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Sample records for metabolic disorders electronic

  1. Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorders

    ... metabolic disorder, something goes wrong with this process. Carbohydrate metabolism disorders are a group of metabolic disorders. Normally your enzymes break carbohydrates down into glucose (a type of sugar). If ...

  2. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    ... this process. One group of these disorders is amino acid metabolism disorders. They include phenylketonuria (PKU) and maple syrup urine disease. Amino acids are "building blocks" that join together to form ...

  3. Metabolic disorders in menopause

    Grzegorz Stachowiak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic disorders occurring in menopause, including dyslipidemia, disorders of carbohydrate metabolism (impaired glucose tolerance – IGT, type 2 diabetes mellitus – T2DM or components of metabolic syndrome, constitute risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women. A key role could be played here by hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and visceral obesity, all contributing to dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, inflammation, alter coagulation and atherosclerosis observed during the menopausal period. Undiagnosed and untreated, metabolic disorders may adversely affect the length and quality of women’s life. Prevention and treatment preceded by early diagnosis should be the main goal for the physicians involved in menopausal care. This article represents a short review of the current knowledge concerning metabolic disorders (e.g. obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome or thyroid diseases in menopause, including the role of a tailored menopausal hormone therapy (HT. According to current data, HT is not recommend as a preventive strategy for metabolic disorders in menopause. Nevertheless, as part of a comprehensive strategy to prevent chronic diseases after menopause, menopausal hormone therapy, particularly estrogen therapy may be considered (after balancing benefits/risks and excluding women with absolute contraindications to this therapy. Life-style modifications, with moderate physical activity and healthy diet at the forefront, should be still the first choice recommendation for all patients with menopausal metabolic abnormalities.

  4. Vertigo and metabolic disorders.

    Santos, Maruska D' Aparecida; Bittar, Roseli Saraiva Moreira

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic disorders are accepted by many authors as being responsible for balance disorders. Because of the importance of metabolic disorders in the field of labyrinthine dysfunction, we decided to assess the prevalence of carbohydrates, lipids and thyroid hormones disorders in our patients with vestibular diseases. The study evaluates the metabolic profile of 325 patients with vertigo who sought the Otolaryngology Department of the University of São Paulo in the Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade de São Paulo. The laboratory tests ordered according to the classical research protocol were: low-density lipoprotein cholesterol fraction, TSH, T3, T4 and fasting blood sugar level. The metabolic disorders found and the ones that were observed in the general population were compared. The high level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, the altered levels of thyroid hormones, the higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus were the most significant changes found in the group of study. The higher amount of metabolic disorders in patients with vertigo disease reinforces the hypothesis of its influence on the etiopathogenesis of cochleovestibular symptoms.

  5. Inflammation and metabolic disorders.

    Navab, Mohamad; Gharavi, Nima; Watson, Andrew D

    2008-07-01

    Poor nutrition, overweight and obesity have increasingly become a public health concern as they affect many metabolic disorders, including heart disease, diabetes, digestive system disorders, and renal failure. Study of the effects of life style including healthy nutrition will help further elucidate the mechanisms involved in the adverse effects of poor nutrition. Unhealthy life style including poor nutrition can result in imbalance in our oxidation/redox systems. Lipids can undergo oxidative modification by lipoxygenases, cyclooxygenases, myeloperoxidase, and other enzymes. Oxidized phospholipids can induce inflammatory molecules in the liver and other organs. This can contribute to inflammation, leading to coronary heart disease, stroke, renal failure, inflammatory bowl disease, metabolic syndrome, bone and joint disorders, and even certain types of cancer. Our antioxidant and antiinflammatory defense mechanisms contribute to a balance between the stimulators and the inhibitors of inflammation. Beyond a point, however, these systems might be overwhelmed and eventually fail. High-density lipoprotein is a potent inhibitor of the formation of toxic oxidized lipids. High-density lipoprotein is also an effective system for stimulating the genes whose products are active in the removal, inactivation, and elimination of toxic lipids. Supporting the high-density lipoprotein function should help maintain the balance in these systems. It is hoped that the present report would elucidate some of the ongoing work toward this goal.

  6. Gut Microbiota and Metabolic Disorders

    Kyu Yeon Hur

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota plays critical physiological roles in the energy extraction and in the control of local or systemic immunity. Gut microbiota and its disturbance also appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of diverse diseases including metabolic disorders, gastrointestinal diseases, cancer, etc. In the metabolic point of view, gut microbiota can modulate lipid accumulation, lipopolysaccharide content and the production of short-chain fatty acids that affect food intake, inflammatory tone, or insulin signaling. Several strategies have been developed to change gut microbiota such as prebiotics, probiotics, certain antidiabetic drugs or fecal microbiota transplantation, which have diverse effects on body metabolism and on the development of metabolic disorders.

  7. B-12 vitamin metabolism disorders

    Fabriciova, K.; Bzduch, V.; Behulova, D.; Skodova, J.; Holesova, D.; Ostrozlikova, M.; Schmidtova, K.; Kozich, V.

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin B-12 – cobalamin (Cbl) is a water soluble vitamin, which is synthesized by lower organisms. It cannot be synthesized by plants and higher organisms. Problem in the metabolic pathway of Cbl can be caused by its deficiency or by the deficiency of its last metabolites – adenosylcobalamin and methylcobalamin. Both reasons are presented by errors in the homocysteine and methylmalonyl-coenzyme A metabolism. Clinical symptoms of the Cbl metabolism disorders are: different neurological disorders, changes in haematological status (megaloblastic anemia, pancytopenia), symptoms of gastrointestinal tract (glossitis, loss of appetite, diarrhea) and changes in the immune system. In the article the authors describe the causes of Cbl metabolism disorders, its different diagnosis and treatment. They introduce the group of patients with these disorders, who were taken care of in the I st Paediatric Department of University Children Hospital for the last 5 years. (author)

  8. Lipid Metabolism Disorders

    ... using blood tests. If there is a family history of one of these disorders, parents can get genetic testing to see whether they carry the gene. Other genetic tests can tell whether the fetus has the disorder or carries the gene for the disorder. Enzyme replacement therapies can help with a few of ...

  9. Inherited metabolic disorders in Thailand.

    Wasant, Pornswan; Svasti, Jisnuson; Srisomsap, Chantragan; Liammongkolkul, Somporn

    2002-08-01

    The study of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) in Thailand is in its infancy. The majority are clinically diagnosed since there are only a handful of clinicians and scientists with expertise in inherited metabolic disorders, shortage of well-equipped laboratory facilities and lack of governmental financial support. Genetic metabolic disorders are usually not considered a priority due to prevalence of infectious diseases and congenital infections. From a retrospective study at the Medical Genetics Unit, Department of Pediatrics, Siriraj Hospital; estimated pediatrics patients with suspected IEM were approximately 2-3 per cent of the total pediatric admissions of over 5,000 annually. After more than 10 years of research and accumulated clinical experiences, a genetic metabolic center is being established in collaboration with expert laboratories both in Bangkok (Chulabhorn Research Institute) and abroad (Japan and the United States). Numerous inherited metabolic disorders were identified--carbohydrate, amino acids, organic acids, mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, peroxisomal, mucopolysaccharidoses etc. This report includes the establishment of genetic metabolic center in Thailand, research and pilot studies in newborn screening in Thailand and a multicenter study from 5 institutions (Children's National Center, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Pramongkutklao Hospital, Ramathibodi and Siriraj Hospitals). Inherited metabolic disorders reported are fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase deficiency, phenylketonuria, homocystinuria, nonketotic hyperglycinemia, urea cycle defect (arginino succinate lyase deficiency, argininosuccinate synthetase deficiency), Menkes disease, propionic acidemia and mucopolysaccharidoses (Hurler, Hurler-Scheie).

  10. DNA methylation in metabolic disorders

    Barres, Romain; Zierath, Juleen R

    2011-01-01

    DNA methylation is a major epigenetic modification that controls gene expression in physiologic and pathologic states. Metabolic diseases such as diabetes and obesity are associated with profound alterations in gene expression that are caused by genetic and environmental factors. Recent reports...... have provided evidence that environmental factors at all ages could modify DNA methylation in somatic tissues, which suggests that DNA methylation is a more dynamic process than previously appreciated. Because of the importance of lifestyle factors in metabolic disorders, DNA methylation provides...... a mechanism by which environmental factors, including diet and exercise, can modify genetic predisposition to disease. This article considers the current evidence that defines a role for DNA methylation in metabolic disorders....

  11. Electron-electron interactions in disordered systems

    Efros, AL

    1985-01-01

    ``Electron-Electron Interactions in Disordered Systems'' deals with the interplay of disorder and the Coulomb interaction. Prominent experts give state-of-the-art reviews of the theoretical and experimental work in this field and make it clear that the interplay of the two effects is essential, especially in low-dimensional systems.

  12. [FETAL PROGRAMMING OF METABOLIC DISORDERS].

    Varadinova, M R; Metodieva, R; Boyadzhieva, N

    2015-01-01

    Our knowledge of fetal programming has developed notably over the years and recent data suggest that an unbalanced diet prior and during pregnancy can have early-onset and long-lasting consequences on the health of the offspring. Specific negative influences of high dietary glucose and lipid consumption, as well as undernutrition, are associated with development of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and diabetes in the offspring. The mechanisms underlying the effects of maternal hyperglycemia on the fetus may involve structural, metabolic and epigenetic changes. The aim of this review is to illustrate how adverse intrauterine environment may influence molecular modifications in the fetus and cause epigenetic alterations in particular. It has been demonstrated that prenatal epigenetic modifications may be linked to the pathogenesis and progression of the adult chronic disorders. Studies on epigenetic alterations will contribute to a better understanding of the long-term effects of in utero exposure and may open new perspectives for disease prevention and treatment.

  13. Clinical neurogenetics: neurologic presentations of metabolic disorders.

    Kwon, Jennifer M; D'Aco, Kristin E

    2013-11-01

    This article reviews aspects of the neurologic presentations of selected treatable inborn errors of metabolism within the category of small molecule disorders caused by defects in pathways of intermediary metabolism. Disorders that are particularly likely to be seen by neurologists include those associated with defects in amino acid metabolism (organic acidemias, aminoacidopathies, urea cycle defects). Other disorders of small molecule metabolism are discussed as additional examples in which early treatments have the potential for better outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Metabolic disorders with typical alterations in MRI

    Warmuth-Metz, M.

    2010-01-01

    The classification of metabolic disorders according to the etiology is not practical for neuroradiological purposes because the underlying defect does not uniformly transform into morphological characteristics. Therefore typical MR and clinical features of some easily identifiable metabolic disorders are presented. Canavan disease, Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease, Alexander disease, X-chromosomal adrenoleukodystrophy and adrenomyeloneuropathy, mitochondrial disorders, such as MELAS (mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes) and Leigh syndrome as well as L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria are presented. (orig.) [de

  15. Genetics of homocysteine metabolism and associated disorders

    S. Brustolin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Homocysteine is a sulfur-containing amino acid derived from the metabolism of methionine, an essential amino acid, and is metabolized by one of two pathways: remethylation or transsulfuration. Abnormalities of these pathways lead to hyperhomocysteinemia. Hyperhomocysteinemia is observed in approximately 5% of the general population and is associated with an increased risk for many disorders, including vascular and neurodegenerative diseases, autoimmune disorders, birth defects, diabetes, renal disease, osteoporosis, neuropsychiatric disorders, and cancer. We review here the correlation between homocysteine metabolism and the disorders described above with genetic variants on genes coding for enzymes of homocysteine metabolism relevant to clinical practice, especially common variants of the MTHFR gene, 677C>T and 1298A>C. We also discuss the management of hyperhomocysteinemia with folic acid supplementation and fortification of folic acid and the impact of a decrease in the prevalence of congenital anomalies and a decline in the incidence of stroke mortality.

  16. Microglia energy metabolism in metabolic disorder.

    Kalsbeek, Martin J T; Mulder, Laurie; Yi, Chun-Xia

    2016-12-15

    Microglia are the resident macrophages of the CNS, and are in charge of maintaining a healthy microenvironment to ensure neuronal survival. Microglia carry out a non-stop patrol of the CNS, make contact with neurons and look for abnormalities, all of which requires a vast amount of energy. This non-signaling energy demand increases after activation by pathogens, neuronal damage or other kinds of stimulation. Of the three major energy substrates - glucose, fatty acids and glutamine - glucose is crucial for microglia survival and several glucose transporters are expressed to supply sufficient glucose influx. Fatty acids are another source of energy for microglia and have also been shown to strongly influence microglial immune activity. Glutamine, although possibly suitable for use as an energy substrate by microglia, has been shown to have neurotoxic effects when overloaded. Microglial fuel metabolism might be associated with microglial reactivity under different pathophysiological conditions and a microglial fuel switch may thus be the underlying cause of hypothalamic dysregulation, which is associated with obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Inherited disorders of HDL metabolism and atherosclerosis

    Hovingh, G Kees; de Groot, E.P.; van der Steeg, Wim; Boekholdt, S Matthijs; Hutten, Barbara A; Kuivenhoven, J.A.; Kastelein, John J P

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Genetic disorders of HDL metabolism are rare and, as a result, the assessment of atherosclerosis risk in individuals suffering from these disorders has been difficult. Ultrasound imaging of carotid arteries has provided a tool to assess the risk in hereditary hypo and

  18. Inherited disorders of HDL metabolism and atherosclerosis

    Hovingh, G. Kees; de Groot, Eric; van der Steeg, Wim; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Hutten, Barbara A.; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Kastelein, John J. P.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose of review Genetic disorders of HDL metabolism are rare and, as a result, the assessment of atherosclerosis risk in individuals suffering from these disorders has been difficult. Ultrasound imaging of carotid arteries has provided a tool to assess the risk in hereditary hypo and

  19. Electronic monitoring in bipolar disorder.

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria

    2018-03-01

    Major reasons for the insufficient effects of current treatment options in bipolar disorder include delayed intervention for prodromal depressive and manic symptoms and decreased adherence to psychopharmacological treatment. The reliance on subjective information and clinical evaluations when diagnosing and assessing the severity of depressive and manic symptoms calls for less biased and more objective markers. By using electronic devices, fine-grained data on complex psychopathological aspects of bipolar disorder can be evaluated unobtrusively over the long term. Moreover, electronic data could possibly represent candidate markers of diagnosis and illness activity in bipolar disorder and allow for early and individualized intervention for prodromal symptoms outside clinical settings. 
The present dissertation concerns the use of electronic monitoring as a marker and treatment intervention in bipolar disorder and investigated the scientific literature and body of evidence within the area, which includes ten original study reports and two systematic reviews, one of which included a meta-analysis, conducted by the author of the dissertation. 
Taken together, the literature presented in this dissertation illustrates that 1) smartphone-based electronic self-monitoring of mood seems to reflect clinically assessed depressive and manic symptoms and enables the long-term characterization of mood

instability in bipolar disorder; 2) preliminary results suggest that smartphone-based automatically generated data (e.g. the number of text messages sent/day; the number of incoming and outgoing calls/day; the number of changes in cell tower IDs/day; and voice features) seem to reflect clinically assessed depressive and manic symptoms in bipolar disorder; 3) smartphone-based electronic self-monitoring had no effects on the severity of depressive and manic symptoms in bipolar disorder, according to a randomized controlled trial; and 4) electronic monitoring of psychomotor

  20. Neuroendocrine and Metabolic Disorders in Bulimia Nervosa.

    Milano, Walter; Capasso, Anna

    2017-12-11

    Bulimia nervosa, is an eating disorder characterized by excessive influence of weight and body shape on the levels of self-esteem, with pervasive feelings of failure and inadequacy. The eating is characterized by the presence of episodes of uncontrolled eating (Binge), during which the person ingests mass wide variety of foods and the feeling of not being able to stop eating. This review focuses on the metabolic and hormonal alterations in the in bulimia nervosa. A literature search was conducted using the electronic database Medline and PubMed and with additional hand searches through the reference list obtained from the articles found. Journal were searched up to 2015. Inclusion criteria were: 1) full text available in English; 2) published in a peer-reviewed journal and using the following keywords: neurotrasmitters (AgRP, BDNF, αMSH, NP Y, endocannabinoids, adiponectin, CCK, ghrelin, GLP-1, insulin, leptin, PP, PYY), hormones (FSH, LH, estrogen, progesterone, testosterone) and bulimia nervosa, eating disorders. All data reported in the present review indicated that changes in the central and peripheral neuroendocrine equilibria may favor the onset and influence the course and prognosis of an DA. However, it is still questionable whether the alterations of the peptides and hormones regulating the mechanisms of eating behavior are the cause or consequence of a compromised diet. The results of the present review indicate that the altered balance of the various peptides or hormones can be relevant not only for the genesis and / or maintenance of altered dietary behaviors, but also for the development of specific psychopathological aspects in eating disorders. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Electronic monitoring in bipolar disorder

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria

    2018-01-01

    generated data (e.g. the number of text messages sent/day; the number of incoming and outgoing calls/day; the number of changes in cell tower IDs/day; and voice features) seem to reflect clinically assessed depressive and manic symptoms in bipolar disorder; 3) smartphone-based electronic self-monitoring had...

  2. Bone scintigraphy and metabolic disorders

    Mari', C.; Catafau, A.; Carrio', I.

    1999-01-01

    The paper discusses the main clinical value of bone scan in metabolic bone disease: its detection of focal conditions or focal complications of such generalized disease, its most common use of being the detection of fractures in osteoporosis, pseudofractures in osteomalacia and the evaluation of Paget's disease

  3. Bone scintigraphy and metabolic disorders

    Mari' , C.; Catafau, A.; Carrio' , I. [Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelone (Spain). Serv. of Nuclear Medicine

    1999-09-01

    The paper discusses the main clinical value of bone scan in metabolic bone disease: its detection of focal conditions or focal complications of such generalized disease, its most common use of being the detection of fractures in osteoporosis, pseudo fractures in osteomalacia and the evaluation of Paget's disease.

  4. Endothelial dysfunction in metabolic and vascular disorders.

    Polovina, Marija M; Potpara, Tatjana S

    2014-03-01

    Vascular endothelium has important regulatory functions in the cardiovascular system and a pivotal role in the maintenance of vascular health and metabolic homeostasis. It has long been recognized that endothelial dysfunction participates in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis from early, preclinical lesions to advanced, thrombotic complications. In addition, endothelial dysfunction has been recently implicated in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Considering that states of insulin resistance (eg, metabolic syndrome, impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, and T2DM) represent the most prevalent metabolic disorders and risk factors for atherosclerosis, it is of considerable scientific and clinical interest that both metabolic and vascular disorders have endothelial dysfunction as a common background. Importantly, endothelial dysfunction has been associated with adverse outcomes in patients with established cardiovascular disease, and a growing body of evidence indicates that endothelial dysfunction also imparts adverse prognosis in states of insulin resistance. In this review, we discuss the association of insulin resistance and T2DM with endothelial dysfunction and vascular disease, with a focus on the underlying mechanisms and prognostic implications of the endothelial dysfunction in metabolic and vascular disorders. We also address current therapeutic strategies for the improvement of endothelial dysfunction.

  5. Metabolic disorders of the vestibular system.

    Rybak, L P

    1995-01-01

    This article reviews the impact of metabolic disorders on vestibular function. Diabetes mellitus is a disorder of glucose metabolism that can be associated with vestibular dysfunction. Vertigo can be alleviated by diet management in many cases. Elevated levels of blood lipids have been implicated in cochleovestibular disorders. Treatment with a lipid-lowering drug has resulted in improved auditory and vestibular function in a placebo-controlled trial. Hypothyroidism may affect different parts of the vestibular system depending on the severity and duration of thyroid deficiency. Severe congenital hypothyroidism can cause central vestibular disorders affecting the cerebellum, whereas mild hypothyroidism may result in peripheral vestibulopathy. Endogenous alterations in concentrations of estrogen and progesterone in the premenstrual syndrome or with the use of exogenous hormones such as oral contraceptives may trigger vertigo. Metabolic evaluations for unexplained vertigo should include a lipoprotein profile, with cholesterol and triglyceride levels, glucose tolerance test, and thyroid hormone measurements. Nutritional and drug therapy may be useful to reverse the vestibular dysfunction.

  6. New peptides players in metabolic disorders

    Agata Mierzwicka

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Among new peptides responsible for the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders and carbohydrate metabolism, adipokines are of great importance. Adipokines are substances of hormonal character, secreted by adipose tissue. Apart from the well-known adipokines, adropin and preptin are relatively newly discovered, hence their function is not fully understood. They are peptides not secreted by adipose tissue but their role in the metabolic regulations seems to be significant. Preptin is a 34-amino acid peptide, a derivative of proinsulin growth factor II (pro-IGF-II, secreted by pancreatic β cells, considered to be a physiological enhancer of insulin secretion. Additionally, preptin has a stimulating effect on osteoblasts, inducing their proliferation, differentiation and survival. Adropin is a 76-amino acid peptide, encoded by the energy homeostasis associated gene (Enho, mainly in liver and brain, and its expression is dependent on a diet. Adropin is believed to play an important role in metabolic homeostasis, fatty acids metabolism control, insulin resistance prevention, dyslipidemia, and impaired glucose tolerance. The results of studies conducted so far show that the diseases resulting from metabolic syndrome, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, polycystic ovary syndrome, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, or cardiovascular disease are accompanied by significant changes in the concentration of these peptides. It is also important to note that preptin has an anabolic effect on bone tissue, which might be preventive in osteoporosis.

  7. Probiotics as Complementary Treatment for Metabolic Disorders

    Mélanie Le Barz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, growing evidence has established the gut microbiota as one of the most important determinants of metabolic disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Indeed, obesogenic diet can drastically alter bacterial populations (i.e., dysbiosis leading to activation of pro-inflammatory mechanisms and metabolic endotoxemia, therefore promoting insulin resistance and cardiometabolic disorders. To counteract these deleterious effects, probiotic strains have been developed with the aim of reshaping the microbiome to improve gut health. In this review, we focus on benefits of widely used probiotics describing their potential mechanisms of action, especially their ability to decrease metabolic endotoxemia by restoring the disrupted intestinal mucosal barrier. We also discuss the perspective of using new bacterial strains such as butyrate-producing bacteria and the mucolytic Akkermansia muciniphila, as well as the use of prebiotics to enhance the functionality of probiotics. Finally, this review introduces the notion of genetically engineered bacterial strains specifically developed to deliver anti-inflammatory molecules to the gut.

  8. Disorders of carbohydrate metabolism in clinical practice

    V.I. Pankiv

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM, the possibility of early and rapid progress of complications, a large number of undiagnosed cases and disappointing forecasts of the World Health Organization on the prospects of DM spreading in the world, timely and accurate diagnosis of carbohydrate metabolism disorders is important. The criteria for the diagnosis of carbohydrate metabolism and DM are shown in the article. The article includes a new consensus on the staging of type 1 DM and a discussion of a proposed unifying diabetes classification scheme that focuses on β-cell dysfunction and disease stage as indicated by glucose status. Modern recommendations 2017 of the American Diabetes Association are shown in relation to the criteria of diagnostics of impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus. The value of insulin resistance and functional state of pancreatic β-cells is underlined in determination of type 2 DM duration. A plan of type 2 DM management is brought.

  9. Pulmonary complications of endocrine and metabolic disorders.

    Milla, Carlos E; Zirbes, Jacquelyn

    2012-03-01

    There are many important respiratory manifestations of endocrine and metabolic diseases in children. Acute and chronic pulmonary infections are the most common respiratory abnormalities in patients with diabetes mellitus, although cardiogenic and non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema are also possible. Pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1 may be indistinguishable from cystic fibrosis (CF) unless serum aldosterone, plasma renin activity, and urinary electrolytes are measured and mutation analysis rules out CF. Hypo- and hyperthyroidism may alter lung function and affect the central respiratory drive. The thyroid hormone plays an essential role in lung development, surfactant synthesis, and lung defence. Complications of hypoparathyroidism are largely due to hypocalcaemia. Laryngospasm can lead to stridor and airway obstruction. Ovarian tumours, benign or malignant, may present with unilateral or bilateral pleural effusions. Metabolic storage disorders, primarily as a consequence of lysosomal dysfunction from enzymatic deficiencies, constitute a diverse group of rare conditions that can have profound effects on the respiratory system. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Uric Acid Nephrolithiasis: A Systemic Metabolic Disorder

    Moe, Orson W.

    2014-01-01

    Uric acid nephrolithiasis is characteristically a manifestation of a systemic metabolic disorder. It has a prevalence of about 10% among all stone formers, the third most common type of kidney stone in the industrialized world. Uric acid stones form primarily due to an unduly acid urine; less deciding factors are hyperuricosuria and a low urine volume. The vast majority of uric acid stone formers have the metabolic syndrome, and not infrequently, clinical gout is present as well. A universal finding is a low baseline urine pH plus insufficient production of urinary ammonium buffer. Persons with gastrointestinal disorders, in particular chronic diarrhea or ostomies, and patients with malignancies with a large tumor mass and high cell turnover comprise a less common but nevertheless important subset. Pure uric acid stones are radiolucent but well visualized on renal ultrasound. A 24 h urine collection for stone risk analysis provides essential insight into the pathophysiology of stone formation and may guide therapy. Management includes a liberal fluid intake and dietary modification. Potassium citrate to alkalinize the urine to a goal pH between 6 and 6.5 is essential, as undissociated uric acid deprotonates into its much more soluble urate form. PMID:25045326

  11. Secondary psychosis induced by metabolic disorders

    Olivier eBonnot

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic disorders are not well recognized by psychiatrists as a possible source of secondary psychoses. Inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs are not frequent. Although, their prompt diagnosis may lead to suitable treatments. IEMs are well known to paediatricians, in particular for their most serious forms, having an early expression most of the time. Recent years discoveries have unveiled later expression forms, and sometimes, very discreet first physical signs. There is a growing body of evidence that supports the hypothesis that IEMs can manifest as atypical psychiatric symptoms, even in the absence of clear neurological symptoms. In the present review, we propose a detailed overview at schizophrenia-like and autism-like symptoms that can lead practitioners to bear in mind an IEM. Other psychiatric manifestations are also found, as behavioral., cognitive, learning and mood disorders. However, they are less frequent. Ensuring an accurate IEM diagnosis, in front of these psychiatric symptoms should be a priority, in order to grant suitable and valuable treatment for these pathologies.

  12. Devastating metabolic brain disorders of newborns and young infants.

    Yoon, Hyun Jung; Kim, Ji Hye; Jeon, Tae Yeon; Yoo, So-Young; Eo, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic disorders of the brain that manifest in the neonatal or early infantile period are usually associated with acute and severe illness and are thus referred to as devastating metabolic disorders. Most of these disorders may be classified as organic acid disorders, amino acid metabolism disorders, primary lactic acidosis, or fatty acid oxidation disorders. Each disorder has distinctive clinical, biochemical, and radiologic features. Early diagnosis is important both for prompt treatment to prevent death or serious sequelae and for genetic counseling. However, diagnosis is often challenging because many findings overlap and may mimic those of more common neonatal conditions, such as hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and infection. Ultrasonography (US) may be an initial screening method for the neonatal brain, and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is the modality of choice for evaluating metabolic brain disorders. Although nonspecific imaging findings are common in early-onset metabolic disorders, characteristic patterns of brain involvement have been described for several disorders. In addition, diffusion-weighted images may be used to characterize edema during an acute episode of encephalopathy, and MR spectroscopy depicts changes in metabolites that may help diagnose metabolic disorders and assess response to treatment. Imaging findings, including those of advanced MR imaging techniques, must be closely reviewed. If one of these rare disorders is suspected, the appropriate biochemical test or analysis of the specific gene should be performed to confirm the diagnosis. ©RSNA, 2014.

  13. BIPOLAR DISORDER AND METABOLIC SYNDROME: COMORBIDITY OR SIDE EFFECTS OF TREATMENT OF BIPOLAR DISORDER

    Babić, Dragan; Maslov, Boris; Nikolić, Katica; Martinac, Marko; Uzun, Suzana; Kozumplik, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    Objective: There is evidence that people with mental disorders are more likely to suffer from metabolic syndrome. In the last decades there has been an increase in interest for researching metabolic syndrome in psychiatric patients and plenty of evidence about their association. However, investigations on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with bipolar disorder are still surprisingly rare. The aim of this paper is to analyze comorbidity of bipolar disorder and metabolic syndrome...

  14. Genetic variants of ghrelin in metabolic disorders.

    Ukkola, Olavi

    2011-11-01

    An increasing understanding of the role of genes in the development of obesity may reveal genetic variants that, in combination with conventional risk factors, may help to predict an individual's risk for developing metabolic disorders. Accumulating evidence indicates that ghrelin plays a role in regulating food intake and energy homeostasis and it is a reasonable candidate gene for obesity-related co-morbidities. In cross-sectional studies low total ghrelin concentrations and some genetic polymorphisms of ghrelin have been associated with obesity-associated diseases. The present review highlights many of the important problems in association studies of genetic variants and complex diseases. It is known that population-specific differences in reported associations exist. We therefore conclude that more studies on variants of ghrelin gene are needed to perform in different populations to get deeper understanding on the relationship of ghrelin gene and its variants to obesity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Electron beam driven disordering in small particles

    Vanfleet, R.R.; Mochel, J.

    1997-01-01

    Small metal particles in the range of a few nanometers in diameter are seen to progressively disorder when the 100 keV electron beam of a Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope (STEM) is held stationary on the particle. The diffraction pattern of the individual particle is seen to progress from an initial array of indexable diffraction spots to a mixture of diffraction spots and amorphous-like rings and finally to rings with no persistent diffraction spots. After the electron beam is removed, the particles will recrystallize after minutes or hours. Only particles below a critical size are seen to fully disorder. The authors have observed this in platinum, palladium, rhodium, and iridium and based on the model of disordering process believe it is a universal effect. It has also been observed with a platinum ruthenium alloy. They discuss the mechanism of this disordering and the structure of the resulting disordering particle for the case of platinum clusters

  16. Shift work and its association with metabolic disorders

    Brum, Maria Carlota Borba; Dantas Filho, Fábio Fernandes; Schnorr, Claudia Carolina; Bottega, Gustavo Borchardt; Rodrigues, Ticiana da Costa

    2015-01-01

    Although the health burden of shift work has not been extensively studied, evidence suggests that it may affect the metabolic balance and cause obesity and other metabolic disorders. Sleep deprivation, circadian desynchronization and behavioral changes in diet and physical activity are among the most commonly mentioned factors in studies of the association between night work and metabolic disorders. Individual adaptation to night work depends greatly on personal factors such as family and soc...

  17. Metabolic syndrome as a risk factor for neurological disorders.

    Farooqui, Akhlaq A; Farooqui, Tahira; Panza, Francesco; Frisardi, Vincenza

    2012-03-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of common pathologies: abdominal obesity linked to an excess of visceral fat, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension. At the molecular level, metabolic syndrome is accompanied not only by dysregulation in the expression of adipokines (cytokines and chemokines), but also by alterations in levels of leptin, a peptide hormone released by white adipose tissue. These changes modulate immune response and inflammation that lead to alterations in the hypothalamic 'bodyweight/appetite/satiety set point,' resulting in the initiation and development of metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is a risk factor for neurological disorders such as stroke, depression and Alzheimer's disease. The molecular mechanism underlying the mirror relationship between metabolic syndrome and neurological disorders is not fully understood. However, it is becoming increasingly evident that all cellular and biochemical alterations observed in metabolic syndrome like impairment of endothelial cell function, abnormality in essential fatty acid metabolism and alterations in lipid mediators along with abnormal insulin/leptin signaling may represent a pathological bridge between metabolic syndrome and neurological disorders such as stroke, Alzheimer's disease and depression. The purpose of this review is not only to describe the involvement of brain in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome, but also to link the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome with neurochemical changes in stroke, Alzheimer's disease and depression to a wider audience of neuroscientists with the hope that this discussion will initiate more studies on the relationship between metabolic syndrome and neurological disorders. © Springer Basel AG 2011

  18. Ophthalmologic Findings in Patients with Neuro-metabolic Disorders.

    Jafari, Narjes; Golnik, Karl; Shahriari, Mansoor; Karimzadeh, Parvaneh; Jabbehdari, Sayena

    2018-01-01

    We aimed to present the ophthalmic manifestations of neuro-metabolic disorders. Patients who were diagnosed with neuro-metabolic disorders in the Neurology Department of Mofid Pediatric Hospital in Tehran, Iran, between 2004 and 2014 were included in this study. Disorders were confirmed using clinical findings, neuroimaging, laboratory data, and genomic analyses. All enrolled patients were assessed for ophthalmological abnormalities. A total of 213 patients with 34 different neuro-metabolic disorders were included. Ophthalmological abnormalities were observed in 33.5% of patients. Abnormal findings in the anterior segment included Kayser-Fleischer rings, congenital or secondary cataracts, and lens dislocation into the anterior chamber. Posterior segment (i.e., retina, vitreous body, and optic nerve) evaluation revealed retinitis pigmentosa, cherry-red spots, and optic atrophy. In addition, strabismus, nystagmus, and lack of fixation were noted during external examination. Ophthalmological examination and assessment is essential in patients that may exhibit neuro-metabolic disorders.

  19. Alkaptonuria: a very rare metabolic disorder.

    Aquaron, Robert

    2013-10-01

    Alkaptonuria (AKU) is a very rare autosomal recessive disorder of tyrosine metabolism in the liver due to deficiency of homogentisate 1,2 dioxygenase (HGD) activity, resulting in the accumulation of homogentisic acid (HGA). Circulating HGA pass into various tissues through-out the body, mainly in cartilage and connective tissues, where its oxidation products polymerize and deposit as a melanin-like pigment. Gram quantities of HGA are excreted in the urine. AKU is a progressive disease and the three main features, according the chronology of appearance, are: darkening of the urine at birth, then ochronosis (blue-dark pigmentation of the connective tissue) clinically visible at around 30 yrs in the ear and eye, and finally a severe ochronotic arthropathy at around 50 yrs with spine and large joints involvements. Cardiovascular and renal complications have been described in numerous case report studies. A treatment now is available in the form of a drug nitisinone, which decreases the production of HGA. The enzymatic defect in AKU is caused by the homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations within the HGD gene. This disease has a very low prevalence (1:100,000-250,000) in most of the ethnic groups, except Slovakia and Dominican Republic, where the incidence has shown increase up to 1:19,000. This review highlights classical and recent findings on this very rare disease.

  20. Pathogenesis of the Metabolic Syndrome: Insights from Monogenic Disorders

    Rinki Murphy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying rare human metabolic disorders that result from a single-gene defect has not only enabled improved diagnostic and clinical management of such patients, but also has resulted in key biological insights into the pathophysiology of the increasingly prevalent metabolic syndrome. Insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are linked to obesity and driven by excess caloric intake and reduced physical activity. However, key events in the causation of the metabolic syndrome are difficult to disentangle from compensatory effects and epiphenomena. This review provides an overview of three types of human monogenic disorders that result in (1 severe, non-syndromic obesity, (2 pancreatic beta cell forms of early-onset diabetes, and (3 severe insulin resistance. In these patients with single-gene defects causing their exaggerated metabolic disorder, the primary defect is known. The lessons they provide for current understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of the common metabolic syndrome are highlighted.

  1. Cerebral glucose metabolic differences in patients with panic disorder

    Nordahl, T.E.; Semple, W.E.; Gross, M.; Mellman, T.A.; Stein, M.B.; Goyer, P.; King, A.C.; Uhde, T.W.; Cohen, R.M. (NIMH, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1990-08-01

    Regional glucose metabolic rates were measured in patients with panic disorder during the performance of auditory discrimination. Those regions examined by Reiman and colleagues in their blood flow study of panic disorder were examined with a higher resolution positron emission tomography (PET) scanner and with the tracer (F-18)-2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG). In contrast to the blood flow findings of Reiman et al., we did not find global gray metabolic differences between patients with panic disorder and normal controls. Consistent with the findings of Reiman et al., we found hippocampal region asymmetry. We also found metabolic decreases in the left inferior parietal lobule and in the anterior cingulate (trend), as well as an increase in the metabolic rate of the medial orbital frontal cortex (trend) of panic disorder patients. It is unclear whether the continuous performance task (CPT) enhanced or diminished findings that would have been noted in a study performed without task.

  2. Cerebral glucose metabolic differences in patients with panic disorder

    Nordahl, T.E.; Semple, W.E.; Gross, M.; Mellman, T.A.; Stein, M.B.; Goyer, P.; King, A.C.; Uhde, T.W.; Cohen, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    Regional glucose metabolic rates were measured in patients with panic disorder during the performance of auditory discrimination. Those regions examined by Reiman and colleagues in their blood flow study of panic disorder were examined with a higher resolution positron emission tomography (PET) scanner and with the tracer [F-18]-2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG). In contrast to the blood flow findings of Reiman et al., we did not find global gray metabolic differences between patients with panic disorder and normal controls. Consistent with the findings of Reiman et al., we found hippocampal region asymmetry. We also found metabolic decreases in the left inferior parietal lobule and in the anterior cingulate (trend), as well as an increase in the metabolic rate of the medial orbital frontal cortex (trend) of panic disorder patients. It is unclear whether the continuous performance task (CPT) enhanced or diminished findings that would have been noted in a study performed without task

  3. Metabolism

    ... Are More Common in People With Type 1 Diabetes Metabolic Syndrome Your Child's Weight Healthy Eating Endocrine System Blood Test: Basic Metabolic Panel (BMP) Activity: Endocrine System Growth Disorders Diabetes Center Thyroid Disorders Your Endocrine System Movie: Endocrine ...

  4. Disorder and electronic transport in graphene

    Mucciolo, E R; Lewenkopf, C H

    2010-01-01

    In this review, we provide an account of the recent progress in understanding electronic transport in disordered graphene systems. Starting from a theoretical description that emphasizes the role played by band structure properties and lattice symmetries, we describe the nature of disorder in these systems and its relation to transport properties. While the focus is primarily on theoretical and conceptual aspects, connections to experiments are also included. Issues such as short- versus long-range disorder, localization (strong and weak), the carrier density dependence of the conductivity, and conductance fluctuations are considered and some open problems are pointed out. (topical review)

  5. Electrons and Disorder in Solids

    Gantmakher, VF

    2005-01-01

    This book has been written for those who study or professionally deal with solid state physics. It contains modern concepts about the physics of electrons in solids. It is written using a minimum of mathematics. The emphasis is laid on various physical models aimed at stimulating creative thinking. The book helps the reader choose the most efficient scheme of an experiment or the optimal algorithm of a calculation. Boltzmann and hopping types of conductivity are compared. Thequalitative theory of weak localization is presented and its links with the true localization and metal-insulator transi

  6. Peroxisome Proliferators-Activated Receptor (PPAR Modulators and Metabolic Disorders

    Min-Chul Cho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Overweight and obesity lead to an increased risk for metabolic disorders such as impaired glucose regulation/insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Several molecular drug targets with potential to prevent or treat metabolic disorders have been revealed. Interestingly, the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR, which belongs to the nuclear receptor superfamily, has many beneficial clinical effects. PPAR directly modulates gene expression by binding to a specific ligand. All PPAR subtypes (α,γ, and σ are involved in glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism, and energy balance. PPAR agonists play an important role in therapeutic aspects of metabolic disorders. However, undesired effects of the existing PPAR agonists have been reported. A great deal of recent research has focused on the discovery of new PPAR modulators with more beneficial effects and more safety without producing undesired side effects. Herein, we briefly review the roles of PPAR in metabolic disorders, the effects of PPAR modulators in metabolic disorders, and the technologies with which to discover new PPAR modulators.

