healthy properties of functional foods and nutraceuticals still need to be fully elucidated, available data suggest that well-designed supplements, containing the better ratio of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants, specific probiotic strains, and selected polyphenols and prebiotics, could be useful in metabolic syndrome prevention and treatment.

  4. Andrographolide, a New Hope in the Prevention and Treatment of Metabolic Syndrome

    Muhammad T. Islam

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the use of plant-derived medicines is increasing interest in the prevention and treatment of a variety of disorders including metabolic syndromes. Metabolic syndrome is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs and incidence of mortality worldwide. Scientific evidence suggests that Andrographis paniculata and its derived components, especially andrographolide (AGL and its analogs/derivatives have a broad spectrum of biological activities. This review aims to sketch the activity of AGL and its analogs/derivatives against the components of metabolic syndromes such as diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and obesity. Additionally, AGL activity against CVDs is also summarized. The finding suggests that AGL and its analogs/derivatives have a potential role in the management of metabolic syndrome; however, more studies should be conducted to evaluate their effectiveness.

  5. Physical Therapy for Metabolic Syndrome Prevention in Workers: Novel Role of Physical Therapist.

    Satoh, Tomonori; Nemoto, Yuki; Utumi, Takako; Munakata, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, physical therapists have usually been involved in physical therapy for patients with functional disorders associated with cerebrovascular or orthopedic diseases in hospitals. With the aging of Japanese society, the number of diseased people will progressively increase; thus, it is important to pay much more attention to disease prevention. In this regard, physical therapists are expected to play a new role in the field of preventive medicine. Metabolic syndrome or central obesity with multiple cardiometabolic risks is associated with a high risk of type 2 diabetes or cardiovascular diseases and is now a central target for early detection and intervention for disease prevention. The incidence of metabolic syndrome increases with age, and men showed a higher incidence of metabolic syndrome than women in all generations. We have been involved in the guidance of workers with metabolic syndrome for a long time, and we conducted a multicenter study to establish effective guidance for these worker. In this paper, we will use our evidence to discuss the role of physical therapists in providing guidance for preventing metabolic syndrome. We are now conducting worksite supporting exercise intervention for workers who were resistant to conventional lifestyle guidance. In addition, the unique role of physical therapists in this new trial will be introduced.

  6. What is Metabolic Syndrome?

    ... Intramural Research Home / Metabolic Syndrome Metabolic Syndrome Also known as What Is Metabolic syndrome ... metabolic risk factors to be diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. Metabolic Risk Factors A Large Waistline Having a large ...

  7. The future of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease prevention: polyhype or polyhope?: tales from the polyera

    Franco, O.; Karnik, K.; Bonneux, L.G.A.

    2007-01-01

    Recently society has been witnessing the rise of a new era in the prevention and treatment of the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease: the Polyera. This new era started when a promising concept – the Polypill – was introduced by Wald et al. in 2003. The Polypill is a theoretical

  8. Obesity, metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus after renal transplantation: prevention and treatment.

    Wissing, Karl Martin; Pipeleers, Lissa

    2014-04-01

    The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in dialysis patients is high and further increases after transplantation due to weight gain and the detrimental metabolic effects of immunosuppressive drugs. Corticosteroids cause insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, abnormal glucose metabolism and arterial hypertension. The calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus is diabetogenic by inhibiting insulin secretion, whereas cyclosporine causes hypertension and increases cholesterol levels. Mtor antagonists are responsible for hyperlipidemia and abnormal glucose metabolism by mechanisms that also implicate insulin resistance. The metabolic syndrome in transplant recipients has numerous detrimental effects such as increasing the risk of new onset diabetes, cardiovascular disease events and patient death. In addition, it has also been linked with accelerated loss of graft function, proteinuria and ultimately graft loss. Prevention and management of the metabolic syndrome are based on increasing physical activity, promotion of weight loss and control of cardiovascular risk factors. Bariatric surgery before or after renal transplantation in patients with body mass index >35 kg/m(2) is an option but its long term effects on graft and patient survival have not been investigated. Steroid withdrawal and replacement of tacrolimus with cyclosporine facilitate control of diabetes, whereas replacement of cyclosporine and mtor antagonists can improve hyperlipidemia. The new costimulation inhibitor belatacept has potent immunosuppressive properties without metabolic adverse effects and will be an important component of immunosuppressive regimens with better metabolic risk profile. Medical treatment of cardiovascular risk factors has to take potential drug interactions with immunosuppressive medication and drug accumulation due to renal insufficiency into account. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Efficiency of treatment and prevention of complications of parodontitis in patients with metabolic syndrome

    T. A. Pyndus

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Given the increasing prevalence of metabolic syndrome among the population, the search for ways to treat and prevent major dental diseases in this somatic pathology is of great importance. Purpose of the study. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of the developed treatment and prophylaxis complex in patients with generalized parodontitis in combination with metabolic syndrome. Materials and methods. In in-depth studies, 53 people aged 30-55 years with a diagnosis of "chronic generalized parodontitis" and "metabolic syndrome" took part. The main group of patients in addition to basic therapy received a developed, pathogenetically substantiated therapeutic and prophylactic complex, 2 times a year. Evaluation of the dental status of patients was performed in the initial state, after the first course of prevention at 6 months and in a year. Results. Conclusions. The high clinical effectiveness of the developed complex, including preparations of antibacterial and anti-inflammatory action, reducing cholesterol, reducing vascular permeability, normalizing metabolism, blood circulation and fat metabolism, enhancing immunity and resistance of the organism is shown.

  10. Exercise training prevents diastolic dysfunction induced by metabolic syndrome in rats

    Cristiano Mostarda

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: High fructose consumption contributes to the incidence of metabolic syndrome and, consequently, to cardiovascular outcomes. We investigated whether exercise training prevents high fructose diet-induced metabolic and cardiac morphofunctional alterations. METHODS: Wistar rats receiving fructose overload (F in drinking water (100 g/l were concomitantly trained on a treadmill (FT for 10 weeks or kept sedentary. These rats were compared with a control group (C. Obesity was evaluated by the Lee index, and glycemia and insulin tolerance tests constituted the metabolic evaluation. Blood pressure was measured directly (Windaq, 2 kHz, and echocardiography was performed to determine left ventricular morphology and function. Statistical significance was determined by one-way ANOVA, with significance set at p<0.05. RESULTS: Fructose overload induced a metabolic syndrome state, as confirmed by insulin resistance (F: 3.6 ± 0.2 vs. C: 4.5 ± 0.2 mg/dl/min, hypertension (mean blood pressure, F: 118 ± 3 vs. C: 104 ± 4 mmHg and obesity (F: 0.31±0.001 vs. C: 0.29 ± 0.001 g/mm. Interestingly, fructose overload rats also exhibited diastolic dysfunction. Exercise training performed during the period of high fructose intake eliminated all of these derangements. The improvements in metabolic parameters were correlated with the maintenance of diastolic function. CONCLUSION: The role of exercise training in the prevention of metabolic and hemodynamic parameter alterations is of great importance in decreasing the cardiac morbidity and mortality related to metabolic syndrome.

  11. Metabolic syndrome and menopause

    Jouyandeh Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The metabolic syndrome is defined as an assemblage of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, and menopause is associated with an increase in metabolic syndrome prevalence. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components among postmenopausal women in Tehran, Iran. Methods In this cross-sectional study in menopause clinic in Tehran, 118 postmenopausal women were investigated. We used the adult treatment panel 3 (ATP3 criteria to classify subjects as having metabolic syndrome. Results Total prevalence of metabolic syndrome among our subjects was 30.1%. Waist circumference, HDL-cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, diastolic blood pressure ,Systolic blood pressure, and triglyceride were significantly higher among women with metabolic syndrome (P-value Conclusions Our study shows that postmenopausal status is associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, to prevent cardiovascular disease there is a need to evaluate metabolic syndrome and its components from the time of the menopause.

  12. Detection of metabolic syndrome features among childhood cancer survivors: A target to prevent disease

    Adriana Aparecida Siviero-Miachon

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Adriana Aparecida Siviero-Miachon1, Angela Maria Spinola-Castro1, Gil Guerra-Junior21Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, Federal University of Sao Paulo – UNIFESP/EPM, Brazil; 2Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, State University of Campinas – FCM/UNICAMP, BrazilAbstract: Along with the growing epidemic of obesity, the risk of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease morbidity, and mortality are increasing markedly. Several risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as visceral obesity, glucose intolerance, arterial hypertension, and dyslipidemia commonly cluster together as a condition currently known as metabolic syndrome. Thus far, insulin resistance, and endothelial dysfunction are the primary events of the metabolic syndrome. Several groups have recommended clinical criteria for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in adults. Nonetheless, in what concerns children and adolescents, there are no unified definitions, and modified adult criteria have been suggested by many authors, despite major problems. Some pediatric disease states are at risk for premature cardiovascular disease, with clinical coronary events occurring very early in adult life. Survivors of specific pediatric cancer groups, particularly acute lymphocytic leukemia, central nervous system tumors, sarcomas, lymphomas, testicular cancer, and following bone marrow transplantation, may develop metabolic syndrome traits due to: hormonal deficiencies (growth hormone deficiency, thyroid dysfunction, and gonadal failure, drug or radiotherapy damage, endothelial impairment, physical inactivity, adipose tissue dysfunction, and/or drug-induced magnesium deficiency. In conclusion, some primary and secondary prevention remarks are proposed in order to reduce premature cardiovascular disease risk in this particular group of patients.Keywords: metabolic syndrome X, cardiovascular diseases, insulin resistance, obesity, growth hormone

  13. The metabolic syndrome in long-term cancer survivors, an important target for secondary preventive measures

    Nuver, J; Smit, AJ; Postma, A; Sleijfer, DT; Gietema, JA

    With increasing numbers of cancer survivors, attention has been drawn to long-term complications of curative cancer treatment, including a range of metabolic disorders. These metabolic disorders often resemble the components of the so-called metabolic syndrome, or syndrome X, which is an important

  14. Do Coffee Polyphenols Have a Preventive Action on Metabolic Syndrome Associated Endothelial Dysfunctions? An Assessment of the Current Evidence.

    Yamagata, Kazuo

    2018-02-04

    Epidemiologic studies from several countries have found that mortality rates associated with the metabolic syndrome are inversely associated with coffee consumption. Metabolic syndrome can lead to arteriosclerosis by endothelial dysfunction, and increases the risk for myocardial and cerebral infarction. Accordingly, it is important to understand the possible protective effects of coffee against components of the metabolic syndrome, including vascular endothelial function impairment, obesity and diabetes. Coffee contains many components, including caffeine, chlorogenic acid, diterpenes and trigonelline. Studies have found that coffee polyphenols, such as chlorogenic acids, have many health-promoting properties, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-diabetes, and antihypertensive properties. Chlorogenic acids may exert protective effects against metabolic syndrome risk through their antioxidant properties, in particular toward vascular endothelial cells, in which nitric oxide production may be enhanced, by promoting endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression. These effects indicate that coffee components may support the maintenance of normal endothelial function and play an important role in the prevention of metabolic syndrome. However, results related to coffee consumption and the metabolic syndrome are heterogeneous among studies, and the mechanisms of its functions and corresponding molecular targets remain largely elusive. This review describes the results of studies exploring the putative effects of coffee components, especially in protecting vascular endothelial function and preventing metabolic syndrome.

  15. Do Coffee Polyphenols Have a Preventive Action on Metabolic Syndrome Associated Endothelial Dysfunctions? An Assessment of the Current Evidence

    Yamagata, Kazuo

    2018-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies from several countries have found that mortality rates associated with the metabolic syndrome are inversely associated with coffee consumption. Metabolic syndrome can lead to arteriosclerosis by endothelial dysfunction, and increases the risk for myocardial and cerebral infarction. Accordingly, it is important to understand the possible protective effects of coffee against components of the metabolic syndrome, including vascular endothelial function impairment, obesity and diabetes. Coffee contains many components, including caffeine, chlorogenic acid, diterpenes and trigonelline. Studies have found that coffee polyphenols, such as chlorogenic acids, have many health-promoting properties, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-diabetes, and antihypertensive properties. Chlorogenic acids may exert protective effects against metabolic syndrome risk through their antioxidant properties, in particular toward vascular endothelial cells, in which nitric oxide production may be enhanced, by promoting endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression. These effects indicate that coffee components may support the maintenance of normal endothelial function and play an important role in the prevention of metabolic syndrome. However, results related to coffee consumption and the metabolic syndrome are heterogeneous among studies, and the mechanisms of its functions and corresponding molecular targets remain largely elusive. This review describes the results of studies exploring the putative effects of coffee components, especially in protecting vascular endothelial function and preventing metabolic syndrome. PMID:29401716

  16. Kappaphycus alvarezii as a Food Supplement Prevents Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Rats

    Stephen Wanyonyi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The red seaweed, Kappaphycus alvarezii, was evaluated for its potential to prevent signs of metabolic syndrome through use as a whole food supplement. Major biochemical components of dried Kappaphycus are carrageenan (soluble fiber ~34.6% and salt (predominantly potassium (K 20% with a low overall energy content for whole seaweed. Eight to nine week old male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups and fed for 8 weeks on a corn starch diet, a high-carbohydrate, high-fat (H diet, alone or supplemented with a 5% (w/w dried and milled Kappaphycus blended into the base diet. H-fed rats showed symptoms of metabolic syndrome including increased body weight, total fat mass, systolic blood pressure, left ventricular collagen deposition, plasma triglycerides, and plasma non-esterified fatty acids along with fatty liver. Relative to these obese rats, Kappaphycus-treated rats showed normalized body weight and adiposity, lower systolic blood pressure, improved heart and liver structure, and lower plasma lipids, even in presence of H diet. Kappaphycus modulated the balance between Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in the gut, which could serve as the potential mechanism for improved metabolic variables; this was accompanied by no damage to the gut structure. Thus, whole Kappaphycus improved cardiovascular, liver, and metabolic parameters in obese rats.

  17. [Metabolic Syndrome as a marker of cardiovascular events in hypertensives in primary prevention].

    Costa, José Antonio; Rodilla, Enrique; Cardona, Joaquín; González, Carmen; Pascual, José María

    2012-07-07

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of metabolic syndrome (MS) as a predictor of cardiovascular events (CVE) in hypertensives in primary prevention. This retrospective study involved 2410 non-diabetic, hypertensive patients (52% women, 43% with MS), without previous CVE. The total follow-up was 13096 patient-years with a median of 4,5 years (IIQ; 2,2-7,3). Patients with metabolic syndrome did not have more risk of CVE (HR 1,19; CI 95%:0,89-1,58; p=0,292), 183 patients had a CVE, 88 in patients with MS (15,4; CI 95%:12,4-19,0 patients-years), and 95 in patients without MS (13,0; CI 95%:10,5-15,9 patients/years) (p=0,279). In a multivariate analysis corrected for other factors, only age (HR 1,08; CI 95%: 1,07-1,10; p=0,001), male gender (HR 1,77; CI 95%: 1,27-2,45; p=0,001), smoking (HR 2,95; CI 95%: 2,01-4,34; p=0,001) at the beginning, and values of systolic arterial pressure ≥160 mm Hg (HR 1,83; CI 95%: 1,17-2,89; p=0,009) and cholesterol-low density lipoproteins ≥160 mg/dl (HR 1,58; CI 95%: 1,05-2,38; p=0,029) during the follow-up, were associated with new CVE. In hypertensive non-diabetic patients in primary prevention the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome did not add any significant prediction about future CVE over the traditional risk factors. Systolic arterial pressure ≥160 mm Hg and cholesterol-low density lipoproteins ≥160 mg/dl, respectively, during the follow up were factors related to new CVE. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  18. Hydroxytyrosol prevents diet-induced metabolic syndrome and attenuates mitochondrial abnormalities in obese mice.

    Cao, Ke; Xu, Jie; Zou, Xuan; Li, Yuan; Chen, Cong; Zheng, Adi; Li, Hao; Li, Hua; Szeto, Ignatius Man-Yau; Shi, Yujie; Long, Jiangang; Liu, Jiankang; Feng, Zhihui

    2014-02-01

    A Mediterranean diet rich in olive oil has profound influence on health outcomes including metabolic syndrome. However, the active compound and detailed mechanisms still remain unclear. Hydroxytyrosol (HT), a major polyphenolic compound in virgin olive oil, has received increased attention for its antioxidative activity and regulation of mitochondrial function. Here, we investigated whether HT is the active compound in olive oil exerting a protective effect against metabolic syndrome. In this study, we show that HT could prevent high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and insulin resistance in C57BL/6J mice after 17 weeks supplementation. Within liver and skeletal muscle tissues, HT could decrease HFD-induced lipid deposits through inhibition of the SREBP-1c/FAS pathway, ameliorate HFD-induced oxidative stress by enhancing antioxidant enzyme activities, normalize expression of mitochondrial complex subunits and mitochondrial fission marker Drp1, and eventually inhibit apoptosis activation. Moreover, in muscle tissue, the levels of mitochondrial carbonyl protein were decreased and mitochondrial complex activities were significantly improved by HT supplementation. In db/db mice, HT significantly decreased fasting glucose, similar to metformin. Notably, HT decreased serum lipid, at which metformin failed. Also, HT was more effective at decreasing the oxidation levels of lipids and proteins in both liver and muscle tissue. Similar to the results in the HFD model, HT decreased muscle mitochondrial carbonyl protein levels and improved mitochondrial complex activities in db/db mice. Our study links the olive oil component HT to diabetes and metabolic disease through changes that are not limited to decreases in oxidative stress, suggesting a potential pharmaceutical or clinical use of HT in metabolic syndrome treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Program Development and Effectiveness of Workplace Health Promotion Program for Preventing Metabolic Syndrome among Office Workers.

    Ryu, Hosihn; Jung, Jiyeon; Cho, Jeonghyun; Chin, Dal Lae

    2017-08-04

    This paper aims to develop and analyze the effects of a socio-ecological model-based intervention program for preventing metabolic syndrome (MetS) among office workers. The intervention program was developed using regular health examinations, a "health behavior and need" assessment survey among workers, and a focus group study. According to the type of intervention, subjects took part in three groups: health education via an intranet-based web magazine (Group 1), self-monitoring with the U-health system (Group 2), and the target population who received intensive intervention (Group 3). The intervention programs of Group 1 and Group 2, which relied on voluntary participation, did not show significant effects. In Group 3, which relied on targeted and proactive programs, showed a decrease in waist circumference and in fasting glucose ( p light of the effectiveness of the intensive intervention strategy for metabolic syndrome prevention among workers used in this study, companies should establish targeted and proactive health care programs rather than providing a healthcare system that is dependent on an individual's voluntary participation.

  20. Preventive role of exercise training in autonomic, hemodynamic, and metabolic parameters in rats under high risk of metabolic syndrome development.

    Moraes-Silva, Ivana Cinthya; Mostarda, Cristiano; Moreira, Edson Dias; Silva, Kleiton Augusto Santos; dos Santos, Fernando; de Angelis, Kátia; Farah, Vera de Moura Azevedo; Irigoyen, Maria Claudia

    2013-03-15

    High fructose consumption contributes to metabolic syndrome incidence, whereas exercise training promotes several beneficial adaptations. In this study, we demonstrated the preventive role of exercise training in the metabolic syndrome derangements in a rat model. Wistar rats receiving fructose overload in drinking water (100 g/l) were concomitantly trained on a treadmill (FT) or kept sedentary (F) for 10 wk. Control rats treated with normal water were also submitted to exercise training (CT) or sedentarism (C). Metabolic evaluations consisted of the Lee index and glycemia and insulin tolerance test (kITT). Blood pressure (BP) was directly measured, whereas heart rate (HR) and BP variabilities were evaluated in time and frequency domains. Renal sympathetic nerve activity was also recorded. F rats presented significant alterations compared with all the other groups in insulin resistance (in mg · dl(-1) · min(-1): F: 3.4 ± 0.2; C: 4.7 ± 0.2; CT: 5.0 ± 0.5 FT: 4.6 ± 0.4), mean BP (in mmHG: F: 117 ± 2; C: 100 ± 2; CT: 98 ± 2; FT: 105 ± 2), and Lee index (in g/mm: F = 0.31 ± 0.001; C = 0.29 ± 0.001; CT = 0.27 ± 0.002; FT = 0.28 ± 0.002), confirming the metabolic syndrome diagnosis. Exercise training blunted all these derangements. Additionally, FS group presented autonomic dysfunction in relation to the others, as seen by an ≈ 50% decrease in baroreflex sensitivity and 24% in HR variability, and increases in sympathovagal balance (140%) and in renal sympathetic nerve activity (45%). These impairments were not observed in FT group, as well as in C and CT. Correlation analysis showed that both Lee index and kITT were associated with vagal impairment caused by fructose. Therefore, exercise training plays a preventive role in both autonomic and hemodynamic alterations related to the excessive fructose consumption.

  1. Lifestyle changes and prevention of metabolic syndrome in the Heart of New Ulm Project

    Jeffrey J. VanWormer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Prior research has shown that unhealthy lifestyles increase the risk for developing a number of chronic diseases, but there are few studies examining how lifestyle changes impact metabolic syndrome. This study analyzed the association between two-year changes in key lifestyle risk metrics and incident metabolic syndrome in adults. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using data from metabolic syndrome free adults in the Heart of New Ulm Project (New Ulm, MN. The outcome was incident metabolic syndrome observed two years after baseline in 2009. The primary predictor was change in optimal lifestyle score based on four behavioral risk factors, including smoking, alcohol use, fruit/vegetable consumption, and physical activity. In the analytical sample of 1059 adults, 12% developed metabolic syndrome by 2011. Multivariable regression models (adjusted for baseline lifestyle score, age, sex, education, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes revealed that a two-year decrease in optimal lifestyle score was associated with significantly greater odds of incident metabolic syndrome (OR = 2.92; 95% CI: 1.69, 5.04; p < 0.001. This association was primarily driven by changes in obesity, fruit/vegetable consumption, and alcohol intake. As compared to improving poor lifestyle habits, maintaining a healthy lifestyle seemed to be most helpful in avoiding metabolic syndrome over the two-year study timeframe.

  2. A CASE OF METABOLIC SYNDROME

    Khoo Ee Ming; Rabia Khatoon

    2006-01-01

    This case report illustrates a 40-year-old woman who presented with chest discomfort that was subsequently diagnosed to have metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is a common condition associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. As primary care providers, we should be detect this condition early, intervene and prevent appropriately before complications occur.

  3. Role of community pharmacists in the prevention and management of the metabolic syndrome in Kuwait.

    Katoue, Maram G; Awad, Abdelmoneim I; Kombian, Samuel B

    2013-02-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors and its prevalence is alarmingly high in Kuwait, affecting nearly one third of the adult population. There is lack of information about the role of community pharmacists in the care of patients with the metabolic syndrome. To assess the awareness and opinions of community pharmacists about the metabolic syndrome and identify the services they provide for identification, management and monitoring of patients with the metabolic syndrome. Community pharmacies in Kuwait. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was performed on a randomly selected sample of 225 community pharmacists. Data were collected via face-to-face structured interview of the pharmacists using a pre-tested questionnaire. Pharmacists' knowledge and views on the metabolic syndrome, monitoring services provided, self-reported practices and perceived effectiveness of the various management interventions for the metabolic syndrome. The response rate was 97.8 %. Nine pharmacists claimed to know about the metabolic syndrome, but only one pharmacist could identify the condition correctly. After being given a definition of the metabolic syndrome, 67.7 % of respondents strongly agreed that its prevalence was rising in Kuwait. Nearly two thirds of respondents reported providing height and weight measurement service while 82.7 and 59.5 % of pharmacies provided blood pressure and blood glucose measurements, respectively. Waist circumference and lipid profile measurements were the least provided services (1.8 %). Respondents claimed to be involved in counseling patients on lifestyle modifications including increased exercise (98.1 %) and weight reduction through diet (96.9 %). Most pharmacists were involved in encouraging patients' adherence with prescribed treatments (98.6 %) and perceived these as the most effective intervention for the management of the metabolic syndrome (95.0 %). Respondents were less involved in monitoring patients' response

  4. Precision Nutrition: A Review of Personalized Nutritional Approaches for the Prevention and Management of Metabolic Syndrome

    Juan de Toro-Martín

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The translation of the growing increase of findings emerging from basic nutritional science into meaningful and clinically relevant dietary advices represents nowadays one of the main challenges of clinical nutrition. From nutrigenomics to deep phenotyping, many factors need to be taken into account in designing personalized and unbiased nutritional solutions for individuals or population sub-groups. Likewise, a concerted effort among basic, clinical scientists and health professionals will be needed to establish a comprehensive framework allowing the implementation of these new findings at the population level. In a world characterized by an overwhelming increase in the prevalence of obesity and associated metabolic disturbances, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, tailored nutrition prescription represents a promising approach for both the prevention and management of metabolic syndrome. This review aims to discuss recent works in the field of precision nutrition analyzing most relevant aspects affecting an individual response to lifestyle/nutritional interventions. Latest advances in the analysis and monitoring of dietary habits, food behaviors, physical activity/exercise and deep phenotyping will be discussed, as well as the relevance of novel applications of nutrigenomics, metabolomics and microbiota profiling. Recent findings in the development of precision nutrition are highlighted. Finally, results from published studies providing examples of new avenues to successfully implement innovative precision nutrition approaches will be reviewed.

  5. Clinical update on metabolic syndrome

    Juan Diego Hernández-Camacho

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome has been defined as a global issue since it affects a lot of people. Numerous factors are involved in metabolic syndrome development. It has been described that metabolic syndrome has negative consequences on health. Consequently, a lot of treatments have been proposed to palliate it such as drugs, surgery or life style changes where nutritional habits have shown to be an important point in its management. The current study reviews the literature existing about the actual epidemiology of metabolic syndrome, the components involucrate in its appearance and progression, the clinical consequences of metabolic syndrome and the nutritional strategies reported in its remission. A bibliographic search in PubMed and Medline was performed to identify eligible studies. Authors obtained that metabolic syndrome is present in population from developed and undeveloped areas in a huge scale. Environmental and genetic elements are involucrate in metabolic syndrome development. Metabolic syndrome exponentially increased risk of cardiovascular disease, some types of cancers, diabetes mellitus type 2, sleep disturbances, etc. Nutritional treatments play a crucial role in metabolic syndrome prevention, treatment and recovery.

  6. Adherence to WCRF/AICR cancer prevention recommendations and metabolic syndrome in breast cancer patients.

    Bruno, Eleonora; Gargano, Giuliana; Villarini, Anna; Traina, Adele; Johansson, Harriet; Mano, Maria Piera; Santucci De Magistris, Maria; Simeoni, Milena; Consolaro, Elena; Mercandino, Angelica; Barbero, Maggiorino; Galasso, Rocco; Bassi, Maria Chiara; Zarcone, Maurizio; Zagallo, Emanuela; Venturelli, Elisabetta; Bellegotti, Manuela; Berrino, Franco; Pasanisi, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS), conventionally defined by the presence of at least three out of five dismetabolic traits (abdominal obesity, hypertension, low plasma HDL-cholesterol and high plasma glucose and triglycerides), has been associated with both breast cancer (BC) incidence and prognosis. We investigated the association between the prevalence of MetS and a score of adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) recommendations for the prevention of cancer in a cross-sectional study of BC patients. The DIet and ANdrogen-5 study (DIANA-5) for the prevention of BC recurrences recruited 2092 early stage BC survivors aged 35-70. At recruitment, all women completed a 24-hour food frequency and physical activity diary on their consumption and activity of the previous day. Using these diaries we created a score of adherence to five relevant WCRF/AICR recommendations. The prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of MetS associated with the number of recommendations met were estimated using a binomial regression model. The adjusted PRs of MetS decreased with increasing number of recommendations met (p < 0.001). Meeting all the five recommendations versus meeting none or only one was significantly associated with a 57% lower MetS prevalence (95% CI 0.35-0.73). Our results suggest that adherence to WCRF/AICR recommendations is a major determinant of MetS and may have a clinical impact. © 2015 UICC.

  7. Dietary Strategies Implicated in the Prevention and Treatment of Metabolic Syndrome

    de la Iglesia, Rocio; Loria-Kohen, Viviana; Zulet, Maria Angeles; Martinez, Jose Alfredo; Reglero, Guillermo; Ramirez de Molina, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is established as the combination of central obesity and different metabolic disturbances, such as insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidemia. This cluster of factors affects approximately 10%–50% of adults worldwide and the prevalence has been increasing in epidemic proportions over the last years. Thus, dietary strategies to treat this heterogenic disease are under continuous study. In this sense, diets based on negative-energy-balance, the Mediterranean die...

  8. The future of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease prevention: polyhype or polyhope? Tales from the polyera.

    Franco, O H; Karnik, K; Bonneux, L

    2007-09-01

    Recently society has been witnessing the rise of a new era in the prevention and treatment of the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease: the Polyera. This new era started when a promising concept - the Polypill - was introduced by Wald et al. in 2003. The Polypill is a theoretical combination of six pharmacological compounds (a statin, three different antihypertensives, aspirin, and folic acid) that in combination could reduce cardiovascular disease by more than 80%. Although the Polypill could theoretically be a highly effective intervention, it is not yet available in the market and its effectiveness remains unproven. In the population at large, cheap prizes may come at prohibitive costs. With frail elderly and population prevalences of co-morbidity far higher than in drug trials, rare adverse effects may be frequent. In December 2004, a more natural, safer, and probably tastier alternative to the Polypill - the Polymeal - was introduced. Contrary to the Polypill, the Polymeal combined 6 different foods (fruits and vegetables, almonds, chocolate, wine, fish, and garlic) that taken together in a regular basis could cut cardiovascular disease risk by over 75%. Polyproducts from the polyera in true populations might hide unexpected polyinteractions. In the polyera, polytrials will need to establish benefits, harms, and costs.

  9. Nordic walking for cardiovascular prevention in patients with ischaemic heart disease or metabolic syndrome.

    Vehí, Cristina; Falces, Carles; Sarlat, Miquel Àngel; Gonzalo, Ana; Andrea, Rut; Sitges, Marta

    2016-12-16

    The incidence of atherosclerotic diseases has increased in Europe due in part to the population's sedentary lifestyle. Physical activity is useful for cardiovascular prevention. Nordic walking (NW) mobilizes a great number of muscular groups and is very popular in northern Europe. There is no data available on its impact in the healthcare system of the Mediterranean area. We propose the implementation of a NW program to promote physical activity and control cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF), as well as to improve quality of life and the adherence to medical treatment in patients with a chronic ischemic heart disease or metabolic syndrome. We selected patients with uncontrolled CVRFs. These patients performed 2 weekly sessions of NW over the course of one year. Baseline data extracted from the patients' medical history, quality of life questionnaires and on adherence to treatment was compared with the results obtained at the end of the program. A reduction in the rate of CVRFs from 4.78 to 3 was observed, with an evident trend towards the improvement of the patients' quality of life and a better adherence to the treatment. The implementation of a NW program is feasible in the public healthcare system and can aid in the management of CVRFs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. A salutogenic approach to prevention of metabolic syndrome: a mixed methods population study.

    Miettola, Juhani; Viljanen, Anna Maria

    2014-12-01

    To find a salutogenic approach for prevention of metabolic syndrome in primary care practice. An explanatory sequential mixed-methods procedure was used to find salutogenic approaches for lifestyle change by assessing individual need, potential, and personal motivation. Data from a population health survey and interviews that focused on a sense of coherence were analysed. Altogether 480 Finnish subjects participated in a population health survey, and 43 of them were interviewed. The 43 interviewees' data were included in the final analysis. With the health survey participants' liability for MetS was assessed, and the objective need for lifestyle intervention was determined. Through the focused interviews potential and personal motivation for lifestyle modification were explored. Finally the data of the 43 interviewed subjects were merged. Four possible lifestyle intervention approaches were identified for specific intervention. First, subjects with a strong sense of coherence only need encouragement to maintain a healthy lifestyle; second, professional support was found important for subjects with gaps in health awareness to improve health understanding; third, strengthening of social support for lifestyle change is necessary for subjects with various practical constraints in their everyday life; and fourth, strengthening of stress adaptation is important for subjects with redundant concerns about their health. Salutogenic client-centred lifestyle modification approaches should be part of primary care practice. Further, a cross-disciplinary approach is needed in primary care research and practice to combat the exploding lifestyle illnesses.

  11. Construction and validation of educational materials for the prevention of metabolic syndrome in adolescents.

    Moura, Ionara Holanda de; Silva, Antônia Fabiana Rodrigues da; Rocha, Aparecida do Espírito Santo de Holanda; Lima, Luisa Helena de Oliveira; Moreira, Thereza Maria Magalhães; Silva, Ana Roberta Vilarouca da

    2017-10-05

    To develop and validate an educational technology focused on prevention of metabolic syndrome among adolescents. This was methodological research. Using an integrative review, the available publications on the subject were analyzed. Then, this knowledge was used to describe the theoretical content and, with the help of a graphic designer, the art and layout of the pages were developed. In the third phase, the booklet was evaluated and validated by 21 specialists and 39 adolescents. Data collection included three different questionnaires, according to the focus of evaluation of each group of participants, analyzed for reliability (Cronbach's Alpha) and agreement by Infraclass Correlation Coefficient. The mean score attributed by technical content experts was 91.7%, and the content validity index, measured by experts responses, was 0.98, showing high reliability and agreement. In addition, the level of agreement of the positive responses given by adolescents was 88.4%. the educational booklet has proved to be a valid and reliable tool to be used for promoting adolescent health.

  12. Drug treatment of metabolic syndrome.

    Altabas, Velimir

    2013-08-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a constellation of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases including: abdominal obesity, a decreased ability to metabolize glucose (increased blood glucose levels and/or presence of insulin resistance), dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Patients who have developed this syndrome have been shown to be at an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease and/or type 2 diabetes. Genetic factors and the environment both are important in the development of the metabolic syndrome, influencing all single components of this syndrome. The goals of therapy are to treat the underlying cause of the syndrome, to reduce morbidity, and to prevent complications, including premature death. Lifestyle modification is the preferred first-step treatment of the metabolic syndrome. There is no single effective drug treatment affecting all components of the syndrome equally known yet. However, each component of metabolic syndrome has independent goals to be achieved, so miscellaneous types of drugs are used in the treatment of this syndrome, including weight losing drugs, antidiabetics, antihypertensives, antilipemic and anticlothing drugs etc. This article provides a brief insight into contemporary drug treatment of components the metabolic syndrome.

  13. Community-based primary prevention programs decrease the rate of metabolic syndrome among socioeconomically disadvantaged women.

    Gilstrap, Lauren Gray; Malhotra, Rajeev; Peltier-Saxe, Donna; Slicas, Donna; Pineda, Eliana; Culhane-Hermann, Catherine; Cook, Nakela; Fernandez-Golarz, Carina; Wood, Malissa

    2013-04-01

    Metabolic Syndrome (MetSyn) is one of the strongest predictors of type 2 diabetes (DM2) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). It is associated with a 4- to 10-fold increased risk of DM2 and a 2- to 3-fold increased risk of CVD. Low income and minority women have some of the highest rates of MetSyn. This study examines the effect of a unique, community based, primary prevention program on the rates of MetSyn and health habits. Sixty-four low income and minority women were enrolled in the HAPPY (Health Awareness and Primary Prevention in Your neighborhood) Heart Program in an eastern suburb of Boston. Over these 2 years, patients were evaluated by an interdisciplinary medical team: their primary physician, cardiologist, nutritionist, physical therapist, and health coach. The rate of MetSyn was measured at baseline, year 1, and year 2. Comparisons were made either using the paired t test for normally distributed variables or the Wilcoxon Sign test for non-normal variables. The rate of MetSyn fell from 64.7% at baseline to 34.9% at year 1 (p=0.01) and 28.2% at year 2 (p<0.001). This was driven by increases in high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) (p<0.001) and decreases in blood pressure (p=0.05). Fasting blood glucose trended down, but the hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) reached significance (decreasing from 6 to 5.8, p<0.01). Nutrition and exercise habits trended toward improvement. There were significant decreases in anxiety (p<0.001), depression (p=0.006) and stress (p=0.002). This lifestyle intervention program is effective at decreasing MetSyn in a socioeconomically disadvantaged, largely minority, female population. This program also decreases anxiety, stress, and depression among participants.

  14. Treatment of metabolic syndrome.

    Wagh, Arati; Stone, Neil J

    2004-03-01

    The metabolic syndrome is intended to identify patients who have increased risk of diabetes and/or a cardiac event due to the deleterious effects of weight gain, sedentary lifestyle, and/or an atherogenic diet. The National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III definition uses easily measured clinical findings of increased abdominal circumference, elevated triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, elevated fasting blood glucose and/or elevated blood pressure. Three of these five are required for diagnosis. The authors also note that other definitions of metabolic syndrome focus more on insulin resistance and its key role in this syndrome. This review focuses on how treatment might affect each of the five components. Abdominal obesity can be treated with a variety of lower calorie diets along with regular exercise. Indeed, all of the five components of the metabolic syndrome are improved by even modest amounts of weight loss achieved with diet and exercise. For those with impaired fasting glucose tolerance, there is good evidence that a high fiber, low saturated fat diet with increased daily exercise can reduce the incidence of diabetes by almost 60%. Of note, subjects who exercise the most, gain the most benefit. Metformin has also been shown to be helpful in these subjects. Thiazolidinedione drugs may prove useful, but further studies are needed. Although intensified therapeutic lifestyle change will help the abnormal lipid profile, some patients may require drug therapy. This review also discusses the use of statins, fibrates, and niacin. Likewise, while hypertension in the metabolic syndrome benefits from therapeutic lifestyle change, physicians should also consider angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor drugs or angiotensin receptor blockers, due to their effects on preventing complications of diabetes, such as progression of diabetic nephropathy and due to their effects on regression of left ventricular hypertrophy. Aspirin

  15. [Menopause and metabolic syndrome].

    Meirelles, Ricardo M R

    2014-03-01

    The incidence of cardiovascular disease increases considerably after the menopause. One reason for the increased cardiovascular risk seems to be determined by metabolic syndrome, in which all components (visceral obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and glucose metabolism disorder) are associated with higher incidence of coronary artery disease. After menopause, metabolic syndrome is more prevalent than in premenopausal women, and may plays an important role in the occurrence of myocardial infarction and other atherosclerotic and cardiovascular morbidities. Obesity, an essential component of the metabolic syndrome, is also associated with increased incidence of breast, endometrial, bowel, esophagus, and kidney cancer. The treatment of metabolic syndrome is based on the change in lifestyle and, when necessary, the use of medication directed to its components. In the presence of symptoms of the climacteric syndrome, hormonal therapy, when indicated, will also contribute to the improvement of the metabolic syndrome.

  16. Metabolic syndrome and menopause

    Jouyandeh, Zahra; Nayebzadeh, Farnaz; Qorbani, Mostafa; Asadi, Mojgan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The metabolic syndrome is defined as an assemblage of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, and menopause is associated with an increase in metabolic syndrome prevalence. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components among postmenopausal women in Tehran, Iran. Methods In this cross-sectional study in menopause clinic in Tehran, 118 postmenopausal women were investigated. We used the adult treatment panel 3 (ATP3) criteria t...

  17. EX-MET study: exercise in prevention on of metabolic syndrome - a randomized multicenter trial: rational and design.

    Tjønna, Arnt Erik; Ramos, Joyce S; Pressler, Axel; Halle, Martin; Jungbluth, Klaus; Ermacora, Erika; Salvesen, Øyvind; Rodrigues, Jhennyfer; Bueno, Carlos Roberto; Munk, Peter Scott; Coombes, Jeff; Wisløff, Ulrik

    2018-04-02

    Metabolic syndrome substantially increases risk of cardiovascular events. It is therefore imperative to develop or optimize ways to prevent or attenuate this condition. Exercise training has been long recognized as a corner-stone therapy for reducing individual cardiovascular risk factors constituting the metabolic syndrome. However, the optimal exercise dose and its feasibility in a real world setting has yet to be established. The primary objective of this randomized trial is to investigate the effects of different volumes of aerobic interval training (AIT) compared to the current exercise guideline of moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on the composite number of cardiovascular disease risk factors constituting the metabolic syndrome after a 16 week, 1-year, and 3-year follow-up. This is a randomized international multi-center trial including men and women aged ≥30 years diagnosed with the metabolic syndrome according to the International Diabetes Federation criteria. Recruitment began in August 2012 and concluded in December 2016. This trial consists of supervised and unsupervised phases to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of different exercise doses on the metabolic syndrome in a real world setting. This study aims to include and randomize 465 participants to 3 years of one of the following training groups: i) 3 times/week of 4 × 4 min AIT at 85-95% peak heart rate (HRpeak); ii) 3 times/week of 1 × 4 min AIT at 85-95% HRpeak; or iii) 5-7 times/week of ≥30 min MICT at 60-70% HRpeak. Clinical examinations, physical tests and questionnaires are administered to all participants during all testing time points (baseline, 16 weeks and after 1-, and 3-years). This multi-center international trial indeed aims to ease the burden in healthcare/economic cost arising from treating end-stage CVD related conditions such as stroke and myocardial infarction, that could eventually emerge from the metabolic syndrome condition. Clinical

  18. Advanced nutritional and stem cells approaches to prevent equine metabolic syndrome.

    Marycz, Krzysztof; Michalak, Izabela; Kornicka, Katarzyna

    2018-01-31

    Horses metabolic disorders have become an important problem of modern veterinary medicine. Pathological obesity, insulin resistance and predisposition toward laminitis are associated with Equine Metabolic Syndrome (EMS). Based on pathogenesis of EMS, dietary and cell therapy management may significantly reduce development of this disorder. Special attention has been paid to the diet supplementation with highly bioavailable minerals and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) which increase insulin sensitivity. In nutrition, there is a great interests in natural algae enriched via biosorption process with micro- and macroelements. In the case of cellular therapy, metabolic condition of engrafted cells may be crucial for the effectiveness of the therapy. Although, recent studies indicated on MSC deterioration in EMS individuals. Here, we described the combined nutritional and stem cells therapy for the EMS treatment. Moreover, we specified in details how EMS affects the adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) population. Presented here, combined kind of therapy- an innovative and cutting edge approach of metabolic disorders treatment may become a new gold standard in personalized veterinary medicine. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Prevention of the refeeding syndrome].

    Martínez Núñez, Maria E; Hernández Muniesa, B

    2010-01-01

    The refeeding syndrome can be defined as the metabolic alterations developed by the rapid nutrition repletion (oral, enteral as well as parenteral feeding) of severaly malnourished patients. Refeeding syndrome is a potentially fatal clinical condition and it is often underdiagnosed on non-specialized nutrition units. The most important key for its prevention is to identify patients at high risk for developing refeeding syndrome, before nutrition repletion. The present case describes the steps to prevent the refeeding syndrome as well as the clinical recommendations to restart nutrition support.

  20. Current evidence on the health-beneficial effects of berry fruits in the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome.

    Kowalska, Katarzyna; Olejnik, Anna

    2016-11-01

    Berries belong to the best dietary sources of bioactive compounds, which exert a synergistic and cumulative effect on promotion of human health and prevention of diseases. The present review presents the most recent findings of animal and human studies regarding the health benefits of berries in terms of prevention and treatment of obesity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. In the last years, there was a growing number of evidence from human epidemiological and interventional studies, which emphasized the role of berries in the management of metabolic diseases. Based on the results from recent clinical trials, it can be established that a berry diet rich in antioxidants and bioactive phytochemicals has beneficial effects on hepatic function, increase of insulin sensitivity and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, decrease of serum glucose and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and finally is inversely associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes. Numerous recent studies have shown that berries provide great benefits in preventing or mitigating metabolic disorders. The results of this review indicate that regular long-term consumption of different berries could potentially delay the progression of metabolic syndrome and comorbidities.

  1. Primary prevention of metabolic syndrome in the community using an evidence-based exercise program.

    Dalleck, Lance C; Van Guilder, Gary P; Quinn, Esther M; Bredle, Don L

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effectiveness of a community-based exercise program to lower metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors. MetS components were retrospectively analyzed in 332 adults (190 women, 142 men) before and after a 14-week supervised community exercise program between January 2007 and May 2012 at the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire. Except for total cholesterol, all health outcome variables, including the 5 MetS components, improved following community exercise. Individuals having MetS decreased from 22.3% before participation to 13.5% at end (pexercise program is an effective method to reduce cardiovascular risk in adults by substantially decreasing the prevalence of MetS and its components. Greater volumes of exercise may increase the likelihood of MetS risk factor elimination. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Dietary Strategies Implicated in the Prevention and Treatment of Metabolic Syndrome.

    de la Iglesia, Rocio; Loria-Kohen, Viviana; Zulet, Maria Angeles; Martinez, Jose Alfredo; Reglero, Guillermo; Ramirez de Molina, Ana

    2016-11-10

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is established as the combination of central obesity and different metabolic disturbances, such as insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidemia. This cluster of factors affects approximately 10%-50% of adults worldwide and the prevalence has been increasing in epidemic proportions over the last years. Thus, dietary strategies to treat this heterogenic disease are under continuous study. In this sense, diets based on negative-energy-balance, the Mediterranean dietary pattern, n-3 fatty acids, total antioxidant capacity and meal frequency have been suggested as effective approaches to treat MetS. Furthermore, the type and percentage of carbohydrates, the glycemic index or glycemic load, and dietary fiber content are some of the most relevant aspects related to insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance, which are important co-morbidities of MetS. Finally, new studies focused on the molecular action of specific nutritional bioactive compounds with positive effects on the MetS are currently an objective of scientific research worldwide. The present review summarizes some of the most relevant dietary approaches and bioactive compounds employed in the treatment of the MetS to date.

  3. Dietary Strategies Implicated in the Prevention and Treatment of Metabolic Syndrome

    Rocio de la Iglesia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS is established as the combination of central obesity and different metabolic disturbances, such as insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidemia. This cluster of factors affects approximately 10%–50% of adults worldwide and the prevalence has been increasing in epidemic proportions over the last years. Thus, dietary strategies to treat this heterogenic disease are under continuous study. In this sense, diets based on negative-energy-balance, the Mediterranean dietary pattern, n-3 fatty acids, total antioxidant capacity and meal frequency have been suggested as effective approaches to treat MetS. Furthermore, the type and percentage of carbohydrates, the glycemic index or glycemic load, and dietary fiber content are some of the most relevant aspects related to insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance, which are important co-morbidities of MetS. Finally, new studies focused on the molecular action of specific nutritional bioactive compounds with positive effects on the MetS are currently an objective of scientific research worldwide. The present review summarizes some of the most relevant dietary approaches and bioactive compounds employed in the treatment of the MetS to date.

  4. Effectiveness of programmes as part of primary prevention demonstrated on the example of cardiovascular diseases and the metabolic syndrome.

    Korczak, Dieter; Dietl, Markus; Steinhauser, Gerlinde

    2011-04-01

    The HTA-report (HTA = Health Technology Assessment) deals with the primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus type 2. In 2009 approximately 356,000 people died in Germany due to cardiovascular diseases. According to estimations about 6.3 million people are suffering from diabetes mellitus type 2. The interventions that are subsidized by the public health insurance are mainly focused on sufficient physical activities, healthy nutrition, stress management and the reduction of the consumption of addictive drugs and luxury food. Which lifestyle-related measures and/or programmes for primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases and of the metabolic syndrome are effective? To what extent will the health status be improved by these offers? To what extent will existing health resources and skills be strengthened by these offers? Are there any differences regarding the effectiveness among the interventions with respect to different settings or subgroups? Which lifestyle-related interventions and/or programmes for primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases and of the metabolic syndrome are sustainable and cost-effective? Which outcome parameters are in the view of the contributors decisive for the evaluation of the effectiveness? In the view of the contributor are there different values between the outcome parameters? In the view of the payers and other actors are there different values between the outcome parameters? Which ethical and juridical factors have to be considered? Which social and/or socio-economic parameters influence the use of the services and effectiveness? A systematic literature research is done in 35 databases. For the period 2005 to 2010, reviews, epidemiological and clinical studies as well as economical evaluations which deal with primary prevention programmes regarding cardiovascular diseases or the metabolic syndrome are included. 44 publications meet the inclusion criteria. These studies confirm the effectiveness of the

  5. Effectiveness of programmes as part of primary prevention demonstrated on the example of cardiovascular diseases and the metabolic syndrome

    Korczak, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The HTA-report (HTA = Health Technology Assessment deals with the primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus type 2. In 2009 approximately 356,000 people died in Germany due to cardiovascular diseases. According to estimations about 6.3 million people are suffering from diabetes mellitus type 2. The interventions that are subsidized by the public health insurance are mainly focused on sufficient physical activities, healthy nutrition, stress management and the reduction of the consumption of addictive drugs and luxury food. Objectives: Which lifestyle-related measures and/or programmes for primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases and of the metabolic syndrome are effective? To what extent will the health status be improved by these offers? To what extent will existing health resources and skills be strengthened by these offers? Are there any differences regarding the effectiveness among the interventions with respect to different settings or subgroups? Which lifestyle-related interventions and/or programmes for primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases and of the metabolic syndrome are sustainable and cost-effective? Which outcome parameters are in the view of the contributors decisive for the evaluation of the effectiveness? In the view of the contributor are there different values between the outcome parameters? In the view of the payers and other actors are there different values between the outcome parameters? Which ethical and juridical factors have to be considered? Which social and/or socio-economic parameters influence the use of the services and effectiveness? Methods: A systematic literature research is done in 35 databases. For the period 2005 to 2010, reviews, epidemiological and clinical studies as well as economical evaluations which deal with primary prevention programmes regarding cardiovascular diseases or the metabolic syndrome are included. Results: 44 publications meet the

  6. The Effect of Changing Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations on Metabolic Syndrome: A Longitudinal Analysis of Participants of a Preventive Health Program

    Truong-Minh Pham

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown that a poor vitamin D status may increase the risk of developing metabolic syndrome, which leaves the question whether improving one’s vitamin D status may reduce the risk for the syndrome. Here we investigate the effect of temporal changes in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD concentrations on metabolic syndrome among Canadians enrolled in a preventive health program that promotes vitamin D supplementation. We accessed and analyzed data of 6682 volunteer participants with repeated observations on serum 25(OHD concentrations and metabolic syndrome. We applied logistic regression to quantify the independent contribution of baseline serum 25(OHD and temporal increases in serum 25(OHD to the development of metabolic syndrome. In the first year in the program, participants, on average, increased their serum 25(OHD concentrations by 37 nmol/L. We observed a statistical significant inverse relationship of increases in serum 25(OHD with risk for metabolic syndrome. Relative to those without improvements, those who improved their serum 25(OHD concentrations with less 25 nmol/L, 25 to 50 nmol/L, 50 to 75 nmol/L, and more 75 nmol/L had respectively 0.76, 0.64, 0.59, 0.56 times the risk for metabolic syndrome at follow up. These estimates were independent of the effect of baseline serum 25(OHD concentrations on metabolic syndrome. Improvement of vitamin D status may help reduce the public health burden of metabolic syndrome, and potential subsequent health conditions including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

  7. Quantitative combination of natural anti-oxidants prevents metabolic syndrome by reducing oxidative stress.

    Gao, Mingjing; Zhao, Zhen; Lv, Pengyu; Li, YuFang; Gao, Juntao; Zhang, Michael; Zhao, Baolu

    2015-12-01

    Insulin resistance and abdominal obesity are present in the majority of people with the metabolic syndrome. Antioxidant therapy might be a useful strategy for type 2 diabetes and other insulin-resistant states. The combination of vitamin C (Vc) and vitamin E has synthetic scavenging effect on free radicals and inhibition effect on lipid peroxidation. However, there are few studies about how to define the best combination of more than three anti-oxidants as it is difficult or impossible to test the anti-oxidant effect of the combination of every concentration of each ingredient experimentally. Here we present a math model, which is based on the classical Hill equation to determine the best combination, called Fixed Dose Combination (FDC), of several natural anti-oxidants, including Vc, green tea polyphenols (GTP) and grape seed extract proanthocyanidin (GSEP). Then we investigated the effects of FDC on oxidative stress, blood glucose and serum lipid levels in cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes, high fat diet (HFD)-fed rats which serve as obesity model, and KK-ay mice as diabetic model. The level of serum malondialdehyde (MDA) in the treated rats was studied and Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE) staining or Oil red slices of liver and adipose tissue in the rats were examined as well. FDC shows excellent antioxidant and anti-glycation activity by attenuating lipid peroxidation. FDC determined in this investigation can become a potential solution to reduce obesity, to improve insulin sensitivity and be beneficial for the treatment of fat and diabetic patients. It is the first time to use the math model to determine the best ratio of three anti-oxidants, which can save much more time and chemical materials than traditional experimental method. This quantitative method represents a potentially new and useful strategy to screen all possible combinations of many natural anti-oxidants, therefore may help develop novel therapeutics with the potential to ameliorate the worldwide metabolic

  8. Hypothyroidism in metabolic syndrome

    Sunil Kumar Kota

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Metabolic syndrome (MetS and hypothyroidism are well established forerunners of atherogenic cardiovascular disease. Considerable overlap occurs in the pathogenic mechanisms of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease by metabolic syndrome and hypothyroidism. Insulin resistance has been studied as the basic pathogenic mechanism in metabolic syndrome. [1] This cross sectional study intended to assess thyroid function in patients with metabolic syndrome and to investigate the association between hypothyroidism and metabolic syndrome. Materials and Methods: One hundred patients with metabolic syndrome who fulfilled the National Cholesterol Education Program- Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP-ATP III criteria [ 3 out of 5 criteria positive namely blood pressure ≥ 130/85 mm hg or on antihypertensive medications, fasting plasma glucose > 100 mg/dl or on anti-diabetic medications, fasting triglycerides > 150 mg/dl, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C 102 cms in men and 88 cms in women] were included in the study group. [2] Fifty patients who had no features of metabolic syndrome (0 out of 5 criteria for metabolic syndrome were included in the control group. Patients with liver disorders, renal disorders, congestive cardiac failure, pregnant women, patients on oral contraceptive pills, statins and other medications that alter thyroid functions and lipid levels and those who are under treatment for any thyroid related disorder were excluded from the study. Acutely ill patients were excluded taking into account sick euthyroid syndrome. Patients were subjected to anthropometry, evaluation of vital parameters, lipid and thyroid profile along with other routine laboratory parameters. Students t-test, Chi square test and linear regression, multiple logistic regression models were used for statistical analysis. P value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Of the 100 patients in study group, 55 were females (55% and 45 were males (45%. Of the 50

  9. Metabolic syndrome and polycystic ovary syndrome: an intriguing overlapping.

    Caserta, Donatella; Adducchio, Gloria; Picchia, Simona; Ralli, Eleonora; Matteucci, Eleonora; Moscarini, Massimo

    2014-06-01

    Metabolic syndrome is an increasing pathology in adults and in children, due to a parallel rise of obesity. Sedentary lifestyle, food habits, cultural influences and also a genetic predisposition can cause dyslipidemia, hypertension, abdominal obesity and insulin resistance which are the two main features of metabolic syndrome. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition directly associated with obesity, insulin resistance (HOMA index) and metabolic syndrome, and it is very interesting for its relationship and overlap with the metabolic syndrome. The relationship between the two syndromes is mutual: PCOS women have a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome and also women with metabolic syndrome commonly present the reproductive/endocrine trait of PCOS. Prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome and PCOS are similar for various aspects. It is necessary to treat excess adiposity and insulin resistance, with the overall goals of preventing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes and improving reproductive failure in young women with PCOS. First of all, lifestyle changes, then pharmacological therapy, bariatric surgery and laparoscopic ovarian surgery represent the pillars for PCOS treatment.

  10. [Alimentary and lifestyle changes as a strategy in the prevention of metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus type 2: milestones and perspectives].

    M Hernández Ruiz de Eguilaz, M; Batlle, M A; Martínez de Morentin, B; San-Cristóbal, R; Pérez-Díez, S; Navas-Carretero, S; Martínez, J A

    2016-01-01

    A high caloric intake in today's nutrition and a sedentary lifestyle are the main causes of the notable increase in obesity in our society. In turn, this results in an increase in associated pathologies, such as metabolic syndrome and diabetes type 2. In the present work we review most recent studies and programs, which are significant due to their sample size and geographical diversity. It clearly shows that changes in alimentation and lifestyles are an effective instrument for combatting or delaying the onset of these diseases. In this sense, prevention is also key to avoiding serious consequences related to diabetes and metabolic syndrome, which can affect the life of the population.

  11. Nutritional anti-inflammatories in the treatment and prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus and the metabolic syndrome.

    Merone, Lea; McDermott, Robyn

    2017-05-01

    Obesity-fuelled metabolic syndrome and diabetes is now a global epidemic. There is increasing evidence that these and other chronic conditions have common inflammatory antecedents. There is an interest in nutritionally based anti-inflammatory treatments for type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. The aim of this review is to examine the evidence from a 5-year period; 2011-2016, for nutritionally based anti-inflammatory treatments for the Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. A literature search produced a total number of 1377 records, of which 26 papers were evaluated. Literature was analysed and tabulated according to date, outcome measures and results. The evidence is strong for use of polyphenolic compounds, fish oils and vitamins in reducing inflammation biomarkers, however the impact on metabolic control is less evident. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Exercise Prevents Enhanced Postoperative Neuroinflammation and Cognitive Decline and Rectifies the Gut Microbiome in a Rat Model of Metabolic Syndrome.

    Feng, Xiaomei; Uchida, Yosuke; Koch, Lauren; Britton, Steve; Hu, Jun; Lutrin, David; Maze, Mervyn

    2017-01-01

    Postoperative cognitive decline (PCD) can affect in excess of 10% of surgical patients and can be considerably higher with risk factors including advanced age, perioperative infection, and metabolic conditions such as obesity and insulin resistance. To define underlying pathophysiologic processes, we used animal models including a rat model of metabolic syndrome generated by breeding for a trait of low aerobic exercise tolerance. After 35 generations, the low capacity runner (LCR) rats differ 10-fold in their aerobic exercise capacity from high capacity runner (HCR) rats. The LCR rats respond to surgical procedure with an abnormal phenotype consisting of exaggerated and persistent PCD and failure to resolve neuroinflammation. We determined whether preoperative exercise can rectify the abnormal surgical phenotype. Following institutional approval of the protocol each of male LCR and male HCR rats were randomly assigned to four groups and subjected to isoflurane anesthesia and tibia fracture with internal fixation (surgery) or anesthesia alone (sham surgery) and to a preoperative exercise regimen that involved walking for 10 km on a treadmill over 6 weeks (exercise) or being placed on a stationary treadmill (no exercise). Feces were collected before and after exercise for assessment of gut microbiome. Three days following surgery or sham surgery the rats were tested for ability to recall a contextual aversive stimulus in a trace fear conditioning paradigm. Thereafter some rats were euthanized and the hippocampus harvested for analysis of inflammatory mediators. At 3 months, the remainder of the rats were tested for memory recall by the probe test in a Morris Water Maze. Postoperatively, LCR rats exhibited exaggerated cognitive decline both at 3 days and at 3 months that was prevented by preoperative exercise. Similarly, LCR rats had excessive postoperative neuroinflammation that was normalized by preoperative exercise. Diversity of the gut microbiome in the

  13. Metabolic Syndrome: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Mortada, Rami; Williams, Tracy

    2015-08-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous condition characterized by androgen excess, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries. It is the most common endocrinopathy among women of reproductive age, affecting between 6.5% and 8% of women, and is the most common cause of infertility. Insulin resistance is almost always present in women with PCOS, regardless of weight, and they often develop diabetes and metabolic syndrome. The Rotterdam criteria are widely used for diagnosis. These criteria require that patients have at least two of the following conditions: hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries. The diagnosis of PCOS also requires exclusion of other potential etiologies of hyperandrogenism and ovulatory dysfunction. The approach to PCOS management differs according to the presenting symptoms and treatment goals, particularly the patient's desire for pregnancy. Weight loss through dietary modifications and exercise is recommended for patients with PCOS who are overweight. Oral contraceptives are the first-line treatment for regulating menstrual cycles and reducing manifestations of hyperandrogenism, such as acne and hirsutism. Clomiphene is the first-line drug for management of anovulatory infertility. Metformin is recommended for metabolic abnormalities such as prediabetes, and a statin should be prescribed for cardioprotection if the patient meets standard criteria for statin therapy. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  14. Pathogenetic Aspects of Preventive Correction of Cognitive Impairment in Metabolic Syndrome

    T.I. Nasonova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study the opportunities to increase the efficiency of pathogenetic therapy in patients with chronic cerebrovascular diseases (CVD (discirculatory encephalopathy, DE on the background of metabolic syndrome (MS using the drug Vitaxon®. The feature of the work was to identify strategic areas of the brain in cognitive and emotional disorders in patients with MS and its absence. Materials and methods. We observed 49 patients with DE II degree aged 37 to 73 years against the background of MS. The main group — 30 patients — received Vitaxon® as a part of treatment. The control group consisted of 19 patients with DE degree II following MS, comparable in the age and stage of the disease, who were not taking Vitaxon®. Patients were observed for 12 weeks. In addition to neurological, general clinical examinations, detection of MS signs, we have used neuropsychological tests by Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (МоСА, Spielberger anxiety scale; Beck depression scale; study of attention: search of numbers by Schulte tables with the assessment of task-performance time. The brain and its liquor system in 41 patients (27 patients with MS — the first group and 14 patients without MS — the second group were evaluated using the method of volumetry (measuring the volume of certain brain regions, on the magnetic resonance imaging scanner Toshiba Vantage Titan 1.5. Results. Cognitive impairment in both groups manifested by the loss of memory, attention disorders, slowing of mental processes. After 12 weeks, the median by the MMSE significantly increased by 3.3 % (p < 0.05 compared with the first test in patients who received Vitaxon®. By МоСА, which is more sensitive when determining the mild cognitive impairment, in a group of Vitaxon® cognitive functions improved by 5 %, while in the control group — by 1.66 %. By Spielberger scale, state anxiety indicators improved more in the group of

  15. A Critical Examination of the Use of Trained Health Coaches to Decrease the Metabolic Syndrome for Participants of a Community-Based Diabetes Prevention and Management Program.

