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Sample records for metabolic pathways generate

  1. Primary Metabolic Pathways and Metabolic Flux Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, John

    2015-01-01

    his chapter introduces the metabolic flux analysis (MFA) or stoichiometry-based MFA, and describes the quantitative basis for MFA. It discusses the catabolic pathways in which free energy is produced to drive the cell-building anabolic pathways. An overview of these primary pathways provides...... the reader who is primarily trained in the engineering sciences with atleast a preliminary introduction to biochemistry and also shows how carbon is drained off the catabolic pathways to provide precursors for cell mass building and sometimes for important industrial products. The primary pathways...... to be examined in the following are: glycolysis, primarily by the EMP pathway, but other glycolytic pathways is also mentioned; fermentative pathways in which the redox generated in the glycolytic reactions are consumed; reactions in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, which produce biomass precursors and redox...

  2. Synthetic Metabolic Pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and practical, Synthetic Metabolic Pathways: Methods and Protocols aims to ensure successful results in the further study...

  3. Suppression of Microbial Metabolic Pathways Inhibits the Generation of the Human Body Odor Component Diacetyl by Staphylococcus spp

    OpenAIRE

    Hara, Takeshi; Matsui, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Hironori

    2014-01-01

    Diacetyl (2,3-butanedione) is a key contributor to unpleasant odors emanating from the axillae, feet, and head regions. To investigate the mechanism of diacetyl generation on human skin, resident skin bacteria were tested for the ability to produce diacetyl via metabolism of the main organic acids contained in human sweat. L-lactate metabolism by Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis produced the highest amounts of diacetyl, as measured by high-performance liquid chromatography...

  4. Principles for circadian orchestration of metabolic pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Thurley, Kevin; Herbst, Christopher; Wesener, Felix; Koller, Barbara; Wallach, Thomas; Maier, Bert; Kramer, Achim; Westermark, Pål O

    2017-01-01

    Circadian (24-h) rhythms influence the behavior and physiology of many organisms. These rhythms are generated at the gene expression level, causing the waxing and waning of protein abundances. Metabolic enzymes are affected, but the principles for the propagation of enzyme rhythmicity to cellular metabolism as quantified by fluxes through metabolic pathways and metabolite concentrations are not understood. We used the mathematics of chemical kinetics to systematically investigate how rhythms ...

  5. Suppression of microbial metabolic pathways inhibits the generation of the human body odor component diacetyl by Staphylococcus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Takeshi; Matsui, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Hironori

    2014-01-01

    Diacetyl (2,3-butanedione) is a key contributor to unpleasant odors emanating from the axillae, feet, and head regions. To investigate the mechanism of diacetyl generation on human skin, resident skin bacteria were tested for the ability to produce diacetyl via metabolism of the main organic acids contained in human sweat. L-lactate metabolism by Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis produced the highest amounts of diacetyl, as measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract (GGR) and α-tocopheryl-L-ascorbate-2-O-phosphate diester potassium salt (EPC-K1), a phosphate diester of α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid, effectively inhibited diacetyl formation without bactericidal effects. Moreover, a metabolic flux analysis revealed that GGR and EPC-K1 suppressed diacetyl formation by inhibiting extracellular bacterial conversion of L-lactate to pyruvate or by altering intracellular metabolic flow into the citrate cycle, respectively, highlighting fundamentally distinct mechanisms by GGR and EPC-K1 to suppress diacetyl formation. These results provide new insight into diacetyl metabolism by human skin bacteria and identify a regulatory mechanism of diacetyl formation that can facilitate the development of effective deodorant agents.

  6. Suppression of microbial metabolic pathways inhibits the generation of the human body odor component diacetyl by Staphylococcus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Hara

    Full Text Available Diacetyl (2,3-butanedione is a key contributor to unpleasant odors emanating from the axillae, feet, and head regions. To investigate the mechanism of diacetyl generation on human skin, resident skin bacteria were tested for the ability to produce diacetyl via metabolism of the main organic acids contained in human sweat. L-lactate metabolism by Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis produced the highest amounts of diacetyl, as measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract (GGR and α-tocopheryl-L-ascorbate-2-O-phosphate diester potassium salt (EPC-K1, a phosphate diester of α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid, effectively inhibited diacetyl formation without bactericidal effects. Moreover, a metabolic flux analysis revealed that GGR and EPC-K1 suppressed diacetyl formation by inhibiting extracellular bacterial conversion of L-lactate to pyruvate or by altering intracellular metabolic flow into the citrate cycle, respectively, highlighting fundamentally distinct mechanisms by GGR and EPC-K1 to suppress diacetyl formation. These results provide new insight into diacetyl metabolism by human skin bacteria and identify a regulatory mechanism of diacetyl formation that can facilitate the development of effective deodorant agents.

  7. Novel metabolic pathways in Archaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takaaki; Atomi, Haruyuki

    2011-06-01

    The Archaea harbor many metabolic pathways that differ to previously recognized classical pathways. Glycolysis is carried out by modified versions of the Embden-Meyerhof and Entner-Doudoroff pathways. Thermophilic archaea have recently been found to harbor a bi-functional fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase/phosphatase for gluconeogenesis. A number of novel pentose-degrading pathways have also been recently identified. In terms of anabolic metabolism, a pathway for acetate assimilation, the methylaspartate cycle, and two CO2-fixing pathways, the 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate cycle and the dicarboxylate/4-hydroxybutyrate cycle, have been elucidated. As for biosynthetic pathways, recent studies have clarified the enzymes responsible for several steps involved in the biosynthesis of inositol phospholipids, polyamine, coenzyme A, flavin adeninedinucleotide and heme. By examining the presence/absence of homologs of these enzymes on genome sequences, we have found that the majority of these enzymes and pathways are specific to the Archaea. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A free radical-generating system regulates AβPP metabolism/processing: involvement of the ubiquitin/proteasome and autophagy/lysosome pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recuero, María; Munive, Victor A; Sastre, Isabel; Aldudo, Jesús; Valdivieso, Fernando; Bullido, María J

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress is an early event in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We previously reported that, in SK-N-MC cells, the xanthine/xanthine oxidase (X-XOD) free radical generating system regulates the metabolism/processing of the amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP). Oxidative stress alters the two main cellular proteolytic machineries, the ubiquitin/proteasome (UPS) and the autophagy/lysosome systems, and recent studies have established connections between the malfunctioning of these and the pathogenesis of AD. The aim of the present work was to examine the involvement of these proteolytic systems in the regulation of AβPP metabolism by X-XOD. The proteasome inhibitor MG132 was found to accelerate the metabolism/processing of AβPP promoted by X-XOD because it significantly enhances the secretion of α-secretase-cleaved soluble AβPP and also the levels of both carboxy-terminal fragments (CTFs) produced by α- and β-secretase. Further, MG132 modulated the intracellular accumulation of holo-AβPP and/or AβPP CTFs. This indicates that the X-XOD modulation of AβPP metabolism/processing involves the UPS pathway. With respect to the autophagy/lysosome pathway, the AβPP processing and intracellular location patterns induced by X-XOD treatment closely resembled those produced by the lysosome inhibitor ammonium chloride. The present results suggest that the regulation of AβPP metabolism/processing by mild oxidative stress requires UPS activity with a simultaneous reduction in that of the autophagy/lysosome system.

  9. Applied evolutionary theories for engineering of secondary metabolic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Brian O

    2016-12-01

    An expanded definition of 'secondary metabolism' is emerging. Once the exclusive provenance of naturally occurring organisms, evolved over geological time scales, secondary metabolism increasingly encompasses molecules generated via human engineered biocatalysts and biosynthetic pathways. Many of the tools and strategies for enzyme and pathway engineering can find origins in evolutionary theories. This perspective presents an overview of selected proposed evolutionary strategies in the context of engineering secondary metabolism. In addition to the wealth of biocatalysts provided via secondary metabolic pathways, improving the understanding of biosynthetic pathway evolution will provide rich resources for methods to adapt to applied laboratory evolution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Curation and Computational Design of Bioenergy-Related Metabolic Pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karp, Peter D. [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2014-09-12

    Pathway Tools is a systems-biology software package written by SRI International (SRI) that produces Pathway/Genome Databases (PGDBs) for organisms with a sequenced genome. Pathway Tools also provides a wide range of capabilities for analyzing predicted metabolic networks and user-generated omics data. More than 5,000 academic, industrial, and government groups have licensed Pathway Tools. This user community includes researchers at all three DOE bioenergy centers, as well as academic and industrial metabolic engineering (ME) groups. An integral part of the Pathway Tools software is MetaCyc, a large, multiorganism database of metabolic pathways and enzymes that SRI and its academic collaborators manually curate. This project included two main goals: I. Enhance the MetaCyc content of bioenergy-related enzymes and pathways. II. Develop computational tools for engineering metabolic pathways that satisfy specified design goals, in particular for bioenergy-related pathways. In part I, SRI proposed to significantly expand the coverage of bioenergy-related metabolic information in MetaCyc, followed by the generation of organism-specific PGDBs for all energy-relevant organisms sequenced at the DOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI). Part I objectives included: 1: Expand the content of MetaCyc to include bioenergy-related enzymes and pathways. 2: Enhance the Pathway Tools software to enable display of complex polymer degradation processes. 3: Create new PGDBs for the energy-related organisms sequenced by JGI, update existing PGDBs with new MetaCyc content, and make these data available to JBEI via the BioCyc website. In part II, SRI proposed to develop an efficient computational tool for the engineering of metabolic pathways. Part II objectives included: 4: Develop computational tools for generating metabolic pathways that satisfy specified design goals, enabling users to specify parameters such as starting and ending compounds, and preferred or disallowed intermediate compounds

  11. Minimal metabolic pathway structure is consistent with associated biomolecular interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bordbar, Aarash; Nagarajan, Harish; Lewis, Nathan E.

    2014-01-01

    Pathways are a universal paradigm for functionally describing cellular processes. Even though advances in high-throughput data generation have transformed biology, the core of our biological understanding, and hence data interpretation, is still predicated on human-defined pathways. Here, we...... suggesting a functional organization for metabolism based on parsimonious use of cellular components. We use the inherent predictive capability of these pathways to experimentally discover novel transcriptional regulatory interactions in Escherichia coli metabolism for three transcription factors...

  12. Finding metabolic pathways using atom tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Allison P.; Bennett, George N.; Kavraki, Lydia E.

    2010-01-01

    Motivation: Finding novel or non-standard metabolic pathways, possibly spanning multiple species, has important applications in fields such as metabolic engineering, metabolic network analysis and metabolic network reconstruction. Traditionally, this has been a manual process, but the large volume of metabolic data now available has created a need for computational tools to automatically identify biologically relevant pathways. Results: We present new algorithms for finding metabolic pathways, given a desired start and target compound, that conserve a given number of atoms by tracking the movement of atoms through metabolic networks containing thousands of compounds and reactions. First, we describe an algorithm that identifies linear pathways. We then present a new algorithm for finding branched metabolic pathways. Comparisons to known metabolic pathways demonstrate that atom tracking enables our algorithms to avoid many unrealistic connections, often found in previous approaches, and return biologically meaningful pathways. Our results also demonstrate the potential of the algorithms to find novel or non-standard pathways that may span multiple organisms. Availability: The software is freely available for academic use at: http://www.kavrakilab.org/atommetanet Contact: kavraki@rice.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:20421197

  13. Principles for circadian orchestration of metabolic pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurley, Kevin; Herbst, Christopher; Wesener, Felix; Koller, Barbara; Wallach, Thomas; Maier, Bert; Kramer, Achim

    2017-01-01

    Circadian rhythms govern multiple aspects of animal metabolism. Transcriptome-, proteome- and metabolome-wide measurements have revealed widespread circadian rhythms in metabolism governed by a cellular genetic oscillator, the circadian core clock. However, it remains unclear if and under which conditions transcriptional rhythms cause rhythms in particular metabolites and metabolic fluxes. Here, we analyzed the circadian orchestration of metabolic pathways by direct measurement of enzyme activities, analysis of transcriptome data, and developing a theoretical method called circadian response analysis. Contrary to a common assumption, we found that pronounced rhythms in metabolic pathways are often favored by separation rather than alignment in the times of peak activity of key enzymes. This property holds true for a set of metabolic pathway motifs (e.g., linear chains and branching points) and also under the conditions of fast kinetics typical for metabolic reactions. By circadian response analysis of pathway motifs, we determined exact timing separation constraints on rhythmic enzyme activities that allow for substantial rhythms in pathway flux and metabolite concentrations. Direct measurements of circadian enzyme activities in mouse skeletal muscle confirmed that such timing separation occurs in vivo. PMID:28159888

  14. The MetaCyc database of metabolic pathways and enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Ron; Billington, Richard; Fulcher, Carol A; Keseler, Ingrid M; Kothari, Anamika; Krummenacker, Markus; Latendresse, Mario; Midford, Peter E; Ong, Quang; Ong, Wai Kit; Paley, Suzanne; Subhraveti, Pallavi; Karp, Peter D

    2018-01-04

    MetaCyc (https://MetaCyc.org) is a comprehensive reference database of metabolic pathways and enzymes from all domains of life. It contains more than 2570 pathways derived from >54 000 publications, making it the largest curated collection of metabolic pathways. The data in MetaCyc is strictly evidence-based and richly curated, resulting in an encyclopedic reference tool for metabolism. MetaCyc is also used as a knowledge base for generating thousands of organism-specific Pathway/Genome Databases (PGDBs), which are available in the BioCyc (https://BioCyc.org) and other PGDB collections. This article provides an update on the developments in MetaCyc during the past two years, including the expansion of data and addition of new features. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  15. Machine learning methods for metabolic pathway prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karp Peter D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A key challenge in systems biology is the reconstruction of an organism's metabolic network from its genome sequence. One strategy for addressing this problem is to predict which metabolic pathways, from a reference database of known pathways, are present in the organism, based on the annotated genome of the organism. Results To quantitatively validate methods for pathway prediction, we developed a large "gold standard" dataset of 5,610 pathway instances known to be present or absent in curated metabolic pathway databases for six organisms. We defined a collection of 123 pathway features, whose information content we evaluated with respect to the gold standard. Feature data were used as input to an extensive collection of machine learning (ML methods, including naïve Bayes, decision trees, and logistic regression, together with feature selection and ensemble methods. We compared the ML methods to the previous PathoLogic algorithm for pathway prediction using the gold standard dataset. We found that ML-based prediction methods can match the performance of the PathoLogic algorithm. PathoLogic achieved an accuracy of 91% and an F-measure of 0.786. The ML-based prediction methods achieved accuracy as high as 91.2% and F-measure as high as 0.787. The ML-based methods output a probability for each predicted pathway, whereas PathoLogic does not, which provides more information to the user and facilitates filtering of predicted pathways. Conclusions ML methods for pathway prediction perform as well as existing methods, and have qualitative advantages in terms of extensibility, tunability, and explainability. More advanced prediction methods and/or more sophisticated input features may improve the performance of ML methods. However, pathway prediction performance appears to be limited largely by the ability to correctly match enzymes to the reactions they catalyze based on genome annotations.

  16. Machine learning methods for metabolic pathway prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background A key challenge in systems biology is the reconstruction of an organism's metabolic network from its genome sequence. One strategy for addressing this problem is to predict which metabolic pathways, from a reference database of known pathways, are present in the organism, based on the annotated genome of the organism. Results To quantitatively validate methods for pathway prediction, we developed a large "gold standard" dataset of 5,610 pathway instances known to be present or absent in curated metabolic pathway databases for six organisms. We defined a collection of 123 pathway features, whose information content we evaluated with respect to the gold standard. Feature data were used as input to an extensive collection of machine learning (ML) methods, including naïve Bayes, decision trees, and logistic regression, together with feature selection and ensemble methods. We compared the ML methods to the previous PathoLogic algorithm for pathway prediction using the gold standard dataset. We found that ML-based prediction methods can match the performance of the PathoLogic algorithm. PathoLogic achieved an accuracy of 91% and an F-measure of 0.786. The ML-based prediction methods achieved accuracy as high as 91.2% and F-measure as high as 0.787. The ML-based methods output a probability for each predicted pathway, whereas PathoLogic does not, which provides more information to the user and facilitates filtering of predicted pathways. Conclusions ML methods for pathway prediction perform as well as existing methods, and have qualitative advantages in terms of extensibility, tunability, and explainability. More advanced prediction methods and/or more sophisticated input features may improve the performance of ML methods. However, pathway prediction performance appears to be limited largely by the ability to correctly match enzymes to the reactions they catalyze based on genome annotations. PMID:20064214

  17. Rule Mining Techniques to Predict Prokaryotic Metabolic Pathways

    KAUST Repository

    Saidi, Rabie

    2017-08-28

    It is becoming more evident that computational methods are needed for the identification and the mapping of pathways in new genomes. We introduce an automatic annotation system (ARBA4Path Association Rule-Based Annotator for Pathways) that utilizes rule mining techniques to predict metabolic pathways across wide range of prokaryotes. It was demonstrated that specific combinations of protein domains (recorded in our rules) strongly determine pathways in which proteins are involved and thus provide information that let us very accurately assign pathway membership (with precision of 0.999 and recall of 0.966) to proteins of a given prokaryotic taxon. Our system can be used to enhance the quality of automatically generated annotations as well as annotating proteins with unknown function. The prediction models are represented in the form of human-readable rules, and they can be used effectively to add absent pathway information to many proteins in UniProtKB/TrEMBL database.

  18. Pathway analysis and optimization in metabolic engineering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Torres, Néstor V; Voit, Eberhard O

    2002-01-01

    ... Engineering introduces researchers and advanced students in biology and engineering to methods of optimizing biochemical systems of biotechnological relevance. It examines the development of strategies for manipulating metabolic pathways, demonstrates the need for effective systems models, and discusses their design and analysis, while placing special emp...

  19. Augmented reality approach for metabolic pathways teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Vega Garzón

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A glycolysis paper puzzle has been used as strategy to teach metabolic pathways, but this kind of game demands a higher number of instructors and limits the follow up of the students’ difficulties. A technology called Augmented Reality (AR was applied to enable the puzzle usage in large audiences, and to provid feedback to students and instructors. Drafted as flashcards readable by an app installed in tablets, it conveys information as molecules 3D-structure, clues for correct assembling of the metabolic pathway and results of student progression in the activity. Such technological improvement brought more autonomy to students for solving proposed exercises and an embedded performance data collection system helpful to understand,and after to unravel students’ difficulties.

  20. Biochemical research elucidating metabolic pathways in Pneumocystis*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaneshiro E.S.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Advances in sequencing the Pneumocystis carinii genome have helped identify potential metabolic pathways operative in the organism. Also, data from characterizing the biochemical and physiological nature of these organisms now allow elucidation of metabolic pathways as well as pose new challenges and questions that require additional experiments. These experiments are being performed despite the difficulty in doing experiments directly on this pathogen that has yet to be subcultured indefinitely and produce mass numbers of cells in vitro. This article reviews biochemical approaches that have provided insights into several Pneumocystis metabolic pathways. It focuses on 1 S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet; SAM, which is a ubiquitous participant in numerous cellular reactions; 2 sterols: focusing on oxidosqualene cyclase that forms lanosterol in P. carinii; SAM:sterol C-24 methyltransferase that adds methyl groups at the C-24 position of the sterol side chain; and sterol 14α-demethylase that removes a methyl group at the C-14 position of the sterol nucleus; and 3 synthesis of ubiquinone homologs, which play a pivotal role in mitochondrial inner membrane and other cellular membrane electron transport.

  1. Stress transgenerationally programs metabolic pathways linked to altered mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Douglas; Ambeskovic, Mirela; Montina, Tony; Metz, Gerlinde A S

    2016-12-01

    Stress is among the primary causes of mental health disorders, which are the most common reason for disability worldwide. The ubiquity of these disorders, and the costs associated with them, lends a sense of urgency to the efforts to improve prediction and prevention. Down-stream metabolic changes are highly feasible and accessible indicators of pathophysiological processes underlying mental health disorders. Here, we show that remote and cumulative ancestral stress programs central metabolic pathways linked to mental health disorders. The studies used a rat model consisting of a multigenerational stress lineage (the great-great-grandmother and each subsequent generation experienced stress during pregnancy) and a transgenerational stress lineage (only the great-great-grandmother was stressed during pregnancy). Urine samples were collected from adult male F4 offspring and analyzed using 1 H NMR spectroscopy. The results of variable importance analysis based on random variable combination were used for unsupervised multivariate principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis, as well as metabolite set enrichment analysis (MSEA) and pathway analysis. We identified distinct metabolic profiles associated with the multigenerational and transgenerational stress phenotype, with consistent upregulation of hippurate and downregulation of tyrosine, threonine, and histamine. MSEA and pathway analysis showed that these metabolites are involved in catecholamine biosynthesis, immune responses, and microbial host interactions. The identification of metabolic signatures linked to ancestral programming assists in the discovery of gene targets for future studies of epigenetic regulation in pathogenic processes. Ultimately, this research can lead to biomarker discovery for better prediction and prevention of mental health disorders.

  2. Proteomic survey of metabolic pathways in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Antonius; Washburn, Michael P; Lange, B Markus; Andon, Nancy L; Deciu, Cosmin; Haynes, Paul A; Hays, Lara; Schieltz, David; Ulaszek, Ryan; Wei, Jing; Wolters, Dirk; Yates, John R

    2002-09-03

    A systematic proteomic analysis of rice (Oryza sativa) leaf, root, and seed tissue using two independent technologies, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by tandem mass spectrometry and multidimensional protein identification technology, allowed the detection and identification of 2,528 unique proteins, which represents the most comprehensive proteome exploration to date. A comparative display of the expression patterns indicated that enzymes involved in central metabolic pathways are present in all tissues, whereas metabolic specialization is reflected in the occurrence of a tissue-specific enzyme complement. For example, tissue-specific and subcellular compartment-specific isoforms of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase were detected, thus providing proteomic confirmation of the presence of distinct regulatory mechanisms involved in the biosynthesis and breakdown of separate starch pools in different tissues. In addition, several previously characterized allergenic proteins were identified in the seed sample, indicating the potential of proteomic approaches to survey food samples with regard to the occurrence of allergens.

  3. Engineering the spatial organization of metabolic pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Line; Maury, Jerome; Bach, Lars Stougaard

    One of the goals of metabolic engineering is to optimize the production of valuable metabolites in cell factories. In this context, modulating the gene expression and activity of enzymes are tools that have been extensively used. Another approach that is gaining interest is the engineering...... a heterologous pathway could be optimized by positioning two sequentially acting enzymes in close proximity. More specifically, we fused a sesquiterpene synthase of plant origin to a natural yeast enzyme and expressed it in the well-characterised cell factory Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Successfully......, the sesquiterpene production was increased two-fold when the enzymes were fused compared to when they were expressed from the same promoters as free enzymes. Moreover, the strategy could be used in combination with other traditional metabolic engineering strategies to increase the production of a desired product...

  4. Cancer cachexia: mediators, signaling, and metabolic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearon, Kenneth C H; Glass, David J; Guttridge, Denis C

    2012-08-08

    Cancer cachexia is characterized by a significant reduction in body weight resulting predominantly from loss of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. Cachexia causes reduced cancer treatment tolerance and reduced quality and length of life, and remains an unmet medical need. Therapeutic progress has been impeded, in part, by the marked heterogeneity of mediators, signaling, and metabolic pathways both within and between model systems and the clinical syndrome. Recent progress in understanding conserved, molecular mechanisms of skeletal muscle atrophy/hypertrophy has provided a downstream platform for circumventing the variations and redundancy in upstream mediators and may ultimately translate into new targeted therapies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Reconstruction of metabolic pathways for the cattle genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewin Harris A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic reconstruction of microbial, plant and animal genomes is a necessary step toward understanding the evolutionary origins of metabolism and species-specific adaptive traits. The aims of this study were to reconstruct conserved metabolic pathways in the cattle genome and to identify metabolic pathways with missing genes and proteins. The MetaCyc database and PathwayTools software suite were chosen for this work because they are widely used and easy to implement. Results An amalgamated cattle genome database was created using the NCBI and Ensembl cattle genome databases (based on build 3.1 as data sources. PathwayTools was used to create a cattle-specific pathway genome database, which was followed by comprehensive manual curation for the reconstruction of metabolic pathways. The curated database, CattleCyc 1.0, consists of 217 metabolic pathways. A total of 64 mammalian-specific metabolic pathways were modified from the reference pathways in MetaCyc, and two pathways previously identified but missing from MetaCyc were added. Comparative analysis of metabolic pathways revealed the absence of mammalian genes for 22 metabolic enzymes whose activity was reported in the literature. We also identified six human metabolic protein-coding genes for which the cattle ortholog is missing from the sequence assembly. Conclusion CattleCyc is a powerful tool for understanding the biology of ruminants and other cetartiodactyl species. In addition, the approach used to develop CattleCyc provides a framework for the metabolic reconstruction of other newly sequenced mammalian genomes. It is clear that metabolic pathway analysis strongly reflects the quality of the underlying genome annotations. Thus, having well-annotated genomes from many mammalian species hosted in BioCyc will facilitate the comparative analysis of metabolic pathways among different species and a systems approach to comparative physiology.

  6. Predicting novel metabolic pathways through subgraph mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Aravind; Ranu, Sayan; Raman, Karthik

    2017-12-15

    The ability to predict pathways for biosynthesis of metabolites is very important in metabolic engineering. It is possible to mine the repertoire of biochemical transformations from reaction databases, and apply the knowledge to predict reactions to synthesize new molecules. However, this usually involves a careful understanding of the mechanism and the knowledge of the exact bonds being created and broken. There is a need for a method to rapidly predict reactions for synthesizing new molecules, which relies only on the structures of the molecules, without demanding additional information such as thermodynamics or hand-curated reactant mapping, which are often hard to obtain accurately. We here describe a robust method based on subgraph mining, to predict a series of biochemical transformations, which can convert between two (even previously unseen) molecules. We first describe a reliable method based on subgraph edit distance to map reactants and products, using only their chemical structures. Having mapped reactants and products, we identify the reaction centre and its neighbourhood, the reaction signature, and store this in a reaction rule network. This novel representation enables us to rapidly predict pathways, even between previously unseen molecules. We demonstrate this ability by predicting pathways to molecules not present in the KEGG database. We also propose a heuristic that predominantly recovers natural biosynthetic pathways from amongst hundreds of possible alternatives, through a directed search of the reaction rule network, enabling us to provide a reliable ranking of the different pathways. Our approach scales well, even to databases with >100 000 reactions. A Java-based implementation of our algorithms is available at https://github.com/RamanLab/ReactionMiner. sayanranu@cse.iitd.ac.in or kraman@iitm.ac.in. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For

  7. Mutagenicity of quinones: pathways of metabolic activation and detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesis, P L; Levin, D E; Smith, M T; Ernster, L; Ames, B N

    1984-01-01

    The mutagenicity of various quinones, a class of compounds widely distributed in nature, is demonstrated in the Salmonella TA104 tester strain. The metabolic pathways by which four quinones, menadione, benzo[a]pyrene 3,6-quinone, 9,10-phenanthrenequinone, and danthron, caused mutagenicity in this test system were investigated in detail as were the detoxification pathways. The two-electron reduction of these quinones by NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase (DT-diaphorase) was not mutagenic, whereas the one-electron reduction, catalyzed by NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase, was mutagenic, except for danthron, which was only slightly mutagenic. The mutagenicity of the quinones via this pathway was found to be attributable to the generation of oxygen radicals. The cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase also played a significant role in the detoxification and bioactivation of these quinones. For example, phenanthrenequinone was converted to a nonmutagenic metabolite in a cytochrome P-450-dependent reaction, whereas danthron was converted to a highly mutagenic metabolite. These studies show the complexity of metabolic pathways involved in the mutagenicity of quinones. PMID:6584903

  8. Metabolic pathway alignment between species using a comprehensive and flexible similarity measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Ridder Dick

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative analysis of metabolic networks in multiple species yields important information on their evolution, and has great practical value in metabolic engineering, human disease analysis, drug design etc. In this work, we aim to systematically search for conserved pathways in two species, quantify their similarities, and focus on the variations between them. Results We present an efficient framework, Metabolic Pathway Alignment and Scoring (M-PAS, for identifying and ranking conserved metabolic pathways. M-PAS aligns all reactions in entire metabolic networks of two species and assembles them into pathways, taking mismatches, gaps and crossovers into account. It uses a comprehensive scoring function, which quantifies pathway similarity such that we can focus on different pathways given different biological motivations. Using M-PAS, we detected 1198 length-four pathways fully conserved between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli, and also revealed 1399 cases of a species using a unique route in otherwise highly conserved pathways. Conclusion Our method efficiently automates the process of exploring reaction arrangement possibilities, both between species and within species, to find conserved pathways. We not only reconstruct conventional pathways such as those found in KEGG, but also discover new pathway possibilities. Our results can help to generate hypotheses on missing reactions and manifest differences in highly conserved pathways, which is useful for biology and life science applications.

  9. VitisCyc: a metabolic pathway knowledgebase for grapevine (Vitis vinifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naithani, Sushma; Raja, Rajani; Waddell, Elijah N; Elser, Justin; Gouthu, Satyanarayana; Deluc, Laurent G; Jaiswal, Pankaj

    2014-01-01

    We have developed VitisCyc, a grapevine-specific metabolic pathway database that allows researchers to (i) search and browse the database for its various components such as metabolic pathways, reactions, compounds, genes and proteins, (ii) compare grapevine metabolic networks with other publicly available plant metabolic networks, and (iii) upload, visualize and analyze high-throughput data such as transcriptomes, proteomes, metabolomes etc. using OMICs-Viewer tool. VitisCyc is based on the genome sequence of the nearly homozygous genotype PN40024 of Vitis vinifera "Pinot Noir" cultivar with 12X v1 annotations and was built on BioCyc platform using Pathway Tools software and MetaCyc reference database. Furthermore, VitisCyc was enriched for plant-specific pathways and grape-specific metabolites, reactions and pathways. Currently VitisCyc harbors 68 super pathways, 362 biosynthesis pathways, 118 catabolic pathways, 5 detoxification pathways, 36 energy related pathways and 6 transport pathways, 10,908 enzymes, 2912 enzymatic reactions, 31 transport reactions and 2024 compounds. VitisCyc, as a community resource, can aid in the discovery of candidate genes and pathways that are regulated during plant growth and development, and in response to biotic and abiotic stress signals generated from a plant's immediate environment. VitisCyc version 3.18 is available online at http://pathways.cgrb.oregonstate.edu.

  10. UniPathway: a resource for the exploration and annotation of metabolic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgat, Anne; Coissac, Eric; Coudert, Elisabeth; Axelsen, Kristian B; Keller, Guillaume; Bairoch, Amos; Bridge, Alan; Bougueleret, Lydie; Xenarios, Ioannis; Viari, Alain

    2012-01-01

    UniPathway (http://www.unipathway.org) is a fully manually curated resource for the representation and annotation of metabolic pathways. UniPathway provides explicit representations of enzyme-catalyzed and spontaneous chemical reactions, as well as a hierarchical representation of metabolic pathways. This hierarchy uses linear subpathways as the basic building block for the assembly of larger and more complex pathways, including species-specific pathway variants. All of the pathway data in UniPathway has been extensively cross-linked to existing pathway resources such as KEGG and MetaCyc, as well as sequence resources such as the UniProt KnowledgeBase (UniProtKB), for which UniPathway provides a controlled vocabulary for pathway annotation. We introduce here the basic concepts underlying the UniPathway resource, with the aim of allowing users to fully exploit the information provided by UniPathway.

  11. Representing metabolic pathway information: an object-oriented approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, L B; Speedie, S M; McLeish, R

    1998-01-01

    The University of Minnesota Biocatalysis/Biodegradation Database (UM-BBD) is a website providing information and dynamic links for microbial metabolic pathways, enzyme reactions, and their substrates and products. The Compound, Organism, Reaction and Enzyme (CORE) object-oriented database management system was developed to contain and serve this information. CORE was developed using Java, an object-oriented programming language, and PSE persistent object classes from Object Design, Inc. CORE dynamically generates descriptive web pages for reactions, compounds and enzymes, and reconstructs ad hoc pathway maps starting from any UM-BBD reaction. CORE code is available from the authors upon request. CORE is accessible through the UM-BBD at: http://www. labmed.umn.edu/umbbd/index.html.

  12. Metabolic Pathways Visualization Skills Development by Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Vanessa J. S. V.; Galembeck, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a metabolic pathways visualization skill test (MPVST) to gain greater insight into our students' abilities to comprehend the visual information presented in metabolic pathways diagrams. The test is able to discriminate students' visualization ability with respect to six specific visualization skills that we identified as key to…

  13. Clinical pathways for inborn errors of metabolism: warranted and feasible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demirdas Serwet

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs are known for their low prevalence and multidisciplinary care mostly founded on expert opinion. Clinical pathways are multidisciplinary tools to organise care which provide a clear route to the best care and improve communication. In 2010 the Dutch Society for Children and Adults with an Inborn Error of Metabolism (VKS initiated development of clinical pathways for inborn errors of metabolism. In this letter to the editor we describe why it is warranted to develop clinical pathways for IEMs and shortly discuss the process of development for these pathways in the Netherlands.

  14. VitisCyc: A metabolic pathway knowledgebase for grapevine (Vitis vinifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma eNaithani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We have developed VitisCyc, a grapevine-specific metabolic pathway database that allows researchers to i search and browse the database for its various components such as metabolic pathways, reactions, compounds, genes and proteins, ii compare grapevine metabolic networks with other publicly available plant metabolic networks, and iii upload, visualize and analyze high-throughput data such as transcriptomes, proteomes, metabolomes etc. using OMICs-Viewer tool. VitisCyc is based on the genome sequence of the nearly homozygous genotype PN40024 of Vitis vinifera ‘Pinot Noir’ cultivar with 12X v1 annotations and was built on BioCyc platform using Pathway Tools software and MetaCyc reference database. Furthermore, VitisCyc was enriched for plant-specific pathways and grape-specific metabolites, reactions and pathways. Currently VitisCyc harbors 68 super pathways, 362 biosynthesis pathways, 118 catabolic pathways, 5 detoxification pathways, 36 energy related and 6 transport pathways, 10,908 enzymes, 2912 enzymatic reactions, 31 transport reactions and 2,024 compounds. VitisCyc, as a community resource, can aid in the discovery of candidate genes and pathways that are regulated during plant growth and development, and in response to biotic and abiotic stress signals generated from a plant’s immediate environment. VitisCyc version 3.18 is available online at http://pathways.cgrb.oregonstate.edu.

  15. Caveat emptor: limitations of the automated reconstruction of metabolic pathways in Plasmodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Hagai

    2009-01-01

    The functional reconstruction of metabolic pathways from an annotated genome is a tedious and demanding enterprise. Automation of this endeavor using bioinformatics algorithms could cope with the ever-increasing number of sequenced genomes and accelerate the process. Here, the manual reconstruction of metabolic pathways in the functional genomic database of Plasmodium falciparum--Malaria Parasite Metabolic Pathways--is described and compared with pathways generated automatically as they appear in PlasmoCyc, metaSHARK and the Kyoto Encyclopedia for Genes and Genomes. A critical evaluation of this comparison discloses that the automatic reconstruction of pathways generates manifold paths that need an expert manual verification to accept some and reject most others based on manually curated gene annotation.

  16. Large-scale transcriptome analysis reveals arabidopsis metabolic pathways are frequently influenced by different pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhenhong; He, Fei; Zhang, Ziding

    2017-07-01

    Through large-scale transcriptional data analyses, we highlighted the importance of plant metabolism in plant immunity and identified 26 metabolic pathways that were frequently influenced by the infection of 14 different pathogens. Reprogramming of plant metabolism is a common phenomenon in plant defense responses. Currently, a large number of transcriptional profiles of infected tissues in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) have been deposited in public databases, which provides a great opportunity to understand the expression patterns of metabolic pathways during plant defense responses at the systems level. Here, we performed a large-scale transcriptome analysis based on 135 previously published expression samples, including 14 different pathogens, to explore the expression pattern of Arabidopsis metabolic pathways. Overall, metabolic genes are significantly changed in expression during plant defense responses. Upregulated metabolic genes are enriched on defense responses, and downregulated genes are enriched on photosynthesis, fatty acid and lipid metabolic processes. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) identifies 26 frequently differentially expressed metabolic pathways (FreDE_Paths) that are differentially expressed in more than 60% of infected samples. These pathways are involved in the generation of energy, fatty acid and lipid metabolism as well as secondary metabolite biosynthesis. Clustering analysis based on the expression levels of these 26 metabolic pathways clearly distinguishes infected and control samples, further suggesting the importance of these metabolic pathways in plant defense responses. By comparing with FreDE_Paths from abiotic stresses, we find that the expression patterns of 26 FreDE_Paths from biotic stresses are more consistent across different infected samples. By investigating the expression correlation between transcriptional factors (TFs) and FreDE_Paths, we identify several notable relationships. Collectively, the current study

  17. Novel metabolic pathways for linoleic and arachidonic acid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, M; Motoba, K; Borhan, B; Pinot, F; Hammock, B D

    1996-08-13

    Mouse liver microsomes oxidized linoleic acid to form 9,10- or 12,13-epoxyoctadecenoate. These monoepoxides were subsequently hydrolyzed to their corresponding diols in the absence of the microsomal epoxide hydrolase inhibitor, 1,2-epoxy-3,3,3-trichloropropane. Furthermore, both 9,10- and 12,13-epoxyoctadecenoates were oxidized to diepoxyoctadecanoate at apparently identical rates by mouse liver microsomal P-450 epoxidation. Both epoxyoctadecanoates and diepoxyoctadecanoates were converted to tetrahydrofuran-diols by microsomes. Tetrahydroxides of linoleate were produced as minor metabolites. Arachidonic acid was metabolized to epoxyeicosatrienoates, dihydroxyeicosatrienoates, and monohydroxyeicosatetraenoates by the microsomes. Microsomes prepared from clofibrate (but not phenobarbital) -treated mice exhibited much higher production rates for epoxyeicosatrienoates and vic-dihydroxyeicosatrienoates. This indicated an induction of P-450 epoxygenase(s) and microsomal epoxide hydrolase in mice by clofibrate and not by phenobarbital. Incubation of synthetic epoxyeicosatrienoates with microsomes led to the production of diepoxyeicosadienoates. Among chemically generated diepoxyeicosadienoate isomers, three of them possessing adjacent diepoxides were hydrolyzed to their diol epoxides which cyclized to the corresponding tetrahydrofuran-diols by microsomes as well as soluble epoxide hydrolase at a much higher rate. Larger cyclic products from non-adjacent diepoxides were not observed. The results of our in vitro experiments suggest that linoleic and arachidonic acid can be metabolized to their tetrahydrofuran-diols by two consecutive microsomal cytochrome P-450 epoxidations followed by microsomal or soluble epoxide hydrolase catalyzed hydrolysis of the epoxides. Incubation experiments with the S-9 fractions indicate that the soluble epoxide hydrolase is more important in this conversion. This manuscript is the first report of techniques for the separation and

  18. Evidence that humans metabolize benzene via two pathways.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rappaport, S.M.; Kim, S.; Lan, Q.; Vermeulen, R.C.H.; Waidyanatha, S.; Zhang, L.; Li, G.; Yin, S.; Hayes, R.B.; Rothman, N.; Smith, M.T.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent evidence has shown that humans metabolize benzene more efficiently at environmental air concentrations than at concentrations > 1 ppm. This led us to speculate that an unidentified metabolic pathway was mainly responsible for benzene metabolism at ambient levels. OBJECTIVE: We

  19. Incorporation of enzyme concentrations into FBA and identification of optimal metabolic pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhopadhyay Subhasis

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the present article, we propose a method for determining optimal metabolic pathways in terms of the level of concentration of the enzymes catalyzing various reactions in the entire metabolic network. The method, first of all, generates data on reaction fluxes in a pathway based on steady state condition. A set of constraints is formulated incorporating weighting coefficients corresponding to concentration of enzymes catalyzing reactions in the pathway. Finally, the rate of yield of the target metabolite, starting with a given substrate, is maximized in order to identify an optimal pathway through these weighting coefficients. Results The effectiveness of the present method is demonstrated on two synthetic systems existing in the literature, two pentose phosphate, two glycolytic pathways, core carbon metabolism and a large network of carotenoid biosynthesis pathway of various organisms belonging to different phylogeny. A comparative study with the existing extreme pathway analysis also forms a part of this investigation. Biological relevance and validation of the results are provided. Finally, the impact of the method on metabolic engineering is explained with a few examples. Conclusions The method may be viewed as determining an optimal set of enzymes that is required to get an optimal metabolic pathway. Although it is a simple one, it has been able to identify a carotenoid biosynthesis pathway and the optimal pathway of core carbon metabolic network that is closer to some earlier investigations than that obtained by the extreme pathway analysis. Moreover, the present method has identified correctly optimal pathways for pentose phosphate and glycolytic pathways. It has been mentioned using some examples how the method can suitably be used in the context of metabolic engineering.

  20. Metabolic pathways promoting cancer cell survival and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroughs, Lindsey K; DeBerardinis, Ralph J

    2015-04-01

    Activation of oncogenes and loss of tumour suppressors promote metabolic reprogramming in cancer, resulting in enhanced nutrient uptake to supply energetic and biosynthetic pathways. However, nutrient limitations within solid tumours may require that malignant cells exhibit metabolic flexibility to sustain growth and survival. Here, we highlight these adaptive mechanisms and also discuss emerging approaches to probe tumour metabolism in vivo and their potential to expand the metabolic repertoire of malignant cells even further.

  1. Ontology modeling for generation of clinical pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine Tehrani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Increasing costs of health care, fuelled by demand for high quality, cost-effective healthcare has drove hospitals to streamline their patient care delivery systems. One such systematic approach is the adaptation of Clinical Pathways (CP as a tool to increase the quality of healthcare delivery. However, most organizations still rely on are paper-based pathway guidelines or specifications, which have limitations in process management and as a result can influence patient safety outcomes. In this paper, we present a method for generating clinical pathways based on organizational semiotics by capturing knowledge from syntactic, semantic and pragmatic to social level. Design/methodology/approach: The proposed modeling approach to generation of CPs adopts organizational semiotics and enables the generation of semantically rich representation of CP knowledge. Semantic Analysis Method (SAM is applied to explicitly represent the semantics of the concepts, their relationships and patterns of behavior in terms of an ontology chart. Norm Analysis Method (NAM is adopted to identify and formally specify patterns of behavior and rules that govern the actions identified on the ontology chart. Information collected during semantic and norm analysis is integrated to guide the generation of CPs using best practice represented in BPMN thus enabling the automation of CP. Findings: This research confirms the necessity of taking into consideration social aspects in designing information systems and automating CP. The complexity of healthcare processes can be best tackled by analyzing stakeholders, which we treat as social agents, their goals and patterns of action within the agent network. Originality/value: The current modeling methods describe CPs from a structural aspect comprising activities, properties and interrelationships. However, these methods lack a mechanism to describe possible patterns of human behavior and the conditions under which the

  2. A metabolic pathway for catabolizing levulinic acid in bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rand, Jacqueline M.; Pisithkul, Tippapha; Clark, Ryan L.; Thiede, Joshua M.; Mehrer, Christopher R.

    2017-01-01

    Microorganisms can catabolize a wide range of organic compounds and therefore have the potential to perform many industrially relevant bioconversions. One barrier to realizing the potential of biorefining strategies lies in our incomplete knowledge of metabolic pathways, including those that can be used to assimilate naturally abundant or easily generated feedstocks. For instance, levulinic acid (LA) is a carbon source that is readily obtainable as a dehydration product of lignocellulosic biomass and can serve as the sole carbon source for some bacteria. Yet, the genetics and structure of LA catabolism have remained unknown. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a seven-gene operon that enables LA catabolism in Pseudomonas putida KT2440. When the pathway was reconstituted with purified proteins, we observed the formation of four acyl-CoA intermediates, including a unique 4-phosphovaleryl-CoA and the previously observed 3-hydroxyvaleryl-CoA product. Using adaptive evolution, we obtained a mutant of Escherichia coli LS5218 with functional deletions of fadE and atoC that was capable of robust growth on LA when it expressed the five enzymes from the P. putida operon. Here, this discovery will enable more efficient use of biomass hydrolysates and metabolic engineering to develop bioconversions using LA as a feedstock.

  3. Mitochondrial quality control pathways as determinants of metabolic health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Held, Ntsiki M.; Houtkooper, Riekelt H.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial function is key for maintaining cellular health, while mitochondrial failure is associated with various pathologies, including inherited metabolic disorders and age-related diseases. In order to maintain mitochondrial quality, several pathways of mitochondrial quality control have

  4. Nucleotide metabolism in Lactococcus lactis: Salvage pathways of exogenous pyrimidines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Jan; Andersen, Paal Skytt; Hammer, Karin

    1994-01-01

    By measuring enzyme activities in crude extracts and studying the effect of toxic analogs (5-fluoropyrimidines) on cell growth, the metabolism of pyrimidines in Lactococcus lactis was analyzed. Pathways by which uracil, uridine, deoxyuridine, cytidine, and deoxycytidine are metabolized in L. lact...

  5. Nucleotide metabolism in Lactococcus lactis: Salvage pathways of exogenous pyrimidines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Jan; Andersen, Paal Skytt; Hammer, Karin

    1994-01-01

    By measuring enzyme activities in crude extracts and studying the effect of toxic analogs (5-fluoropyrimidines) on cell growth, the metabolism of pyrimidines in Lactococcus lactis was analyzed. Pathways by which uracil, uridine, deoxyuridine, cytidine, and deoxycytidine are metabolized in L. lactis...

  6. Interdisciplinary Pathways for Urban Metabolism Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, J. P.

    2011-12-01

    With its rapid rise as a metaphor to express coupled natural-human systems in cities, the concept of urban metabolism is evolving into a series of relatively distinct research frameworks amongst various disciplines, with varying definitions, theories, models, and emphases. In industrial ecology, housed primarily within the disciplinary domain of engineering, urban metabolism research has focused on quantifying material and energy flows into, within, and out of cities, using methodologies such as material flow analysis and life cycle assessment. In the field of urban ecology, which is strongly influenced by ecology and urban planning, research focus has been placed on understanding and modeling the complex patterns and processes of human-ecological systems within urban areas. Finally, in political ecology, closely aligned with human geography and anthropology, scholars theorize about the interwoven knots of social and natural processes, material flows, and spatial structures that form the urban metabolism. This paper offers three potential interdisciplinary urban metabolism research tracks that might integrate elements of these three "ecologies," thereby bridging engineering and the social and physical sciences. First, it presents the idea of infrastructure ecology, which explores the complex, emergent interdependencies between gray (water and wastewater, transportation, etc) and green (e.g. parks, greenways) infrastructure systems, as nested within a broader socio-economic context. For cities to be sustainable and resilient over time-space, the theory follows, these is a need to understand and redesign these infrastructure linkages. Second, there is the concept of an urban-scale carbon metabolism model which integrates consumption-based material flow analysis (including goods, water, and materials), with the carbon sink and source dynamics of the built environment (e.g. buildings, etc) and urban ecosystems. Finally, there is the political ecology of the material

  7. Metabolic methanol: molecular pathways and physiological roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorokhov, Yuri L; Shindyapina, Anastasia V; Sheshukova, Ekaterina V; Komarova, Tatiana V

    2015-04-01

    Methanol has been historically considered an exogenous product that leads only to pathological changes in the human body when consumed. However, in normal, healthy individuals, methanol and its short-lived oxidized product, formaldehyde, are naturally occurring compounds whose functions and origins have received limited attention. There are several sources of human physiological methanol. Fruits, vegetables, and alcoholic beverages are likely the main sources of exogenous methanol in the healthy human body. Metabolic methanol may occur as a result of fermentation by gut bacteria and metabolic processes involving S-adenosyl methionine. Regardless of its source, low levels of methanol in the body are maintained by physiological and metabolic clearance mechanisms. Although human blood contains small amounts of methanol and formaldehyde, the content of these molecules increases sharply after receiving even methanol-free ethanol, indicating an endogenous source of the metabolic methanol present at low levels in the blood regulated by a cluster of genes. Recent studies of the pathogenesis of neurological disorders indicate metabolic formaldehyde as a putative causative agent. The detection of increased formaldehyde content in the blood of both neurological patients and the elderly indicates the important role of genetic and biochemical mechanisms of maintaining low levels of methanol and formaldehyde. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Analyzing the regulation of metabolic pathways in human breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schramm Gunnar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumor therapy mainly attacks the metabolism to interfere the tumor's anabolism and signaling of proliferative second messengers. However, the metabolic demands of different cancers are very heterogeneous and depend on their origin of tissue, age, gender and other clinical parameters. We investigated tumor specific regulation in the metabolism of breast cancer. Methods For this, we mapped gene expression data from microarrays onto the corresponding enzymes and their metabolic reaction network. We used Haar Wavelet transforms on optimally arranged grid representations of metabolic pathways as a pattern recognition method to detect orchestrated regulation of neighboring enzymes in the network. Significant combined expression patterns were used to select metabolic pathways showing shifted regulation of the aggressive tumors. Results Besides up-regulation for energy production and nucleotide anabolism, we found an interesting cellular switch in the interplay of biosynthesis of steroids and bile acids. The biosynthesis of steroids was up-regulated for estrogen synthesis which is needed for proliferative signaling in breast cancer. In turn, the decomposition of steroid precursors was blocked by down-regulation of the bile acid pathway. Conclusion We applied an intelligent pattern recognition method for analyzing the regulation of metabolism and elucidated substantial regulation of human breast cancer at the interplay of cholesterol biosynthesis and bile acid metabolism pointing to specific breast cancer treatment.

  9. Highly proliferative primitive fetal liver hematopoietic stem cells are fueled by oxidative metabolic pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed K. Manesia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs in the fetal liver (FL unlike adult bone marrow (BM proliferate extensively, posing different metabolic demands. However, metabolic pathways responsible for the production of energy and cellular building blocks in FL HSCs have not been described. Here, we report that FL HSCs use oxygen dependent energy generating pathways significantly more than their BM counterparts. RNA-Seq analysis of E14.5 FL versus BM derived HSCs identified increased expression levels of genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos and the citric acid cycle (TCA. We demonstrated that FL HSCs contain more mitochondria than BM HSCs, which resulted in increased levels of oxygen consumption and reactive oxygen species (ROS production. Higher levels of DNA repair and antioxidant pathway gene expression may prevent ROS-mediated (genotoxicity in FL HSCs. Thus, we here for the first time highlight the underestimated importance of oxygen dependent pathways for generating energy and building blocks in FL HSCs.

  10. Novel personalized pathway-based metabolomics models reveal key metabolic pathways for breast cancer diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Sijia; Chong, Nicole; Lewis, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    diagnosis. We applied this method to predict breast cancer occurrence, in combination with correlation feature selection (CFS) and classification methods. Results: The resulting all-stage and early-stage diagnosis models are highly accurate in two sets of testing blood samples, with average AUCs (Area Under.......993. Moreover, important metabolic pathways, such as taurine and hypotaurine metabolism and the alanine, aspartate, and glutamate pathway, are revealed as critical biological pathways for early diagnosis of breast cancer. Conclusions: We have successfully developed a new type of pathway-based model to study...... metabolomics data for disease diagnosis. Applying this method to blood-based breast cancer metabolomics data, we have discovered crucial metabolic pathway signatures for breast cancer diagnosis, especially early diagnosis. Further, this modeling approach may be generalized to other omics data types for disease...

  11. Rewriting the Metabolic Blueprint: Advances in Pathway Diversification in Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazi Sakir Hossain

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Living organisms have evolved over millions of years to fine tune their metabolism to create efficient pathways for producing metabolites necessary for their survival. Advancement in the field of synthetic biology has enabled the exploitation of these metabolic pathways for the production of desired compounds by creating microbial cell factories through metabolic engineering, thus providing sustainable routes to obtain value-added chemicals. Following the past success in metabolic engineering, there is increasing interest in diversifying natural metabolic pathways to construct non-natural biosynthesis routes, thereby creating possibilities for producing novel valuable compounds that are non-natural or without elucidated biosynthesis pathways. Thus, the range of chemicals that can be produced by biological systems can be expanded to meet the demands of industries for compounds such as plastic precursors and new antibiotics, most of which can only be obtained through chemical synthesis currently. Herein, we review and discuss novel strategies that have been developed to rewrite natural metabolic blueprints in a bid to broaden the chemical repertoire achievable in microorganisms. This review aims to provide insights on recent approaches taken to open new avenues for achieving biochemical production that are beyond currently available inventions.

  12. Kynurenine pathway metabolism and the microbiota-gut-brain axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, P J; Cryan, J F; Dinan, T G; Clarke, G

    2017-01-01

    It has become increasingly clear that the gut microbiota influences not only gastrointestinal physiology but also central nervous system (CNS) function by modulating signalling pathways of the microbiota-gut-brain axis. Understanding the neurobiological mechanisms underpinning the influence exerted by the gut microbiota on brain function and behaviour has become a key research priority. Microbial regulation of tryptophan metabolism has become a focal point in this regard, with dual emphasis on the regulation of serotonin synthesis and the control of kynurenine pathway metabolism. Here, we focus in detail on the latter pathway and begin by outlining the structural and functional dynamics of the gut microbiota and the signalling pathways of the brain-gut axis. We summarise preclinical and clinical investigations demonstrating that the gut microbiota influences CNS physiology, anxiety, depression, social behaviour, cognition and visceral pain. Pertinent studies are drawn from neurogastroenterology demonstrating the importance of tryptophan and its metabolites in CNS and gastrointestinal function. We outline how kynurenine pathway metabolism may be regulated by microbial control of neuroendocrine function and components of the immune system. Finally, preclinical evidence demonstrating direct and indirect mechanisms by which the gut microbiota can regulate tryptophan availability for kynurenine pathway metabolism, with downstream effects on CNS function, is reviewed. Targeting the gut microbiota represents a tractable target to modulate kynurenine pathway metabolism. Efforts to develop this approach will markedly increase our understanding of how the gut microbiota shapes brain and behaviour and provide new insights towards successful translation of microbiota-gut-brain axis research from bench to bedside. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'The Kynurenine Pathway in Health and Disease'. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cinnamon polyphenols regulate multiple metabolic pathways involved in intestinal lipid metabolism of primary small intestinal enterocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing evidence suggests that dietary factors may affect the expression of multiple genes and signaling pathways including those that regulate intestinal lipoprotein metabolism. The small intestine is actively involved in the regulation of dietary lipid absorption, intracellular transport and me...

  14. Obesity-driven gut microbiota inflammatory pathways to metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Agra eCavalcante-Silva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The intimate interplay between immune system, metabolism and gut microbiota plays an important role in controlling metabolic homeostasis and possible obesity development. Obesity involves impairment of immune response affecting both innate and adaptive immunity. The main factors involved in the relationship of obesity with inflammation have not been completely elucidated. On the other hand, gut microbiota, via innate immune receptors, has emerged as one of the key factors regulating events triggering acute inflammation associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Inflammatory disorders lead to several signalling transduction pathways activation, inflammatory cytokine, chemokine production and cell migration, which in turn cause metabolic dysfunction. Inflamed adipose tissue, with increased macrophages infiltration, is associated with impaired preadipocyte development and differentiation to mature adipose cells, leading to ectopic lipid accumulation and insulin resistance. This review focuses on the relationship between obesity and inflammation, which is essential to understand the pathological mechanisms governing metabolic syndrome.

  15. Malaria Parasite Metabolic Pathways (MPMP) Upgraded with Targeted Chemical Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Hagai; Abdel-Haleem, Alyaa M

    2016-01-01

    Malaria Parasite Metabolic Pathways (MPMP) is the website for the functional genomics of intraerythrocytic Plasmodium falciparum. All the published information about targeted chemical compounds has now been added. Users can find the drug target and publication details linked to a drug database for further information about the medicinal properties of each compound. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Consensus and conflict cards for metabolic pathway databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stobbe, M.D.; Swertz, M.A.; Thiele, I.; Rengaw, T.; van Kampen, A.H.C.; Moerland, P.D.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The metabolic network of H. sapiens and many other organisms is described in multiple pathway databases. The level of agreement between these descriptions, however, has proven to be low. We can use these different descriptions to our advantage by identifying conflicting information and

  17. Consensus and conflict cards for metabolic pathway databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stobbe, Miranda D.; Swertz, Morris A.; Thiele, Ines; Rengaw, Trebor; van Kampen, Antoine H. C.; Moerland, Perry D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The metabolic network of H. sapiens and many other organisms is described in multiple pathway databases. The level of agreement between these descriptions, however, has proven to be low. We can use these different descriptions to our advantage by identifying conflicting information and

  18. Consensus and conflict cards for metabolic pathway databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stobbe, Miranda D.; Swertz, Morris A.; Thiele, Ines; Rengaw, Trebor; van Kampen, Antoine H. C.; Moerland, Perry D.

    2013-01-01

    The metabolic network of H. sapiens and many other organisms is described in multiple pathway databases. The level of agreement between these descriptions, however, has proven to be low. We can use these different descriptions to our advantage by identifying conflicting information and combining

  19. Clinical pathways for inborn errors of metabolism : warranted and feasible

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demirdas, Serwet; van Kessel, Imke N.; Korndewal, Marjolein J.; Hollak, Carla E. M.; Meutgeert, Hanka; Klaren, Anja; van Rijn, Margreet; van Spronsen, Francjan J.; Bosch, Annet M.

    2013-01-01

    Inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) are known for their low prevalence and multidisciplinary care mostly founded on expert opinion. Clinical pathways are multidisciplinary tools to organise care which provide a clear route to the best care and improve communication. In 2010 the Dutch Society for

  20. Malaria Parasite Metabolic Pathways (MPMP) Upgraded with Targeted Chemical Compounds

    KAUST Repository

    Ginsburg, Hagai

    2015-10-31

    Malaria Parasite Metabolic Pathways (MPMP) is the website for the functional genomics of intraerythrocytic Plasmodium falciparum. All the published information about targeted chemical compounds has now been added. Users can find the drug target and publication details linked to a drug database for further information about the medicinal properties of each compound.

  1. Metabolic pathways variability and sequence/networks comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tun, Kyaw; Dhar, Pawan K; Palumbo, Maria Concetta; Giuliani, Alessandro

    2006-01-01

    Background In this work a simple method for the computation of relative similarities between homologous metabolic network modules is presented. The method is similar to classical sequence alignment and allows for the generation of phenotypic trees amenable to be compared with correspondent sequence based trees. The procedure can be applied to both single metabolic modules and whole metabolic network data without the need of any specific assumption. Results We demonstrate both the ability of the proposed method to build reliable biological classification of a set of microrganisms and the strong correlation between the metabolic network wiringand involved enzymes sequence space. Conclusion The method represents a valuable tool for the investigation of genotype/phenotype correlationsallowing for a direct comparison of different species as for their metabolic machinery. In addition the detection of enzymes whose sequence space is maximally correlated with the metabolicnetwork space gives an indication of the most crucial (on an evolutionary viewpoint) steps of the metabolic process. PMID:16420696

  2. Metabolic pathways variability and sequence/networks comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palumbo Maria

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this work a simple method for the computation of relative similarities between homologous metabolic network modules is presented. The method is similar to classical sequence alignment and allows for the generation of phenotypic trees amenable to be compared with correspondent sequence based trees. The procedure can be applied to both single metabolic modules and whole metabolic network data without the need of any specific assumption. Results We demonstrate both the ability of the proposed method to build reliable biological classification of a set of microrganisms and the strong correlation between the metabolic network wiringand involved enzymes sequence space. Conclusion The method represents a valuable tool for the investigation of genotype/phenotype correlationsallowing for a direct comparison of different species as for their metabolic machinery. In addition the detection of enzymes whose sequence space is maximally correlated with the metabolicnetwork space gives an indication of the most crucial (on an evolutionary viewpoint steps of the metabolic process.

  3. Enhancing microbial production of biofuels by expanding microbial metabolic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ping; Chen, Xingge; Li, Peng

    2017-09-01

    Fatty acid, isoprenoid, and alcohol pathways have been successfully engineered to produce biofuels. By introducing three genes, atfA, adhE, and pdc, into Escherichia coli to expand fatty acid pathway, up to 1.28 g/L of fatty acid ethyl esters can be achieved. The isoprenoid pathway can be expanded to produce bisabolene with a high titer of 900 mg/L in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Short- and long-chain alcohols can also be effectively biosynthesized by extending the carbon chain of ketoacids with an engineered "+1" alcohol pathway. Thus, it can be concluded that expanding microbial metabolic pathways has enormous potential for enhancing microbial production of biofuels for future industrial applications. However, some major challenges for microbial production of biofuels should be overcome to compete with traditional fossil fuels: lowering production costs, reducing the time required to construct genetic elements and to increase their predictability and reliability, and creating reusable parts with useful and predictable behavior. To address these challenges, several aspects should be further considered in future: mining and transformation of genetic elements related to metabolic pathways, assembling biofuel elements and coordinating their functions, enhancing the tolerance of host cells to biofuels, and creating modular subpathways that can be easily interconnected. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Metabolic engineering of biosynthetic pathway for production of renewable biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijai; Mani, Indra; Chaudhary, Dharmendra Kumar; Dhar, Pawan Kumar

    2014-02-01

    Metabolic engineering is an important area of research that involves editing genetic networks to overproduce a certain substance by the cells. Using a combination of genetic, metabolic, and modeling methods, useful substances have been synthesized in the past at industrial scale and in a cost-effective manner. Currently, metabolic engineering is being used to produce sufficient, economical, and eco-friendly biofuels. In the recent past, a number of efforts have been made towards engineering biosynthetic pathways for large scale and efficient production of biofuels from biomass. Given the adoption of metabolic engineering approaches by the biofuel industry, this paper reviews various approaches towards the production and enhancement of renewable biofuels such as ethanol, butanol, isopropanol, hydrogen, and biodiesel. We have also identified specific areas where more work needs to be done in the future.

  5. Global profiling strategies for mapping dysregulated metabolic pathways in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Daniel I; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Nomura, Daniel K

    2012-11-07

    Cancer cells possess fundamentally altered metabolism that provides a foundation to support tumorigenicity and malignancy. Our understanding of the biochemical underpinnings of cancer has benefited from the integrated utilization of large-scale profiling platforms (e.g., genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics), which, together, can provide a global assessment of how enzymes and their parent metabolic networks become altered in cancer to fuel tumor growth. This review presents several examples of how these integrated platforms have yielded fundamental insights into dysregulated metabolism in cancer. We will also discuss questions and challenges that must be addressed to more completely describe, and eventually control, the diverse metabolic pathways that support tumorigenesis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Human Cytomegalovirus: Coordinating Cellular Stress, Signaling, and Metabolic Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Thomas; Alwine, James C

    2014-11-01

    Viruses face a multitude of challenges when they infect a host cell. Cells have evolved innate defenses to protect against pathogens, and an infecting virus may induce a stress response that antagonizes viral replication. Further, the metabolic, oxidative, and cell cycle state may not be conducive to the viral infection. But viruses are fabulous manipulators, inducing host cells to use their own characteristic mechanisms and pathways to provide what the virus needs. This article centers on the manipulation of host cell metabolism by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). We review the features of the metabolic program instituted by the virus, discuss the mechanisms underlying these dramatic metabolic changes, and consider how the altered program creates a synthetic milieu that favors efficient HCMV replication and spread.

  7. Novel personalized pathway-based metabolomics models reveal key metabolic pathways for breast cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sijia; Chong, Nicole; Lewis, Nathan E; Jia, Wei; Xie, Guoxiang; Garmire, Lana X

    2016-03-31

    More accurate diagnostic methods are pressingly needed to diagnose breast cancer, the most common malignant cancer in women worldwide. Blood-based metabolomics is a promising diagnostic method for breast cancer. However, many metabolic biomarkers are difficult to replicate among studies. We propose that higher-order functional representation of metabolomics data, such as pathway-based metabolomic features, can be used as robust biomarkers for breast cancer. Towards this, we have developed a new computational method that uses personalized pathway dysregulation scores for disease diagnosis. We applied this method to predict breast cancer occurrence, in combination with correlation feature selection (CFS) and classification methods. The resulting all-stage and early-stage diagnosis models are highly accurate in two sets of testing blood samples, with average AUCs (Area Under the Curve, a receiver operating characteristic curve) of 0.968 and 0.934, sensitivities of 0.946 and 0.954, and specificities of 0.934 and 0.918. These two metabolomics-based pathway models are further validated by RNA-Seq-based TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas) breast cancer data, with AUCs of 0.995 and 0.993. Moreover, important metabolic pathways, such as taurine and hypotaurine metabolism and the alanine, aspartate, and glutamate pathway, are revealed as critical biological pathways for early diagnosis of breast cancer. We have successfully developed a new type of pathway-based model to study metabolomics data for disease diagnosis. Applying this method to blood-based breast cancer metabolomics data, we have discovered crucial metabolic pathway signatures for breast cancer diagnosis, especially early diagnosis. Further, this modeling approach may be generalized to other omics data types for disease diagnosis.

  8. Pathway thermodynamics highlights kinetic obstacles in central metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Elad; Bar-Even, Arren; Flamholz, Avi; Reznik, Ed; Liebermeister, Wolfram; Milo, Ron

    2014-02-01

    In metabolism research, thermodynamics is usually used to determine the directionality of a reaction or the feasibility of a pathway. However, the relationship between thermodynamic potentials and fluxes is not limited to questions of directionality: thermodynamics also affects the kinetics of reactions through the flux-force relationship, which states that the logarithm of the ratio between the forward and reverse fluxes is directly proportional to the change in Gibbs energy due to a reaction (ΔrG'). Accordingly, if an enzyme catalyzes a reaction with a ΔrG' of -5.7 kJ/mol then the forward flux will be roughly ten times the reverse flux. As ΔrG' approaches equilibrium (ΔrG' = 0 kJ/mol), exponentially more enzyme counterproductively catalyzes the reverse reaction, reducing the net rate at which the reaction proceeds. Thus, the enzyme level required to achieve a given flux increases dramatically near equilibrium. Here, we develop a framework for quantifying the degree to which pathways suffer these thermodynamic limitations on flux. For each pathway, we calculate a single thermodynamically-derived metric (the Max-min Driving Force, MDF), which enables objective ranking of pathways by the degree to which their flux is constrained by low thermodynamic driving force. Our framework accounts for the effect of pH, ionic strength and metabolite concentration ranges and allows us to quantify how alterations to the pathway structure affect the pathway's thermodynamics. Applying this methodology to pathways of central metabolism sheds light on some of their features, including metabolic bypasses (e.g., fermentation pathways bypassing substrate-level phosphorylation), substrate channeling (e.g., of oxaloacetate from malate dehydrogenase to citrate synthase), and use of alternative cofactors (e.g., quinone as an electron acceptor instead of NAD). The methods presented here place another arrow in metabolic engineers' quiver, providing a simple means of evaluating the

  9. Pathway thermodynamics highlights kinetic obstacles in central metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elad Noor

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In metabolism research, thermodynamics is usually used to determine the directionality of a reaction or the feasibility of a pathway. However, the relationship between thermodynamic potentials and fluxes is not limited to questions of directionality: thermodynamics also affects the kinetics of reactions through the flux-force relationship, which states that the logarithm of the ratio between the forward and reverse fluxes is directly proportional to the change in Gibbs energy due to a reaction (ΔrG'. Accordingly, if an enzyme catalyzes a reaction with a ΔrG' of -5.7 kJ/mol then the forward flux will be roughly ten times the reverse flux. As ΔrG' approaches equilibrium (ΔrG' = 0 kJ/mol, exponentially more enzyme counterproductively catalyzes the reverse reaction, reducing the net rate at which the reaction proceeds. Thus, the enzyme level required to achieve a given flux increases dramatically near equilibrium. Here, we develop a framework for quantifying the degree to which pathways suffer these thermodynamic limitations on flux. For each pathway, we calculate a single thermodynamically-derived metric (the Max-min Driving Force, MDF, which enables objective ranking of pathways by the degree to which their flux is constrained by low thermodynamic driving force. Our framework accounts for the effect of pH, ionic strength and metabolite concentration ranges and allows us to quantify how alterations to the pathway structure affect the pathway's thermodynamics. Applying this methodology to pathways of central metabolism sheds light on some of their features, including metabolic bypasses (e.g., fermentation pathways bypassing substrate-level phosphorylation, substrate channeling (e.g., of oxaloacetate from malate dehydrogenase to citrate synthase, and use of alternative cofactors (e.g., quinone as an electron acceptor instead of NAD. The methods presented here place another arrow in metabolic engineers' quiver, providing a simple means of

  10. Pathway Thermodynamics Highlights Kinetic Obstacles in Central Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamholz, Avi; Reznik, Ed; Liebermeister, Wolfram; Milo, Ron

    2014-01-01

    In metabolism research, thermodynamics is usually used to determine the directionality of a reaction or the feasibility of a pathway. However, the relationship between thermodynamic potentials and fluxes is not limited to questions of directionality: thermodynamics also affects the kinetics of reactions through the flux-force relationship, which states that the logarithm of the ratio between the forward and reverse fluxes is directly proportional to the change in Gibbs energy due to a reaction (ΔrG′). Accordingly, if an enzyme catalyzes a reaction with a ΔrG′ of -5.7 kJ/mol then the forward flux will be roughly ten times the reverse flux. As ΔrG′ approaches equilibrium (ΔrG′ = 0 kJ/mol), exponentially more enzyme counterproductively catalyzes the reverse reaction, reducing the net rate at which the reaction proceeds. Thus, the enzyme level required to achieve a given flux increases dramatically near equilibrium. Here, we develop a framework for quantifying the degree to which pathways suffer these thermodynamic limitations on flux. For each pathway, we calculate a single thermodynamically-derived metric (the Max-min Driving Force, MDF), which enables objective ranking of pathways by the degree to which their flux is constrained by low thermodynamic driving force. Our framework accounts for the effect of pH, ionic strength and metabolite concentration ranges and allows us to quantify how alterations to the pathway structure affect the pathway's thermodynamics. Applying this methodology to pathways of central metabolism sheds light on some of their features, including metabolic bypasses (e.g., fermentation pathways bypassing substrate-level phosphorylation), substrate channeling (e.g., of oxaloacetate from malate dehydrogenase to citrate synthase), and use of alternative cofactors (e.g., quinone as an electron acceptor instead of NAD). The methods presented here place another arrow in metabolic engineers' quiver, providing a simple means of evaluating

  11. Reconstruction of Sugar Metabolic Pathways of Giardia lamblia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Han

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Giardia lamblia is an “important” pathogen of humans, but as a diplomonad excavate it is evolutionarily distant from other eukaryotes and relatively little is known about its core metabolic pathways. KEGG, the widely referenced site for providing information of metabolism, does not yet include many enzymes from Giardia species. Here we identify Giardia’s core sugar metabolism using standard bioinformatic approaches. By comparing Giardia proteomes with known enzymes from other species, we have identified enzymes in the glycolysis pathway, as well as some enzymes involved in the TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. However, the majority of enzymes from the latter two pathways were not identifiable, indicating the likely absence of these functionalities. We have also found enzymes from the Giardia glycolysis pathway that appear more similar to those from bacteria. Because these enzymes are different from those found in mammals, the host organisms for Giardia, we raise the possibility that these bacteria-like enzymes could be novel drug targets for treating Giardia infections.