  7. Genetic disorders of thyroid metabolism and brain development

    Kurian, Manju A; Jungbluth, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Normal thyroid metabolism is essential for human development, including the formation and functioning of the central and peripheral nervous system. Disorders of thyroid metabolism are increasingly recognized within the spectrum of paediatric neurological disorders. Both hypothyroid and hyperthyroid disease states (resulting from genetic and acquired aetiologies) can lead to characteristic neurological syndromes, with cognitive delay, extrapyramidal movement disorders, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and neuromuscular manifestations. In this review, the neurological manifestations of genetic disorders of thyroid metabolism are outlined, with particular focus on Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome and benign hereditary chorea. We report in detail the clinical features, major neurological and neuropsychiatric manifestations, molecular genetic findings, disease mechanisms, and therapeutic strategies for these emerging genetic ‘brain-thyroid’ disorders. PMID:24665922

  8. Thyroid disorders and bone mineral metabolism

    Dinesh Kumar Dhanwal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid diseases have widespread systemic manifestations including their effect on bone metabolism. On one hand, the effects of thyrotoxicosis including subclinical disease have received wide attention from researchers over the last century as it an important cause of secondary osteoporosis. On the other hand, hypothyroidism has received lesser attention as its effect on bone mineral metabolism is minimal. Therefore, this review will primarily focus on thyrotoxicosis and its impact on bone mineral metabolism.

  9. Ghrelin: a link between ageing, metabolism and neurodegenerative disorders

    Stoyanova, Irina

    2014-01-01

    Along with the increase in life expectancy over the last century comes the increased risk for development of age-related disorders, including metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases. These chronic disorders share two main characteristics:

  10. Specifics of mental disorders of patients with metabolic syndrome

    K. I. Kleban

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the general-somatic network there is a steady increase in the number of patients with psychosomatic disorders. Problems of providing adequate psychiatric and psychotherapeutic assistance to this category of patients are related to the motivation of patients to participate in psychological measures and the readiness of the medical system to provide comprehensive care on the basis of the biopsychosocial approach. Mental factors are involved both in the occurrence and course of a metabolic syndrome in the form of a patient's lifestyle and behavior patterns of healthy functioning, and is a consequence of somatic pathology. Mental factors are involved both in the occurrence and course of a metabolic syndrome in the form of a patient's lifestyle and behavior patterns of healthy functioning, and is a consequence of somatic pathology. So mental disorders of metabolic syndrome are manifested in the form of psychosocial maladaptation, neurotic, affective, personality, and organic disorders. Desynchronosis which is a factor of the development of a metabolic syndrome and characterizes the complex chronobiological component of the regulation of psychophysiological functions in norm and under the influence of stress, deserves special attention. Addressing the diagnosis of mental disorders associated with metabolic syndrome is precisely aimed at determining chronobiological disorders of psychosomatic integrated areas and is supposed to improve diagnostic and treatment process and to shorten the treatment of these disorders.

  11. Effects of disorder on the electron pairing

    Oviedo-Roa, R.; Wang, C.; Navarro, O.

    1996-01-01

    The electron pairing in randomly disordered lattices is studied by using an attractive Hubbard model, and by mapping the many-body problem onto a tight-binding one in a higher dimensional space, where a diagonal disorder is considered within the coherent-potential approximation. The results show an enhancement of the pair-binding energy as the self-energy difference increases in a binary alloy A x B 1-x . This fact suggests that the pairing process is highly sensitive to the one-particle localization condition. A ground-state phase diagram for on-site interaction disorder shows regions where pairing is avoided for ordered diatomic systems but not for disordered case

  12. The CD36-PPARγ Pathway in Metabolic Disorders

    Loïze Maréchal

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Uncovering the biological role of nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs has greatly advanced our knowledge of the transcriptional control of glucose and energy metabolism. As such, pharmacological activation of PPARγ has emerged as an efficient approach for treating metabolic disorders with the current use of thiazolidinediones to improve insulin resistance in diabetic patients. The recent identification of growth hormone releasing peptides (GHRP as potent inducers of PPARγ through activation of the scavenger receptor CD36 has defined a novel alternative to regulate essential aspects of lipid and energy metabolism. Recent advances on the emerging role of CD36 and GHRP hexarelin in regulating PPARγ downstream actions with benefits on atherosclerosis, hepatic cholesterol biosynthesis and fat mitochondrial biogenesis are summarized here. The response of PPARγ coactivator PGC-1 is also discussed in these effects. The identification of the GHRP-CD36-PPARγ pathway in controlling various tissue metabolic functions provides an interesting option for metabolic disorders.

  13. Therapeutic Approaches Using Riboflavin in Mitochondrial Energy Metabolism Disorders.

    Henriques, Bárbara J; Lucas, Tânia G; Gomes, Cláudio M

    2016-01-01

    Riboflavin, or vitamin B2, plays an important role in the cell as biological precursor of FAD and FMN, two important flavin cofactors which are essential for the structure and function of flavoproteins. Riboflavin has been used in therapeutic approaches of various inborn errors of metabolism, notably in metabolic disorders resulting either from defects in proteins involved in riboflavin metabolism and transport or from defects in flavoenzymes. The scope of this review is to provide an updated perspective of clinical cases in which riboflavin was used as a potential therapeutic agent in disorders affecting mitochondrial energy metabolism. In particular, we discuss available mechanistic insights on the role of riboflavin as a pharmacological chaperone for the recovery of misfolded metabolic flavoenzymes.

  14. NMR as a probe metabolic disorders in disease and treatment

    Yushmanov, Victor E [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Chemical Physics

    1994-12-31

    The effects of malignant tumors, chemical and physical factors (toxic agents, ionizing radiation) as well as of their treatment on tissue metabolism were studied by NMR imaging. The importance of NMR is highlighted since it enables to a better understanding of molecular mechanisms of diseases and therapeutic interventions, in addition to the analysis of metabolic disorders in human beings. Combined with the studies of experimental animal pathologies, may constitute a base for new types of NMR-diagnosis in vivo 10 refs.

  15. Automated Screening for Three Inborn Metabolic Disorders: A Pilot Study

    Kavitha S

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inborn metabolic disorders (IMDs form a large group of rare, but often serious, metabolic disorders. Aims: Our objective was to construct a decision tree, based on classification algorithm for the data on three metabolic disorders, enabling us to take decisions on the screening and clinical diagnosis of a patient. Settings and Design: A non-incremental concept learning classification algorithm was applied to a set of patient data and the procedure followed to obtain a decision on a patient’s disorder. Materials and Methods: Initially a training set containing 13 cases was investigated for three inborn errors of metabolism. Results: A total of thirty test cases were investigated for the three inborn errors of metabolism. The program identified 10 cases with galactosemia, another 10 cases with fructosemia and the remaining 10 with propionic acidemia. The program successfully identified all the 30 cases. Conclusions: This kind of decision support systems can help the healthcare delivery personnel immensely for early screening of IMDs.

  16. Sphingolipids and Lipoproteins in Health and Metabolic Disorders.

    Iqbal, Jahangir; Walsh, Meghan T; Hammad, Samar M; Hussain, M Mahmood

    2017-07-01

    Sphingolipids are structurally and functionally diverse molecules with significant physiologic functions and are found associated with cellular membranes and plasma lipoproteins. The cellular and plasma concentrations of sphingolipids are altered in several metabolic disorders and may serve as prognostic and diagnostic markers. Here we discuss various sphingolipid transport mechanisms and highlight how changes in cellular and plasma sphingolipid levels contribute to cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, insulin resistance, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Understanding of the mechanisms involved in intracellular transport, secretion, and extracellular transport may provide novel information that might be amenable to therapeutic targeting for the treatment of various metabolic disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. MR spectroscopy in metabolic disorders of the brain

    Yilmaz, U.

    2017-01-01

    Metabolic disorders of the brain often present a particular challenge for the neuroradiologist, since the disorders are rare, changes on conventional MR are often non-specific and there are numerous differential diagnoses for the white substance lesions. As a complementary method to conventional brain MRI, MR spectroscopy may help to reduce the scope of the differential diagnosis. Entities with specific MR spectroscopy patterns are Canavan disease, maple syrup urine disease, nonketotic hyperglycinemia and creatine deficiency. (orig.) [de

  18. Theoretical study of the interplay of electron-electron interaction and disorder

    Brezini, A.; Behilil, S.

    1988-10-01

    A disordered Hubbard model with diagonal disorder is used to investigate the electron localization effects associated with both disorder and electron-electron interaction. Extensive results are reported on the ground state properties and compared to other theories. Two regimes have been found: when the electron-electron interaction u is greater than the disorder parameter w and when u < w. (author). 18 refs, 4 figs

  19. Shift work and its association with metabolic disorders.

    Brum, Maria Carlota Borba; Filho, Fábio Fernandes Dantas; Schnorr, Claudia Carolina; Bottega, Gustavo Borchardt; Rodrigues, Ticiana C

    2015-01-01

    Although the health burden of shift work has not been extensively studied, evidence suggests that it may affect the metabolic balance and cause obesity and other metabolic disorders. Sleep deprivation, circadian desynchronization and behavioral changes in diet and physical activity are among the most commonly mentioned factors in studies of the association between night work and metabolic disorders. Individual adaptation to night work depends greatly on personal factors such as family and social life, but occupational interventions may also make a positive contribution to the transition to shift work, such as exposure to bright lights during the night shift, melatonin use, shift regularity and clockwise rotation, and dietary adaptations for the metabolic needs of night workers. The evaluation of the impact of night work on health and of the mechanisms underlying this relationship can serve as a basis for intervention strategies to minimize the health burden of shift work. This review aimed to identify highlights regarding therapeutic implications following the association between night and shift work and metabolic disorders, as well as the mechanisms and pathways responsible for these relationships.

  20. Metabolic Syndrome in Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Wahi, Gita; LeBlanc, Paul J.; Hay, John A.; Faught, Brent E.; O'Leary, Debra; Cairney, John

    2011-01-01

    Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have higher rates of obesity compared to children with typical motor development, and, as a result may be at increased risk for developing metabolic syndrome (MetS). The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of MetS and its components among children with and without DCD. This…

  1. PHENYLKETONURIA, AN INHERITED METABOLIC DISORDER ASSOCIATED WITH MENTAL RETARDATION.

    CENTERWALL, WILLARD R.; CENTERWALL, SIEGRIED A.

    ADDRESSED TO PUBLIC HEALTH WORKERS AND PHYSICIANS IN GENERAL PRACTICE, THE PAMPHLET INTRODUCES METHODS OF DETECTING AND MANAGING PHENYLKETONURIA, AN INHERITED METABOLIC DISORDER ASSOCIATED WITH MENTAL RETARDATION. INFORMATION, UPDATED FROM THE 1961 EDITION, IS INCLUDED ON THE INCIDENCE AND GENETICS, BIOCHEMISTRY, AND CLINICAL COURSE OF THE…

  2. Metabolic Disorders: From Principles to Practice | Aruoma | Archives ...

    Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 1, No 2 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Metabolic Disorders: From Principles to ...

  3. Visual and Verbal Learning in a Genetic Metabolic Disorder

    Spilkin, Amy M.; Ballantyne, Angela O.; Trauner, Doris A.

    2009-01-01

    Visual and verbal learning in a genetic metabolic disorder (cystinosis) were examined in the following three studies. The goal of Study I was to provide a normative database and establish the reliability and validity of a new test of visual learning and memory (Visual Learning and Memory Test; VLMT) that was modeled after a widely used test of…

  4. Risk Factors for the Development of Metabolic Disorders: A Review ...

    External factors impact on the hormones and enzymes which trigger development of metabolic disorders. The aim of this review was to highlight major hormonal and enzymatic factors that differentially predispose males and females to obesity, diabetes mellitus and hypertension. The research was a literaturebased ...

  5. Substrate kinetics in patients with disorders of skeletal muscle metabolism.

    Ørngreen, Mette Cathrine

    2016-07-01

    The main purpose of the following studies was to investigate pathophysiological mechanisms in fat and carbohydrate metabolism and effect of nutritional interventions in patients with metabolic myopathies and in patients with severe muscle wasting. Yet there is no cure for patients with skeletal muscle disorders. The group of patients is heterozygous and this thesis is focused on patients with metabolic myopathies and low muscle mass due to severe muscle wasting. Disorders of fatty acid oxidation (FAO) are, along with myophosphorylase deficiency (McArdle disease), the most common inborn errors of metabolism leading to recurrent episodes of rhabdomyolysis in adults. Prolonged exercise, fasting, and fever are the main triggering factors for rhabdomyolysis in these conditions, and can be complicated by acute renal failure. Patients with low muscle mass are in risk of loosing their functional skills and depend on a wheel chair and respiratory support. We used nutritional interventions and metabolic studies with stable isotope technique and indirect calorimetry in patients with metabolic myopathies and patients with low muscle mass to get information of the metabolism of the investigated diseases, and to gain knowledge of the biochemical pathways of intermediary metabolism in human skeletal muscle. We have shown that patients with fat metabolism disorders in skeletal muscle affecting the transporting enzyme of fat into the mitochondria (carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency) and affecting the enzyme responsible for breakdown of the long-chain fatty acids (very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency) have a normal fatty acid oxidation at rest, but enzyme activity is too low to increase fatty acid oxidation during exercise. Furthermore, these patients benefit from a carbohydrate rich diet. Oppositely is exercise capacity worsened by a fat-rich diet in these patients. The patients also benefit from IV glucose, however, when glucose is given orally just before

  6. Should children with inherited metabolic disorders receive varicella vaccination?

    Varghese, M

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to determine the rate of varicella infection and complications in children with disorders of intermediary metabolism (IEM) between the ages of 1 and 16 years attending our national metabolic referral centre. Of 126 children identified, a response was received from 122. A history of previous varicella infection was identified in 64 cases (53%) and of varicella vaccination in 5 (4%). Fifty-three (43%) patients apparently did not have a history of clinical varicella infection. Of the 64 children with a history of varicella infection, five required hospitalisation for complications, including life-threatening lactic acidosis in one patient with mitochondrial disease and metabolic decompensation in four patients. In conclusion, varicella infection may cause an increased risk of metabolic decompensation in patients with IEMs. We propose that a trial of varicella vaccination be considered for this cohort of patients with monitoring of its safety and efficacy.

  7. Bipolar disorder and metabolic syndrome: a systematic review

    Letícia Czepielewski

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Summarize data on metabolic syndrome (MS in bipolar disorder (BD. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was conducted using the Medline, Embase and PsycInfo databases, using the keywords "metabolic syndrome", "insulin resistance" and "metabolic X syndrome" and cross-referencing them with "bipolar disorder" or "mania". The following types of publications were candidates for review: (i clinical trials, (ii studies involving patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder or (iii data about metabolic syndrome. A 5-point quality scale was used to assess the methodological weight of the studies. RESULTS: Thirty-nine articles were selected. None of studies reached the maximum quality score of 5 points. The prevalence of MS was significantly higher in BD individuals when compared to a control group. The analysis of MS subcomponents showed that abdominal obesity was heterogeneous. Individuals with BD had significantly higher rates of hypertriglyceridemia than healthy controls. When compared to the general population, there were no significant differences in the prevalence of low HDL-c in individuals with BD. Data on hypertension were also inconclusive. Rates of hyperglycemia were significantly greater in patients with BD compared to the general population. CONCLUSIONS: The overall results point to the presence of an association between BD and MS, as well as between their subcomponents.

  8. Symptoms of pseudoallergy and histamine metabolism disorders

    Joanna Kacik

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Histamine intolerance is a poorly investigated type of hypersensitivity responsible for a number of often serious symptoms, erroneously interpreted as food allergy. Endogenous histamine originates from the histidine amino acid with the help of the histidine decarboxylase enzyme. Apart from the endogenous production histamine may be supplied to the body with food. Slow-maturing and fermenting products are characterised by particularly high levels of histamine. Some food products stimulate excessive release of histamine from stores in the body as well as containing significant amounts of it. These products include spices, herbs, dried fruits and a large group of food additives. Histamine intolerance is considered to be a condition in which the amount of histamine in the body exceeds its tolerance threshold, which leads to the development of adverse reactions. These reactions primarily include skin symptoms (pruritus, urticaria, skin reddening, acne lesions, angioedema, respiratory symptoms (nasal obstruction and watery discharge, sneezing, coughing, wheezing, gastrointestinal symptoms (abdominal cramps, diarrhoea, bloating, nervous system symptoms (headaches, fatigue, irritability, anxiety, panic attacks, cardiovascular symptoms (tachycardia, hypotension, chest pain, primary dysmenorrhoea and many more. It is estimated that nearly 1% of society is susceptible to histamine intolerance. The diagnosis of this disorder is based on observing at least two characteristic symptoms and their disappearance or improvement following histamine-free diet. A new, although not easily accessible diagnostic tool is assay for serum diamine oxidase activity, which correlates to a significant extent with symptoms of histamine intolerance. Normal activity of diamine oxidase is considered to be the amount of >80 HDU/mL, decreased activity – 40–80 HDU/mL and severely decreased activity – <40 HDU/mL. Currently the option of diamine oxidase supplementation is

  9. Longitudinal Associations between Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Metabolic Syndrome Severity

    Wolf, Erika J.; Bovin, Michelle J.; Green, Jonathan D.; Mitchell, Karen S.; Stoop, Tawni B.; Barretto, Kenneth M.; Jackson, Colleen E.; Lee, Lewina O.; Fang, Shona C.; Trachtenberg, Felicia; Rosen, Raymond C.; Keane, Terence M.; Marx, Brian P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with elevated risk for metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, the direction of this association is not yet established, as most prior studies employed cross-sectional designs. The primary goal of this study was to evaluate bidirectional associations between PTSD and MetS using a longitudinal design. Methods 1,355 male and female veterans of the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan underwent PTSD diagnostic assessments and their biometric profiles pertaining to MetS were extracted from the electronic medical record at two time points (spanning ~2.5 years, n = 971 at time 2). Results The prevalence of MetS among veterans with PTSD was just under 40% at both time points and was significantly greater than that for veterans without PTSD; the prevalence of MetS among those with PTSD was also elevated relative to age-matched population estimates. Cross-lagged panel models revealed that PTSD severity predicted subsequent increases in MetS severity (β = .08, p = .002), after controlling for initial MetS severity, but MetS did not predict later PTSD symptoms. Logistic regression results suggested that for every 10 PTSD symptoms endorsed at time 1, the odds of a subsequent MetS diagnosis increased by 56%. Conclusions Results highlight the substantial cardiometabolic concerns of young veterans with PTSD and raise the possibility that PTSD may predispose individuals to accelerated aging, in part, manifested clinically as MetS. This demonstrates the need to identify those with PTSD at greatest risk for MetS and to develop interventions that improve both conditions. PMID:27087657

  10. Metabolic disorders in adipocytokine imbalance and gestational complications

    Natalya B. Chabanova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ synthesizes a large number of biologically active substances, adipocytokines, which have both local and systemic effects influencing the vascular wall, tissue sensitivity to insulin, glucose metabolism, and systemic inflammation. The data obtained from clinical and experimental studies demonstrate the close relationship between the imbalance of adipocytokines and pregnancy complications such as insulin resistance, gestational diabetes, and preeclampsia. In this connection, close attention of obstetrician-gynecologists and endocrinologists is focused on etiopathogenic aspects of the formation of gestational complications with metabolic disorders caused by an imbalance of adipocytokines with maternal obesity and to the search for markers of these disorders. The review presents the current literature data on adipose tissue hormones and their influence on the course of a gestational process.

  11. HPLC-MS-Based Metabonomics Reveals Disordered Lipid Metabolism in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome

    Xinjie Zhao

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/ quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry-based metabonomics platform was employed to profile the plasma metabolites of patients with metabolic syndrome and the healthy controls. Data analysis revealed lots of differential metabolites between the two groups, and most of them were identified as lipids. Several fatty acids and lysophosphatidylcholines were of higher plasma levels in the patient group, indicating the occurrence of insulin resistance and inflammation. The identified ether phospholipids were decreased in the patient group, reflecting the oxidative stress and some metabolic disorders. These identified metabolites can also be used to aid diagnosis of patients with metabolic syndrome. These results showed that metabonomics was a promising and powerful method to study metabolic syndrome.

  12. Pathophysiological aspect of metabolic acid-base disorders

    Nešović-Ostojić Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintaing the arterial pH values (in normal range of 7,35-7,45 is one of the main principles of homeostasis. Regulatory responses, including chemical buffering (extracellular, intracellular, sceletal, the regulation of pCO2 by the respiratory system, and the regulation of [HCO3-] by the kidneys, act in concert to maintain normal arterial pH value. The main extracellular chemical buffer is bicarbonate-carbonic acid buffer system. The kidneys contribute to the regulation of hydrogen (and bicarbonate in body fluids in two ways. Proximal tubules are important in bicarbonate reabsorption and distal tubules excrete hydrogen ion (as ammonium ion or titratable acid. There are four simple acid-base disorders: metabolic acidosis and metabolic alkalosis; respiratory acidosis and respiratory alkalosis. Metabolic acidosis can occur because of an increase in endogenous acid production (such as lactate and ketoacids, loss of bicarbonate (as in diarrhea, or accumulation of endogenous acids (as in renal failure. Metabolic acidosis can also be with high and normal (hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis anion gap. Renal tubular acidosis (RTA is a form of hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis which occurs when the renal damage primarily affects tubular function. The main problem in distal RTA is reduced H+ excretion in distal tubule. Type 2 RTA is also called proximal RTA because the main problem is greatly impaired reabsorption of bicarbonate in proximal tubule. Impaired cation exchange in distal tubule is the main problem in RTA type 4. Metabolic alkalosis occurs as a result of net gain of [HCO3-] or loss of nonvolatile acid from extracellular fluids. Metabolic alkalosis can be associated with reduced or increased extracellular volume.

  13. [Obesity-related metabolic disorders in childhood and adolescence].

    Yeste, D; Carrascosa, A

    2011-08-01

    Obesity is the most frequent nutritional disorder in childhood and adolescence. The rise in its prevalence and severity has underlined the numerous and significant obesity-related metabolic disorders. Altered glucose metabolism, manifested as impaired glucose tolerance, appears early in severely obese children and adolescents. Obese young people with glucose intolerance are characterized by marked peripheral insulin resistance and relative beta-cell failure. Lipid deposition in muscle and the visceral compartment, and not only obesity per se, is related to increased peripheral insulin resistance, the triggering factor of the metabolic syndrome. Other elements of the metabolic syndrome, such as dyslipidaemia, and hypertension, are already present in obese youngsters and worsen with the degree of obesity. The long-term impact of obesity-related insulin resistance on cardiovascular morbidity in these patients is expected to emerge as these youngsters become young adults. Copyright © 2011 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessment of Metabolic Parameters For Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Ananth N Rao

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a brain development disorder that first appears during infancy or childhood, and generally follows a steady course without remission. Impairments result from maturation-related changes in various systems of the brain. Autism is one of the five pervasive developmental disorders (PDD, which are characterized by widespread abnormalities of social interactions and communication, and severely restricted interests and highly repetitive behavior. The reported incidence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs has increased markedly over the past decade. The Centre for Disease Control and Prevention has recently estimated the prevalence of ASDs in the United States at approximately 5.6 per 1000 (1 of 155 to 1 of 160 children. Several metabolic defects, such as phenylketonuria, are associated with autistic symptoms. In deciding upon the appropriate evaluation scheme a clinician must consider a host of different factors. The guidelines in this article have been developed to assist the clinician in the consideration of these factors.

  15. Disorders of muscle lipid metabolism: diagnostic and therapeutic challenges.

    Laforêt, Pascal; Vianey-Saban, Christine

    2010-11-01

    Disorders of muscle lipid metabolism may involve intramyocellular triglyceride degradation, carnitine uptake, long-chain fatty acids mitochondrial transport, or fatty acid β-oxidation. Three main diseases leading to permanent muscle weakness are associated with severe increased muscle lipid content (lipid storage myopathies): primary carnitine deficiency, neutral lipid storage disease and multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency. A moderate lipidosis may be observed in fatty acid oxidation disorders revealed by rhabdomyolysis episodes such as carnitine palmitoyl transferase II, very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiencies, and in recently described phosphatidic acid phosphatase deficiency. Respiratory chain disorders and congenital myasthenic syndromes may also be misdiagnosed as fatty acid oxidation disorders due to the presence of secondary muscle lipidosis. The main biochemical tests giving clues for the diagnosis of these various disorders are measurements of blood carnitine and acylcarnitines, urinary organic acid profile, and search for intracytoplasmic lipid on peripheral blood smear (Jordan's anomaly). Genetic analysis orientated by the results of biochemical investigation allows establishing a firm diagnosis. Primary carnitine deficiency and multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency may be treated after supplementation with carnitine, riboflavine and coenzyme Q10. New therapeutic approaches for fatty acid oxidation disorders are currently developed, based on pharmacological treatment with bezafibrate, and specific diets enriched in medium-chain triglycerides or triheptanoin. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. [Features of metabolic syndrome in patients with depressive disorder].

    Zeman, M; Jirák, R; Zák, A; Jáchymová, M; Vecka, M; Tvrzická, E; Vávrová, L; Kodydková, J; Stanková, B

    2009-01-01

    Depressive disorder is a serious illness with a high incidence, proxime accessit after anxiety disorders among the psychiatric diseases. It is accompanied by an increased risk of development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and by increased all-cause mortality. Recently published data have suggested that factors connected with the insulin resistance are at the background of this association. In this pilot study we have investigated parameters of lipid metabolism and glucose homeostasis in consecutively admitted patients suffering from depressive disorder (DD) (group of 42 people), in 57 patients with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and in a control group of 49 apparently healthy persons (CON). Depressive patients did not differ from the control group by age or body mass index (BMI) value, but they had statistically significantly higher concentrations of serum insulin, C-peptide, glucose, triglycerides (TG), conjugated dienes in LDL particles (CD-LDL), higher value of microalbuminuria and of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index. They simultaneously had significantly lower value of the insulin sensitivity (QUICKI) index. In comparison with the MetS group the depressive patients were characterized by significantly lower both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, BMI , serum TG, apolipoprotein B, uric acid, C-peptide and by higher concentrations of apolipoprotein A-I and HDL-cholesterol. On the contrary, we have not found statistically significant differences between the DD and MetS groups in the concentrations of serum insulin, glucose, HOMA and QUICKI indices, in CD-LDL and MAU. In this pilot study, we have found in patients with depressive disorder certain features of metabolic syndrome, especially insulin resistance and oxidative stress.

  17. Rett syndrome: a neurological disorder with metabolic components

    Kyle, Stephanie M.

    2018-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurological disorder caused by mutations in the X-linked gene methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2), a ubiquitously expressed transcriptional regulator. Despite remarkable scientific progress since its discovery, the mechanism by which MECP2 mutations cause RTT symptoms is largely unknown. Consequently, treatment options for patients are currently limited and centred on symptom relief. Thought to be an entirely neurological disorder, RTT research has focused on the role of MECP2 in the central nervous system. However, the variety of phenotypes identified in Mecp2 mutant mouse models and RTT patients implicate important roles for MeCP2 in peripheral systems. Here, we review the history of RTT, highlighting breakthroughs in the field that have led us to present day. We explore the current evidence supporting metabolic dysfunction as a component of RTT, presenting recent studies that have revealed perturbed lipid metabolism in the brain and peripheral tissues of mouse models and patients. Such findings may have an impact on the quality of life of RTT patients as both dietary and drug intervention can alter lipid metabolism. Ultimately, we conclude that a thorough knowledge of MeCP2's varied functional targets in the brain and body will be required to treat this complex syndrome. PMID:29445033

  18. Cerebellar involvement in metabolic disorders: a pattern-recognition approach

    Steinlin, M.; Boltshauser, E.; Blaser, S.

    1998-01-01

    Inborn errors of metabolism can affect the cerebellum during development, maturation and later during life. We have established criteria for pattern recognition of cerebellar abnormalities in metabolic disorders. The abnormalities can be divided into four major groups: cerebellar hypoplasia (CH), hyperplasia, cerebellar atrophy (CA), cerebellar white matter abnormalities (WMA) or swelling, and involvement of the dentate nuclei (DN) or cerebellar cortex. CH can be an isolated typical finding, as in adenylsuccinase deficiency, but is also occasionally seen in many other disorders. Differentiation from CH and CA is often difficult, as in carbohydrate deficient glycoprotein syndrome or 2-l-hydroxyglutaric acidaemia. In cases of atrophy the relationship of cerebellar to cerebral atrophy is important. WMA may be diffuse or patchy, frequently predominantly around the DN. Severe swelling of white matter is present during metabolic crisis in maple syrup urine disease. The DN can be affected by metabolite deposition, necrosis, calcification or demyelination. Involvement of cerebellar cortex is seen in infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy. Changes in DN and cerebellar cortex are rather typical and therefore most helpful; additional features should be sought as they are useful in narrowing down the differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  19. Translational Aspects of Sphingolipid Metabolism in Renal Disorders

    Alaa Abou Daher

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sphingolipids, long thought to be passive components of biological membranes with merely a structural role, have proved throughout the past decade to be major players in the pathogenesis of many human diseases. The study and characterization of several genetic disorders like Fabry’s and Tay Sachs, where sphingolipid metabolism is disrupted, leading to a systemic array of clinical symptoms, have indeed helped elucidate and appreciate the importance of sphingolipids and their metabolites as active signaling molecules. In addition to being involved in dynamic cellular processes like apoptosis, senescence and differentiation, sphingolipids are implicated in critical physiological functions such as immune responses and pathophysiological conditions like inflammation and insulin resistance. Interestingly, the kidneys are among the most sensitive organ systems to sphingolipid alterations, rendering these molecules and the enzymes involved in their metabolism, promising therapeutic targets for numerous nephropathic complications that stand behind podocyte injury and renal failure.

  20. Development of the Clinic of Endocrinology, diabetes and metabolic disorders.

    Shubeska Stratrova, S

    2013-01-01

    The Clinic of Endocrinology, diabetes and metabolic disorders was founded in 1975 by Prof d-r Alexandar Plashevski. Healthcare, educational and scientific activities in the Clinic of Endocrinology are performed in its departments. The Department for hospitalized diabetic and endocrine patients consists of the metabolic and endocrine intensive care unit, the department for diagnosis and treatment of diabetics and endocrine patients, day hospital, the department for education of diabetic patients, and the national center for insulin pump therapy. The Center for Diabetes was established in 1972 by Prof d-r Dimitar Arsov. In 1975, Prof d-r Alexandar Plasheski broadened the activities of the Center for Diabetes. It was dislocated in 1980, with new accommodation outside the clinic. Since then the Center has consisted of several organized units: two specialist outpatient clinics for diabetic patients, biochemical and endocrine laboratory, sub-departments for: diabetic foot, cardiovascular diagnosis, ophthalmology, and urgent interventions. The Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Disorders for outclinic endocrine patients was established in 1980, and it integrates the following sub-departments: thyrology, andrology, reproductive endocrinology, obesity and lipid disorders and sub-department for osteoporosis. The educational staff of the Clinic of Endocrinology organizes theoretical and practical education about Clinical Investigation and Internal Medicine with credit transfer system course of study of the Medical Faculty, Faculty of Stomatology, postgraduate studies, specializations and sub-specializations. Symposiums, 3 congresses, schools for diabetes and osteoporosis and continuous medical education were also organized. The Clinic of Endocrinology was initiator, organizer, founder and the seat of several medical associations.

  1. Neurologic disorders of mineral metabolism and parathyroid disease.

    Agrawal, Lily; Habib, Zeina; Emanuele, Nicholas V

    2014-01-01

    Disorders of mineral metabolism may cause neurologic manifestations of the central and peripheral nervous systems. This is because plasma calcium stabilizes excitable membranes in the nerve and muscle tissue, magnesium is predominantly intracellular and is required for activation of many intracellular enzymes, and extracellular magnesium affects synaptic transmission. This chapter reviews abnormalities in electrolytes and minerals which can be associated with several neuromuscular symptoms including neuromuscular irritability, mental status changes, cardiac and smooth muscle changes, etc. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Calcium and bone metabolism disorders during pregnancy and lactation.

    Kovacs, Christopher S

    2011-12-01

    Pregnancy and lactation cause a substantial increase in demand for calcium that is met by different maternal adaptations within each period. Intestinal calcium absorption more than doubles during pregnancy, whereas the maternal skeleton resorbs to provide most of the calcium content of breast milk during lactation. These maternal adaptations also affect the presentation, diagnosis, and management of disorders of calcium and bone metabolism. Although some women may experience fragility fractures as a consequence of pregnancy or lactation, for most women, parity and lactation do not affect the long-term risks of low bone density, osteoporosis, or fracture. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Metabolic Disorders in Dairy Calves in Postpartum Period

    A. Podhorský

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was, in terms of analysis of causes of disorders in calves on dairy farms, to evaluate occurrence of metabolic disorders in their postnatal period. In 23 agricultural farms (14 farms with the incidence of clinical forms of disease in calves during milk nutrition period - group D; 9 farms with no clinical disease - group H clinical examination was performed, blood samples were collected and data concerning the provision of permanent day and night care for calves (PDC during delivery and in early postpartum period were collected. The samples were taken from 3 - 5 calves in every farm (totally 97, H - 38, D - 59. Biochemical indicators that have some relations to the quality of colostral nutrition were determined (the concentrations of immunoglobulins - Ig, total protein - TP, albumin - A, globulins - G, vitamin E and A, the activity of gammaglutamyl transferase - GMT and to the microelement metabolism (the activities of glutathione peroxidase - GSH-Px for evaluation of selenium (Se status, the concentrations of copper (Cu and zinc (Zn. While evaluating the entire group of examined calves, we found a high occurrence of metabolic disorders in calves connected with colostral nutrition and also high occurrence of microelement deficiencies. The decrease in TP was diagnosed in 80%, the decrease in G in 78%, the decrease in concentration of Ig in 78% and 74% of calves had higher A/G ratio. Insufficient intake of colostrum showed also lower activities of GMT in 76% of calves. Hypovitaminosis E was diagnosed in 67% of calves and hypovitaminosis A in 19% of calves. Microelement deficiencies were found in 77% (Cu, 39% (Se, and 10% (Zn of calves. While comparing the results for calves in groups H and D, in the group of calves from farms with no clinical disease (H a significantly higher (p p p p < 0.01 A/G ratio, which proves a higher-quality colostral nutrition. The results thus prove that the incidence of metabolic disorders in dairy

  4. Effects of electron-electron interactions on electronic transport in disordered systems

    Foley, Simon Timothy

    2002-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the role of electron-electron interactions on electronic transport in disordered systems. We first consider a novel non-linear sigma model in order to microscopically treat the effects of disorder and electronic interaction. We successfully reproduce the perturbative results for the zero-bias anomaly and the interaction correction to the conductivity in a weakly disordered system, and discuss possible directions for future work. Secondly we consider the fluctuations of the dephasing rate for a closed diffusive and quantum dot system. Using the Keldysh technique we derive an expression for the inelastic scattering rate with which we self-consistently obtain the fluctuations in the dephasing rate. For the diffusive regime we find the relative fluctuations is given by F ∼ (L φ /L) 2 /g 2 , where g is the dimensionless conductance, L φ is the dephasing length and L is the sample size. For the quantum dot regime we find a perturbative divergence due to the presence of the zero mode. By mapping divergent diagrams to those for the two-level correlation function, we conjecture the existence of an exact relation between the two. Finally we discuss the consequences of this relation. (author)

  5. Female alcoholics: electrocardiographic changes and associated metabolic and electrolytic disorders

    Borini Paulo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify the electrocardiographic changes and their associations with metabolic and electrolytic changes in female alcoholics. METHODS: The study comprised 44 female alcoholics with no apparent physical disorder. They underwent the following examinations: conventional electrocardiography; serologic tests for syphilis, Chagas' disease, and hepatitis B and C viruses; urinary pregnancy testing; hematimetric analysis; biochemical measurements of albumin, fibrinogen, fasting and postprandial glycemias, lipids, hepatic enzymes, and markers for tissue necrosis and inflammation. RESULTS: Some type of electrocardiographic change was identified in 33 (75% patients. In 17 (38.6% patients, more than one of the following changes were present: prolonged QTc interval in 24 (54.5%, change in ventricular repolarization in 11(25%, left ventricular hypertrophy in 6 (13.6%, sinus bradycardia in 4 (9.1%, sinus tachycardia in 3 (6.8%, and conduction disorder in 3 (6.8%. The patients had elevated mean serum levels of creatine phosphokinase, aspartate aminotransferases, and gamma glutamyl transferase, as well as hypocalcemia and low levels of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol. The patients with altered electrocardiograms had a more elevated age, a lower alcohol consumption, hypopotassemia, and significantly elevated levels of triglycerides, postprandial glucose, sodium and gamma glutamyl transferase than those with normal electrocardiograms. The opposite occurred with fasting glycemia, magnesium, and alanine aminotransferase. CONCLUSION: The electrocardiographic changes found were prolonged QTc interval, change in ventricular repolarization, and left ventricular hypertrophy. Patients with normal and abnormal electrocardiograms had different metabolic and electrolytic changes.

  6. ABDOMINAL OBESITY, AN ANTHROPOMETRIC PARAMETER PREDICTING METABOLIC DISORDERS

    Maricel Castellanos González

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Waist circumference perimeter, as an indirect indicator of abdominal obesity, is commonly presented as an essential element in the clinical assessment of obesity. The link between abdominal obesity and insulin resistance is proposed as the core of metabolic syndrome’s pathophysiology and complications. Objective: To determine whether individuals with abdominal obesity present characteristics related to metabolic syndrome’s factors that differ from those observed in individuals with no abdominal obesity. Methods: A comparative analytical study was performed including cases control and design in two different groups. The sample was composed of 98 individuals of both sexes randomly selected out of a universe of 510 workers population at the Medical University of Cienfuegos from September to December 2005. They were all tested as to blood pressure, cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, fasting glucose and triglycerides. Results: Abdominal obesity was found in 30.6% of individuals. It was predominant in females (83.3% older than 40 years. The number of cases of obesity linked to hypertension was similar to the number of cases with low HDL cholesterol (53.3%. Impaired glucose was found in 16.7% of cases. Conclusions: Abdominal obesity is a health problem in the population included in this study and it increases as age does. Individuals with abdominal obesity are exposed to a higher risk of metabolic disorders, such as low levels of HDL cholesterol, high levels of triglycerides and total cholesterol, glucose alterations and hypertension.

  7. Metabolic disorders and nutritional status in autoimmune thyroid diseases

    Anna Kawicka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the authors of epidemiological studies have documented that autoimmune diseases are a major problem of modern society and are classified as diseases of civilization. Autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATDs are caused by an abnormal immune response to autoantigens present in the thyroid gland – they often coexist with other autoimmune diseases. The most common dysfunctions of the thyroid gland are hypothyroidism, Graves-Basedow disease and Hashimoto’s disease. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis can be the main cause of primary hypothyroidism of the thyroid gland. Anthropometric, biochemical and physicochemical parameters are used to assess the nutritional status during the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid diseases. Patients with hypothyroidism are often obese, whereas patients with hyperthyroidism are often afflicted with rapid weight loss. The consequence of obesity is a change of the thyroid hormones’ activity; however, weight reduction leads to their normalization. The activity and metabolic rate of thyroid hormones are modifiable. ATDs are associated with abnormalities of glucose metabolism and thus increased risk of developing diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2. Celiac disease (CD also increases the risk of developing other autoimmune diseases. Malnutrition or the presence of numerous nutritional deficiencies in a patient’s body can be the cause of thyroid disorders. Coexisting deficiencies of such elements as iodine, iron, selenium and zinc may impair the function of the thyroid gland. Other nutrient deficiencies usually observed in patients suffering from ATD are: protein deficiencies, vitamin deficiencies (A, C, B6, B5, B1 and mineral deficiencies (phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sodium, chromium. Proper diet helps to reduce the symptoms of the disease, maintains a healthy weight and prevents the occurrence of malnutrition. This article presents an overview of selected documented studies and scientific reports on the

  8. [Metabolic disorders and nutritional status in autoimmune thyroid diseases].