    Lucke-Wold, Brandon; Shawley, Samantha; Ingels, John Spencer; Stewart, Jonathan; Misra, Ranjita

    2016-01-01

    The epidemic of obesity and diabetes in the United States poses major challenge to the prevention and management of chronic diseases. Furthermore, when this is viewed in other components of the metabolic syndrome (i.e., the burden of high cholesterol and hypertension), the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome continues to rise in the USA continued challenge is how to deal with this epidemic from a medical and public health standpoint. Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR) is a unique approach and offers a novel perspective for answering this challenge. A critical set of goals for CBPR is to address health disparities and social inequalities while getting community members engaged in all aspects of the research process. Utilizing the West Virginia Diabetes Prevention and Management Program and trained Health Coaches as a model, we discuss topics of consideration related to CBPR, involving trained health coaches, optimizing early adoption of healthy lifestyle behaviors, and enhancing participation. Through careful project planning and design, questions regarding disparities increasing susceptibility and preventive efforts within the community can be addressed successfully. These topics are part of a broader integration of theories such as participatory research, community engagement, and outcomes measurement. The understanding of the pathophysiology and epidemiology of the metabolic syndrome can help frame an appropriate strategy for establishing long-term community-wide changes that promote health. In order to continue to improve investigations for preventing the metabolic syndrome, it will be necessary to have aggressive efforts at the individual and population level for developing culturally sensitive programs that start early and are sustainable in practical environments such as the workplace. In this comprehensive review, we will discuss practical considerations related to project design, implementation, and how to measure effectiveness in regards to

  16. The preventive effects of lifestyle intervention on the occurrence of diabetes mellitus and acute myocardial infarction in metabolic syndrome.

    Kim, D; Yoon, S-J; Lim, D-S; Gong, Y-H; Ko, S; Lee, Y-H; Lee, H S; Park, M-S; Kim, K-H; Kim, Y A

    2016-10-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS), as a precursor of diabetes mellitus (DM) and cardiovascular disease, is increasing steadily worldwide. We examined the preventive effects of lifestyle intervention on the occurrence of DM and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in MS. Observational study on disease occurrence after lifestyle intervention. The lifestyle intervention was administered to subjects with MS participating in a metropolitan lifestyle intervention program for 1 year. The same numbers of non-participating age- and sex-matched subjects with MS were randomly extracted from national health examination data. After intervention or examination, new occurrences of hypertension, DM, and AMI were identified through the national health insurance claims data during 1 year. For DM and AMI, multivariate logistic regression analysis for the factors affecting each disease was performed. In the intervention group and the control group (14,918 in each group), the occurrence of hypertension was 555 (6.07%) and 751 (8.33%), the occurrence of DM was 324 (2.55%) and 488 (3.89%), the occurrence of dyslipidemia was 321 (2.59%) and 373 (2.72%), and the occurrence of AMI was 13 (0.09%) and 26 (0.17%), respectively. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, adjusted odds ratios for intervention were 0.752 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.644-0.879) and 0.499 (95% CI: 0.251-0.992) for DM and AMI, respectively, indicating that lifestyle intervention has a preventive effect. Lifestyle intervention in MS has preventive effects on the occurrence of DM and AMI, and long-term follow-up is needed to evaluate these preventive effects in more detail. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. [Syndrome X vs metabolic syndrome].

    Morales Villegas, Enrique

    2006-01-01

    Himsworth in 1939 postulated that Diabetes Mellitus type 2 (DM2) was not only an insulin deficiency state but also a cellular insulin insensitivity disease. Thirty years later, DeFronzo and Reaven demonstrated that insulin resistance (IR) preceded and predisposed for DM2 and atherosclerotic-cardiovascular-disease (ACVD). Reaven was the first to point out the relationship between IR and with hyperglycemia, dyslipidosis, and hypertension as mediators for ACVD, creating the concept of Syndrome X (SX) in 1988. WHO and, thereafter, other medical societies and medical groups, mainly ATP-III, in 2002, based on the difficulty of diagnosing IR in a simple, reliable, and inexpensive way, proposed and published the Metabolic Syndrome (MS) concept, as a group of five variables, i.e., obesity, hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL, and hypertension, as an easy clinical approximation to suspect and treat an increased cardiometabolic risk. Nowadays, there are deep and extensive controversies on this issue; however, these controversies do not really exist since all discordant points of view are rather quantitative and not qualitative in nature. This article is aimed at differentiating and harmonizing the complementary concepts of SX and MS, at analyzing why MS is a good "clinical window" to look for IR and its underlying manifestations, and finally to accept that the MS concept complements, but does not substitute or antagonize, traditional scales used to asses cardiovascular risk, such as the Framingham scale.

  18. Metabolic syndrome in hyperprolactinemia

    Andersen, Marianne; Glintborg, Dorte

    2018-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a conglomerate of clinical findings that convey into increased morbidity and mortality from type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and cardiovascular disease. Hyperprolactinemia (hyperPRL) is associated with components of MetS, especially during pregnancy. Endogenous levels...... in patients with T2D. HyperPRL is a biomarker for decreased dopaminergic tonus in the hypothalamic-pituitary circuit. Patients with a prolactinoma, patients with schizophrenia and/or T2D often have disturbances in this balance and the finding of lower prolactin (PRL) levels in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS......) may indicate increased dopaminergic tonus. Recent studies supported that PRL levels within or above reference range may be differently related to MetS. In healthy study populations and in PCOS, PRL levels were inversely associated with metabolic risk markers. Ongoing research on PRL fragments...

  19. Metabolic syndrome and asthma.

    Garmendia, Jenny V; Moreno, Dolores; Garcia, Alexis H; De Sanctis, Juan B

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a syndrome that involves at least three disorders dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, obesity and/or hypertension. MetS has been associated with several chronic diseases in the adulthood; however, in the recent years, the syndrome was redefined in children. Girls with early menarche and asthma, and children with MetS and asthma that reach adulthood appear to have higher risk to develop severe or difficult to control asthma and a higher probability to suffer cardiovascular diseases. It has been proposed that patients with MetS and endocrinological disorders should be considered a different entity in which pharmacologic treatment should be adjusted according to the individual. Recent patents on the field have addressed new issues on how endocrine control should be managed along with asthma therapeutics. In the near future, new approaches should decrease the high morbidity and mortality associated to these types of patients.

  20. Metabolic Syndrome and Neuroprotection

    Melisa Etchegoyen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Over the years the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS has drastically increased in developing countries as a major byproduct of industrialization. Many factors, such as the consumption of high-calorie diets and a sedentary lifestyle, bolster the spread of this disorder. Undoubtedly, the massive and still increasing incidence of MetS places this epidemic as an important public health issue. Hereon we revisit another outlook of MetS beyond its classical association with cardiovascular disease (CVD and Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 (DM2, for MetS also poses a risk factor for the nervous tissue and threatens neuronal function. First, we revise a few essential concepts of MetS pathophysiology. Second, we explore some neuroprotective approaches in MetS pertaining brain hypoxia. The articles chosen for this review range from the years 1989 until 2017; the selection criteria was based on those providing data and exploratory information on MetS as well as those that studied innovative therapeutic approaches.Pathophysiology: The characteristically impaired metabolic pathways of MetS lead to hyperglycemia, insulin resistance (IR, inflammation, and hypoxia, all closely associated with an overall pro-oxidative status. Oxidative stress is well-known to cause the wreckage of cellular structures and tissue architecture. Alteration of the redox homeostasis and oxidative stress alter the macromolecular array of DNA, lipids, and proteins, in turn disrupting the biochemical pathways necessary for normal cell function.Neuroprotection: Different neuroprotective strategies are discussed involving lifestyle changes, medication aimed to mitigate MetS cardinal symptoms, and treatments targeted toward reducing oxidative stress. It is well-known that the routine practice of physical exercise, aerobic activity in particular, and a complete and well-balanced nutrition are key factors to prevent MetS. Nevertheless, pharmacological control of MetS as a whole and

  1. Metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk among adults

    Reem Hunain

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mortality and morbidity due cardiovascular diseases in India is on the rise. Metabolic Syndrome which is a collection of risk factors of metabolic origin, can greatly contribute to its rising burden. Aims & Objectives: The present study was conducted with the objective of estimating the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and 10-year cardiovascular risk among adults. Material & Methods: This hospital-based study included 260 adults aged 20-60 years. Metabolic Syndrome was defined using National Cholesterol Education Program –Adult Treatment Panel -3 criteria. The 10 year cardiovascular risk was estimated using Framingham risk scoring. Results: The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome among the study participants was 38.8%. Age (41-60yrs, male gender and daily consumption of high salt items were positively associated with metabolic syndrome whereas consumption of occasional high sugar items showed an inverse association with metabolic syndrome. According to Framingham Risk Scoring, 14.3% of the participants belonged to intermediate/high risk category. Conclusion: With a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome and a considerable proportion of individuals with intermediate to high 10 yr CVD risk, there is a need to design strategies to prevent future cardiovascular events.

  2. Persuasive user experiences of a health Behavior Change Support System: A 12-month study for prevention of metabolic syndrome.

    Karppinen, Pasi; Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri; Alahäivälä, Tuomas; Jokelainen, Terhi; Keränen, Anna-Maria; Salonurmi, Tuire; Savolainen, Markku

    2016-12-01

    Obesity has become a severe health problem in the world. Even a moderate 5% weight loss can significantly reduce the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, which can be vital for preventing comorbidities caused by the obesity. Health Behavior Change Support Systems (hBCSS) emphasize an autogenous approach, where an individual uses the system to influence one's own attitude or behavior to achieve his or her own goal. Regardless of promising results, such health interventions technology has often been considered merely as a tool for delivering content that has no effect or value of its own. More research on actual system features is required. The objective of this study is to describe how users perceive persuasive software features designed and implemented into a support system. The research medium in this study is a web-based information system designed as a lifestyle intervention for participants who are at risk of developing a metabolic syndrome or who are already suffering from it. The system was designed closely following the principles of the Persuasive Systems Design (PSD) model and the Behavior Change Support Systems (BCSS) framework. A total of 43 system users were interviewed for this study during and after a 52 week intervention period. In addition, the system's login data and subjects' Body Mass Index (BMI) measures were used to interpret the results. This study explains in detail how the users perceived using the system and its persuasive features. Self-monitoring, reminders, and tunneling were perceived as especially beneficial persuasive features. The need for social support appeared to grow along the duration of the intervention. Unobtrusiveness was found to be very important in all stages of the intervention rather than only at the beginning. Persuasive software features have power to affect individuals' health behaviors. Through their systematicity the PSD model and the BCSS framework provide effective support for the design and development of

  3. [Wellness-activities to prevent metabolic syndrome among patients with schizophrenia].

    Brönner, Monika; Betz, Christine; Christ, Sarah; Froböse, Teresa; Pitschel-Walz, Gabi; Bäuml, Josef

    2010-01-01

    Weight gain and metabolic disturbances are growing side effects of a modern antipsychotic therapy. Different programs were developed to reduce them. This article gives an overview of existing and evaluated programs. A literature research was made through PubMed. Relevant reviews and intervention studies were identified. Studies with the main outcome variable of weight reductions are numerous, even randomised controlled trials. Short-term weight loss under antipsychotic treatment is possible, but there is still a lack of long-term studies. Life style interventions, which include e. g. physical exercise, are not that common. Also, interventions such as wellness-activities, which contribute by means of adequate motivation strategies to an enhancement of the general well-being, are still missing. Present results turned out to be positive. Further programs which exceed weight management are required. There is necessity for more studies with consistent outcome variables and methods, especially long-term programs. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart, New York.

  4. Dietary modulators of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors: implications for the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome.

    Guri, Amir J; Hontecillas, Raquel; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep

    2008-01-01

    In its simplest form, obesity is a state characterized by nutrient overabundance leading to hypertrophy of storage cells in white adipose tissue and the deposition of excess lipids into key metabolic regions, such as skeletal muscle and liver. Ever so steadily, this condition begins to manifest itself as progressive insulin resistance and thus ensues a myriad of other chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and hypertension, which all fall into the realm of the metabolic syndrome. To offset imbalances in nutrient availability, however, it appears that nature has developed the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), a family of endogenous lipid sensors that adeptly modulate our rates of macronutrient oxidation and regulate the systemic inflammatory response, which itself is tightly linked to the development of obesity-induced chronic disease. By understanding how PPARs alpha, delta and gamma act jointly to maintain metabolic homeostasis and reduce the chronic inflammation associated with obesity, we may one day discover that the machinery needed to defeat obesity and control the devastating consequences of the metabolic syndrome have been with us the entire time.

  5. [Hypovitaminosis D and metabolic syndrome].

    Miñambres, Inka; de Leiva, Alberto; Pérez, Antonio

    2014-12-23

    Metabolic syndrome and hypovitaminosis D are 2 diseases with high prevalence that share several risk factors, while epidemiological evidence shows they are associated. Although the mechanisms involved in this association are not well established, hypovitaminosis D is associated with insulin resistance, decreased insulin secretion and activation of the renin-angiotensin system, mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome. However, the apparent ineffectiveness of vitamin D supplementation on metabolic syndrome components, as well as the limited information about the effect of improving metabolic syndrome components on vitamin D concentrations, does not clarify the direction and the mechanisms involved in the causal relationship between these 2 pathologies. Overall, because of the high prevalence and the epidemiological association between both diseases, hypovitaminosis D could be considered a component of the metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Symptoms and Diagnosis of Metabolic Syndrome

    ... Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Symptoms and Diagnosis of Metabolic Syndrome Updated:Apr 13,2017 What are the symptoms ... Syndrome? This content was last reviewed August 2016. Metabolic Syndrome • Home • About Metabolic Syndrome • Why Metabolic Syndrome Matters • ...

  7. Metabolic syndrome in South Asians

    Kaushik Pandit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available South Asia is home to one of the largest population of people with metabolic syndrome (MetS. The prevalence of MetS in South Asians varies according to region, extent of urbanization, lifestyle patterns, and socioeconomic/cultural factors. Recent data show that about one-third of the urban population in large cities in India has the MetS. All classical risk factors comprising the MetS are prevalent in Asian Indians residing in India. The higher risk in this ethnic population necessitated a lowering of the cut-off values of the risk factors to identify and intervene for the MetS to prevent diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Some pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions are underway in MetS to assess the efficacy in preventing the diabetes and cardiovascular disease in this ethnic population.

  8. Preventing the development of metabolic syndrome in people with psychotic disorders--difficult, but possible: experiences of staff working in psychosis outpatient care in Sweden.

    Bergqvist, Anette; Karlsson, Maria; Foldemo, Anniqa; Wärdig, Rikard; Hultsjö, Sally

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to explore mental health staffs' experiences of assisting people with psychotic disorders to implement lifestyle changes in an effort to prevent metabolic syndrome. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 12 health care professionals working in psychosis outpatient care in Sweden. Data were analysed using a qualitative content analysis. The results illustrate that implementation of lifestyle changes among people with psychotic disorders was experienced as difficult, but possible. The greatest obstacles experienced in this work were difficulties due to the reduction of cognitive functions associated with the disease. Guidelines available to staff in order to help them identify and prevent physical health problems in the group were not always followed and the content was not always relevant. Staff further described feelings of uncertainty about having to motivate people to take anti-psychotic medication while simultaneously being aware of the risks of metabolic deviations. Nursing interventions focusing on organising daily routines before conducting a more active prevention of metabolic syndrome, including information and practical support, were experienced as necessary. The importance of healthy eating and physical activity needs to be communicated in such a way that it is adjusted to the person's cognitive ability, and should be repeated over time, both verbally and in writing. Such efforts, in combination with empathic and seriously committed community-based social support, were experienced as having the best effect over time. Permanent lifestyle changes were experienced as having to be carried out on the patient's terms and in his or her home environment.

  9. Polycystic ovary syndrome and metabolic syndrome.

    Ali, Aus Tariq

    2015-08-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous disorder, where the main clinical features include menstrual irregularities, sub-fertility, hyperandrogenism, and hirsutism. The prevalence of PCOS depends on ethnicity, environmental and genetic factors, as well as the criteria used to define it. On the other hand, metabolic syndrome is a constellation of metabolic disorders which include mainly abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, impaired glucose metabolism, hypertension and dyslipidaemia. These associated disorders directly increase the risk of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DMT2), coronary heart disease (CHD), cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and endometrial cancer. Many patients with PCOS have features of metabolic syndrome such as visceral obesity, hyperinsulinaemia and insulin resistance. These place patients with PCOS under high risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD), Type 2 diabetes (DMT2) and gynecological cancer, in particular, endometrial cancer. Metabolic syndrome is also increased in infertile women with PCOS. The aim of this review is to provide clear and up to date information about PCOS and its relationship with metabolic syndrome, and the possible interaction between different metabolic disorders.

  10. Metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk

    Abdullah M Alshehri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The constellation of dyslipidemia (hypertriglyceridemia and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated blood pressure, impaired glucose tolerance, and central obesity is now classified as metabolic syndrome, also called syndrome X. In the past few years, several expert groups have attempted to set forth simple diagnostic criteria for use in clinical practice to identify patients who manifest the multiple components of the metabolic syndrome. These criteria have varied somewhat in specific elements, but in general, they include a combination of multiple and metabolic risk factors. The most widely recognized of the metabolic risk factors are atherogenic dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, and elevated plasma glucose. Individuals with these characteristics, commonly manifest a prothrombotic state as well as and a proinflammatory state. Atherogenic dyslipidemia consists of an aggregation of lipoprotein abnormalities including elevated serum triglyceride and apolipoprotein B (apoB, increased small LDL particles, and a reduced level of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C. The metabolic syndrome is often referred to as if it were a discrete entity with a single cause. Available data suggest that it truly is a syndrome, ie, a grouping of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD risk factors, that probably has more than one cause. Regardless of cause, the syndrome identifies individuals at an elevated risk for ASCVD. The magnitude of the increased risk can vary according to the components of the syndrome present as well as the other, non-metabolic syndrome risk factors in a particular person.

  11. Metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk

    Abdullah M Alshehri

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The constellation of dyslipidemia (hypertriglyceridemia and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated blood pressure, impaired glucose tolerance, and central obesity is now classified as metabolic syndrome, also called syndrome X. In the past few years, several expert groups have attempted to set forth simple diagnostic criteria for use in clinical practice to identify patients who manifest the multiple components of the metabolic syndrome. These criteria have varied somewhat in specific elements, but in general, they include a combination of multiple and metabolic risk factors. The most widely recognized of the metabolic risk factors are atherogenic dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, and elevated plasma glucose. Individuals with these characteristics, commonly manifest a prothrombotic state as well as and a proinflammatory state. Atherogenic dyslipidemia consists of an aggregation of lipoprotein abnormalities including elevated serum triglyceride and apolipoprotein B (apoB, increased small LDL particles, and a reduced level of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C. The metabolic syndrome is often referred to as if it were a discrete entity with a single cause. Available data suggest that it truly is a syndrome, ie, a grouping of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD risk factors, that probably has more than one cause. Regardless of cause, the syndrome identifies individuals at an elevated risk for ASCVD. The magnitude of the increased risk can vary according to the components of the syndrome present as well as the other, non-metabolic syndrome risk factors in a particular person.

  12. Current Views on Therapeutic and Preventive Nutrition and the Most Effectivenes European Diet in Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components

    D.K. Miloslavskyi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This review contains literature information about pathogenetic and pathophysiological mechanisms of metabolic syndrome development, its main components, national recommendations on nutrition for the citizens of some countries, the results of multicenter studies on the role of alimentary factors, molecular targets of favorable effects of certain nutrients in this pathology. The basic dietary recommendations, the most important and special European diets with proven efficacy (Mediterranean Diet, DASH diet, TLC, D. Ornish, the Polymeal diet, Omni Heart, the Mayo clinic, Weight Watchers, the characteristics of their prescription in hypertension, atherosclerosis, dyslipidemia, purine metabolism disorders, obesity, diabetes mellitus type 2, as well as a short recommendation on lifestyle modification and physical activity increasing in these patients were present.

  13. [Obesity and metabolic syndrome in adolescents].

    Cárdenas Villarreal, Velia Margarita; Rizo-Baeza, María M; Cortés Castell, Ernesto

    2009-03-01

    In spite of the lack of a uniform definition for metabolic syndrome in pediatry, recent studies have shown that it develops during childhood and is highly prevalent among children and adolescents who suffer from obesity. In light of the current epidemic of obesity in this age category in western countries, and specifically in Mexico, it becomes essential to know the means to prevent, detect and treat this syndrome. Nurses play an important role in promoting childhood health with regards to metabolic syndrome. To put into practice the strategies which resolve underlying problems related with this syndrome is a priority for the well-being of this age group. These strategies should include the application and management of public policies; the collaboration by health services, social services and schools; but, furthermore, the prevention and the management of this syndrome require a family commitment, while the changes in living habits benefit the entire family. This review article proposes to introduce prevention, diagnostic and treatment strategies which nursing personnel can carry out while dealing with metabolic syndrome in adolescents.

  14. The risk of metabolic syndrome and nutrition

    Aleksandr Konstantinovich Kuntsevich

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present literature review modern epidemiological studies the role of nutrition in the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. Were analyzed mainly work on the association of certain types of dietary intake of the population to the risk of metabolic syndrome in several Western and Asian countries. The purpose of these studies was to determine deemed "good" type and the "bad" type of food, risk assessment and exchange of metabolic disorders to determine the optimal dietary recommendations.  Application of factor and cluster analysis allowed in a number of studies to identify groups of products associated with a decrease in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and to estimate the odds ratios of metabolic syndrome when compared with the "bad" diet.  A number of papers were obtained confirm the effectiveness of the Mediterranean diet in the prevention of metabolic disorders. Commitment to the traditional Western diet is associated with deterioration in health, compared with the recommended "healthy" diet.  Data from epidemiological studies nutrition and metabolic disorders associated with a number of diseases, may be useful in determining how the recommendations on the best type of feeding the population, so to identify ways to further research.

  15. Metabolic syndrome in acute coronary syndrome

    Bhalli, M.A.; Aamir, M.; Mustafa, G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of metabolic syndrome in male patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome Study design: A Descriptive study Place and duration of study: Armed Forces Institute of Cardiology and National Institute of Heart Diseases, Rawalpindi, from October 2007 to September 2008 Patients and Methods: Male patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) were included. Patients having angioplasty (PCI), coronary artery bypass surgery in the past and other co-morbid diseases were excluded. All patients were assessed for the presence of five components of metabolic syndrome including hypertension, HDL-Cholesterol and triglycerides, glucose intolerance and abdominal obesity. Systolic, diastolic blood pressures, waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) were measured. ECG, cardiac enzymes, fasting glucose and lipid profile were also done. Results: A total of 135 male patients of ACS were studied with a mean age of 54.26 +- 11 years. Metabolic syndrome (MS) was present in 55 (40.7%) patients. MS with all five components was documented in 4 (7.27%) while MS with four and three components was seen in 23 (41.81%) and 28 (50.90%) patients respectively. Only 24 (43.63%) patients with MS had diabetes mellitus, remaining 31(56.36%) were non diabetic. Frequencies of diabetes, hypertension and family history of CAD were significantly higher (p<0.05) in patients with metabolic syndrome as compared to patients with normal metabolic status. Conclusion: Metabolic syndrome is fairly common and important risk factor in patients of IHD. Other risk factors like smoking, dyslipidemia, hypertension and diabetes were also frequently found. Public awareness to control the risk factors can reduce the prevalence of CAD in our country. (author)

  16. Metabolic syndrome in acute coronary syndrome

    Bhalli, M A; Aamir, M; Mustafa, G [Combined Military Hospital, Abbottabad (Pakistan)

    2011-06-15

    Objective: To determine the frequency of metabolic syndrome in male patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome Study design: A Descriptive study Place and duration of study: Armed Forces Institute of Cardiology and National Institute of Heart Diseases, Rawalpindi, from October 2007 to September 2008 Patients and Methods: Male patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) were included. Patients having angioplasty (PCI), coronary artery bypass surgery in the past and other co-morbid diseases were excluded. All patients were assessed for the presence of five components of metabolic syndrome including hypertension, HDL-Cholesterol and triglycerides, glucose intolerance and abdominal obesity. Systolic, diastolic blood pressures, waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) were measured. ECG, cardiac enzymes, fasting glucose and lipid profile were also done. Results: A total of 135 male patients of ACS were studied with a mean age of 54.26 +- 11 years. Metabolic syndrome (MS) was present in 55 (40.7%) patients. MS with all five components was documented in 4 (7.27%) while MS with four and three components was seen in 23 (41.81%) and 28 (50.90%) patients respectively. Only 24 (43.63%) patients with MS had diabetes mellitus, remaining 31(56.36%) were non diabetic. Frequencies of diabetes, hypertension and family history of CAD were significantly higher (p<0.05) in patients with metabolic syndrome as compared to patients with normal metabolic status. Conclusion: Metabolic syndrome is fairly common and important risk factor in patients of IHD. Other risk factors like smoking, dyslipidemia, hypertension and diabetes were also frequently found. Public awareness to control the risk factors can reduce the prevalence of CAD in our country. (author)

  17. Management issues in the metabolic syndrome.

    Deedwania, P C; Gupta, R

    2006-10-01

    , nicotinic acid, or ezetimibe should be considered. For insulin resistance, drugs such as thiazolidinediones and renin-angiotensin system blockers are available. Available evidence suggests that angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBS) may be more beneficial for treatment of hypertension in patients with metabolic syndrome compared to others as these drugs also prevent development of diabetes. Patients with metabolic syndrome also have elevations in fibrinogen and other coagulation factors leading to prothrombotic state and aspirin may be beneficial for primary prevention in these patients. The new developments in the treatment of metabolic syndrome with drugs, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists and cannabinoid receptor-1 antagonists, will broaden the horizons of the current treatment options. Fixed-dose combination polypharmacy using a single pill is an interesting concept that needs to be evaluated in long-term prospective trials in such patients.

  18. Exercise training prevents increased intraocular pressure and sympathetic vascular modulation in an experimental model of metabolic syndrome

    Castro, E.F.S.; Mostarda, C.T.; Rodrigues, B.; Moraes-Silva, I.C.; Feriani, D.J.; De Angelis, K.; Irigoyen, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to study the effects of exercise training (ET) performed by rats on a 10-week high-fructose diet on metabolic, hemodynamic, and autonomic changes, as well as intraocular pressure (IOP). Male Wistar rats receiving fructose overload in drinking water (100 g/L) were concomitantly trained on a treadmill for 10 weeks (FT group) or kept sedentary (F group), and a control group (C) was kept in normal laboratory conditions. The metabolic evaluation comprised the Lee index, glycemia, and insulin tolerance test (KITT). Arterial pressure (AP) was measured directly, and systolic AP variability was performed to determine peripheral autonomic modulation. ET attenuated impaired metabolic parameters, AP, IOP, and ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) induced by fructose overload (FT vs F). The increase in peripheral sympathetic modulation in F rats, demonstrated by systolic AP variance and low frequency (LF) band (F: 37±2, 6.6±0.3 vs C: 26±3, 3.6±0.5 mmHg 2 ), was prevented by ET (FT: 29±3, 3.4±0.7 mmHg 2 ). Positive correlations were found between the LF band and right IOP (r=0.57, P=0.01) and left IOP (r=0.64, P=0.003). Negative correlations were noted between KITT values and right IOP (r=-0.55, P=0.01) and left IOP (r=-0.62, P=0.005). ET in rats effectively prevented metabolic abnormalities and AP and IOP increases promoted by a high-fructose diet. In addition, ocular benefits triggered by exercise training were associated with peripheral autonomic improvement

  19. Exercise training prevents increased intraocular pressure and sympathetic vascular modulation in an experimental model of metabolic syndrome

    Castro, E.F.S. [Unidade de Hipertensão, Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mostarda, C.T. [Universidade Federal do Maranhão, São Luís, MA (Brazil); Rodrigues, B. [Laboratório do Movimento Humano, Universidade São Judas Tadeu, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Moraes-Silva, I.C. [Unidade de Hipertensão, Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Feriani, D.J. [Laboratório do Movimento Humano, Universidade São Judas Tadeu, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); De Angelis, K. [Laboratório de Fisiologia Translacional, Universidade Nove de Julho, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Irigoyen, M.C. [Unidade de Hipertensão, Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-02-13

    The present study aimed to study the effects of exercise training (ET) performed by rats on a 10-week high-fructose diet on metabolic, hemodynamic, and autonomic changes, as well as intraocular pressure (IOP). Male Wistar rats receiving fructose overload in drinking water (100 g/L) were concomitantly trained on a treadmill for 10 weeks (FT group) or kept sedentary (F group), and a control group (C) was kept in normal laboratory conditions. The metabolic evaluation comprised the Lee index, glycemia, and insulin tolerance test (KITT). Arterial pressure (AP) was measured directly, and systolic AP variability was performed to determine peripheral autonomic modulation. ET attenuated impaired metabolic parameters, AP, IOP, and ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) induced by fructose overload (FT vs F). The increase in peripheral sympathetic modulation in F rats, demonstrated by systolic AP variance and low frequency (LF) band (F: 37±2, 6.6±0.3 vs C: 26±3, 3.6±0.5 mmHg{sup 2}), was prevented by ET (FT: 29±3, 3.4±0.7 mmHg{sup 2}). Positive correlations were found between the LF band and right IOP (r=0.57, P=0.01) and left IOP (r=0.64, P=0.003). Negative correlations were noted between KITT values and right IOP (r=-0.55, P=0.01) and left IOP (r=-0.62, P=0.005). ET in rats effectively prevented metabolic abnormalities and AP and IOP increases promoted by a high-fructose diet. In addition, ocular benefits triggered by exercise training were associated with peripheral autonomic improvement.

  20. Metabolic syndrome, diet and exercise.

    De Sousa, Sunita M C; Norman, Robert J

    2016-11-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with a range of metabolic complications including insulin resistance (IR), obesity, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. These compound risks result in a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome and possibly increased cardiovascular (CV) disease. As the cardiometabolic risk of PCOS is shared amongst the different diagnostic systems, all women with PCOS should undergo metabolic surveillance though the precise approach differs between guidelines. Lifestyle interventions consisting of increased physical activity and caloric restriction have been shown to improve both metabolic and reproductive outcomes. Pharmacotherapy and bariatric surgery may be considered in resistant metabolic disease. Issues requiring further research include the natural history of PCOS-associated metabolic disease, absolute CV risk and comparative efficacy of lifestyle interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of Spirulina platensis powder on metabolic syndrome in ...

    S. platensis inhibits also hemolysis of erythrocytes induced by AAPH. In conclusion, S. platensis powder prevent metabolic syndrome induced by high fructose and fat diet. These results justify the use of the plant in the treatment of diabetes in Benin. Keywords: Spirulina platensis, metabolic syndrome, fructose, diabetes, ...

  2. Metabolic syndrome: definitions and controversies

    Kaltsas Gregory

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Metabolic syndrome (MetS is a complex disorder defined by a cluster of interconnected factors that increase the risk of cardiovascular atherosclerotic diseases and diabetes mellitus type 2. Currently, several different definitions of MetS exist, causing substantial confusion as to whether they identify the same individuals or represent a surrogate of risk factors. Recently, a number of other factors besides those traditionally used to define MetS that are also linked to the syndrome have been identified. In this review, we critically consider existing definitions and evolving information, and conclude that there is still a need to develop uniform criteria to define MetS, so as to enable comparisons between different studies and to better identify patients at risk. As the application of the MetS model has not been fully validated in children and adolescents as yet, and because of its alarmingly increasing prevalence in this population, we suggest that diagnosis, prevention and treatment in this age group should better focus on established risk factors rather than the diagnosis of MetS.

  3. Metabolic Syndrome in Nurses

    María Escasany

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS in female nurses in the Hospital Juan A. Fernandez (HJAF, Buenos Aires, Argentina, and to determine whether work, rest, diet, and health, are predictive of it.Materials and methods: For the first objective, a descriptive, observational and cross-sectional study was conducted, and for the second, a multivariate cross-sectional observational multivariate analysis was made comparing independent samples. A total of 192 nurses were studied between October 2008 and March 2009. They completed a questionnaire that include indicators that could be predictors of MS. Anthropometric measurements, including blood pressure were taken, was well as a blood sample to analyze fasting glucose, HDL-C and plasma triglycerides.Results: It was found that 35% and 41% of nurses were overweight and obese, respectively. A total of 92% had centro-abdominal obesity. The prevalence of MS found was 33.3% (95%CI, 26.7 to 40.5. Those who had this disease were between 53±9 years. Statistically significant differences were found in the bivariate analysis between MS and the variables, age, length of service, time worked during night shift, and academic studies.Conclusions: The prevalence of MS was 64/192 in HJAF nurses (33.3% I 95%CI, 26.7-40.5. There were no statistically significant differences with the indicators of, age, “time worked during night shift”, and “studies”. These results suggest that age is the most important variable in predicting the onset of MS in the population of nurses.

  4. Testosterone and metabolic syndrome

    Glenn R Cunningham

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Controversies surround the usefulness of identifying patients with the metabolic syndrome (MetS. Many of the components are accepted risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD. Although the MetS as defined includes many men with insulin resistance, insulin resistance is not universal. The low total testosterone (TT and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG levels in these men are best explained by the hyperinsulinism and increased inflammatory cytokines that accompany obesity and increased waist circumference. It is informative that low SHBG levels predict future development of the MetS. Evidence is strong relating low TT levels to CVD in men with and without the MetS; however, the relationship may not be causal. The recommendations of the International Diabetes Federation for managing the MetS include cardiovascular risk assessment, lifestyle changes in diet, exercise, weight reduction and treatment of individual components of the MetS. Unfortunately, it is uncommon to see patients with the MetS lose and maintain a 10% weight loss. Recent reports showing testosterone treatment induced dramatic changes in weight, waist circumference, insulin sensitivity, hemoglobin A1c levels and improvements in each of the components of the MetS are intriguing. While some observational studies have reported that testosterone replacement therapy increases cardiovascular events, the Food and Drug Administration in the United States has reviewed these reports and found them to be seriously flawed. Large, randomized, placebo-controlled trials are needed to provide more definitive data regarding the efficacy and safety of this treatment in middle and older men with the MetS and low TT levels.

  5. Neuroinflammatory basis of metabolic syndrome.

    Purkayastha, Sudarshana; Cai, Dongsheng

    2013-10-05

    Inflammatory reaction is a fundamental defense mechanism against threat towards normal integrity and physiology. On the other hand, chronic diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and atherosclerosis, have been causally linked to chronic, low-grade inflammation in various metabolic tissues. Recent cross-disciplinary research has led to identification of hypothalamic inflammatory changes that are triggered by overnutrition, orchestrated by hypothalamic immune system, and sustained through metabolic syndrome-associated pathophysiology. While continuing research is actively trying to underpin the identity and mechanisms of these inflammatory stimuli and actions involved in metabolic syndrome disorders and related diseases, proinflammatory IκB kinase-β (IKKβ), the downstream nuclear transcription factor NF-κB and some related molecules in the hypothalamus were discovered to be pathogenically significant. This article is to summarize recent progresses in the field of neuroendocrine research addressing the central integrative role of neuroinflammation in metabolic syndrome components ranging from obesity, glucose intolerance to cardiovascular dysfunctions.

  6. a family doctor look for metabolic syndrome?

    Izabela Maria Banaś

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The asymptomatic course, early genesis, multifactorial onset, and the lack of a single definition of metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents make it difficult to assess its prevalence. Metabolic syndrome developed in childhood increases cardiovascular risk in adulthood. Objectives. The evaluation of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome based on age, sex, weight and abdominal obesity in a population of children and adolescents in a family doctor’s practice. Material and methods. The study group comprised 325 children and adolescents (177♀, 148♂ aged 7, 13 and 16 years. Anthropometric measurements (height, weight, waist circumference were made, along with the determination of blood pressure, fasting glucose and lipid levels. Overweight states and obesity were assessed according to the IOTF criteria. Abdominal obesity and hypertension were evaluated using growth charts appropriate for the age, gender and height of the children of Lodz. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed based on the NCEP/AT P III criteria. Results . Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 6.5% of the subjects. In children aged 13 and 16 years – 7.6% (p > 0.05 vs. 7 years, aged 7 years – 3.9% (p > 0.05 vs. 13, 16 years, boys (8.8%; p > 0.05, girls (4.5%; p > 0.05. Among children with excessive body weight, metabolic syndrome was observed in every fourth child (25.4%, more often in those with obesity (44.1% than with abdominal obesity (32% and those who were overweight (19.2%, respectively (p < 0.001 vs. metabolic syndrome. The number of components of metabolic syndrome elevated with increasing body weight (p < 0.001. Abdominal obesity was observed in 17.5% of the subjects. Children with abdominal obesity had higher levels of triglycerides (p < 0.05 and lower HDL cholesterol (p 110 mg/dl in 85 (26.1% and excessive body weight in 71 subjects (21.8%. Conclusions . The presence of metabolic syndrome correlated with overweight state, obesity and abdominal obesity

  7. The Association of Metabolic Syndrome and Urolithiasis

    Yee V. Wong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been an increasing prevalence of kidney stones over the last 2 decades worldwide. Many studies have indicated a possible association between metabolic syndrome and kidney stone disease, particularly in overweight and obese patients. Many different definitions of metabolic syndrome have been suggested by various organizations, although the definition by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF is universally considered as the most acceptable definition. The IDF definition revolves around 4 core components: obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the pathophysiology of urolithiasis resulting from metabolic syndrome, amongst which are the insulin resistance and Randall’s plaque hypothesis. Similarly the pathophysiology of calcium and uric acid stone formation has been investigated to determine a connection between the two conditions. Studies have found many factors contributing to urolithiasis in patients suffering from metabolic syndrome, out of which obesity, overweight, and sedentary lifestyles have been identified as major etiological factors. Primary and secondary prevention methods therefore tend to revolve mainly around lifestyle improvements, including dietary and other preventive measures.

  8. Fatty acid metabolism: target for metabolic syndrome

    Wakil, Salih J.; Abu-Elheiga, Lutfi A.

    2009-01-01

    Fatty acids are a major energy source and important constituents of membrane lipids, and they serve as cellular signaling molecules that play an important role in the etiology of the metabolic syndrome. Acetyl-CoA carboxylases 1 and 2 (ACC1 and ACC2) catalyze the synthesis of malonyl-CoA, the substrate for fatty acid synthesis and the regulator of fatty acid oxidation. They are highly regulated and play important roles in the energy metabolism of fatty acids in animals, including humans. They...

  9. Metabolic syndrome pathophysiology and clinical presentation.

    Handelsman, Yehuda

    2009-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a relatively new definition, designed to help the health care practitioner to easily identify people at risk for the development of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. With the obesity epidemic, we are witnessing an epidemic of multiple-risk patients. Insulin resistance is the perceived pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome and defines its clinical presentation. Hypertension, dyslipedemia, polycystic ovarian syndrome, fatty liver disease, pre-diabetes, sleep and breathing disorder, certain cancers, and cognitive impairment are many of the presentations of the syndrome; patients with any of these conditions are at a high risk of developing cardiovascular disease and diabetes. The metabolic syndrome helps identify people at risk to allow early intervention for prevention. Lifestyle modification is the most important part of the management of people with the syndrome. Lately medications--though none approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)--have been recommended by major medical societies when lifestyle modification is not enough or when it fails.

  10. The pharmacological management of metabolic syndrome.

    Rask Larsen, Julie; Dima, Lorena; Correll, Christoph U; Manu, Peter

    2018-04-01

    The metabolic syndrome includes a constellation of several well-established risk factors, which need to be aggressively treated in order to prevent overt type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. While recent guidelines for the treatment of individual components of the metabolic syndrome focus on cardiovascular benefits as resulted from clinical trials, specific recent recommendations on the pharmacological management of metabolic syndrome are lacking. The objective of present paper was to review the therapeutic options for metabolic syndrome and its components, the available evidence related to their cardiovascular benefits, and to evaluate the extent to which they should influence the guidelines for clinical practice. Areas covered: A Medline literature search was performed to identify clinical trials and meta-analyses related to the therapy of dyslipidemia, arterial hypertension, glucose metabolism and obesity published in the past decade. Expert commentary: Our recommendation for first-line pharmacological are statins for dyslipidemia, renin-angiotensin-aldosteron system inhibitors for arterial hypertension, metformin or sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors or glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) for glucose intolerance, and the GLP-1RA liraglutide for achieving body weight and waist circumference reduction.

  11. Prevalence of Hypertension within the Metabolic Syndrome

    Tomečková, Marie; Grünfeldová, H.; Peleška, Jan; Hanuš, P.; Marušiaková, Miriam

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 30 (2007), s. 371-372 ISSN 1420-4096. [Central European Meeting on Hypertension and Cardiovascular Disease Prevention. 11.10.2007-13.10.2007, Kraków] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : metabolic syndrome * hypertension Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery

  12. Nitric oxide and mitochondria in metabolic syndrome

    Litvinova, Larisa; Atochin, Dmitriy N.; Fattakhov, Nikolai; Vasilenko, Mariia; Zatolokin, Pavel; Kirienkova, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of metabolic disorders that collectively increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Nitric oxide (NO) plays a crucial role in the pathogeneses of MS components and is involved in different mitochondrial signaling pathways that control respiration and apoptosis. The present review summarizes the recent information regarding the interrelations of mitochondria and NO in MS. Changes in the activities of different NO synthase isoforms lead to the formation of metabolic disorders and therefore are highlighted here. Reduced endothelial NOS activity and NO bioavailability, as the main factors underlying the endothelial dysfunction that occurs in MS, are discussed in this review in relation to mitochondrial dysfunction. We also focus on potential therapeutic strategies involving NO signaling pathways that can be used to treat patients with metabolic disorders associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. The article may help researchers develop new approaches for the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of MS. PMID:25741283

  13. Metabolic Syndrome (For Parents)

    ... or triglycerides would be considered a risk factor. Fasting glucose . The fasting blood glucose test measures the amount of glucose ... Kids Teens Diabetes Center Acanthosis Nigricans Overweight and Obesity Can Diabetes Be Prevented? Cholesterol Hyperglycemia and Diabetic ...

  14. Metabolic syndrome presenting as abdominal pain

    Mohammed Y Al-Dossary

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome represents a sum of risk factors that lead to the occurrence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. The early detection of metabolic syndrome is extremely important in adults who are at risk. Although the physiopathological mechanisms of the metabolic syndrome are not yet clear, insulin resistance plays a key role that could explain the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in untreated metabolic syndrome patients. Here, we present the case of a 26-year-old male who was diagnosed with metabolic syndrome and severe hypertriglyceridemia after presenting with abdominal pain. Although hypertriglyceridemia and hyperglycemia are the most common predictors of metabolic syndrome, clinicians need to be vigilant for unexpected presentations in patients at risk for metabolic syndrome. This case sheds light on the importance of early detection.

  15. Metabolic syndrome in Iranian elderly

    Nizal Sarrafzadegan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aimed to compare Iranian elderly with the youth and middle aged population in terms of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in Iranian elderly METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted using the information from the third phase of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program. Male and female residents of Isfahan who aged over 19 years were selected by multistage cluster random sampling. A questionnaire including demographic characteristics, health status, medical history, medications used, as well as waist circumference, weight, height and systolic and diastolic blood pressures was completed for all participants. Fasting blood samples were obtained from all subjects and examined for fasting blood sugar and lipid profile. RESULTS: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in individuals aged over 60 years was significantly higher than those under 60 (49.5% vs. 17.5%, respectively; P < 0.001. It was also more prevalent among elderly females than in males (59.2% vs. 39.8%, respectively; P < 0.005. Some anthropometric measures such as height, body mass index, abdominal circumference, waist-hip ratio, and waist to height ratio were significantly different in men and women below 60 years in comparison with those over 60 years (P < 0.05. Moreover, there were significant differences in most studied parameters between the elderly and non-elderly women (P < 0.001. Based on the findings of this study, the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases were significantly more prevalent in men and women over 60 years. T-test and Mann-Whitney were used for quantitative data and the square-chi test is performed for qualitative data.    CONCLUSION: This study showed that metabolic syndrome has a relatively high prevalence in Iranian elderly people (especially in women. Therefore, early diagnosis and management of the complication are recommended among this high-risk group. Keywords: Metabolic Syndrome, Elderly, Iran

  16. Korsakoff's syndrome is preventable

    Oudman, Erik; Wijnia, Jan W.

    2014-01-01

    Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) is a life-threatening neuropsychiatric disorder caused by thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency. Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is associated with mammillary body edema and small vessel ischemia. Many patients who develop WKS have a history of serious alcoholism and

  17. Melatonin, mitochondria, and the metabolic syndrome.

    Cardinali, Daniel P; Vigo, Daniel E

    2017-11-01

    A number of risk factors for cardiovascular disease including hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, obesity, and elevated blood pressure are collectively known as metabolic syndrome (MS). Since mitochondrial activity is modulated by the availability of energy in cells, the disruption of key regulators of metabolism in MS not only affects the activity of mitochondria but also their dynamics and turnover. Therefore, a link of MS with mitochondrial dysfunction has been suspected since long. As a chronobiotic/cytoprotective agent, melatonin has a special place in prevention and treatment of MS. Melatonin levels are reduced in diseases associated with insulin resistance like MS. Melatonin improves sleep efficiency and has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, partly for its role as a metabolic regulator and mitochondrial protector. We discuss in the present review the several cytoprotective melatonin actions that attenuate inflammatory responses in MS. The clinical data that support the potential therapeutical value of melatonin in human MS are reviewed.

  18. Metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents with phenylketonuria

    Viviane C. Kanufre

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that patients with PKU and excess weight are potentially vulnerable to the development of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct clinical and laboratory monitoring, aiming to prevent metabolic changes, as well as excessive weight gain and its consequences, particularly cardiovascular risk.

  19. The metabolic syndrome among Danish seafarers

    Jepsen, Jørgen Riis; Rasmussen, Hanna Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Background: The metabolic syndrome (MS) represents a cluster of risk factors related to insulin resistance. Metabolic syndrome is a strong risk factor for chronic metabolic and cardiovascular diseases and is related to nutritional factors, sleep patterns, work-related stress, fatigue, and physical...

  20. Metabolic Syndrome and Breast Cancer Risk.

    Wani, Burhan; Aziz, Shiekh Aejaz; Ganaie, Mohammad Ashraf; Mir, Mohammad Hussain

    2017-01-01

    The study was meant to estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with breast cancer and to establish its role as an independent risk factor on occurrence of breast cancer. Fifty women aged between 40 and 80 years with breast cancer and fifty controls of similar age were assessed for metabolic syndrome prevalence and breast cancer risk factors, including age at menarche, reproductive status, live births, breastfeeding, and family history of breast cancer, age at diagnosis of breast cancer, body mass index, and metabolic syndrome parameters. Metabolic syndrome prevalence was found in 40.0% of breast cancer patients, and 18.0% of those in control group ( P = 0.02). An independent and positive association was seen between metabolic syndrome and breast cancer risk (odds ratio = 3.037; 95% confidence interval 1.214-7.597). Metabolic syndrome is more prevalent in breast cancer patients and is an independent risk factor for breast cancer.

  1. Gut microbiota and metabolic syndrome.

    Festi, Davide; Schiumerini, Ramona; Eusebi, Leonardo Henry; Marasco, Giovanni; Taddia, Martina; Colecchia, Antonio

    2014-11-21

    Gut microbiota exerts a significant role in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome, as confirmed by studies conducted both on humans and animal models. Gut microbial composition and functions are strongly influenced by diet. This complex intestinal "superorganism" seems to affect host metabolic balance modulating energy absorption, gut motility, appetite, glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as hepatic fatty storage. An impairment of the fine balance between gut microbes and host's immune system could culminate in the intestinal translocation of bacterial fragments and the development of "metabolic endotoxemia", leading to systemic inflammation and insulin resistance. Diet induced weight-loss and bariatric surgery promote significant changes of gut microbial composition, that seem to affect the success, or the inefficacy, of treatment strategies. Manipulation of gut microbiota through the administration of prebiotics or probiotics could reduce intestinal low grade inflammation and improve gut barrier integrity, thus, ameliorating metabolic balance and promoting weight loss. However, further evidence is needed to better understand their clinical impact and therapeutic use.

  2. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and Metabolic Syndrome

    Olinichenko, A. V.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the research is to study the features of gastroesophageal reflux disease, combined with the metabolic syndrome. Materials and methods. The study involved 490 patients (250 have got gastroesophageal reflux disease, combined with the metabolic syndrome and 240 have got gastroesophageal reflux disease without the metabolic syndrome). The patients besides general clinical examination were carried out video-fibro-gastro-duodeno-skopy, pH-monitoring in the esophagus, anthropometry, deter...

  3. Metabolic syndrome in fixed-shift workers

    Raquel Canuto; Marcos Pascoal Pattussi; Jamile Block Araldi Macagnan; Ruth Liane Henn; Maria Teresa Anselmo Olinto

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if metabolic syndrome and its altered components are associated with demographic, socioeconomic and behavioral factors in fixed-shift workers. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 902 shift workers of both sexes in a poultry processing plant in Southern Brazil in 2010. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was determined according to the recommendations from Harmonizing the Metabolic Syndrome. Its frequency was evaluated according to the demographic ...

  4. Metabolic syndrome in fixed-shift workers

    Canuto, Raquel; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal; Macagnan, Jamile Block Araldi; Henn, Ruth Liane; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if metabolic syndrome and its altered components are associated with demographic, socioeconomic and behavioral factors in fixed-shift workers.METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 902 shift workers of both sexes in a poultry processing plant in Southern Brazil in 2010. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was determined according to the recommendations from Harmonizing the Metabolic Syndrome. Its frequency was evaluated according to the demographic (...

  5. Metabolic syndrome in children: current issues and South Asian perspective.

    Misra, Anoop; Khurana, Lokesh; Vikram, Naval K; Goel, Ashish; Wasir, Jasjeet S

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this review is to discuss definition, determinants, and management issues of the metabolic syndrome in children with a focus on South Asians. The literature search was done using the PubMed search engine (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD, USA). Manual searches for other important references and medical databases were also done. There is a need for an integrated definition of the metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents, taking cognizance of the ethnic-specific variations. Obesity and body fat patterning are important determinants of insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome in children and ethnic variations in these parameters are seen. Excess body fat and thicker truncal subcutaneous fat are important predisposing factors for development of insulin resistance in South Asian children. Because the metabolic syndrome tracks into adulthood, its manifestations need to be recognized early for prevention of diabetes and coronary heart disease. Therapeutic lifestyle changes, maintenance of high levels of physical activity and normal weight are most important strategies; pharmacologic therapy for individual components of the metabolic syndrome is occasionally needed. The metabolic syndrome in children is an important clinical marker of diabetes and coronary heart disease in adults. In view of the rapid increase in the metabolic syndrome in most populations, high-risk screening and effective public-intervention educational programs are urgently needed.

  6. RESISTANT HYPERTENSION IN A PATIENT WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME

    O. M. Drapkina; J. S. Sibgatullina

    2016-01-01

    Clinical case of resistant hypertension in a patient with metabolic syndrome is presented. Features of hypertension in metabolic syndrome and features of metabolic syndrome in women of pre- and postmenopausal age are also considered. Understanding the features of metabolic syndrome in women, as well as features of hypertension and metabolic syndrome will improve the results of treatment in patients with resistant hypertension.

  7. Aerobic exercise acutely prevents the endothelial dysfunction induced by mental stress among subjects with metabolic syndrome: the role of shear rate.

    Sales, Allan R K; Fernandes, Igor A; Rocha, Natália G; Costa, Lucas S; Rocha, Helena N M; Mattos, João D M; Vianna, Lauro C; Silva, Bruno M; Nóbrega, Antonio C L

    2014-04-01

    Mental stress induces transient endothelial dysfunction, which is an important finding for subjects at cardiometabolic risk. Thus, we tested whether aerobic exercise prevents this dysfunction among subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and whether an increase in shear rate during exercise plays a role in this phenomenon. Subjects with MetS participated in two protocols. In protocol 1 (n = 16), endothelial function was assessed using brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Subjects then underwent a mental stress test followed by either 40 min of leg cycling or rest across two randomized sessions. FMD was assessed again at 30 and 60 min after exercise or rest, with a second mental stress test in between. Mental stress reduced FMD at 30 and 60 min after the rest session (baseline: 7.7 ± 0.4%, 30 min: 5.4 ± 0.5%, and 60 min: 3.9 ± 0.5%, P exercise prevented this reduction (baseline: 7.5 ± 0.4%, 30 min: 7.2 ± 0.7%, and 60 min: 8.7 ± 0.8%, P > 0.05 vs. baseline). Protocol 2 (n = 5) was similar to protocol 1 except that the first period of mental stress was followed by either exercise in which the brachial artery shear rate was attenuated via forearm cuff inflation or exercise without a cuff. Noncuffed exercise prevented the reduction in FMD (baseline: 7.5 ± 0.7%, 30 min: 7.0 ± 0.7%, and 60 min: 8.7 ± 0.8%, P > 0.05 vs. baseline), whereas cuffed exercise failed to prevent this reduction (baseline: 7.5 ± 0.6%, 30 min: 5.4 ± 0.8%, and 60 min: 4.1 ± 0.9%, P exercise prevented mental stress-induced endothelial dysfunction among subjects with MetS, and an increase in shear rate during exercise mediated this effect.

  8. Effect of Gamma-Oryzanol as Therapeutic Agent to Prevent Cardiorenal Metabolic Syndrome in Animals Submitted to High Sugar-Fat Diet

    Fabiane Valentini Francisqueti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The high consumption of fat and sugar contributes to the development of obesity and co-morbidities, such as diabetes, and cardiovascular and kidney diseases. Different strategies have been used to prevent these diseases associated with obesity, such as changes in eating habits and/or the addition of dietary components with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties, such as gamma-oryzanol (γOz present mainly in bran layers and rice germ. Methods: Animals were randomly divided into four experimental groups and fed ad libitum for 20 weeks with control diet (C, n = 8, control diet + γOz (C + γOz, n = 8, high-sugar and high-fat diet (HSF, n = 8, and high-sugar and high-fat diet + γOz (HSF + γOz, n = 8. HSF groups also received water + sucrose (25%. The dose of γOz was added to diets to reach 0.5% of final concentration (w/w. Evaluation in animals included food and caloric intake, body weight, plasma glucose, insulin, triglycerides, uric acid, HOMA-IR, glomerular filtration rate, protein/creatinine ratio, systolic blood pressure, and Doppler echocardiographic. Results: Animals that consumed the HSF diet had weight gain compared to group C, increased insulin, HOMA, glucose and triglycerides, there were also atrial and ventricular structural alterations, deterioration of systolic and diastolic function, decreased glomerular filtration rate, and proteinuria. Gamma-oryzanol is significantly protective against effects on body weight, hypertriglyceridemia, renal damage, and against structural and functional alteration of the heart. Conclusion: Gamma-oryzanol shows potential as a therapeutic to prevent Cardiorenal Metabolic Syndrome.

  9. Metabolic Syndrome: Systems Thinking in Heart Disease.

    Dommermuth, Ron; Ewing, Kristine

    2018-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors. MetS is associated with approximately 4-fold increase in the likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and a 2-fold increase in the incidence of cardiovascular disease complications. MetS is a progressive, proinflammatory, prothrombotic condition that manifests itself along a broad spectrum of disease. It is associated with hypertension, obstructive sleep apnea, fatty liver disease, gout, and polycystic ovarian syndrome. Intervening in and reversing the pathologic process become more difficult as the disease progresses, highlighting the needs for increased individual and community surveillance and primary prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. SIRT1 and metabolic syndrome

    Katarzyna Mac-Marcjanek

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Both obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, two major components of metabolic syndrome, become healthepidemics in the world. Over the past decade, advances in understanding the role of some regulators participatingin lipid and carbohydrate homeostasis have been made.Of them, SIRT1, the mammalian orthologue of the yeast Sir2 protein has been identified. SIRT1 is a nuclearNAD+-dependent deacetylase that targets many transcriptional modulators, including PPAR-α and -γ (peroxisomeproliferator-activated receptors α and γ, PGC-1α (PPAR-γ coactivator-1α, FOXO (forkhead box O proteins,and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB, thereby this enzyme mediates a wide range of physiological processes like apoptosis,fat metabolism, glucose homeostasis, and neurodegeneration.In this article, we discuss how SIRT1 regulates lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, and insulin secretion indifferent metabolic organs/tissue, including liver, muscle, pancreas, and fat. Additionally, the role of this enzymein reduction of inflammatory signalling is highlighted.

  11. Dietary supplementation of chinese ginseng prevents obesity and metabolic syndrome in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Li, Xiaoxiao; Luo, Jing; Anandh Babu, Pon Velayutham; Zhang, Wei; Gilbert, Elizabeth; Cline, Mark; McMillan, Ryan; Hulver, Matthew; Alkhalidy, Hana; Zhen, Wei; Zhang, Haiyan; Liu, Dongmin

    2014-12-01

    Obesity and diabetes are growing health problems worldwide. In this study, dietary provision of Chinese ginseng (0.5 g/kg diet) prevented body weight gain in high-fat (HF) diet-fed mice. Dietary ginseng supplementation reduced body fat mass gain, improved glucose tolerance and whole body insulin sensitivity, and prevented hypertension in HF diet-induced obese mice. Ginseng consumption led to reduced concentrations of plasma insulin and leptin, but had no effect on plasma adiponectin levels in HF diet-fed mice. Body temperature was higher in mice fed the ginseng-supplemented diet but energy expenditure, respiration rate, and locomotive activity were not significantly altered. Dietary intake of ginseng increased fatty acid oxidation in the liver but not in skeletal muscle. Expression of several transcription factors associated with adipogenesis (C/EBPα and PPARγ) were decreased in the adipose tissue of HF diet-fed mice, effects that were mitigated in mice that consumed the HF diet supplemented with ginseng. Abundance of fatty acid synthase (FASN) mRNA was greater in the adipose tissue of mice that consumed the ginseng-supplemented HF diet as compared with control or un-supplemented HF diet-fed mice. Ginseng treatment had no effect on the expression of genes involved in the regulation of food intake in the hypothalamus. These data suggest that Chinese ginseng can potently prevent the development of obesity and insulin resistance in HF diet-fed mice.

  12. Metabolic syndrome: clinical concept and molecular basis.

    Funahashi, Tohru; Matsuzawa, Yuji

    2007-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of insulin resistance, elevated blood pressure, and atherogenic dyslipidemia and is a common basis of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Although the precise mechanism remains to be elucidated, a practical definition is needed. A worldwide definition that considers increased waist circumference as an essential component has been settled. Visceral fat locates upstream of the liver. Free fatty acids and glycerol derived from visceral fat reach the liver and stimulate lipoprotein synthesis and gluconeogenesis, respectively. The adipose tissue produces a variety of bioactive substances conceptualized as 'adipocytokines'. Overproduction of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and tumor necrosis factor- seems to relate to the thrombotic and inflammatory tendency. On the other hand, adiponectin, which has antiatherogenic and antidiabetic activities, is reduced in subjects with metabolic syndrome. In Japan, the waist circumference criterion based on visceral fat accumulation has been adopted. The concept of this syndrome has been widely publicized, and health promotion programs based on the concept have commenced in various areas of the country. Such 'Adipo-Do-It' movement is an incentive to encourage physical exercise to reduce visceral fat and is a big challenge to prevent life-style-related diseases and CVD.