  12. Metabolic Engineering of Chemical Defence Pathways in Plant Disease Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rook, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    with antimicrobial properties for use in crop protection. It presents an overview of the metabolic engineering efforts made in the area of plant chemical defence. For in-depth information on the characteristics of a specific class of chemical defence compounds, the reader is referred to the specialized reviews......Plants produce a wide variety of specialized (or secondary) metabolites that function as chemical defence compounds and provide protection against microbial pathogens or herbivores. This chapter focuses on the metabolic engineering of biosynthetic pathways for plant chemical defence compounds...

  13. Pathway elucidation and metabolic engineering of specialized plant metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomonsen, Bo

    A worldwide need to liberate ourselves from unsustainable petrochemicals has led to numerous metabolic engineering projects, mostly carried out in microbial hosts. Using systems biology for predicting and altering the metabolism of microorganisms towards production of a desired metabolite...... and fluxomics for a considerable number of organisms. Unfortunately, transferring the wealth of data to valuable information for metabolic engineering purposes is a non-obvious task. This PhD thesis describes a palate of tools used in generation of cell factories for production of specialized plant metabolites...

  14. Strategies for metabolic pathway engineering with multiple transgenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Ralph

    2013-09-01

    The engineering of metabolic pathways in plants often requires the concerted expression of more than one gene. While with traditional transgenic approaches, the expression of multiple transgenes has been challenging, recent progress has greatly expanded our repertoire of powerful techniques making this possible. New technological options include large-scale co-transformation of the nuclear genome, also referred to as combinatorial transformation, and transformation of the chloroplast genome with synthetic operon constructs. This review describes the state of the art in multigene genetic engineering of plants. It focuses on the methods currently available for the introduction of multiple transgenes into plants and the molecular mechanisms underlying successful transgene expression. Selected examples of metabolic pathway engineering are used to illustrate the attractions and limitations of each method and to highlight key factors that influence the experimenter's choice of the best strategy for multigene engineering.

  15. Plant cholesterol biosynthetic pathway overlaps with phytosterol metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonawane, Prashant D; Pollier, Jacob; Panda, Sayantan; Szymanski, Jedrzej; Massalha, Hassan; Yona, Meital; Unger, Tamar; Malitsky, Sergey; Arendt, Philipp; Pauwels, Laurens; Almekias-Siegl, Efrat; Rogachev, Ilana; Meir, Sagit; Cárdenas, Pablo D; Masri, Athar; Petrikov, Marina; Schaller, Hubert; Schaffer, Arthur A; Kamble, Avinash; Giri, Ashok P; Goossens, Alain; Aharoni, Asaph

    2016-12-22

    The amount of cholesterol made by many plants is not negligible. Whereas cholesterogenesis in animals was elucidated decades ago, the plant pathway has remained enigmatic. Among other roles, cholesterol is a key precursor for thousands of bioactive plant metabolites, including the well-known Solanum steroidal glycoalkaloids. Integrating tomato transcript and protein co-expression data revealed candidate genes putatively associated with cholesterol biosynthesis. A combination of functional assays including gene silencing, examination of recombinant enzyme activity and yeast mutant complementation suggests the cholesterol pathway comprises 12 enzymes acting in 10 steps. It appears that half of the cholesterogenesis-specific enzymes evolved through gene duplication and divergence from phytosterol biosynthetic enzymes, whereas others act reciprocally in both cholesterol and phytosterol metabolism. Our findings provide a unique example of nature's capacity to exploit existing protein folds and catalytic machineries from primary metabolism to assemble a new, multi-step metabolic pathway. Finally, the engineering of a 'high-cholesterol' model plant underscores the future value of our gene toolbox to produce high-value steroidal compounds via synthetic biology.

  16. A new course in the clinical pathways for metabolic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kageyama, Shoko; Wada, Yumi; Nakamura, Rie

    2006-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is consisted with multiple risk factors such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension based on visceral fat accumulation, for the development of arteriosclerosis. We present, here, a clinical pathway for education of patients with metabolic syndrome. The program contains an adequate explanation of the high risk for arteriosclerosis to the patients, the measurement of visceral fat content by computed tomography, and several clinical examinations for the evaluation of arteriosclerotic lesions. We have presented this program on the ward of diabetes center in our hospital for patients diagnosed as having metabolic syndrome. Because the focus of education is to clarify understanding of the harmful effects of visceral fat and the benefits of its reduction, it might be a valuable tool to motivate and empower the patient and improve the patient's lifestyle. (author)

  17. The effect of selected metals on the central metabolic pathways in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    compounds, interfere with xenobiotic metabolic pathways, and may also affect glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, protein amino acid metabolism as well as carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Therefore, in this review, we discuss the two phases of the central metabolic pathways, as well as how metals ...

  18. Improving Metabolic Pathway Efficiency by Statistical Model-Based Multivariate Regulatory Metabolic Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Rizzoni, Elizabeth Anne; Sul, Se-Yeong; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2017-01-20

    Metabolic engineering entails target modification of cell metabolism to maximize the production of a specific compound. For empowering combinatorial optimization in strain engineering, tools and algorithms are needed to efficiently sample the multidimensional gene expression space and locate the desirable overproduction phenotype. We addressed this challenge by employing design of experiment (DoE) models to quantitatively correlate gene expression with strain performance. By fractionally sampling the gene expression landscape, we statistically screened the dominant enzyme targets that determine metabolic pathway efficiency. An empirical quadratic regression model was subsequently used to identify the optimal gene expression patterns of the investigated pathway. As a proof of concept, our approach yielded the natural product violacein at 525.4 mg/L in shake flasks, a 3.2-fold increase from the baseline strain. Violacein production was further increased to 1.31 g/L in a controlled benchtop bioreactor. We found that formulating discretized gene expression levels into logarithmic variables (Linlog transformation) was essential for implementing this DoE-based optimization procedure. The reported methodology can aid multivariate combinatorial pathway engineering and may be generalized as a standard procedure for accelerating strain engineering and improving metabolic pathway efficiency.

  19. Understanding specificity in metabolic pathways--structural biology of human nucleotide metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welin, Martin; Nordlund, Pär

    2010-05-21

    Interactions are the foundation of life at the molecular level. In the plethora of activities in the cell, the evolution of enzyme specificity requires the balancing of appropriate substrate affinity with a negative selection, in order to minimize interactions with other potential substrates in the cell. To understand the structural basis for enzyme specificity, the comparison of structural and biochemical data between enzymes within pathways using similar substrates and effectors is valuable. Nucleotide metabolism is one of the largest metabolic pathways in the human cell and is of outstanding therapeutic importance since it activates and catabolises nucleoside based anti-proliferative drugs and serves as a direct target for anti-proliferative drugs. In recent years the structural coverage of the enzymes involved in human nucleotide metabolism has been dramatically improved and is approaching completion. An important factor has been the contribution from the Structural Genomics Consortium (SGC) at Karolinska Institutet, which recently has solved 33 novel structures of enzymes and enzyme domains in human nucleotide metabolism pathways and homologs thereof. In this review we will discuss some of the principles for substrate specificity of enzymes in human nucleotide metabolism illustrated by a selected set of enzyme families where a detailed understanding of the structural determinants for specificity is now emerging. 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Understanding specificity in metabolic pathways-Structural biology of human nucleotide metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welin, Martin; Nordlund, Paer

    2010-01-01

    Interactions are the foundation of life at the molecular level. In the plethora of activities in the cell, the evolution of enzyme specificity requires the balancing of appropriate substrate affinity with a negative selection, in order to minimize interactions with other potential substrates in the cell. To understand the structural basis for enzyme specificity, the comparison of structural and biochemical data between enzymes within pathways using similar substrates and effectors is valuable. Nucleotide metabolism is one of the largest metabolic pathways in the human cell and is of outstanding therapeutic importance since it activates and catabolises nucleoside based anti-proliferative drugs and serves as a direct target for anti-proliferative drugs. In recent years the structural coverage of the enzymes involved in human nucleotide metabolism has been dramatically improved and is approaching completion. An important factor has been the contribution from the Structural Genomics Consortium (SGC) at Karolinska Institutet, which recently has solved 33 novel structures of enzymes and enzyme domains in human nucleotide metabolism pathways and homologs thereof. In this review we will discuss some of the principles for substrate specificity of enzymes in human nucleotide metabolism illustrated by a selected set of enzyme families where a detailed understanding of the structural determinants for specificity is now emerging.

  1. Damaging effects of hyperglycemia on cardiovascular function: spotlight on glucose metabolic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapanga, Rudo F; Essop, M Faadiel

    2016-01-15

    The incidence of cardiovascular complications associated with hyperglycemia is a growing global health problem. This review discusses the link between hyperglycemia and cardiovascular diseases onset, focusing on the role of recently emerging downstream mediators, namely, oxidative stress and glucose metabolic pathway perturbations. The role of hyperglycemia-mediated activation of nonoxidative glucose pathways (NOGPs) [i.e., the polyol pathway, hexosamine biosynthetic pathway, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and protein kinase C] in this process is extensively reviewed. The proposal is made that there is a unique interplay between NOGPs and a downstream convergence of detrimental effects that especially affect cardiac endothelial cells, thereby contributing to contractile dysfunction. In this process the AGE pathway emerges as a crucial mediator of hyperglycemia-mediated detrimental effects. In addition, a vicious metabolic cycle is established whereby hyperglycemia-induced NOGPs further fuel their own activation by generating even more oxidative stress, thereby exacerbating damaging effects on cardiac function. Thus NOGP inhibition, and particularly that of the AGE pathway, emerges as a novel therapeutic intervention for the treatment of cardiovascular complications such as acute myocardial infarction in the presence hyperglycemia. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Cellular metabolism in colorectal carcinogenesis: Influence of lifestyle, gut microbiome and metabolic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagland, Hanne R; Søreide, Kjetil

    2015-01-28

    The interconnectivity between diet, gut microbiota and cell molecular responses is well known; however, only recently has technology allowed the identification of strains of microorganisms harbored in the gastrointestinal tract that may increase susceptibility to cancer. The colonic environment appears to play a role in the development of colon cancer, which is influenced by the human metabolic lifestyle and changes in the gut microbiome. Studying metabolic changes at the cellular level in cancer be useful for developing novel improved preventative measures, such as screening through metabolic breath-tests or treatment options that directly affect the metabolic pathways responsible for the carcinogenicity. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Dietary modification of metabolic pathways via nuclear hormone receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiozzi, Gianella; Wong, Brian S; Ricketts, Marie-Louise

    2012-10-01

    Nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs), as ligand-dependent transcription factors, have emerged as important mediators in the control of whole body metabolism. Because of the promiscuous nature of several members of this superfamily that have been found to bind ligand with lower affinity than the classical steroid NHRs, they consequently display a broader ligand selectivity. This promiscuous nature has facilitated various bioactive dietary components being able to act as agonist ligands for certain members of the NHR superfamily. By binding to these NHRs, bioactive dietary components are able to mediate changes in various metabolic pathways, including, glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride homeostasis among others. This review will provide a general overview of the nuclear hormone receptors that have been shown to be activated by dietary components. The physiological consequences of such receptor activation by these dietary components will then be discussed in more detail. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Metabolic syndrome and Cancer: Do they share common molecular pathways?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veniou E.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome, a clustering of risk factors including obesity, has emerged as a global health plague. A lot of epidemiological and clinical evidence suggests that the metabolic syndrome is linked not only to cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus type 2 but also to cancer development and progression. In this review the potential mechanisms tying the metabolic syndrome with cancer are presented. The role of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, the activation of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 pathway, and the induction of cytotoxic products are highlighted. Subsequent effects leading to oxidative stress, release of lipokines with signaling properties by adipocytes, development of a sustained systemic inflammation, production of inflammatory cytokines, and establishment of a tumorigenic environment are also discussed. The importance of the metabolic syndrome and obesity coupled with the deeper understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms has trigger intensive clinical research with an aim to prevent the risk of cancer and improve outcomes. Moreover, the need for lifestyle changes with increased physical activity and improved dietary quality has been emerged as urgent health priority.

  5. Coexistence of competing metabolic pathways in well-mixed populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Lenin; Amado, André; Campos, Paulo R A; Ferreira, Fernando Fagundes

    2016-05-01

    Understanding why strains with different metabolic pathways that compete for a single limiting resource coexist is a challenging issue within a theoretical perspective. Previous investigations rely on mechanisms such as group or spatial structuring to achieve a stable coexistence between competing metabolic strategies. Nevertheless, coexistence has been experimentally reported even in situations where it cannot be attributed to spatial effects [Heredity 100, 471 (2008)HDTYAT0018-067X10.1038/sj.hdy.6801073]. According to that study a toxin expelled by one of the strains can be responsible for the stable maintenance of the two strain types. We propose a resource-based model in which an efficient strain with a slow metabolic rate competes with a second strain type which presents a fast but inefficient metabolism. Moreover, the model assumes that the inefficient strain produces a toxin as a by-product. This toxin affects the growth rate of both strains with different strength. Through an extensive exploration of the parameter space we determine the situations at which the coexistence of the two strains is possible. Interestingly, we observe that the resource influx rate plays a key role in the maintenance of the two strain types. In a scenario of resource scarcity the inefficient is favored, though as the resource influx rate is augmented the coexistence becomes possible and its domain is enlarged.

  6. Engineering of a Xylose Metabolic Pathway in Rhodococcus Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiaochao; Wang, Xi

    2012-01-01

    The two metabolically versatile actinobacteria Rhodococcus opacus PD630 and R. jostii RHA1 can efficiently convert diverse organic substrates into neutral lipids mainly consisting of triacylglycerol (TAG), the precursor of energy-rich hydrocarbon. Neither, however, is able to utilize xylose, the important component present in lignocellulosic biomass, as the carbon source for growth and lipid accumulation. In order to broaden their substrate utilization range, the metabolic pathway of d-xylose utilization was introduced into these two strains. This was accomplished by heterogenous expression of two well-selected genes, xylA, encoding xylose isomerase, and xylB, encoding xylulokinase from Streptomyces lividans TK23, under the control of the tac promoter with an Escherichia coli-Rhodococcus shuttle vector. The recombinant R. jostii RHA1 bearing xylA could grow on xylose as the sole carbon source, and additional expression of xylB further improved the biomass yield. The recombinant could consume both glucose and xylose in the sugar mixture, although xylose metabolism was still affected by the presence of glucose. The xylose metabolic pathway was also introduced into the high-lipid-producing strain R. opacus PD630 by expression of xylA and xylB. Under nitrogen-limited conditions, the fatty acid composition was determined, and lipid produced from xylose by recombinants of R. jostii RHA1 and R. opacus PD630 carrying xylA and xylB represented up to 52.5% and 68.3% of the cell dry weight (CDW), respectively. This work demonstrates that it is feasible to produce lipid from the sugars, including xylose, derived from renewable feedstock by genetic modification of rhodococcus strains. PMID:22636009

  7. Altered placental tryptophan metabolic pathway in human fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthi, Padma; Wallace, Euan M; Walker, David W

    2017-04-01

    Tryptophan is a substrate for kynurenine pathway metabolism in the placenta. We investigated if kynurenine metabolites change over gestation, if they are different between pregnancies with normal and fetal growth restriction (FGR), and if the oxygen environment modulated kynurenine pathway activity in the human placenta. Tryptophan, kynurenine, and downstream kynurenine metabolites were determined in maternal venous blood, umbilical cord blood, and placental samples obtained in 1st and 3rd trimester pregnancies including FGR, and in the media of placental explants incubated with 20% or 5-8% O 2 for 24, 48 or 72 h. All the major kynurenine metabolites were present in cord blood, and in general were higher than in maternal blood. IDO and TDO mRNA and protein expression, responsible for kynurenine production from tryptophan, were significantly lower in placentas from FGR pregnancies compared with control. Explants prepared from 1st and 3rd trimester placentas actively produced all the major kynurenine pathway metabolites which, together with expression of IDO, TDO, KYN-OHase and 3HAO mRNAs, were significantly lower after 24 h exposure to 5-8% O 2 compared to 20% O 2 CONCLUSIONS: Expression and activity of the kynurenine pathway is present in the placenta from early gestation, and is down-regulated by hypoxia and in FGR pregnancies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Topics in Xenobiochemistry: do metabolic pathways exist for xenobiotics? The micro-metabolism hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, I D; Nicholson, J K

    2003-09-01

    1. The relevance of the concept of 'the metabolic pathway' for the understanding of xenobiotic metabolism is discussed in the light of advances in modern analytical methods that have enabled the detection and identification of minor metabolites present at ever lower concentrations. 2. A model is suggested where the overall metabolic fate of a xenobiotic is the sum of all the possible metabolic reactions permitted by the solution chemistry of the compound modulated by factors such as the metabolizing enzyme complement of the organism, the affinity of those enzymes for the xenobiotic substrates and the probabilities of all of these processes. 3. In this probabilistic, rather than deterministic, system, the resulting proportions of particular metabolites will, therefore, depend on the sums of the probabilities of particular biotransformation reactions occurring and the stability (chemical or metabolic) of the resulting metabolite. 4. In this model, all the potential metabolic possibilities that could result for any individual xenobiotic will occur to some extent. However, in actuality, many of the resulting metabolites will be produced or excreted in such small quantities as to defy ready detection with current methods.

  9. Metabolic pathway rewiring in engineered cyanobacteria for solar-to-chemical and solar-to-fuel production from CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Han Min

    2018-01-01

    Photoautotrophic cyanobacteria have been developed to convert CO 2 to valuable chemicals and fuels as solar-to-chemical (S2C) and solar-to-fuel (S2F) platforms. Here, I describe the rewiring of the metabolic pathways in cyanobacteria to better understand the endogenous carbon flux and to enhance the yield of heterologous products. The plasticity of the cyanobacterial metabolism has been proposed to be advantageous for the development of S2C and S2F processes. The rewiring of the sugar catabolism and of the phosphoketolase pathway in the central cyanobacterial metabolism allowed for an enhancement in the level of target products by redirecting the carbon fluxes. Thus, metabolic pathway rewiring can promote the development of more efficient cyanobacterial cell factories for the generation of feasible S2C and S2F platforms.

  10. Synthetic metabolic engineering-a novel, simple technology for designing a chimeric metabolic pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Xiaoting

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The integration of biotechnology into chemical manufacturing has been recognized as a key technology to build a sustainable society. However, the practical applications of biocatalytic chemical conversions are often restricted due to their complexities involving the unpredictability of product yield and the troublesome controls in fermentation processes. One of the possible strategies to overcome these limitations is to eliminate the use of living microorganisms and to use only enzymes involved in the metabolic pathway. Use of recombinant mesophiles producing thermophilic enzymes at high temperature results in denaturation of indigenous proteins and elimination of undesired side reactions; consequently, highly selective and stable biocatalytic modules can be readily prepared. By rationally combining those modules together, artificial synthetic pathways specialized for chemical manufacturing could be designed and constructed. Results A chimeric Embden-Meyerhof (EM pathway with balanced consumption and regeneration of ATP and ADP was constructed by using nine recombinant E. coli strains overproducing either one of the seven glycolytic enzymes of Thermus thermophilus, the cofactor-independent phosphoglycerate mutase of Pyrococcus horikoshii, or the non-phosphorylating glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase of Thermococcus kodakarensis. By coupling this pathway with the Thermus malate/lactate dehydrogenase, a stoichiometric amount of lactate was produced from glucose with an overall ATP turnover number of 31. Conclusions In this study, a novel and simple technology for flexible design of a bespoke metabolic pathway was developed. The concept has been testified via a non-ATP-forming chimeric EM pathway. We designated this technology as “synthetic metabolic engineering”. Our technology is, in principle, applicable to all thermophilic enzymes as long as they can be functionally expressed in the host, and thus would be

  11. Combining metabolic and protein engineering of a terpenoid biosynthetic pathway for overproduction and selectivity control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Effendi; Ajikumar, Parayil Kumaran; Thayer, Kelly; Xiao, Wen-Hai; Mo, Jeffrey D.; Tidor, Bruce; Stephanopoulos, Gregory; Prather, Kristala L. J.

    2010-01-01

    A common strategy of metabolic engineering is to increase the endogenous supply of precursor metabolites to improve pathway productivity. The ability to further enhance heterologous production of a desired compound may be limited by the inherent capacity of the imported pathway to accommodate high precursor supply. Here, we present engineered diterpenoid biosynthesis as a case where insufficient downstream pathway capacity limits high-level levopimaradiene production in Escherichia coli. To increase levopimaradiene synthesis, we amplified the flux toward isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate precursors and reprogrammed the rate-limiting downstream pathway by generating combinatorial mutations in geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase and levopimaradiene synthase. The mutant library contained pathway variants that not only increased diterpenoid production but also tuned the selectivity toward levopimaradiene. The most productive pathway, combining precursor flux amplification and mutant synthases, conferred approximately 2,600-fold increase in levopimaradiene levels. A maximum titer of approximately 700 mg/L was subsequently obtained by cultivation in a bench-scale bioreactor. The present study highlights the importance of engineering proteins along with pathways as a key strategy in achieving microbial biosynthesis and overproduction of pharmaceutical and chemical products. PMID:20643967

  12. Triple negative breast cancer: the role of metabolic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, S J R; Rhodes, A

    2014-12-01

    The incidence of breast cancer in Malaysia and other Asian countries is on the increase, reflecting lifestyle changes some of which are known risk factors for the development of breast cancer. Most breast cancers are amenable to adjuvant therapies that target hormone receptors or HER2 receptors on the surface of the cancer cells and bring about significant improvement in survival. However, approximately 17% of Malaysian women with breast cancer, present with tumours that are devoid of these receptors and are consequently termed 'triple negative' breast cancers. These triple negative breast cancers typically occur in women of a younger age than receptor positive cancers, are predominantly of high grade tumours and the prognosis is usually poor. There is therefore a pressing need to understand the biological pathways that drive these tumours, in order that effective strategies are developed to treat these aggressive tumours. With the increasing affluence of developing countries, obesity and Type II Diabetes are also on the rise. These diseases are associated with an increased risk of developing a range of cancers including those of the breast. In particular, the metabolic syndrome has been shown to be associated with triple negative breast cancer. This article reviews some of the metabolic pathways and biomarkers which have been shown to be aberrantly expressed in triple negative breast cancer and highlights some of the ongoing work in this area.

  13. Proteomic Analysis of Hylocereus polyrhizus Reveals Metabolic Pathway Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Qingzhu; Zhou, Qianjun; Gan, Susheng; Wu, Jingyu; Chen, Canbin; Li, Jiaqiang; Ye, Yaoxiong; Zhao, Jietang; Hu, Guibing; Qin, Yonghua

    2016-09-28

    Red dragon fruit or red pitaya ( Hylocereus polyrhizus ) is the only edible fruit that contains betalains. The color of betalains ranges from red and violet to yellow in plants. Betalains may also serve as an important component of health-promoting and disease-preventing functional food. Currently, the biosynthetic and regulatory pathways for betalain production remain to be fully deciphered. In this study, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based proteomic analyses were used to reveal the molecular mechanism of betalain biosynthesis in H. polyrhizus fruits at white and red pulp stages, respectively. A total of 1946 proteins were identified as the differentially expressed between the two samples, and 936 of them were significantly highly expressed at the red pulp stage of H. polyrhizus . RNA-seq and iTRAQ analyses showed that some transcripts and proteins were positively correlated; they belonged to "phenylpropanoid biosynthesis", "tyrosine metabolism", "flavonoid biosynthesis", "ascorbate and aldarate metabolism", "betalains biosynthesis" and "anthocyanin biosynthesis". In betalains biosynthesis pathway, several proteins/enzymes such as polyphenol oxidase, CYP76AD3 and 4,5-dihydroxy-phenylalanine (DOPA) dioxygenase extradiol-like protein were identified. The present study provides a new insight into the molecular mechanism of the betalain biosynthesis at the posttranscriptional level.

  14. Shared metabolic pathways in a coevolved insect-bacterial symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Calum W; Bouvaine, Sophie; Newell, Peter D; Douglas, Angela E

    2013-10-01

    The symbiotic bacterium Buchnera aphidicola lacks key genes in the biosynthesis of five essential amino acids (EAAs), and yet its animal hosts (aphids) depend on the symbiosis for the synthesis of these EAAs (isoleucine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, and valine). We tested the hypothesis, derived from genome annotation, that the missing Buchnera reactions are mediated by host enzymes, with the exchange of metabolic intermediates between the partners. The specialized host cells bearing Buchnera were separated into a Buchnera fraction and a Buchnera-free host cell fraction (HF). Addition of HF to isolated Buchnera preparations significantly increased the production of leucine and phenylalanine, and recombinant enzymes mediating the final reactions in branched-chain amino acid and phenylalanine synthesis rescued the production of these EAAs by Buchnera preparations without HF. The likely precursors for the missing proximal reactions in isoleucine and methionine synthesis were identified, and they differed from predictions based on genome annotations: synthesis of 2-oxobutanoate, the aphid-derived precursor of isoleucine synthesis, was stimulated by homoserine and not threonine via threonine dehydratase, and production of the homocysteine precursor of methionine was driven by cystathionine, not cysteine, via reversal of the transsulfuration pathway. The evolution of shared metabolic pathways in this symbiosis can be attributed to host compensation for genomic deterioration in the symbiont, involving changes in host gene expression networks to recruit specific enzymes to the host cell.

  15. Metabolism of cysteine by cyteinesulfinate-independent pathway(s) in rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stipanuk, M.H.; De La Rosa, J.; Drake, M.R.

    1986-01-01

    The metabolism of cysteine (CYS) and that of cysteinesulfinate (CSA) were studied in freshly isolated hepatocytes from fed rats. In incubations of rat hepatocytes with either 1 or 25 mM CSA, over 90% of the 14 CO 2 formed from [1- 14 C]CSA could be accounted for by production of hypotaurine plus taurine. In similar incubations with 1 or 25 mM CYS, only 4% of 14 CO 2 evolution from [1- 14 C]CYS could be accounted for by production of hypotaurine plus taurine. Addition of unlabeled CSA inhibited recovery of label from [1- 14 C]CYS as 14 CO 2 by 33%. Metabolism of CYS and of CSA were affected differently by addition of α-ketoglutarate, a cosubstrate for transamination, or of propargylglycine, an inhibitor of cystathionase activity. These data suggest that a substantial proportion of CYS is catabolized by CSA-independent pathways in the rat hepatocyte. Although addition of α-ketoglutarate to incubations of hepatocytes with CSA resulted in a marked increase in CSA catabolism via the transamination pathway, addition of keto acids to incubation systems had little or no effect on production of any metabolite from CYS. Thus, CYS transamination does not appear to be a major pathway of CYS metabolism in the hepatocyte. Inhibition of cystathionase with propargylglycine reduced both 14 CO 2 production from [1- 14 C]CYS and ammonia plus urea nitrogen production from CYS by about 50%; CSA catabolism was not affected. Thus, cleavage of cyst(e)ine by cystathionase may be an important physiological pathway for CYS catabolism in the liver

  16. Improvement of bacterial cellulose production by manipulating the metabolic pathways in which ethanol and sodium citrate involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanjing; Tian, Chunjie; Tian, Hua; Zhang, Jiliang; He, Xin; Ping, Wenxiang; Lei, Hong

    2012-12-01

    Nowadays, bacterial cellulose has played more and more important role as new biological material for food industry and medical and industrial products based on its unique properties. However, it is still a difficult task to improve the production of bacterial cellulose, especially a large number of byproducts are produced in the metabolic biosynthesis processes. To improve bacterial cellulose production, ethanol and sodium citrate are added into the medium during the fermentation, and the activities of key enzymes and concentration of extracellular metabolites are measured to assess the changes of the metabolic flux of the hexose monophosphate pathway (HMP), the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway (EMP), and the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA). Our results indicate that ethanol functions as energy source for ATP generation at the early stage of the fermentation in the HMP pathway and the supplementation of ethanol significantly reduces glycerol generation (a major byproduct). While in the EMP pathway, sodium citrate plays a key role, and its supplementation results in the byproducts (mainly acetic acid and pyruvic acid) entering the gluconeogenesis pathway for cellulose synthesis. Furthermore, by adding ethanol and sodium citrate, the main byproduct citric acid in the TCA cycle is also reduced significantly. It is concluded that bacterial cellulose production can be improved by increasing energy metabolism and reducing the formation of metabolic byproducts through the metabolic regulations of the bypasses.

  17. Pathways to agility in the production of neutron generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoltz, R.E. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Beavis, L.C.; Cutchen, J.T.; Garcia, P.; Gurule, G.A.; Harris, R.N.; McKey, P.C.; Williams, D.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-02-01

    This report is the result of a study team commissioned to explore pathways for increased agility in the manufacture of neutron generators. As a part of Sandia`s new responsibility for generator production, the goal of the study was to identify opportunities to reduce costs and increase flexibility in the manufacturing operation. Four parallel approaches (or pathways) were recommended: (1) Know the goal, (2) Use design leverage effectively, (3) Value simplicity, and (4) Configure for flexibility. Agility in neutron generator production can be enhanced if all of these pathways are followed. The key role of the workforce in achieving agility was also noted, with emphasis on ownership, continuous learning, and a supportive environment.

  18. New insights into uremia-induced alterations in metabolic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Eugene P; Thadhani, Ravi

    2011-11-01

    This article summarizes recent studies on uremia-induced alterations in metabolism, with particular emphasis on the application of emerging metabolomics technologies. The plasma metabolome is estimated to include more than 4000 distinct metabolites. Because these metabolites can vary dramatically in size and polarity and are distributed across several orders of magnitude in relative abundance, no single analytical method is capable of comprehensive metabolomic profiling. Instead, a variety of analytical techniques, including targeted and nontargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, have been employed for metabolomic analysis of human plasma. Recent efforts to apply this technology to study uremia have reinforced the common view that end-stage renal disease is a state of generalized small molecule excess. However, the identification of precursor depletion and downstream metabolite excess - for example, with tryptophan and downstream kynurenine metabolites, with low molecular weight triglycerides and dicarboxylic acids, and with phosphatidylcholines, choline, and trimethylamine-N-oxide - suggest that uremia may directly modulate these metabolic pathways. Metabolomic studies have also begun to expand some of these findings to individuals with chronic kidney disease and in model systems. Uremia is associated with diverse, but incompletely understood metabolic disturbances. Metabolomic approaches permit higher resolution phenotyping of these disturbances, but significant efforts will be required to understand the functional significance of select findings.

  19. Tools and strategies for discovering novel enzymes and metabolic pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Gerlt

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The number of entries in the sequence databases continues to increase exponentially – the UniProt database is increasing with a doubling time of ∼4 years (2% increase/month. Approximately 50% of the entries have uncertain, unknown, or incorrect function annotations because these are made by automated methods based on sequence homology. If the potential in complete genome sequences is to be realized, strategies and tools must be developed to facilitate experimental assignment of functions to uncharacterized proteins discovered in genome projects. The Enzyme Function Initiative (EFI; previously supported by U54GM093342 from the National Institutes of Health, now supported by P01GM118303 developed web tools for visualizing and analyzing (1 sequence and function space in protein families (EFI-EST and (2 genome neighbourhoods in microbial and fungal genomes (EFI-GNT to assist the design of experimental strategies for discovering the in vitro activities and in vivo metabolic functions of uncharacterized enzymes. The EFI developed an experimental platform for large-scale production of the solute binding proteins (SBPs for ABC, TRAP, and TCT transport systems and their screening with a physical ligand library to identify the identities of the ligands for these transport systems. Because the genes that encode transport systems are often co-located with the genes that encode the catabolic pathways for the transported solutes, the identity of the SBP ligand together with the EFI-EST and EFI-GNT web tools can be used to discover new enzyme functions and new metabolic pathways. This approach is demonstrated with the characterization of a novel pathway for ethanolamine catabolism.

  20. Pancreatic tumor cell metabolism: focus on glycolysis and its connected metabolic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaumond, Fabienne; Iovanna, Juan Lucio; Vasseur, Sophie

    2014-03-01

    Because of lack of effective treatment, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the fourth leading cause of death by cancer in Western countries, with a very weak improvement of survival rate over the last 40years. Defeat of numerous conventional therapies to cure this cancer makes urgent to develop new tools usable by clinicians for a better management of the disease. Aggressiveness of pancreatic cancer relies on its own hallmarks: a low vascular network as well as a prominent stromal compartment (desmoplasia), which creates a severe hypoxic environment impeding correct oxygen and nutrients diffusion to the tumoral cells. To survive and proliferate in those conditions, pancreatic cancer cells set up specific metabolic pathways to meet their tremendous energetic and biomass demands. However, as PDAC is a heterogenous tumor, a complex reprogramming of metabolic processes is engaged by cancer cells according to their level of oxygenation and nutrients supply. In this review, we focus on the glycolytic activity of PDAC and the glucose-connected metabolic pathways which contribute to the progression and dissemination of this disease. We also discuss possible therapeutic strategies targeting these pathways in order to cure this disease which still until now is resistant to numerous conventional treatments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. In vitro metabolic engineering of bioelectricity generation by the complete oxidation of glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhiguang; Zhang, Y-H Percival

    2017-01-01

    The direct generation of electricity from the most abundant renewable sugar, glucose, is an appealing alternative to the production of liquid biofuels and biohydrogen. However, enzyme-catalyzed bioelectricity generation from glucose suffers from low yields due to the incomplete oxidation of the six-carbon compound glucose via one or few enzymes. Here, we demonstrate a synthetic ATP- and CoA-free 12-enzyme pathway to implement the complete oxidation of glucose in vitro. This pathway is comprised of glucose phosphorylation via polyphosphate glucokinase, NADH generation catalyzed by glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH), electron transfer from NADH to the anode, and glucose 6-phosphate regeneration via the non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway and gluconeogenesis. The faraday efficiency from glucose to electrons via this pathway was as high as 98.8%, suggesting the generation of nearly 24 electrons per molecule of glucose. The generated current density was greatly increased from 2.8 to 6.9mAcm -2 by replacing a low-activity G6PDH with a high-activity G6PDH and introducing a new enzyme, 6-phosphogluconolactonase, between G6PDH and 6PGDH. These results suggest the great potential of high-yield bioelectricity generation through in vitro metabolic engineering. Copyright © 2016 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Review of metabolic pathways activated in cancer cells as determined through isotopic labeling and network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wentao; Keibler, Mark A; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2017-09-01

    Cancer metabolism has emerged as an indispensable part of contemporary cancer research. During the past 10 years, the use of stable isotopic tracers and network analysis have unveiled a number of metabolic pathways activated in cancer cells. Here, we review such pathways along with the particular tracers and labeling observations that led to the discovery of their rewiring in cancer cells. The list of such pathways comprises the reductive metabolism of glutamine, altered glycolysis, serine and glycine metabolism, mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) induced reprogramming and the onset of acetate metabolism. Additionally, we demonstrate the critical role of isotopic labeling and network analysis in identifying these pathways. The alterations described in this review do not constitute a complete list, and future research using these powerful tools is likely to discover other cancer-related pathways and new metabolic targets for cancer therapy. Copyright © 2017 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Metabolic signature of sun exposed skin suggests catabolic pathway overweighs anabolic pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manpreet Randhawa

    Full Text Available Skin chronically exposed to sun results in phenotypic changes referred as photoaging. This aspect of aging has been studied extensively through genomic and proteomic tools. Metabolites, the end product are generated as a result of biochemical reactions are often studied as a culmination of complex interplay of gene and protein expression. In this study, we focused exclusively on the metabolome to study effects from sun-exposed and sun-protected skin sites from 25 human subjects. We generated a highly accurate metabolomic signature for the skin that is exposed to sun. Biochemical pathway analysis from this data set showed that sun-exposed skin resides under high oxidative stress and the chains of reactions to produce these metabolites are inclined toward catabolism rather than anabolism. These catabolic activities persuade the skin cells to generate metabolites through the salvage pathway instead of de novo synthesis pathways. Metabolomic profile suggests catabolic pathways and reactive oxygen species operate in a feed forward fashion to alter the biology of sun exposed skin.

  4. Quantifying environmental adaptation of metabolic pathways in metagenomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gianoulis, Tara A; Raes, Jeroen; Patel, Prianka V

    2009-01-01

    Recently, approaches have been developed to sample the genetic content of heterogeneous environments (metagenomics). However, by what means these sequences link distinct environmental conditions with specific biological processes is not well understood. Thus, a major challenge is how the usage...... of particular pathways and subnetworks reflects the adaptation of microbial communities across environments and habitats-i.e., how network dynamics relates to environmental features. Previous research has treated environments as discrete, somewhat simplified classes (e.g., terrestrial vs. marine), and searched...... for obvious metabolic differences among them (i.e., treating the analysis as a typical classification problem). However, environmental differences result from combinations of many factors, which often vary only slightly. Therefore, we introduce an approach that employs correlation and regression to relate...

  5. Novel pathway of NAD metabolism in Aspergillus niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwahara, Masaaki

    1977-01-01

    New steps of NAD metabolism were shown in Aspergillus niger. Radioactive nicotinic acid and nicotinamide were incorporated into nicotinamide ribose diphosphate ribose (NAmRDPR), which had been isolated from the culture filtrate. The enzyme preparation of the mold degraded NAmRDPR to form nicotinamide mononucleotide and nicotinic acid under the neutral and alkaline conditions. In the acid extracts of the mycelia grown on the radioactive precursors, high level of radioactivity was detected on NAD. The experimental results showed that the Preiss-Handler pathway and the NAD cycling system function in the NAD biosynthesis in A. niger. A part of the radioactive precursors was also incorporated into nicotinic acid ribonucleoside, which was thought to be formed from nicotinic acid mononucleotide. (auth.)

  6. Development of net energy ratio for quad-generation pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudra, Souman; Rosendahl, Lasse; Kumar, Amit

    2012-01-01

    -based power, heat, methanol and methane production pathway using GTI technology. Since more efficient alternatives exist for the generation of heat and electricity from biomass, it is argued that syngas is best used for methanol production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the energy performance...

  7. Integrated pathway modules using time-course metabolic profiles and EST data from Milnesium tardigradum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beisser Daniela

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tardigrades are multicellular organisms, resistant to extreme environmental changes such as heat, drought, radiation and freezing. They outlast these conditions in an inactive form (tun to escape damage to cellular structures and cell death. Tardigrades are apparently able to prevent or repair such damage and are therefore a crucial model organism for stress tolerance. Cultures of the tardigrade Milnesium tardigradum were dehydrated by removing the surrounding water to induce tun formation. During this process and the subsequent rehydration, metabolites were measured in a time series by GC-MS. Additionally expressed sequence tags are available, especially libraries generated from the active and inactive state. The aim of this integrated analysis is to trace changes in tardigrade metabolism and identify pathways responsible for their extreme resistance against physical stress. Results In this study we propose a novel integrative approach for the analysis of metabolic networks to identify modules of joint shifts on the transcriptomic and metabolic levels. We derive a tardigrade-specific metabolic network represented as an undirected graph with 3,658 nodes (metabolites and 4,378 edges (reactions. Time course metabolite profiles are used to score the network nodes showing a significant change over time. The edges are scored according to information on enzymes from the EST data. Using this combined information, we identify a key subnetwork (functional module of concerted changes in metabolic pathways, specific for de- and rehydration. The module is enriched in reactions showing significant changes in metabolite levels and enzyme abundance during the transition. It resembles the cessation of a measurable metabolism (e.g. glycolysis and amino acid anabolism during the tun formation, the production of storage metabolites and bioprotectants, such as DNA stabilizers, and the generation of amino acids and cellular components from

  8. Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids: Metabolic Activation Pathways Leading to Liver Tumor Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Peter P

    2017-01-17

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) and PA N-oxides are a class of phytochemical carcinogens contained in over 6000 plant species spread around the world. It has been estimated that approximately half of the 660 PAs and PA N-oxides that have been characterized are cytotoxic, genotoxic, and tumorigenic. It was recently determined that a genotoxic mechanism of liver tumor initiation mediated by PA-derived DNA adducts is a common metabolic activation pathway of a number of PAs. We proposed this set of PA-derived DNA adducts could be a common biological biomarker of PA exposure and a potential biomarker of PA-induced liver tumor formation. We have also found that several reactive secondary pyrrolic metabolites can dissociate and interconvert to other secondary pyrrolic metabolites, resulting in the formation of the same exogenous DNA adducts. This present perspective reports the current progress on these new findings and proposes future research needed for obtaining a greater understanding of the role of this activation pathway and validating the use of this set of PA-derived DNA adducts as a biological biomarker of PA-induced liver tumor initiation.

  9. Vitamin D metabolic pathway genes and pancreatic cancer risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Arem

    Full Text Available Evidence on the association between vitamin D status and pancreatic cancer risk is inconsistent. This inconsistency may be partially attributable to variation in vitamin D regulating genes. We selected 11 vitamin D-related genes (GC, DHCR7, CYP2R1, VDR, CYP27B1, CYP24A1, CYP27A1, RXRA, CRP2, CASR and CUBN totaling 213 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, and examined associations with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Our study included 3,583 pancreatic cancer cases and 7,053 controls from the genome-wide association studies of pancreatic cancer PanScans-I-III. We used the Adaptive Joint Test and the Adaptive Rank Truncated Product statistic for pathway and gene analyses, and unconditional logistic regression for SNP analyses, adjusting for age, sex, study and population stratification. We examined effect modification by circulating vitamin D concentration (≤50, >50 nmol/L for the most significant SNPs using a subset of cohort cases (n = 713 and controls (n = 878. The vitamin D metabolic pathway was not associated with pancreatic cancer risk (p = 0.830. Of the individual genes, none were associated with pancreatic cancer risk at a significance level of p<0.05. SNPs near the VDR (rs2239186, LRP2 (rs4668123, CYP24A1 (rs2762932, GC (rs2282679, and CUBN (rs1810205 genes were the top SNPs associated with pancreatic cancer (p-values 0.008-0.037, but none were statistically significant after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Associations between these SNPs and pancreatic cancer were not modified by circulating concentrations of vitamin D. These findings do not support an association between vitamin D-related genes and pancreatic cancer risk. Future research should explore other pathways through which vitamin D status might be associated with pancreatic cancer risk.

  10. Targeting tissue-specific metabolic signaling pathways in aging: the promise and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Fang; Liu, Feng

    2014-01-01

    It has been well established that most of the age-related diseases such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and atherosclerosis are all closely related to metabolic dysfunction. On the other hand, interventions on metabolism such as calorie restriction or genetic manipulations of key metabolic signaling pathways such as the insulin and mTOR signaling pathways slow down the aging process and improve healthy aging. These findings raise an important question as to whether improving energy homeostasis by targeting certain metabolic signaling pathways in specific tissues could be an effective anti-aging strategy. With a more comprehensive understanding of the tissue-specific roles of distinct metabolic signaling pathways controlling energy homeostasis and the cross-talks between these pathways during aging may lead to the development of more effective therapeutic interventions not only for metabolic dysfunction but also for aging.

  11. Normal mode-guided transition pathway generation in proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Ho Lee

    Full Text Available The biological function of proteins is closely related to its structural motion. For instance, structurally misfolded proteins do not function properly. Although we are able to experimentally obtain structural information on proteins, it is still challenging to capture their dynamics, such as transition processes. Therefore, we need a simulation method to predict the transition pathways of a protein in order to understand and study large functional deformations. Here, we present a new simulation method called normal mode-guided elastic network interpolation (NGENI that performs normal modes analysis iteratively to predict transition pathways of proteins. To be more specific, NGENI obtains displacement vectors that determine intermediate structures by interpolating the distance between two end-point conformations, similar to a morphing method called elastic network interpolation. However, the displacement vector is regarded as a linear combination of the normal mode vectors of each intermediate structure, in order to enhance the physical sense of the proposed pathways. As a result, we can generate more reasonable transition pathways geometrically and thermodynamically. By using not only all normal modes, but also in part using only the lowest normal modes, NGENI can still generate reasonable pathways for large deformations in proteins. This study shows that global protein transitions are dominated by collective motion, which means that a few lowest normal modes play an important role in this process. NGENI has considerable merit in terms of computational cost because it is possible to generate transition pathways by partial degrees of freedom, while conventional methods are not capable of this.

  12. Alternative pathways for angiotensin II generation in the cardiovascular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Becari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The classical renin-angiotensin system (RAS consists of enzymes and peptides that regulate blood pressure and electrolyte and fluid homeostasis. Angiotensin II (Ang II is one of the most important and extensively studied components of the RAS. The beneficial effects of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors in the treatment of hypertension and heart failure, among other diseases, are well known. However, it has been reported that patients chronically treated with effective doses of these inhibitors do not show suppression of Ang II formation, suggesting the involvement of pathways alternative to ACE in the generation of Ang II. Moreover, the finding that the concentration of Ang II is preserved in the kidney, heart and lungs of mice with an ACE deletion indicates the important role of alternative pathways under basal conditions to maintain the levels of Ang II. Our group has characterized the serine protease elastase-2 as an alternative pathway for Ang II generation from Ang I in rats. A role for elastase-2 in the cardiovascular system was suggested by studies performed in heart and conductance and resistance vessels of normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats. This mini-review will highlight the pharmacological aspects of the RAS, emphasizing the role of elastase-2, an alternative pathway for Ang II generation.

  13. Metabolic Pathway Genes Associated with Susceptibility Genes to Coronary Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Lu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery disease (CAD is one of the leading threats to global health. Previous research has proven that metabolic pathway disorders, such as high blood lipids and diabetes, are one of the risk factors that mostly cause CAD. However, the crosstalk between metabolic pathways and CAD was mostly studied on physiology processes by analyzing a single gene function. A canonical correlation analysis was used to identify the metabolic pathways, which were integrated as a unit to coexpress with CAD susceptibility genes, and to resolve additional metabolic factors that are related to CAD. Seven pathways, including citrate cycle, ubiquinone, terpenoid quinone biosynthesis, and N-glycan biosynthesis, were identified as an integrated unit coexpressed with CAD genes. These pathways could not be revealed as a coexpressed pathway through traditional methods as each single gene has weak correlation. Furthermore, sets of genes in these pathways were candidate markers for diagnosis and detection from patients’ serum.

  14. ROS signaling under metabolic stress: cross-talk between AMPK and AKT pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yang; Hu, Xingbin; Liu, Yajing; Dong, Shumin; Wen, Zhaowei; He, Wanming; Zhang, Shuyi; Huang, Qiong; Shi, Min

    2017-01-01

    Cancer cells are frequently confronted with metabolic stress in tumor microenvironments due to their rapid growth and limited nutrient supply. Metabolic stress induces cell death through ROS-induced apoptosis. However, cancer cells can adapt to it by altering the metabolic pathways. AMPK and AKT are two primary effectors in response to metabolic stress: AMPK acts as an energy-sensing factor which rewires metabolism and maintains redox balance. AKT broadly promotes energy production in the nut...

  15. GEM System: automatic prototyping of cell-wide metabolic pathway models from genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakayama Yoichi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful realization of a "systems biology" approach to analyzing cells is a grand challenge for our understanding of life. However, current modeling approaches to cell simulation are labor-intensive, manual affairs, and therefore constitute a major bottleneck in the evolution of computational cell biology. Results We developed the Genome-based Modeling (GEM System for the purpose of automatically prototyping simulation models of cell-wide metabolic pathways from genome sequences and other public biological information. Models generated by the GEM System include an entire Escherichia coli metabolism model comprising 968 reactions of 1195 metabolites, achieving 100% coverage when compared with the KEGG database, 92.38% with the EcoCyc database, and 95.06% with iJR904 genome-scale model. Conclusion The GEM System prototypes qualitative models to reduce the labor-intensive tasks required for systems biology research. Models of over 90 bacterial genomes are available at our web site.

  16. Controlled sumoylation of the mevalonate pathway enzyme HMGS-1 regulates metabolism during aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sapir, Amir; Tsur, Assaf; Koorman, Thijs; Ching, Kaitlin; Mishra, Prashant; Bardenheier, Annabelle; Podolsky, Lisa; Bening-Abu-Shach, Ulrike; Boxem, Mike; Chou, Tsui-Fen; Broday, Limor; Sternberg, Paul W

    2014-01-01

    Many metabolic pathways are critically regulated during development and aging but little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying this regulation. One key metabolic cascade in eukaryotes is the mevalonate pathway. It catalyzes the synthesis of sterol and nonsterol isoprenoids, such as

  17. Gene expression of sphingolipid metabolism pathways is altered in hidradenitis suppurativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dany, Mohammed; Elston, Dirk

    2017-08-01

    Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a debilitating skin disease characterized by painful recurrent nodules and abscesses caused by chronic inflammation. Early events in the development of HS are believed to occur in the folliculopilosebaceous unit; however, the signaling pathways behind this mechanism are unknown. Sphingolipids, such as ceramide, are essential components of the skin and appendages and have important structural and signaling roles. We sought to explore whether the gene expression of enzymes involved in sphingolipid metabolic pathways is altered in HS. A microarray data set including 30 samples was used to compare the expression of sphingolipid-related enzymes in inflammatory skin lesions from HS patients (n = 17) with the expression in clinically healthy skin tissue (n = 13). Differential expression of sphingolipid metabolism-related genes was analyzed using Gene Expression Omnibus 2R. HS lesional skin samples have significantly decreased expression of enzymes generating ceramide and sphingomyelin, increased expression of enzymes catabolizing ceramide to sphingosine, and increased expression of enzymes converting ceramide to galactosylceramide and gangliosides. Limitations of this study include assessing the expression of sphingolipid-related enzymes without assessing the levels of the related sphingolipids. Our study suggests that sphingolipid metabolism is altered in HS lesional skin compared with normal skin. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Next-generation genome-scale models for metabolic engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    King, Zachary A.; Lloyd, Colton J.; Feist, Adam M.

    2015-01-01

    Constraint-based reconstruction and analysis (COBRA) methods have become widely used tools for metabolic engineering in both academic and industrial laboratories. By employing a genome-scale in silico representation of the metabolic network of a host organism, COBRA methods can be used to predict...... optimal genetic modifications that improve the rate and yield of chemical production. A new generation of COBRA models and methods is now being developed. -. encompassing many biological processes and simulation strategies. -. and next-generation models enable new types of predictions. Here, three key...... examples of applying COBRA methods to strain optimization are presented and discussed. Then, an outlook is provided on the next generation of COBRA models and the new types of predictions they will enable for systems metabolic engineering....

  19. Mapping of sulfur metabolic pathway by LC Orbitrap mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao Yulan [Institute for National Measurement Standard, National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Department of Forensic Medicine, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); McCooeye, Margaret [Institute for National Measurement Standard, National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Mester, Zoltan, E-mail: zoltan.mester@nrc.ca [Institute for National Measurement Standard, National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada)

    2012-04-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LCMS method for the determination of free, oxidized and protein bound thiols in yeast was developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In freshly harvested yeast, most of the thiols were in the reduced forms. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The stress response of yeast to H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, Cd and As was studied via changes in the thiol profiles. - Abstract: For the first time a liquid chromatography method with high resolution mass spectrometric detection has been developed for the simultaneous determination all key metabolites of the sulfur pathway in yeast, including all thiolic (cysteine (Cys), homocysteine (HCys), glutathione (GSH), cysteinyl-glycine (Cys-Gly), {gamma}-glutamyl-cysteine (Glu-Cys)) and non-thiolic compounds (methionine (Met), s-adenosyl-methionine (AdoMet), s-adenosyl-homocysteine (AdoHcy), and cystathionine (Cysta)). The developed assay also permits the speciation and selective determination of reduced, oxidized and protein bound fractions of all of the five thiols. Iodoacetic acid (IAA) was chosen as the derivatizing reagent. Thiols were extracted from sub-mg quantities of yeast using hot 75% ethanol. The detection limits were in the range of 1-12 nmol L{sup -1} for standard solution (high femotomole, absolute), except AdoMet (116 nmol L{sup -1}), which was unstable. In freshly harvested yeast, most of the thiols were in the reduced forms and low levels of protein-bound GSH and Glu-Cys were found. In a selenium enriched yeast, the thiols were mainly in the oxidized forms, and a significant amount of protein-bound Cys, HCys, GSH, Cys-Gly and Glu-Cys were found. The method was also applied to the metabolic study of the adaptive response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to hydrogen peroxide, cadmium, and arsenite, and the change in concentration of thiols in the sulfur pathway was monitored over a period of 4 h.

  20. Research on the metabolic engineering of the direct oxidation pathway for extraction of phosphate from ore has generated preliminary evidence for PQQ biosynthesis in Escherichia coli as well as a possible role for the highly conserved region of quinoprotein dehydrogenases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Alan; Lester, Trevor; Brown, Jacquelyn

    2003-04-11

    The ability of some bacteria to dissolve poorly soluble calcium phosphates (CaPs) has been termed 'mineral phosphate solubilizing' (MPS). Since most microorganisms and plants must assimilate P via membrane transport, biotransformation of CaP into soluble phosphate is considered an essential component of the global P cycle. In many Gram-negative bacteria, strong organic acids produced in the periplasm via the direct oxidation pathway have been shown to dissolve CaP in the adjacent environment. Therefore, the quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase (PQQGDH) may function in the ecophysiology of many soil bacteria. There is interest in using MPS bacteria for industrial bioprocessing of rock phosphate ore (a substituted fluroapatite) or even for direct inoculation of soils as a 'biofertilizer' analogous to nitrogen fixation. Our laboratory has spent 20 years studying superior MPS bacteria. Screening genomic libraries in the appropriate E. coli genetic background can 'trap' PQQ or GDH genes from these bacteria via functional complementation. In setting the 'trap' for PQQ genes, we have identified DNA fragments that apparently induce PQQGDH activity in E. coli with no sequence homology to known PQQ genes. These data suggest that E. coli may have an alternative, inducible PQQ biosynthesis pathway. Finally, a novel protein engineering strategy to increase the catalytic rate of PQQGDH has emerged and will be discussed.

  1. Multiple metabolic pathways for metabolism of l-tryptophan in Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Kun; DesRoches, Caro-Lyne; Johnston, Anne; Harris, Linda J; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Ouellet, Thérèse

    2017-11-01

    Fusarium graminearum is a plant pathogen that can cause the devastating cereal grain disease fusarium head blight in temperate regions of the world. Previous studies have shown that F. graminearum can synthetize indole-3-acetic acid (auxin) using l-tryptophan (L-TRP)-dependent pathways. In the present study, we have taken a broader approach to examine the metabolism of L-TRP in F. graminearum liquid culture. Our results showed that F. graminearum was able to transiently produce the indole tryptophol when supplied with L-TRP. Comparative gene expression profiling between L-TRP-treated and control cultures showed that L-TRP treatment induced the upregulation of a series of genes with predicted function in the metabolism of L-TRP via anthranilic acid and catechol towards the tricarboxylic acid cycle. It is proposed that this metabolic activity provides extra energy for 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol production, as observed in our experiments. This is the first report of the use of L-TRP to increase energy resources in a Fusarium species.

  2. Diet and liver apoptosis in rats: a particular metabolic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Maria Emilia Lopes; Xavier, Analucia Rampazzo; Azeredo, Vilma Blondet

    2017-03-30

    Various studies have indicated an association between modifi cation in dietary macronutrient composition and liver apoptosis. To explain how changes in metabolic pathways associated with a high-protein, high-fat, and low-carbohydrate diet causes liver apoptosis. Two groups of rats were compared. An experimental diet group (n = 8) using a high-protein (59.46%), high-fat (31.77%), and low-carbohydrate (8.77%) diet versus a control one (n = 9) with American Institute of Nutrition (AIN)-93-M diet. Animals were sacrificed after eight weeks, the adipose tissue weighed, the liver removed for flow cytometry analysis, and blood collected to measure glucose, insulin, glucagon, IL-6, TNF, triglycerides, malondialdehyde, and β-hydroxybutyrate. Statistical analysis was carried out using the unpaired and parametric Student's t-test and Pearson's correlation coeffi ents. Significance was set at p triglycerides lower levels compared with the control group. The results show a positive and significant correlation between the percentage of nonviable hepatocytes and malondialdehyde levels (p = 0.0217) and a statistically significant negative correlation with triglycerides levels (p = 0.006). Results suggest that plasmatic malondialdehyde and triglyceride levels are probably good predictors of liver damage associated with an experimental low-carbohydrate diet in rats.

  3. Evolutionary Rate Heterogeneity of Primary and Secondary Metabolic Pathway Genes in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Dola; Mukherjee, Ashutosh; Ghosh, Tapash Chandra

    2015-11-10

    Primary metabolism is essential to plants for growth and development, and secondary metabolism helps plants to interact with the environment. Many plant metabolites are industrially important. These metabolites are produced by plants through complex metabolic pathways. Lack of knowledge about these pathways is hindering the successful breeding practices for these metabolites. For a better knowledge of the metabolism in plants as a whole, evolutionary rate variation of primary and secondary metabolic pathway genes is a prerequisite. In this study, evolutionary rate variation of primary and secondary metabolic pathway genes has been analyzed in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Primary metabolic pathway genes were found to be more conserved than secondary metabolic pathway genes. Several factors such as gene structure, expression level, tissue specificity, multifunctionality, and domain number are the key factors behind this evolutionary rate variation. This study will help to better understand the evolutionary dynamics of plant metabolism. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  4. Altered Levels of Aroma and Volatiles by Metabolic Engineering of Shikimate Pathway Genes in Tomato Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vered Tzin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum fruit is an excellent source of antioxidants, dietary fibers, minerals and vitamins and therefore has been referred to as a “functional food”. Ripe tomato fruits produce a large number of specialized metabolites including volatile organic compounds. These volatiles serve as key components of the tomato fruit flavor, participate in plant pathogen and herbivore defense, and are used to attract seed dispersers. A major class of specialized metabolites is derived from the shikimate pathway followed by aromatic amino acid biosynthesis of phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan. We attempted to modify tomato fruit flavor by overexpressing key regulatory genes in the shikimate pathway. Bacterial genes encoding feedback-insensitive variants of 3-Deoxy-D-Arabino-Heptulosonate 7-Phosphate Synthase (DAHPS; AroG209-9 and bi-functional Chorismate Mutase/Prephenate Dehydratase (CM/PDT; PheA12 were expressed under the control of a fruit-specific promoter. We crossed these transgenes to generate tomato plants expressing both the AroG209 and PheA12 genes. Overexpression of the AroG209-9 gene had a dramatic effect on the overall metabolic profile of the fruit, including enhanced levels of multiple volatile and non-volatile metabolites. In contrast, the PheA12 overexpression line exhibited minor metabolic effects compared to the wild type fruit. Co-expression of both the AroG209-9 and PheA12 genes in tomato resulted overall in a similar metabolic effect to that of expressing only the AroG209-9 gene. However, the aroma ranking attributes of the tomato fruits from PheA12//AroG209-9 were unique and different from those of the lines expressing a single gene, suggesting a contribution of the PheA12 gene to the overall metabolic profile. We suggest that expression of bacterial genes encoding feedback-insensitive enzymes of the shikimate pathway in tomato fruits provides a useful metabolic engineering tool for the modification of

  5. Transcriptomic Analysis of Metabolic Pathways in Milkfish That Respond to Salinity and Temperature Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yau-Chung; Kang, Chao-Kai; Tang, Cheng-Hao; Lee, Tsung-Han

    2015-01-01

    Milkfish (Chanos chanos), an important marine aquaculture species in southern Taiwan, show considerable euryhalinity but have low tolerance to sudden drops in water temperatures in winter. Here, we used high throughput next-generation sequencing (NGS) to identify molecular and biological processes involved in the responses to environmental changes. Preliminary tests revealed that seawater (SW)-acclimated milkfish tolerated lower temperatures than the fresh water (FW)-acclimated group. Although FW- and SW-acclimated milkfish have different levels of tolerance for hypothermal stress, to date, the molecular physiological basis of this difference has not been elucidated. Here, we performed a next-generation sequence analysis of mRNAs from four groups of milkfish. We obtained 29669 unigenes with an average length of approximately 1936 base pairs. Gene ontology (GO) analysis was performed after gene annotation. A large number of genes for molecular regulation were identified through a transcriptomic comparison in a KEGG analysis. Basal metabolic pathways involved in hypothermal tolerance, such as glycolysis, fatty acid metabolism, amino acid catabolism and oxidative phosphorylation, were analyzed using PathVisio and Cytoscape software. Our results indicate that in response to hypothermal stress, genes for oxidative phosphorylation, e.g., succinate dehydrogenase, were more highly up-regulated in SW than FW fish. Moreover, SW and FW milkfish used different strategies when exposed to hypothermal stress: SW milkfish up-regulated oxidative phosphorylation and catabolism genes to produce more energy budget, whereas FW milkfish down-regulated genes related to basal metabolism to reduce energy loss.

  6. Evidence for a hydrogenosomal-type anaerobic ATP generation pathway in Acanthamoeba castellanii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, Michelle M; Gawryluk, Ryan M R; Gray, Michael W; Roger, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    Diverse, distantly-related eukaryotic lineages have adapted to low-oxygen environments, and possess mitochondrion-related organelles that have lost the capacity to generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP) through oxidative phosphorylation. A subset of these organelles, hydrogenosomes, has acquired a set of characteristic ATP generation enzymes commonly found in anaerobic bacteria. The recipient of these enzymes could not have survived prior to their acquisition had it not still possessed the electron transport chain present in the ancestral mitochondrion. In the divergence of modern hydrogenosomes from mitochondria, a transitional organelle must therefore have existed that possessed both an electron transport chain and an anaerobic ATP generation pathway. Here, we report a modern analog of this organelle in the habitually aerobic opportunistic pathogen, Acanthamoeba castellanii. This organism possesses a complete set of enzymes comprising a hydrogenosome-like ATP generation pathway, each of which is predicted to be targeted to mitochondria. We have experimentally confirmed the mitochondrial localizations of key components of this pathway using tandem mass spectrometry. This evidence is the first supported by localization and proteome data of a mitochondrion possessing both an electron transport chain and hydrogenosome-like energy metabolism enzymes. Our work provides insight into the first steps that might have occurred in the course of the emergence of modern hydrogenosomes.

  7. Evidence for a hydrogenosomal-type anaerobic ATP generation pathway in Acanthamoeba castellanii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle M Leger

    Full Text Available Diverse, distantly-related eukaryotic lineages have adapted to low-oxygen environments, and possess mitochondrion-related organelles that have lost the capacity to generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP through oxidative phosphorylation. A subset of these organelles, hydrogenosomes, has acquired a set of characteristic ATP generation enzymes commonly found in anaerobic bacteria. The recipient of these enzymes could not have survived prior to their acquisition had it not still possessed the electron transport chain present in the ancestral mitochondrion. In the divergence of modern hydrogenosomes from mitochondria, a transitional organelle must therefore have existed that possessed both an electron transport chain and an anaerobic ATP generation pathway. Here, we report a modern analog of this organelle in the habitually aerobic opportunistic pathogen, Acanthamoeba castellanii. This organism possesses a complete set of enzymes comprising a hydrogenosome-like ATP generation pathway, each of which is predicted to be targeted to mitochondria. We have experimentally confirmed the mitochondrial localizations of key components of this pathway using tandem mass spectrometry. This evidence is the first supported by localization and proteome data of a mitochondrion possessing both an electron transport chain and hydrogenosome-like energy metabolism enzymes. Our work provides insight into the first steps that might have occurred in the course of the emergence of modern hydrogenosomes.

  8. The Amino Acid Metabolic and Carbohydrate Metabolic Pathway Play Important Roles during Salt-Stress Response in Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi; Mao, Cuiyu; Shi, Zheng; Kou, Xiaohong

    2017-01-01

    Salt stress affects the plant quality, which affects the productivity of plants and the quality of water storage. In a recent study, we conducted the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) analysis and RNA-Seq, bioinformatics study methods, and detection of the key genes with qRT-PCR. Our findings suggested that the optimum salt treatment conditions are 200 mM and 19d for the identification of salt tolerance in tomato. Based on the RNA-Seq, we found 17 amino acid metabolic and 17 carbohydrate metabolic pathways enriched in the biological metabolism during the response to salt stress in tomato. We found 7 amino acid metabolic and 6 carbohydrate metabolic pathways that were significantly enriched in the adaption to salt stress. Moreover, we screened 17 and 19 key genes in 7 amino acid metabolic and 6 carbohydrate metabolic pathways respectively. We chose some of the key genes for verifying by qRT-PCR. The results showed that the expression of these genes was the same as that of RNA-seq. We found that these significant pathways and vital genes occupy an important roles in a whole process of adaptation to salt stress. These results provide valuable information, improve the ability to resist pressure, and improve the quality of the plant.

  9. Systematic identification and analysis of frequent gene fusion events in metabolic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Christopher S; Lerma-Ortiz, Claudia; Gerdes, Svetlana Y; Mullen, Jeffrey D; Colasanti, Ric; Zhukov, Aleksey; Frelin, Océane; Thiaville, Jennifer J; Zallot, Rémi; Niehaus, Thomas D; Hasnain, Ghulam; Conrad, Neal; Hanson, Andrew D; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie

    2016-06-24

    Gene fusions are the most powerful type of in silico-derived functional associations. However, many fusion compilations were made when fusions need updating to handle the current avalanche of sequenced genomes. The availability of a large fusion dataset would help probe functional associations and enable systematic analysis of where and why fusion events occur. Here we present a systematic analysis of fusions in prokaryotes. We manually generated two training sets: (i) 121 fusions in the model organism Escherichia coli; (ii) 131 fusions found in B vitamin metabolism. These sets were used to develop a fusion prediction algorithm that captured the training set fusions with only 7 % false negatives and 50 % false positives, a substantial improvement over existing approaches. This algorithm was then applied to identify 3.8 million potential fusions across 11,473 genomes. The results of the analysis are available in a searchable database at http://modelseed.org/projects/fusions/ . A functional analysis identified 3,000 reactions associated with frequent fusion events and revealed areas of metabolism where fusions are particularly prevalent. Customary definitions of fusions were shown to be ambiguous, and a stricter one was proposed. Exploring the genes participating in fusion events showed that they most commonly encode transporters, regulators, and metabolic enzymes. The major rationales for fusions between metabolic genes appear to be overcoming pathway bottlenecks, avoiding toxicity, controlling competing pathways, and facilitating expression and assembly of protein complexes. Finally, our fusion dataset provides powerful clues to decipher the biological activities of domains of unknown function.

  10. The Neural Baroreflex Pathway in Subjects With Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanoli, Luca; Empana, Jean-Philippe; Estrugo, Nicolas; Escriou, Guillaume; Ketthab, Hakim; Pruny, Jean-Francois; Castellino, Pietro; Laude, Dominique; Thomas, Frederique; Pannier, Bruno; Jouven, Xavier; Boutouyrie, Pierre; Laurent, Stephane

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The mechanisms that link metabolic syndrome (MetS) to increased cardiovascular risk are incompletely understood. We examined whether MetS is associated with the neural baroreflex pathway (NBP) and whether any such associations are independent of blood pressure values. This study involved the cross-sectional analysis of data on 2835 subjects aged 50 to 75 years from the Paris Prospective Study 3. The prevalence of MetS was defined according to the American Heart Association/National Heart Blood and Lung Institute definition. NBP values were calculated from the fluctuation of the common carotid distension rate and heart rate using fast Fourier transformation and cross-spectral analysis. The prevalence of MetS was 20.1% in men and 10.4% in women. Compared with controls, subjects with MetS (≥3 components), and those at risk for MetS (1–2 components) had lower NBP (−5.3% and −2.3%, respectively) and higher carotid stiffness (+13.5% and +6.8%, respectively). The negative association between MetS components and NBP was confirmed, even after adjustment for age, sex, and carotid stiffness. After stratification for blood pressure (BP) levels, NBP was reduced only in MetS subjects and those at risk with high BP. The NBP was positively associated with carotid stiffness in controls and subjects at risk for MetS. This association was lost in subjects with MetS, regardless of BP levels. Subjects with MetS had reduced NBP values. The role of BP is fundamental in the reduction of NBP. The mechanisms that link carotid stiffness and NBP are inactive in subjects with MetS, independent of BP levels. PMID:26765449

  11. Diversity of Gut Microbiota Metabolic Pathways in 10 Pairs of Chinese Infant Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shaoming; Xu, Ruihuan; He, Fusheng; Zhou, Jiaxiu; Wang, Yan; Zhou, Jianli; Wang, Mingbang; Zhou, Wenhao

    2016-01-01

    Early colonization of gut microbiota in human gut is a complex process. It remains unclear when gut microbiota colonization occurs and how it proceeds. In order to study gut microbiota composition in human early life, the present study recruited 10 healthy pairs of twins, including five monozygotic (MZ) and five dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs, whose age ranged from 0 to 6 years old. 20 fecal samples from these twins were processed by shotgun metagenomic sequencing, and their averaged data outputs were generated as 2G per sample. We used MEGAN5 to perform taxonomic and functional annotation of the metagenomic data, and systematically analyzed those 20 samples, including Jaccard index similarity, principle component, clustering, and correlation analyses. Our findings indicated that within our study group: 1) MZ-twins share more microbes than DZ twins or non-twin pairs, 2) gut microbiota distribution is relatively stable at metabolic pathways level, 3) age represents the strongest factor that can account for variation in gut microbiota, and 4) a clear metabolic pathway shift can be observed, which speculatively occurs around the age of 1 year old. This research will serve as a base for future studies of gut microbiota-related disease research.