    Kawicka, Anna; Regulska-Ilow, Bożena; Regulska-Ilow, Bożena

    2015-01-02

    In recent years, the authors of epidemiological studies have documented that autoimmune diseases are a major problem of modern society and are classified as diseases of civilization. Autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATDs) are caused by an abnormal immune response to autoantigens present in the thyroid gland - they often coexist with other autoimmune diseases. The most common dysfunctions of the thyroid gland are hypothyroidism, Graves-Basedow disease and Hashimoto's disease. Hashimoto's thyroiditis can be the main cause of primary hypothyroidism of the thyroid gland. Anthropometric, biochemical and physicochemical parameters are used to assess the nutritional status during the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid diseases. Patients with hypothyroidism are often obese, whereas patients with hyperthyroidism are often afflicted with rapid weight loss. The consequence of obesity is a change of the thyroid hormones' activity; however, weight reduction leads to their normalization. The activity and metabolic rate of thyroid hormones are modifiable. ATDs are associated with abnormalities of glucose metabolism and thus increased risk of developing diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2. Celiac disease (CD) also increases the risk of developing other autoimmune diseases. Malnutrition or the presence of numerous nutritional deficiencies in a patient's body can be the cause of thyroid disorders. Coexisting deficiencies of such elements as iodine, iron, selenium and zinc may impair the function of the thyroid gland. Other nutrient deficiencies usually observed in patients suffering from ATD are: protein deficiencies, vitamin deficiencies (A, C, B6, B5, B1) and mineral deficiencies (phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sodium, chromium). Proper diet helps to reduce the symptoms of the disease, maintains a healthy weight and prevents the occurrence of malnutrition. This article presents an overview of selected documented studies and scientific reports on the relationship of metabolic

  9. [METABOLIC SYNDROME AND CARDIOVASCULAR RISK IN PATIENTS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA, BIPOLAR DISORDER AND SCHIZOAFFECTIVE DISORDER].

    Muñoz-Calero Franco, Paloma; Sánchez Sánchez, Blanca; Rodríguez Criado, Natalia; Pinilla Santos, Berta; Bravo Herrero, Sandra; Cruz Fourcade, José Fernando; Martín Aragón, Rubén

    2015-12-01

    patients with severe mental ilness such as schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder and bipolar disorder die at least 20 years earlier than general population. Despite preventive strategies, cardiovascular disease is the first cause of death. analyse the percentage of patients with a high body mass index, metabolic syndrome and their cardiovascular risk at 10 years in patients with a diagnosis, based in DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder or bipolar disorder. These patients were hospitalized because and acute condition of their mental ilness in the Brief Hospitalization Unit of Hospital Universitario de Móstoles between November of 2014 and June of 2015. in 53 patients, 34 with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, 16 with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder and 3 with a schizoaffective disorder, weight, size abdominal perimeter measures and blood pressure were collected. The body mass index was assesed. Blood tests were taken and we use sugar, triglycerides, total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol levels as paramethers for the ATP III and Framingham criteria. We also review the clinical history of the patients and lifestyle and use of toxic substances were registered. 51% of the patients were men and 49% were women. The average age was 40. 38% of the patients were overweighed, 22% obese and 4% had morbid obesity. 26% of the patients had metabolic syndrome, the clinical evolution of the majority of these patients was of more tan 10 years and they also have been treated with different antypsychotics and antidepressants. Using the Framingham criteria, 11% of the patients had a cardiovascular risk higher than 10 % in the next 10 years. overweight and its consequences in patients with a severe mental ilness are intimately related with their lifestyle, disparities in the access to health resources, the clinical evolution of the disease and pharmacotherapy. Strategies to promote physical health in these patients in the spanish health sistme are insufficient

  10. Adipose tissue remodeling: its role in energy metabolism and metabolic disorders

    Sung Sik eChoe

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The adipose tissue is a central metabolic organ in the regulation of whole-body energy homeostasis. The white adipose tissue (WAT functions as a key energy reservoir for other organs, whereas the brown adipose tissue (BAT accumulates lipids for cold-induced adaptive thermogenesis. Adipose tissues secret various hormones, cytokines, and metabolites (termed as adipokines that control systemic energy balance by regulating appetitive signals from the central nerve system as well as metabolic activity in peripheral tissues. In response to changes in the nutritional status, the adipose tissue undergoes dynamic remodeling, including quantitative and qualitative alterations in adipose tissue resident cells. A growing body of evidence indicates that adipose tissue remodeling in obesity is closely associated with adipose tissue function. Changes in the number and size of the adipocytes affect the microenvironment of expanded fat tissues, accompanied by alterations in adipokine secretion, adipocyte death, local hypoxia, and fatty acid fluxes. Concurrently, stromal vascular cells in the adipose tissue, including immune cells, are involved in numerous adaptive processes, such as dead adipocyte clearance, adipogenesis, and angiogenesis, all of which are dysregulated in obese adipose tissue remodeling. Chronic over-nutrition triggers uncontrolled inflammatory responses, leading to systemic low-grade inflammation and metabolic disorders, such as insulin resistance. This review will discuss current mechanistic understandings of adipose tissue remodeling processes in adaptive energy homeostasis and pathological remodeling of adipose tissue in connection with immune response.

  11. Relation of periodontitis and metabolic syndrome with gestational glucose metabolism disorder.

    Bullon, Pedro; Jaramillo, Reyes; Santos-Garcia, Rocio; Rios-Santos, Vicente; Ramirez, Maria; Fernandez-Palacin, Ana; Fernandez-Riejos, Patricia

    2014-02-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and metabolic syndrome have been related to periodontitis. This study's objective is to establish the relationship between them in pregnant women affected by gestational glucose metabolism disorder. In 188 pregnant women with positive O'Sullivan test (POT) results, an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed to diagnose GDM. The mother's periodontal parameters, age, prepregnancy weight and height and body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, gestational age, and birth weight were recorded at 24 to 28 weeks of pregnancy, as well as levels of glucose, C-reactive protein, triglycerides, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and total, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol levels. Prepregnancy weight, prepregnancy BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, VLDL cholesterol, and glucose parameters were higher in GDM compared with POT (P periodontitis than in patients without periodontitis (P c, triglycerides, and 1- and 2-hour OGTT were positively related with probing depth and clinical attachment level; blood glucose was related only to bleeding on probing (P c, basal OGTT, and 1- and 2-hour OGTT were positively related to prepregnancy BMI and blood pressure; HDL cholesterol was negatively related to prepregnancy BMI; C-reactive protein was positively related to prepregnancy BMI and diastolic blood pressure (P periodontal disease and some biochemical parameters such as lipid and glucose data in pregnancy, and also among metabolic syndrome and biochemical parameters.

  12. Psychosocial determinants of metabolic disorders in individuals with psychiatric disorders

    Urszula Łopuszańska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: The analysis of metabolic disorders in people with mental disorders due to psychological factors, healthy and unhealthy behaviour as well as the material situation and employment status. Material and methods: Ninety-one adults diagnosed with a mental disorder who use community support centres, whose metabolic rates were examined with the use of the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR indicator, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol and glucose concentration. Cognitive function examinations were performed by using various testing methods to assess general cognitive function, direct and delayed memory, verbal fluency (letter and semantic. Additionally, a test to determine the severity of depression, and also a sociodemographic survey were performed. Results: Cigarette smoking was associated with a decrease of cognitive functions (p < 0.01 and letter fluency (p < 0.04. Physically active people have lower WHR indicators (p < 0.008, decreased severity of depressive symptoms (p < 0.002 and a lower rate of hospitalisations (p < 0.001. They achieved better results in terms of short-term memory (p < 0.02 than physically inactive people. People employed in sheltered work conditions had lower rates of abdominal obesity WHR (p < 0.01, and achieved better results in the tests measuring their general cognitive functions – Short Test of Mental Status (p < 0.02. Conclusions: Cigarette smoking, low physical activity, and a lack of employment are associated with metabolic rate disorders, especially in relation to the indicators of overweight and obesity, as well as the general decrease in cognitive functions and the ability of learning and memorisation.

  13. Chronic alcoholism-mediated metabolic disorders in albino rat testes.

    Shayakhmetova, Ganna M; Bondarenko, Larysa B; Matvienko, Anatoliy V; Kovalenko, Valentina M

    2014-09-01

    There is good evidence for impairment of spermatogenesis and reductions in sperm counts and testosterone levels in chronic alcoholics. The mechanisms for these effects have not yet been studied in detail. The consequences of chronic alcohol consumption on the structure and/or metabolism of testis cell macromolecules require to be intensively investigated. The present work reports the effects of chronic alcoholism on contents of free amino acids, levels of cytochrome P450 3A2 (CYP3A2) mRNA expression and DNA fragmentation, as well as on contents of different cholesterol fractions and protein thiol groups in rat testes. Wistar albino male rats were divided into two groups: I - control (intact animals), II - chronic alcoholism (15% ethanol self-administration during 150 days). Following 150 days of alcohol consumption, testicular free amino acid content was found to be significantly changed as compared with control. The most profound changes were registered for contents of lysine (-53%) and methionine (+133%). The intensity of DNA fragmentation in alcohol-treated rat testes was considerably increased, on the contrary CYP3A2 mRNA expression in testis cells was inhibited, testicular contents of total and etherified cholesterol increased by 25% and 45% respectively, and protein SH-groups decreased by 13%. Multidirectional changes of the activities of testicular dehydrogenases were detected. We thus obtained complex assessment of chronic alcoholism effects in male gonads, affecting especially amino acid, protein, ATP and NADPH metabolism. Our results demonstrated profound changes in testes on the level of proteome and genome. We suggest that the revealed metabolic disorders can have negative implication on cellular regulation of spermatogenesis under long-term ethanol exposure.

  14. Memory function formalism applied to electronic transport in disordered systems

    Cunha Lima, I.C. da

    1984-01-01

    Memory function formalism is briefly reviewed and applied to electronic transport using the projection operator technique. The resistivity of a disordered 2-D electron gas under strong magnetic field is obtained in terms of force-force correlation function. (Author) [pt

  15. Commentary: Potential Neurobiologic Mechanisms through Which Metabolic Disorders Could Relate to Autism.

    Johnston, Michael V.

    2000-01-01

    To illustrate the possible relationships between metabolic disorders and autism, this commentary reviews findings from studies on the characteristics of individuals with Rett syndrome that indicate the genetic mechanism of transcriptional dysregulation can produce pathologic phenotypes which resemble metabolic disorders that stunt axonodendritic…

  16. Electron dynamics in intentionally disordered semiconductor superlattices

    Diez, E.; Sanchez, A.; Dominguez-Adame, F.; Berman, G.P.

    1996-01-01

    We study the dynamical behavior of disordered quantum well-based semiconductor superlattices where the disorder is intentional and short-range correlated. We show that, whereas the transmission time of a particle grows exponentially with the number of wells in an usual disordered superlattice for any value of the incident particle energy, for specific values of the incident energy this time increases linearly when correlated disorder is included. As expected, those values of the energy coincide with a narrow subband of extended states predicted by the static calculations of Domacute inguez-Adame et al.[Phys. Rev. B 51, 14359 (1994)]; such states are seen in our dynamical results to exhibit a ballistic regime, very close to the WKB approximation of a perfect superlattice. Fourier transform of the output signal for an incident Gaussian wave packet reveals a dramatic filtering of the original signal, which makes us confident that devices based on this property may be designed and used for nanotechnological applications. This is more so in view of the possibility of controlling the output band using a dc-electric field, which we also discuss. In the conclusion we summarize our results and present an outlook for future developments arising from this work. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  17. Conduction mechanism studies on electron transfer of disordered system

    徐慧; 宋祎璞; 李新梅

    2002-01-01

    Using the negative eigenvalue theory and the infinite order perturbation theory, a new method was developed to solve the eigenvectors of disordered systems. The result shows that eigenvectors change from the extended state to the localized state with the increase of the site points and the disordered degree of the system. When electric field is exerted, the electrons transfer from one localized state to another one. The conductivity is induced by the electron transfer. The authors derive the formula of electron conductivity and find the electron hops between localized states whose energies are close to each other, whereas localized positions differ from each other greatly. At low temperature the disordered system has the character of the negative differential dependence of resistivity and temperature.

  18. New-onset Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED; metabolic and clinical correlates: Case report

    Giuseppina Selene Spina

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the correlation between Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED, listed in the domain of Disruptive, Impulse-Control and Conduct Disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition (DSM 5, and metabolic alterations. A 64-years-old man with no previous history of major psychiatric disorders, presenting an onset of IED almost concomitant with the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia, is assessed upon a clinical and neuropsychological evaluation. Authors emphasize the influence of metabolic alterations and liver disease in the manifestation of impulsive aggression and violent behaviour, suggesting a multidisciplinary approach of those patients who present IED and concomitant metabolic alterations.

  19. Metabolism and insulin signaling in common metabolic disorders and inherited insulin resistance

    Højlund, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    . These metabolic disorders are all characterized by reduced plasma adiponectin and insulin resistance in peripheral tissues. Quantitatively skeletal muscle is the major site of insulin resistance. Both low plasma adiponectin and insulin resistance contribute to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes...... described a novel syndrome characterized by postprandial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia and insulin resistance. This syndrome is caused by a mutation in the tyrosine kinase domain of the insulin receptor gene (INSR). We have studied individuals with this mutation as a model of inherited insulin resistance....... Type 2 diabetes, obesity and PCOS are characterized by pronounced defects in the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, in particular glycogen synthesis and to a lesser extent glucose oxidation, and the ability of insulin to suppress lipid oxidation. In inherited insulin resistance, however, only insulin...

  20. METABOLIC SYNDROME IN PATIENTS WITH PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS: diagnostic issues, comorbidity and side effects of antipsychotics

    Kozumplik, Oliver; Uzun, Suzana; Jakovljević, Miro

    2010-01-01

    Background: Metabolic syndrome and other cardiovascular risk factors are highly prevalent in people with schizophrenia. Metabolic syndrome can contribute to significant morbidity and premature mortality and should be accounted for in the treatment of mental disorders. Along with results of numerous investigations regarding metabolic syndrome, different issues have occurred. The aim of this article is to review literature regarding diagnostic and treatment of metabolic syndrome and po...

  1. Geminate electron--cation recombination in disordered solids

    Berlin, Y.A.; Chekunaev, N.I.; Goldanskii, V.I.

    1990-01-01

    A theory of a geminate electron--cation recombination has been developed using the percolation approach to the description of the electron transport in disordered solids. Following this approach all trapping sites are separated into two groups. The first group forms a diffusion cluster responsible for the macroscopic charge transfer in disordered media whilethe second group consists of isolated traps playing the role of origins and sinks for mobile electrons. In the framework of such a model an equation has been derived describing the electron motion in the Coulomb field of a parent cation. The solution of this equation in the long time limit shows that the recombination rate decreases vs time as t -(1+α/2) with α being a positive constant or a very weak function of t. In the particular case of Gaussian diffusion α=1 and the kinetic law obtained reduces to that predicted by the well-known Onsager--Smoluchowski theory. However for the dispersive (non-Gaussian) transport in highly disordered systems α<1 and its value depends on the type of disorder, on the energy level structure of trapped electrons and on the specific mechanism of electron migration through the medium

  2. Biotin deprivation impairs mitochondrial structure and function and has implications for inherited metabolic disorders.

    Ochoa-Ruiz, Estefanía; Díaz-Ruiz, Rodrigo; Hernández-Vázquez, Alaín de J; Ibarra-González, Isabel; Ortiz-Plata, Alma; Rembao, Daniel; Ortega-Cuéllar, Daniel; Viollet, Benoit; Uribe-Carvajal, Salvador; Corella, José Ahmed; Velázquez-Arellano, Antonio

    2015-11-01

    Certain inborn errors of metabolism result from deficiencies in biotin containing enzymes. These disorders are mimicked by dietary absence or insufficiency of biotin, ATP deficit being a major effect,whose responsible mechanisms have not been thoroughly studied. Here we show that in rats and cultured cells it is the result of reduced TCA cycle flow, partly due to deficient anaplerotic biotin-dependent pyruvate carboxylase. This is accompanied by diminished flow through the electron transport chain, augmented by deficient cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV) activity with decreased cytochromes and reduced oxidative phosphorylation. There was also severe mitochondrial damage accompanied by decrease of mitochondria, associated with toxic levels of propionyl CoA as shown by carnitine supplementation studies, which explains the apparently paradoxical mitochondrial diminution in the face of the energy sensor AMPK activation, known to induce mitochondria biogenesis. This idea was supported by experiments on AMPK knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). The multifactorial ATP deficit also provides a plausible basis for the cardiomyopathy in patients with propionic acidemia, and other diseases.Additionally, systemic inflammation concomitant to the toxic state might explain our findings of enhanced IL-6, STAT3 and HIF-1α, associated with an increase of mitophagic BNIP3 and PINK proteins, which may further increase mitophagy. Together our results imply core mechanisms of energy deficit in several inherited metabolic disorders.

  3. Associations between metabolic disorders and risk of cancer in Danish men and women

    Berger, Siv Mari; Gislason, Gunnar; Moore, Lynn L.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of metabolic disorders is increasing and has been suggested to increase cancer risk, but the relation between metabolic disorders and risk of cancer is unclear, especially in young adults. We investigated the associations between diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholest......BACKGROUND: The prevalence of metabolic disorders is increasing and has been suggested to increase cancer risk, but the relation between metabolic disorders and risk of cancer is unclear, especially in young adults. We investigated the associations between diabetes, hypertension......, and hypercholesterolemia on risk of all-site as well as site-specific cancers. METHODS: We consecutively included men and women from nationwide Danish registries 1996-2011, if age 20-89 and without cancer prior to date of entry. We followed them throughout 2012. Metabolic disorders were defined using discharge diagnosis...... codes and claimed prescriptions. We used time-dependent sex-stratified Poisson regression models adjusted for age and calendar year to assess associations between metabolic disorders, and risk of all-site and site-specific cancer (no metabolic disorders as reference). RESULTS: Over a mean follow...

  4. Metabolism and insulin signaling in common metabolic disorders and inherited insulin resistance.

    Højlund, Kurt

    2014-07-01

    Type 2 diabetes, obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are common metabolic disorders which are observed with increasing prevalences, and which are caused by a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors, including increased calorie intake and physical inactivity. These metabolic disorders are all characterized by reduced plasma adiponectin and insulin resistance in peripheral tissues. Quantitatively skeletal muscle is the major site of insulin resistance. Both low plasma adiponectin and insulin resistance contribute to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In several studies, we have investigated insulin action on glucose and lipid metabolism, and at the molecular level, insulin signaling to glucose transport and glycogen synthesis in skeletal muscle from healthy individuals and in obesity, PCOS and type 2 diabetes. Moreover, we have described a novel syndrome characterized by postprandial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia and insulin resistance. This syndrome is caused by a mutation in the tyrosine kinase domain of the insulin receptor gene (INSR). We have studied individuals with this mutation as a model of inherited insulin resistance. Type 2 diabetes, obesity and PCOS are characterized by pronounced defects in the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, in particular glycogen synthesis and to a lesser extent glucose oxidation, and the ability of insulin to suppress lipid oxidation. In inherited insulin resistance, however, only insulin action on glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis is impaired. This suggests that the defects in glucose and lipid oxidation in the common metabolic disorders are secondary to other factors. In young women with PCOS, the degree of insulin resistance was similar to that seen in middle-aged patients with type 2 diabetes. This supports the hypothesis of an unique pathogenesis of insulin resistance in PCOS. Insulin in physiological concentrations stimulates glucose uptake in human skeletal

  5. Electronic structure of ordered and disordered Fe sub 3 Pt

    Major, Z; Jarlborg, T; Bruno, E; Ginatempo, B; Staunton, J B; Poulter, J

    2003-01-01

    The electronic structure of invar alloys (i.e. materials in which the near absence of thermal expansion is observed) has been the focus of much study, owing both to the technological applications of these materials and interest in the fundamental mechanism that is responsible for the effect. Here, calculations of the magnetic Compton profiles are presented for ordered and disordered Fe sub 3 Pt alloys. Using linear muffin-tin orbital and KKR methods, the latter incorporating the coherent potential approximation to describe the substitutional disorder, the electronic band structure and measurable quantities such as the Fermi surface topology are presented.

  6. Solving complex and disordered surface structures with electron diffraction

    Van Hove, M.A.

    1987-10-01

    The past of surface structure determination with low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) will be briefly reviewed, setting the stage for a discussion of recent and future developments. The aim of these developments is to solve complex and disordered surface structures. Some efficient solutions to the theoretical and experimental problems will be presented. Since the theoretical problems dominate, the emphasis will be on theoretical approaches to the calculation of the multiple scattering of electrons through complex and disordered surfaces. 49 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab

  7. Influence of diseases and metabolic disorders on cow weight changes

    Šárka Podlahová

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Requirements on increasing economic efficiency of cattle breeding force farmers to use the latest up-to-datetechnology for monitoring and management of farming quality. Regular weighing and data processing can forinstance discover mistakes that can indicate defects, e.g. nutrition deficiencies, incorrect embryonic development,health problems, demanding nursing intervention. The aim of the research was to monitor manifestations of diseasesand metabolic disorders in the course of weight curve based on data from an automated system for weighing the liveweight of dairy cows. There was used in the weighing unit for milking robots Astronaut A3 (Lely company to obtainweight data of individual cows. There were selected dairy cows with the longest period of lactation or already dryingoff, and especially dairy cows with various health problems for study. Limiting values of weight changes wereestablished after assembling a general equation of mass curve. In the sphere of the diseases there was manifestedonly ketosis in the weight curves with a loss of 10.2 kg / day (38% weight loss. The results of the study will beapplied for compiling algorithm that will be implemented in the complete management system of cattle breeding,monitoring the dairy cows every day and highlight possible deviations exceeding of physiological changes in weight.

  8. Abnormal metabolic network activity in REM sleep behavior disorder.

    Holtbernd, Florian; Gagnon, Jean-François; Postuma, Ron B; Ma, Yilong; Tang, Chris C; Feigin, Andrew; Dhawan, Vijay; Vendette, Mélanie; Soucy, Jean-Paul; Eidelberg, David; Montplaisir, Jacques

    2014-02-18

    To determine whether the Parkinson disease-related covariance pattern (PDRP) expression is abnormally increased in idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and whether increased baseline activity is associated with greater individual risk of subsequent phenoconversion. For this cohort study, we recruited 2 groups of RBD and control subjects. Cohort 1 comprised 10 subjects with RBD (63.5 ± 9.4 years old) and 10 healthy volunteers (62.7 ± 8.6 years old) who underwent resting-state metabolic brain imaging with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET. Cohort 2 comprised 17 subjects with RBD (68.9 ± 4.8 years old) and 17 healthy volunteers (66.6 ± 6.0 years old) who underwent resting brain perfusion imaging with ethylcysteinate dimer SPECT. The latter group was followed clinically for 4.6 ± 2.5 years by investigators blinded to the imaging results. PDRP expression was measured in both RBD groups and compared with corresponding control values. PDRP expression was elevated in both groups of subjects with RBD (cohort 1: p abnormalities in subjects with idiopathic RBD are associated with a greater likelihood of subsequent phenoconversion to a progressive neurodegenerative syndrome.

  9. Electronic monitoring of patients with bipolar affective disorder

    Jacoby, Anne Sophie; Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Vinberg, Maj

    2012-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a great challenge to patients, relatives and clinicians, and there is a need for development of new methods to identify prodromal symptoms of affective episodes in order to provide efficient preventive medical and behavioural intervention. Clinical trials prove that electronic...

  10. Voice-supported Electronic Health Record for Temporomandibular Joint Disorders

    Hippmann, R.; Dostálová, T.; Zvárová, Jana; Nagy, Miroslav; Seydlová, M.; Hanzlíček, Petr; Kříž, P.; Šmídl, L.; Trmal, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 2 (2010), s. 168-172 ISSN 0026-1270 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : electronic health record * structured data entry * dentistry * temporomandibular joint disorder Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 1.472, year: 2010

  11. Electronic and atomic disorder in icosahedral AlPdRe

    Rapp, Oe; Karkin, A A; Goshchitskii, B N; Voronin, V I; Srinivas, V; Poon, S J

    2008-01-01

    Relations between electronic and atomic disorder of i-AlPdRe have been investigated by studies of neutron irradiated and annealed samples. The advantage with this technique is that a single sample can be monitored over a significant range of varying electronic properties, without concern for any influence of varying impurities. X-ray diffraction, the electrical resistivity and its temperature dependence, and the magnetoresistance are studied. The results show that annealings of an irradiated sample lead to improvement of the atomic order, as reflected in increased intensities of the x-ray diffraction peaks, while electronic properties change in the direction of increasing electronic disorder towards a metal-insulator transition. The observed relation in quasicrystals that improved atomic structure is associated with stronger anomalies in transport properties is thus also seen in i-AlPdRe. In particular, the variation of the diffusion constant in the region of small values of the resistivity is found to be similar for annealed polygrain samples and for single grain samples with varying Pd concentration, as evaluated from literature data, indicating a similar development of electronic disorder in both sets of samples. However, the problem remains as to why the resistivity is small in single grain samples which are atomically well-ordered. The possibility of a strong sensitivity to concentration differences is pointed out

  12. Multichannel model of magneto tunneling in disordered electron nanodevices

    Amado, M.; Dominguez-Adame, F.; Diez, E.

    2005-01-01

    We present a multichannel model of magnetotunneling transport in unintentionally disordered double-barrier GaAs-Al x Ga 1-x As heterostructures. The source of disorder comes from interface roughness at the heterojunctions. Disorder break translational symmetry along the lateral direction and therefore electrons can be scattered off the growth direction. The model correctly describes channel mixing due to these elastic scattering events. The magnetic field applied to the double-barrier heterostructure splits the resonant level into a set of equally-spaced resonances, the level spacing increasing with the magnetic field. We discuss the influence of the various parameters (epilayer widths and magnitude or disorder) on the lineshape of the resonant levels

  13. Electronic monitoring of patients with bipolar affective disorder

    Jacoby, Anne Sophie; Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Vinberg, Maj

    2012-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a great challenge to patients, relatives and clinicians, and there is a need for development of new methods to identify prodromal symptoms of affective episodes in order to provide efficient preventive medical and behavioural intervention. Clinical trials prove that electronic...... monitoring is a feasible, valid and acceptable method. Hence it is recommended, that controlled trials on the effect of electronic monitoring on patients' course of illness, level of function and quality of life are conducted.......Bipolar disorder is a great challenge to patients, relatives and clinicians, and there is a need for development of new methods to identify prodromal symptoms of affective episodes in order to provide efficient preventive medical and behavioural intervention. Clinical trials prove that electronic...

  14. [Aging and homeostasis. Management of disorders in bone and calcium metabolism associated with ageing.

    Takeuchi, Yasuhiro

    Disorders in bone and calcium metabolism associated with aging are based on secondary hyperparathyroidism due to impaired intestinal calcium absorption caused by insufficient vitamin D actions and augmented bone resorption due to sex hormone deficiency. Both of them are involved in the development of osteoporosis that increases risk of fractures. Therefore, the most important thing for management of disorders in bone and calcium metabolism associated with aging is to prevent fractures with appropriate drugs for osteoporosis.

  15. Screening newborns for metabolic disorders based on targeted metabolomics using tandem mass spectrometry

    Yoon, Hye-Ran

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of newborn screening is to diagnose genetic, metabolic, and other inherited disorders, at their earliest to start treatment before the clinical manifestations become evident. Understanding and tracing the biochemical data obtained from tandem mass spectrometry is vital for early diagnosis of metabolic diseases associated with such disorders. Accordingly, it is important to focus on the entire diagnostic process, including differential and confirmatory diagnostic options, and ...

  16. Spectrum Of Inherited Metabolic Disorders In Pakistani Children Presenting At A Tertiary Care Centre

    Cheema, H. A.; Malik, H. S.; Parkash, A.; Fayyaz, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency, presentation and outcome of various inherited metabolic diseases in children presenting in a tertiary care hospital, Lahore, Pakistan. Study Design: An observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition Department of The Children Hospital and Institute of Child Health, Lahore, from January 2011 to October 2014. Methodology: All children aged < 14 years with high suspicion of a metabolic disorder were inducted. Routine and radiological investigation were carried out at the study place. Comprehensive diagnostic testing of particular metabolic disorder was sent abroad. Those with a specific metabolic disorder were included in the study while those with normal metabolic work-up were excluded. All data was collected on preformed proforma. Result: A total of 239 patients were enrolled. Nineteen different types of inherited metabolic disorders were diagnosed in 180 patients; age ranged from 8 days to 14 years. Consanguinity was positive in 175 (97 percentage) among the parents of the affected children, with previously affected siblings in 64 (35.5 percentage). The most frequent disorders were inherited disorders of carbohydrate metabolism (92, 51 percentage), lipid storage disease (59, 32.7 percentage), organic acidemia and energy defects (18, 10 percentage), amino acid disorder (6, 3.3 percentage), and miscellaneous (4, 2.2 percentage). Fifty-eight (32.2 percentage) presented with acute metabolic crisis, 28 (15.5 percentage) patients presented with early onset liver failure, and 24 (13.3 percentage) with mental retardation. Out of these, 16 (8.8 percentage) expired. Conclusion: Glycogen storage disorders being the commonest followed by Gaucher disease and Galactosemia. The associated complications resulted in high morbidity and mortality. (author)

  17. Comparison of metabolic syndrome prevalence in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder.

    Nayerifard, Razieh; Bureng, Majid Akbari; Zahiroddin, Alireza; Namjoo, Massood; Rajezi, Sepideh

    2017-11-01

    Research has shown that the metabolic syndrome is more prevalent among patients with schizophrenia or bipolar I disorder. Given the scarcity of research on the disorders, this paper aims to compare the prevalence of the syndrome among the two groups of patients. A total of 120 individuals participated in this cross sectional study: 60 patients with schizophrenia (26 males and 34 females) and 60 patients with bipolar I disorder (32 males and 28 females). The psychological disorders were diagnosed by some experienced psychiatrists according to the DSM-V. Furthermore, metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to ATP III guidelines. Metabolic syndrome prevalence among schizophrenic and bipolar I patients was 28 and 36 percent, respectively; the disparity in prevalence is not significant. According to the results, compared to their male counterparts, females were more prone significant to metabolic syndrome. Moreover, diastolic blood pressure was significantly higher among bipolar I patients. On the other hand, schizophrenic males were observed to have higher fasting blood sugar levels in comparison to bipolar I males patients. Age, consumption of second generation antipsychotics or antidepressants, and the duration of the disorder were found to be related to metabolic syndrome. This study showed that metabolic syndrome is not more prevalent among bipolar I patients, compared to those with schizophrenia. Also, women are more likely to be affected by the syndrome. A number of factors such as age, consumption of medication, and duration of the disorder are associated with the likelihood of the syndrome. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. The relation of vitamin D, metabolic risk and negative symptom severity in people with psychotic disorders

    Bruins, J.; Jörg, F.; van den Heuvel, E.R.; Bartels-Velthuis, A.A.; Corpeleijn, E.; Muskiet, F.A.J.; Pijnenborg, G.H.M.; Bruggeman, R.

    2018-01-01

    People with psychotic disorders have an increased metabolic risk and their mean life expectancy is reduced with circa 28 years (Olfson et al., 2015).Predictors of this increased metabolic risk are genetic predisposition (Liu et al., 2013), lifestyle factors such as unhealthy diet, physical

  19. Metabolic syndrome, activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and inflammatory mediators in depressive disorder.

    Martinac, Marko; Pehar, Davor; Karlović, Dalibor; Babić, Dragan; Marcinko, Darko; Jakovljević, Miro

    2014-03-01

    Depression has been associated with various cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, obesity, atherogenic dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia. In depressive disorder, hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and changes in the immune system have been observed. On the other hand, somatic diseases such as obesity, hyperlipidemia, hypertension and diabetes mellitus type 2 are now perceived as important comorbid conditions in patients with depression. The pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome and depression is complex and poorly researched; however, it is considered that the interaction of chronic stress, psychotrauma, hypercotisolism and disturbed immune functions contribute to the development of these disorders. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between depression and metabolic syndrome regarding the HPA axis dysfunction and altered inflammatory processes. Literature search in Medline and other databases included articles written in English published between 1985 and 2012. Analysis of the literature was conducted using a systematic approach with the search terms such as depression, metabolic syndrome, inflammation, cytokines, glucocorticoids, cortisol, and HPA axis. In conclusion, the relationship between depression and metabolic syndrome is still a subject of controversy. Further prospective studies are required to clarify the possible causal relationship between depression and metabolic syndrome and its components. Furthermore, it is important to explore the possibility of a common biologic mechanism in the pathogenesis of these two disorders, in which special attention should be paid to the immune system function, especially the possible specific mechanisms by which cytokines can induce and maintain depressive symptoms and metabolic disorders. The data presented here emphasize the importance of recognition and treatment of depressive disorders with consequent reduction in the incidence of metabolic syndrome, but

  20. Glycemic screening and recurrent carbohydrate metabolism disorders with endocrine pathology

    L.А. Lutsenko

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of glycated hemoglobin for diabetes mellitus (DM diagnosis is recommended by World Health Organization as of 2011. The level of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c ≥ 6.5 % is a diagnostic criterion for DM but HbA1c level of 6.0–6.4 % does not exclude diabetes mellitus diagnosis with hyperglycemia. Moreover, when diagnosing, evaluation of this criterion is a must, since decision about the nature and the scope of sugar-reducing therapy is based on the level of HbA1c. Counterregulatory hormones are glucagon, adre­nalin, somatotropin, glucocorticoids and thyroid hormones. Pathogenic mechanism of carbohydrate metabolism disorders with hypersecretion of counterregulatory hormones is caused by peripheral insulin resistance, decrease in insulin secretion, increase in gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis in liver and increase in the absorption of intestinal glucose with insulin being the only hormone decreasing the blood glucose. So, the endocrine diseases (hypercorticism, acromegalia, pheochromocytoma, hyperparathyroidism and hyperthyroidism with excessive secretion of counterregulatory hormones suggest the necessity of secondary diabetes diagnosis. Screening tests with quite high sensitivity and specificity have been developed for early diagnosis of endocrynopathies. Screening tests for hypercorticism diagnosis are dexamethasone (1 mg suppression test, daily urinary cortisol excretion and nighttime salivary cortisol. Optimal test for screening acromegalia is considered to be insulin-like growth factor 1 which shows the secretion of somatotropic hormone during previous day and is not subject to significant fluctuations. One-time detection of increased insulin-like growth factor 1 level compared to referential values for specific sex and age is enough for confirmation of hypersomatotropinemia. Thyroid-stimulating hormone is recommended as a screening test for thyrotoxicosis diagnosis. When choosing this test, doctor should consider the parameter of

  1. Is the Gut Microbiota a New Factor Contributing to Obesity and Its Metabolic Disorders?

    Kristina Harris

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota refers to the trillions of microorganisms residing in the intestine and is integral in multiple physiological processes of the host. Recent research has shown that gut bacteria play a role in metabolic disorders such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. The mechanisms by which the gut microbiota affects metabolic diseases are by two major routes: (1 the innate immune response to the structural components of bacteria (e.g., lipopolysaccharide resulting in inflammation and (2 bacterial metabolites of dietary compounds (e.g., SCFA from fiber, which have biological activities that regulate host functions. Gut microbiota has evolved with humans as a mutualistic partner, but dysbiosis in a form of altered gut metagenome and collected microbial activities, in combination with classic genetic and environmental factors, may promote the development of metabolic disorders. This paper reviews the available literature about the gut microbiota and aforementioned metabolic disorders and reveals the gaps in knowledge for future study.

  2. Lingual dyskinesia and tics: a novel presentation of copper-metabolism disorder.

    Goez, Helly R; Jacob, Francois D; Yager, Jerome Y

    2011-02-01

    Copper is a trace element that is required for cellular respiration, neurotransmitter biosynthesis, pigment formation, antioxidant defense, peptide amidation, and formation of connective tissue. Abnormalities of copper metabolism have been linked with neurologic disorders that affect movement, such as Wilson disease and Menkes disease; however, the diagnosis of non-Wilson, non-Menkes-type copper-metabolism disorders has been more elusive, especially in cases with atypical characteristics. We present here the case of an adolescent with a novel presentation of copper-metabolism disorder who exhibited acute severe hemilingual dyskinesia and prominent tics, with ballismus of the upper limbs, but had normal brain and spinal MRI results and did not show any signs of dysarthria or dysphagia. His serum copper and ceruloplasmin levels were low, but his urinary copper level was elevated after penicillamine challenge. We conclude that copper-metabolism disorders should be included in the differential diagnosis for movement disorders, even in cases with highly unusual presentations, because many of them are treatable. Moreover, a connection between copper-metabolism disorders and tics is presented, to our knowledge, for the first time in humans; further investigation is needed to better establish this connection and understand its underlying pathophysiology.

  3. The measurement of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic function and glucose metabolism in patients with movement disorders

    Otsuka, Makoto; Ichiya, Yuichi; Kuwabara, Yasuo; Sasaki, Masayuki; Fukumura, Toshimitsu; Masuda, Kouji; Shima, Fumio; Kato, Motohiro [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1992-12-01

    The nigrostriatal dopaminergic function and glucose metabolism were evaluated in 34 patients with various movement disorders by using positron emission tomography with [sup 18]F-Dopa and [sup 18]F-FDG respectively. The [sup 18]F-Dopa uptake in the striatum (the caudate head and the putamen) decreased in patients with Parkinson's disease but was relatively unaffected in the caudate. The cerebral glucose metabolism was normal in patients with Parkinson's disease. The [sup 18]F-Dopa uptake in the striatum also decreased in cases of atypical parkinsonism and in cases of progressive supranuclear palsy, but there was no difference in the uptake between the caudate and the putamen. The glucose metabolism decreased in the cerebral hemisphere including the striatum; this finding was also different from those of Parkinson's disease. A normal [sup 18]F-Dopa uptake in the striatum with a markedly decreased striatal glucose metabolism and a mildly decreased cortical glucose metabolism was observed in cases of Huntington's disease and Wilson's disease. The [sup 18]F-Dopa uptake in the striatum increased and the glucose metabolism was normal in cases of idiopathic dystonia. Various patterns of [sup 18]F-Dopa uptake and glucose metabolism were thus observed in the various movement disorders. These results suggest that the measurements of the [sup 18]F-Dopa uptake and the cerebral glucose metabolism would be useful for the evaluation of the striatal function in various movement disorders. (author).

  4. Strategies for reversing the effects of metabolic disorders induced as a consequence of developmental programming

    Mark H Vickers

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and the metabolic syndrome have reached epidemic proportions worldwide with far-reaching health care and economic implications. The rapid increase in the prevalence of these disorders suggests that environmental and behavioural influences, rather than genetic causes, are fuelling the epidemic. The developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis has highlighted the link between the periconceptual, fetal and early infant phases of life and the subsequent development of metabolic disorders in later life. In particular, the impact of poor maternal nutrition on susceptibility to later life metabolic disease in offspring is now well documented. Several studies have now shown, at least in experimental animal models, that some components of the metabolic syndrome, induced as a consequence of developmental programming, are potentially reversible by nutritional or targeted therapeutic interventions during windows of developmental plasticity. This review will focus on critical windows of development and possible therapeutic avenues that may reduce metabolic and obesogenic risk following an adverse early life environment.