  13. [Types of dislipidemia in children with metabolic syndrome].

    Hromnats'ka, N M

    2014-01-01

    To study dyslipidemia types in children with metabolic syndrome. From 1520 children of total population 155 children aged from 9 to 18 years were selected, who formed 2 groups: 1 group--85 children with metabolic syndrome, 2 group--54 children with normal body mass. Anthropometry, blood pressure measurement, estimation of total cholesterol, low density cholesterol, very low density cholesterol, high density cholesterol, tryglicerides in blood were done. The total cholesterol level was 1,1 times higher (p = 0.001), low density cholesterol 1,4 times higher (p = 0.001), very low density cholesterol 1,1 times higher (p= 0.015), tryglicerides 1,1 times higher (p = 0.020) in children with metabolic syndrome than in children of control group. In children with metabolic syndrome sensitively more often IIa, IV dislipidemia types and isolated hypercholesterolemia and less often IIb, III dislipidemia types and high density cholesterol isolated decrease were diagnosed. So children with metabolic syndrome were characterized by atherogenic types of dislipidemias which determine early atherosclerosis development. Children with metabolic syndrome must be examined on the lipid metabolism violation with the aim of its prevention and correction.

  14. Metabolic syndrome among rural Indian adults.

    Barik, Anamitra; Das, Kausik; Chowdhury, Abhijit; Rai, Rajesh Kumar

    2018-02-01

    To prevent an increasing level of mortality due to type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease among the rural Indian population, a management strategy of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) should be devised. This study aims to estimate the burden of MetS and its associated risk factors. Data from the Birbhum Population Project covering 9886 individuals (4810 male and 5076 female population) aged ≥18 years were used. The burden of metabolic syndrome, as defined by the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel, was determined. Bivariate and multivariate (logistic regression) analyses were used to attain the study objective. Over 10.7% of the males and 20.3% of the females were diagnosed with MetS. Irrespective of sex, older individuals, being overweight/obese (body mass index of ≥23 kg/m 2 ) had higher probability of developing MetS, whereas being underweight is deemed a protective factor against MetS. Low physical activity among women appeared to be a risk factor for MetS. The prevalence of MetS is concerning even in rural India. Any intervention designed to address the issue could emphasize on weight loss, and physical activity, focusing on women and people at an advanced stage of life. Copyright © 2017 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The metabolic syndrome - background and treatment

    van Zwieten, P.A.

    2006-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MBS) is characterised by a clustering of cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors. This syndrome is now widely recognised as a distinct pathological entity, and it is receiving a great deal of attention in the medical literature but also in the lay press.

  16. The metabolic syndrome in cancer survivors

    de Haas, Esther C.; Oosting, Sjoukje F.; Lefrandt, Joop D.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Sleijfer, Dirk Th; Gietema, Jourik A.

    The metabolic syndrome, as a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors, may represent an important connection between cancer treatment and its common late effect of cardiovascular disease. Insight into the aetiology of the metabolic syndrome after cancer treatment might help to identify and treat

  17. Mediterranean diet and the metabolic syndrome

    Bos, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Mediterranean diet and the metabolic syndrome

    Background: The metabolic syndrome refers to a clustering of risk factors including
    abdominal obesity, hyperglycaemia, low HDL-cholesterol, hypertriglyceridaemia,
    and hypertension and it is a risk factor for diabetes mellitus type

  18. Gender differences in metabolic syndrome components among the Korean 66-year-old population with metabolic syndrome.

    Lee, Sangjin; Ko, Young; Kwak, Chanyeong; Yim, Eun-Shil

    2016-01-23

    Gender is thought to be an important factor in metabolic syndrome and its outcomes. Despite a number of studies that have demonstrated differences in metabolism and its components that are dependent on gender, limited information about gender differences on the characteristics of metabolic syndrome and its components is available regarding the Korean old adult population. This study aimed to identify gender differences in characteristics of the metabolic syndrome and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Secondary analysis of data from a nationwide cross-sectional survey for health examination at the time of transitioning from midlife to old age was performed. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for gender differences among the Korean 66-year-old population with metabolic syndrome. Gender differences in metabolic syndrome components that contributed to the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome were identified. In males, the most common component was high blood sugar levels (87.5%), followed by elevated triglyceride levels (83.5%) and high blood pressure (83.1%). In females, the most commonly identified component was elevated triglyceride levels (79.0%), followed by high blood sugar levels (78.6%) and high blood pressure (78.5%). Gender differences for other risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including family history, health habits, and body mass index were observed. Gender-specific public health policies and management strategies to prevent cardiovascular disease among the older adult population should be developed for Koreans undergoing the physiological transition to old age.

  19. Metabolic syndrome and cardiometabolic risk in PCOS.

    Cussons, Andrea J; Stuckey, Bronwyn G A; Watts, Gerald F

    2007-02-01

    The cardiovascular risk associated with the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has recently attracted much interest. Women with PCOS are more likely to fulfill the diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome, a cluster of related cardiometabolic factors known to predict long-term risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. We review the literature pertaining to the link between the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and PCOS. We focus on the influence of obesity and hyperandrogenemia, and on strategies for identifying cardiovascular risk in PCOS.

  20. Metabolic syndrome in fixed-shift workers.

    Canuto, Raquel; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal; Macagnan, Jamile Block Araldi; Henn, Ruth Liane; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if metabolic syndrome and its altered components are associated with demographic, socioeconomic and behavioral factors in fixed-shift workers. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 902 shift workers of both sexes in a poultry processing plant in Southern Brazil in 2010. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was determined according to the recommendations from Harmonizing the Metabolic Syndrome. Its frequency was evaluated according to the demographic (sex, skin color, age and marital status), socioeconomic (educational level, income and work shift), and behavioral characteristics (smoking, alcohol intake, leisure time physical activity, number of meals and sleep duration) of the sample. The multivariate analysis followed a theoretical framework for identifying metabolic syndrome in fixed-shift workers. RESULTS The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the sample was 9.3% (95%CI 7.4;11.2). The most frequently altered component was waist circumference (PR 48.4%; 95%CI 45.5;51.2), followed by high-density lipoprotein. Work shift was not associated with metabolic syndrome and its altered components. After adjustment, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was positively associated with women (PR 2.16; 95%CI 1.28;3.64), workers aged over 40 years (PR 3.90; 95%CI 1.78;8.93) and those who reported sleeping five hours or less per day (PR 1.70; 95%CI 1.09;2.24). On the other hand, metabolic syndrome was inversely associated with educational level and having more than three meals per day (PR 0.43; 95%CI 0.26;0.73). CONCLUSIONS Being female, older and deprived of sleep are probable risk factors for metabolic syndrome, whereas higher educational level and higher number of meals per day are protective factors for metabolic syndrome in fixed-shift workers.

  1. Metabolic syndrome in fixed-shift workers

    Raquel Canuto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze if metabolic syndrome and its altered components are associated with demographic, socioeconomic and behavioral factors in fixed-shift workers. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 902 shift workers of both sexes in a poultry processing plant in Southern Brazil in 2010. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was determined according to the recommendations from Harmonizing the Metabolic Syndrome. Its frequency was evaluated according to the demographic (sex, skin color, age and marital status, socioeconomic (educational level, income and work shift, and behavioral characteristics (smoking, alcohol intake, leisure time physical activity, number of meals and sleep duration of the sample. The multivariate analysis followed a theoretical framework for identifying metabolic syndrome in fixed-shift workers. RESULTS The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the sample was 9.3% (95%CI 7.4;11.2. The most frequently altered component was waist circumference (PR 48.4%; 95%CI 45.5;51.2, followed by high-density lipoprotein. Work shift was not associated with metabolic syndrome and its altered components. After adjustment, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was positively associated with women (PR 2.16; 95%CI 1.28;3.64, workers aged over 40 years (PR 3.90; 95%CI 1.78;8.93 and those who reported sleeping five hours or less per day (PR 1.70; 95%CI 1.09;2.24. On the other hand, metabolic syndrome was inversely associated with educational level and having more than three meals per day (PR 0.43; 95%CI 0.26;0.73. CONCLUSIONS Being female, older and deprived of sleep are probable risk factors for metabolic syndrome, whereas higher educational level and higher number of meals per day are protective factors for metabolic syndrome in fixed-shift workers.

  2. Psychosocial risk factors for the metabolic syndrome

    Pedersen, Jolene Masters; Lund, Rikke; Andersen, Ingelise

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Metabolic deregulations and development of metabolic syndrome may be an important pathway underlying the relationship between stress and cardiovascular disease. We aim to estimate the effect of a comprehensive range of psychosocial factors on the risk of developing metabolic.......11) to be risk factors for developing the metabolic syndrome in women, while vital exhaustion (OR 2.09, 95% CI 0.95 to 4.59) and intake of sleep medications (OR 2.54, 95% CI 0.92 to 5.96) may play a more important role in men. Conclusions: Experiencing major life events in work and adult life and....../or dysfunctional social networks is a risk factor for metabolic syndrome in women, and stress reactions such as vital exhaustion and intake of sleep medications may play a more important role in the development of metabolic syndrome men....

  3. Targets to treat metabolic syndrome in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Mahalingaiah, Shruthi; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is comprised of a combination of the following states: increased insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, and increased abdominal obesity. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have an increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome over the course of their lives. Metabolic syndrome increases risk of major cardiovascular events, morbidity, quality of life, and overall health care costs. Though metabolic syndrome in women with PCOS is an area of great concern, there is no effective individual medical therapeutic to adequately treat this issue. This article will review key aspects of metabolic syndrome in PCOS. We will discuss classic and novel therapeutics to address metabolic syndrome in women with PCOS. We will conclude with the importance of developing strategic interventions to increase the compliance to lifestyle and dietary modification, in addition to appreciation of the emerging pharmaceutical therapeutics available. Innovation in lifestyle modification, including diet, exercise, with and without dedicated stress reduction techniques is the future in treatment of metabolic syndrome in PCOS. Application of novel interventions, such as group medical care, may improve future adherence to lifestyle modification recommendations, in addition to or in combination with pharmaceutical therapeutics.

  4. Targets to treat metabolic syndrome in polycystic ovary syndrome

    Mahalingaiah, Shruthi; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Metabolic syndrome is comprised of a combination of the following states: increased insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, and increased abdominal obesity. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have an increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome over the course of their lives. Metabolic syndrome increases risk of major cardiovascular events, morbidity, quality of life, and overall health care costs. Though metabolic syndrome in women with PCOS is an area of great concern, there is no effective individual medical therapeutic to adequately treat this issue. Areas Covered This article will review key aspects of metabolic syndrome in PCOS. We will discuss classic and novel therapeutics to address metabolic syndrome in women with PCOS. We will conclude with the importance of developing strategic interventions to increase the compliance to lifestyle and dietary modification, in addition to appreciation of the emerging pharmaceutical therapeutics available. Expert Opinion Innovation in lifestyle modification, including diet, exercise, with and without dedicated stress reduction techniques is the future in treatment of metabolic syndrome in PCOS. Application of novel interventions, such as group medical care, may improve future adherence to lifestyle modification recommendations, in addition to or in combination with pharmaceutical therapeutics. PMID:26488852

  5. Executive functions in persons with metabolic syndrome

    Subotić Tatjana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern man lyfestyle contributes to the increasing incidence of metabolic syndrome in the developed world. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in adults ranges from 20 to 25%, and it tends to increase. Each year, 3.2 million people around the world die from complications associated with this syndrome. Treatment involves cooperation of medical doctors of various specialties, but the decisive factor is patient motivation, given that the treatment requires significant lifestyle changes. Our hypothesis is that metabolic syndrome patients have reduced ability to plan, convert plan into action and effectively implement planned activities, showing signs of dysexecutive syndrome. The term executive functions comes from the English word 'executive', which also means the controlling, in neuropsychology reserved for high-level abilities that influence more basic abilities such as attention, perception, memory, thinking and speaking. The main objective of this study was to determine characteristics of executive functioning in patients with metabolic syndrome. The sample consisted of 61 subjects of both sexes, aged 20 to 60 years, divided into two groups - those with a diagnosis of metabolic syndrome and those without this diagnosis. The results suggest that people with metabolic syndrome showed significantly poorer performance in almost all indicators of executive functions, represented by Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test variables.

  6. Association between Metabolic Syndrome and Job Rank.

    Mehrdad, Ramin; Pouryaghoub, Gholamreza; Moradi, Mahboubeh

    2018-01-01

    The occupation of the people can influence the development of metabolic syndrome. To determine the association between metabolic syndrome and its determinants with the job rank in workers of a large car factory in Iran. 3989 male workers at a large car manufacturing company were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study. Demographic and anthropometric data of the participants, including age, height, weight, and abdominal circumference were measured. Blood samples were taken to measure lipid profile and blood glucose level. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in each participant based on ATPIII 2001 criteria. The workers were categorized based on their job rank into 3 groups of (1) office workers, (2) workers with physical exertion, and (3) workers with chemical exposure. The study characteristics, particularly the frequency of metabolic syndrome and its determinants were compared among the study groups. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in our study was 7.7% (95% CI 6.9 to 8.5). HDL levels were significantly lower in those who had chemical exposure (p=0.045). Diastolic blood pressure was significantly higher in those who had mechanical exertion (p=0.026). The frequency of metabolic syndrome in the office workers, workers with physical exertion, and workers with chemical exposure was 7.3%, 7.9%, and 7.8%, respectively (p=0.836). Seemingly, there is no association between metabolic syndrome and job rank.

  7. Obesity and the metabolic syndrome in developing countries.

    Misra, Anoop; Khurana, Lokesh

    2008-11-01

    Prevalence of obesity and the metabolic syndrome is rapidly increasing in developing countries, leading to increased morbidity and mortality due to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease. Literature search was carried out using the terms obesity, insulin resistance, the metabolic syndrome, diabetes, dyslipidemia, nutrition, physical activity, and developing countries, from PubMed from 1966 to June 2008 and from web sites and published documents of the World Health Organization and Food and Agricultural Organization. With improvement in economic situation in developing countries, increasing prevalence of obesity and the metabolic syndrome is seen in adults and particularly in children. The main causes are increasing urbanization, nutrition transition, and reduced physical activity. Furthermore, aggressive community nutrition intervention programs for undernourished children may increase obesity. Some evidence suggests that widely prevalent perinatal undernutrition and childhood catch-up obesity may play a role in adult-onset metabolic syndrome and T2DM. The economic cost of obesity and related diseases in developing countries, having meager health budgets is enormous. To prevent increasing morbidity and mortality due to obesity-related T2DM and cardiovascular disease in developing countries, there is an urgent need to initiate large-scale community intervention programs focusing on increased physical activity and healthier food options, particularly for children. International health agencies and respective government should intensively focus on primordial and primary prevention programs for obesity and the metabolic syndrome in developing countries.

  8. Prevalence and Influencing Factors of Metabolic Syndrome Among Persons with Physical Disabilities

    Jeonghee Jeong, RN, PhD

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Metabolic syndrome is an important cluster of coronary heart disease risk factors. However, it remains unclear to what extent metabolic syndrome is associated with demographic and potentially modifiable lifestyle factors among Korean persons with physical disabilities. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and influencing factors of metabolic syndrome among persons with physical disabilities using the Korean National Health Insurance Service–National Sample Cohort. Methods: The Adult Treatment Panel III criteria were used to define metabolic syndrome influencing factors and prevalence, which were evaluated in a representative sample from the 2013 Korean National Health Insurance Service–National Sample Cohort database. Characteristics were compared based on frequency using the χ2 test. The associations between metabolic syndrome and its risk factors were estimated using logistic multivariable regression analysis. Results: Metabolic syndrome was detected in 31.5% of the surveyed persons with physical disabilities. Female sex, age of ≥65 years, smoking, greater alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, higher body mass index, and a family history of diabetes were associated with increased risks of metabolic syndrome. Conclusion: The major risk factors for metabolic syndrome among persons with physical disabilities were obesity and older age. Performing physical activity was associated with a lower risk of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, we recommend using a continuous obesity management program and physical activity to prevent metabolic syndrome among persons with physical disabilities. Keywords: disabled persons, metabolic syndrome X, physical activity, obesity

  9. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome using weight and weight indices ...

    Background: Notions about the metabolic syndrome (MS) emphasized the importance of obesity. This may prevent the early diagnosis of the condition in normal weight individuals. Aim: To determine variations in prevalence of MS according to different weight and weight indices. Materials and Methods: 342 apparently ...

  10. KUDESAN EFFICACY IN ADOLESCENTS WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME

    M.B. Kolesnikova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic abnormalities in metabolic syndrome affect the functioning of practically all organs and systems, and most seriously — cardio-vascular system. Cardio-vascular abnormalities in metabolic syndrome manifest as arterial hypertension, Riley-Day syndrome and endothelial dysfunction that can lead to decrease of adaptive and reserve capabilities. Co-enzyme Q10 possesses cardioprotective,  stress-protective and anti-ischaemic activity. Clinical study performed on 40 children aged 10 to 17 years with constitutive obesity, complicated metabolic syndrome, has proven validity of co-enzyme Q10 treatment in patients with metabolic syndrome. The use of co-enzyme Q10 15 mg/day during 30 days has lead to improvement of psycho-emotional condition, decrease in anxiety complaints, sleep improvement, decrease in asthenic syndrome symptoms, improvement in electrophysiological heart indices Key words: metabolic syndrome, co-enzyme Q10. (Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. — 2011; 10 (5: 102–106.

  11. β-cell function is associated with metabolic syndrome in Mexican subjects

    Baez-Duarte, Blanca G; Sánchez-Guillén, María Del Carmen; Pérez-Fuentes, Ricardo; Zamora-Ginez, Irma; Leon-Chavez, Bertha Alicia; Revilla-Monsalve, Cristina; Islas-Andrade, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    Aims The clinical diagnosis of metabolic syndrome does not find any parameters to evaluate the insulin sensitivity (IS) or β-cell function. The evaluation of these parameters would detect early risk of developing metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between β-cell function and presence of metabolic syndrome in Mexican subjects. Material and methods This study is part of the Mexican Survey on the Prevention of Diabetes (MexDiab Study) with headquarters in ...

  12. Relationships among personality traits, metabolic syndrome, and metabolic syndrome scores: The Kakegawa cohort study.

    Ohseto, Hisashi; Ishikuro, Mami; Kikuya, Masahiro; Obara, Taku; Igarashi, Yuko; Takahashi, Satomi; Kikuchi, Daisuke; Shigihara, Michiko; Yamanaka, Chizuru; Miyashita, Masako; Mizuno, Satoshi; Nagai, Masato; Matsubara, Hiroko; Sato, Yuki; Metoki, Hirohito; Tachibana, Hirofumi; Maeda-Yamamoto, Mari; Kuriyama, Shinichi

    2018-04-01

    Metabolic syndrome and the presence of metabolic syndrome components are risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the association between personality traits and metabolic syndrome remains controversial, and few studies have been conducted in East Asian populations. We measured personality traits using the Japanese version of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (Revised Short Form) and five metabolic syndrome components-elevated waist circumference, elevated triglycerides, reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated blood pressure, and elevated fasting glucose-in 1322 participants aged 51.1±12.7years old from Kakegawa city, Japan. Metabolic syndrome score (MS score) was defined as the number of metabolic syndrome components present, and metabolic syndrome as having the MS score of 3 or higher. We performed multiple logistic regression analyses to examine the relationship between personality traits and metabolic syndrome components and multiple regression analyses to examine the relationship between personality traits and MS scores adjusted for age, sex, education, income, smoking status, alcohol use, and family history of CVD and diabetes mellitus. We also examine the relationship between personality traits and metabolic syndrome presence by multiple logistic regression analyses. "Extraversion" scores were higher in those with metabolic syndrome components (elevated waist circumference: P=0.001; elevated triglycerides: P=0.01; elevated blood pressure: P=0.004; elevated fasting glucose: P=0.002). "Extraversion" was associated with the MS score (coefficient=0.12, P=0.0003). No personality trait was significantly associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome. Higher "extraversion" scores were related to higher MS scores, but no personality trait was significantly associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Relation Between Metabolic Syndrome and Testosterone Level

    Goel Prashant

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is a group of conditions that increases the risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The most important pathogenic factors for metabolic syndrome are insulin resistance and obesity. The clinical presentation of this syndrome results from its influence on glucose and fat metabolism. Testosterone deficiency has a prevalence of up to 50% in men with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. A low level of testosterone is a factor for cardiovascular diseases and predictor of metabolic syndrome and, on the other hand, the components of metabolic syndrome can lead to low testosterone. This article reveals the bidirectional link between low testosterone level or hypogonadism and metabolic syndrome.

  14. Metabolic Syndrome and Outcomes after Renal Intervention

    Daynene Vykoukal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome significantly increases the risk for cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease. The increased risk for cardiovascular diseases can partly be caused by a prothrombotic state that exists because of abdominal obesity. Multiple observational studies have consistently shown that increased body mass index as well as insulin resistance and increased fasting insulin levels is associated with chronic kidney disease, even after adjustment for related disorders. Metabolic syndrome appears to be a risk factor for chronic kidney disease, likely due to the combination of dysglycemia and high blood pressure. Metabolic syndrome is associated with markedly reduced renal clinical benefit and increased progression to hemodialysis following endovascular intervention for atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis. Metabolic syndrome is associated with inferior early outcomes for dialysis access procedures.

  15. Metabolic Syndrome among Undergraduate Students Attending ...

    Methods: A total of 384 first-year students attending university medical clinics for obligatory medical ... Keywords: Metabolic syndrome, Obesity, Hypertension, Diabetes, Dyslipidemia, ..... requires the attention of all health professionals.

  16. Pre-diabetes and the metabolic syndrome

    which is termed impaired fasting glycaemia. (IFG), or an abnormal ... Insulin resistance is a feature common to ... fast patients are given a standard dose ... Different criteria for the diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome ... drug therapy for high.

  17. The association between the metabolic syndrome and metabolic syndrome score and pulmonary function in non-smoking adults.

    Yoon, Hyun; Gi, Mi Young; Cha, Ju Ae; Yoo, Chan Uk; Park, Sang Muk

    2018-03-01

    This study assessed the association of metabolic syndrome and metabolic syndrome score with the predicted forced vital capacity and predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s (predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s) values in Korean non-smoking adults. We analysed data obtained from 6684 adults during the 2013-2015 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. After adjustment for related variables, metabolic syndrome ( p metabolic syndrome score ( p metabolic syndrome score with metabolic syndrome score 0 as a reference group showed no significance for metabolic syndrome score 1 [1.061 (95% confidence interval, 0.755-1.490)] and metabolic syndrome score 2 [1.247 (95% confidence interval, 0.890-1.747)], but showed significant for metabolic syndrome score 3 [1.433 (95% confidence interval, 1.010-2.033)] and metabolic syndrome score ⩾ 4 [1.760 (95% confidence interval, 1.216-2.550)]. In addition, the odds ratio of restrictive pulmonary disease of the metabolic syndrome [1.360 (95% confidence interval, 1.118-1.655)] was significantly higher than those of non-metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome and metabolic syndrome score were inversely associated with the predicted forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 s values in Korean non-smoking adults. In addition, metabolic syndrome and metabolic syndrome score were positively associated with the restrictive pulmonary disease.

  18. [Metabolic syndrome: what, why, how and who?].

    Pavlić-Renar, Ivana; Poljicanin, Tamara; Metelko, Zeljko

    2007-06-01

    being recommended that the discussion on the metabolic syndrome be limited to persons without diabetes or already diagnosed cardiovascular disease, as the primary goal for these individuals is to prevent these diseases. It has already been shown that this was possible, primarily by intensive change in lifestyle - healthy diet and exercise. In conclusion, further basic research is necessary to explain the pathophysiologic mechanisms, which might serve to develop new therapies. Moreover, epidemiological and public health aspects are extremely important in the creation of a prevention program. Preliminary results of the Croatian Health Survey (2003) indicate that the metabolic syndrome according to the IDF criteria is present even in the youngest age group, with expected age-dependent increase in both men and women. This is even an underestimate since in this survey only blood pressure and waist circumference were actually measured, and data on dislipidemia and blood glucose were based on a questionnaire. It is already obvious that a wide action with two main goals aimed primarily at the youngest population is necessary: an increase in regular physical activity and the promotion of healthy and energy-adequate diet in the population at large.

  19. Beneficial Effects of Corn Silk on Metabolic Syndrome.

    Wang, Bing; Xiao, Tiegang; Ruan, Jun; Liu, Wensheng

    2017-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a very common medical problem worldwide. It includes obesity, hypertension, hyperglycemia, and abnormal levels of triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. It is closely associated with insulin resistance and may lead to diabetes mellitus, liver diseases, or cardiovascular diseases. Corn silk (CS), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been reported to have multiple beneficial effects, including hypotensive, anti-diabetic, and hypolipidemic properties. This suggests that corn silk could be used to treat or prevent metabolic syndrome. In this review, we will discuss the potential role of corn silk in different components of metabolic syndrome. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome Among Adult Survivors of Childhood Leukemia.

    Gibson, Todd M; Ehrhardt, Matthew J; Ness, Kirsten K

    2016-04-01

    Treatment-related obesity and the metabolic syndrome in adult survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Both conditions often begin during therapy. Preventive measures, including dietary counseling and tailored exercise, should be initiated early in the course of survivorship, with referral to specialists to optimize success. However, among adults who develop obesity or the metabolic syndrome and who do not respond to lifestyle therapy, medical intervention may be indicated to manage underlying pathology, such as growth hormone deficiency, or to mitigate risk factors of cardiovascular disease. Because no specific clinical trials have been done in this population to treat metabolic syndrome or its components, clinicians who follow adult survivors of childhood ALL should use the existing American Heart Association/National Heart Lung and Blood Institute Scientific Statement to guide their approach.

  1. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among an urban population in Kenya.

    Kaduka, Lydia U; Kombe, Yeri; Kenya, Eucharia; Kuria, Elizabeth; Bore, John K; Bukania, Zipporah N; Mwangi, Moses

    2012-04-01

    Developing countries are undergoing an epidemiologic transition accompanied by increasing burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) linked to urbanization and lifestyle modifications. Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of CVD risk factors whose extent in Kenya remains unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and factors associated with its occurrence among an urban population in Kenya. This was a household cross-sectional survey comprising 539 adults (aged ≥18 years) living in Nairobi, drawn from 30 clusters across five socioeconomic classes. Measurements included waist circumference, HDL cholesterol, triacylglycerides (TAGs), fasting glucose, and blood pressure. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 34.6% and was higher in women than in men (40.2 vs. 29%; P Kenya. The Kenyan government needs to create awareness, develop prevention strategies, and strengthen the health care system to accommodate screening and management of CVDs.

  2. Metabolic syndrome in patients with ischemic heart disease

    Yasmin, S.; Naveed, T.; Shakoor, T.

    2008-01-01

    To determine the frequency of metabolic syndrome in patients with Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD). Cross-sectional, descriptive study. A total of 100 subjects with ischemic heart disease, fulfilling the inclusion criteria, were enrolled in the study. Demographic data (age and gender) and the 5 component conditions of the metabolic syndrome were noted. Subjects were physically assessed for the abdominal obesity, based on waist circumference. Fasting blood samples for glucose and lipid profile in first 24 hours after acute coronary insult were drawn and tested in central laboratory. Variables were processed for descriptive statistics. In this study population, 68% were male and 32% were female with mean age of 52 +-13.6 years in men and 56 +- 12.5 years in women. Frequency of metabolic syndrome was 32% in men and 28% in women. It increased with age. The highest rate of metabolic syndrome was in men diagnosed as STEMI (odds ratio: 3.39, 95% CI=1.36-8.41). Frequency of metabolic syndrome was high among the patients with IHD. It supports the potential for preventive efforts in persons with high-risk of IHD. (author)

  3. Metabolic abnormalities in Williams-Beuren syndrome.

    Palacios-Verdú, María Gabriela; Segura-Puimedon, Maria; Borralleras, Cristina; Flores, Raquel; Del Campo, Miguel; Campuzano, Victoria; Pérez-Jurado, Luis Alberto

    2015-04-01

    Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS, OMIM-194050) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with multisystemic manifestations caused by a 1.55-1.83 Mb deletion at 7q11.23 including 26-28 genes. Reported endocrine and metabolic abnormalities include transient hypercalcaemia of infancy, subclinical hypothyroidism in ∼ 30% of children and impaired glucose tolerance in ∼ 75% of adult individuals. The purpose of this study was to further study metabolic alterations in patients with WBS, as well as in several mouse models, to establish potential candidate genes. We analysed several metabolic parameters in a cohort of 154 individuals with WBS (data available from 69 to 151 cases per parameter), as well as in several mouse models with complete and partial deletions of the orthologous WBS locus, and searched for causative genes and potential modifiers. Triglyceride plasma levels were significantly decreased in individuals with WBS while cholesterol levels were slightly decreased compared with controls. Hyperbilirubinemia, mostly unconjugated, was found in 18.3% of WBS cases and correlated with subclinical hypothyroidism and hypotriglyceridemia, suggesting common pathogenic mechanisms. Haploinsufficiency at MLXIPL and increased penetrance for hypomorphic alleles at the UGT1A1 gene promoter might underlie the lipid and bilirubin alterations. Other disturbances included increased protein and iron levels, as well as the known subclinical hypothyroidism and glucose intolerance. Our results show that several unreported biochemical alterations, related to haploinsufficiency for specific genes at 7q11.23, are relatively common in WBS. The early diagnosis, follow-up and management of these metabolic disturbances could prevent long-term complications in this disorder. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Gout and Metabolic Syndrome: a Tangled Web.

    Thottam, Gabrielle E; Krasnokutsky, Svetlana; Pillinger, Michael H

    2017-08-26

    The complexity of gout continues to unravel with each new investigation. Gout sits at the intersection of multiple intrinsically complex processes, and its prevalence, impact on healthcare costs, and association with important co-morbidities make it increasingly relevant. The association between gout and type 2 diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, cardiovascular disease, renal disease, and obesity suggest that either gout, or its necessary precursor hyperuricemia, may play an important role in the manifestations of the metabolic syndrome. In this review, we analyze the complex interconnections between gout and metabolic syndrome, by reviewing gout's physiologic and epidemiologic relationships with its major co-morbidities. Increasing evidence supports gout's association with metabolic syndrome. More specifically, both human studies and animal models suggest that hyperuricemia may play a role in promoting inflammation, hypertension and cardiovascular disease, adipogenesis and lipogenesis, insulin and glucose dysregulation, and liver disease. Fructose ingestion is associated with increased rates of hypertension, weight gain, impaired glucose tolerance, and dyslipidemia and is a key driver of urate biosynthesis. AMP kinase (AMPK) is a central regulator of processes that tend to mitigate against the metabolic syndrome. Within hepatocytes, leukocytes, and other cells, a fructose/urate metabolic loop drives key inhibitors of AMPK, including AMP deaminase and fructokinase, that may tilt the balance toward metabolic syndrome progression. Preliminary evidence suggests that agents that block the intracellular synthesis of urate may restore AMPK activity and help maintain metabolic homeostasis. Gout is both an inflammatory and a metabolic disease. With further investigation of urate's role, the possibility of proper gout management additionally mitigating metabolic syndrome is an evolving and important question.

  5. Toxic metabolic syndrome associated with HAART

    Haugaard, Steen B

    2006-01-01

    (HAART) may encounter the HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome (HALS), which attenuates patient compliance to this treatment. HALS is characterised by impaired glucose and lipid metabolism and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease. This review depicts the metabolic abnormalities associated...... with HAART by describing the key cell and organ systems that are involved, emphasising the role of insulin resistance. An opinion on the remedies available to treat the metabolic abnormalities and phenotype of HALS is provided....

  6. Prevalence and Influencing Factors of Metabolic Syndrome Among Persons with Physical Disabilities.

    Jeong, Jeonghee; Yu, Jungok

    2018-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome is an important cluster of coronary heart disease risk factors. However, it remains unclear to what extent metabolic syndrome is associated with demographic and potentially modifiable lifestyle factors among Korean persons with physical disabilities. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and influencing factors of metabolic syndrome among persons with physical disabilities using the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort. The Adult Treatment Panel III criteria were used to define metabolic syndrome influencing factors and prevalence, which were evaluated in a representative sample from the 2013 Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort database. Characteristics were compared based on frequency using the χ 2 test. The associations between metabolic syndrome and its risk factors were estimated using logistic multivariable regression analysis. Metabolic syndrome was detected in 31.5% of the surveyed persons with physical disabilities. Female sex, age of ≥65 years, smoking, greater alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, higher body mass index, and a family history of diabetes were associated with increased risks of metabolic syndrome. The major risk factors for metabolic syndrome among persons with physical disabilities were obesity and older age. Performing physical activity was associated with a lower risk of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, we recommend using a continuous obesity management program and physical activity to prevent metabolic syndrome among persons with physical disabilities. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Metabolic Syndrome and 16-year Cognitive Decline in Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    McEvoy, Linda K.; Laughlin, Gail A.; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Bergstrom, Jaclyn; Kritz-Silverstein, Donna; Der-Martirosian, Claudia; von Mühlen, Denise

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE To determine whether metabolic syndrome is associated with accelerated cognitive decline in community-dwelling older adults. METHODS Longitudinal study of 993 adults (mean 66.8 ± 8.7 years) from the Rancho Bernardo Study. Metabolic syndrome components, defined by 2001 NCEP-ATP III criteria, were measured in 1984–87. Cognitive function was first assessed in 1988–92. Cognitive assessments were repeated approximately every four years, for a maximum 16-year follow-up. Mixed-effects models examined longitudinal rate of cognitive decline by metabolic syndrome status, controlling for factors plausibly associated with cognitive function (diabetes, inflammation). RESULTS Metabolic syndrome was more common in men than women (14% vs. 9%, p=0.01). In women, metabolic syndrome was associated with greater executive function and long term memory decline. These associations did not differ by inflammatory biomarker levels. Diabetes did not alter the association of metabolic syndrome with long-term recall but modified the association with executive function: metabolic syndrome was associated with accelerated executive function decline in diabetic women only. Metabolic syndrome was not related to rate of decline on any cognitive measure in men. CONCLUSIONS Metabolic syndrome was a risk factor for accelerated cognitive decline, but only in women. Prevention of metabolic syndrome may aid in maintenance of cognitive function with age. PMID:22285865

  8. Holter registers and metabolic syndrome

    Muñoz-Diosdado, A.; Ramírez-Hernández, L.; Aguilar-Molina, A. M.; Zamora-Justo, J. A.; Gutiérrez-Calleja, R. A.; Virgilio-González, C. D.

    2014-11-01

    There is a relationship between the state of the cardiovascular system and metabolic syndrome (MS). A way to diagnose the heart state of a person is to monitor the electrical activity of the heart using a 24 hours Holter monitor. Scanned ECG signal can be analyzed beat-by-beat by algorithms that separate normal of abnormal heartbeats. If the percentage of abnormal heartbeats is too high it could be argued that the patient has heart problems. We have algorithms that can not only identify the abnormal heartbeats, but they can also classify them, so we classified and counted abnormal heartbeats in patients with MS and subjects without MS. Most of our patients have large waist circumference, high triglycerides and high levels of LDL (high-density lipoprotein) cholesterol although some of them have high blood pressure. We enrolled adult patients with MS free of diabetes in a four month lifestyle intervention program including diet and physical aerobic exercise, and compared with healthy controls. We made an initial registration with a Holter, and 24 hours ECG signal is analyzed to identify and classify the different types of heartbeats. The patients then begin with diet or exercise (at least half an hour daily). Periodically Holter records were taken up and we describe the evolution in time of the number and type of abnormal heartbeats. Results show that the percentage of abnormal heartbeats decreases over time, in some cases the decline is very significant, and almost a reduction to half or less of abnormal heartbeats after several months since the patients changed their eating or physical activity habits.

  9. Cancer treatment induced metabolic syndrome: Improving outcome with lifestyle.

    Westerink, N L; Nuver, J; Lefrandt, J D; Vrieling, A H; Gietema, J A; Walenkamp, A M E

    2016-12-01

    Increasing numbers of long-term cancer survivors face important treatment related adverse effects. Cancer treatment induced metabolic syndrome (CTIMetS) is an especially prevalent and harmful condition. The aetiology of CTIMetS likely differs from metabolic syndrome in the general population, but effective treatment and prevention methods are probably similar. In this review, we summarize the potential mechanisms leading to the development of CTIMetS after various types of cancer treatment. Furthermore, we propose a safe and accessible method to treat or prevent CTIMetS through lifestyle change. In particular, we suggest that a lifestyle intervention and optimization of energy balance can prevent or mitigate the development of CTIMetS, which may contribute to optimal survivorship care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Metabolic syndrome in urban DRDO population

    Prakash P Bellubbi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is a common condition occurring all over the world which is also known by other terminology such as Dysmetabolic syndrome, Syndrome X, Insulin Resistance syndrome, Obesity syndrome, or Reaven′s syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is constituted by a group of Risk Factors such as Trunkal Obesity, Impaired or Altered Glucose Tolerance, Dyslipidemia and Hypertension. Individuals with these risk factors are at a greater risk of developing a cardiovascular disease or Type 2 Diabetes. NCEP, National Heart, lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health periodically publishes ATP clinical updates as warranted by advances in the cholesterol management. Each of the guideline reports -ATP I, II and III - has a major thrust in Cardiovascular Risk Management. While some of the features of ATP I and ATP II are shared by ATP III guidelines, there are some salient differences. ATP III focuses on Multiple risk factors and recommends the use ofFramingham projections of 10 year absolute risk, modifies lipid and lipoprotein classification and supports for implementation of a revised schedule for screening and Therapeutic Life-style Changes. DRDO has embarked upon a program to assess the occupational health risk and the coronary risk status of the DRDO and defence employees. The present paper describes incidence of Metabolic Syndrome amongst the DRDO and Defence employees, using the ATP III guidelines and importance of calculating the absolute coronary risk status of these personnel.

  11. Nutrigenetics, metabolic syndrome risk and personalized nutrition.

    Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Phillips, Catherine M; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Lopez-Miranda, Jose; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2013-11-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a constellation of metabolic risk factors reflecting overnutrition and sedentary lifestyle and its increasing prevalence is reaching epidemic proportions. The importance of MetS lies in its close association with the risk of cardiometabolic disease. In this scenario, the principal goals of pharmacological therapy for these patients are to achieve and maintain an optimal cardiometabolic control, including lipids, blood glucose and blood pressure; in order to prevent and treat potential complications. Moreover nutrition has commonly been accepted as a cornerstone of treatment for MetS, with the expectation that an appropriate intake of energy and nutrients will improve its control. However the question arises as to whether dietary therapy may require a more personalised approach. In this regard improvements in genetic analysis have enhanced our understanding of the role of genetics in this dietrelated condition. In this review we will present recent data highlighting the importance of gene-nutrient interactions in the context of MetS risk.

  12. Refeeding syndrome--awareness, prevention and management.

    Mehanna, Hisham; Nankivell, Paul C; Moledina, Jamil; Travis, Jane

    2009-01-26

    Refeeding syndrome is an important, yet commonly overlooked condition affecting patients. It occurs when feeding is commenced after a period of starvation. Head and neck cancer patients are at particular risk owing to prolonged periods of poor nutritional intake. This may be from general effects such as cancer anorexia or from more specific problems of dysphagia associated with this group of patients. Awareness of the condition is crucial in identifying patients at risk and taking measures to prevent its occurrence. The aims of this review are to: 1) Highlight the condition and stress the importance of its consideration when admitting head and neck cancer patients. 2) Discuss the pathophysiology behind refeeding syndrome. 3) Review the literature for the best available evidence and guidelines. 4) Highlight the need for further high quality research. Refeeding syndrome is potentially fatal, yet is preventable. Awareness and identification of at-risk patients is crucial to improving management. Refeeding syndrome is caused by rapid refeeding after a period of under-nutrition, characterised by hypophosphataemia, electrolyte shifts and has metabolic and clinical complications. High risk patients include the chronically under-nourished and those with little intake for greater than 10 days. Patients with dysphagia are at particular risk. Refeeding should commence at 10 kcal/kg per day in patients at risk, and increased slowly. Thiamine, vitamin B complex and multi-vitamin supplements should be started with refeeding. New NICE guidelines state that pre-feeding correction of electrolyte and fluid deficits is unnecessary, but should be done concurrently with re-feeding. More research in this field is needed as the evidence base is lacking.

  13. Refeeding syndrome – awareness, prevention and management

    Mehanna, Hisham; Nankivell, Paul C; Moledina, Jamil; Travis, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Background Refeeding syndrome is an important, yet commonly overlooked condition affecting patients. It occurs when feeding is commenced after a period of starvation. Head and neck cancer patients are at particular risk owing to prolonged periods of poor nutritional intake. This may be from general effects such as cancer anorexia or from more specific problems of dysphagia associated with this group of patients. Awareness of the condition is crucial in identifying patients at risk and taking measures to prevent its occurrence. Objectives The aims of this review are to: 1) Highlight the condition and stress the importance of its consideration when admitting head and neck cancer patients. 2) Discuss the pathophysiology behind refeeding syndrome. 3) Review the literature for the best available evidence and guidelines. 4) Highlight the need for further high quality research. Conclusion Refeeding syndrome is potentially fatal, yet is preventable. Awareness and identification of at-risk patients is crucial to improving management. Refeeding syndrome is caused by rapid refeeding after a period of under-nutrition, characterised by hypophosphataemia, electrolyte shifts and has metabolic and clinical complications. High risk patients include the chronically under-nourished and those with little intake for greater than 10 days. Patients with dysphagia are at particular risk. Refeeding should commence at 10 kcal/kg per day in patients at risk, and increased slowly. Thiamine, vitamin B complex and multi-vitamin supplements should be started with refeeding. New NICE guidelines state that pre-feeding correction of electrolyte and fluid deficits is unnecessary, but should be done concurrently with re-feeding. More research in this field is needed as the evidence base is lacking. PMID:19284691

  14. Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Metabolic Syndrome and Asthma

    Mabalirajan, Ulaganathan; Ghosh, Balaram

    2013-01-01

    Though severe or refractory asthma merely affects less than 10% of asthma population, it consumes significant health resources and contributes significant morbidity and mortality. Severe asthma does not fell in the routine definition of asthma and requires alternative treatment strategies. It has been observed that asthma severity increases with higher body mass index. The obese-asthmatics, in general, have the features of metabolic syndrome and are progressively causing a significant burden for both developed and developing countries thanks to the westernization of the world. As most of the features of metabolic syndrome seem to be originated from central obesity, the underlying mechanisms for metabolic syndrome could help us to understand the pathobiology of obese-asthma condition. While mitochondrial dysfunction is the common factor for most of the risk factors of metabolic syndrome, such as central obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes, the involvement of mitochondria in obese-asthma pathogenesis seems to be important as mitochondrial dysfunction has recently been shown to be involved in airway epithelial injury and asthma pathogenesis. This review discusses current understanding of the overlapping features between metabolic syndrome and asthma in relation to mitochondrial structural and functional alterations with an aim to uncover mechanisms for obese-asthma. PMID:23840225

  15. Association of metabolic syndrome in patients with osteoarthritis

    Malik, S.; Salim, B.; Khalil, Z.; Nasim, A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine association of osteoarthritis (OA) with metabolic syndrome in a tertiary care hospital of Pakistan. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted at Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Patients were randomly interviewed in the Female Rheumatology department and a total of 240 patients with single rheumatologic disease and age >35 years were selected. Informed consent was taken and patients were interviewed using a self-made questionnaire to evaluate their medical history, physical and laboratory examination. SPSS version 17 was used to analyze the data. Results: Out of 240 subjects, 81 patients had OA and another 81 patients were randomly selected from the age and gender matched control (non-OA) group. The mean age of patients in OA and non-OA group was 56.68 ± 09.76 and 53.57 ± 11.01 years, respectively. In OA group, 48.1% and in non-OA group 22.2% of patients were falling in category of being obese/morbidly obese. According to AHA criteria for Metabolic Syndrome, percentage of OA patients labeled to have metabolic syndrome was 58.8% as compared to 19.5% in non-OA group. Conclusion: There was a strong association of metabolic syndrome with OA and would surely make a foreground for future studies to be conducted on developing preventive strategies and ultimately reducing the morbidities and mortalities associated with Metabolic Osteoarthritis. (author)

  16. [Metabolic syndrome and aortic stiffness].

    Simková, A; Bulas, J; Murín, J; Kozlíková, K; Janiga, I

    2010-09-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of risk factors that move the patient into higher level of risk category of cardiovascular disease and the probability of type 2 diabetes mellitus manifestation. Definition of MS is s based on the presence of selected risk factors as: abdominal obesity (lager waist circumpherence), atherogenic dyslipidemia (low value of HDL-cholesterol and increased level of triglycerides), increased fasting blood glucose (or type 2 DM diagnosis), higher blood pressure or antihypertensive therapy. In 2009 there were created harmonizing criteria for MS definition; the condition for assignment of MS is the presence of any 3 criteria of 5 mentioned above. The underlying disorder of MS is an insulin resistance or prediabetes. The patients with MS more frequently have subclinical (preclinical) target organ disease (TOD) which is the early sings of atherosclerosis. Increased aortic stiffness is one of the preclinical diseases and is defined by pathologically increased carotidofemoral pulse wave velocity in aorta (PWV Ao). With the aim to assess the influence of MS on aortic stiffness we examined the group of women with arterial hypertension and MS and compare them with the group of women without MS. The aortic stiffness was examined by Arteriograph--Tensiomed, the equipment working on the oscillometric principle in detection of pulsations of brachial artery. This method determines the global aortic stiffness based on the analysis of the shape of pulse curve of brachial artery. From the cohort of 49 pts 31 had MS, the subgroups did not differ in age or blood pressure level. The mean number of risk factors per person in MS was 3.7 comparing with 1.7 in those without MS. In the MS group there was more frequently abdominal obesity present (87% vs 44%), increased fasting blood glucose (81% vs 22%) and low HDL-cholesterol level. The pulse wave velocity in aorta, PWV Ao, was significantly higher in patients with MS (mean value 10,19 m/s vs 8,96 m

  17. Relationship between metabolic syndrome and its components with bone densitometry in postmenopausal women.

    Abbasi, Mahnaz; Farzam, Seyed Amir; Mamaghani, Zahra; Yazdi, Zohreh

    2017-11-01

    Prevention of osteoporosis and bone fracture and the relationship between metabolic syndrome and bone density are controversial issues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between metabolic syndrome and its components with bone mineral density in post menopausal women referred for bone mineral density (BMD) test. A total of 143 postmenopausal women with at least one year of menopause experience participated in this cross-sectional study. Demographic and anthropometric characteristics for all participants were collected. Also, biochemical parameters including fasting blood sugar, Cholesterol (HDL and LDL), triglyceride were measured. Association between the components of metabolic syndrome and bone densitometry were analyzed by statistical methods. In this study, 72% of participants did not have metabolic syndrome. Among them, 43.4% and 28.7% had osteoporosis and normal density, respectively. Of remaining participants with metabolic syndrome, 12.6% and 15.4% had osteoporosis and normal density, respectively. Among the metabolic syndrome components, waist circumference, HDL cholesterol, and waist to hip ratio were significantly associated with bone mass (Pmetabolic syndrome did not have significant differences than women without metabolic syndrome in terms of lumbar and femoral neck density (P>0.05). Results from this study showed that metabolic syndrome and its components did not induce bone mass loss. The discrepancies of the studies in this area call for more large scale studies in population so as to prevent women problems in this area. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Epigenomics, gestational programming and risk of metabolic syndrome.

    Desai, M; Jellyman, J K; Ross, M G

    2015-04-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms are emerging as mediators linking early environmental exposures during pregnancy with programmed changes in gene expression that alter offspring growth and development. There is irrefutable evidence from human and animal studies that nutrient and environmental agent exposures (for example, endocrine disruptors) during pregnancy may affect fetal/newborn development resulting in offspring obesity and obesity-associated metabolic abnormalities (metabolic syndrome). This concept of 'gestational programming' is associated with alterations to the epigenome (nongenomic) rather than changes in the DNA sequence (genomic). Epigenetic alterations induced by suboptimal maternal nutrition/endocrine factors include DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin remodeling and/or regulatory feedback by microRNAs, all of which have the ability to modulate gene expression and promote the metabolic syndrome phenotype. Recent studies have shown tissue-specific transcriptome patterns and phenotypes not only in the exposed individual, but also in subsequent progeny. Notably, the transmission of gestational programming effects to subsequent generations occurs in the absence of continued adverse environmental exposures, thus propagating the cycle of obesity and metabolic syndrome. This phenomenon may be attributed to an extrinsic process resulting from the maternal phenotype and the associated nutrient alterations occurring within each pregnancy. In addition, epigenetic inheritance may occur through somatic cells or through the germ line involving both maternal and paternal lineages. Since epigenetic gene modifications may be reversible, understanding how epigenetic mechanisms contribute to transgenerational transmission of obesity and metabolic dysfunction is crucial for the development of novel early detection and prevention strategies for programmed metabolic syndrome. In this review we discuss the evidence in human and animal studies for the role of

  19. Rodent Models for Metabolic Syndrome Research

    Sunil K. Panchal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rodents are widely used to mimic human diseases to improve understanding of the causes and progression of disease symptoms and to test potential therapeutic interventions. Chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes and hypertension, together known as the metabolic syndrome, are causing increasing morbidity and mortality. To control these diseases, research in rodent models that closely mimic the changes in humans is essential. This review will examine the adequacy of the many rodent models of metabolic syndrome to mimic the causes and progression of the disease in humans. The primary criterion will be whether a rodent model initiates all of the signs, especially obesity, diabetes, hypertension and dysfunction of the heart, blood vessels, liver and kidney, primarily by diet since these are the diet-induced signs in humans with metabolic syndrome. We conclude that the model that comes closest to fulfilling this criterion is the high carbohydrate, high fat-fed male rodent.

  20. Incidence and Major Metabolic Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome ...

    The study involved 300 (92 males and 208 females) type 2 diabetic patients and was conducted at the Tamale Teaching/Regional Hospital from June 2006 to May 2007. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed using the National Cholesterol Education Programme, Adult Treatment Panel III (2001) criteria. The incidence of the ...

  1. Preventing Allograft Rejection by Targeting Immune Metabolism

    Chen-Fang Lee

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Upon antigen recognition and co-stimulation, T lymphocytes upregulate the metabolic machinery necessary to proliferate and sustain effector function. This metabolic reprogramming in T cells regulates T cell activation and differentiation but is not just a consequence of antigen recognition. Although such metabolic reprogramming promotes the differentiation and function of T effector cells, the differentiation of regulatory T cells employs different metabolic reprogramming. Therefore, we hypothesized that inhibition of glycolysis and glutamine metabolism might prevent graft rejection by inhibiting effector generation and function and promoting regulatory T cell generation. We devised an anti-rejection regimen involving the glycolytic inhibitor 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG, the anti-type II diabetes drug metformin, and the inhibitor of glutamine metabolism 6-diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine (DON. Using this triple-drug regimen, we were able to prevent or delay graft rejection in fully mismatched skin and heart allograft transplantation models.

  2. Clinical characteristics of metabolic syndrome in Korea, and its comparison with other Asian countries.

    Hong, A Ram; Lim, Soo

    2015-09-01

    Metabolic syndrome is referred to as syndrome X or insulin resistance syndrome, and is primarily composed of abdominal obesity, diabetes, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia and high blood pressure. Asians have a lower frequency of obesity than Caucasians, but have an increasing tendency toward metabolic syndrome. Thus, metabolic syndrome poses a major challenge for public health professionals, and is set to become a social and economic problem in Asian populations. Most data on metabolic syndrome are based on studies from Western countries with only limited information derived from Asian populations. Recently, several studies were carried out on a large scale that represents the general Korean population. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Korean adults has varied depending on the study designs and different criteria, but shows a distinct increasing trend of metabolic syndrome driven by an increase in abdominal obesity and dyslipidemia. Given the rapid economic progression of Korea over the past 30 years along with a rise of the aged population, it is expected that the prevalence of metabolic syndrome will further increase. Therefore, a proactive strategy at the governmental level for metabolic syndrome prevention should be implemented, reducing abdominal obesity and dyslipidemia. Healthy dietary habits and regular exercise should be emphasized as a part of such a strategy.

  3. Comparison of Indicators of Metabolic Syndrome in Iranian Smokers

    Leila Jamshidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Worldwide non communicable diseases are increasingly recognized as a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The metabolic syndrome is a common metabolic disorder that results from the increasing prevalence of obesity.The disorder is defined in various ways. This study determine the 6Tcomparison of indicators of metabolic syndrome in Iranian smokers population. Materials and Methods: A total of 1,024 Iranian subjects aged 30 to 70 participated in this cross sectional study. Standard questionnaire was completing regarding smoking habits, medications, past medical history, physical activity, blood pressure, fasting blood suger, total cholestrol HDL and triglycerides. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was based on the IDF criteria. Results: As defined by the modified IDF criteria, (45.9% had the MS at baseline assessment. The risk of incidence of the metabolic syndrome among smokers was9T 6T9Tsignificantly6T9T 6T9T(p<0.008 greater6T than nonsmokers. Among men without the MS at entry, body weight gain, compared with never smokers, was significantly6T (p<0.007 6Thigher in smokers who had quit smoking. It is important for the prevention of the MS not only to quit smoking but also to prevent weight gain after smoking cessation. Conclusion: Although many cardiovascular diseases (CVDs can be treated or prevented many people die from CVDs. Reducing the rate of cigarette smoking, body weight, blood pressure, blood cholesterol, and blood glucose all have a benefit impact on major biological cardiovascular risk factors. Behaviors such as stopping smoking, taking regular physical activity and eating a healthy diet promote health and have no known harmful effects.

  4. Sedentary activity associated with metabolic syndrome independent of physical activity

    Bankoski, Andrea; Harris, Tamara B; McClain, James J

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the association between objectively measured sedentary activity and metabolic syndrome among older adults.......This study examined the association between objectively measured sedentary activity and metabolic syndrome among older adults....

  5. Prevalence and characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in ...

    Objective: Chronic pancreatitis (CP) and metabolic syndrome (MS) share a ... patients with other known systemic disorders, long‑term intake of drugs that ... Keywords: Alcohol, chronic pancreatitis, diabetes, hypertension, metabolic syndrome ...

  6. Impact of Mediterranean diet on metabolic syndrome, cancer and longevity.

    Di Daniele, Nicola; Noce, Annalisa; Vidiri, Maria Francesca; Moriconi, Eleonora; Marrone, Giulia; Annicchiarico-Petruzzelli, Margherita; D'Urso, Gabriele; Tesauro, Manfredi; Rovella, Valentina; De Lorenzo, Antonino

    2017-01-31

    Obesity symbolizes a major public health problem. Overweight and obesity are associated to the occurrence of the metabolic syndrome and to adipose tissue dysfunction. The adipose tissue is metabolically active and an endocrine organ, whose dysregulation causes a low-grade inflammatory state and ectopic fat depositions. The Mediterranean Diet represents a possible therapy for metabolic syndrome, preventing adiposopathy or "sick fat" formation.The Mediterranean Diet exerts protective effects in elderly subjects with and without baseline of chronic diseases. Recent studies have demonstrated a relationship between cancer and obesity. In the US, diet represents amount 30-35% of death causes related to cancer. Currently, the cancer is the second cause of death after cardiovascular diseases worldwide. Furthermore, populations living in the Mediterranean area have a decreased incidence of cancer compared with populations living in Northern Europe or the US, likely due to healthier dietary habits. The bioactive food components have a potential preventive action on cancer. The aims of this review are to evaluate the impact of Mediterranean Diet on onset, progression and regression of metabolic syndrome, cancer and on longevity.

  7. Metabolic syndrome: nature, therapeutic solutions and options.

    Onat, Altan

    2011-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) defines the clustering in an individual of multiple metabolic abnormalities, based on central obesity and insulin resistance. In addition to its five components, prothrombotic and proinflammatory states are essential features. The significance of MetS lies in its close association with the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). This field being an evolving one necessitated the current review. The areas covered in this review include the so far unproven concept that enhanced low-grade inflammation often leads to dysfunction of the anti-inflammatory and atheroprotective properties of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and HDL particles, which further increases the risk of diabetes and CVD. It was emphasized that lifestyle modification is essential in the prevention and management of MetS, which includes maintenance of optimal weight by caloric restriction, adherence to a diet that minimizes postprandial glucose and triglyceride fluctuations, restricting alcohol consumption, smoking cessation and engaging in regular exercise. Drug therapy should target the dyslipoproteinemia and the often associated hypertension or dysglycemia.Statins are the drugs of first choice, to be initiated in patients with MetS at high 10-year cardiovascular risk. Such treatment is inadequate if fasting serum triglycerides remain at > 150 mg/dl, when niacin should be combined. Fibrates, omega 3 fatty acids, metformin, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and pioglitazone are additional options in drug therapy. Research on MetS in subpopulations prone to impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance has indicated that proinflammatory state and oxidative stress are often prominently involved in MetS, to the extent that evidence of impaired function of HDL and apo A-I particles is discernible by biological evidence of functional defectiveness via outcomes studies and/or correlations with inflammatory and anti-inflammatory biomarkers. A sex difference

  8. White coat hypertension in definition of metabolic syndrome.

    Helvaci, Mehmet Rami; Kaya, Hasan; Seyhanli, Mahmut; Yalcin, Atilla

    2008-07-01

    Although white coat hypertension (WCH) is believed to have an effect on health, there is no term defining WCH in metabolic syndrome. Consecutive patients 20 years old or older who underwent a check-up were included. The study included 1068 cases. The prevalences of hyperbetalipoproteinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, dyslipidemia, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and WCH were similar to excess weight in that they increased significantly until the seventh decade of life and decreased thereafter significantly (P hypertension (HT), diabetes mellitus (DM), and coronary heart disease (CHD) always increased significantly with age without any decrease (P definition of metabolic syndrome should include reversible metabolic risk factors such as excess weight (overweight and obesity), hyperbetalipoproteinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, dyslipidemia, IGT, and WCH, instead of irrevesible diseases such as DM, HT, CHD, and stroke that have already developed and require drug therapy. After development of one of the final metabolic diseases, the term metabolic syndrome probably loses most of its significance, since from that point on, nonpharmaceutical approaches such as lifestyle changes, diet, and exercise will provide little benefit to prevent development of the others, most likely due to the cumulative effects of the risk factors on body systems over a long period of time.

  9. Metabolic syndrome in Tunisian bipolar I patients | Ezzaher | African ...

    Gender, age, illness episode and treatment were not significantly associated with metabolic syndrome, while patients under lithium had higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome than those under valproic acid, carbamazepine or antipsychotics. Patients with metabolic syndrome had significant higher levels of HOMA-IR and ...

  10. Background and treatment of metabolic syndrome: a therapeutic challenge

    van Zwieten, Pieter A.; Mancia, Giuseppe

    2006-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is characterized by a clustering of cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors. This syndrome is now widely recognized as a distinct pathologic entity. It is receiving a great deal of attention in the medical literature and also in the lay press. People with metabolic syndrome have

  11. Does vitamin D affects components of the metabolic syndrome?

    Sevil Karahan Yılmaz; Aylin Ayaz

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a major public health problem which has become increasingly common worlwide with cardiometabolic complications and have high morbidity and mortality. In addition to some genetical features, environmental factors such sedentary lifestyle, improper eating habits constitutes a risk factor for metabolic syndrome. Important components of the metabolic syndrome are dyslipidemia (low HDL levels, high triglycerides level), hyperglycemia, elevated blood...

  12. THE METABOLIC SYNDROME AMONG PATIENTS WITH ...

    Objectives: To determine the frequency of occurrence of the Metabolic Syndrome among patients presenting with cardiovascular disease at the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, Ghana. Methods: This was a case-control study of 100 con-secutive cardiovascular disease patients and 100 age- and sex- matched controls who ...