  12. ROS signaling under metabolic stress: cross-talk between AMPK and AKT pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Hu, Xingbin; Liu, Yajing; Dong, Shumin; Wen, Zhaowei; He, Wanming; Zhang, Shuyi; Huang, Qiong; Shi, Min

    2017-04-13

    Cancer cells are frequently confronted with metabolic stress in tumor microenvironments due to their rapid growth and limited nutrient supply. Metabolic stress induces cell death through ROS-induced apoptosis. However, cancer cells can adapt to it by altering the metabolic pathways. AMPK and AKT are two primary effectors in response to metabolic stress: AMPK acts as an energy-sensing factor which rewires metabolism and maintains redox balance. AKT broadly promotes energy production in the nutrient abundance milieu, but the role of AKT under metabolic stress is in dispute. Recent studies show that AMPK and AKT display antagonistic roles under metabolic stress. Metabolic stress-induced ROS signaling lies in the hub between metabolic reprogramming and redox homeostasis. Here, we highlight the cross-talk between AMPK and AKT and their regulation on ROS production and elimination, which summarizes the mechanism of cancer cell adaptability under ROS stress and suggests potential options for cancer therapeutics.

  13. Carbohydrate metabolism in Archaea: current insights into unusual enzymes and pathways and their regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräsen, Christopher; Esser, Dominik; Rauch, Bernadette; Siebers, Bettina

    2014-03-01

    The metabolism of Archaea, the third domain of life, resembles in its complexity those of Bacteria and lower Eukarya. However, this metabolic complexity in Archaea is accompanied by the absence of many "classical" pathways, particularly in central carbohydrate metabolism. Instead, Archaea are characterized by the presence of unique, modified variants of classical pathways such as the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) pathway and the Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway. The pentose phosphate pathway is only partly present (if at all), and pentose degradation also significantly differs from that known for bacterial model organisms. These modifications are accompanied by the invention of "new," unusual enzymes which cause fundamental consequences for the underlying regulatory principles, and classical allosteric regulation sites well established in Bacteria and Eukarya are lost. The aim of this review is to present the current understanding of central carbohydrate metabolic pathways and their regulation in Archaea. In order to give an overview of their complexity, pathway modifications are discussed with respect to unusual archaeal biocatalysts, their structural and mechanistic characteristics, and their regulatory properties in comparison to their classic counterparts from Bacteria and Eukarya. Furthermore, an overview focusing on hexose metabolic, i.e., glycolytic as well as gluconeogenic, pathways identified in archaeal model organisms is given. Their energy gain is discussed, and new insights into different levels of regulation that have been observed so far, including the transcript and protein levels (e.g., gene regulation, known transcription regulators, and posttranslational modification via reversible protein phosphorylation), are presented.

  14. Metabolic engineering of the fungal D-galacturonate pathway for L-ascorbic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuivanen, Joosu; Penttilä, Merja; Richard, Peter

    2015-01-08

    Synthetic L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is widely used as a preservative and nutrient in food and pharmaceutical industries. In the current production method, D-glucose is converted to L-ascorbic acid via several biochemical and chemical steps. The main source of L-ascorbic acid in human nutrition is plants. Several alternative metabolic pathways for L-ascorbic acid biosynthesis are known in plants. In one of them, D-galacturonic acid is the precursor. D-Galacturonic acid is also the main monomer in pectin, a plant cell wall polysaccharide. Pectin is abundant in biomass and is readily available from several waste streams from fruit and sugar processing industries. In the present work, we engineered the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger for the conversion of D-galacturonic acid to L-ascorbic acid. In the generated pathway, the native D-galacturonate reductase activity was utilized while the gene coding for the second enzyme in the fungal D-galacturonic acid pathway, an L-galactonate consuming dehydratase, was deleted. Two heterologous genes coding for enzymes from the plant L-ascorbic acid pathway--L-galactono-1,4-lactone lactonase from Euglena gracilis (EgALase) and L-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase from Malpighia glabra (MgGALDH)--were introduced into the A. niger strain. Alternatively, an unspecific L-gulono-1,4-lactone lactonase (smp30) from the animal L-ascorbic acid pathway was introduced in the fungal strain instead of the plant L-galactono-1,4-lactone lactonase. In addition, a strain with the production pathway inducible with D-galacturonic acid was generated by using a bidirectional and D-galacturonic acid inducible promoter from the fungus. Even though, the lactonase enzyme activity was not observed in the resulting strains, they were capable of producing L-ascorbic acid from pure D-galacturonic acid or pectin-rich biomass in a consolidated bioprocess. Product titers up to 170 mg/l were achieved. In the current study, an L-ascorbic acid pathway using

  15. Effects of introducing heterologous pathways on microbial metabolism with respect to metabolic optimality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Hyun Uk; Kim, Byoungjin; Seung, Do Young

    2014-01-01

    Although optimality of microbial metabolism under genetic and environmental perturbations is well studied, the effects of introducing heterologous reactions on the overall metabolism are not well understood. This point is important in the field of metabolic engineering because heterologous reacti...

  16. Oxidative bioelectrocatalysis: From natural metabolic pathways to synthetic metabolons and minimal enzyme cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minteer, Shelley D

    2016-05-01

    Anodic bioelectrodes for biofuel cells are more complex than cathodic bioelectrodes for biofuel cells, because laccase and bilirubin oxidase can individually catalyze four electron reduction of oxygen to water, whereas most anodic enzymes only do a single two electron oxidation of a complex fuel (i.e. glucose oxidase oxidizing glucose to gluconolactone while generating 2 electrons of the total 24 electrons), so enzyme cascades are typically needed for complete oxidation of the fuel. This review article will discuss the lessons learned from natural metabolic pathways about multi-step oxidation and how those lessons have been applied to minimal or artificial enzyme cascades. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Biodesign for Bioenergetics--the design and engineering of electronic transfer cofactors, proteins and protein networks, edited by Ronald L. Koder and J.L. Ross Anderson. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Metabolic Pathway Assignment of Plant Genes based on Phylogenetic Profiling–A Feasibility Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Weißenborn

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite many developed experimental and computational approaches, functional gene annotation remains challenging. With the rapidly growing number of sequenced genomes, the concept of phylogenetic profiling, which predicts functional links between genes that share a common co-occurrence pattern across different genomes, has gained renewed attention as it promises to annotate gene functions based on presence/absence calls alone. We applied phylogenetic profiling to the problem of metabolic pathway assignments of plant genes with a particular focus on secondary metabolism pathways. We determined phylogenetic profiles for 40,960 metabolic pathway enzyme genes with assigned EC numbers from 24 plant species based on sequence and pathway annotation data from KEGG and Ensembl Plants. For gene sequence family assignments, needed to determine the presence or absence of particular gene functions in the given plant species, we included data of all 39 species available at the Ensembl Plants database and established gene families based on pairwise sequence identities and annotation information. Aside from performing profiling comparisons, we used machine learning approaches to predict pathway associations from phylogenetic profiles alone. Selected metabolic pathways were indeed found to be composed of gene families of greater than expected phylogenetic profile similarity. This was particularly evident for primary metabolism pathways, whereas for secondary pathways, both the available annotation in different species as well as the abstraction of functional association via distinct pathways proved limiting. While phylogenetic profile similarity was generally not found to correlate with gene co-expression, direct physical interactions of proteins were reflected by a significantly increased profile similarity suggesting an application of phylogenetic profiling methods as a filtering step in the identification of protein-protein interactions. This feasibility

  18. A Computational Model of Torque Generation: Neural, Contractile, Metabolic and Musculoskeletal Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Damien M.; Umberger, Brian R.; Kent-Braun, Jane A.

    2013-01-01

    The pathway of voluntary joint torque production includes motor neuron recruitment and rate-coding, sarcolemmal depolarization and calcium release by the sarcoplasmic reticulum, force generation by motor proteins within skeletal muscle, and force transmission by tendon across the joint. The direct source of energetic support for this process is ATP hydrolysis. It is possible to examine portions of this physiologic pathway using various in vivo and in vitro techniques, but an integrated view of the multiple processes that ultimately impact joint torque remains elusive. To address this gap, we present a comprehensive computational model of the combined neuromuscular and musculoskeletal systems that includes novel components related to intracellular bioenergetics function. Components representing excitatory drive, muscle activation, force generation, metabolic perturbations, and torque production during voluntary human ankle dorsiflexion were constructed, using a combination of experimentally-derived data and literature values. Simulation results were validated by comparison with torque and metabolic data obtained in vivo. The model successfully predicted peak and submaximal voluntary and electrically-elicited torque output, and accurately simulated the metabolic perturbations associated with voluntary contractions. This novel, comprehensive model could be used to better understand impact of global effectors such as age and disease on various components of the neuromuscular system, and ultimately, voluntary torque output. PMID:23405245

  19. Automation of gene assignments to metabolic pathways using high-throughput expression data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yona Golan

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate assignment of genes to pathways is essential in order to understand the functional role of genes and to map the existing pathways in a given genome. Existing algorithms predict pathways by extrapolating experimental data in one organism to other organisms for which this data is not available. However, current systems classify all genes that belong to a specific EC family to all the pathways that contain the corresponding enzymatic reaction, and thus introduce ambiguity. Results Here we describe an algorithm for assignment of genes to cellular pathways that addresses this problem by selectively assigning specific genes to pathways. Our algorithm uses the set of experimentally elucidated metabolic pathways from MetaCyc, together with statistical models of enzyme families and expression data to assign genes to enzyme families and pathways by optimizing correlated co-expression, while minimizing conflicts due to shared assignments among pathways. Our algorithm also identifies alternative ("backup" genes and addresses the multi-domain nature of proteins. We apply our model to assign genes to pathways in the Yeast genome and compare the results for genes that were assigned experimentally. Our assignments are consistent with the experimentally verified assignments and reflect characteristic properties of cellular pathways. Conclusion We present an algorithm for automatic assignment of genes to metabolic pathways. The algorithm utilizes expression data and reduces the ambiguity that characterizes assignments that are based only on EC numbers.

  20. Next-generation metabolic screening: targeted and untargeted metabolomics for the diagnosis of inborn errors of metabolism in individual patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coene, Karlien L M; Kluijtmans, Leo A J; van der Heeft, Ed; Engelke, Udo F H; de Boer, Siebolt; Hoegen, Brechtje; Kwast, Hanneke J T; van de Vorst, Maartje; Huigen, Marleen C D G; Keularts, Irene M L W; Schreuder, Michiel F; van Karnebeek, Clara D M; Wortmann, Saskia B; de Vries, Maaike C; Janssen, Mirian C H; Gilissen, Christian; Engel, Jasper; Wevers, Ron A

    2018-02-16

    The implementation of whole-exome sequencing in clinical diagnostics has generated a need for functional evaluation of genetic variants. In the field of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM), a diverse spectrum of targeted biochemical assays is employed to analyze a limited amount of metabolites. We now present a single-platform, high-resolution liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight (LC-QTOF) method that can be applied for holistic metabolic profiling in plasma of individual IEM-suspected patients. This method, which we termed "next-generation metabolic screening" (NGMS), can detect >10,000 features in each sample. In the NGMS workflow, features identified in patient and control samples are aligned using the "various forms of chromatography mass spectrometry (XCMS)" software package. Subsequently, all features are annotated using the Human Metabolome Database, and statistical testing is performed to identify significantly perturbed metabolite concentrations in a patient sample compared with controls. We propose three main modalities to analyze complex, untargeted metabolomics data. First, a targeted evaluation can be done based on identified genetic variants of uncertain significance in metabolic pathways. Second, we developed a panel of IEM-related metabolites to filter untargeted metabolomics data. Based on this IEM-panel approach, we provided the correct diagnosis for 42 of 46 IEMs. As a last modality, metabolomics data can be analyzed in an untargeted setting, which we term "open the metabolome" analysis. This approach identifies potential novel biomarkers in known IEMs and leads to identification of biomarkers for as yet unknown IEMs. We are convinced that NGMS is the way forward in laboratory diagnostics of IEMs.

  1. Metabolic engineering of the purine biosynthetic pathway in Corynebacterium glutamicum results in increased intracellular pool sizes of IMP and hypoxanthine

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    Peifer Susanne

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Purine nucleotides exhibit various functions in cellular metabolism. Besides serving as building blocks for nucleic acid synthesis, they participate in signaling pathways and energy metabolism. Further, IMP and GMP represent industrially relevant biotechnological products used as flavor enhancing additives in food industry. Therefore, this work aimed towards the accumulation of IMP applying targeted genetic engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum. Results Blocking of the degrading reactions towards AMP and GMP lead to a 45-fold increased intracellular IMP pool of 22 μmol gCDW-1. Deletion of the pgi gene encoding glucose 6-phosphate isomerase in combination with the deactivated AMP and GMP generating reactions, however, resulted in significantly decreased IMP pools (13 μmol gCDW-1. Targeted metabolite profiling of the purine biosynthetic pathway further revealed a metabolite shift towards the formation of the corresponding nucleobase hypoxanthine (102 μmol gCDW-1 derived from IMP degradation. Conclusions The purine biosynthetic pathway is strongly interconnected with various parts of the central metabolism and therefore tightly controlled. However, deleting degrading reactions from IMP to AMP and GMP significantly increased intracellular IMP levels. Due to the complexity of this pathway further degradation from IMP to the corresponding nucleobase drastically increased suggesting additional targets for future strain optimization.

  2. Metabolic engineering of the purine biosynthetic pathway in Corynebacterium glutamicum results in increased intracellular pool sizes of IMP and hypoxanthine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peifer, Susanne; Barduhn, Tobias; Zimmet, Sarah; Volmer, Dietrich A; Heinzle, Elmar; Schneider, Konstantin

    2012-10-24

    Purine nucleotides exhibit various functions in cellular metabolism. Besides serving as building blocks for nucleic acid synthesis, they participate in signaling pathways and energy metabolism. Further, IMP and GMP represent industrially relevant biotechnological products used as flavor enhancing additives in food industry. Therefore, this work aimed towards the accumulation of IMP applying targeted genetic engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum. Blocking of the degrading reactions towards AMP and GMP lead to a 45-fold increased intracellular IMP pool of 22 μmol g(CDW)⁻¹. Deletion of the pgi gene encoding glucose 6-phosphate isomerase in combination with the deactivated AMP and GMP generating reactions, however, resulted in significantly decreased IMP pools (13 μmol g(CDW)⁻¹). Targeted metabolite profiling of the purine biosynthetic pathway further revealed a metabolite shift towards the formation of the corresponding nucleobase hypoxanthine (102 μmol g(CDW)⁻¹) derived from IMP degradation. The purine biosynthetic pathway is strongly interconnected with various parts of the central metabolism and therefore tightly controlled. However, deleting degrading reactions from IMP to AMP and GMP significantly increased intracellular IMP levels. Due to the complexity of this pathway further degradation from IMP to the corresponding nucleobase drastically increased suggesting additional targets for future strain optimization.

  3. Transcriptomic Analysis of Metabolic Pathways in Milkfish That Respond to Salinity and Temperature Changes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yau-Chung Hu

    Full Text Available Milkfish (Chanos chanos, an important marine aquaculture species in southern Taiwan, show considerable euryhalinity but have low tolerance to sudden drops in water temperatures in winter. Here, we used high throughput next-generation sequencing (NGS to identify molecular and biological processes involved in the responses to environmental changes. Preliminary tests revealed that seawater (SW-acclimated milkfish tolerated lower temperatures than the fresh water (FW-acclimated group. Although FW- and SW-acclimated milkfish have different levels of tolerance for hypothermal stress, to date, the molecular physiological basis of this difference has not been elucidated. Here, we performed a next-generation sequence analysis of mRNAs from four groups of milkfish. We obtained 29669 unigenes with an average length of approximately 1936 base pairs. Gene ontology (GO analysis was performed after gene annotation. A large number of genes for molecular regulation were identified through a transcriptomic comparison in a KEGG analysis. Basal metabolic pathways involved in hypothermal tolerance, such as glycolysis, fatty acid metabolism, amino acid catabolism and oxidative phosphorylation, were analyzed using PathVisio and Cytoscape software. Our results indicate that in response to hypothermal stress, genes for oxidative phosphorylation, e.g., succinate dehydrogenase, were more highly up-regulated in SW than FW fish. Moreover, SW and FW milkfish used different strategies when exposed to hypothermal stress: SW milkfish up-regulated oxidative phosphorylation and catabolism genes to produce more energy budget, whereas FW milkfish down-regulated genes related to basal metabolism to reduce energy loss.

  4. Determination of key enzymes for threonine synthesis through in vitro metabolic pathway analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanfei; Meng, Qinglong; Ma, Hongwu; Liu, Yongfei; Cao, Guoqiang; Zhang, Xiaoran; Zheng, Ping; Sun, Jibin; Zhang, Dawei; Jiang, Wenxia; Ma, Yanhe

    2015-06-13

    The overexpression of key enzymes in a metabolic pathway is a frequently used genetic engineering strategy for strain improvement. Metabolic control analysis has been proposed to quantitatively determine key enzymes. However, the lack of quality data often makes it difficult to correctly identify key enzymes through control analysis. Here, we proposed a method combining in vitro metabolic pathway analysis and proteomics measurement to find the key enzymes in threonine synthesis pathway. All enzymes in the threonine synthesis pathway were purified for the reconstruction and perturbation of the in vitro pathway. Label-free proteomics technology combined with APEX (absolute protein expression measurements) data analysis method were employed to determine the absolute enzyme concentrations in the crude enzyme extract obtained from a threonine production strain during the fastest threonine production period. The flux control coefficient of each enzyme in the pathway was then calculated by measuring the flux changes after titration of the corresponding enzyme. The isoenzyme LysC catalyzing the first step in the pathway has the largest flux control coefficient, and thus its concentration change has the biggest impact on pathway flux. To verify that the key enzyme identified through in vitro pathway analysis is also the key enzyme in vivo, we overexpressed LysC in the original threonine production strain. Fermentation results showed that the threonine concentration was increased 30% and the yield was increased 20%. In vitro metabolic pathways simulating in vivo cells can be built based on precise measurement of enzyme concentrations through proteomics technology and used for the determination of key enzymes through metabolic control analysis. This provides a new way to find gene overexpression targets for industrial strain improvement.

  5. Deciphering the biological effects of acupuncture treatment modulating multiple metabolism pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Aihua; Yan, Guangli; Sun, Hui; Cheng, Weiping; Meng, Xiangcai; Liu, Li; Xie, Ning; Wang, Xijun

    2016-02-16

    Acupuncture is an alternative therapy that is widely used to treat various diseases. However, detailed biological interpretation of the acupuncture stimulations is limited. We here used metabolomics and proteomics technology, thereby identifying the serum small molecular metabolites into the effect and mechanism pathways of standardized acupuncture treatments at 'Zusanli' acupoint which was the most often used acupoint in previous reports. Comprehensive overview of serum metabolic profiles during acupuncture stimulation was investigated. Thirty-four differential metabolites were identified in serum metabolome and associated with ten metabolism pathways. Importantly, we have found that high impact glycerophospholipid metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, ether lipid metabolism were acutely perturbed by acupuncture stimulation. As such, these alterations may be useful to clarify the biological mechanism of acupuncture stimulation. A series of differentially expressed proteins were identified and such effects of acupuncture stimulation were found to play a role in transport, enzymatic activity, signaling pathway or receptor interaction. Pathway analysis further revealed that most of these proteins were found to play a pivotal role in the regulation of multiple metabolism pathways. It demonstrated that the metabolomics coupled with proteomics as a powerful approach for potential applications in understanding the biological effects of acupuncture stimulation.

  6. Metabolic pathway of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Network properties and robustness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WenJun Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is a systematic and complex disease involving various cytokines/metabolites. In present article, we use methodology of network biology to analyze network properties of NAFLD metabolic pathway. It is found that the metabolic pathway of NAFLD is not a typical complex network with power-law degree distribution, p(x=x^(-4.4275, x>=5. There is only one connected component in the metabolic pathway. The calculated cut cytokines/metabolites of the metabolic pathway are SREBP-1c, ChREBP, ObR, AMPK, IRE1alpha, ROS, PERK, elF2alpha, ATF4, CHOP, Bim, CASP8, Bid, CxII, Lipogenic enzymes, XBP1, and FFAs. The most important cytokine/metabolite for possible network robustness is FFAs, seconded by TNF-alpha. It is concluded that FFAs is the most important cytokine/metabolite in the metabolic pathway, seconded by ROS. FFAs, LEP, ACDC, CYP2E1, and Glucose are the only cytokines/metabolites that affect others without influences from other cytokines/metabolites. Finally, the IDs matrix for identifying possible sub-networks/modules is given. However, jointly combining the results of connectedness analysis and sub-networks/modules identification, we hold that there are not significant sub-networks/modules in the pathway.

  7. Metabolic switching of drug pathways as a consequence of deuterium substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horning, M.G.; Haegele, K.D.; Sommer, K.R.; Nowlin, J.; Stafford, M.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation was made of the metabolism of deuterated analogs of caffeine (1-CD 3 -caffeine and 7-CD 3 -caffeine) and antipyrine (N-CD 3 -antipyrine and 3-CD 3 -antipyrine) because both caffeine and antipyrine are metabolized by multiple alternate pathways. Since it is well established that carbon-deuterium bonds are more stable than carbon-hydrogen bonds, it was postulated that oxidation of the CD 3 group would be depressed and that metabolism of the labeled compounds would be shifted to another pathway that did not involve cleavage of a carbon-deuterium bond. Metabolic switching of drug pathways was observed in vivo for both of the caffeine analogs and was observed both in vivo and in vitro for 3-CD 3 -antipyrine

  8. Improving fatty acids production by engineering dynamic pathway regulation and metabolic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Li, Lingyun; Zhang, Fuming; Stephanopoulos, Gregory; Koffas, Mattheos

    2014-01-01

    Global energy demand and environmental concerns have stimulated increasing efforts to produce carbon-neutral fuels directly from renewable resources. Microbially derived aliphatic hydrocarbons, the petroleum-replica fuels, have emerged as promising alternatives to meet this goal. However, engineering metabolic pathways with high productivity and yield requires dynamic redistribution of cellular resources and optimal control of pathway expression. Here we report a genetically encoded metabolic switch that enables dynamic regulation of fatty acids (FA) biosynthesis in Escherichia coli. The engineered strains were able to dynamically compensate the critical enzymes involved in the supply and consumption of malonyl-CoA and efficiently redirect carbon flux toward FA biosynthesis. Implementation of this metabolic control resulted in an oscillatory malonyl-CoA pattern and a balanced metabolism between cell growth and product formation, yielding 15.7- and 2.1-fold improvement in FA titer compared with the wild-type strain and the strain carrying the uncontrolled metabolic pathway. This study provides a new paradigm in metabolic engineering to control and optimize metabolic pathways facilitating the high-yield production of other malonyl-CoA–derived compounds. PMID:25049420

  9. Metabolic profiling reveals reprogramming of lipid metabolic pathways in treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome with 3-iodothyronamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selen Alpergin, Ebru S; Bolandnazar, Zeinab; Sabatini, Martina; Rogowski, Michael; Chiellini, Grazia; Zucchi, Riccardo; Assadi-Porter, Fariba M

    2017-01-01

    Complex diseases such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are associated with intricate pathophysiological, hormonal, and metabolic feedbacks that make their early diagnosis challenging, thus increasing the prevalence risks for obesity, cardiovascular, and fatty liver diseases. To explore the crosstalk between endocrine and lipid metabolic pathways, we administered 3-iodothyronamine (T1AM), a natural analog of thyroid hormone, in a mouse model of PCOS and analyzed plasma and tissue extracts using multidisciplinary omics and biochemical approaches. T1AM administration induces a profound tissue-specific antilipogenic effect in liver and muscle by lowering gene expression of key regulators of lipid metabolism, PTP1B and PLIN2, significantly increasing metabolites (glucogenic, amino acids, carnitine, and citrate) levels, while enhancing protection against oxidative stress. In contrast, T1AM has an opposing effect on the regulation of estrogenic pathways in the ovary by upregulating STAR, CYP11A1, and CYP17A1. Biochemical measurements provide further evidence of significant reduction in liver cholesterol and triglycerides in post-T1AM treatment. Our results shed light onto tissue-specific metabolic vs. hormonal pathway interactions, thus illuminating the intricacies within the pathophysiology of PCOS This study opens up new avenues to design drugs for targeted therapeutics to improve quality of life in complex metabolic diseases. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  10. Regulation of dual glycolytic pathways for fructose metabolism in heterofermentative Lactobacillus panis PM1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Tae Sun; Korber, Darren R; Tanaka, Takuji

    2013-12-01

    Lactobacillus panis PM1 belongs to the group III heterofermentative lactobacilli that use the 6-phosphogluconate/phosphoketolase (6-PG/PK) pathway as their central metabolic pathway and are reportedly unable to grow on fructose as a sole carbon source. We isolated a variant PM1 strain capable of sporadic growth on fructose medium and observed its distinctive characteristics of fructose metabolism. The end product pattern was different from what is expected in typical group III lactobacilli using the 6-PG/PK pathway (i.e., more lactate, less acetate, and no mannitol). In addition, in silico analysis revealed the presence of genes encoding most of critical enzymes in the Embden-Meyerhof (EM) pathway. These observations indicated that fructose was metabolized via two pathways. Fructose metabolism in the PM1 strain was influenced by the activities of two enzymes, triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) and glucose 6-phosphate isomerase (PGI). A lack of TPI resulted in the intracellular accumulation of dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) in PM1, the toxicity of which caused early growth cessation during fructose fermentation. The activity of PGI was enhanced by the presence of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (GAP), which allowed additional fructose to enter into the 6-PG/PK pathway to avoid toxicity by DHAP. Exogenous TPI gene expression shifted fructose metabolism from heterolactic to homolactic fermentation, indicating that TPI enabled the PM1 strain to mainly use the EM pathway for fructose fermentation. These findings clearly demonstrate that the balance in the accumulation of GAP and DHAP determines the fate of fructose metabolism and the activity of TPI plays a critical role during fructose fermentation via the EM pathway in L. panis PM1.

  11. Enumerating metabolic pathways for the production of heterologous target chemicals in chassis organisms

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    Carbonell Pablo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We consider the possibility of engineering metabolic pathways in a chassis organism in order to synthesize novel target compounds that are heterologous to the chassis. For this purpose, we model metabolic networks through hypergraphs where reactions are represented by hyperarcs. Each hyperarc represents an enzyme-catalyzed reaction that transforms set of substrates compounds into product compounds. We follow a retrosynthetic approach in order to search in the metabolic space (hypergraphs for pathways (hyperpaths linking the target compounds to a source set of compounds. Results To select the best pathways to engineer, we have developed an objective function that computes the cost of inserting a heterologous pathway in a given chassis organism. In order to find minimum-cost pathways, we propose in this paper two methods based on steady state analysis and network topology that are to the best of our knowledge, the first to enumerate all possible heterologous pathways linking a target compounds to a source set of compounds. In the context of metabolic engineering, the source set is composed of all naturally produced chassis compounds (endogenuous chassis metabolites and the target set can be any compound of the chemical space. We also provide an algorithm for identifying precursors which can be supplied to the growth media in order to increase the number of ways to synthesize specific target compounds. Conclusions We find the topological approach to be faster by several orders of magnitude than the steady state approach. Yet both methods are generally scalable in time with the number of pathways in the metabolic network. Therefore this work provides a powerful tool for pathway enumeration with direct application to biosynthetic pathway design.

  12. Effectiveness of a clinical pathway for the emergency treatment of patients with inborn errors of metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zand, Dina J; Brown, Kathleen M; Lichter-Konecki, Uta; Campbell, Joyce K; Salehi, Vesta; Chamberlain, James M

    2008-12-01

    The goal was to measure the effectiveness of a clinical pathway for the emergency department care of patients with inborn errors of metabolism. Two years after the implementation of a multidisciplinary clinical pathway for patients with inborn errors of metabolism in our urban, academic, pediatric emergency department, we compared measures of timeliness and effectiveness for patients treated before the pathway with the same measures for patients treated after implementation of the pathway. Measures of timeliness included time to room, time to doctor, time to glucose infusion, and total emergency department length of stay. Measures of clinical effectiveness included the proportion of patients receiving adequate glucose infusions, proportion of patients admitted, inpatient length of stay, and proportion of patients requiring PICU admission. A total of 214 emergency department visits for patients with inborn errors of metabolism were analyzed, 90 before and 124 after initiation of the pathway. All measures of timeliness of care except total emergency department length of stay demonstrated significant improvement in comparisons of values before and after initiation of the pathway. Measures of clinical effectiveness also demonstrated significant improvements after initiation of the pathway. There was improvement in the proportion of patients who received adequate glucose infusions, with a decrease in the proportion of patients who required admission to the PICU. Emergency department length of stay, inpatient length of stay, and the proportion of patients admitted to the hospital were not affected. Most measures of timeliness and 2 measures of effectiveness showed improvement after implementation of an emergency department pathway for patients with inborn errors of metabolism. Therefore, a clinical pathway can improve the emergency care of patients with inborn errors of metabolism.

  13. Metabolic pathways of Pseudomonas aeruginosa involved in competition with respiratory bacterial pathogens

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    Marie eBeaume

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic airway infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa considerably contributes to lung tissue destruction and impairment of pulmonary function in cystic-fibrosis (CF patients. Complex interplays between P. aeruginosa and other co-colonizing pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus, Burkholderia spp and Klebsiella pneumoniae may be crucial for pathogenesis and disease progression.Methods: We generated a library of PA14 transposon insertion mutants to identify P. aeruginosa genes required for exploitative and direct competitions with S. aureus, B. cenocepacia, and K. pneumoniae. Results: Whereas wild type PA14 inhibited S. aureus growth, two transposon insertions located in pqsC and carB, resulted in reduced growth inhibition. PqsC is involved in the synthesis of 4-hydroxy-2-alkylquinolines (HAQs, a family of molecules having antibacterial properties, while carB is a key gene in pyrimidine biosynthesis. The carB mutant was also unable to grow in the presence of B. cepacia and K. pneumoniae but not E. coli and S. epidermidis. We further identified a transposon insertion in purF, encoding a key enzyme of purine metabolism. This mutant displayed a severe growth deficiency in the presence of Gram-negative but not of Gram-positive bacteria. We identified a beneficial interaction in a bioA transposon mutant, unable to grow on rich medium. This growth defect could be restored either by addition of biotin or by co-culturing the mutant in the presence of K. pneumoniae or E. coli.Conclusions: Complex interactions take place between the various bacterial species colonizing CF-lungs. This work identified both detrimental and beneficial interactions occurring between P. aeruginosa and three other respiratory pathogens involving several major metabolic pathways. Manipulating these pathways could be used to interfere with bacterial interactions and influence the colonization by respiratory pathogens.

  14. Metabolic pathways of benzimidazole anthelmintics in harebell (Campanula rotundifolia)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stuchlíková, L.; Jirásko, R.; Skálová, L.; Pavlík, F.; Szotáková, B.; Holčapek, M.; Vaněk, Tomáš; Podlipná, Radka

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 157, AUG (2016), s. 10-17 ISSN 0045-6535 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-05325S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Drug metabolism * Biotransformation * Albendazole Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.208, year: 2016

  15. Metabolic pathway analysis using a nash equilibrium approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucia, Angelo; DiMaggio, Peter A.; Alonso-Martinez, Diego

    2018-01-01

    A novel approach to metabolic network analysis using a Nash Equilibrium (NE) formulation is proposed in which enzymes are considered players in a multi-player game. Each player has its own payoff function with the objective of minimizing the Gibbs free energy associated with the biochemical

  16. Compartmentalization of metabolic pathways in yeast mitochondria improves the production of branched-chain alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalos, José L; Fink, Gerald R; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2013-04-01

    Efforts to improve the production of a compound of interest in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have mainly involved engineering or overexpression of cytoplasmic enzymes. We show that targeting metabolic pathways to mitochondria can increase production compared with overexpression of the enzymes involved in the same pathways in the cytoplasm. Compartmentalization of the Ehrlich pathway into mitochondria increased isobutanol production by 260%, whereas overexpression of the same pathway in the cytoplasm only improved yields by 10%, compared with a strain overproducing enzymes involved in only the first three steps of the biosynthetic pathway. Subcellular fractionation of engineered strains revealed that targeting the enzymes of the Ehrlich pathway to the mitochondria achieves greater local enzyme concentrations. Other benefits of compartmentalization may include increased availability of intermediates, removing the need to transport intermediates out of the mitochondrion and reducing the loss of intermediates to competing pathways.

  17. Compartmentalization of metabolic pathways in yeast mitochondria improves production of branched chain alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalos, José L.; Fink, Gerald R.; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to improve the production of a compound of interest in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have mainly involved engineering or overexpression of cytoplasmic enzymes. We show that targeted expression of metabolic pathways to mitochondria can increase production levels compared with expression of the same pathways in the cytoplasm. Compartmentalisation of the Ehrlich pathway into mitochondria increased isobutanol production by 260%, whereas overexpression of the same pathway in the cytoplasm only improved yields by 10%, compared with a strain overexpressing only the first three steps of the biosynthetic pathway. Subcellular fractionation of engineered strains reveals that targeting the enzymes of the Ehrlich pathway to the mitochondria achieves higher local enzyme concentrations. Other benefits of compartmentalization may include increased availability of intermediates, removing the need to transport intermediates out of the mitochondrion, and reducing the loss of intermediates to competing pathways. PMID:23417095

  18. Mechanism of Cisplatin-Induced Cytotoxicity Is Correlated to Impaired Metabolism Due to Mitochondrial ROS Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Wooyoung; Anwar, Muhammad Ayaz; Kwon, Ji-Woong; Kwon, Hyuk-Kwon; Kim, Hyung Joong; Jeong, Hyobin; Kim, Hwan Myung; Hwang, Daehee; Kim, Hyung Sik; Choi, Sangdun

    2015-01-01

    The chemotherapeutic use of cisplatin is limited by its severe side effects. In this study, by conducting different omics data analyses, we demonstrated that cisplatin induces cell death in a proximal tubular cell line by suppressing glycolysis- and tricarboxylic acid (TCA)/mitochondria-related genes. Furthermore, analysis of the urine from cisplatin-treated rats revealed the lower expression levels of enzymes involved in glycolysis, TCA cycle, and genes related to mitochondrial stability and confirmed the cisplatin-related metabolic abnormalities. Additionally, an increase in the level of p53, which directly inhibits glycolysis, has been observed. Inhibition of p53 restored glycolysis and significantly reduced the rate of cell death at 24 h and 48 h due to p53 inhibition. The foremost reason of cisplatin-related cytotoxicity has been correlated to the generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) that influence multiple pathways. Abnormalities in these pathways resulted in the collapse of mitochondrial energy production, which in turn sensitized the cells to death. The quenching of ROS led to the amelioration of the affected pathways. Considering these observations, it can be concluded that there is a significant correlation between cisplatin and metabolic dysfunctions involving mROS as the major player. PMID:26247588

  19. Pathway analysis of kidney cancer using proteomics and metabolic profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiehn Oliver

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is the sixth leading cause of cancer death and is responsible for 11,000 deaths per year in the US. Approximately one-third of patients present with disease which is already metastatic and for which there is currently no adequate treatment, and no biofluid screening tests exist for RCC. In this study, we have undertaken a comprehensive proteomic analysis and subsequently a pathway and network approach to identify biological processes involved in clear cell RCC (ccRCC. We have used these data to investigate urinary markers of RCC which could be applied to high-risk patients, or to those being followed for recurrence, for early diagnosis and treatment, thereby substantially reducing mortality of this disease. Results Using 2-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometric analysis, we identified 31 proteins which were differentially expressed with a high degree of significance in ccRCC as compared to adjacent non-malignant tissue, and we confirmed some of these by immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry, and comparison to published transcriptomic data. When evaluated by several pathway and biological process analysis programs, these proteins are demonstrated to be involved with a high degree of confidence (p values Conclusion Extensive pathway and network analysis allowed for the discovery of highly significant pathways from a set of clear cell RCC samples. Knowledge of activation of these processes will lead to novel assays identifying their proteomic and/or metabolomic signatures in biofluids of patient at high risk for this disease; we provide pilot data for such a urinary bioassay. Furthermore, we demonstrate how the knowledge of networks, processes, and pathways altered in kidney cancer may be used to influence the choice of optimal therapy.

  20. Carbohydrate Metabolism in Archaea: Current Insights into Unusual Enzymes and Pathways and Their Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, Dominik; Rauch, Bernadette

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The metabolism of Archaea, the third domain of life, resembles in its complexity those of Bacteria and lower Eukarya. However, this metabolic complexity in Archaea is accompanied by the absence of many “classical” pathways, particularly in central carbohydrate metabolism. Instead, Archaea are characterized by the presence of unique, modified variants of classical pathways such as the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) pathway and the Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway. The pentose phosphate pathway is only partly present (if at all), and pentose degradation also significantly differs from that known for bacterial model organisms. These modifications are accompanied by the invention of “new,” unusual enzymes which cause fundamental consequences for the underlying regulatory principles, and classical allosteric regulation sites well established in Bacteria and Eukarya are lost. The aim of this review is to present the current understanding of central carbohydrate metabolic pathways and their regulation in Archaea. In order to give an overview of their complexity, pathway modifications are discussed with respect to unusual archaeal biocatalysts, their structural and mechanistic characteristics, and their regulatory properties in comparison to their classic counterparts from Bacteria and Eukarya. Furthermore, an overview focusing on hexose metabolic, i.e., glycolytic as well as gluconeogenic, pathways identified in archaeal model organisms is given. Their energy gain is discussed, and new insights into different levels of regulation that have been observed so far, including the transcript and protein levels (e.g., gene regulation, known transcription regulators, and posttranslational modification via reversible protein phosphorylation), are presented. PMID:24600042

  1. A Bayesian method for identifying missing enzymes in predicted metabolic pathway databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karp Peter D

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The PathoLogic program constructs Pathway/Genome databases by using a genome's annotation to predict the set of metabolic pathways present in an organism. PathoLogic determines the set of reactions composing those pathways from the enzymes annotated in the organism's genome. Most annotation efforts fail to assign function to 40–60% of sequences. In addition, large numbers of sequences may have non-specific annotations (e.g., thiolase family protein. Pathway holes occur when a genome appears to lack the enzymes needed to catalyze reactions in a pathway. If a protein has not been assigned a specific function during the annotation process, any reaction catalyzed by that protein will appear as a missing enzyme or pathway hole in a Pathway/Genome database. Results We have developed a method that efficiently combines homology and pathway-based evidence to identify candidates for filling pathway holes in Pathway/Genome databases. Our program not only identifies potential candidate sequences for pathway holes, but combines data from multiple, heterogeneous sources to assess the likelihood that a candidate has the required function. Our algorithm emulates the manual sequence annotation process, considering not only evidence from homology searches, but also considering evidence from genomic context (i.e., is the gene part of an operon? and functional context (e.g., are there functionally-related genes nearby in the genome? to determine the posterior belief that a candidate has the required function. The method can be applied across an entire metabolic pathway network and is generally applicable to any pathway database. The program uses a set of sequences encoding the required activity in other genomes to identify candidate proteins in the genome of interest, and then evaluates each candidate by using a simple Bayes classifier to determine the probability that the candidate has the desired function. We achieved 71% precision at a

  2. NF-Y activates genes of metabolic pathways altered in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benatti, Paolo; Chiaramonte, Maria Luisa; Lorenzo, Mariangela; Hartley, John A; Hochhauser, Daniel; Gnesutta, Nerina; Mantovani, Roberto; Imbriano, Carol; Dolfini, Diletta

    2016-01-12

    The trimeric transcription factor NF-Y binds to the CCAAT box, an element enriched in promoters of genes overexpressed in tumors. Previous studies on the NF-Y regulome identified the general term metabolism as significantly enriched. We dissect here in detail the targeting of metabolic genes by integrating analysis of NF-Y genomic binding and profilings after inactivation of NF-Y subunits in different cell types. NF-Y controls de novo biosynthetic pathways of lipids, teaming up with the master SREBPs regulators. It activates glycolytic genes, but, surprisingly, is neutral or represses mitochondrial respiratory genes. NF-Y targets the SOCG (Serine, One Carbon, Glycine) and Glutamine pathways, as well as genes involved in the biosynthesis of polyamines and purines. Specific cancer-driving nodes are generally under NF-Y control. Altogether, these data delineate a coherent strategy to promote expression of metabolic genes fuelling anaerobic energy production and other anabolic pathways commonly altered in cancer cells.

  3. An efficient tool for metabolic pathway construction and gene integration for Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkari, Parveen; Marx, Hans; Blumhoff, Marzena L; Mattanovich, Diethard; Sauer, Michael; Steiger, Matthias G

    2017-12-01

    Metabolic engineering requires functional genetic tools for easy and quick generation of multiple pathway variants. A genetic engineering toolbox for A. niger is presented, which facilitates the generation of strains carrying heterologous expression cassettes at a defined genetic locus. The system is compatible with Golden Gate cloning, which facilitates the DNA construction process and provides high design flexibility. The integration process is mediated by a CRISPR/Cas9 strategy involving the cutting of both the genetic integration locus (pyrG) as well as the integrating plasmid. Only a transient expression of Cas9 is necessary and the carrying plasmid is readily lost using a size-reduced AMA1 variant. A high integration efficiency into the fungal genome of up to 100% can be achieved, thus reducing the screening process significantly. The feasibility of the approach was demonstrated by the integration of an expression cassette enabling the production of aconitic acid in A. niger. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Metabolic pathways for lipid synthesis under nitrogen stress in Chlamydomonas and Nannochloropsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Avik; Maiti, Subodh K; Guria, Chandan; Banerjee, Chiranjib

    2017-01-01

    Microalgae are currently being considered as a clean, sustainable and renewable energy source. Enzymes that catalyse the metabolic pathways for biofuel production are specific and require strict regulation and co-ordination. Thorough knowledge of these key enzymes along with their regulatory molecules is essential to enable rational metabolic engineering, to drive the metabolic flux towards the desired metabolites of importance. This paper reviews two key enzymes that play their role in production of bio-oil: DGAT (acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase) and PDAT (phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase). It also deals with the transcription factors that control the enzymes while cell undergoes a metabolic shift under stress. The paper also discusses the association of other enzymes and pathways that provide substrates and precursors for oil accumulation. Finally a futuristic solution has been proposed about a synthetic algal cell platform that would be committed towards biofuel synthesis.

  5. Regulation of Hydroxylation and Nitroreduction Pathways during Metabolism of the Neonicotinoid Insecticide Imidacloprid by Pseudomonas putida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tian-Qi; Mao, Shi-Yun; Sun, Shi-Lei; Yang, Wen-Long; Ge, Feng; Dai, Yi-Jun

    2016-06-22

    Imidacloprid (IMI) is mainly metabolized via nitroreduction and hydroxylation pathways, which produce different metabolites that are toxic to mammals and insects. However, regulation of IMI metabolic flux between nitroreduction and hydroxylation pathways is still unclear. In this study, Pseudomonas putida was found to metabolize IMI to 5-hydroxy and nitroso IMI and was therefore used for investigating the regulation of IMI metabolic flux. The cell growth time, cosubstrate, dissolved oxygen concentration, and pH showed significant effect on IMI degradation and nitroso and 5-hydroxy IMI formation. Gene cloning and overexpression in Escherichia coli proved that P. putida KT2440 aldehyde oxidase mediated IMI nitroreduction to nitroso IMI, while cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CYP) failed to improve IMI hydroxylation. Moreover, E. coli cells without CYP could hydroxylate IMI, demonstrating the role of a non-CYP enzyme in IMI hydroxylation. Thus, the present study helps to further understand the environmental fate of IMI and its underlying mechanism.

  6. The return of metabolism: biochemistry and physiology of the pentose phosphate pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stincone, Anna; Prigione, Alessandro; Cramer, Thorsten; Wamelink, Mirjam M. C.; Campbell, Kate; Cheung, Eric; Olin-Sandoval, Viridiana; Grüning, Nana-Maria; Krüger, Antje; Alam, Mohammad Tauqeer; Keller, Markus A.; Breitenbach, Michael; Brindle, Kevin M.; Rabinowitz, Joshua D.; Ralser, Markus

    2015-01-01

    The pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) is a fundamental component of cellular metabolism. The PPP is important to maintain carbon homoeostasis, to provide precursors for nucleotide and amino acid biosynthesis, to provide reducing molecules for anabolism, and to defeat oxidative stress. The PPP shares reactions with the Entner–Doudoroff pathway and Calvin cycle and divides into an oxidative and non-oxidative branch. The oxidative branch is highly active in most eukaryotes and converts glucose 6-phosphate into carbon dioxide, ribulose 5-phosphate and NADPH. The latter function is critical to maintain redox balance under stress situations, when cells proliferate rapidly, in ageing, and for the ‘Warburg effect’ of cancer cells. The non-oxidative branch instead is virtually ubiquitous, and metabolizes the glycolytic intermediates fructose 6-phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate as well as sedoheptulose sugars, yielding ribose 5-phosphate for the synthesis of nucleic acids and sugar phosphate precursors for the synthesis of amino acids. Whereas the oxidative PPP is considered unidirectional, the non-oxidative branch can supply glycolysis with intermediates derived from ribose 5-phosphate and vice versa, depending on the biochemical demand. These functions require dynamic regulation of the PPP pathway that is achieved through hierarchical interactions between transcriptome, proteome and metabolome. Consequently, the biochemistry and regulation of this pathway, while still unresolved in many cases, are archetypal for the dynamics of the metabolic network of the cell. In this comprehensive article we review seminal work that led to the discovery and description of the pathway that date back now for 80 years, and address recent results about genetic and metabolic mechanisms that regulate its activity. These biochemical principles are discussed in the context of PPP deficiencies causing metabolic disease and the role of this pathway in biotechnology, bacterial and

  7. The return of metabolism: biochemistry and physiology of the pentose phosphate pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stincone, Anna; Prigione, Alessandro; Cramer, Thorsten; Wamelink, Mirjam M C; Campbell, Kate; Cheung, Eric; Olin-Sandoval, Viridiana; Grüning, Nana-Maria; Krüger, Antje; Tauqeer Alam, Mohammad; Keller, Markus A; Breitenbach, Michael; Brindle, Kevin M; Rabinowitz, Joshua D; Ralser, Markus

    2015-08-01

    The pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) is a fundamental component of cellular metabolism. The PPP is important to maintain carbon homoeostasis, to provide precursors for nucleotide and amino acid biosynthesis, to provide reducing molecules for anabolism, and to defeat oxidative stress. The PPP shares reactions with the Entner-Doudoroff pathway and Calvin cycle and divides into an oxidative and non-oxidative branch. The oxidative branch is highly active in most eukaryotes and converts glucose 6-phosphate into carbon dioxide, ribulose 5-phosphate and NADPH. The latter function is critical to maintain redox balance under stress situations, when cells proliferate rapidly, in ageing, and for the 'Warburg effect' of cancer cells. The non-oxidative branch instead is virtually ubiquitous, and metabolizes the glycolytic intermediates fructose 6-phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate as well as sedoheptulose sugars, yielding ribose 5-phosphate for the synthesis of nucleic acids and sugar phosphate precursors for the synthesis of amino acids. Whereas the oxidative PPP is considered unidirectional, the non-oxidative branch can supply glycolysis with intermediates derived from ribose 5-phosphate and vice versa, depending on the biochemical demand. These functions require dynamic regulation of the PPP pathway that is achieved through hierarchical interactions between transcriptome, proteome and metabolome. Consequently, the biochemistry and regulation of this pathway, while still unresolved in many cases, are archetypal for the dynamics of the metabolic network of the cell. In this comprehensive article we review seminal work that led to the discovery and description of the pathway that date back now for 80 years, and address recent results about genetic and metabolic mechanisms that regulate its activity. These biochemical principles are discussed in the context of PPP deficiencies causing metabolic disease and the role of this pathway in biotechnology, bacterial and parasite

  8. Targeting Metabolic Survival Pathways in Lung Cancer via Combination Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Irie, H.Y., Gao, S., Puigserver, P., and Brugge, J.S. (2009). Antioxidant and oncogene rescue of metabolic defects caused by loss of matrix...HG levels alone are unable to inhibit reductive carboxylation activity, even though this dose of exogenous D-2-HG is suffi- A M 5 ci tr at e...glutamine to lipogenic AcCoA under hypoxia was significantly lower in cells with IDH1 mutations but not those with IDH2 mutations or exogenous 2-HG

  9. Flux analysis of central metabolic pathways in Geobactermetallireducens during reduction of solubleFe(III)-NTA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Yinjie J.; Chakraborty, Romy; Garcia-Martin, Hector; Chu,Jeannie; Hazen, Terry C.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2007-01-01

    We analyzed the carbon fluxes in the central metabolism ofGeobacter metallireducens strain GS-15 using 13C isotopomer modeling.Acetate labeled in the 1st or 2nd position was the sole carbon source,and Fe-NTA was the sole terminal electron acceptor. The measured labeledacetate uptake rate was 21 mmol/gdw/h in the exponential growth phase.The resulting isotope labeling pattern of amino acids allowed an accuratedetermination of the in vivo global metabolic reaction rates (fluxes)through the central metabolic pathways using a computational isotopomermodel. The tracer experiments showed that G. metallireducens containedcomplete biosynthesis pathways for essential metabolism, and this strainmight also have an unusual isoleucine biosynthesis route (usingacetyl-CoA and pyruvate as the precursors). The model indicated that over90 percent of the acetate was completely oxidized to CO2 via a completetricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle while reducing iron. Pyruvate carboxylaseand phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase were present under theseconditions, but enzymes in the glyoxylate shunt and malic enzyme wereabsent. Gluconeogenesis and the pentose phosphate pathway were mainlyemployed for biosynthesis and accounted for less than 3 percent of totalcarbon consumption. The model also indicated surprisingly highreversibility in the reaction between oxoglutarate and succinate. Thisstep operates close to the thermodynamic equilibrium possibly becausesuccinate is synthesized via a transferase reaction, and the conversionof oxoglutarate to succinate is a rate limiting step for carbonmetabolism. These findings enable a better understanding of therelationship between genome annotation and extant metabolic pathways inG. metallireducens.

  10. Metabolic Pathway Signatures Associated with Urinary Metabolite Biomarkers Differentiate Bladder Cancer Patients from Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won Tae; Yun, Seok Joong; Yan, Chunri; Jeong, Pildu; Kim, Ye Hwan; Lee, Il Seok; Kang, Ho Won; Park, Sunghyouk; Moon, Sung Kwon; Choi, Yung Hyun; Choi, Young Deuk; Kim, Isaac Yi; Kim, Jayoung; Kim, Wun Jae

    2016-07-01

    Our previous high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry study identified bladder cancer (BCA)-specific urine metabolites, including carnitine, acylcarnitines, and melatonin. The objective of the current study was to determine which metabolic pathways are perturbed in BCA, based on our previously identified urinary metabolome. A total of 135 primary BCA samples and 26 control tissue samples from healthy volunteers were analyzed. The association between specific urinary metabolites and their related encoding genes was analyzed. Significant alterations in the carnitine-acylcarnitine and tryptophan metabolic pathways were detected in urine specimens from BCA patients compared to those of healthy controls. The expression of eight genes involved in the carnitine-acylcarnitine metabolic pathway (CPT1A, CPT1B, CPT1C, CPT2, SLC25A20, and CRAT) or tryptophan metabolism (TPH1 and IDO1) was assessed by RT-PCR in our BCA cohort (n=135). CPT1B, CPT1C, SLC25A20, CRAT, TPH1, and IOD1 were significantly downregulated in tumor tissues compared to normal bladder tissues (pmetabolic pathways, which were the most perturbed pathways in BCA, were determined.

  11. Cloning and Partial Characterization of an Aniline Metabolic Pathway (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-08-03

    formation of 2 dioxygenases and a suite of meta cleavage enzymes. The size of the fragment containing the operon is 20.66 kilo base pairs and is of...dehydrogenase or a hydrolase to TCA cycle intermediates. Studies are presently underway to subclone the pathway and to fully characterize the operon ...and expresses catechol 2,3 dioxygenase from the lactose promoter. Plasmid pSMT4 contains a 20.66 kb fragment from P. sp. CIT1 and 4 ( confers the

  12. Genome wide expression analysis in HPV16 Cervical Cancer: identification of altered metabolic pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Plasencia, Carlos; Vázquez-Ortiz, Guelaguetza; López-Romero, Ricardo; Piña-Sanchez, Patricia; Moreno, José; Salcedo, Mauricio

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Cervical carcinoma (CC) is a leading cause of death among women worldwide. Human papilloma virus (HPV) is a major etiological factor in CC and HPV 16 is the more frequent viral type present. Our aim was to characterize metabolic pathways altered in HPV 16 tumor samples by means of transcriptome wide analysis and bioinformatics tools for visualizing expression data in the context of KEGG biological pathways. Results We found 2,067 genes significantly up or down-modulated (a...

  13. Proteomic Analysis of Hylocereus polyrhizus Reveals Metabolic Pathway Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingzhu Hua

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Red dragon fruit or red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus is the only edible fruit that contains betalains. The color of betalains ranges from red and violet to yellow in plants. Betalains may also serve as an important component of health-promoting and disease-preventing functional food. Currently, the biosynthetic and regulatory pathways for betalain production remain to be fully deciphered. In this study, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ-based proteomic analyses were used to reveal the molecular mechanism of betalain biosynthesis in H. polyrhizus fruits at white and red pulp stages, respectively. A total of 1946 proteins were identified as the differentially expressed between the two samples, and 936 of them were significantly highly expressed at the red pulp stage of H. polyrhizus. RNA-seq and iTRAQ analyses showed that some transcripts and proteins were positively correlated; they belonged to “phenylpropanoid biosynthesis”, “tyrosine metabolism”, “flavonoid biosynthesis”, “ascorbate and aldarate metabolism”, “betalains biosynthesis” and “anthocyanin biosynthesis”. In betalains biosynthesis pathway, several proteins/enzymes such as polyphenol oxidase, CYP76AD3 and 4,5-dihydroxy-phenylalanine (DOPA dioxygenase extradiol-like protein were identified. The present study provides a new insight into the molecular mechanism of the betalain biosynthesis at the posttranscriptional level.

  14. Reconstruction of biological pathways and metabolic networks from in silico labeled metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadadi, Noushin; Hafner, Jasmin; Soh, Keng Cher; Hatzimanikatis, Vassily

    2017-01-01

    Reaction atom mappings track the positional changes of all of the atoms between the substrates and the products as they undergo the biochemical transformation. However, information on atom transitions in the context of metabolic pathways is not widely available in the literature. The understanding of metabolic pathways at the atomic level is of great importance as it can deconvolute the overlapping catabolic/anabolic pathways resulting in the observed metabolic phenotype. The automated identification of atom transitions within a metabolic network is a very challenging task since the degree of complexity of metabolic networks dramatically increases when we transit from metabolite-level studies to atom-level studies. Despite being studied extensively in various approaches, the field of atom mapping of metabolic networks is lacking an automated approach, which (i) accounts for the information of reaction mechanism for atom mapping and (ii) is extendable from individual atom-mapped reactions to atom-mapped reaction networks. Hereby, we introduce a computational framework, iAM.NICE (in silico Atom Mapped Network Integrated Computational Explorer), for the systematic atom-level reconstruction of metabolic networks from in silico labelled substrates. iAM.NICE is to our knowledge the first automated atom-mapping algorithm that is based on the underlying enzymatic biotransformation mechanisms, and its application goes beyond individual reactions and it can be used for the reconstruction of atom-mapped metabolic networks. We illustrate the applicability of our method through the reconstruction of atom-mapped reactions of the KEGG database and we provide an example of an atom-level representation of the core metabolic network of E. coli. Copyright © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Response to Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy: The Muscular Metabolic Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérémie Jaussaud

    2011-01-01

    245±140 seconds (=.01. Peak VO2, VE/VCO2, peak circulatory power and NYHA were improved after CRT (13±4 to16±5 ml/kg/min (<.05, 45±16 to 39±13 (<.01, 1805±844 to 2225±1171 mmHg.ml/kg/min (<.01 and 3±0.35 to 1.88±0.4 (=.01. In addition, left ventricular ejection fraction and end-systolic volumes were improved from 24±8 to 29±7% (<.01 and from 157±69 to 122±55 ml (<.01. Conclusion. We suggest that CRT leads to an increase in oxidative muscular metabolism and postponed anaerobic threshold reducing exaggerated hyperventilation during exercise.

  16. Evolutionary optimization of metabolic pathways. Theoretical reconstruction of the stoichiometry of ATP and NADH producing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebenhöh, O; Heinrich, R

    2001-01-01

    The structural design of ATP and NADH producing systems, such as glycolysis and the citric acid cycle (TCA), is analysed using optimization principles. It is assumed that these pathways combined with oxidative phosphorylation have reached, during their evolution, a high efficiency with respect to ATP production rates. On the basis of kinetic and thermodynamic principles, conclusions are derived concerning the optimal stoichiometry of such pathways. Extending previous investigations, both the concentrations of adenine nucleotides as well as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides are considered variable quantities. This implies the consideration of the interaction of an ATP and NADH producing system, an ATP consuming system, a system coupling NADH consumption with ATP production and a system consuming NADH decoupled from ATP production. It is examined in what respect real metabolic pathways can be considered optimal by studying a large number of alternative pathways. The kinetics of the individual reactions are described by linear or bilinear functions of reactant concentrations. In this manner, the steady-state ATP production rate can be calculated for any possible ATP and NADH producing pathway. It is shown that most of the possible pathways result in a very low ATP production rate and that the very efficient pathways share common structural properties. Optimization with respect to the ATP production rate is performed by an evolutionary algorithm. The following results of our analysis are in close correspondence to the real design of glycolysis and the TCA cycle. (1) In all efficient pathways the ATP consuming reactions are located near the beginning. (2) In all efficient pathways NADH producing reactions as well as ATP producing reactions are located near the end. (3) The number of NADH molecules produced by the consumption of one energy-rich molecule (glucose) amounts to four in all efficient pathways. A distance measure and a measure for the internal ordering of

  17. Regulating the balance between the kynurenine and serotonin pathways of tryptophan metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Hu, Nan; Yang, Dan; Oxenkrug, Gregory; Yang, Qing

    2017-03-01

    Tryptophan is metabolized along the kynurenine and serotonin pathways, resulting in formation of kynurenine metabolites, neuroactive serotonin and melatonin. Each pathway is critical for maintaining healthy homeostasis. However, the two pathways are extremely unequal in their ability to degrade tryptophan, and little is known about the mechanisms maintaining the balance between them. Here, we demonstrated that in PC12 cells, a change of expression of key genes of one pathway resulted in a change of expression of key genes of the other. Melatonin, the end product of the serotonin pathway, played an important role in tryptophan metabolism by affecting both key enzymes of the two pathways. Melatonin treatment induced the expression of indole-2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) and enhanced the activity of the IDO1 promoter while decreasing the expression of arylalkylamine N-acetyl transferase. Melatonin treatment up-regulated the expression of forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1) and enhanced the binding of FoxO1 to the IDO1 promoter. FoxO1 was shown to be a new regulator for IDO1 expression. Melatonin treatment decreased the phosphorylation of FoxO1 by extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 and protein kinase B (Akt) and increased the phosphorylation of binding protein 14-3-3 by c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and thus the complex of FoxO1-14-3-3 in the cytoplasm was disassembled and FoxO1 was relocated to the nucleus to induce IDO1 expression. The JNK signaling pathway played an important role in melatonin-induced IDO1 up-regulation. In conclusion, this study suggests a link between melatonin, JNK, FoxO1 and IDO1 that acts as a potential balance regulator of tryptophan metabolism, and offers a new approach to treat diseases related to dysregulation of tryptophan metabolism. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  18. Modulation of the pentose phosphate pathway alters phase I metabolism of testosterone and dextromethorphan in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wen-jing; Ma, Ting; Ge, Chun; Xia, Wen-juan; Mao, Yong; Sun, Run-bin; Yu, Xiao-yi; Aa, Ji-ye; Wang, Guang-ji

    2015-02-01

    The pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) is involved in the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and generation of NADPH, which plays a key role in drug metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of modulation of the PPP on drug metabolism capacity in vitro. A pair of hepatic cell lines, ie, the cancerous HepG2 cells and normal L02 cells, was used. The expression of CYP450 enzymes, p53 and G6PD in the cells were analyzed. The metabolism of testosterone (TEST, 10 μmol/L) and dextromethorphan (DEM, 1 μmol/L), the two typical substrates for CYP3A4 and CYP2D6, in the cells was examined in the presence of different agents. Both the expression and metabolic activities of CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 were considerably higher in HepG2 cells than in L02 cells. The metabolism of TEST and DEM in HepG2 cells was dose-dependently inhibited by the specific CYP3A4 inhibitor ketoconazole and CYP2D6 inhibitor quinidine. Addition of the p53 inhibitor cyclic PFT-α (5, 25 μmol/L) in HepG2 cells dose-dependently enhanced the metabolism of DEM and TEST, whereas addition of the p53 activator NSC 66811 (3, 10, 25 μmol/L) dose-dependently inhibited the metabolism. Furthermore, addition of the G6PD inhibitor 6-aminonicotinamide (5, 15 μmol/L) in HepG2 cells dose-dependently inhibited the metabolism of DEM and TEST, whereas addition of the PPP activity stimulator menadione (1, 5, 15 μmol/L) dose-dependently enhanced the metabolism. Modulation of p53 and the PPP alters the metabolism of DEM and TEST, suggesting that the metabolic flux pattern of PPP may be closely involved in drug metabolism and the individual variance.

  19. A free radical-generating system induces the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway: a role in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recuero, María; Vicente, María Carmen; Martínez-García, Ana; Ramos, María C; Carmona-Saez, Pedro; Sastre, Isabel; Aldudo, Jesús; Vilella, Elisabet; Frank, Ana; Bullido, María J; Valdivieso, Fernando

    2009-04-01

    Oxidative stress, which plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), is intimately linked to aging - the best established risk factor for AD. Studies in neuronal cells subjected to oxidative stress, mimicking the situation in AD brains, are therefore of great interest. This paper reports that, in human neuronal cells, oxidative stress induced by the free radical-generating xanthine/xanthine oxidase (X-XOD) system leads to apoptotic cell death. Microarray analyses showed a potent activation of the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway following reductions in the cell cholesterol synthesis caused by the X-XOD treatment; furthermore, the apoptosis was reduced by inhibiting 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) expression with an interfering RNA. The potential importance of this mechanism in AD was investigated by genetic association, and it was found that HMGCR, a key gene in cholesterol metabolism and among those most strongly upregulated, was associated with AD risk. In summary, this work presents a human cell model prepared to mimic the effect of oxidative stress in neurons that might be useful in clarifying the mechanism involved in free radical-induced neurodegeneration. Gene expression analysis followed by genetic association studies indicates a possible link among oxidative stress, cholesterol metabolism and AD.

  20. Precursors and metabolic pathway for guaiacol production by Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Rui; Yuan, Yahong; Wang, Zhouli; Guo, Chunfeng; Liu, Bin; Liu, Laping; Wang, Yutang; Yue, Tianli

    2015-12-02

    Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris has recently received much attention due to its implication in the spoilage of pasteurized fruit juices, which was manifested by the production of guaiacol. Vanillic acid and vanillin have been accepted as the biochemical precursors of guaiacol in fruit juices. The purpose of this study was to try to find other precursors and elucidate details about the conversion of vanillic acid and vanillin to guaiacol by A. acidoterrestris. Four potential substrates including ferulic acid, catechol, phenylalanine and tyrosine were analyzed, but they could not be metabolized to guaiacol by all the thirty A. acidoterrestris strains tested. Resting cell studies and enzyme assays demonstrated that vanillin was reduced to vanillyl alcohol by NADPH-dependent vanillin reductase and oxidized to vanillic acid by NAD(P)(+)-dependent vanillin dehydrogenases in A. acidoterrestris DSM 3923. Vanillic acid underwent a nonoxidative decarboxylation to guaiacol. The reversible vanillic acid decarboxylase involved was oxygen insensitive and pyridine nucleotide-independent. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. GROWTH RETARDANTS: Effects on Gibberellin Biosynthesis and Other Metabolic Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademacher, Wilhelm

    2000-06-01

    Plant growth retardants are applied in agronomic and horticultural crops to reduce unwanted longitudinal shoot growth without lowering plant productivity. Most growth retardants act by inhibiting gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis. To date, four different types of such inhibitors are known: (a) Onium compounds, such as chlormequat chloride, mepiquat chloride, chlorphonium, and AMO-1618, which block the cyclases copalyl-diphosphate synthase and ent-kaurene synthase involved in the early steps of GA metabolism. (b) Compounds with an N-containing heterocycle, e.g. ancymidol, flurprimidol, tetcyclacis, paclobutrazol, uniconazole-P, and inabenfide. These retardants block cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases, thereby inhibiting oxidation of ent-kaurene into ent-kaurenoic acid. (c) Structural mimics of 2-oxoglutaric acid, which is the co-substrate of dioxygenases that catalyze late steps of GA formation. Acylcyclohexanediones, e.g. prohexadione-Ca and trinexapac-ethyl and daminozide, block particularly 3ss-hydroxylation, thereby inhibiting the formation of highly active GAs from inactive precursors, and (d) 16,17-Dihydro-GA5 and related structures act most likely by mimicking the GA precursor substrate of the same dioxygenases. Enzymes, similar to the ones involved in GA biosynthesis, are also of importance in the formation of abscisic acid, ethylene, sterols, flavonoids, and other plant constituents. Changes in the levels of these compounds found after treatment with growth retardants can mostly be explained by side activities on such enzymes.

  2. Key Roles of Glutamine Pathways in Reprogramming the Cancer Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Piotr Michalak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glutamine (GLN is commonly known as an important metabolite used for the growth of cancer cells but the effects of its intake in cancer patients are still not clear. However, GLN is the main substrate for DNA and fatty acid synthesis. On the other hand, it reduces the oxidative stress by glutathione synthesis stimulation, stops the process of cancer cachexia, and nourishes the immunological system and the intestine epithelium, as well. The current paper deals with possible positive effects of GLN supplementation and conditions that should be fulfilled to obtain these effects. The analysis of GLN metabolism suggests that the separation of GLN and carbohydrates in the diet can minimize simultaneous supply of ATP (from glucose and NADPH2 (from glutamine to cancer cells. It should support to a larger extent the organism to fight against the cancer rather than the cancer cells. GLN cannot be considered the effective source of ATP for cancers with the impaired oxidative phosphorylation and pyruvate dehydrogenase inhibition. GLN intake restores decreased levels of glutathione in the case of chemotherapy and radiotherapy; thus, it facilitates regeneration processes of the intestine epithelium and immunological system.

  3. Bayesian inference of the sites of perturbations in metabolic pathways via Markov chain Monte Carlo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jayawardhana, Bayu; Kell, Douglas B.; Rattray, Magnus

    2008-01-01

    Motivation: Genetic modifications or pharmaceutical interventions can influence multiple sites in metabolic pathways, and often these are ‘distant’ from the primary effect. In this regard, the ability to identify target and off-target effects of a specific compound or gene therapy is both a major

  4. Validation of RetroPath, a computer-aided design tool for metabolic pathway engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehér, Tamás; Planson, Anne-Gaëlle; Carbonell, Pablo; Fernández-Castané, Alfred; Grigoras, Ioana; Dariy, Ekaterina; Perret, Alain; Faulon, Jean-Loup

    2014-11-01

    Metabolic engineering has succeeded in biosynthesis of numerous commodity or high value compounds. However, the choice of pathways and enzymes used for production was many times made ad hoc, or required expert knowledge of the specific biochemical reactions. In order to rationalize the process of engineering producer strains, we developed the computer-aided design (CAD) tool RetroPath that explores and enumerates metabolic pathways connecting the endogenous metabolites of a chassis cell to the target compound. To experimentally validate our tool, we constructed 12 top-ranked enzyme combinations producing the flavonoid pinocembrin, four of which displayed significant yields. Namely, our tool queried the enzymes found in metabolic databases based on their annotated and predicted activities. Next, it ranked pathways based on the predicted efficiency of the available enzymes, the toxicity of the intermediate metabolites and the calculated maximum product flux. To implement the top-ranking pathway, our procedure narrowed down a list of nine million possible enzyme combinations to 12, a number easily assembled and tested. One round of metabolic network optimization based on RetroPath output further increased pinocembrin titers 17-fold. In total, 12 out of the 13 enzymes tested in this work displayed a relative performance that was in accordance with its predicted score. These results validate the ranking function of our CAD tool, and open the way to its utilization in the biosynthesis of novel compounds. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Metabolomics-Based Elucidation of Active Metabolic Pathways in Erythrocytes and HSC-Derived Reticulocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Anubhav; Evans, Krystal J; Sexton, Anna E; Schofield, Louis; Creek, Darren J

    2017-04-07

    A detailed analysis of the metabolic state of human-stem-cell-derived erythrocytes allowed us to characterize the existence of active metabolic pathways in younger reticulocytes and compare them to mature erythrocytes. Using high-resolution LC-MS-based untargeted metabolomics, we found that reticulocytes had a comparatively much richer repertoire of metabolites, which spanned a range of metabolite classes. An untargeted metabolomics analysis using stable-isotope-labeled glucose showed that only glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway actively contributed to the biosynthesis of metabolites in erythrocytes, and these pathways were upregulated in reticulocytes. Most metabolite species found to be enriched in reticulocytes were residual pools of metabolites produced by earlier erythropoietic processes, and their systematic depletion in mature erythrocytes aligns with the simplification process, which is also seen at the cellular and the structural level. Our work shows that high-resolution LC-MS-based untargeted metabolomics provides a global coverage of the biochemical species that are present in erythrocytes. However, the incorporation of stable isotope labeling provides a more accurate description of the active metabolic processes that occur in each developmental stage. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed characterization of the active metabolic pathways of the erythroid lineage, and it provides a rich database for understanding the physiology of the maturation of reticulocytes into mature erythrocytes.

  6. Defining a novel leptin–melanocortin–kisspeptin pathway involved in the metabolic control of puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Manfredi-Lozano

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: Our physiological, virogenetic, and functional genomic studies document a novel α-MSH→kisspeptin→GnRH neuronal signaling pathway involved in transmitting the permissive effects of leptin on pubertal maturation, which is relevant for the metabolic (and, eventually, pharmacological regulation of puberty onset.

  7. Reconstructing phylogeny by aligning multiple metabolic pathways using functional module mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Yiran; Zhong, Cheng; Lin, H.X.; Wang, Jianyi; Peng, Yuzhong

    2018-01-01

    Comparison of metabolic pathways provides a systematic way for understanding the evolutionary and phylogenetic relationships in systems biology. Although a number of phylogenetic methods have been developed, few efforts have been made to provide a unified phylogenetic framework that sufficiently

  8. Pulmonary Ozone Exposure Alters Essential Metabolic Pathways involved in Glucose Homeostasis in the Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulmonary Ozone Exposure Alters Essential Metabolic Pathways involved in Glucose Homeostasis in the Liver D.B. Johnson, 1 W.O. Ward, 2 V.L. Bass, 2 M.C.J. Schladweiler, 2A.D. Ledbetter, 2 D. Andrews, and U.P. Kodavanti 2 1 Curriculum in Toxicology, UNC School of Medicine, Cha...