  5. Metabolic and toxic causes of canine seizure disorders: A retrospective study of 96 cases.

    Brauer, Christina; Jambroszyk, Melanie; Tipold, Andrea

    2011-02-01

    A wide variety of intoxications and abnormal metabolic conditions can lead to reactive seizures in dogs. Patient records of dogs suffering from seizure disorders (n=877) were reviewed, and 96 cases were associated with an underlying metabolic or toxic aetiology. These included intoxications by various agents, hypoglycaemia, electrolyte disorders, hepatic encephalopathy, hypothyroidism, uraemic encephalopathy, hypoxia and hyperglycaemia. The incidence of the underlying diseases was determined. The most common causes of reactive seizures were intoxications (39%, 37 dogs) and hypoglycaemia (32%, 31 dogs). Hypocalcaemia was the most frequent electrolyte disorder causing reactive seizures (5%) and all five of these dogs had ionised calcium concentrations ≤0.69 mmol/L. Eleven per cent of dogs with seizures had metabolic or toxic disorders and this relatively high frequency emphasises the importance of a careful clinical work-up of cases presented with seizures in order to reach a correct diagnosis and select appropriate treatment options. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Associations between Body Composition Indices and Metabolic Disorders in Chinese Adults: A Cross-Sectional Observational Study

    Rong Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: This study identified positive associations between all evaluated body composition indices and metabolic parameters in Chinese adults. Among the body composition indices, BMI predicted four of the five evaluated metabolic disorders in both gender groups.

  7. Psychosocial and metabolic function by smoking status in individuals with binge eating disorder and obesity.

    Udo, Tomoko; White, Marney A; Barnes, Rachel D; Ivezaj, Valentina; Morgan, Peter; Masheb, Robin M; Grilo, Carlos M

    2016-02-01

    Individuals with binge eating disorder (BED) report smoking to control appetite and weight. Smoking in BED is associated with increased risk for comorbid psychiatric disorders, but its impact on psychosocial functioning and metabolic function has not been evaluated. Participants were 429 treatment-seeking adults (72.4% women; mean age 46.2±11.0years old) with BED comorbid with obesity. Participants were categorized into current smokers (n=66), former smokers (n=145), and never smokers (n=218). Smoking status was unrelated to most historical eating/weight variables and to current eating disorder psychopathology. Smoking status was associated with psychiatric, psychosocial, and metabolic functioning. Compared with never smokers, current smokers were more likely to meet lifetime diagnostic criteria for alcohol (OR=5.51 [95% CI=2.46-12.33]) and substance use disorders (OR=7.05 [95% CI=3.37-14.72]), poorer current physical quality of life, and increased risk for metabolic syndrome (OR=1.80 [95% CI=0.97-3.35]) and related metabolic risks (reduced HDL, elevated total cholesterol). On the other hand, the odds of meeting criteria for lifetime psychiatric comorbidity or metabolic abnormalities were not significantly greater in former smokers, relative to never smokers. Our findings suggest the importance of promoting smoking cessation in treatment-seeking patients with BED and obesity for its potential long-term implications for psychiatric and metabolic functioning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Endocrine and metabolic disorders associated with human immune deficiency virus infection.

    Unachukwu, C N; Uchenna, D I; Young, E E

    2009-01-01

    Many reports have described endocrine and metabolic disorders in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. This article reviewed various reports in the literature in order to increase the awareness and thus the need for early intervention when necessary. Data were obtained from MEDLINE, Google search and otherjournals on 'HIV, Endocrinopathies/Metabolic Disorders' from 1985 till 2007. Studies related to HIV associated endocrinopathies and metabolic disorders in the last two decades were reviewed. Information on epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of the target organ endocrinopathies and metabolic disorders in HIV/AIDS were extracted from relevant literature. Endocrine and metabolic disturbances occur in the course of HIV infection. Pathogenesis includes direct infection of endocrine glands by HIV or opportunistic organisms, infiltration by neoplasms and side effects of drugs. Adrenal insufficiency is the commonest HIV endocrinopathy with cytomegalovirus adrenalitis occurring in 40-88% of cases. Thyroid dysfunction may occur as euthyroid sick syndrome or sub-clinical hypothyroidism. Hypogonadotrophic dysfunction accounts for 75% of HIV-associated hypogonadism, with prolonged amenorrhoea being three times more likely in the women. Pancreatic dysfunction may result in hypoglycaemia or diabetes mellitus (DM). Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) especially protease inhibitors has been noted to result in insulin resistance and lipodystrophy. Virtually every endocrine organ is involved in the course of HIV infection. Detailed endocrinological and metabolic evaluation and appropriate treatment is necessary in the optimal management of patients with HIV infection in our environment.

  9. Observation of electron weak localization and correlation effects in disordered graphene

    2009-01-01

    We have studied the electron transport properties of a disordered graphene sample, where the disorder was intentionally strengthened by Ga+ ion irradiation. The magneto-conductance of the sample exhibits a typical two-dimensional electron weak localization behavior, with electron-electron interaction as the dominant dephasing mechanism. The absence of electron anti-weak localization in the sample implies strong intersublattice and/or intervalley scattering caused by the disorders. The temperature and bias-voltage dependencies of conductance clearly reveal the suppression of conductance at low energies, indicating opening of a Coulomb gap due to electron-electron interaction in the disordered graphene sample.

  10. Autonomic nervous system and lipid metabolism: findings in anxious-depressive spectrum and eating disorders.

    Pistorio, Elisabetta; Luca, Maria; Luca, Antonina; Messina, Vincenzo; Calandra, Carmela

    2011-10-28

    To correlate lipid metabolism and autonomic dysfunction with anxious-depressive spectrum and eating disorders. To propose the lipid index (LI) as a new possible biomarker. 95 patients and 60 controls were enrolled from the University Psychiatry Unit of Catania and from general practitioners (GPs). The patients were divided into four pathological groups: Anxiety, Depression, Anxious-Depressive Disorder and Eating Disorders [Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) official/appendix criteria]. The levels of the cholesterol, triglycerides and apolipoproteins A and B were determined. The LI, for each subject, was obtained through a mathematical operation on the values of the cholesterol and triglycerides levels compared with the maximum cut-off of the general population. The autonomic functioning was tested with Ewing battery tests. Particularly, the correlation between heart rate variability (HRV) and lipid metabolism has been investigated. Pathological and control groups, compared among each other, presented some peculiarities in the lipid metabolism and the autonomic dysfunction scores. In addition, a statistically significant correlation has been found between HRV and lipid metabolism. Lipid metabolism and autonomic functioning seem to be related to the discussed psychiatric disorders. LI, in addition, could represent a new possible biomarker to be considered.

  11. Autonomic nervous system and lipid metabolism: findings in anxious-depressive spectrum and eating disorders

    Messina Vincenzo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To correlate lipid metabolism and autonomic dysfunction with anxious-depressive spectrum and eating disorders. To propose the lipid index (LI as a new possible biomarker. Methods 95 patients and 60 controls were enrolled from the University Psychiatry Unit of Catania and from general practitioners (GPs. The patients were divided into four pathological groups: Anxiety, Depression, Anxious-Depressive Disorder and Eating Disorders [Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR official/appendix criteria]. The levels of the cholesterol, triglycerides and apolipoproteins A and B were determined. The LI, for each subject, was obtained through a mathematical operation on the values of the cholesterol and triglycerides levels compared with the maximum cut-off of the general population. The autonomic functioning was tested with Ewing battery tests. Particularly, the correlation between heart rate variability (HRV and lipid metabolism has been investigated. Results Pathological and control groups, compared among each other, presented some peculiarities in the lipid metabolism and the autonomic dysfunction scores. In addition, a statistically significant correlation has been found between HRV and lipid metabolism. Conclusions Lipid metabolism and autonomic functioning seem to be related to the discussed psychiatric disorders. LI, in addition, could represent a new possible biomarker to be considered.

  12. Correlated electron phenomena in ultra-low disorder quantum wires

    Reilly, D.J.; Facer, G.R.; Dzurak, A.S.; Kane, B.E.; Clark, R.G.; Lumpkin, N.E.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Quantum point contacts in the lowest disorder HEMTs display structure at 0.7 x 2e 2 /h, which cannot be interpreted within a single particle Landauer model. This structure has been attributed to a spontaneous spin polarisation at zero B field. We have developed novel GaAs/AlGaAs enhancement mode FETs, which avoid the random impurity potential present in conventional MODFET devices by using epitaxially grown gates to produce ultra-low-disorder QPCs and quantum wires using electron beam lithography. The ballistic mean free path within these devices exceeds 160 μm 2 . Quantum wires of 5 μm in length show up to 15 conductance plateaux, indicating that these may be the lowest-disorder quantum wires fabricated using conventional surface patterning techniques. These structures are ideal for the study of correlation effects in QPCs and quantum wires as a function of electron density. Our data provides strong evidence that correlation effects are enhanced as the length of the 1D region is increased and also that additional structure moves close to 0.5 x 2e 2 /h, the value expected for an ideal spin-split 1D level

  13. Deconstructing Black Swans: An Introductory Approach to Inherited Metabolic Disorders in the Neonate.

    Mew, Nicholas Ah; Viall, Sarah; Kirmse, Brian; Chapman, Kimberly A

    2015-08-01

    Inherited metabolic disorders (IMDs) are individually rare but collectively common disorders that frequently require rapid or urgent therapy. This article provides a generalized approach to IMDs, as well as some investigations and safe therapies that may be initiated pending the metabolic consult. An overview of the research supporting management strategies is provided. In addition, the newborn metabolic screen is reviewed. Caring for infants with IMDs can seem difficult because each of the types is rarely seen; however, collectively the management can be seen as similar. When an IMD is suspected, a metabolic specialist should be consulted for expert advice regarding appropriate laboratory investigations and management. Because rapid intervention of IMDs before the onset of symptoms may prevent future irreversible sequelae, each abnormal newborn screen must be addressed promptly. Management can be difficult. Research in this area is limited and can be difficult without multisite coordination since sample sizes of any significance are difficult to achieve.

  14. Clinical approach to inherited metabolic disorders in neonates

    Saudubray, J. M.; Narcy, C.; Lyonnet, L.; Bonnefont, J. P.; Poll The, B. T.; Munnich, A.

    1990-01-01

    Most inborn errors of intermediary metabolism presenting in the neonatal period fall schematically into three clinical categories: (1) those which lead to a neurological distress 'intoxication type' with a symptom-free interval, vomiting, comas, hypertonia, abnormal movements and frequent humoral

  15. Metabolic risk factors in depressive and anxiety disorders

    Reedt Dortland, Arianne Klaartje Beraldine van

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to clarify which aspects of depression and anxiety are related to an increased metabolic risk, and which factors contribute to these associations. Taken together, our findings indicate that people with more severe symptoms of depression and anxiety are at particular risk

  16. Electronic structure of disordered Cu-Ag alloys

    Razee, S.S.A.

    1994-08-01

    We present a self-consistent-field Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker coherent potential approximation study of the electronic structure of disordered Cu x Ag 1-x alloys for x=0.0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0. In particular, we focus on the Fermi surface, density of states, and Bloch spectral density, and study how they evolve as a function of x. We find that, Fermi surface dimensions have a non-linear composition dependence. The disorder-induced smearing of the Fermi surface, as expected, is very high along the direction; both the Cu and Ag Fermi surfaces have a neck in this direction. Whenever possible we have compared our results with the available experimental data. (author). 34 refs, 4 figs

  17. A Marker of Endotoxemia Is Associated With Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders in Apparently Healthy Chinese

    Sun, Liang; Yu, Zhijie; Ye, Xingwang; Zou, Shurong; Li, Huaixing; Yu, Danxia; Wu, Hongyu; Chen, Yan; Dore, Joel; Clément, Karine; Hu, Frank B.; Lin, Xu

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Elevated lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), a marker of subclinical endotoxemia, may be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity and metabolic risk. We aimed to investigate the association between plasma LBP and metabolic disorders in apparently healthy Chinese. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A population-based study including 559 overweight/obese (BMI ≥24.0 kg/m2) and 500 normal-weight (18.0 ≤ BMI

  18. Probiotics and Prebiotics: Present Status and Future Perspectives on Metabolic Disorders.

    Yoo, Ji Youn; Kim, Sung Soo

    2016-03-18

    Metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), present an increasing public health concern and can significantly undermine an individual's quality of life. The relative risk of CVD, the primary cause of death in T2DM patients, is two to four times higher in people with T2DM compared with those who are non-diabetic. The prevalence of metabolic disorders has been associated with dynamic changes in dietary macronutrient intake and lifestyle changes over recent decades. Recently, the scientific community has considered alteration in gut microbiota composition to constitute one of the most probable factors in the development of metabolic disorders. The altered gut microbiota composition is strongly conducive to increased adiposity, β-cell dysfunction, metabolic endotoxemia, systemic inflammation, and oxidative stress. Probiotics and prebiotics can ameliorate T2DM and CVD through improvement of gut microbiota, which in turn leads to insulin-signaling stimulation and cholesterol-lowering effects. We analyze the currently available data to ascertain further potential benefits and limitations of probiotics and prebiotics in the treatment of metabolic disorders, including T2DM, CVD, and other disease (obesity). The current paper explores the relevant contemporary scientific literature to assist in the derivation of a general perspective of this broad area.

  19. Probiotics and Prebiotics: Present Status and Future Perspectives on Metabolic Disorders

    Yoo, Ji Youn; Kim, Sung Soo

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), present an increasing public health concern and can significantly undermine an individual’s quality of life. The relative risk of CVD, the primary cause of death in T2DM patients, is two to four times higher in people with T2DM compared with those who are non-diabetic. The prevalence of metabolic disorders has been associated with dynamic changes in dietary macronutrient intake and lifestyle changes over recent decades. Recently, the scientific community has considered alteration in gut microbiota composition to constitute one of the most probable factors in the development of metabolic disorders. The altered gut microbiota composition is strongly conducive to increased adiposity, β-cell dysfunction, metabolic endotoxemia, systemic inflammation, and oxidative stress. Probiotics and prebiotics can ameliorate T2DM and CVD through improvement of gut microbiota, which in turn leads to insulin-signaling stimulation and cholesterol-lowering effects. We analyze the currently available data to ascertain further potential benefits and limitations of probiotics and prebiotics in the treatment of metabolic disorders, including T2DM, CVD, and other disease (obesity). The current paper explores the relevant contemporary scientific literature to assist in the derivation of a general perspective of this broad area. PMID:26999199

  20. Probiotics and Prebiotics: Present Status and Future Perspectives on Metabolic Disorders

    Ji Youn Yoo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes (T2DM and cardiovascular disease (CVD, present an increasing public health concern and can significantly undermine an individual’s quality of life. The relative risk of CVD, the primary cause of death in T2DM patients, is two to four times higher in people with T2DM compared with those who are non-diabetic. The prevalence of metabolic disorders has been associated with dynamic changes in dietary macronutrient intake and lifestyle changes over recent decades. Recently, the scientific community has considered alteration in gut microbiota composition to constitute one of the most probable factors in the development of metabolic disorders. The altered gut microbiota composition is strongly conducive to increased adiposity, β-cell dysfunction, metabolic endotoxemia, systemic inflammation, and oxidative stress. Probiotics and prebiotics can ameliorate T2DM and CVD through improvement of gut microbiota, which in turn leads to insulin-signaling stimulation and cholesterol-lowering effects. We analyze the currently available data to ascertain further potential benefits and limitations of probiotics and prebiotics in the treatment of metabolic disorders, including T2DM, CVD, and other disease (obesity. The current paper explores the relevant contemporary scientific literature to assist in the derivation of a general perspective of this broad area.

  1. Fatty Acids Consumption: The Role Metabolic Aspects Involved in Obesity and Its Associated Disorders

    Priscila Silva Figueiredo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and its associated disorders, such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, metabolic inflammation, dysbiosis, and non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis, are involved in several molecular and inflammatory mechanisms that alter the metabolism. Food habit changes, such as the quality of fatty acids in the diet, are proposed to treat and prevent these disorders. Some studies demonstrated that saturated fatty acids (SFA are considered detrimental for treating these disorders. A high fat diet rich in palmitic acid, a SFA, is associated with lower insulin sensitivity and it may also increase atherosclerosis parameters. On the other hand, a high intake of eicosapentaenoic (EPA and docosahexaenoic (DHA fatty acids may promote positive effects, especially on triglyceride levels and increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL levels. Moreover, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs are effective at limiting the hepatic steatosis process through a series of biochemical events, such as reducing the markers of non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis, increasing the gene expression of lipid metabolism, decreasing lipogenic activity, and releasing adiponectin. This current review shows that the consumption of unsaturated fatty acids, MUFA, and PUFA, and especially EPA and DHA, which can be applied as food supplements, may promote effects on glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as on metabolic inflammation, gut microbiota, and hepatic metabolism.

  2. Electron transport in magnetic multilayers: effect of disorder

    Drchal, Václav; Kudrnovský, Josef; Bruno, P.; Dederichs, P. H.; Turek, Ilja; Weinberger, P.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 65, - (2002), s. 214414-1-214414-8 ISSN 0163-1829 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC P5.30; GA ČR GA202/00/0122; GA AV ČR IAA1010829; GA AV ČR IBS2041105 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : electron transport * magnetic multilayers * ballistic transport * diffusive transport * disorder Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.327, year: 2002

  3. Adherence issues in inherited metabolic disorders treated by low natural protein diets

    MaCdonald, A; van Rijn, M; Feillet, F

    2012-01-01

    Common inborn errors of metabolism treated by low natural protein diets [amino acid (AA) disorders, organic acidemias and urea cycle disorders] are responsible for a collection of diverse clinical symptoms, each condition presenting at different ages with variable severity. Precursor......-free or essential L-AAs are important in all these conditions. Optimal long-term outcome depends on early diagnosis and good metabolic control, but because of the rarity and severity of conditions, randomized controlled trials are scarce. In all of these disorders, it is commonly described that dietary adherence...... on their neuropsychological profile. There are little data about their ability to self-manage their own diet or the success of any formal educational programs that may have been implemented. Trials conducted in non-phenylketonuria (PKU) patients are rare, and the development of specialist L-AAs for non-PKU AA disorders has...

  4. Metabolic disorders in vertigo, tinnitus, and hearing loss.

    Kaźmierczak, H; Doroszewska, G

    2001-01-01

    Vertigo, tinnitus, and hearing loss are common complaints among populations of industrial countries, especially in persons older than 40 years. Numerous agents are known to incite vertigo, tinnitus, and hearing loss, among them hyperinsulinemia, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia. In this study, we proposed to assess the occurrence of hyperinsulinemia, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia in patients suffering from vertigo, tinnitus, or hearing loss of unknown origin. Results of various tests in 48 patients were compared to those in 31 control subjects. Assessments of body mass index, blood pressure, and laryngological, audiometric, and electronystagmographic parameters were performed in all study participants. An oral glucose tolerance test was used to evaluate insulin levels, and lipoprotein phenotyping served to determine cholesterol, triglyceride, and lipoprotein levels. Patients were found to be significantly more overweight (on the basis of body mass index) than were the control subjects. Hypertension was more common among patients than controls, but the difference was significant only between the men in the two groups. Disturbances of glucose metabolism were found in 27.1% of patients but in only 9.7% of controls. Diabetes mellitus was not present in any controls but was identified in four patients. Hyperinsulinemia was almost twice as common in patients as in controls. Only the occurrence of hyperlipoproteinemia seemed not to differ between patients and control subjects. We conclude that such disturbances of glucose metabolism as diabetes mellitus and hyperinsulinemia may be responsible for inner ear diseases, whereas the role of disturbances of lipid metabolism remains vague.

  5. Role of MicroRNAs in Obesity-Induced Metabolic Disorder and Immune Response

    Hong Zhong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In all living organisms, metabolic homeostasis and the immune system are the most fundamental requirements for survival. Recently, obesity has become a global public health issue, which is the cardinal risk factor for metabolic disorder. Many diseases emanating from obesity-induced metabolic dysfunction are responsible for the activated immune system, including innate and adaptive responses. Of note, inflammation is the manifest accountant signal. Deeply studied microRNAs (miRNAs have participated in many pathways involved in metabolism and immune responses to protect cells from multiple harmful stimulants, and they play an important role in determining the progress through targeting different inflammatory pathways. Thus, immune response and metabolic regulation are highly integrated with miRNAs. Collectively, miRNAs are the new targets for therapy in immune dysfunction.

  6. Role of MicroRNAs in Obesity-Induced Metabolic Disorder and Immune Response.

    Zhong, Hong; Ma, Minjuan; Liang, Tingming; Guo, Li

    2018-01-01

    In all living organisms, metabolic homeostasis and the immune system are the most fundamental requirements for survival. Recently, obesity has become a global public health issue, which is the cardinal risk factor for metabolic disorder. Many diseases emanating from obesity-induced metabolic dysfunction are responsible for the activated immune system, including innate and adaptive responses. Of note, inflammation is the manifest accountant signal. Deeply studied microRNAs (miRNAs) have participated in many pathways involved in metabolism and immune responses to protect cells from multiple harmful stimulants, and they play an important role in determining the progress through targeting different inflammatory pathways. Thus, immune response and metabolic regulation are highly integrated with miRNAs. Collectively, miRNAs are the new targets for therapy in immune dysfunction.

  7. Cerebral glucose metabolism in childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Swedo, S.E.; Schapiro, M.B.; Grady, C.L.; Cheslow, D.L.; Leonard, H.L.; Kumar, A.; Friedland, R.; Rapoport, S.I.; Rapoport, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    The cerebral metabolic rate for glucose was studied in 18 adults with childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and in age- and sex-matched controls using positron emission tomography and fludeoxyglucose F 18. Both groups were scanned during rest, with reduced auditory and visual stimulation. The group with OCD showed an increased glucose metabolism in the left orbital frontal, right sensorimotor, and bilateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate regions as compared with controls. Ratios of regional activity to mean cortical gray matter metabolism were increased for the right prefrontal and left anterior cingulate regions in the group with OCD as a whole. Correlations between glucose metabolism and clinical assessment measures showed a significant relationship between metabolic activity and both state and trait measurements of OCD and anxiety as well as the response to clomipramine hydrochloride therapy. These results are consistent with the suggestion that OCD may result from a functional disturbance in the frontal-limbic-basal ganglia system

  8. Relation between Hormonal Disorders and Components of Metabolic Syndrome in Patients with Primary Hypothyroidism

    Т.Yu. Yuzvenko

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade plenty of the researches dedicated to the problem of hypothyroidism were published, that radically changed views to the value of thyroid pathology on the whole. Neurohumoral changes are considered as a nosotropic factor of hypothyroidism development in persons with metabolic syndrome (MS. Aim of the research is to study the features of hormonal disorders and their correlation with the components of metabolic syndrome in patients with primary hypothyroidism. Materials and methods. The study involved 80 patients with primary hypothyroidism: 61 had metabolic syndrome and 19 did not have metabolic syndrome. Results. Statistically significant increased levels of leptin, insulin, cortisol, C-peptide were revealed in patients with hypothyroidism and metabolic syndrome while the most marked changes were found in patients with multiple metabolic abnormalities. Conclusions. The interrelations between hyperleptinemia and fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin, insulin levels, thyroid-stimulating hormone, index HOMA were determined indicating the modulating role of chronic hyperglycemia, hormonal disorders and insulin resistance in the expression and realization of the biological action of leptin in patients with hypothyroidism and metabolic syndrome.

  9. Electronic properties in a two-dimensional disordered electron liquid: Spin-valley interplay

    Burmistrov, I. S.; Chtchelkatchev, N. M.

    2008-01-01

    We report a detailed study of the influence of the spin and valley splittings on such physical observables of the two-dimensional disordered electron liquid as resistivity and spin and valley susceptibilities. We explain qualitatively the nonmonotonic dependence of the resistivity on temperature in the presence of a parallel magnetic field. In the presence of either spin or valley splitting we predict a temperature dependence of the resistivity with two maximum points

  10. Newborn screening of inherited metabolic disorders by tandem mass spectrometry: past, present and future

    G. Scaturro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Inborn errors of metabolism are inherited biochemical disorders caused by lack of a functional enzyme, transmembrane transporter, or similar protein, which then results in blockage of the corresponding metabolic pathway. Taken individually, inborn errors of metabolism are rare. However, as a group these diseases are relatively frequent and they may account for most of neonatal mortality and need of health resources. The detection of genetic metabolic disorders should occur in a pre-symptomatic phase. Recently, the introduction of the tandem mass spectrometric methods for metabolite analysis has changed our ability to detect intermediates of metabolism in smaller samples and provides the means to detect a large number of metabolic disorders in a single analytical run. Screening panels now include a large number of disorders that may not meet all the criteria that have been used as a reference for years. The rationale behind inclusion or exclusion of a respective disorder is difficult to understand in most cases and it may impose an ethical dilemma. The current organization is an important tool of secondary preventive medicine, essential for children’s healthcare, but the strong inhomogeneity of the regional models of screening applied today create in the Italian neonatal population macroscopic differences with regards to healthcare, which is in effect mainly diversified by the newborn’s place of birth, in possible violation of the universal criterion of the equality of all citizens. Carefully weighed arguments are urgently needed since patient organizations, opinion leaders and politicians are pressing to proceed with expansion of neonatal population screening.

  11. Enhancing gold recovery from electronic waste via lixiviant metabolic engineering in Chromobacterium violaceum

    Tay, Song Buck; Natarajan, Gayathri; Rahim, Muhammad Nadjad bin Abdul; Tan, Hwee Tong; Chung, Maxey Ching Ming; Ting, Yen Peng; Yew, Wen Shan

    2013-01-01

    Conventional leaching (extraction) methods for gold recovery from electronic waste involve the use of strong acids and pose considerable threat to the environment. The alternative use of bioleaching microbes for gold recovery is non-pollutive and relies on the secretion of a lixiviant or (bio)chemical such as cyanide for extraction of gold from electronic waste. However, widespread industrial use of bioleaching microbes has been constrained by the limited cyanogenic capabilities of lixiviant-producing microorganisms such as Chromobacterium violaceum. Here we show the construction of a metabolically-engineered strain of Chromobacterium violaceum that produces more (70%) cyanide lixiviant and recovers more than twice as much gold from electronic waste compared to wild-type bacteria. Comparative proteome analyses suggested the possibility of further enhancement in cyanogenesis through subsequent metabolic engineering. Our results demonstrated the utility of lixiviant metabolic engineering in the construction of enhanced bioleaching microbes for the bioleaching of precious metals from electronic waste. PMID:23868689

  12. Diagnosis of rare inherited glyoxalate metabolic disorders through in-situ analysis of renal stones

    Jacob, D. E.; Grohe, B.; Hoppe, B.; Beck, B. B.; Tessadri, R.

    2012-04-01

    The primary hyperoxalurias type I - III constitute rare autosomal-recessive inherited disorders of the human glyoxylate metabolism. By mechanisms that are ill understood progressive nephrocalcinosis and recurrent urolithiasis (kidney stone formation) often starting in early childhood, along with their secondary complications results in loss of nephron mass which progresses to end-stage renal failure over time. In the most frequent form, end-stage renal failure (ESRF) is the rule and combined liver/kidney transplantation respectively pre-emptive liver transplantation are the only causative treatment today. Hence, this contributes significantly to healthcare costs and early diagnosis is extremely important for a positive outcome for the patient. We are developing a stone-based diagnostic method by in-detail multi-methods investigation of the crystalline moiety in concert with urine and stone proteomics. Stone analysis will allow faster analysis at low-impact for the patients in the early stages of the disease. First results from combined spectroscopic (Raman, FTIR)and geochemical micro-analyses (Electron Microprobe and Laser Ablation ICP-MS) are presented here that show significant differences between stones from hyperoxaluria patients and those formed by patients without this disorder (idiopathic stones). Major differences exist in chemistry as well as in morphology and phase composition of the stones. Ca/P ratios and Mg contents differentiate between oxalate-stones from hyperoxaluria patients and idiopathic stones. Results show that also within the different subtypes of primary hyperoxaluria significant differences can be found in stone composition. These imply differences in stone formation which could be exploited for new therapeutic pathways. Furthermore, the results provide important feedback for suspected but yet unconfirmed cases of primary hyperoxaluria when used in concert with the genetic methods routinely applied.

  13. The measurement of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic function and glucose metabolism in patients with movement disorders

    Otsuka, Makoto; Ichiya, Yuichi; Kuwabara, Yasuo; Sasaki, Masayuki; Fukumura, Toshimitsu; Masuda, Kouji; Shima, Fumio; Kato, Motohiro (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1992-12-01

    The nigrostriatal dopaminergic function and glucose metabolism were evaluated in 34 patients with various movement disorders by using positron emission tomography with [sup 18]F-Dopa and [sup 18]F-FDG respectively. The [sup 18]F-Dopa uptake in the striatum (the caudate head and the putamen) decreased in patients with Parkinson's disease but was relatively unaffected in the caudate. The cerebral glucose metabolism was normal in patients with Parkinson's disease. The [sup 18]F-Dopa uptake in the striatum also decreased in cases of atypical parkinsonism and in cases of progressive supranuclear palsy, but there was no difference in the uptake between the caudate and the putamen. The glucose metabolism decreased in the cerebral hemisphere including the striatum; this finding was also different from those of Parkinson's disease. A normal [sup 18]F-Dopa uptake in the striatum with a markedly decreased striatal glucose metabolism and a mildly decreased cortical glucose metabolism was observed in cases of Huntington's disease and Wilson's disease. The [sup 18]F-Dopa uptake in the striatum increased and the glucose metabolism was normal in cases of idiopathic dystonia. Various patterns of [sup 18]F-Dopa uptake and glucose metabolism were thus observed in the various movement disorders. These results suggest that the measurements of the [sup 18]F-Dopa uptake and the cerebral glucose metabolism would be useful for the evaluation of the striatal function in various movement disorders. (author).

  14. Association between vitamin deficiency and metabolic disorders related to obesity.

    Thomas-Valdés, Samanta; Tostes, Maria das Graças V; Anunciação, Pamella C; da Silva, Bárbara P; Sant'Ana, Helena M Pinheiro

    2017-10-13

    Inappropriate food behavior contributes to obesity and leads to vitamin deficiency. This review discusses the nutritional status of water- and fat-soluble vitamins in obese subjects. We verified that most vitamins are deficient in obese individuals, especially the fat-soluble vitamins, folic acid, vitamin B 12 and vitamin C. However, some vitamins have been less evaluated in cases of obesity. The adipose tissue is considered a metabolic and endocrine organ, which in excess leads to changes in body homeostasis, as well as vitamin deficiency which can aggravate the pathological state. Therefore, the evaluation of vitamin status is of fundamental importance in obese individuals.

  15. Systems Nutrigenomics Reveals Brain Gene Networks Linking Metabolic and Brain Disorders.

    Meng, Qingying; Ying, Zhe; Noble, Emily; Zhao, Yuqi; Agrawal, Rahul; Mikhail, Andrew; Zhuang, Yumei; Tyagi, Ethika; Zhang, Qing; Lee, Jae-Hyung; Morselli, Marco; Orozco, Luz; Guo, Weilong; Kilts, Tina M; Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Bin; Pellegrini, Matteo; Xiao, Xinshu; Young, Marian F; Gomez-Pinilla, Fernando; Yang, Xia

    2016-05-01

    Nutrition plays a significant role in the increasing prevalence of metabolic and brain disorders. Here we employ systems nutrigenomics to scrutinize the genomic bases of nutrient-host interaction underlying disease predisposition or therapeutic potential. We conducted transcriptome and epigenome sequencing of hypothalamus (metabolic control) and hippocampus (cognitive processing) from a rodent model of fructose consumption, and identified significant reprogramming of DNA methylation, transcript abundance, alternative splicing, and gene networks governing cell metabolism, cell communication, inflammation, and neuronal signaling. These signals converged with genetic causal risks of metabolic, neurological, and psychiatric disorders revealed in humans. Gene network modeling uncovered the extracellular matrix genes Bgn and Fmod as main orchestrators of the effects of fructose, as validated using two knockout mouse models. We further demonstrate that an omega-3 fatty acid, DHA, reverses the genomic and network perturbations elicited by fructose, providing molecular support for nutritional interventions to counteract diet-induced metabolic and brain disorders. Our integrative approach complementing rodent and human studies supports the applicability of nutrigenomics principles to predict disease susceptibility and to guide personalized medicine. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Disorders of lipid metabolism in 3 patients with diabetes mellitus type 2

    Wolffenbuttel, B.H.R.; Huijberts, M.S.P.

    2001-01-01

    Disorders of lipid metabolism in 3 patients with diabetes mellitus type 2] [Article in Dutch] Wolffenbuttel BH, Huijberts MS. Academisch Ziekenhuis, afd. Endocrinologie, Postbus 5800, 6202 AZ Maastrict. bwo@sint.azm.nl Three patients with diabetes mellitus (type 2) and cardiovascular disease had

  17. Lower urinary tract symptoms and metabolic disorders: ICI-RS 2014.

    Denys, Marie-Astrid; Anding, Ralf; Tubaro, Andrea; Abrams, Paul; Everaert, Karel

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the link between lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and metabolic disorders. This report results from presentations and subsequent discussions about LUTS and metabolic disorders at the International Consultation on Incontinence Research Society (ICI-RS) in Bristol, 2014. There are common pathophysiological determinants for the onset of LUTS and the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Both conditions are multifactorial, related to disorders in circadian rhythms and share common risk factors. As in men with erectile dysfunction, these potentially modifiable lifestyle factors may be novel targets to prevent and treat LUTS. The link between LUTS and metabolic disorders is discussed by using sleep, urine production and bladder function as underlying mechanisms that need to be further explored during future research. Recent findings indicate a bidirectional relationship between LUTS and the MetS. Future research has to explore underlying mechanisms to explain this relationship, in order to develop new preventive and therapeutic recommendations, such as weight loss and increasing physical activity. The second stage is to determine the effect of these new treatment approaches on the severity of LUTS and each of the components of the MetS. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Laboratory Diagnosis of Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorders. Diagnosis Algorithm in Hyperglycemic States

    V.I. Pankiv

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the laboratory diagnosis of disorders of carbohydrate metabolism. Presents criteria for diagnosis of diabetes, an algorithm for oral glucose tolerance test, determine type of diabetes based on clinical and laboratory data. The article also raised the issues of diagnosis of gestational diabetes and a diagnostic algorithm of hyperglycemia conditions during pregnancy.

  19. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism in systemic lupus erythematosus patients with major depressive disorder.

    Saito, Tomoyuki; Tamura, Maasa; Chiba, Yuhei; Katsuse, Omi; Suda, Akira; Kamada, Ayuko; Ikura, Takahiro; Abe, Kie; Ogawa, Matsuyoshi; Minegishi, Kaoru; Yoshimi, Ryusuke; Kirino, Yohei; Ihata, Atsushi; Hirayasu, Yoshio

    2017-08-15

    Depression is frequently observed in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Neuropsychiatric SLE (NPSLE) patients often exhibit cerebral hypometabolism, but the association between cerebral metabolism and depression remains unclear. To elucidate the features of cerebral metabolism in SLE patients with depression, we performed brain 18F-fluoro-d-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) on SLE patients with and without major depressive disorder. We performed brain FDG-PET on 20 SLE subjects (5 male, 15 female). The subjects were divided into two groups: subjects with major depressive disorder (DSLE) and subjects without major depressive disorder (non-DSLE). Cerebral glucose metabolism was analyzed using the three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP) program. Regional metabolism was evaluated by stereotactic extraction estimation (SEE), in which the whole brain was divided into segments. Every SLE subject exhibited cerebral hypometabolism, in contrast to the normal healthy subjects. Regional analysis revealed a significantly lower ER in the left medial frontal gyrus (p=0.0055) and the right medial frontal gyrus (p=0.0022) in the DSLE group than in the non-DSLE group. Hypometabolism in the medial frontal gyrus may be related to major depressive disorder in SLE. Larger studies are needed to clarify this relationship. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Lipid metabolism in myelinating glial cells: lessons from human inherited disorders and mouse models

    Chrast, R.; Saher, G.; Nave, K.A.; Verheijen, M.H.G.

    2011-01-01

    The integrity of central and peripheral nervous system myelin is affected in numerous lipid metabolism disorders. This vulnerability was so far mostly attributed to the extraordinarily high level of lipid synthesis that is required for the formation of myelin, and to the relative autonomy in lipid

  1. Dynamic evaluation of swallowing disorders with electron-beam tomography

    Raith, J.; Lindbichler, F.; Kern, R.; Groell, R.; Rienmueller, R.

    1996-01-01

    Three cases preselected by videofluorography were studied to evaluate whether electron beam tomography (EBT) permits more detailed dynamic imaging of swallowing disorders focusing on the mesonasopharyngeal segment, the hypopharynx and the upper esophageal sphincter (UES). Immediately after videofluorographic examination of the oropharyngeal deglutition, EBT is performed. The patient is in a supine position and while the patient swallows a 20 ml bolus of water or diluted iodine containing contrast agent, a sequence of 20 images per level is scanned. The levels, which are determined by using the scout view, are oriented parallel to the hard palate either at the level of the hard palate to image the mesonasopharyngel segment or just above the hyoid bone to focus on the hypopharynx or at the location of the USE. The scan technique is a single-slice cinemode with a slice thickness of 3 mm (exposure time 100 ms, interscan delay 16 ms, 130 kV, 620 mA). The following structural interactions that we have so far been unable to image can be clearly demonstrated with EBT: During normal swallowing, the mesonasopharyngeal segment is completely and symmetrically closed by the soft palate and Passavant's cushion; lateral hypopharyngeal pouches can be located more precisely; and disorders of the UES can be differentiated into functional or morphologically caused disorders (e.g., goiter or cervical osteophytes). Videofluorography and cinematography are still the gold standard in functional evaluation of swallowing disorders. However, EBT permits dynamic imaging of pharyngeal deglutition in a preselected transverse plane and can give useful additional information concerning functional anatomical changes in the pharynx during swallowing. Further clinical evaluation is needed. (orig.) [de

  2. The electronic density of states of disordered compounds

    Geertsma, W.; Dijkstra, J.

    1984-11-01

    Recently, the electronic properties of liquid alkali (Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs)-group IV (Si, Ge, Sn, Pb) alloys have been discussed by the present authors using a tight-binding model. Only anion orbitals (= group IV) are taken into account. Disorder is described by a pseudo lattice, which takes into account local coordination in one of the sublattices (cation or anion) only. In the first part of this paper it is shown that this approximation is consistent with the usual valence rules used by structural chemists for crystalline structures. In the second part of the paper the solutions for the density of states of the tight-binding Hamiltonian are studied for a number of pseudolattices. The infinite set of Green function equations is solved by using the effective transfer method, which replaces the famous Block condition. It is shown that such a model can explain the formation of bandgaps in disordered systems. By choosing the proper smallest cluster(s) of transfer loops to model the real structure by a pseudolattice, a density of states is obtained which represents properly that of the corresponding crystalline structure. Structures reminiscent to those caused by van Hove singularities already appear in the electronic density of states when relatively small cluster(s) of transfer loops are used. The approach outlined in this paper is capable of describing the electronic density of states due to various degrees of local order in a sublattice. Some of the peculiarities occurring in the solution of the density of states of certain pseudolattices, such as poles outside the band, are discussed in an appendix. (author)

  3. Metabolic response of Geobacter sulfurreducens towards electron donor/acceptor variation

    Lovley Derek R

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geobacter sulfurreducens is capable of coupling the complete oxidation of organic compounds to iron reduction. The metabolic response of G. sulfurreducens towards variations in electron donors (acetate, hydrogen and acceptors (Fe(III, fumarate was investigated via 13C-based metabolic flux analysis. We examined the 13C-labeling patterns of proteinogenic amino acids obtained from G. sulfurreducens cultured with 13C-acetate. Results Using 13C-based metabolic flux analysis, we observed that donor and acceptor variations gave rise to differences in gluconeogenetic initiation, tricarboxylic acid cycle activity, and amino acid biosynthesis pathways. Culturing G. sulfurreducens cells with Fe(III as the electron acceptor and acetate as the electron donor resulted in pyruvate as the primary carbon source for gluconeogenesis. When fumarate was provided as the electron acceptor and acetate as the electron donor, the flux analysis suggested that fumarate served as both an electron acceptor and, in conjunction with acetate, a carbon source. Growth on fumarate and acetate resulted in the initiation of gluconeogenesis by phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and a slightly elevated flux through the oxidative tricarboxylic acid cycle as compared to growth with Fe(III as the electron acceptor. In addition, the direction of net flux between acetyl-CoA and pyruvate was reversed during growth on fumarate relative to Fe(III, while growth in the presence of Fe(III and acetate which provided hydrogen as an electron donor, resulted in decreased flux through the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Conclusions We gained detailed insight into the metabolism of G. sulfurreducens cells under various electron donor/acceptor conditions using 13C-based metabolic flux analysis. Our results can be used for the development of G. sulfurreducens as a chassis for a variety of applications including bioremediation and renewable biofuel production.