  13. Epigenetic priming of the metabolic syndrome.

    Bruce, Kimberley D; Cagampang, Felino R

    2011-05-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) represents a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, including central obesity, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, hyperinsulinemia and microalbuminuria, and more recently, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and atherosclerosis. Although the concept of the MetS is subject to debate due to lack of a unifying underlying mechanism, the prevalence of a metabolic syndrome phenotype is rapidly increasing worldwide. Moreover, it is increasingly prevalent in children and adolescents of obese mothers. Evidence from both epidemiological and experimental animal studies now demonstrates that MetS onset is increasingly likely following exposure to suboptimal nutrition during critical periods of development, as observed in maternal obesity. Thus, the developmental priming of the MetS provides a common origin for this multifactorial disorder. Consequently, the mechanisms leading to this developmental priming have recently been the subject of intensive investigation. This review discusses recent data regarding the epigenetic modifications resulting from nutrition during early development that mediate persistent changes in the expression of key metabolic genes and contribute toward an adult metabolic syndrome phenotype. In addition, this review considers the role of the endogenous molecular circadian clock system, which has the potential to act at the interface between nutrient sensing and epigenetic processing. A continued and greater understanding of these mechanisms will eventually aid in the identification of individuals at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes, and help develop therapeutic interventions, in accordance with current global government strategy.

  14. Metabolic Syndrome X and Colon Cancer

    Matoulek, M.; Svobodová, S.; Svačina, Š.; Plavcová, Marie; Zvárová, Jana; Visokai, V.; Lipská, M.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 27, suppl. 1 (2003), s. 86 ISSN 0307-0565. [European Congress on Obesity /12./. 29.05.2003-01.06.2003, Helsinki] R&D Projects: GA MZd NB6635; GA MŠk LN00B107 Keywords : metabolic syndrome X * colon cancer Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research

  15. Metabolic complications in the small intestine syndrome

    Mora, Rafael; Orozco, Reynaldo

    2000-01-01

    Metabolic complications in the syndrome of small intestine is presented in a patient of masculine sex, 27 years old, who consulted for a square of inflammation gingival, migraine, fever, anorexia and adinamia for three days, followed by maculopapular-eritematose eruption for 8 days, coincident with the ampicillin ingestion, and later on severe abdominal pain and diarrhea

  16. Pleiotropic genes for metabolic syndrome and inflammation

    Kraja, Aldi T; Chasman, Daniel I; North, Kari E

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has become a health and financial burden worldwide. The MetS definition captures clustering of risk factors that predict higher risk for diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Our study hypothesis is that additional to genes influencing individual MetS risk factor...

  17. Identification of a sustainable two-plant diet that effectively prevents age-related metabolic syndrome and extends lifespan in aged mice.

    Li, Xiang-Yong; Liu, Ying-Hua; Wang, Bin; Chen, Chih-Yu; Zhang, Hong-Man; Kang, Jing X

    2018-01-01

    The current system of food production is linked to both the increasing prevalence of chronic disease and the deterioration of the environment, and thereby calls for novel ways of producing nutritious foods in a sustainable manner. In the "longevity village" of Bama, China, we have identified two plant foods, hemp seed and bitter vegetable (Sonchus oleraceus), that are commonly consumed by its residents and grow abundantly in unfarmed land without fertilizers or pesticides. Here, we show that a diet composed of these two foods (the "HB diet") provides a sufficient variety of nutrients and confers significant health benefits. Aged mice allowed ad libitum access to the HB diet not only had longer life spans and improved cognitive function but were also protected against age-related metabolic syndrome, fatty liver, gut dysbiosis and chronic inflammation compared to aged mice fed a control Western diet. Furthermore, longevity-related genes (including 5'adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, sirtuin 1, nuclear respiratory factor 1 and forkhead box O3) were significantly up-regulated, while aging-related genes (including mammalian target of rapamycin and nuclear factor kappa B) were down-regulated. These results demonstrate that the HB diet is capable of promoting health and longevity, and present a sustainable source of healthy foods that can help control the prevalence of chronic diseases and reduce agricultural impact on the environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The criteria for metabolic syndrome and the national health screening and education system in Japan

    Kazumasa Yamagishi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Two major definitions of metabolic syndrome have been proposed. One focuses on the accumulation of risk factors, a measure used by the American Heart Association (AHA and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI; the other focuses on abdominal obesity, a measure used by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF and the Japanese government. The latter definition takes waist circumference (WC into consideration as an obligatory component, whereas the former does not. In 2009, the IDF, NHLBI, AHA, and other organizations attempted to unify these criteria; as a result, WC is no longer an obligatory component of those systems, while it remains obligatory in the Japanese criteria. In 2008, a new Japanese cardiovascular screening and education system focused on metabolic syndrome was launched. People undergoing screening are classified into three groups according to the presence of abdominal obesity and the number of metabolic risk factors, and receive health educational support from insurers. This system has yielded several beneficial outcomes: the visibility of metabolic syndrome at the population level has drastically improved; preventive measures have been directed toward metabolic syndrome, which is expected to become more prevalent in future generations; and a post-screening education system has been established. However, several problems with the current system have been identified and are under debate. In this review, we discuss topics related to metabolic syndrome, including (1 the Japanese criteria for metabolic syndrome; (2 metabolic syndrome and the universal health screening and education system; and (3 recent debates about Japanese criteria for metabolic syndrome.

  19. Metabolic aspects of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome

    M. R. Bonsignore

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance is often associated with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS and could contribute to cardiovascular risk in OSAS. Sleep loss and intermittent hypoxia could contribute to the pathogenesis of the metabolic alterations associated with obesity, a common feature of OSAS. The biology of the adipocyte is being increasingly studied, and it has been found that hypoxia negatively affects adipocyte function. In November 2007, the European Respiratory Society and two EU COST Actions (Cardiovascular risk in OSAS (B26 and Adipose tissue and the metabolic syndrome (BM0602, held a Research Seminar in Düsseldorf, Germany, to discuss the following: 1 the effects of hypoxia on glucose metabolism and adipocyte function; 2 the role of inflammatory activation in OSAS and obesity; 3 the alarming rates of obesity and OSAS in children; 4 the harmful effects of the metabolic syndrome in OSAS; 5 the effects of OSAS treatment on metabolic variables; and 6 the relationship between daytime sleepiness and hormonal and inflammatory responses. Insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, the role of the endocannabinoid system and novel pharmacological approaches to treat insulin resistance were also discussed. As obesity and hypoxia could be the basic links between OSAS and adipocyte dysfunction, further research is needed to translate these new data into clinical practice.

  20. Nutritional regulation of bile acid metabolism is associated with improved pathological characteristics of the metabolic syndrome

    Liaset, Bjørn; Hao, Qin; Jørgensen, Henry Johs. Høgh

    2011-01-01

    Bile acids (BAs) are powerful regulators of metabolism, and mice treated orally with cholic acid are protected from diet-induced obesity, hepatic lipid accumulation, and increased plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) and glucose levels. Here, we show that plasma BA concentration in rats was elevated by e...... metabolism can be modulated by diet and that such modulation may prevent/ameliorate the characteristic features of the metabolic syndrome.......Bile acids (BAs) are powerful regulators of metabolism, and mice treated orally with cholic acid are protected from diet-induced obesity, hepatic lipid accumulation, and increased plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) and glucose levels. Here, we show that plasma BA concentration in rats was elevated...... with induction of genes involved in energy metabolism and uncoupling, Dio2, Pgc-1a, and Ucp1, in interscapular brown adipose tissue. Interestingly, the same transcriptional pattern was found in white adipose tissue depots of both abdominal and subcutaneous origin. Accordingly, rats fed SPH-based diet exhibited...

  1. Metabolic Syndrome in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Iran

    Ziba Zahiri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS has been studied in different populations, but their results were so controversial regarding Iranian women. These controversial data indicated the need for more investigation of MetS characteristics in PCOS patients in our population. So this study aimed to evaluate the clinical and laboratory characteristics and metabolic features of patients with PCOS in Rasht. Materials and Methods: This prospective cross sectional study was conducted on 215 PCOS women who lived in Rasht, north of Iran, from March 2010 to July 2012. The participants were then divided into two groups of women with MetS (n=62 and women without MetS (n=153. The diagnosis of PCOS and MetS were based on the Rotterdam 2003 criteria and the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III criteria, respectively. Demographic characteristics, fertility characteristics, family history and laboratory findings were assessed. Results: The prevalence of MetS in women with PCOS was 28.8%. In PCOS women of both groups, the waist circumference (WC exceeded 88cm in 72.6%, hypertension [systolic blood pressure (SBP and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP ≥130/85mm Hg] was prevalent in 9.3%, fasting blood sugar (FBS level was ≥110 mg/dl in 6%, triglycerides (Tg level were ≥150 mg/dl in 47%, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL level was <50 mg/dl in 86%. The values of WC, SBP, DBP, body mass index (BMI, ovarian size, Tg, cholesterol, FBS, 2-hour blood sugar, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT were significantly greater in PCOS women with MetS than women without MetS. Also HDL and luteinizing hormone (LH levels in women with MetS were significantly lower than women without MetS. Conclusion: Prevalence of MetS in PCOS women was 28.8%, indicating that this value is higher than other studies conducted on PCOS women in Iran and other studies conducted on general population in Iran. PCOS women

  2. Historical perspectives of the metabolic syndrome.

    Oda, Eiji

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) or insulin resistance syndrome is a constellation of obesity-related metabolic derangements predisposing to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In 1998, WHO defined the first criteria of MetS. Three years later, the user-friendly National Cholesterol Education Program criteria of MetS were proposed. Different criteria were issued by the International Diabetes Federation in 2005, making abdominal obesity a necessary component. Several international societies, including The International Diabetes Federation, jointly adopted the revised National Cholesterol Education Program criteria as harmonizing criteria of MetS in 2009. WHO warned the next year that MetS has limited practical utility as a management tool. Adipose tissue inflammation has been shown to be a fundamental mechanism of metabolic derangements, associated with ectopic lipid deposit and mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle and the liver. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. PPARs Link Early Life Nutritional Insults to Later Programmed Hypertension and Metabolic Syndrome

    You-Lin Tain

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is an important component of metabolic syndrome. Adulthood hypertension and metabolic syndrome can be programmed in response to nutritional insults in early life. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs serve as a nutrient-sensing signaling linking nutritional programming to hypertension and metabolic syndrome. All three members of PPARs, PPARα, PPARβ/δ, and PPARγ, are expressed in the kidney and involved in blood pressure control. This review provides an overview of potential clinical applications of targeting on the PPARs in the kidney to prevent programmed hypertension and metabolic syndrome, with an emphasis on the following areas: mechanistic insights to interpret programmed hypertension; the link between the PPARs, nutritional insults, and programmed hypertension and metabolic syndrome; the impact of PPAR signaling pathway in a maternal high-fructose model; and current experimental studies on early intervention by PPAR modulators to prevent programmed hypertension and metabolic syndrome. Animal studies employing a reprogramming strategy via targeting PPARs to prevent hypertension have demonstrated interesting results. It is critical that the observed effects on developmental reprogramming in animal models are replicated in human studies, to halt the globally-growing epidemic of metabolic syndrome-related diseases.

  4. Diagnostic performance of BMI percentiles to identify adolescents with metabolic syndrome.

    Laurson, Kelly R; Welk, Gregory J; Eisenmann, Joey C

    2014-02-01

    To compare the diagnostic performance of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and FITNESSGRAM (FGram) BMI standards for quantifying metabolic risk in youth. Adolescents in the NHANES (n = 3385) were measured for anthropometric variables and metabolic risk factors. BMI percentiles were calculated, and youth were categorized by weight status (using CDC and FGram thresholds). Participants were also categorized by presence or absence of metabolic syndrome. The CDC and FGram standards were compared by prevalence of metabolic abnormalities, various diagnostic criteria, and odds of metabolic syndrome. Receiver operating characteristic curves were also created to identify optimal BMI percentiles to detect metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in obese youth was 19% to 35%, compared with <2% in the normal-weight groups. The odds of metabolic syndrome for obese boys and girls were 46 to 67 and 19 to 22 times greater, respectively, than for normal-weight youth. The receiver operating characteristic analyses identified optimal thresholds similar to the CDC standards for boys and the FGram standards for girls. Overall, BMI thresholds were more strongly associated with metabolic syndrome in boys than in girls. Both the CDC and FGram standards are predictive of metabolic syndrome. The diagnostic utility of the CDC thresholds outperformed the FGram values for boys, whereas FGram standards were slightly better thresholds for girls. The use of a common set of thresholds for school and clinical applications would provide advantages for public health and clinical research and practice.

  5. Dietary patterns are associated with metabolic syndrome in adult Samoans.

    DiBello, Julia R; McGarvey, Stephen T; Kraft, Peter; Goldberg, Robert; Campos, Hannia; Quested, Christine; Laumoli, Tuiasina Salamo; Baylin, Ana

    2009-10-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has reached epidemic levels in the Samoan Islands. In this cross-sectional study conducted in 2002-2003, dietary patterns were described among American Samoan (n = 723) and Samoan (n = 785) adults (> or =18 y) to identify neo-traditional and modern eating patterns and to relate these patterns to the presence of metabolic syndrome using Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. The neo-traditional dietary pattern, similar across both polities, was characterized by high intake of local foods, including crab/lobster, coconut products, and taro, and low intake of processed foods, including potato chips and soda. The modern pattern, also similar across both polities, was characterized by high intake of processed foods such as rice, potato chips, cake, and pancakes and low intake of local foods. The neo-traditional dietary pattern was associated with significantly higher serum HDL-cholesterol in American Samoa (P-trend = 0.05) and a decrease in abdominal circumference in American Samoa and Samoa (P-trend = 0.004 and 0.01, respectively). An inverse association was found with metabolic syndrome, although it did not reach significance (P = 0.23 in American Samoa; P = 0.13 in Samoa). The modern pattern was significantly positively associated with metabolic syndrome in Samoa (prevalence ratio = 1.21 for the fifth compared with first quintile; 95% CI: 0.93.1.57; P-trend = 0.05) and with increased serum triglyceride levels in both polities (P fiber, seafood, and coconut products may help to prevent growth in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the Samoan islands.

  6. Metabolic syndrome in patients with hypertension attending a family practice clinic in Jordan.

    Yasein, N; Ahmad, M; Matrook, F; Nasir, L; Froelicher, E S

    2010-04-01

    Metabolic syndrome is being reported more frequently in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Patients with hypertension attending family practice clinics in the University of Jordan Hospital between February and July 2006 were assessed for the frequency of metabolic syndrome and its individual components. Of 345 patients studied, 65% had metabolic syndrome. Females were more likely to meet Adult Treatment Panel-III criteria for the diagnosis. Diabetes mellitus was the most frequent component of metabolic syndrome in males, while low serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high waist circumference ranked first and second in females. Primary care providers should be alert to the importance of screening patients with hypertension for metabolic syndrome to prevent and manage these combined conditions.

  7. Nutrition, Epigenetics, and Metabolic Syndrome

    Wang, Junjun; Wu, Zhenlong; Li, Defa; Li, Ning; Dindot, Scott V.; Satterfield, M. Carey; Bazer, Fuller W.; Wu, Guoyao

    2012-01-01

    Significance: Epidemiological and animal studies have demonstrated a close link between maternal nutrition and chronic metabolic disease in children and adults. Compelling experimental results also indicate that adverse effects of intrauterine growth restriction on offspring can be carried forward to subsequent generations through covalent modifications of DNA and core histones. Recent Advances: DNA methylation is catalyzed by S-adenosylmethionine-dependent DNA methyltransferases. Methylation...

  8. The association between self-reported sleep quality and metabolic syndrome.

    Hao-Chang Hung

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Short and long sleep duration are associated with metabolic syndrome. However, there is limited research on the association between sleep quality and metabolic syndrome, and thus the aim of this study is to investigate this relationship. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cross-sectional baseline data were collected from the decoded database of the Prevention Health Center of National Cheng Kung University Hospital from 2002 to 2006. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was according to the statement of the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI. A higher global PSQI score indicates poorer sleep quality, and a global PSQI score greater than five differentiates poor from good sleepers. RESULTS: Of the 3,435 subjects recruited, 899 (26.2% had metabolic syndrome. Subjects with metabolic syndrome had higher PSQI and prevalence of poor sleepers than those without metabolic syndrome. The multivariate lineal regression analysis showed that female gender, metabolic syndrome, sleep duration, snoring, alcohol drinking, and habitual exercise were independent predictors of PSQI. When substituting metabolic syndrome with the five components, hyperglycemia and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C were positively associated with PSQI. The multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that female gender, metabolic syndrome, sleep duration, and snoring were independently associated with being poor sleepers. Of the five components, only low HDL-C was an independent predictor of being poor sleepers. CONCLUSIONS: Subjects with metabolic syndrome have higher global PSQI scores and a higher risk of being poor sleepers. Of the five components of metabolic syndrome, hyperglycemia and low HDL-C are independently associated with the global PSQI scores, while low HDL-C is an independent predictor of being poor sleepers.

  9. Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Associated with Components of Metabolic Syndrome among People in Rural China.

    Jing Xiao

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is prevalent worldwide and its prevalence is related to physical activity, race, and lifestyle. Little data is available for people living in rural areas of China. In this study we examined associations of physical activity and sedentary behaviors with metabolic syndrome components among people in rural China.The Nantong Metabolic Syndrome Study recruited 13,505 female and 6,997 male participants between 2007 and 2008. Data of socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle were collected. The associations of physical activity and sedentary behaviors with metabolic syndrome components were analyzed.Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 21.6%. It was significantly lower in men than in women. Low risks of metabolic syndrome were observed in those who did less sitting and engaged in more vigorous physical activity. The highest tertile of vigorous physical activity was associated with 15-40% decreased odds of metabolic syndrome and all of its components, except for low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in men. Women with the highest tertile of moderate physical activity had 15-30% lower odds of central obesity, high glucose, and high triglycerides compared with those in the lowest tertile. Sitting time >42 hours per week had a 4%-12% attributable risk of metabolic syndrome, central obesity, and high triglycerides in both genders, and abnormal glucose and diastolic blood pressure in women. Sleeping for more than 8 hours per day was associated with risk of high serum glucose and lipids.Our data suggested that physical activity has a preventive effect against metabolic syndrome and all its abnormal components, and that longer sitting time and sleep duration are associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome components, including central obesity and high triglycerides, glucose, and diastolic blood pressure. This study could provide information for future investigation into these associations. Also, recommendations are

  10. Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Associated with Components of Metabolic Syndrome among People in Rural China.

    Xiao, Jing; Shen, Chong; Chu, Min J; Gao, Yue X; Xu, Guang F; Huang, Jian P; Xu, Qiong Q; Cai, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is prevalent worldwide and its prevalence is related to physical activity, race, and lifestyle. Little data is available for people living in rural areas of China. In this study we examined associations of physical activity and sedentary behaviors with metabolic syndrome components among people in rural China. The Nantong Metabolic Syndrome Study recruited 13,505 female and 6,997 male participants between 2007 and 2008. Data of socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle were collected. The associations of physical activity and sedentary behaviors with metabolic syndrome components were analyzed. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 21.6%. It was significantly lower in men than in women. Low risks of metabolic syndrome were observed in those who did less sitting and engaged in more vigorous physical activity. The highest tertile of vigorous physical activity was associated with 15-40% decreased odds of metabolic syndrome and all of its components, except for low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in men. Women with the highest tertile of moderate physical activity had 15-30% lower odds of central obesity, high glucose, and high triglycerides compared with those in the lowest tertile. Sitting time >42 hours per week had a 4%-12% attributable risk of metabolic syndrome, central obesity, and high triglycerides in both genders, and abnormal glucose and diastolic blood pressure in women. Sleeping for more than 8 hours per day was associated with risk of high serum glucose and lipids. Our data suggested that physical activity has a preventive effect against metabolic syndrome and all its abnormal components, and that longer sitting time and sleep duration are associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome components, including central obesity and high triglycerides, glucose, and diastolic blood pressure. This study could provide information for future investigation into these associations. Also, recommendations are developed to reduce

  11. Early Onset Childhood Obesity and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome

    2017-10-09

    This podcast features Lorena Pacheco, a doctoral student at the University of California San Diego and one of the winners of PCD’s 2017 Student Research Paper Contest. Lorena answers questions about her winning research, which focuses on the relationship between early onset obesity as a risk factor for increased metabolic syndrome in Chilean children.  Created: 10/9/2017 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/9/2017.

  12. A Comprehensive Review on Metabolic Syndrome

    Jaspinder Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is defined by a constellation of interconnected physiological, biochemical, clinical, and metabolic factors that directly increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and all cause mortality. Insulin resistance, visceral adiposity, atherogenic dyslipidemia, endothelial dysfunction, genetic susceptibility, elevated blood pressure, hypercoagulable state, and chronic stress are the several factors which constitute the syndrome. Chronic inflammation is known to be associated with visceral obesity and insulin resistance which is characterized by production of abnormal adipocytokines such as tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1 (IL-1, IL-6, leptin, and adiponectin. The interaction between components of the clinical phenotype of the syndrome with its biological phenotype (insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, etc. contributes to the development of a proinflammatory state and further a chronic, subclinical vascular inflammation which modulates and results in atherosclerotic processes. Lifestyle modification remains the initial intervention of choice for such population. Modern lifestyle modification therapy combines specific recommendations on diet and exercise with behavioural strategies. Pharmacological treatment should be considered for those whose risk factors are not adequately reduced with lifestyle changes. This review provides summary of literature related to the syndrome’s definition, epidemiology, underlying pathogenesis, and treatment approaches of each of the risk factors comprising metabolic syndrome.

  13. Effect of Raw Crushed Garlic (Allium sativum L.) on Components of Metabolic Syndrome.

    Choudhary, Prema Ram; Jani, Rameshchandra D; Sharma, Megh Shyam

    2017-09-28

    Metabolic syndrome consists of a group of risk factors characterized by abdominal obesity, hypertension, atherogenic dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and prothrombotic and proinflammatory conditions. Raw garlic homogenate has been reported to reduce serum lipid levels in animal model; however, no precise studies have been performed to evaluate the effect of raw crushed garlic (Allium sativum L.) on components of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the effect of raw crushed garlic on components of metabolic syndrome. A total of 40 metabolic syndrome patients were randomly selected from the diabetic center of SP Medical College, Bikaner, Rajasthan, India. They underwent treatment with 100 mg/kg body weight raw crushed garlic 2 times a day with standard diet for 4 weeks; their anthropometric and serum biochemical variables were measured at both the beginning and the end of the study. Statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS version 20, and Student's paired "t" test was used to compare variables before and after treatment with garlic preparation. Raw crushed garlic significantly reduced components of metabolic syndrome including waist circumference (p .05) of patients with metabolic syndrome after consumption of raw crushed garlic for 4 weeks. Raw crushed garlic has beneficial effects on components of metabolic syndrome; therefore, it can be used as an accompanying remedy for prevention and treatment of patients with metabolic syndrome.

  14. Health behavior and perceptions among African American women with metabolic syndrome

    Srikrishna Varun Malayala

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of different risk factors (abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol that predispose to the development of cardiovascular diseases. African American women (AAW are easily predisposed to metabolic syndrome due to higher levels of insulin resistance. Various sociodemographic factors further contribute to higher prevalence. Aim: This study evaluates the current prevalence of metabolic syndrome in AAW and identifies the related sociodemographic risk factors. Methods: The study utilized 2007–11 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES data sets from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC. The sample was divided into two groups: AAW with and without metabolic syndrome. Sociodemographic, physical examination, laboratory parameters, and health perceptions were compared between the two groups. Results: Out of the available sample of 30,442 individuals, 1918 (6.4% met the inclusion criteria (AAW, age>20, non-pregnant women. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 47%. Older age, lower education level, low socioeconomic status, unmarried status, low physical activity level, and smoking were associated with higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (p<0.001. The prevalence of borderline hypertension, hypertension, diabetes, stroke, and cardiovascular diseases was significantly higher in AAW with metabolic syndrome (p<0.001. Conclusion: In spite of the focus on prevention of cardiovascular risk factors and elimination of ethnic and gender disparities, metabolic syndrome is still widely prevalent in AAW and poses a threat to the goals of Healthy People 2020.

  15. Recognizing and preventing refeeding syndrome.

    Adkins, Susan M

    2009-01-01

    Refeeding syndrome is an uncommon but potentially fatal phenomenon that can occur in patients receiving parenteral, enteral, or oral feedings after a period of sustained malnutrition or starvation. This syndrome is characterized by hypophosphatemia, hypokalemia, and hypomagnesemia. The purpose of this article was to bring an acute awareness of refeeding syndrome to the critical care nurse. The recognition, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, potential life threatening complications, and treatment are presented.

  16. Polycystic ovary syndrome, adipose tissue and metabolic syndrome.

    Delitala, Alessandro P; Capobianco, Giampiero; Delitala, Giuseppe; Cherchi, Pier Luigi; Dessole, Salvatore

    2017-09-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder that affects women of reproductive age and is characterized by ovulatory dysfunction and/or androgen excess or polycystic ovaries. Women with PCOS present a number of systemic symptoms in addition to those related to the reproductive system. It has been associated with functional derangements in adipose tissue, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). A detailed literature search on Pubmed was done for articles about PCOS, adipokines, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome. Original articles, reviews, and meta-analysis were included. PCOS women are prone to visceral fat hypertrophy in the presence of androgen excess and the presence of these conditions is related to insulin resistance and worsens the PCO phenotype. Disturbed secretion of many adipocyte-derived substances (adipokines) is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation and contributes to insulin resistance. Abdominal obesity and insulin resistance stimulate ovarian and adrenal androgen production, and may further increase abdominal obesity and inflammation, thus creating a vicious cycle. The high prevalence of metabolic disorders mainly related to insulin resistance and CVD risk factors in women with PCOS highlight the need for early lifestyle changes for reducing metabolic risks in these patients.

  17. Metabolic syndrome in patients with severe mental illness in Gorgan

    Kamkar, Mohammad Zaman; Sanagoo, Akram; Zargarani, Fatemeh; Jouybari, Leila; Marjani, Abdoljalal

    2016-01-01

    Background: Metabolic syndrome is commonly associated with cardiovascular diseases and psychiatric mental illness. Hence, we aimed to assess the metabolic syndrome among severe mental illness (SMI). Materials and Methods: The study included 267 patients who were referred to the psychiatric unit at 5th Azar Education Hospital of Golestan University of Medical Sciences in Gorgan, Iran. Results: The mean waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride and fasting blood glucose levels were significantly higher in the SMI with metabolic syndrome, but the high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol was significantly lower. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in SMI patients was 20.60%. There were significant differences in the mean of waist circumference, systolic (except for women) and diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol and fasting blood glucose in men and women with metabolic syndrome when compared with subjects without metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in SMI women was higher than men. The most age distribution was in range of 30-39 years old. The most prevalence of metabolic syndrome was in age groups 50-59 years old. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was increased from 30 to 59 years old. Conclusion: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with SMI in Gorgan is almost similar to those observed in Asian countries. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was lower than western countries. These observations may be due to cultural differences in the region. It should be mention that the families of mental illness subjects in our country believe that their patients must be cared better than people without mental illness. These findings of this study suggest that mental illness patients are at risk of metabolic syndrome. According to our results, risk factors such as age and gender differences may play an important role in the presence of metabolic syndrome. In our country, women do less

  18. Metabolic Syndrome After HIV Acquisition in South African Women.

    Sobieszczyk, Magdalena E; Werner, Lise; Mlisana, Koleka; Naicker, Nivashnee; Feinstein, Addi; Gray, Clive M; Masson, Lindi; Passmore, Jo-Ann S; Williamson, Carolyn; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha; Abdool Karim, Salim S; Garrett, Nigel J

    2016-12-01

    Noncommunicable diseases are common among chronically infected patients with HIV in the developed world, but little is known about these conditions in African cohorts. We assessed the epidemiology of metabolic syndrome among young South African women during the first 3 years after HIV acquisition. A total of 160 women were followed prospectively in the CAPRISA 002 Acute Infection study. Metabolic syndrome was defined as a constellation of hyperlipidemia, hypertension, hyperglycemia/diabetes, and abdominal obesity. Time trends were assessed using generalized estimation equation models. Median age was 24 years and body mass index 27 kg/m. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome at infection was 8.7% increasing to 19.2% over 36 months (P = 0.001). The proportion of women with body mass index >30 kg/m increased from 34.4% to 47.7% (P = 0.004), those with abnormal waist circumference and elevated blood pressure increased from 33.5% to 44.3% (P = 0.060) and 23.8% to 43.9% (P metabolic syndrome was 9.13/100 person-years (95% CI: 6.02 to 13.28). Predictors of metabolic syndrome were age (per year increase odds ratio (OR) = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.07 to 1.16), time postinfection (per year OR = 1.47; 95% CI: 1.12 to 1.92), family history of diabetes (OR = 3.13; 95% CI: 1.71 to 5.72), and the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B*81:01 allele (OR = 2.95; 95% CI: 1.21 to 7.17), whereas any HLA-B*57 or B*58:01 alleles were protective (OR = 0.34; 95% CI: 0.15 to 0.77). HIV-1 RNA (OR = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.62 to 1.27) and CD4 count (OR = 1.03; 95% CI: 0.95 to 1.11) did not predict metabolic syndrome. The high burden of metabolic conditions in young South African HIV-infected women highlights the need to integrate noncommunicable disease and HIV care programs. Interventions to prevent cardiovascular disease must start at HIV diagnosis, rather than later during the disease course.

  19. Leisure-time exercise, physical activity during work and commuting, and risk of metabolic syndrome.

    Kuwahara, Keisuke; Honda, Toru; Nakagawa, Tohru; Yamamoto, Shuichiro; Akter, Shamima; Hayashi, Takeshi; Mizoue, Tetsuya

    2016-09-01

    Data are limited regarding effect of intensity of leisure-time physical activity on metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, no prospective data are available regarding effect of occupational and commuting physical activity on metabolic syndrome. We compared metabolic syndrome risk by intensity level of leisure-time exercise and by occupational and commuting physical activity in Japanese workers. We followed 22,383 participants, aged 30-64 years, without metabolic syndrome until 2014 March (maximum, 5 years of follow-up). Physical activity was self-reported. Metabolic syndrome was defined by the Joint Statement criteria. We used Cox regression models to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) of metabolic syndrome. During a mean follow-up of 4.1 years, 5361 workers developed metabolic syndrome. After adjustment for covariates, compared with engaging in no exercise, the HRs (95 % CIs) for metabolic equivalent hours of exercise per week were 0.99 (0.90, 1.08), 0.99 (0.90, 1.10), and 0.95 (0.83, 1.08), respectively, among individuals engaging in moderate-intensity exercise alone; 0.93 (0.75, 1.14), 0.81 (0.64, 1.02), and 0.84 (0.66, 1.06), among individuals engaging in vigorous-intensity exercise alone; and 0.90 (0.70, 1.17), 0.74 (0.62, 0.89), and 0.81 (0.69, 0.96) among individuals engaging in the two intensities. Higher occupational physical activity was weakly but significantly associated with lower risk of metabolic syndrome. Walking to and from work was not associated with metabolic syndrome. Vigorous-intensity exercise alone or vigorous-intensity combined with moderate-intensity exercise and worksite intervention for physical activity may help prevent metabolic syndrome for Japanese workers.

  20. Metabolic syndrome as a risk factor for neurological disorders.

    Farooqui, Akhlaq A; Farooqui, Tahira; Panza, Francesco; Frisardi, Vincenza

    2012-03-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of common pathologies: abdominal obesity linked to an excess of visceral fat, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension. At the molecular level, metabolic syndrome is accompanied not only by dysregulation in the expression of adipokines (cytokines and chemokines), but also by alterations in levels of leptin, a peptide hormone released by white adipose tissue. These changes modulate immune response and inflammation that lead to alterations in the hypothalamic 'bodyweight/appetite/satiety set point,' resulting in the initiation and development of metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is a risk factor for neurological disorders such as stroke, depression and Alzheimer's disease. The molecular mechanism underlying the mirror relationship between metabolic syndrome and neurological disorders is not fully understood. However, it is becoming increasingly evident that all cellular and biochemical alterations observed in metabolic syndrome like impairment of endothelial cell function, abnormality in essential fatty acid metabolism and alterations in lipid mediators along with abnormal insulin/leptin signaling may represent a pathological bridge between metabolic syndrome and neurological disorders such as stroke, Alzheimer's disease and depression. The purpose of this review is not only to describe the involvement of brain in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome, but also to link the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome with neurochemical changes in stroke, Alzheimer's disease and depression to a wider audience of neuroscientists with the hope that this discussion will initiate more studies on the relationship between metabolic syndrome and neurological disorders. © Springer Basel AG 2011

  1. Cardiorespiratory fitness and the metabolic syndrome

    Wedell-Neergaard, Anne-Sophie; Krogh-Madsen, Rikke; Petersen, Gitte Lindved

    2018-01-01

    and plasma levels of cytokines and high sensitive C-reactive protein as outcomes and measures of abdominal obesity were added to test if they explained the potential association. Similarly, multiple linear regression models were performed with CR-fitness as exposure and factors of the metabolic syndrome...... sensitive C-reactive protein, Interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-18, and directly associated with the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, but not associated with tumor necrosis factor alpha, interferon gamma or IL-1β. Abdominal obesity could partly explain the significant associations. Moreover, CR...... these associations. CONCLUSION: Data suggest that CR-fitness has anti-inflammatory effects that are partly explained by a reduction in abdominal obesity and a decrease in the metabolic syndrome risk profile. The overall inflammatory load was mainly driven by high sensitive C-reactive protein and IL-6....

  2. Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome in Korea

    Sang Woo Oh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In Korea, a person with a body mass index (BMI ≥25 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a person with a BMI ≥30 kg/m2 is classified as severely obese. Central obesity is defined as a waist circumference ≥90 cm for Korean men and ≥85 cm for Korean women. Recent epidemiologic data show that the prevalence of severe obesity and metabolic syndrome is steadily increasing. These epidemics increased morbidity and mortality of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and obesity-related cancers such as breast, colorectal, and other cancers in Korea. Decreased physical activity, increased fat and alcohol consumption, heavy smoking, and stress/depressed mood are the primary modifiable life-style risk factors for Koreans. Recently, public health interventions to encourage life-style changes have shown promising results in reducing the prevalence of severe obesity and metabolic syndrome.

  3. A Nutritional Approach to the Metabolic Syndrome

    Robert H. Lerman

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Poor diet and sedentary lifestyle contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS; addressing both is crucial for its management. A diet featuring the Mediterranean dietary pattern or low glycemic load has been shown to prevent and ameliorate MetS. Plant compounds, including soy protein and phytosterols, have been associated with reduced cardiovascular disease (CVD risk. Recently, phytochemicals from hops and acacia were identified as lipogenic, antiinflammatory compounds that reduced serum insulin and glucose levels in animals. A 12-week, randomized lifestyle intervention study in overweight and obese women with LDL ≥3.37 mmol/L (130 mg/dL compared a Mediterranean-style, low-glycemic-load diet and soy/phytosterol-based medical food to an AHA low-fat diet. The modified Mediterranean diet with medical food was superior in reducing markers of MetS and CVD risk. A subsequent,randomized 12-week study in men and women with MetS and LDL ≥3.37 mmol/L (130 mg/dL showed that supplementation with soy/phytosterol-based medical food plus phytochemicalsenhanced the benefits of a Mediterranean-style low-glycemic-load diet and aerobic exercise. At the completion of the study, 43% of participants receiving medical food and phytochemicalsexhibited net resolution of MetS compared with only 22% of those on diet and exercise alone. A subanalysis of participants at high risk (MetS + LDL ≥4.14 mmol/L [160 mg/dL] indicated minimal benefit from lifestyle change alone but marked benefits with the addition of medical food and phytochemicals. Case studies illustrate long-term benefits of this supplemented lifestyle change program. In conclusion, institution of a phytochemical-enhanced lifestyle intervention promises to be a clinically useful approach in MetS management.

  4. Presence of metabolic syndrome in football linemen.

    Buell, Jackie L; Calland, Doug; Hanks, Fiona; Johnston, Bruce; Pester, Benjamin; Sweeney, Robert; Thorne, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a clustering of symptoms associated with abdominal obesity that demonstrates a high risk for cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes mellitus. To evaluate football linemen in National Collegiate Athletic Association Divisions I, II, and III schools for the presence of metabolic syndrome according to the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute criteria as well as to document other related biomarkers. Cross-sectional descriptive study. Three university locations on the first full day of football camp in early morning. Of 76 football linemen, 70 were able to provide blood samples. Height, mass, blood pressure, upper-body skinfolds, and waist circumference were measured at various stations. Two small venous samples of blood were collected and analyzed in a hospital laboratory for fasting insulin, glucose, high-density lipoprotein, total cholesterol, triglycerides, C-reactive protein, and glycosylated hemoglobin. The last station was a verbal family history for cardiovascular disease and diabetes; also, athletes filled out a nutrition attitudes questionnaire. Of the 70 athletes, 34 were identified as having metabolic syndrome according to measures of blood pressure, waist circumference, fasting glucose, high-density lipoprotein, and triglycerides. The mean total cholesterol-to-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio for the group was 4.95, with 32 participants displaying values higher than 5.0. Twelve volunteers had total cholesterol levels greater than 200 mmol/L, 15 had high levels of C-reactive protein, and 9 had slightly elevated levels of glycosylated hemoglobin. Although athletes might be assumed to be protected from risks of cardiovascular disease, we found a high incidence of metabolic syndrome and other associated adverse biomarkers for heart disease in collegiate football linemen. Early screening, awareness, and intervention may have favorable effects on the overall health outcomes of football linemen.

  5. The Global Epidemic of the Metabolic Syndrome.

    Saklayen, Mohammad G

    2018-02-26

    Metabolic syndrome, variously known also as syndrome X, insulin resistance, etc., is defined by WHO as a pathologic condition characterized by abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. Though there is some variation in the definition by other health care organization, the differences are minor. With the successful conquest of communicable infectious diseases in most of the world, this new non-communicable disease (NCD) has become the major health hazard of modern world. Though it started in the Western world, with the spread of the Western lifestyle across the globe, it has become now a truly global problem. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is often more in the urban population of some developing countries than in its Western counterparts. The two basic forces spreading this malady are the increase in consumption of high calorie-low fiber fast food and the decrease in physical activity due to mechanized transportations and sedentary form of leisure time activities. The syndrome feeds into the spread of the diseases like type 2 diabetes, coronary diseases, stroke, and other disabilities. The total cost of the malady including the cost of health care and loss of potential economic activity is in trillions. The present trend is not sustainable unless a magic cure is found (unlikely) or concerted global/governmental/societal efforts are made to change the lifestyle that is promoting it. There are certainly some elements in the causation of the metabolic syndrome that cannot be changed but many are amenable for corrections and curtailments. For example, better urban planning to encourage active lifestyle, subsidizing consumption of whole grains and possible taxing high calorie snacks, restricting media advertisement of unhealthy food, etc. Revitalizing old fashion healthier lifestyle, promoting old-fashioned foods using healthy herbs rather than oil and sugar, and educating people about choosing healthy/wholesome food over junks

  6. Migraine, cerebrovascular disease and the metabolic syndrome

    Alexandra J Sinclair

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence is emerging that migraine is not solely a headache disorder. Observations that ischemic stroke could occur in the setting of a migraine attack, and that migraine headaches could be precipitated by cerebral ischemia, initially highlighted a possibly association between migraine and cerebrovascular disease. More recently, large population-based studies that have demonstrated that migraineurs are at increased risk of stroke outside the setting of a migraine attack have prompted the concept that migraine and cerebrovascular disease are comorbid conditions. Explanations for this association are numerous and widely debated, particularly as the comorbid association does not appear to be confined to the cerebral circulation as cardiovascular and peripheral vascular disease also appear to be comorbid with migraine. A growing body of evidence has also suggested that migraineurs are more likely to be obese, hypertensive, hyperlipidemic and have impaired insulin sensitivity, all features of the metabolic syndrome. The comorbid association between migraine and cerebrovascular disease may consequently be explained by migraineurs having the metabolic syndrome and consequently being at increased risk of cerebrovascular disease. This review will summarise the salient evidence suggesting a comorbid association between migraine, cerebrovascular disease and the metabolic syndrome.

  7. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among employees in Northeast China

    Wang, X; Yang, Fang; Bots, Michiel L.; Guo, Wei Ying; Zhao, Bing; Hoes, Arno W.; Vaartjes, Ilonca

    2015-01-01

    Background: The metabolic syndrome is a clustering of metabolic abnormalities and has been associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among employees in Northeast China. Methods:

  8. Metabolic syndrome and atypical antipsychotics: Possibility of prediction and control.

    Franch Pato, Clara M; Molina Rodríguez, Vicente; Franch Valverde, Juan I

    Schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders are associated with high morbidity and mortality, due to inherent health factors, genetic factors, and factors related to psychopharmacological treatment. Antipsychotics, like other drugs, have side-effects that can substantially affect the physical health of patients, with substantive differences in the side-effect profile and in the patients in which these side-effects occur. To understand and identify these risk groups could help to prevent the occurrence of the undesired effects. A prospective study, with 24 months follow-up, was conducted in order to analyse the physical health of severe mental patients under maintenance treatment with atypical antipsychotics, as well as to determine any predictive parameters at anthropometric and/or analytical level for good/bad outcome of metabolic syndrome in these patients. There were no significant changes in the physical and biochemical parameters individually analysed throughout the different visits. The baseline abdominal circumference (lambda Wilks P=.013) and baseline HDL-cholesterol levels (lambda Wilks P=.000) were the parameters that seem to be more relevant above the rest of the metabolic syndrome constituents diagnosis criteria as predictors in the long-term. In the search for predictive factors of metabolic syndrome, HDL-cholesterol and abdominal circumference at the time of inclusion were selected, as such that the worst the baseline results were, the higher probability of long-term improvement. Copyright © 2016 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Weight loss experiences of obese perimenopausal women with metabolic syndrome.

    Su, Mei-Chen; Lin, Hung-Ru; Chu, Nain-Feng; Huang, Chih-Hsung; Tsao, Lee-Ing

    2015-07-01

    To develop a descriptive theory for the weight loss experiences of obese perimenopausal women with metabolic syndrome. Obesity and metabolic syndrome both pose a threat to the health of perimenopausal women; therefore, understanding perimenopausal women's subjective feelings and experiences is beneficial to establishing effective prevention strategies. However, studies have rarely explored these relevant experiences. A qualitative study using the grounded theory method to establish a descriptive theory. Eighteen obese perimenopausal women with metabolic syndrome aged 45-60 years participated in comprehensive interviews. 'Crossing the gaps to making life modifications' was the core category, and 'the awareness of weight gain and health alarm' was the antecedent condition. In the weight loss experience, the following three interaction categories were identified: (1) 'experiencing bad feelings,' (2) 'encountering obstacles' and (3) 'making efforts to transition to a new life.' Some women adhered to new life habits through perceiving social support and by using self-incentives. Finally, women enjoyed and mastered self-monitoring of their health in their new life, and practiced new changes as part of their life. However, some participants felt that making changes to their life was too time-consuming. Therefore, these women chose to live with their abnormal health without making changes. Obese perimenopausal women with metabolic syndrome experienced various gaps in their weight loss process. Although they struggled with many obstacles, these women were able to learn from their experiences and face their health challenges. These findings can guide healthcare professionals to provide appropriate interventions to understand the hidden health problems of this particular group of women. Healthcare professionals should develop a set of plans by which women receive a complete weight loss program and support from professionals and family. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Risk factors for metabolic syndrome after liver transplantation

    Thoefner, Line Buch; Rostved, Andreas Arendtsen; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian

    2018-01-01

    syndrome after liver transplantation. METHODS: The databases Medline and Scopus were searched for observational studies evaluating prevalence and risk factors for metabolic syndrome after liver transplantation. Meta-analyses were performed based on odds ratios (ORs) from multivariable analyses...

  11. Smoking Cessation without Educational Instruction could Promote the Development of Metabolic Syndrome.

    Takayama, Shin; Takase, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Takamitsu; Sugiura, Tomonori; Ohte, Nobuyuki; Dohi, Yasuaki

    2018-01-01

    Smoking cessation is particularly important for maintaining health; however, the subsequent risk of an increased body weight is of major concern. The present study investigated the influence of smoking cessation on the incidence of metabolic syndrome and its components in the Japanese general population. This study enrolled individuals without metabolic syndrome or a history of smoking via our annual health checkup program (n=5,702, 55.2±11.5 years). Participants were divided into three groups mentioned below and followed up with the endpoint being the development of metabolic syndrome: (1) subjects who had never smoked and did not smoke during the observation period (non-smoker); (2) those who continued smoking during the observation period (continuous smoker); and (3) those who ceased smoking during the observation period (smoking cessation). During the observation period (median 1,089 days), 520 subjects developed metabolic syndrome, and Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a higher incidence of metabolic syndrome in the smoking cessation group than in the other groups. Smoking cessation was confirmed as an independent predictor of the new onset of metabolic syndrome by multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis after adjustment. Subjects only from the smoking cessation group showed a significant deterioration in metabolic factors during the study in correlation with an increased waist circumference after smoking cessation. Smoking cessation without instruction could be followed by the development of metabolic syndrome, and the incidence of metabolic syndrome might reduce the benefit obtained from smoking cessation. Therefore, further educational outreach is needed to prevent the progression of metabolic syndrome during the course of smoking cessation.

  12. Pharmacological treatment and therapeutic perspectives of metabolic syndrome.

    Lim, Soo; Eckel, Robert H

    2014-12-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a disorder based on insulin resistance. Metabolic syndrome is diagnosed by a co-occurrence of three out of five of the following medical conditions: abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressures, elevated glucose, high triglycerides, and low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Clinical implication of metabolic syndrome is that it increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome has increased globally, particularly in the last decade, to the point of being regarded as an epidemic. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the USA is estimated to be 34% of adult population. Moreover, increasing rate of metabolic syndrome in developing countries is dramatic. One can speculate that metabolic syndrome is going to induce huge impact on our lives. The metabolic syndrome cannot be treated with a single agent, since it is a multifaceted health problem. A healthy lifestyle including weight reduction is likely most effective in controlling metabolic syndrome. However, it is difficult to initiate and maintain healthy lifestyles, and in particular, with the recidivism of obesity in most patients who lose weight. Next, pharmacological agents that deal with obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia can be used singly or in combination: anti-obesity drugs, thiazolidinediones, metformin, statins, fibrates, renin-angiotensin system blockers, glucagon like peptide-1 agonists, sodium glucose transporter-2 inhibitors, and some antiplatelet agents such as cilostazol. These drugs have not only their own pharmacologic targets on individual components of metabolic syndrome but some other properties may prove beneficial, i.e. anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative. This review will describe pathophysiologic features of metabolic syndrome and pharmacologic agents for the treatment of metabolic syndrome, which are currently available.

  13. Accessing Autonomic Function Can Early Screen Metabolic Syndrome

    Dai, Meng; Li, Mian; Yang, Zhi; Xu, Min; Xu, Yu; Lu, Jieli; Chen, Yuhong; Liu, Jianmin; Ning, Guang; Bi, Yufang

    2012-01-01

    Background Clinical diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome is time-consuming and invasive. Convenient instruments that do not require laboratory or physical investigation would be useful in early screening individuals at high risk of metabolic syndrome. Examination of the autonomic function can be taken as a directly reference and screening indicator for predicting metabolic syndrome. Methodology and Principal Findings The EZSCAN test, as an efficient and noninvasive technology, can access autonomic function through measuring electrochemical skin conductance. In this study, we used EZSCAN value to evaluate autonomic function and to detect metabolic syndrome in 5,887 participants aged 40 years or older. The EZSCAN test diagnostic accuracy was analyzed by receiver operating characteristic curves. Among the 5,815 participants in the final analysis, 2,541 were diagnosed as metabolic syndrome and the overall prevalence was 43.7%. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome increased with the elevated EZSCAN risk level (p for trend metabolic syndrome components (p for trend metabolic syndrome after the multiple adjustments. The area under the curve of the EZSCAN test was 0.62 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.61–0.64) for predicting metabolic syndrome. The optimal operating point for the EZSCAN value to detect a high risk of prevalent metabolic syndrome was 30 in this study, while the sensitivity and specificity were 71.2% and 46.7%, respectively. Conclusions and Significance In conclusion, although less sensitive and accurate when compared with the clinical definition of metabolic syndrome, we found that the EZSCAN test is a good and simple screening technique for early predicting metabolic syndrome. PMID:22916265

  14. Accessing autonomic function can early screen metabolic syndrome.

    Kan Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clinical diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome is time-consuming and invasive. Convenient instruments that do not require laboratory or physical investigation would be useful in early screening individuals at high risk of metabolic syndrome. Examination of the autonomic function can be taken as a directly reference and screening indicator for predicting metabolic syndrome. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The EZSCAN test, as an efficient and noninvasive technology, can access autonomic function through measuring electrochemical skin conductance. In this study, we used EZSCAN value to evaluate autonomic function and to detect metabolic syndrome in 5,887 participants aged 40 years or older. The EZSCAN test diagnostic accuracy was analyzed by receiver operating characteristic curves. Among the 5,815 participants in the final analysis, 2,541 were diagnosed as metabolic syndrome and the overall prevalence was 43.7%. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome increased with the elevated EZSCAN risk level (p for trend <0.0001. Moreover, EZSCAN value was associated with an increase in the number of metabolic syndrome components (p for trend <0.0001. Compared with the no risk group (EZSCAN value 0-24, participants at the high risk group (EZSCAN value: 50-100 had a 2.35 fold increased risk of prevalent metabolic syndrome after the multiple adjustments. The area under the curve of the EZSCAN test was 0.62 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.61-0.64 for predicting metabolic syndrome. The optimal operating point for the EZSCAN value to detect a high risk of prevalent metabolic syndrome was 30 in this study, while the sensitivity and specificity were 71.2% and 46.7%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, although less sensitive and accurate when compared with the clinical definition of metabolic syndrome, we found that the EZSCAN test is a good and simple screening technique for early predicting metabolic syndrome.

  15. Remission of screen-detected metabolic syndrome and its determinants: an observational study

    den Engelsen Corine

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early detection and treatment of the metabolic syndrome may prevent diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Our aim was to assess remission of the metabolic syndrome and its determinants after a population based screening without predefined intervention in the Netherlands. Methods In 2006 we detected 406 metabolic syndrome cases (The National Cholesterol Education Program’s Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III definition among apparently healthy individuals with an increased waist circumference. They received usual care in a primary care setting. After three years metabolic syndrome status was re-measured. We evaluated which baseline determinants were independently associated with remission. Results The remission rate among the 194 participants was 53%. Baseline determinants independently associated with a remission were the presence of more than three metabolic syndrome components (OR 0.46 and higher levels of waist circumference (OR 0.91, blood pressure (OR 0.98 and fasting glucose (OR 0.60. Conclusions In a population with screen-detected metabolic syndrome receiving usual care, more than half of the participants achieved a remission after three years. This positive result after a relatively simple strategy provides a solid basis for a nation-wide implementation. Not so much socio-demographic variables but a higher number and level of the metabolic syndrome components were predictors of a lower chance of remission. In such cases, primary care physicians should be extra alert.

  16. Effect of Exercise on Metabolic Syndrome Variables in Breast Cancer Survivors

    Thomas, Gwendolyn A.; Lu, Lingeng; Irwin, Melinda L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Breast cancer survivors are highly sedentary, overweight, or obese, which puts them at increased risk for comorbid chronic disease. We examined the prevalence of, and changes in, metabolic syndrome following 6 months of an aerobic exercise versus usual care intervention in a sample of sedentary postmenopausal breast cancer survivors. Design and Methods. 65 participants were randomized to an aerobic exercise intervention (EX) (n = 35) mean BMI 30.8 (±5.9) kg/m2 or usual care (UC) (n = 30) mean BMI 29.4 (±7.4) kg/m2. Metabolic syndrome prevalence was determined, as well as change in criteria and overall metabolic syndrome. Results. At baseline, 55.4% of total women met the criteria for metabolic syndrome. There was no statistically significant change in metabolic syndrome when comparing EX and UC. However, adhering to the exercise intervention (at least 120 mins/week of exercise) resulted in a significant (P = .009) decrease in metabolic syndrome z-score from baseline to 6 months (−0.76 ± 0.36) when compared to those who did not adhere (0.80 ± 0.42). Conclusions. Due to a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in breast cancer survivors, lifestyle interventions are needed to prevent chronic diseases associated with obesity. Increasing exercise adherence is a necessary target for further research in obese breast cancer survivors. PMID:24319454

  17. Depression is associated with the metabolic syndrome among patients with type 1 diabetes.

    Ahola, Aila J; Thorn, Lena M; Saraheimo, Markku; Forsblom, Carol; Groop, Per-Henrik

    2010-10-01

    Both depression and the metabolic syndrome are frequently found among patients with type 1 diabetes, but their potential association has not yet been investigated. In this paper the relationship between depression and the metabolic syndrome among patients with type 1 diabetes was evaluated. A total of 1226 patients participating in the Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy Study between 2003 and 2009 were included. Depression was defined as use of antidepressive medication or Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) score ≥16. The metabolic syndrome was defined using the criteria established by the International Diabetes Federation Task Force on Epidemiology and Prevention (IDF); National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI); American Heart Association (AHA); World Heart Federation (WHF); International Atherosclerosis Society (IAS); and International Association for the Study of Obesity (IASO). The metabolic syndrome was more frequently observed among depressed patients (57% versus 46%, P = 0.008). Of the individual components of the metabolic syndrome, waist, triglyceride, and HDL components were more frequently fulfilled among patients with depression. The BDI score increased with the number of components of the metabolic syndrome present. The BDI score was independently associated with the waist component (odds ratio 1.03, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.05) when adjusted for gender, age, socio-economic status, smoking, nephropathy, and HbA(1c). The metabolic syndrome is frequently found among depressed patients with type 1 diabetes. Whether this association influences the development of diabetic complications is not known.

  18. Connexins, diabetes and the metabolic syndrome.

    Hamelin, Romain; Allagnat, Florent; Haefliger, Jacques-Antoine; Meda, Paolo

    2009-02-01

    Diabetes and the related metabolic syndrome are multi system disorders that result from improper interactions between various cell types. Even though the underlying mechanism remains to be fully understood, it is most likely that both the long and the short distance range cell interactions, which normally ensure the physiologic functioning of the pancreas, and its relationships with the insulin-targeted organs, are altered. This review focuses on the short-range type of interactions that depend on the contact between adjacent cells and, specifically, on the interactions that are dependent on connexins. The widespread distribution of these membrane proteins, their multiple modes of action, and their interactions with conditions/molecules associated to both the pathogenesis and the treatment of the 2 main forms of diabetes and the metabolic syndrome, make connexins an essential part of the chain of events that leads to metabolic diseases. Here, we review the present state of knowledge about the molecular and cell biology of the connexin genes and proteins, their general mechanisms of action, the roles specific connexin species play in the endocrine pancreas and the major insulin-targeted organs, under physiological and patho-physiological conditions.

  19. Prevalence of depressive symptoms in metabolic syndrome

    Sonia María López C

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Depression has been related with alterations of glucose metabolism, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, adiposity and dislipidemias, which constitute the metabolic syndrome (m s. Objective: to determine the frequency of depressive symptoms in patients with m s. Material and methods: an observational, descriptive, transverse study was carried out in 101 patients with m s(69 women and 32 men. The Beck inventory for depression was applied. Vasodilatation in the brachial artery and the thickness of the carotid intimae-media were evaluated by means of ultrasonographic measurement. Abdominal perimeter, trygliceridemia, cholesterolemia and insulin resistance were calculated. The statistic treatment was performed by means of descriptive and inferential through mean, standard deviation, and correlation proofs. Insulin resistance was calculated by the h o m a method. Results:prevalence of depressive symptoms: 46.34% between patients with m s (correlation of 0.42 significative at p = 0.05. A higher number of components of the syndrome correlates with higher severity of the depression. Depressive symptoms were associated to a higher insulin resistance, low levels of c- h d l, hypertension and carotid atherosclerosis. Conclusion: depression has a high prevalence in the m s and its associates with a higher number of metabolic and vascular disturbances

  20. Metabolic syndrome in the pediatric population: a short overview

    Natasa Marcun Varda

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic syndrome (MS in adults is defined as a concurrence of obesity, disturbed glucose and insulin metabolism, hypertension and dyslipidemia, and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. Studies now indicate that many of its components are also present in children and adolescents. Moreover, the clustering of these risk factors has been documented in some children, who are at increased cardiovascular risk in adulthood. The MS is highly prevalent among overweight children and adolescents. Identifying these children is important for early prevention and treatment of different components of the syndrome. The first-line treatment comprises lifestyle modification consisting of diet and exercise. The most effective tool for prevention of the MS is to stop the development of childhood obesity. The first attempt of consensus-based pediatric diagnostic criteria was published in 2007 by the International Diabetes Federation. Nevertheless, national prevalence data, based on uniform pediatric definition, protocols for prevention, early recognition and effective treatment of pediatric MS are still needed. The aim of this article is to provide a short overview of the diagnosis and treatment options of childhood MS, as well as to present the relationships between MS and its individual components.

  1. Prevention and Management of Refeeding Syndrome

    Andika Indrarespati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Refeeding Syndrome is a syndrome which occurs as a result of food administration in poorly nourished individuals. In this syndrome, there are wide range of biochemical alterations, clinical manifestations, and complications, starting from mild (asymptomatic to severe (death. This syndrome was initially proposed in 1950s; however, there is still no agreement for its clear definition, causing clinicians to be less aware and tend to overlook this condition. Clinical manifestations which usually appear include electrolyte imbalances (hypophosphatemia, hypokalemia, hyponatremia, hypomagnesemia and vitamin B1 deficiency. The main principle in management of refeeding syndrome is prevention, where clinicians need to identify this condition in the early stage in high risk individuals, supervision during refeeding, and administration of appropriate diet.

  2. Understanding and preventing computer vision syndrome.

    Loh, Ky; Redd, Sc

    2008-01-01

    The invention of computer and advancement in information technology has revolutionized and benefited the society but at the same time has caused symptoms related to its usage such as ocular sprain, irritation, redness, dryness, blurred vision and double vision. This cluster of symptoms is known as computer vision syndrome which is characterized by the visual symptoms which result from interaction with computer display or its environment. Three major mechanisms that lead to computer vision syndrome are extraocular mechanism, accommodative mechanism and ocular surface mechanism. The visual effects of the computer such as brightness, resolution, glare and quality all are known factors that contribute to computer vision syndrome. Prevention is the most important strategy in managing computer vision syndrome. Modification in the ergonomics of the working environment, patient education and proper eye care are crucial in managing computer vision syndrome.

  3. UNDERSTANDING AND PREVENTING COMPUTER VISION SYNDROME

    REDDY SC

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The invention of computer and advancement in information technology has revolutionized and benefited the society but at the same time has caused symptoms related to its usage such as ocular sprain, irritation, redness, dryness, blurred vision and double vision. This cluster of symptoms is known as computer vision syndrome which is characterized by the visual symptoms which result from interaction with computer display or its environment. Three major mechanisms that lead to computer vision syndrome are extraocular mechanism, accommodative mechanism and ocular surface mechanism. The visual effects of the computer such as brightness, resolution, glare and quality all are known factors that contribute to computer vision syndrome. Prevention is the most important strategy in managing computer vision syndrome. Modification in the ergonomics of the working environment, patient education and proper eye care are crucial in managing computer vision syndrome.

  4. Fatores dietéticos na prevenção e tratamento de comorbidades associadas à síndrome metabólica Dietary factors in preventing and treating comorbidities associated with the metabolic syndrome

    Cláudia Roberta Bocca Santos

    2006-06-01

    . Otherwise, an adequate diet associated with other lifestyle modifications, such as regular physical activity and curb smoking contribute to an improved control of the disease, preventing its complications and increasing the quality of life. In this way, the proposal of this study was to review, in the scientific literature, the role of the diet in preventing and treating the metabolic syndrome. The articles on this matter inform that the nutritional therapy aims to limit the consumption of saturated fats and trans isomeric fatty acids, the main components involved in increasing cholesterolemia. The quantity of protein must be similar to the recommendations for the general population, with emphasis on plant and fish protein. Another important issue is the glycemic index of foods: diets with high glycemic index promote insulin resistance, obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In relation to dietary fibers, many studies show that a diet rich in fibers reduces the risk of coronary diseases and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and also contributes to improve glycemic control. Therefore, an adequate diet not only constitutes an indispensable factor in the treatment but also in the prevention of the metabolic syndrome.