  9. Fluctuation of multiple metabolic pathways is required for Escherichia coli in response to chlortetracycline stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiangmin; Kang, Liqun; Li, Hui; Peng, Xuanxian

    2014-04-01

    Bacterial antibiotic resistance has become a worldwide challenge with the overuse and misuse of drugs. Several mechanisms for the resistance are revealed, but information regarding the bacterial global response to antibiotics is largely absent. In this study, we characterized the differential proteome of Escherichia coli K12 BW25113 in response to chlortetracycline stress using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation labeling quantitative proteomics technology. A total of 723 proteins including 10,763 peptides were identified with 184 decreasing and 147 increasing in abundance by liquid chromatography matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry. Most interestingly, crucial metabolic pathways such as the tricarboxylic acid cycle, pyruvate metabolism and glycolysis/gluconeogenesis sharply fluctuated, while the ribosome protein complexes contributing to the translation process were generally elevated in chlortetracycline stress, which is known for a compensative tactic due to the action of chlortetracycline on the ribosome. Further antimicrobial susceptibility assays validated the role of differential proteins in metabolic pathways using genetically modified mutants of gene deletion of these differential proteins. Our study demonstrated that the down-regulation of metabolic pathways was a part of the global response and played an important role in the antibiotics resistance. These results indicate that reverting of these fluctuated pathways may become a novel strategy to combat antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

  10. The return of metabolism: biochemistry and physiology of the pentose phosphate pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stincone, A.; Prigione, A.; Cramer, T.; Wamelink, M.M.C.; Campbell, K.; Cheung, E.; Olin-Sandoval, V.; Gruning, N.M.; Kruger, A.; Alam, M.T.; Keller, M.A.; Breitenbach, M.; Brindle, K.M.; Rabinowitz, J.D.; Ralser, M.

    2015-01-01

    The pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) is a fundamental component of cellular metabolism. The PPP is important to maintain carbon homoeostasis, to provide precursors for nucleotide and amino acid biosynthesis, to provide reducing molecules for anabolism, and to defeat oxidative stress. The PPP shares

  11. Metabolomic profiling identifies potential pathways involved in the interaction of iron homeostasis with glucose metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Stechemesser

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Our data suggest that high serum ferritin concentrations are linked to impaired glucose homeostasis in subjects with the MetS. Iron excess is associated to distinct changes in the serum concentrations of phosphatidylcholine subsets. A pathway involving sarcosine and citrulline also may be involved in iron-induced impairment of glucose metabolism.

  12. Studies on xylitol production by metabolic pathway engineered Debaryomyces hansenii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Suksham; Choudhary, Vikas; Kumar, Anil; Biswas, Dipanwita; Mondal, Alok K; Sahoo, Debendra K

    2013-11-01

    Debaryomyces hansenii is one of the most promising natural xylitol producers. As the conversion of xylitol to xylulose mediated by NAD(+) cofactor dependent xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) reduces its xylitol yield, xylitol dehydrogenase gene (DhXDH)-disrupted mutant of D. hansenii having potential for xylose assimilating pathway stopping at xylitol, was used to study the effects of co-substrates, xylose and oxygen availability on xylitol production. Compared to low cell growth and xylitol production in cultivation medium containing xylose as the only substrate, XDH disrupted mutants grown on glycerol as co-substrate accumulated 2.5-fold increased xylitol concentration over those cells grown on glucose as co-substrate. The oxygen availability, in terms of volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient, kLa (23.86-87.96 h(-1)), affected both xylitol productivity and yield, though the effect is more pronounced on the former. The addition of extra xylose at different phases of xylitol fermentation did not enhance xylitol productivity under experimental conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Metabolic pathways of the wheat (Triticum aestivum endosperm amyloplast revealed by proteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dupont Frances M

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background By definition, amyloplasts are plastids specialized for starch production. However, a proteomic study of amyloplasts isolated from wheat (Triticum aestivum Butte 86 endosperm at 10 days after anthesis (DPA detected enzymes from many other metabolic and biosynthetic pathways. To better understand the role of amyloplasts in food production, the data from that study were evaluated in detail and an amyloplast metabolic map was outlined. Results Analysis of 288 proteins detected in an amyloplast preparation predicted that 178 were amyloplast proteins. Criteria included homology with known plastid proteins, prediction of a plastid transit peptide for the wheat gene product or a close homolog, known plastid location of the pathway, and predicted plastid location for other members of the same pathway. Of these, 135 enzymes were arranged into 18 pathways for carbohydrate, lipid, amino acid, nucleic acid and other biosynthetic processes that are critical for grain-fill. Functions of the other proteins are also discussed. Conclusion The pathways outlined in this paper suggest that amyloplasts play a central role in endosperm metabolism. The interacting effects of genetics and environment on starch and protein production may be mediated in part by regulatory mechanisms within this organelle.

  14. Metabolic intervention on lipid synthesis converging pathways abrogates prostate cancer growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, V; Benfodda, Z; Henriquet, C; Hure, S; Cristol, J-P; Michel, F; Carbonneau, M-A; Casas, F; Fajas, L

    2013-10-17

    One of the most conserved features of all cancers is a profound reprogramming of cellular metabolism, favoring biosynthetic processes and limiting catalytic processes. With the acquired knowledge of some of these important changes, we have designed a combination therapy in order to force cancer cells to use a particular metabolic pathway that ultimately results in the accumulation of toxic products. This innovative approach consists of blocking lipid synthesis, at the same time that we force the cell, through the inhibition of AMP-activated kinase, to accumulate toxic intermediates, such as malonyl-coenzyme A (malonyl-CoA) or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. This results in excess of oxidative stress and cancer cell death. Our new therapeutic strategy, based on the manipulation of metabolic pathways, will certainly set up the basis for new upcoming studies defining a new paradigm of cancer treatment.

  15. Role of Heme and Heme-Proteins in Trypanosomatid Essential Metabolic Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina E. J. Tripodi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Around the world, trypanosomatids are known for being etiological agents of several highly disabling and often fatal diseases like Chagas disease (Trypanosoma cruzi, leishmaniasis (Leishmania spp., and African trypanosomiasis (Trypanosoma brucei. Throughout their life cycle, they must cope with diverse environmental conditions, and the mechanisms involved in these processes are crucial for their survival. In this review, we describe the role of heme in several essential metabolic pathways of these protozoans. Notwithstanding trypanosomatids lack of the complete heme biosynthetic pathway, we focus our discussion in the metabolic role played for important heme-proteins, like cytochromes. Although several genes for different types of cytochromes, involved in mitochondrial respiration, polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism, and sterol biosynthesis, are annotated at the Tritryp Genome Project, the encoded proteins have not yet been deeply studied. We pointed our attention into relevant aspects of these protein functions that are amenable to be considered for rational design of trypanocidal agents.

  16. Analysis of gene evolution and metabolic pathways using the Candida Gene Order Browser

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzpatrick, David A

    2010-05-10

    Abstract Background Candida species are the most common cause of opportunistic fungal infection worldwide. Recent sequencing efforts have provided a wealth of Candida genomic data. We have developed the Candida Gene Order Browser (CGOB), an online tool that aids comparative syntenic analyses of Candida species. CGOB incorporates all available Candida clade genome sequences including two Candida albicans isolates (SC5314 and WO-1) and 8 closely related species (Candida dubliniensis, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Lodderomyces elongisporus, Debaryomyces hansenii, Pichia stipitis, Candida guilliermondii and Candida lusitaniae). Saccharomyces cerevisiae is also included as a reference genome. Results CGOB assignments of homology were manually curated based on sequence similarity and synteny. In total CGOB includes 65617 genes arranged into 13625 homology columns. We have also generated improved Candida gene sets by merging\\/removing partial genes in each genome. Interrogation of CGOB revealed that the majority of tandemly duplicated genes are under strong purifying selection in all Candida species. We identified clusters of adjacent genes involved in the same metabolic pathways (such as catabolism of biotin, galactose and N-acetyl glucosamine) and we showed that some clusters are species or lineage-specific. We also identified one example of intron gain in C. albicans. Conclusions Our analysis provides an important resource that is now available for the Candida community. CGOB is available at http:\\/\\/cgob.ucd.ie.

  17. Engineering levoglucosan metabolic pathway in Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 for lipid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiaochao; Lian, Jieni; Yu, Xiaochen; Garcia-Perez, Manuel; Chen, Shulin

    2016-11-01

    Oleaginous strains of Rhodococcus including R. jostii RHA1 have attracted considerable attention due to their ability to accumulate triacylglycerols (TAGs), robust growth properties and genetic tractability. In this study, a novel metabolic pathway was introduced into R. jostii by heterogenous expression of the well-characterized gene, lgk encoding levoglucosan kinase from Lipomyces starkeyi YZ-215. This enables the recombinant R. jostii RHA1 to produce TAGs from the anhydrous sugar, levoglucosan, which can be generated efficiently as the major molecule from the pyrolysis of cellulose. The recombinant R. jostii RHA1 could grow on levoglucosan as the sole carbon source, and the consumption rate of levoglucosan was determined. Furthermore, expression of one more copy of lgk increased the enzymatic activity of LGK in the recombinant. However, the growth performance of the recombinant bearing two copies of lgk on levoglucosan was not improved. Although expression of lgk in the recombinants was not repressed by the glucose present in the media, glucose in the sugar mixture still affected consumption of levoglucosan. Under nitrogen limiting conditions, lipid produced from levoglucosan by the recombinant bearing lgk was up to 43.54 % of the cell dry weight, which was comparable to the content of lipid accumulated from glucose. This work demonstrated the technical feasibility of producing lipid from levoglucosan, an anhydrosugar derived from the pyrolysis of lignocellulosic materials, by the genetically modified rhodococci strains.

  18. Machine Learning Methods for Analysis of Metabolic Data and Metabolic Pathway Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuperlovic-Culf, Miroslava

    2018-01-11

    Machine learning uses experimental data to optimize clustering or classification of samples or features, or to develop, augment or verify models that can be used to predict behavior or properties of systems. It is expected that machine learning will help provide actionable knowledge from a variety of big data including metabolomics data, as well as results of metabolism models. A variety of machine learning methods has been applied in bioinformatics and metabolism analyses including self-organizing maps, support vector machines, the kernel machine, Bayesian networks or fuzzy logic. To a lesser extent, machine learning has also been utilized to take advantage of the increasing availability of genomics and metabolomics data for the optimization of metabolic network models and their analysis. In this context, machine learning has aided the development of metabolic networks, the calculation of parameters for stoichiometric and kinetic models, as well as the analysis of major features in the model for the optimal application of bioreactors. Examples of this very interesting, albeit highly complex, application of machine learning for metabolism modeling will be the primary focus of this review presenting several different types of applications for model optimization, parameter determination or system analysis using models, as well as the utilization of several different types of machine learning technologies.

  19. Machine Learning Methods for Analysis of Metabolic Data and Metabolic Pathway Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuperlovic-Culf, Miroslava

    2018-01-01

    Machine learning uses experimental data to optimize clustering or classification of samples or features, or to develop, augment or verify models that can be used to predict behavior or properties of systems. It is expected that machine learning will help provide actionable knowledge from a variety of big data including metabolomics data, as well as results of metabolism models. A variety of machine learning methods has been applied in bioinformatics and metabolism analyses including self-organizing maps, support vector machines, the kernel machine, Bayesian networks or fuzzy logic. To a lesser extent, machine learning has also been utilized to take advantage of the increasing availability of genomics and metabolomics data for the optimization of metabolic network models and their analysis. In this context, machine learning has aided the development of metabolic networks, the calculation of parameters for stoichiometric and kinetic models, as well as the analysis of major features in the model for the optimal application of bioreactors. Examples of this very interesting, albeit highly complex, application of machine learning for metabolism modeling will be the primary focus of this review presenting several different types of applications for model optimization, parameter determination or system analysis using models, as well as the utilization of several different types of machine learning technologies. PMID:29324649

  20. Metabolic pathway of 3,6-anhydro-D-galactose in carrageenan-degrading microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun Bok; Kim, Jeong Ah; Lim, Hyun Seung

    2016-05-01

    Complete hydrolysis of κ-carrageenan produces two sugars, D-galactose and 3,6-anhydro-D-galactose (D-AnG). At present, however, we do not know how carrageenan-degrading microorganisms metabolize D-AnG. In this study, we investigated the metabolic pathway of D-AnG degradation by comparative genomic analysis of Cellulophaga lytica LIM-21, Pseudoalteromonas atlantica T6c, and Epulopiscium sp. N.t. morphotype B, which represent the classes Flavobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Clostridia, respectively. In this bioinformatic analysis, we found candidate common genes that were believed to be involved in D-AnG metabolism. We then experimentally confirmed the enzymatic function of each gene product in the D-AnG cluster. In all three microorganisms, D-AnG metabolizing genes were clustered and organized in operon-like arrangements, which we named as the dan operon (3,6-d-anhydro-galactose). Combining bioinformatic analysis and experimental data, we showed that D-AnG is metabolized to pyruvate and D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate via four enzyme-catalyzed reactions in the following route: 3,6-anhydro-D-galactose → 3,6-anhydro-D-galactonate → 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-galactonate (D-KDGal) → 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phospho-D-galactonate → pyruvate + D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. The pathway of D-AnG degradation is composed of two parts: transformation of D-AnG to D-KDGal using two D-AnG specific enzymes and breakdown of D-KDGal to two glycolysis intermediates using two DeLey-Doudoroff pathway enzymes. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the metabolic pathway of D-AnG degradation.

  1. Perturbations in amino acids and metabolic pathways in osteoarthritis patients determined by targeted metabolomics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Han, Su; Liu, Xuefeng; Wang, Kunpeng; Zhou, Yong; Yang, Chundong; Zhang, Xi

    2018-05-15

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative synovial joint disease affecting people worldwide. However, the exact pathogenesis of OA remains unclear. Metabolomics analysis was performed to obtain insight into possible pathogenic mechanisms and diagnostic biomarkers of OA. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC-TQ-MS), followed by multivariate statistical analysis, was used to determine the serum amino acid profiles of 32 OA patients and 35 healthy controls. Variable importance for project values and Student's t-test were used to determine the metabolic abnormalities in OA. Another 30 OA patients were used as independent samples to validate the alterations in amino acids. MetaboAnalyst was used to identify the key amino acid pathways and construct metabolic networks describing their relationships. A total of 25 amino acids and four biogenic amines were detected by UPLC-TQ-MS. Differences in amino acid profiles were found between the healthy controls and OA patients. Alanine, γ-aminobutyric acid and 4-hydroxy-l-proline were important biomarkers distinguishing OA patients from healthy controls. The metabolic pathways with the most significant effects were involved in metabolism of alanine, aspartate, glutamate, arginine and proline. The results of this study improve understanding of the amino acid metabolic abnormalities and pathogenic mechanisms of OA at the molecular level. The metabolic perturbations may be important for the diagnosis and prevention of OA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of CAR activation on selected metabolic pathways in normal and hyperlipidemic mouse livers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezen, Tadeja; Tamasi, Viola; Lövgren-Sandblom, Anita; Björkhem, Ingemar; Meyer, Urs A; Rozman, Damjana

    2009-08-19

    Detoxification in the liver involves activation of nuclear receptors, such as the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), which regulate downstream genes of xenobiotic metabolism. Frequently, the metabolism of endobiotics is also modulated, resulting in potentially harmful effects. We therefore used 1,4-Bis [2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)] benzene (TCPOBOP) to study the effect of CAR activation on mouse hepatic transcriptome and lipid metabolome under conditions of diet-induced hyperlipidemia. Using gene expression profiling with a dedicated microarray, we show that xenobiotic metabolism, PPARalpha and adipocytokine signaling, and steroid synthesis are the pathways most affected by TCPOBOP in normal and hyperlipidemic mice. TCPOBOP-induced CAR activation prevented the increased hepatic and serum cholesterol caused by feeding mice a diet containing 1% cholesterol. We show that this is due to increased bile acid metabolism and up-regulated removal of LDL, even though TCPOBOP increased cholesterol synthesis under conditions of hyperlipidemia. Up-regulation of cholesterol synthesis was not accompanied by an increase in mature SREBP2 protein. As determined by studies in CAR -/- mice, up-regulation of cholesterol synthesis is however CAR-dependent; and no obvious CAR binding sites were detected in promoters of cholesterogenic genes. TCPOBOP also affected serum glucose and triglyceride levels and other metabolic processes in the liver, irrespective of the diet. Our data show that CAR activation modulates hepatic metabolism by lowering cholesterol and glucose levels, through effects on PPARalpha and adiponectin signaling pathways, and by compromising liver adaptations to hyperlipidemia.

  3. Integrated Systems Approach Reveals Sphingolipid Metabolism Pathway Dysregulation in Association with Late-Onset Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Stephen Malamon

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD and age are significantly correlated such that one-third of Americans beyond 85 years of age are afflicted. We have designed and implemented a pilot study that combines systems biology approaches with traditional next-generation sequencing (NGS analysis techniques to identify relevant regulatory pathways, infer functional relationships and confirm the dysregulation of these biological pathways in LOAD. Our study design is a most comprehensive systems approach combining co-expression network modeling derived from RNA-seq data, rigorous quality control (QC standards, functional ontology, and expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL derived from whole exome (WES single nucleotide variant (SNV genotype data. Our initial results reveal several statistically significant, biologically relevant genes involved in sphingolipid metabolism. To validate these findings, we performed a gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA. The GSEA revealed the sphingolipid metabolism pathway and regulation of autophagy in association with LOAD cases. In the execution of this study, we have successfully tested an integrative approach to identify both novel and known LOAD drivers in order to develop a broader and more detailed picture of the highly complex transcriptional and regulatory landscape of age-related dementia.

  4. Genome wide expression analysis in HPV16 Cervical Cancer: identification of altered metabolic pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Plasencia, Carlos; Vázquez-Ortiz, Guelaguetza; López-Romero, Ricardo; Piña-Sanchez, Patricia; Moreno, José; Salcedo, Mauricio

    2007-01-01

    Background Cervical carcinoma (CC) is a leading cause of death among women worldwide. Human papilloma virus (HPV) is a major etiological factor in CC and HPV 16 is the more frequent viral type present. Our aim was to characterize metabolic pathways altered in HPV 16 tumor samples by means of transcriptome wide analysis and bioinformatics tools for visualizing expression data in the context of KEGG biological pathways. Results We found 2,067 genes significantly up or down-modulated (at least 2-fold) in tumor clinical samples compared to normal tissues, representing ~3.7% of analyzed genes. Cervical carcinoma was associated with an important up-regulation of Wnt signaling pathway, which was validated by in situ hybridization in clinical samples. Other up-regulated pathways were those of calcium signaling and MAPK signaling, as well as cell cycle-related genes. There was down-regulation of focal adhesion, TGF-β signaling, among other metabolic pathways. Conclusion This analysis of HPV 16 tumors transcriptome could be useful for the identification of genes and molecular pathways involved in the pathogenesis of cervical carcinoma. Understanding the possible role of these proteins in the pathogenesis of CC deserves further studies. PMID:17822553

  5. Genome wide expression analysis in HPV16 Cervical Cancer: identification of altered metabolic pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salcedo Mauricio

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical carcinoma (CC is a leading cause of death among women worldwide. Human papilloma virus (HPV is a major etiological factor in CC and HPV 16 is the more frequent viral type present. Our aim was to characterize metabolic pathways altered in HPV 16 tumor samples by means of transcriptome wide analysis and bioinformatics tools for visualizing expression data in the context of KEGG biological pathways. Results We found 2,067 genes significantly up or down-modulated (at least 2-fold in tumor clinical samples compared to normal tissues, representing ~3.7% of analyzed genes. Cervical carcinoma was associated with an important up-regulation of Wnt signaling pathway, which was validated by in situ hybridization in clinical samples. Other up-regulated pathways were those of calcium signaling and MAPK signaling, as well as cell cycle-related genes. There was down-regulation of focal adhesion, TGF-β signaling, among other metabolic pathways. Conclusion This analysis of HPV 16 tumors transcriptome could be useful for the identification of genes and molecular pathways involved in the pathogenesis of cervical carcinoma. Understanding the possible role of these proteins in the pathogenesis of CC deserves further studies.

  6. Pathway analysis of Pichia pastoris to elucidate methanol metabolism and its regulation for production of recombinant proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unrean, Pornkamol

    2014-01-01

    This research rationally analyzes metabolic pathways of Pichia pastoris to study the metabolic flux responses of this yeast under methanol metabolism. A metabolic model of P. pastoris was constructed and analyzed by elementary mode analysis (EMA). EMA was used to comprehensively identify the cell's metabolic flux profiles and its underlying regulation mechanisms for the production of recombinant proteins from methanol. Change in phenotypes and flux profiles during methanol adaptation with varying feed mixture of glycerol and methanol was examined. EMA identified increasing and decreasing fluxes during the glycerol-methanol metabolic shift, which well agreed with experimental observations supporting the validity of the metabolic network model. Analysis of all the identified pathways also led to the determination of the metabolic capacities as well as the optimum metabolic pathways for recombinant protein synthesis during methanol induction. The network sensitivity analysis revealed that the production of proteins can be improved by manipulating the flux ratios at the pyruvate branch point. In addition, EMA suggested that protein synthesis is optimum under hypoxic culture conditions. The metabolic modeling and analysis presented in this study could potentially form a valuable knowledge base for future research on rational design and optimization of P. pastoris by determining target genes, pathways, and culture conditions for enhanced recombinant protein synthesis. The metabolic pathway analysis is also of considerable value for production of therapeutic proteins by P. pastoris in biopharmaceutical applications. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  7. An extensive case study of hairy-root cultures for enhanced secondary-metabolite production through metabolic-pathway engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Shakti; Rahman, Laiq Ur; Kukreja, Arun Kumar

    2010-08-23

    An intrinsic improvement is taking place in the methodologies for the development of culture systems with first-rate production of plant-based molecules. The blending of HR (hairy root) cultures with ME (metabolic engineering) approaches offers new insights into, and possibilities for, improving the system productivity for known and/or novel high-value plant-derived active compounds. The introduction and expression of foreign genes in plants results in improvement of cellular activities by manipulating enzymatic, regulatory and transport function of the cell. The rational amendments in the rate-limiting steps of a biosynthetic pathway as well as inactivating the inefficient pathway(s) for by-product formation can be accomplished either through single-step engineering or through the multi-step engineering. The hierarchical control of any metabolic process can lead the engineer to apply the ME ideas and principles to any of the strata, including transcriptional, moving on to translational and enzymatic activity. The HR culture systems offer a remarkable potential for commercial production of a number of low-volume, but high-value, secondary metabolites. Taking HR as a model system, in the present review, we discuss engineering principles and perceptions to exploit secondary-metabolite pathways for the production of important bioactive compounds. We also talk about requisites and possible challenges that occur during ME, with emphasis on examples of various HR systems. Furthermore, it also highlights the utilization of global information obtained from '-omic' platforms in order to explore pathway architecture, structural and functional aspects of important enzymes and genes that can support the design of sets of engineering, resulting in the generation of wide-ranging views of DNA sequence-to-metabolite passageway networking and their control to obtain desired results.

  8. Nontargeted elucidation of metabolic pathways using stable-isotope tracers and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Karsten; Metallo, Christian M; Kelleher, Joanne K; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2010-08-01

    Systems level tools for the quantitative analysis of metabolic networks are required to engineer metabolism for biomedical and industrial applications. While current metabolomics techniques enable high-throughput quantification of metabolites, these methods provide minimal information on the rates and connectivity of metabolic pathways. Here we present a new method, nontargeted tracer fate detection (NTFD), that expands upon the concept of metabolomics to solve the above problems. Through the combined use of stable isotope tracers and chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, our computational analysis enables the quantitative detection of all measurable metabolites derived from a specific labeled compound. Without a priori knowledge of a reaction network or compound library, NTFD provides information about relative flux magnitudes into each metabolite pool by determining the mass isotopomer distribution for all labeled compounds. This novel method adds a new dimension to the metabolomics tool box and provides a framework for global analysis of metabolic fluxes.

  9. Specific metabolic pathway in vitro of pinazepam and diazepam by liver microsomal enzymes of different animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comi, V; Fossati, A; Gervasi, G B

    1977-04-01

    The metabolic pathway of Pinazepam and Diazepam in vitro was studied with rat, guinea pig and dog liver microsomes using a chromatographic and spectrophotometric technique. Two main pathways were observed, N1-dealkylation and C3-hydroxylation. N1-dealkylation was shown to be the predominant reaction for Pinazepam in all the animal species studied, while C3-hydroxylation was the major metabolic pathway for Diazepam in the rat. No oxazepam was found when Pinazepam and Diazepam were incubated with liver microsomes.

  10. Shared Selective Pressures on Fungal and Human Metabolic Pathways Lead to Divergent yet Analogous Genetic Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidem, Haley R; McGary, Kriston L; Rokas, Antonis

    2015-06-01

    Reduced metabolic efficiency, toxic intermediate accumulation, and deficits of molecular building blocks, which all stem from disruptions of flux through metabolic pathways, reduce organismal fitness. Although these represent shared selection pressures across organisms, the genetic signatures of the responses to them may differ. In fungi, a frequently observed signature is the physical linkage of genes from the same metabolic pathway. In contrast, human metabolic genes are rarely tightly linked; rather, they tend to show tissue-specific coexpression. We hypothesized that the physical linkage of fungal metabolic genes and the tissue-specific coexpression of human metabolic genes are divergent yet analogous responses to the range of selective pressures imposed by disruptions of flux. To test this, we examined the degree to which the human homologs of physically linked metabolic genes in fungi (fungal linked homologs or FLOs) are coexpressed across six human tissues. We found that FLOs are significantly more correlated in their expression profiles across human tissues than other metabolic genes. We obtained similar results in analyses of the same six tissues from chimps, gorillas, orangutans, and macaques. We suggest that when selective pressures remain stable across large evolutionary distances, evidence of selection in a given evolutionary lineage can become a highly reliable predictor of the signature of selection in another, even though the specific adaptive response in each lineage is markedly different. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Spatial localization of the first and last enzymes effectively connects active metabolic pathways in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Pablo; Cecchi, Guillermo; Stolovitzky, Gustavo

    2014-12-14

    Although much is understood about the enzymatic cascades that underlie cellular biosynthesis, comparatively little is known about the rules that determine their cellular organization. We performed a detailed analysis of the localization of E.coli GFP-tagged enzymes for cells growing exponentially. We found that out of 857 globular enzymes, at least 219 have a discrete punctuate localization in the cytoplasm and catalyze the first or the last reaction in 60% of biosynthetic pathways. A graph-theoretic analysis of E.coli's metabolic network shows that localized enzymes, in contrast to non-localized ones, form a tree-like hierarchical structure, have a higher within-group connectivity, and are traversed by a higher number of feed-forward and feedback loops than their non-localized counterparts. A Gene Ontology analysis of these enzymes reveals an enrichment of terms related to essential metabolic functions in growing cells. Given that these findings suggest a distinct metabolic role for localization, we studied the dynamics of cellular localization of the cell wall synthesizing enzymes in B. subtilis and found that enzymes localize during exponential growth but not during stationary growth. We conclude that active biochemical pathways inside the cytoplasm are organized spatially following a rule where their first or their last enzymes localize to effectively connect the different active pathways and thus could reflect the activity state of the cell's metabolic network.

  12. Distributing a metabolic pathway among a microbial consortium enhances production of natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kang; Qiao, Kangjian; Edgar, Steven; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2015-04-01

    Metabolic engineering of microorganisms such as Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce high-value natural metabolites is often done through functional reconstitution of long metabolic pathways. Problems arise when parts of pathways require specialized environments or compartments for optimal function. Here we solve this problem through co-culture of engineered organisms, each of which contains the part of the pathway that it is best suited to hosting. In one example, we divided the synthetic pathway for the acetylated diol paclitaxel precursor into two modules, expressed in either S. cerevisiae or E. coli, neither of which can produce the paclitaxel precursor on their own. Stable co-culture in the same bioreactor was achieved by designing a mutualistic relationship between the two species in which a metabolic intermediate produced by E. coli was used and functionalized by yeast. This synthetic consortium produced 33 mg/L oxygenated taxanes, including a monoacetylated dioxygenated taxane. The same method was also used to produce tanshinone precursors and functionalized sesquiterpenes.

  13. A summary of genomic data relating to E. coli organized by metabolic pathways: An initial version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, M.; Raju, M.; Taylor, R.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the reactions that occur in some of the principal metabolic pathways of E. coli. These pathways have been encoded as objects in GenoBase, an integrated database under development at Argonne National Laboratory in collaboration with researchers at the National Institutes of Health and at Harvard University. The report lists the substrates, products, enzymes, and cofactors for each pathway as a whole, followed by a detailed description of each reaction in the pathway. In addition, for each enzyme, the report displays a description and activity as listed in the Enzyme Data Bank, followed by the corresponding Swiss Protein Data Bank entries. Separate summary lines are included for each of the E. coli genes associated with each enzyme.

  14. Two distinct pathways for metabolism of theophylline and caffeine are coexpressed in Pseudomonas putida CBB5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chi Li; Louie, Tai Man; Summers, Ryan; Kale, Yogesh; Gopishetty, Sridhar; Subramanian, Mani

    2009-07-01

    Pseudomonas putida CBB5 was isolated from soil by enrichment on caffeine. This strain used not only caffeine, theobromine, paraxanthine, and 7-methylxanthine as sole carbon and nitrogen sources but also theophylline and 3-methylxanthine. Analyses of metabolites in spent media and resting cell suspensions confirmed that CBB5 initially N demethylated theophylline via a hitherto unreported pathway to 1- and 3-methylxanthines. NAD(P)H-dependent conversion of theophylline to 1- and 3-methylxanthines was also detected in the crude cell extracts of theophylline-grown CBB5. 1-Methylxanthine and 3-methylxanthine were subsequently N demethylated to xanthine. CBB5 also oxidized theophylline and 1- and 3-methylxanthines to 1,3-dimethyluric acid and 1- and 3-methyluric acids, respectively. However, these methyluric acids were not metabolized further. A broad-substrate-range xanthine-oxidizing enzyme was responsible for the formation of these methyluric acids. In contrast, CBB5 metabolized caffeine to theobromine (major metabolite) and paraxanthine (minor metabolite). These dimethylxanthines were further N demethylated to xanthine via 7-methylxanthine. Theobromine-, paraxanthine-, and 7-methylxanthine-grown cells also metabolized all of the methylxanthines mentioned above via the same pathway. Thus, the theophylline and caffeine N-demethylation pathways converged at xanthine via different methylxanthine intermediates. Xanthine was eventually oxidized to uric acid. Enzymes involved in theophylline and caffeine degradation were coexpressed when CBB5 was grown on theophylline or on caffeine or its metabolites. However, 3-methylxanthine-grown CBB5 cells did not metabolize caffeine, whereas theophylline was metabolized at much reduced levels to only methyluric acids. To our knowledge, this is the first report of theophylline N demethylation and coexpression of distinct pathways for caffeine and theophylline degradation in bacteria.

  15. Interconnection of Estrogen/Testosterone Metabolism and Mevalonate Pathway in Breast and Prostate Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokarram, Pooneh; Alizadeh, Javad; Razban, Vahid; Barazeh, Mahdi; Solomon, Claudia; Kavousipour, Soudabeh

    2017-01-01

    The metabolic steroid hormones, 17β stradiol (E2) and testosterone play key roles in several functions including carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism, cellular signaling, cell proliferation, and cancer promotion. Steroid hormones have long been characterized as cell proliferation and differentiation regulators and are closely related to the development of breast and prostate cancers. Moreover, cholesterol metabolism, mainly in adipose tissue, leads to the production of steroids and cytokines, thus increasing the risk of metabolic syndrome, obesity, and ER+ breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Recent studies also shown that testosterone and E2 increase the levels of key enzymes of the mevalonate pathway, leading to post-translational prenylation and farnesylation of numerous proteins in RAS signaling in several cancers, including breast and prostate cancers. There is accumulating evidence both clinically and experimentally suggesting that changes in the metabolism of cholesterol may also have an important role in carcinogenesis. In this regard, the cells treated with mevalonate in culture showed elevated proliferation. Therefore, investigation on cholesterol as a precursor of steroid hormones has confirmed the effects cholesterol metabolite on breast and prostate cancers. Indeed, recent evidence strongly suggests that the MVA pathway and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCOA) have a crucial regulatory role in cellular proliferation and transformation. Therefore, the use of mevalonate inhibitors decreases the production of several biologically active downstream products of the mevalonate pathway, including cholesterol. Although for approximately 20 years statins have been identified as anticancer agents, recent studies have sparked some controversy. Therefore, further investigation to evaluate mevalonate- dependent therapeutic agents per se and in combination with other agents is merited. The current review is an attempt to elucidate the

  16. Rho-kinase inhibition ameliorates metabolic disorders through activation of AMPK pathway in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuki Noda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metabolic disorders, caused by excessive calorie intake and low physical activity, are important cardiovascular risk factors. Rho-kinase, an effector protein of the small GTP-binding protein RhoA, is an important cardiovascular therapeutic target and its activity is increased in patients with metabolic syndrome. We aimed to examine whether Rho-kinase inhibition improves high-fat diet (HFD-induced metabolic disorders, and if so, to elucidate the involvement of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK, a key molecule of metabolic conditions. METHODS AND RESULTS: Mice were fed a high-fat diet, which induced metabolic phenotypes, such as obesity, hypercholesterolemia and glucose intolerance. These phenotypes are suppressed by treatment with selective Rho-kinase inhibitor, associated with increased whole body O2 consumption and AMPK activation in the skeletal muscle and liver. Moreover, Rho-kinase inhibition increased mRNA expression of the molecules linked to fatty acid oxidation, mitochondrial energy production and glucose metabolism, all of which are known as targets of AMPK in those tissues. In systemic overexpression of dominant-negative Rho-kinase mice, body weight, serum lipid levels and glucose metabolism were improved compared with littermate control mice. Furthermore, in AMPKα2-deficient mice, the beneficial effects of fasudil, a Rho-kinase inhibitor, on body weight, hypercholesterolemia, mRNA expression of the AMPK targets and increase of whole body O2 consumption were absent, whereas glucose metabolism was restored by fasudil to the level in wild-type mice. In cultured mouse myocytes, pharmacological and genetic inhibition of Rho-kinase increased AMPK activity through liver kinase b1 (LKB1, with up-regulation of its targets, which effects were abolished by an AMPK inhibitor, compound C. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that Rho-kinase inhibition ameliorates metabolic disorders through activation of the LKB1/AMPK pathway, suggesting that

  17. Vitamin D3 Induces Tolerance in Human Dendritic Cells by Activation of Intracellular Metabolic Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Bomfim Ferreira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic switches in various immune cell subsets enforce phenotype and function. In the present study, we demonstrate that the active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH2D3, induces human monocyte-derived tolerogenic dendritic cells (DC by metabolic reprogramming. Microarray analysis demonstrated that 1,25(OH2D3 upregulated several genes directly related to glucose metabolism, tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA, and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS. Although OXPHOS was promoted by 1,25(OH2D3, hypoxia did not change the tolerogenic function of 1,25(OH2D3-treated DCs. Instead, glucose availability and glycolysis, controlled by the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, dictate the induction and maintenance of the 1,25(OH2D3-conditioned tolerogenic DC phenotype and function. This metabolic reprogramming is unique for 1,25(OH2D3, because the tolerogenic DC phenotype induced by other immune modulators did not depend on similar metabolic changes. We put forward that these metabolic insights in tolerogenic DC biology can be used to advance DC-based immunotherapies, influencing DC longevity and their resistance to environmental metabolic stress.

  18. Metabolic flux pattern of glucose utilization by Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris: prevalent role of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway and minor fluxes through the pentose phosphate pathway and glycolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatschneider, Sarah; Huber, Claudia; Neuweger, Heiko; Watt, Tony Francis; Pühler, Alfred; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Wittmann, Christoph; Niehaus, Karsten; Vorhölter, Frank-Jörg

    2014-10-01

    The well-studied plant pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) synthesizes the biotechnologically important polysaccharide xanthan gum, which is also regarded as a virulence factor in plant interactions. In Xcc, sugars like glucose are utilized as a source to generate energy and biomass for growth and pathogenicity. In this study, we used [1-(13)C]glucose as a tracer to analyze the fluxes in the central metabolism of the bacterium growing in a minimal medium. (13)C-Metabolic flux analysis based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) confirmed the prevalent catabolic role of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway. Comparative nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based isotopologue profiling of a mutant deficient in glycolysis gave evidence for a moderate flux via glycolysis in the wild-type. In addition to reconfirming the Entner-Doudoroff pathway as a catabolic main route, this approach affirmed a numerically minor but important flux via the pentose phosphate pathway.

  19. Multi-Omics Reveals that Lead Exposure Disturbs Gut Microbiome Development, Key Metabolites, and Metabolic Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bei; Chi, Liang; Mahbub, Ridwan; Bian, Xiaoming; Tu, Pengcheng; Ru, Hongyu; Lu, Kun

    2017-04-17

    Lead exposure remains a global public health issue, and the recent Flint water crisis has renewed public concern about lead toxicity. The toxicity of lead has been well established in a variety of systems and organs. The gut microbiome has been shown to be highly involved in many critical physiological processes, including food digestion, immune system development, and metabolic homeostasis. However, despite the key role of the gut microbiome in human health, the functional impact of lead exposure on the gut microbiome has not been studied. The aim of this study is to define gut microbiome toxicity induced by lead exposure in C57BL/6 mice using multiomics approaches, including 16S rRNA sequencing, whole genome metagenomics sequencing, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) metabolomics. 16S rRNA sequencing revealed that lead exposure altered the gut microbiome trajectory and phylogenetic diversity. Metagenomics sequencing and metabolomics profiling showed that numerous metabolic pathways, including vitamin E, bile acids, nitrogen metabolism, energy metabolism, oxidative stress, and the defense/detoxification mechanism, were significantly disturbed by lead exposure. These perturbed molecules and pathways may have important implications for lead toxicity in the host. Taken together, these results demonstrated that lead exposure not only altered the gut microbiome community structures/diversity but also greatly affected metabolic functions, leading to gut microbiome toxicity.

  20. Gene-based mapping and pathway analysis of metabolic traits in dairy cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngoc-Thuy Ha

    Full Text Available The metabolic adaptation of dairy cows during the transition period has been studied intensively in the last decades. However, until now, only few studies have paid attention to the genetic aspects of this process. Here, we present the results of a gene-based mapping and pathway analysis with the measurements of three key metabolites, (1 non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA, (2 beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA and (3 glucose, characterizing the metabolic adaptability of dairy cows before and after calving. In contrast to the conventional single-marker approach, we identify 99 significant and biologically sensible genes associated with at least one of the considered phenotypes and thus giving evidence for a genetic basis of the metabolic adaptability. Moreover, our results strongly suggest three pathways involved in the metabolism of steroids and lipids are potential candidates for the adaptive regulation of dairy cows in their early lactation. From our perspective, a closer investigation of our findings will lead to a step forward in understanding the variability in the metabolic adaptability of dairy cows in their early lactation.

  1. Identification of Proteins Involved in Carbohydrate Metabolism and Energy Metabolism Pathways and Their Regulation of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility in Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingxia Geng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS where no functional pollen is produced has important roles in wheat breeding. The anther is a unique organ for male gametogenesis and its abnormal development can cause male sterility. However, the mechanisms and regulatory networks related to plant male sterility are poorly understood. In this study, we conducted comparative analyses using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ of the pollen proteins in a CMS line and its wheat maintainer. Differentially abundant proteins (DAPs were analyzed based on Gene Ontology classifications, metabolic pathways and transcriptional regulation networks using Blast2GO. We identified 5570 proteins based on 23,277 peptides, which matched with 73,688 spectra, including proteins in key pathways such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, pyruvate kinase and 6-phosphofructokinase 1 in the glycolysis pathway, isocitrate dehydrogenase and citrate synthase in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH-dehydrogenase and adenosine-triphosphate (ATP synthases in the oxidative phosphorylation pathway. These proteins may comprise a network that regulates male sterility in wheat. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR analysis, ATP assays and total sugar assays validated the iTRAQ results. These DAPs could be associated with abnormal pollen grain formation and male sterility. Our findings provide insights into the molecular mechanism related to male sterility in wheat.

  2. Deep sequencing of the Camellia sinensis transcriptome revealed candidate genes for major metabolic pathways of tea-specific compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, CY; Yang, H; Wei, CL; Yu, O; Zhang, ZZ; Sun, J; Wan, XC

    2011-01-01

    Tea is one of the most popular non-alcoholic beverages worldwide. However, the tea plant, Camellia sinensis, is difficult to culture in vitro, to transform, and has a large genome, rendering little genomic information available. Recent advances in large-scale RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) provide a fast, cost-effective, and reliable approach to generate large expression datasets for functional genomic analysis, which is especially suitable for non-model species with un-sequenced genomes. Using high-throughput Illumina RNA-seq, the transcriptome from poly (A){sup +} RNA of C. sinensis was analyzed at an unprecedented depth (2.59 gigabase pairs). Approximate 34.5 million reads were obtained, trimmed, and assembled into 127,094 unigenes, with an average length of 355 bp and an N50 of 506 bp, which consisted of 788 contig clusters and 126,306 singletons. This number of unigenes was 10-fold higher than existing C. sinensis sequences deposited in GenBank (as of August 2010). Sequence similarity analyses against six public databases (Uniprot, NR and COGs at NCBI, Pfam, InterPro and KEGG) found 55,088 unigenes that could be annotated with gene descriptions, conserved protein domains, or gene ontology terms. Some of the unigenes were assigned to putative metabolic pathways. Targeted searches using these annotations identified the majority of genes associated with several primary metabolic pathways and natural product pathways that are important to tea quality, such as flavonoid, theanine and caffeine biosynthesis pathways. Novel candidate genes of these secondary pathways were discovered. Comparisons with four previously prepared cDNA libraries revealed that this transcriptome dataset has both a high degree of consistency with previous EST data and an approximate 20 times increase in coverage. Thirteen unigenes related to theanine and flavonoid synthesis were validated. Their expression patterns in different organs of the tea plant were analyzed by RT-PCR and quantitative real

  3. Deep sequencing of the Camellia sinensis transcriptome revealed candidate genes for major metabolic pathways of tea-specific compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Qi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tea is one of the most popular non-alcoholic beverages worldwide. However, the tea plant, Camellia sinensis, is difficult to culture in vitro, to transform, and has a large genome, rendering little genomic information available. Recent advances in large-scale RNA sequencing (RNA-seq provide a fast, cost-effective, and reliable approach to generate large expression datasets for functional genomic analysis, which is especially suitable for non-model species with un-sequenced genomes. Results Using high-throughput Illumina RNA-seq, the transcriptome from poly (A+ RNA of C. sinensis was analyzed at an unprecedented depth (2.59 gigabase pairs. Approximate 34.5 million reads were obtained, trimmed, and assembled into 127,094 unigenes, with an average length of 355 bp and an N50 of 506 bp, which consisted of 788 contig clusters and 126,306 singletons. This number of unigenes was 10-fold higher than existing C. sinensis sequences deposited in GenBank (as of August 2010. Sequence similarity analyses against six public databases (Uniprot, NR and COGs at NCBI, Pfam, InterPro and KEGG found 55,088 unigenes that could be annotated with gene descriptions, conserved protein domains, or gene ontology terms. Some of the unigenes were assigned to putative metabolic pathways. Targeted searches using these annotations identified the majority of genes associated with several primary metabolic pathways and natural product pathways that are important to tea quality, such as flavonoid, theanine and caffeine biosynthesis pathways. Novel candidate genes of these secondary pathways were discovered. Comparisons with four previously prepared cDNA libraries revealed that this transcriptome dataset has both a high degree of consistency with previous EST data and an approximate 20 times increase in coverage. Thirteen unigenes related to theanine and flavonoid synthesis were validated. Their expression patterns in different organs of the tea plant were

  4. The Application of the Weighted k-Partite Graph Problem to the Multiple Alignment for Metabolic Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenbin; Hendrix, William; Samatova, Nagiza F

    2017-12-01

    The problem of aligning multiple metabolic pathways is one of very challenging problems in computational biology. A metabolic pathway consists of three types of entities: reactions, compounds, and enzymes. Based on similarities between enzymes, Tohsato et al. gave an algorithm for aligning multiple metabolic pathways. However, the algorithm given by Tohsato et al. neglects the similarities among reactions, compounds, enzymes, and pathway topology. How to design algorithms for the alignment problem of multiple metabolic pathways based on the similarity of reactions, compounds, and enzymes? It is a difficult computational problem. In this article, we propose an algorithm for the problem of aligning multiple metabolic pathways based on the similarities among reactions, compounds, enzymes, and pathway topology. First, we compute a weight between each pair of like entities in different input pathways based on the entities' similarity score and topological structure using Ay et al.'s methods. We then construct a weighted k-partite graph for the reactions, compounds, and enzymes. We extract a mapping between these entities by solving the maximum-weighted k-partite matching problem by applying a novel heuristic algorithm. By analyzing the alignment results of multiple pathways in different organisms, we show that the alignments found by our algorithm correctly identify common subnetworks among multiple pathways.

  5. Autotrophic microbe metagenomes and metabolic pathways differentiate adjacent red sea brine pools

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yong

    2013-04-29

    In the Red Sea, two neighboring deep-sea brine pools, Atlantis II and Discovery, have been studied extensively, and the results have shown that the temperature and concentrations of metal and methane in Atlantis II have increased over the past decades. Therefore, we investigated changes in the microbial community and metabolic pathways. Here, we compared the metagenomes of the two pools to each other and to those of deep-sea water samples. Archaea were generally absent in the Atlantis II metagenome; Bacteria in the metagenome were typically heterotrophic and depended on aromatic compounds and other extracellular organic carbon compounds as indicated by enrichment of the related metabolic pathways. In contrast, autotrophic Archaea capable of CO2 fixation and methane oxidation were identified in Discovery but not in Atlantis II. Our results suggest that hydrothermal conditions and metal precipitation in the Atlantis II pool have resulted in elimination of the autotrophic community and methanogens.

  6. [Engineering of the xylose metabolic pathway for microbial production of bio-based chemicals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weixi; Fu, Jing; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Tao

    2013-08-01

    As the rapid development of economy necessitates a large number of oil, the contradiction between energy supply and demand is further exacerbated by the dwindling reserves of petroleum resource. Therefore, the research of the renewable cellulosic biomass resources is gaining unprecedented momentum. Because xylose is the second most abundant monosaccharide after glucose in lignocellulose hydrolyzes, high-efficiency bioconversion of xylose becomes one of the vital factors that affect the industrial prospects of lignocellulose application. According to the research progresses in recent years, this review summarized the advances in bioconversion of xylose, which included identification and redesign of the xylose metabolic pathway, engineering the xylose transport pathway and bio-based chemicals production. In order to solve the energy crisis and environmental pollution issues, the development of advanced bio-fuel technology, especially engineering the microbe able to metabolize xylose and produce ethanol by synthetic biology, is environmentally benign and sustainable.

  7. Glucose metabolism via the Entner-Doudoroff pathway in Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegge, Christina Skovgaard; van Rensburg, Melissa J. Jansen; Rasmussen, Janus Jagd

    2016-01-01

    enhanced stationary phase survival of a set of ED-positive C. coli isolates. Unexpectedly, glucose massively promoted floating biofilm formation in some of these ED-positive isolates. Metabolic profiling by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed distinct responses to glucose in a low biofilm strain......), some glucose-utilizing isolates exhibit specific fitness advantages, including stationary-phase survival and biofilm production, highlighting key physiological benefits of this pathway in addition to energy conservation....

  8. Altered Placental Tryptophan Metabolism: A Crucial Molecular Pathway for the Fetal Programming of Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    trophic factor for the fetal brain before it acts as a neurotransmitter . 5-HT signaling modulates fetal brain wiring mechanisms and its disruption at...metabolism in the placenta, and consequently placental 5-HT synthesis , may directly affect fetal brain development and constitute a new molecular...Aim I: To determine whether maternal inflammation alters placental synthesis and fetal exposure to 5-HT and kynurenine-pathway compounds. This

  9. Anatomical pathways involved in generating and sensing rhythmic whisker movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurens W.J. Bosman

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The rodent whisker system is widely used as a model system for investigating sensorimotor integration, neural mechanisms of complex cognitive tasks, neural development, and robotics. The whisker pathways to the barrel cortex have received considerable attention. However, many subcortical structures are paramount to the whisker system. They contribute to important processes, like filtering out salient features, integration with other senses and adaptation of the whisker system to the general behavioral state of the animal. We present here an overview of the brain regions and their connections involved in the whisker system. We do not only describe the anatomy and functional roles of the cerebral cortex, but also those of subcortical structures like the striatum, superior colliculus, cerebellum, pontomedullary reticular formation, zona incerta and anterior pretectal nucleus as well as those of level setting systems like the cholinergic, histaminergic, serotonergic and noradrenergic pathways. We conclude by discussing how these brain regions may affect each other and how they together may control the precise timing of whisker movements and coordinate whisker perception.

  10. Interrelationship of canonical and non-canonical Wnt signalling pathways in chronic metabolic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackers, Ian; Malgor, Ramiro

    2018-01-01

    Chronic diseases account for approximately 45% of all deaths in developed countries and are particularly prevalent in countries with the most sophisticated and robust public health systems. Chronic metabolic diseases, specifically lifestyle-related diseases pertaining to diet and exercise, continue to be difficult to treat clinically. The most prevalent of these chronic metabolic diseases include obesity, diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease and will be the focus of this review. Wnt proteins are highly conserved glycoproteins best known for their role in development and homeostasis of tissues. Given the importance of Wnt signalling in homeostasis, aberrant Wnt signalling likely regulates metabolic processes and may contribute to the development of chronic metabolic diseases. Expression of Wnt proteins and dysfunctional Wnt signalling has been reported in multiple chronic diseases. It is interesting to speculate about an interrelationship between the Wnt signalling pathways as a potential pathological mechanism in chronic metabolic diseases. The aim of this review is to summarize reported findings on the contrasting roles of Wnt signalling in lifestyle-related chronic metabolic diseases; specifically, the contribution of Wnt signalling to lipid accumulation, fibrosis and chronic low-grade inflammation.

  11. Targeting cancer stem-like cells in glioblastoma and colorectal cancer through metabolic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlert, U D; Mooney, S M; Natsumeda, M; Steiger, H-J; Maciaczyk, J

    2017-01-01

    Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) are thought to be the main cause of tumor occurrence, progression and therapeutic resistance. Strong research efforts in the last decade have led to the development of several tailored approaches to target CSCs with some very promising clinical trials underway; however, until now no anti-CSC therapy has been approved for clinical use. Given the recent improvement in our understanding of how onco-proteins can manipulate cellular metabolic networks to promote tumorigenesis, cancer metabolism research may well lead to innovative strategies to identify novel regulators and downstream mediators of CSC maintenance. Interfering with distinct stages of CSC-associated metabolics may elucidate novel, more efficient strategies to target this highly malignant cell population. Here recent discoveries regarding the metabolic properties attributed to CSCs in glioblastoma (GBM) and malignant colorectal cancer (CRC) were summarized. The association between stem cell markers, the response to hypoxia and other environmental stresses including therapeutic insults as well as developmentally conserved signaling pathways with alterations in cellular bioenergetic networks were also discussed. The recent developments in metabolic imaging to identify CSCs were also summarized. This summary should comprehensively update basic and clinical scientists on the metabolic traits of CSCs in GBM and malignant CRC. © 2016 UICC.

  12. Metabolism via arginase or nitric oxide synthase: two competing arginine pathways in macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meera eRath

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages play a major role in the immune system, both as antimicrobial effector cells and as immunoregulatory cells, which induce, suppress or modulate adaptive immune responses. These key aspects of macrophage biology are fundamentally driven by the phenotype of macrophage arginine metabolism that is prevalent in an evolving or ongoing immune response. M1 macrophages express the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS, which metabolizes arginine to nitric oxide (NO and citrulline. NO can be metabolized to further downstream reactive nitrogen species, while citrulline might be reused for efficient NO synthesis via the citrulline-NO cycle. M2 macrophages are characterized by expression of the enzyme arginase, which hydrolyzes arginine to ornithine and urea. The arginase pathway limits arginine availability for NO synthesis and ornithine itself can further feed into the important downstream pathways of polyamine and proline syntheses, which are important for cellular proliferation and tissue repair. M1 versus M2 polarization leads to opposing outcomes of inflammatory reactions, but depending on the context, M1 and M2 macrophages can be both pro- and antiinflammatory. Notably, M1/M2 macrophage polarization can be driven by microbial infection or innate danger signals without any influence of adaptive immune cells, secondarily driving the T helper (Th1/Th2 polarization of the evolving adaptive immune response. Since both arginine metabolic pathways cross-inhibit each other on the level of the respective arginine break-down products and Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes can drive or amplify macrophage M1/M2 dichotomy via cytokine activation, this forms the basis of a self-sustaining M1/M2 polarization of the whole immune response. Understanding the arginine metabolism of M1/M2 macrophage phenotypes is therefore central to find new possibilities to manipulate immune responses in infection, autoimmune diseases, chronic inflammatory conditions and cancer.

  13. Identification of diagnostic biomarkers and metabolic pathway shifts of heat-stressed lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, He; Wang, Weiyu; Zheng, Nan; Cheng, Jianbo; Li, Songli; Zhang, Yangdong; Wang, Jiaqi

    2015-07-01

    Controlling heat stress (HS) is a global challenge for the dairy industry. However, simple and reliable biomarkers that aid the diagnoses of HS-induced metabolic disorders have not yet been identified. In this work, an integrated metabolomic and lipidomic approach using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance and ultra-fast LC-MS was employed to investigate the discrimination of plasma metabolic profiles between HS-free and HS lactating dairy cows. Targeted detection using LC-MS in multiple reaction monitoring mode was used to verify the reliability of the metabolites as biomarker candidates. Overall, 41 metabolites were identified as candidates for lactating dairy cows exposed to HS, among which 13 metabolites, including trimethylamine, glucose, lactate, betaine, creatine, pyruvate, acetoacetate, acetone, β-hydroxybutyrate, C16 sphinganine, lysophosphatidylcholine (18:0), phosphatidylcholine (16:0/14:0), and arachidonic acid, had high sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing HS status, and are likely to be the potential biomarkers of HS dairy cows. All of these potentially diagnostic biomarkers were involved in carbohydrate, amino acid, lipid, or gut microbiome-derived metabolism, indicating that HS affected the metabolic pathways in lactating dairy cows. Further research is warranted to evaluate these biomarkers in practical applications and to elucidate the physiological mechanisms of HS-induced metabolic disorders. Heat stress (HS) annually causes huge losses to global dairy industry, including animal performance decrease, metabolic disorder and health problem. So far, physiological mechanisms underlying HS of dairy cows still remain elusive. To our best knowledge, this is the first attempt to elucidate the HS-induced metabolic disorders of dairy cows using integrated (1)H NMR and LC-MS-based metabolic study. The results not only provided potential diagnostic biomarkers for HS lactating dairy cows, but also significantly explored the related physiological mechanisms

  14. Metabolic responses and pathway changes of mammalian cells under different culture conditions with media supplementations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seo-Young; Reimonn, Thomas M; Agarabi, Cyrus D; Brorson, Kurt A; Yoon, Seongkyu

    2018-02-21

    Amino acids and glucose consumption, cell growth and monoclonal antibody (mAb) production in mammalian cell culture are key considerations during upstream process and particularly media optimization. Understanding the interrelations and the relevant cellular physiology will provide insight for setting strategy of robust and effective mAb production. The aim of this study was to further our understanding of nutrient consumption metabolism, since this could have significant impact on enhancing mAb titer, cell proliferation, designing feeding strategies, and development of feed media. The nutrient consumption pattern, mAb concentration, and cell growth were analyzed in three sets of cell cultures with media supplementation of glucose, methionine, threonine, tryptophan, and tyrosine. The amino acids metabolism and its impact on cell growth and mAb production during the batch and fed-batch culture were closely analyzed. It was shown that the phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis pathways were significantly altered under different culture conditions with different media. These changes were more apparent in the fed-batch process in which higher mAb titer was observed due to the metabolic changes than mAb titer in the batch process. The pathway analysis approach was well utilized for evaluating the impact on the relevant pathways involved under different cell culture conditions to improve cell growth and mAb titer. © 2018 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2018. © 2018 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  15. Regional cerebral glucose metabolic changes in oculopalatal myoclonus: implication for neural pathways, underlying the disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sang Soo; Moon, So Young; Kim, Ji Soo; Kim, Sang Eun [College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Palatal myoclonus (PM) is characterized by rhythmic involuntary jerky movements of the soft palate of the throat. When associated with eye movements, it is called oculopalatal myoclonus (OPM). Ordinary PM is characterized by hypertrophic olivary degeneration, a trans-synaptic degeneration following loss of neuronal input to the inferior olivary nucleus due to an interruption of the Guillain-Mollaret triangle usually by a hemorrhage. However, the neural pathways underlying the disorder are uncertain. In an attempt to understand the pathologic neural pathways, we examined the metabolic correlates of this tremulous condition. Brain FDG PET scans were acquired in 8 patients with OPM (age, 49.9{+-}4.6 y: all males: 7 with pontine hemorrhage, 1 with diffuse brainstem infarction) and age-matched 50 healthy males (age, 50.7{+-} 9.0) and the regional glucose metabolism compared using SPM99. For group analysis, the hemispheres containing lesions were assigned to the right side of the brain. Patients with OPM had significant hypometabolism in the ipsilateral (to the lesion) brainstem and superior temporal and parahippocampal gyri (P < 0.05 corrected, k = 100). By contrast, there was significant hypermetabolism in the contralateral middle and inferior temporal gyri, thalamus, middle frontal gyrus and precuneus (P < 0.05 corrected, k=l00). Our data demonstrate the distinct metabolic changes between several ipsilateral and contralateral brain regions (hypometabolism vs. hypermetabolism) in patients with OPM. This may provide clues for understanding the neural pathways underlying the disorder.

  16. Layered dynamic regulation for improving metabolic pathway productivity inEscherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doong, Stephanie J; Gupta, Apoorv; Prather, Kristala L J

    2018-03-20

    Microbial production of value-added chemicals from biomass is a sustainable alternative to chemical synthesis. To improve product titer, yield, and selectivity, the pathways engineered into microbes must be optimized. One strategy for optimization is dynamic pathway regulation, which modulates expression of pathway-relevant enzymes over the course of fermentation. Metabolic engineers have used dynamic regulation to redirect endogenous flux toward product formation, balance the production and consumption rates of key intermediates, and suppress production of toxic intermediates until later in the fermentation. Most cases, however, have utilized a single strategy for dynamically regulating pathway fluxes. Here we layer two orthogonal, autonomous, and tunable dynamic regulation strategies to independently modulate expression of two different enzymes to improve production of D-glucaric acid from a heterologous pathway. The first strategy uses a previously described pathway-independent quorum sensing system to dynamically knock down glycolytic flux and redirect carbon into production of glucaric acid, thereby switching cells from "growth" to "production" mode. The second strategy, developed in this work, uses a biosensor for myo -inositol (MI), an intermediate in the glucaric acid production pathway, to induce expression of a downstream enzyme upon sufficient buildup of MI. The latter, pathway-dependent strategy leads to a 2.5-fold increase in titer when used in isolation and a fourfold increase when added to a strain employing the former, pathway-independent regulatory system. The dual-regulation strain produces nearly 2 g/L glucaric acid, representing the highest glucaric acid titer reported to date in Escherichia coli K-12 strains.

  17. Impact of Ocean Acidification on Energy Metabolism of Oyster, Crassostrea gigas—Changes in Metabolic Pathways and Thermal Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Bock

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Climate change with increasing temperature and ocean acidification (OA poses risks for marine ecosystems. According to Pörtner and Farrell [1], synergistic effects of elevated temperature and CO2-induced OA on energy metabolism will narrow the thermal tolerance window of marine ectothermal animals. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effect of an acute temperature rise on energy metabolism of the oyster, Crassostrea gigas chronically exposed to elevated CO2 levels (partial pressure of CO2 in the seawater ~0.15 kPa, seawater pH ~ 7.7. Within one month of incubation at elevated PCO2 and 15 °C hemolymph pH fell (pHe = 7.1 ± 0.2 (CO2-group vs. 7.6 ± 0.1 (control and PeCO2 values in hemolymph increased (0.5 ± 0.2 kPa (CO2-group vs. 0.2 ± 0.04 kPa (control. Slightly but significantly elevated bicarbonate concentrations in the hemolymph of CO2-incubated oysters ([HCO-3]e = 1.8 ± 0.3 mM (CO2-group vs. 1.3 ± 0.1 mM (control indicate only minimal regulation of extracellular acid-base status. At the acclimation temperature of 15 °C the OA-induced decrease in pHe did not lead to metabolic depression in oysters as standard metabolism rates (SMR of CO2-exposed oysters were similar to controls. Upon acute warming SMR rose in both groups, but displayed a stronger increase in the CO2-incubated group. Investigation in isolated gill cells revealed a similar temperature-dependence of respiration between groups. Furthermore, the fraction of cellular energy demand for ion regulation via Na+/K+-ATPase was not affected by chronic hypercapnia or temperature. Metabolic profiling using 1H-NMR spectroscopy revealed substantial changes in some tissues following OA exposure at 15 °C. In mantle tissue alanine and ATP levels decreased significantly whereas an increase in succinate levels was observed in gill tissue. These findings suggest shifts in metabolic pathways following OA-exposure. Our study confirms that OA affects energy metabolism in oysters and

  18. The PPARα - FGF21 hormone axis contributes to metabolic regulation by the hepatic JNK signaling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernia, Santiago; Cavanagh-Kyros, Julie; Garcia-Haro, Luisa; Sabio, Guadalupe; Barrett, Tamera; Jung, Dae Young; Kim, Jason K.; Xu, Jia; Shulha, Hennady P.; Garber, Manuel; Gao, Guangping; Davis, Roger J.

    2014-01-01

    The cJun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) stress signaling pathway is implicated in the metabolic response to the consumption of a high fat diet, including the development of obesity and insulin resistance. These metabolic adaptations involve altered liver function. Here we demonstrate that hepatic JNK potently represses the nuclear hormone receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα). JNK therefore causes decreased expression of PPARα target genes that increase fatty acid oxidation / ketogenesis and promote the development of insulin resistance. We show that the PPARα target gene fibroblast growth factor 21 (Fgf21) plays a key role in this response because disruption of the hepatic PPARα - FGF21 hormone axis suppresses the metabolic effects of JNK-deficiency. This analysis identifies the hepatokine FGF21 as a critical mediator of JNK signaling in the liver. PMID:25043817

  19. Absolute quantitative profiling of the key metabolic pathways in slow and fast skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rakus, Dariusz; Gizak, Agnieszka; Deshmukh, Atul

    2015-01-01

    . Proteomic analysis of mouse slow and fast muscles allowed estimation of the titers of enzymes involved in the carbohydrate, lipid, and energy metabolism. Notably, we observed that differences observed between the two muscle types occur simultaneously for all proteins involved in a specific process......Slow and fast skeletal muscles are composed of, respectively, mainly oxidative and glycolytic muscle fibers, which are the basic cellular motor units of the motility apparatus. They largely differ in excitability, contraction mechanism, and metabolism. Because of their pivotal role in body motion...... and homeostasis, the skeletal muscles have been extensively studied using biochemical and molecular biology approaches. Here we describe a simple analytical and computational approach to estimate titers of enzymes of basic metabolic pathways and proteins of the contractile machinery in the skeletal muscles...

  20. Global Metabolic Engineering of Glycolytic Pathway via Multicopy Integration in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Ryosuke; Wakita, Kazuki; Ogino, Hiroyasu

    2017-04-21

    The use of renewable feedstocks for producing biofuels and biobased chemicals by engineering metabolic pathways of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has recently become an attractive option. Many researchers attempted to increase glucose consumption rate by overexpressing some glycolytic enzymes because most target biobased chemicals are derived through glycolysis. However, these attempts have met with little success. In this study, to create a S. cerevisiae strain with high glucose consumption rate, we used multicopy integration to develop a global metabolic engineering strategy. Among approximately 350 metabolically engineered strains, YPH499/dPdA3-34 exhibited the highest glucose consumption rate. This strain showed 1.3-fold higher cell growth rate and glucose consumption rate than the control strain. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that transcription levels of glycolysis-related genes such as HXK2, PFK1, PFK2, PYK2, PGI1, and PGK1 in YPH499/dPdA3-34 were increased. Our strategy is thus a promising approach to optimize global metabolic pathways in S. cerevisiae.

  1. The "parallel pathway": a novel nutritional and metabolic approach to cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscaritoli, Maurizio; Molfino, Alessio; Gioia, Gianfranco; Laviano, Alessandro; Rossi Fanelli, Filippo

    2011-04-01

    Cancer-associated malnutrition results from a deadly combination of anorexia, which leads to reduced food intake, and derangements of host metabolism inducing body weight loss, and hindering its reversal with nutrient supplementation. Cancer patients often experience both anorexia and weight loss, contributing to the onset of the clinical feature named as anorexia-cachexia syndrome. This condition has a negative impact upon patients' nutritional status. The pathogenesis of the anorexia-cachexia syndrome is multifactorial, and is related to: tumour-derived factors, host-derived factors inducing metabolic derangements, and side effects of anticancer therapies. In addition, the lack of awareness of cancer patients' nutritional issues and status by many oncologists, frequently results in progressive weight loss going undiagnosed until it becomes severe. The critical involvement of host inflammatory response in the development of weight loss, and, in particular, lean body mass depletion, limits the response to the provision of standard nutrition support. A novel nutritional and metabolic approach, named "parallel pathway", has been devised that may help maintain or improve nutritional status, and prevent or delay the onset of cancer cachexia. Such an approach may improve tolerance to aggressive anticancer therapies, and ameliorate the functional capacity and quality of life even in advanced disease stages. The "parallel pathway" implies a multiprofessional and multimodal approach aimed at ensuring early, appropriate and continuous nutritional and metabolic support to cancer patients in any phase of their cancer journey.

  2. Integration of Metabolomics and Transcriptomics Reveals Major Metabolic Pathways and Potential Biomarker Involved in Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Shancheng; Shao, Yaping; Zhao, Xinjie; Hong, Christopher S; Wang, Fubo; Lu, Xin; Li, Jia; Ye, Guozhu; Yan, Min; Zhuang, Zhengping; Xu, Chuanliang; Xu, Guowang; Sun, Yinghao

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a highly prevalent tumor affecting millions of men worldwide, but poor understanding of its pathogenesis has limited effective clinical management of patients. In addition to transcriptional profiling or transcriptomics, metabolomics is being increasingly utilized to discover key molecular changes underlying tumorigenesis. In this study, we integrated transcriptomics and metabolomics to analyze 25 paired human prostate cancer tissues and adjacent noncancerous tissues, followed by further validation of our findings in an additional cohort of 51 prostate cancer patients and 16 benign prostatic hyperplasia patients. We found several altered pathways aberrantly expressed at both metabolic and transcriptional levels, including cysteine and methionine metabolism, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide metabolism, and hexosamine biosynthesis. Additionally, the metabolite sphingosine demonstrated high specificity and sensitivity for distinguishing prostate cancer from benign prostatic hyperplasia, particularly for patients with low prostate specific antigen level (0-10 ng/ml). We also found impaired sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2 signaling, downstream of sphingosine, representing a loss of tumor suppressor gene and a potential key oncogenic pathway for therapeutic targeting. By integrating metabolomics and transcriptomics, we have provided both a broad picture of the molecular perturbations underlying prostate cancer and a preliminary study of a novel metabolic signature, which may help to discriminate prostate cancer from normal tissue and benign prostatic hyperplasia. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Tracing the Repertoire of Promiscuous Enzymes along the Metabolic Pathways in Archaeal Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Vázquez, Katya

    2017-01-01

    The metabolic pathways that carry out the biochemical transformations sustaining life depend on the efficiency of their associated enzymes. In recent years, it has become clear that promiscuous enzymes have played an important role in the function and evolution of metabolism. In this work we analyze the repertoire of promiscuous enzymes in 89 non-redundant genomes of the Archaea cellular domain. Promiscuous enzymes are defined as those proteins with two or more different Enzyme Commission (E.C.) numbers, according the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. From this analysis, it was found that the fraction of promiscuous enzymes is lower in Archaea than in Bacteria. A greater diversity of superfamily domains is associated with promiscuous enzymes compared to specialized enzymes, both in Archaea and Bacteria, and there is an enrichment of substrate promiscuity rather than catalytic promiscuity in the archaeal enzymes. Finally, the presence of promiscuous enzymes in the metabolic pathways was found to be heterogeneously distributed at the domain level and in the phyla that make up the Archaea. These analyses increase our understanding of promiscuous enzymes and provide additional clues to the evolution of metabolism in Archaea. PMID:28703743

  4. Programmable assembly of a metabolic pathway enzyme in a pre-packaged reusable bioMEMS device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaolong; Lewandowski, Angela T; Yi, Hyunmin; Payne, Gregory F; Ghodssi, Reza; Bentley, William E; Rubloff, Gary W

    2008-03-01

    We report a biofunctionalization strategy for the assembly of catalytically active enzymes within a completely packaged bioMEMS device, through the programmed generation of electrical signals at spatially and temporally defined sites. The enzyme of a bacterial metabolic pathway, S-adenosylhomocysteine nucleosidase (Pfs), is genetically fused with a pentatyrosine "pro-tag" at its C-terminus. Signal responsive assembly is based on covalent conjugation of Pfs to the aminopolysaccharide, chitosan, upon biochemical activation of the pro-tag, followed by electrodeposition of the enzyme-chitosan conjugate onto readily addressable sites in microfluidic channels. Compared to traditional physical entrapment and surface immobilization approaches in microfluidic environments, our signal-guided electrochemical assembly is unique in that the enzymes are assembled under mild aqueous conditions with spatial and temporal programmability and orientational control. Significantly, the chitosan-mediated enzyme assembly can be reversed, making the bioMEMS reusable for repeated assembly and catalytic activity. Additionally, the assembled enzymes retain catalytic activity over multiple days, demonstrating enhanced enzyme stability. We envision that this assembly strategy can be applied to rebuild metabolic pathways in microfluidic environments for antimicrobial drug discovery.