  4. Should metabolic diseases be systematically screened in nonsyndromic autism spectrum disorders?

    Manuel Schiff

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the investigation of autism spectrum disorders (ASD, a genetic cause is found in approximately 10-20%. Among these cases, the prevalence of the rare inherited metabolic disorders (IMD is unknown and poorly evaluated. An IMD responsible for ASD is usually identified by the associated clinical phenotype such as dysmorphic features, ataxia, microcephaly, epilepsy, and severe intellectual disability (ID. In rare cases, however, ASD may be considered as nonsyndromic at the onset of a related IMD. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the utility of routine metabolic investigations in nonsyndromic ASD. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the results of a metabolic workup (urinary mucopolysaccharides, urinary purines and pyrimidines, urinary creatine and guanidinoacetate, urinary organic acids, plasma and urinary amino acids routinely performed in 274 nonsyndromic ASD children. RESULTS: The metabolic parameters were in the normal range for all but 2 patients: one with unspecific creatine urinary excretion and the other with persistent 3-methylglutaconic aciduria. CONCLUSIONS: These data provide the largest ever reported cohort of ASD patients for whom a systematic metabolic workup has been performed; they suggest that such a routine metabolic screening does not contribute to the causative diagnosis of nonsyndromic ASD. They also emphasize that the prevalence of screened IMD in nonsyndromic ASD is probably not higher than in the general population (<0.5%. A careful clinical evaluation is probably more reasonable and of better medical practice than a costly systematic workup.

  5. Adaptation of red cell enzymes and intermediates in metabolic disorders.

    Goebel, K M; Goebel, F D; Neitzert, A; Hausmann, L; Schneider, J

    1975-01-01

    The metabolic activity of the red cell glycolytic pathway hexose monophosphate shunt (HMP) with dependent glutathione system was studied in patients with hyperthyroidism (n = 10), hyperlipoproteinemia (n = 16), hypoglycemia (n = 25) and hyperglycemia (n = 23). In uncontrolled diabetics and patients with hyperthyroidism the mean value of glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD), glutathione reductase (GR) was increased, whereas these enzyme activities were reduced in patients with hypoglycemia. Apart from a few values of hexokinase (HK) which were lower than normal the results in hyperlipoproteinemia patients remained essentially unchanged, including the intermediates such as 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG), adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and reduced glutathione (GSH). While increased rates of 2,3-DPG and ATP in hypoglycemia patients were obtained, these substrates were markedly reduced in diabetics.

  6. Role of NAD, Oxidative Stress, and Tryptophan Metabolism in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Musthafa Mohamed Essa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a pervasive neuro-developmental disorder characterized by impaired social interaction, reduced/absent verbal and non-verbal communication, and repetitive behavior during early childhood. The etiology of this developmental disorder is poorly understood, and no biomarkers have been identified. Identification of novel biochemical markers related to autism would be advantageous for earlier clinical diagnosis and intervention. Studies suggest that oxidative stress-induced mechanisms and reduced antioxidant defense, mitochondrial dysfunction, and impaired energy metabolism (NAD + , NADH, ATP, pyruvate, and lactate, are major causes of ASD. This review provides renewed insight regarding current autism research related to oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and altered tryptophan metabolism in ASD.

  7. Metabolic Disorders in the Transition Period Indicate that the Dairy Cows’ Ability to Adapt is Overstressed

    Sundrum, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Metabolic disorders are a key problem in the transition period of dairy cows and often appear before the onset of further health problems. Problems derive from difficulties animals have to adapt to large variations and disturbances occurring both outside and inside the organism. A lack of success in solving these issues may be due to predominant approaches in farm management and agricultural science, dealing with such disorders as merely negative side effects. Instead, a successful adaptation of animals to their living conditions should be seen as an important end in itself. Both farm management and agricultural sciences should support animals in their ability to cope with nutritional and metabolic challenges by employing a functional and result-driven approach. Abstract Metabolic disorders are a key problem in the transition period of dairy cows and often appear before the onset of further health problems. They mainly derive from difficulties the animals have in adapting to changes and disturbances occurring both outside and inside the organisms and due to varying gaps between nutrient supply and demand. Adaptation is a functional and target-oriented process involving the whole organism and thus cannot be narrowed down to single factors. Most problems which challenge the organisms can be solved in a number of different ways. To understand the mechanisms of adaptation, the interconnectedness of variables and the nutrient flow within a metabolic network need to be considered. Metabolic disorders indicate an overstressed ability to balance input, partitioning and output variables. Dairy cows will more easily succeed in adapting and in avoiding dysfunctional processes in the transition period when the gap between nutrient and energy demands and their supply is restricted. Dairy farms vary widely in relation to the living conditions of the animals. The complexity of nutritional and metabolic processes and their large variations on various scales

  8. Theory of thermal conductivity in the disordered electron liquid

    Schwiete, G., E-mail: schwiete@uni-mainz.de [Johannes Gutenberg Universität, Spin Phenomena Interdisciplinary Center (SPICE) and Institut für Physik (Germany); Finkel’stein, A. M. [Texas A& M University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (United States)

    2016-03-15

    We study thermal conductivity in the disordered two-dimensional electron liquid in the presence of long-range Coulomb interactions. We describe a microscopic analysis of the problem using the partition function defined on the Keldysh contour as a starting point. We extend the renormalization group (RG) analysis developed for thermal transport in the disordered Fermi liquid and include scattering processes induced by the long-range Coulomb interaction in the sub-temperature energy range. For the thermal conductivity, unlike for the electrical conductivity, these scattering processes yield a logarithmic correction that may compete with the RG corrections. The interest in this correction arises from the fact that it violates the Wiedemann–Franz law. We checked that the sub-temperature correction to the thermal conductivity is not modified either by the inclusion of Fermi liquid interaction amplitudes or as a result of the RG flow. We therefore expect that the answer obtained for this correction is final. We use the theory to describe thermal transport on the metallic side of the metal–insulator transition in Si MOSFETs.

  9. Theory of thermal conductivity in the disordered electron liquid

    Schwiete, G.; Finkel’stein, A. M.

    2016-01-01

    We study thermal conductivity in the disordered two-dimensional electron liquid in the presence of long-range Coulomb interactions. We describe a microscopic analysis of the problem using the partition function defined on the Keldysh contour as a starting point. We extend the renormalization group (RG) analysis developed for thermal transport in the disordered Fermi liquid and include scattering processes induced by the long-range Coulomb interaction in the sub-temperature energy range. For the thermal conductivity, unlike for the electrical conductivity, these scattering processes yield a logarithmic correction that may compete with the RG corrections. The interest in this correction arises from the fact that it violates the Wiedemann–Franz law. We checked that the sub-temperature correction to the thermal conductivity is not modified either by the inclusion of Fermi liquid interaction amplitudes or as a result of the RG flow. We therefore expect that the answer obtained for this correction is final. We use the theory to describe thermal transport on the metallic side of the metal–insulator transition in Si MOSFETs.

  10. DIAGNOSTICS OF BONE METABOLISM DISORDERS IN ONCOLOGICAL DISEASES

    O. I. Apolikhin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is one of the most significant bone complications of cancer. About 1.5 million cancer patients worldwide have bone metastases. Patients with myeloma, breast cancer, prostate, thyroid, bladder and lung have very high risk of development of bone lesions and related complications. Currently, osteodensitometry is the gold standard for the diagnosis of osteoporosis. In recent years we frequently use the innovative imaging techniques for bone metastases, such as CT, MRI, PET/CT. Unfortunately, the diagnostic value of these methods is that it is not always possible to identify abnormalities of bone metabolism in cancer, especially in the early stages. This review shows the world experience of usage of biochemical markers of bone resorption (calcium, hydroxyproline, NTX, CTX, PYD, DPD, TRAP-5b, bone sialoprotein - BSP and markers of bone synthesis (osteocalcin, CSF, ACF, Karlovy vary IFF, their advantages and disadvantages. The level of these markers is increased in most patients with osteoporosis and bone metastases, it is suggesting a potential role in early diagnosis of bone metastases.

  11. Ammonia-induced energy disorders interfere with bilirubin metabolism in hepatocytes.

    Wang, Qiongye; Wang, Yanfang; Yu, Zujiang; Li, Duolu; Jia, Bin; Li, Jingjing; Guan, Kelei; Zhou, Yubing; Chen, Yanling; Kan, Quancheng

    2014-08-01

    Hyperammonemia and jaundice are the most common clinical symptoms of hepatic failure. Decreasing the level of ammonia in the blood is often accompanied by a reduction in bilirubin in patients with hepatic failure. Previous studies have shown that hyperammonemia can cause bilirubin metabolism disorders, however it is unclear exactly how hyperammonemia interferes with bilirubin metabolism in hepatocytes. The purpose of the current study was to determine the mechanism or mechanisms by which hyperammonemia interferes with bilirubin metabolism in hepatocytes. Cell viability and apoptosis were analyzed in primary hepatocytes that had been exposed to ammonium chloride. Mitochondrial morphology and permeability were observed and analyzed, intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle were determined and changes in the expression of enzymes related to bilirubin metabolism were analyzed after ammonia exposure. Hyperammonemia inhibited cell growth, induced apoptosis, damaged the mitochondria and hindered the TCA cycle in hepatocytes. This led to a reduction in energy synthesis, eventually affecting the expression of enzymes related to bilirubin metabolism, which then caused further problems with bilirubin metabolism. These effects were significant, but could be reversed with the addition of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). This study demonstrates that ammonia can cause problems with bilirubin metabolism by interfering with energy synthesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Presumptive binge eating disorder in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and its effect in metabolic control

    Sandra Soares Melo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study sought to determine the presence of diagnosis suggestive of binge eating disorder in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and to evaluate the influence of such disorder on the metabolic control. Methods: sixty-three patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and registered  at the Diabetes and Hypertension Program of a Health Unit in the town of Balneário Camboriú, Santa Catarina, Brazil, were evaluated. The diagnosis of binge eating disorder was made by analysis of the Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterms – Revised. For the evaluation of metabolic control, 10 ml of blood was collected, and the serum glucose, glycated hemoglobin, tryglicerides, cholestrol and fractions were determined. Weight and height were determined for evaluation of national nutritional state, according to the body mass index. Rresults: Among the evaluated individuals, 29% presented a diagnosis suggestive of binge eating disorder, with higher prevalence among females. The individuals with diagnosis suggestive of binge eating disorder presented a higher average body mass index value than the group without diagnosis. The serum concentrations of glycated hemoglobin (p = 0.02 and triglicerides (p = 0.03 were statistically higher in the group with diagnosis suggestive of binge eating disorder. Cconclusions: Based on the results of this study, it is possible to conclude that the presence of binge eating disorder in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus favors an increase in body weight and has a negative influence on metabolic control, contributing to the early emergence of complications related to the disease.

  13. Potential role of liver enzymes levels as predictor markers of glucose metabolism disorders in Tunisian population.

    Bouhajja, Houda; Abdelhedi, Rania; Amouri, Ali; Hadj Kacem, Faten; Marrakchi, Rim; Safi, Wajdi; Mrabet, Houcem; Chtourou, Lassaad; Charfi, Nadia; Fourati, Mouna; Bensassi, Salwa; Jamoussi, Kamel; Abid, Mohamed; Ayadi, Hammadi; Feki, Mouna Mnif; Elleuch, Noura Bougacha

    2018-03-10

    The relationship between liver enzymes and type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk is inconclusive. We aimed to evaluate the association between liver markers and risk of carbohydrate metabolism disorders and their discriminatory power for T2D prediction. This cross-sectional study enrolled 216 participants classified as normoglycemic, prediabetes, newly-diagnosed diabetes and diagnosed diabetes. All participants underwent anthropometric and biochemical measurements. The relationship between hepatic enzymes and glucose metabolism markers was evaluated by ANCOVA analyses. The associations between liver enzymes and incident carbohydrate metabolism disorders were analyzed through logistic regression and their discriminatory capacity for T2D by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. High alkaline phosphatase (AP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), γ-glutamyltransferase (γGT) and aspartate aminotrasferase (AST) levels were independently related to decreased insulin sensitivity. Interestingly, higher AP level was significantly associated with increased risk of prediabetes (p=0.017), newly-diagnosed diabetes (p=0.004) and T2D (p=0.007). Elevated γGT level was an independent risk factor for T2D (p=0.032) and undiagnosed-T2D (p=0.010) in prediabetic and normoglycemic subjects, respectively. In ROC analysis, AP was a powerful predictor of incident diabetes and significantly improved T2D prediction. Liver enzymes within normal range, specifically AP levels, are associated with increased risk of carbohydrate metabolism disorders and significantly improved T2D prediction.

  14. Lipid metabolism in myelinating glial cells: lessons from human inherited disorders and mouse models.

    Chrast, Roman; Saher, Gesine; Nave, Klaus-Armin; Verheijen, Mark H G

    2011-03-01

    The integrity of central and peripheral nervous system myelin is affected in numerous lipid metabolism disorders. This vulnerability was so far mostly attributed to the extraordinarily high level of lipid synthesis that is required for the formation of myelin, and to the relative autonomy in lipid synthesis of myelinating glial cells because of blood barriers shielding the nervous system from circulating lipids. Recent insights from analysis of inherited lipid disorders, especially those with prevailing lipid depletion and from mouse models with glia-specific disruption of lipid metabolism, shed new light on this issue. The particular lipid composition of myelin, the transport of lipid-associated myelin proteins, and the necessity for timely assembly of the myelin sheath all contribute to the observed vulnerability of myelin to perturbed lipid metabolism. Furthermore, the uptake of external lipids may also play a role in the formation of myelin membranes. In addition to an improved understanding of basic myelin biology, these data provide a foundation for future therapeutic interventions aiming at preserving glial cell integrity in metabolic disorders.

  15. [Consensus statement on metabolic disorders and cardiovascular risks in patients with human immunodeficiency virus].

    Polo Rodríguez, Rosa; Galindo Puerto, María José; Dueñas, Carlos; Gómez Candela, Carmen; Estrada, Vicente; Villar, Noemí G P; Locutura, Jaime; Mariño, Ana; Pascua, Javier; Palacios, Rosario; von Wichmman, Miguel Ángel; Álvarez, Julia; Asensi, Victor; Lopez Aldeguer, José; Lozano, Fernando; Negredo, Eugenia; Ortega, Enrique; Pedrol, Enric; Gutiérrez, Félix; Sanz Sanz, Jesús; Martínez Chamorro, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    This consensus document is an update of metabolic disorders and cardiovascular risk (CVR) guidelines for HIV-infected patients. This document has been approved by an expert panel of GEAM, SPNS and GESIDA after reviewing the results of efficacy and safety of clinical trials, cohort and pharmacokinetic studies published in biomedical journals (PubMed and Embase) or presented in medical scientific meetings. Recommendation strength and the evidence in which they are supported are based on the GRADE system. A healthy lifestyle is recommended, no smoking and at least 30min of aerobic exercise daily. In diabetic patients the same treatment as non-HIV infected patients is recommended. HIV patients with dyslipidemia should be considered as high CVR, thus its therapeutic objective is an LDL less than 100mg/dL. The antihypertensive of ACE inhibitors and ARAII families are better tolerated and have a lower risk of interactions. In HIV-patients with diabetes or metabolic syndrome and elevated transaminases with no defined etiology, the recommended is to rule out a hepatic steatosis Recommendations for action in hormone alterations are also updated. These new guidelines update previous recommendations regarding all those metabolic disorders involved in CVR. Hormone changes and their management and the impact of metabolic disorders on the liver are also included. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  16. Metabolic Disorders in the Transition Period Indicate that the Dairy Cows' Ability to Adapt is Overstressed.

    Sundrum, Albert

    2015-10-09

    Metabolic disorders are a key problem in the transition period of dairy cows and often appear before the onset of further health problems. They mainly derive from difficulties the animals have in adapting to changes and disturbances occurring both outside and inside the organisms and due to varying gaps between nutrient supply and demand. Adaptation is a functional and target-oriented process involving the whole organism and thus cannot be narrowed down to single factors. Most problems which challenge the organisms can be solved in a number of different ways. To understand the mechanisms of adaptation, the interconnectedness of variables and the nutrient flow within a metabolic network need to be considered. Metabolic disorders indicate an overstressed ability to balance input, partitioning and output variables. Dairy cows will more easily succeed in adapting and in avoiding dysfunctional processes in the transition period when the gap between nutrient and energy demands and their supply is restricted. Dairy farms vary widely in relation to the living conditions of the animals. The complexity of nutritional and metabolic processes Animals 2015, 5 979 and their large variations on various scales contradict any attempts to predict the outcome of animals' adaptation in a farm specific situation. Any attempts to reduce the prevalence of metabolic disorders and associated production diseases should rely on continuous and comprehensive monitoring with appropriate indicators on the farm level. Furthermore, low levels of disorders and diseases should be seen as a further significant goal which carries weight in addition to productivity goals. In the long run, low disease levels can only be expected when farmers realize that they can gain a competitive advantage over competitors with higher levels of disease.

  17. Metabolic Disorders in the Transition Period Indicate that the Dairy Cows’ Ability to Adapt is Overstressed

    Albert Sundrum

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic disorders are a key problem in the transition period of dairy cows and often appear before the onset of further health problems. They mainly derive from difficulties the animals have in adapting to changes and disturbances occurring both outside and inside the organisms and due to varying gaps between nutrient supply and demand. Adaptation is a functional and target-oriented process involving the whole organism and thus cannot be narrowed down to single factors. Most problems which challenge the organisms can be solved in a number of different ways. To understand the mechanisms of adaptation, the interconnectedness of variables and the nutrient flow within a metabolic network need to be considered. Metabolic disorders indicate an overstressed ability to balance input, partitioning and output variables. Dairy cows will more easily succeed in adapting and in avoiding dysfunctional processes in the transition period when the gap between nutrient and energy demands and their supply is restricted. Dairy farms vary widely in relation to the living conditions of the animals. The complexity of nutritional and metabolic processes Animals 2015, 5 979 and their large variations on various scales contradict any attempts to predict the outcome of animals’ adaptation in a farm specific situation. Any attempts to reduce the prevalence of metabolic disorders and associated production diseases should rely on continuous and comprehensive monitoring with appropriate indicators on the farm level. Furthermore, low levels of disorders and diseases should be seen as a further significant goal which carries weight in addition to productivity goals. In the long run, low disease levels can only be expected when farmers realize that they can gain a competitive advantage over competitors with higher levels of disease.

  18. Danqi Pill regulates lipid metabolism disorder induced by myocardial ischemia through FATP-CPTI pathway.

    Wang, Yong; Li, Chun; Wang, Qiyan; Shi, Tianjiao; Wang, Jing; Chen, Hui; Wu, Yan; Han, Jing; Guo, Shuzhen; Wang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Wei

    2015-02-21

    Danqi Pill (DQP), which contains Chinese herbs Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge and Panax notoginseng, is widely used in the treatment of myocardial ischemia (MI) in China. Its regulatory effects on MI-associated lipid metabolism disorders haven't been comprehensively studied so far. We aimed to systematically investigate the regulatory mechanism of DQP on myocardial ischemia-induced lipid metabolism disorders. Myocardial ischemia rat model was induced by left anterior descending coronary artery ligation. The rat models were divided into three groups: model group with administration of normal saline, study group with administration of DanQi aqueous solution (1.5 mg/kg) and positive-control group with administration of pravastatin aqueous solution (1.2 mg/kg). In addition, another sham-operated group was set as negative control. At 28 days after treatment, cardiac function and degree of lipid metabolism disorders in rats of different groups were measured. Plasma lipid disorders were induced by myocardial ischemia, with manifestation of up-regulation of triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL), Apolipoprotein B (Apo-B) and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR). DQP could down-regulate the levels of TG, LDL, Apo-B and HMGCR. The Lipid transport pathway, fatty acids transport protein (FATP) and Carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPTI) were down-regulated in model group. DQP could improve plasma lipid metabolism by up-regulating this lipid transport pathway. The transcription factors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs), which regulate lipid metabolism, were also up-regulated by DQP. Furthermore, DQP was able to improve heart function and up-regulate ejection fraction (EF) by increasing the cardiac diastolic volume. Our study reveals that DQP would be an ideal alternative drug for the treatment of dyslipidemia which is induced by myocardial ischemia.

  19. Association Between Vitamin D Insufficiency and Metabolic Syndrome in Patients With Psychotic Disorders.

    Yoo, Taeyoung; Choi, Wonsuk; Hong, Jin-Hee; Lee, Ju-Yeon; Kim, Jae-Min; Shin, Il-Seon; Yang, Soo Jin; Amminger, Paul; Berk, Michael; Yoon, Jin-Sang; Kim, Sung-Wan

    2018-04-01

    This study examined the association between vitamin D and metabolic syndrome in patients with psychotic disorders. The study enrolled 302 community-dwelling patients with psychotic disorders. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, including blood pressure, physical activity, and dietary habit were gathered. Laboratory examinations included vitamin D, lipid profile, fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, liver function, and renal function. Vitamin D insufficiency was defined as vitamin D insufficiency were identified. Among the 302 participants, 236 patients (78.1%) had a vitamin D insufficiency and 97 (32.1%) had metabolic syndrome. Vitamin D insufficiency was significantly associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome (p=0.006) and hypertension (p=0.017). Significant increases in triglycerides and alanine transaminase were observed in the group with a vitamin D insufficiency (p=0.002 and 0.011, respectively). After adjusting for physical activity and dietary habit scores, vitamin D insufficiency remained significantly associated with metabolic syndrome and hypertension. Vitamin D insufficiency was associated with metabolic syndrome and was particularly associated with high blood pressure, although the nature, direction and implications of this association are unclear.

  20. Electronic structure of disordered Fe-V alloys

    Krause, J.C.; Paduani, C.; Schaff, J.; Costa, M.I. Jr. da

    1998-01-01

    The first-principles discrete variational method is employed to investigate the electronic structure and local magnetic properties of disordered Fe-V alloys. The spin-polarized case is considered in the formalism of the local-spin-density approximation, with the exchange-correlation term of von Barth endash Hedin. The effect on the local magnetic properties of adding V atoms in the immediate neighborhood of iron atoms is investigated. The partial density of states, hyperfine field (H c ), magnetic moment (μ), and isomer shift are obtained for the central atom of the cluster. For the impurity V atom in the bcc iron host the calculated values for H c and μ are -203 kG and -0.86μ B , respectively. The isolated Fe atom in a bcc vanadium host exhibits a collapsed moment and acts as a receptor for electrons. In ordered alloys the calculations indicate also a vanishing moment at iron sites. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  1. Proton disorder in cubic ice: Effect on the electronic and optical properties

    Garbuio, Viviana; Pulci, Olivia; Cascella, Michele; Kupchak, Igor; Seitsonen, Ari Paavo

    2015-01-01

    The proton disorder in ice has a key role in several properties such as the growth mode, thermodynamical properties, and ferroelectricity. While structural phase transitions from proton disordered to proton ordered ices have been extensively studied, much less is known about their electronic and optical properties. Here, we present ab initio many body perturbation theory-based calculations of the electronic and optical properties of cubic ice at different levels of proton disorder. We compare our results with those from liquid water, that acts as an example of a fully (proton- and oxygen-)disordered system. We find that by increasing the proton disorder, a shrinking of the electronic gap occurs in ice, and it is smallest in the liquid water. Simultaneously, the excitonic binding energy decreases, so that the final optical gaps result to be almost independent on the degree of proton disorder. We explain these findings as an interplay between the local dipolar disorder and the electronic correlation

  2. Application of research findings and summary of research needs: Bud Britton Memorial Symposium on Metabolic Disorders of Feedlot Cattle.

    Galyean, M L; Eng, K S

    1998-01-01

    Updated research findings with acidosis, feedlot bloat, liver abscesses, and sudden death syndromes were presented at the Bud Britton Memorial Symposium on Metabolic Disorders of Feedlot Cattle. Possible industry applications include the need to establish guidelines for use of clostridial vaccines in feedlot cattle, further assessment of the relationship between acidosis and polioencephalomalacia, examination of the effects of various ionophores on the incidence of metabolic disorders, and evaluation of the effects of feed bunk management and limit- and restricted-feeding programs on the incidence of metabolic disorders. A multidisciplinary approach among researchers, consulting nutritionists and veterinarians, and feedlot managers will be required for effective progress in research and in the application of research findings. Areas suggested for further research include 1) assessment of feed consumption patterns and social behavior of cattle in large-pen, feedlot settings; 2) evaluation of the relationship between feed intake management systems (feed bunk management programs, limit- and programmed-feeding) and the incidence of metabolic disorders, including delineation of the role of variability in feed intake in the etiology of such disorders; 3) efforts to improve antemortem and postmortem diagnosis, and to establish standardized regional or national epidemiological databases for various metabolic disorders; 4) ascertaining the accuracy of diagnosis of metabolic disorders and determining the relationship of previous health history of animals to the incidence of metabolic disorders; 5) further defining ruminal and intestinal microbiology as it relates to metabolic disorders and deeper evaluation of metabolic changes that occur with such disorders; 6) continued appraisal of the effects of grain processing and specific feed ingredients and nutrients on metabolic disorders, and development of new feed additives to control or prevent these disorders; and 7

  3. Use of copper radioisotopes in investigating disorders of copper metabolism

    Camakaris, J.; Voskoboinik, I.; Brooks, H.; Greenough, M.; Smith, S.; Mercer, J.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Copper is an essential trace element for life as a number of vital enzymes require it. Copper deficiency can lead to neurological disorders, osteoporosis and weakening of arteries. However Cu is also highly toxic and homeostatic mechanisms have evolved to maintain Cu at levels which satisfy requirements but do not cause toxicity. Toxicity is mediated by the oxidative capacity of Cu and its ability to generate toxic free radicals. There are several acquired and inherited diseases due to either Cu toxicity or Cu deficiency. The study of these diseases facilitates identification of genes and proteins involved in copper homeostasis, and this in turn will provide rational therapeutic approaches. Our studies have focused on Menkes disease in humans which is an inherited and usually lethal copper deficiency. Using copper radioisotopes 64 Cu (t 1/2 = 12.8 hr) and 67 Cu (t 1/2 = 61 hr) we have studied the protein which is mutated in Menkes disease. This is a transmembrane copper pump which is responsible for absorption of copper into the body and also functions to pump out excess Cu from cells when Cu is elevated. It is therefore a vital component of normal Cu homeostasis. We have provided the first biochemical evidence that the Menkes protein functions as a P-type ATPase Cu pump (Voskoboinik et al., FEBS Letters, in press) and these data will be discussed. The assay involved pumping of radiocopper into purified membrane vesicles. Furthermore we have transfected normal and mutant Menkes genes into cells and are carrying out structure-function studies. We are also studying the role of amyloid precursor protein (APP) as a Cu transport protein in order to determine how Cu regulates this protein and its cleavage products. These studies will provide vital information on the relationship between Cu and APP and processes which lead to Alzheimers disease

  4. Metabolic syndrome among individuals with heroin use disorders on methadone therapy: Prevalence, characteristics, and related factors.

    Vallecillo, Gabriel; Robles, María José; Torrens, Marta; Samos, Pilar; Roquer, Albert; Martires, Paula K; Sanvisens, Arantza; Muga, Roberto; Pedro-Botet, Juan

    2018-01-02

    Observational studies have reported a high prevalence of obesity and diabetes in subjects on methadone therapy; there are, however, limited data about metabolic syndrome. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and related factors in individuals with heroin use disorder on methadone therapy. A cross-sectional study in individuals with heroin use disorder on methadone therapy at a drug abuse outpatient center. Medical examinations and laboratory analyses after a 12-hour overnight fast were recorded. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria. One hundred and twenty-two subjects were included, with a mean age of 46.1 ± 9 years, a median body mass index (BMI) of 25.3 kg/m 2 (interquartile range [IQR]: 21.2-28), and 77.9% were men. Median exposure to methadone therapy was 13 years (IQR: 5-20). Overweight and obesity were present in 29.5% and 17.2% of the participants, respectively. Metabolic syndrome components were low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (51.6%), hypertriglyceridemia (36.8%), high blood pressure (36.8%), abdominal obesity (27.0%), and raised blood glucose levels (18.0%). Abdominal obesity was more prevalent in women (52% vs. 20%, P = >0.01) and high blood pressure more prevalent in men (41.1% vs. 22.2%, P = .07). Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 29.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 16.6-31.8). In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, BMI (per 1 kg/m 2 increase odds ratio [OR]: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.27-1.76) and exposure time to methadone therapy (per 5 years of treatment increase OR: 1.38, 95% CI: 1.28-1.48) were associated with metabolic syndrome. Overweight and metabolic syndrome are prevalent findings in individuals with heroin use disorder on methadone therapy. Of specific concern is the association of methadone exposure with metabolic syndrome. Preventive measures and clinical routine screening should be

  5. Metabolic syndrome in subjects with bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder in a current depressive episode: Population-based study: Metabolic syndrome in current depressive episode.

    Moreira, Fernanda Pedrotti; Jansen, Karen; Cardoso, Taiane de Azevedo; Mondin, Thaíse Campos; Magalhães, Pedro Vieira da Silva; Kapczinski, Flávio; Souza, Luciano Dias de Mattos; da Silva, Ricardo Azevedo; Oses, Jean Pierre; Wiener, Carolina David

    2017-09-01

    To assess the differences in the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and their components in young adults with bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) in a current depressive episode. This was a cross-sectional study with young adults aged 24-30 years old. Depressive episode (bipolar or unipolar) was assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview - Plus version (MINI Plus). The MetS was assessed using the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP/ATP III). The sample included 972 subjects with a mean age of 25.81 (±2.17) years. Both BD and MDD patients showed higher prevalence of MetS compared to the population sample (BD = 46.9%, MDD = 35.1%, population = 22.1%, p depressive episode compared to the general population. Moreover, there was a significant difference on BMI values in the case of BD and MDD subjects (p = 0.016). Metabolic components were significantly associated with the presence of depressive symptoms, independently of the diagnosis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Diagnostics and correction of metabolic disorders in patients with recurrent urolithiasis after endoscopic removal of stones

    T. Kh. Nazarov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of kidney stones. The authors provide the results of a study of 107 men aged 48 to 76 years, were divided into three groups – primary and two control groups. The main and the first control group consisted of 40 patients with recurrent urolithiasis without urinary tract obstruction after endoscopic stone removal and partial androgen deficiency. The second control group consisted of 27 healthy men aged 48 to 70 years. Patients for one year he was promoted endoscopic removal of urinary stones: transurethral nephrolithotripsy – 55 patients, and percutaneous nephrolithotripsy – 25. After discharge from hospital all patients had a diagnosis and correction of metabolic disorders using physical-chemical and biochemical indicators of urine and blood. To study the mineral composition and structural-textural features of urinary stones and their fragments after surgical interventions were performed: x-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, polarization and electron microscopy. Was carried out following the relapse of urolithiasis: patients of the main group received pathogenetic androgen therapy as monotherapy, and patients in the control group conventional treatment (antibiotics, spasmolytic, herbal remedies. The results of therapy and follow-up care for 6 years showed a low recurrence of stone formation in patients of the main group and highest in the control. Age-related decline in androgen levels in men may be an additional factor in stone formation. Pathogenic androgen replacement therapy leads to normalization of the content of lithogenic substances in the blood and urine, as well as physico-chemical properties of urine, thereby reducing the process of stone formation.

  7. Brain Insulin Resistance at the Crossroads of Metabolic and Cognitive Disorders in Humans.

    Kullmann, Stephanie; Heni, Martin; Hallschmid, Manfred; Fritsche, Andreas; Preissl, Hubert; Häring, Hans-Ulrich

    2016-10-01

    Ever since the brain was identified as an insulin-sensitive organ, evidence has rapidly accumulated that insulin action in the brain produces multiple behavioral and metabolic effects, influencing eating behavior, peripheral metabolism, and cognition. Disturbances in brain insulin action can be observed in obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D), as well as in aging and dementia. Decreases in insulin sensitivity of central nervous pathways, i.e., brain insulin resistance, may therefore constitute a joint pathological feature of metabolic and cognitive dysfunctions. Modern neuroimaging methods have provided new means of probing brain insulin action, revealing the influence of insulin on both global and regional brain function. In this review, we highlight recent findings on brain insulin action in humans and its impact on metabolism and cognition. Furthermore, we elaborate on the most prominent factors associated with brain insulin resistance, i.e., obesity, T2D, genes, maternal metabolism, normal aging, inflammation, and dementia, and on their roles regarding causes and consequences of brain insulin resistance. We also describe the beneficial effects of enhanced brain insulin signaling on human eating behavior and cognition and discuss potential applications in the treatment of metabolic and cognitive disorders. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  8. High-fat diet induces significant metabolic disorders in a mouse model of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Lai, Hao; Jia, Xiao; Yu, Qiuxiao; Zhang, Chenglu; Qiao, Jie; Guan, Youfei; Kang, Jihong

    2014-11-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common female endocrinopathy associated with both reproductive and metabolic disorders. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is currently used to induce a PCOS mouse model. High-fat diet (HFD) has been shown to cause obesity and infertility in female mice. The possible effect of an HFD on the phenotype of DHEA-induced PCOS mice is unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate both reproductive and metabolic features of DHEA-induced PCOS mice fed a normal chow or a 60% HFD. Prepubertal C57BL/6 mice (age 25 days) on the normal chow or an HFD were injected (s.c.) daily with the vehicle sesame oil or DHEA for 20 consecutive days. At the end of the experiment, both reproductive and metabolic characteristics were assessed. Our data show that an HFD did not affect the reproductive phenotype of DHEA-treated mice. The treatment of HFD, however, caused significant metabolic alterations in DHEA-treated mice, including obesity, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, and pronounced liver steatosis. These findings suggest that HFD induces distinct metabolic features in DHEA-induced PCOS mice. The combined DHEA and HFD treatment may thus serve as a means of studying the mechanisms involved in metabolic derangements of this syndrome, particularly in the high prevalence of hepatic steatosis in women with PCOS. © 2014 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  9. Observation of electron weak localization and correlation effects in disordered graphene

    TAN ChangLing; TAN ZhenBing; MA Li; QU FanMing; YANG Fan; CHEN Jun; LIU GuangTong; YANG HaiFang; YANG ChangLi; LU Li

    2009-01-01

    We have studied the electron transport properties of a disordered graphene sample,where the disorder was intentionally strengthened by Ga+ ion irradiation.The magneto-conductance of the sample exhibits a typical two-dimensional electron weak localization behavior,with electron-electron interaction as the dominant dephasing mechanism.The absence of electron anti-weak localization in the sample implies strong intersublattice and/or intervalley scattering caused by the disorders.The temperature and bias-voltage dependencies of conductance clearly reveal the suppression of conductance at low ener-gies,indicating opening of a Coulomb gap due to electron-electron interaction in the disordered gra-phene sample.

  10. Reduction in hepatic drug metabolizing CYP3A4 activities caused by P450 oxidoreductase mutations identified in patients with disordered steroid metabolism

    Flueck, Christa E.; Mullis, Primus E.; Pandey, Amit V.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), metabolizes 50% of drugs in clinical use and requires NADPH-P450 reductase (POR). → Mutations in human POR cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia from diminished activities of steroid metabolizing P450s. → We are reporting that mutations in POR may reduce CYP3A4 activity. → POR mutants Y181D, A457H, Y459H, V492E and R616X lost 99%, while A287P, C569Y and V608F lost 60-85% CYP3A4 activity. → Reduction of CYP3A4 activity may cause increased risk of drug toxicities/adverse drug reactions in patients with POR mutations. -- Abstract: Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), the major P450 present in human liver metabolizes approximately half the drugs in clinical use and requires electrons supplied from NADPH through NADPH-P450 reductase (POR, CPR). Mutations in human POR cause a rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia from diminished activities of steroid metabolizing P450s. In this study we examined the effect of mutations in POR on CYP3A4 activity. We used purified preparations of wild type and mutant human POR and in vitro reconstitution with purified CYP3A4 to perform kinetic studies. We are reporting that mutations in POR identified in patients with disordered steroidogenesis/Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS) may reduce CYP3A4 activity, potentially affecting drug metabolism in individuals carrying mutant POR alleles. POR mutants Y181D, A457H, Y459H, V492E and R616X had more than 99% loss of CYP3A4 activity, while POR mutations A287P, C569Y and V608F lost 60-85% activity. Loss of CYP3A4 activity may result in increased risk of drug toxicities and adverse drug reactions in patients with POR mutations.

  11. Reversal of metabolic disorders by pharmacological activation of bile acid receptors TGR5 and FXR

    Kavita Jadhav

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Activation of the bile acid (BA receptors farnesoid X receptor (FXR or G protein-coupled bile acid receptor (GPBAR1; TGR5 improves metabolic homeostasis. In this study, we aim to determine the impact of pharmacological activation of bile acid receptors by INT-767 on reversal of diet-induced metabolic disorders, and the relative contribution of FXR vs. TGR5 to INT-767's effects on metabolic parameters. Methods: Wild-type (WT, Tgr5−/−, Fxr−/−, Apoe−/− and Shp−/− mice were used to investigate whether and how BA receptor activation by INT-767, a semisynthetic agonist for both FXR and TGR5, could reverse diet-induced metabolic disorders. Results: INT-767 reversed HFD-induced obesity dependent on activation of both TGR5 and FXR and also reversed the development of atherosclerosis and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Mechanistically, INT-767 improved hypercholesterolemia by activation of FXR and induced thermogenic genes via activation of TGR5 and/or FXR. Furthermore, INT-767 inhibited several lipogenic genes and de novo lipogenesis in the liver via activation of FXR. We identified peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor γ (PPARγ and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (CEBPα as novel FXR-regulated genes. FXR inhibited PPARγ expression by inducing small heterodimer partner (SHP whereas the inhibition of CEBPα by FXR was SHP-independent. Conclusions: BA receptor activation can reverse obesity, NAFLD, and atherosclerosis by specific activation of FXR or TGR5. Our data suggest that, compared to activation of FXR or TGR5 only, dual activation of both FXR and TGR5 is a more attractive strategy for treatment of common metabolic disorders. Keywords: Farnesoid X receptor, TGR5, Atherosclerosis, Obesity, NAFLD

  12. Physical activity and metabolic disease among people with affective disorders: Prevention, management and implementation.