  5. Risk factors of diabetes in North Indians with metabolic syndrome.

    Pratyush, Daliparthy D; Tiwari, Shalbha; Singh, Saurabh; Singh, Surya K

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome progresses to diabetes and determinants of this progression like hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia and genetic factors have been speculative. The present study was aimed at quantifying the insulin resistance and influence of family history of diabetes in subjects with metabolic syndrome developing prediabetes and diabetes. Consecutive subjects attending the endocrine clinic were evaluated for metabolic syndrome as per definition of International Diabetes Federation, 2005. The family history of diabetes in their first degree relatives was ascertained and Homeostasis model assessment of Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), Homeostasis model assessment for beta cell function (HOMA-B) and Quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) were calculated in 163 subjects enrolled. HOMA-IR was higher (pmetabolic syndrome+prediabetes or diabetes compared to metabolic syndrome with normal glucose tolerance. HOMA-B was lower and prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes was higher in metabolic syndrome subjects with family history of diabetes than in those without such family history (pmetabolic syndrome having prediabetes and diabetes had more severe insulin resistance than those with metabolic syndrome only. Beta cell dysfunction was remarkable and prevalence of prediabetes was high in metabolic syndrome subjects with family history of diabetes. Both the severity of the insulin resistance and family history of diabetes are therefore proposed to be determinants of diminished Beta cell function leading to diabetes in metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Metabolic syndrome induced by anticancer treatment in childhood cancer survivors.

    Chueh, Hee Won; Yoo, Jae Ho

    2017-06-01

    The number of childhood cancer survivors is increasing as survival rates improve. However, complications after treatment have not received much attention, particularly metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome comprises central obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and insulin resistance, and cancer survivors have higher risks of cardiovascular events compared with the general population. The mechanism by which cancer treatment induces metabolic syndrome is unclear. However, its pathophysiology can be categorized based on the cancer treatment type administered. Brain surgery or radiotherapy may induce metabolic syndrome by damaging the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, which may induce pituitary hormone deficiencies. Local therapy administered to particular endocrine organs directly damages the organs and causes hormone deficiencies, which induce obesity and dyslipidemia leading to metabolic syndrome. Chemotherapeutic agents interfere with cell generation and growth, damage the vascular endothelial cells, and increase the cardiovascular risk. Moreover, chemotherapeutic agents induce oxidative stress, which also induces metabolic syndrome. Physical inactivity caused by cancer treatment or the cancer itself, dietary restrictions, and the frequent use of antibiotics may also be risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Since childhood cancer survivors with metabolic syndrome have higher risks of cardiovascular events at an earlier age, early interventions should be considered. The optimal timing of interventions and drug use has not been established, but lifestyle modifications and exercise interventions that begin during cancer treatment might be beneficial and tailored education and interventions that account for individual patients' circumstances are needed. This review evaluates the recent literature that describes metabolic syndrome in cancer survivors, with a focus on its pathophysiology.

  7. The metabolic syndrome using the National Cholesterol Education ...

    The metabolic syndrome using the National Cholesterol Education Program and International Diabetes Federation definitions among urbanised black South Africans with established coronary artery disease.

  8. Cardiorenal metabolic syndrome in the African diaspora: rationale for including chronic kidney disease in the metabolic syndrome definition.

    Lea, Janice P; Greene, Eddie L; Nicholas, Susanne B; Agodoa, Lawrence; Norris, Keith C

    2009-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is more likely to progress to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in African Americans while the reasons for this are unclear. The metabolic syndrome is a risk factor for the development of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and has been recently linked to incident CKD. Historically, fewer African Americans meet criteria for the definition of metabolic syndrome, despite having higher rates of cardiovascular mortality than Caucasians. The presence of microalbuminuria portends increased cardiovascular risks and has been shown to cluster with the metabolic syndrome. We recently reported that proteinuria is a predictor of CKD progression in African American hypertensives with metabolic syndrome. In this review we explore the potential value of including CKD markers--microalbuminuria/proteinuria or low glomerular filtration rate (GFR)-in refining the cluster of factors defined as metabolic syndrome, ie, "cardiorenal metabolic syndrome."

  9. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among patients with type 2 ...

    DM), there is a multiple set of risk factors that commonly appear together forming what is now known as the 'Metabolic Syndrome' (MS). This 'clustering' of metabolic abnormalities that occur in the same individual appear to confer substantial ...

  10. Neurobiology of the metabolic syndrome : An allostatic perspective

    van Dijk, Gertjan; Buwalda, Bauke

    2008-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of more or less related metabolic and cardiovascular derangements including visceral obesity, insulin resistance, blood and tissue dislipidemia, high blood pressure and it is often associated with neuroendocrine and immunological dysregulations. The aetiology of

  11. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and metabolic syndrome components in young adults: A pooled analysis

    Paul B. Nolan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetSyn represents a clustering of different metabolic abnormalities. MetSyn prevalence is present in approximately 25% of all adults with increased prevalence in advanced ages. The presence of one component of MetSyn increases the risk of developing MetSyn later in life and likely represents a high lifetime burden of cardiovascular disease risk. Therefore we pooled data from multiple studies to establish the prevalence of MetSyn and MetSyn component prevalence across a broad range of ethnicities. PubMed, SCOPUS and Medline databases were searched to find papers presenting MetSyn and MetSyn component data for 18–30 year olds who were apparently healthy, free of disease, and MetSyn was assessed using either the harmonized, National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII, American Heart Association/National Heart, Blood and Lung Institute (AHA/NHBLI, or International Diabetes Federation (IDF definitions of MetSyn. After reviewing returned articles, 26,609 participants' data from 34 studies were included in the analysis and the data were pooled. MetSyn was present in 4.8–7% of young adults. Atherogenic dyslipidaemia defined as low high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol was the most prevalent MetSyn component (26.9–41.2%, followed by elevated blood pressure (16.6–26.6%, abdominal obesity (6.8–23.6%, atherogenic dyslipidaemia defined as raised triglycerides (8.6–15.6%, and raised fasting glucose (2.8–15.4%. These findings highlight that MetSyn is prevalent in young adults. Establishing the reason why low HDL is the most prevalent component may represent an important step in promoting primary prevention of MetSyn and reducing the incidence of subsequent clinical disease.

  12. Risks of Metabolic Syndrome in Students of the Faculty of Health Sciences

    Ersin Öğüş

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent in the adult population worldwide. Education may play an important role in preventing metabolic syndrome in young adults, especially those who are attending university. Such adults are at a critical point in their lives and make their own lifestyle choices that can affect their future health. Aims: The aims of this study were to determine the metabolic syndrome risk levels of students from the Faculty of Health Sciences. Study Design: Survey design study. Methods: In a questionnaire developed by the researchers to collect data in accordance with the relevant literature, the scale of the risk of metabolic syndrome was assessed. A stepwise logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the risks. Results: Important risk factors for metabolic syndrome were found to be gender, weight gain, “stress eating” excessive amounts of food, sleeping for more than 8 hours a day, feeling tired after sleep, belonging to a divided family, and eating whilst working on the computer. Conclusion: The students from the Faculty of Health Sciences, particularly because they are trained in the health sector, are expected to have more information about the risk factors of metabolic syndrome, and take necessary precautions to prevent it.

  13. The relationship of obesity to the metabolic syndrome.

    Lebovitz, Harold E

    2003-03-01

    Obese patients with the metabolic syndrome generally have a visceral (apple-shaped) fat distribution and are at an increased risk of macrovascular disease, while those with peripheral (pear-shaped) obesity tend not to have metabolic abnormalities and are at less risk. This difference appears to be related to the differing metabolic functions (and secretory products) of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), as well as the fact that VAT drains directly into the liver. Thus, it appears that increased VAT, but not SAT, is associated with both hepatic and peripheral biochemical abnormalities leading to insulin resistance and the associated metabolic syndrome. Insulin resistance is associated with VAT products, such as free fatty acids and their metabolites, as well as cytokines, such as tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). These factors may activate components of the inflammatory pathway such as nuclear factor kappa-B (NFkappaB), and inhibit insulin signalling. Insulin resistance is further associated with decreased levels of another tissue product, adiponectin. The incidence and prevalence of obesity is increasing at an unprecedented rate. The classic treatment of obesity is weight loss via lifestyle modification. However, prevention of obesity comorbidity can also be achieved by modifying the mechanisms by which obesity causes these comorbid conditions. For instance, it is now known that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) family of transcriptional regulators are crucial in regulating adipose tissue development and metabolism; this helps explain why compounds with PPARgamma agonist activity, e.g. thiazolidinediones, increase insulin action through their effects in regulating adipose tissue metabolism.

  14. Perspectives on the Nutritional Management of Metabolic Syndrome in Asia: People, Practice and Programmes

    Phing Chee Huei

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous Asian countries have a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome, also associated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. Healthcare expenditure varies among Asian countries, and is influenced by poverty factor and large populations. The effect of metabolic syndrome on nutritional management in Asia demonstrates the essential for clinicians to equalize the needs for higher standards of dietetics practice; as they execute optimal care processes with the aim of improving outcomes, alongside setting of workforce limitations, inadequate expertise in metabolic syndrome nutrition practice, as well as ethnic diversity among Asians. This paper presents some aspects of dietetics practice and the possibility that an alteration in practice is mandatory if dietitians are to play an active role in preventing or decelerating the evolution of the metabolic syndrome.

  15. Association of sedentary behaviour with metabolic syndrome: a meta-analysis.

    Charlotte L Edwardson

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been a growing interest in the relationship between sedentary behaviour (sitting and health outcomes. Only recently have there been studies assessing the association between time spent in sedentary behaviour and the metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study is to quantify the association between sedentary behaviour and the metabolic syndrome in adults using meta-analysis.Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched using medical subject headings and key words related to sedentary behaviours and the metabolic syndrome. Reference lists of relevant articles and personal databases were hand searched. Inclusion criteria were: (1 cross sectional or prospective design; (2 include adults ≥ 18 years of age; (3 self-reported or objectively measured sedentary time; and (4 an outcome measure of metabolic syndrome. Odds Ratio (OR and 95% confidence intervals for metabolic syndrome comparing the highest level of sedentary behaviour to the lowest were extracted for each study. Data were pooled using random effects models to take into account heterogeneity between studies. Ten cross-sectional studies (n = 21393 participants, one high, four moderate and five poor quality, were identified. Greater time spent sedentary increased the odds of metabolic syndrome by 73% (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.55-1.94, p<0.0001. There were no differences for subgroups of sex, sedentary behaviour measure, metabolic syndrome definition, study quality or country income. There was no evidence of statistical heterogeneity (I(2 = 0.0%, p = 0.61 or publication bias (Eggers test t = 1.05, p = 0.32.People who spend higher amounts of time in sedentary behaviours have greater odds of having metabolic syndrome. Reducing sedentary behaviours is potentially important for the prevention of metabolic syndrome.

  16. Metabolic syndrome and cognitive decline: the role of physical activity

    M. Rinaldi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic Syndrome (MetS is a cluster of conditions, each of which represents a risk factor for cardiovascular disease: central obesity, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Any of these conditions and MetS itself have been associated to Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia. In recent years there is a growing evidence for the role of physical activity in preventing metabolic diseases and cognitive decline. In our research we assessed the prevalence of MetS in a sample of 154 elderly people. Furthermore, we evaluated cognition (with Mini Mental State Examination, MMSE  and the physical activity level in every patient. We found a significant association between MetS, borderline cognitive impairment and sedentary lifestyle.

  17. Genotype by energy expenditure interaction with metabolic syndrome traits: the Portuguese healthy family study.

    Daniel M V Santos

    Full Text Available Moderate-to-high levels of physical activity are established as preventive factors in metabolic syndrome development. However, there is variability in the phenotypic expression of metabolic syndrome under distinct physical activity conditions. In the present study we applied a Genotype X Environment interaction method to examine the presence of GxEE interaction in the phenotypic expression of metabolic syndrome. A total of 958 subjects, from 294 families of The Portuguese Healthy Family study, were included in the analysis. Total daily energy expenditure was assessed using a 3 day physical activity diary. Six metabolic syndrome related traits, including waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, glucose, HDL cholesterol, total cholesterol and triglycerides, were measured and adjusted for age and sex. GxEE examination was performed on SOLAR 4.3.1. All metabolic syndrome indicators were significantly heritable. The GxEE interaction model fitted the data better than the polygenic model (p<0.001 for waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides. For waist circumference, glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides, the significant GxEE interaction was due to rejection of the variance homogeneity hypothesis. For waist circumference and glucose, GxEE was also significant by the rejection of the genetic correlation hypothesis. The results showed that metabolic syndrome traits expression is significantly influenced by the interaction established between total daily energy expenditure and genotypes. Physical activity may be considered an environmental variable that promotes metabolic differences between individuals that are distinctively active.

  18. PREVALENCE OF METABOLIC SYNDROME IN GRANITE WORKERS

    Srilakshmi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MS has significantly increased over the last few decades and has become a main health challenge worldwide. Prevalence of MS is quickly rising in developing countries due to changing lifestyle. It was considered worthwhile to study MS and its components in granite workers since granite factories are situated in and around Khammam area. Moreover, no studies of MS in granite workers have been reported in literature. OBJECTIVES: Aim of our study is to assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in granite workers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 210 male workers in the age group of 20 - 50 working in granite industries located in and around the Khammam town of Telangana State are selected for the present study. Blood pressures (BP, waist circumference (WC were measured. Fasting blood samples were collected for the estimation of glucose and lipids. RESULTS: 69 subjects out of 210 were identified as having MS based on updated National cholesterol education programme - Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP - ATP III guidelines. CONCLUSION: MS should be identified and remedial measures may be suggested, so that the risk of hypertension, cardiovascular risk, diabetes and the resultant morbidity is minimized and can be delayed

  19. Metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents with phenylketonuria

    Viviane C. Kanufre

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify markers of metabolic syndrome (MS in patients with phenylketonuria (PKU. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study consisting of 58 PKU patients (ages of 4-15 years: 29 patients with excess weight, and 29 with normal weight. The biochemical variables assessed were phenylalanine (phe, total cholesterol, HDL-c, triglycerides, glucose, and basal insulin. The patients had Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA and waist circumference assessed. RESULTS: No inter-group difference was found for phe. Overweight patients had higher levels of triglycerides, basal insulin, and HOMA, but lower concentrations of HDL-cholesterol, when compared to the eutrophic patients. Total cholesterol/HDL-c was significantly higher in the overweight group. A positive correlation between basal insulin level and HOMA with waist circumference was found only in the overweight group. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that patients with PKU and excess weight are potentially vulnerable to the development of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct clinical and laboratory monitoring, aiming to prevent metabolic changes, as well as excessive weight gain and its consequences, particularly cardiovascular risk.

  20. Metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents with phenylketonuria.

    Kanufre, Viviane C; Soares, Rosângelis D L; Alves, Michelle Rosa A; Aguiar, Marcos J B; Starling, Ana Lúcia P; Norton, Rocksane C

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify markers of metabolic syndrome (MS) in patients with phenylketonuria (PKU). This was a cross-sectional study consisting of 58 PKU patients (ages of 4-15 years): 29 patients with excess weight, and 29 with normal weight. The biochemical variables assessed were phenylalanine (phe), total cholesterol, HDL-c, triglycerides, glucose, and basal insulin. The patients had Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) and waist circumference assessed. No inter-group difference was found for phe. Overweight patients had higher levels of triglycerides, basal insulin, and HOMA, but lower concentrations of HDL-cholesterol, when compared to the eutrophic patients. Total cholesterol/HDL-c was significantly higher in the overweight group. A positive correlation between basal insulin level and HOMA with waist circumference was found only in the overweight group. The results of this study suggest that patients with PKU and excess weight are potentially vulnerable to the development of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct clinical and laboratory monitoring, aiming to prevent metabolic changes, as well as excessive weight gain and its consequences, particularly cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Childhood overweight, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome in developing countries.

    Kelishadi, Roya

    2007-01-01

    The incidence of chronic disease is escalating much more rapidly in developing countries than in industrialized countries. A potential emerging public health issue may be the increasing incidence of childhood obesity in developing countries and the resulting socioeconomic and public health burden faced by these countries in the near future. In a systematic review carried out through an electronic search of the literature from 1950-2007, the author compared data from surveys on the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome among children living in developing countries. The highest prevalence of childhood overweight was found in Eastern Europe and the Middle East, whereas India and Sri Lanka had the lowest prevalence. The few studies conducted in developing countries showed a considerably high prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among youth. These findings provide alarming data for health professionals and policy-makers about the extent of these problems in developing countries, many of which are still grappling with malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies. Time trends in childhood obesity and its metabolic consequences, defined by uniform criteria, should be monitored in developing countries in order to obtain useful insights for primordial and primary prevention of the upcoming chronic disease epidemic in such communities.

  2. PREVENTION FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME IN RUSSIA

    L. V. Skitnevskaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the influence of alcohol problems in women of childbearing age during pregnancy on the unborn child. The concept of a fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS. We describe the stages of the research project "Prevention of fetal FAS in Russia."

  3. Androgenic Hormones In Relation To Parameters of the Metabolic Syndrome in male patients

    Shousha, M. A.; Soliman, S. E.; Semna, S. G.

    2012-12-01

    Back ground and aim of the work :The numerous deleterious effects of metabolic syndrome are being investigated throughout the medical community. Hypo-androgenomes in men is associated with features of the metabolic syndrome, even it may predict the metabolic syndrome, but the association with the metabolic syndrome it self using an accepted definition has not been described. A group 40 men defined as metabolic syndrome were assessed to investigate the relationship between androgenic hormones and parameters of the metabolic syndrome. (Author)

  4. Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome in Renal Transplant Recipients

    Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome in Renal Transplant Recipients. ... Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) criteria and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. ... Results: By using the NCEP-ATP III criteria 26 out of 91 patients (28.6%) had the metabolic syndrome. MS was ...

  5. Cancer treatment induced metabolic syndrome : Improving outcome with lifestyle

    Westerink, M. D. N. L.; Nuver, J.; Lefrandt, J. D.; Vrieling, A. H.; Gietema, J. A.; Walenkamp, A. M. E.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing numbers of long-term cancer survivors face important treatment related adverse effects. Cancer treatment induced metabolic syndrome (CTIMetS) is an especially prevalent and harmful condition. The aetiology of CTIMetS likely differs from metabolic syndrome in the general population, but

  6. An association between diet, metabolic syndrome and lower urinary ...

    Diet is a key factor in the aetiology of many diseases, including metabolic syndrome and lower urinary tract disorders. Metabolic syndrome is a growing and increasingly expensive health problem in both the developed and the developing world, with an associated rise in morbidity and mortality. On the other hand, lower ...

  7. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among patients with type 2 ...

    Background: The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors that is responsible for most of the excess cardiovascular morbidity amongst persons with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM). The metabolic syndrome increases the risk for coronary heart disease and stroke by three-fold with a marked increase in cardiovascular ...

  8. Increased brain fatty acid uptake in metabolic syndrome

    Karmi, Anna; Iozzo, Patricia; Viljanen, Antti

    2010-01-01

    To test whether brain fatty acid uptake is enhanced in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS) and whether weight reduction modifies it.......To test whether brain fatty acid uptake is enhanced in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS) and whether weight reduction modifies it....

  9. The metabolic syndrome: prevalence, CHD risk, and treatment.

    Sarti, Cinzia; Gallagher, John

    2006-01-01

    An increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) morbidity and mortality is associated with the metabolic syndrome, a condition characterized by the concomitant presence of several abnormalities, including abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance (with or without glucose intolerance or diabetes), microalbuminuria, prothrombotic, and proinflammatory states. Estimates of the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome indicate that this condition is now common and likely to increase dramatically over the coming decades, in parallel with greater rates of obesity and Type 2 diabetes. Risk factors for the metabolic syndrome are already present in obese children and adolescents. Thus, identifying and treating all affected individuals promptly and optimally are critical to ensure that this potentially challenging healthcare burden is minimized. Here, we review the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome, dyslipidemias, and CHD risk. Although changes in lifestyle are fundamental to reducing many of the CHD risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome, pharmacologic interventions also play an important role. Retrospective subanalyses of the effects of statins on coronary event rates and lipid levels in patients with the metabolic syndrome included in clinical trials indicate that these agents are beneficial in correcting the extensive lipid abnormalities that are frequently present in these individuals. However, the optimal management of metabolic syndrome dyslipidemia will depend on the outcomes of future prospective clinical trials. This review examines the underlying causes and prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its impact on CHD morbidity and mortality and discusses the role of statins in optimizing its management.

  10. Metabolic Syndrome Risk Profiles Among African American Adolescents

    Fitzpatrick, Stephanie L.; Lai, Betty S.; Brancati, Frederick L.; Golden, Sherita H.; Hill-Briggs, Felicia

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Although African American adolescents have the highest prevalence of obesity, they have the lowest prevalence of metabolic syndrome across all definitions used in previous research. To address this paradox, we sought to develop a model of the metabolic syndrome specific to African American adolescents. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003–2010) of 822 nonpregnant, nondiabetic, African American adolescents (45% girls; aged 12 to 17 years) who underwent physical examinations and fasted at least 8 h were analyzed. We conducted a confirmatory factor analysis to model metabolic syndrome and then used latent profile analysis to identify metabolic syndrome risk groups among African American adolescents. We compared the risk groups on probability of prediabetes. RESULTS The best-fitting metabolic syndrome model consisted of waist circumference, fasting insulin, HDL, and systolic blood pressure. We identified three metabolic syndrome risk groups: low, moderate, and high risk (19% boys; 16% girls). Thirty-five percent of both boys and girls in the high-risk groups had prediabetes, a significantly higher prevalence compared with boys and girls in the low-risk groups. Among adolescents with BMI higher than the 85th percentile, 48 and 36% of boys and girls, respectively, were in the high-risk group. CONCLUSIONS Our findings provide a plausible model of the metabolic syndrome specific to African American adolescents. Based on this model, approximately 19 and 16% of African American boys and girls, respectively, are at high risk for having the metabolic syndrome. PMID:23093663

  11. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN METABOLIC SYNDROME AND ITS COMPONENTS WITH SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS AMONG ADOLESCENTS IN SHIRAZ, SOUTHERN IRAN.

    Bahrani, Robab; Chan, Yoke Mun; Khor, Geok Lin; Rahman, Hejar Abul; Esmailzadeh, Ahmad; Wong, Teck Wee

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between metabolic syndrome and its individual components with socio-economic factors among 14-18 year-old adolescents in Shiraz, Iran. Using a multistage random sampling, a total of 538 (289 males and 249 females) adolescents consented to the study. Socio-economic status was obtained using a self-administered questionnaire while presence of metabolic syndrome and its individual components was ascertained using NCEP-ATP III criteria. The relationships between the participants' socio-economic status and metabolic syndrome and its components were determined using bivariate and multivariate statistical analyses. Approximately 6% of the adolescents had metabolic syndrome, with significantly more males than females (9.3% vs 2.4%, p Metabolic syndrome was significantly more prevalent in obese participants (44.4%) than those with normal body weight (2.0%) or overweight (9.3%). There were positive associations between the components of metabolic syndrome and parental education, school location and household monthly income. Having a family history of obesity was associated with metabolic syndrome after controlling for other variables (OR = 2.1; 95% CI: 0.9-5.2, p = 0.042). Overweight and obese subjects were approximately 8 times and 15 times more likely to develop metabolic syndrome, respectively (overweight: OR = 8.2; 95% CI: 3.6-17.2; obese: OR = 15.4; 95% CI: 4.8-43.7). In conclusion, a positive association exists between socio-economic status and metabolic syndrome and its individual components among the studied participants. An intervention program to prevent metabolic syndrome needs to be developed for this young generation, especially among those who are overweight or obese and those with a family history of obesity. Keywords: adolescents, metabolic syndrome, components of metabolic syndrome, socio-economic status, Iran

  12. Membrane lipid alterations in the metabolic syndrome and the role of dietary oils.

    Perona, Javier S

    2017-09-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of pathological conditions, including hypertension, hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, obesity and low HDL levels that is of great concern worldwide, as individuals with metabolic syndrome have an increased risk of type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Insulin resistance, the key feature of the metabolic syndrome, might be at the same time cause and consequence of impaired lipid composition in plasma membranes of insulin-sensitive tissues like liver, muscle and adipose tissue. Diet intervention has been proposed as a powerful tool to prevent the development of the metabolic syndrome, since healthy diets have been shown to have a protective role against the components of the metabolic syndrome. Particularly, dietary fatty acids are capable of modulating the deleterious effects of these conditions, among other mechanisms, by modifications of the lipid composition of the membranes in insulin-sensitive tissues. However, there is still scarce data based of high-level evidence on the effects of dietary oils on the effects of the metabolic syndrome and its components. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the effects of dietary oils on improving alterations of the components of the metabolic syndrome. It also examines their influence in the modulation of plasma membrane lipid composition and in the functionality of membrane proteins involved in insulin activity, like the insulin receptor, GLUT-4, CD36/FAT and ABCA-1, and their effect in the metabolism of glucose, fatty acids and cholesterol, and, in turn, the key features of the metabolic syndrome. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane Lipid Therapy: Drugs Targeting Biomembranes edited by Pablo V. Escribá. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Sedentary bout durations and metabolic syndrome among working adults: a prospective cohort study.

    Honda, Takanori; Chen, Sanmei; Yonemoto, Koji; Kishimoto, Hiro; Chen, Tao; Narazaki, Kenji; Haeuchi, Yuka; Kumagai, Shuzo

    2016-08-26

    This study aimed to examine the associations between time spent in prolonged and non-prolonged sedentary bouts and the development of metabolic syndrome. We used data from a prospective study of Japanese workers. Baseline examination was conducted between 2010 and 2011. A total of 430 office workers (58 women) aged 40-64 years without metabolic syndrome were followed up by annual health checkups until 2014. Metabolic syndrome was defined as having ≥ 3 out of 5 diagnostic criteria from the Joint Interim Statement 2009 definition. Sedentary time was assessed using a tri-axial accelerometer. Time spent in total, prolonged (accumulated ≥ 30 min) and non-prolonged sedentary bouts (accumulated metabolic syndrome. During a median follow-up of 3 years, 83 participants developed metabolic syndrome. After adjustment for age, sex, education, smoking, and family income, positive associations were observed between time spent in prolonged sedentary bouts and the development of metabolic syndrome. After additional adjustment for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, those in the three highest quartiles of time spent in prolonged sedentary bouts showed higher risk of metabolic syndrome compared to the lowest quartile group, with adjusted hazard ratios (95 % confidence intervals) of 2.72 (1.30 - 5.73), 2.42 (1.11 - 5.50), and 2.85 (1.31 - 6.18), respectively. No associations were seen for time spent in total and non-prolonged sedentary bouts. Sedentary behavior accumulated in a prolonged manner was associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome. In devising public health recommendations for the prevention of metabolic disease, the avoidance of prolonged uninterrupted periods of sedentary behavior should be considered.

  14. Sedentary bout durations and metabolic syndrome among working adults: a prospective cohort study

    Takanori Honda

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to examine the associations between time spent in prolonged and non-prolonged sedentary bouts and the development of metabolic syndrome. Methods We used data from a prospective study of Japanese workers. Baseline examination was conducted between 2010 and 2011. A total of 430 office workers (58 women aged 40-64 years without metabolic syndrome were followed up by annual health checkups until 2014. Metabolic syndrome was defined as having ≥ 3 out of 5 diagnostic criteria from the Joint Interim Statement 2009 definition. Sedentary time was assessed using a tri-axial accelerometer. Time spent in total, prolonged (accumulated ≥ 30 min and non-prolonged sedentary bouts (accumulated < 30 min was calculated. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the risk of developing metabolic syndrome. Results During a median follow-up of 3 years, 83 participants developed metabolic syndrome. After adjustment for age, sex, education, smoking, and family income, positive associations were observed between time spent in prolonged sedentary bouts and the development of metabolic syndrome. After additional adjustment for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, those in the three highest quartiles of time spent in prolonged sedentary bouts showed higher risk of metabolic syndrome compared to the lowest quartile group, with adjusted hazard ratios (95 % confidence intervals of 2.72 (1.30 – 5.73, 2.42 (1.11 – 5.50, and 2.85 (1.31 – 6.18, respectively. No associations were seen for time spent in total and non-prolonged sedentary bouts. Conclusions Sedentary behavior accumulated in a prolonged manner was associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome. In devising public health recommendations for the prevention of metabolic disease, the avoidance of prolonged uninterrupted periods of sedentary behavior should be considered.

  15. [Features of the periodontal pathology at patients with metabolic syndrome].

    Ermolaeva, L A; Shishkin, A N; Sheveleva, N A; Penkovoi, E A; Sheveleva, M A; Sokolovich, N A; Khabarova, O V; Mihailova, E S

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to familiarize readers on the relationship between metabolic syndrome and periodontitis, as well as common pathogenetic processes underlying these diseases. The data of modern researches, devoted to the correlation of lesions of periodontal and systemic diseases associated with metabolic syndrome. In the article analyzed also the data of the original study of the interaction of periodontitis and metabolic syndrome, which also used special methods of examination like Doppler ultrasound microcirculatory vasculature of the periodontal tissues and ultrasound densitometry. The possible methods of diagnostics of a condition of periodontal tissues in patients with metabolic syndrome are considered. Conclusions about the relationship of each component of metabolic syndrome with periodontitis are made.

  16. [Correlation of metabolic syndrome components in older Mexican women].

    Ramírez-Arriola, Maria Cleofas; Mendoza-Romo, Margarita Paz; González-Rubio, Marco Vinicio; López-Esqueda, Francisco Javier; Mendoza-Romo, Miguel Angel; Velasco-Chávez, José Fernando

    2011-01-01

    In woman aged over 60 years, body changes occur and might cause insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. To determine the relationship between the components of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and body mass index in women over 60 years, attended at the Geriatric Services in the Dr. Ignacio Morones Prieto Hospital in San Luis Potosi, Mexico. We performed an observational, descriptive and transversal study with non-probability sampling, selecting 61 women aged 60 years attended from 2006 to 2008, who have measured the body mass index (BMI), insulin resistance and homeostasis model (HOMA2), and identifying the components of metabolic syndrome according to the criteria of the World Health Organization. We used descriptive and inferential statistics with r Pearson and Chi Square. The mean age was 68 years. The average HOMA2 were 1.4 and 75 percentile 1.9. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was present in 23%. The association test with a p metabolic syndrome dysglucemia and obesity, but not for other components of metabolic syndrome. The triglycerides level correlated with insulin resistance (r = 0.325, p = 0.011), insulin resistance with glucose (r = 0.535, p = 0.000) and insulin resistance with BMI (r = 0.282, p = 0.28). It is important to properly define the components for the presence of metabolic syndrome in older women due to not all who qualify as obese have metabolic syndrome, and neither all the metabolic syndrome are associated with insulin resistance. The single alteration of one of the components of metabolic syndrome is not sufficient to cause insulin resistance.

  17. Plant-derived therapeutics for the treatment of metabolic syndrome.

    Graf, Brittany L; Raskin, Ilya; Cefalu, William T; Ribnicky, David M

    2010-10-01

    Metabolic syndrome is defined as a set of coexisting metabolic disorders that increase an individual's likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and stroke. Medicinal plants, some of which have been used for thousands of years, serve as an excellent source of bioactive compounds for the treatment of metabolic syndrome because they contain a wide range of phytochemicals with diverse metabolic effects. In order for botanicals to be effectively used against metabolic syndrome, however, botanical preparations must be characterized and standardized through the identification of their active compounds and respective modes of action, followed by validation in controlled clinical trials with clearly defined endpoints. This review assesses examples of commonly known and partially characterized botanicals to describe specific considerations for the phytochemical, preclinical and clinical characterization of botanicals associated with metabolic syndrome.

  18. High prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-infected patients : impact of different definitions of the metabolic syndrome

    Worm, Signe W; Friis-Møller, Nina; Bruyand, Mathias; D'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Rickenbach, Martin; Reiss, Peter; El-Sadr, Wafaa; Phillips, Andrew; Lundgren, Jens; Sabin, Caroline; Schölvinck, Elisabeth H.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This study describes the characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-positive patients in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs study and discusses the impact of different methodological approaches on estimates of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome over time.

  19. High prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-infected patients: impact of different definitions of the metabolic syndrome

    Worm, Signe H.Westring; Friis-Møller, Nina; Bruyand, Mathias

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-positive patients in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs study and discusses the impact of different methodological approaches on estimates of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome over time....

  20. High prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-infected patients: impact of different definitions of the metabolic syndrome

    Worm, Signe W.; Friis-Møller, Nina; Bruyand, Mathias; D'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Rickenbach, Martin; Reiss, Peter; El-Sadr, Wafaa; Phillips, Andrew; Lundgren, Jens; Sabin, Caroline; de Wolf, F.; Zaheri, S.; Gras, L.; Bronsveld, W.; Hillebrand-Haverkort, M. E.; Prins, J. M.; Bos, J. C.; Eeftinck Schattenkerk, J. K. M.; Geerlings, S. E.; Godfried, M. H.; Lange, J. M. A.; van Leth, F. C.; Lowe, S. H.; van der Meer, J. T. M.; Nellen, F. J. B.; Pogány, K.; van der Poll, T.; Ruys, Th A.; Steingrover, R.; van Twillert, G.; van der Valk, M.; van Vonderen, M. G. A.; Vrouenraets, S. M. E.; van Vugt, M.; Wit, F. W. M. N.; van Eeden, A.; ten Veen, J. H.; van Dam, P. S.; Roos, J. C.; Brinkman, K.; Frissen, P. H. J.; Weigel, H. M.; Mulder, J. W.; van Gorp, E. C. M.; Meenhorst, P. L.; Mairuhu, A. T. A.; Veenstra, J.; Danner, S. A.; van Agtmael, M. A.; Claessen, F. A. P.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This study describes the characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-positive patients in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs study and discusses the impact of different methodological approaches on estimates of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome over time.

  1. Hormone-metabolic parameters of blood serum at revealing the metabolic syndrome at liquidators on Chernobyl disaster

    Chirkin, A.A.; Stepanova, N.A.; Danchenko, E.O.; Orekhova, D.S.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of research was the definition of the maintenance leptin, other hormones and some metabolic parameters in liquidators blood serum of group 1.1. Under supervision was 30 healthy persons who were not treat to action of radiation-ecological factors, and 154 liquidators. It is established, that in blood serum of liquidators with body mass index > 25 kg/m 2 leptin concentration is authentically raised and cortisol concentration is lowered. Following most important results are received: 1) hyperleptinemia and hypo-alpha-cholesterolemia can be markers of a radiating influence available in the past; 2) the strict algorithm of revealing of metabolic syndrome X allows to generate adequate groups of risk of the diseases interfaced with an insulin resistance and an atherosclerosis development; 3) the strict algorithm of metabolic syndrome X revealing allows to define concrete directions of metabolic preventive maintenance and therapy at the persons who have entered into risk-groups of diseases development. (authors)

  2. The Metabolic Syndrome, Oxidative Stress, Environment, and Cardiovascular Disease: The Great Exploration

    Hutcheson, Rebecca; Rocic, Petra

    2012-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome affects 30% of the US population with increasing prevalence. In this paper, we explore the relationship between the metabolic syndrome and the incidence and severity of cardiovascular disease in general and coronary artery disease (CAD) in particular. Furthermore, we look at the impact of metabolic syndrome on outcomes of coronary revascularization therapies including CABG, PTCA, and coronary collateral development. We also examine the association between the metabolic syndrome and its individual component pathologies and oxidative stress. Related, we explore the interaction between the main external sources of oxidative stress, cigarette smoke and air pollution, and metabolic syndrome and the effect of this interaction on CAD. We discuss the apparent lack of positive effect of antioxidants on cardiovascular outcomes in large clinical trials with emphasis on some of the limitations of these trials. Finally, we present evidence for successful use of antioxidant properties of pharmacological agents, including metformin, statins, angiotensin II type I receptor blockers (ARBs), and angiotensin II converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, for prevention and treatment of the cardiovascular complications of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:22829804

  3. Genotype by energy expenditure interaction with metabolic syndrome traits: the Portuguese healthy family study.

    Santos, Daniel M V; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Diego, Vincent P; Souza, Michele C; Chaves, Raquel N; Blangero, John; Maia, José A R

    2013-01-01

    Moderate-to-high levels of physical activity are established as preventive factors in metabolic syndrome development. However, there is variability in the phenotypic expression of metabolic syndrome under distinct physical activity conditions. In the present study we applied a Genotype X Environment interaction method to examine the presence of GxEE interaction in the phenotypic expression of metabolic syndrome. A total of 958 subjects, from 294 families of The Portuguese Healthy Family study, were included in the analysis. Total daily energy expenditure was assessed using a 3 day physical activity diary. Six metabolic syndrome related traits, including waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, glucose, HDL cholesterol, total cholesterol and triglycerides, were measured and adjusted for age and sex. GxEE examination was performed on SOLAR 4.3.1. All metabolic syndrome indicators were significantly heritable. The GxEE interaction model fitted the data better than the polygenic model (pmetabolic syndrome traits expression is significantly influenced by the interaction established between total daily energy expenditure and genotypes. Physical activity may be considered an environmental variable that promotes metabolic differences between individuals that are distinctively active.

  4. Nutrition-based interventions to address metabolic syndrome in the Navajo: a systematic review.

    Nava, Lorenzo T; Zambrano, Jenelle M; Arviso, Karen P; Brochetti, Denise; Becker, Kathleen L

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this systematic review is to identify nutrition-based interventions that may be effective for the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome in the Navajo. Metabolic syndrome, a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, affects almost half of the Navajo population. The diet of the Navajo, heavy in fat and refined carbohydrates, has been identified as an important contributing factor to the high rates of metabolic syndrome in this population. A search was conducted on PubMed, EMBASE and CINAHL to identify studies published before October, 2013, involving nutrition-based interventions in adult populations similar to the Navajo targeting at least one measure of metabolic syndrome. Data on efficacy and participation were gathered and synthesised qualitatively. Out of 19 studies included in this systematic review, 11 interventions were identified to be effective at improving at least one measure of metabolic syndrome. Level of exposure to the intervention, frequency of intervention activities, family and social support, cultural adaptation and case management were identified as factors that may improve the efficacy of an intervention. Multiple nutrition-based interventions have been found to be effective in populations similar to the Navajo. Development of a strategy to address metabolic syndrome in the Navajo may involve aspects from multiple interventions to increase efficacy and maximise participation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The Metabolic Syndrome, Oxidative Stress, Environment, and Cardiovascular Disease: The Great Exploration

    Rebecca Hutcheson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic syndrome affects 30% of the US population with increasing prevalence. In this paper, we explore the relationship between the metabolic syndrome and the incidence and severity of cardiovascular disease in general and coronary artery disease (CAD in particular. Furthermore, we look at the impact of metabolic syndrome on outcomes of coronary revascularization therapies including CABG, PTCA, and coronary collateral development. We also examine the association between the metabolic syndrome and its individual component pathologies and oxidative stress. Related, we explore the interaction between the main external sources of oxidative stress, cigarette smoke and air pollution, and metabolic syndrome and the effect of this interaction on CAD. We discuss the apparent lack of positive effect of antioxidants on cardiovascular outcomes in large clinical trials with emphasis on some of the limitations of these trials. Finally, we present evidence for successful use of antioxidant properties of pharmacological agents, including metformin, statins, angiotensin II type I receptor blockers (ARBs, and angiotensin II converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors, for prevention and treatment of the cardiovascular complications of the metabolic syndrome.

  6. Selenium intake and metabolic syndrome: A systematic review.

    Retondario, Anabelle; Fernandes, Ricardo; Rockenbach, Gabriele; Alves, Mariane de Almeida; Bricarello, Liliana Paula; Trindade, Erasmo Benicio Santos de Moraes; Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes de

    2018-03-02

    Metabolic syndrome is a multi-causal disease. Its treatment includes lifestyle changes with a focus on weight loss. This systematic review assessed the association between Selenium intake and metabolic syndrome. Data were collected mainly from four databases: PubMed, CENTRAL (Cochrane), Scopus and Web of Knowledge. Keywords related to metabolic syndrome, selenium, as well as metabolic syndrome features were searched. This review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Statement. A systematic review protocol was registered at PROSPERO (n. 42016046321). Two reviewers independently screened 2957 abstracts. Six studies were included to perform data extraction with standardized spreadsheets. The risk of bias was assessed by using specific tools according to the design of the relevant studies. An assessment was carried out based on the appropriateness of the study reports accordingly to STROBE and the CONSORT-based checklist for each study design. Three studies found no association between Selenium intake and metabolic syndrome; two of them found an inverse association; and one study found a direct association between Selenium intake and metabolic syndrome. One study also showed an inverse association between Selenium intake and the prevalence of high waist circumference, high diastolic blood pressure, and hyperglycaemia in women. Overall, based on the argumentation and results of this study, it is possible to conclude that Selenium intake and metabolic syndrome are not clearly associated in adults and elderly. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  7. Association of Bone Mineral Density with the Metabolic Syndrome

    Kang, Yeong Han; Kam, Shin

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and the metabolic syndrome. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1204 adults(males: 364 females: 840) in a general hospital health promotion center. They were grouped into the normal and lower BMD group according to bone loss(osteopenia, osteoporosis), as determined by duel energy X-ray absorptiometery (DEXA). We analyzed the association between BMD and metabolic syndrome by multiple logistic regression analysis. After adjustment for age, weight, alcohol intake, smoking, regular exercise, regular intake of meals, and menopausal status, odds ratios for the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome by gender were calculated for lower BMD. After adjustment for the effect of potential covariates, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was associated with bone loss in men (p<0.001). If the odds ratio of normal group is 1.00, then that of the lower BMD group is 3.07 (95% CI=1.83-5.16). The prevalence of metabolic alterations fitting the criteria of metabolic syndrome was significantly decreased in High BMI, Low HDL in men and in High BMI in women (p<0.05). This study shows that BMD was associated with metabolic syndrome. Further studies needed to obtain evidence concerning the association between BMD and metabolic syndrome.

  8. Association of Bone Mineral Density with the Metabolic Syndrome

    Kang, Yeong Han [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Daegu Catholic University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kam, Shin [Dept. of Preventtive MedicinE, College of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and the metabolic syndrome. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1204 adults(males: 364 females: 840) in a general hospital health promotion center. They were grouped into the normal and lower BMD group according to bone loss(osteopenia, osteoporosis), as determined by duel energy X-ray absorptiometery (DEXA). We analyzed the association between BMD and metabolic syndrome by multiple logistic regression analysis. After adjustment for age, weight, alcohol intake, smoking, regular exercise, regular intake of meals, and menopausal status, odds ratios for the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome by gender were calculated for lower BMD. After adjustment for the effect of potential covariates, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was associated with bone loss in men (p<0.001). If the odds ratio of normal group is 1.00, then that of the lower BMD group is 3.07 (95% CI=1.83-5.16). The prevalence of metabolic alterations fitting the criteria of metabolic syndrome was significantly decreased in High BMI, Low HDL in men and in High BMI in women (p<0.05). This study shows that BMD was associated with metabolic syndrome. Further studies needed to obtain evidence concerning the association between BMD and metabolic syndrome.

  9. Metabolic syndrome among urban Indian young adults: prevalence and associated risk factors.

    Manjunath, Dinaker; Uthappa, Chengapp Kechamada; Kattula, Sri Rama; Allam, Ramesh Reddy; Chava, Nalini; Oruganti, Ganesh

    2014-09-01

    We estimated the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among urban Indian young adults (18-25 years) as defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III), Internation Diabetes Federation (IDF), and Indian consensus statement criteria. We included 473 urban young adults through simple random sampling methodology to estimate the prevalence and associated risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was estimated to be 3.6 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.2-5.8], 6.6% (95% CI 4.6-9.1), and 8.7% (95% CI 6.4-11.6) using the NCEP ATP III, IDF, and Indian consensus statement criteria, respectively. Men had significantly higher waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, and triglycerides, whereas mean concentrations of both high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and total cholesterol were significantly higher among women. Low HDL-C (38.9%), high blood pressure (26%), and central obesity (16.1%) were the most common component risk factors. Although less than 4% of normal weight adults met the criteria for metabolic syndrome, rates increased in overweight individuals and reached a prevalence of 87% in the obese participants. In all, 61.3% of the total population had one or more risk factors for metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is high among urban young adults in India, and it increased with increase in body mass index (BMI). Each component risk factor in isolated form-increased BMI, smoking, and history of hypertension--is an associated risk factor for metabolic syndrome. Although it is unclear whether metabolic syndrome screening in young Indians as a means to prevent adverse cardiovascular health outcomes is appropriate, healthy lifestyles should nevertheless be encouraged, and young adults should be considered as an important group for cardiovascular risk reduction programs.

  10. Association of Metabolic Syndrome and Hidradenitis Suppurativa

    Miller, Iben Marie; Ellervik, Christina; Vinding, Gabrielle Randskov

    2014-01-01

    ,predominantly female, and more often smokers compared with the non-HS group.EXPOSURE Hidradenitis suppurativa.MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Metabolic syndrome and its components of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and obesity.RESULTS When compared with the non-HS group, the odds ratios (ORs.......62 (95%CI, 1.73-7.60) and 2.24 (95%CI, 1.78-2.82), respectively, for abdominal obesity. With regard to dyslipidemia, significant results were found for decreased levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, with ORs of 2.97 (95%CI, 1.45-6.08) and 1.94(95%CI, 1.52-2.48) for the hospital HS and general...

  11. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS, metabolic syndrome and mental health in small enterprise workers. feasibility of an Action for Health.

    Sergio Garbarino

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS, metabolic syndrome and common mental disorders in the working population of 11 small enterprises and the feasibility of a program of action for health. METHOD: The clinical risk of OSAS, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, and the level of psychological disorders were assessed during routine medical examination at the workplace in 2012. The response to medical advice was assessed in 2013. RESULTS: 12.3% of the workers were suspected of being affected by OSAS. One or more components of metabolic syndrome were present in 24.5% of cases. OSAS in "healthy" workers was significantly associated with the presence of one or more components of metabolic syndrome (OR = 3.83; 95%CI 1.45-10.13 and with a psychological disorders score in the highest quartile (OR = 4.67; 95%CI = 1.72-12.64. Workers with suspected OSAS were reluctant to follow advice about undergoing further tests under the NHS. However, in some cases, confirmation of the OSAS diagnosis and subsequent treatment led to an improvement in metabolic condition. CONCLUSION: Although participation in treatment was limited, anecdotal cases support the idea that prevention of obstructive sleep apnea in the workplace might be useful for workers' health.

  12. Hormonal contraception in obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and diabetes

    Skouby, S.O.

    2010-01-01

    The rate of obesity worldwide is currently at epidemic proportions. As part of obesity, the metabolic syndrome describes a clustering of metabolic abnormalities that increase the cardiovascular and diabetes risk. In particular, women from developing countries have diabetes in the reproductive age...... diabetes, hormonal contraception should therefore be part of the highly needed preconception care and metabolic control...

  13. Hormonal Contraception in obestiy, the metabolic syndrome, and diabetes

    Skouby, Sven O.

    2010-01-01

    The rate of obesity worldwide is currently at epidemic proportions. As part of obesity, the metabolic syndrome describes a clustering of metabolic abnormalities that increase the cardiovascular and diabetes risk. In particular, women from developing countries have diabetes in the reproductive age...... diabetes, hormonal contraception should therefore be part of the highly needed preconception care and metabolic control...

  14. What do we know about metabolic syndrome in adolescents with PCOS?

    Cırık, Derya Akdağ; Dilbaz, Berna

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy of reproductive-aged women that manifests itself with a variety of features. For this reason, three different diagnostic criteria have been introduced. For adults, the National Institutes of Health Conference (NIH) criteria, which consists of hyperandrogenism and oligo-anovulation, is the most widely used. Symptoms of PCOS usually start with puberty and may overlap with normal pubertal development. Hormonal fluctuations during this period make the diagnosis of PCOS more difficult. Until now, there is no validated diagnostic criteria for PCOS in adolescents. Although menstrual disorders and cosmetic problems are the most common complaints of adolescents with PCOS, patients should also be evaluated for the potential risk for insulin resistance, obesity, subclinical atherosclerosis, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Obesity is the most prominent predictor of metabolic syndrome. As the incidence of obesity is increasing both in childhood and adolescence, governments will be faced with a social and economic burden in the future. Adolescents with PCOS are more obese than normal adolescents and have an increased risk of metabolic syndrome. It is suggested that abdominal adiposity increases the risk of metabolic syndrome by inducing various cytokine secretions. Although there is no consensus on metabolic syndrome criteria in the adolescent period, International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria may be used for children older than 10 years. Various clinical and metabolic markers are investigated for the prediction of metabolic syndrome in the literature. Waist circumference, serum triglycerides and androgens are the suspected predictors of metabolic syndrome. The prevention of abdominal adiposity and the early diagnosis of PCOS in adolescence should be the main target for the prevention of metabolic syndrome. Clinicians should investigate adolescents with PCOS for metabolic and

  15. What do we know about metabolic syndrome in adolescents with PCOS?

    Cırık, Derya Akdağ; Dilbaz, Berna

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy of reproductive-aged women that manifests itself with a variety of features. For this reason, three different diagnostic criteria have been introduced. For adults, the National Institutes of Health Conference (NIH) criteria, which consists of hyperandrogenism and oligo-anovulation, is the most widely used. Symptoms of PCOS usually start with puberty and may overlap with normal pubertal development. Hormonal fluctuations during this period make the diagnosis of PCOS more difficult. Until now, there is no validated diagnostic criteria for PCOS in adolescents. Although menstrual disorders and cosmetic problems are the most common complaints of adolescents with PCOS, patients should also be evaluated for the potential risk for insulin resistance, obesity, subclinical atherosclerosis, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Obesity is the most prominent predictor of metabolic syndrome. As the incidence of obesity is increasing both in childhood and adolescence, governments will be faced with a social and economic burden in the future. Adolescents with PCOS are more obese than normal adolescents and have an increased risk of metabolic syndrome. It is suggested that abdominal adiposity increases the risk of metabolic syndrome by inducing various cytokine secretions. Although there is no consensus on metabolic syndrome criteria in the adolescent period, International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria may be used for children older than 10 years. Various clinical and metabolic markers are investigated for the prediction of metabolic syndrome in the literature. Waist circumference, serum triglycerides and androgens are the suspected predictors of metabolic syndrome. The prevention of abdominal adiposity and the early diagnosis of PCOS in adolescence should be the main target for the prevention of metabolic syndrome. Clinicians should investigate adolescents with PCOS for metabolic and

  16. Cardiac ryanodine receptor in metabolic syndrome: is JTV519 (K201 future therapy?

    Dincer UD

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available U Deniz DincerDepartment of Pharmacology, Ufuk University School of Medicine. Mevlana Bulvari, Balgat, Ankara, TurkeyAbstract: Metabolic syndrome is characterized by a combination of obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and impaired glucose tolerance. This multifaceted syndrome is often accompanied by a hyperdynamic circulatory state characterized by increased blood pressure, total blood volume, cardiac output, and metabolic tissue demand. Experimental, epidemiological, and clinical studies have demonstrated that patients with metabolic syndrome have significantly elevated cardiovascular morbidity and mortality rates. One of the main and frequent complications seen in metabolic syndrome is cardiovascular disease. The primary endpoints of cardiometabolic risk are coronary and peripheral arterial disease, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, arrhythmia, and stroke. Alterations in expression and/or functioning of several key proteins involved in regulating and maintaining ionic homeostasis can cause cardiac disturbances. One such group of proteins is known as ryanodine receptors (intracellular calcium release channels, which are the major channels through which Ca2+ ions leave the sarcoplasmic reticulum, leading to cardiac muscle contraction. The economic cost of metabolic syndrome and its associated complications has a significant effect on health care budgets. Improvements in body weight, blood lipid profile, and hyperglycemia can reduce cardiometabolic risk. However, constant hyperadrenergic stimulation still contributes to the burden of disease. Normalization of the hyperdynamic circulatory state with conventional therapies is the most reasonable therapeutic strategy to date. JTV519 (K201 is a newly developed 1,4-benzothiazepine drug with antiarrhythmic and cardioprotective properties. It appears to be very effective in not only preventing but also in reversing the characteristic myocardial changes and preventing

  17. Refeeding and metabolic syndromes: two sides of the same coin

    Obeid, O A; Hachem, D H; Ayoub, J J

    2014-01-01

    Refeeding syndrome describes the metabolic and clinical changes attributed to aggressive rehabilitation of malnourished subjects. The metabolic changes of refeeding are related to hypophosphatemia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, sodium retention and hyperglycemia, and these are believed to be mainly the result of increased insulin secretion following high carbohydrate intake. In the past few decades, increased consumption of processed food (refined cereals, oils, sugar and sweeteners, and so on) lowered the intake of several macrominerals (mainly phosphorus, potassium and magnesium). This seems to have compromised the postprandial status of these macrominerals, in a manner that mimics low grade refeeding syndrome status. At the pathophysiological level, this condition favored the development of the different components of the metabolic syndrome. Thus, it is reasonable to postulate that metabolic syndrome is the result of long term exposure to a mild refeeding syndrome. PMID:24979149

  18. High prevalence of metabolic syndrome in antisynthetase syndrome.

    Araujo, Paula A O; Silva, Marilda Guimarães; Borba, Eduardo Ferreira; Shinjo, Samuel K

    2018-01-01

    A high frequency of metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been recently described in different idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, but not in antisynthetase syndrome (ASS). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of MetS in ASS and also its possible association with cardiovascular the risk factors and ASS-related disease characteristics. A cross-sectional single centre study of 42 consecutive ASS patients was conducted from 2012 to 2015 and compared to 84 healthy individuals matched for gender, age, ethnicity and body mass index-matched (control group). MetS was defined according to the 2009 Join Interim Statement. Clinical and laboratory data were assessed according to a standardised protocol. ASS patients had a median age of 41.1 years with a predominance of female gender and white race. ASS patients had a higher frequency of MetS (42.9% vs. 13.1%; pASS patients had higher resistin, lower leptin and similar adiponectin levels in serum than controls. Further analysis of ASS patients with (n=18) and without (n=24) MetS revealed that older age at disease onset (48.7 vs. 35.4 years; pASS patients that also had serum resistin and low leptin levels. As also identified in other idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, MetS in ASS is more prevalent in older patients.

  19. Laminitis and the equine metabolic syndrome.

    Johnson, Philip J; Wiedmeyer, Charles E; LaCarrubba, Alison; Ganjam, V K Seshu; Messer, Nat T

    2010-08-01

    Although much has been written about laminitis in the context of its association with inflammatory processes, recognition is growing that most cases of laminitis examined by veterinarians in private practice are those associated with pasture grazing, obesity, and insulin resistance (IR). The term 'endocrinopathic laminitis' has been adopted to classify the instances of laminitis in which the origin seems to be more strongly associated with an underlying endocrinopathy, such as either IR or the influence of corticosteroids. Results of a recent study suggest that obesity and IR represent the most common metabolic and endocrinopathic predispositions for laminitis in horses. IR also plays an important role in the pathogenesis of laminitis that develops when some horses or ponies are allowed to graze pastures at certain times of the year. The term equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) has been proposed as a label for horses whose clinical examination results (including both physical examination and laboratory testing) suggest heightened risk for developing laminitis as a result of underlying IR. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Metabolic syndrome and metabolic risk profile according to polycystic ovary syndrome phenotype.

    Bil, Enes; Dilbaz, Berna; Cirik, Derya Akdag; Ozelci, Runa; Ozkaya, Enis; Dilbaz, Serdar

    2016-07-01

    It is unknown which phenotype of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has a greater metabolic risk and how to detect this risk. The aim of this study was therefore to compare the incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and metabolic risk profile (MRP) for different phenotypes. A total of 100 consecutive newly diagnosed PCOS women in a tertiary referral hospital were recruited. Patients were classified into four phenotypes according to the Rotterdam criteria, on the presence of at least two of the three criteria hyperandrogenism (H), oligo/anovulation (O) and PCO appearance (P): phenotype A, H + O + P; phenotype B, H + O; phenotype C, H + P; phenotype D, O + P. Prevalence of MetS and MRP were compared among the four groups. Based on Natural Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III diagnostic criteria, MetS prevalence was higher in phenotypes A and B (29.6% and 34.5%) compared with the other phenotypes (10.0% and 8.3%; P 3.8 was significantly higher in androgenic PCOS phenotypes. After logistic regression analysis, visceral adiposity index (VAI) was the only independent predictor of MetS in PCOS (P = 0.002). VAI was also significantly higher in phenotype B, when compared with the others (P risk of MetS among the four phenotypes, and VAI may be a predictor of metabolic risk in PCOS women. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  1. Beta Glucan: Health Benefits in Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome

    D. El Khoury

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the lack of international agreement regarding the definition and classification of fiber, there is established evidence on the role of dietary fibers in obesity and metabolic syndrome. Beta glucan (β-glucan is a soluble fiber readily available from oat and barley grains that has been gaining interest due to its multiple functional and bioactive properties. Its beneficial role in insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and obesity is being continuously documented. The fermentability of β-glucans and their ability to form highly viscous solutions in the human gut may constitute the basis of their health benefits. Consequently, the applicability of β-glucan as a food ingredient is being widely considered with the dual purposes of increasing the fiber content of food products and enhancing their health properties. Therefore, this paper explores the role of β-glucans in the prevention and treatment of characteristics of the metabolic syndrome, their underlying mechanisms of action, and their potential in food applications.

  2. Pathogenesis of the Metabolic Syndrome: Insights from Monogenic Disorders

    Rinki Murphy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying rare human metabolic disorders that result from a single-gene defect has not only enabled improved diagnostic and clinical management of such patients, but also has resulted in key biological insights into the pathophysiology of the increasingly prevalent metabolic syndrome. Insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are linked to obesity and driven by excess caloric intake and reduced physical activity. However, key events in the causation of the metabolic syndrome are difficult to disentangle from compensatory effects and epiphenomena. This review provides an overview of three types of human monogenic disorders that result in (1 severe, non-syndromic obesity, (2 pancreatic beta cell forms of early-onset diabetes, and (3 severe insulin resistance. In these patients with single-gene defects causing their exaggerated metabolic disorder, the primary defect is known. The lessons they provide for current understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of the common metabolic syndrome are highlighted.

  3. Effects of superfoods on risk factors of metabolic syndrome: a systematic review of human intervention trials.

    van den Driessche, José J; Plat, Jogchum; Mensink, Ronald P

    2018-04-25

    Functional foods can be effective in the prevention of metabolic syndrome and subsequently the onset of cardiovascular diseases and type II diabetes mellitus. More recently, however, another term was introduced to describe foods with additional health benefits: "superfoods", for which, to date, no generally accepted definition exists. Nonetheless, their consumption might contribute to the prevention of metabolic syndrome, for example due to the presence of potentially bioactive compounds. This review provides an overview of controlled human intervention studies with foods described as "superfoods" and their effects on metabolic syndrome parameters. First, an Internet search was performed to identify foods described as superfoods. For these superfoods, controlled human intervention trials were identified until April 2017 investigating the effects of superfood consumption on metabolic syndrome parameters: waist circumference or BMI, blood pressure, or concentrations of HDL cholesterol, triacylglycerol or glucose. Seventeen superfoods were identified, including a total of 113 intervention trials: blueberries (8 studies), cranberries (8), goji berries (3), strawberries (7), chili peppers (3), garlic (21), ginger (10), chia seed (5), flaxseed (22), quinoa (1), cocoa (16), maca (1), spirulina (7), wheatgrass (1), acai berries (0), hemp seed (0) and bee pollen (0). Overall, only limited evidence was found for the effects of the foods described as superfoods on metabolic syndrome parameters, since results were not consistent or the number of controlled intervention trials was limited. The inconsistencies might have been related to intervention-related factors, such as duration or dose. Furthermore, conclusions may be different if other health benefits are considered.