  5. Grandparents' Education and Infant Health: Pathways across Generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Michael J; McLanahan, Sara S; Goosby, Bridget J; Reichman, Nancy E

    2017-06-01

    Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing survey linked to respondents' medical records (N=2,870), this study examines the association between grandparents' education and birth outcomes and explores potential pathways underlying this relationship. Results show that having a grandfather with less than a high school education was associated with a 93 gram reduction in birthweight, a 59% increase in the odds of low birthweight, and a 136% increase in the odds of a neonatal health condition, compared to having a grandfather with a high school education or more. These associations were partially accounted for by mother's educational attainment and marital status, as well as by prenatal history of depression, hypertension, and prenatal health behaviors, depending on the specific outcome. The findings from this study call for heightened attention to the multigenerational influences of educational attainment for infant health.

  6. A broadly conserved pathway generates 3'UTR-directed primary piRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robine, Nicolas; Lau, Nelson C; Balla, Sudha; Jin, Zhigang; Okamura, Katsutomo; Kuramochi-Miyagawa, Satomi; Blower, Michael D; Lai, Eric C

    2009-12-29

    Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are approximately 24-30 nucleotide regulatory RNAs that are abundant in animal gonads and early embryos. The best-characterized piRNAs mediate a conserved pathway that restricts transposable elements, and these frequently engage a "ping-pong" amplification loop. Certain stages of mammalian testis also accumulate abundant piRNAs of unknown function, which derive from noncoding RNAs that are depleted in transposable element content and do not engage in ping-pong. We report that the 3' untranslated regions (3'UTRs) of an extensive set of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) are processed into piRNAs in Drosophila ovaries, murine testes, and Xenopus eggs. Analysis of different mutants and Piwi-class immunoprecipitates indicates that their biogenesis depends on primary piRNA components, but not most ping-pong components. Several observations suggest that mRNAs are actively selected for piRNA production for regulatory purposes. First, genic piRNAs do not accumulate in proportion to the level of their host transcripts, and many highly expressed transcripts lack piRNAs. Second, piRNA-producing mRNAs in Drosophila and mouse are enriched for specific gene ontology categories distinct from those of simply abundant transcripts. Third, the protein output of traffic jam, whose 3'UTR generates abundant piRNAs, is increased in piwi mutant follicle clones. We reveal a conserved primary piRNA pathway that selects and metabolizes the 3'UTRs of a broad set of cellular transcripts, probably for regulatory purposes. These findings strongly increase the breadth of Argonaute-mediated small RNA systems in metazoans.

  7. Critical assessment of human metabolic pathway databases: a stepping stone for future integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stobbe Miranda D

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple pathway databases are available that describe the human metabolic network and have proven their usefulness in many applications, ranging from the analysis and interpretation of high-throughput data to their use as a reference repository. However, so far the various human metabolic networks described by these databases have not been systematically compared and contrasted, nor has the extent to which they differ been quantified. For a researcher using these databases for particular analyses of human metabolism, it is crucial to know the extent of the differences in content and their underlying causes. Moreover, the outcomes of such a comparison are important for ongoing integration efforts. Results We compared the genes, EC numbers and reactions of five frequently used human metabolic pathway databases. The overlap is surprisingly low, especially on reaction level, where the databases agree on 3% of the 6968 reactions they have combined. Even for the well-established tricarboxylic acid cycle the databases agree on only 5 out of the 30 reactions in total. We identified the main causes for the lack of overlap. Importantly, the databases are partly complementary. Other explanations include the number of steps a conversion is described in and the number of possible alternative substrates listed. Missing metabolite identifiers and ambiguous names for metabolites also affect the comparison. Conclusions Our results show that each of the five networks compared provides us with a valuable piece of the puzzle of the complete reconstruction of the human metabolic network. To enable integration of the networks, next to a need for standardizing the metabolite names and identifiers, the conceptual differences between the databases should be resolved. Considerable manual intervention is required to reach the ultimate goal of a unified and biologically accurate model for studying the systems biology of human metabolism. Our comparison

  8. Sulfonation of maternal steroids is a conserved metabolic pathway in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paitz, Ryan T; Bowden, Rachel M

    2013-12-01

    All vertebrate embryos develop in the presence of maternally derived steroids, and maternal steroids have been hypothesized to link phenotype of the offspring to maternal physiology. In placental vertebrates, it is known that maternally derived steroids are metabolized during development via the sulfonation pathway. We used eggs from the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta) to determine whether the same metabolic pathway is used to metabolize maternally derived steroids in an oviparous vertebrate. To examine the relationship between estradiol and estrogen sulfates during development, levels of maternally derived estradiol were compared with levels of estradiol sulfate, estrone sulfate, and estriol sulfate at oviposition and after 20 days of embryonic development. Estrone sulfate was the only detectable estrogen sulfate. At oviposition, levels of both estradiol and estrone sulfate varied seasonally with clutches from later in the nesting season having significantly higher concentrations of both steroids. Levels of estrone sulfate increased during development, demonstrating that the sulfonation of maternally derived steroids occurs in oviparous vertebrates as well as in placental vertebrates. We also found that exogenous estrone sulfate increases the production of female hatchlings, thereby demonstrating the ability of this metabolite to influence embryonic development. To examine the role of sulfonation in the metabolism of maternal progesterone and testosterone, we characterized the metabolic fate of both steroids by applying tritiated forms of each steroid at oviposition and characterizing metabolites after 20 days of incubation. Similar to what was demonstrated for estradiol, both progesterone and testosterone are converted to sulfonated metabolites during embryonic development. These data suggest that steroid sulfates, both those that are maternally derived and those resulting from the metabolism of maternal steroids, are a key component of the mechanism

  9. Muconic Acid Production via Alternative Pathways and a Synthetic "Metabolic Funnel".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Brian; Pugh, Shawn; Machas, Michael; Nielsen, David R

    2018-02-16

    Muconic acid is a promising platform biochemical and precursor to adipic acid, which can be used to synthesize various plastics and polymers. In this study, the systematic construction and comparative evaluation of a modular network of non-natural pathways for muconic acid biosynthesis was investigated in Escherichia coli, including via three distinct and novel pathways proceeding via phenol as a common intermediate. However, poor recombinant activity and high promiscuity of phenol hydroxylase ultimately limited "phenol-dependent" muconic acid production. A fourth pathway proceeding via p-hydroxybenzoate, protocatechuate, and catechol was accordingly developed, though with muconic acid titers by this route reaching just 819 mg/L, its performance lagged behind that of the established, "3-dehydroshikimiate-derived" route. Finally, these two most promising pathways were coexpressed in parallel to create a synthetic "metabolic funnel" that, by enabling maximal net precursor assimilation and flux while preserving native chorismate biosynthesis, nearly doubled muconic acid production to up to >3.1 g/L at a glucose yield of 158 mg/g while introducing only a single auxotrophy. This generalizable, "funneling" strategy is expected to have broad applications in metabolic engineering for further enhancing production of muconic acid, as well as other important bioproducts of interest.

  10. Metabolic pathway redundancy within the apicomplexan-dinoflagellate radiation argues against an ancient chromalveolate plastid

    KAUST Repository

    Waller, Ross F.

    2015-12-08

    The chromalveolate hypothesis presents an attractively simple explanation for the presence of red algal-derived secondary plastids in 5 major eukaryotic lineages: “chromista” phyla, cryptophytes, haptophytes and ochrophytes; and alveolate phyla, dinoflagellates and apicomplexans. It posits that a single secondary endosymbiotic event occurred in a common ancestor of these diverse groups, and that this ancient plastid has since been maintained by vertical inheritance only. Substantial testing of this hypothesis by molecular phylogenies has, however, consistently failed to provide support for the predicted monophyly of the host organisms that harbour these plastids—the “chromalveolates.” This lack of support does not disprove the chromalveolate hypothesis per se, but rather drives the proposed endosymbiosis deeper into the eukaryotic tree, and requires multiple plastid losses to have occurred within intervening aplastidic lineages. An alternative perspective on plastid evolution is offered by considering the metabolic partnership between the endosymbiont and its host cell. A recent analysis of metabolic pathways in a deep-branching dinoflagellate indicates a high level of pathway redundancy in the common ancestor of apicomplexans and dinoflagellates, and differential losses of these pathways soon after radiation of the major extant lineages. This suggests that vertical inheritance of an ancient plastid in alveolates is highly unlikely as it would necessitate maintenance of redundant pathways over very long evolutionary timescales.

  11. Metabolic engineering of the phenylpropanoid pathway enhances the antioxidant capacity of Saussurea involucrata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Qiu

    Full Text Available The rare wild species of snow lotus Saussurea involucrata is a commonly used medicinal herb with great pharmacological value for human health, resulting from its uniquely high level of phenylpropanoid compound production. To gain information on the phenylpropanid biosynthetic pathway genes in this critically important medicinal plant, global transcriptome sequencing was performed. It revealed that the phenylpropanoid pathway genes were well represented in S. involucrata. In addition, we introduced two key phenylpropanoid pathway inducing transcription factors (PAP1 and Lc into this medicinal plant. Transgenic S. involucrata co-expressing PAP1 and Lc exhibited purple pigments due to a massive accumulation of anthocyanins. The over-expression of PAP1 and Lc largely activated most of the phenylpropanoid pathway genes, and increased accumulation of several phenylpropanoid compounds significantly, including chlorogenic acid, syringin, cyanrine and rutin. Both ABTS (2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzotiazo-line-6-sulfonic acid and FRAP (ferric reducing anti-oxidant power assays revealed that the antioxidant capacity of transgenic S. involucrata lines was greatly enhanced over controls. In addition to providing a deeper understanding of the molecular basis of phenylpropanoid metabolism, our results potentially enable an alternation of bioactive compound production in S. involucrata through metabolic engineering.

  12. A board game to assist pharmacy students in learning metabolic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Tyler M

    2011-11-10

    To develop and evaluate a board game designed to increase students' enjoyment of learning metabolic pathways; their familiarity with pathway reactions, intermediates, and regulation; and, their understanding of how pathways relate to one another and to selected biological conditions. The board game, entitled Race to Glucose, was created as a team activity for first-year pharmacy students in the biochemistry curriculum. A majority of respondents agreed that the game was helpful for learning regulation, intermediates, and interpathway relationships but not for learning reactions, formation of energetic molecules, or relationships, to biological conditions. There was a significant increase in students' scores on game-related examination questions (68.8% pretest vs. 81.3% posttest), but the improvement was no greater than that for examination questions not related to the game (12.5% vs. 10.9%). First-year pharmacy students considered Race to Glucose to be an enjoyable and helpful tool for learning intermediates, regulation, and interpathway relationships.

  13. Pathway-Consensus Approach to Metabolic Network Reconstruction for Pseudomonas putida KT2440 by Systematic Comparison of Published Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qianqian; Huang, Teng; Li, Peishun; Hao, Tong; Li, Feiran; Ma, Hongwu; Wang, Zhiwen; Zhao, Xueming; Chen, Tao; Goryanin, Igor

    2017-01-01

    Over 100 genome-scale metabolic networks (GSMNs) have been published in recent years and widely used for phenotype prediction and pathway design. However, GSMNs for a specific organism reconstructed by different research groups usually produce inconsistent simulation results, which makes it difficult to use the GSMNs for precise optimal pathway design. Therefore, it is necessary to compare and identify the discrepancies among networks and build a consensus metabolic network for an organism. Here we proposed a process for systematic comparison of metabolic networks at pathway level. We compared four published GSMNs of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 and identified the discrepancies leading to inconsistent pathway calculation results. The mistakes in the models were corrected based on information from literature so that all the calculated synthesis and uptake pathways were the same. Subsequently we built a pathway-consensus model and then further updated it with the latest genome annotation information to obtain modelPpuQY1140 for P. putida KT2440, which includes 1140 genes, 1171 reactions and 1104 metabolites. We found that even small errors in a GSMN could have great impacts on the calculated optimal pathways and thus may lead to incorrect pathway design strategies. Careful investigation of the calculated pathways during the metabolic network reconstruction process is essential for building proper GSMNs for pathway design.

  14. Pathway-Consensus Approach to Metabolic Network Reconstruction for Pseudomonas putida KT2440 by Systematic Comparison of Published Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianqian Yuan

    Full Text Available Over 100 genome-scale metabolic networks (GSMNs have been published in recent years and widely used for phenotype prediction and pathway design. However, GSMNs for a specific organism reconstructed by different research groups usually produce inconsistent simulation results, which makes it difficult to use the GSMNs for precise optimal pathway design. Therefore, it is necessary to compare and identify the discrepancies among networks and build a consensus metabolic network for an organism. Here we proposed a process for systematic comparison of metabolic networks at pathway level. We compared four published GSMNs of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 and identified the discrepancies leading to inconsistent pathway calculation results. The mistakes in the models were corrected based on information from literature so that all the calculated synthesis and uptake pathways were the same. Subsequently we built a pathway-consensus model and then further updated it with the latest genome annotation information to obtain modelPpuQY1140 for P. putida KT2440, which includes 1140 genes, 1171 reactions and 1104 metabolites. We found that even small errors in a GSMN could have great impacts on the calculated optimal pathways and thus may lead to incorrect pathway design strategies. Careful investigation of the calculated pathways during the metabolic network reconstruction process is essential for building proper GSMNs for pathway design.

  15. Magnetic Nanowires Generated via the Waterborne Desalting Transition Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, M.; Fresnais, J.; Sekar, S.; Chapel, J. -P.; Berret, J. -F.

    2011-01-01

    We report a simple and versatile waterborne synthesis of magnetic nanowires following the innovative concept of electrostatic "desalting transition". Highly persistent superparamagnetic nanowires are generated from the controlled assembly of oppositely charged nanoparticles and commercially available polyelectrolytes. The wires have diameters around 200 nm and lengths comprised between 1 {\\mu}m and 1/2 mm, with either positive or negative charges on their surface. Beyond, we show that this so...

  16. Vibrational interference of Raman and high harmonic generation pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, Zachary B.; Tonzani, Stefano; Greene, Chris H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a model of high harmonic generation which incorporates the internal vibrational degrees of freedom present in molecules. It is shown that vibrational dynamics during the HHG process cause the molecular wavefunction to interfere with itself, in a manner analogous to an optical beamsplitter. In addition, a semiclassical model of the continuum electron is developed which connects with rigorous treatments of electron-ion scattering.

  17. 13C Pathway Analysis for the Role of Formate in Electricity Generation by Shewanella Oneidensis MR-1 Using Lactate in Microbial Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shuai; Guo, Weihua; H. Nealson, Kenneth; Feng, Xueyang; He, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a promising technology for direct electricity generation from organics by microorganisms. The type of electron donors fed into MFCs affects the electrical performance, and mechanistic understanding of such effects is important to optimize the MFC performance. In this study, we used a model organism in MFCs, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, and 13C pathway analysis to investigate the role of formate in electricity generation and the related microbial metabolism. Our results indicated a synergistic effect of formate and lactate on electricity generation, and extra formate addition on the original lactate resulted in more electrical output than using formate or lactate as a sole electron donor. Based on the 13C tracer analysis, we discovered decoupled cell growth and electricity generation in S. oneidensis MR-1 during co-utilization of lactate and formate (i.e., while the lactate was mainly metabolized to support the cell growth, the formate was oxidized to release electrons for higher electricity generation). To our best knowledge, this is the first time that 13C tracer analysis was applied to study microbial metabolism in MFCs and it was demonstrated to be a valuable tool to understand the metabolic pathways affected by electron donors in the selected electrochemically-active microorganisms. PMID:26868848

  18. ¹³C Pathway Analysis for the Role of Formate in Electricity Generation by Shewanella Oneidensis MR-1 Using Lactate in Microbial Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shuai; Guo, Weihua; Nealson, Kenneth H; Feng, Xueyang; He, Zhen

    2016-02-12

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a promising technology for direct electricity generation from organics by microorganisms. The type of electron donors fed into MFCs affects the electrical performance, and mechanistic understanding of such effects is important to optimize the MFC performance. In this study, we used a model organism in MFCs, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, and (13)C pathway analysis to investigate the role of formate in electricity generation and the related microbial metabolism. Our results indicated a synergistic effect of formate and lactate on electricity generation, and extra formate addition on the original lactate resulted in more electrical output than using formate or lactate as a sole electron donor. Based on the (13)C tracer analysis, we discovered decoupled cell growth and electricity generation in S. oneidensis MR-1 during co-utilization of lactate and formate (i.e., while the lactate was mainly metabolized to support the cell growth, the formate was oxidized to release electrons for higher electricity generation). To our best knowledge, this is the first time that (13)C tracer analysis was applied to study microbial metabolism in MFCs and it was demonstrated to be a valuable tool to understand the metabolic pathways affected by electron donors in the selected electrochemically-active microorganisms.

  19. Induction of autophagy by ARHI (DIRAS3) alters fundamental metabolic pathways in ovarian cancer models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornelas, Argentina; McCullough, Christopher R; Lu, Zhen; Zacharias, Niki M; Kelderhouse, Lindsay E; Gray, Joshua; Yang, Hailing; Engel, Brian J; Wang, Yan; Mao, Weiqun; Sutton, Margie N; Bhattacharya, Pratip K; Bast, Robert C; Millward, Steven W

    2016-10-26

    Autophagy is a bulk catabolic process that modulates tumorigenesis, therapeutic resistance, and dormancy. The tumor suppressor ARHI (DIRAS3) is a potent inducer of autophagy and its expression results in necroptotic cell death in vitro and tumor dormancy in vivo. ARHI is down-regulated or lost in over 60 % of primary ovarian tumors yet is dramatically up-regulated in metastatic disease. The metabolic changes that occur during ARHI induction and their role in modulating death and dormancy are unknown. We employed Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)-based metabolomic strategies to characterize changes in key metabolic pathways in both cell culture and xenograft models of ARHI expression and autophagy. These pathways were further interrogated by cell-based immunofluorescence imaging, tracer uptake studies, targeted metabolic inhibition, and in vivo PET/CT imaging. Induction of ARHI in cell culture models resulted in an autophagy-dependent increase in lactate production along with increased glucose uptake and enhanced sensitivity to glycolytic inhibitors. Increased uptake of glutamine was also dependent on autophagy and dramatically sensitized cultured ARHI-expressing ovarian cancer cell lines to glutaminase inhibition. Induction of ARHI resulted in a reduction in mitochondrial respiration, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, and decreased Tom20 staining suggesting an ARHI-dependent loss of mitochondrial function. ARHI induction in mouse xenograft models resulted in an increase in free amino acids, a transient increase in [ 18 F]-FDG uptake, and significantly altered choline metabolism. ARHI expression has previously been shown to trigger autophagy-associated necroptosis in cell culture. In this study, we have demonstrated that ARHI expression results in decreased cellular ATP/ADP, increased oxidative stress, and decreased mitochondrial function. While this bioenergetic shock is consistent with programmed necrosis, our data indicates that the accompanying up

  20. Metatranscriptomic analysis of diverse microbial communities reveals core metabolic pathways and microbiome-specific functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yue; Xiong, Xuejian; Danska, Jayne; Parkinson, John

    2016-01-12

    Metatranscriptomics is emerging as a powerful technology for the functional characterization of complex microbial communities (microbiomes). Use of unbiased RNA-sequencing can reveal both the taxonomic composition and active biochemical functions of a complex microbial community. However, the lack of established reference genomes, computational tools and pipelines make analysis and interpretation of these datasets challenging. Systematic studies that compare data across microbiomes are needed to demonstrate the ability of such pipelines to deliver biologically meaningful insights on microbiome function. Here, we apply a standardized analytical pipeline to perform a comparative analysis of metatranscriptomic data from diverse microbial communities derived from mouse large intestine, cow rumen, kimchi culture, deep-sea thermal vent and permafrost. Sequence similarity searches allowed annotation of 19 to 76% of putative messenger RNA (mRNA) reads, with the highest frequency in the kimchi dataset due to its relatively low complexity and availability of closely related reference genomes. Metatranscriptomic datasets exhibited distinct taxonomic and functional signatures. From a metabolic perspective, we identified a common core of enzymes involved in amino acid, energy and nucleotide metabolism and also identified microbiome-specific pathways such as phosphonate metabolism (deep sea) and glycan degradation pathways (cow rumen). Integrating taxonomic and functional annotations within a novel visualization framework revealed the contribution of different taxa to metabolic pathways, allowing the identification of taxa that contribute unique functions. The application of a single, standard pipeline confirms that the rich taxonomic and functional diversity observed across microbiomes is not simply an artefact of different analysis pipelines but instead reflects distinct environmental influences. At the same time, our findings show how microbiome complexity and availability of

  1. The role of arginine metabolic pathway during embryogenesis and germination in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llebrés, María-Teresa; Pascual, María-Belén; Debille, Sandrine; Trontin, Jean-François; Harvengt, Luc; Avila, Concepción; Cánovas, Francisco M

    2018-03-01

    Vegetative propagation through somatic embryogenesis is critical in conifer biotechnology towards multivarietal forestry that uses elite varieties to cope with environmental and socio-economic issues. An important and still sub-optimal process during in vitro maturation of somatic embryos (SE) is the biosynthesis and deposition of storage proteins, which are rich in amino acids with high nitrogen (N) content, such as arginine. Mobilization of these N-rich proteins is essential for the germination and production of vigorous somatic seedlings. Somatic embryos accumulate lower levels of N reserves than zygotic embryos (ZE) at a similar stage of development. To understand the molecular basis for this difference, the arginine metabolic pathway has been characterized in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.). The genes involved in arginine metabolism have been identified and GFP-fusion constructs were used to locate the enzymes in different cellular compartments and clarify their metabolic roles during embryogenesis and germination. Analysis of gene expression during somatic embryo maturation revealed high levels of transcripts for genes involved in the biosynthesis and metabolic utilization of arginine. By contrast, enhanced expression levels were only observed during the last stages of maturation and germination of ZE, consistent with the adequate accumulation and mobilization of protein reserves. These results suggest that arginine metabolism is unbalanced in SE (simultaneous biosynthesis and degradation of arginine) and could explain the lower accumulation of storage proteins observed during the late stages of somatic embryogenesis.

  2. Magnetic nanowires generated via the waterborne desalting transition pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, M; Fresnais, J; Sekar, S; Chapel, J-P; Berret, J-F

    2011-04-01

    We report a simple and versatile waterborne synthesis of magnetic nanowires following the innovative concept of electrostatic "desalting transition". Highly persistent superparamagnetic nanowires are generated from the controlled assembly of oppositely charged nanoparticles and commercially available polyelectrolytes. The wires have diameters around 200 nm and lengths between 1 μm and 0.5 mm, with either positive or negative charges on their surface. Beyond, we show that this soft-chemistry assembly approach is a general phenomenon independent of the feature of the macromolecular building blocks, opening significant perspectives for the design of multifunctional materials. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  3. Enhanced Biosynthesis of Hyaluronic Acid Using Engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum Via Metabolic Pathway Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fangyu; Luozhong, Sijin; Guo, Zhigang; Yu, Huimin; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2017-10-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a polysaccharide used in many industries such as medicine, surgery, cosmetics, and food. To avoid potential pathogenicity caused by its native producer, Streptococcus, efforts have been made to create a recombinant host for HA production. In this work, a GRAS (generally recognized as safe) strain, Corynebacterium glutamicum, is engineered for enhanced biosynthesis of HA via metabolic pathway regulation. Five enzymes (HasA-HasE) involved in the HA biosynthetic pathway are highlighted, and eight diverse operon combinations, including HasA, HasAB, HasAC, HasAD, HasAE, HasABC, HasABD, and HasABE, are compared. HasAB and HasABC are found to be optimal for HA biosynthesis in C. glutamicum. To meet the energy demand for HA synthesis, the metabolic pathway that produces lactate is blocked by knocking out the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) gene using single crossover homologous recombination. Engineered C. glutamicum/Δldh-AB is superior and had a significantly higher HA titer than C. glutamicum/Δldh-ABC. Batch and fed-batch cultures of C. glutamicum/Δldh-AB are performed in a 5-L fermenter. Using glucose feeding, the maximum HA titer reached 21.6 g L -1 , more than threefolds of that of the wild-type Streptococcus. This work provides an efficient, safe, and novel recombinant HA producer, C. glutamicum/Δldh-AB, via metabolic pathway regulation. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Putative drug and vaccine target protein identification using comparative genomic analysis of KEGG annotated metabolic pathways of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damte, Dereje; Suh, Joo-Won; Lee, Seung-Jin; Yohannes, Sileshi Belew; Hossain, Md Akil; Park, Seung-Chun

    2013-07-01

    In the present study, a computational comparative and subtractive genomic/proteomic analysis aimed at the identification of putative therapeutic target and vaccine candidate proteins from Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) annotated metabolic pathways of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae was performed for drug design and vaccine production pipelines against M.hyopneumoniae. The employed comparative genomic and metabolic pathway analysis with a predefined computational systemic workflow extracted a total of 41 annotated metabolic pathways from KEGG among which five were unique to M. hyopneumoniae. A total of 234 proteins were identified to be involved in these metabolic pathways. Although 125 non homologous and predicted essential proteins were found from the total that could serve as potential drug targets and vaccine candidates, additional prioritizing parameters characterize 21 proteins as vaccine candidate while druggability of each of the identified proteins evaluated by the DrugBank database prioritized 42 proteins suitable for drug targets. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Pathways for Disposal of Commercially-Generated Tritiated Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halverson, Nancy V. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Environmental Sciences and Biotechnology

    2016-09-26

    From a waste disposal standpoint, tritium is a major challenge. Because it behaves like hydrogen, tritium exchanges readily with hydrogen in the ground water and moves easily through the ground. Land disposal sites must control the tritium activity and mobility of incoming wastes to protect human health and the environment. Consequently, disposal of tritiated low-level wastes is highly regulated and disposal options are limited. The United States has had eight operating commercial facilities licensed for low-level radioactive waste disposal, only four of which are currently receiving waste. Each of these is licensed and regulated by its state. Only two of these sites accept waste from states outside of their specified regional compact. For waste streams that cannot be disposed directly at one of the four active commercial low-level waste disposal facilities, processing facilities offer various forms of tritiated low-level waste processing and treatment, and then transport and dispose of the residuals at a disposal facility. These processing facilities may remove and recycle tritium, reduce waste volume, solidify liquid waste, remove hazardous constituents, or perform a number of additional treatments. Waste brokers also offer many low-level and mixed waste management and transportation services. These services can be especially helpful for small-quantity tritiated-waste generators, such as universities, research institutions, medical facilities, and some industries. The information contained in this report covers general capabilities and requirements for the various disposal/processing facilities and brokerage companies, but is not considered exhaustive. Typically, each facility has extensive waste acceptance criteria and will require a generator to thoroughly characterize their wastes. Then a contractual agreement between the waste generator and the disposal/processing/broker entity must be in place before waste is accepted. Costs for tritiated waste

  6. Pathways for Disposal of Commercially-Generated Tritiated Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halverson, Nancy V.

    2016-01-01

    From a waste disposal standpoint, tritium is a major challenge. Because it behaves like hydrogen, tritium exchanges readily with hydrogen in the ground water and moves easily through the ground. Land disposal sites must control the tritium activity and mobility of incoming wastes to protect human health and the environment. Consequently, disposal of tritiated low-level wastes is highly regulated and disposal options are limited. The United States has had eight operating commercial facilities licensed for low-level radioactive waste disposal, only four of which are currently receiving waste. Each of these is licensed and regulated by its state. Only two of these sites accept waste from states outside of their specified regional compact. For waste streams that cannot be disposed directly at one of the four active commercial low-level waste disposal facilities, processing facilities offer various forms of tritiated low-level waste processing and treatment, and then transport and dispose of the residuals at a disposal facility. These processing facilities may remove and recycle tritium, reduce waste volume, solidify liquid waste, remove hazardous constituents, or perform a number of additional treatments. Waste brokers also offer many low-level and mixed waste management and transportation services. These services can be especially helpful for small-quantity tritiated-waste generators, such as universities, research institutions, medical facilities, and some industries. The information contained in this report covers general capabilities and requirements for the various disposal/processing facilities and brokerage companies, but is not considered exhaustive. Typically, each facility has extensive waste acceptance criteria and will require a generator to thoroughly characterize their wastes. Then a contractual agreement between the waste generator and the disposal/processing/broker entity must be in place before waste is accepted. Costs for tritiated waste

  7. Robust detection and verification of linear relationships to generate metabolic networks using estimates of technical errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holschneider Matthias

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The size and magnitude of the metabolome, the ratio between individual metabolites and the response of metabolic networks is controlled by multiple cellular factors. A tight control over metabolite ratios will be reflected by a linear relationship of pairs of metabolite due to the flexibility of metabolic pathways. Hence, unbiased detection and validation of linear metabolic variance can be interpreted in terms of biological control. For robust analyses, criteria for rejecting or accepting linearities need to be developed despite technical measurement errors. The entirety of all pair wise linear metabolic relationships then yields insights into the network of cellular regulation. Results The Bayesian law was applied for detecting linearities that are validated by explaining the residues by the degree of technical measurement errors. Test statistics were developed and the algorithm was tested on simulated data using 3–150 samples and 0–100% technical error. Under the null hypothesis of the existence of a linear relationship, type I errors remained below 5% for data sets consisting of more than four samples, whereas the type II error rate quickly raised with increasing technical errors. Conversely, a filter was developed to balance the error rates in the opposite direction. A minimum of 20 biological replicates is recommended if technical errors remain below 20% relative standard deviation and if thresholds for false error rates are acceptable at less than 5%. The algorithm was proven to be robust against outliers, unlike Pearson's correlations. Conclusion The algorithm facilitates finding linear relationships in complex datasets, which is radically different from estimating linearity parameters from given linear relationships. Without filter, it provides high sensitivity and fair specificity. If the filter is activated, high specificity but only fair sensitivity is yielded. Total error rates are more favorable with

  8. From elementary flux modes to elementary flux vectors: Metabolic pathway analysis with arbitrary linear flux constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klamt, Steffen; Gerstl, Matthias P.; Jungreuthmayer, Christian; Mahadevan, Radhakrishnan; Müller, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Elementary flux modes (EFMs) emerged as a formal concept to describe metabolic pathways and have become an established tool for constraint-based modeling and metabolic network analysis. EFMs are characteristic (support-minimal) vectors of the flux cone that contains all feasible steady-state flux vectors of a given metabolic network. EFMs account for (homogeneous) linear constraints arising from reaction irreversibilities and the assumption of steady state; however, other (inhomogeneous) linear constraints, such as minimal and maximal reaction rates frequently used by other constraint-based techniques (such as flux balance analysis [FBA]), cannot be directly integrated. These additional constraints further restrict the space of feasible flux vectors and turn the flux cone into a general flux polyhedron in which the concept of EFMs is not directly applicable anymore. For this reason, there has been a conceptual gap between EFM-based (pathway) analysis methods and linear optimization (FBA) techniques, as they operate on different geometric objects. One approach to overcome these limitations was proposed ten years ago and is based on the concept of elementary flux vectors (EFVs). Only recently has the community started to recognize the potential of EFVs for metabolic network analysis. In fact, EFVs exactly represent the conceptual development required to generalize the idea of EFMs from flux cones to flux polyhedra. This work aims to present a concise theoretical and practical introduction to EFVs that is accessible to a broad audience. We highlight the close relationship between EFMs and EFVs and demonstrate that almost all applications of EFMs (in flux cones) are possible for EFVs (in flux polyhedra) as well. In fact, certain properties can only be studied with EFVs. Thus, we conclude that EFVs provide a powerful and unifying framework for constraint-based modeling of metabolic networks. PMID:28406903

  9. Danqi Pill regulates lipid metabolism disorder induced by myocardial ischemia through FATP-CPTI pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Li, Chun; Wang, Qiyan; Shi, Tianjiao; Wang, Jing; Chen, Hui; Wu, Yan; Han, Jing; Guo, Shuzhen; Wang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Wei

    2015-02-21

    Danqi Pill (DQP), which contains Chinese herbs Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge and Panax notoginseng, is widely used in the treatment of myocardial ischemia (MI) in China. Its regulatory effects on MI-associated lipid metabolism disorders haven't been comprehensively studied so far. We aimed to systematically investigate the regulatory mechanism of DQP on myocardial ischemia-induced lipid metabolism disorders. Myocardial ischemia rat model was induced by left anterior descending coronary artery ligation. The rat models were divided into three groups: model group with administration of normal saline, study group with administration of DanQi aqueous solution (1.5 mg/kg) and positive-control group with administration of pravastatin aqueous solution (1.2 mg/kg). In addition, another sham-operated group was set as negative control. At 28 days after treatment, cardiac function and degree of lipid metabolism disorders in rats of different groups were measured. Plasma lipid disorders were induced by myocardial ischemia, with manifestation of up-regulation of triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL), Apolipoprotein B (Apo-B) and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR). DQP could down-regulate the levels of TG, LDL, Apo-B and HMGCR. The Lipid transport pathway, fatty acids transport protein (FATP) and Carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPTI) were down-regulated in model group. DQP could improve plasma lipid metabolism by up-regulating this lipid transport pathway. The transcription factors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs), which regulate lipid metabolism, were also up-regulated by DQP. Furthermore, DQP was able to improve heart function and up-regulate ejection fraction (EF) by increasing the cardiac diastolic volume. Our study reveals that DQP would be an ideal alternative drug for the treatment of dyslipidemia which is induced by myocardial ischemia.

  10. Xylan catabolism is improved by blending bioprospecting and metabolic pathway engineering in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun-Mi; Jellison, Taylor; Alper, Hal S

    2015-04-01

    Complete utilization of all available carbon sources in lignocellulosic biomass still remains a challenge in engineering Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Even with efficient heterologous xylose catabolic pathways, S. cerevisiae is unable to utilize xylose in lignocellulosic biomass unless xylan is depolymerized to xylose. Here we demonstrate that a blended bioprospecting approach along with pathway engineering and evolutionary engineering can be used to improve xylan catabolism in S. cerevisiae. Specifically, we perform whole genome sequencing-based bioprospecting of a strain with remarkable pentose catabolic potential that we isolated and named Ustilago bevomyces. The heterologous expression of xylan catabolic genes enabled S. cerevisiae to grow on xylan as a single carbon source in minimal medium. A combination of bioprospecting and metabolic pathway evolution demonstrated that the xylan catabolic pathway could be further improved. Ultimately, engineering efforts were able to achieve xylan conversion into ethanol of up to 0.22 g/L on minimal medium compositions with xylan. This pathway provides a novel starting point for improving lignocellulosic conversion by yeast. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. A metabolic pathway assembled by enzyme selection may support herbivory of leaf-cutter ants on plant starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacci, Maurício; Bueno, Odair Correa; Rodrigues, André; Pagnocca, Fernando Carlos; Somera, Alexandre Favarin; Silva, Aline

    2013-05-01

    Mutualistic associations shape the evolution in different organism groups. The association between the leaf-cutter ant Atta sexdens and the basidiomycete fungus Leucoagaricus gongylophorus has enabled them to degrade starch from plant material generating glucose, which is a major food source for both mutualists. Starch degradation is promoted by enzymes contained in the fecal fluid that ants deposit on the fungus culture in cut leaves inside the nests. To understand the dynamics of starch degradation in ant nests, we purified and characterized starch degrading enzymes from the ant fecal fluid and from laboratory cultures of L. gongylophorus and found that the ants intestine positively selects fungal α-amylase and a maltase likely produced by the ants, as a negative selection is imposed to fungal maltase and ant α-amylases. Selected enzymes are more resistant to catabolic repression by glucose and proposed to structure a metabolic pathway in which the fungal α-amylase initiates starch catalysis to generate byproducts which are sequentially degraded by the maltase to produce glucose. The pathway is responsible for effective degradation of starch and proposed to represent a major evolutionary innovation enabling efficient starch assimilation from plant material by leaf-cutters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Metabolic pathways of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) via intraperitoneal injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chenglian; Xu, Yiping; Zha, Jinmiao; Li, Jian; Wu, Fengchang; Wang, Zijian

    2015-03-01

    Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) was of great concern due to its biotransformation in different organisms. However, most studies devoted to the metabolic intermediates of BDE209, less has been done on the metabolic pathways in vivo, especially on the relationships among debrominated-BDEs, OH-BDEs and MeO-BDEs. In this study, the metabolic pathways and intermediates of BDE209 in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were investigated, and the time-dependent transformations of the metabolites were also examined. The primary debrominated metabolites were BDE47, 49, 99, 197, 207; the main MeO-BDEs were MeO-BDE47, MeO-BDE68 and MeO-BDE100; OH-BDEs were primarily composed of OH-BDE28 and OH-BDE42. From the time-dependent and dose-effect relationships, the debromination should be followed by hydroxylation, and then by methoxylation. The increasing in body burden of MeO-BDEs corresponded to the decreasing of OH-BDEs, which could indirectly prove the inter-conversion between OH-BDEs and MeO-BDEs. This study would motivate the future research of toxicological mechanisms of BDEs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Metabolic Engineering and Modeling of Metabolic Pathways to Improve Hydrogen Production by Photosynthetic Bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Y. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Navid, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-12-19

    traits act as the biocatalysts of the process designed to both enhance the system efficiency of CO2 fixation and the net hydrogen production rate. Additionally we applied metabolic engineering approaches guided by computational modeling for the chosen model microorganisms to enable efficient hydrogen production.

  14. PDP-1 links the TGF-β and IIS pathways to regulate longevity, development, and metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Devi Narasimhan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS pathway is a conserved regulator of longevity, development, and metabolism. In Caenorhabditis elegans IIS involves activation of DAF-2 (insulin/IGF-1 receptor tyrosine kinase, AGE-1 (PI 3-kinase, and additional downstream serine/threonine kinases that ultimately phosphorylate and negatively regulate the single FOXO transcription factor homolog DAF-16. Phosphatases help to maintain cellular signaling homeostasis by counterbalancing kinase activity. However, few phosphatases have been identified that negatively regulate the IIS pathway. Here we identify and characterize pdp-1 as a novel negative modulator of the IIS pathway. We show that PDP-1 regulates multiple outputs of IIS such as longevity, fat storage, and dauer diapause. In addition, PDP-1 promotes DAF-16 nuclear localization and transcriptional activity. Interestingly, genetic epistasis analyses place PDP-1 in the DAF-7/TGF-β signaling pathway, at the level of the R-SMAD proteins DAF-14 and DAF-8. Further investigation into how a component of TGF-β signaling affects multiple outputs of IIS/DAF-16, revealed extensive crosstalk between these two well-conserved signaling pathways. We find that PDP-1 modulates the expression of several insulin genes that are likely to feed into the IIS pathway to regulate DAF-16 activity. Importantly, dysregulation of IIS and TGF-β signaling has been implicated in diseases such as Type 2 Diabetes, obesity, and cancer. Our results may provide a new perspective in understanding of the regulation of these pathways under normal conditions and in the context of disease.

  15. Regulatory network of secondary metabolism in Brassica rapa: insight into the glucosinolate pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino Del Carpio, Dunia; Basnet, Ram Kumar; Arends, Danny; Lin, Ke; De Vos, Ric C H; Muth, Dorota; Kodde, Jan; Boutilier, Kim; Bucher, Johan; Wang, Xiaowu; Jansen, Ritsert; Bonnema, Guusje

    2014-01-01

    Brassica rapa studies towards metabolic variation have largely been focused on the profiling of the diversity of metabolic compounds in specific crop types or regional varieties, but none aimed to identify genes with regulatory function in metabolite composition. Here we followed a genetical genomics approach to identify regulatory genes for six biosynthetic pathways of health-related phytochemicals, i.e carotenoids, tocopherols, folates, glucosinolates, flavonoids and phenylpropanoids. Leaves from six weeks-old plants of a Brassica rapa doubled haploid population, consisting of 92 genotypes, were profiled for their secondary metabolite composition, using both targeted and LC-MS-based untargeted metabolomics approaches. Furthermore, the same population was profiled for transcript variation using a microarray containing EST sequences mainly derived from three Brassica species: B. napus, B. rapa and B. oleracea. The biochemical pathway analysis was based on the network analyses of both metabolite QTLs (mQTLs) and transcript QTLs (eQTLs). Co-localization of mQTLs and eQTLs lead to the identification of candidate regulatory genes involved in the biosynthesis of carotenoids, tocopherols and glucosinolates. We subsequently focused on the well-characterized glucosinolate pathway and revealed two hotspots of co-localization of eQTLs with mQTLs in linkage groups A03 and A09. Our results indicate that such a large-scale genetical genomics approach combining transcriptomics and metabolomics data can provide new insights into the genetic regulation of metabolite composition of Brassica vegetables.

  16. Regulatory network of secondary metabolism in Brassica rapa: insight into the glucosinolate pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunia Pino Del Carpio

    Full Text Available Brassica rapa studies towards metabolic variation have largely been focused on the profiling of the diversity of metabolic compounds in specific crop types or regional varieties, but none aimed to identify genes with regulatory function in metabolite composition. Here we followed a genetical genomics approach to identify regulatory genes for six biosynthetic pathways of health-related phytochemicals, i.e carotenoids, tocopherols, folates, glucosinolates, flavonoids and phenylpropanoids. Leaves from six weeks-old plants of a Brassica rapa doubled haploid population, consisting of 92 genotypes, were profiled for their secondary metabolite composition, using both targeted and LC-MS-based untargeted metabolomics approaches. Furthermore, the same population was profiled for transcript variation using a microarray containing EST sequences mainly derived from three Brassica species: B. napus, B. rapa and B. oleracea. The biochemical pathway analysis was based on the network analyses of both metabolite QTLs (mQTLs and transcript QTLs (eQTLs. Co-localization of mQTLs and eQTLs lead to the identification of candidate regulatory genes involved in the biosynthesis of carotenoids, tocopherols and glucosinolates. We subsequently focused on the well-characterized glucosinolate pathway and revealed two hotspots of co-localization of eQTLs with mQTLs in linkage groups A03 and A09. Our results indicate that such a large-scale genetical genomics approach combining transcriptomics and metabolomics data can provide new insights into the genetic regulation of metabolite composition of Brassica vegetables.

  17. Fractured Bedrock Storm Flow: a New Pathway for Runoff Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshun, J.; Salve, R.; Rempe, D. M.; Dietrich, W. E.; Fung, I.

    2010-12-01

    Groundwater dynamics in the fractured weathered bedrock underlying hillslopes may dominate storm runoff in many hilly and mountainous areas Few studies, however, have explored this runoff generation process. Here we use an intensively monitored site to study the spatial relationships between fractured bedrock and hydraulic properties in the weathered zone below a forested hillslope. The study site, Rivendell, is a 4000 m2 catchment draining directly into Elder Creek in the Angelo Coast Range Reserve (ACRR) in Northern California. The site is underlain by highly fractured and weak mudstones and boudinaged, ridge-forming sandstones that are turbidite sequences of the Coastal Franciscan Belt. The site receives an average of 1800mm of precipitation annually, with the vast majority falling between October and May. Rivendell has a thinly mantled soil layer underlain by a fractured rock zone, which thickens upslope to a depth of up to 30 m. Standard penetration tests show a consistent increase in bedrock resistance at depth before an abrupt lower boundary upon which the water table is perched. We use seven monitoring wells, precipitation data, soil moisture data, a steam gauge in Elder Creek, and well pump tests to characterize water movement through the fractured rock zone.. We analyze the lag time between peak rainfall and peak response at seven wells and Elder Creek from 2007-2010. The water table varies across the slope between 4 and 25 m below the ground surface, and the dynamic range of well water level increases with distance from Elder Creek. The magnitude and timing of well response shows a relationship to depth, magnitude of rainfall and antecedent moisture conditions. Although nearly all runoff is generated through fractured bedrock, we observe that Elder Creek consistently shows the shortest lag times compared to the wells on the hillslope. Wells show different trends in magnitude and timing of response throughout the rainy season. Pump tests reveal a

  18. Expanding metabolic pathway for de novo biosynthesis of the chiral pharmaceutical intermediate l-pipecolic acid in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Ying, Hanxiao; Tao, Sha; Wang, Jing; Ma, Weichao; Chen, Kequan; Wang, Xin; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2017-01-01

    Background The six-carbon circular non-proteinogenic compound l-pipecolic acid is an important chiral drug intermediate with many applications in the pharmaceutical industry. In the present study, we developed a metabolically engineered strain of Escherichia coli for the overproduction of l-pipecolic acid from glucose. Results The metabolic pathway from l-lysine to l-pipecolic acid was constructed initially by introducing lysine cyclodeaminase (LCD). Next, l-lysine metabolic flux from glucose...

  19. Consortium analysis of gene and gene-folate interactions in purine and pyrimidine metabolism pathways with ovarian carcinoma risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelemen, L.E.; Terry, K.L.; Goodman, M.T.; Webb, P.M.; Bandera, E.V.; McGuire, V.; Rossing, M.A.; Wang, Q.; Dicks, E.; Tyrer, J.P.; Song, H.; Kupryjanczyk, J.; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, A.; Plisiecka-Halasa, J.; Timorek, A.; Menon, U.; Gentry-Maharaj, A.; Gayther, S.A.; Ramus, S.J.; Narod, S.A.; Risch, H.A.; McLaughlin, J.R.; Siddiqui, N.; Glasspool, R.; Paul, J.; Carty, K.; Gronwald, J.; Lubinski, J.; Jakubowska, A.; Cybulski, C.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Altena, A.M. van; Aben, K.K.H.; Olson, S.H.; Orlow, I.; Cramer, D.W; Levine, D.A.; Bisogna, M.; Giles, G.G.; Southey, M.C.; Bruinsma, F.; Kjaer, S.K.; Hogdall, E.; Jensen, A.; Hogdall, C.K.; Lundvall, L.; Engelholm, S.A.; Heitz, F.; Bois, A. du; Harter, P.; Schwaab, I.; Butzow, R.; Nevanlinna, H.; Pelttari, L.M.; Leminen, A.; Thompson, P.J.; Lurie, G.; Wilkens, L.R.; Lambrechts, D.; Nieuwenhuysen, E. Van; Lambrechts, S.; Vergote, I.; Beesley, J.; Investigators, A.S.G.A.; Fasching, P.A.; Beckmann, M.W.; Hein, A.; Ekici, A.B.; Doherty, J.A.; Wu, A.H.; Pearce, C.L.; Pike, M.C.; Stram, D.; Chang-Claude, J.; Rudolph, A.; Dork, T.; Durst, M.; Hillemanns, P.; Runnebaum, I.B.; Bogdanova, N.; Antonenkova, N.; Odunsi, K.; Edwards, R.P.; Kelley, J.L.; Modugno, F.; Ness, R.B.; Karlan, B.Y.; Walsh, C.; Lester, J.; Orsulic, S.; Fridley, B.L.; Vierkant, R.A.; Cunningham, J.M.; Wu, X.; Lu, K.; Liang, D.; Hildebrandt, M.A.T.; Weber, R.P.; Iversen, E.S.

    2014-01-01

    SCOPE: We reevaluated previously reported associations between variants in pathways of one-carbon (1-C) (folate) transfer genes and ovarian carcinoma (OC) risk, and in related pathways of purine and pyrimidine metabolism, and assessed interactions with folate intake. METHODS AND Results : Odds

  20. c-Myc activates multiple metabolic networks to generate substrates for cell-cycle entry.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrish, Fionnuala M.; Isern, Nancy; Sadilek, Martin; Jeffrey, Mark; Hockenbery, David M.

    2009-05-18

    Cell proliferation requires the coordinated activity of cytosolic and mitochondrial metabolic pathways to provide ATP and building blocks for DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis. Many metabolic pathway genes are targets of the c-myc oncogene and cell cycle regulator. However, the contribution of c-Myc to the activation of cytosolic and mitochondrial metabolic networks during cell cycle entry is unknown. Here, we report the metabolic fates of [U-13C] glucose in serum-stimulated myc-/- and myc+/+ fibroblasts by 13C isotopomer NMR analysis. We demonstrate that endogenous c-myc increased 13C-labeling of ribose sugars, purines, and amino acids, indicating partitioning of glucose carbons into C1/folate and pentose phosphate pathways, and increased tricarboxylic acid cycle turnover at the expense of anaplerotic flux. Myc expression also increased global O-linked GlcNAc protein modification, and inhibition of hexosamine biosynthesis selectively reduced growth of Myc-expressing cells, suggesting its importance in Myc-induced proliferation. These data reveal a central organizing role for the Myc oncogene in the metabolism of cycling cells. The pervasive deregulation of this oncogene in human cancers may be explained by its role in directing metabolic networks required for cell proliferation.

  1. SISMA: A SOFTWARE FOR DYNAMIC SIMULATION OF METABOLIC PATHWAYS IN BIOCHEMICAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Macedo

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of metabolic pathway charts is  clarifying the flow of reactants and products  devised by enzyme  catalytic  reactions . Learning the wealth of information in metabolic pathways , however, is both challenging and overwhelming for students, mainly due to the static nature of printed charts.  In this sense the goal of this work was to develop a software environment for  metabolic chart studies, enhancing both student learning and retention. The system named SISMA (Sistema de Simulações Metabólicas was developed using  the  Unified Modeling Language (UML and Rational Unified Process (RUP tools for specifying, visualizing, constructing, and documenting  the  software system.  SISMA  was modelled with  JAVA programming  language, due to its versatility, efficiency, platform portability, and security. Use Case diagrams were constructing to describe the available functionality of  the software  and  the set of scenarios describing the interactions with the end user, with constraints defined by B usiness  Rules.  In brief, SISMA  can  dynamically  illustrate standard and physiopathological  flow of reactants, create and modifiy compounds, pathways,  and co-factors, and report kinectic data,  among others.  In this way SISMA  can be used as a complementary tool on both conventional full-time as distance learning courses in biochemistry and biotechnology.

  2. Metabolic pathways regulated by TAp73 in response to oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, Massimiliano; Annicchiarico-Petruzzelli, Margherita; Melino, Gerry; Rufini, Alessandro

    2016-05-24

    Reactive oxygen species are involved in both physiological and pathological processes including neurodegeneration and cancer. Therefore, cells have developed scavenging mechanisms to maintain redox homeostasis under control. Tumor suppressor genes play a critical role in the regulation of antioxidant genes. Here, we investigated whether the tumor suppressor gene TAp73 is involved in the regulation of metabolic adaptations triggered in response to oxidative stress. H2O2 treatment resulted in numerous biochemical changes in both control and TAp73 knockout (TAp73-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts, however the extent of these changes was more pronounced in TAp73-/- cells when compared to control cells. In particular, loss of TAp73 led to alterations in glucose, nucleotide and amino acid metabolism. In addition, H2O2 treatment resulted in increased pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) activity in null mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Overall, our results suggest that in the absence of TAp73, H2O2 treatment results in an enhanced oxidative environment, and at the same time in an increased pro-anabolic phenotype. In conclusion, the metabolic profile observed reinforces the role of TAp73 as tumor suppressor and indicates that TAp73 exerts this function, at least partially, by regulation of cellular metabolism.

  3. A genome-wide approach identifies that the aspartate metabolism pathway contributes to asparaginase sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Hsiang; Yang, Wenjian; Fan, Yiping; Stocco, Gabriele; Crews, Kristine R.; Yang, Jun J.; Paugh, Steven W.; Pui, Ching-Hon; Evans, William E.; Relling, Mary V.

    2011-01-01

    Asparaginase is an important component of treatment for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The basis for interindividual differences in asparaginase sensitivity remains unclear. To comprehensively identify genetic variants important in the cytotoxicity of asparaginase, we employed a genome-wide association approach using the HapMap lymphoblastoid cell lines (87 CEU trio members) and 54 primary ALL leukemic blast samples at diagnosis. Asparaginase sensitivity was assessed as the drug concentration necessary to inhibit 50% of growth (IC50). In CEU lines, we tested 2,390,203 SNP genotypes at the individual SNP (p ADSL and DARS genes. We validated that SNPs in the aspartate metabolism pathway were also associated with asparaginase sensitivity in primary ALL leukemic blast samples (p = 5.5 × 10−5). Our genome-wide interrogation of CEU cell lines and primary ALL blasts revealed that inherited genomic interindividual variation in a plausible candidate pathway can contribute to asparaginase sensitivity. PMID:21072045

  4. Metabolic Pathways Involved in Carbon Dioxide Enhanced Heat Tolerance in Bermudagrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjin Yu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Global climate changes involve elevated temperature and CO2 concentration, imposing significant impact on plant growth of various plant species. Elevated temperature exacerbates heat damages, but elevated CO2 has positive effects on promoting plant growth and heat tolerance. The objective of this study was to identify metabolic pathways affected by elevated CO2 conferring the improvement of heat tolerance in a C4 perennial grass species, bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon Pers.. Plants were planted under either ambient CO2 concentration (400 μmol⋅mol-1 or elevated CO2 concentration (800 μmol⋅mol-1 and subjected to ambient temperature (30/25°C, day/night or heat stress (45/40°C, day/night. Elevated CO2 concentration suppressed heat-induced damages and improved heat tolerance in bermudagrass. The enhanced heat tolerance under elevated CO2 was attributed to some important metabolic pathways during which proteins and metabolites were up-regulated, including light reaction (ATP synthase subunit and photosystem I reaction center subunit and carbon fixation [(glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, GAPDH, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, phosphoglycerate kinase, sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase and sugars of photosynthesis, glycolysis (GAPDH, glucose, fructose, and galactose and TCA cycle (pyruvic acid, malic acid and malate dehydrogenase of respiration, amino acid metabolism (aspartic acid, methionine, threonine, isoleucine, lysine, valine, alanine, and isoleucine as well as the GABA shunt (GABA, glutamic acid, alanine, proline and 5-oxoproline. The up-regulation of those metabolic processes by elevated CO2 could at least partially contribute to the improvement of heat tolerance in perennial grass species.

  5. Renewable energy from Cyanobacteria: energy production optimization by metabolic pathway engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Naira; Van der Kooy, Frank; Van de Rhee, Miranda D; Voshol, Gerben P; Verpoorte, Robert

    2011-08-01

    The need to develop and improve sustainable energy resources is of eminent importance due to the finite nature of our fossil fuels. This review paper deals with a third generation renewable energy resource which does not compete with our food resources, cyanobacteria. We discuss the current state of the art in developing different types of bioenergy (ethanol, biodiesel, hydrogen, etc.) from cyanobacteria. The major important biochemical pathways in cyanobacteria are highlighted, and the possibility to influence these pathways to improve the production of specific types of energy forms the major part of this review.

  6. The Effects of PPAR Stimulation on Cardiac Metabolic Pathways in Barth Syndrome Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin Schafer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Tafazzin knockdown (TazKD in mice is widely used to create an experimental model of Barth syndrome (BTHS that exhibits dilated cardiomyopathy and impaired exercise capacity. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs are a group of nuclear receptor proteins that play essential roles as transcription factors in the regulation of carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism. We hypothesized that the activation of PPAR signaling with PPAR agonist bezafibrate (BF may ameliorate impaired cardiac and skeletal muscle function in TazKD mice. This study examined the effects of BF on cardiac function, exercise capacity, and metabolic status in the heart of TazKD mice. Additionally, we elucidated the impact of PPAR activation on molecular pathways in TazKD hearts.Methods: BF (0.05% w/w was given to TazKD mice with rodent chow. Cardiac function in wild type-, TazKD-, and BF-treated TazKD mice was evaluated by echocardiography. Exercise capacity was evaluated by exercising mice on the treadmill until exhaustion. The impact of BF on metabolic pathways was evaluated by analyzing the total transcriptome of the heart by RNA sequencing.Results: The uptake of BF during a 4-month period at a clinically relevant dose effectively protected the cardiac left ventricular systolic function in TazKD mice. BF alone did not improve the exercise capacity however, in combination with everyday voluntary running on the running wheel BF significantly ameliorated the impaired exercise capacity in TazKD mice. Analysis of cardiac transcriptome revealed that BF upregulated PPAR downstream target genes involved in a wide spectrum of metabolic (energy and protein pathways as well as chromatin modification and RNA processing. In addition, the Ostn gene, which encodes the metabolic hormone musclin, is highly induced in TazKD myocardium and human failing hearts, likely as a compensatory response to diminished bioenergetic homeostasis in cardiomyocytes.Conclusion: The PPAR

  7. Prediction of Metabolic Pathway Involvement in Prokaryotic UniProtKB Data by Association Rule Mining

    KAUST Repository

    Boudellioua, Imene

    2016-07-08

    The widening gap between known proteins and their functions has encouraged the development of methods to automatically infer annotations. Automatic functional annotation of proteins is expected to meet the conflicting requirements of maximizing annotation coverage, while minimizing erroneous functional assignments. This trade-off imposes a great challenge in designing intelligent systems to tackle the problem of automatic protein annotation. In this work, we present a system that utilizes rule mining techniques to predict metabolic pathways in prokaryotes. The resulting knowledge represents predictive models that assign pathway involvement to UniProtKB entries. We carried out an evaluation study of our system performance using cross-validation technique. We found that it achieved very promising results in pathway identification with an F1-measure of 0.982 and an AUC of 0.987. Our prediction models were then successfully applied to 6.2 million UniProtKB/TrEMBL reference proteome entries of prokaryotes. As a result, 663,724 entries were covered, where 436,510 of them lacked any previous pathway annotations.

  8. The role of inflammatory pathway genetic variation on maternal metabolic phenotypes during pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margrit Urbanek

    Full Text Available Since mediators of inflammation are associated with insulin resistance, and the risk of developing diabetes mellitus and gestational diabetes, we hypothesized that genetic variation in members of the inflammatory gene pathway impact glucose levels and related phenotypes in pregnancy. We evaluated this hypothesis by testing for association between genetic variants in 31 inflammatory pathway genes in the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO cohort, a large multiethnic multicenter study designed to address the impact of glycemia less than overt diabetes on pregnancy outcome.Fasting, 1-hour, and 2-hour glucose, fasting and 1-hour C-peptide, and HbA1c levels were measured in blood samples obtained from HAPO participants during an oral glucose tolerance test at 24-32 weeks gestation. We tested for association between 458 SNPs mapping to 31 genes in the inflammatory pathway and metabolic phenotypes in 3836 European ancestry and 1713 Thai pregnant women. The strongest evidence for association was observed with TNF alpha and HbA1c (rs1052248; 0.04% increase per allele C; p-value = 4.4×10(-5, RETN and fasting plasma glucose (rs1423096; 0.7 mg/dl decrease per allele A; p-value = 1.1×10(-4, IL8 and 1 hr plasma glucose (rs2886920; 2.6 mg/dl decrease per allele T; p-value = 1.3×10(-4, ADIPOR2 and fasting C-peptide (rs2041139; 0.55 ug/L decrease per allele A; p-value = 1.4×10(-4, LEPR and 1-hour C-peptide (rs1171278; 0.62 ug/L decrease per allele T; p-value = 2.4×10(-4, and IL6 and 1-hour plasma glucose (rs6954897; -2.29 mg/dl decrease per allele G, p-value = 4.3×10(-4.Based on the genes surveyed in this study the inflammatory pathway is unlikely to have a strong impact on maternal metabolic phenotypes in pregnancy although variation in individual members of the pathway (e.g. RETN, IL8, ADIPOR2, LEPR, IL6, and TNF alpha, may contribute to metabolic phenotypes in pregnant women.

  9. Next-generation metabolic screening: targeted and untargeted metabolomics for the diagnosis of inborn errors of metabolism in individual patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coene, Karlien L. M.; Kluijtmans, Leo A. J.; van der Heeft, Ed; Engelke, Udo F. H.; de Boer, Siebolt; Hoegen, Brechtje; Kwast, Hanneke J. T.; van de Vorst, Maartje; Huigen, Marleen C. D. G.; Keularts, Irene M. L. W.; Schreuder, Michiel F.; van Karnebeek, Clara D. M.; Wortmann, Saskia B.; de Vries, Maaike C.; Janssen, Mirian C. H.; Gilissen, Christian; Engel, Jasper; Wevers, Ron A.

    2018-01-01

    The implementation of whole-exome sequencing in clinical diagnostics has generated a need for functional evaluation of genetic variants. In the field of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM), a diverse spectrum of targeted biochemical assays is employed to analyze a limited amount of metabolites. We now

  10. Expression analysis in response to drought stress in soybean: Shedding light on the regulation of metabolic pathway genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães-Dias, Fábia; Neves-Borges, Anna Cristina; Viana, Antonio Americo Barbosa; Mesquita, Rosilene Oliveira; Romano, Eduardo; de Fátima Grossi-de-Sá, Maria; Nepomuceno, Alexandre Lima; Loureiro, Marcelo Ehlers; Alves-Ferreira, Márcio

    2012-06-01

    Metabolomics analysis of wild type Arabidopsis thaliana plants, under control and drought stress conditions revealed several metabolic pathways that are induced under water deficit. The metabolic response to drought stress is also associated with ABA dependent and independent pathways, allowing a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms in this model plant. Through combining an in silico approach and gene expression analysis by quantitative real-time PCR, the present work aims at identifying genes of soybean metabolic pathways potentially associated with water deficit. Digital expression patterns of Arabidopsis genes, which were selected based on the basis of literature reports, were evaluated under drought stress condition by Genevestigator. Genes that showed strong induction under drought stress were selected and used as bait to identify orthologs in the soybean genome. This allowed us to select 354 genes of putative soybean orthologs of 79 Arabidopsis genes belonging to 38 distinct metabolic pathways. The expression pattern of the selected genes was verified in the subtractive libraries available in the GENOSOJA project. Subsequently, 13 genes from different metabolic pathways were selected for validation by qPCR experiments. The expression of six genes was validated in plants undergoing drought stress in both pot-based and hydroponic cultivation systems. The results suggest that the metabolic response to drought stress is conserved in Arabidopsis and soybean plants.

  11. Analysis of energy generation and glycolysis pathway in diminazene aceturate-resistant Babesia gibsoni isolate in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapakshage, Bandula Kumara Wickramasekara; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Murakami, Masahiro; Tamura, Yu; Lim, Sue Yee; Osuga, Tatsuyuki; Sasaki, Noboru; Nakamura, Kensuke; Ohta, Hiroshi; Takiguchi, Mitsuyoshi

    2012-08-01

    In our previous study, the level of parasitemia of the diminazene aceturate (DA)-resistant B. gibsoni isolate was continuously lower than that of the wild-type, indicating the possible alteration of energy metabolism in that isolate. Therefore, in the present study, the concentrations of ATP, glucose, lactate, and pyruvate, and the activities of lactate dehydrogenase and pyruvate kinase in the wild-type and DA-resistant isolate of B. gibsoni were measured and compared to investigate the amount of energy generation and the activity of the glycolysis pathway. As a result, the intracellular ATP and glucose concentrations in the DA-resistant B. gibsoni isolate were significantly higher than those in the wild-type. Meanwhile, the concentrations of lactate and pyruvate and the activities of lactate dehydrogenase and pyruvate kinase in the DA-resistant B. gibsoni isolate were not different from those in the wild-type. These results indicated that the DA-resistant B. gibsoni isolate contained a higher ATP concentration than the wild-type, but the activity of the glycolysis pathway was not altered in the DA-resistant B. gibsoni isolate. However, we could not determine the mechanism of the high energy production of the DA-resistant B. gibsoni isolate. Further studies on the energy metabolism of B. gibsoni are necessary to clarify the mechanism of the high energy production in the DA-resistant B. gibsoni isolate.

  12. A simple biosynthetic pathway for large product generation from small substrate amounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Marko; Djordjevic, Magdalena

    2012-10-01

    A recently emerging discipline of synthetic biology has the aim of constructing new biosynthetic pathways with useful biological functions. A major application of these pathways is generating a large amount of the desired product. However, toxicity due to the possible presence of toxic precursors is one of the main problems for such production. We consider here the problem of generating a large amount of product from a potentially toxic substrate. To address this, we propose a simple biosynthetic pathway, which can be induced in order to produce a large number of the product molecules, by keeping the substrate amount at low levels. Surprisingly, we show that the large product generation crucially depends on fast non-specific degradation of the substrate molecules. We derive an optimal induction strategy, which allows as much as three orders of magnitude increase in the product amount through biologically realistic parameter values. We point to a recently discovered bacterial immune system (CRISPR/Cas in E. coli) as a putative example of the pathway analysed here. We also argue that the scheme proposed here can be used not only as a stand-alone pathway, but also as a strategy to produce a large amount of the desired molecules with small perturbations of endogenous biosynthetic pathways.

  13. A simple biosynthetic pathway for large product generation from small substrate amounts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djordjevic, Marko; Djordjevic, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    A recently emerging discipline of synthetic biology has the aim of constructing new biosynthetic pathways with useful biological functions. A major application of these pathways is generating a large amount of the desired product. However, toxicity due to the possible presence of toxic precursors is one of the main problems for such production. We consider here the problem of generating a large amount of product from a potentially toxic substrate. To address this, we propose a simple biosynthetic pathway, which can be induced in order to produce a large number of the product molecules, by keeping the substrate amount at low levels. Surprisingly, we show that the large product generation crucially depends on fast non-specific degradation of the substrate molecules. We derive an optimal induction strategy, which allows as much as three orders of magnitude increase in the product amount through biologically realistic parameter values. We point to a recently discovered bacterial immune system (CRISPR/Cas in E. coli) as a putative example of the pathway analysed here. We also argue that the scheme proposed here can be used not only as a stand-alone pathway, but also as a strategy to produce a large amount of the desired molecules with small perturbations of endogenous biosynthetic pathways. (paper)

  14. Molecular imaging correlates of tryptophan metabolism via the kynurenine pathway in human meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosnyák, Edit; Kamson, David O; Guastella, Anthony R; Varadarajan, Kaushik; Robinette, Natasha L; Kupsky, William J; Muzik, Otto; Michelhaugh, Sharon K; Mittal, Sandeep; Juhász, Csaba

    2015-09-01

    Increased tryptophan metabolism via the kynurenine pathway (KP) is a key mechanism of tumoral immune suppression in gliomas. However, details of tryptophan metabolism in meningiomas have not been elucidated. In this study, we evaluated in vivo tryptophan metabolism in meningiomas and compared it with gliomas using α-[(11)C]-methyl-L-tryptophan (AMT)-PET. We also explored expression patterns of KP enzymes in resected meningiomas. Forty-seven patients with MRI-detected meningioma (n = 16) and glioma (n = 31) underwent presurgical AMT-PET scanning. Tumoral AMT uptake and tracer kinetic parameters (including K and k3' evaluating unidirectional uptake and trapping, respectively) were measured, correlated with meningioma grade, and compared between meningiomas and gliomas. Patterns of KP enzyme expression were assessed by immunohistochemistry in all meningiomas. Meningioma grade showed a positive correlation with AMT k3' tumor/cortex ratio (r = 0.75, P = .003), and this PET parameter distinguished grade I from grade II/III meningiomas with 92% accuracy. Kinetic AMT parameters could differentiate meningiomas from both low-grade gliomas (97% accuracy by k3' ratios) and high-grade gliomas (83% accuracy by K ratios). Among 3 initial KP enzymes (indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1/2, and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase 2 [TDO2]), TDO2 showed the strongest immunostaining, particularly in grade I meningiomas. TDO2 also showed a strong negative correlation with AMT k3' ratios (P = .001). PET imaging of tryptophan metabolism can provide quantitative imaging markers for differentiating grade I from grade II/III meningiomas. TDO2 may be an important driver of in vivo tryptophan metabolism in these tumors. These results can have implications for pharmacological targeting of the KP in meningiomas. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Soluble Dietary Fiber Reduces Trimethylamine Metabolism via Gut Microbiota and Co-Regulates Host AMPK Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Wu, Tao; Liu, Rui; Zhang, Min; Wang, Ruijun

    2017-12-01

    Evidence from animal experiments and clinical medicine suggests that high dietary fiber intake, followed by gut microbiota-mediated fermentation, decreases trimethylamine (TMA) metabolism, the mechanism of which, however, remains unclear. The objective of this analysis was to evaluate, using mice fed with red meat, the effects of soluble dietary fiber (SDF) intervention on TMA metabolism. Low- or high-dose soluble dietary fiber (SDF) from natural wheat bran (LN and HN, low- and high-dose natural SDF), fermented wheat bran (LF and HF, low- and high-dose fermented SDF), and steam-exploded wheat bran (LE and HE, low- and high-dose exploded SDF groups) were used to examine whether SDF interventions in mice fed with red meat can alter TMA and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) metabolism by gut microbial communities in a diet-specific manner. Results demonstrated that SDF-diets could reduce TMA and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) metabolism by 40.6 and 62.6%, respectively. DF feeding, particularly fermented SDF, reshaped gut microbial ecology and promoted the growth of certain beneficial microflora species. SDF-diet decreased energy intake, weight gain, intestinal pH values, and serum lipid and cholesterol levels. SDF-diet also enhanced the production of short chain fatty acids with activation of the intestinal epithelial adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). These findings suggest a central mechanism via which SDF-diet may control TMA metabolism by gut microflora and co-regulate the AMPK pathways of the host. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Quantitative elementary mode analysis of metabolic pathways: the example of yeast glycolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanehisa Minoru

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elementary mode analysis of metabolic pathways has proven to be a valuable tool for assessing the properties and functions of biochemical systems. However, little comprehension of how individual elementary modes are used in real cellular states has been achieved so far. A quantitative measure of fluxes carried by individual elementary modes is of great help to identify dominant metabolic processes, and to understand how these processes are redistributed in biological cells in response to changes in environmental conditions, enzyme kinetics, or chemical concentrations. Results Selecting a valid decomposition of a flux distribution onto a set of elementary modes is not straightforward, since there is usually an infinite number of possible such decompositions. We first show that two recently introduced decompositions are very closely related and assign the same fluxes to reversible elementary modes. Then, we show how such decompositions can be used in combination with kinetic modelling to assess the effects of changes in enzyme kinetics on the usage of individual metabolic routes, and to analyse the range of attainable states in a metabolic system. This approach is illustrated by the example of yeast glycolysis. Our results indicate that only a small subset of the space of stoichiometrically feasible steady states is actually reached by the glycolysis system, even when large variation intervals are allowed for all kinetic parameters of the model. Among eight possible elementary modes, the standard glycolytic route remains dominant in all cases, and only one other elementary mode is able to gain significant flux values in steady state. Conclusion These results indicate that a combination of structural and kinetic modelling significantly constrains the range of possible behaviours of a metabolic system. All elementary modes are not equal contributors to physiological cellular states, and this approach may open a direction toward a

  17. Adipocyte Metabolic Pathways Regulated by Diet Control the Female Germline Stem Cell Lineage inDrosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Shinya; Armstrong, Alissa R; Sampson, Leesa L; Laws, Kaitlin M; Drummond-Barbosa, Daniela

    2017-06-01

    Nutrients affect adult stem cells through complex mechanisms involving multiple organs. Adipocytes are highly sensitive to diet and have key metabolic roles, and obesity increases the risk for many cancers. How diet-regulated adipocyte metabolic pathways influence normal stem cell lineages, however, remains unclear. Drosophila melanogaster has highly conserved adipocyte metabolism and a well-characterized female germline stem cell (GSC) lineage response to diet. Here, we conducted an isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) proteomic analysis to identify diet-regulated adipocyte metabolic pathways that control the female GSC lineage. On a rich (relative to poor) diet, adipocyte Hexokinase-C and metabolic enzymes involved in pyruvate/acetyl-CoA production are upregulated, promoting a shift of glucose metabolism toward macromolecule biosynthesis. Adipocyte-specific knockdown shows that these enzymes support early GSC progeny survival. Further, enzymes catalyzing fatty acid oxidation and phosphatidylethanolamine synthesis in adipocytes promote GSC maintenance, whereas lipid and iron transport from adipocytes controls vitellogenesis and GSC number, respectively. These results show a functional relationship between specific metabolic pathways in adipocytes and distinct processes in the GSC lineage, suggesting the adipocyte metabolism-stem cell link as an important area of investigation in other stem cell systems. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  18. Gene-Gene Interactions in the Folate Metabolic Pathway and the Risk of Conotruncal Heart Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J. Lupo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Conotruncal and related heart defects (CTRD are common, complex malformations. Although there are few established risk factors, there is evidence that genetic variation in the folate metabolic pathway influences CTRD risk. This study was undertaken to assess the association between inherited (i.e., case and maternal gene-gene interactions in this pathway and the risk of CTRD. Case-parent triads (n=727, ascertained from the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, were genotyped for ten functional variants of nine folate metabolic genes. Analyses of inherited genotypes were consistent with the previously reported association between MTHFR A1298C and CTRD (adjusted P=.02, but provided no evidence that CTRD was associated with inherited gene-gene interactions. Analyses of the maternal genotypes provided evidence of a MTHFR C677T/CBS 844ins68 interaction and CTRD risk (unadjusted P=.02. This association is consistent with the effects of this genotype combination on folate-homocysteine biochemistry but remains to be confirmed in independent study populations.