    Vancampfort, Davy; Stubbs, Brendon

    2017-12-15

    One in ten and one in three of people with affective disorders experience diabetes and metabolic syndrome respectively. Physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour (SB) are key risk factors that can ameliorate the risk of metabolic disease among this population. However, PA is often seen as luxury and/or a secondary component within the management of people with affective disorders. The current article provides a non-systematic best-evidence synthesis of the available literature, detailing a number of suggestions for the implementation of PA into clinical practice. Whilst the evidence is unequivocal for the efficacy of PA to prevent and manage metabolic disease in the general population, it is in its infancy in this patient group. Nonetheless, action must be taken now to ensure that PA and reducing SB are given a priority to prevent and manage metabolic diseases and improve wider health outcomes. PA should be treated as a vital sign and all people with affective disorders asked about their activity levels and if appropriate advised to increase this. There is a need for investment in qualified exercise specialists in clinical practice such as physiotherapists to undertake and oversee PA in practice. Behavioural strategies such as the self-determined theory should be employed to encourage adherence. Funding is required to develop the evidence base and elucidate the optimal intervention characteristics. PA interventions should form an integral part of the multidisciplinary management of people with affective disorders and our article outlines the evidence and strategies to implement this in practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Inborn Errors of Metabolism with Hypoglycemia Glycogen Storage Diseases and Inherited Disorders of Gluconeogenesis : Glycogen Storage Diseases and Inherited Disorders of Gluconeogenesis

    Weinstein, David A.; Steuerwald, Ulrike; De Souza, Carolina F. M.; Derks, Terry G. J.

    Although hyperinsulinism is the predominant inherited cause of hypoglycemia in the newborn period, inborn errors of metabolism are the primary etiologies after 1 month of age. Disorders of carbohydrate metabolism often present with hypoglycemia when fasting occurs. The presentation, diagnosis, and

  14. A study of changes in bone metabolism in cases of gender identity disorder.

    Miyajima, Tsuyoshi; Kim, Yoon Taek; Oda, Hiromi

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of increasing estrogen and decreasing androgen in males and increasing androgen and decreasing estrogen in females on bone metabolism in patients with gender identity disorder (GID). We measured and examined bone mineral density (BMD) and bone metabolism markers retrospectively in GID patients who were treated in our hospital. In addition, we studied the effects of treatment on those who had osteoporosis. Patients who underwent a change from male to female (MtF) showed inhibition of bone resorption and increased L2-4 BMD whereas those who underwent a change from female to male (FtM) had increased bone resorption and decreased L2-4 BMD. Six months after administration of risedronate to FtM patients with osteoporosis, L2-4 BMD increased and bone resorption markers decreased. These results indicate that estrogen is an important element with regard to bone metabolism in males.

  15. Carbohydrate metabolism disorders in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis – impact of treatment

    Piotr Dąbrowski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammation – the crucial pathogenic mechanism of rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis – is the main cause of accelerated atherosclerosis, insulin resistance and well-known consequences related to it. The conservative treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis may provide a significant influence on glucose metabolism. The paper is a literature overview concerning insulin resistance and impaired glucose metabolism during treatment with disease-modifying drugs including biologic DMARDs (disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, corticosteroids and commonly used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID. It has been found that the risk of carbohydrate disorders among those patients is much lower after therapy with hydroxychloroquine, methotrexate and TNF blockers – particularly with infliximab. The NSAID may play an important protective role in reducing risk of diabetes. The recent data show, contrary to general opinion, the advantageous outcome for glucose metabolism after treatment with corticosteroids, especially in the early active stage of rheumatoid arthritis.

  16. Dynapenic obesity as an associated factor to lipid and glucose metabolism disorders and metabolic syndrome in older adults - Findings from SABE Study.

    Alexandre, Tiago da Silva; Aubertin-Leheudre, Mylène; Carvalho, Lívia Pinheiro; Máximo, Roberta de Oliveira; Corona, Ligiana Pires; Brito, Tábatta Renata Pereira de; Nunes, Daniella Pires; Santos, Jair Licio Ferreira; Duarte, Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia

    2018-08-01

    There is little evidence showing that dynapenic obesity is associated with lipid and glucose metabolism disorders, high blood pressure, chronic disease and metabolic syndrome. Our aim was to analyze whether dynapenic abdominal obesity can be associated with lipid and glucose metabolism disorders, high blood pressure, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases in older adults living in São Paulo. This cross-sectional study included 833 older adults who took part of the third wave of the Health, Well-being and Aging Study in 2010. Based on waist circumference (>88 cm women and >102 cm men) and handgrip strength (metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. Logistic regression was used to analyze the associations between dynapenia and abdominal obesity status and lipid and glucose metabolic profiles, blood pressure, cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome. The fully adjusted models showed that D/AO individuals had higher prevalence of low HDL plasma concentrations (OR = 2.51, 95%CI: 1.40-4.48), hypertriglyceridemia (OR = 2.53, 95%CI: 1.43-4.47), hyperglycemia (OR = 2.05, 95%CI: 1.14-3.69), high glycated-haemoglobin concentrations (OR = 1.84, 95%CI: 1.03-3.30) and metabolic syndrome (OR = 12.39, 95%CI: 7.38-20.79) than ND/NAO. Dynapenic and D/AO individuals had higher prevalence of heart disease (OR = 2.05, 95%CI: 1.17-3.59 and OR = 1.92, 95%CI: 1.06-3.48, respectively) than ND/NAO. D/AO was associated with high prevalence of lipid and glucose metabolism disorders and metabolic syndrome while dynapenia and D/AO were associated with high prevalence of heart disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  17. Computational modeling to predict nitrogen balance during acute metabolic decompensation in patients with urea cycle disorders.

    MacLeod, Erin L; Hall, Kevin D; McGuire, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional management of acute metabolic decompensation in amino acid inborn errors of metabolism (AA IEM) aims to restore nitrogen balance. While nutritional recommendations have been published, they have never been rigorously evaluated. Furthermore, despite these recommendations, there is a wide variation in the nutritional strategies employed amongst providers, particularly regarding the inclusion of parenteral lipids for protein-free caloric support. Since randomized clinical trials during acute metabolic decompensation are difficult and potentially dangerous, mathematical modeling of metabolism can serve as a surrogate for the preclinical evaluation of nutritional interventions aimed at restoring nitrogen balance during acute decompensation in AA IEM. A validated computational model of human macronutrient metabolism was adapted to predict nitrogen balance in response to various nutritional interventions in a simulated patient with a urea cycle disorder (UCD) during acute metabolic decompensation due to dietary non-adherence or infection. The nutritional interventions were constructed from published recommendations as well as clinical anecdotes. Overall, dextrose alone (DEX) was predicted to be better at restoring nitrogen balance and limiting nitrogen excretion during dietary non-adherence and infection scenarios, suggesting that the published recommended nutritional strategy involving dextrose and parenteral lipids (ISO) may be suboptimal. The implications for patients with AA IEM are that the medical course during acute metabolic decompensation may be influenced by the choice of protein-free caloric support. These results are also applicable to intensive care patients undergoing catabolism (postoperative phase or sepsis), where parenteral nutritional support aimed at restoring nitrogen balance may be more tailored regarding metabolic fuel selection.

  18. Screening newborns for metabolic disorders based on targeted metabolomics using tandem mass spectrometry

    Hye-Ran Yoon

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of newborn screening is to diagnose genetic, metabolic, and other inherited disorders, at their earliest to start treatment before the clinical manifestations become evident. Understanding and tracing the biochemical data obtained from tandem mass spectrometry is vital for early diagnosis of metabolic diseases associated with such disorders. Accordingly, it is important to focus on the entire diagnostic process, including differential and confirmatory diagnostic options, and the major factors that influence the results of biochemical analysis. Compared to regular biochemical testing, this is a complex process carried out by a medical physician specialist. It is comprised of an integrated program requiring multidisciplinary approach such as, pediatric specialist, expert scientist, clinical laboratory technician, and nutritionist. Tandem mass spectrometry is a powerful tool to improve screening of newborns for diverse metabolic diseases. It is likely to be used to analyze other treatable disorders or significantly improve existing newborn tests to allow broad scale and precise testing. This new era of various screening programs, new treatments, and the availability of detection technology will prove to be beneficial for the future generations.

  19. Microbiome Remodeling via the Montmorillonite Adsorption-Excretion Axis Prevents Obesity-related Metabolic Disorders

    Pengfei Xu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and its related metabolic disorders are closely correlated with gut dysbiosis. Montmorillonite is a common medicine used to treat diarrhea. We have previously found that dietary lipid adsorbent-montmorillonite (DLA-M has an unexpected role in preventing obesity. The aim of this study was to further investigate whether DLA-M regulates intestinal absorption and gut microbiota to prevent obesity-related metabolic disorders. Here, we show that DLA-M absorbs free fatty acids (FFA and endotoxins in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, the combination of fluorescent tracer technique and polarized light microscopy showed that DLA-M crystals immobilized BODIPY® FL C16 and FITC-LPS, respectively, in the digestive tract in situ. HFD-fed mice treated with DLA-M showed mild changes in the composition of the gut microbiota, particularly increases in short-chain fatty acids (SCFA-producing Blautia bacteria and decreases in endotoxin-producing Desulfovibrio bacteria, these changes were positively correlated with obesity and inflammation. Our results indicated that DLA-M immobilizes FFA and endotoxins in the digestive tract via the adsorption-excretion axis and DLA-M may potentially be used as a prebiotic to prevent intestinal dysbiosis and obesity-associated metabolic disorders in obese individuals.

  20. Positron emission tomography assessment of cerebral glucose metabolic rates in autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia.

    Mitelman, Serge A; Bralet, Marie-Cecile; Mehmet Haznedar, M; Hollander, Eric; Shihabuddin, Lina; Hazlett, Erin A; Buchsbaum, Monte S

    2018-04-01

    Several models have been proposed to account for observed overlaps in clinical features and genetic predisposition between schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder. This study assessed similarities and differences in topological patterns and vectors of glucose metabolism in both disorders in reference to these models. Co-registered 18 fluorodeoxyglucose PET and MRI scans were obtained in 41 schizophrenia, 25 ASD, and 55 healthy control subjects. AFNI was used to map cortical and subcortical regions of interest. Metabolic rates were compared between three diagnostic groups using univariate and multivariate repeated-measures ANOVA. Compared to controls, metabolic rates in schizophrenia subjects were decreased in the frontal lobe, anterior cingulate, superior temporal gyrus, amygdala and medial thalamic nuclei; rates were increased in the occipital cortex, hippocampus, basal ganglia and lateral thalamic nuclei. In ASD subjects metabolic rates were decreased in the parietal lobe, frontal premotor and eye-fields areas, and amygdala; rates were increased in the posterior cingulate, occipital cortex, hippocampus and basal ganglia. In relation to controls, subjects with ASD and schizophrenia showed opposite changes in metabolic rates in the primary motor and somatosensory cortex, anterior cingulate and hypothalamus; similar changes were found in prefrontal and occipital cortices, inferior parietal lobule, amygdala, hippocampus, and basal ganglia. Schizophrenia and ASD appear to be associated with a similar pattern of metabolic abnormalities in the social brain. Divergent maladaptive trade-offs, as postulated by the diametrical hypothesis of their evolutionary relationship, may involve a more circumscribed set of anterior cingulate, motor and somatosensory regions and the specific cognitive functions they subserve.

  1. Electronic properties of disordered Weyl semimetals at charge neutrality

    Holder, Tobias; Huang, Chia-Wei; Ostrovsky, Pavel M.

    2017-11-01

    Weyl semimetals have been intensely studied as a three-dimensional realization of a Dirac-like excitation spectrum where the conduction bands and valence bands touch at isolated Weyl points in momentum space. Like in graphene, this property entails various peculiar electronic properties. However, recent theoretical studies have suggested that resonant scattering from rare regions can give rise to a nonzero density of states even at charge neutrality. Here, we give a detailed account of this effect and demonstrate how the semimetallic nature is suppressed at the lowest scales. To this end, we develop a self-consistent T -matrix approach to investigate the density of states beyond the limit of weak disorder. Our results show a nonvanishing density of states at the Weyl point, which exhibits a nonanalytic dependence on the impurity density. This unusually strong effect of rare regions leads to a revised estimate for the conductivity close to the Weyl point and emphasizes possible deviations from semimetallic behavior in dirty Weyl semimetals at charge neutrality even with very low impurity concentration.

  2. Risk of metabolic syndrome and its components in people with schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Vancampfort, Davy; Stubbs, Brendon; Mitchell, Alex J; De Hert, Marc; Wampers, Martien; Ward, Philip B; Rosenbaum, Simon; Correll, Christoph U

    2015-10-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components are highly predictive of cardiovascular diseases. The primary aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the prevalence of MetS and its components in people with schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder, comparing subjects with different disorders and taking into account demographic variables and psychotropic medication use. The secondary aim was to compare the MetS prevalence in persons with any of the selected disorders versus matched general population controls. The pooled MetS prevalence in people with severe mental illness was 32.6% (95% CI: 30.8%-34.4%; N = 198; n = 52,678). Relative risk meta-analyses established that there was no significant difference in MetS prevalence in studies directly comparing schizophrenia versus bipolar disorder, and in those directly comparing bipolar disorder versus major depressive disorder. Only two studies directly compared people with schizophrenia and major depressive disorder, precluding meta-analytic calculations. Older age and a higher body mass index were significant moderators in the final demographic regression model (z = -3.6, p = 0.0003, r(2)  = 0.19). People treated with all individual antipsychotic medications had a significantly (ppeople with severe mental illness had a significantly increased risk for MetS (RR = 1.58; 95% CI: 1.35-1.86; p<0.001) and all its components, except for hypertension (p = 0.07). These data suggest that the risk for MetS is similarly elevated in the diagnostic subgroups of severe mental illness. Routine screening and multidisciplinary management of medical and behavioral conditions is needed in these patients. Risks of individual antipsychotics should be considered when making treatment choices. © 2015 World Psychiatric Association.

  3. Modulation of Gut Microbiota in the Management of Metabolic Disorders: The Prospects and Challenges

    Omotayo O. Erejuwa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota plays a number of important roles including digestion, metabolism, extraction of nutrients, synthesis of vitamins, prevention against pathogen colonization, and modulation of the immune system. Alterations or changes in composition and biodiversity of the gut microbiota have been associated with many gastrointestinal tract (GIT disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease and colon cancer. Recent evidence suggests that altered composition and diversity of gut microbiota may play a role in the increased prevalence of metabolic diseases. This review article has two main objectives. First, it underscores approaches (such as probiotics, prebiotics, antimicrobial agents, bariatric surgery, and weight loss strategies and their prospects in modulating the gut microbiota in the management of metabolic diseases. Second, it highlights some of the current challenges and discusses areas of future research as it relates to the gut microbiota and metabolic diseases. The prospect of modulating the gut microbiota seems promising. However, considering that research investigating the role of gut microbiota in metabolic diseases is still in its infancy, more rigorous and well-designed in vitro, animal and clinical studies are needed.

  4. Neonatal seizures: the overlap between diagnosis of metabolic disorders and structural abnormalities. Case report

    Freitas Alessandra

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Inborn metabolic errors (IME and cortical developmental malformations are uncommon etiologies of neonatal seizures, however they may represent treatable causes of refractory epilepsy and for this reason must be considered as possible etiological factors. This case report aims to demonstrate the importance of neuroimaging studies in one patient with neonatal seizures, even when there are clues pointing to a metabolic disorder. CASE REPORT: A previously healthy 14 day-old child started presenting reiterated focal motor seizures (FMS which evolved to status epilepticus. Exams showed high serum levels of ammonia and no other abnormalities. A metabolic investigation was conducted with normal results. During follow-up, the patient presented developmental delay and left side hemiparesia. Seizures remained controlled with anti-epileptic drugs for four months, followed by relapse with repetitive FMS on the left side. Temporary improvement was obtained with anti-epileptic drug adjustment. At the age of 6 months, during a new episode of status epilepticus, high ammonia levels were detected. Other metabolic exams remained normal. The child was referred to a video-electroencephalographic monitoring and continuous epileptiform discharges were recorded over the right parasagittal and midline regions, with predominance over the posterior quadrant. A new neuroimaging study was performed and displayed a malformation of cortical development. Our case illustrates that because newborns are prone to present metabolic disarrangement, an unbalance such as hyperammonemia may be a consequence of acute events and conduct to a misdiagnosis of IME.

  5. Endocrine disrupting chemicals in mixture and obesity, diabetes and related metabolic disorders

    Le Magueresse-Battistoni, Brigitte; Labaronne, Emmanuel; Vidal, Hubert; Naville, Danielle

    2017-01-01

    Obesity and associated metabolic disorders represent a major societal challenge in health and quality of life with large psychological consequences in addition to physical disabilities. They are also one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Although, different etiologic factors including excessive food intake and reduced physical activity have been well identified, they cannot explain the kinetics of epidemic evolution of obesity and diabetes with prevalence rates reaching pandemic proportions. Interestingly, convincing data have shown that environmental pollutants, specifically those endowed with endocrine disrupting activities, could contribute to the etiology of these multifactorial metabolic disorders. Within this review, we will recapitulate characteristics of endocrine disruption. We will demonstrate that metabolic disorders could originate from endocrine disruption with a particular focus on convincing data from the literature. Eventually, we will present how handling an original mouse model of chronic exposition to a mixture of pollutants allowed demonstrating that a mixture of pollutants each at doses beyond their active dose could induce substantial deleterious effects on several metabolic end-points. This proof-of-concept study, as well as other studies on mixtures of pollutants, stresses the needs for revisiting the current threshold model used in risk assessment which does not take into account potential effects of mixtures containing pollutants at environmental doses, e.g., the real life exposure. Certainly, more studies are necessary to better determine the nature of the chemicals to which humans are exposed and at which level, and their health impact. As well, research studies on substitute products are essential to identify harmless molecules. PMID:28588754

  6. Association between the abdominal obesity anthropometric indicators and metabolic disorders in a Chinese population.

    Dong, J; Ni, Y-Q; Chu, X; Liu, Y-Q; Liu, G-X; Zhao, J; Yang, Y-B; Yan, Y-X

    2016-02-01

    Obesity has become a major health problem in contemporary society and it is closely related to many chronic diseases, so it is an important issue for measuring adiposity accurately and predicting its future. Prevention and treatment of overweight and obesity has become one of the key prevention and treatment of metabolic disorders. In this study, we compared the ability of the four anthropometric indicators (body mass index, waist circumstance, waist-height ratio, waist-to-hip ratio) to identify metabolic disorders (hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, hyperglycemia and hyperuricemia) by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses and to provide evidence for clinical practice. In this large scale cross-sectional study, 13,275 Han adults (including 7595 males and 5680 females) received physical examination between January, 2009 and January, 2010 in Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University were investigated by the means of questionnaire, Meanwhile, the physical examination and serological results were recorded. A package known as Statistical Package for Social Scientist (SPSS) was employed to analyse the responses while t-test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), ROC analysis and chi-square statistical methods were used to test the hypotheses. WC, WHtR, WHR and BMI were all significantly (P risk factors regardless of gender. And the area under the curve (AUC) of WHtR was significantly greater than that of WC, BMI or WHR in the prediction of hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, hyperglycemia and hyperuricemia. Our data show that WHtR was the best predictor of various metabolic disorders. The diagnostic value in descending order was WHtR > WHR > WC > BMI. Therefore we recommend WHtR in assessment of obese patients, in order to better assess the risks of their metabolic diseases. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Nrg4 promotes fuel oxidation and a healthy adipokine profile to ameliorate diet-induced metabolic disorders

    Zhimin Chen

    2017-08-01

    Conclusions: Nrg4 exerts pleiotropic beneficial effects on energy balance and glucose and lipid metabolism to ameliorate obesity-associated metabolic disorders. Biologic therapeutics based on Nrg4 may improve both type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in patients.

  8. Extensive metabolic disorders are present in APC(min) tumorigenesis mice.

    Liu, Zhenzhen; Xiao, Yi; Zhou, Zhengxiang; Mao, Xiaoxiao; Cai, Jinxing; Xiong, Lu; Liao, Chaonan; Huang, Fulian; Liu, Zehao; Ali Sheikh, Md Sayed; Plutzky, Jorge; Huang, He; Yang, Tianlun; Duan, Qiong

    2016-05-15

    Wnt signaling plays essential role in mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation. Activation of Wnt signaling suppresses adipogenesis, but promotes osteogenesis in MSC. Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) is a negative regulator of β-catenin and Wnt signaling activity. The mutation of APC gene leads to the activation of Wnt signaling and is responsible for tumorigenesis in APC(min) mouse; however, very few studies focused on its metabolic abnormalities. The present study reports a widespread metabolic disorder phenotype in APC(min) mice. The old APC(min) mice have decreased body weight and impaired adipogenesis, but severe hyperlipidemia, which mimic the phenotypes of Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP), an inherited disease also caused by APC gene mutation in human. We found that the expression of lipid metabolism and free fat acids (FA) use genes in the white adipose tissue (WAT) of the APC(min) mice is much lower than those of control. The changed gene expression pattern may lead to the disability of circulatory lipid transportation and storage at WAT. Moreover, the APC(min) mice could not maintain the core body temperature in cold condition. PET-CT determination revealed that the BAT of APC(min) mice has significantly impaired ability to take up (18)FDG from the blood. Morphological studies identified that the brown adipocytes of APC(min) mice were filled with lipid droplets but fewer mitochondria. These results matched with the findings of impaired BAT function in APC(min) mice. Collectively, our study explores a new mechanism that explains abnormal metabolism in APC(min) mice and provides insights into studying the metabolic disorders of FAP patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fenugreek with reduced bitterness prevents diet-induced metabolic disorders in rats

    Muraki Etsuko

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various therapeutic effects of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L. on metabolic disorders have been reported. However, the bitterness of fenugreek makes it hard for humans to eat sufficient doses of it for achieving therapeutic effects. Fenugreek contains bitter saponins such as protodioscin. Fenugreek with reduced bitterness (FRB is prepared by treating fenugreek with beta-glucosidase. This study has been undertaken to evaluate the effects of FRB on metabolic disorders in rats. Methods Forty Sprague–Dawley rats were fed with high-fat high-sucrose (HFS diet for 12 week to induce mild glucose and lipid disorders. Afterwards, the rats were divided into 5 groups. In the experiment 1, each group (n = 8 was fed with HFS, or HFS containing 2.4% fenugreek, or HFS containing 1.2%, 2.4% and 4.8% FRB, respectively, for 12 week. In the experiment 2, we examined the effects of lower doses of FRB (0.12%, 0.24% and 1.2% under the same protocol (n = 7 in each groups. Results In the experiment 1, FRB dose-dependently reduced food intake, body weight gain, epididymal white adipose tissue (EWAT and soleus muscle weight. FRB also lowered plasma and hepatic lipid levels and increased fecal lipid levels, both dose-dependently. The Plasma total cholesterol levels (mmol/L in the three FRB and Ctrl groups were 1.58 ± 0.09, 1.45 ± 0.05*, 1.29 ± 0.07* and 2.00 ± 0.18, respectively (*; P P P  Conclusions Thus we have demonstrated that FRB (1.2 ~ 4.8% prevents diet-induced metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and fatty liver.

  10. Daily electronic self-monitoring in bipolar disorder using smartphones - the MONARCA I trial

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Frost, Mads; Ritz, Christian

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The number of studies on electronic self-monitoring in affective disorder and other psychiatric disorders is increasing and indicates high patient acceptance and adherence. Nevertheless, the effect of electronic self-monitoring in patients with bipolar disorder has never been...... investigated in a randomized controlled trial (RCT). The objective of this trial was to investigate in a RCT whether the use of daily electronic self-monitoring using smartphones reduces depressive and manic symptoms in patients with bipolar disorder. METHOD: A total of 78 patients with bipolar disorder...... without mixed symptoms and patients with presence of depressive and manic symptoms showed significantly more depressive symptoms and fewer manic symptoms during the trial period in the intervention group. CONCLUSIONS: These results highlight that electronic self-monitoring, although intuitive...

  11. Metabolic correction for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A biochemical-physiological therapeutic approach

    Mikirova NA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTObjective: This investigation was undertaken to determine the reference values of specific biochemical markers that have been have been associated with behavior typical of ADHD in a group of patients before and after metabolic correction.Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD affects approximately two million American children, and this condition has grown to become the most commonly diagnosed behavioral disorder of childhood. According to the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH, the cause of the condition, once called hyperkinesis, is not known.The cause of ADHD is generally acknowledged to be multifactorial, involving both biological and environmental influence. Molecular, genetic, and pharmacological studies suggest the involvement of the neurotransmitter systems in the pathogenesis of ADHD. Polymorphic variants in several genes involved in regulation of dopamine have been identified, and related neurotransmitter pathways alterations are reported to be associated with the disease.Nutritional deficiencies, including deficiencies in fatty acids (EPA, DHA, the amino acid methionine, and the trace minerals zinc and selenium, have been shown to influence neuronal function and produce defects in neuronal plasticity, as well as impact behavior in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.Materials/Methods: This study was based on data extracted from our patient history database covering a period of over ten years. We performed laboratory tests in 116 patients 2.7-25 years old with a diagnosis of ADHD. Sixty-six percent (66% of patients were males. Patients were followed from 3 month to 3 years. We compared the distributions of fatty acids, essential metals, and the levels of metabolic stress factors with established reference ranges before and after interventions. In addition, we analyzed the association between toxic metal concentrations and the levels of essential metals.Results: This study was based

  12. Regional cerebral glucose metabolic changes in oculopalatal myoclonus: implication for neural pathways, underlying the disorder

    Cho, Sang Soo; Moon, So Young; Kim, Ji Soo; Kim, Sang Eun

    2004-01-01

    Palatal myoclonus (PM) is characterized by rhythmic involuntary jerky movements of the soft palate of the throat. When associated with eye movements, it is called oculopalatal myoclonus (OPM). Ordinary PM is characterized by hypertrophic olivary degeneration, a trans-synaptic degeneration following loss of neuronal input to the inferior olivary nucleus due to an interruption of the Guillain-Mollaret triangle usually by a hemorrhage. However, the neural pathways underlying the disorder are uncertain. In an attempt to understand the pathologic neural pathways, we examined the metabolic correlates of this tremulous condition. Brain FDG PET scans were acquired in 8 patients with OPM (age, 49.9±4.6 y: all males: 7 with pontine hemorrhage, 1 with diffuse brainstem infarction) and age-matched 50 healthy males (age, 50.7± 9.0) and the regional glucose metabolism compared using SPM99. For group analysis, the hemispheres containing lesions were assigned to the right side of the brain. Patients with OPM had significant hypometabolism in the ipsilateral (to the lesion) brainstem and superior temporal and parahippocampal gyri (P < 0.05 corrected, k = 100). By contrast, there was significant hypermetabolism in the contralateral middle and inferior temporal gyri, thalamus, middle frontal gyrus and precuneus (P < 0.05 corrected, k=l00). Our data demonstrate the distinct metabolic changes between several ipsilateral and contralateral brain regions (hypometabolism vs. hypermetabolism) in patients with OPM. This may provide clues for understanding the neural pathways underlying the disorder

  13. Regional cerebral glucose metabolic changes in oculopalatal myoclonus: implication for neural pathways, underlying the disorder

    Cho, Sang Soo; Moon, So Young; Kim, Ji Soo; Kim, Sang Eun [College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Palatal myoclonus (PM) is characterized by rhythmic involuntary jerky movements of the soft palate of the throat. When associated with eye movements, it is called oculopalatal myoclonus (OPM). Ordinary PM is characterized by hypertrophic olivary degeneration, a trans-synaptic degeneration following loss of neuronal input to the inferior olivary nucleus due to an interruption of the Guillain-Mollaret triangle usually by a hemorrhage. However, the neural pathways underlying the disorder are uncertain. In an attempt to understand the pathologic neural pathways, we examined the metabolic correlates of this tremulous condition. Brain FDG PET scans were acquired in 8 patients with OPM (age, 49.9{+-}4.6 y: all males: 7 with pontine hemorrhage, 1 with diffuse brainstem infarction) and age-matched 50 healthy males (age, 50.7{+-} 9.0) and the regional glucose metabolism compared using SPM99. For group analysis, the hemispheres containing lesions were assigned to the right side of the brain. Patients with OPM had significant hypometabolism in the ipsilateral (to the lesion) brainstem and superior temporal and parahippocampal gyri (P < 0.05 corrected, k = 100). By contrast, there was significant hypermetabolism in the contralateral middle and inferior temporal gyri, thalamus, middle frontal gyrus and precuneus (P < 0.05 corrected, k=l00). Our data demonstrate the distinct metabolic changes between several ipsilateral and contralateral brain regions (hypometabolism vs. hypermetabolism) in patients with OPM. This may provide clues for understanding the neural pathways underlying the disorder.

  14. Preventive Effects of Salacia reticulata on Obesity and Metabolic Disorders in TSOD Mice

    Tomoko Akase

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The extracts of Salacia reticulata (Salacia extract, a plant that has been used for the treatment of early diabetes, rheumatism and gonorrhea in Ayurveda, have been shown to have an anti-obesity effect and suppress hyperglycemia. In this study, the effects of Salacia extract on various symptoms of metabolic disorder were investigated and compared using these TSOD mice and non-obese TSNO mice. Body weight, food intake, plasma biochemistry, visceral and subcutaneous fat (X-ray and CT, glucose tolerance, blood pressure and pain tolerance were measured, and histopathological examination of the liver was carried out. A significant dose-dependent decline in the gain in body weight, accumulation of visceral and subcutaneous fat and an improvement of abnormal glucose tolerance, hypertension and peripheral neuropathy were noticed in TSOD mice. In addition, hepatocellular swelling, fatty degeneration of hepatocytes, inflammatory cell infiltration and single-cell necrosis were observed on histopathological examination of the liver in TSOD mice. Salacia extract markedly improved these symptoms upon treatment. Based on the above results, it is concluded that Salacia extract has remarkable potential to prevent obesity and associated metabolic disorders including the development of metabolic syndrome.

  15. The Role of Vaspin in the Development of Metabolic and Glucose Tolerance Disorders and Atherosclerosis

    Rumyana Dimova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, most research efforts have been focused on studying insulin-sensitizing adipokines. One of the most recently discovered adipokines is vaspin, a visceral adipose tissue-derived serine protease inhibitor. Vaspin levels have been found significantly increased in mice with obesity and insulin resistance. It has been assumed that vaspin serves as an insulin sensitizer with anti-inflammatory effects and might act as a compensatory mechanism in response to decreased insulin sensitivity. Most studies in humans have shown a positive correlation between vaspin gene expression and serum levels, and metabolic syndrome parameters. Vaspin gene expression is influenced by age and gender, and the administration of insulin sensitizers enhances it in mice, whereas the use of metformin decreases serum vaspin levels in humans, probably due to different regulatory mechanisms. Presumably vaspin plays local and endocrine role in the development of initial and advanced atherosclerosis in obese subjects and might be used as a predictor of coronary and cerebrovascular disease. It is believed that vaspin could be regarded as a new link between obesity and related metabolic disorders, including glucose intolerance. The entire understanding of vaspin intimate mechanism of action might enable the development of novel etiology-based treatment strategies, targeting metabolic and glucose tolerance disorders.

  16. Tracing Single Electrons in a Disordered Polymer Film at Room Temperature.

    Wilma, Kevin; Issac, Abey; Chen, Zhijian; Würthner, Frank; Hildner, Richard; Köhler, Jürgen

    2016-04-21

    The transport of charges lies at the heart of essentially all modern (opto-) electronic devices. Although inorganic semiconductors built the basis for current technologies, organic materials have become increasingly important in recent years. However, organic matter is often highly disordered, which directly impacts the charge carrier dynamics. To understand and optimize device performance, detailed knowledge of the transport mechanisms of charge carriers in disordered matter is therefore of crucial importance. Here we report on the observation of the motion of single electrons within a disordered polymer film at room temperature, using single organic chromophores as probe molecules. The migration of a single electron gives rise to a varying electric field in its vicinity, which is registered via a shift of the emission spectra (Stark shift) of a chromophore. The spectral shifts allow us to determine the electron mobility and reveal for each nanoenvironment a distinct number of different possible electron-transfer pathways within the rugged energy landscape of the disordered polymer matrix.

  17. Effect of alternative pathway therapy on branched chain amino acid metabolism in urea cycle disorder patients.

    Scaglia, Fernando; Carter, Susan; O'Brien, William E; Lee, Brendan

    2004-04-01

    Urea cycle disorders (UCDs) are a group of inborn errors of hepatic metabolism caused by the loss of enzymatic activities that mediate the transfer of nitrogen from ammonia to urea. These disorders often result in life-threatening hyperammonemia and hyperglutaminemia. A combination of sodium phenylbutyrate and sodium phenylacetate/benzoate is used in the clinical management of children with urea cycle defects as a glutamine trap, diverting nitrogen from urea synthesis to alternatives routes of excretion. We have observed that patients treated with these compounds have selective branched chain amino acid (BCAA) deficiency despite adequate dietary protein intake. However, the direct effect of alternative therapy on the steady state levels of plasma branched chain amino acids has not been well characterized. We have measured steady state plasma branched chain and other essential non-branched chain amino acids in control subjects, untreated ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency females and treated null activity urea cycle disorder patients in the fed steady state during the course of stable isotope studies. Steady-state leucine levels were noted to be significantly lower in treated urea cycle disorder patients when compared to either untreated ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency females or control subjects (Purea cycle disorder patients. These findings suggest that better titration of protein restriction could be achieved with branched chain amino acid supplementation in patients with UCDs who are on alternative route therapy.

  18. [Cardiac and metabolic risk factors in severe mental disorders. Task of a prevention manager].

    Lederbogen, F; Schwarz, P; Häfner, S; Schweiger, U; Bohus, M; Deuschle, M

    2015-07-01

    People with severe mental disorders have a reduction in life expectancy of 13-30 % compared with the general population. This severe disadvantage is primarily due to an increased prevalence of cardiac and metabolic disorders, especially coronary heart disease (CHD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus and are the result of untoward health behavior characterized by smoking, low levels of physical activity and unhealthy dietary habits. Obesity, arterial hypertension and lipid disorders are also associated with this behavior and further increase the risk of CHD and type 2 diabetes. Thus, people with mental disorders constitute a population with a high risk of cardiovascular events. Appropriate measures for prevention and therapy are urgently indicated but rarely applied. This article presents new organizational structures to overcome this deficit with a prevention manager playing a central role in organizing and applying preventive and therapeutic care. Results from cardiology and diabetic medicine have shown the effectiveness of pooling this responsibility. The measure has the potential to reduce the increased mortality of people with severe mental disorders.

  19. Is Metabolic Syndrome On the Radar? Improving Real-Time Detection of Metabolic Syndrome and Physician Response by Computerized Scan of the Electronic Medical Record

    Lui, Kingwai; Randhawa, Gagandeep; Totten, Vicken; Smith, Adam E.; Raese, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Metabolic syndrome is a common underdiagnosed condition among psychiatric patients exacerbated by second-generation antipsychotics, with the exception of aripiprazole and ziprasidone. This study evaluated the prescribing and treating behavior with regard to antipsychotics and metabolic syndrome of psychiatrists before and after implementation of a mandatory admission order set and electronic notification of results. Method: Baseline data from 9,100 consecutive psychiatric admissions to a mental health hospital (July 2013–July 2014) were compared to postintervention data (July 2014–January 2015), which included 1,499 consecutive patient records. The intervention initiated standardized admission testing with electronic notification to psychiatrists when patients met metabolic syndrome criteria (according to Axis III of the DSM-IV). Charts were examined for inclusion of this diagnosis at discharge and for treatment changes. Results: At baseline, only 2.4% of patients (n = 214) were evaluated for metabolic syndrome. Of these, 34.5% (0.8% of the total sample) met metabolic syndrome criteria. Only 15 patients (0.16%) were comprehensively treated. No chart listed metabolic syndrome under Axis III of the DSM-IV. After the intervention, the diagnosis of patients meeting the criteria for metabolic syndrome increased from 0% to 29.3%. Less than 3% of patients were switched to drugs with a more benign metabolic profile. All patients who continued on second-generation antipsychotics had metabolic retesting. Thirty-eight experienced a significant and rapid increase in triglyceride levels after only 3 to 17 days. Conclusions: Mandatory intake testing increases the number of patients evaluated for metabolic syndrome. Electronic alerts increase the inclusion of metabolic syndrome among discharge diagnoses but rarely affect prescribing practices. PMID:27247842

  20. Effect of exogenous electron shuttles on growth and fermentative metabolism in Clostridium sp. BC1

    Yarlagadda V. N.; Francis A.; Gupta, A.; Dodge, C. J.

    2012-03-01

    In this study, the influence exogenous electron shuttles on the growth and glucose fermentative metabolism of Clostridium sp. BC1 was investigated. Bicarbonate addition to mineral salts (MS) medium accelerated growth and glucose fermentation which shifted acidogenesis (acetic- and butyric-acids) towards solventogenesis (ethanol and butanol). Addition of ferrihydrite, anthraquinone disulfonate, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide in bicarbonate to growing culture showed no significant influence on fermentative metabolism. In contrast, methyl viologen (MV) enhanced ethanol- and butanol-production by 28- and 12-fold, respectively with concomitant decrease in hydrogen, acetic- and butyric-acids compared to MS medium. The results show that MV addition affects hydrogenase activity with a significant reduction in hydrogen production and a shift in the direction of electron flow towards enhanced production of ethanol and butanol.

  1. Selfish brain and selfish immune system interplay: A theoretical framework for metabolic comorbidities of mood disorders.

    Yamagata, Ana Sayuri; Mansur, Rodrigo Barbachan; Rizzo, Lucas Bortolotto; Rosenstock, Tatiana; McIntyre, Roger S; Brietzke, Elisa

    2017-01-01

    According to the "selfish brain" theory, the brain regulates its own energy supply influencing the peripheral metabolism and food intake according to its needs. The immune system has been likewise "selfish" due to independent energy consumption; and it may compete with the brain (another high energy-consumer) for glucose. In mood disorders, stress in mood episodes or physiological stress activate homeostasis mechanisms from the brain and the immune system to solve the imbalance. The interaction between the selfish brain and the selfish immune system may explain various conditions of medical impairment in mood disorders, such as Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and immune dysregulation. The objective of this study is to comprehensively review the literature regarding the competition between the brain and the immune system for energy substrate. Targeting the energetic regulation of the brain and the immune system and their cross-talk open alternative treatments and a different approach in the study of general medical comorbidities in mood disorders, although more investigation is needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Metabolic disorders with typical alterations in MRI; Stoffwechselstoerungen mit typischen Veraenderungen im MRT

    Warmuth-Metz, M. [Klinikum der Universitaet Wuerzburg, Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    The classification of metabolic disorders according to the etiology is not practical for neuroradiological purposes because the underlying defect does not uniformly transform into morphological characteristics. Therefore typical MR and clinical features of some easily identifiable metabolic disorders are presented. Canavan disease, Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease, Alexander disease, X-chromosomal adrenoleukodystrophy and adrenomyeloneuropathy, mitochondrial disorders, such as MELAS (mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes) and Leigh syndrome as well as L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria are presented. (orig.) [German] Die Einteilung von Stoffwechselstoerungen nach ihrer Aetiologie ist fuer den diagnostischen Neuroradiologen nicht sinnvoll, da sich aus der zugrunde liegenden Stoerung keine Rueckschluesse auf die zu erwartende MR-Morphologie ziehen lassen. Deshalb sollen anhand typischer bildmorphologischer Veraenderungen in Zusammenschau mit den jeweiligen klinischen Charakteristika einige leicht einzuordnende Stoffwechselstoerungen dargestellt werden. Es handelt sich um den Morbus Canavan, Morbus Pelizaeus-Merzbacher, Morbus Alexander, die X-chromosomal vererbte Adrenoleukodystrophie und Adrenomyeloneuropathie, die mitochondrialen Stoerungen MELAS (mitochondriale Enzephalomyopathie, Laktazidose und Stroke-like-Episoden) und Leigh-Syndrom sowie die L-2-Hydroxyglutarazidurie. (orig.)