  4. Supervised exercise improves cutaneous reinnervation capacity in metabolic syndrome patients.

    Singleton, J Robinson; Marcus, Robin L; Lessard, Margaret K; Jackson, Justin E; Smith, A Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Unmyelinated cutaneous axons are vulnerable to physical and metabolic injury, but also capable of rapid regeneration. This balance may help determine risk for peripheral neuropathy associated with diabetes or metabolic syndrome. Capsaicin application for 48 hours induces cutaneous fibers to die back into the dermis. Regrowth can be monitored by serial skin biopsies to determine intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD). We used this capsaicin axotomy technique to examine the effects of exercise on cutaneous regenerative capacity in the setting of metabolic syndrome. Baseline ankle IENFD and 30-day cutaneous regeneration after thigh capsaicin axotomy were compared for participants with type 2 diabetes (n = 35) or metabolic syndrome (n = 32) without symptoms or examination evidence of neuropathy. Thirty-six participants (17 with metabolic syndrome) then joined twice weekly observed exercise and lifestyle counseling. Axotomy regeneration was repeated in month 4 during this intervention. Baseline distal leg IENFD was significantly reduced for both metabolic syndrome and diabetic groups. With exercise, participants significantly improved exercise capacity and lower extremity power. Following exercise, 30-day reinnervation rate improved (0.051 ± 0.027 fibers/mm/day before vs 0.072 ± 0.030 after exercise, p = 0.002). Those who achieved improvement in more metabolic syndrome features experienced a greater degree of 30-day reinnervation (p Metabolic syndrome was associated with reduced baseline IENFD and cutaneous regeneration capacity comparable to that seen in diabetes. Exercise-induced improvement in metabolic syndrome features increased cutaneous regenerative capacity. The results underscore the potential benefit to peripheral nerve function of a behavioral modification approach to metabolic improvement. © 2014 American Neurological Association.

  5. Association of Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components with Knee Osteoarthritis

    Shahpoor Maddah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The association of obesity and other metabolic conditions with osteoarthritis is under debate; however, a strong link between metabolic disturbances is suggested to contribute to increased incidences and progression of osteoarthritis. We examined the association of metabolic syndrome and its components with the incidence of knee osteoarthritis in Iranian population. A community-based study was conducted on a total of 625 Iranian volunteers with the complaint of knee pain. Weight-bearing and anteroposterior plain radiographs of both knees were taken on the day of admission. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed using the modified Adult Treatment Panel III of the National Cholesterol Education Program criteria. Prevalence rates of metabolic syndrome were 22.5% in males and 11.6% in females (P=0.002. The prevalence rate of knee osteoarthritis was 20.0% in males and 43.8% of females (P<0.001. In both genders, osteoarthritis group had higher serum levels of triglyceride and systolic blood pressure in comparison with non-osteoarthritis group. Women with osteoarthritis had higher Body Mass Index (BMI, however, this association was not observed in men. In females, the presence of osteoarthritis was significantly associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome, with the risk of metabolic syndrome in the osteoarthritis group at 2.187 fold the risk in the non-osteoarthritis group. But, the presence of osteoarthritis was not associated with metabolic syndrome in males. Metabolic syndrome mainly through high BMI is associated with knee osteoarthritis in the Iranian women, but neither metabolic syndrome nor any related components are associated with knee osteoarthritis in men.

  6. Radiology of syndromes and metabolic disorders

    Taybi, H.; Lachman, R.

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe both the clinical and radiologic manifestations of 700 syndromes. They provide illustrations describing each syndrome and descriptions of those syndromes discovered since publication of a previous edition

  7. [Clinical analysis of metabolic syndrome in vertiginous diseases].

    Yamanaka, Toshiaki; Fukuda, Takehiko; Sawai, Yachiyo; Shirota, Shiho; Shimizu, Naoki; Murai, Takayuki; Okamoto, Hideyuki; Fujita, Nobuya; Hosoi, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    To explore the relationship between metabolic syndrome and vertigo, we measured waist circumference, plasma glucose, triglycerides and blood pressure in 333 subjects aged 20-79 years with vertigo. We found overall metabolic syndrome prevalence defined by Japanese diagnostic criteria to be 13.2%, similar to that in other national surveys by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. The 6-fold higher prevalence in men over women exceeded that of other reports, however. The highest frequency was in vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI) disorders, suggesting that conditions such as VBI in men with vertigo could involve metabolic syndrome as a risk factor for vertigo incidence.

  8. Metabolic Syndrome in Schizophrenia: A Non‑systematic Review

    Marta Nascimento

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The link between mental illness and metabolic disturbances has been recognized since the beginning of the last century. The debate concerning medical morbidity in schizophrenia intensified during the last twenty years, especially after the introduction of atypical antipsychotics. Aims: To highlight some features of the metabolic syndrome in this population, specifically epidemiological data, underlying mechanisms and antipsychotic therapy. Methods: Non‑systematic review of literature. Results and Conclusions: Despite the different criteria used for the definition of metabolic syndrome, it is clear today that the schizophrenic population has the highest rate of metabolic syndrome. Additionally, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in this population demonstrates a geographical distribution similar to the general population. Although it hasn’t been recognized for years, schizophrenic patients’ vulnerability to develop metabolic disturbances isn’t entirely related to antipsychotic therapy. Actually, it results from an interaction of multiple factors, including hereditary, genetic, biochemical and environmental ones (which include antipsychotic therapy. Moreover, they are not exclusively explained by weight gain. Metabolic disturbances are one of the main concerns related to general psychopharmacology. The differences between typical and atypical antipsychotics in terms of metabolic syndrome are not completely established. However, clozapine and olanzapine are recognized to have the worst metabolic profile, amongst all atypical antipsychotics.

  9. Metabolic Syndrome in Schizophrenia: A Non‑systematic Review

    Marta Nascimento

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The link between mental illness and metabolic disturbances has been recognized since the beginning of the last century. The debate concerning medical morbidity in schizophrenia intensified during the last twenty years, especially after the introduction of atypical antipsychotics. Aims: To highlight some features of the metabolic syndrome in this population, specifically epidemiological data, underlying mechanisms and antipsychotic therapy. Methods: Non‑systematic review of literature. Results and Conclusions: Despite the different criteria used for the definition of metabolic syndrome, it is clear today that the schizophrenic population has the highest rate of metabolic syndrome. Additionally, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in this population demonstrates a geographical distribution similar to the general population. Although it hasn’t been recognized for years, schizophrenic patients’ vulnerability to develop metabolic disturbances isn’t entirely related to antipsychotic therapy. Actually, it results from an interaction of multiple factors, including hereditary, genetic, biochemical and environmental ones (which include antipsychotic therapy. Moreover, they are not exclusively explained by weight gain. Metabolic disturbances are one of the main concerns related to general psychopharmacology. The differences between typical and atypical antipsychotics in terms of metabolic syndrome are not completely established. However, clozapine and olanzapine are recognized to have the worst metabolic profile, amongst all atypical antipsychotics.

  10. Increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with acne inversa.

    Robert Sabat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acne inversa (AI; also designated as Hidradenitis suppurativa is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease, localized in the axillary, inguinal and perianal skin areas that causes painful, fistulating sinuses with malodorous purulence and scars. Several chronic inflammatory diseases are associated with the metabolic syndrome and its consequences including arteriosclerosis, coronary heart disease, myocardial infraction, and stroke. So far, the association of AI with systemic metabolic alterations is largely unexplored. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A hospital-based case-control study in 80 AI patients and 100 age- and sex-matched control participants was carried out. The prevalence of central obesity (odds ratio 5.88, hypertriglyceridemia (odds ratio 2.24, hypo-HDL-cholesterolemia (odds ratio 4.56, and hyperglycemia (odds ratio 4.09 in AI patients was significantly higher than in controls. Furthermore, the metabolic syndrome, previously defined as the presence of at least three of the five alterations listed above, was more common in those patients compared to controls (40.0% versus 13.0%; odds ratio 4.46, 95% confidence interval 2.02 to 9.96; P<0.001. AI patients with metabolic syndrome also had more pronounced metabolic alterations than controls with metabolic syndrome. Interestingly, there was no correlation between the severity or duration of the disease and the levels of respective parameters or the number of criteria defining the metabolic syndrome. Rather, the metabolic syndrome was observed in a disproportionately high percentage of young AI patients. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows for the first time that AI patients have a high prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and all of its criteria. It further suggests that the inflammation present in AI patients does not have a major impact on the development of metabolic alterations. Instead, evidence is given for a role of metabolic alterations in the development of AI. We recommend

  11. Prevalence and factors associated with Metabolic Syndrome in elderly users of the Unified Health System

    Edna Cunha Vieira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with metabolic syndrome in the elderly. METHODS: Cross-sectional study, with 133 individuals randomly selected in the Unified Health System in Goiania, Goiás. The following variables were researched: anthropometric (BMI, waist circumference, fat percentage by Dual X-ray absorptiometry, sociodemographic (gender, age, color, income, marital status and years of schooling, lifestyle (physical activity, smoking and risk alcohol consumption and food intake (risk and protective foods. The metabolic syndrome was assessed according to harmonized criteria proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO. The combinations were tested by Poisson regression for confounding factors. RESULTS: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 58.65% (95%CI 49.8 - 67.1, with 60.5% (95%CI 49.01 - 71.18 for females and 55.7% (95%CI 41.33 - 69.53 for males. Hypertension was the most prevalent component of the syndrome in both men, with 80.8% (95%CI 64.5 - 90.4, and women, with 85.2% (95%CI 75.5 - 92.1. After the multivariate analysis, only the excess of weight measured by body mass index (prevalence ratio = 1.66; p < 0.01 remained associated with the metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in this sample was high, indicating the need for systematic actions by health workers in the control of risk factors through prevention strategies and comprehensive care to the elderly.

  12. Structural changes in the liver in metabolic syndrome

    D. V. Vasendin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientifically proven close relationship of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease with development of metabolic syndrome and its individual components involves the conclusion that the target organ in metabolic symptom, even regardless of the severity of obesity, the liver occupies a dominant position, as the body undergoes the first characteristic of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease changes, involving violation of metabolism in the body. Dislipoproteinemia plays an important role in the formation of metabolic syndrome in obesity and other obesity-associated diseases. Altered liver function are the root cause of violations of processes of lipid metabolism and, consequently, abnormal functioning of the liver may be a separate, additional and independent risk factor for development of dyslipidemia and obesity as the main component of the metabolic syndrome.

  13. Vitamin D Deficiency is Associated with the Metabolic Syndrome in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes

    Bahareh Nikooyeh

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: Our data showed that firstly higher vitamin D status is inversely associated with fasting glycemia, and secondly serum 25(OHD3 predicts MeS risk in the subjects with T2D. Demonstrating the association of hypovitaminosis D with disorders of glucose metabolism and higher risk for development of further complications, notably CVD, may lead to a new target for preventive efforts at the population level. Keywords: Vitamin D, Type 2 diabetes, Metabolic syndrome, Cardiovascular disease

  14. Cardiovascular Risk Stratification in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome Without Diabetes or Cardiovascular Disease: Usefulness of Metabolic Syndrome Severity Score.

    Masson, Walter; Epstein, Teo; Huerín, Melina; Lobo, Lorenzo Martín; Molinero, Graciela; Angel, Adriana; Masson, Gerardo; Millán, Diana; De Francesca, Salvador; Vitagliano, Laura; Cafferata, Alberto; Losada, Pablo

    2017-09-01

    The estimated cardiovascular risk determined by the different risk scores, could be heterogeneous in patients with metabolic syndrome without diabetes or vascular disease. This risk stratification could be improved by detecting subclinical carotid atheromatosis. To estimate the cardiovascular risk measured by different scores in patients with metabolic syndrome and analyze its association with the presence of carotid plaque. Non-diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome (Adult Treatment Panel III definition) without cardiovascular disease were enrolled. The Framingham score, the Reynolds score, the new score proposed by the 2013 ACC/AHA Guidelines and the Metabolic Syndrome Severity Calculator were calculated. Prevalence of carotid plaque was determined by ultrasound examination. A Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis was performed. A total of 238 patients were enrolled. Most patients were stratified as "low risk" by Framingham score (64%) and Reynolds score (70.1%). Using the 2013 ACC/AHA score, 45.3% of the population had a risk ≥7.5%. A significant correlation was found between classic scores but the agreement (concordance) was moderate. The correlation between classical scores and the Metabolic Syndrome Severity Calculator was poor. Overall, the prevalence of carotid plaque was 28.2%. The continuous metabolic syndrome score used in our study showed a good predictive power to detect carotid plaque (area under the curve 0.752). In this population, the calculated cardiovascular risk was heterogenic. The prevalence of carotid plaque was high. The Metabolic Syndrome Severity Calculator showed a good predictive power to detect carotid plaque.

  15. Inflammatory cause of metabolic syndrome via brain stress and NF-κB

    Cai, Dongsheng; Liu, Tiewen

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome, a network of medical disorders that greatly increase the risk for developing metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, has reached epidemic levels in many areas of today's world. Despite this alarming medicare situation, scientific understandings on the root mechanisms of metabolic syndrome are still limited, and such insufficient knowledge contributes to the relative lack of effective treatments or preventions for related diseases. Recent interdisciplinary studies from neuroendocrinology and neuroimmunology fields have revealed that overnutrition can trigger intracellular stresses to cause inflammatory changes mediated by molecules that control innate immunity. This type of nutrition-related molecular inflammation in the central nervous system, particularly in the hypothalamus, can form a common pathogenic basis for the induction of various metabolic syndrome components such as obesity, insulin resistance, and hypertension. Proinflammatory NF-κB pathway has been revealed as a key molecular system for pathologic induction of brain inflammation, which translates overnutrition and resulting intracellular stresses into central neuroendocrine and neural dysregulations of energy, glucose, and cardiovascular homeostasis, collectively leading to metabolic syndrome. This article reviews recent research advances in the neural mechanisms of metabolic syndrome and related diseases from the perspective of pathogenic induction by intracellular stresses and NF-κB pathway of the brain. PMID:22328600

  16. FTO is a relevant factor for the development of the metabolic syndrome in mice.

    Kathrin Ikels

    Full Text Available The metabolic syndrome is a worldwide problem mainly caused by obesity. FTO was found to be a obesity-risk gene in humans and FTO deficiency in mice led to reduction in adipose tissue. Thus, FTO is an important factor for the development of obesity. Leptin-deficient mice are a well characterized model for analysing the metabolic syndrome. To determine the relevance of FTO for the development of the metabolic syndrome we analysed different parameters in combined homozygous deficient mice (Lep(ob/ob;Fto(-/-. Lep(ob/ob;Fto(-/- mice showed an improvement in analysed hallmarks of the metabolic syndrome in comparison to leptin-deficient mice wild type or heterozygous for Fto. Lep(ob/ob;Fto(-/- mice did not develop hyperglycaemia and showed an improved glucose tolerance. Furthermore, extension of beta-cell mass was prevented in Lep(ob/ob;Fto(-/-mice and accumulation of ectopic fat in the liver was reduced. In conclusion this study demonstrates that FTO deficiency has a protective effect not only on the development of obesity but also on the metabolic syndrome. Thus, FTO plays an important role in the development of metabolic disorders and is an interesting target for therapeutic agents.

  17. Pathophysiology and therapeutics of cardiovascular disease in metabolic syndrome.

    Wang, Yabin; Yu, Qiujun; Chen, Yundai; Cao, Feng

    2013-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is characterized by a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors, including central obesity, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and hypertension, which are highly associated with increased morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The association between these metabolic disorders and the development of CVD is believed to be multifactorial, where insulin resistance, oxidative stress, low-grade inflammation and vascular maladaptation act as the major contributors. Therefore, multipronged therapeutic strategies should be taken for the management of patients with MetS. Lifestyle changes including weight control, healthy heart diet and regular exercises have been proposed as first line treatment to decrease CVD risks in MetS individuals. In addition, improving insulin resistance and glucose metabolism, controlling blood pressure as well as modulating dyslipidemia can also delay or reverse the progression of CVD in MetS. This review will first address the complicated interactions between MetS and CVD¸ followed by discussion about the optimal strategy in the prevention and treatment of CVD in MetS patients and the updated results from newly released clinical trials.

  18. Metabolic syndrome and the risk of adverse cardiovascular events after an acute coronary syndrome.

    Cavallari, Ilaria; Cannon, Christopher P; Braunwald, Eugene; Goodrich, Erica L; Im, KyungAh; Lukas, Mary Ann; O'Donoghue, Michelle L

    2018-05-01

    Background The incremental prognostic value of assessing the metabolic syndrome has been disputed. Little is known regarding its prognostic value in patients after an acute coronary syndrome. Design and methods The presence of metabolic syndrome (2005 International Diabetes Federation) was assessed at baseline in SOLID-TIMI 52, a trial of patients within 30 days of acute coronary syndrome (median follow-up 2.5 years). The primary endpoint was major coronary events (coronary heart disease death, myocardial infarction or urgent coronary revascularization). Results At baseline, 61.6% ( n = 7537) of patients met the definition of metabolic syndrome, 34.7% (n = 4247) had diabetes and 29.3% had both ( n = 3584). The presence of metabolic syndrome was associated with increased risk of major coronary events (adjusted hazard ratio (adjHR) 1.29, p metabolic syndrome was numerically but not significantly associated with the risk of major coronary events (adjHR 1.13, p = 0.06). Conversely, diabetes was a strong independent predictor of major coronary events in the absence of metabolic syndrome (adjHR 1.57, p metabolic syndrome identified patients at highest risk of adverse outcomes but the incremental value of metabolic syndrome was not significant relative to diabetes alone (adjHR 1.07, p = 0.54). Conclusions After acute coronary syndrome, diabetes is a strong and independent predictor of adverse outcomes. Assessment of the metabolic syndrome provides only marginal incremental value once the presence or absence of diabetes is established.

  19. Plasma proteome profiles associated with diet-induced metabolic syndrome and the early onset of metabolic syndrome in a pig model.

    Marinus F W te Pas

    Full Text Available Obesity and related diabetes are important health threatening multifactorial metabolic diseases and it has been suggested that 25% of all diabetic patients are unaware of their patho-physiological condition. Biomarkers for monitoring and control are available, but early stage predictive biomarkers enabling prevention of these diseases are still lacking. We used the pig as a model to study metabolic disease because humans and pigs share a multitude of metabolic similarities. Diabetes was chemically induced and control and diabetic pigs were either fed a high unsaturated fat (Mediterranean diet or a high saturated fat/cholesterol/sugar (cafeteria diet. Physiological parameters related to fat metabolism and diabetes were measured. Diabetic pigs' plasma proteome profiles differed more between the two diets than control pigs plasma proteome profiles. The expression levels of several proteins correlated well with (pathophysiological parameters related to the fat metabolism (cholesterol, VLDL, LDL, NEFA and diabetes (Glucose and to the diet fed to the animals. Studying only the control pigs as a model for metabolic syndrome when fed the two diets showed correlations to the same parameters but now more focused on insulin, glucose and abdominal fat depot parameters. We conclude that proteomic profiles can be used as a biomarker to identify pigs with developing metabolic syndrome (prediabetes and diabetes when fed a cafeteria diet. It could be developed into a potential biomarkers for the early recognition of metabolic diseases.

  20. Overlapping Clinical Features Between NAFLD and Metabolic Syndrome in Children

    Anna Alisi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is a cluster of pathological liver conditions of emerging importance in overweight and obese children. NAFLD is associated with central obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidaemia, which are considered to be the main features of metabolic syndrome (MetS. Prevention of the adverse outcomes of NAFLD, as well as the risk of MetS, depends on the identification of genetic background and environmental factors that modulate susceptibility to these diseases. However, several lines of evidence highlight the strong correlation and co-currency of these two chronic diseases, both in children and in adults. In the present review, we provide an overview of the current clinical proofs on the link between NAFLD and MetS in children, with particular focus on all the possible overlapping features that connect them at paediatric age.

  1. Metabolic syndrome after laparoscopic bariatric surgery.

    Nugent, Clare; Bai, Chunhong; Elariny, Hazem; Gopalakrishnan, Priya; Quigley, Caitlin; Garone, Michael; Afendy, Mariam; Chan, Oscar; Wheeler, Angela; Afendy, Arian; Younossi, Zobair M

    2008-10-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is common among morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery. The aim of this study was to assess the impact and predictors of bariatric surgery on the resolution of MS. Subjects included 286 patients [age 44.0 +/- 11.5, female 78.2%, BMI 48.7 +/- 9.4, waist circumference 139 +/- 20 cm, AST 23.5 +/- 14.9, ALT 30.0 +/- 20.1, type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) 30.1% and MS 39.2%] who underwent bariatric surgery. Of the entire cohort, 27.3% underwent malabsorptive surgery, 55.9% underwent restrictive surgery, and 16.8% had combination restrictive-malabsorptive surgery. Mean weight loss was 33.7 +/- 20.1 kg after restrictive surgery (follow up period 298 +/- 271 days), 39.4 +/- 22.9 kg after malabsorptive surgery (follow-up period 306 +/- 290 days), and 28.3 +/- 14.1 kg after combination surgery (follow-up period 281 +/- 239 days). Regardless of the type of bariatric surgery, significant improvements were noted in MS (p values from <0.0001-0.01) as well as its components such as DM (p values from <0.0001-0.0005), waist circumference (p values <0.0001), BMI (p values <0.0001), fasting serum triglycerides (p values <0.0001 to 0.001), and fasting serum glucose (p values <0.0001). Additionally, a significant improvement in AST/ALT ratio (p value = 0.0002) was noted in those undergoing restrictive surgery. Multivariate analysis showed that patients who underwent malabsorptive bariatric procedures experienced a significantly greater percent excess weight loss than patients who underwent restrictive procedures (p value = 0.0451). Percent excess weight loss increased with longer postoperative follow-up (p value <0.0001). Weight loss after bariatric surgery is associated with a significant improvement in MS and other metabolic factors.

  2. Unhealthy Lifestyle Behaviors in Korean People with Metabolic Syndrome.

    Moon, Seongmi

    2017-01-01

    This study identified factors associated with unhealthy lifestyle behaviors in people with metabolic syndrome in South Korea. The sample consisted of 1,207 subjects with metabolic syndrome from the Sixth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in 2014. High-risk alcohol consumption, smoking, aerobic physical activity, leisure physical activity, excessive carbohydrate intake, and fat intake were measured. A secondary data analysis was performed using chi-square tests and logistic regression. Gender was associated with all unhealthy behaviors. The number of metabolic syndrome components, a poor perceived health status, and attempts to control weight were associated with physical inactivity. Those findings may be helpful to develop a tailored lifestyle modification programs for people with metabolic syndrome.

  3. Enterovirus related metabolic myopathy: a postviral fatigue syndrome

    Lane, R; Soteriou, B; Zhang, H; Archard, L

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To detect and characterise enterovirus RNA in skeletal muscle from patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and to compare efficiency of muscle energy metabolism in enterovirus positive and negative CFS patients.

  4. Benefits of dark chocolate in treating metabolic syndrome.

    Sander, Ruth

    2012-08-31

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. The risk of developing it is significantly increased by the metabolic syndrome cluster of risk factors: waist measurement and other factors, such as blood pressure and cholesterol levels.

  5. Undiagnosed metabolic syndrome and other adverse effects among ...

    patients with metabolic syndrome,[9] this is a serious adverse effect of which the .... and Toronto Nocturnal Hypersalivation Scale (TNHS).[15] The presence ..... Positive and negative symptoms in affected sib pairs with schizophrenia: ...

  6. the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among active sportsmen

    User

    ABSTRACT. This study sought to establish the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) among active .... Table 1: General characteristic of the studied population stratified by exercise. Parameters ..... Prolonged adaptation to fat- rich diet ...

  7. The role of transient receptor potential channels in metabolic syndrome

    Liu, Daoyan; Zhu, Zhiming; Tepel, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is correlated with increased cardiovascular risk and characterized by several factors, including visceral obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. Several members of a large family of nonselective cation entry channels, e.g., transient receptor potential (TRP...

  8. Metabolic syndrome and its components among university students in Kenya.

    Mbugua, Samuel Mungai; Kimani, Samuel Thuo; Munyoki, Gilbert

    2017-11-28

    Metabolic syndrome refers to a cluster of interrelated disorders which occur together causing an increase in the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and diabetes. The university population is an understudied group despite the increase in the frequency of related disorders and metabolic risk factors e.g. obesity and diabetes, majorly due to the assumption that they are in their most active phase of life therefore healthy. This study looked at metabolic syndrome, the sedentary lifestyles and dietary habits present among university students attending Mount Kenya University, main campus. Stratified sampling was used to select participants. Self-administered questionnaires were issued to participants after a signed consent had been obtained following which clinical assessments and biochemical measures were performed. They included blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, anthropometric measurements; height, weight, BMI and waist circumference. Pearson's chi-square tests and non-parametric independent t-test were used to analyze the prevalence of metabolic syndrome criteria per gender, the number of metabolic syndrome criteria per BMI and prevalence of metabolic syndrome criteria per BMI category. The study established that 1.9% of the participants met the criteria for diagnosis of metabolic syndrome according to HJSS criteria. Among the elements, there was statistical difference in gender BMI and waist circumference. 11.8% of subjects had two metabolic syndrome components while 3.1% had three components while none of the subjects had all six components. Elevated triglycerides was the most prevalent defining component for metabolic syndrome. There is a statistically significant relationship between sedentary lifestyle and dietary habits as risk factors to metabolic syndrome. Young adults in university have begun developing metabolic syndrome and the risk of developing the syndrome continues to increase with the

  9. The Association between Oxidative Stress and Metabolic Syndrome in Adults

    Chung, So-Won; Kang, Sung-Goo; Rho, Jun-Seung; Kim, Ha-Na; Song, In-Sun; Lee, Yun-Ah; Heo, Soo-Jeong; Song, Sang-Wook

    2013-01-01

    Background In this Study, we investigated the effects of lifestyle and metabolic syndrome on free oxygen radical levels in men and women in Korea. Methods A total of 254 adults were included in this study from February 2011 to June 2012 at a health promotion center. Information of the lifestyles and presence of metabolic syndrome factors was obtained. Biochemical markers were measured and free oxygen radicals test (FORT) was performed on the blood. Results Of the 254 subjects, 86 (33.9%) had ...

  10. Asymptomatic hyperuricemia as a component of metabolic syndrome

    I. D. Bespalova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The level of uric acid in the blood serum of 103 patients with coronary heart disease was researched in clinical conditions. The interrelation with the components of the metabolic syndrome in patients on the background of individually selected pathogenetic therapy was studied. It was shown that the abdominal obesity has the highest correlation with the level of uric acid in a cluster of metabolic syndrome components.

  11. Circulating Levels of Uric Acid and Risk for Metabolic Syndrome.

    Rubio-Guerra, Alberto F; Morales-López, Herlinda; Garro-Almendaro, Ana K; Vargas-Ayala, German; Durán-Salgado, Montserrat B; Huerta-Ramírez, Saul; Lozano-Nuevo, Jose J

    2017-01-01

    Hyperuricemia leads to insulin resistance, whereas insulin resistance decreases renal excretion of uric acid, both mechanisms link elevated serum uric acid with metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study is to evaluate the probability for the development of metabolic syndrome in low-income young adults with hyperuricaemia. We evaluated 103 patients less than 40 years of age, from a low-income population, and without history of cardiovascular disease, in all of them the presence of metabolic syndrome was assessed in accordance with the International Diabetes Federation criteria. In all patients, fasting serum uric acid levels were measured; hyperuricaemia was defined as serum uric acid values 6.5 mg/dl in men and 5.1 mg/dl in women. Statistical analysis was performed with odds ratio. 83 of our patients (80.5%) suffered metabolic syndrome, the odds ratio for the presence of metabolic syndrome in patients with hyperuricaemia was 5.1 (p=0.002, I.C 1.8- 14.5). When patients were evaluated by gender a significantly association between hyperuricaemia and metabolic syndrome was found in women (odds ratio 3.6, p=0.048, C.I. 1.0-12.9), and men (odds ratio 10.2, p= 0.015, IC 1.5-13.2). When uric acid was correlated with the components of metabolic syndrome, we only found a positive correlation with waist circumference (r=0.483). Our results showed a significant association between hyperuricemia and metabolic syndrome in low-income young adults in Mexico. DR is associated with estimated risk of CVD in type 2 diabetic patients. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. Metabolic syndrome 2 years after laparoscopic gastric bypass.

    Guilbert, Lizbeth; Ortiz, Cristian J; Espinosa, Omar; Sepúlveda, Elisa M; Piña, Tatiana; Joo, Paul; Zerrweck, Carlos

    2018-04-01

    The latest diabetes consensus identified obesity as key component of the metabolic syndrome. The role of bariatric surgery over such syndrome has been less explored with a lack of long term studies, and especially among Mexicans. Retrospective study including patients with metabolic syndrome submitted to laparoscopic gastric bypass at a single institution with complete data after 24 months. The objective was to analyze the improvement of the syndrome and each component. Demographic, anthropometric, biochemical and clinical parameters were analyzed at 12 and 24 months. Secondarily weight loss and other parameters were also analyzed. Finally, an analysis of syndrome improvement related to weight loss was performed. Sixty-three patients were included. The 2 most common components associated with obesity were reduced HDL and raised glucose or Type 2 diabetes. There was a significant improvement of metabolic syndrome and its components, as well as for the rest of the analyzed data, from the first check point and throughout follow-up. Prevalence of such syndrome was 6.3% at 12 and 24 months. Hypertension and raised glucose or Type 2 diabetes were the components with the greatest and fastest improvement; HDL levels and obesity were the least improved. There was a direct relationship between percentage of excess weight loss or percentage of excess BMI loss, and syndrome's improvement. Patients with metabolic syndrome improved after gastric bypass, with results lasting after 2 years; other metabolic parameters important for cardiovascular risk were also positively affected. There was a relationship between the amount of weight loss and improvement of metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2018 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Children With Type 1 Diabetes in South of Iran

    Saki

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, in children with type one diabetes mellitus (T1DM for the first time in a population in the Middle East, and assess the influence of type of insulin therapy, daily dosage of insulin, family history of type 2 diabetes, gender and level of HbA1c on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on children with T1DM aged 2 years during years 2013 to 2014. Waist circumference, blood pressure, height and weight of children with diabetes, for calculation of body mass index (BMI, were measured by one physician. Fasting blood glucose and lipids were also measured. According to the age-modified standards of the ATPIII, metabolic syndrome was defined. All data were analyzed using the SPSS 18 software. Results In this study, 87 children with diabetes (48 females and 39 males aged 12.38 ± 4.2 were enrolled. Overall, 40.9% of our patients had hypertension, 55.2% had hypertriglyceridemia, 36.8% had low high-density lipoprotein (HDL and 6.9% of patients had abdominal obesity. Furthermore, 29.9% of these children had metabolic syndrome, which did not have a significant association with the type of insulin regimen (P = 0.97, nor the daily dosage of insulin (P = 0.234, however the serum concentration of HbA1c had a significant correlation with metabolic syndrome (P = 0.027. Conclusions This study provides evidence indicating high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in children with T1DM in southern Iran. Preventive programs aimed towards decreasing the risk factors of metabolic syndrome and interpretation of a healthier diet and physical activity for children with T1DM should be considered in our country.

  14. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in an Adult Urban Population of the West of Iran

    F. Sharifi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in an urban population of Zanjan, a province located to the west of Tehran. Methods. Randomly selected adults >20 years were studied using stratified sampling. Target study sample was 2941 (1396 males and 1545 females. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed using Adult Treatment Panel-III (ATP-III guidelines when any three of the following were present: central obesity, raised triglycerides ≥150 mg/dl, low high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol, blood pressure ≥130/≥85 mm Hg, and diabetes or fasting plasma glucose (FPG ≥100 mg/dl. Results. Metabolic syndrome was present in 697 (23.7% subjects (CI 95%:22%–25%, P = .001, prevalence was 23.1% in men and 24.4% in women (P : .4. The prevalence increased from 7.5% in the population younger than 30 y to 45.6% in ages more than 50 years. Low HDL was the most common metabolic abnormality in both sexes. Most of those with metabolic syndrome had three components of the syndrome (75.6%, 170 subjects (24.4% had four and none had five components simultaneously. The prevalence of obesity (BMI≥30 kg/m2, hypercholesterolemia (≥200 mg/dl and high LDL cholesterol (≥130 mg/dl was greater in the metabolic syndrome group than normal subjects (P = .00. Conclusions. There is a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in this urban population of the northern west of Iran. Focus of cardiovascular prevention should be undertaken in this area.

  15. Metabolic syndrome among individuals with heroin use disorders on methadone therapy: Prevalence, characteristics, and related factors.

    Vallecillo, Gabriel; Robles, María José; Torrens, Marta; Samos, Pilar; Roquer, Albert; Martires, Paula K; Sanvisens, Arantza; Muga, Roberto; Pedro-Botet, Juan

    2018-01-02

    Observational studies have reported a high prevalence of obesity and diabetes in subjects on methadone therapy; there are, however, limited data about metabolic syndrome. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and related factors in individuals with heroin use disorder on methadone therapy. A cross-sectional study in individuals with heroin use disorder on methadone therapy at a drug abuse outpatient center. Medical examinations and laboratory analyses after a 12-hour overnight fast were recorded. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria. One hundred and twenty-two subjects were included, with a mean age of 46.1 ± 9 years, a median body mass index (BMI) of 25.3 kg/m 2 (interquartile range [IQR]: 21.2-28), and 77.9% were men. Median exposure to methadone therapy was 13 years (IQR: 5-20). Overweight and obesity were present in 29.5% and 17.2% of the participants, respectively. Metabolic syndrome components were low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (51.6%), hypertriglyceridemia (36.8%), high blood pressure (36.8%), abdominal obesity (27.0%), and raised blood glucose levels (18.0%). Abdominal obesity was more prevalent in women (52% vs. 20%, P = >0.01) and high blood pressure more prevalent in men (41.1% vs. 22.2%, P = .07). Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 29.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 16.6-31.8). In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, BMI (per 1 kg/m 2 increase odds ratio [OR]: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.27-1.76) and exposure time to methadone therapy (per 5 years of treatment increase OR: 1.38, 95% CI: 1.28-1.48) were associated with metabolic syndrome. Overweight and metabolic syndrome are prevalent findings in individuals with heroin use disorder on methadone therapy. Of specific concern is the association of methadone exposure with metabolic syndrome. Preventive measures and clinical routine screening should be

  16. Emerging health problems among women: Inactivity, obesity, and metabolic syndrome

    Yi-Ju Tsai

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The increase in obesity and metabolic syndrome has been documented worldwide. However, few studies have investigated the risk of inactivity, obesity, and metabolic syndrome specifically in women. Hormone balance plays a crucial role in regulating metabolism and helps to maintain optimal health. It is likely that the sex difference in obesity may be due to the variation in hormone concentration throughout a woman's life, which predisposes them to weight gain. This paper reviews previous literature and discusses factors that influence the risk of adiposity-related health consequences among women for three critical biological transitions throughout a woman's life: puberty, menopause, and pregnancy. To improve quality of life and metabolic health for women, interventions are needed to target women at different transition stages and provide tailored health education programs. Interventions should raise awareness of physical inactivity, obesity, and metabolic syndrome, and promote healthy behavioral change in women.

  17. Adipose Tissue Dysfunction in Nascent Metabolic Syndrome

    Andrew A. Bremer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic syndrome (MetS confers an increased risk for both type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and cardiovascular disease (CVD. Moreover, studies on adipose tissue biology in nascent MetS uncomplicated by T2DM and/or CVD are scanty. Recently, we demonstrated that adipose tissue dysregulation and aberrant adipokine secretion contribute towards the syndrome’s low-grade chronic proinflammatory state and insulin resistance. Specifically, we have made the novel observation that subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT in subjects with nascent MetS has increased macrophage recruitment with cardinal crown-like structures. We have also shown that subjects with nascent MetS have increased the levels of SAT-secreted adipokines (IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, leptin, RBP-4, CRP, SAA, PAI-1, MCP-1, and chemerin and plasma adipokines (IL-1, IL-6, leptin, RBP-4, CRP, SAA, and chemerin, as well as decreased levels of plasma adiponectin and both plasma and SAT omentin-1. The majority of these abnormalities persisted following correction for increased adiposity. Our data, as well as data from other investigators, thus, highlight the importance of subcutaneous adipose tissue dysfunction in subjects with MetS and its contribution to the proinflammatory state and insulin resistance. This adipokine profile may contribute to increased insulin resistance and low-grade inflammation, promoting the increased risk of T2DM and CVD.

  18. Menopause and Metabolic Syndrome in Tunisian Women

    Samir Ben Ali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of menopausal status on the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS in Tunisian women. Methods. We analyzed a total of 2680 women aged between 35 and 70 years. Blood pressure, anthropometric indices, fasting glucose, and lipid profile were measured. The MetS was assessed by the modified NCEP-ATPIII definition. Results. The mean values of waist circumference, blood pressure, plasma lipids, and fasting glucose were significantly higher in postmenopausal than in premenopausal women, a difference that was no longer present when adjusting for age. Except for hypertriglyceridaemia, the frequency of central obesity, hyperglycemia, high blood pressure, and high total cholesterol was significantly higher in postmenopausal than in premenopausal women. After adjusting for age, the significance persisted only for hyperglycemia. The overall prevalence of MetS was 35.9%, higher in postmenopausal (45.7% versus 25.6% than in premenopausal women. A binary logistic regression analysis showed that menopause was independently associated with MetS (OR = 1.41, 95% CI 1.10–1.82 after adjusting for age, residence area, marital status, family history of cardiovascular disease, education level, and occupation. Conclusions. The present study provides evidence that the MetS is highly prevalent in this group of women. Menopause can be a predictor of MetS independent of age in Tunisian women.

  19. Metabolic syndrome in asthmatic patients of hazara division

    Ahmed, N.; Kazim, S.M.; Gillani, S.Y.

    2017-01-01

    Bronchial asthma is a common disease and most asthmatics are obese. Both asthma and obesity are showing parallel trends in their increasing prevalence. Obesity is also the main component of metabolic syndrome and several studies have shown metabolic syndrome to be associated with bronchial asthma. The present study was, therefore, designed to determine the frequency of metabolic syndrome among patients with chronic asthma in our setup. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Department of Medicine, Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad from May to November, 2014. One hundred and fifty-four asthmatic patients were enrolled in this study. Samples for blood glucose, triglycerides and HDL Cholesterol were taken after an overnight fast. Sitting blood pressure was measured with mercury sphygmomanometer after 10 minutes of rest. Waist circumference was measured at the level of the midpoint between the high point of the iliac crest and the last rib. Results: Out of 154 patients, 80 were males and 74 were females. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 46 (29.87 percent) patients. When metabolic syndrome was stratified according to age, sex and duration of asthma, the results were found to be insignificant (p-0.89, 0.30 and 0.85). Conclusion: This study showed that metabolic syndrome was present in almost one third of study population. (author)

  20. Comparing the Ability of Anthropometric Indicators in Identifying Metabolic Syndrome in HIV Patients.

    Rebeca Antunes Beraldo

    Full Text Available Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART can cause side effects in HIV patients, as the metabolic syndrome. Early identification of risk for development of cardiovascular diseases using available reliable and practical methods is fundamental. On this basis, the aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of anthropometric indicators to identify metabolic syndrome in HIV patients on HAART.It is a cross-sectional study. A number of 280 stable HIV patients were studied. It measured weight, height, waist circumference (WC, hip circumference (HP, thigh circumference (TC and calculated body mass index (BMI, body adiposity index (BAI, waist to hip ratio (WHR and waist to thigh ratio (WTR. There was also a performance of biochemical tests of lipid profile and fasting glucose. Systemic blood pressure was measured. The criteria proposed by the National Cholesterol Education Program III (NCEP-ATP III to metabolic syndrome classification was used. Individuals were divided in groups with or without metabolic alterations and their anthropometric indicators were compared. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves were designed for each anthropometric indicator using the metabolic syndrome classification to identify sensitivity and specificity.WC was a good tool to identify each metabolic disorder separately: total cholesterol (only females, p<0.05, triglycerides (only males, p<0.001, HDL cholesterol (p<0.05, LDL cholesterol (p<005 and fasting glycemic (p<005. WC also showed the best performance to identify metabolic syndrome in both genders (areas under the curve (AUCs: 0.79 and 0.76 for male and female, respectively, while BAI proved to be an inadequate indicator (AUCs: 0.63 and 0.67 for males and females, respectively, in this population.The central adiposity measure (WC had the best performance to identify metabolic syndrome, and it is a convenient, cheap and reliable tool that can be used in clinical practice routinely to prevent

  1. Exercise training dose differentially alters muscle and heart capillary density and metabolic functions in an obese rat with metabolic syndrome.

    Machado, Marcus Vinicius; Vieira, Aline Bomfim; da Conceição, Fabiana Gomes; Nascimento, Alessandro Rodrigues; da Nóbrega, Antonio Claudio Lucas; Tibirica, Eduardo

    2017-12-01

    What is the central question of this study? Regular exercise is recommended as a non-pharmacological approach for the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome. However, the impact of different combinations of intensity, duration and frequency of exercise on metabolic syndrome and microvascular density has not been reported. What is the main finding and its importance? We provide evidence on the impact of aerobic exercise dose on metabolic and microvascular alterations in an experimental model of metabolic syndrome induced by high-fat diet. We found that the exercise frequency and duration were the main factors affecting anthropometric and metabolic parameters and microvascular density in the skeletal muscle. Exercise intensity was related only to microvascular density in the heart. We evaluated the effect of the frequency, duration and intensity of exercise training on metabolic parameters and structural capillary density in obese rats with metabolic syndrome. Wistar-Kyoto rats were fed either a standard commercial diet (CON) or a high-fat diet (HFD). Animals that received the HFD were randomly separated into either a sedentary (SED) group or eight different exercise groups that varied according to the frequency, duration and intensity of training. After 12 weeks of aerobic exercise training, the body composition, aerobic capacity, haemodynamic variables, metabolic parameters and capillary density in the heart and skeletal muscle were evaluated. All the exercise training groups showed reduced resting systolic blood pressure and heart rate and normalized fasting glucose. The minimal amount of exercise (90 min per week) produced little effect on metabolic syndrome parameters. A moderate amount of exercise (150 min per week) was required to reduce body weight and improve capillary density. However, only the high amount of exercise (300 min per week) significantly reduced the amount of body fat depots. The three-way ANOVA showed a main effect of exercise

  2. Metabolic Syndrome among Type-2 Diabetic Patients in Benghazi ...

    Background: Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of three out of five conditions that are due to hyperinsulinemia: abdominal obesity, atherogenic dyslipidemia (high triglycerides and/or low HDL), elevated blood pressure, and elevated plasma glucose. The syndrome is highly prevalent in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus ...

  3. Polycystic ovary syndrome: A component of metabolic syndrome?

    Vignesh J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1935, Stein and Leventhal first described the polycystic ovary (PCO as a frequent cause of irregular ovulation in women seeking treatment for subfertility. Although the initial management was surgical with wedge resection of ovary, the availability of radioimmunoassay and increased clinical use of ultrasound made it clear that many women had the ultrasound characteristics of PCO with or without the biochemical or clinical features of PCOS and therefore that PCO were not associated with a single syndrome. The association between increased insulin resistance and PCOS is a consistent finding in all ethnic groups. Obesity is a common factor in the majority of women with PCOS. It is postulated that a woman may be genetically predisposed to developing PCOS but it is only the interaction of environmental factors (obesity with the genetic factors that results in the characteristic metabolic and menstrual disturbances. Weight loss, altered diet and exercise have been shown to be effective in the management of PCOS. Importance of early recognition, proper intervention, long-term monitoring and health implications needs more concern.

  4. Prevalence of unrecognized diabetes, prediabetes and metabolic syndrome in patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Balakrishnan, Revathi; Berger, Jeffrey S; Tully, Lisa; Vani, Anish; Shah, Binita; Burdowski, Joseph; Fisher, Edward; Schwartzbard, Arthur; Sedlis, Steven; Weintraub, Howard; Underberg, James A; Danoff, Ann; Slater, James A; Gianos, Eugenia

    2015-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) and metabolic syndrome are important targets for secondary prevention in cardiovascular disease. However, the prevalence in patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention is not well defined. We aimed to analyse the prevalence and characteristics of patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with previously unrecognized prediabetes, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Data were collected from 740 patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention between November 2010 and March 2013 at a tertiary referral center. Prevalence of DM and prediabetes was evaluated using Haemoglobin A1c (A1c ≥ 6.5% for DM, A1c 5.7-6.4% for prediabetes). A modified definition was used for metabolic syndrome [three or more of the following criteria: body mass index ≥30 kg/m2; triglycerides ≥ 150 mg/dL; high density lipoprotein prediabetes at time of percutaneous coronary intervention. Overall, 54.9% met criteria for metabolic syndrome (69.2% of patients with DM and 45.8% of patients without DM). Among patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention, a substantial number were identified with a new DM, prediabetes, and/or metabolic syndrome. Routine screening for an abnormal glucometabolic state at the time of revascularization may be useful for identifying patients who may benefit from additional targeting of modifiable risk factors. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Hepatorenal syndrome: diagnosis, treatment and prevention

    Israelsen, Mads Egerod; Gluud, Lise Lotte; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    Cirrhosis, ascites and renal impairment are associated with high morbidity and mortality. The hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is a type of renal failure that affects patients with cirrhosis and ascites. This paper provides an update on evidence-based interventions in HRS. A number of factors can...... precipitate HRS. The monitoring, prevention, early detection, and correct treatment of these are essential. Terlipressin combined with albumin is the first-line treatment of type 1 HRS. In type 2 HRS with refractory ascites, liver transplantation and TIPS should be considered....

  6. Metabolic syndrome and risk factors for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Mônica Rodrigues de Araújo Souza

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome, has been considered the most common liver disease nowadays, which is also the most frequent cause of elevated transaminases and cryptogenic cirrhosis. The greatest input of fatty acids into the liver and consequent increased beta-oxidation contribute to the formation of free radicals, release of inflammatory cytokines and varying degrees of hepatocytic aggression, whose histological expression may vary from steatosis (HS to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH. The differentiation of these forms is required by the potential risk of progression to cirrhosis and development of hepatocellular carcinoma. OBJECTIVE: To review the literature about the major risk factors for NAFLD in the context of metabolic syndrome, focusing on underlying mechanisms and prevention. METHOD: PubMed, MEDLINE and SciELO data basis analysis was performed to identify studies describing the link between risk factors for metabolic syndrome and NAFLD. A combination of descriptors was used, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, metabolic syndrome and risk factors. At the end, 96 clinical and experimental studies, cohorts, meta-analysis and systematic reviews of great impact and scientific relevance to the topic, were selected. RESULTS: The final analysis of all these data, pointed out the central obesity, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia and hypertension as the best risk factors related to NAFLD. However, other factors were highlighted, such as gender differences, ethnicity, genetic factors and the role of innate immunity system. How these additional factors may be involved in the installation, progression and disease prognosis is discussed. CONCLUSION: Risk factors for NAFLD in the context of metabolic syndrome expands the prospects to 1 recognize patients with metabolic syndrome at high risk for NAFLD, 2 elucidate pathways common to other co-morbidities, 3

  7. Descriptive epidemiology of metabolic syndrome among obese adolescent population.

    Mahbuba, Sharmin; Mohsin, Fauzia; Rahat, Farhana; Nahar, Jebun; Begum, Tahmina; Nahar, Nazmun

    2018-05-01

    The study was done to assess the magnitude of problems of metabolic syndrome among obese adolescents. It was a cross-sectional study done from January 2013 to June 2014 in paediatric endocrine outpatient department in BIRDEM General Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Total 172 adolescents having exogenous obesity aged 10-18 years were included. Impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) were defined as per WHO criteria.The adolescents having Body Mass Index (BMI) ≥95th centile were classified as obese.Waist circumference was measured at the level midway between the lower rib margin & the iliac crest, at the level of umbilicus with the person breathing out gently in centimeter. Hip circumference was measured at the maximum width over the buttocks at the level of the greater trochanters in centimeter. Among 172 obese adolescents, metabolic syndrome was found in 66 patients (38.4%). The commonest metabolic abnormality among those having metabolic syndrome was low HDL level (77.3%) followed by high triglyceride level(71.2%). Glucose intolerance (IFG and/or IGT) was found in 16.7%, Type 2 DM in 10.6%, systolic hypertension in 10.7% and diastolic hypertension in 12.1%. Triglyceride (p = 0.042) and Cholesterol level (p = 0.016) were significantly higher and HDL-cholesterol level (p = 0.000) was significantly lower among obese adolescents having metabolic syndrome. Less physical activity (p = 0.04) was significantly related to the development of metabolic syndrome. On logistic regression analysis male sex, family history of obesity and low HDL-cholesterol correlated to metabolic syndrome. The High rate of metabolic syndrome among obese adolescents is alarming. Copyright © 2018 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Increased Risk of Metabolic Syndrome in Patients with Vitiligo.

    Ataş, Hatice; Gönül, Müzeyyen

    2017-05-05

    Inflammatory and immune processes can be triggered in vitiligo due to a decreased number of melanocytes and their anti-inflammatory effects. Because of the systemic nature of vitiligo, metabolic abnormalities such as insulin resistance and lipid profile disturbances as well as skin involvement may be observed in vitiligo. To investigate the association between metabolic syndrome and vitiligo. Case-control study. The demographic, clinical and laboratory features in the subjects were compared according to presence of vitiligo and metabolic syndrome [patients (n=63) vs. gender-age matched controls (n=65) and metabolic syndrome positive (n=38) vs. negative (n=90)]. A logistic regression analysis was also used. We identified metabolic syndrome in 24 (38.1%) subjects with vitiligo and 14 (21.5%) subjects without vitiligo (p=0.04). Active vitiligo, segmental vitiligo, an increased duration of vitiligo and an increased percentage in the affected body surface area were determined to be independent predictors of metabolic syndrome [activity of vitiligo: p=0.012, OR (95% CI)=64.4 (2.5-1672); type of vitiligo: p=0.007, OR (95% CI)=215.1 (4.3-10725.8); duration of vitiligo: p=0.03, OR (95% CI)=1.4 (1.1-2.0); percentage of affected body surface area: p=0.07, OR (95% CI)=1.2 (0.98-1.5)]. The risk of developing metabolic syndrome is increased in patients with vitiligo. The poor clinical features of vitiligo, such as active, extended and segmental vitiligo with an increased duration of time, are independent predictors for developing metabolic syndrome.

  9. Contributory role of adenosine deaminase in metabolic syndrome ...

    Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is an enzyme of purine metabolism commonly associated with severe combined immunodeficiency disease and believed to modulate bioactivity of insulin. Its contributory role in patients with metabolic syndrome (having features such as obesity, insulin resistance, fasting hyperglycaemia, lipid ...

  10. [Severe metabolic alkalosis following hypokalemia from a paraneoplastic Cushing syndrome].

    Dubé, L; Daenen, S; Kouatchet, A; Soltner, C; Alquier, P

    2001-12-01

    Metabolic alkalosis is frequently observed in critically ill patients. Etiologies are numerous but endocrinal causes are rare. We report a case of a patient with severe respiratory insufficiency, metabolic alkalosis and hypokalemia. The evolution was fatal. Further explorations revealed an ectopic Adrenocorticotropine Hormone syndrome. The initial tumor was probably a small cell lung carcinoma.

  11. Beta-cell function is associated with metabolic syndrome in Mexican subjects

    Pérez-Fuentes

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Blanca G Baez-Duarte1,3, María Del Carmen Sánchez-Guillén3†, Ricardo Pérez-Fuentes2,3, Irma Zamora-Ginez1,3, Bertha Alicia Leon-Chavez1, Cristina Revilla-Monsalve4, Sergio Islas-Andrade41Posgrado en Ciencias Químicas, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, México; 2Facultad de Medicina, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, México; 3Centro de Investigación Biomédica de Oriente, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Atlixco, Puebla, México; 4Multidiciplinary Research Group on Diabetes (José Sánchez-Corona, Fernando Guerrero-Romero, Martha Rodriguez-Moran, Agustin Madero, Jorge Escobedo-de-la-Peña, Silvia Flores-Martinez, Esperanza, Martinez-Abundis, Manuel Gonzalez-Ortiz, Alberto Rascon-Pacheco, Margarita Torres-Tamayo, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, México, Distrito Federal, México; †María Del Carmen Sánchez-Guillén passed away on 27 November 2009.Aims: The clinical diagnosis of metabolic syndrome does not find any parameters to evaluate the insulin sensitivity (IS or β-cell function. The evaluation of these parameters would detect early risk of developing metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between β-cell function and presence of metabolic syndrome in Mexican subjects.Material and methods: This study is part of the Mexican Survey on the Prevention of Diabetes (MexDiab Study with headquarters in the city of Puebla, Mexico. The study comprised of 444 subjects of both genders, aged between 18 and 60 years and allocated into two study groups: (1 control group of individuals at metabolic balance without metabolic syndrome and (2 group composed of subjects with metabolic syndrome and diagnosed according to the criteria of the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Defection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. Anthropometric, biochemical, and clinical assessments were carried out.Results: Average age of the

  12. Epidemiological predictors of metabolic syndrome in urban West Bengal, India.

    Chakraborty, Sasthi Narayan; Roy, Sunetra Kaviraj; Rahaman, Md Abdur

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is one of the emerging health problems of the world. Its prevalence is high in urban areas. Though pathogenesis is complex, but the interaction of obesity, sedentary lifestyle, dietary, and genetic factors are known as contributing factors. Community-based studies were very few to find out the prevalence or predictors of the syndrome. To ascertain the prevalence and epidemiological predictors of metabolic syndrome. A total of 690 study subjects were chosen by 30 clusters random sampling method from 43 wards of Durgapur city. Data were analyzed in SPSS version 20 software and binary logistic regression was done to find out statistical significance of the predictors. Among 32.75% of the study population was diagnosed as metabolic syndrome according to National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III definition with a modification for Asia Pacific cut-off of waist circumference. Odds were more among females (2.43), upper social class (14.89), sedentary lifestyle (17.00), and positive family history. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was high in urban areas of Durgapur. Increased age, female gender, higher social status, sedentary lifestyle, positive family history, and higher education were the statistically significant predictors of metabolic syndrome.

  13. Epidemiological predictors of metabolic syndrome in urban West Bengal, India

    Sasthi Narayan Chakraborty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Metabolic syndrome is one of the emerging health problems of the world. Its prevalence is high in urban areas. Though pathogenesis is complex, but the interaction of obesity, sedentary lifestyle, dietary, and genetic factors are known as contributing factors. Community-based studies were very few to find out the prevalence or predictors of the syndrome. Objectives: To ascertain the prevalence and epidemiological predictors of metabolic syndrome. Materials and Methods: A total of 690 study subjects were chosen by 30 clusters random sampling method from 43 wards of Durgapur city. Data were analyzed in SPSS version 20 software and binary logistic regression was done to find out statistical significance of the predictors. Results: Among 32.75% of the study population was diagnosed as metabolic syndrome according to National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III definition with a modification for Asia Pacific cut-off of waist circumference. Odds were more among females (2.43, upper social class (14.89, sedentary lifestyle (17.00, and positive family history. Conclusion: The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was high in urban areas of Durgapur. Increased age, female gender, higher social status, sedentary lifestyle, positive family history, and higher education were the statistically significant predictors of metabolic syndrome.

  14. The role of interleukin-18 in the metabolic syndrome

    Seljeflot Ingebjørg

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The metabolic syndrome is thought to be associated with a chronic low-grade inflammation, and a growing body of evidence suggests that interleukin-18 (IL-18 might be closely related to the metabolic syndrome and its consequences. Circulating levels of IL-18 have been reported to be elevated in subjects with the metabolic syndrome, to be closely associated with the components of the syndrome, to predict cardiovascular events and mortality in populations with the metabolic syndrome and to precede the development of type 2 diabetes. IL-18 is found in the unstable atherosclerotic plaque, in adipose tissue and in muscle tissue, and is subject to several regulatory steps including cleavage by caspase-1, inactivation by IL-18 binding protein and the influence of other cytokines in modulating its interaction with the IL-18 receptor. The purpose of this review is to outline the role of IL-18 in the metabolic syndrome, with particular emphasis on cardiovascular risk and the potential effect of life style interventions.

  15. Metabolic Syndrome in Children: Clinical Picture, Features of Lipid and Carbohydrate Metabolism

    O.S. Bobrykovych

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study included 225 children aged from 14 to 18 years with various manifestations of the metabolic syndrome in neighborhoods, different by iodine provision. The physical development (height, weight, body mass index, waist and hip circumferences has been examined. Biochemical investigations are focused on the study of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in children. It is found that children who live in mountains have more severe obesity. In parallel with the increase of the degree of obesity, disorders of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism aggravate in children with sings of metabolic syndrome.

  16. Does family history of metabolic syndrome affect the metabolic profile phenotype in young healthy individuals?

    Lipińska, Anna; Koczaj-Bremer, Magdalena; Jankowski, Krzysztof; Kaźmierczak, Agnieszka; Ciurzyński, Michał; Ou-Pokrzewińska, Aisha; Mikocka, Ewelina; Lewandowski, Zbigniew; Demkow, Urszula; Pruszczyk, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Early identification of high-risk individuals is key for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study was to assess the potential impact of a family history of metabolic syndrome (fhMetS) on the risk of metabolic disorders (abnormal body mass, lipid profile, glucose metabolism, insulin resistance, and blood pressure) in healthy young individuals. We studied CVD risk factors in 90 healthy volunteers, aged 27-39 years; of these, 78 had fhMetS and 12 were without fhMetS (control group). Fasting serum lipids, glucose, and insulin levels were assayed, and anthropometric parameters and blood pressure using, an ambulatory blood pressure monitoring system, were measured. Nutritional and physical activity habits were assessed. Despite similar nutritional and physical activity habits, abnormal body mass was found in 53.2% of the fhMetS participants and 46.1% of the control participants (p = 0.54). The occurrence of obesity was 19.4% and 0%, respectively (p = 0.69). Compared to the control participants, fhMetS was associated with significantly higher total cholesterol (5.46 mmol/L vs. 4.69 mmol/L, p family history of MetS.

  17. Cardiovascular Changes in Animal Models of Metabolic Syndrome

    Alexandre M. Lehnen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome has been defined as a group of risk factors that directly contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease and/or type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance seems to have a fundamental role in the genesis of this syndrome. Over the past years to the present day, basic and translational research has used small animal models to explore the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome and to develop novel therapies that might slow the progression of this prevalent condition. In this paper we discuss the animal models used for the study of metabolic syndrome, with particular focus on cardiovascular changes, since they are the main cause of death associated with the condition in humans.

  18. Cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in the Rett syndrome

    Yoshikawa, Hideto; Fueki, Noboru; Suzuki, Hisaharu; Sakuragawa, Norio; Iio, Masaaki

    1992-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) was performed on six patients with the Rett syndrome and the results were compared with the concurrent clinical status of the patients. The cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO 2 ) was low in five patients, and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) was low in four patients; both had a tendency to decline with advancing age. Although the cause is unknown, it is suggested that impaired oxidative metabolism exists in the Rett syndrome. An analysis of the distribution among brain regions showed that the ratios of values for the frontal cortex to those for the temporal cortex for both the cerebral blood flow (CBF) and CMRO 2 were lower than those for the controls, which may indicate the loss of of hyperfrontality in the Rett syndrome. Distribution of brain metabolism may be immature in the Rett syndrome. (author)

  19. Involvement of astrocyte metabolic coupling in Tourette syndrome pathogenesis.

    de Leeuw, Christiaan; Goudriaan, Andrea; Smit, August B; Yu, Dongmei; Mathews, Carol A; Scharf, Jeremiah M; Verheijen, Mark H G; Posthuma, Danielle

    2015-11-01

    Tourette syndrome is a heritable neurodevelopmental disorder whose pathophysiology remains unknown. Recent genome-wide association studies suggest that it is a polygenic disorder influenced by many genes of small effect. We tested whether these genes cluster in cellular function by applying gene-set analysis using expert curated sets of brain-expressed genes in the current largest available Tourette syndrome genome-wide association data set, involving 1285 cases and 4964 controls. The gene sets included specific synaptic, astrocytic, oligodendrocyte and microglial functions. We report association of Tourette syndrome with a set of genes involved in astrocyte function, specifically in astrocyte carbohydrate metabolism. This association is driven primarily by a subset of 33 genes involved in glycolysis and glutamate metabolism through which astrocytes support synaptic function. Our results indicate for the first time that the process of astrocyte-neuron metabolic coupling may be an important contributor to Tourette syndrome pathogenesis.