  19. Systems biosynthesis of secondary metabolic pathways within the oral human microbiome member Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvanych, Rostyslav; Lukenda, Nikola; Li, Xiang; Kim, Janice J; Tharmarajah, Satheeisha; Magarvey, Nathan A

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans, a Gram-positive human commensal and pathogen, is commonly recognized as a primary causative agent in dental caries. Metabolic activity of this strain results in the creation of acids and secreted products are recognized as pathogenic factors and agents that promote immunomodulation by stimulating the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Products of secondary metabolic pathways of microorganisms from the human microbiome are increasingly investigated for their immunomodulatory functions. In this study, we sought to explore the metabolomic output of nonribosomal peptide pathways within the model S. mutans strain, S. mutans UA159, using a systems metabolomic approach to gain in-depth analysis on products created by this organism and probe these molecules for their immunomodulatory function. Comparative metabolomics and biosynthetic studies using wild-type and nonribosomal peptide deletion strains (within the mutanobactin biosynthetic locus), precursor feedings (fatty acid derivatives) led to the identification of 58 metabolites, 13 of which were structurally elucidated. In addition to these, an assembly line derailment product, mutanamide, was also identified and used to assess immunomodulatory properties of mutanobactins and actions relating to their previously reported functions describing hyphal inhibitory profiles in Candida albicans. The results of this study demonstrate both the complexity and the divergent roles of products stemming from this unique biosynthetic assembly line.

  20. Mass spectrometry-based metabolomics: applications to biomarker and metabolic pathway research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Aihua; Sun, Hui; Yan, Guangli; Wang, Ping; Wang, Xijun

    2016-01-01

    Mass spectrometry-based metabolomics has become increasingly popular in molecular medicine. High-definition mass spectrometry (MS), coupled with pattern recognition methods, have been carried out to obtain comprehensive metabolite profiling and metabolic pathway of large biological datasets. This sets the scene for a new and powerful diagnostic approach. Analysis of the key metabolites in body fluids has become an important part of improving disease diagnosis. With technological advances in analytical techniques, the ability to measure low-molecular-weight metabolites in bio-samples provides a powerful platform for identifying metabolites that are uniquely correlated with a specific human disease. MS-based metabolomics can lead to enhanced understanding of disease mechanisms and to new diagnostic markers and has a strong potential to contribute to improving early diagnosis of diseases. This review will highlight the importance and benefit with certain characteristic examples of MS-metabolomics for identifying metabolic pathways and metabolites that accurately screen for potential diagnostic biomarkers of diseases. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. An effective strategy for exploring unknown metabolic pathways by genome mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Dorianne A; Kolesnikova, Mariya D; Matsuda, Seiichi P T

    2013-04-17

    Plants allocate an estimated 15-25% of their proteome to specialized metabolic pathways that remain largely uncharacterized. Here, we describe a genome mining strategy for exploring such unknown pathways and demonstrate this approach for triterpenoids by functionally characterizing three cytochrome P450s from Arabidopsis thaliana . Building on proven methods for characterizing oxidosqualene cyclases, we heterologously expressed in yeast known cyclases with candidate P450s chosen from gene clustering and microarray coexpression patterns. The yeast cultures produced mg/L amounts of plant metabolites in vivo without the complex phytochemical background of plant extracts. Despite this simplification, the product multiplicity and novelty overwhelmed analytical efforts by MS methods. HSQC analysis overcame this problem. Side-by-side HSQC comparisons of crude P450 extracts against a control resolved even minor P450 products among ~100 other yeast metabolites spanning a dynamic range of >10,000:1. HSQC and GC-MS then jointly guided purification and structure determination by classical NMR methods. Including our present results for P450 oxidation of thalianol, arabidiol, and marneral, the metabolic fate for most of the major triterpene synthase products in Arabidopsis is now at least partially known.

  2. CD47 Receptor Globally Regulates Metabolic Pathways That Control Resistance to Ionizing Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Thomas W; Soto-Pantoja, David R; Schwartz, Anthony L; Sipes, John M; DeGraff, William G; Ridnour, Lisa A; Wink, David A; Roberts, David D

    2015-10-09

    Modulating tissue responses to stress is an important therapeutic objective. Oxidative and genotoxic stresses caused by ionizing radiation are detrimental to healthy tissues but beneficial for treatment of cancer. CD47 is a signaling receptor for thrombospondin-1 and an attractive therapeutic target because blocking CD47 signaling protects normal tissues while sensitizing tumors to ionizing radiation. Here we utilized a metabolomic approach to define molecular mechanisms underlying this radioprotective activity. CD47-deficient cells and cd47-null mice exhibited global advantages in preserving metabolite levels after irradiation. Metabolic pathways required for controlling oxidative stress and mediating DNA repair were enhanced. Some cellular energetics pathways differed basally in CD47-deficient cells, and the global declines in the glycolytic and tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolites characteristic of normal cell and tissue responses to irradiation were prevented in the absence of CD47. Thus, CD47 mediates signaling from the extracellular matrix that coordinately regulates basal metabolism and cytoprotective responses to radiation injury. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. CD47 Receptor Globally Regulates Metabolic Pathways That Control Resistance to Ionizing Radiation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Thomas W.; Soto-Pantoja, David R.; Schwartz, Anthony L.; Sipes, John M.; DeGraff, William G.; Ridnour, Lisa A.; Wink, David A.; Roberts, David D.

    2015-01-01

    Modulating tissue responses to stress is an important therapeutic objective. Oxidative and genotoxic stresses caused by ionizing radiation are detrimental to healthy tissues but beneficial for treatment of cancer. CD47 is a signaling receptor for thrombospondin-1 and an attractive therapeutic target because blocking CD47 signaling protects normal tissues while sensitizing tumors to ionizing radiation. Here we utilized a metabolomic approach to define molecular mechanisms underlying this radioprotective activity. CD47-deficient cells and cd47-null mice exhibited global advantages in preserving metabolite levels after irradiation. Metabolic pathways required for controlling oxidative stress and mediating DNA repair were enhanced. Some cellular energetics pathways differed basally in CD47-deficient cells, and the global declines in the glycolytic and tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolites characteristic of normal cell and tissue responses to irradiation were prevented in the absence of CD47. Thus, CD47 mediates signaling from the extracellular matrix that coordinately regulates basal metabolism and cytoprotective responses to radiation injury. PMID:26311851

  4. Computational Modeling of Fluctuations in Energy and Metabolic Pathways of Methanogenic Archaea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luthey-Schulten, Zaida [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Carl R. Woese Inst. for Genomic Biology

    2017-01-04

    The methanogenic archaea, anaerobic microbes that convert CO2 and H2 and/or other small organic fermentation products into methane, play an unusually large role in the global carbon cycle. As they perform the final step in the anaerobic breakdown of biomass, methanogens are a biogenic source of an estimated one billion tons methane each year. Depending on the location, produced methane can be considered as either a greenhouse gas (agricultural byproduct), sequestered carbon storage (methane hydrate deposits), or a potential energy source (organic wastewater treatment). These microbes therefore represent an important target for biotechnology applications. Computational models of methanogens with predictive power are useful aids in the adaptation of methanogenic systems, but need to connect processes of wide-ranging time and length scales. In this project, we developed several computational methodologies for modeling the dynamic behavior of entire cells that connects stochastic reaction-diffusion dynamics of individual biochemical pathways with genome-scale modeling of metabolic networks. While each of these techniques were in the realm of well-defined computational methods, here we integrated them to develop several entirely new approaches to systems biology. The first scientific aim of the project was to model how noise in a biochemical pathway propagates into cellular phenotypes. Genetic circuits have been optimized by evolution to regulate molecular processes despite stochastic noise, but the effect of such noise on a cellular biochemical networks is currently unknown. An integrated stochastic/systems model of Escherichia coli species was created to analyze how noise in protein expression gives—and therefore noise in metabolic fluxes—gives rise to multiple cellular phenotype in isogenic population. After the initial work developing and validating methods that allow characterization of the heterogeneity in the model organism E. coli, the project shifted toward

  5. Biodegradation and metabolic pathway of nicotine in Rhodococcus sp. Y22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiaowei; Ma, Guanghui; Duan, Yanqing; Zhu, Donglai; Chen, Yongkuan; Zhang, Ke-Qin; Yang, Jinkui

    2016-11-01

    Nicotine in tobacco is harmful to health and the environment, so there is an environmental requirement to remove nicotine from tobacco and tobacco wastes. In this study, the biotransformation of nicotine by Rhodococcus sp. Y22 was investigated, and three metabolites (NIC1, NIC4 and NIC5) were isolated by column separation, preparative TLC and solid plate's method, respectively. NIC1 was identified as 6-hydoxynicotine based on the results of NMR, MS, HPLC-UV and HRESIMS analysis; NIC4 was a novel compound and identified as 5-(3-methyl-[1,3]oxazinan-2-ylidene)-5H-pyridin-2-one based on the results of NMR, MS and UV analysis; NIC5 was identified as nicotine blue based on the results of NMR and MS analysis. Meanwhile, two metabolites NIC2 and NIC3 were identified as 6-hydroxy-N-methylmyosmine and 6-hydroxypseudooxynicotine by HRESIMS analysis, respectively. According to these metabolites, the possible pathway of nicotine degradation by Rhodococcus sp. Y22 was proposed. The nicotine can be transformed to nicotine blue through two pathways (A and B), and 6-hydroxy-N-methylmyosmine is the key compound, which can be converted to 6-hydroxypseudooxynicotine (pathway A) and 5-(3-methyl-[1,3]oxazinan-2-ylidene)-5H-pyridin-2-one (pathway B), respectively. Moreover, the encoding gene of nicotine dehydrogenase, ndh, was amplified from Rhodococcus sp. Y22, and its transcriptional level could be up-regulated obviously under nicotine induction. Our studies reported the key metabolites and possible biotransformation pathway of nicotine in Rhodococcus sp. Y22, and provided new insights into the microbial metabolism of nicotine.

  6. Management recommendations for metabolic complications associated with second-generation antipsychotic use in children and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Josephine; Panagiotopoulos, Constadina; McCrindle, Brian; Grisaru, Silviu; Pringsheim, Tamara

    2011-11-01

    Second-generation antipsychotics are commonly associated with metabolic complications. These medications are being used more frequently for the treatment of mental health disorders in children, which has stimulated the need for creating formal guidelines on monitoring their safety and effectiveness. Previous guidelines have been developed for monitoring metabolic and neurological complications. To assist practitioners who perform these monitoring procedures, a complementary set of treatment recommendations have been created for situations in which abnormal measurements or results are encountered. To create evidence-based recommendations to assist in managing metabolic complications in children being treated with second-generation antipsychotics. A systematic review of the literature on metabolic complications of second-generation antipsychotic medications in children was conducted. Members of the consensus group evaluated the information gathered from the systematic review of the literature and used a nominal group process to reach a consensus on treatment recommendations. Wherever possible, references were made to existing guidelines on the evaluation and treatment of metabolic abnormalities in children. Evidence-based recommendations are presented to assist in managing metabolic complications including weight gain; increased waist circumference; elevation in prolactin, cholesterol, triglyceride and glucose levels; abnormal liver function tests and abnormal thyroid studies. The use of second-generation antipsychotics requires proper monitoring procedures. The present treatment guideline provides guidance to clinicians on the clinical management of metabolic complications if they occur.

  7. Metabolic distress in lipid & one carbon metabolic pathway through low vitamin B-12: a population based study from North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswathy, Kallur Nava; Joshi, Shipra; Yadav, Suniti; Garg, Priyanka Rani

    2018-04-25

    population is vulnerable to severe under-nutrition due to the association of vitamin B-12 with HDL, leading to metabolic disturbance in both the pathways; lipid and one carbon metabolic pathway. Co-factors such as ethnicity, cultural practices, and lifestyle & dietary habits must be considered while making public health policies to control diseases.

  8. Effects of CD44 Ligation on Signaling and Metabolic Pathways in Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    KAUST Repository

    Madhoun, Nour Y.

    2017-04-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is characterized by a blockage in the differentiation of myeloid cells at different stages. CD44-ligation using anti-CD44 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has been shown to reverse the blockage of differentiation and to inhibit the proliferation of blasts in most AML-subtypes. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this property have not been fully elucidated. Here, we sought to I) analyze the effects of anti-CD44 mAbs on downstream signaling pathways, including the ERK1/2 (extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2) and mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathways and II) use state-of-the-art Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) technology to determine the global metabolic changes during differentiation induction of AML cells using anti-CD44 mAbs and other two previously reported differentiation agents. In the first objective (Chapter 4), our studies provide evidence that CD44-ligation with specific mAbs in AML cells induced an increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation. The use of the MEK inhibitor (U0126) significantly inhibited the CD44-induced differentiation of HL60 cells, suggesting that ERK1/2 is critical for the CD44-triggered differentiation in AML. In addition, this was accompanied by a marked decrease in the phosphorylation of the mTORC1 and mTORC2 complexes, which are strongly correlated with the inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway. In the second objective (Chapter 5), 1H NMR experiments demonstrated that considerable changes in the metabolic profiles of HL60 cells were induced in response to each differentiation agent. These most notable metabolites that significantly changed upon CD44 ligation were involved in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and glycolysis such as, succinate, fumarate and lactate. Therefore, we sought to analyze the mechanisms underlying their alterations. Our results revealed that anti-CD44 mAbs treatment induced upregulation in fumarate hydratase (FH) expression and its activity which was accompanied by a

  9. Perturbed rhythmic activation of signaling pathways in mice deficient for Sterol Carrier Protein 2-dependent diurnal lipid transport and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouffe, Céline; Gobet, Cédric; Martin, Eva; Métairon, Sylviane; Morin-Rivron, Delphine; Masoodi, Mojgan; Gachon, Frédéric

    2016-04-21

    Through evolution, most of the living species have acquired a time keeping system to anticipate daily changes caused by the rotation of the Earth. In all of the systems this pacemaker is based on a molecular transcriptional/translational negative feedback loop able to generate rhythmic gene expression with a period close to 24 hours. Recent evidences suggest that post-transcriptional regulations activated mostly by systemic cues play a fundamental role in the process, fine tuning the time keeping system and linking it to animal physiology. Among these signals, we consider the role of lipid transport and metabolism regulated by SCP2. Mice harboring a deletion of the Scp2 locus present a modulated diurnal accumulation of lipids in the liver and a perturbed activation of several signaling pathways including PPARα, SREBP, LRH-1, TORC1 and its upstream regulators. This defect in signaling pathways activation feedbacks upon the clock by lengthening the circadian period of animals through post-translational regulation of core clock regulators, showing that rhythmic lipid transport is a major player in the establishment of rhythmic mRNA and protein expression landscape.

  10. Flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3 role in busulphan metabolic pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim El-Serafi

    Full Text Available Busulphan (Bu is an alkylating agent used in the conditioning regimen prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT. Bu is extensively metabolized in the liver via conjugations with glutathione to form the intermediate metabolite (sulfonium ion which subsequently is degraded to tetrahydrothiophene (THT. THT was reported to be oxidized forming THT-1-oxide that is further oxidized to sulfolane and finally 3-hydroxysulfolane. However, the underlying mechanisms for the formation of these metabolites remain poorly understood. In the present study, we performed in vitro and in vivo investigations to elucidate the involvement of flavin-containing monooxygenase-3 (FMO3 and cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs in Bu metabolic pathway. Rapid clearance of THT was observed when incubated with human liver microsomes. Furthermore, among different recombinant microsomal enzymes, the highest intrinsic clearance for THT was obtained via FMO3 followed by several CYPs including 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2E1 and 3A4. In Bu- or THT-treated mice, inhibition of FMO3 by phenylthiourea significantly suppressed the clearance of both Bu and THT. Moreover, the simultaneous administration of a high dose of THT (200μmol/kg to Bu-treated mice reduced the clearance of Bu. Consistently, in patients undergoing HSCT, repeated administration of Bu resulted in a significant up-regulation of FMO3 and glutathione-S-transfrase -1 (GSTA1 genes. Finally, in a Bu-treated patient, additional treatment with voriconazole (an antimycotic drug known as an FMO3-substrate significantly altered the Bu clearance. In conclusion, we demonstrate for the first time that FMO3 along with CYPs contribute a major part in busulphan metabolic pathway and certainly can affect its kinetics. The present results have high clinical impact. Furthermore, these findings might be important for reducing the treatment-related toxicity of Bu, through avoiding interaction with other concomitant used drugs during

  11. Shaofu Zhuyu decoction ameliorates obesity-mediated hepatic steatosis and systemic inflammation by regulating metabolic pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moonju Hong

    Full Text Available Shaofu Zhuyu decoction (SFZYD, also known as Sobokchugeo-tang, a classical prescription drug in traditional East Asian medicine, has been used to treat blood stasis syndrome (BSS. Hepatic steatosis is the result of excess caloric intake, and its pathogenesis involves internal retention of phlegm and dampness, blood stasis, and liver Qi stagnation. To evaluate the effects of treatment with SFZYD on obesity-induced inflammation and hepatic steatosis, we fed male C57BL/6N mice a high fat diet (HFD for 8 weeks and then treated them with SFZYD by oral gavage for an additional 4 weeks. The results of histological and biochemical examinations indicated that SFZYD treatment ameliorates systemic inflammation and hepatic steatosis. A partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA scores plot of serum metabolites showed that HFD mice began to produce metabolites similar to those of normal chow (NC mice after SFZYD administration. We noted significant alterations in the levels of twenty-seven metabolites, alterations indicating that SFZYD regulates the TCA cycle, the pentose phosphate pathway and aromatic amino acid metabolism. Increases in the levels of TCA cycle intermediate metabolites, such as 2-oxoglutaric acid, isocitric acid, and malic acid, in the serum of obese mice were significantly reversed after SFZYD treatment. In addition to inducing changes in the above metabolites, treatment with SFZYD also recovered the expression of genes related to hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction, including Ucp2, Cpt1α, and Ppargc1α, as well as the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism and inflammation, without affecting glucose uptake or insulin signaling. Taken together, these findings suggest that treatment with SFZYD ameliorated obesity-induced systemic inflammation and hepatic steatosis by regulating inflammatory cytokine and adipokine levels in the circulation and various tissues. Moreover, treatment with SFZYD also reversed alterations in the

  12. Systems-wide metabolic pathway engineering in Corynebacterium glutamicum for bio-based production of diaminopentane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kind, Stefanie; Jeong, Weol Kyu; Schröder, Hartwig; Wittmann, Christoph

    2010-07-01

    In the present work the Gram-positive bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum was engineered into an efficient, tailor-made production strain for diaminopentane (cadaverine), a highly attractive building block for bio-based polyamides. The engineering comprised expression of lysine decarboxylase (ldcC) from Escherichia coli, catalyzing the conversion of lysine into diaminopentane, and systems-wide metabolic engineering of central supporting pathways. Substantially re-designing the metabolism yielded superior strains with desirable properties such as (i) the release from unwanted feedback regulation at the level of aspartokinase and pyruvate carboxylase by introducing the point mutations lysC311 and pycA458, (ii) an optimized supply of the key precursor oxaloacetate by amplifying the anaplerotic enzyme, pyruvate carboxylase, and deleting phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase which otherwise removes oxaloacetate, (iii) enhanced biosynthetic flux via combined amplification of aspartokinase, dihydrodipicolinate reductase, diaminopimelate dehydrogenase and diaminopimelate decarboxylase, and (iv) attenuated flux into the threonine pathway competing with production by the leaky mutation hom59 in the homoserine dehydrogenase gene. Lysine decarboxylase proved to be a bottleneck for efficient production, since its in vitro activity and in vivo flux were closely correlated. To achieve an optimal strain having only stable genomic modifications, the combination of the strong constitutive C. glutamicum tuf promoter and optimized codon usage allowed efficient genome-based ldcC expression and resulted in a high diaminopentane yield of 200 mmol mol(-1). By supplementing the medium with 1 mgL(-1) pyridoxal, the cofactor of lysine decarboxylase, the yield was increased to 300 mmol mol(-1). In the production strain obtained, lysine secretion was almost completely abolished. Metabolic analysis, however, revealed substantial formation of an as yet unknown by-product. It was identified as an

  13. Effects of phoxim on nutrient metabolism and insulin signaling pathway in silkworm midgut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fanchi; Hu, Jingsheng; Tian, Jianghai; Xu, Kaizun; Ni, Min; Wang, Binbin; Shen, Weide; Li, Bing

    2016-03-01

    Silkworm (Bombyx mori) is an important economic insect. Each year, poisoning caused by phoxim pesticide leads to huge economic losses in sericulture in China. Silkworm midgut is the major organ for food digestion and nutrient absorption. In this study, we found that the activity and expression of nutrition metabolism-related enzymes were dysregulated in midgut by phoxim exposure. DGE analysis revealed that 40 nutrition metabolism-related genes were differentially expressed. qRT-PCR results indicated that the expression levels of insulin/insulin growth factor signaling (IIS) pathway genes Akt, PI3K, PI3K60, PI3K110, IRS and PDK were reduced, whereas PTEN's expression was significantly increased in the midgut at 24 h after phoxim treatment. However, the transcription levels of Akt, PI3K60, PI3K110, IRS, InR and PDK were elevated and reached the peaks at 48 h, which were 1.48-, 1.35-, 1.21-, 2.24-, 2.89-, and 1.44-fold of those of the control, respectively. At 72 h, the transcription of these genes was reduced. Akt phosphorylation level was increasing along with the growth of silkworms in the control group. However, phoxim treatment led to increased Akt phosphorylation that surged at 24 h but gradually decreased at 48 h and 72 h. The results indicated that phoxim dysregulated the expression of IIS pathway genes and induced abnormal nutrient metabolism in silkworm midgut, which may be the reason of the slow growth of silkworms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. PPAR ligands improve impaired metabolic pathways in fetal hearts of diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Melisa; Capobianco, Evangelina; Martinez, Nora; Roberti, Sabrina Lorena; Arany, Edith; Jawerbaum, Alicia

    2014-10-01

    In maternal diabetes, the fetal heart can be structurally and functionally affected. Maternal diets enriched in certain unsaturated fatty acids can activate the nuclear receptors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and regulate metabolic and anti-inflammatory pathways during development. Our aim was to investigate whether PPARα expression, lipid metabolism, lipoperoxidation, and nitric oxide (NO) production are altered in the fetal hearts of diabetic rats, and to analyze the putative effects of in vivo PPAR activation on these parameters. We found decreased PPARα expression in the hearts of male but not female fetuses of diabetic rats when compared with controls. Fetal treatments with the PPARα ligand leukotriene B4 upregulated the expression of PPARα and target genes involved in fatty acid oxidation in the fetal hearts. Increased concentrations of triglycerides, cholesterol, and phospholipids were found in the hearts of fetuses of diabetic rats. Maternal treatments with diets supplemented with 6% olive oil or 6% safflower oil, enriched in unsaturated fatty acids that can activate PPARs, led to few changes in lipid concentrations, but up-regulated PPARα expression in fetal hearts. NO production, which was increased in the hearts of male and female fetuses in the diabetic group, and lipoperoxidation, which was increased in the hearts of male fetuses in the diabetic group, was reduced by the maternal treatments supplemented with safflower oil. In conclusion, impaired PPARα expression, altered lipid metabolism, and increased oxidative and nitridergic pathways were evidenced in hearts of fetuses of diabetic rats and were regulated in a gender-dependent manner by treatments enriched with PPAR ligands. © 2014 Society for Endocrinology.

  15. Acetic Acid Influences BRL-3A Cell Lipid Metabolism via the AMPK Signalling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; He, Meilin; Xiao, Hang; Liu, Xiaoqian; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Yuanshu

    2018-01-01

    Acetic acid (AcOH), a short-chain fatty acid, is reported to have some beneficial effects on metabolism. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the regulatory mechanism of acetic acid on hepatic lipid metabolism in BRL-3A cells. We cultured and treated BRL-3A cells with different concentrations of sodium acetate (neutralized acetic acid) and BML-275 (an AMPKα inhibitor). The total lipid droplet area was measured by oil red O staining, and the triglyceride content was determined by a triglyceride detection kit. We detected mRNA and protein levels of lipid metabolism-related signalling molecules by RT-PCR and Western blot. Acetic acid treatment increased AMPKα phosphorylation, which subsequently increased the expression and transcriptional activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α and upregulated the expression of lipid oxidation genes. These changes ultimate led to increasing levels of lipid oxidation in BRL-3A cells. Furthermore, elevated AMPKα phosphorylation reduced the expression and transcriptional activity of the sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c, which reduced the expression of lipogenic genes, thereby decreasing lipid biosynthesis in BRL-3A cells. Consequently, triglyceride content in acetate-treated BRL-3A cells was significantly decreased. These results indicate that acetic acid activates the AMPKα signalling pathway, leading to increased lipid oxidation and decreased lipid synthesis in BRL-3A cells, thereby reducing liver fat accumulation in vitro. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Bacterial microcompartments: widespread prokaryotic organelles for isolation and optimization of metabolic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobik, Thomas A; Lehman, Brent P; Yeates, Todd O

    2015-10-01

    Prokaryotes use subcellular compartments for a variety of purposes. An intriguing example is a family of complex subcellular organelles known as bacterial microcompartments (MCPs). MCPs are widely distributed among bacteria and impact processes ranging from global carbon fixation to enteric pathogenesis. Overall, MCPs consist of metabolic enzymes encased within a protein shell, and their function is to optimize biochemical pathways by confining toxic or volatile metabolic intermediates. MCPs are fundamentally different from other organelles in having a complex protein shell rather than a lipid-based membrane as an outer barrier. This unusual feature raises basic questions about organelle assembly, protein targeting and metabolite transport. In this review, we discuss the three best-studied MCPs highlighting atomic-level models for shell assembly, targeting sequences that direct enzyme encapsulation, multivalent proteins that organize the lumen enzymes, the principles of metabolite movement across the shell, internal cofactor recycling, a potential system of allosteric regulation of metabolite transport and the mechanism and rationale behind the functional diversification of the proteins that form the shell. We also touch on some potential biotechnology applications of an unusual compartment designed by nature to optimize metabolic processes within a cellular context. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Quantitative Proteogenomics and the Reconstruction of the Metabolic Pathway in Lactobacillus mucosae LM1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajarillo, Edward Alain B; Kim, Sang Hoon; Lee, Ji-Yoon; Valeriano, Valerie Diane V; Kang, Dae-Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus mucosae is a natural resident of the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals and a potential probiotic bacterium. To understand the global protein expression profile and metabolic features of L. mucosae LM1 in the early stationary phase, the QExactive(TM) Hybrid Quadrupole-Orbitrap Mass Spectrometer was used. Characterization of the intracellular proteome identified 842 proteins, accounting for approximately 35% of the 2,404 protein-coding sequences in the complete genome of L. mucosae LM1. Proteome quantification using QExactive(TM) Orbitrap MS detected 19 highly abundant proteins (> 1.0% of the intracellular proteome), including CysK (cysteine synthase, 5.41%) and EF-Tu (elongation factor Tu, 4.91%), which are involved in cell survival against environmental stresses. Metabolic pathway annotation of LM1 proteome using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database showed that half of the proteins expressed are important for basic metabolic and biosynthetic processes, and the other half might be structurally important or involved in basic cellular processes. In addition, glycogen biosynthesis was activated in the early stationary phase, which is important for energy storage and maintenance. The proteogenomic data presented in this study provide a suitable reference to understand the protein expression pattern of lactobacilli in standard conditions.

  18. Dynamic scenario of metabolic pathway adaptation in tumors and therapeutic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peppicelli, Silvia; Bianchini, Francesca; Calorini, Lido

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells need to regulate their metabolic program to fuel several activities, including unlimited proliferation, resistance to cell death, invasion and metastasis. The aim of this work is to revise this complex scenario. Starting from proliferating cancer cells located in well-oxygenated regions, they may express the so-called "Warburg effect" or aerobic glycolysis, meaning that although a plenty of oxygen is available, cancer cells choose glycolysis, the sole pathway that allows a biomass formation and DNA duplication, needed for cell division. Although oxygen does not represent the primary font of energy, diffusion rate reduces oxygen tension and the emerging hypoxia promotes "anaerobic glycolysis" through the hypoxia inducible factor-1α-dependent up-regulation. The acquired hypoxic phenotype is endowed with high resistance to cell death and high migration capacities, although these cells are less proliferating. Cells using aerobic or anaerobic glycolysis survive only in case they extrude acidic metabolites acidifying the extracellular space. Acidosis drives cancer cells from glycolysis to OxPhos, and OxPhos transforms the available alternative substrates into energy used to fuel migration and distant organ colonization. Thus, metabolic adaptations sustain different energy-requiring ability of cancer cells, but render them responsive to perturbations by anti-metabolic agents, such as inhibitors of glycolysis and/or OxPhos.

  19. Effects of the mitogen concanavalin A on pathways of thymocyte energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, S; Buttgereit, F; Brand, M D

    1999-06-30

    The lectin concanavalin A (Con A) acts as a mitogen that preferentially activates T-cells. It stimulates the energy metabolism of thymocytes within seconds of exposure. We studied short-term effects (<30 min) of Con A on a conceptually simplified model system of rat thymocyte energy metabolism in the concentration range of 0-2 microg Con A per 107 cells, using metabolic control analysis. The model system consisted of three blocks of reactions, linked by the common intermediate mitochondrial membrane potential (Delta[psi]m): the substrate oxidation reactions, which produce the linking intermediate, and the proton conductance (or leak) and ATP turnover pathways which consume Delta[psi]m. Firstly, we used top-down elasticity analysis to establish which subsystems are targeted by Con A. Secondly, we quantitatively analysed the steady-state regulation of the system variables by Con A: how do the subsystem fluxes respond to Con A individually and as a whole? Our results indicate that: (1) steady-state respiration and Delta[psi]m increase as Con A concentration is raised, but at higher concentrations the increase in respiration is less and Delta[psi]m falls; (2) Con A independently changes the kinetics of the reactions that produce and consume Delta[psi]m: the Delta[psi]m-producing reactions are inhibited, and the reactions involved in ATP turnover are stimulated; and (3) the overall effects of Con A are mostly mediated by effects on ATP turnover.

  20. Genome-Based Construction of the Metabolic Pathways of Orientia tsutsugamushi and Comparative Analysis within the Rickettsiales Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan-Ki Min

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientia tsutsugamushi, the causative agent of scrub typhus, is an obligate intracellular bacterium that belongs to the order of Rickettsiales. Recently, we have reported that O. tsutsugamushi has a unique genomic structure, consisting of highly repetitive sequences, and suggested that it may provide valuable insight into the evolution of intracellular bacteria. Here, we have used genomic information to construct the major metabolic pathways of O. tsutsugamushi and performed a comparative analysis of the metabolic genes and pathways of O. tsutsugamushi with other members of the Rickettsiales order. While O. tsutsugamushi has the largest genome among the members of this order, mainly due to the presence of repeated sequences, its metabolic pathways have been highly streamlined. Overall, the metabolic pathways of O. tsutsugamushi were similar to Rickettsia but there were notable differences in several pathways including carbohydrate metabolism, the TCA cycle, and the synthesis of cell wall components as well as in the transport systems. Our results will provide a useful guide to the postgenomic analysis of O. tsutsugamushi and lead to a better understanding of the virulence and physiology of this intracellular pathogen.

  1. Dissection of Biological Property of Chinese Acupuncture Point Zusanli Based on Long-Term Treatment via Modulating Multiple Metabolic Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangli Yan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture has a history of over 3000 years and is a traditional Chinese medical therapy that uses hair-thin metal needles to puncture the skin at specific points on the body to promote wellbeing, while its molecular mechanism and ideal biological pathways are still not clear. High-throughput metabolomics is the global assessment of endogenous metabolites within a biologic system and can potentially provide a more accurate snap shot of the actual physiological state. We hypothesize that acupuncture-treated human would produce unique characterization of metabolic phenotypes. In this study, UPLC/ESI-HDMS coupled with pattern recognition methods and system analysis were carried out to investigate the mechanism and metabolite biomarkers for acupuncture treatment at “Zusanli” acupoint (ST-36 as a case study. The top 5 canonical pathways including alpha-linolenic acid metabolism, d-glutamine and d-glutamate metabolism, citrate cycle, alanine, aspartate, and glutamate metabolism, and vitamin B6 metabolism pathways were acutely perturbed, and 53 differential metabolites were identified by chemical profiling and may be useful to clarify the physiological basis and mechanism of ST-36. More importantly, network construction has led to the integration of metabolites associated with the multiple perturbation pathways. Urine metabolic profiling might be a promising method to investigate the molecular mechanism of acupuncture.

  2. Conversion of KEGG metabolic pathways to SBGN maps including automatic layout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czauderna, Tobias; Wybrow, Michael; Marriott, Kim; Schreiber, Falk

    2013-08-16

    Biologists make frequent use of databases containing large and complex biological networks. One popular database is the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) which uses its own graphical representation and manual layout for pathways. While some general drawing conventions exist for biological networks, arbitrary graphical representations are very common. Recently, a new standard has been established for displaying biological processes, the Systems Biology Graphical Notation (SBGN), which aims to unify the look of such maps. Ideally, online repositories such as KEGG would automatically provide networks in a variety of notations including SBGN. Unfortunately, this is non-trivial, since converting between notations may add, remove or otherwise alter map elements so that the existing layout cannot be simply reused. Here we describe a methodology for automatic translation of KEGG metabolic pathways into the SBGN format. We infer important properties of the KEGG layout and treat these as layout constraints that are maintained during the conversion to SBGN maps. This allows for the drawing and layout conventions of SBGN to be followed while creating maps that are still recognizably the original KEGG pathways. This article details the steps in this process and provides examples of the final result.

  3. The Leloir Pathway of Galactose Metabolism - A Novel Therapeutic Target for Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Manshu; Etokidem, Enoabasi; Lai, Kent

    2016-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most lethal types of cancer worldwide, with poor prognosis and limited treatments. In order to identify novel therapeutic targets that will lead to development of effective therapies with manageable side effects, we tested the hypothesis that knocking-down galactokinase (GALK1) or galactose-1 phosphate uridylyltransferase (GALT) gene expression would control the growth of cultured hepatoma cells. Our results showed small interfering RNA (siRNA) against GALK1 or GALT inhibited the growth of HepG2 cells in culture. Western blot analysis revealed simultaneous down-regulation of multiple players of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) growth signaling pathway, as well as heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) and poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP). Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) data, however, showed no significant mRNA reduction of the encoded genes. Our study thus not only supports GALK1 and GALT as being possible novel targets for treating HCC, but also uncovers new post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms that link the galactose metabolic pathway to protein expression of the PI3K/AKT pathway in hepatoma. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  4. Pathways and genes involved in steroid hormone metabolism in male pigs: a review and update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robic, Annie; Faraut, Thomas; Prunier, Armelle

    2014-03-01

    This paper reviews state-of-the-art knowledge on steroid biosynthesis pathways in the pig and provides an updated characterization of the porcine genes involved in these pathways with particular focus on androgens, estrogens, and 16-androstenes. At least 21 different enzymes appear to be involved in these pathways in porcine tissues together with at least five cofactors. Until now, data on several porcine genes were scarce or confusing. We characterized the complete genomic and transcript sequences of the single porcine CYP11B gene. We analyzed the porcine AKR1 gene cluster and identified four AKR1C, one AKR1C like genes and one AKR1E2 gene. We provide evidence that porcine AKR1C genes are not orthologous to human AKR1C. A new nomenclature is thus needed for this gene family in the pig. Thirty-two genes are now described: transcript (30+2 characterized in this study) and genomic (complete: 18+1 and partial: 12+1) sequences are identified. However, despite increasing knowledge on steroid metabolism in the pig, there is still no explanation of why porcine testes can produce androstenone and epiandrosterone, but not dihydrotestosterone (DHT), which is also a reduced steroid. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Metabolic engineering to simultaneously activate anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin biosynthetic pathways in Nicotiana spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Fresquet-Corrales

    Full Text Available Proanthocyanidins (PAs, or condensed tannins, are powerful antioxidants that remove harmful free oxygen radicals from cells. To engineer the anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin biosynthetic pathways to de novo produce PAs in two Nicotiana species, we incorporated four transgenes to the plant chassis. We opted to perform a simultaneous transformation of the genes linked in a multigenic construct rather than classical breeding or retransformation approaches. We generated a GoldenBraid 2.0 multigenic construct containing two Antirrhinum majus transcription factors (AmRosea1 and AmDelila to upregulate the anthocyanin pathway in combination with two Medicago truncatula genes (MtLAR and MtANR to produce the enzymes that will derivate the biosynthetic pathway to PAs production. Transient and stable transformation of Nicotiana benthamiana and Nicotiana tabacum with the multigenic construct were respectively performed. Transient expression experiments in N. benthamiana showed the activation of the anthocyanin pathway producing a purple color in the agroinfiltrated leaves and also the effective production of 208.5 nmol (- catechin/g FW and 228.5 nmol (- epicatechin/g FW measured by the p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (DMACA method. The integration capacity of the four transgenes, their respective expression levels and their heritability in the second generation were analyzed in stably transformed N. tabacum plants. DMACA and phoroglucinolysis/HPLC-MS analyses corroborated the activation of both pathways and the effective production of PAs in T0 and T1 transgenic tobacco plants up to a maximum of 3.48 mg/g DW. The possible biotechnological applications of the GB2.0 multigenic approach in forage legumes to produce "bloat-safe" plants and to improve the efficiency of conversion of plant protein into animal protein (ruminal protein bypass are discussed.

  6. Management recommendations for metabolic complications associated with second generation antipsychotic use in children and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Josephine; Panagiotopoulos, Constadina; McCrindle, Brian; Grisaru, Silviu; Pringsheim, Tamara

    2011-08-01

    Second generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are commonly associated with metabolic complications. These medications are being used more frequently for the treatment of mental health disorders in children, which has stimulated the need for creating formal guidelines on monitoring their safety and effectiveness. Previous guidelines have been developed for monitoring for metabolic and neurological complications. In order to assist practitioners who perform these monitoring procedures, we have created a complementary set of treatment recommendations if abnormal measurements or results are encountered. To create evidence-based recommendations to assist in managing metabolic complications in children being treated with second generation antipsychotics. A systematic review of the literature on metabolic complications of second generation antipsychotic medications in children was conducted. Members of the consensus group evaluated the information gathered from the systematic review of the literature and used a nominal group process to come to consensus on treatment recommendations. Wherever possible, references were made to existing guidelines on the evaluation and treatment of metabolic abnormalities in children. Evidence-based recommendations are presented to assist in managing metabolic complications, including weight gain, increased waist circumference, elevation in cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose, liver function tests, abnormal thyroid studies, and elevation in prolactin. The use of SGAs requires proper monitoring procedures. This treatment guideline provides guidance to clinicians on clinical management of metabolic complications if they occur.

  7. A Test of a Cognitive Diathesis-Stress Generation Pathway in Early Adolescent Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kercher, Amy; Rapee, Ronald M.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates a pathway for depressive risk that integrates cognitive diathesis-stress and stress-generation theories, following Hankin and Abramson's (2001, "Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 31"(4), 491-504) elaborated cognitive-diathesis transactional stress model. In this model, young adolescents with initial…

  8. Light Modulates Metabolic Pathways and Other Novel Physiological Traits in the Human Pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Gabriela L; Tuttobene, Marisel; Altilio, Matías; Martínez Amezaga, Maitena; Nguyen, Meaghan; Cribb, Pamela; Cybulski, Larisa E; Ramírez, María Soledad; Altabe, Silvia; Mussi, María Alejandra

    2017-05-15

    Light sensing in chemotrophic bacteria has been relatively recently ascertained. In the human pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii , light modulates motility, biofilm formation, and virulence through the blue-light-sensing-using flavin (BLUF) photoreceptor BlsA. In addition, light can induce a reduction in susceptibility to certain antibiotics, such as minocycline and tigecycline, in a photoreceptor-independent manner. In this work, we identified new traits whose expression levels are modulated by light in this pathogen, which comprise not only important determinants related to pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance but also metabolic pathways, which represents a novel concept for chemotrophic bacteria. Indeed, the phenylacetic acid catabolic pathway and trehalose biosynthesis were modulated by light, responses that completely depend on BlsA. We further show that tolerance to some antibiotics and modulation of antioxidant enzyme levels are also influenced by light, likely contributing to bacterial persistence in adverse environments. Also, we present evidence indicating that surfactant production is modulated by light. Finally, the expression of whole pathways and gene clusters, such as genes involved in lipid metabolism and genes encoding components of the type VI secretion system, as well as efflux pumps related to antibiotic resistance, was differentially induced by light. Overall, our results indicate that light modulates global features of the A. baumannii lifestyle. IMPORTANCE The discovery that nonphototrophic bacteria respond to light constituted a novel concept in microbiology. In this context, we demonstrated that light could modulate aspects related to bacterial virulence, persistence, and resistance to antibiotics in the human pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii In this work, we present the novel finding that light directly regulates metabolism in this chemotrophic bacterium. Insights into the mechanism show the involvement of the photoreceptor BlsA. In

  9. Enhanced volatile fatty acids production from anaerobic fermentation of food waste: A mini-review focusing on acidogenic metabolic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Miaomiao; Yan, Binghua; Wong, Jonathan W C; Zhang, Yang

    2018-01-01

    Recently, efficient disposal of food waste (FW) with potential resource recovery has attracted great attentions. Due to its easily biodegradable nature, rich nutrient availability and high moisture content, FW is regarded as favorable substrate for anaerobic digestion (AD). Both waste disposal and energy recovery can be fulfilled during AD of FW. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) which are the products of the first-two stages of AD, are widely applied in chemical industry as platform chemicals recently. Concentration and distribution of VFAs is the result of acidogenic metabolic pathways, which can be affected by the micro-environment (e.g. pH) in the digester. Hence, the clear elucidation of the acidogenic metabolic pathways is essential for optimization of acidogenic process for efficient product recovery. This review summarizes major acidogenic metabolic pathways and regulating strategies for enhancing VFAs recovery during acidogenic fermentation of FW. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. GABA metabolism pathway genes, UGA1 and GAD1, regulate replicative lifespan in Saccharomycescerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamei, Yuka; Tamura, Takayuki; Yoshida, Ryo; Ohta, Shinji; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Mukai, Yukio

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: →We demonstrate that two genes in the yeast GABA metabolism pathway affect aging. → Deletion of the UGA1 or GAD1 genes extends replicative lifespan. → Addition of GABA to wild-type cultures has no effect on lifespan. → Intracellular GABA levels do not differ in longevity mutants and wild-type cells. → Levels of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates positively correlate with lifespan. -- Abstract: Many of the genes involved in aging have been identified in organisms ranging from yeast to human. Our previous study showed that deletion of the UGA3 gene-which encodes a zinc-finger transcription factor necessary for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-dependent induction of the UGA1 (GABA aminotransferase), UGA2 (succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase), and UGA4 (GABA permease) genes-extends replicative lifespan in the budding yeast Saccharomycescerevisiae. Here, we found that deletion of UGA1 lengthened the lifespan, as did deletion of UGA3; in contrast, strains with UGA2 or UGA4 deletions exhibited no lifespan extension. The Δuga1 strain cannot deaminate GABA to succinate semialdehyde. Deletion of GAD1, which encodes the glutamate decarboxylase that converts glutamate into GABA, also increased lifespan. Therefore, two genes in the GABA metabolism pathway, UGA1 and GAD1, were identified as aging genes. Unexpectedly, intracellular GABA levels in mutant cells (except for Δuga2 cells) did not differ from those in wild-type cells. Addition of GABA to culture media, which induces transcription of the UGA structural genes, had no effect on replicative lifespan of wild-type cells. Multivariate analysis of 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance spectra for the whole-cell metabolite levels demonstrated a separation between long-lived and normal-lived strains. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of identified metabolites showed that levels of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates positively correlated with lifespan extension. These results strongly suggest

  11. GABA metabolism pathway genes, UGA1 and GAD1, regulate replicative lifespan in Saccharomycescerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamei, Yuka; Tamura, Takayuki [Department of Bioscience, Faculty of Bioscience, Nagahama Institute of Bio-Science and Technology, 1266 Tamura, Nagahama, Shiga 526-0829 (Japan); Yoshida, Ryo [Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ohta, Shinji [Department of Bioscience, Faculty of Bioscience, Nagahama Institute of Bio-Science and Technology, 1266 Tamura, Nagahama, Shiga 526-0829 (Japan); Fukusaki, Eiichiro [Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Mukai, Yukio, E-mail: y_mukai@nagahama-i-bio.ac.jp [Department of Bioscience, Faculty of Bioscience, Nagahama Institute of Bio-Science and Technology, 1266 Tamura, Nagahama, Shiga 526-0829 (Japan)

    2011-04-01

    Highlights: {yields}We demonstrate that two genes in the yeast GABA metabolism pathway affect aging. {yields} Deletion of the UGA1 or GAD1 genes extends replicative lifespan. {yields} Addition of GABA to wild-type cultures has no effect on lifespan. {yields} Intracellular GABA levels do not differ in longevity mutants and wild-type cells. {yields} Levels of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates positively correlate with lifespan. -- Abstract: Many of the genes involved in aging have been identified in organisms ranging from yeast to human. Our previous study showed that deletion of the UGA3 gene-which encodes a zinc-finger transcription factor necessary for {gamma}-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-dependent induction of the UGA1 (GABA aminotransferase), UGA2 (succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase), and UGA4 (GABA permease) genes-extends replicative lifespan in the budding yeast Saccharomycescerevisiae. Here, we found that deletion of UGA1 lengthened the lifespan, as did deletion of UGA3; in contrast, strains with UGA2 or UGA4 deletions exhibited no lifespan extension. The {Delta}uga1 strain cannot deaminate GABA to succinate semialdehyde. Deletion of GAD1, which encodes the glutamate decarboxylase that converts glutamate into GABA, also increased lifespan. Therefore, two genes in the GABA metabolism pathway, UGA1 and GAD1, were identified as aging genes. Unexpectedly, intracellular GABA levels in mutant cells (except for {Delta}uga2 cells) did not differ from those in wild-type cells. Addition of GABA to culture media, which induces transcription of the UGA structural genes, had no effect on replicative lifespan of wild-type cells. Multivariate analysis of {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance spectra for the whole-cell metabolite levels demonstrated a separation between long-lived and normal-lived strains. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of identified metabolites showed that levels of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates positively correlated with lifespan

  12. Enhanced levels of S-linalool by metabolic engineering of the terpenoid pathway in spike lavender leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Poudereux, Isabel; Muñoz-Bertomeu, Jesús; Navarro, Alicia; Arrillaga, Isabel; Segura, Juan

    2014-05-01

    Transgenic Lavandula latifolia plants overexpressing the linalool synthase (LIS) gene from Clarkia breweri, encoding the LIS enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of linalool were generated. Most of these plants increased significantly their linalool content as compared to controls, especially in the youngest leaves, where a linalool increase up to a 1000% was observed. The phenotype of increased linalool content observed in young leaves was maintained in those T1 progenies that inherit the LIS transgene, although this phenotype was less evident in the flower essential oil. Cross-pollination of transgenic spike lavender plants allowed the generation of double transgenic plants containing the DXS (1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-P synthase), coding for the first enzyme of the methyl-d-erythritol-4-phosphate pathway, and LIS genes. Both essential oil yield and linalool content in double DXS-LIS transgenic plants were lower than that of their parentals, which could be due to co-suppression effects linked to the structures of the constructs used. Copyright © 2014 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Serum metabonomics coupled with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis characterizes metabolic perturbations in response to hypothyroidism induced by propylthiouracil in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Si; Gao, Yue; Dong, Xin; Tan, Guangguo; Li, Wuhong; Lou, Ziyang; Chai, Yifeng

    2013-01-01

    A serum metabonomic profiling method based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC/TOF-MS) was applied to investigate the metabolic changes in hypothyroid rats induced by propylthiouracil (PTU). With Significance Analysis of Microarray (SAM) for classification and selection of biomarkers, 13 potential biomarkers in rat serum were screened out. Furthermore, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) was introduced to deeply analyze unique pathways of hypothyroidism that were primarily involved in sphingolipid metabolism, fatty acid transportation, phospholipid metabolism and phenylalanine metabolism. Our results demonstrated that the metabonomic approach integrating with IPA was a promising tool for providing a novel methodological clue to systemically dissect the underlying molecular mechanism of hypothyroidism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Bi-directional gene set enrichment and canonical correlation analysis identify key diet-sensitive pathways and biomarkers of metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaora Peadar Ó

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, a number of bioinformatics methods are available to generate appropriate lists of genes from a microarray experiment. While these lists represent an accurate primary analysis of the data, fewer options exist to contextualise those lists. The development and validation of such methods is crucial to the wider application of microarray technology in the clinical setting. Two key challenges in clinical bioinformatics involve appropriate statistical modelling of dynamic transcriptomic changes, and extraction of clinically relevant meaning from very large datasets. Results Here, we apply an approach to gene set enrichment analysis that allows for detection of bi-directional enrichment within a gene set. Furthermore, we apply canonical correlation analysis and Fisher's exact test, using plasma marker data with known clinical relevance to aid identification of the most important gene and pathway changes in our transcriptomic dataset. After a 28-day dietary intervention with high-CLA beef, a range of plasma markers indicated a marked improvement in the metabolic health of genetically obese mice. Tissue transcriptomic profiles indicated that the effects were most dramatic in liver (1270 genes significantly changed; p Conclusion Bi-directional gene set enrichment analysis more accurately reflects dynamic regulatory behaviour in biochemical pathways, and as such highlighted biologically relevant changes that were not detected using a traditional approach. In such cases where transcriptomic response to treatment is exceptionally large, canonical correlation analysis in conjunction with Fisher's exact test highlights the subset of pathways showing strongest correlation with the clinical markers of interest. In this case, we have identified selenoamino acid metabolism and steroid biosynthesis as key pathways mediating the observed relationship between metabolic health and high-CLA beef. These results indicate that this type of

  15. Effects of insulin and its related signaling pathways on lipid metabolism in the yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Mei-Qin; Luo, Zhi; Pan, Ya-Xiong; Wu, Kun; Fan, Yao-Fang; Zhang, Li-Han; Song, Yu-Feng

    2015-10-01

    The influence of insulin on hepatic metabolism in fish is not well understood. The present study was therefore conducted to investigate the effects of insulin on lipid metabolism, and the related signaling pathways, in the yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. Hepatic lipid and intracellular triglyceride (TG) content, the activity and expression levels of several enzymes and the mRNA expression of transcription factors (PPARα and PPARγ) involved in lipid metabolism were determined. Troglitazone, GW6471, fenofibrate and wortmannin were used to explore the signaling pathways by which insulin influences lipid metabolism. Insulin tended to increase hepatic lipid accumulation, the activity of lipogenic enzymes (6PGD, G6PD, ME, ICDH and FAS) and mRNA levels of FAS, G6PD, 6PGD, CPT IA and PPARγ, but down-regulated PPARα mRNA level. The insulin-induced effect could be stimulated by the specific PPARγ activator troglitazone or reversed by the PI3 kinase/Akt inhibitor wortmannin, demonstrating that signaling pathways of PPARγ and PI3 kinase/Akt were involved in the insulin-induced alteration of lipid metabolism. The specific PPARα pathway activator fenofibrate reduced insulin-induced TG accumulation, down-regulated the mRNA levels of FAS, G6PD and 6PGD, and up-regulated mRNA levels of CPT IA, PPARα and PPARγ. The specific PPARα pathway inhibitor GW6471 reduced insulin-induced changes in the expression of all the tested genes, indicating that PPARα mediated the insulin-induced changes of lipid metabolism. The present results contribute new knowledge on the regulatory role of insulin in hepatic metabolism in fish. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Protein engineering for metabolic engineering: current and next-generation tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcheschi, Ryan J.; Gronenberg, Luisa S.; Liao, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Protein engineering in the context of metabolic engineering is increasingly important to the field of industrial biotechnology. As the demand for biologically-produced food, fuels, chemicals, food additives, and pharmaceuticals continues to grow, the ability to design and modify proteins to accomplish new functions will be required to meet the high productivity demands for the metabolism of engineered organisms. This article reviews advances of selecting, modeling, and engineering proteins to improve or alter their activity. Some of the methods have only recently been developed for general use and are just beginning to find greater application in the metabolic engineering community. We also discuss methods of generating random and targeted diversity in proteins to generate mutant libraries for analysis. Recent uses of these techniques to alter cofactor use, produce non-natural amino acids, alcohols, and carboxylic acids, and alter organism phenotypes are presented and discussed as examples of the successful engineering of proteins for metabolic engineering purposes. PMID:23589443

  17. [Dismutation as a metabolic pathway : transformation of the trimethyl 3,5,5, cyclohexanone (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truhaut, R; Lich, N P; Cluet, J L; Dutertre-Catella, H

    1979-03-01

    Besides novel routes of biotransformation of xenobiotic substances recently reported, such as N-glucuronidation of teritary amines and quaternary ammonium componds, N-glucosylation, N-carbamylglucuronide formation from a primary amine, C-glucuronidation, conjugation with long-chain fatty acids, with polypeptides, carbon-chain elongation, stereospecific inversion of configuration at a satured carbon atom, formation of methylthio metabolites, the authors have described a new metabolic pathway: dismutation, in the case of 3,5,5, - trimethylcyclohexanone (dihydroisophorone). As a matter of fact, this compound leads, in vivo, to the formation of isophorone alpha and of cis and trans 3,5,5, - trimethyl cyclohexanols. These compounds, extracted from the urine of treated rats and rabbits, have been identified by gas-liquid chromatography and thin-layer chromatography.

  18. Metabolic control analysis of biochemical pathways based on a thermokinetic description of reaction rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bredal

    1997-01-01

    of the thermokinetic description of reaction rates to include the influence of effecters. Here the reaction rate is written as a linear function of the logarithm of the metabolite concentrations. With this type of rate function it is shown that the approach of Delgado and Liao [Biochem. J. (1992) 282, 919-927] can......Metabolic control analysis is a powerful technique for the evaluation of flux control within biochemical pathways. Its foundation is the elasticity coefficients and the flux control coefficients (FCCs). On the basis of a thermokinetic description of reaction rates it is here shown...... that the elasticity coefficients can be calculated directly from the pool levels of metabolites at steady state. The only requirement is that one thermodynamic parameter be known, namely the reaction affinity at the intercept of the tangent in the inflection point of the curve of reaction rate against reaction...

  19. Metabolic control analysis of biochemical pathways based on a thermokinetic description of reaction rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bredal

    1997-01-01

    Metabolic control analysis is a powerful technique for the evaluation of flux control within biochemical pathways. Its foundation is the elasticity coefficients and the flux control coefficients (FCCs). On the basis of a thermokinetic description of reaction rates it is here shown...... that the elasticity coefficients can be calculated directly from the pool levels of metabolites at steady state. The only requirement is that one thermodynamic parameter be known, namely the reaction affinity at the intercept of the tangent in the inflection point of the curve of reaction rate against reaction...... of the thermokinetic description of reaction rates to include the influence of effecters. Here the reaction rate is written as a linear function of the logarithm of the metabolite concentrations. With this type of rate function it is shown that the approach of Delgado and Liao [Biochem. J. (1992) 282, 919-927] can...

  20. Changes in kynurenine pathway metabolism in Parkinson patients with L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havelund, Jesper F; Dammann Andersen, Andreas; Binzer, Michael

    2017-01-01

    L-DOPA is the most effective drug in the symptomatic treatment of Parkinson's disease, but chronic use is associated with L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in more than half the patients after 10 years of treatment. L-DOPA treatment may affect tryptophan metabolism via the kynurenine pathway. Altered...... levels of kynurenine metabolites can affect glutamatergic transmission and may play a role in the development of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia. In this study we assessed kynurenine metabolites in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of Parkinson's disease patients and controls. Parkinson patients (n=26) were...... clinically assessed for severity of motor symptoms (UPDRS) and L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (UDysRS). Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid samples were collected after overnight fasting and 1-2 hours after intake of L-DOPA or other anti-Parkinson medication. Metabolites were analyzed in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid...

  1. Role of the cAMP Pathway in Glucose and Lipid Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravnskjaer, Kim; Madiraju, Anila; Montminy, Marc

    2016-01-01

    3'-5'-Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP or cAMP) was first described in 1957 as an intracellular second messenger mediating the effects of glucagon and epinephrine on hepatic glycogenolysis (Berthet et al., J Biol Chem 224(1):463-475, 1957). Since this initial characterization, cAMP has been firmly established as a versatile molecular signal involved in both central and peripheral regulation of energy homeostasis and nutrient partitioning. Many of these effects appear to be mediated at the transcriptional level, in part through the activation of the transcription factor CREB and its coactivators. Here we review current understanding of the mechanisms by which the cAMP signaling pathway triggers metabolic programs in insulin-responsive tissues.

  2. Metabolic modeling of denitrification in Agrobacterium tumefaciens: A tool to study inhibiting and activating compounds for the denitrification pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Kampschreur, M.J.; Kleerebezem, R.; Picioreanu, C.; Bakken, L.; Bergaust, L.; De Vries, S.; Jetten, M.S.M.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    A metabolic network model for facultative denitrification was developed based on experimental data obtained with Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The model includes kinetic regulation at the enzyme level and transcription regulation at the enzyme synthesis level. The objective of this work was to study the key factors regulating the metabolic response of the denitrification pathway to transition from oxic to anoxic respiration and to find parameter values for the biological processes that were mode...

  3. Antioxidized LDL Antibodies Are Associated With Different Metabolic Pathways in Patients With Atherosclerotic Plaque and Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Bernal-Lopez, M. Rosa; Garrido-Sanchez, Lourdes; Gomez-Carrillo, Victor; Gallego-Perales, Jose Luis; Llorente-Cortes, Vicenta; Calleja, Fernando; Gomez-Huelgas, Ricardo; Badimon, Lina; Tinahones, Francisco J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Oxidized lipoproteins and antioxidized LDL antibodies (antioxLDL abs) have been detected in human plasma and atherosclerotic lesions. The principle aim of this study was to analyze the possible relationship between IgG and IgM antioxLDL abs and factors involved in different metabolic pathways (inflammation, lipid metabolism, apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest profile) in the occluded popliteal artery (OPA) compared with the femoral vein (FV). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Fifteen patien...

  4. Changes of in vivo fluxes through central metabolic pathways during the production of nystatin by Streptomyces noursei in batch culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsbu, E.; Christensen, Bjarke; Nielsen, Jens

    2001-01-01

    of the amino acids and calculated fluxes of the central metabolism showed that changes in the primary and secondary metabolisms occurred simultaneously. Changes in the profiles for the integrated fluxes showed a decreased flux through the pentose phosphate pathway and an increased flux in the tricarboxylic...... acid cycle relative to the glucose uptake rate when the culture entered a phase with reduced specific growth rate and enhanced nystatin yield. The flux through the pentose phosphate pathway seemed to be adjusted according to the NADPH requirement during the different phases of the batch fermentation....

  5. Consortium analysis of gene and gene–folate interactions in purine and pyrimidine metabolism pathways with ovarian carcinoma risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelemen, Linda E; Terry, Kathryn L; Goodman, Marc T

    2014-01-01

    SCOPE: We reevaluated previously reported associations between variants in pathways of one-carbon (1-C) (folate) transfer genes and ovarian carcinoma (OC) risk, and in related pathways of purine and pyrimidine metabolism, and assessed interactions with folate intake. METHODS AND RESULTS: Odds...... was previously reported to be associated with OC, may influence risk; however, stratification by folate intake is unlikely to modify disease risk appreciably in these women. SHMT1 SNP-by-folate interactions are plausible but require further validation. Polymorphisms in selected genes in purine metabolism were...

  6. Curcumin regulates insulin pathways and glucose metabolism in the brains of APPswe/PS1dE9 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengwen; Su, Caixin; Feng, Huili; Chen, Xiaopei; Dong, Yunfang; Rao, Yingxue; Ren, Ying; Yang, Jinduo; Shi, Jing; Tian, Jinzhou; Jiang, Shucui

    2017-03-01

    Recent studies have shown the therapeutic potential of curcumin in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In 2014, our lab found that curcumin reduced Aβ40, Aβ42 and Aβ-derived diffusible ligands in the mouse hippocampus, and improved learning and memory. However, the mechanisms underlying this biological effect are only partially known. There is considerable evidence in brain metabolism studies indicating that AD might be a brain-specific type of diabetes with progressive impairment of glucose utilisation and insulin signalling. We hypothesised that curcumin might target both the glucose metabolism and insulin signalling pathways. In this study, we monitored brain glucose metabolism in living APPswe/PS1dE9 double transgenic mice using a micro-positron emission tomography (PET) technique. The study showed an improvement in cerebral glucose uptake in AD mice. For a more in-depth study, we used immunohistochemical (IHC) staining and western blot techniques to examine key factors in both glucose metabolism and brain insulin signalling pathways. The results showed that curcumin ameliorated the defective insulin signalling pathway by upregulating insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1R, IRS-2, PI3K, p-PI3K, Akt and p-Akt protein expression while downregulating IR and IRS-1. Our study found that curcumin improved spatial learning and memory, at least in part, by increasing glucose metabolism and ameliorating the impaired insulin signalling pathways in the brain.

  7. Reconstruction and flux analysis of coupling between metabolic pathways of astrocytes and neurons: application to cerebral hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akιn Ata

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is a daunting task to identify all the metabolic pathways of brain energy metabolism and develop a dynamic simulation environment that will cover a time scale ranging from seconds to hours. To simplify this task and make it more practicable, we undertook stoichiometric modeling of brain energy metabolism with the major aim of including the main interacting pathways in and between astrocytes and neurons. Model The constructed model includes central metabolism (glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, TCA cycle, lipid metabolism, reactive oxygen species (ROS detoxification, amino acid metabolism (synthesis and catabolism, the well-known glutamate-glutamine cycle, other coupling reactions between astrocytes and neurons, and neurotransmitter metabolism. This is, to our knowledge, the most comprehensive attempt at stoichiometric modeling of brain metabolism to date in terms of its coverage of a wide range of metabolic pathways. We then attempted to model the basal physiological behaviour and hypoxic behaviour of the brain cells where astrocytes and neurons are tightly coupled. Results The reconstructed stoichiometric reaction model included 217 reactions (184 internal, 33 exchange and 216 metabolites (183 internal, 33 external distributed in and between astrocytes and neurons. Flux balance analysis (FBA techniques were applied to the reconstructed model to elucidate the underlying cellular principles of neuron-astrocyte coupling. Simulation of resting conditions under the constraints of maximization of glutamate/glutamine/GABA cycle fluxes between the two cell types with subsequent minimization of Euclidean norm of fluxes resulted in a flux distribution in accordance with literature-based findings. As a further validation of our model, the effect of oxygen deprivation (hypoxia on fluxes was simulated using an FBA-derivative approach, known as minimization of metabolic adjustment (MOMA. The results show the power of the

  8. Short-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase associates with a protein super-complex integrating multiple metabolic pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas B Narayan

    Full Text Available Proteins involved in mitochondrial metabolic pathways engage in functionally relevant multi-enzyme complexes. We previously described an interaction between short-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (SCHAD and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH explaining the clinical phenotype of hyperinsulinism in SCHAD-deficient patients and adding SCHAD to the list of mitochondrial proteins capable of forming functional, multi-pathway complexes. In this work, we provide evidence of SCHAD's involvement in additional interactions forming tissue-specific metabolic super complexes involving both membrane-associated and matrix-dwelling enzymes and spanning multiple metabolic pathways. As an example, in murine liver, we find SCHAD interaction with aspartate transaminase (AST and GDH from amino acid metabolic pathways, carbamoyl phosphate synthase I (CPS-1 from ureagenesis, other fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis enzymes and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, an extra-mitochondrial enzyme of the glycolytic pathway. Most of the interactions appear to be independent of SCHAD's role in the penultimate step of fatty acid oxidation suggesting an organizational, structural or non-enzymatic role for the SCHAD protein.

  9. Transcript profiles uncover temporal and stress-induced changes of metabolic pathways in germinating sugar beet seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestsova, Elena; Meinhard, Juliane; Menze, Andreas; Fischer, Uwe; Windhövel, Andrea; Westhoff, Peter

    2008-12-01

    With a cultivation area of 1.75 Mio ha and sugar yield of 16.7 Mio tons in 2006, sugar beet is a crop of great economic importance in Europe. The productivity of sugar beet is determined significantly by seed vigour and field emergence potential; however, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying these traits. Both traits exhibit large variations within sugar beet germplasm that have been difficult to ascribe to either environmental or genetic causes. Among potential targets for trait improvement, an enhancement of stress tolerance is considered because of the high negative influence of environmental stresses on trait parameters. Extending our knowledge of genetic and molecular determinants of sugar beet germination, stress response and adaptation mechanisms would facilitate the detection of new targets for breeding crop with an enhanced field emergence potential. To gain insight into the sugar beet germination we initiated an analysis of gene expression in a well emerging sugar beet hybrid showing high germination potential under various environmental conditions. A total of 2,784 ESTs representing 2,251 'unigenes' was generated from dry mature and germinating seeds. Analysis of the temporal expression of these genes during germination under non-stress conditions uncovered drastic transcriptional changes accompanying a shift from quiescent to metabolically active stages of the plant life cycle. Assay of germination under stressful conditions revealed 157 genes showing significantly different expression patterns in response to stress. As deduced from transcriptome data, stress adaptation mechanisms included an alteration in reserve mobilization pathways, an accumulation of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine, late embryogenesis abundant proteins and detoxification enzymes. The observed transcriptional changes are supposed to be regulated by ABA-dependent signal transduction pathway. This study provides an important step toward the understanding of

  10. Transcript profiles uncover temporal and stress-induced changes of metabolic pathways in germinating sugar beet seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Windhövel Andrea

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With a cultivation area of 1.75 Mio ha and sugar yield of 16.7 Mio tons in 2006, sugar beet is a crop of great economic importance in Europe. The productivity of sugar beet is determined significantly by seed vigour and field emergence potential; however, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying these traits. Both traits exhibit large variations within sugar beet germplasm that have been difficult to ascribe to either environmental or genetic causes. Among potential targets for trait improvement, an enhancement of stress tolerance is considered because of the high negative influence of environmental stresses on trait parameters. Extending our knowledge of genetic and molecular determinants of sugar beet germination, stress response and adaptation mechanisms would facilitate the detection of new targets for breeding crop with an enhanced field emergence potential. Results To gain insight into the sugar beet germination we initiated an analysis of gene expression in a well emerging sugar beet hybrid showing high germination potential under various environmental conditions. A total of 2,784 ESTs representing 2,251 'unigenes' was generated from dry mature and germinating seeds. Analysis of the temporal expression of these genes during germination under non-stress conditions uncovered drastic transcriptional changes accompanying a shift from quiescent to metabolically active stages of the plant life cycle. Assay of germination under stressful conditions revealed 157 genes showing significantly different expression patterns in response to stress. As deduced from transcriptome data, stress adaptation mechanisms included an alteration in reserve mobilization pathways, an accumulation of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine, late embryogenesis abundant proteins and detoxification enzymes. The observed transcriptional changes are supposed to be regulated by ABA-dependent signal transduction pathway. Conclusion This study

  11. METABOLIC ENGINEERING TO DEVELOP A PATHWAY FOR THE SELECTIVE CLEAVAGE OF CARBON-NITROGEN BONDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John J. Kilbane II

    2004-10-01

    The objective of the project is to develop biochemical pathways for the selective cleavage of C-N bonds in molecules found in petroleum. The initial phase of the project was focused on the isolation or development of an enzyme capable of cleaving the C-N bond in aromatic amides, specifically 2-aminobiphenyl. The objective of the second phase of the research will be to construct a biochemical pathway for the selective removal of nitrogen from carbazole by combining the carA genes from Sphingomonas sp. GTIN11 with the gene(s) encoding an appropriate deaminase. The objective of the final phase of the project will be to develop derivative C-N bond cleaving enzymes that have broader substrate ranges and to demonstrate the use of such strains to selectively remove nitrogen from petroleum. During the first year of the project (October, 2002-September, 2003) enrichment culture experiments resulted in the isolation of microbial cultures that utilize aromatic amides as sole nitrogen sources, several amidase genes were cloned and were included in directed evolution experiments to obtain derivatives that can cleave C-N bonds in aromatic amides, and the carA genes from Sphingomonas sp. GTIN11, and Pseudomonas resinovorans CA10 were cloned in vectors capable of replicating in Escherichia coli. During the second year of the project (October, 2003-September, 2004) enrichment culture experiments succeeded in isolating a mixed bacterial culture that can utilize 2-aminobiphenyl as a sole nitrogen source, directed evolution experiments were focused on the aniline dioxygenase enzyme that is capable of deaminating aniline, and expression vectors were constructed to enable the expression of genes encoding C-N bond cleaving enzymes in Rhodococcus hosts. The construction of a new metabolic pathway to selectively remove nitrogen from carbazole and other molecules typically found in petroleum should lead to the development of a process to improve oil refinery efficiency by reducing the

  12. The effect of alterations in total coenzyme A on metabolic pathways in the liver and heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlosser, C.A.S.