  3. Creatine metabolism and psychiatric disorders: Does creatine supplementation have therapeutic value?

    Allen, Patricia J.

    2012-01-01

    Athletes, body builders, and military personnel use dietary creatine as an ergogenic aid to boost physical performance in sports involving short bursts of high-intensity muscle activity. Lesser known is the essential role creatine, a natural regulator of energy homeostasis, plays in brain function and development. Creatine supplementation has shown promise as a safe, effective, and tolerable adjunct to medication for the treatment of brain-related disorders linked with dysfunctional energy metabolism, such as Huntington’s Disease and Parkinson’s Disease. Impairments in creatine metabolism have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders, leaving clinicians, researchers and patients alike wondering if dietary creatine has therapeutic value for treating mental illness. The present review summarizes the neurobiology of the creatine-phosphocreatine circuit and its relation to psychological stress, schizophrenia, mood and anxiety disorders. While present knowledge of the role of creatine in cognitive and emotional processing is in its infancy, further research on this endogenous metabolite has the potential to advance our understanding of the biological bases of psychopathology and improve current therapeutic strategies. PMID:22465051

  4. Effect of electron beam on quality and physiological metabolism of blueberry

    Zhou Huijuan; Ye Zhengwen; Zhang Xueying; Su Mingshen; Du Jihong; Zhang Minqian

    2013-01-01

    In order to explore safe, simple and effective storage technology, experiment was conducted with 'ai li ao te' blueberry for studying the effect of electron beam on quality and physiological metabolism. Fruit was stored at temperature of (1 ± 0.5)℃, with RH of 80% ∼ 85%, and treated with electron beam of 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3 kGy. The results showed that the proper dose of electron beam could decline the bad fruit rate and weightlessness, restrain respiration intensity, alleviate the decline of soluble solids, acid and Vc content. Meanwhile it did not have significant negative effects on pulp colour. All these showed that electron beam of 1 kGy treatment could keep the best storage quality of blueberry, keep the sound berry and weightlessness rate at > 90% and < 10% respectively, prolong the effective storage time from 30d to 60d. (authors)

  5. Electronic Nose Technology to Measure Soil Microbial Activity and Classify Soil Metabolic Status

    Fabrizio De Cesare; Elena Di Mattia; Simone Pantalei; Emiliano Zampetti; Vittorio Vinciguerra; Antonella Macagnano

    2011-01-01

    The electronic nose (E-nose) is a sensing technology that has been widely used to monitor environments in the last decade. In the present study, the capability of an E-nose, in combination with biochemical and microbiological techniques, of both detecting the microbial activity and estimating the metabolic status of soil ecosystems, was tested by measuring on one side respiration, enzyme activities and growth of bacteria in natural but simplified soil ecosystems over 23 days of incubation thr...

  6. Metabolic disorders in dairy Simmentals - prevalence risk and effect on subsequent daily milk traits

    Vesna Gantner

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyse metabolic disorders in Simmental cows, 2.641.223 test-day records have been used. The metabolic disorders prevalence risk was indicated by the fat to protein (F/P ratio, while the subclinical disorder was demonstrated using the F/P ratio and daily production. In terms of the ketosis prevalence risk (KPR, the highest prevalence risks occurred at the 20th lactation day in all tested cows with exception of cows in parity P4+ which experienced peak prevalence risk at 25th lactation day. A steady decrease of KPR after peak prevalence was observed in all animals except the 3rd lactation cows which experienced the second peak prevalence at the 30th lactation day, after which the prevalence risk continued to decline. The highest acidosis prevalence risk (APR was detected among 4+ parity cows. Considering the lactation stage, the highest APR occurred within the first 10 days, with the indication from 16 to 23 %, depending on parity. The peak prevalence risk was followed by a considerable decline during the ensuing 20 days. The prevalence risk began to increase among all cows after the 25th lactation day. Furthermore, there was a considerable decrease in a daily milk yield and variation of daily milk contents due to subclinical disorders. The most noticeable drop in daily milk yield, for both ketosis/acidosis, was detected in cows in 4+ parity in the amounts of 7.45 kg/day and 2.73 kg/day respectively. There was also a production decline in the subsequent milk controls. Subclinical disorders can also substantially change daily milk contents. The daily fat content was considerably reduced by the subclinical ketosis and the same parameter was considerably increased by the subclinical acidosis. The opposite trends were detected for daily protein content. Since indication criteria was set on Holstein population and considering the fact that Simmental cows produce noticeably less, some adjustment is needed before a routine use of test

  7. The NLRP3 Inflammasome as a Novel Player of the Intercellular Crosstalk in Metabolic Disorders

    Elisa Benetti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of obesity and type 2 diabetes is a serious health problem, which is projected to afflict 300 million people worldwide by 2020. Both clinical and translational laboratory studies have demonstrated that chronic inflammation is associated with obesity and obesity-related conditions such as insulin resistance. However, the precise etiopathogenetic mechanisms linking obesity to diabetes remain to be elucidated, and the pathways that mediate this phenomenon are not fully characterized. One of the most recently identified signaling pathways, whose activation seems to affect many metabolic disorders, is the “inflammasome,” a multiprotein complex composed of NLRP3 (nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat protein 3, ASC (apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD, and procaspase-1. NLRP3 inflammasome activation leads to the processing and secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin- (IL- 1β and IL-18. The goal of this paper is to review new insights on the effects of the NLRP3 inflammasome activation in the complex mechanisms of crosstalk between different organs, for a better understanding of the role of chronic inflammation in metabolic disease pathogenesis. We will provide here a perspective on the current research on NLRP3 inflammasome, which may represent an innovative therapeutic target to reverse the detrimental metabolic consequences of the metabolic inflammation.

  8. Differential metabolic rates in prefrontal and temporal Brodmann areas in schizophrenia and schizotypal personality disorder.

    Buchsbaum, Monte S; Nenadic, Igor; Hazlett, Erin A; Spiegel-Cohen, Jacqueline; Fleischman, Michael B; Akhavan, Arash; Silverman, Jeremy M; Siever, Larry J

    2002-03-01

    In an exploration of the schizophrenia spectrum, we compared cortical metabolic rates in unmedicated patients with schizophrenia and schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) with findings in age- and sex-matched normal volunteers. Coregistered magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) scans were obtained in 27 schizophrenic, 13 SPD, and 32 normal volunteers who performed a serial verbal learning test during tracer uptake. A template of Brodmann areas derived from a whole brain histological section atlas was used to analyze PET findings. Significantly lower metabolic rates were found in prefrontal areas 44-46 in schizophrenic patients than in normal volunteers. SPD patients did not differ from normal volunteers in most lateral frontal regions, but they had values intermediate between those of normal volunteers and schizophrenic patients in lateral temporal regions. SPD patients showed higher than normal metabolic rates in both medial frontal and medial temporal areas. Metabolic rates in Brodmann area 10 were distinctly higher in SPD patients than in either normal volunteers or schizophrenic patients.

  9. Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 (FGF23 and Disorders of Phosphate Metabolism

    Tasuku Saito

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Derangements in serum phosphate level result in rickets/osteomalacia or ectopic calcification indicating that healthy people without these abnormalities maintain serum phosphate within certain ranges. These results indicate that there must be a regulatory mechanism of serum phosphate level. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23 was identified as the last member of FGF family. FGF23 is produced by bone and reduces serum phosphate level by suppressing phosphate reabsorption in proximal tubules and intestinal phosphate absorption through lowering 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D level. It has been shown that excess and deficient actions of FGF23 result in hypophosphatemic rickets/osteomalacia and hyperphosphatemic tumoral calcinosis, respectively. These results indicate that FGF23 works as a hormone, and several disorders of phosphate metabolism can be viewed as endocrine diseases. It may become possible to treat patients with abnormal phosphate metabolism by pharmacologically modifying the activity of FGF23.

  10. Exercise Effects for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Metabolic Health, Autistic Traits, and Quality of Life.

    Toscano, Chrystiane V A; Carvalho, Humberto M; Ferreira, José P

    2018-02-01

    This study examined the effects of a 48-week exercise-based intervention on the metabolic profile, autism traits, and perceived quality of life in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We randomly allocated 64 children with ASD (aged 6-12 years) to experimental ( n = 46) and control groups ( n = 18) and used multilevel regression modeling to examine responses to receiving or not receiving the intervention. The experimental group showed beneficial effects on metabolic indicators (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and total cholesterol), autism traits, and parent-perceived quality of life. Our results provide support for exercise and physical activity, including basic coordination and strength exercises, as important therapeutic interventions for children with ASD.

  11. Obese Patients With a Binge Eating Disorder Have an Unfavorable Metabolic and Inflammatory Profile.

    Succurro, Elena; Segura-Garcia, Cristina; Ruffo, Mariafrancesca; Caroleo, Mariarita; Rania, Marianna; Aloi, Matteo; De Fazio, Pasquale; Sesti, Giorgio; Arturi, Franco

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate whether obese patients with a binge eating disorder (BED) have an altered metabolic and inflammatory profile related to their eating behaviors compared with non-BED obese.A total of 115 White obese patients consecutively recruited underwent biochemical, anthropometrical evaluation, and a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Patients answered the Binge Eating Scale and were interviewed by a psychiatrist. The patients were subsequently divided into 2 groups according to diagnosis: non-BED obese (n = 85) and BED obese (n = 30). Structural equation modeling analysis was performed to elucidate the relation between eating behaviors and metabolic and inflammatory profile.BED obese exhibited significantly higher percentages of altered eating behaviors, body mass index (P < 0.001), waist circumference (P < 0.01), fat mass (P < 0.001), and a lower lean mass (P < 0.001) when compared with non-BED obese. Binge eating disorder obese also had a worse metabolic and inflammatory profile, exhibiting significantly lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (P < 0.05), and higher levels of glycated hemoglobin (P < 0.01), uric acid (P < 0.05), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (P < 0.001), high-sensitive C-reactive protein (P < 0.01), and white blood cell counts (P < 0.01). Higher fasting insulin (P < 0.01) and higher insulin resistance (P < 0.01), assessed by homeostasis model assessment index and visceral adiposity index (P < 0.001), were observed among BED obese. All differences remained significant after adjusting for body mass index. No significant differences in fasting plasma glucose or 2-hour postchallenge plasma glucose were found. Structural equation modeling analysis confirmed the relation between the altered eating behaviors of BED and the metabolic and inflammatory profile.Binge eating disorder obese exhibited an unfavorable metabolic and inflammatory profile, which is related to their characteristic

  12. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, impaired glucose metabolism, and bipolar disorder course

    Mansur, Rodrigo B; Santos, Camila M; Rizzo, Lucas B

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been proposed as a potential biomarker in bipolar disorder (BD). However, current evidence is limited and results have been highly heterogeneous. This study aimed to assess the moderating effect of impaired glucose metabolism......, alcohol use, and IGM (P=.046). There was no effect of IGM (P=.860) and no interaction between BD diagnosis and IGM (P=.893). Peripheral BDNF levels were positively correlated with lifetime depressive episodes (Psuicide attempts (P=.021). IGM moderated...... the association between BDNF and the number of previous mood episodes (P

  13. PRIMARY PREVENTION OF DIABETES MELLITUS: CORRECTION OF EARLY DISORDERS OF GLUCOSE METABOLISM IN CARDIOLOGY PRACTICE

    M. N. Mamedov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Early glucose metabolism disorders (GMD are of interest in development of effective approaches to prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM. Data of international clinical trials shows that early GMD are an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The possibilities of GMD prevention and early treatment are discussed. Antihyperglycemic medications classification, their mode of action and efficacy are presented from evidence-based medicine point of view. This data confirms that successful DM primary prevention at early stage of GMD reduces the risk of cardiovascular complications.

  14. Combined Angiotensin Receptor Modulation in the Management of Cardio-Metabolic Disorders

    Paulis, Ludovit; Foulquier, Sébastien; Namsolleck, Pawel

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular and metabolic disorders, such as hypertension, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia or obesity are linked with chronic low-grade inflammation and dysregulation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Consequently, RAS inhibition by ACE inhibitors or angiotensin AT1 receptor (AT1R...... blockade abolishes the AT1R-linked RAS almost completely with subsequent risk of hypotension and hypotension-related events, i.e. syncope or renal dysfunction. Such complications might be especially prominent in patients with renal impairment or patients with isolated systolic hypertension and normal...

  15. The Metabolic Syndrome and Behavioral Correlates in Obese Patients With Binge Eating Disorder

    Roehrig, Megan; Masheb, Robin M.; White, Marney A.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the frequency of the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) and explored behavioral eating- and weight-related correlates in obese patients with binge eating disorder (BED). Ninety-three treatment-seeking obese BED patients (22 men and 71 women) with and without the MetSyn were compared on demographic features and a number of current and historical eating and weight variables. Sixty percent of the obese patients with BED met criteria for the MetSyn, with men and whites having signifi...

  16. Apelin Role in the Development of Glucose Metabolism Disorders (Review of the Literature and Our Own Researches

    G.V. Demidenko

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The physiological and pathogenetic role of adipokine apelin, endogenous ligand of apelin (APJ or APLNR receptors in the development of glucose metabolism disorders has been analyzed. Established correlations of apelin with components of carbohydrate metabolism confirm the effect on glucose metabolism manifestations. Ambiguous data about apelin level at insulin resistance syndrome, prediabetes, diabetes mellitus type 2, hypertension require further detailed study. The close association of apelin with development of diabetes mellitus type 2 and prediction of cardiovascular events in patients with metabolic syndrome has been found.

  17. Urea cycle disorders: a life-threatening yet treatable cause of metabolic encephalopathy in adults.

    Blair, Nicholas F; Cremer, Philip D; Tchan, Michel C

    2015-02-01

    Urea cycle disorders are inborn errors of metabolism that, in rare cases, can present for the first time in adulthood. We report a perplexing presentation in a woman 4 days postpartum of bizarre and out-of-character behaviour interspersed with periods of complete normality. Without any focal neurological signs or abnormality on initial investigations, the diagnosis became clear with the finding of a significantly elevated plasma ammonia level, just as she began to deteriorate rapidly. She improved following intravenous dextrose and lipid emulsion, together with sodium benzoate, arginine and a protein-restricted diet. She remains well 12 months later with no permanent sequelae. Whilst this is a rare presentation of an uncommon disease, it is a treatable disorder and its early diagnosis can prevent a fatal outcome. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. MR spectroscopy in metabolic disorders of the brain; MR-Spektroskopie bei Stoffwechselerkrankungen des Gehirns

    Yilmaz, U. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    Metabolic disorders of the brain often present a particular challenge for the neuroradiologist, since the disorders are rare, changes on conventional MR are often non-specific and there are numerous differential diagnoses for the white substance lesions. As a complementary method to conventional brain MRI, MR spectroscopy may help to reduce the scope of the differential diagnosis. Entities with specific MR spectroscopy patterns are Canavan disease, maple syrup urine disease, nonketotic hyperglycinemia and creatine deficiency. (orig.) [German] Die Diagnostik metabolischer Erkrankungen des Gehirns stellt eine besondere Herausforderung in der Neuroradiologie dar, da die Erkrankungen insgesamt selten, die bildmorphologischen Befunde haeufig unspezifisch sind und es eine Vielzahl von Differenzialdiagnosen fuer die Veraenderungen der weissen Substanz gibt. Als zusaetzliche Technik kann die MR-Spektroskopie bei Stoffwechselerkrankungen helfen, die Diagnose einzugrenzen. Krankheitsentitaeten, die spezifische Veraenderungen in der Spektroskopie aufweisen, sind der Morbus Canavan, die Ahornsirupkrankheit, die nichtketotische Hyperglyzinaemie und Kreatinmangelsyndrome. (orig.)

  19. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging Patterns in Metabolic and Toxic Brain Disorders

    Sener, R.N. [Ege Univ. Hospital, Bornova, Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Radiology

    2004-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate metabolic and toxic brain disorders that manifest with restricted, elevated, or both restricted and elevated diffusion patterns on diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Material and Methods: Echo-planar diffusion MRI examinations were obtained in 34 pediatric patients with metabolic and toxic brain disorders proved by appropriate laboratory studies. The MRI unit operated at 1.5T with a gradient strength of 30 mT/meter, and a rise time of 600 s. b=1000 s/mm{sup 2} images and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps with ADC values were studied. Results: Three patterns were observed: 1. A restricted diffusion pattern (high signal on b=1000 s/mm{sup 2} images and low ADC values); 2. an elevated diffusion pattern (normal signal on b=1000 s/mm2 images and high ADC values); and 3. a mixed pattern (coexistent restricted and increased diffusion patterns in the same patient). Disorders manifesting with a restricted diffusion pattern included metachromatic leukodystrophy (n=2), phenylketonuria (n=3), maple syrup urine disease (intermediate form) (n=1), infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (n=1), Leigh (n=2), Wilson (n=3), and Canavan disease (n=1). Disorders with an elevated diffusion pattern included phenylketonuria (n=1), adrenoleukodystrophy (n=1), merosin-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy (n=2), mucopolysaccharidosis (n=2), Lowe syndrome (n=1), Leigh (n=2), Alexander (n=1), Pelizaeus-Merzbacher (n=1), and Wilson (n=3) disease. Disorders with a mixed pattern included L-2 hydroxyglutaric aciduria (n=2), non-ketotic hyperglycinemia (n=1), infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (n=2), maple syrup urine disease (n=1), and Leigh (n=1) disease. Conclusion: The findings suggested that the three different diffusion patterns reflect the histopathological changes associated with the disorders and different stages of a particular disorder. It is likely that the restricted diffusion pattern corresponds to abnormalities related to myelin, and the elevated

  20. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging Patterns in Metabolic and Toxic Brain Disorders

    Sener, R.N.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate metabolic and toxic brain disorders that manifest with restricted, elevated, or both restricted and elevated diffusion patterns on diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Material and Methods: Echo-planar diffusion MRI examinations were obtained in 34 pediatric patients with metabolic and toxic brain disorders proved by appropriate laboratory studies. The MRI unit operated at 1.5T with a gradient strength of 30 mT/meter, and a rise time of 600 s. b=1000 s/mm 2 images and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps with ADC values were studied. Results: Three patterns were observed: 1. A restricted diffusion pattern (high signal on b=1000 s/mm 2 images and low ADC values); 2. an elevated diffusion pattern (normal signal on b=1000 s/mm2 images and high ADC values); and 3. a mixed pattern (coexistent restricted and increased diffusion patterns in the same patient). Disorders manifesting with a restricted diffusion pattern included metachromatic leukodystrophy (n=2), phenylketonuria (n=3), maple syrup urine disease (intermediate form) (n=1), infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (n=1), Leigh (n=2), Wilson (n=3), and Canavan disease (n=1). Disorders with an elevated diffusion pattern included phenylketonuria (n=1), adrenoleukodystrophy (n=1), merosin-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy (n=2), mucopolysaccharidosis (n=2), Lowe syndrome (n=1), Leigh (n=2), Alexander (n=1), Pelizaeus-Merzbacher (n=1), and Wilson (n=3) disease. Disorders with a mixed pattern included L-2 hydroxyglutaric aciduria (n=2), non-ketotic hyperglycinemia (n=1), infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (n=2), maple syrup urine disease (n=1), and Leigh (n=1) disease. Conclusion: The findings suggested that the three different diffusion patterns reflect the histopathological changes associated with the disorders and different stages of a particular disorder. It is likely that the restricted diffusion pattern corresponds to abnormalities related to myelin, and the elevated diffusion pattern

  1. A two potential embedding approach to the electronic structure of disordered binary alloys

    Ahmed, M.; Mookerjee, A.

    1988-06-01

    Using an embedding technique introduced in a recent publication by one of us, we study the electronic structure of disordered binary alloys within a pair-cluster coherent potential approximation. (author). 4 refs, 3 figs

  2. Hereditary angioedema as a metabolic liver disorder: novel therapeutic options and prospects for cure

    Rohan Ameratuga

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary angioedema (HAE is a rare autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations of the SERPING1 or the Factor 12 genes. It is potentially fatal, particularly if not identified at an early stage. Apart from androgens, which are contraindicated in children and in pregnant women, a range of effective, albeit very expensive treatments have recently become available for HAE patients. The cost of these new treatments is beyond the reach of most developing countries. At this time, there is no cure for the disorder. In spite of mutations of the SERPING1 gene, autoimmunity and infections are not prominent features of the condition. Here we present the argument that HAE should be viewed primarily as a metabolic liver disorder. This conceptual paradigm shift will stimulate basic research and may facilitate new therapeutic approaches to HAE outlined in this paper. We suggest several novel potential treatment options for HAE from the perspectives of clinical immunology, molecular biology and liver transplantation. Many of these offer the prospect of curing the disorder. The effectiveness of these options are rapidly improving in many cases and their risks are decreasing. Given the very high costs of treating HAE, some of these curative options may become feasible in the next decade.

  3. Metabolic flexibility of mitochondrial respiratory chain disorders predicted by computer modelling.

    Zieliński, Łukasz P; Smith, Anthony C; Smith, Alexander G; Robinson, Alan J

    2016-11-01

    Mitochondrial respiratory chain dysfunction causes a variety of life-threatening diseases affecting about 1 in 4300 adults. These diseases are genetically heterogeneous, but have the same outcome; reduced activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes causing decreased ATP production and potentially toxic accumulation of metabolites. Severity and tissue specificity of these effects varies between patients by unknown mechanisms and treatment options are limited. So far most research has focused on the complexes themselves, and the impact on overall cellular metabolism is largely unclear. To illustrate how computer modelling can be used to better understand the potential impact of these disorders and inspire new research directions and treatments, we simulated them using a computer model of human cardiomyocyte mitochondrial metabolism containing over 300 characterised reactions and transport steps with experimental parameters taken from the literature. Overall, simulations were consistent with patient symptoms, supporting their biological and medical significance. These simulations predicted: complex I deficiencies could be compensated using multiple pathways; complex II deficiencies had less metabolic flexibility due to impacting both the TCA cycle and the respiratory chain; and complex III and IV deficiencies caused greatest decreases in ATP production with metabolic consequences that parallel hypoxia. Our study demonstrates how results from computer models can be compared to a clinical phenotype and used as a tool for hypothesis generation for subsequent experimental testing. These simulations can enhance understanding of dysfunctional mitochondrial metabolism and suggest new avenues for research into treatment of mitochondrial disease and other areas of mitochondrial dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Emerging Role of Corticosteroid Binding Globulin in Glucocorticoid-driven Metabolic Disorders

    Marie-Pierre Moisan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoid hormones (GCs are critical for survival since they ensure energy supply necessary to the body in an ever challenging environment. GCs are known to act on appetite, glucose metabolism, fatty acid metabolism and storage. However, in order to be beneficial to the body, GC levels should be maintained in an optimal window of concentrations. Not surprisingly, conditions of GC excess or deficiency, e.g. Cushing’s syndrome or Addison’s disease are associated with severe alterations of energy metabolism. Corticosteroid Binding Globulin (CBG, through its high specific affinity for GCs, plays a critical role in regulating plasma GC levels. Genetic studies in various species including humans have revealed that CBG is the major factor influencing inter-individual genetic variability of plasma GC levels, both in basal and stress conditions. Some, but not all of these genetic studies have also provided data linking CBG levels to body composition. The examination of CBG-deficient mice submitted to hyperlipidic diets unveiled specific roles for CBG in lipid storage and metabolism. The importance of CBG is even more striking when animals are submitted to high-fat diet combined to chronic stress, mimicking our occidental lifestyle. An influence of CBG on appetite has not been reported but remains to be more finely analyzed. Overall, a role of CBG in GC-driven metabolic disorders is emerging in recent studies. Although subtle, the influence of CBG in these diseases could open the way to new therapeutic interventions since CBG is easily accessible in the blood.

  5. Metabolic syndrome in patients with bipolar disorder: comparison with major depressive disorder and non-psychiatric controls.

    Silarova, Barbora; Giltay, Erik J; Van Reedt Dortland, Arianne; Van Rossum, Elisabeth F C; Hoencamp, Erik; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Spijker, Annet T

    2015-04-01

    We aimed to investigate the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its individual components in subjects with bipolar disorder (BD) compared to those with major depressive disorder (MDD) and non-psychiatric controls. We examined 2431 participants (mean age 44.3±13.0, 66.1% female), of whom 241 had BD; 1648 had MDD; and 542 were non-psychiatric controls. The MetS was ascertained according to NCEP ATP III criteria. Multivariable analyses were adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, level of education, smoking status and severity of depressive symptoms, and in the case of BD subjects, also for psychotropic medication use. Subjects with BD had a significantly higher prevalence of MetS when compared to subjects with MDD and non-psychiatric controls (28.4% vs. 20.2% and 16.5%, respectively, pdifferences between BD subjects with controls could partly be ascribed to a higher mean waist circumference (91.0 cm vs. 88.8, respectively, p=0.03). In stratified analysis, the differences in the prevalence of MetS between patients with BD and MDD were found in symptomatic but not in asymptomatic cases. This study confirms a higher prevalence of MetS in patients with BD compared to both MDD patients and controls. Specifically at risk are patients with a higher depression score and abdominal obesity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Patients taking medications for bipolar disorder are more prone to metabolic syndrome than Korea's general population.

    Lee, Nam Young; Kim, Se Hyun; Cho, Belong; Lee, Yeon Ji; Chang, Jae Seung; Kang, Ung Gu; Kim, Yong Sik; Ahn, Yong Min

    2010-10-01

    Despite growing concerns about the co-morbidity of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and bipolar disorder, few studies have been conducted on this topic in Asian populations. This study examined Korean patients with bipolar disorder to assess its co-morbidity with MetS and to compare the prevalence of MetS in patients with medication for bipolar disorder with that of healthy patients. We used cross-sectional data from the medical records of patients with bipolar disorder who presented to the psychiatric clinic in Seoul National University Hospital between June 2007 and June 2008. The control group, matched for age and gender, was randomly drawn from visitors to the Health Promotion Center at the same hospital during the same period. We compared the prevalence of MetS between these two groups with independent sample t-tests and chi-squared tests. We also calculated the indirectly standardized prevalence ratio (ISPR) with a standardization that used the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHNES, 2007). The prevalence of MetS in patients who took medication for bipolar disorder (N=152) was 27.0%, 25.0% and 25.7%, based on the definitions of the American Heart Association and the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute's adaptation of the Adult Treatment Panel III (AHA), the National Cholesterol Education Program for Adult Treatment Panel III (ATPIII) and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), respectively. The present study determined that the prevalence of MetS was significantly higher in patients with bipolar disorder than in the control group; the odds ratios (OR) (95% CI) were 2.44 (1.35-4.40), 2.48 (1.34-4.59) and 2.57 (1.40-4.74), based on the definition of the AHA, ATPIII and IDF, respectively. The ISPR (95% CI) was 1.48 (1.02-1.93), 1.54 (1.05-2.03) and 1.98 (1.36-2.60), respectively. Patients with medications for bipolar disorder showed a significantly higher prevalence of increased waist circumference, elevated triglycerides, and

  7. Temporary electron localization and scattering in disordered single strands of DNA

    Caron, Laurent; Sanche, Leon

    2006-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of the effect of structural and base sequence disorders on the transport properties of nonthermal electron scattering within and from single strands of DNA. The calculations are based on our recently developed formalism to treat multiple elastic scattering from simplified pseudomolecular DNA subunits. Structural disorder is shown to increase both the elastic scattering cross section and the attachment probability on the bases at low energy. Sequence disorder, however, has no significant effect

  8. One-electron propagation in Fermi, Pasta, Ulam disordered chains with Gaussian acoustic pulse pumping

    Silva, L. D. Da; Dos Santos, J. L. L.; Ranciaro Neto, A.; Sales, M. O.; de Moura, F. A. B. F.

    In this work, we consider a one-electron moving on a Fermi, Pasta, Ulam disordered chain under effect of electron-phonon interaction and a Gaussian acoustic pulse pumping. We describe electronic dynamics using quantum mechanics formalism and the nonlinear atomic vibrations using standard classical physics. Solving numerical equations related to coupled quantum/classical behavior of this system, we study electronic propagation properties. Our calculations suggest that the acoustic pumping associated with the electron-lattice interaction promote a sub-diffusive electronic dynamics.

  9. Improvement of metabolic disorders by an EP2 receptor agonist via restoration of the subcutaneous adipose tissue in pulmonary emphysema.

    Tsuji, Takao; Yamaguchi, Kazuhiro; Kikuchi, Ryota; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Misaka, Ryoichi; Nagai, Atsushi; Aoshiba, Kazutetsu

    2017-05-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is often associated with co-morbidities. Metabolic disorders like hyperlipidemia and diabetes occur also in underweight COPD patients, although the mechanism is uncertain. Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) plays an important role in energy homeostasis, since restricted capacity to increase fat cell number with increase in fat cell size occurring instead, is associated with lipotoxicity and metabolic disorders. The aim of this study is to show the protective role of SAT for the metabolic disorders in pulmonary emphysema of a murine model. We found ectopic fat accumulation and impaired glucose homeostasis with wasting of SAT in a murine model of elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema (EIE mice) reared on a high-fat diet. ONO-AE1-259, a selective E-prostanoid (EP) 2 receptor agonist, improved angiogenesis and subsequently adipogenesis, and finally improved ectopic fat accumulation and glucose homeostasis with restoration of the capacity for storage of surplus energy in SAT. These results suggest that metabolic disorders like hyperlipidemia and diabetes occured in underweight COPD is partially due to the less capacity for storage of surplus energy in SAT, though the precise mechanism is uncertained. Our data pave the way for the development of therapeutic interventions for metabolic disorders in emphysema patients, e.g., use of pro-angiogenic agents targeting the capacity for storage of surplus energy in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Disordered APP metabolism and neurovasculature in trauma and aging: Combined risks for chronic neurodegenerative disorders.

    Ikonomovic, Milos D; Mi, Zhiping; Abrahamson, Eric E

    2017-03-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI), advanced age, and cerebral vascular disease are factors conferring increased risk for late onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). These conditions are also related pathologically through multiple interacting mechanisms. The hallmark pathology of AD consists of pathological aggregates of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides and tau proteins. These molecules are also involved in neuropathology of several other chronic neurodegenerative diseases, and are under intense investigation in the aftermath of TBI as potential contributors to the risk for developing AD and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). The pathology of TBI is complex and dependent on injury severity, age-at-injury, and length of time between injury and neuropathological evaluation. In addition, the mechanisms influencing pathology and recovery after TBI likely involve genetic/epigenetic factors as well as additional disorders or comorbid states related to age and central and peripheral vascular health. In this regard, dysfunction of the aging neurovascular system could be an important link between TBI and chronic neurodegenerative diseases, either as a precipitating event or related to accumulation of AD-like pathology which is amplified in the context of aging. Thus with advanced age and vascular dysfunction, TBI can trigger self-propagating cycles of neuronal injury, pathological protein aggregation, and synaptic loss resulting in chronic neurodegenerative disease. In this review we discuss evidence supporting TBI and aging as dual, interacting risk factors for AD, and the role of Aβ and cerebral vascular dysfunction in this relationship. Evidence is discussed that Aβ is involved in cyto- and synapto-toxicity after severe TBI, and that its chronic effects are potentiated by aging and impaired cerebral vascular function. From a therapeutic perspective, we emphasize that in the fields of TBI- and aging-related neurodegeneration protective strategies should include preservation of

  11. Field Evidence for Co-Metabolism of Trichloroethene Stimulated by Addition of Electron Donor to Groundwater

    Conrad, Mark E.; Brodie, Eoin L.; Radtke, Corey W.; Bill, Markus; Delwiche, Mark E.; Lee, M. Hope; Swift, Dana L.; Colwell, Frederick S.

    2010-05-17

    For more than 10 years, electron donor has been injected into the Snake River aquifer beneath the Test Area North site of the Idaho National Laboratory for the purpose of stimulating microbial reductive dechlorination of trichloroethene (TCE) in groundwater. This has resulted in significant TCE removal from the source area of the contaminant plume and elevated dissolved CH4 in the groundwater extending 250 m from the injection well. The delta13C of the CH4 increases from 56o/oo in the source area to -13 o/oo with distance from the injection well, whereas the delta13C of dissolved inorganic carbon decreases from 8 o/oo to -13 o/oo, indicating a shift from methanogenesis to methane oxidation. This change in microbial activity along the plume axis is confirmed by PhyloChip microarray analyses of 16S rRNA genes obtained from groundwater microbial communities, which indicate decreasing abundances of reductive dechlorinating microorganisms (e.g., Dehalococcoides ethenogenes) and increasing CH4-oxidizing microorganisms capable of aerobic co-metabolism of TCE (e.g., Methylosinus trichosporium). Incubation experiments with 13C-labeled TCE introduced into microcosms containing basalt and groundwater from the aquifer confirm that TCE co-metabolism is possible. The results of these studies indicate that electron donor amendment designed to stimulate reductive dechlorination of TCE may also stimulate co-metabolism of TCE.

  12. Glucose metabolism disorders and vestibular manifestations: evaluation through computerized dynamic posturography

    Roseli Saraiva Moreira Bittar

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Global sugar consumption has increased in the past 50 years; its abusive intake is responsible for peripheral insulin resistance, which causes the metabolic syndrome - obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and coronary heart disease. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of a fractionated diet without glucose as treatment for labyrinthine disorders associated with glucose-insulin index. METHODS: The study design was a prospective randomized controlled trial. Fifty-one patients were divided into two groups: the diet group (DG, which comprised subjects treated with a fractionated diet with glucose restriction, and the control group (CG, in which individuals were not counseled regarding diet. Patients underwent computerized dynamic posturography (CDP and visual analog scale (VAS on the first and 30th days of the study. RESULTS: There was improvement in the assessed posturographic conditions and VAS self-assessment in the DG group after 30 days when compared to the control group. CONCLUSION: The fractionated diet with glucose restriction was effective for the treatment of vestibular dysfunction associated with glucose metabolism disorders.

  13. Glucose metabolism disorder in obese children assessed by continuous glucose monitoring system.

    Zou, Chao-Chun; Liang, Li; Hong, Fang; Zhao, Zheng-Yan

    2008-02-01

    Continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) can measure glucose levels at 5-minute intervals over a few days, and may be used to detect hypoglycemia, guide insulin therapy, and control glucose levels. This study was undertaken to assess the glucose metabolism disorder by CGMS in obese children. Eighty-four obese children were studied. Interstitial fluid (ISF) glucose levels were measured by CGMS for 24 hours covering the time for oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM) and hypoglycemia were assessed by CGMS. Five children failed to complete CGMS test. The glucose levels in ISF measured by CGMS were highly correlated with those in capillary samples (r=0.775, Pobese children who finished the CGMS, 2 children had IFG, 2 had IGT, 3 had IFG + IGT, and 2 had T2DM. Nocturnal hypoglycemia was noted during the overnight fasting in 11 children (13.92%). Our data suggest that glucose metabolism disorder including hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia is very common in obese children. Further studies are required to improve the precision of the CGMS in children.

  14. Octulosonic acid derivatives from Roman chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile) with activities against inflammation and metabolic disorder.

    Zhao, Jianping; Khan, Shabana I; Wang, Mei; Vasquez, Yelkaira; Yang, Min Hye; Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Yan-Hong; Avonto, Cristina; Smillie, Troy J; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2014-03-28

    Six new octulosonic acid derivatives (1-6) were isolated from the flower heads of Roman chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile). Their structures were elucidated by means of spectroscopic interpretation. The biological activity of the isolated compounds was evaluated toward multiple targets related to inflammation and metabolic disorder such as NAG-1, NF-κB, iNOS, ROS, PPARα, PPARγ, and LXR. Similar to the action of NSAIDs, all the six compounds (1-6) increased NAG-1 activity 2-3-fold. They also decreased cellular oxidative stress by inhibiting ROS generation. Compounds 3, 5, and 6 activated PPARγ 1.6-2.1-fold, while PPARα was activated 1.4-fold by compounds 5 and 6 only. None of the compounds showed significant activity against iNOS or NF-κB. This is the first report of biological activity of octulosonic acid derivatives toward multiple pathways related to inflammation and metabolic disorder. The reported anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, antiedemic, and antioxidant activities of Roman chamomile could be partly explained as due to the presence of these constituents.

  15. Experimental Models of Maternal Obesity and Neuroendocrine Programming of Metabolic Disorders in Offspring.

    Reynolds, Clare M; Segovia, Stephanie A; Vickers, Mark H

    2017-01-01

    Evidence from epidemiological, clinical, and experimental studies have clearly shown that disease risk in later life is increased following a poor early life environment, a process preferentially termed developmental programming. In particular, this work clearly highlights the importance of the nutritional environment during early development with alterations in maternal nutrition, including both under- and overnutrition, increasing the risk for a range of cardiometabolic and neurobehavioral disorders in adult offspring characterized by both adipokine resistance and obesity. Although the mechanistic basis for such developmental programming is not yet fully defined, a common feature derived from experimental animal models is that of alterations in the wiring of the neuroendocrine pathways that control energy balance and appetite regulation during early stages of developmental plasticity. The adipokine leptin has also received significant attention with clear experimental evidence that normal regulation of leptin levels during the early life period is critical for the normal development of tissues and related signaling pathways that are involved in metabolic and cardiovascular homeostasis. There is also increasing evidence that alterations in the epigenome and other underlying mechanisms including an altered gut-brain axis may contribute to lasting cardiometabolic dysfunction in offspring. Ongoing studies that further define the mechanisms between these associations will allow for identification of early risk markers and implementation of strategies around interventions that will have obvious beneficial implications in breaking a programmed transgenerational cycle of metabolic disorders.

  16. Experimental Models of Maternal Obesity and Neuroendocrine Programming of Metabolic Disorders in Offspring

    Clare M. Reynolds

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from epidemiological, clinical, and experimental studies have clearly shown that disease risk in later life is increased following a poor early life environment, a process preferentially termed developmental programming. In particular, this work clearly highlights the importance of the nutritional environment during early development with alterations in maternal nutrition, including both under- and overnutrition, increasing the risk for a range of cardiometabolic and neurobehavioral disorders in adult offspring characterized by both adipokine resistance and obesity. Although the mechanistic basis for such developmental programming is not yet fully defined, a common feature derived from experimental animal models is that of alterations in the wiring of the neuroendocrine pathways that control energy balance and appetite regulation during early stages of developmental plasticity. The adipokine leptin has also received significant attention with clear experimental evidence that normal regulation of leptin levels during the early life period is critical for the normal development of tissues and related signaling pathways that are involved in metabolic and cardiovascular homeostasis. There is also increasing evidence that alterations in the epigenome and other underlying mechanisms including an altered gut–brain axis may contribute to lasting cardiometabolic dysfunction in offspring. Ongoing studies that further define the mechanisms between these associations will allow for identification of early risk markers and implementation of strategies around interventions that will have obvious beneficial implications in breaking a programmed transgenerational cycle of metabolic disorders.

  17. A cross-sectional study of breath acetone based on diabetic metabolic disorders.

    Li, Wenwen; Liu, Yong; Lu, Xiaoyong; Huang, Yanping; Liu, Yu; Cheng, Shouquan; Duan, Yixiang

    2015-02-26

    Breath acetone is a known biomarker for diabetes mellitus in breath analysis. In this work, a cross-sectional study of breath acetone based on clinical metabolic disorders of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was carried out. Breath acetone concentrations of 113 T2DM patients and 56 apparently healthy individuals were measured at a single time point. Concentrations varied from 0.22 to 9.41 ppmv (mean 1.75 ppmv) for T2DM, which were significantly higher than those for normal controls (ranged from 0.32 to 1.96 ppmv, mean 0.72 ppmv, p = 0.008). Observations in our work revealed that breath acetone concentrations elevated to different degrees, along with the abnormality of blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), triglyceride and cholesterol. Breath acetone showed obviously positive correlations with blood ketone and urine ketone. Possible metabolic relations between breath acetone and diabetic disorders were also discussed. This work aimed at giving an overall assessment of breath acetone from the perspective of clinical parameters for type 2 diabetes.