  20. Role of nutrients in metabolic syndrome: a 2017 update

    Kern HJ

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Hua J Kern, Susan Hazels Mitmesser The Nature’s Bounty Co., Ronkonkoma, NY, USA Abstract: Metabolic syndrome (MetS and its associated chronic disorders including cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes are public health concerns in the USA and worldwide. “Good health is an investment in economic growth,” and nutrition is one of the recommended preventive measures to manage these chronic diseases. However, it is unclear whether and to what extent nutrients could be beneficial to the improvement of MetS. To help answer this question, we performed a literature review of the emerging human data on single nutrients and MetS: PubMed was searched from January 1, 2005 to June 12, 2017, using a combination of the following keywords: “nutrient” OR “vitamin” OR “mineral” OR “nutraceutical” AND “metabolic syndrome.” The summary of literature comprises macronutrients (proteins/amino acids, fatty acids, fibers, and sugar, micronutrients (antioxidant vitamins, vitamin D, folate, magnesium, and chromium, polyphenols (flavonoids, resveratrol, isoflavones, and chlorogenic acid, and other compounds (α-lipoic acid, benfotiamine, fucoxanthin, policosanol, and stanols. Bearing a holistic approach in mind, we also highlighted select lifestyle factors that may contribute to MetS (such as circadian rhythm and nutrition in early life. Observational studies have generated positive evidence supporting the beneficial role of numerous nutrients in MetS. Although the results of some clinical trials are consistent with the observational data, causality is not always clear or consistent across trials. Both nutrition and health are complex and dynamic systems with a hierarchical nature. When we design confirmatory trials to investigate nutrient(s and MetS, instead of the traditional “single-nutrient” concept, it is worth considering a holistic approach to integrate groups or classes of nutrients, lifestyle influencers (ie, diet and physical

  1. The metabolic syndrome and its components in patients with prostate cancer on androgen deprivation therapy.

    Morote, Juan; Gómez-Caamaño, Antonio; Alvarez-Ossorio, José L; Pesqueira, Daniel; Tabernero, Angel; Gómez Veiga, Francisco; Lorente, José A; Porras, Mariano; Lobato, Juan J; Ribal, María J; Planas, Jacques

    2015-06-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy may promote the development of the metabolic syndrome in patients with prostate cancer. We assessed the prevalence of the full metabolic syndrome and its components during the first year of androgen deprivation therapy. This observational, multicenter, prospective study included 539 patients with prostate cancer scheduled to receive 3-month depot luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogs for more than 12 months. Waist circumference, body mass index, lipid profile, blood pressure and fasting glucose were evaluated at baseline and after 6 and 12 months. The metabolic syndrome was assessed according to NCEP ATP III criteria (2001) and 4 other definitions (WHO 1998, AACE 2003, AHA/NHLBI 2005 and IDF 2005). At 6 and 12 months after the initiation of androgen deprivation therapy, significant increases were observed in waist circumference, body mass index, fasting glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and high-density and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. No significant changes in blood pressure 130/85 or greater were detected. A nonsignificant increase of 3.9% in the prevalence of the full metabolic syndrome (ATP III) was observed (22.9% at baseline vs 25.5% and 26.8% at 6 and 12 months, respectively). The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome at baseline varied according to the definition used, ranging from 9.4% (WHO) to 50% (IDF). At 12 months significant increases in prevalence were observed with the WHO (4.1%) and AHA/NHLBI (8.1%) definitions. Androgen deprivation therapy produces significant early effects on waist circumference, body mass index, fasting glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol. The prevalence of and increase in the metabolic syndrome depend on the defining criteria. Counseling patients on the prevention, early detection and treatment of specific metabolic alterations is recommended. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among elderly Mexicans.

    Ortiz-Rodríguez, María Araceli; Yáñez-Velasco, Lucía; Carnevale, Alessandra; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Bernal, Demetrio; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos; Rojas, Rosalba; Villa, Antonio; Tur, Josep A

    2017-11-01

    One of the most prevalent chronic diseases among elderly population is the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of MetS and associated factors among Mexican elderly people. Cross-sectional survey carried out in Mexico (2007). A random sample (n=516) of the elderly population (≥65years; 277 female, 239 male) was interviewed. Anthropometric and analytical measurements, and a general questionnaire incorporating questions related to socio-demographic and life-style factors were used. MetS definition AHA/NHLBI/IDF was applied. The prevalence of MetS in the elderly (≥65years) was of 72.9% (75.7% men; 70.4% women). Participants with values above MetS cut-off points were 92.4% (hypertension), 77.8% (hypertriglyceridemia), 77.1% (low HDL-cholesterol), 71.1% (hyperglycaemia), and 65.4% (central obesity). People with MetS showed higher values of anthropometric and biochemical variables than those without MetS, except for the height, cholesterol and creatinine. Mid-high education level (9-12 years), no smokers and former smokers, and Central-Western inhabitants of Mexico were associated with MetS components. BMI status was the main determinant of MetS prevalence and MetS components. The reported prevalence of MetS among the elderly Mexican population was higher than those previously obtained in the geographical area, showing a major public health problem in Mexican elders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of metformin on exercise capacity in metabolic syndrome.

    Paul, Abi Albon; Dkhar, Steven Aibor; Kamalanathan, Sadishkumar; Thabah, Molly Mary; George, Melvin; Chandrasekaran, Indumathi; Gunaseelan, Vikneswaran; Selvarajan, Sandhiya

    2017-11-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a constellation of risk factors with increased predilection towards occurrence of cardiovascular diseases. Currently physical exercise and management with metformin are the prevailing treatment modalities for metabolic syndrome. Patients with metabolic syndrome have been found to have reduced exercise capacity over a period of time. Likewise metformin has been shown to decrease exercise capacity among healthy volunteers. Hence this study aims to evaluate the effect of metformin on the exercise capacity of patients with metabolic syndrome. Prospective study with 6 weeks follow up. Newly diagnosed patients with metabolic syndrome and to be started on Table Metformin 500mg twice a day were recruited for the study after obtaining written informed consent. Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing (CPET) was done at baseline before the subjects were started on metformin and after 6 weeks of treatment using cardiopulmonary exercise testing apparatus (ZAN600). Fifteen treatment naïve patients with metabolic syndrome completed six weeks of therapy with metformin. In these patients oxygen uptake [VO2] showed statistically significant decrease from 1.10±0.44 at baseline to 0.9±0.39 (l/min) after six weeks of treatment with metformin [mean difference of -0.20 (-0.31 to -0.09); P=0.001]. Similarly oxygen uptake/kg body weight [VO2/Kg] showed a significant decrease from 14.10±4.73 to 11.44±3.81 (mlkg -1 min -1 ) at the end of six weeks of treatment [mean difference of -2.66 (-4.06 to -1.26); P=0.001]. Six weeks of treatment with metformin significantly decreases exercise capacity in newly diagnosed patients with metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A clinical perspective of obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease

    Thang S Han

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic syndrome is a condition characterized by a special constellation of reversible major risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The main, diagnostic, components are reduced HDL-cholesterol, raised triglycerides, blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose, all of which are related to weight gain, specifically intra-abdominal/ectopic fat accumulation and a large waist circumference. Using internationally adopted arbitrary cut-off values for waist circumference, having metabolic syndrome doubles the risk of cardiovascular disease, but offers an effective treatment approach through weight management. Metabolic syndrome now affects 30–40% of people by age 65, driven mainly by adult weight gain, and by a genetic or epigenetic predisposition to intra-abdominal/ectopic fat accumulation related to poor intra-uterine growth. Metabolic syndrome is also promoted by a lack of subcutaneous adipose tissue, low skeletal muscle mass and anti-retroviral drugs. Reducing weight by 5–10%, by diet and exercise, with or without, anti-obesity drugs, substantially lowers all metabolic syndrome components, and risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Other cardiovascular disease risk factors such as smoking should be corrected as a priority. Anti-diabetic agents which improve insulin resistance and reduce blood pressure, lipids and weight should be preferred for diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome. Bariatric surgery offers an alternative treatment for those with BMI ≥ 40 or 35–40 kg/m 2 with other significant co-morbidity. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease is expected to rise along with the global obesity epidemic: greater emphasis should be given to effective early weight-management to reduce risk in pre-symptomatic individuals with large waists.

  5. Metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in obese adolescents

    Amanda Oliva Gobato

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To verify the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in obese adolescents and its relationship with different body composition indicators. Methods: A cross-sectional study comprising 79 adolescents aged ten to 18 years old. The assessed body composition indicators were: body mass index (BMI, body fat percentage, abdominal circumference, and subcutaneous fat. The metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to the criteria proposed by Cook et al. The insulin resistance was determined by the Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR index for values above 3.16. The analysis of ROC curves was used to assess the BMI and the abdominal circumference, aiming to identify the subjects with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance. The cutoff point corresponded to the percentage above the reference value used to diagnose obesity. Results: The metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 45.5% of the patients and insulin resistance, in 29.1%. Insulin resistance showed association with HDL-cholesterol (p=0.032 and with metabolic syndrome (p=0.006. All body composition indicators were correlated with insulin resistance (p<0.01. In relation to the cutoff point evaluation, the values of 23.5 and 36.3% above the BMI reference point allowed the identification of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. The best cutoff point for abdominal circumference to identify insulin resistance was 40%. Conclusions: All body composition indicators, HDL-cholesterol and metabolic syndrome showed correlation with insulin resistance. The BMI was the most effective anthropometric indicator to identify insulin resistance.

  6. The association of breast arterial calcification and metabolic syndrome

    Seyma Yildiz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We investigated the relationship between metabolic syndrome and breast arterial calcification detected via mammography in a cohort of postmenopausal subjects. METHODS: Among 837 patients referred to our radiology department for mammographic screening, 310 postmenopausal females (105 patients with and 205 patients without breast arterial calcification aged 40 to 73 (mean 55.9±8.4 years were included in this study. The groups were compared with respect to clinical characteristics and metabolic syndrome criteria. Univariate and multivariate analyses identified the factors related to breast arterial calcification. RESULTS: Age, postmenopausal duration and the frequencies of diabetes mellitus, hypertension and metabolic syndrome were significantly higher in the subjects with breast arterial calcification than in those without (p<0.05. Multivariate analysis indicated that age (OR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.1-1.6, p = 0.001 and metabolic syndrome (OR = 4.0, 95% CI = 1.5−10.4, p = 0.005 were independent predictors of breast arterial calcification detected via mammography. The independent predictors among the features of metabolic syndrome were low levels of high-density lipoproteins (OR = 8.1, 95% CI = 1.0−64.0, p = 0.047 and high blood pressure (OR = 8.7, 95% CI = 1.5−49.7, p = 0.014. CONCLUSIONS: The likelihood of mammographic detection of breast arterial calcification increases with age and in the presence of hypertension or metabolic syndrome. For patients undergoing screening mammography who present with breast arterial calcification, the possibility of metabolic syndrome should be considered. These patients should be informed of their cardiovascular risk factors and counseled on appropriate lifestyle changes.

  7. Association Between Sarcopenia and Metabolic Syndrome in Cancer Survivors.

    Lee, Su Jung; Kim, Nam Cho

    Advanced cancer treatments have improved survival from cancer, but the incidence of cardiovascular disease in survivors has recently increased. Sarcopenia and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are related to cancer survival, and sarcopenia is an emerging risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, evidence of a relationship between sarcopenia and MetS in cancer survivors is lacking. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia and MetS in cancer survivors and to investigate independent predictors of MetS in cancer survivors. From the fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Exam Survey (2008-2011), 798 consecutive cancer survivors were analyzed. Sarcopenia was defined as the appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by weight less than 1 SD below the sex-specific healthy population aged 20 to 39 years. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the National Cholesterol Education Program definition. Among 798 cancer survivors, the prevalence rates of sarcopenia and MetS were 23.1% and 30.0%, respectively. Survivors with sarcopenia were more likely to have a higher waist circumference, body mass index, triglyceride level, and blood pressure and to have a lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level compared with those without sarcopenia. In multivariable analysis, sarcopenia was an independent predictor of MetS (odds ratio, 2.76; 95% confidence interval, 1.92-3.97). In addition, age and type of cancer were independent predictors of MetS. Sarcopenia was associated with an increased prevalence of MetS in cancer survivors. Interventions to prevent sarcopenia may be necessary to improve cardiovascular outcome in cancer survivors.

  8. Beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet on metabolic syndrome.

    Grosso, Giuseppe; Mistretta, Antonio; Marventano, Stefano; Purrello, Agata; Vitaglione, Paola; Calabrese, Giorgio; Drago, Filippo; Galvano, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) represents a cluster of medical disorders, such as hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and abdominal obesity that, when occurring together, increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. The role of food and nutrients in the aetiology of chronic diseases has become clearer over the last 15 years. In this review we collected evidence on the beneficial impact of the Mediterranean diet on MetS by analyzing epidemiological reports documenting its prevalence in subjects who have adopted this dietary pattern. We also explored the role of the individual components of the diet on the specific aspects characterizing the MetS (i.e. metabolic indices, body weight and blood pressure). There is ample evidence showing that subjects adherent to the Mediterranean diet have lower prevalence and incidence rates of MetS than non-adherent. Moreover, it has been widely documented that specific components of this dietary pattern play a role in the prevention of several morbid conditions related to the MetS.

  9. Data mining for the identification of metabolic syndrome status.

    Worachartcheewan, Apilak; Schaduangrat, Nalini; Prachayasittikul, Virapong; Nantasenamat, Chanin

    2018-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a condition associated with metabolic abnormalities that are characterized by central obesity (e.g. waist circumference or body mass index), hypertension (e.g. systolic or diastolic blood pressure), hyperglycemia (e.g. fasting plasma glucose) and dyslipidemia (e.g. triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol). It is also associated with the development of diabetes mellitus (DM) type 2 and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Therefore, the rapid identification of MS is required to prevent the occurrence of such diseases. Herein, we review the utilization of data mining approaches for MS identification. Furthermore, the concept of quantitative population-health relationship (QPHR) is also presented, which can be defined as the elucidation/understanding of the relationship that exists between health parameters and health status. The QPHR modeling uses data mining techniques such as artificial neural network (ANN), support vector machine (SVM), principal component analysis (PCA), decision tree (DT), random forest (RF) and association analysis (AA) for modeling and construction of predictive models for MS characterization. The DT method has been found to outperform other data mining techniques in the identification of MS status. Moreover, the AA technique has proved useful in the discovery of in-depth as well as frequently occurring health parameters that can be used for revealing the rules of MS development. This review presents the potential benefits on the applications of data mining as a rapid identification tool for classifying MS.

  10. Data mining for the identification of metabolic syndrome status

    Worachartcheewan, Apilak; Schaduangrat, Nalini; Prachayasittikul, Virapong; Nantasenamat, Chanin

    2018-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a condition associated with metabolic abnormalities that are characterized by central obesity (e.g. waist circumference or body mass index), hypertension (e.g. systolic or diastolic blood pressure), hyperglycemia (e.g. fasting plasma glucose) and dyslipidemia (e.g. triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol). It is also associated with the development of diabetes mellitus (DM) type 2 and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Therefore, the rapid identification of MS is required to prevent the occurrence of such diseases. Herein, we review the utilization of data mining approaches for MS identification. Furthermore, the concept of quantitative population-health relationship (QPHR) is also presented, which can be defined as the elucidation/understanding of the relationship that exists between health parameters and health status. The QPHR modeling uses data mining techniques such as artificial neural network (ANN), support vector machine (SVM), principal component analysis (PCA), decision tree (DT), random forest (RF) and association analysis (AA) for modeling and construction of predictive models for MS characterization. The DT method has been found to outperform other data mining techniques in the identification of MS status. Moreover, the AA technique has proved useful in the discovery of in-depth as well as frequently occurring health parameters that can be used for revealing the rules of MS development. This review presents the potential benefits on the applications of data mining as a rapid identification tool for classifying MS. PMID:29383020

  11. A STUDY OF METABOLIC SYNDROME IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING CORONARY ANGIOGRAPHY AT KIMS HOSPITAL, HUBBALLI, KARNATAKA, INDIA

    Chandrashekar K

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Coronary heart disease has become an epidemic since 20th century. Deaths due to the same are increasing of around 17.5 million deaths in year 2012. The deaths are increasing more in developing countries and metabolic syndrome is a cluster of disorders, which are promoting the development of coronary artery diseases. The disorders include central obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia and hypertension. Increasing prevalence, changing lifestyle and progression of the disease without obvious symptoms had led to increasing morbidity and mortality. The non-infectious epidemic of the century is posing great challenges to healthcare and research in development of more infrastructure and funds to prevent and treat the disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 100 patients diagnosed with CAD and posted for Coronary Angiogram (CAG in ICCU at KIMS Hospital, Hubballi, were studied over a period of one and a half year. Cases were categorised according to ATPIII and new IDF criteria for metabolic syndrome and compared. Clinical evaluation, ECG, lipid profile and 2D-echo was done. Statistical analysis done using unpaired t-test, Mann-Whitney tests, Chi-square test and Kappa statistics. RESULTS Of the total 100, 57 had metabolic syndrome by either ATP criteria or IDF criteria. Kappa=0.859 (p-value 150 mg/dL and DM or FBS >100 mg/dL (p value <0.001. The mean values of SBP (144.0 vs. 120.8, DBP (85.6 vs. 73.8 and waist circumference (95.4 vs. 87.7 was statistically significant (p value <0.01 between patients with metabolic syndrome and without metabolic syndrome with IDF criteria (p value <0.001. It was observed LAD (28.1% was the most common vessel involved individually. There was no much significance related to metabolic syndrome. Incidence of CAD was more common in patients with metabolic syndrome than other group. CONCLUSION The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was high in patients with CAD. Both metabolic syndrome definitions identify subset

  12. Visceral adiposity as a target for the management of the metabolic syndrome.

    Kishida, Ken; Funahashi, Tohru; Matsuzawa, Yuji; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2012-05-01

    Atherosclerosis, the underlying cause of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD), develops due not only to a single cardiovascular risk factor but to a variety of complex factors. The concept of the multiple cardiometabolic risk factor clustering syndrome has been proposed as a highly atherogenic state, independent of hypercholesterolemia and smoking. Body fat distribution, especially visceral fat accumulation, is a major correlate of a cluster of diabetogenic, atherogenic, prothrombotic, and proinflammatory metabolic abnormalities referred to as the metabolic syndrome, with dysfunctional adipocytes and dysregulated production of adipocytokines (hypoadiponectinemia). Medical research has focused on visceral adiposity as an important component of the syndrome in Japanese subjects with a mild degree of adiposity compared with Western subjects. For the prevention of ACVD at least in Japan, it might be practical to stratify subjects with multiple risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease based on visceral fat accumulation. Visceral fat reduction through health promotion programs using risk factor-oriented approaches may be effective in reducing ACVD events, as well as producing improvement in risks and hypoadiponectinemia. This review article discusses visceral adiposity as a key player in the syndrome. Visceral fat reduction with life-style modification is a potentially useful strategy in the prevention of ACVD in patients with the metabolic syndrome.

  13. The association of nephrolithiasis with metabolic syndrome and its components: a cross-sectional analysis

    Liu YT

    2017-01-01

    syndrome and nephrolithiasis. The mechanism is controversial, and several hypotheses are offered. Adequate lifestyle modification and proper treatment in metabolic syndrome management may both contribute to nephrolithiasis prevention. Keywords: nephrolithiasis, metabolic syndrome, cross-sectional study, primary health care, preventive health services

  14. [Prevention and treatment of the complications of polycystic ovarian syndrome--the significance of evidence-based, interdisciplinary management].

    Gődény, Sándor; Csenteri, Orsolya Karola

    2015-12-13

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is the most common hormonal and metabolic disorder likely to affect women. The syndrome is often associated with obesity, hyperinsulinemia and adversely affects endocrine, metabolic, and cardiovascular health. The complex feature of the syndrome requires an interdisciplinary approach to treatment, where cooperation of paediatrician, internist, gynaecologist, endocrinologist, dermatologist, psychologist and oncologist is essential. The prevention and the treatment should be based on the best available evidence. This should include physical examination, laboratory tests for hormones, serum insulin, glucose, lipids, in addition patient's preferences should be considered, too. To maximise health gain of polycystic ovarian syndrome, adequate, effective, efficient and safe treatment is necessary. This article summarises the highest available evidence provided by meta-analyses and systematic reviews of the prevention of metabolic and cardiovascular complications of the syndrome, and discusses the relevant evidence published in the literature.

  15. Intranasal Insulin Restores Metabolic Parameters and Insulin Sensitivity in Rats with Metabolic Syndrome.

    Derkach, K V; Ivantsov, A O; Chistyakova, O V; Sukhov, I B; Buzanakov, D M; Kulikova, A A; Shpakov, A O

    2017-06-01

    We studied the effect of 10-week treatment with intranasal insulin (0.5 IU/day) on glucose tolerance, glucose utilization, lipid metabolism, functions of pancreatic β cells, and insulin system in the liver of rats with cafeteria diet-induced metabolic syndrome. The therapy reduced body weight and blood levels of insulin, triglycerides, and atherogenic cholesterol that are typically increased in metabolic syndrome, normalized glucose tolerance and its utilization, and increased activity of insulin signaling system in the liver, thus reducing insulin resistance. The therapy did not affect the number of pancreatic islets and β cells. The study demonstrates prospects of using intranasal insulin for correction of metabolic parameters and reduction of insulin resistance in metabolic syndrome.

  16. Clinical characteristics of metabolic syndrome in Korea, and its comparison with other Asian countries

    Hong, A Ram; Lim, Soo

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is referred to as syndrome X or insulin resistance syndrome, and is primarily composed of abdominal obesity, diabetes, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia and high blood pressure. Asians have a lower frequency of obesity than Caucasians, but have an increasing tendency toward metabolic syndrome. Thus, metabolic syndrome poses a major challenge for public health professionals, and is set to become a social and economic problem in Asian populations. Most data on metabolic syndr...

  17. Obesity-driven gut microbiota inflammatory pathways to metabolic syndrome

    Luiz Henrique Agra eCavalcante-Silva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The intimate interplay between immune system, metabolism and gut microbiota plays an important role in controlling metabolic homeostasis and possible obesity development. Obesity involves impairment of immune response affecting both innate and adaptive immunity. The main factors involved in the relationship of obesity with inflammation have not been completely elucidated. On the other hand, gut microbiota, via innate immune receptors, has emerged as one of the key factors regulating events triggering acute inflammation associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Inflammatory disorders lead to several signalling transduction pathways activation, inflammatory cytokine, chemokine production and cell migration, which in turn cause metabolic dysfunction. Inflamed adipose tissue, with increased macrophages infiltration, is associated with impaired preadipocyte development and differentiation to mature adipose cells, leading to ectopic lipid accumulation and insulin resistance. This review focuses on the relationship between obesity and inflammation, which is essential to understand the pathological mechanisms governing metabolic syndrome.

  18. The metabolic vascular syndrome - guide to an individualized treatment.

    Hanefeld, Markolf; Pistrosch, Frank; Bornstein, Stefan R; Birkenfeld, Andreas L

    2016-03-01

    In ancient Greek medicine the concept of a distinct syndrome (going together) was used to label 'a group of signs and symptoms' that occur together and 'characterize a particular abnormality and condition'. The (dys)metabolic syndrome is a common cluster of five pre-morbid metabolic-vascular risk factors or diseases associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity, fatty liver disease and risk of cancer. The risk for major complications such as cardiovascular diseases, NASH and some cancers develops along a continuum of risk factors into clinical diseases. Therefore we still include hyperglycemia, visceral obesity, dyslipidemia and hypertension as diagnostic traits in the definition according to the term 'deadly quartet'. From the beginning elevated blood pressure and hyperglycemia were core traits of the metabolic syndrome associated with endothelial dysfunction and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Thus metabolic and vascular abnormalities are in extricable linked. Therefore it seems reasonable to extend the term to metabolic-vascular syndrome (MVS) to signal the clinical relevance and related risk of multimorbidity. This has important implications for integrated diagnostics and therapeutic approach. According to the definition of a syndrome the rapid global rise in the prevalence of all traits and comorbidities of the MVS is mainly caused by rapid changes in life-style and sociocultural transition resp. with over- and malnutrition, low physical activity and social stress as a common soil.

  19. Specifics of mental disorders of patients with metabolic syndrome

    K. I. Kleban

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the general-somatic network there is a steady increase in the number of patients with psychosomatic disorders. Problems of providing adequate psychiatric and psychotherapeutic assistance to this category of patients are related to the motivation of patients to participate in psychological measures and the readiness of the medical system to provide comprehensive care on the basis of the biopsychosocial approach. Mental factors are involved both in the occurrence and course of a metabolic syndrome in the form of a patient's lifestyle and behavior patterns of healthy functioning, and is a consequence of somatic pathology. Mental factors are involved both in the occurrence and course of a metabolic syndrome in the form of a patient's lifestyle and behavior patterns of healthy functioning, and is a consequence of somatic pathology. So mental disorders of metabolic syndrome are manifested in the form of psychosocial maladaptation, neurotic, affective, personality, and organic disorders. Desynchronosis which is a factor of the development of a metabolic syndrome and characterizes the complex chronobiological component of the regulation of psychophysiological functions in norm and under the influence of stress, deserves special attention. Addressing the diagnosis of mental disorders associated with metabolic syndrome is precisely aimed at determining chronobiological disorders of psychosomatic integrated areas and is supposed to improve diagnostic and treatment process and to shorten the treatment of these disorders.

  20. Metabolic syndrome and quality of life: a systematic review

    Patrícia Pozas Saboya

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: to present currently available evidence to verify the association between metabolic syndrome and quality of life. Method: Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Medline and LILACS databases were studied for all studies investigating the association with metabolic syndrome and quality of life. Two blinded reviewers extracted data and one more was chosen in case of doubt. Results: a total of 30 studies were included, considering inclusion and exclusion criteria, which involved 62.063 patients. Almost all studies suggested that metabolic syndrome is significantly associated with impaired quality of life. Some, however, found association only in women, or only if associated with depression or Body Mass Index. Merely one study did not find association after adjusted for confounding factors. Conclusion: although there are a few studies available about the relationship between metabolic syndrome and quality of life, a growing body of evidence has shown significant association between metabolic syndrome and the worsening of quality of life. However, it is necessary to carry out further longitudinal studies to confirm this association and verify whether this relationship is linear, or only an association factor.

  1. The skin function: a factor of anti-metabolic syndrome

    Zhou Shi-Sheng

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The body’s total antioxidant capacity represents a sum of the antioxidant capacity of various tissues/organs. A decrease in the body’s antioxidant capacity may induce oxidative stress and subsequent metabolic syndrome, a clustering of risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The skin, the largest organ of the body, is one of the major components of the body’s total antioxidant defense system, primarily through its xenobiotic/drug biotransformation system, reactive oxygen species-scavenging system, and sweat glands- and sebaceous glands-mediated excretion system. Notably, unlike other contributors, the skin contribution is variable, depending on lifestyles and ambient temperature or seasonal variations. Emerging evidence suggests that decreased skin’s antioxidant and excretory functions (e.g., due to sedentary lifestyles and low ambient temperature may increase the risk for metabolic syndrome. This review focuses on the relationship between the variability of skin-mediated detoxification and elimination of exogenous and endogenous toxic substances and the development of metabolic syndrome. The potential role of sebum secretion in lipid and cholesterol homeostasis and its impact on metabolic syndrome, and the association between skin disorders (acanthosis nigricans, acne, and burn and metabolic syndrome are also discussed.

  2. Justice at work and metabolic syndrome: the Whitehall II study.

    Gimeno, David; Tabák, Adám G; Ferrie, Jane E; Shipley, Martin J; De Vogli, Roberto; Elovainio, Marko; Vahtera, Jussi; Marmot, Michael G; Kivimäki, Mika

    2010-04-01

    Growing evidence shows that high levels of justice are beneficial for employee health, although biological mechanisms underlying this association are yet to be clarified. We aim to test whether high justice at work protects against metabolic syndrome. A prospective cohort study of 20 civil service departments in London (the Whitehall II study) including 6123 male and female British civil servants aged 35-55 years without prevalent coronary heart disease at baseline (1985-1990). Perceived justice at work was determined by means of questionnaire on two occasions between 1985 and 1990. Follow-up for metabolic syndrome and its components occurring from 1990 to 2004 was based on clinical assessments on three occasions over more than 18 years. Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for age, ethnicity and employment grade showed that men who experienced a high level of justice at work had a lower risk of incident metabolic syndrome than employees with a low level of justice (HR 0.75; 95% CI 0.63 to 0.89). There was little evidence of an association between organisational justice and metabolic syndrome or its components in women (HR 0.88; 95% CI 0.67 to 1.17). Our prospective findings provide evidence of an association between high levels of justice at work and the development of metabolic syndrome in men.

  3. [Obesity or overweight and metabolic syndrome in Mexico City teenagers].

    Cardoso-Saldaña, Guillermo C; Yamamoto-Kimura, Liria; Medina-Urrutia, Aida; Posadas-Sánchez, Rosalinda; Caracas-Portilla, Nacú A; Posadas-Romero, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    aim: To know the metabolic syndrome and its components prevalence in Mexico City adolescents sample. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 772 men and 1078 women, 12 to 16 years old, from 8 randomly selected public junior high schools in Mexico City. Anthropometric variables, lipids, lipoproteins, Apo AI and B, glucose and insulin were determined. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 12.5%, 11.15% in men and 13.5% en women (p ns). The most frequently metabolic syndrome component found in México City adolescents was low HDL-C levels (38%), followed by hypertriglyceridemia (25.5%), hypertension (19.2%), central obesity (11.8%) and elevated fasting glucose (1.7). Except by the hypertriglyceridemia, higher in woman than in men, 28.2% vs. 21.6%, p metabolic syndrome components was similar between males and females. The high prevalence of biochemical and physiological factors of metabolic syndrome, associated with overweight and obesity in Mexico City adolescents, increases the risk of premature development of coronary atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus in this population.

  4. How coffee affects metabolic syndrome and its components.

    Baspinar, B; Eskici, G; Ozcelik, A O

    2017-06-21

    Metabolic syndrome, with its increasing prevalence, is becoming a major public health problem throughout the world. Many risk factors including nutrition play a role in the emergence of metabolic syndrome. Of the most-consumed beverages in the world, coffee contains more than 1000 components such as caffeine, chlorogenic acid, diterpenes and trigonelline. It has been proven in many studies that coffee consumption has a positive effect on chronic diseases. In this review, starting from the beneficial effects of coffee on health, the relationship between coffee consumption and metabolic syndrome and its components has been investigated. There are few studies investigating the relationship between coffee and metabolic syndrome, and the existing ones put forward different findings. The factors leading to the differences are thought to stem from coffee variety, the physiological effects of coffee elements, and the nutritional ingredients (such as milk and sugar) added to coffee. It is reported that consumption of coffee in adults up to three cups a day reduces the risk of Type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome.

  5. Frequency of metabolic syndrome in patients with type-2 diabetes

    Ahmed, N.; Ahmad, T.; Hussain, S.J.; Javed, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Diabetes, Hypertension, Obesity and Ischaemic Heart Disease have become a problem of public health magnitude with substantial economic burden both in the developed as well as the developing countries. Obesity is quite frequent in Type 2 diabetics and also plays a central role in causing Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). Metabolic Syndrome significantly increases the incidence of cardiovascular complications. This study was done to determine the frequency of MetS in our Type 2 diabetic patients as most of the components of MetS can be modified and identifying/managing these at an early stage might be of considerable help in reducing cardiovascular complications. Methods: This cross-sectional study was done in Medical B and Medical A wards of Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad from Nov, 08 to April, 09. Type 2 Diabetic patients aged above 40 years who gave informed consent were included in the study. Data was collected through a structured proforma. Frequency of Metabolic Syndrome was estimated according to the IDF consensus worldwide definition of the MetS. Results: Of the 100 patients enrolled in this study 56 were females and 44 were males with a mean age of 59.9 years. Out of these 100 participants seventy six (76%) were diagnosed to have metabolic syndrome. Of the 56 females, forty eight (85.71%) were having metabolic syndrome while twenty eight (63.63%) of the 44 male participants were having the syndrome. The difference was statistically significant (p<0.05). Conclusion: Frequency of MetS was found to be significantly high in this study with female preponderance. All the components, except Hypertension were more frequent in females. Diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome need more aggressive approach in management so as to decrease the incidence of cardiovascular complications. (author)

  6. Association of carbohydrate and fat intake with metabolic syndrome.

    Kwon, Yu-Jin; Lee, Hye-Sun; Lee, Ji-Won

    2018-04-01

    In Asia, dietary pattern has been changed with increased intake of refined carbohydrates, sugar, and saturated fat, while the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is on the rise. However, it remains unclear whether a high-carbohydrate or a high-fat diet is more metabolically harmful, and the optimal amount of carbohydrates and fat has not been determined. The aim of our study was to examine the role of carbohydrate and fat intake in MetS in a Korean population. Data were obtained from a large, population-based, cross-sectional study (6737 males and 8845 females). The subjects were divided into nine groups based on carbohydrate and fat proportion, and multiple logistic regression analysis was performed after adjusting for confounding variables. Regardless of fat intake, the risk of MetS significantly increased in males with higher carbohydrate proportions (of total energy intake). In females, the risk of MetS was significantly elevated only in those with both the highest carbohydrate proportion and lowest fat proportion. A high carbohydrate proportion was associated with a higher prevalence of MetS in males, and a high carbohydrate proportion combined with a low fat proportion was associated with MetS in females. Our results indicate that reduction of excessive carbohydrate intake paired with an adequate fat intake, taking into consideration optimal types of fat, is useful for MetS prevention. Longitudinal studies are needed to clarify the optimal types and amounts of carbohydrate and fat proportions as well as the mechanism underlying these relationships. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  7. WATER AND SALT METABOLISM IN THE GERIATRIC SYNDROMES

    Carlos G. Musso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Geriatrics has already described four syndromes of its own: confusional syndrome, incontinence (fecal and/or urinary, and gait disorders and immobility syndrome, naming them geriatric giants. This name reflects their prevalence and great importance in the elderly. Ageing process induces many changes in renal physiology such as a reduction in glomerular filtration rate (senile hyponatremia, and water and sodium reabsorbtion capability. Besides, there are particular water and salt metabolism alteration characteristics of the geriatric syndromes, such as dehydration and hypernatremia in psychiatric disturbances as well as hyponatremia in patients suffering from immobility syndrome. The geriatric giants and nephrogeriatric physiology changes, are a good example of feed-back between geriatric syndromes, clinical entities characteristics in the elderly that predispose and potentiate each other, leading to catastrophic clinical events.

  8. Association of Family Composition and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults Aged over 45 Years Old.

    Kim, Young-Ju

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the relationship between family composition and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome by gender in Korean adults aged 45 years and older. The sample consisted of 11,291 participants in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2010 to 2012. We used complex sample analyses, including strata, cluster, and sample weighting, to allow generalization to the Korean population. Complex samples crosstabs and chi-square tests were conducted to compare the percentage of sociodemographic characteristics to the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components by gender and family composition. Next, a complex sample logistic regression was performed to examine the association between family composition and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome by gender. The percentage of adults living alone was 5.6% for men and 13.9% for women. Slightly more women (14.0%) than men (10.1%) reported living with three generations. The percentage of metabolic syndrome in Korean adults aged 45 years and older was 53.2% for men and 35.7% for women. For women, we found that living with one or three generations was significantly associated with a higher risk of metabolic syndrome, blood pressure, and triglyceride abnormality after adjusting for age, education, household income, smoking, physical activity, and body mass index, when compared to living alone. No significant relationships were found for men. A national strategy, tailored on gender and family composition, needs to be developed in order to prevent the increase of metabolic syndrome in Korean women over middle age. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Application of the transtheoretical model: exercise behavior in Korean adults with metabolic syndrome.

    Kim, Chun-Ja; Kim, Bom-Taeck; Chae, Sun-Mi

    2010-01-01

    Although regular exercise has been recommended to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among people with metabolic syndrome, little information is available about psychobehavioral strategies in this population. The purpose of this study was to identify the stages, processes of change, decisional balance, and self-efficacy of exercise behavior and to determine the significant predictors explaining regular exercise behavior in adults with metabolic syndrome. This descriptive, cross-sectional survey design enrolled a convenience sample of 210 people with metabolic syndrome at a university hospital in South Korea. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze demographic characteristics, metabolic syndrome risk factors, and transtheoretical model-related variables. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the most important predictors of regular exercise stages. Action and maintenance stages comprised 51.9% of regular exercise stages, whereas 48.1% of non-regular exercise stages were precontemplation, contemplation, and preparation stages. Adults with regular exercise stages displayed increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, were more likely to use consciousness raising, self-reevaluation, and self-liberation strategies, and were less likely to evaluate the merits/disadvantages of exercise, compared with those in non-regular exercise stages. In this study of regular exercise behavior and transtheoretical model-related variables, consciousness raising, self-reevaluation, and self-liberation were associated with a positive effect on regular exercise behavior in adults with metabolic syndrome. Our findings could be used to develop strategies and interventions to maintain regular exercise behavior directed at Korean adults with metabolic syndrome to reduce CVD risk. Further prospective intervention studies are needed to investigate the effect of regular exercise program on the prevention and/or reduction of CVD risk among this

  10. Metabolic Syndrome and Chronic Renal Disease

    Vaia D. Raikou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The influence of metabolic syndrome (MetS on kidneys is related to many complications. We aimed to assess the association between MetS and chronic renal disease defined by a poor estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR and/or the presence of microalbuminuria/macroalbuminuria. Methods: 149 patients (77 males/72 females were enrolled in the study. Chronic renal disease was defined according to KDIGO 2012 criteria based on eGFR category and classified albuminuria. MetS was studied as a dichotomous variable (0 to 5 components including hypertension, waist circumference, low HDL-cholesterol, high triglycerides, and high glucose. Results: The association between clustering MetS and both classified eGFR and classified albuminuria (x2 = 50.3, p = 0.001 and x2 = 26.9, p = 0.003 respectively was found to be significant. The MetS presence showed an odds 5.3-fold (1.6–17.8 higher for low eGFR and 3.2-fold (1.2–8.8 higher for albuminuria in combination with the presence of diabetes mellitus, which also increased the risk for albuminuria by 3.5-fold (1.1–11.3. Albuminuria was significantly associated with high triglycerides, hypertension, high glucose (x2 = 11.8, p = 0.003, x2 = 11.4, p = 0.003 and x2 = 9.1, p = 0.01 respectively, and it was mildly associated with a low HDL-C (x2 = 5.7, p = 0.06. A significant association between classified eGFR and both high triglycerides and hypertension (x2 = 9.7, p = 0.04 and x2 = 16.1, p = 0.003 respectively was found. Conclusion: The clustering of MetS was significantly associated with chronic renal disease defined by both classified eGFR and albuminuria. The definition of impaired renal function by classified albuminuria was associated with more MetS components rather than the evaluation of eGFR category. MetS may contribute to the manifestation of albuminuria in patients with diabetes mellitus.

  11. [Impact of metabolic syndrome on CRP levels].

    Rodilla, E; Costa, J A; Mares, S; Miralles, A; González, C; Sánchez, C; Pascual, J M

    2006-09-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is considered a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. The aim of the study was to assess whether the metabolic syndrome (MS) and parameters involved in its diagnosis might influence serum CRP values. Cross-sectional study in outpatients of a HTA and Vascular Risk clinic. MS was diagnosed according to National Cholesterol Educational Program ATP-III guidelines, and hs-CRP was analyzed by nephelometry. A total of 1,969 patients (47% male) were evaluated and distributed into four groups: 1) 1,220 non-diabetics without MS; 2) 384 non-diabetics with MS; 3) 153 diabetics without MS, and 4) 212 diabetics with MS. Patients with MS had higher CRP in both non-diabetic 3.0 (1.7-4.4) mg/l vs. 1.7 (0.9-3.4) mg/l; p=0.001 (MW), and diabetic patients: 2.8 (1.5-4.6) mg/l vs. 2.2 (0.9-4.3) mg/l; p=0.01 (MW). Diabetic patients without MS had CRP values not different to non-diabetic without MS. CRP values increased in relation to the number of parameters included in the MS from 1.7 (2.2) mg/l, in patients without any parameters, to 4.2 (2.8) mg/l in patients who fulfilled five parameters (p=0.001) (KW). In multiple regression analysis abdominal obesity (p=0.001), TG (p=0.001) and glucose (p=0.02) were associated with CRP levels after correcting for other factors. Abdominal obesity (OR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.5-2.4; p=0.001) and TG (OR: 1.4; 95% CI: 1.1 -1.7; p=0.003), but not glucose were independent factors related to the presence of high levels of CRP (>3 mg/l) in a logistic regression analysis. Diabetic and non-diabetic patients with MS have high CRP levels. Of the five components of MS, the most closely related to CRP is abdominal obesity.

  12. Correlates of the Metabolic Syndrome Among a Sample of Women in the San Juan Metropolitan Area of Puerto Rico

    Ortiz, Ana Patricia; Suárez, Erick; Beauchamp, Giovanna; Romaguera, Josefina; Soto-Salgado, Marievelisse

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The metabolic syndrome is an interaction of risk factors that may lead to cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Methods Given the need for data in Puerto Rico, this cross-sectional study aimed to determine the association between demographic, lifestyles, and reproductive characteristics and the metabolic syndrome among a sample of women (N = 564) in the San Juan Metropolitan Area. The metabolic syndrome was defined based on the revised National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) criteria. Results In multivariate logistic regression models, women aged 40–59 and 60–79 years were 3.03 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.70, 5.40] and 7.05 (95% CI, 3.69, 13.49) times more likely, respectively, to have the metabolic syndrome as compared to those aged 21–39 years. A dose–response relationship was also observed between body mass index (BMI) and metabolic syndrome. Physical activity reduced the odds for metabolic syndrome [prevalence odds ratios (POR) = 0.64; 95% CI, 0.41, 1.01]; however, this association was marginally significant (P = 0.05). Among reproductive characteristics, only women who had a history of gestational diabetes (GDM) were 2.14 (95% CI, 1.02, 4.51) times more likely to have metabolic syndrome. Conclusions Consistent with previous studies, increased age and BMI, physical inactivity, and GDM are associated with the metabolic syndrome in this population. This information is relevant for the development of preventive interventions for the metabolic syndrome. PMID:20156074

  13. High prevalence of metabolic syndrome in young Hispanic women: findings from the national Sister to Sister campaign.

    Rodriguez, Fátima; Naderi, Sahar; Wang, Yun; Johnson, Caitlin E; Foody, JoAnne M

    2013-04-01

    Hispanics are the fastest growing segment of the U.S. population and have a higher prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors as compared with non-Hispanic whites. Further data suggests that Hispanics have undiagnosed complications of metabolic syndrome, namely diabetes mellitus, at an earlier age. We sought to better understand the epidemiology of metabolic syndrome in Hispanic women using data from a large, community-based health screening program. Using data from the Sister to Sister: The Women's Heart Health Foundation community health fairs from 2008 to 2009 held in 17 U.S. cities, we sought to characterize how cardiometabolic risk profiles vary across age for women by race and ethnicity. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the updated National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) guidelines, which included three or more of the following: Waist circumference ≥35 inches, triglycerides ≥150 mg/dL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) <50 mg/dL, systolic blood pressure ≥130 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥85 mmHg, or a fasting glucose ≥100 mg/dL. A total of 6843 community women were included in the analyses. Metabolic syndrome had a prevalence of 35%. The risk-adjusted odds ratio for metabolic syndrome in Hispanic women versus white women was 1.7 (95% confidence interval, 1.4, 2.0). Dyslipidemia was the strongest predictor of metabolic syndrome among Hispanic women. This disparity appeared most pronounced for younger women. Additional predictors of metabolic syndrome included black race, increasing age, and smoking. In a large, nationally representative sample of women, we found that metabolic syndrome was highly prevalent among young Hispanic women. Efforts specifically targeted to identifying these high-risk women are necessary to prevent the cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with metabolic syndrome.

  14. Saffron: a promising natural medicine in the treatment of metabolic syndrome.

    Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2017-04-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a disorder which encompasses obesity, high blood glucose, high cholesterol levels and high blood pressure. Moreover, metabolic syndrome is considered as the most important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). CVD is the leading cause of mortality in the world for both men and women. Several chemical drugs are available to treat metabolic risk factors, but because of the safety, efficacy, cultural acceptability and lesser side effects, nowadays herbal therapy has a critical role in the treatment of these CVD risk factors. Crocus sativus L. (saffron) is a perennial herb that belongs to the Iridaceae family. Saffron is an extensively used food additive for its colour and taste and has been widely used in traditional as well as modern medicine to treat several illnesses including cardiovascular diseases. Most of the unique properties of this plant are attributed to the presence of three major components, including crocin, safranal and crocetin. It has been proved that saffron has an important role in the management of metabolic syndrome because of its marvelous activities including anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, hypotensive and hypolipidaemic properties. In this review article, we discuss the beneficial properties of saffron and its active components to treat different components of metabolic syndrome and most relevant animal and human studies regarding the use of this plant in cardiovascular disease, with focus on the metabolic risk factors. This review also suggests that after randomised clinical trials, saffron may be implicated as a preventive or therapeutic agent against metabolic syndrome. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. The metabolic syndrome: validity and utility of clinical definitions for cardiovascular disease and diabetes risk prediction.

    Cameron, Adrian

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of clinical definitions of the metabolic syndrome is frequently misunderstood. While the metabolic syndrome as a physiological process describes a clustering of numerous age-related metabolic abnormalities that together increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, clinical definitions include obesity which is thought to be a cause rather than a consequence of metabolic disturbance, and several elements that are routinely measured in clinical practice, including high blood pressure, high blood glucose and dyslipidaemia. Obesity is frequently a central player in the development of the metabolic syndrome and should be considered a key component of clinical definitions. Previous clinical definitions have differed in the priority given to obesity. Perhaps more importantly than its role in a clinical definition, however, is obesity in isolation before the hallmarks of metabolic dysfunction that typify the syndrome have developed. This should be treated seriously as an opportunity to prevent the consequences of the global diabetes epidemic now apparent. Clinical definitions were designed to identify a population at high lifetime CVD and type 2 diabetes risk, but in the absence of several major risk factors for each condition, are not optimal risk prediction devices for either. Despite this, the metabolic syndrome has several properties that make it a useful construct, in conjunction with short-term risk prediction algorithms and sound clinical judgement, for the identification of those at high lifetime risk of CVD and diabetes. A recently published consensus definition provides some much needed clarity about what a clinical definition entails. Even this, however, remains a work in progress until more evidence becomes available, particularly in the area of ethnicity-specific waist cut-points. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fecal microbiota transplantation in metabolic syndrome: History, present and future.

    de Groot, P F; Frissen, M N; de Clercq, N C; Nieuwdorp, M

    2017-05-04

    The history of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) dates back even to ancient China. Recently, scientific studies have been looking into FMT as a promising treatment of various diseases, while in the process teaching us about the interaction between the human host and its resident microbial communities. Current research focuses mainly on Clostridium difficile infections, however interest is rising in other areas such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and the metabolic syndrome. With regard to the latter, the intestinal microbiota might be causally related to the progression of insulin resistance and diabetes. FMT in metabolic syndrome has proven to be an intriguing method to study the role of the gut microbiota and open the way to new therapies by dissecting in whom insulin resistance is driven by microbiota. In this article we review the history of FMT, the present evidence on its role in the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome and its efficacy, limitations and future prospects.

  17. Equine metabolic syndrome in Colombian creole horse: case report

    C.A. Castillo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The equine metabolic syndrome is a condition that can be recognized because of obesity, insulin resistance and laminitis. Genetic factors could play a role in the occurrence of this syndrome. Certain breeds such as ponies (including the South American creole horses have a lower sensibility to insulin and a higher prevalence of hyperinsulinemia. The environment and management conditions, such as overfeeding and lack of exercise are factors that bring a propensity for obesity. The adipose tissue works as an endocrine organ producing hormones (adipokines or adipocytokines that affect the horse´s metabolism. The objective of this report is to describe the first case report of a Colombian creole mare with a metabolic syndrome, diagnosed by means of the combined test of glucose-insulin and clinical signs. Early diagnosis of this entity and an adequate treatment are useful for improving the life and the zootechnical conditions of the patient.

  18. A new course in the clinical pathways for metabolic syndrome

    Kageyama, Shoko; Wada, Yumi; Nakamura, Rie

    2006-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is consisted with multiple risk factors such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension based on visceral fat accumulation, for the development of arteriosclerosis. We present, here, a clinical pathway for education of patients with metabolic syndrome. The program contains an adequate explanation of the high risk for arteriosclerosis to the patients, the measurement of visceral fat content by computed tomography, and several clinical examinations for the evaluation of arteriosclerotic lesions. We have presented this program on the ward of diabetes center in our hospital for patients diagnosed as having metabolic syndrome. Because the focus of education is to clarify understanding of the harmful effects of visceral fat and the benefits of its reduction, it might be a valuable tool to motivate and empower the patient and improve the patient's lifestyle. (author)

  19. A new course in the clinical pathways for metabolic syndrome

    Kageyama, Shoko; Wada, Yumi; Nakamura, Rie [Sumitomo Hospital, Osaka, Osaka (Japan)

    2006-07-15

    Metabolic syndrome is consisted with multiple risk factors such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension based on visceral fat accumulation, for the development of arteriosclerosis. We present, here, a clinical pathway for education of patients with metabolic syndrome. The program contains an adequate explanation of the high risk for arteriosclerosis to the patients, the measurement of visceral fat content by computed tomography, and several clinical examinations for the evaluation of arteriosclerotic lesions. We have presented this program on the ward of diabetes center in our hospital for patients diagnosed as having metabolic syndrome. Because the focus of education is to clarify understanding of the harmful effects of visceral fat and the benefits of its reduction, it might be a valuable tool to motivate and empower the patient and improve the patient's lifestyle. (author)

  20. [[How to Prevent Emotional Burnout Syndrome in Health Professionals?].

    Elfimova, E V; Elfimov, M A; Berezkin, A S

    2016-01-01

    Working in conditions of physical and psychological overload, occupational hazard makes health workers vulnerable to the development of burnout syndrome. Currently, 67.6% of physicians in Russia suffer from emotional burnout syndrome. This syndrome is characterized by a certain symptoms, which have their predictors. Prevention and treatment of emotional burnout syndrome - a complex problem that can be solved with the participation of heads of medical institutions, full- time psychologists and psychotherapists with the direct involvement of health professionals.

  1. Exercise-induced hypertension in men with metabolic syndrome: anthropometric, metabolic, and hemodynamic features.

    Gaudreault, Valérie; Després, Jean-Pierre; Rhéaume, Caroline; Alméras, Natalie; Bergeron, Jean; Tremblay, Angelo; Poirier, Paul

    2013-02-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with increased cardiac morbidity. The aim of this study was to evaluate exercise-induced hypertension (EIH) in men with metabolic syndrome and to explore potential associations with anthropometric and metabolic variables. A total of 179 normotensive men with metabolic syndrome underwent a maximal symptom-limited treadmill test. Blood pressure was measured at 5-min rest prior to exercise testing (anticipatory blood pressure), at every 3 min during the exercise, and during the recovery period. EIH was defined as maximum systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥220 mmHg and/or maximum diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥100 mmHg. Of the 179 men, 87 (47%) presented EIH. Resting blood pressure values at baseline were 127±10/83±6 mmHg in EIH and 119±9/80±6 mmHg (P=0.01 for both) in normal blood pressure responders to exercise. Anticipatory SBP and DPS were higher in the group with EIH (P=0.001). Subjects with EIH presented higher waist circumference (WC) (Pmetabolic syndrome showed EIH. These men are characterized by a worsened metabolic profile. Our data suggest that a treadmill exercise test may be helpful to identify a potentially higher risk metabolic syndrome subset of subjects.

  2. Abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome: exercise as medicine?

    Paley, Carole A; Johnson, Mark I

    2018-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is defined as a cluster of at least three out of five clinical risk factors: abdominal (visceral) obesity, hypertension, elevated serum triglycerides, low serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and insulin resistance. It is estimated to affect over 20% of the global adult population. Abdominal (visceral) obesity is thought to be the predominant risk factor for metabolic syndrome and as predictions estimate that 50% of adults will be classified as obese by 2030 it is likely that metabolic syndrome will be a significant problem for health services and a drain on health economies.Evidence shows that regular and consistent exercise reduces abdominal obesity and results in favourable changes in body composition. It has therefore been suggested that exercise is a medicine in its own right and should be prescribed as such. This review provides a summary of the current evidence on the pathophysiology of dysfunctional adipose tissue (adiposopathy). It describes the relationship of adiposopathy to metabolic syndrome and how exercise may mediate these processes, and evaluates current evidence on the clinical efficacy of exercise in the management of abdominal obesity. The review also discusses the type and dose of exercise needed for optimal improvements in health status in relation to the available evidence and considers the difficulty in achieving adherence to exercise programmes. There is moderate evidence supporting the use of programmes of exercise to reverse metabolic syndrome although at present the optimal dose and type of exercise is unknown. The main challenge for health care professionals is how to motivate individuals to participate and adherence to programmes of exercise used prophylactically and as a treatment for metabolic syndrome.

  3. [Association between metabolic syndrome and its components with presbycusis].

    Zhao, Jingbo; Zhang, Mengsi; Li, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Jiarui; Wang, Ningning; Yang, Xiaoshan

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the effect of metabolic syndrome and its components on presbycusis. Total of 165 cases and 202 controls were continuously collected in Harbin Ninth Hospital from June 2013 to August 2014, these subjects were investigated and received anthropometry and received biochemical test in hospital laboratory. Statistics analysis was adopted by χ2 test, t test and logistic regression model. Only triglyceride abnormal proportion of case group was higher than that of control group among components of metabolic syndrome, and it were associated with age-related hearing loss whether before adjustment or not after adjustment, OR (95% CI) were 1.69 (1.09-2.63) and 1.96 (1.08-3.54) respectively, and others were not associated with presbycusis. In addition, among all of the various combinations of the components of the metabolic syndrome, combination of triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein, combination of triglycerides and blood glucose, combination of triglycerides and blood pressure were associated with age-related hearing loss before adjustment and after adjustment, OR were 5.31 (95% CI 1.63-17.27), 2.66 (95% CI 1.04-6.85) and 2.09 (95% CI 1.04-4.18) respectively. Further more, the metabolic syndrome was not statistically associated with presbycusis, OR were 1.27 (95% CI 0.83-1.94) and 0.92 (95% CI 0.54-1.57) respectively before adjustment and after adjustment. In addition, stratified by age, the metabolic syndrome was still not statistically associated with presbycusis in each stratification, OR were 0.89 (95% CI 0.44-1.82) and 1.49 (95% CI 0.67-3.30) respectively. The triglyceride was associated with presbycusis. Among all of combinations of the components of the metabolic syndrome, combination of triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein, combination of triglycerides and blood glucose, combination of triglycerides and blood pressure were associated with age-related hearing loss.

  4. Reduced apolipoprotein glycosylation in patients with the metabolic syndrome.

    Olga V Savinova

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the apolipoprotein composition of the three major lipoprotein classes in patients with metabolic syndrome to healthy controls.Very low density (VLDL, intermediate/low density (IDL/LDL, hereafter LDL, and high density lipoproteins (HDL fractions were isolated from plasma of 56 metabolic syndrome subjects and from 14 age-sex matched healthy volunteers. The apolipoprotein content of fractions was analyzed by one-dimensional (1D gel electrophoresis with confirmation by a combination of mass spectrometry and biochemical assays.Metabolic syndrome patients differed from healthy controls in the following ways: (1 total plasma--apoA1 was lower, whereas apoB, apoC2, apoC3, and apoE were higher; (2 VLDL--apoB, apoC3, and apoE were increased; (3 LDL--apoC3 was increased, (4 HDL--associated constitutive serum amyloid A protein (SAA4 was reduced (p<0.05 vs. controls for all. In patients with metabolic syndrome, the most extensively glycosylated (di-sialylated isoform of apoC3 was reduced in VLDL, LDL, and HDL fractions by 17%, 30%, and 25%, respectively (p<0.01 vs. controls for all. Similarly, the glycosylated isoform of apoE was reduced in VLDL, LDL, and HDL fractions by 15%, 26%, and 37% (p<0.01 vs. controls for all. Finally, glycosylated isoform of SAA4 in HDL fraction was 42% lower in patients with metabolic syndrome compared with controls (p<0.001.Patients with metabolic syndrome displayed several changes in plasma apolipoprotein composition consistent with hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL cholesterol levels. Reduced glycosylation of apoC3, apoE and SAA4 are novel findings, the pathophysiological consequences of which remain to be determined.

  5. Comparison of metabolic syndrome with growing epidemic syndrome Z in terms of risk factors and gender differences.

    Uyar, Meral; Davutoğlu, Vedat; Aydın, Neriman; Filiz, Ayten

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study is to compare metabolic syndrome with syndrome Z growing epidemic in terms of risk factors, demographic variables, and gender differences in our large cohort at southeastern area in Turkey. Data of patients admitted to sleep clinic in University of Gaziantep from January 2006 to January 2011 were retrospectively evaluated. ATP III and JNC 7 were used for defining metabolic syndrome and hypertension. Data of 761 patients were evaluated. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, pulmonary hypertension, and left ventricular hypertrophy were more common in patients with syndrome Z than in patients without metabolic syndrome. Age, waist/neck circumferences, BMI, triglyceride, glucose, and Epworth sleepiness scale score were detected higher, whereas the minimum oxygen saturation during sleep was lower in patients with syndrome Z. Metabolic syndrome was more common in sleep apneic subjects than in controls (58 versus 30 %). Female sleep apneics showed higher rate of metabolic syndrome than those of males (74 versus 52 %). Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, and left ventricular hypertrophy were detected higher in males with syndrome Z than in males without metabolic syndrome. Snoring and excessive daytime sleepiness were detected higher in females with syndrome Z than in females without metabolic syndrome. Systemic/pulmonary hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and left ventricular hypertrophy were more common in females with syndrome Z than in females without metabolic syndrome. Complaints of headache and systemic/pulmonary hypertension were more common among females than males with syndrome Z. Female syndrome Z patients had lower minimum oxygen saturation than male patients with syndrome Z. Metabolic syndrome in sleep apneic patients is more prevalent than in controls. All metabolic syndrome parameters were significantly different among obstructive sleep apneic patients with respect to gender with more severe

  6. Effects of Different Exercise Modes on the Urinary Metabolic Fingerprint of Men with and without Metabolic Syndrome.

    Siopi, Aikaterina; Deda, Olga; Manou, Vasiliki; Kellis, Spyros; Kosmidis, Ioannis; Komninou, Despina; Raikos, Nikolaos; Christoulas, Kosmas; Theodoridis, Georgios A; Mougios, Vassilis

    2017-01-26

    Exercise is important in the prevention and treatment of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), a cluster of risk factors that raises morbidity. Metabolomics can facilitate the optimization of exercise prescription. This study aimed to investigate whether the response of the human urinary metabolic fingerprint to exercise depends on the presence of MetS or exercise mode. Twenty-three sedentary men (MetS, n = 9, and Healthy, n = 14) completed four trials: resting, high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE), continuous moderate-intensity exercise (CME), and resistance exercise (RE). Urine samples were collected pre-exercise and at 2, 4, and 24 h for targeted analysis by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Time exerted the strongest differentiating effect, followed by exercise mode and health status. The greatest changes were observed in the first post-exercise samples, with a gradual return to baseline at 24 h. RE caused the greatest responses overall, followed by HIIE, while CME had minimal effect. The metabolic fingerprints of the two groups were separated at 2 h, after HIIE and RE; and at 4 h, after HIIE, with evidence of blunted response to exercise in MetS. Our findings show diverse responses of the urinary metabolic fingerprint to different exercise modes in men with and without metabolic syndrome.

  7. Effects of Different Exercise Modes on the Urinary Metabolic Fingerprint of Men with and without Metabolic Syndrome

    Aikaterina Siopi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercise is important in the prevention and treatment of the metabolic syndrome (MetS, a cluster of risk factors that raises morbidity. Metabolomics can facilitate the optimization of exercise prescription. This study aimed to investigate whether the response of the human urinary metabolic fingerprint to exercise depends on the presence of MetS or exercise mode. Twenty-three sedentary men (MetS, n = 9, and Healthy, n = 14 completed four trials: resting, high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE, continuous moderate-intensity exercise (CME, and resistance exercise (RE. Urine samples were collected pre-exercise and at 2, 4, and 24 h for targeted analysis by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Time exerted the strongest differentiating effect, followed by exercise mode and health status. The greatest changes were observed in the first post-exercise samples, with a gradual return to baseline at 24 h. RE caused the greatest responses overall, followed by HIIE, while CME had minimal effect. The metabolic fingerprints of the two groups were separated at 2 h, after HIIE and RE; and at 4 h, after HIIE, with evidence of blunted response to exercise in MetS. Our findings show diverse responses of the urinary metabolic fingerprint to different exercise modes in men with and without metabolic syndrome.

  8. Severity of periodontitis and metabolic syndrome: is there an association?

    Gomes-Filho, Isaac Suzart; Mercês, Magno Conceição; Soares, Johelle de Santana Passos; Cruz, Simone Seixas da; Barreto, Mauricio Lima; Costa, Maria da Conceição Nascimento

    2015-01-01

    Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a major factor for the occurrence of cardiovascular events. Causal factors for MetS are not well defined or yet unidentified. Preliminary investigations suggest that infections and inflammation may be involved in the etiology of this syndrome. This study aims to estimate the association between the severity of periodontitis (exposure) and MetS (outcome). Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 419 participants recruited from the Di...