    1989-01-01

    The first set of experiments involved in vitro experiments using primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. A range of conditions were developed which resulted in cell cultures with variations in total CoA over a range of 1.3 to 2.9 nmol/mg protein with identical hormonal activation which simulated metabolic stress. Elevations of total CoA levels above that of controls due to preincubation with cyanamide plus pantothenate were correlated with diminished rates of total ketone body production, 3-hydroxybutyrate production and ratios of 3 hydroxybutyrate/acetoactetate with palmitate as substrate. In contrast, cells with elevated total CoA levels had higher rates of ({sup 14}C) CO{sub 2} production from radioactive palmitate which implied greater flux of acetyl CoA units into the TCA cycle and less to the pathway of ketogenesis. The second set of experiments were designed to alter total CoA levels in vivo by maintaining rats on a chronic ethanol diet with or without pantothenate-supplementation. The effect of alterations of CoA on mitochondrial metabolism was evaluated by measuring substrate oxidation rates in liver and heat mitochondria as well as ketone body production with palmitoyl-1-carnitine as substrate.

  13. Genetic interplay between human longevity and metabolic pathways - a large-scale eQTL study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häsler, Robert; Venkatesh, Geetha; Tan, Qihua; Flachsbart, Friederike; Sinha, Anupam; Rosenstiel, Philip; Lieb, Wolfgang; Schreiber, Stefan; Christensen, Kaare; Christiansen, Lene; Nebel, Almut

    2017-08-01

    Human longevity is a complex phenotype influenced by genetic and environmental components. Unraveling the contribution of genetic vs. nongenetic factors to longevity is a challenging task. Here, we conducted a large-scale RNA-sequencing-based expression quantitative trait loci study (eQTL) with subsequent heritability analysis. The investigation was performed on blood samples from 244 individuals from Germany and Denmark, representing various age groups including long-lived subjects up to the age of 104 years. Our eQTL-based approach revealed for the first time that human longevity is associated with a depletion of metabolic pathways in a genotype-dependent and independent manner. Further analyses indicated that 20% of the differentially expressed genes are influenced by genetic variants in cis. The subsequent study of twins showed that the transcriptional activity of a third of the differentially regulated genes is heritable. These findings suggest that longevity-associated biological processes such as altered metabolism are, to a certain extent, also the driving force of longevity rather than just a consequence of old age. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Ethyl carbamate induces cell death through its effects on multiple metabolic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huichang; Cui, Bo; Xu, Yi; Hu, Chaoyang; Liu, Ying; Qu, Guorun; Li, Dawei; Wu, Yongning; Zhang, Dabing; Quan, Sheng; Shi, Jianxin

    2017-11-01

    Ethyl carbamate (EC), a multisite carcinogenic chemical causing tumors in various animal species, is probably carcinogenic to humans. However, information about the possible carcinogenic and toxicological effects of EC in humans is quite limited. Because EC is found in many dietary foods (such as fermented foods) and tobacco and its products, and exposure of humans to EC often occurs inevitably, its toxicological effects in humans need to be studied. This study was conducted to understand the metabolomic and transcriptomic changes in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) exposed to 100 mM EC for short term (4 h) and long term (12 h) period, respectively. The results revealed multiple influences of EC on the metabolome and transcriptome of HepG2 cells, which was exposure time-dependent and well correlated with the kinetic changes of cell viability and mortality. EC treatment affected multiple metabolic pathways, inducing oxidative stress, reducing detoxification capacity, depleting energy, decreasing reducing power, disrupting membrane integrity, and damaging DNA and protein. These metabolomic and transcriptomic biomarkers of EC on human cell metabolism identified in this study would facilitate further studies on the risk assessment and the mitigation of dietary EC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The creatine kinase pathway is a metabolic vulnerability in EVI1-positive acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenouille, Nina; Bassil, Christopher F; Ben-Sahra, Issam; Benajiba, Lina; Alexe, Gabriela; Ramos, Azucena; Pikman, Yana; Conway, Amy S; Burgess, Michael R; Li, Qing; Luciano, Frédéric; Auberger, Patrick; Galinsky, Ilene; DeAngelo, Daniel J; Stone, Richard M; Zhang, Yi; Perkins, Archibald S; Shannon, Kevin; Hemann, Michael T; Puissant, Alexandre; Stegmaier, Kimberly

    2017-03-01

    Expression of the MECOM (also known as EVI1) proto-oncogene is deregulated by chromosomal translocations in some cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and is associated with poor clinical outcome. Here, through transcriptomic and metabolomic profiling of hematopoietic cells, we reveal that EVI1 overexpression alters cellular metabolism. A screen using pooled short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) identified the ATP-buffering, mitochondrial creatine kinase CKMT1 as necessary for survival of EVI1-expressing cells in subjects with EVI1-positive AML. EVI1 promotes CKMT1 expression by repressing the myeloid differentiation regulator RUNX1. Suppression of arginine-creatine metabolism by CKMT1-directed shRNAs or by the small molecule cyclocreatine selectively decreased the viability, promoted the cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of human EVI1-positive cell lines, and prolonged survival in both orthotopic xenograft models and mouse models of primary AML. CKMT1 inhibition altered mitochondrial respiration and ATP production, an effect that was abrogated by phosphocreatine-mediated reactivation of the arginine-creatine pathway. Targeting CKMT1 is thus a promising therapeutic strategy for this EVI1-driven AML subtype that is highly resistant to current treatment regimens.

  16. Health effects from swimming training in chlorinated pools and the corresponding metabolic stress pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiang-Hua; Wang, Zhi-Hui; Zhu, Xiao-Juan; Deng, Zhao-Hui; Cai, Can-Xin; Qiu, Li-Qiang; Chen, Wei; Lin, Ya-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Chlorination is the most popular method for disinfecting swimming pool water; however, although pathogens are being killed, many toxic compounds, called disinfection by-products (DBPs), are formed. Numerous epidemiological publications have associated the chlorination of pools with dysfunctions of the respiratory system and with some other diseases. However, the findings concerning these associations are not always consistent and have not been confirmed by toxicological studies. Therefore, the health effects from swimming in chlorinated pools and the corresponding stress reactions in organisms are unclear. In this study, we show that although the growth and behaviors of experimental rats were not affected, their health, training effects and metabolic profiles were significantly affected by a 12-week swimming training program in chlorinated water identical to that of public pools. Interestingly, the eyes and skin are the organs that are more directly affected than the lungs by the irritants in chlorinated water; instead of chlorination, training intensity, training frequency and choking on water may be the primary factors for lung damage induced by swimming. Among the five major organs (the heart, liver, spleen, lungs and kidneys), the liver is the most likely target of DBPs. Through metabolomics analysis, the corresponding metabolic stress pathways and a defensive system focusing on taurine were presented, based on which the corresponding countermeasures can be developed for swimming athletes and for others who spend a lot of time in chlorinated swimming pools.

  17. PPARα inhibition modulates multiple reprogrammed metabolic pathways in kidney cancer and attenuates tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Aboud, Omran; Donohoe, Dallas; Bultman, Scott; Fitch, Mark; Riiff, Tim; Hellerstein, Marc; Weiss, Robert H

    2015-06-01

    Kidney cancer [renal cell carcinoma (RCC)] is the sixth-most-common cancer in the United States, and its incidence is increasing. The current progression-free survival for patients with advanced RCC rarely extends beyond 1-2 yr due to the development of therapeutic resistance. We previously identified peroxisome proliferator-activating receptor-α (PPARα) as a potential therapeutic target for this disease and showed that a specific PPARα antagonist, GW6471, induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 in RCC cell lines associated with attenuation of cell cycle regulatory proteins. We now extend that work and show that PPARα inhibition attenuates components of RCC metabolic reprogramming, capitalizing on the Warburg effect. The specific PPARα inhibitor GW6471, as well as a siRNA specific to PPARα, attenuates the enhanced fatty acid oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation associated with glycolysis inhibition, and PPARα antagonism also blocks the enhanced glycolysis that has been observed in RCC cells; this effect did not occur in normal human kidney epithelial cells. Such cell type-specific inhibition of glycolysis corresponds with changes in protein levels of the oncogene c-Myc and has promising clinical implications. Furthermore, we show that treatment with GW6471 results in RCC tumor growth attenuation in a xenograft mouse model, with minimal obvious toxicity, a finding associated with the expected on-target effects on c-Myc. These studies demonstrate that several pivotal cancer-relevant metabolic pathways are inhibited by PPARα antagonism. Our data support the concept that targeting PPARα, with or without concurrent inhibition of glycolysis, is a potential novel and effective therapeutic approach for RCC that targets metabolic reprogramming in this tumor.

  18. PGC-1β regulates HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells proliferation by metabolic and redox pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victorino, Vanessa Jacob; Barroso, W A; Assunção, A K M; Cury, V; Jeremias, I C; Petroni, R; Chausse, B; Ariga, S K; Herrera, A C S A; Panis, C; Lima, T M; Souza, H P

    2016-05-01

    Breast cancer is a prevalent neoplastic disease among women worldwide which treatments still present several side effects and resistance. Considering that cancer cells present derangements in their energetic homeostasis, and that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- gamma coactivator 1 (PGC-1) is crucial for cellular metabolism and redox signaling, the main objective of this study was to investigate whether there is a relationship between PGC-1 expression, the proliferation of breast cancer cells and the mechanisms involved. We initially assessed PGC-1β expression in complementary DNA (cDNA) from breast tumor of patients bearing luminal A, luminal B, and HER2-overexpressed and triple negative tumors. Our data showed that PGC-1β expression is increased in patients bearing HER2-overexpressing tumors as compared to others subtypes. Using quantitative PCR and immunoblotting, we showed that breast cancer cells with HER2-amplification (SKBR-3) have greater expression of PGC-1β as compared to a non-tumorous breast cell (MCF-10A) and higher proliferation rate. PGC-1β expression was knocked down with short interfering RNA in HER2-overexpressing cells, and cells decreased proliferation. In these PGC-1β-inhibited cells, we found increased citrate synthase activity and no marked changes in mitochondrial respiration. Glycolytic pathway was decreased, characterized by lower intracellular lactate levels. In addition, after PGC-1β knockdown, SKBR-3 cells showed increased reactive oxygen species production, no changes in antioxidant activity, and decreased expression of ERRα, a modulator of metabolism. In conclusion, we show an association of HER2-overexpression and PGC-1β. PGC-1β knockdown impairs HER2-overexpressing cells proliferation acting on ERRα signaling, metabolism, and redox balance.

  19. Alterations of specific biomarkers of metabolic pathways in vascular tree from patients with Type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Bernal-Lopez M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aims of this study were to check whether different biomarkers of inflammatory, apoptotic, immunological or lipid pathways had altered their expression in the occluded popliteal artery (OPA compared with the internal mammary artery (IMA and femoral vein (FV and to examine whether glycemic control influenced the expression of these genes. The study included 20 patients with advanced atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes mellitus, 15 of whom had peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD, from whom samples of OPA and FV were collected. PAOD patients were classified based on their HbA1c as well (HbA1c ≤ 6.5 or poorly (HbA1c > 6.5 controlled patients. Controls for arteries without atherosclerosis comprised 5 IMA from patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM. mRNA, protein expression and histological studies were analyzed in IMA, OPA and FV. After analyzing 46 genes, OPA showed higher expression levels than IMA or FV for genes involved in thrombosis (F3, apoptosis (MMP2, MMP9, TIMP1 and TIM3, lipid metabolism (LRP1 and NDUFA, immune response (TLR2 and monocytes adhesion (CD83. Remarkably, MMP-9 expression was lower in OPA from well-controlled patients. In FV from diabetic patients with HbA1c ≤6.5, gene expression levels of BCL2, CDKN1A, COX2, NDUFA and SREBP2 were higher than in FV from those with HbA1c >6.5. The atherosclerotic process in OPA from diabetic patients was associated with high expression levels of inflammatory, lipid metabolism and apoptotic biomarkers. The degree of glycemic control was associated with gene expression markers of apoptosis, lipid metabolism and antioxidants in FV. However, the effect of glycemic control on pro-atherosclerotic gene expression was very low in arteries with established atherosclerosis.

  20. Control of seizures by ketogenic diet-induced modulation of metabolic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clanton, Ryan M; Wu, Guoyao; Akabani, Gamal; Aramayo, Rodolfo

    2017-01-01

    Epilepsy is too complex to be considered as a disease; it is more of a syndrome, characterized by seizures, which can be caused by a diverse array of afflictions. As such, drug interventions that target a single biological pathway will only help the specific individuals where that drug's mechanism of action is relevant to their disorder. Most likely, this will not alleviate all forms of epilepsy nor the potential biological pathways causing the seizures, such as glucose/amino acid transport, mitochondrial dysfunction, or neuronal myelination. Considering our current inability to test every individual effectively for the true causes of their epilepsy and the alarming number of misdiagnoses observed, we propose the use of the ketogenic diet (KD) as an effective and efficient preliminary/long-term treatment. The KD mimics fasting by altering substrate metabolism from carbohydrates to fatty acids and ketone bodies (KBs). Here, we underscore the need to understand the underlying cellular mechanisms governing the KD's modulation of various forms of epilepsy and how a diverse array of metabolites including soluble fibers, specific fatty acids, and functional amino acids (e.g., leucine, D-serine, glycine, arginine metabolites, and N-acetyl-cysteine) may potentially enhance the KD's ability to treat and reverse, not mask, these neurological disorders that lead to epilepsy.

  1. Profiling single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across intracellular folate metabolic pathway in healthy Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodke, Yogita; Chopra, Arvind; Shintre, Pooja; Puranik, Amrutesh; Joshi, Kalpana; Patwardhan, Bhushan

    2011-03-01

    Many pharmacologically-relevant polymorphisms show variability among different populations. Though limited, data from Caucasian subjects have reported several single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in folate biosynthetic pathway. These SNPs may be subjected to racial and ethnic differences. We carried out a study to determine the allelic frequencies of these SNPs in an Indian ethnic population. Whole blood samples were withdrawn from 144 unrelated healthy subjects from west India. DNA was extracted and genotyping was performed using PCR-RFLP and Real-time Taqman allelic discrimination for 12 polymorphisms in 9 genes of folate-methotrexate (MTX) metabolism. Allele frequencies were obtained for MTHFR 677T (10%) and 1298 C (30%), TS 3UTR 0bp (46%), MDR1 3435T and 1236T (62%), RFC1 80A (57%), GGH 401T (61%), MS 2756G (34%), ATIC 347G (52%) and SHMT1 1420T (80%) in healthy subjects (frequency of underlined SNPs were different from published study data of European and African populations). The current study describes the distribution of folate biosynthetic pathway SNPs in healthy Indians and validates the previous finding of differences due to race and ethnicity. Our results pave way to study the pharmacogenomics of MTX in the Indian population.

  2. Translational Targeted Proteomics Profiling of Mitochondrial Energy Metabolic Pathways in Mouse and Human Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Justina C; Ciapaite, Jolita; van Eunen, Karen; Niezen-Koning, Klary E; Matton, Alix; Porte, Robert J; Horvatovich, Peter; Bakker, Barbara M; Bischoff, Rainer; Permentier, Hjalmar P

    2016-09-02

    Absolute measurements of protein abundance are important in the understanding of biological processes and the precise computational modeling of biological pathways. We developed targeted LC-MS/MS assays in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode to quantify over 50 mitochondrial proteins in a single run. The targeted proteins cover the tricarboxylic acid cycle, fatty acid β-oxidation, oxidative phosphorylation, and the detoxification of reactive oxygen species. Assays used isotopically labeled concatemers as internal standards designed to target murine mitochondrial proteins and their human orthologues. Most assays were also suitable to quantify the corresponding protein orthologues in rats. After exclusion of peptides that did not pass the selection criteria, we arrived at SRM assays for 55 mouse, 52 human, and 51 rat proteins. These assays were optimized in isolated mitochondrial fractions from mouse and rat liver and cultured human fibroblasts and in total liver extracts from mouse, rat, and human. The developed proteomics approach is suitable for the quantification of proteins in the mitochondrial energy metabolic pathways in mice, rats, and humans as a basis for translational research. Initial data show that the assays have great potential for elucidating the adaptive response of human patients to mutations in mitochondrial proteins in a clinical setting.

  3. Effects of serum uric acid levels on the arginase pathway in women with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uslu, S; Ozcelik, E; Kebapci, N; Temel, H E; Demirci, F; Ergun, B; Demirustu, C

    2016-02-01

    Elevated serum uric acid levels and increased arginase activity are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The aim of the present study was to investigate effects of serum uric acid levels on the arginase pathway in women with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Serum arginase activity, and nitrite and uric acid levels were measured in 48 women with MetS and in 20 healthy controls. The correlation of these parameters with components of MetS was also evaluated. Our data show statistically higher arginase activity and uric acid levels but lower nitrite levels in women with MetS compared to controls. Serum uric acid levels were negatively correlated with HDL cholesterol, nitrite levels and positively with Body Mass Index, waist to hip ratio, triglyceride and total cholesterol levels, systolic blood pressure, Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance-Index, serum arginase activity, and LDL-cholesterol levels in women with MetS. Results of the present study suggest that serum uric acid levels may contribute to the pathogenesis of MetS through a process mediated by arginase pathway, and serum arginase activity and nitrite and uric acid levels can be used as indicators of CVD in women with MetS.

  4. Isotopes in geobiochemistry: tracing metabolic pathways in microorganisms of environmental relevance with stable isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian, Lorenz; Marco-Urrea, Ernest

    2016-10-01

    Stable isotopes are flexibly used as tracers to investigate environmental processes, microorganisms responsible for environmental transformations, syntrophic relationships in consortia, and metabolic pathways. With the advent of widely accessible high-resolution, highly accurate and sensitive mass spectrometers connected to liquid chromatography (LC-MS/MS) and the explosion of microbial genome sequence information the options to apply stable isotope tracers to geobiochemical topics have multiplied. With methods at hand to analyze biochemical pathways and enzymatic functions of yet-uncultivated microorganisms even in mixed cultures, a wide field of new discoveries can be expected. Applications rely both on the high sensitivity to detect trace amounts of biological material in slow or non-growing cultures and on the high multi-dimensional resolution of LC-MS/MS to allow the separation of complex samples and to retrieve phylogenetic information. Challenges and examples of stable isotope applications to describe geobiochemical processes are reviewed. Overall, the potential is not yet sufficiently deployed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Metabolic Engineering to Develop a Pathway for the Selective Cleavage of Carbon-Nitrogen Bonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John J. Kilbane II

    2005-10-01

    The objective of the project is to develop a biochemical pathway for the selective cleavage of C-N bonds in molecules found in petroleum. Specifically a novel biochemical pathway will be developed for the selective cleavage of C-N bonds in carbazole. The cleavage of the first C-N bond in carbazole is accomplished by the enzyme carbazole dioxygenase, that catalyzes the conversion of carbazole to 2-aminobiphenyl-2,3-diol. The genes encoding carbazole dioxygenase were cloned from Sphingomonas sp. GTIN11 and from Pseudomonas resinovorans CA10. The selective cleavage of the second C-N bond has been challenging, and efforts to overcome that challenge have been the focus of recent research in this project. Enrichment culture experiments succeeded in isolating bacterial cultures that can metabolize 2-aminobiphenyl, but no enzyme capable of selectively cleaving the C-N bond in 2-aminobiphenyl has been identified. Aniline is very similar to the structure of 2-aminobiphenyl and aniline dioxygenase catalyzes the conversion of aniline to catechol and ammonia. For the remainder of the project the emphasis of research will be to simultaneously express the genes for carbazole dioxygenase and for aniline dioxygenase in the same bacterial host and then to select for derivative cultures capable of using carbazole as the sole source of nitrogen.

  6. Metabolomic association between venous thromboembolism in critically ill trauma patients and kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voils, Stacy A; Shahin, Mohamed H; Garrett, Timothy J; Frye, Reginald F

    2018-03-08

    Incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in critically ill patients remains unacceptably high despite widespread use of thromboprophylaxis. A systems biology approach may be useful in understanding disease pathology and predicting response to treatment. Metabolite profile under specific environmental conditions provides the closest link to phenotype, but the relationship between metabolomics and risk of VTE in critically ill patients is unknown. In this study, metabolomics signatures are compared in patients with and without VTE. Multicenter case-control study using prospectively collected data from the Inflammation and Host Response to Injury program, with pathway and in silico gene expression analyses. Eight level 1 US trauma centers. Critically ill adults with blunt trauma who developed VTE within the first 28 days of hospitalization compared to patients without VTE (N-VTE). None. Patients included in the study (n = 20 VTE, n = 20 N-VTE) were mean age of 34 years, injury severity score of 35, and VTE diagnosed a median of 10.5 days after admission. Global metabolomics revealed two kynurenine metabolites, N-formylkynurenine (AUC = 0.77; 95% CI: 0.59-0.89) and 5-hydroxy-N-formylkynurenine (AUC = 0.80; 95% CI:0.63-0.90) significantly discriminated VTE and N-VTE; ratio between N-formylkynurenine/5-hydroxy-N-formylkynurenine improved predictive power (AUC = 0.87; 95% CI: 0.74-0.95). In the pathway analysis, tryptophan was the only significant metabolic pathway including N-formylkynurenine and 5-hydroxy-N-formylkynurenine (p < 0.001), and 8 proteins directly or indirectly interacted with these metabolites in the interaction network analysis. Of the 8 genes tested in the in silico gene expression analyses, KYNU (p < 0.001), CCBL1 (p < 0.001), and CCBL2 (p = 0.001) were significantly different between VTE and N-VTE, controlling for age and sex. Two novel kynurenine metabolites in the tryptophan pathway associated with

  7. Ethanol-metabolizing pathways in deermice. Estimation of flux calculated from isotope effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alderman, J.; Takagi, T.; Lieber, C.S.

    1987-01-01

    The apparent deuterium isotope effects on Vmax/Km (D(V/K] of ethanol oxidation in two deermouse strains (one having and one lacking hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH] were used to calculate flux through the ADH, microsomal ethanol-oxidizing system (MEOS), and catalase pathways. In vitro, D(V/K) values were 3.22 for ADH, 1.13 for MEOS, and 1.83 for catalase under physiological conditions of pH, temperature, and ionic strength. In vivo, in deermice lacking ADH (ADH-), D(V/K) was 1.20 +/- 0.09 (mean +/- S.E.) at 7.0 +/- 0.5 mM blood ethanol and 1.08 +/- 0.10 at 57.8 +/- 10.2 mM blood ethanol, consistent with ethanol oxidation principally by MEOS. Pretreatment of ADH- animals with the catalase inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole did not significantly change D(V/K). ADH+ deermice exhibited D(V/K) values of 1.87 +/- 0.06 (untreated), 1.71 +/- 0.13 (pretreated with 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole), and 1.24 +/- 0.13 (after the ADH inhibitor, 4-methylpyrazole) at 5-7 mM blood ethanol levels. At elevated blood ethanol concentrations (58.1 +/- 2.4 mM), a D(V/K) of 1.37 +/- 0.21 was measured in the ADH+ strain. For measured D(V/K) values to accurately reflect pathway contributions, initial reaction conditions are essential. These were shown to exist by the following criteria: negligible fractional conversion of substrate to product and no measurable back reaction in deermice having a reversible enzyme (ADH). Thus, calculations from D(V/K) indicate that, even when ADH is present, non-ADH pathways (mostly MEOS) participate significantly in ethanol metabolism at all concentrations tested and play a major role at high levels

  8. Sugar Allocation to Metabolic Pathways is Tightly Regulated and Affects the Virulence of Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki Kawada-Matsuo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria take up and metabolize sugar as a carbohydrate source for survival. Most bacteria can utilize many sugars, including glucose, sucrose, and galactose, as well as amino sugars, such as glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine. After entering the cytoplasm, the sugars are mainly allocated to the glycolysis pathway (energy production and to various bacterial component biosynthesis pathways, including the cell wall, nucleic acids and amino acids. Sugars are also utilized to produce several virulence factors, such as capsule and lipoteichoic acid. Glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase (GlmS and glucosamine-6-phosphate deaminase (NagB have crucial roles in sugar distribution to the glycolysis pathway and to cell wall biosynthesis. In Streptococcus mutans, a cariogenic pathogen, the expression levels of glmS and nagB are coordinately regulated in response to the presence or absence of amino sugars. In addition, the disruption of this regulation affects the virulence of S. mutans. The expression of nagB and glmS is regulated by NagR in S. mutans, but the precise mechanism underlying glmS regulation is not clear. In Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, the mRNA of glmS has ribozyme activity and undergoes self-degradation at the mRNA level. However, there is no ribozyme activity region on glmS mRNA in S. mutans. In this review article, we summarize the sugar distribution, particularly the coordinated regulation of GlmS and NagB expression, and its relationship with the virulence of S. mutans.

  9. Relaxation response induces temporal transcriptome changes in energy metabolism, insulin secretion and inflammatory pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj K Bhasin

    Full Text Available The relaxation response (RR is the counterpart of the stress response. Millennia-old practices evoking the RR include meditation, yoga and repetitive prayer. Although RR elicitation is an effective therapeutic intervention that counteracts the adverse clinical effects of stress in disorders including hypertension, anxiety, insomnia and aging, the underlying molecular mechanisms that explain these clinical benefits remain undetermined. To assess rapid time-dependent (temporal genomic changes during one session of RR practice among healthy practitioners with years of RR practice and also in novices before and after 8 weeks of RR training, we measured the transcriptome in peripheral blood prior to, immediately after, and 15 minutes after listening to an RR-eliciting or a health education CD. Both short-term and long-term practitioners evoked significant temporal gene expression changes with greater significance in the latter as compared to novices. RR practice enhanced expression of genes associated with energy metabolism, mitochondrial function, insulin secretion and telomere maintenance, and reduced expression of genes linked to inflammatory response and stress-related pathways. Interactive network analyses of RR-affected pathways identified mitochondrial ATP synthase and insulin (INS as top upregulated critical molecules (focus hubs and NF-κB pathway genes as top downregulated focus hubs. Our results for the first time indicate that RR elicitation, particularly after long-term practice, may evoke its downstream health benefits by improving mitochondrial energy production and utilization and thus promoting mitochondrial resiliency through upregulation of ATPase and insulin function. Mitochondrial resiliency might also be promoted by RR-induced downregulation of NF-κB-associated upstream and downstream targets that mitigates stress.

  10. Water deficit alters differentially metabolic pathways affecting important flavor and quality traits in grape berries of Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deluc, Laurent G; Quilici, David R; Decendit, Alain; Grimplet, Jérôme; Wheatley, Matthew D; Schlauch, Karen A; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Cushman, John C; Cramer, Grant R

    2009-01-01

    Background Water deficit has significant effects on grape berry composition resulting in improved wine quality by the enhancement of color, flavors, or aromas. While some pathways or enzymes affected by water deficit have been identified, little is known about the global effects of water deficit on grape berry metabolism. Results The effects of long-term, seasonal water deficit on berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, a red-wine grape, and Chardonnay, a white-wine grape were analyzed by integrated transcript and metabolite profiling. Over the course of berry development, the steady-state transcript abundance of approximately 6,000 Unigenes differed significantly between the cultivars and the irrigation treatments. Water deficit most affected the phenylpropanoid, ABA, isoprenoid, carotenoid, amino acid and fatty acid metabolic pathways. Targeted metabolites were profiled to confirm putative changes in specific metabolic pathways. Water deficit activated the expression of numerous transcripts associated with glutamate and proline biosynthesis and some committed steps of the phenylpropanoid pathway that increased anthocyanin concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon. In Chardonnay, water deficit activated parts of the phenylpropanoid, energy, carotenoid and isoprenoid metabolic pathways that contribute to increased concentrations of antheraxanthin, flavonols and aroma volatiles. Water deficit affected the ABA metabolic pathway in both cultivars. Berry ABA concentrations were highly correlated with 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED1) transcript abundance, whereas the mRNA expression of other NCED genes and ABA catabolic and glycosylation processes were largely unaffected. Water deficit nearly doubled ABA concentrations within berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, whereas it decreased ABA in Chardonnay at véraison and shortly thereafter. Conclusion The metabolic responses of grapes to water deficit varied with the cultivar and fruit pigmentation. Chardonnay berries, which lack any

  11. Water deficit alters differentially metabolic pathways affecting important flavor and quality traits in grape berries of Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deluc Laurent G

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Water deficit has significant effects on grape berry composition resulting in improved wine quality by the enhancement of color, flavors, or aromas. While some pathways or enzymes affected by water deficit have been identified, little is known about the global effects of water deficit on grape berry metabolism. Results The effects of long-term, seasonal water deficit on berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, a red-wine grape, and Chardonnay, a white-wine grape were analyzed by integrated transcript and metabolite profiling. Over the course of berry development, the steady-state transcript abundance of approximately 6,000 Unigenes differed significantly between the cultivars and the irrigation treatments. Water deficit most affected the phenylpropanoid, ABA, isoprenoid, carotenoid, amino acid and fatty acid metabolic pathways. Targeted metabolites were profiled to confirm putative changes in specific metabolic pathways. Water deficit activated the expression of numerous transcripts associated with glutamate and proline biosynthesis and some committed steps of the phenylpropanoid pathway that increased anthocyanin concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon. In Chardonnay, water deficit activated parts of the phenylpropanoid, energy, carotenoid and isoprenoid metabolic pathways that contribute to increased concentrations of antheraxanthin, flavonols and aroma volatiles. Water deficit affected the ABA metabolic pathway in both cultivars. Berry ABA concentrations were highly correlated with 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED1 transcript abundance, whereas the mRNA expression of other NCED genes and ABA catabolic and glycosylation processes were largely unaffected. Water deficit nearly doubled ABA concentrations within berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, whereas it decreased ABA in Chardonnay at véraison and shortly thereafter. Conclusion The metabolic responses of grapes to water deficit varied with the cultivar and fruit pigmentation

  12. Different functions of AKT1 and AKT2 in molecular pathways, cell migration and metabolism in colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häggblad Sahlberg, Sara; Mortensen, Anja C; Haglöf, Jakob; Engskog, Mikael K R; Arvidsson, Torbjörn; Pettersson, Curt; Glimelius, Bengt; Stenerlöw, Bo; Nestor, Marika

    2017-01-01

    AKT is a central protein in many cellular pathways such as cell survival, proliferation, glucose uptake, metabolism, angiogenesis, as well as radiation and drug response. The three isoforms of AKT (AKT1, AKT2 and AKT3) are proposed to have different physiological functions, properties and expression patterns in a cell type-dependent manner. As of yet, not much is known about the influence of the different AKT isoforms in the genome and their effects in the metabolism of colorectal cancer cells. In the present study, DLD-1 isogenic AKT1, AKT2 and AKT1/2 knockout colon cancer cell lines were used as a model system in conjunction with the parental cell line in order to further elucidate the differences between the AKT isoforms and how they are involved in various cellular pathways. This was done using genome wide expression analyses, metabolic profiling and cell migration assays. In conclusion, downregulation of genes in the cell adhesion, extracellular matrix and Notch-pathways and upregulation of apoptosis and metastasis inhibitory genes in the p53-pathway, confirm that the knockout of both AKT1 and AKT2 will attenuate metastasis and tumor cell growth. This was verified with a reduction in migration rate in the AKT1 KO and AKT2 KO and most explicitly in the AKT1/2 KO. Furthermore, the knockout of AKT1, AKT2 or both, resulted in a reduction in lactate and alanine, suggesting that the metabolism of carbohydrates and glutathione was impaired. This was further verified in gene expression analyses, showing downregulation of genes involved in glucose metabolism. Additionally, both AKT1 KO and AKT2 KO demonstrated an impaired fatty acid metabolism. However, genes were upregulated in the Wnt and cell proliferation pathways, which could oppose this effect. AKT inhibition should therefore be combined with other effectors to attain the best effect.

  13. Quantitative analysis of energy metabolic pathways in MCF-7 breast cancer cells by selected reaction monitoring assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabovich, Andrei P; Pavlou, Maria P; Dimitromanolakis, Apostolos; Diamandis, Eleftherios P

    2012-08-01

    To investigate the quantitative response of energy metabolic pathways in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells to hypoxia, glucose deprivation, and estradiol stimulation, we developed a targeted proteomics assay for accurate quantification of protein expression in glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, TCA cycle, and pentose phosphate pathways. Cell growth conditions were selected to roughly mimic the exposure of cells in the cancer tissue to the intermittent hypoxia, glucose deprivation, and hormonal stimulation. Targeted proteomics assay allowed for reproducible quantification of 76 proteins in four different growth conditions after 24 and 48 h of perturbation. Differential expression of a number of control and metabolic pathway proteins in response to the change of growth conditions was found. Elevated expression of the majority of glycolytic enzymes was observed in hypoxia. Cancer cells, as opposed to near-normal MCF-10A cells, exhibited significantly increased expression of key energy metabolic pathway enzymes (FBP1, IDH2, and G6PD) that are known to redirect cellular metabolism and increase carbon flux through the pentose phosphate pathway. Our quantitative proteomic protocol is based on a mass spectrometry-compatible acid-labile detergent and is described in detail. Optimized parameters of a multiplex selected reaction monitoring (SRM) assay for 76 proteins, 134 proteotypic peptides, and 401 transitions are included and can be downloaded and used with any SRM-compatible mass spectrometer. The presented workflow is an integrated tool for hypothesis-driven studies of mammalian cells as well as functional studies of proteins, and can greatly complement experimental methods in systems biology, metabolic engineering, and metabolic transformation of cancer cells.

  14. Constraint-based model of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 metabolism: a tool for data analysis and hypothesis generation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigoriy E Pinchuk

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Shewanellae are gram-negative facultatively anaerobic metal-reducing bacteria commonly found in chemically (i.e., redox stratified environments. Occupying such niches requires the ability to rapidly acclimate to changes in electron donor/acceptor type and availability; hence, the ability to compete and thrive in such environments must ultimately be reflected in the organization and utilization of electron transfer networks, as well as central and peripheral carbon metabolism. To understand how Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 utilizes its resources, the metabolic network was reconstructed. The resulting network consists of 774 reactions, 783 genes, and 634 unique metabolites and contains biosynthesis pathways for all cell constituents. Using constraint-based modeling, we investigated aerobic growth of S. oneidensis MR-1 on numerous carbon sources. To achieve this, we (i used experimental data to formulate a biomass equation and estimate cellular ATP requirements, (ii developed an approach to identify cycles (such as futile cycles and circulations, (iii classified how reaction usage affects cellular growth, (iv predicted cellular biomass yields on different carbon sources and compared model predictions to experimental measurements, and (v used experimental results to refine metabolic fluxes for growth on lactate. The results revealed that aerobic lactate-grown cells of S. oneidensis MR-1 used less efficient enzymes to couple electron transport to proton motive force generation, and possibly operated at least one futile cycle involving malic enzymes. Several examples are provided whereby model predictions were validated by experimental data, in particular the role of serine hydroxymethyltransferase and glycine cleavage system in the metabolism of one-carbon units, and growth on different sources of carbon and energy. This work illustrates how integration of computational and experimental efforts facilitates the understanding of microbial metabolism at a

  15. Aroma compounds generation in citrate metabolism of Enterococcus faecium: Genetic characterization of type I citrate gene cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Gabriela P; Quintana, Ingrid M; Espariz, Martín; Blancato, Victor S; Magni, Christian

    2016-02-02

    Enterococcus is one of the most controversial genera belonging to Lactic Acid Bacteria. Research involving this microorganism reflects its dual behavior as regards its safety. Although it has also been associated to nosocomial infections, natural occurrence of Enterococcus faecium in food contributes to the final quality of cheese. This bacterium is capable of fermenting citrate, which is metabolized to pyruvate and finally derives in the production of the aroma compounds diacetyl, acetoin and 2,3 butanediol. Citrate metabolism was studied in E. faecium but no data about genes related to these pathways have been described. A bioinformatic approach allowed us to differentiate cit(-) (no citrate metabolism genes) from cit(+) strains in E. faecium. Furthermore, we could classify them according to genes encoding for the transcriptional regulator, the oxaloacetate decarboxylase and the citrate transporter. Thus we defined type I organization having CitI regulator (DeoR family), CitM cytoplasmic soluble oxaloacetate decarboxylase (Malic Enzyme family) and CitP citrate transporter (2-hydroxy-carboxylate transporter family) and type II organization with CitO regulator (GntR family), OAD membrane oxaloacetate decarboxylase complex (Na(+)-transport decarboxylase enzyme family) and CitH citrate transporter (CitMHS family). We isolated and identified 17 E. faecium strains from regional cheeses. PCR analyses allowed us to classify them as cit(-) or cit(+). Within the latter classification we could differentiate type I but no type II organization. Remarkably, we came upon E. faecium GM75 strain which carries the insertion sequence IS256, involved in adaptative and evolution processes of bacteria related to Staphylococcus and Enterococcus genera. In this work we describe the differential behavior in citrate transport, metabolism and aroma generation of three strains and we present results that link citrate metabolism and genetic organizations in E. faecium for the first time

  16. Thermodynamics in Neurodegenerative Diseases: Interplay Between Canonical WNT/Beta-Catenin Pathway-PPAR Gamma, Energy Metabolism and Circadian Rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallée, Alexandre; Lecarpentier, Yves; Guillevin, Rémy; Vallée, Jean-Noël

    2018-03-23

    Entropy production rate is increased by several metabolic and thermodynamics abnormalities in neurodegenerative diseases (NDs). Irreversible processes are quantified by changes in the entropy production rate. This review is focused on the opposing interactions observed in NDs between the canonical WNT/beta-catenin pathway and PPAR gamma and their metabolic and thermodynamic implications. In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Huntington's disease, WNT/beta-catenin pathway is upregulated, whereas PPAR gamma is downregulated. In Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, WNT/beta-catenin pathway is downregulated while PPAR gamma is upregulated. The dysregulation of the canonical WNT/beta-catenin pathway is responsible for the modification of thermodynamics behaviors of metabolic enzymes. Upregulation of WNT/beta-catenin pathway leads to aerobic glycolysis, named Warburg effect, through activated enzymes, such as glucose transporter (Glut), pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2), pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1(PDK1), monocarboxylate lactate transporter 1 (MCT-1), lactic dehydrogenase kinase-A (LDH-A) and inactivation of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDH). Downregulation of WNT/beta-catenin pathway leads to oxidative stress and cell death through inactivation of Glut, PKM2, PDK1, MCT-1, LDH-A but activation of PDH. In addition, in NDs, PPAR gamma is dysregulated, whereas it contributes to the regulation of several key circadian genes. NDs show many dysregulation in the mediation of circadian clock genes and so of circadian rhythms. Thermodynamics rhythms operate far-from-equilibrium and partly regulate interactions between WNT/beta-catenin pathway and PPAR gamma. In NDs, metabolism, thermodynamics and circadian rhythms are tightly interrelated.

  17. Integration and Validation of the Genome-Scale Metabolic Models of Pichia pastoris: A Comprehensive Update of Protein Glycosylation Pathways, Lipid and Energy Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomàs-Gamisans, Màrius; Ferrer, Pau; Albiol, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Genome-scale metabolic models (GEMs) are tools that allow predicting a phenotype from a genotype under certain environmental conditions. GEMs have been developed in the last ten years for a broad range of organisms, and are used for multiple purposes such as discovering new properties of metabolic networks, predicting new targets for metabolic engineering, as well as optimizing the cultivation conditions for biochemicals or recombinant protein production. Pichia pastoris is one of the most widely used organisms for heterologous protein expression. There are different GEMs for this methylotrophic yeast of which the most relevant and complete in the published literature are iPP668, PpaMBEL1254 and iLC915. However, these three models differ regarding certain pathways, terminology for metabolites and reactions and annotations. Moreover, GEMs for some species are typically built based on the reconstructed models of related model organisms. In these cases, some organism-specific pathways could be missing or misrepresented. In order to provide an updated and more comprehensive GEM for P. pastoris, we have reconstructed and validated a consensus model integrating and merging all three existing models. In this step a comprehensive review and integration of the metabolic pathways included in each one of these three versions was performed. In addition, the resulting iMT1026 model includes a new description of some metabolic processes. Particularly new information described in recently published literature is included, mainly related to fatty acid and sphingolipid metabolism, glycosylation and cell energetics. Finally the reconstructed model was tested and validated, by comparing the results of the simulations with available empirical physiological datasets results obtained from a wide range of experimental conditions, such as different carbon sources, distinct oxygen availability conditions, as well as producing of two different recombinant proteins. In these simulations, the

  18. Transcriptome characterization of Gnetum parvifolium reveals candidate genes involved in important secondary metabolic pathways of flavonoids and stilbenoids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Deng, N.; Chang, E.; Li, M.; Ji, J.; Yao, X.; Bartish, Igor V.; Liu, J.; Ma, J.; Chen, L.; Jiang, Z.; Shi, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, MAR 4 (2016), č. článku 174. ISSN 1664-462X Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) Fellowship J. E. Purkyně Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : transcriptome sequencing * metabolism pathways * adaptation to stress Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.298, year: 2016

  19. Quantitative metabolomics by H-NMR and LC-MS/MS confirms altered metabolic pathways in diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian R Lanza

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Insulin is as a major postprandial hormone with profound effects on carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism. In the absence of exogenous insulin, patients with type 1 diabetes exhibit a variety of metabolic abnormalities including hyperglycemia, glycosurea, accelerated ketogenesis, and muscle wasting due to increased proteolysis. We analyzed plasma from type 1 diabetic (T1D humans during insulin treatment (I+ and acute insulin deprivation (I- and non-diabetic participants (ND by (1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The aim was to determine if this combination of analytical methods could provide information on metabolic pathways known to be altered by insulin deficiency. Multivariate statistics differentiated proton spectra from I- and I+ based on several derived plasma metabolites that were elevated during insulin deprivation (lactate, acetate, allantoin, ketones. Mass spectrometry revealed significant perturbations in levels of plasma amino acids and amino acid metabolites during insulin deprivation. Further analysis of metabolite levels measured by the two analytical techniques indicates several known metabolic pathways that are perturbed in T1D (I- (protein synthesis and breakdown, gluconeogenesis, ketogenesis, amino acid oxidation, mitochondrial bioenergetics, and oxidative stress. This work demonstrates the promise of combining multiple analytical methods with advanced statistical methods in quantitative metabolomics research, which we have applied to the clinical situation of acute insulin deprivation in T1D to reflect the numerous metabolic pathways known to be affected by insulin deficiency.

  20. METABOLIC ENGINEERING TO DEVELOP A PATHWAY FOR THE SELECTIVE CLEAVAGE OF CARBON-NITROGEN BONDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John J. Kilbane III

    2003-12-01

    pathway. The construction of a new metabolic pathway to selectively remove nitrogen from carbazole and other molecules typically found in petroleum should lead to the development of a process to improve oil refinery efficiency by reducing the poisoning, by nitrogen, of catalysts used in the hydrotreating and catalytic cracking of petroleum.

  1. Identification of Discriminating Metabolic Pathways and Metabolites in Human PBMCs Stimulated by Various Pathogenic Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Xiang; Mardinoglu, Adil; Joosten, Leo A. B.; Kuivenhoven, Jan A.; Li, Yang; Netea, Mihai G.; Groen, Albert K.

    2018-01-01

    Immunity and cellular metabolism are tightly interconnected but it is not clear whether different pathogens elicit specific metabolic responses. To address this issue, we studied differential metabolic regulation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of healthy volunteers challenged by

  2. Engineering Escherichia coli for malate production by integrating modular pathway characterization with CRISPRi-guided multiplexed metabolic tuning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Cong; Wang, Shihui; Hu, Guipeng; Guo, Liang; Chen, Xiulai; Xu, Peng; Liu, Liming

    2018-03-01

    The application of rational design in reallocating metabolic flux to overproduce desired chemicals is always restricted by the native regulatory network. Here, we demonstrated that in vitro modular pathway optimization combined with in vivo multiplexed combinatorial engineering enables effective characterization of the bottleneck of a complex biosynthetic cascade and improves the output of the engineered pathway. As a proof of concept, we systematically identified the rate-limiting step of a five-gene malate biosynthetic pathway by combinatorially tuning the enzyme loads of a reconstituted biocatalytic reaction in a cell-free system. Using multiplexed CRISPR interference, we subsequently eliminated the metabolic constraints by rationally assigning an optimal gene expression pattern for each pathway module. The present engineered strain Escherichia coli B0013-47 exhibited a 2.3-fold increase in malate titer compared with that of the parental strain, with a yield of 0.85 mol/mol glucose in shake-flask culture and titer of 269 mM (36 g/L) in fed-batch cultivation. The strategy reported herein represents a powerful method for improving the efficiency of multi-gene pathways and advancing the success of metabolic engineering. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Exploring metabolic pathway disruption in the subchronic phencyclidine model of schizophrenia with the Generalized Singular Value Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris Brian J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The quantification of experimentally-induced alterations in biological pathways remains a major challenge in systems biology. One example of this is the quantitative characterization of alterations in defined, established metabolic pathways from complex metabolomic data. At present, the disruption of a given metabolic pathway is inferred from metabolomic data by observing an alteration in the level of one or more individual metabolites present within that pathway. Not only is this approach open to subjectivity, as metabolites participate in multiple pathways, but it also ignores useful information available through the pairwise correlations between metabolites. This extra information may be incorporated using a higher-level approach that looks for alterations between a pair of correlation networks. In this way experimentally-induced alterations in metabolic pathways can be quantitatively defined by characterizing group differences in metabolite clustering. Taking this approach increases the objectivity of interpreting alterations in metabolic pathways from metabolomic data. Results We present and justify a new technique for comparing pairs of networks--in our case these networks are based on the same set of nodes and there are two distinct types of weighted edges. The algorithm is based on the Generalized Singular Value Decomposition (GSVD, which may be regarded as an extension of Principle Components Analysis to the case of two data sets. We show how the GSVD can be interpreted as a technique for reordering the two networks in order to reveal clusters that are exclusive to only one. Here we apply this algorithm to a new set of metabolomic data from the prefrontal cortex (PFC of a translational model relevant to schizophrenia, rats treated subchronically with the N-methyl-D-Aspartic acid (NMDA receptor antagonist phencyclidine (PCP. This provides us with a means to quantify which predefined metabolic pathways (Kyoto

  4. Erroneous energy-generating cycles in published genome scale metabolic networks: Identification and removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzemeier, Claus Jonathan; Hartleb, Daniel; Szappanos, Balázs; Papp, Balázs; Lercher, Martin J

    2017-04-01

    Energy metabolism is central to cellular biology. Thus, genome-scale models of heterotrophic unicellular species must account appropriately for the utilization of external nutrients to synthesize energy metabolites such as ATP. However, metabolic models designed for flux-balance analysis (FBA) may contain thermodynamically impossible energy-generating cycles: without nutrient consumption, these models are still capable of charging energy metabolites (such as ADP→ATP or NADP+→NADPH). Here, we show that energy-generating cycles occur in over 85% of metabolic models without extensive manual curation, such as those contained in the ModelSEED and MetaNetX databases; in contrast, such cycles are rare in the manually curated models of the BiGG database. Energy generating cycles may represent model errors, e.g., erroneous assumptions on reaction reversibilities. Alternatively, part of the cycle may be thermodynamically feasible in one environment, while the remainder is thermodynamically feasible in another environment; as standard FBA does not account for thermodynamics, combining these into an FBA model allows erroneous energy generation. The presence of energy-generating cycles typically inflates maximal biomass production rates by 25%, and may lead to biases in evolutionary simulations. We present efficient computational methods (i) to identify energy generating cycles, using FBA, and (ii) to identify minimal sets of model changes that eliminate them, using a variant of the GlobalFit algorithm.

  5. VP-16 and alkylating agents activate a common metabolic pathway for suppression of DNA replication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, S.K.; Berger, N.A.

    1986-05-01

    The cytotoxic effects of etoposide (VP-16) are mediated by topoisomerase II production of protein crosslinked DNA strand breaks. Previous studies have shown that alkylating agent induced DNA damage results in expansion of dTTP pools and reduction of dCTP pools and DNA replication. Studies were conducted with V79 cells to determine whether the metabolic consequences of VP-16 treatment were similar to those induced by alkylating agents. Treatment with 0.5..mu..M VP-16 prolonged the doubling time of V79 cells from 12 to 18 hrs and caused cell volume to increase from 1.1 to 1.6 x 10/sup -12/l. 2mM caffeine completely blocked the volume increase and substantially prevented the prolongation of doubling time. 5..mu..M VP-16 reduced the rate of (/sup 3/H)TdR incorporation by 70%, whereas in the presence of 2mM caffeine, VP-16 caused only a 10% decrease in the rate of (/sup 3/H)TdR incorporation. 4 hr treatment with 5.0..mu..M VP-16 increased dTTP levels from 65 +/- 10 pmol/10/sup 6/ cells to 80 +/- 13 pmol/10/sup 6/ cells and caused dCTP level to decline from 113 +/- 23 pmol/10/sup 6/ cells to 92 +/- 17 pmol/10/sup 6/ cells. These results indicate that the metabolic consequences of VP-16 treatment are similar to alkylating agent treatment and that an increase in dTTP pools with a subsequent effect on ribonucleotide reductase may be a final common pathway by which many cytotoxic agents suppress DNA synthesis.

  6. Characterizing the Key Metabolic Pathways of the Neonatal Mouse Heart Using a Quantitative Combinatorial Omics Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej M. Lalowski

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The heart of a newborn mouse has an exceptional capacity to regenerate from myocardial injury that is lost within the first week of its life. In order to elucidate the molecular mechanisms taking place in the mouse heart during this critical period we applied an untargeted combinatory multiomics approach using large-scale mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics, metabolomics and mRNA sequencing on hearts from 1-day-old and 7-day-old mice. As a result, we quantified 1.937 proteins (366 differentially expressed, 612 metabolites (263 differentially regulated and revealed 2.586 differentially expressed gene loci (2.175 annotated genes. The analyses pinpointed the fructose-induced glycolysis-pathway to be markedly active in 1-day-old neonatal mice. Integrated analysis of the data convincingly demonstrated cardiac metabolic reprogramming from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation in 7-days old mice, with increases of key enzymes and metabolites in fatty acid transport (acylcarnitines and β-oxidation. An upsurge in the formation of reactive oxygen species and an increase in oxidative stress markers, e.g., lipid peroxidation, altered sphingolipid and plasmalogen metabolism were also evident in 7-days mice. In vitro maintenance of physiological fetal hypoxic conditions retained the proliferative capacity of cardiomyocytes isolated from newborn mice hearts. In summary, we provide here a holistic, multiomics view toward early postnatal changes associated with loss of a tissue regenerative capacity in the neonatal mouse heart. These results may provide insight into mechanisms of human cardiac diseases associated with tissue regenerative incapacity at the molecular level, and offer a prospect to discovery of novel therapeutic targets.

  7. 2,3-Diarylxanthones as Potential Inhibitors of Arachidonic Acid Metabolic Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Clementina M M; Ribeiro, Daniela; Silva, Artur M S; Fernandes, Eduarda

    2017-06-01

    In response to an inflammatory stimulus, arachidonic acid (AA), the main polyunsaturated fatty acid present in the phospholipid layer of cell membranes, is released and metabolized to a series of eicosanoids. These bioactive lipid mediators of inflammation arise physiologically through the action of the enzymes 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) and cyclooxygenases (constitutive COX-1 and inducible COX-2). It is believed that dual inhibition of 5-LOX and COXs may have a higher beneficial impact in the treatment of inflammatory disorders rather than the inhibition of each enzyme. With this demand for new dual-acting anti-inflammatory agents, a range of 2,3-diarylxanthones were tested through their ability to interact in the AA metabolism. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated through the inhibition of 5-LOX-catalyzed leukotriene B 4 (LTB 4 ) formation in human neutrophils and inhibition of COX-1- and COX-2-catalyzed prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) formation in human whole blood. The results showed that some of the studied arylxanthones were able to prevent LTB 4 production in human neutrophils, in a concentration-dependent manner. The xanthone with a 2-catechol was the most active one (IC 50  ∼ 9 μM). The more effective arylxanthones in preventing COX-1-catalyzed PGE 2 production presented IC 50 values from 1 to 7 μM, exhibiting a structural feature with at least one non-substituted aryl group. All the studied arylxanthones were ineffective to prevent the formation of PGE 2 catalyzed by COX-2, up to the maximum concentration of 100 μM. The ability of the tested 2,3-diarylxanthones to interact with both 5-LOX and COX-1 pathways constitutes an important step in the research of novel dual-acting anti-inflammatory drugs.

  8. Benzothiadiazole (BTH) activates sterol pathway and affects vitamin D3 metabolism in Solanum malacoxylon cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlini, Nedda; Iriti, Marcello; Daghetti, Anna; Faoro, Franco; Ruggiero, Antonietta; Bernasconi, Silvana

    2011-11-01

    Benzo-(1,2,3)-thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester (BTH), a particularly efficient inducer of systemic acquired resistance (SAR), was developed as an immunizing agent to sensitize various crop species against pathogen infections. Recent works highlighted its activating effect on different metabolic pathways, concerning both primary and secondary metabolites. In this study, we investigated the effect of BTH treatment on sterol levels and vitamin D(3) metabolism in Solanum malacoxylon cultures. Calli of S. malacoxylon were incubated in Gamborg B5 liquid medium alone or added with 50 μM BTH for different times (one, two or three cycles of light). Histocytochemical investigations performed on our experimental system using 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) for hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) detection and phloroglucinol for lignin staining showed that BTH causes H(2)O(2) accumulation and lignin deposition in treated calli. Gas chromatographic analysis of principal cell membrane sterols (β-sitosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol) showed that BTH transiently increases their cellular levels. Callus cultures were found to contain also cholesterol, 7-dehydrocholesterol, the putative precursor of vitamin D(3), and the hydroxylated metabolites 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) [25(OH)D(3)] and 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [1α,25(OH)(2)D(3)]. BTH treatment enhanced 7-dehydrocholesterol while reduced cholesterol. HPLC analysis of sample extracts showed that BTH does not affect the cell content of vitamin D(3), though results of ELISA tests highlighted that this elicitor moderately enhances the levels of 25(OH)D(3) and 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3) metabolites. In conclusion, BTH treatment not only causes cell wall strengthening, a typical plant defence response, as just described in other experimental models, but in the same time increases the cellular level of the main sterols and 7-dehydrocholesterol.

  9. VP-16 and alkylating agents activate a common metabolic pathway for suppression of DNA replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, S.K.; Berger, N.A.

    1986-01-01

    The cytotoxic effects of etoposide (VP-16) are mediated by topoisomerase II production of protein crosslinked DNA strand breaks. Previous studies have shown that alkylating agent induced DNA damage results in expansion of dTTP pools and reduction of dCTP pools and DNA replication. Studies were conducted with V79 cells to determine whether the metabolic consequences of VP-16 treatment were similar to those induced by alkylating agents. Treatment with 0.5μM VP-16 prolonged the doubling time of V79 cells from 12 to 18 hrs and caused cell volume to increase from 1.1 to 1.6 x 10 -12 l. 2mM caffeine completely blocked the volume increase and substantially prevented the prolongation of doubling time. 5μM VP-16 reduced the rate of [ 3 H]TdR incorporation by 70%, whereas in the presence of 2mM caffeine, VP-16 caused only a 10% decrease in the rate of [ 3 H]TdR incorporation. 4 hr treatment with 5.0μM VP-16 increased dTTP levels from 65 +/- 10 pmol/10 6 cells to 80 +/- 13 pmol/10 6 cells and caused dCTP level to decline from 113 +/- 23 pmol/10 6 cells to 92 +/- 17 pmol/10 6 cells. These results indicate that the metabolic consequences of VP-16 treatment are similar to alkylating agent treatment and that an increase in dTTP pools with a subsequent effect on ribonucleotide reductase may be a final common pathway by which many cytotoxic agents suppress DNA synthesis

  10. Metabolic pathways of tetraidothyronine and triidothyronine production by thyroid gland: a review of articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansourian, A R

    2011-01-01

    Tetraidothyronine (T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3) are the two vital hormones in human metabolism produced by thyroid gland. The major pathways in thyroid hormone biosynthesis begin with iodine metabolism which occurs in three sequential steps: active iodide transport into thyroid followed by iodide oxidation and subsequent iodination of tyrosyl residues of thyroglobulin (Tg) to produce idotyrosines monoidotyrosine (MIT) and diiodothyrosine (DIT) on Tg. Oxidized iodine and tyrosyle residues which are an aromatic amino acids are integral part of T4 and T3. The thyroid iodine deficiency of either dietary, thyroid malfunction, or disorder of hypothalamus and pituitary to produce enough Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH), eventually lead to hypothyroidism with sever side effects. Iodine oxidation is the initial step for thyroid hormone synthesis within thyroid, is mediated by thyroperoxidase enzyme (TPO), which itself is activated by TSH required for production of MIT and DIT. T4 and T3 are subsequently are synthesized on Tg following MIT and DIT coupling reaction. Thyroid hormones eventually produced and released into circulation through Tg pinocytosis from follicular space and subsequent lysozomal function, a process again stimulated by TSH. The production of T4 and T3 are highly regulated externally by a negative feed-back interrelation between serum T4, T3 and TSH and internally by the elevated iodine within thyroid gland. It is believed the extra iodine concentration within thyroid gland control thyroid hormones synthesis by inhibition of the TPO and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) formation which is also an essential factor of iodine oxidation, via a complex mechanism. In healthy subjects the entire procedures of T4 and T3 synthesis re-start again following a drop in serum T4 and T3 concentration. On conditions of thyroid disorders, which caused by the distruption of either of above mechanisms, thyroid hormone deficiency and related clinical manifestations eventually begin

  11. Cutis laxa: intersection of elastic fiber biogenesis, TGFβ signaling, the secretory pathway and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Zsolt; Davis, Elaine C

    2014-01-01

    Cutis laxa (CL), a disease characterized by redundant and inelastic skin, displays extensive locus heterogeneity. Together with geroderma osteodysplasticum and arterial tortuosity syndrome, which show phenotypic overlap with CL, eleven CL-related genes have been identified to date, which encode proteins within 3 groups. Elastin, fibulin-4, fibulin-5 and latent transforming growth factor-β-binding protein 4 are secreted proteins which form elastic fibers and are involved in the sequestration and subsequent activation of transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ). Proteins within the second group, localized to the secretory pathway, perform transport and membrane trafficking functions necessary for the modification and secretion of elastic fiber components. Key proteins include a subunit of the vacuolar-type proton pump, which ensures the efficient secretion of tropoelastin, the precursor or elastin. A copper transporter is required for the activity of lysyl oxidases, which crosslink collagen and elastin. A Rab6-interacting goglin recruits kinesin motors to Golgi-vesicles facilitating the transport from the Golgi to the plasma membrane. The Rab and Ras interactor 2 regulates the activity of Rab5, a small guanosine triphosphatase essential for the endocytosis of various cell surface receptors, including integrins. Proteins of the third group related to CL perform metabolic functions within the mitochondria, inhibiting the accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Two of these proteins catalyze subsequent steps in the conversion of glutamate to proline. The third transports dehydroascorbate into mitochondria. Recent studies on CL-related proteins highlight the intricate connections among membrane trafficking, metabolism, extracellular matrix assembly, and TGFβ signaling. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Fenofibrate inhibits atrial metabolic remodelling in atrial fibrillation through PPAR-α/sirtuin 1/PGC-1α pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guang-Zhong; Hou, Ting-Ting; Yuan, Yue; Hang, Peng-Zhou; Zhao, Jing-Jing; Sun, Li; Zhao, Guan-Qi; Zhao, Jing; Dong, Jing-Mei; Wang, Xiao-Bing; Shi, Hang; Liu, Yong-Wu; Zhou, Jing-Hua; Dong, Zeng-Xiang; Liu, Yang; Zhan, Cheng-Chuang; Li, Yue; Li, Wei-Min

    2016-03-01

    Atrial metabolic remodelling is critical for the process of atrial fibrillation (AF). The PPAR-α/sirtuin 1 /PPAR co-activator α (PGC-1α) pathway plays an important role in maintaining energy metabolism. However, the effect of the PPAR-α agonist fenofibrate on AF is unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of fenofibrate on atrial metabolic remodelling in AF and explore its possible mechanisms of action. The expression of metabolic proteins was examined in the left atria of AF patients. Thirty-two rabbits were divided into sham, AF (pacing with 600 beats·min(-1) for 1 week), fenofibrate treated (pretreated with fenofibrate before pacing) and fenofibrate alone treated (for 2 weeks) groups. HL-1 cells were subjected to rapid pacing in the presence or absence of fenofibrate, the PPAR-α antagonist GW6471 or sirtuin 1-specific inhibitor EX527. Metabolic factors, circulating biochemical metabolites, atrial electrophysiology, adenine nucleotide levels and accumulation of glycogen and lipid droplets were assessed. The PPAR-α/sirtuin 1/PGC-1α pathway was significantly inhibited in AF patients and in the rabbit/HL-1 cell models, resulting in a reduction of key downstream metabolic factors; this effect was significantly restored by fenofibrate. Fenofibrate prevented the alterations in circulating biochemical metabolites, reduced the level of adenine nucleotides and accumulation of glycogen and lipid droplets, reversed the shortened atrial effective refractory period and increased risk of AF. Fenofibrate inhibited atrial metabolic remodelling in AF by regulating the PPAR-α/sirtuin 1/PGC-1α pathway. The present study may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for AF. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  13. Carbon isotopic patterns of amino acids associated with various microbial metabolic pathways and physiological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P. L.; Hsiao, K. T.; Lin, L. H.

    2017-12-01

    Amino acids represent one of the most important categories of biomolecule. Their abundance and isotopic patterns have been broadly used to address issues related to biochemical processes and elemental cycling in natural environments. Previous studies have shown that various carbon assimilative pathways of microorganisms (e.g. autotrophy, heterotrophy and acetotrophy) could be distinguished by carbon isotopic patterns of amino acids. However, the taxonomic and catabolic coverage are limited in previous examination. This study aims to uncover the carbon isotopic patterns of amino acids for microorganisms remaining uncharacterized but bearing biogeochemical and ecological significance in anoxic environments. To fulfill the purpose, two anaerobic strains were isolated from riverine wetland and mud volcano in Taiwan. One strain is a sulfate reducing bacterium (related to Desulfovibrio marrakechensis), which is capable of utilizing either H2 or lactate, and the other is a methanogen (related to Methanolobus profundi), which grows solely with methyl-group compounds. Carbon isotope analyses of amino acids were performed on cells grown in exponential and stationary phase. The isotopic patterns were similar for all examined cultures, showing successive 13C depletion along synthetic pathways. No significant difference was observed for the methanogen and lactate-utilizing sulfate reducer harvested in exponential and stationary phases. In contrast, the H2-utilizing sulfate reducer harvested in stationary phase depleted and enriched 13C in aspartic acid and glycine, respectively when compared with that harvested in exponential phase. Such variations might infer the change of carbon flux during synthesis of these two amino acids in the reverse TCA cycle. In addition, the discriminant function analysis for all available data from culture studies further attests the capability of using carbon isotope patterns of amino acids in identifying microbial metabolisms.

  14. The impact of vitamin D in breast cancer: genomics, pathways, metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Judith Narvaez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear receptors exert profound effects on mammary gland physiology and have complex roles in the etiology of breast cancer. In addition to receptors for classic steroid hormones such as estrogen and progesterone, the nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR interacts with its ligand 1α,25(OH2D3 to modulate the normal mammary epithelial cell genome and subsequent phenotype. Observational studies suggest that vitamin D deficiency is common in breast cancer patients and that low vitamin D status enhances the risk for disease development or progression. Genomic profiling has characterized many 1α,25(OH2D3 responsive targets in normal mammary cells and in breast cancers, providing insight into the molecular actions of 1α,25(OH2D3 and the VDR in regulation of cell cycle, apoptosis and differentiation. New areas of emphasis include regulation of tumor metabolism and innate immune responses. However, the role of VDR in individual cell types (ie epithelial, adipose, fibroblast, endotelial, immune of normal and tumor tissues remains to be clarified. Furthermore, the mechanisms by which VDR integrates signaling between diverse cell types and controls soluble signals and paracrine pathways in the tissue/tumor microenvironment remain to be defined. Model systems of carcinogenesis have provided evidence that both VDR expression and 1α,25(OH2D3 actions change with transformation but clinical data regarding vitamin D responsiveness of established tumors is limited and inconclusive. Because breast cancer is heterogeneous, analysis of VDR actions in specific molecular subtypes of the disease may help to clarify the conflicting data. The expanded use of genomic, proteomic and metabolomic approaches on a diverse array of in vitro and in vivo model systems is clearly warranted to comprehensively understand the nework of vitamin D regulated pathways in the context of breast cancer.

  15. MorphDB: Prioritizing Genes for Specialized Metabolism Pathways and Gene Ontology Categories in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Zwaenepoel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent times have seen an enormous growth of “omics” data, of which high-throughput gene expression data are arguably the most important from a functional perspective. Despite huge improvements in computational techniques for the functional classification of gene sequences, common similarity-based methods often fall short of providing full and reliable functional information. Recently, the combination of comparative genomics with approaches in functional genomics has received considerable interest for gene function analysis, leveraging both gene expression based guilt-by-association methods and annotation efforts in closely related model organisms. Besides the identification of missing genes in pathways, these methods also typically enable the discovery of biological regulators (i.e., transcription factors or signaling genes. A previously built guilt-by-association method is MORPH, which was proven to be an efficient algorithm that performs particularly well in identifying and prioritizing missing genes in plant metabolic pathways. Here, we present MorphDB, a resource where MORPH-based candidate genes for large-scale functional annotations (Gene Ontology, MapMan bins are integrated across multiple plant species. Besides a gene centric query utility, we present a comparative network approach that enables researchers to efficiently browse MORPH predictions across functional gene sets and species, facilitating efficient gene discovery and candidate gene prioritization. MorphDB is available at http://bioinformatics.psb.ugent.be/webtools/morphdb/morphDB/index/. We also provide a toolkit, named “MORPH bulk” (https://github.com/arzwa/morph-bulk, for running MORPH in bulk mode on novel data sets, enabling researchers to apply MORPH to their own species of interest.

  16. Visualizing the regulatory role of Angiopoietin-like protein 8 (ANGPTL8) in glucose and lipid metabolic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqa, Amnah; Cirillo, Elisa; Tareen, Samar H K; Ali, Amjad; Kutmon, Martina; Eijssen, Lars M T; Ahmad, Jamil; Evelo, Chris T; Coort, Susan L

    2017-10-01

    ANGPTL8 (Angiopoietin-like protein 8) is a newly identified hormone emerging as a novel drug target for treatment of diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia due to its unique metabolic nature. With increasing number of studies targeting the regulation of ANGPTL8, integration of their findings becomes indispensable. This study has been conducted with the aim to collect, analyze, integrate and visualize the available knowledge in the literature about ANGPTL8 and its regulation. We utilized this knowledge to construct a regulatory pathway of ANGPTL8 which is available at WikiPathways, an open source pathways database. It allows us to visualize ANGPTL8's regulation with respect to other genes/proteins in different pathways helping us to understand the complex interplay of novel hormones/genes/proteins in metabolic disorders. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to present an integrated pathway view of ANGPTL8's regulation and its associated pathways and is important resource for future omics-based studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Core Proteomic Analysis of Unique Metabolic Pathways of Salmonella enterica for the Identification of Potential Drug Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Reaz; Sufian, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Infections caused by Salmonella enterica, a Gram-negative facultative anaerobic bacteria belonging to the family of Enterobacteriaceae, are major threats to the health of humans and animals. The recent availability of complete genome data of pathogenic strains of the S. enterica gives new avenues for the identification of drug targets and drug candidates. We have used the genomic and metabolic pathway data to identify pathways and proteins essential to the pathogen and absent from the host. We took the whole proteome sequence data of 42 strains of S. enterica and Homo sapiens along with KEGG-annotated metabolic pathway data, clustered proteins sequences using CD-HIT, identified essential genes using DEG database and discarded S. enterica homologs of human proteins in unique metabolic pathways (UMPs) and characterized hypothetical proteins with SVM-prot and InterProScan. Through this core proteomic analysis we have identified enzymes essential to the pathogen. The identification of 73 enzymes common in 42 strains of S. enterica is the real strength of the current study. We proposed all 73 unexplored enzymes as potential drug targets against the infections caused by the S. enterica. The study is comprehensive around S. enterica and simultaneously considered every possible pathogenic strain of S. enterica. This comprehensiveness turned the current study significant since, to the best of our knowledge it is the first subtractive core proteomic analysis of the unique metabolic pathways applied to any pathogen for the identification of drug targets. We applied extensive computational methods to shortlist few potential drug targets considering the druggability criteria e.g. Non-homologous to the human host, essential to the pathogen and playing significant role in essential metabolic pathways of the pathogen (i.e. S. enterica). In the current study, the subtractive proteomics through a novel approach was applied i.e. by considering only proteins of the unique metabolic

  18. Metabolic profiling of the protozoan parasite Entamoeba invadens revealed activation of unpredicted pathway during encystation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Jeelani

    Full Text Available Encystation, which is cellular differentiation from the motile, proliferative, labile trophozoite form to the dormant, resistant cyst form, is a crucial process found in parasitic and free-living protozoa such as Entamoeba, Giardia, Acanthamoeba, and Balamuthia. Since encystation is an essential process to deal with the adverse external environmental changes during the life cycle, and often integral to the transmission of the diseases, biochemical understanding of the process potentially provides useful measures against the infections caused by this group of protozoa. In this study, we investigated metabolic and transcriptomic changes that occur during encystation in Entamoeba invadens, the reptilian sibling of mammal-infecting E. histolytica, using capillary electrophoresis-tandem mass spectrometry-based metabolite profiling and DNA microarray-based expression profiling. As the encystation progressed, the levels of majority of metabolites involved in glycolysis and nucleotides drastically decreased, indicating energy generation is ceased. Furthermore, the flux of glycolysis was redirected toward chitin wall biosynthesis. We found remarkable temporal increases in biogenic amines such as isoamylamine, isobutylamine, and cadaverine, during the early period of encystation, when the trophozoites form large multicellular aggregates (precyst. We also found remarkable induction of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA during encystation. This study has unveiled for the first time the dynamics of the transcriptional and metabolic regulatory networks during encystation, and should help in better understanding of the process in pathogenic eukaryotes, and further development of measures controlling infections they cause.

  19. Maternal obesity heritably perturbs offspring metabolism for three generations without serial programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, S A; Aiken, A J; Young, P E; Ho, J W K; Cropley, J E; Suter, C M

    2017-10-06

    Maternal obesity can program offspring metabolism across multiple generations. It is not known whether multigenerational effects reflect true inheritance of the induced phenotype, or are due to serial propagation of the phenotype through repeated exposure to a compromised gestational milieu. Here we sought to distinguish these possibilities, using the A vy mouse model of maternal obesity. In this model, F1 sons of obese dams display a predisposition to hepatic insulin resistance, which remains latent unless the offspring are challenged with a Western diet. We find that F2 grandsons and F3 great grandsons of obese dams also carry the latent predisposition to metabolic dysfunction, but remain metabolically normal on a healthy diet. Given that the breeding animals giving rise to F2 and F3 were maintained on a healthy diet, the latency of the phenotype permits exclusion of serial programming; we also confirmed that F1 females remained metabolically healthy during pregnancy. Molecular analyses of male descendants identified upregulation of hepatic Apoa4 as a consistent signature of the latent phenotype across all generations. Our results exclude serial programming as a factor in transmission of the metabolic phenotype induced by ancestral maternal obesity, and indicate inheritance through the germline, probably via some form of epigenetic inheritance.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 31 October 2017; doi:10.1038/ijo.2017.247.

  20. β-N-Methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) perturbs alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism pathways in human neuroblastoma cells as determined by metabolic profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engskog, Mikael K R; Ersson, Lisa; Haglöf, Jakob; Arvidsson, Torbjörn; Pettersson, Curt; Brittebo, Eva

    2017-05-01

    β-Methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) is a non-proteinogenic amino acid that induces long-term cognitive deficits, as well as an increased neurodegeneration and intracellular fibril formation in the hippocampus of adult rodents following short-time neonatal exposure and in vervet monkey brain following long-term exposure. It has also been proposed to be involved in the etiology of neurodegenerative disease in humans. The aim of this study was to identify metabolic effects not related to excitotoxicity or oxidative stress in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. The effects of BMAA (50, 250, 1000 µM) for 24 h on cells differentiated with retinoic acid were studied. Samples were analyzed using LC-MS and NMR spectroscopy to detect altered intracellular polar metabolites. The analysis performed, followed by multivariate pattern recognition techniques, revealed significant perturbations in protein biosynthesis, amino acid metabolism pathways and citrate cycle. Of specific interest were the BMAA-induced alterations in alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism and as well as alterations in various neurotransmitters/neuromodulators such as GABA and taurine. The results indicate that BMAA can interfere with metabolic pathways involved in neurotransmission in human neuroblastoma cells.

  1. The BioCyc collection of microbial genomes and metabolic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Peter D; Billington, Richard; Caspi, Ron; Fulcher, Carol A; Latendresse, Mario; Kothari, Anamika; Keseler, Ingrid M; Krummenacker, Markus; Midford, Peter E; Ong, Quang; Ong, Wai Kit; Paley, Suzanne M; Subhraveti, Pallavi

    2017-08-17

    BioCyc.org is a microbial genome Web portal that combines thousands of genomes with additional information inferred by computer programs, imported from other databases and curated from the biomedical literature by biologist curators. BioCyc also provides an extensive range of query tools, visualization services and analysis software. Recent advances in BioCyc include an expansion in the content of BioCyc in terms of both the number of genomes and the types of information available for each genome; an expansion in the amount of curated content within BioCyc; and new developments in the BioCyc software tools including redesigned gene/protein pages and metabolite pages; new search tools; a new sequence-alignment tool; a new tool for visualizing groups of related metabolic pathways; and a facility called SmartTables, which enables biologists to perform analyses that previously would have required a programmer's assistance. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Jatropha curcas, a biofuel crop: functional genomics for understanding metabolic pathways and genetic improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghuly, Fatemeh; Laimer, Margit

    2013-10-01

    Jatropha curcas is currently attracting much attention as an oilseed crop for biofuel, as Jatropha can grow under climate and soil conditions that are unsuitable for food production. However, little is known about Jatropha, and there are a number of challenges to be overcome. In fact, Jatropha has not really been domesticated; most of the Jatropha accessions are toxic, which renders the seedcake unsuitable for use as animal feed. The seeds of Jatropha contain high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which negatively impact the biofuel quality. Fruiting of Jatropha is fairly continuous, thus increasing costs of harvesting. Therefore, before starting any improvement program using conventional or molecular breeding techniques, understanding gene function and the genome scale of Jatropha are prerequisites. This review presents currently available and relevant information on the latest technologies (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics) to decipher important metabolic pathways within Jatropha, such as oil and toxin synthesis. Further, it discusses future directions for biotechnological approaches in Jatropha breeding and improvement. © 2013 The Authors. Biotechnology Journal published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Peretinoin, an Acyclic Retinoid, Inhibits Hepatitis B Virus Replication by Suppressing Sphingosine Metabolic Pathway In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhisa Murai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC frequently develops from hepatitis C virus (HCV and hepatitis B virus (HBV infection. We previously reported that peretinoin, an acyclic retinoid, inhibits HCV replication. This study aimed to examine the influence of peretinoin on the HBV lifecycle. HBV-DNA and covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA were evaluated by a qPCR method in HepG2.2.15 cells. Peretinoin significantly reduced the levels of intracellular HBV-DNA, nuclear cccDNA, and HBV transcript at a concentration that did not induce cytotoxicity. Conversely, other retinoids, such as 9-cis, 13-cis retinoic acid (RA, and all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA, had no effect or rather increased HBV replication. Mechanistically, although peretinoin increased the expression of HBV-related transcription factors, as observed for other retinoids, peretinoin enhanced the binding of histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1 to cccDNA in the nucleus and negatively regulated HBV transcription. Moreover, peretinoin significantly inhibited the expression of SPHK1, a potential inhibitor of HDAC activity, and might be involved in hepatic inflammation, fibrosis, and HCC. SPHK1 overexpression in cells cancelled the inhibition of HBV replication induced by peretinoin. This indicates that peretinoin activates HDAC1 and thereby suppresses HBV replication by inhibiting the sphingosine metabolic pathway. Therefore, peretinoin may be a novel therapeutic agent for HBV replication and chemoprevention against HCC.

  4. Isoflavones profiling of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] germplasms and their correlations with metabolic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Kwang; Kim, Eun-Hye; Park, Inmyoung; Yu, Bo-Ra; Lim, Jung Dae; Lee, Young-Sang; Lee, Joo-Hyun; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Chung, Ill-Min

    2014-06-15

    The isoflavone diversity (44 varieties) of the soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, from China, Japan, and Korea was examined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The profiles of 12 isoflavones identified from the grains were subjected to data-mining processes, including partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), Pearson's correlation analysis, and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA). Although PLS-DA did not reveal significant differences among extracts of soybean from 3 countries, the results clearly show that the variation between varieties was low. The CS02554 variety was separate from the others in the first 2 principal components of PLS-DA. HCA of these phytochemicals resulted in clusters derived from closely related biochemical pathways. Daidzin, genistin, and glycitin contents were significantly correlated with their respective malonyl glycoside contents. Daidzein content correlated positively with genistein content (r=0.8189, P<0.0001). The CS02554 variety appears to be a good candidate for future breeding programs, as it contains high levels of isoflavone compounds. These results demonstrate the use of metabolite profiling combined with chemometrics as a tool for assessing the quality of food and identifying metabolic links in biological systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Engineering of an L-arabinose metabolic pathway in Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiaochao; Wang, Xi; Chen, Shulin

    2016-07-01

    The oleaginous bacterium, Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 has attracted considerable attention due to its capability to accumulate significant levels of triacylglycerol as renewable hydrocarbon. To enable the strain to utilize arabinose derived from lignocellulosic biomass, the metabolic pathway of L-arabinose utilization was introduced into R. jostii RHA1 by heterogenous expression of the operon, araBAD from Escherichia coli. The results showed that recombinant bearing araBAD could grow on L-arabinose as the sole carbon source, and additional expression of araFGH encoding the arabinose transporter from E. coli could improve the cell biomass yield from high contents of arabinose. We further increased the content of lipid produced from arabinose in the recombinants from 47.9 to 56.8 % of the cell dry weight (CDW) by overexpression of a gene, atf1 encoding a diglyceride acyltransferase from R. opacus PD630. This work demonstrated the feasibility of producing lipid from arabinose by genetic modification of the rhodococci strain.

  6. Bacterial community structure and predicted alginate metabolic pathway in an alginate-degrading bacterial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Akihisa; Miura, Toyokazu; Kawata, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Takeshi; Okamura, Yoshiko; Aki, Tsunehiro; Matsumura, Yukihiko; Tajima, Takahisa; Kato, Junichi; Nishio, Naomichi; Nakashimada, Yutaka

    2016-03-01

    Methane fermentation is one of the effective approaches for utilization of brown algae; however, this process is limited by the microbial capability to degrade alginate, a main polysaccharide found in these algae. Despite its potential, little is known about anaerobic microbial degradation of alginate. Here we constructed a bacterial consortium able to anaerobically degrade alginate. Taxonomic classification of 16S rRNA gene, based on high-throughput sequencing data, revealed that this consortium included two dominant strains, designated HUA-1 and HUA-2; these strains were related to Clostridiaceae bacterium SK082 (99%) and Dysgonomonas capnocytophagoides (95%), respectively. Alginate lyase activity and metagenomic analyses, based on high-throughput sequencing data, revealed that this bacterial consortium possessed putative genes related to a predicted alginate metabolic pathway. However, HUA-1 and 2 did not grow on agar medium with alginate by using roll-tube method, suggesting the existence of bacterial interactions like symbiosis for anaerobic alginate degradation. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the production of 2-phenylethanol via Ehrlich pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bosu; Cho, Bo-Ram; Hahn, Ji-Sook

    2014-01-01

    2-Phenylethanol (2-PE), a fragrance compound with a rose-like odor, is widely used in perfumery and cosmetics. Here, we report the first metabolic engineering approach for 2-PE production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. 2-PE can be produced from the catabolism of L-phenylalanine via Ehrlich pathway, consisting of transamination to phenylpyruvate by Aro9, decarboxylation to phenylacetaldehyde by Aro10, and reduction to 2-PE by alcohol dehydrogenases. We demonstrated that Ald3 is mainly responsible for phenylacetaldehyde oxidation, competing with 2-PE production. ALD3 deletion strain overexpressing ARO9 and ARO10 both by episomal overexpression and by induction of the endogenous genes through overexpression of Aro80 transcription factor, produced 4.8 g/L 2-PE in a medium containing 10 g/L L-phenylalanine as a sole nitrogen source. Considering the cytotoxicity of 2-PE, this production titer is almost the upper limit that can be reached in batch cultures, suggesting the great potential of this yeast strain for 2-PE production. 2-PE production was further increased by applying two-phase fermentation method with polypropylene glycol 1200 as an extractant, reaching 6.1 g/L 2-PE in organic phase with the molar yield of 82.5%, which is about ninefold increase compared with wild type. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The trophic and metabolic pathways of foraminifera in the Arabian Sea: evidence from cellular stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffreys, R. M.; Fisher, E. H.; Gooday, A. J.; Larkin, K. E.; Billett, D. S. M.; Wolff, G. A.

    2015-03-01

    The Arabian Sea is a region of elevated productivity with the highest globally recorded fluxes of particulate organic matter (POM) to the deep ocean, providing an abundant food source for fauna at the seafloor. However, benthic communities are also strongly influenced by an intense oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), which impinges on the continental slope from 100 to 1000 m water depth. We compared the trophic ecology of foraminifera on the Oman and Pakistan margins of the Arabian Sea (140-3185 m water depth). These two margins are contrasting both in terms of the abundance of sedimentary organic matter and the intensity of the OMZ. Organic carbon concentrations of surficial sediments were higher on the Oman margin (3.32 ± 1.4%) compared to the Pakistan margin (2.45 ± 1.1%) and sedimentary organic matter (SOM) quality estimated from the Hydrogen Index was also higher on the Oman margin (300-400 mg HC mg TOC-1) compared to the Pakistan margin (responsible for the differences observed in foraminiferal isotopic composition. In addition, at the time of sampling, whole jellyfish carcasses (Crambionella orsini) and a carpet of jelly detritus were observed across the Oman margin transect. Associated chemosynthetic bacteria may have provided an organic-rich food source for foraminifera at these sites. Our data suggest that foraminifera in OMZ settings can utilise a variety of food sources and metabolic pathways to meet their energetic demands.

  9. Effect of multiple mutations in tricarboxylic acid cycle and one-carbon metabolism pathways on Edwardsiella ictaluri pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahal, N; Abdelhamed, H; Lu, J; Karsi, A; Lawrence, M L

    2014-02-21

    Edwardsiella ictaluri is a Gram-negative facultative intracellular pathogen causing enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC). We have shown recently that tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) and one-carbon (C1) metabolism are involved in E. ictaluri pathogenesis. However, the effect of multiple mutations in these pathways is unknown. Here, we report four novel E. ictaluri mutants carrying double gene mutations in TCA cycle (EiΔmdhΔsdhC, EiΔfrdAΔsdhC), C1 metabolism (EiΔglyAΔgcvP), and both TCA and C1 metabolism pathways (EiΔgcvPΔsdhC). In-frame gene deletions were constructed by allelic exchange and mutants' virulence and vaccine efficacy were evaluated using in vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI) as well as end point mortality counts in catfish fingerlings. Results indicated that all the double gene mutants were attenuated compared to wild-type (wt) E. ictaluri. There was a 1.39-fold average reduction in bioluminescence, and hence bacterial numbers, from all the mutants except for EiΔfrdAΔsdhC at 144 h post-infection. Vaccination with mutants was very effective in protecting channel catfish against subsequent infection with virulent E. ictaluri 93-146 strain. In particular, immersion vaccination resulted in complete protection. Our results provide further evidence on the importance of TCA and C1 metabolism pathways in bacterial pathogenesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Glucuronidation by UGT1A1 is the dominant pathway of the metabolic disposition of belinostat in liver cancer patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Zhi Wang

    Full Text Available Belinostat is a hydroxamate class HDAC inhibitor that has demonstrated activity in peripheral T-cell lymphoma and is undergoing clinical trials for non-hematologic malignancies. We studied the pharmacokinetics of belinostat in hepatocellular carcinoma patients to determine the main pathway of metabolism of belinostat. The pharmacokinetics of belinostat in liver cancer patients were characterized by rapid plasma clearance of belinostat with extensive metabolism with more than 4-fold greater relative systemic exposure of major metabolite, belinostat glucuronide than that of belinostat. There was significant interindividual variability of belinostat glucuronidation. The major pathway of metabolism involves UGT1A1-mediated glucuronidation and a good correlation has been identified between belinostat glucuronide formation and glucuronidation of known UGT1A1 substrates. In addition, liver microsomes harboring UGT1A1*28 alleles have lower glucuronidation activity for belinostat compared to those with wildtype UGT1A1. The main metabolic pathway of belinostat is through glucuronidation mediated primarily by UGT1A1, a highly polymorphic enzyme. The clinical significance of this finding remains to be determined.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00321594.

  11. Enzyme chemistry and the evolution of metabolic diversity: the β-ketoadipate pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozarich, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    The two converging catechol and protocatechuate branches of the β-ketoadipate pathway in Pseudomonas putida have long been considered a paradigm of evolutionary divergence of specialized enzymes from a common ancestor. The structural similarities of substrates, products and the enzymes themselves have supported this hypothesis. Employing chemical and 1 H NMR techniques, they have determined the absolute stereochemical courses of the reactions catalyzed by β-carboxymuconate cycloisomerase, muconolactone isomerase, and γ-carboxymuconolactone decarboxylase. Surprisingly, β-carboxymuconate cycloisomerase proceeds via an anti addition while the corresponding muconate cycloisomerase has been shown to catalyze a syn addition. Moreover, the chiral centers generated in the products of both enzymes are of the opposite relative configuration. They believe that the shift in mechanism may reflect basic energetic differences of the two reactions. The stereochemistries of the isomerase and decarboxylase have been established by 1 H NMR using a ricochet analysis. Both reactions proceed via a syn process; the relative configurations of muconolactone and γ-carboxymuconolactone necessitate that the enzymes operate on opposite faces of the common enol-lactone product. These findings suggest that either critical active site changes have occurred in these enzymes to accommodate preferred mechanistic pathways or the evolutionary relationship of the two branches is more remote than previously believed

  12. Assembly and Multiplex Genome Integration of Metabolic Pathways in Yeast Using CasEMBLR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakočiūnas, Tadas; Jensen, Emil D; Jensen, Michael K; Keasling, Jay D

    2018-01-01

    Genome integration is a vital step for implementing large biochemical pathways to build a stable microbial cell factory. Although traditional strain construction strategies are well established for the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae, recent advances in CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome engineering allow much higher throughput and robustness in terms of strain construction. In this chapter, we describe CasEMBLR, a highly efficient and marker-free genome engineering method for one-step integration of in vivo assembled expression cassettes in multiple genomic sites simultaneously. CasEMBLR capitalizes on the CRISPR/Cas9 technology to generate double-strand breaks in genomic loci, thus prompting native homologous recombination (HR) machinery to integrate exogenously derived homology templates. As proof-of-principle for microbial cell factory development, CasEMBLR was used for one-step assembly and marker-free integration of the carotenoid pathway from 15 exogenously supplied DNA parts into three targeted genomic loci. As a second proof-of-principle, a total of ten DNA parts were assembled and integrated in two genomic loci to construct a tyrosine production strain, and at the same time knocking out two genes. This new method complements and improves the field of genome engineering in S. cerevisiae by providing a more flexible platform for rapid and precise strain building.

  13. Metabolic Pathways Associated with Kimchi, a Traditional Korean Food, Based on Modeling of Published Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ga Hee Shin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Kimchi is a traditional Korean food prepared by fermenting vegetables, such as Chinese cabbage and radishes, which are seasoned with various ingredients, including red pepper powder, garlic, ginger, green onion, fermented seafood (Jeotgal, and salt. The various unique microorganisms and bioactive components in kimchi show antioxidant activity and have been associated with an enhanced immune response, as well as anti-cancer and anti-diabetic effects. Red pepper inhibits decay due to microorganisms and prevents food from spoiling. The vast amount of biological information generated by academic and industrial research groups is reflected in a rapidly growing body of scientific literature and expanding data resources. However, the genome, biological pathway, and related disease data are insufficient to explain the health benefits of kimchi because of the varied and heterogeneous data types. Therefore, we have constructed an appropriate semantic data model based on an integrated food knowledge database and analyzed the functional and biological processes associated with kimchi in silico. This complex semantic network of several entities and connections was generalized to answer complex questions, and we demonstrated how specific disease pathways are related to kimchi consumption.

  14. Prenatal caffeine ingestion induces transgenerational neuroendocrine metabolic programming alteration in second generation rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Hanwen; Deng, Zixin; Liu, Lian; Shen, Lang; Kou, Hao; He, Zheng; Ping, Jie; Xu, Dan; Ma, Lu; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that prenatal caffeine ingestion induces an increased susceptibility to metabolic syndrome with alterations of glucose and lipid metabolic phenotypes in adult first generation (F1) of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) rats, and the underlying mechanism is originated from a hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolic programming alteration in utero. This study aims to investigate the transgenerational effects of this programming alteration in adult second generation (F2). Pregnant Wistar rats were administered with caffeine (120 mg/kg·d) from gestational day 11 until delivery. Four groups in F2 were set according to the cross-mating between control and caffeine-induced IUGR rats. F2 were subjected to a fortnight ice water swimming stimulus on postnatal month 4, and blood samples were collected before and after stress. Results showed that the majority of the activities of HPA axis and phenotypes of glucose and lipid metabolism were altered in F2. Particularly, comparing with the control group, caffeine groups had an enhanced corticosterone levels after chronic stress. Compared with before stress, the serum glucose levels were increased in some groups whereas the triglyceride levels were decreased. Furthermore, total cholesterol gain rates were enhanced but the high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol gain rates were decreased in most caffeine groups after stress. These transgenerational effects were characterized partially with gender and parental differences. Taken together, these results indicate that the reproductive and developmental toxicities and the neuroendocrine metabolic programming mechanism by prenatal caffeine ingestion have transgenerational effects in rats, which may help to explain the susceptibility to metabolic syndrome and associated diseases in F2. - Highlights: • Caffeine-induced neuroendocrine metabolic programming of HPA has hereditary effect. • Caffeine

  15. Prenatal caffeine ingestion induces transgenerational neuroendocrine metabolic programming alteration in second generation rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Hanwen [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Deng, Zixin; Liu, Lian; Shen, Lang; Kou, Hao; He, Zheng [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Ping, Jie; Xu, Dan [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Ma, Lu [Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, Public Health School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Chen, Liaobin, E-mail: lbchen@whu.edu.cn [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2014-02-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that prenatal caffeine ingestion induces an increased susceptibility to metabolic syndrome with alterations of glucose and lipid metabolic phenotypes in adult first generation (F1) of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) rats, and the underlying mechanism is originated from a hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolic programming alteration in utero. This study aims to investigate the transgenerational effects of this programming alteration in adult second generation (F2). Pregnant Wistar rats were administered with caffeine (120 mg/kg·d) from gestational day 11 until delivery. Four groups in F2 were set according to the cross-mating between control and caffeine-induced IUGR rats. F2 were subjected to a fortnight ice water swimming stimulus on postnatal month 4, and blood samples were collected before and after stress. Results showed that the majority of the activities of HPA axis and phenotypes of glucose and lipid metabolism were altered in F2. Particularly, comparing with the control group, caffeine groups had an enhanced corticosterone levels after chronic stress. Compared with before stress, the serum glucose levels were increased in some groups whereas the triglyceride levels were decreased. Furthermore, total cholesterol gain rates were enhanced but the high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol gain rates were decreased in most caffeine groups after stress. These transgenerational effects were characterized partially with gender and parental differences. Taken together, these results indicate that the reproductive and developmental toxicities and the neuroendocrine metabolic programming mechanism by prenatal caffeine ingestion have transgenerational effects in rats, which may help to explain the susceptibility to metabolic syndrome and associated diseases in F2. - Highlights: • Caffeine-induced neuroendocrine metabolic programming of HPA has hereditary effect. • Caffeine

  16. Composition influences the pathway but not the outcome of the metabolic response of bacterioplankton to resource shifts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Comte

    Full Text Available Bacterioplankton community metabolism is central to the functioning of aquatic ecosystems, and strongly reactive to changes in the environment, yet the processes underlying this response remain unclear. Here we explore the role that community composition plays in shaping the bacterial metabolic response to resource gradients that occur along aquatic ecotones in a complex watershed in Québec. Our results show that the response is mediated by complex shifts in community structure, and structural equation analysis confirmed two main pathways, one involving adjustments in the level of activity of existing phylotypes, and the other the replacement of the dominant phylotypes. These contrasting response pathways were not determined by the type or the intensity of the gradients involved, as we had hypothesized, but rather it would appear that some compositional configurations may be intrinsically more plastic than others. Our results suggest that community composition determines this overall level of community plasticity, but that composition itself may be driven by factors independent of the environmental gradients themselves, such that the response of bacterial communities to a given type of gradient may alternate between the adjustment and replacement pathways. We conclude that community composition influences the pathways of response in these bacterial communities, but not the metabolic outcome itself, which is driven by the environment, and which can be attained through multiple alternative configurations.

  17. Impact of botanical oils on polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism and leukotriene generation in mild asthmatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Dietary supplementation with botanical oils that contain n-6 and n-3 eighteen carbon chain (18C)-PUFA such as γ linolenic acid (GLA, 18:3n-6), stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4n-3) and α linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3) have been shown to impact PUFA metabolism, alter inflammatory processes including arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism and improve inflammatory disorders. Methods The diet of mild asthmatics patients was supplemented for three weeks with varying doses of two botanical seed oils (borage oil [Borago officinalis, BO] and echium seed oil [Echium plantagineum; EO]) that contain SDA, ALA and GLA. A three week wash out period followed. The impact of these dietary manipulations was evaluated for several biochemical endpoints, including in vivo PUFA metabolism and ex vivo leukotriene generation from stimulated leukocytes. Results Supplementation with several EO/BO combinations increased circulating 20–22 carbon (20–22C) PUFAs, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and dihommo-gammalinolenic acid (DGLA), which have been shown to inhibit AA metabolism and inflammation without impacting circulating AA levels. BO/EO combinations also inhibited ex vivo leukotriene generation with some combinations attenuating cysteinyl leukotriene generation in stimulated basophils by >50% and in stimulated neutrophils by >35%. Conclusions This study shows that dietary supplementation with BO/EO alters 20–22C PUFA levels and attenuates leukotriene production in a manner consistent with a reduction in inflammation. PMID:24088297

  18. Metabolic fate of glucose and candidate signaling and excess-fuel detoxification pathways in pancreatic β-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugabo, Yves; Zhao, Shangang; Lamontagne, Julien; Al-Mass, Anfal; Peyot, Marie-Line; Corkey, Barbara E; Joly, Erik; Madiraju, S R Murthy; Prentki, Marc

    2017-05-05

    Glucose metabolism promotes insulin secretion in β-cells via metabolic coupling factors that are incompletely defined. Moreover, chronically elevated glucose causes β-cell dysfunction, but little is known about how cells handle excess fuels to avoid toxicity. Here we sought to determine which among the candidate pathways and coupling factors best correlates with glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), define the fate of glucose in the β-cell, and identify pathways possibly involved in excess-fuel detoxification. We exposed isolated rat islets for 1 h to increasing glucose concentrations and measured various pathways and metabolites. Glucose oxidation, oxygen consumption, and ATP production correlated well with GSIS and saturated at 16 mm glucose. However, glucose utilization, glycerol release, triglyceride and glycogen contents, free fatty acid (FFA) content and release, and cholesterol and cholesterol esters increased linearly up to 25 mm glucose. Besides being oxidized, glucose was mainly metabolized via glycerol production and release and lipid synthesis (particularly FFA, triglycerides, and cholesterol), whereas glycogen production was comparatively low. Using targeted metabolomics in INS-1(832/13) cells, we found that several metabolites correlated well with GSIS, in particular some Krebs cycle intermediates, malonyl-CoA, and lower ADP levels. Glucose dose-dependently increased the dihydroxyacetone phosphate/glycerol 3-phosphate ratio in INS-1(832/13) cells, indicating a more oxidized state of NAD in the cytosol upon glucose stimulation. Overall, the data support a role for accelerated oxidative mitochondrial metabolism, anaplerosis, and malonyl-CoA/lipid signaling in β-cell metabolic signaling and suggest that a decrease in ADP levels is important in GSIS. The results also suggest that excess-fuel detoxification pathways in β-cells possibly comprise glycerol and FFA formation and release extracellularly and the diversion of glucose carbons to

  19. Two Distinct Pathways for Metabolism of Theophylline and Caffeine Are Coexpressed in Pseudomonas putida CBB5▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chi Li; Louie, Tai Man; Summers, Ryan; Kale, Yogesh; Gopishetty, Sridhar; Subramanian, Mani

    2009-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida CBB5 was isolated from soil by enrichment on caffeine. This strain used not only caffeine, theobromine, paraxanthine, and 7-methylxanthine as sole carbon and nitrogen sources but also theophylline and 3-methylxanthine. Analyses of metabolites in spent media and resting cell suspensions confirmed that CBB5 initially N demethylated theophylline via a hitherto unreported pathway to 1- and 3-methylxanthines. NAD(P)H-dependent conversion of theophylline to 1- and 3-methylxanthines was also detected in the crude cell extracts of theophylline-grown CBB5. 1-Methylxanthine and 3-methylxanthine were subsequently N demethylated to xanthine. CBB5 also oxidized theophylline and 1- and 3-methylxanthines to 1,3-dimethyluric acid and 1- and 3-methyluric acids, respectively. However, these methyluric acids were not metabolized further. A broad-substrate-range xanthine-oxidizing enzyme was responsible for the formation of these methyluric acids. In contrast, CBB5 metabolized caffeine to theobromine (major metabolite) and paraxanthine (minor metabolite). These dimethylxanthines were further N demethylated to xanthine via 7-methylxanthine. Theobromine-, paraxanthine-, and 7-methylxanthine-grown cells also metabolized all of the methylxanthines mentioned above via the same pathway. Thus, the theophylline and caffeine N-demethylation pathways converged at xanthine via different methylxanthine intermediates. Xanthine was eventually oxidized to uric acid. Enzymes involved in theophylline and caffeine degradation were coexpressed when CBB5 was grown on theophylline or on caffeine or its metabolites. However, 3-methylxanthine-grown CBB5 cells did not metabolize caffeine, whereas theophylline was metabolized at much reduced levels to only methyluric acids. To our knowledge, this is the first report of theophylline N demethylation and coexpression of distinct pathways for caffeine and theophylline degradation in bacteria. PMID:19447909

  20. Exacerbation of substrate toxicity by IPTG in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) carrying a synthetic metabolic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Pavel; Chrast, Lukas; Nikel, Pablo I; Fedr, Radek; Soucek, Karel; Sedlackova, Miroslava; Chaloupkova, Radka; de Lorenzo, Víctor; Prokop, Zbynek; Damborsky, Jiri

    2015-12-21

    Heterologous expression systems based on promoters inducible with isopropyl-β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG), e.g., Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) and cognate LacI(Q)/P(lacUV5)-T7 vectors, are commonly used for production of recombinant proteins and metabolic pathways. The applicability of such cell factories is limited by the complex physiological burden imposed by overexpression of the exogenous genes during a bioprocess. This burden originates from a combination of stresses that may include competition for the expression machinery, side-reactions due to the activity of the recombinant proteins, or the toxicity of their substrates, products and intermediates. However, the physiological impact of IPTG-induced conditional expression on the recombinant host under such harsh conditions is often overlooked. The physiological responses to IPTG of the E. coli BL21(DE3) strain and three different recombinants carrying a synthetic metabolic pathway for biodegradation of the toxic anthropogenic pollutant 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP) were investigated using plating, flow cytometry, and electron microscopy. Collected data revealed unexpected negative synergistic effect of inducer of the expression system and toxic substrate resulting in pronounced physiological stress. Replacing IPTG with the natural sugar effector lactose greatly reduced such stress, demonstrating that the effect was due to the original inducer's chemical properties. IPTG is not an innocuous inducer; instead, it exacerbates the toxicity of haloalkane substrate and causes appreciable damage to the E. coli BL21(DE3) host, which is already bearing a metabolic burden due to its content of plasmids carrying the genes of the synthetic metabolic pathway. The concentration of IPTG can be effectively tuned to mitigate this negative effect. Importantly, we show that induction with lactose, the natural inducer of P lac , dramatically lightens the burden without reducing the efficiency of the synthetic TCP degradation

  1. Leveraging microbial biosynthetic pathways for the generation of 'drop-in' biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargar, Amin; Bailey, Constance B; Haushalter, Robert W; Eiben, Christopher B; Katz, Leonard; Keasling, Jay D

    2017-06-01

    Advances in retooling microorganisms have enabled bioproduction of 'drop-in' biofuels, fuels that are compatible with existing spark-ignition, compression-ignition, and gas-turbine engines. As the majority of petroleum consumption in the United States consists of gasoline (47%), diesel fuel and heating oil (21%), and jet fuel (8%), 'drop-in' biofuels that replace these petrochemical sources are particularly attractive. In this review, we discuss the application of aldehyde decarbonylases to produce gasoline substitutes from fatty acid products, a recently crystallized reductase that could hydrogenate jet fuel precursors from terpene synthases, and the exquisite control of polyketide synthases to produce biofuels with desired physical properties (e.g., lower freezing points). With our increased understanding of biosynthetic logic of metabolic pathways, we discuss the unique advantages of fatty acid, terpene, and polyketide synthases for the production of bio-based gasoline, diesel and jet fuel. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Leveraging microbial biosynthetic pathways for the generation of 'drop-in' biofuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zargar, Amin; Bailey, Constance B.; Haushalter, Robert W.

    2017-01-01

    and heating oil (21%), and jet fuel (8%), 'drop-in' biofuels that replace these petrochemical sources are particularly attractive. In this review, we discuss the application of aldehyde decarbonylases to produce gasoline substitutes from fatty acid products, a recently crystallized reductase that could......Advances in retooling microorganisms have enabled bioproduction of 'drop-in' biofuels, fuels that are compatible with existing spark-ignition, compression-ignition, and gas-turbine engines. As the majority of petroleum consumption in the United States consists of gasoline (47%), diesel fuel...... hydrogenate jet fuel precursors from terpene synthases, and the exquisite control of polyketide synthases to produce biofuels with desired physical properties (e.g., lower freezing points). With our increased understanding of biosynthetic logic of metabolic pathways, we discuss the unique advantages of fatty...

  3. Different exogenous sugars affect the hormone signal pathway and sugar metabolism in "Red Globe" (Vitis vinifera L.) plantlets grown in vitro as shown by transcriptomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Juan; Li, Wenfang; Mi, Baoqin; Dawuda, Mohammed Mujitaba; Calderón-Urrea, Alejandro; Ma, Zonghuan; Zhang, Yongmei; Chen, Baihong

    2017-09-01

    Exogenously applied 2% fructose is the most appropriate carbon source that enhances photosynthesis and growth of grape plantlets compared with the same concentrations of sucrose and glucose. The role of the sugars was regulated by the expression of key candidate genes related to hormones, key metabolic enzymes, and sugar metabolism of grape plantlets ( Vitis vinifera L.) grown in vitro. The addition of sugars including sucrose, glucose, and fructose is known to be very helpful for the development of grape (V. vinifera L.) plantlets in vitro. However, the mechanisms by which these sugars regulate plant development and sugar metabolism are poorly understood. In grape plantlets, sugar metabolism and hormone synthesis undergo special regulation. In the present study, transcriptomic analyses were performed on grape (V. vinifera L., cv. Red Globe) plantlets in an in vitro system, in which the plantlets were grown in 2% each of sucrose (S20), glucose (G20), and fructose (F20). The sugar metabolism and hormone synthesis of the plantlets were analyzed. In addition, 95.72-97.29% high-quality 125 bp reads were further analyzed out of which 52.65-60.80% were mapped to exonic regions, 13.13-28.38% to intronic regions, and 11.59-28.99% to intergenic regions. The F20, G20, and S20 displayed elevated sucrose synthase (SS) activities; relative chlorophyll contents; Rubisco activity; and IAA and zeatin (ZT) contents. We found F20 improved the growth and development of the plantlets better than G20 and S20. Sugar metabolism was a complex process, which depended on the balanced expression of key potential candidate genes related to hormones (TCP15, LOG3, IPT3, ETR1, HK2, HK3, CKX7, SPY, GH3s, MYBH, AGB1, MKK2, PP2C, PYL, ABF, SnRK, etc.), key metabolic enzymes (SUS, SPS, A/V-INV, and G6PDH), and sugar metabolism (BETAFRUCT4 and AMY). Moreover, sugar and starch metabolism controls the generation of plant hormone transduction pathway signaling molecules. Our dataset advances our

  4. Flower abscission in Vitis vinifera L. triggered by gibberellic acid and shade discloses differences in the underlying metabolic pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara eDomingos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding abscission is both a biological and an agronomic challenge. Flower abscission induced independently by shade and gibberellic acid (GAc sprays was monitored in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. growing under a soilless greenhouse system during two seasonal growing conditions, in an early and late production cycle. Physiological and metabolic changes triggered by each of the two distinct stimuli were determined. Environmental conditions exerted a significant effect on fruit set as showed by the higher natural drop rate recorded in the late production cycle with respect to the early cycle. Shade and GAc treatments increased the percentage of flower drop compared to the control, and at a similar degree, during the late production cycle. The reduction of leaf gas exchanges under shade conditions was not observed in GAc treated vines. The metabolic profile assessed in samples collected during the late cycle differently affected primary and secondary metabolisms and showed that most of the treatment-resulting variations occurred in opposite trends in inflorescences unbalanced in either hormonal or energy deficit abscission-inducing signals. Particularly concerning carbohydrates metabolism, sucrose, glucose, tricarboxylic acid (TCA metabolites and intermediates of the raffinose family oligosaccharides pathway were lower in shaded and higher in GAc samples. Altered oxidative stress remediation mechanisms and indolacetic acid (IAA concentration were identified as abscission signatures common to both stimuli. According to the global analysis performed, we report that grape flower abscission mechanisms triggered by GAc application and C-starvation are not based on the same metabolic pathways.

  5. Metabolic Side-Effects of the Novel Second-Generation Antipsychotic Drugs Asenapine and Iloperidone: A Comparison with Olanzapine

    OpenAIRE

    Boyda, Heidi N.; Procyshyn, Ric M.; Pang, Catherine C. Y.; Hawkes, Erin; Wong, Daniel; Jin, Chen Helen; Honer, William G.; Barr, Alasdair M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The second generation antipsychotic (SGA) drugs are widely used in psychiatry due to their clinical efficacy and low incidence of neurological side-effects. However, many drugs in this class cause deleterious metabolic side-effects. Animal models accurately predict metabolic side-effects for SGAs with known clinical metabolic liability. We therefore used preclinical models to evaluate the metabolic side-effects of glucose intolerance and insulin resistance with the novel SGAs asena...

  6. Metabolic Engineering of the Shikimate Pathway for Production of Aromatics and Derived Compounds—Present and Future Strain Construction Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils J. H. Averesch

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aromatic nature of shikimate pathway intermediates gives rise to a wealth of potential bio-replacements for commonly fossil fuel-derived aromatics, as well as naturally produced secondary metabolites. Through metabolic engineering, the abundance of certain intermediates may be increased, while draining flux from other branches off the pathway. Often targets for genetic engineering lie beyond the shikimate pathway, altering flux deep in central metabolism. This has been extensively used to develop microbial production systems for a variety of compounds valuable in chemical industry, including aromatic and non-aromatic acids like muconic acid, para-hydroxybenzoic acid, and para-coumaric acid, as well as aminobenzoic acids and aromatic α-amino acids. Further, many natural products and secondary metabolites that are valuable in food- and pharma-industry are formed outgoing from shikimate pathway intermediates. (Reconstruction of such routes has been shown by de novo production of resveratrol, reticuline, opioids, and vanillin. In this review, strain construction strategies are compared across organisms and put into perspective with requirements by industry for commercial viability. Focus is put on enhancing flux to and through shikimate pathway, and engineering strategies are assessed in order to provide a guideline for future optimizations.

  7. Thermodynamic analysis of computed pathways integrated into the metabolic networks of E. coli and Synechocystis reveals contrasting expansion potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asplund-Samuelsson, Johannes; Janasch, Markus; Hudson, Elton P

    2018-01-01

    Introducing biosynthetic pathways into an organism is both reliant on and challenged by endogenous biochemistry. Here we compared the expansion potential of the metabolic network in the photoautotroph Synechocystis with that of the heterotroph E. coli using the novel workflow POPPY (Prospecting Optimal Pathways with PYthon). First, E. coli and Synechocystis metabolomic and fluxomic data were combined with metabolic models to identify thermodynamic constraints on metabolite concentrations (NET analysis). Then, thousands of automatically constructed pathways were placed within each network and subjected to a network-embedded variant of the max-min driving force analysis (NEM). We found that the networks had different capabilities for imparting thermodynamic driving forces toward certain compounds. Key metabolites were constrained differently in Synechocystis due to opposing flux directions in glycolysis and carbon fixation, the forked tri-carboxylic acid cycle, and photorespiration. Furthermore, the lysine biosynthesis pathway in Synechocystis was identified as thermodynamically constrained, impacting both endogenous and heterologous reactions through low 2-oxoglutarate levels. Our study also identified important yet poorly covered areas in existing metabolomics data and provides a reference for future thermodynamics-based engineering in Synechocystis and beyond. The POPPY methodology represents a step in making optimal pathway-host matches, which is likely to become important as the practical range of host organisms is diversified. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Generation of an atlas for commodity chemical production in Escherichia coli and a novel pathway prediction algorithm, GEM-Path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campodonico, Miguel A; Andrews, Barbara A; Asenjo, Juan A; Palsson, Bernhard O; Feist, Adam M

    2014-09-01

    The production of 75% of the current drug molecules and 35% of all chemicals could be achieved through bioprocessing (Arundel and Sawaya, 2009). To accelerate the transition from a petroleum-based chemical industry to a sustainable bio-based industry, systems metabolic engineering has emerged to computationally design metabolic pathways for chemical production. Although algorithms able to provide specific metabolic interventions and heterologous production pathways are available, a systematic analysis for all possible production routes to commodity chemicals in Escherichia coli is lacking. Furthermore, a pathway prediction algorithm that combines direct integration of genome-scale models at each step of the search to reduce the search space does not exist. Previous work (Feist et al., 2010) performed a model-driven evaluation of the growth-coupled production potential for E. coli to produce multiple native compounds from different feedstocks. In this study, we extended this analysis for non-native compounds by using an integrated approach through heterologous pathway integration and growth-coupled metabolite production design. In addition to integration with genome-scale model integration, the GEM-Path algorithm developed in this work also contains a novel approach to address reaction promiscuity. In total, 245 unique synthetic pathways for 20 large volume compounds were predicted. Host metabolism with these synthetic pathways was then analyzed for feasible growth-coupled production and designs could be identified for 1271 of the 6615 conditions evaluated. This study characterizes the potential for E. coli to produce commodity chemicals, and outlines a generic strain design workflow to design production strains. Copyright © 2014 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Development and evaluation of a host-targeted antiviral that abrogates herpes simplex virus replication through modulation of arginine-associated metabolic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Maria Dulfary; Ochoa, Augusto C; Foster, Timothy P

    2016-08-01

    Since their inception five decades ago, most antivirals have been engineered to disrupt a single viral protein or process that is essential for viral replication. This approach has limited the overall therapeutic effectiveness and applicability of current antivirals due to restricted viral specificity, a propensity for development of drug resistance, and an inability to control deleterious host-mediated inflammation. As obligate intracellular parasites, viruses are reliant on host metabolism and macromolecular synthesis pathways. Of these biosynthetic processes, many viruses, including Herpes simplex viruses (HSV), are absolutely dependent on the bioavailability of arginine, a non-essential amino acid that is critical for many physiological and pathophysiological processes associated with either facilitating viral replication or progression of disease. To assess if targeting host arginine-associated metabolic pathways would inhibit HSV replication, a pegylated recombinant human Arginase I (peg-ArgI) was generated and its in vitro anti-herpetic activity was evaluated. Cells continuously treated with peg-ArgI for over 48 h exhibited no signs of cytotoxicity or loss of cell viability. The antiviral activity of peg-ArgI displayed a classical dose-response curve with IC50's in the sub-nanomolar range. peg-ArgI potently inhibited HSV-1 and HSV-2 viral replication, infectious virus production, cell-to-cell spread/transmission and virus-mediated cytopathic effects. Not unexpectedly given its host-targeted mechanism of action, peg-ArgI showed similar effectiveness at controlling replication of single and multidrug resistant HSV-1 mutants. These findings illustrate that targeting host arginine-associated metabolic pathways is an effective means of controlling viral replicative processes. Further exploration into the breadth of viruses inhibited by peg-ArgI, as well as the ability of peg-ArgI to suppress arginine-associated virus-mediated pathophysiological disease

  10. Manipulation of metabolic pathways controlled by signaling molecules, inducers of antibiotic production, for genome mining in Streptomyces spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Kenji

    2018-02-23

    Streptomyces is well characterized by an ability to produce a wide variety of secondary metabolites including antibiotics, whose expression is strictly controlled by small diffusible signaling molecules at nano-molar concentrations. The signaling molecules identified to date are classified into three skeletons; γ-butyrolactones, furans, and γ-butenolides. Accumulated data suggest the structural diversity of the signaling molecules in Streptomyces species and their potential in activating cryptic secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways. Several genome mining approaches to activate silent biosynthetic gene clusters have been reported for natural product discovery. This review updates recent examples on genetic manipulation including blockage of metabolic pathways together with inactivation of transcriptional repressor genes.

  11. A free radical-generating system regulates APP metabolism/processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recuero, María; Muñoz, Teresa; Aldudo, Jesús; Subías, Marta; Bullido, María J; Valdivieso, Fernando

    2010-11-19

    Oxidative stress, a risk factor in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease, is intimately associated with aging. We previously reported that the X-XOD free radical generating system acts as a modulator of lipid metabolism and a mild inducer of apoptotic death. Using the same cell model, the present study examines the metabolism/processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Prior to inducing cell death, X-XOD promoted the secretion of α-secretase-cleaved soluble APP (sAPPα) and increased the level of APP carboxy-terminal fragments produced by α and γ secretase (αCTF and γCTF/AICD). In contrast, it reduced the activity of β-secretase and the level of secreted Aβ. The present results indicate that mild oxidative stress maintained throughout culturing regulates APP metabolism/processing in SK-N-MC human neuroblastoma cells. Copyright © 2010 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Gene network and pathway analysis of bovine mammary tissue challenged with Streptococcus uberis reveals induction of cell profileration and inhibition of PPARγ signaling as potential mechanism for the negative relationships between immune response and lipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moyes, Kasey M; Drackley, James K; Morin, Dawn E

    2009-01-01

    with immune system function (e.g., CD14, IL8, IL1B, and TLR2) and negative relationships with genes involved with lipid metabolism (e.g., GPAM, SCD, FABP4, CD36, and LPL) and antioxidant activity (SOD1). Conclusion Results provided novel information into the early signaling and metabolic pathways in mammary......Background Information generated via microarrays might uncover interactions between the mammary gland and Streptococcus uberis (S. uberis) that could help identify control measures for the prevention and spread of S. uberis mastitis, as well as improve overall animal health and welfare....../or metabolic responses to mastitis challenge with S. uberis O140J. Results Streptococcus uberis IMI resulted in 2,102 (1,939 annotated) differentially expressed genes (DEG). Within this set of DEG, we uncovered 20 significantly enriched canonical pathways (with 20 to 61 genes each), the majority of which were...

  13. Associations between abnormal vitamin D metabolism pathway function and non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Nan; Chu, Xiu-Mei; Xuan, Yun-Peng; Ren, Dun-Qiang; Wang, Yongjie; Ma, Kai; Gao, Hui-Jiang; Jiao, Wen-Jie

    2017-12-01

    Lung cancer is a type of malignant tumor derived from the respiratory system, which is the leading cause of cancer-associated mortality worldwide, of which ~80% of cases are attributable to non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A previous study demonstrated that 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D 3 (1α,25(OH) 2 D 3 ), derived from the vitamin D metabolic pathway contributes an antitumor effect. Aberrant expression of the essential enzyme encoding genes, Cytochrome P450 Family 27 Subfamily A Member 1 ( CYP27A1 ), Cytochrome P450 Family 27 Subfamily B Member 1 ( CYP27B1 ), and Cytochrome P450 Family 24 Subfamily A Member 1 ( CYP24A1 ) may be associated with lung cancer. However, a lack of evidence exists concerning the association between CYP27A1 , CYP27B1 , CYP24A1 expression and NSCLC. The aim of the present study was to investigate the functions of CYP27A1, CYP27B1 and CYP24A1 expression in NSCLC. Lung cancer tissue and para-carcinoma control tissue were collected from patients with NSCLC. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was applied to analyze CYP27A1, CYP27B1 and CYP24A1 mRNA expression in lung cancer tissues. An association analysis was performed between the aforementioned metabolic enzymes and patients with NSCLC age, gender, tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage, pathological type, differentiation and prognosis. CYP27B1 and CYP24A1 mRNA were upregulated in NSCLC compared with controls (PCYP27A1 expression were observed between NSCLC and control. In addition, CYP24A1 expression was not associated with age, sex, smoking or TNM stage, but was associated with pathological type, differentiation and prognosis (P<0.05). CYP27B1 expression was significantly associated with TNM stage, differentiation, and prognosis, but not age, sex, smoking or pathological type. In conclusion, CYP27B1 and CYP24A1 may be considered as independent prognostic factors of NSCLC and may be novel therapeutic targets to assist clinical diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of the

  14. Metabolic engineering of riboflavin production in Ashbya gossypii through pathway optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma-Amaro, Rodrigo; Serrano-Amatriain, Cristina; Jiménez, Alberto; Revuelta, José Luis

    2015-10-14

    The industrial production of riboflavin mostly relies on the microbial fermentation of flavinogenic microorganisms and Ashbya gossypii is the main industrial producer of the vitamin. Accordingly, bioengineering strategies aimed at increasing riboflavin production in A. gossypii are highly valuable for industry. We analyze the contribution of all the RIB genes to the production of riboflavin in A. gossypii. Two important metabolic rate-limiting steps that limit the overproduction of riboflavin have been found: first, low mRNA levels of the RIB genes hindered the overproduction of riboflavin; second, the competition of the AMP branch for purinogenic precursors also represents a limitation for riboflavin overproduction. Thus, overexpression of the RIB genes resulted in a significant increase in riboflavin yield. Moreover, both the inactivation and the underexpression of the ADE12 gene, which controls the first step of the AMP branch, also proved to have a positive effect on riboflavin production. Accordingly, a strain that combines both the overexpression of the RIB genes and the underexpression of the ADE12 gene was engineered. This strain produced 523 mg/L of riboflavin (5.4-fold higher than the wild-type), which is the highest titer of riboflavin obtained by metabolic engineering in A. gossypii so far. Riboflavin production in A. gossypii is limited by a low transcription activity of the RIB genes. Flux limitation towards AMP provides committed substrate GTP for riboflavin overproduction without detrimental effects on biomass formation. A multiple-engineered Ashbya strain that produces up to 523 mg/L of riboflavin was generated.

  15. Current evidence for a role of the Kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Lovelace

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The kynurenine pathway (KP is the major metabolic pathway of the essential amino acid tryptophan (TRP. Stimulation by inflammatory molecules such as interferon-γ (IFN-γ is the trigger for induction of the KP, driving a complex cascade of production of both neuroprotective and neurotoxic metabolites and in turn, regulation of the immune response and responses of brain cells to the KP metabolites. Consequently, substantial evidence has accumulated over the past couple of decades that dysregulation of the KP and the production of neurotoxic metabolites are associated with many neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s disease, AIDS-related dementia, motor neurone disease (MND, schizophrenia, Huntington’s disease and brain cancers. In the past decade, evidence of the link between the KP and multiple sclerosis (MS has rapidly grown and has implicated the KP in MS pathogenesis. KP enzymes indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO-1 and tryptophan dioxygenase (TDO; highest expression in hepatic cells are the principal enzymes triggering activation of the KP to produce kynurenine from TRP. This is in preference to other routes such as serotonin and melatonin production. In neurological disease, degradation of the blood-brain-barrier (BBB, even if transient, allows the entry of blood monocytes into the brain parenchyma. Like microglia and macrophages, these cells are highly responsive to IFN-γ, which upregulates the expression of enzymes including IDO-1, producing neurotoxic KP metabolites such as quinolinic acid (QUIN. These metabolites circulate systemically or are released locally in the brain, and can contribute to the excitotoxic death of oligodendrocytes and neurons in neurological disease principally by virtue of their agonist activity at NMDA receptors. The latest evidence is presented and discussed. The enzymes that control the checkpoints in the KP represent an attractive therapeutic target, and consequently several

  16. [The role of Wnt/β-catenin pathway and LRP5 protein in metabolism of bone tissue and osteoporosis etiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolski, Hubert; Drwęska-Matelska, Natalia; Seremak-Mrozikiewicz, Agnieszka; Łowicki, Zdzisław; Czerny, Bogusław

    2015-04-01

    Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disease, manifested by decreased bone mineral density microarchitectural disturbances of bone tissue, and increased risk of bone fractures. Owing to large-scale morbidity particularly among postmenopausal women, nowadays osteoporosis constitutes a significant global health problem. In recent years, much attention has been paid to the role of signaling Wnt/β-catenin pathway and LRP protein in the pathomechanism of osteoporosis, indicating a possible contribution of polymorphic variants of the candidate LRP5 gene to disease development. The goal of our study is to present contemporary research on signaling Wnt/β-catenin pathway and mechanism of LRP protein action in the process of bone tissue metabolism and etiology of osteoporosis.

  17. Characterizing the roles of changing population size and selection on the evolution of flux control in metabolic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlenko, Alena; Chi, Peter B; Liberles, David A

    2017-05-25

    Understanding the genotype-phenotype map is fundamental to our understanding of genomes. Genes do not function independently, but rather as part of networks or pathways. In the case of metabolic pathways, flux through the pathway is an important next layer of biological organization up from the individual gene or protein. Flux control in metabolic pathways, reflecting the importance of mutation to individual enzyme genes, may be evolutionarily variable due to the role of mutation-selection-drift balance. The evolutionary stability of rate limiting steps and the patterns of inter-molecular co-evolution were evaluated in a simulated pathway with a system out of equilibrium due to fluctuating selection, population size, or positive directional selection, to contrast with those under stabilizing selection. Depending upon the underlying population genetic regime, fluctuating population size was found to increase the evolutionary stability of rate limiting steps in some scenarios. This result was linked to patterns of local adaptation of the population. Further, during positive directional selection, as with more complex mutational scenarios, an increase in the observation of inter-molecular co-evolution was observed. Differences in patterns of evolution when systems are in and out of equilibrium, including during positive directional selection may lead to predictable differences in observed patterns for divergent evolutionary scenarios. In particular, this result might be harnessed to detect differences between compensatory processes and directional processes at the pathway level based upon evolutionary observations in individual proteins. Detecting functional shifts in pathways reflects an important milestone in predicting when changes in genotypes result in changes in phenotypes.

  18. DMPD: Nuclear receptors in macrophages: a link between metabolism and inflammation. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18022390 Nuclear receptors in macrophages: a link between metabolism and inflammati... Show Nuclear receptors in macrophages: a link between metabolism and inflammation. PubmedID 18022390 Title ...Nuclear receptors in macrophages: a link between metabolism and inflammation. Aut

  19. High-fat simple carbohydrate (HFSC) diet impairs hypothalamic and corpus striatal serotonergic metabolic pathway in metabolic syndrome (MetS) induced C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, DSouza Serena; Abraham, Asha

    2017-07-26

    To study the effect of specially formulated high-fat simple carbohydrate diet (HFSC) on the serotonin metabolic pathway in male C57BL/6J mice. Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that specially formulated HFSC induces metabolic syndrome in C57BL/6J mice. In the present investigation, 5-hydroxytryptophan, serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid were analyzed in two brain regions (hypothalamus, corpus striatum), urine and plasma of HFSC-fed mice on a monthly basis up to 5 months using high-performance liquid chromatography fitted with electrochemical detector. The data were analyzed using Graph pad Prism v7.3 by two-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey's test (to assess the effect of time on the serotonergic metabolic pathway). HFSC feed was observed to lower the hypothalamic serotonergic tone as compared to the age-matched control-fed C57BL/6J mice. Although the hypothalamic serotonergic tone was unaltered over time due to consumption of diet per se, hypothalamic 5-HTP levels were observed to be lower on consumption of HFSC feed over duration of 5 months as compared to 1st month of consumption of HFSC feed. The striatal 5-HTP levels were lowered in the HFSC-fed mice after 4 months of feeding as compared to the age-matched control-fed mice. The striatal 5-HTP levels were also lower in both control and HFSC-fed mice due to consumption of the respective diet over a duration of 5 months. Increased plasma 5-HTP levels were observed due to consumption of HFSC feed over duration of 5 months in the HFSC-fed group. However, higher breakdown of serotonin was observed in both the plasma and urine of HFSC-fed C57BL/6J mice as per the turnover studies. The central and peripheral serotonergic pathway is affected differentially by both the type of diet consumed and the duration for which the diet is consumed. The hypothalamic, striatal and plasma serotonergic pathway were altered both by the type of feed consumed and the duration of feeding. The urine serotonergic pathway was

  20. Glucose Metabolism in Legionella pneumophila: Dependence on the Entner-Doudoroff Pathway and Connection with Intracellular Bacterial Growth† ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Eiji; Iida, Ken-Ichiro; Shiota, Susumu; Nakayama, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Shin-Ichi

    2010-01-01

    Glucose metabolism in Legionella pneumophila was studied by focusing on the Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway with a combined genetic and biochemical approach. The bacterium utilized exogenous glucose for synthesis of acid-insoluble cell components but manifested no discernible increase in the growth rate. Assays with permeabilized cell preparations revealed the activities of three enzymes involved in the pathway, i.e., glucokinase, phosphogluconate dehydratase, and 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-phosphogluconate aldolase, presumed to be encoded by the glk, edd, and eda genes, respectively. Gene-disrupted mutants for the three genes and the ywtG gene encoding a putative sugar transporter were devoid of the ability to metabolize exogenous glucose, indicating that the pathway is almost exclusively responsible for glucose metabolism and that the ywtG gene product is the glucose transporter. It was also established that these four genes formed part of an operon in which the gene order was edd-glk-eda-ywtG, as predicted by genomic information. Intriguingly, while the mutants exhibited no appreciable change in growth characteristics in vitro, they were defective in multiplication within eukaryotic cells, strongly indicating that the ED pathway must be functional for the intracellular growth of the bacterium to occur. Curiously, while the deficient glucose metabolism of the ywtG mutant was successfully complemented by the ywtG+ gene supplied in trans via plasmid, its defect in intracellular growth was not. However, the latter defect was also manifested in wild-type cells when a plasmid carrying the mutant ywtG gene was introduced. This phenomenon, resembling so-called dominant negativity, awaits further investigation. PMID:20363943

  1. Native fluorescence spectroscopy of blood plasma of rats with experimental diabetes: identifying fingerprints of glucose-related metabolic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirshin, Evgeny; Cherkasova, Olga; Tikhonova, Tatiana; Berlovskaya, Elena; Priezzhev, Alexander; Fadeev, Victor

    2015-05-01

    We present the results of a native fluorescence spectroscopy study of blood plasma of rats with experimental diabetes. It was shown that the fluorescence emission band shape at 320 nm excitation is the most indicative of hyperglycemia in the blood plasma samples. We provide the interpretation of this fact based on the changes in reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate concentration due to glucose-related metabolic pathways and protein fluorescent cross-linking formation following nonenzymatic glycation.

  2. Targeting ceramide metabolic pathway induces apoptosis in human breast cancer cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vethakanraj, Helen Shiphrah; Babu, Thabraz Ahmed; Sudarsanan, Ganesh Babu; Duraisamy, Prabhu Kumar; Ashok Kumar, Sekar, E-mail: sekarashok@gmail.com

    2015-08-28

    The sphingolipid ceramide is a pro apoptotic molecule of ceramide metabolic pathway and is hydrolyzed to proliferative metabolite, sphingosine 1 phosphate by the action of acid ceramidase. Being upregulated in the tumors of breast, acid ceramidase acts as a potential target for breast cancer therapy. We aimed at targeting this enzyme with a small molecule acid ceramidase inhibitor, Ceranib 2 in human breast cancer cell lines MCF 7 and MDA MB 231. Ceranib 2 effectively inhibited the growth of both the cell lines in dose and time dependant manner. Morphological apoptotic hallmarks such as chromatin condensation, fragmented chromatin were observed in AO/EtBr staining. Moreover, ladder pattern of fragmented DNA observed in DNA gel electrophoresis proved the apoptotic activity of Ceranib 2 in breast cancer cell lines. The apoptotic events were associated with significant increase in the expression of pro-apoptotic genes (Bad, Bax and Bid) and down regulation of anti-apoptotic gene (Bcl 2). Interestingly, increase in sub G1 population of cell cycle phase analysis and elevated Annexin V positive cells after Ceranib 2 treatment substantiated its apoptotic activity in MCF 7 and MDA MB 231 cell lines. Thus, we report Ceranib 2 as a potent therapeutic agent against both ER{sup +} and ER{sup −} breast cancer cell lines. - Highlights: • Acid Ceramidase inhibitor, Ceranib 2 induced apoptosis in Breast cancer cell lines (MCF 7 and MDA MB 231 cell lines). • Apoptosis is mediated by DNA fragmentation and cell cycle arrest. • Ceranib 2 upregulated the expression of pro-apoptotic genes and down regulated anti-apoptotic gene expression. • More potent compared to the standard drug Tamoxifen.

  3. De Novo transcriptome sequencing reveals important molecular networks and metabolic pathways of the plant, Chlorophytum borivilianum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Kalra

    Full Text Available Chlorophytum borivilianum, an endangered medicinal plant species is highly recognized for its aphrodisiac properties provided by saponins present in the plant. The transcriptome information of this species is limited and only few hundred expressed sequence tags (ESTs are available in the public databases. To gain molecular insight of this plant, high throughput transcriptome sequencing of leaf RNA was carried out using Illumina's HiSeq 2000 sequencing platform. A total of 22,161,444 single end reads were retrieved after quality filtering. Available (e.g., De-Bruijn/Eulerian graph and in-house developed bioinformatics tools were used for assembly and annotation of transcriptome. A total of 101,141 assembled transcripts were obtained, with coverage size of 22.42 Mb and average length of 221 bp. Guanine-cytosine (GC content was found to be 44%. Bioinformatics analysis, using non-redundant proteins, gene ontology (GO, enzyme commission (EC and kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG databases, extracted all the known enzymes involved in saponin and flavonoid biosynthesis. Few genes of the alkaloid biosynthesis, along with anticancer and plant defense genes, were also discovered. Additionally, several cytochrome P450 (CYP450 and glycosyltransferase unique sequences were also found. We identified simple sequence repeat motifs in transcripts with an abundance of di-nucleotide simple sequence repeat (SSR; 43.1% markers. Large scale expression profiling through Reads per Kilobase per Million mapped reads (RPKM showed major genes involved in different metabolic pathways of the plant. Genes, expressed sequence tags (ESTs and unique sequences from this study provide an important resource for the scientific community, interested in the molecular genetics and functional genomics of C. borivilianum.

  4. De Novo transcriptome sequencing reveals important molecular networks and metabolic pathways of the plant, Chlorophytum borivilianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Shikha; Puniya, Bhanwar Lal; Kulshreshtha, Deepika; Kumar, Sunil; Kaur, Jagdeep; Ramachandran, Srinivasan; Singh, Kashmir

    2013-01-01

    Chlorophytum borivilianum, an endangered medicinal plant species is highly recognized for its aphrodisiac properties provided by saponins present in the plant. The transcriptome information of this species is limited and only few hundred expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are available in the public databases. To gain molecular insight of this plant, high throughput transcriptome sequencing of leaf RNA was carried out using Illumina's HiSeq 2000 sequencing platform. A total of 22,161,444 single end reads were retrieved after quality filtering. Available (e.g., De-Bruijn/Eulerian graph) and in-house developed bioinformatics tools were used for assembly and annotation of transcriptome. A total of 101,141 assembled transcripts were obtained, with coverage size of 22.42 Mb and average length of 221 bp. Guanine-cytosine (GC) content was found to be 44%. Bioinformatics analysis, using non-redundant proteins, gene ontology (GO), enzyme commission (EC) and kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) databases, extracted all the known enzymes involved in saponin and flavonoid biosynthesis. Few genes of the alkaloid biosynthesis, along with anticancer and plant defense genes, were also discovered. Additionally, several cytochrome P450 (CYP450) and glycosyltransferase unique sequences were also found. We identified simple sequence repeat motifs in transcripts with an abundance of di-nucleotide simple sequence repeat (SSR; 43.1%) markers. Large scale expression profiling through Reads per Kilobase per Million mapped reads (RPKM) showed major genes involved in different metabolic pathways of the plant. Genes, expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and unique sequences from this study provide an important resource for the scientific community, interested in the molecular genetics and functional genomics of C. borivilianum.

  5. The metabolic pathway of metamifop degradation by consortium ME-1 and its bacterial community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Weiliang; Liu, Kuan; Wang, Fei; Xin, Fengxue; Zhang, Wenming; Zhang, Min; Wu, Hao; Ma, Jiangfeng; Jiang, Min

    2017-06-01

    Metamifop is universally used in agriculture as a post-emergence aryloxyphenoxy propionate herbicide (AOPP), however its microbial degradation mechanism remains unclear. Consortium ME-1 isolated from AOPP-contaminated soil can degrade metamifop completely after 6 days and utilize it as the carbon source for bacterial growth. Meanwhile, consortium ME-1 possessed the ability to degrade metamifop stably under a wide range of pH (6.0-10.0) or temperature (20-42 °C). HPLC-MS analysis shows that N-(2-fluorophenyl)-2-(4-hydroxyphenoxy)-N-methyl propionamide, 2-(4-hydroxyphenoxy)-propionic acid, 6-chloro-2-benzoxazolinone and N-methyl-2-fluoroaniline, were detected and identified as four intermediate metabolites. Based on the metabolites identified, a putative metabolic pathway of metamifop was proposed for the first time. In addition, the consortium ME-1 was also able to transform or degrade other AOPP such as fenoxaprop-p-ethyl, clodinafop-propargyl, quizalofop-p-ethyl and cyhalofop-butyl. Moreover, the community structure of ME-1 with lower microbial diversity compared with the initial soil sample was investigated by high throughput sequencing. β-Proteobacteria and Sphingobacteria were the largest class with sequence percentages of 46.6% and 27.55% at the class level. In addition, 50 genera were classified in consortium ME-1, of which Methylobacillus, Sphingobacterium, Bordetella and Flavobacterium were the dominant genera with sequence percentages of 25.79, 25.61, 14.68 and 9.55%, respectively.

  6. Changes in kynurenine pathway metabolism in Parkinson patients with L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelund, Jesper F; Andersen, Andreas D; Binzer, Michael; Blaabjerg, Morten; Heegaard, Niels H H; Stenager, Egon; Faergeman, Nils J; Gramsbergen, Jan Bert

    2017-09-01

    L-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) is the most effective drug in the symptomatic treatment of Parkinson's disease, but chronic use is associated with L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in more than half the patients after 10 years of treatment. L-DOPA treatment may affect tryptophan metabolism via the kynurenine pathway. Altered levels of kynurenine metabolites can affect glutamatergic transmission and may play a role in the development of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia. In this study, we assessed kynurenine metabolites in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of Parkinson's disease patients and controls. Parkinson patients (n = 26) were clinically assessed for severity of motor symptoms (UPDRS) and L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (UDysRS). Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid samples were collected after overnight fasting and 1-2 h after intake of L-DOPA or other anti-Parkinson medication. Metabolites were analyzed in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of controls (n = 14), Parkinson patients receiving no L-DOPA (n = 8), patients treated with L-DOPA without dyskinesia (n = 8), and patients with L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (n = 10) using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. We observed approximately fourfold increase in the 3-hydroxykynurenine/kynurenic acid ratio in plasma of Parkinson's patients with L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia. Anthranilic acid levels were decreased in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of this patient group. 5-Hydroxytryptophan levels were twofold increased in all L-DOPA-treated Parkinson's patients. We conclude that a higher 3-hydroxykynurenine/kynurenic acid ratio in plasma may serve as a biomarker for L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia. Longitudinal studies including larger patients cohorts are needed to verify whether the changes observed here may serve as a prognostic marker for L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  7. Identification of metabolic pathways essential for fitness of Salmonella Typhimurium in vivo.

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    Lotte Jelsbak

    Full Text Available Bacterial infections remain a threat to human and animal health worldwide, and there is an urgent need to find novel targets for intervention. In the current study we used a computer model of the metabolic network of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and identified pairs of reactions (cut sets predicted to be required for growth in vivo. We termed such cut sets synthetic auxotrophic pairs. We tested whether these would reveal possible combined targets for new antibiotics by analyzing the performance of selected single and double mutants in systemic mouse infections. One hundred and two cut sets were identified. Sixty-three of these included only pathways encoded by fully annotated genes, and from this sub-set we selected five cut sets involved in amino acid or polyamine biosynthesis. One cut set (asnA/asnB demonstrated redundancy in vitro and in vivo and showed that asparagine is essential for S. Typhimurium during infection. trpB/trpA as well as single mutants were attenuated for growth in vitro, while only the double mutant was a cut set in vivo, underlining previous observations that tryptophan is essential for successful outcome of infection. speB/speF,speC was not affected in vitro but was attenuated during infection showing that polyamines are essential for virulence apparently in a growth independent manner. The serA/glyA cut-set was found to be growth attenuated as predicted by the model. However, not only the double mutant, but also the glyA mutant, were found to be attenuated for virulence. This adds glycine production or conversion of glycine to THF to the list of essential reactions during infection. One pair (thrC/kbl showed true redundancy in vitro but not in vivo demonstrating that threonine is available to the bacterium during infection. These data add to the existing knowledge of available nutrients in the intra-host environment, and have identified possible new targets for antibiotics.

  8. Pathway confirmation and flux analysis of central metabolic pathways in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Fourier Transform-Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Yinjie; Pingitore, Francesco; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Phan, Richard; Hazen, Terry C.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2007-01-01

    Flux distribution in central metabolic pathways of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough was examined using 13C tracer experiments. Consistent with the current genome annotation and independent evidence from enzyme activity assays, the isotopomer results from both GC-MS and Fourier Transform-Ion Cyclotron Resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) indicate the lack of oxidatively functional TCA cycle and an incomplete pentose phosphate pathway. Results from this study suggest that fluxes through both pathways are limited to biosynthesis. The data also indicate that >80 percent of the lactate was converted to acetate and the reactions involved are the primary route of energy production (NAD(P)H and ATP production). Independent of the TCA cycle, direct cleavage of acetyl-CoA to CO and 5,10-methyl-THF also leads to production of NADH and ATP. Although the genome annotation implicates a ferredoxin-dependent oxoglutarate synthase, isotopic evidence does not support flux through this reaction in either the oxidative or reductive mode; therefore, the TCA cycle is incomplete. FT-ICR MS was used to locate the labeled carbon distribution in aspartate and glutamate and confirmed the presence of an atypical enzyme for citrate formation suggested in previous reports (the citrate synthesized by this enzyme is the isotopic antipode of the citrate synthesized by the (S)-citrate synthase). These findings enable a better understanding of the relation between genome annotation and actual metabolic pathways in D. vulgaris, and also demonstrate FT-ICR MS as a powerful tool for isotopomer analysis, overcoming problems in both GC-MS and NMR spectroscopy

  9. Pathway confirmation and flu