  9. Equine metabolic syndrome in Colombian creole horse: case report

    Castillo, C.A.; Jaramillo, C.; Loaiza, M.J.; Blanco, R.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The equine metabolic syndrome is a condition that can be recognized because of obesity, insulin resistance and laminitis. Genetic factors could play a role in the occurrence of this syndrome. Certain breeds such as ponies (including the South American creole horses) have a lower sensibility to insulin and a higher prevalence of hyperinsulinemia. The environment and management conditions, such as overfeeding and lack of exercise are factors that bring a propensity for obesity. The adi...

  10. HPLC-MS-Based Metabonomics Reveals Disordered Lipid Metabolism in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome

    Xinjie Zhao

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/ quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry-based metabonomics platform was employed to profile the plasma metabolites of patients with metabolic syndrome and the healthy controls. Data analysis revealed lots of differential metabolites between the two groups, and most of them were identified as lipids. Several fatty acids and lysophosphatidylcholines were of higher plasma levels in the patient group, indicating the occurrence of insulin resistance and inflammation. The identified ether phospholipids were decreased in the patient group, reflecting the oxidative stress and some metabolic disorders. These identified metabolites can also be used to aid diagnosis of patients with metabolic syndrome. These results showed that metabonomics was a promising and powerful method to study metabolic syndrome.

  11. The metabolic syndrome and severity of diabetic retinopathy

    Chen JJ

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available John J Chen,1,2,* Lucas J Wendel,1,3,* Emily S Birkholz,1 John G Vallone,4 Anne L Coleman,5,6 Fei Yu,7 Vinit B Mahajan1,3,8 1Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA; 2Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; 3Vitreoretinal Service, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA; 4Department of Pathology, University of Southern California, 5Department of Ophthalmology, 6Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, 7Department of Biostatistics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 8Omics Laboratory, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: While metabolic syndrome has been strongly implicated as a risk factor for macrovascular diseases, such as stroke and cardiovascular disease, its relationship with microvascular diseases, including diabetic retinopathy, has been less defined. The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the association between metabolic syndrome and the presence and severity of diabetic retinopathy.Methods: A retrospective case–control chart review at the University of Iowa ophthalmology and primary care clinics included 100 patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR, 100 patients with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR, 100 diabetic patients without diabetic retinopathy, and 100 nondiabetic patients who were randomly selected. Using the International Diabetes Foundation definition, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the number of components of metabolic syndrome were compared among these groups.Results: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with diabetes was 69.3%, which was significantly higher than that in patients without diabetes (27%; P<0.0001 (odds ratio [OR] =6.28; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.76–10.49; P=0.0004. However, there was no significant difference in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome between diabetics with and without diabetic retinopathy, with rates

  12. Toxigenic and metabolic causes of ketosis and ketoacidotic syndromes.

    Cartwright, Martina M; Hajja, Waddah; Al-Khatib, Sofian; Hazeghazam, Maryam; Sreedhar, Dharmashree; Li, Rebecca Na; Wong-McKinstry, Edna; Carlson, Richard W

    2012-10-01

    Ketoacidotic syndromes are frequently encountered in acute care medicine. This article focuses on ketosis and ketoacidotic syndromes associated with intoxications, alcohol abuse, starvation, and certain dietary supplements as well as inborn errors of metabolism. Although all of these various processes are characterized by the accumulation of ketone bodies and metabolic acidosis, there are differences in the mechanisms, clinical presentations, and principles of therapy for these heterogeneous disorders. Pathophysiologic mechanisms that account for these disorders are presented, as well as guidance regarding identification and management. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Endocrine and metabolic aspects of the Wolfram syndrome.

    Boutzios, Georgios; Livadas, Sarantis; Marinakis, Evangelos; Opie, Nicole; Economou, Frangiskos; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia

    2011-08-01

    Wolfram syndrome (WS), also known as DIDMOAD (Diabetes Insipidus, Diabetes Mellitus, Optic Atrophy and Deafness), is a neurodegenerative disease with autosomal recessive inheritance with incomplete penetrance. DIDMOAD is a very rare disease with an estimated prevalence of 1 in 770,000 and it is believed to occur in 1 of 150 patients with juvenile-onset insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Additionally, WS may also present with different endocrine and metabolic abnormalities such as anterior and posterior pituitary gland dysfunction. This mini-review summarizes the variable presentation of WS and the need of screening for other metabolic and hormonal abnormalities, coexisting in this rare syndrome.

  14. Lifestyle and metabolic syndrome in college students: Differences by gender

    María Araceli Álvarez Gasca

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between lifestyle and metabolic syndrome in college students as well as differences between men and women are analyzed. 970 students (67.4% women, 32.6% men were randomly selected and assessed on lifestyle (EV, central obesity, and metabolic syndrome(SM. Results showed 4.63% with SM and 36.65% with obesity, women predominated. Predominant EV was good and better in men than women, highest frequency of SM was in bad EV. Relationship between gender, obesity, and SM was significant for the studied population. Differences were found between men and women.

  15. Obesity and metabolic syndrome in COPD: Is exercise the answer?

    James, Benjamin D; Jones, Amy V; Trethewey, Ruth E; Evans, Rachael A

    2018-05-01

    Approximately half of all patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) attending pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) programmes are overweight or obese which negatively impacts upon dyspnoea and exercise tolerance particularly when walking. Within the obese population (without COPD), the observed heterogeneity in prognosis is in part explained by the variability in the risk of developing cardiovascular disease or diabetes (cardiometabolic risk) leading to the description of metabolic syndrome. In obesity alone, high-intensity aerobic training can support healthy weight loss and improve the constituent components of metabolic syndrome. Those with COPD, obesity and/or metabolic syndrome undergoing PR appear to do as well in traditional outcomes as their normal-weight metabolically healthy peers in terms of improvement of symptoms, health-related quality of life and exercise performance, and should therefore not be excluded. To broaden the benefit of PR, for this complex population, we should learn from the extensive literature examining the effects of exercise in obesity and metabolic syndrome discussed in this review and optimize the exercise strategy to improve these co-morbid conditions. Standard PR outcomes could be expanded to include cardiometabolic risk reduction to lower future morbidity and mortality; to this end exercise may well be the answer.

  16. Risk of metabolic syndrome among children living in metropolitan Kuala Lumpur: a case control study.

    Wee, Bee S; Poh, Bee K; Bulgiba, Awang; Ismail, Mohd N; Ruzita, Abdul T; Hills, Andrew P

    2011-05-18

    syndrome. However, for ethnicity, Indians were found to have higher odds (OR = 5.5; 95%CI 1.5, 20.5) compared to Malays, with Chinese children (OR = 0.3; 95%CI 0.0, 2.7) having the lowest odds. We conclude that being overweight or obese poses a greater risk of developing the metabolic syndrome among children. Indian ethnicity is at higher risk compared to their counterparts of the same age. Hence, primary intervention strategies are required to prevent this problem from escalating.

  17. TREATMENT OF METABOLIC ALTERATIONS IN POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME.

    Păvăleanu, Ioana; Gafiţanu, D; Popovici, Diana; Duceac, Letiţia Doina; Păvăleanu, Maricica

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common endocrinopathy characterized by oligo ovulation or anovulation, signs of androgen excess and multiple small ovarian cysts. It includes various metabolic abnormalities: insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, impaired glucose tolerance, visceral obesity, inflammation and endothelial dysfunction, hypertension and dyslipidemia. All these metabolic abnormalities have long-term implications. Treatment should be individualized and must not address a single sign or symptom. Studies are still needed to determine the benefits and the associated risks of the medication now available to practitioners.

  18. Epigenetics and a new look on metabolic syndrome

    Kuneš, Jaroslav; Vaněčková, Ivana; Mikulášková, Barbora; Behuliak, Michal; Maletínská, L.; Zicha, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 5 (2015), s. 611-620 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NV15-25396A; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-08679S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : metabolic syndrome * epigenetic s * transgenerational inheritance * gene-environmental interactions * obesity * hypertension Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 1.643, year: 2015

  19. Epigenetics and a new look on metabolic syndrome

    Kuneš, Jaroslav; Vaněčková, I.; Mikulášková, Barbora; Behuliak, M.; Maletínská, Lenka; Zicha, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 5 (2015), s. 611-620 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-08679S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : metabolic syndrome * epigenetic s * transgenerational inheritance * gene-environmental interactions * obesity * hypertension Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 1.643, year: 2015 http://www.biomed.cas.cz/physiolres/pdf/64/64_611.pdf

  20. Metabolic syndrome in the Mediterranean region: Current status

    Panagiotis Anagnostis

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities including abdominal obesity, impaired fasting glucose, hypertension and dyslipidemia. It seems to affect about one-fourth to one-fifth of the Mediterranean population, and its prevalence increases with age, being similar for both sexes and depending on the region and the definition used, with the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel-III (NCEP-ATPIII) definition being the most effective in the identificat...

  1. [Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk in an urban area of Murcia].

    Fernández-Ruiz, Virginia E; Paniagua-Urbano, José A; Solé-Agustí, María; Ruiz-Sánchez, Alfonso; Gómez-Marín, José

    2014-11-01

    It is extensive scientific literature that has defined the metabolic syndrome as a precursor of cardiovascular disease. To estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk in the population of a basic health area of Murcia. Cross sectional study population of the district health "The Esparragal" random sample of the population between 18 and 86 years living in the area. Personal history were collected and held a relevant clinical, anthropometric data and analytics for the estimation of Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiovascular Risk following criteria dictated by the current literature, adjusted for sex and age. The mean age of the study population was 59.34 ± 14.79 years, with 52.5% males. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome criteria World Health Organization is presented 36.8%, a figure increased under International Diabetes Ferderation recommendations to 58.2% and according to National Cholesterol Education Program, an estimated 53.5%. The presentation of this syndrome is slightly higher in men (54.1 versus 52.8 %), and in parallel with increasing age (p < 0.001). The prevalence of people at high risk of cardiovascular disease is 32.1 % (95 % CI 29.4 to 34.8), with 45.2 % (95% CI 41.2 to 49.2) in men and 17.6% (95% CI 14.4 to 20.8) in women. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk in the study population is the highest found in Spain in population studies, indicating an invaluable population on which preventive measures. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  2. Metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents with phenylketonuria

    Viviane C. Kanufre

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to identify markers of metabolic syndrome (MS in patients with phenylketonuria (PKU. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study consisting of 58 PKU patients (ages of 4-15 years: 29 patients with excess weight, and 29 with normal weight. The biochemical variables assessed were phenylalanine (phe, total cholesterol, HDL-c, triglycerides, glucose, and basal insulin. The patients had Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA and waist circumference assessed. Results: No inter-group difference was found for phe. Overweight patients had higher levels of triglycerides, basal insulin, and HOMA, but lower concentrations of HDL-cholesterol, when compared to the eutrophic patients. Total cholesterol/HDL-c was significantly higher in the overweight group. A positive correlation between basal insulin level and HOMA with waist circumference was found only in the overweight group. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that patients with PKU and excess weight are potentially vulnerable to the development of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct clinical and laboratory monitoring, aiming to prevent metabolic changes, as well as excessive weight gain and its consequences, particularly cardiovascular risk. Resumo: Objetivo: Determinar marcadores bioquímicos da síndrome metabólica em pacientes com PKU. Métodos: Foram avaliados dois grupos de pacientes com PKU, 4 a 15 anos de idade, com excesso de peso (29 e eutróficos (29. As variáveis bioquímicas avaliadas foram a fenilalanina (phe, colesterol total, HDL-c, triglicérides, glicose e insulina basal. Foi determinado o HOMA e mensurada a circunferência da cintura. Resultados: As concentrações de phe, de colesterol total e de glicose foram equivalentes entre os grupos. Os pacientes com excesso de peso apresentaram maiores concentrações de triglicérides, de insulina basal, maiores valores da determinação do HOMA, menores concentrações de HDL colesterol e

  3. Gender differences in prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in Gulf Cooperation Council Countries: a systematic review.

    Mabry, R M; Reeves, M M; Eakin, E G; Owen, N

    2010-05-01

    To systematically review studies documenting the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among men and women in Member States of the Gulf Cooperative Council (GCC; Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates)-countries in which obesity, Type 2 diabetes and related metabolic and cardiovascular diseases are highly prevalent. A search was conducted on PubMed and CINAHL using the term 'metabolic syndrome' and the country name of each GCC Member State. The search was limited to studies published in the English language. The metabolic syndrome was defined according to the Third Adult Treatment Panel (ATPIII) of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) and/or International Diabetes Federation (IDF) definitions. The methodological quality of each study was evaluated based on four criteria: a national-level population sample; equal gender representation; robustness of the sample size; an explicit sampling methodology. PubMed, CINAHL and reference list searches identified nine relevant studies. Only four were considered high quality and found that, for men, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome ranged from 20.7% to 37.2% (ATPIII definition) and from 29.6% to 36.2% (IDF definition); and, for women, from 32.1% to 42.7% (ATPIII definition) and from 36.1% to 45.9% (IDF definition). Overall, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in the GCC states is some 10-15% higher than in most developed countries, with generally higher prevalence rates for women. Preventive strategies will require identifying socio-demographic and environmental correlates (particularly those influencing women) and addressing modifiable risk behaviours, including lack of physical activity, prolonged sitting time and dietary intake.

  4. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in scholars from Bucaramanga, Colombia: a population-based study

    Camacho Paul A

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity and metabolic syndrome are strongly associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases, thus the increasing trend in their prevalence among children and adolescents from developing countries requires a further understanding of their epidemiology and determinants. Methods and design A cross-sectional study was designed to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among 6–10 year-old children from Bucaramanga, Colombia. A two-stage random-cluster (neighborhoods, houses sampling process was performed based on local city maps and local statistics. The study involves a domiciliary survey; including a comprehensive socio-demographic, nutritional and physical activity characterization of the children that participated in the study, followed by a complete clinical examination; including blood pressure, anthropometry, lipid profile determination, fasting glucose and insulin levels. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome will be determined using definitions and specific percentile cut-off points for this population. Finally, the association between components of metabolic syndrome and higher degrees of insulin resistance will be analyzed through a multivariable logistic regression model. This study protocol was designed in compliance with the Helsinki declaration and approved by the local ethics board. Consent was obtained from the children and their parents/guardians. Discussion A complete description of the environmental and non-environmental factors underlying the burden of metabolic syndrome in children from a developing country like Colombia will provide policy makers, health care providers and educators from similar settings with an opportunity to guide primary and secondary preventive initiatives at both individual and community levels. Moreover, this description may give an insight into the pathophysiological mechanisms mediating the development of cardio-metabolic diseases early in life.

  5. Preschool Weight and Body Mass Index in Relation to Central Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome in Adulthood

    Graversen, Lise; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Petersen, Liselotte

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: If preschool measures of body size routinely collected at preventive health examinations are associated with adult central obesity and metabolic syndrome, a focused use of these data for the identification of high risk children is possible. The aim of this study was to test the associ......BACKGROUND: If preschool measures of body size routinely collected at preventive health examinations are associated with adult central obesity and metabolic syndrome, a focused use of these data for the identification of high risk children is possible. The aim of this study was to test...... the associations between preschool weight and body mass index (BMI) and adult BMI, central obesity and metabolic alterations. METHODS: The Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (NFBC1966) (N = 4111) is a population-based cohort. Preschool weight (age 5 months and 1 year) and BMI (age 2-5 years) were studied...... in relation to metabolic syndrome as well as BMI, waist circumference, lipoproteins, blood pressure, and fasting glucose at the age of 31 years. Linear regression models and generalized linear regression models with log link were used. RESULTS: Throughout preschool ages, weight and BMI were significantly...

  6. Effects of smoking and aerobic exercise on male college students' metabolic syndrome risk factors.

    Kim, Jee-Youn; Yang, Yuhao; Sim, Young-Je

    2018-04-01

    [Purpose] The aim was to investigate the effects of university students' smoking and aerobic exercise on metabolic syndrome risk factors. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three male students were randomly assigned to the following groups: exercise smoker (n=6), non-exercise smoker (n=6), exercise non-smoker (n=6), and non-exercise non-smoker (n=5). A basketball exercise program was conducted three times per week (70 minutes per session) for 8 weeks with exercise intensity set at 50-80% of heart rate reserve. After 8 weeks, the variables of risk factors for metabolic syndrome were obtained. [Results] Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were significantly decreased in the exercise non-smoker group and significantly increased in the non-exercise smoker group. Waist circumference was significantly reduced in both exercise groups regardless of smoking and significantly increased in the non-exercise smoker group. Triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and fasting plasma glucose showed no differences between the groups. [Conclusion] Obesity and smoking management should be conducted together for students as well as for those with metabolic syndrome risk factors. It is recommended that more students participate in such programs, and exercise programs should be further developed and diversified to prevent metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases.

  7. Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid Deficiency and High Fructose Intake in the Development of Metabolic Syndrome, Brain Metabolic Abnormalities, and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Artemis P. Simopoulos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Western diets are characterized by both dietary omega-3 fatty acid deficiency and increased fructose intake. The latter found in high amounts in added sugars such as sucrose and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS. Both a low intake of omega-3 fatty acids or a high fructose intake contribute to metabolic syndrome, liver steatosis or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, promote brain insulin resistance, and increase the vulnerability to cognitive dysfunction. Insulin resistance is the core perturbation of metabolic syndrome. Multiple cognitive domains are affected by metabolic syndrome in adults and in obese adolescents, with volume losses in the hippocampus and frontal lobe, affecting executive function. Fish oil supplementation maintains proper insulin signaling in the brain, ameliorates NAFLD and decreases the risk to metabolic syndrome suggesting that adequate levels of omega-3 fatty acids in the diet can cope with the metabolic challenges imposed by high fructose intake in Western diets which is of major public health importance. This review presents the current status of the mechanisms involved in the development of the metabolic syndrome, brain insulin resistance, and NAFLD a most promising area of research in Nutrition for the prevention of these conditions, chronic diseases, and improvement of Public Health.

  8. Effect of Mediterranean diet with and without weight loss on apolipoprotein B100 metabolism in men with metabolic syndrome

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) with and without weight loss (WL) on apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) metabolism in men with metabolic syndrome. The diet of 19 men with metabolic syndrome (age, 24–62 years) was first standardized to a North America...

  9. HOMA1-IR and HOMA2-IR indexes in identifying insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome - Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study (BRAMS)

    Geloneze, B; Vasques, ACJ; Stabe, CFC; Pareja, JC; Rosado, LEFPD; de Queiroz, EC; Tambascia, MA

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate cut-off values for HOMA1-IR and HOMA2-IR to identify insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (MS), and to assess the association of the indexes with components of the MS. Methods: Nondiabetic subjects from the Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study were studied (n = 1,203, 18 to 78 years). The cut-off values for IR were determined from the 9011 percentile in the healthy group (n = 297) and, for MS, a ROC curve was generated for the total sample. Results: In the he...

  10. Oxidative status and lipid profile in metabolic syndrome: gender differences.

    Kaya, Aysem; Uzunhasan, Isil; Baskurt, Murat; Ozkan, Alev; Ataoglu, Esra; Okcun, Baris; Yigit, Zerrin

    2010-02-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with cardiovascular disease and oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences of novel oxidative stress parameters and lipid profiles in men and women with metabolic syndrome. The study population included 88 patients with metabolic syndrome, consisting of 48 postmenauposal women (group I) and 40 men (group II). Premenauposal women were excluded. Plasma levels of total antioxidant status (TAS) and total oxidative status (TOS) were determined by using the Erel automated measurement method, and oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated. To perform the calculation, the resulting unit of TAS, mmol Trolox equivalent/L, was converted to micromol equivalent/L and the OSI value was calculated as: OSI = [(TOS, micromol/L)/(TAS, mmol Trolox equivalent/L) x 100]. The Student t-test, Mann-Whitney-U test, and chi-squared test were used for statistical analysis; the Pearson correlation coefficient and Spearman rank test were used for correlation analysis. P women and men had similar properties regarding demographic characteristics and biochemical work up. Group II had significantly lower levels of antioxidant levels of TAS and lower levels of TOS and OSI compared with group I (P = 0.0001, P = 0.0035, and P = 0,0001). Apolipoprotein A (ApoA) levels were significantly higher in group I compared with group II. Our findings indicate that women with metabolic syndrome have a better antioxidant status and higher ApoA levels compared with men. Our findings suggest the existence of a higher oxidative stress index in men with metabolic syndrome. Considering the higher risk of atherosclerosis associated with men, these novel oxidative stress parameters may be valuable in the evaluation of patients with metabolic sydrome.

  11. METABOLIC SYNDROME IN PATIENTS WITH PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS: diagnostic issues, comorbidity and side effects of antipsychotics

    Kozumplik, Oliver; Uzun, Suzana; Jakovljević, Miro

    2010-01-01

    Background: Metabolic syndrome and other cardiovascular risk factors are highly prevalent in people with schizophrenia. Metabolic syndrome can contribute to significant morbidity and premature mortality and should be accounted for in the treatment of mental disorders. Along with results of numerous investigations regarding metabolic syndrome, different issues have occurred. The aim of this article is to review literature regarding diagnostic and treatment of metabolic syndrome and po...

  12. BIPOLAR DISORDER AND METABOLIC SYNDROME: COMORBIDITY OR SIDE EFFECTS OF TREATMENT OF BIPOLAR DISORDER

    Babić, Dragan; Maslov, Boris; Nikolić, Katica; Martinac, Marko; Uzun, Suzana; Kozumplik, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    Objective: There is evidence that people with mental disorders are more likely to suffer from metabolic syndrome. In the last decades there has been an increase in interest for researching metabolic syndrome in psychiatric patients and plenty of evidence about their association. However, investigations on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with bipolar disorder are still surprisingly rare. The aim of this paper is to analyze comorbidity of bipolar disorder and metabolic syndrome...

  13. The search for putative unifying genetic factors for components of the metabolic syndrome

    Sjögren, M; Lyssenko, V; Jonsson, Anna Elisabet

    2008-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of factors contributing to increased risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes but unifying mechanisms have not been identified. Our aim was to study whether common variations in 17 genes previously associated with type 2 diabetes or components...... of the metabolic syndrome and variants in nine genes with inconsistent association with at least two components of the metabolic syndrome would also predict future development of components of the metabolic syndrome, individually or in combination....

  14. Inherited lipodystrophies and the metabolic syndrome

    Monajemi, Houshang; Stroes, Erik; Hegele, Robert A.; Fliers, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Lipodystrophies represent a heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by an abnormal subcutaneous fat distribution, the extent of which can vary from localized, to partial, to generalized lipoatrophy. Whereas partial and generalized lipodystrophies are each associated with metabolic

  15. Influence of traditional Chinese medicine syndrome groups on quality of life in women with metabolic syndrome

    Li-Wen Huang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM; 中醫 zhōng yī syndrome groups are based on the symptoms of human diseases and guide the use of Chinese herbs. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of TCM syndrome groups on biochemical characteristics and quality of life (QOL in women with metabolic syndrome (MS. Among the 1080 registered female patients screened at our outpatient clinic, a total of 322 women aged between 18 and 65 years and meeting the requirements of MS were enrolled. All the patients were asked to fill out a questionnaire on metabolic TCM syndrome groups and a questionnaire on the QOL, the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS Short Form-12 (SF-12. Data of biochemical characteristics were collected at the same time. The present study showed MS women in TCM syndrome groups had significantly lower physical and mental component scores in SF-12 compared with those not in TCM syndrome groups. We also found MS patients in TCM syndrome groups, except Kidney Deficiency syndrome, showed higher body mass indexes, waist circumference, and hip circumference. However, there was almost no difference in most biochemical characteristics between TCM syndrome groups. The MS patients diagnosed as belonging to TCM syndrome groups had poor QOL.

  16. Prevention and Management of Refeeding Syndrome

    Andika Indrarespati; Kaka Renaldi

    2016-01-01

    Refeeding Syndrome is a syndrome which occurs as a result of food administration in poorly nourished individuals. In this syndrome, there are wide range of biochemical alterations, clinical manifestations, and complications, starting from mild (asymptomatic) to severe (death). This syndrome was initially proposed in 1950s; however, there is still no agreement for its clear definition, causing clinicians to be less aware and tend to overlook this condition. Clinical manifestations which usuall...

  17. Trajectories of metabolic syndrome development in young adults.

    Vivian T W Poon

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS is a constellation of metabolic aberrations that collectively increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Greater understanding of MetS developments may provide insight into targeted prevention strategies for individuals at greatest risk. The purpose of this study was to i identify distinct patterns of longitudinal MetS development and; ii develop a character profile that differentiates groups by level of MetS risk.Data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA study (n = 3 804; 18-30 y was obtained by limited access application from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and used for this analysis. MetS, as defined by the Harmonized criteria, was assessed over a 20 year follow-up period. Group-level trajectory analysis identified 4 distinct groups with varying rates of component development [No (23.8% of sample; Low (33.5%; Moderate (35.3%; and High MetS (7.4%]. After adjusting for covariates, individuals in the At-Risk groups (Low, Moderate and High MetS were more likely to be of black ethnicity (1.37, 1.14-1.66, have a family history of cardiovascular disease (1.61, 1.31-1.97 and history of dieting (1.69, 1.20-2.39 when compared to the No Risk trajectory group (No MetS. Conversely, increasing baseline education (0.76, 0.65-0.89 and aerobic fitness (0.55, 0.47-0.64 was inversely associated with At-Risk group membership.Results suggest distinct profiles of MetS development that can be identified by baseline risk factors. Further research is necessary to understand the clinical implication of intermediate MetS development groups with respect to overall cardiometabolic risk.

  18. Metabolic syndrome in Mexican children: Low effectiveness of diagnostic definitions.

    Peña-Espinoza, Barbara Itzel; Granados-Silvestre, María de Los Ángeles; Sánchez-Pozos, Katy; Ortiz-López, María Guadalupe; Menjivar, Marta

    Early identification of children with metabolic syndrome (MS) is essential to decrease the risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease in adulthood. Detection of MS is however challenging because of the different definitions for diagnosis; as a result, preventive actions are not taken in some children at risk. The study objective was therefore to compare prevalence of MS in children according to the IDF, NCEP-ATP-III, Cook, de Ferranti and Weiss definitions, considering insulin resistance (IR) markers such as HOMA-IR and/or metabolic index (MI). A total of 508 Mexican children (aged 9 to 13 years) from seven schools were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Somatometric, biochemical, and hormonal measurements were evaluated. Frequency of MS was 2.4-45.9% depending on the definition used. Frequency of IR in children not diagnosed with MS was 12.4-25.2% using HOMA-IR and 4.0-16.3% using MI. When HOMA-IR or MI was included in each of the definitions, frequency of MS was 8.5-50.2% and 7.7-46.9% respectively. The kappa value including HOMA-IR and/or MI was greater than 0.8. This study demonstrated the poor effectiveness of the current criteria used to diagnose MS in Mexican children, as shown by the variability in the definitions and by the presence of IR in children who not diagnosed with MS. Inclusion of HOMA-IR and/or MI in definitions of MS (thus increasing agreement between them) decreases the chance of excluding children at risk and allows for MS prevalence between populations. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Predicting Metabolic Syndrome Using the Random Forest Method

    Apilak Worachartcheewan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. This study proposes a computational method for determining the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS and to predict its occurrence using the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III criteria. The Random Forest (RF method is also applied to identify significant health parameters. Materials and Methods. We used data from 5,646 adults aged between 18–78 years residing in Bangkok who had received an annual health check-up in 2008. MS was identified using the NCEP ATP III criteria. The RF method was applied to predict the occurrence of MS and to identify important health parameters surrounding this disorder. Results. The overall prevalence of MS was 23.70% (34.32% for males and 17.74% for females. RF accuracy for predicting MS in an adult Thai population was 98.11%. Further, based on RF, triglyceride levels were the most important health parameter associated with MS. Conclusion. RF was shown to predict MS in an adult Thai population with an accuracy >98% and triglyceride levels were identified as the most informative variable associated with MS. Therefore, using RF to predict MS may be potentially beneficial in identifying MS status for preventing the development of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases.

  20. Metabolic syndrome: a common problem among office workers.

    Alavi, S S; Makarem, J; Mehrdad, R; Abbasi, M

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MSx) is associated with several health problems. Workers are an important part of any organization. To determine the prevalence of MSx and related variables among office workers. This cross-sectional study evaluated 1488 office workers in Qom province, Central Iran, by using a multi-stage cluster sampling. Diagnosis of MSx was based on blood HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, and fasting blood sugar (FBS) levels and waist circumference, and blood pressure. The overall prevalence of MSx was 35.9% (95% CI 33.5% to 38.3%), higher in men (37.2%) than in women (20.6%), and increased with age. The most common laboratory findings of MSx were hypertriglyceridemia (45.9%) and low HDL-cholesterol level (45.5%). Office workers with MSx had a significantly (pMSx. Lack of regular leisure time physical activity (p=0.003), and low intake of fruits (p=0.02) were associated with MSx. The prevalence of MSx was very high among office workers. Workplace health improvement programs through identifying and preventing MSx are necessary for improvement of staff's health.

  1. Metabolic Syndrome: A Common Problem among Office Workers

    SS Alavi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metabolic syndrome (MSx is associated with several health problems. Workers are an important part of any organization. Objective: To determine the prevalence of MSx and related variables among office workers. Methods: This cross-sectional study evaluated 1488 office workers in Qom province, Central Iran, by using a multi-stage cluster sampling. Diagnosis of MSx was based on blood HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, and fasting blood sugar (FBS levels and waist circumference, and blood pressure. Results: The overall prevalence of MSx was 35.9% (95% CI 33.5% to 38.3%, higher in men (37.2% than in women (20.6%, and increased with age. The most common laboratory findings of MSx were hypertriglyceridemia (45.9% and low HDL-cholesterol level (45.5%. Office workers with MSx had a significantly (p<0.001 higher body mass index than those without MSx. Lack of regular leisure time physical activity (p=0.003, and low intake of fruits (p=0.02 were associated with MSx. Conclusion: The prevalence of MSx was very high among office workers. Workplace health improvement programs through identifying and preventing MSx are necessary for improvement of staff's health.

  2. Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence among Northern Mexican Adult Population

    Salas, Rogelio; Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Ramos, Esteban; Villarreal, Jesús Z.; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A.; Sureda, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Dietary habits in the Mexican population have changed dramatically over the last few years, which are reflected in increased overweight and obesity prevalence. The aim was to examine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and associated risk factors in Northern Mexican adults aged ≥16 years. Methods and Results The study was a population-based cross-sectional nutritional survey carried out in the State of Nuevo León, Mexico. The study included a sub-sample of 1,200 subjects aged 16 and over who took part in the State Survey of Nutrition and Health–Nuevo León 2011/2012. Anthropometric measurements, physical activity, blood pressure and fasting blood tests for biochemical analysis were obtained from all subjects. The prevalence of MetS in Mexican adults aged ≥16 years was 54.8%, reaching 73.8% in obese subjects. This prevalence was higher in women (60.4%) than in men (48.9%) and increased with age in both genders. Multivariate analyses showed no evident relation between MetS components and the level of physical activity. Conclusions Obese adults, mainly women, are particularly at risk of developing MetS, with the associated implications for their health. The increasing prevalence of MetS highlights the need for developing strategies for its early detection and prevention. PMID:25141255

  3. Metabolic syndrome prevalence among Northern Mexican adult population.

    Salas, Rogelio; Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Ramos, Esteban; Villarreal, Jesús Z; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A; Sureda, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Dietary habits in the Mexican population have changed dramatically over the last few years, which are reflected in increased overweight and obesity prevalence. The aim was to examine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and associated risk factors in Northern Mexican adults aged ≥ 16 years. The study was a population-based cross-sectional nutritional survey carried out in the State of Nuevo León, Mexico. The study included a sub-sample of 1,200 subjects aged 16 and over who took part in the State Survey of Nutrition and Health-Nuevo León 2011/2012. Anthropometric measurements, physical activity, blood pressure and fasting blood tests for biochemical analysis were obtained from all subjects. The prevalence of MetS in Mexican adults aged ≥ 16 years was 54.8%, reaching 73.8% in obese subjects. This prevalence was higher in women (60.4%) than in men (48.9%) and increased with age in both genders. Multivariate analyses showed no evident relation between MetS components and the level of physical activity. Obese adults, mainly women, are particularly at risk of developing MetS, with the associated implications for their health. The increasing prevalence of MetS highlights the need for developing strategies for its early detection and prevention.

  4. Metabolic syndrome prevalence among Northern Mexican adult population.

    Rogelio Salas

    Full Text Available Dietary habits in the Mexican population have changed dramatically over the last few years, which are reflected in increased overweight and obesity prevalence. The aim was to examine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS and associated risk factors in Northern Mexican adults aged ≥ 16 years.The study was a population-based cross-sectional nutritional survey carried out in the State of Nuevo León, Mexico. The study included a sub-sample of 1,200 subjects aged 16 and over who took part in the State Survey of Nutrition and Health-Nuevo León 2011/2012. Anthropometric measurements, physical activity, blood pressure and fasting blood tests for biochemical analysis were obtained from all subjects. The prevalence of MetS in Mexican adults aged ≥ 16 years was 54.8%, reaching 73.8% in obese subjects. This prevalence was higher in women (60.4% than in men (48.9% and increased with age in both genders. Multivariate analyses showed no evident relation between MetS components and the level of physical activity.Obese adults, mainly women, are particularly at risk of developing MetS, with the associated implications for their health. The increasing prevalence of MetS highlights the need for developing strategies for its early detection and prevention.

  5. Effect of metabolic syndrome on mitsugumin 53 expression and function.

    Hanley Ma

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors, such as obesity, insulin resistance, and hyperlipidemia that increases the individual's likelihood of developing cardiovascular diseases. Patients inflicted with metabolic disorders also suffer from tissue repair defect. Mitsugumin 53 (MG53 is a protein essential to cellular membrane repair. It facilitates the nucleation of intracellular vesicles to sites of membrane disruption to create repair patches, contributing to the regenerative capacity of skeletal and cardiac muscle tissues upon injury. Since individuals suffering from metabolic syndrome possess tissue regeneration deficiency and MG53 plays a crucial role in restoring membrane integrity, we studied MG53 activity in mice models exhibiting metabolic disorders induced by a 6 month high-fat diet (HFD feeding. Western blotting showed that MG53 expression is not altered within the skeletal and cardiac muscles of mice with metabolic syndrome. Rather, we found that MG53 levels in blood circulation were actually reduced. This data directly contradicts findings presented by Song et. al that indict MG53 as a causative factor for metabolic syndrome (Nature 494, 375-379. The diminished MG53 serum level observed may contribute to the inadequate tissue repair aptitude exhibited by diabetic patients. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analyses reveal that skeletal muscle fibers of mice with metabolic disorders experience localization of subcellular MG53 around mitochondria. This clustering may represent an adaptive response to oxidative stress resulting from HFD feeding and may implicate MG53 as a guardian to protect damaged mitochondria. Therapeutic approaches that elevate MG53 expression in serum circulation may be a novel method to treat the degenerative tissue repair function of diabetic patients.

  6. Chitin Oligosaccharide Modulates Gut Microbiota and Attenuates High-Fat-Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Mice

    Junping Zheng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota has been proved to be an indispensable link between nutrient excess and metabolic syndrome, and chitin oligosaccharide (NACOS has displayed therapeutic effects on multiple diseases such as cancer and gastritis. In this study, we aim to confirm whether NACOS can ameliorate high-fat diet (HFD-induced metabolic syndrome by rebuilding the structure of the gut microbiota community. Male C57BL/6J mice fed with HFD were treated with NACOS (1 mg/mL in drinking water for five months. The results indicate that NACOS improved glucose metabolic disorder in HFD-fed mice and suppressed mRNA expression of the protein regulators related to lipogenesis, gluconeogenesis, adipocyte differentiation, and inflammation in adipose tissues. Additionally, NACOS inhibited the destruction of the gut barrier in HFD-treated mice. Furthermore, 16S ribosome RNA sequencing of fecal samples demonstrates that NACOS promoted the growth of beneficial intestinal bacteria remarkably and decreased the abundance of inflammogenic taxa. In summary, NACOS partly rebuilt the microbial community and improved the metabolic syndrome of HFD-fed mice. These data confirm the preventive effects of NACOS on nutrient excess-related metabolic diseases.

  7. Relationship of C-reactive protein, metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus: potential role of statins.

    Nash, David T

    2005-12-01

    Atherosclerosis and the metabolic derangements of insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus are all associated with underlying inflammatory processes. C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of inflammation, has been shown to be a strong independent predictor of vascular events. It adds to cardiovascular disease risk at all levels of low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and Framingham risk scores, and elevated levels are also associated with increasing severity of the metabolic syndrome. The development of a simple, stable, noninvasive test to measure high-sensitivity CRP has provided a clinical tool that may have an important role in the identification and assessment of individuals likely to develop cardiovascular or metabolic disease. The role of CRP in predicting cardiovascular risk is less clear in African Americans, however, than in white populations. Statins and thiazolidinediones are being investigated for their potential role in the prevention and treatment of the inflammatory processes involved in the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. In the future, assessment of CRP levels may contribute importantly to clinical decision-making in reducing cardiovascular risk.

  8. Undiagnosed metabolic syndrome and other adverse effects among ...

    interval (with Bazett's correction). Conclusion. The high prevalence of metabolic syndrome and undiagnosed diabetes mellitus in this sample points to a need to monitor glucose levels and BMI on a regular basis. A larger study should be done to ...

  9. The metabolic syndrome: targeting dyslipidaemia to reduce coronary risk.

    Ginsberg, H.N.; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.

    2003-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a complex constellation of disorders, each one a significant risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The increasing prevalence of this condition is a major concern for healthcare providers both in Europe and North America. The concern surrounding

  10. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome using NCEP-ATPIII and ...

    To estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome using ınternational dietetics federation (IDF) versus National cholesterol education program; adult treatment panel III (NCEP-ATPIII) definitions in Turkish adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a total of 1531 (male 758 and female 773) Turkish adults, aged ...

  11. Division IAA Football Players and Risk Factors for Metabolic Syndrome

    Repovich, Wendy E. S.; Babcock, Garth J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if body composition and blood pressure (BP), two markers for Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), were correlated in college football players. Height, weight, BMI, systolic (SBP) and Diastolic (DBP) blood pressure and body composition (three measures) were assessed in a Division IAA football team (N = 55). Data…

  12. Metabolic Syndrome in Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Wahi, Gita; LeBlanc, Paul J.; Hay, John A.; Faught, Brent E.; O'Leary, Debra; Cairney, John

    2011-01-01

    Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have higher rates of obesity compared to children with typical motor development, and, as a result may be at increased risk for developing metabolic syndrome (MetS). The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of MetS and its components among children with and without DCD. This…

  13. High risk of metabolic syndrome among black South African women ...

    Background: There is an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in individuals with severe mental illness (SMI) globally. The prevalence of MetS is higher in black women compared to black men from South Africa. Aim: To compare the prevalence of MetS between black South African men and women with SMI ...

  14. Association between Cigarette Smoking and Metabolic Syndrome in ...

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between metabolic syndrome as defined by using the modified NCEP/ATP III criteria [modified the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP)/Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria] and cigarette smoking in Thai subjects. Methods: This study was carried out among 254 ...

  15. Insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and lipids in African women

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... high‑density lipoprotein (TG/HDL), total cholesterol (TC)/HDL, and atherogenic index of ... Key words: Insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, triglycerides, women ... been reported that a TG/HDL ratio of >3.0 is predictive of.

  16. Bipolar disorder and metabolic syndrome: a systematic review

    Letícia Czepielewski

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Summarize data on metabolic syndrome (MS in bipolar disorder (BD. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was conducted using the Medline, Embase and PsycInfo databases, using the keywords "metabolic syndrome", "insulin resistance" and "metabolic X syndrome" and cross-referencing them with "bipolar disorder" or "mania". The following types of publications were candidates for review: (i clinical trials, (ii studies involving patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder or (iii data about metabolic syndrome. A 5-point quality scale was used to assess the methodological weight of the studies. RESULTS: Thirty-nine articles were selected. None of studies reached the maximum quality score of 5 points. The prevalence of MS was significantly higher in BD individuals when compared to a control group. The analysis of MS subcomponents showed that abdominal obesity was heterogeneous. Individuals with BD had significantly higher rates of hypertriglyceridemia than healthy controls. When compared to the general population, there were no significant differences in the prevalence of low HDL-c in individuals with BD. Data on hypertension were also inconclusive. Rates of hyperglycemia were significantly greater in patients with BD compared to the general population. CONCLUSIONS: The overall results point to the presence of an association between BD and MS, as well as between their subcomponents.

  17. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components among ...

    Background: The incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), is rapidly increasing in developing countries. However, the epidemiology of MetS is not well reported in the pediatric and young adult population. We determined the prevalence of MetS and its components among overweight and obese Nigerian adolescents and ...

  18. Early Onset Childhood Obesity and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome

    This podcast features Lorena Pacheco, a doctoral student at the University of California San Diego and one of the winners of PCD's 2017 Student Research Paper Contest. Lorena answers questions about her winning research, which focuses on the relationship between early onset obesity as a risk factor for increased metabolic syndrome in Chilean children.

  19. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Individual Criteria in College Students

    Fernandes, Jill; Lofgren, Ingrid E.

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is present in young adults and because coronary heart disease (CHD) is likely, screening to determine MetS prevalence and its criteria is critical. Objective: To determine MetS prevalence and most prevalent criteria in a sample of first-year college students. Participants: First-year college students between 18 and 24…

  20. Serum Adiponectin and Ghrelin, Metabolic Syndrome and Diabetes ...

    Purpose: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes. Decreases in circulating adiponectin and ghrelin have been associated with MetS. Our primary aim was to evaluate the relationship of MetS with adiponectin and ghrelin for Cuban Americans with ...

  1. The metabolic syndrome in black hypertensive women waist ...

    Objective. To examine the association between measures of obesity and features of the metabolic syndrome in treated black female hypertensive subjects. Design. Cross-sectional study. Setting. An urban primary health care centre in Mamelodi, Pretoria. Subjects. Women with hypertension and without known diabetes ...

  2. Metabolic Syndrome in Patients attending the Staff Clinic of a ...

    Background/objective: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is characterised by a clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors. It contributes to morbidity and mortality in adults. The objective of the study was to identify new cases and associated factors of MetS in patients attending a tertiary hospital staff clinic. Materials and methods: The ...

  3. Obesity, body composition and metabolic disturbances in polycystic ovary syndrome

    Svendsen, Pernille Fog; Nilas, Lisbeth; Nørgaard, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We determined the impact of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and obesity on glucose and lipid metabolism and beta-cell function in women with PCOS. METHODS: In 35 women with PCOS (17 lean, lean PCOS and 18 obese, obese PCOS) and 25 control women (9 lean, lean controls and 16 obese, ob...

  4. Metabolic Syndrome in a Rural Nigerian Community: Is Central ...

    Alasia Datonye

    ABSTRACT. Background. Metabolic syndrome (MS) is primarily the consequence of excess central adiposity but can also result from low grade systemic inflammation inducing insulin resistance. There is a global increase in the prevalence of MS; it is on this background that evaluation of the prevalence of MS in a poor rural ...

  5. Altered carbon dioxide metabolism and creatine abnormalities in rett syndrome

    Halbach, Nicky S J; Smeets, Eric E J; Bierau, Jörgen; Keularts, Irene M L W; Plasqui, Guy; Julu, Peter O O; Engerström, Ingegerd Witt; Bakker, Jaap A.; Curfs, Leopold M G

    2012-01-01

    Despite their good appetite, many females with Rett syndrome (RTT) meet the criteria for moderate to severe malnutrition. Although feeding difficulties may play a part in this, other constitutional factors such as altered metabolic processes are suspected. Irregular breathing is a common clinical

  6. Symptom Dimensions of Depression and Anxiety and the Metabolic Syndrome

    Luppino, Floriana S.; Dortland, Arianne K. B. van Reedt; Wardenaar, Klaas J.; Bouvy, Paul F.; Giltay, Erik J.; Zitman, Frans G.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Objective: To investigate the association between depression and anxiety symptoms and the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn), using a dimensional approach. The association between depression and anxiety, on the one hand, and the MetSyn as a cluster or its individual components, on the other hand, is

  7. A clustering analysis of lipoprotein diameters in the metabolic syndrome

    The presence of smaller low-density lipoproteins (LDL) has been associated with atherosclerosis risk, and the insulin resistance (IR) underlying the metabolic syndrome (MetS). In addition, some research has supported the association of very low-, low- and high-density lipoprotein (VLDL HDL) particle...

  8. Insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and lipids in African women ...

    HDL, and atherogenic index of plasma; log (TG/HDL) were calculated and compared with IR. Metabolic syndrome was sought for using both the WHO and the harmonized joint criteria. Results: The mean age was 44.4 (13.1) years. Hypertension ...

  9. Rett syndrome: Neurologic and metabolic aspects

    Hagebeuk, E.E.O.

    2013-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that occurs almost exclusively in females. It was described in 1954 by Andreas Rett, an Australian neuropediatrician. After a period of apparently normal development, affected patients experience loss of speech and purposeful handuse, stereotypic

  10. Síndrome metabólico Metabolic syndrome

    Ana Liz Rodríguez Porto

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome metabólico fue reconocido hace más de 80 años en la literatura médica y ha recibido diversas denominaciones a través del tiempo. No se trata de una única enfermedad sino de una asociación de problemas de salud que pueden aparecer de forma simultánea o secuencial en un mismo individuo, causados por la combinación de factores genéticos y ambientales asociados al estilo de vida en los que la resistencia a la insulina se considera el componente patogénico fundamental. La presencia de síndrome metabólico se relaciona con un incremento significativo de riesgo de diabetes, enfermedad coronaria y enfermedad cerebrovascular, con disminución en la supervivencia, en particular, por el incremento unas 5 veces en la mortalidad cardiovascular. En la presente revisión se trataron aspectos relacionados con su patogenia, epidemiología y diagnóstico, se enfatizó además en la importancia de identificar y tratar oportunamente las comorbilidades presentes en estos pacientes como estrategia en la prevención de enfermedades cardiovasculares.The metabolic syndrome was recognized more than 80 years ago in medical literature and it has received since then several denominations. It is not a unique disease, but an association of health problems that may appear in a simultaneous or sequential way in the same individual caused by the combination of genetic and environmental factors associated with the life style, in which insulin resistance is considered as the main pathogenic component. The presence of metabolic syndrome is related to a significant increase of risk for diabetes, coronary disease and cerebrovascular disease, with a decrease of survival, particularly due to a 5-fold rise in cardiovascular mortality. Aspects connected with its pathogeny, epidemiology and diagnosis were dealt with in the present review. Emphasis was made on the importance of identifying and treating opportunely the comorbidities present in these patients as a

  11. Targeting SREBPs for treatment of the metabolic syndrome.

    Soyal, Selma M; Nofziger, Charity; Dossena, Silvia; Paulmichl, Markus; Patsch, Wolfgang

    2015-06-01

    Over the past few decades, mortality resulting from cardiovascular disease (CVD) steadily decreased in western countries; however, in recent years, the decline has become offset by the increase in obesity. Obesity is strongly associated with the metabolic syndrome and its atherogenic dyslipidemia resulting from insulin resistance. While lifestyle treatment would be effective, drugs targeting individual risk factors are often required. Such treatment may result in polypharmacy. Novel approaches are directed towards the treatment of several risk factors with one drug. Studies in animal models and humans suggest a central role for sterol regulatory-element binding proteins (SREBPs) in the pathophysiology of the metabolic syndrome. Four recent studies targeting the maturation or transcriptional activities of SREBPs provide proof of concept for the efficacy of SREBP inhibition in this syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Construct validity of a continuous metabolic syndrome score in children

    Eisenmann Joey C

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The primary purpose of this study was to examine the construct validity of a continuous metabolic syndrome score (cMetS in children. The secondary purpose was to identify a cutpoint value(s for an adverse cMetS based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis. Methods 378 children aged 7 to 9 years were assessed for the metabolic syndrome which was determined by age-modified cutpoints. High-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, the homeostasis assessment model of insulin resistance, mean arterial pressure, and waist circumference were used to create a cMetS for each subject. Results About half of the subjects did not possess any risk factors while about 5% possessed the metabolic syndrome. There was a graded relationship between the cMetS and the number of adverse risk factors. The cMetS was lowest in the group with no adverse risk factors (-1.59 ± 1.76 and highest in those possessing the metabolic syndrome (≥3 risk factors (7.05 ± 2.73. The cutoff level yielding the maximal sensitivity and specificity for predicting the presence of the metabolic syndrome was a cMetS of 3.72 (sensitivity = 100%, specificity = 93.9%, and the area of the curve = 0.978 (0.957-0.990, 95% confidence intervals. Conclusion The results demonstrate the construct validity for the cMetS in children. Since there are several drawbacks to identifying a single cut-point value for the cMetS based on this sample, we urge researchers to use the approach herein to validate and create a cMetS that is specific to their study population.

  13. The metabolic syndrome in thyroid disease: A report from Nigeria

    Anthonia O Ogbera

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its components in people with thyroid disorders. Materials and Methods: 112 subjects with a history of thyroid disorders were consecutively enrolled for the study. Clinical data were obtained by interviewing the patients and referring to their case folders and prescriptions. The subjects were categorized into three: thyrotoxic, those with hypothyroidism and those with nontoxic goiters, based on clinical parameters and or thyroid function tests. The study subjects were weighed and their anthropometric indices were documented. The laboratory parameters that were analyzed included total cholesterol, high-density and low-density cholesterol and triglyceride. Statistical analysis was performed using Student′s t test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA test and chi-square test. Results: The study subjects were aged between 14 and 76 years, with a mean age of 44.5 years, and the female:male ratio was 97:15. The mean age and anthropometric indices were comparable in subjects with thyrotoxicosis, hypothyroidism and euthyroidism. The overall prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 28% and the frequency of occurrence of the metabolic syndrome in subjects with thyrotoxicosis, hypothyroidism and nontoxic goiter was 24%, 40% and 42%, respectively. The commonest occurring metabolic syndrome defining criterion was dysglycemia, while hypertension and elevated triglyceride were the least documented of the criteria. Conclusion: Metabolic syndrome occurs in 1 in every 4 persons with thyroid disorders, and as such, routine screening for this cardiovascular risk factor may be of benefit in this group of people, especially in those with hypothyroidism.

  14. Psychological stress-induced cerebrovascular dysfunction: the role of metabolic syndrome and exercise.

    Brooks, Steven; Brnayan, Kayla W; DeVallance, Evan; Skinner, Roy; Lemaster, Kent; Sheets, J Whitney; Pitzer, Christopher R; Asano, Shinichi; Bryner, Randall W; Olfert, I Mark; Frisbee, Jefferson C; Chantler, Paul D

    2018-05-01

    What is the central question of this study? How does chronic stress impact cerebrovascular function and does metabolic syndrome accelerate the cerebrovascular adaptations to stress? What role does exercise training have in preventing cerebrovascular changes to stress and metabolic syndrome? What is the main finding and its importance? Stressful conditions lead to pathological adaptations of the cerebrovasculature via an oxidative nitric oxide pathway, and the presence of metabolic syndrome produces a greater susceptibility to stress-induced cerebrovascular dysfunction. The results also provide insight into the mechanisms that may contribute to the influence of stress and the role of exercise in preventing the negative actions of stress on cerebrovascular function and structure. Chronic unresolvable stress leads to the development of depression and cardiovascular disease. There is a high prevalence of depression with the metabolic syndrome (MetS), but to what extent the MetS concurrent with psychological stress affects cerebrovascular function is unknown. We investigated the differential effect of MetS on cerebrovascular structure/function in rats (16-17 weeks old) following 8 weeks of unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) and whether exercise training could limit any cerebrovascular dysfunction. In healthy lean Zucker rats (LZR), UCMS decreased (28%, P stress and increased production of nitric oxide in the cerebral vessels. In conclusion, UCMS significantly impaired MCA structure and function, but the effects of UCMS were more substantial in OZR vs. LZR. Importantly, aerobic exercise when combined with UCMS prevented the MCA dysfunction through subtle shifts in nitric oxide and oxidative stress in the cerebral microvasculature. © 2018 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2018 The Physiological Society.

  15. [Application of continuous renal replacement therapy in the treatment of myonephropathic metabolic syndrome caused by acute lower extremity ischemia].

    Sun, Jianping; Wang, Tengke; Zhang, Jinglan

    2014-09-16

    To summarize the experiences of using continuous renal replacement therapy in the treatment of myonephropathic metabolic syndrome caused by acute lower limb ischemia. Retrospective study of patients diagnosed acute lower limb ischemia with surgical treatment between January 2008 and December 2013, among which 22 patients with myonephropathic metabolic syndrome received continuous renal replacement therapy. Summarize the change tendency of myoglobin, urine volume and serum creatinine levels during treatment and analysis the condition changes and prognosis of the patients. Among them, 2 patients were amputated and two died after surgery. The major causes of death were acute renal failure, metabolic acidosis, circulation failure and liver failure, etc. Myoglobin was significantly higher at Day 1 after surgery than that was before surgery (P metabolic syndrome, early targeted continuous renal replacement therapy may decrease the serum concentrations of myoglobin and CK, improve urine volume, maintain homeostasis, prevent renal function deterioration and improve the prognosis of patients. And it is highly recommended.

  16. Metalloproteinase inhibition prevents acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Carney, D E; McCann, U G; Schiller, H J; Gatto, L A; Steinberg, J; Picone, A L; Nieman, G F

    2001-08-01

    The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) occurs in patients with clearly identifiable risk factors, and its treatment remains merely supportive. We postulated that patients at risk for ARDS can be protected against lung injury by a prophylactic treatment strategy that targets neutrophil-derived proteases. We hypothesized that a chemically modified tetracycline 3 (COL-3), a potent inhibitor of neutrophil matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and neutrophil elastase (NE) with minimal toxicity, would prevent ARDS in our porcine endotoxin-induced ARDS model. Yorkshire pigs were anesthetized, intubated, surgically instrumented for hemodynamic monitoring, and randomized into three groups: (1) control (n = 4), surgical instrumentation only; (2) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (n = 4), infusion of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide at 100 microg/kg; and (3) COL-3 + LPS (n = 5), ingestion of COL-3 (100 mg/kg) 12 h before LPS infusion. All animals were monitored for 6 h following LPS or sham LPS infusion. Serial bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples were analyzed for MMP concentration by gelatin zymography. Lung tissue was fixed for morphometric assessment at necropsy. LPS infusion was marked by significant (P decrement in arterial oxygen partial pressure (P(a)O(2)) (LPS = 66 +/- 15 mm Hg, Control = 263 +/- 25 mm Hg) 6 h following LPS or sham LPS infusion, respectively. Pretreatment with COL-3 reduced the above pathophysiological changes 6 h following LPS infusion (P(plat) = 18.5 +/- 1.7 mm Hg, P(a)O(2) = 199 +/- 35 mm Hg; P = NS vs control). MMP-9 and MMP-2 concentration in BAL fluid was significantly increased between 2 and 4 h post-LPS infusion; COL-3 reduced the increase in MMP-9 and MMP-2 concentration at all time periods. Morphometrically LPS caused a significant sequestration of neutrophils and monocytes into pulmonary tissue. Pretreatment with COL-3 ameliorated this response. The wet/dry lung weight ratio was significantly greater (P single prophylactic treatment with COL

  17. Activity syndromes and metabolism in giant deep-sea isopods

    Wilson, Alexander D. M.; Szekeres, Petra; Violich, Mackellar; Gutowsky, Lee F. G.; Eliason, Erika J.; Cooke, Steven J.

    2017-03-01

    Despite growing interest, the behavioural ecology of deep-sea organisms is largely unknown. Much of this scarcity in knowledge can be attributed to deepwater animals being secretive or comparatively 'rare', as well as technical difficulties associated with accessing such remote habitats. Here we tested whether two species of giant marine isopod (Bathynomus giganteus, Booralana tricarinata) captured from 653 to 875 m in the Caribbean Sea near Eleuthera, The Bahamas, exhibited an activity behavioural syndrome across two environmental contexts (presence/absence of food stimulus) and further whether this syndrome carried over consistently between sexes. We also measured routine metabolic rate and oxygen consumption in response to a food stimulus in B. giganteus to assess whether these variables are related to individual differences in personality. We found that both species show an activity syndrome across environmental contexts, but the underlying mechanistic basis of this syndrome, particularly in B. giganteus, is unclear. Contrary to our initial predictions, neither B. giganteus nor B. tricarinata showed any differences between mean expression of behavioural traits between sexes. Both sexes of B. tricarinata showed strong evidence of an activity syndrome underlying movement and foraging ecology, whereas only male B. giganteus showed evidence of an activity syndrome. Generally, individuals that were more active and bolder, in a standard open arena test were also more active when a food stimulus was present. Interestingly, individual differences in metabolism were not related to individual differences in behaviour based on present data. Our study provides the first measurements of behavioural syndromes and metabolism in giant deep-sea isopods.

  18. Hyperinsulinemia and waist circumference in childhood metabolic syndrome

    Lone, S.W.; Ibrahim, M.N.; Leghari, T.M.; Khan, Y.N.; Raza, J.

    2011-01-01

    To determine the characteristics of obese children presenting at a tertiary care hospital and the frequency of metabolic syndrome (MS) in them using two paediatric definitions. A total of 262 obese children aged 4-16 years, with BMI greater than 95 percentile were included. Children having obesity due to syndromes, medications causing weight gain, chronic illness and developmental disability were excluded. Blood pressure, waist circumference, fasting triglycerides, HDL, insulin and glucose levels were obtained. Obesity was defined as BMI > 95 percentile for age and gender according to the UK growth reference charts. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was estimated using to the De Ferrantis and Lambert definitions. The frequency of MS varied between 16% and 52% depending on whether insulin levels were included in the definition. There was a significant positive correlation(r) when the metabolic parameters were correlated with waist circumference and insulin levels, except HDL which was negatively correlated. All the metabolic parameters like waist circumference, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and systolic blood pressure increased considerably across the insulin quartile (p < 0.05). The most noteworthy anthropometric and metabolic abnormality were the waist circumference (46.5%) and insulin levels (58%) respectively. There was a marked difference in the frequency of metabolic syndrome according to the definition used. The waist circumference and hyperinsulinemia are significant correlates of MS in obese children. There is a need for establishing normal insulin ranges according to age, gender and pubertal status. The clinical examination and investigations ought to include waist circumference and insulin levels together as a part of the definition of MS, for early detection and intervention of childhood obesity. (author)

  19. Metabolic syndrome in Type 2 diabetes: Comparison of WHO, modified ATPIII and IDF criteria

    Ahmed, A.; Khan, T.E.; Yasmeen, T.; Awan, S.; Islam, N.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the frequency of metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetes according to three commonly used operational definitions (World Health Organization(WHO), National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel( NCEP ATP III) and International Diabetes Federation( IDF)). To evaluate the agreement between these classifications in the Pakistani cohort. Methods: Data was collected retrospectively of 210 patients with type 2 diabetes visiting outpatient clinics of one of the large tertiary care hospitals at Karachi, Pakistan between June 2008 to November 2008. Results: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was found to be 81.4% (WHO), 86.7 %( IDF) and 91.9 %( NCEP ATPIII). The degree of agreement (kappa statistic) was found to be highest among IDF and NCEP ATPIII (0.728) as compared to (0.436 and 0.417) between WHO and ATP and WHO and IDF respectively. The most significant predictors for metabolic syndrome were found out to be female gender OR= 8.74 95% CI 1.51-50.53, low HDL cholesterol levels OR= 0.89 95% CI 0.84-0.94 and high systolic blood pressure OR= 1.06 95% CI 1.009-1.11. Conclusion: Our study results suggested that NCEP ATPIII and IDF are the most reliable criteria for diagnosing metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetic patients, with NECP capturing more patients in comparison to IDF definition. The alarmingly high frequency of metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetes found in this study suggests that primary prevention strategies should be initiated earlier and early in this ethnic group and our health care system should be geared up to cope with this deadly quartet. (author)

  20. Genetic and environmental relationships of metabolic and weight phenotypes to metabolic syndrome and diabetes: the healthy twin study.

    Song, Yun-Mi; Sung, Joohon; Lee, Kayoung

    2015-02-01

    We aimed to examine the relationships, including genetic and environmental correlations, between metabolic and weight ph