  18. Newborn Urinary Metabolic Signatures of Prematurity and Other Disorders: A Case Control Study.

    Diaz, Sílvia O; Pinto, Joana; Barros, António S; Morais, Elisabete; Duarte, Daniela; Negrão, Fátima; Pita, Cristina; Almeida, Maria do Céu; Carreira, Isabel M; Spraul, Manfred; Gil, Ana M

    2016-01-04

    This work assesses the urinary metabolite signature of prematurity in newborns by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, while establishing the role of possible confounders and signature specificity, through comparison to other disorders. Gender and delivery mode are shown to impact importantly on newborn urine composition, their analysis pointing out at specific metabolite variations requiring consideration in unmatched subject groups. Premature newborns are, however, characterized by a stronger signature of varying metabolites, suggestive of disturbances in nucleotide metabolism, lung surfactants biosynthesis and renal function, along with enhancement of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle activity, fatty acids oxidation, and oxidative stress. Comparison with other abnormal conditions (respiratory depression episode, large for gestational age, malformations, jaundice and premature rupture of membranes) reveals that such signature seems to be largely specific of preterm newborns, showing that NMR metabolomics can retrieve particular disorder effects, as well as general stress effects. These results provide valuable novel information on the metabolic impact of prematurity, contributing to the better understanding of its effects on the newborn's state of health.

  19. Brain PET substrate of impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease: A metabolic connectivity study.

    Verger, Antoine; Klesse, Elsa; Chawki, Mohammad B; Witjas, Tatiana; Azulay, Jean-Philippe; Eusebio, Alexandre; Guedj, Eric

    2018-04-10

    Impulse control disorders (ICDs) have received increased attention in Parkinson's disease (PD) because of potentially dramatic consequences. Their physiopathology, however, remains incompletely understood. An overstimulation of the mesocorticolimbic system has been reported, while a larger network has recently been suggested. The aim of this study is to specifically describe the metabolic PET substrate and related connectivity changes in PD patients with ICDs. Eighteen PD patients with ICDs and 18 PD patients without ICDs were evaluated using cerebral 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. SPM-T maps comparisons were performed between groups and metabolic connectivity was evaluated by interregional correlation analysis (IRCA; p  130) and by graph theory (p < .05). PD patients with ICDs had relative increased metabolism in the right middle and inferior temporal gyri compared to those without ICDs. The connectivity of this area was increased mostly with the mesocorticolimbic system, positively with the orbitofrontal region, and negatively with both the right parahippocampus and the left caudate (IRCA). Moreover, the betweenness centrality of this area with the mesocorticolimbic system was lost in patients with ICDs (graph analysis). ICDs are associated in PD with the dysfunction of a network exceeding the mesocorticolimbic system, and especially the caudate, the parahippocampus, and the orbitofrontal cortex, remotely including the right middle and inferior temporal gyri. This latest area loses its central place with the mesocorticolimbic system through a connectivity dysregulation. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Natural molecules for the therapy of hyperandrogenism and metabolic disorders in PCOS.

    Cappelli, V; Musacchio, M C; Bulfoni, A; Morgante, G; De Leo, V

    2017-06-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy of women of reproductive age and a complex endocrine condition, due to its heterogeneity and uncertainty about its etiology. However, PCOS is also associated with other metabolic abnormalities such as insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, and diabetes. There are few medications that are approved for the most common symptoms of PCOS, leading to the off-label use of medications that were approved for other indications. One of the most common medications being used off label for PCOS is metformin. Research of other effective therapeutic options has included the utility of inositol. A systematic literature search of PubMed was performed using the following combination of terms: 'PCOS', 'hyperandrogenism' 'inositol', 'natural molecules'. Only papers published between 2000 and 2016 were included in our analysis. The present review analyzes all aspects of the choice of natural molecules in the treatment of hyperandrogenism and metabolic disorders in PCOS women. The rationale underlying the use of inositols as a therapeutic application in PCOS derives from their activities as insulin mimetic agents and their salutary effects on metabolism and hyperandrogenism without side effects. In this review will discuss the role of a number of natural associations between inositol and different substances in the treatment of hyperandrogenic symptoms in PCOS women.

  1. Androgen excess and metabolic disorders in women with PCOS: beyond the body mass index.

    Condorelli, R A; Calogero, A E; Di Mauro, M; Mongioi', L M; Cannarella, R; Rosta, G; La Vignera, S

    2018-04-01

    Insulin resistance is a common feature among women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), especially in those patients with hyperandrogenism and chronic anovulation. PCOS women are at risk for developing metabolic syndrome, impaired glucose tolerance and type II diabetes mellitus (DM II). The aim of this review is to explore the existing knowledge of the interplay between androgen excess, pancreatic β-cell function, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), intra-abdominal and subcutaneous (SC) abdominal adipocytes in PCOS, providing a better comprehension of the molecular mechanisms of diabetologic interest. A comprehensive MEDLINE ® search was performed using relevant key terms for PCOS and DM II. Insulin-induced hyperandrogenism could impair pancreatic β-cell function, the SC abdominal adipocytes' lipid storage capacity, leading to intra-abdominal adipocyte hypertrophy and lipotoxicity, which in turn promotes insulin resistance, and could enhance NAFLD. Fetal hyperandrogenism exposure prompts to metabolic disorders. Treatment with flutamide showed to partially reverse insulin resistance. Metabolic impairment seems not to be dependent only on the total fat mass content and body weight in women with PCOS and might be ascribed to the androgen excess.

  2. Finite size scaling analysis of disordered electron systems

    Markos, P.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrated the application of the finite size scaling method to the analysis of the transition of the disordered system from the metallic to the insulating regime. The method enables us to calculate the critical point and the critical exponent which determines the divergence of the correlation length in the vicinity of the critical point. The universality of the metal-insulator transition was verified by numerical analysis of various physical parameters and the critical exponent was calculated with high accuracy for different disordered models. Numerically obtained value of the critical exponent for the three dimensional disordered model (1) has been recently supported by the semi-analytical work and verified by experimental optical measurements equivalent to the three dimensional disordered model (1). Another unsolved problem of the localization is the disagreement between numerical results and predictions of the analytical theories. At present, no analytical theory confirms numerically obtained values of critical exponents. The reason for this disagreement lies in the statistical character of the process of localization. The theory must consider all possible scattering processes on randomly distributed impurities. All physical variables are statistical quantities with broad probability distributions. It is in general not know how to calculate analytically their mean values. We believe that detailed numerical analysis of various disordered systems bring inspiration for the formulation of analytical theory. (authors)

  3. Comparison of electron and phonon transport in disordered semiconductor carbon nanotubes

    Sevincli, Haldun; Lehmann, T.; Ryndyk, D. A.

    2013-01-01

    as a function of length of the disordered device shows that both electrons and phonons with different energies display different transport regimes, i.e. quasi-ballistic, diffusive and localization regimes coexist. In the light of the results we discuss heating of the semiconductor device in electronic...

  4. Plugged In: Electronics Use in Youth and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    MacMullin, Jennifer A.; Lunsky, Yona; Weiss, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Although electronic technology currently plays an integral role for most youth, there are growing concerns of its excessive and compulsive use. This study documents patterns and impact of electronics use in individuals with autism spectrum disorder compared to typically developing peers. Participants included 172 parents of typically developing…

  5. Offspring neuroimmune consequences of maternal malnutrition: Potential mechanism for behavioral impairments that underlie metabolic and neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Smith, B L; Reyes, T M

    2017-10-01

    Maternal malnutrition significantly increases offspring risk for both metabolic and neurodevelopmental disorders. Animal models of maternal malnutrition have identified behavioral changes in the adult offspring related to executive function and reward processing. Together, these changes in executive and reward-based behaviors likely contribute to the etiology of both metabolic and neurodevelopmental disorders associated with maternal malnutrition. Concomitant with the behavioral effects, maternal malnutrition alters offspring expression of reward-related molecules and inflammatory signals in brain pathways that control executive function and reward. Neuroimmune pathways and microglial interactions in these specific brain circuits, either in early development or later in adulthood, could directly contribute to the maternal malnutrition-induced behavioral phenotypes. Understanding these mechanisms will help advance treatment strategies for metabolic and neurodevelopmental disorders, especially noninvasive dietary supplementation interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Placebo cessation in binge eating disorder: effect on anthropometric, cardiovascular, and metabolic variables.

    Blom, Thomas J; Guerdjikova, Anna I; Mori, Nicole; Casuto, Leah S; McElroy, Susan L

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of cessation of binge eating in response to placebo treatment in binge eating disorder (BED) on anthropometric, cardiovascular, and metabolic variables. We pooled participant-level data from 10 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of medication for BED. We then compared patients who stopped binge eating with those who did not on changes in weight, body mass index (BMI), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse, and fasting lipids and glucose. Of 234 participants receiving placebo, 60 (26%) attained cessation from binge eating. Patients attaining cessation showed modestly decreased diastolic blood pressure compared with patients who continued to binge eat. Weight and BMI remained stable in patients who stopped binge eating, but increased somewhat in those who continued to binge eat. Patients who stopped binge eating with placebo had greater reductions in diastolic blood pressure and gained less weight than patients who continued to binge eat. Self-report of eating pathology in BED may predict physiologic variables. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  7. Modern Electronic Devices: An Increasingly Common Cause of Skin Disorders in Consumers.

    Corazza, Monica; Minghetti, Sara; Bertoldi, Alberto Maria; Martina, Emanuela; Virgili, Annarosa; Borghi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    : The modern conveniences and enjoyment brought about by electronic devices bring with them some health concerns. In particular, personal electronic devices are responsible for rising cases of several skin disorders, including pressure, friction, contact dermatitis, and other physical dermatitis. The universal use of such devices, either for work or recreational purposes, will probably increase the occurrence of polymorphous skin manifestations over time. It is important for clinicians to consider electronics as potential sources of dermatological ailments, for proper patient management. We performed a literature review on skin disorders associated with the personal use of modern technology, including personal computers and laptops, personal computer accessories, mobile phones, tablets, video games, and consoles.

  8. Electron transport in edge-disordered graphene nanoribbons

    Saloriutta, Karri; Hancock, Y.; Karkkainen, Asta

    2011-01-01

    Ab initio methods are used to study the spin-resolved transport properties of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) that have both chemical and structural edge disorder. Oxygen edge adsorbates on ideal and protruded ribbons are chosen as representative examples, with the protrusions forming the smallest...

  9. Electron beam induced oxygen disordering in YBa2Cu3O7-x superconductors

    Basu, S.N.; Roy, T.; Mitchell, T.E.; Nastasi, M.

    1990-01-01

    Thin foils of bulk YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x (YBCO) superconductors were subjected to electron irradiation in a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The resulting disordering of the oxygen atoms and vacancies in the Cu-O planes was monitored by measuring the splitting of the (110) diffraction spots in the [001] diffraction pattern. Samples were irradiated at 83 K with 100, 150, 200 and 300 kV electrons. The 100 kV electrons did not cause any disordering, even after prolonged irradiation. The results of the higher energy irradiations showed an excellent fit to a disordering model, indicating a lack of radiation assisted reordering at 83 K. This was further confirmed by the insensitivity of the disordering to the dose rate of 300 kV electrons at 83 K. However, at 300 K, an increase in the dose rate of 300 kV electrons increased the disordering rate, indicating that radiation assisted reordering was occurring at that temperature

  10. Metabolism

    ... lin), which signals cells to increase their anabolic activities. Metabolism is a complicated chemical process, so it's not ... how those enzymes or hormones work. When the metabolism of body chemicals is ... Hyperthyroidism (pronounced: hi-per-THIGH-roy-dih-zum). Hyperthyroidism ...

  11. Metabolic Disorder in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Patients: Towards a Personalized Approach Using Marine Drug Derivatives.

    Lamonaca, Palma; Prinzi, Giulia; Kisialiou, Aliaksei; Cardaci, Vittorio; Fini, Massimo; Russo, Patrizia

    2017-03-20

    Metabolic disorder has been frequently observed in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. However, the exact correlation between obesity, which is a complex metabolic disorder, and COPD remains controversial. The current study summarizes a variety of drugs from marine sources that have anti-obesity effects and proposed potential mechanisms by which lung function can be modulated with the anti-obesity activity. Considering the similar mechanism, such as inflammation, shared between obesity and COPD, the study suggests that marine derivatives that act on the adipose tissues to reduce inflammation may provide beneficial therapeutic effects in COPD subjects with high body mass index (BMI).

  12. Chronic exposure to low concentrations of lead induces metabolic disorder and dysbiosis of the gut microbiota in mice.

    Xia, Jizhou; Jin, Cuiyuan; Pan, Zihong; Sun, Liwei; Fu, Zhengwei; Jin, Yuanxiang

    2018-08-01

    Lead (Pb) is one of the most prevalent toxic, nonessential heavy metals that can contaminate food and water. In this study, effects of chronic exposure to low concentrations of Pb on metabolism and gut microbiota were evaluated in mice. It was observed that exposure of mice to 0.1mg/L Pb, supplied via drinking water, for 15weeks increased hepatic TG and TCH levels. The levels of some key genes related to lipid metabolism in the liver increased significantly in Pb-treated mice. For the gut microbiota, at the phylum level, the relative abundance of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes changed obviously in the feces and the cecal contents of mice exposed to 0.1mg/L Pb for 15weeks. In addition, 16s rRNA gene sequencing further discovered that Pb exposure affected the structure and richness of the gut microbiota. Moreover, a 1 H NMR metabolic analysis unambiguously identified 31 metabolites, and 15 metabolites were noticeably altered in 0.1mg/L Pb-treated mice. Taken together, the data indicate that chronic Pb exposure induces dysbiosis of the gut microbiota and metabolic disorder in mice. Chronic Pb exposure induces metabolic disorder, dysbiosis of the gut microbiota and hepatic lipid metabolism disorder in mice. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. MECHANISMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY: Nutrition as a mediator of oxidative stress in metabolic and reproductive disorders in women.

    Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia; Papalou, Olga; Kandaraki, Eleni A; Kassi, Georgia

    2017-02-01

    Nutrition can generate oxidative stress and trigger a cascade of molecular events that can disrupt oxidative and hormonal balance. Nutrient ingestion promotes a major inflammatory and oxidative response at the cellular level in the postprandial state, altering the metabolic state of tissues. A domino of unfavorable metabolic changes is orchestrated in the main metabolic organs, including adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, liver and pancreas, where subclinical inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, mitochondrial deregulation and impaired insulin response and secretion take place. Simultaneously, in reproductive tissues, nutrition-induced oxidative stress can potentially violate delicate oxidative balance that is mandatory to secure normal reproductive function. Taken all the above into account, nutrition and its accompanying postprandial oxidative stress, in the unique context of female hormonal background, can potentially compromise normal metabolic and reproductive functions in women and may act as an active mediator of various metabolic and reproductive disorders. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  14. Proteome Imbalance of Mitochondrial Electron Transport Chain in Brown Adipocytes Leads to Metabolic Benefits.

    Masand, Ruchi; Paulo, Esther; Wu, Dongmei; Wang, Yangmeng; Swaney, Danielle L; Jimenez-Morales, David; Krogan, Nevan J; Wang, Biao

    2018-03-06

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis is critical for thermoregulation and contributes to total energy expenditure. However, whether BAT has non-thermogenic functions is largely unknown. Here, we describe that BAT-specific liver kinase b1 knockout (Lkb1 BKO ) mice exhibited impaired BAT mitochondrial respiration and thermogenesis but reduced adiposity and liver triglyceride accumulation under high-fat-diet feeding at room temperature. Importantly, these metabolic benefits were also present in Lkb1 BKO mice at thermoneutrality, where BAT thermogenesis was not required. Mechanistically, decreased mRNA levels of mtDNA-encoded electron transport chain (ETC) subunits and ETC proteome imbalance led to defective BAT mitochondrial respiration in Lkb1 BKO mice. Furthermore, reducing mtDNA gene expression directly in BAT by removing mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) in BAT also showed ETC proteome imbalance and the trade-off between BAT thermogenesis and systemic metabolism at room temperature and thermoneutrality. Collectively, our data demonstrate that ETC proteome imbalance in BAT regulates systemic metabolism independently of thermogenesis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Good laboratory practices for biochemical genetic testing and newborn screening for inherited metabolic disorders.

    2012-04-06

    Biochemical genetic testing and newborn screening are essential laboratory services for the screening, detection, diagnosis, and monitoring of inborn errors of metabolism or inherited metabolic disorders. Under the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (CLIA) regulations, laboratory testing is categorized on the basis of the level of testing complexity as either waived (i.e., from routine regulatory oversight) or nonwaived testing (which includes tests of moderate and high complexity). Laboratories that perform biochemical genetic testing are required by CLIA regulations to meet the general quality systems requirements for nonwaived testing and the personnel requirements for high-complexity testing. Laboratories that perform public health newborn screening are subject to the same CLIA regulations and applicable state requirements. As the number of inherited metabolic diseases that are included in state-based newborn screening programs continues to increase, ensuring the quality of performance and delivery of testing services remains a continuous challenge not only for public health laboratories and other newborn screening facilities but also for biochemical genetic testing laboratories. To help ensure the quality of laboratory testing, CDC collaborated with the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, the Food and Drug Administration, the Health Resources and Services Administration, and the National Institutes of Health to develop guidelines for laboratories to meet CLIA requirements and apply additional quality assurance measures for these areas of genetic testing. This report provides recommendations for good laboratory practices that were developed based on recommendations from the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee, with additional input from the Secretary's Advisory Committee on Genetics, Health, and Society; the Secretary's Advisory Committee on Heritable Disorders in Newborns and Children; and representatives of newborn

  16. [Approaches to the treatment of patients with climacteric disorders complicated with menopausal metabolic syndrome with cholestasis].

    Gavrilova, N P; Seliverstov, P V; Tatarova, N A; Radchenko, V G

    2014-01-01

    Development of the individual comprehensive program of follow treatment of patients with climacteric disorders complicated MMS (menopausal metabolic syndrome) with cholestasis; on the basis of application of low-dose hormone replacement therapy in combination with ursodeoxycholic acid, to improve the quality of life. We observed 101 woman with climacteric syndrome, obesity and cholestasis; conducted a comprehensive clinical and laboratory examination, ultrasound of the hepatobiliary system, measurement modified menopausal index (MMI), the measurement of the quality of life on questionnaire SF-36 before treatment and after 6 and 12 months. Positive and statistically significant changes in lipid spectrum, the activity of transaminases, bilirubin and its fractions, improvement of MMI and quality of life, the indices of coagulation remained virtually unchanged. Low-dose hormone replacement therapies in combination with ursodeoxycholic acid are highly effective drugs for the treatment of menopausal syndrome, which normalize lipid profile of patients and the performance of the hepatobiliary system.

  17. Genetic disorders of vitamin B12 metabolism: eight complementation groups – eight genes

    Froese, D. Sean; Gravel, Roy A.

    2010-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl) is an essential nutrient in human metabolism. Genetic diseases of vitamin B12 utilisation constitute an important fraction of inherited newborn disease. Functionally, B12 is the cofactor for methionine synthase and methylmalonyl CoA mutase. To function as a cofactor, B12 must be metabolised through a complex pathway that modifies its structure and takes it through subcellular compartments of the cell. Through the study of inherited disorders of vitamin B12 utilisation, the genes for eight complementation groups have been identified, leading to the determination of the general structure of vitamin B12 processing and providing methods for carrier testing, prenatal diagnosis and approaches to treatment. PMID:21114891

  18. Design and synthesis of novel arctigenin analogues for the amelioration of metabolic disorders.

    Duan, Shudong; Huang, Suling; Gong, Jian; Shen, Yu; Zeng, Limin; Feng, Ying; Ren, Wenming; Leng, Ying; Hu, Youhong

    2015-04-09

    Analogues of the natural product (-)-arctigenin, an activator of adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase, were prepared in order to evaluate their effects on 2-deoxyglucose uptake in L6 myotubes and possible use in ameliorating metabolic disorders. Racemic arctigenin 2a was found to display a similar uptake enhancement as does (-)-arctigenin. As a result, the SAR study was conducted utilizing racemic compounds. The structure-activity relationship study led to the discovery of key substitution patterns on the lactone motif that govern 2-deoxyglucose uptake activities. The results show that replacement of the para-hydroxyl group of the C-2 benzyl moiety of arctigenin by Cl has a pronounced effect on uptake activity. Specifically, analogue 2p, which contains the p-Cl substituent, stimulates glucose uptake and fatty acid oxidation in L6 myotubes.

  19. Influence of lattice vibrations on the field driven electronic transport in chains with correlated disorder

    da Silva, L. D.; Sales, M. O.; Ranciaro Neto, A.; Lyra, M. L.; de Moura, F. A. B. F.

    2016-12-01

    We investigate electronic transport in a one-dimensional model with four different types of atoms and long-ranged correlated disorder. The latter was attained by choosing an adequate distribution of on-site energies. The wave-packet dynamics is followed by taking into account effects due to a static electric field and electron-phonon coupling. In the absence of electron-phonon coupling, the competition between correlated disorder and the static electric field promotes the occurrence of wave-packet oscillations in the regime of strong correlations. When the electron-lattice coupling is switched on, phonon scattering degrades the Bloch oscillations. For weak electron-phonon couplings, a coherent oscillatory-like dynamics of the wave-packet centroid persists for short periods of time. For strong couplings the wave-packet acquires a diffusive-like displacement and spreading. A slower sub-diffusive spreading takes place in the regime of weak correlations.

  20. Electronic transport in disordered graphene antidot lattice devices

    Power, Stephen; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2014-01-01

    Nanostructuring of graphene is in part motivated by the requirement to open a gap in the electronic band structure. In particular, a periodically perforated graphene sheet in the form of an antidot lattice may have such a gap. Such systems have been investigated with a view towards application...

  1. Gender Differences in Metabolic Disorders and Related Diseases in Spontaneously Diabetic Torii-Leprfa Rats

    Takeshi Ohta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Spontaneously Diabetic Torii Leprfa (SDT fatty rat is a novel type 2 diabetic model wherein both male and female rats develop glucose and lipid abnormalities from a young age. In this study, we investigated gender differences in abnormalities and related complications in SDT fatty rats. Food intake was higher in males compared to female rats; however, body weight was not different between genders. Progression of diabetes, including increases in blood glucose and declines in blood insulin, was observed earlier in male rats than in females, and diabetic grade was more critical in male rats. Blood lipids tended to increase in female rats. Gonadal dysfunction was observed in both male and female rats with aging. Microangiopathies, such as nephropathy, retinopathy, neuropathy, and osteoporosis, were seen in both genders, and pathological grade and progression were more significant in males. Qualitative and quantitative changes were observed for metabolic disease gender differences in SDT fatty rats. The SDT fatty rat is a useful model for researching gender differences in metabolic disorders and related diseases in diabetes with obesity.

  2. Potential of nor-Ursodeoxycholic Acid in Cholestatic and Metabolic Disorders.

    Trauner, Michael; Halilbasic, Emina; Claudel, Thierry; Steinacher, Daniel; Fuchs, Claudia; Moustafa, Tarek; Pollheimer, Marion; Krones, Elisabeth; Kienbacher, Christian; Traussnigg, Stefan; Kazemi-Shirazi, Lili; Munda, Petra; Hofer, Harald; Fickert, Peter; Paumgartner, Gustav

    2015-01-01

    24-nor-ursodeoxycholic acid (norUDCA) is a side-chain shortened derivate of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). Since norUDCA is only ineffectively conjugated with glycine or taurine, it has specific physicochemical and therapeutic properties distinct from UDCA. Nonamidated norUDCA undergoes cholehepatic shunting enabling 'ductular targeting' and inducing a bicarbonate-rich hypercholeresis, with cholangioprotective effects. At the same time it has direct anti-inflammatory, antilipotoxic, anti fibrotic, and antiproliferative properties targeting various liver cell populations. norUDCA appears to be one of the most promising novel treatment approaches targeting the liver and the bile duct system at multifactorial and multicellular levels. This review article is a summary of a lecture given at the XXIII International Bile Acid Meeting (Falk Symposium 194) on 'Bile Acids as Signal Integrators and Metabolic Modulators' held in Freiburg, October 8-9, 2014, and summarizes the recent progress with norUDCA as a novel therapeutic approach in cholestatic and metabolic (liver) disorders. 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Towards the development of an enzyme replacement therapy for the metabolic disorder propionic acidemia

    Mahnaz Darvish-Damavandi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Propionic acidemia (PA is a life-threatening disease caused by the deficiency of a mitochondrial biotin-dependent enzyme known as propionyl coenzyme-A carboxylase (PCC. This enzyme is responsible for degrading the metabolic intermediate, propionyl coenzyme-A (PP-CoA, derived from multiple metabolic pathways. Currently, except for drastic surgical and dietary intervention that can only provide partial symptomatic relief, no other form of therapeutic option is available for this genetic disorder. Here, we examine a novel approach in protein delivery by specifically targeting and localizing our protein candidate of interest into the mitochondrial matrix of the cells. In order to test this concept of delivery, we have utilized cell penetrating peptides (CPPs and mitochondria targeting sequences (MTS to form specific fusion PCC protein, capable of translocating and localizing across cell membranes. In vitro delivery of our candidate fusion proteins, evaluated by confocal images and enzymatic activity assay, indicated effectiveness of this strategy. Therefore, it holds immense potential in creating a new paradigm in site-specific protein delivery and enzyme replacement therapeutic for PA.

  4. Inhibitor of Differentiation-3 and Estrogenic Endocrine Disruptors: Implications for Susceptibility to Obesity and Metabolic Disorders

    Mayur Doke

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The rising global incidence of obesity cannot be fully explained within the context of traditional risk factors such as an unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, aging, or genetics. Adipose tissue is an endocrine as well as a metabolic organ that may be susceptible to disruption by environmental estrogenic chemicals. Since some of the endocrine disruptors are lipophilic chemicals with long half-lives, they tend to bioaccumulate in the adipose tissue of exposed populations. Elevated exposure to these chemicals may predispose susceptible individuals to weight gain by increasing the number and size of fat cells. Genetic studies have demonstrated that the transcriptional regulator inhibitor of differentiation-3 (ID3 promotes high fat diet-induced obesity in vivo. We have shown previously that PCB153 and natural estrogen 17β-estradiol increase ID3 expression. Based on our findings, we postulate that ID3 is a molecular target of estrogenic endocrine disruptors (EEDs in the adipose tissue and a better understanding of this relationship may help to explain how EEDs can lead to the transcriptional programming of deviant fat cells. This review will discuss the current understanding of ID3 in excess fat accumulation and the potential for EEDs to influence susceptibility to obesity or metabolic disorders via ID3 signaling.

  5. Quantum transport through disordered 1D wires: Conductance via localized and delocalized electrons

    Gopar, Víctor A.

    2014-01-01

    Coherent electronic transport through disordered systems, like quantum wires, is a topic of fundamental and practical interest. In particular, the exponential localization of electron wave functions-Anderson localization-due to the presence of disorder has been widely studied. In fact, Anderson localization, is not an phenomenon exclusive to electrons but it has been observed in microwave and acoustic experiments, photonic materials, cold atoms, etc. Nowadays, many properties of electronic transport of quantum wires have been successfully described within a scaling approach to Anderson localization. On the other hand, anomalous localization or delocalization is, in relation to the Anderson problem, a less studied phenomenon. Although one can find signatures of anomalous localization in very different systems in nature. In the problem of electronic transport, a source of delocalization may come from symmetries present in the system and particular disorder configurations, like the so-called Lévy-type disorder. We have developed a theoretical model to describe the statistical properties of transport when electron wave functions are delocalized. In particular, we show that only two physical parameters determine the complete conductance distribution

  6. Metabolically based liver damage pathophysiology in patients with urea cycle disorders - A new hypothesis.

    Ivanovski, Ivan; Ješić, Miloš; Ivanovski, Ana; Garavelli, Livia; Ivanovski, Petar

    2017-11-28

    The underlying pathophysiology of liver dysfunction in urea cycle disorders (UCDs) is still largely elusive. There is some evidence that the accumulation of urea cycle (UC) intermediates are toxic for hepatocyte mitochondria. It is possible that liver injury is directly caused by the toxicity of ammonia. The rarity of UCDs, the lack of checking of iron level in these patients, superficial knowledge of UC and an underestimation of the metabolic role of fumaric acid, are the main reasons that are responsible for the incomprehension of the mechanism of liver injury in patients suffering from UCDs. Owing to our routine clinical practice to screen for iron overload in severely ill neonates, with the focus on the newborns suffering from acute liver failure, we report a case of citrullinemia with neonatal liver failure and high blood parameters of iron overload. We hypothesize that the key is in the decreased-deficient fumaric acid production in the course of UC in UCDs that causes several sequentially intertwined metabolic disturbances with final result of liver iron overload. The presented hypothesis could be easily tested by examining the patients suffering from UCDs, for liver iron overload. This could be easily performed in countries with a high population and comprehensive national register for inborn errors of metabolism. Providing the hypothesis is correct, neonatal liver damage in patients having UCD can be prevented by the supplementation of pregnant women with fumaric or succinic acid, prepared in the form of iron supplementation pills. After birth, liver damage in patients having UCDs can be prevented by supplementation of these patients with zinc fumarate or zinc succinylate, as well.

  7. Dynamics of electron wave packet in a disordered chain with delayed nonlinear response

    Zhu Hongjun; Xiong Shijie

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of one electron wave packet in a linear chain with random on-site energies and a nonadiabatic electron-phonon interaction which is described by a delayed cubic nonlinear term in the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. We show that in the regime where the wave packet is delocalized in the case with only the delayed nonlinearity, the wave packet becomes localized when the disorder is added and the localization is enhanced by increasing the disorder. In the regime where the self-trapping phenomenon occurs in the case with only the delayed nonlinearity, by adding the disorder the general dynamical features of the wave packet do not change if the nonlinearity parameter is small, but the dynamics shows the subdiffusive behavior if the nonlinearity parameter is large. The numerical results demonstrate complicated wave packet dynamics of systems with both the disorder and nonlinearity.

  8. GGDonto ontology as a knowledge-base for genetic diseases and disorders of glycan metabolism and their causative genes.

    Solovieva, Elena; Shikanai, Toshihide; Fujita, Noriaki; Narimatsu, Hisashi

    2018-04-18

    Inherited mutations in glyco-related genes can affect the biosynthesis and degradation of glycans and result in severe genetic diseases and disorders. The Glyco-Disease Genes Database (GDGDB), which provides information about these diseases and disorders as well as their causative genes, has been developed by the Research Center for Medical Glycoscience (RCMG) and released in April 2010. GDGDB currently provides information on about 80 genetic diseases and disorders caused by single-gene mutations in glyco-related genes. Many biomedical resources provide information about genetic disorders and genes involved in their pathogenesis, but resources focused on genetic disorders known to be related to glycan metabolism are lacking. With the aim of providing more comprehensive knowledge on genetic diseases and disorders of glycan biosynthesis and degradation, we enriched the content of the GDGDB database and improved the methods for data representation. We developed the Genetic Glyco-Diseases Ontology (GGDonto) and a RDF/SPARQL-based user interface using Semantic Web technologies. In particular, we represented the GGDonto content using Semantic Web languages, such as RDF, RDFS, SKOS, and OWL, and created an interactive user interface based on SPARQL queries. This user interface provides features to browse the hierarchy of the ontology, view detailed information on diseases and related genes, and find relevant background information. Moreover, it provides the ability to filter and search information by faceted and keyword searches. Focused on the molecular etiology, pathogenesis, and clinical manifestations of genetic diseases and disorders of glycan metabolism and developed as a knowledge-base for this scientific field, GGDonto provides comprehensive information on various topics, including links to aid the integration with other scientific resources. The availability and accessibility of this knowledge will help users better understand how genetic defects impact the

  9. Electronic structure of disordered alloys, surfaces and interfaces

    Turek, Ilja; Kudrnovský, Josef; Šob, Mojmír; Weinberger, Peter

    1997-01-01

    At present, there is an increasing interest in the prediction of properties of classical and new materials such as substitutional alloys, their surfaces, and metallic or semiconductor multilayers. A detailed understanding based on a thus of the utmost importance for fu­ microscopic, parameter-free approach is ture developments in solid state physics and materials science. The interrela­ tion between electronic and structural properties at surfaces plays a key role for a microscopic understanding of phenomena as diverse as catalysis, corrosion, chemisorption and crystal growth. Remarkable progress has been made in the past 10-15 years in the understand­ ing of behavior of ideal crystals and their surfaces by relating their properties to the underlying electronic structure as determined from the first principles. Similar studies of complex systems like imperfect surfaces, interfaces, and mul­ tilayered structures seem to be accessible by now. Conventional band-structure methods, however, are of limited use ...

  10. Central nervous insulin resistance: a promising target in the treatment of metabolic and cognitive disorders?

    Hallschmid, M; Schultes, B

    2009-11-01

    Research on functions and signalling pathways of insulin has traditionally focused on peripheral tissues such as muscle, fat and liver, while the brain was commonly believed to be insensitive to the effects of this hormone secreted by pancreatic beta cells. However, since the discovery some 30 years ago that insulin receptors are ubiquitously found in the central nervous system, an ever-growing research effort has conclusively shown that circulating insulin accesses the brain, which itself does not synthesise insulin, and exerts pivotal functions in central nervous networks. As an adiposity signal reflecting the amount of body fat, insulin provides direct negative feedback to hypothalamic nuclei that control whole-body energy and glucose homeostasis. Moreover, insulin affects distinct cognitive processes, e.g. by triggering the formation of psychological memory contents. Accordingly, metabolic and cognitive disorders such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and Alzheimer's disease are associated with resistance of central nervous structures to the effects of insulin, which may derive from genetic polymorphisms as well as from long-term exposure to excess amounts of circulating insulin due to peripheral insulin resistance. Thus, overcoming central nervous insulin resistance, e.g. by pharmacological interventions, appears to be an attractive strategy in the treatment and prevention of these disorders. Enhancement of central nervous insulin signalling by administration of intranasal insulin, insulin analogues and insulin sensitisers in basic research approaches has yielded encouraging results that bode well for the successful translation of these effects into future clinical practice.

  11. Mechanisms of action for the medium-chain triglyceride ketogenic diet in neurological and metabolic disorders.

    Augustin, Katrin; Khabbush, Aziza; Williams, Sophie; Eaton, Simon; Orford, Michael; Cross, J Helen; Heales, Simon J R; Walker, Matthew C; Williams, Robin S B

    2018-01-01

    High-fat, low-carbohydrate diets, known as ketogenic diets, have been used as a non-pharmacological treatment for refractory epilepsy. A key mechanism of this treatment is thought to be the generation of ketones, which provide brain cells (neurons and astrocytes) with an energy source that is more efficient than glucose, resulting in beneficial downstream metabolic changes, such as increasing adenosine levels, which might have effects on seizure control. However, some studies have challenged the central role of ketones because medium-chain fatty acids, which are part of a commonly used variation of the diet (the medium-chain triglyceride ketogenic diet), have been shown to directly inhibit AMPA receptors (glutamate receptors), and to change cell energetics through mitochondrial biogenesis. Through these mechanisms, medium-chain fatty acids rather than ketones are likely to block seizure onset and raise seizure threshold. The mechanisms underlying the ketogenic diet might also have roles in other disorders, such as preventing neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease, the proliferation and spread of cancer, and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. Analysing medium-chain fatty acids in future ketogenic diet studies will provide further insights into their importance in modified forms of the diet. Moreover, the results of these studies could facilitate the development of new pharmacological and dietary therapies for epilepsy and other disorders. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The association of posttraumatic stress disorder and metabolic syndrome: a study of increased health risk in veterans

    Hauger Richard L

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is accumulating evidence for a link between trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and diminished health status. To assess PTSD-related biological burden, we measured biological factors that comprise metabolic syndrome, an important established predictor of morbidity and mortality, as a correlate of long-term health risk in PTSD. Methods We analyzed clinical data from 253 male and female veterans, corresponding to five factors linked to metabolic syndrome (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, waist-to-hip ratio and fasting measures of high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol, serum triglycerides and plasma glucose concentration. Clinical cut-offs were defined for each biological parameter based on recommendations from the World Health Organization and the National Cholesterol Education Program. Controlling for relevant variables including sociodemographic variables, alcohol/substance/nicotine use and depression, we examined the impact of PTSD on metabolic syndrome using a logistic regression model. Results Two-fifths (40% of the sample met criteria for metabolic syndrome. Of those with PTSD (n = 139, 43% met criteria for metabolic syndrome. The model predicted metabolic syndrome well (-2 log likelihood = 316.650, chi-squared = 23.731, p = 0.005. Veterans with higher severity of PTSD were more likely to meet diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome (Wald = 4.76, p = 0.03. Conclusion These findings provide preliminary evidence linking higher severity of PTSD with risk factors for diminished health and increased morbidity, as represented by metabolic syndrome.

  13. The association of posttraumatic stress disorder and metabolic syndrome: a study of increased health risk in veterans.

    Heppner, Pia S; Crawford, Eric F; Haji, Uzair A; Afari, Niloofar; Hauger, Richard L; Dashevsky, Boris A; Horn, Paul S; Nunnink, Sarah E; Baker, Dewleen G

    2009-01-09

    There is accumulating evidence for a link between trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and diminished health status. To assess PTSD-related biological burden, we measured biological factors that comprise metabolic syndrome, an important established predictor of morbidity and mortality, as a correlate of long-term health risk in PTSD. We analyzed clinical data from 253 male and female veterans, corresponding to five factors linked to metabolic syndrome (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, waist-to-hip ratio and fasting measures of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, serum triglycerides and plasma glucose concentration). Clinical cut-offs were defined for each biological parameter based on recommendations from the World Health Organization and the National Cholesterol Education Program. Controlling for relevant variables including sociodemographic variables, alcohol/substance/nicotine use and depression, we examined the impact of PTSD on metabolic syndrome using a logistic regression model. Two-fifths (40%) of the sample met criteria for metabolic syndrome. Of those with PTSD (n = 139), 43% met criteria for metabolic syndrome. The model predicted metabolic syndrome well (-2 log likelihood = 316.650, chi-squared = 23.731, p = 0.005). Veterans with higher severity of PTSD were more likely to meet diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome (Wald = 4.76, p = 0.03). These findings provide preliminary evidence linking higher severity of PTSD with risk factors for diminished health and increased morbidity, as represented by metabolic syndrome.

  14. Metformin for weight loss and metabolic control in overweight outpatients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder.

    Jarskog, L Fredrik; Hamer, Robert M; Catellier, Diane J; Stewart, Dawn D; Lavange, Lisa; Ray, Neepa; Golden, Lauren H; Lieberman, Jeffrey A; Stroup, T Scott

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether metformin promotes weight loss in overweight outpatients with chronic schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. In a double-blind study, 148 clinically stable, overweight (body mass index [BMI] ≥27) outpatients with chronic schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were randomly assigned to receive 16 weeks of metformin or placebo. Metformin was titrated up to 1,000 mg twice daily, as tolerated. All patients continued to receive their prestudy medications, and all received weekly diet and exercise counseling. The primary outcome measure was change in body weight from baseline to week 16. Fifty-eight (77.3%) patients who received metformin and 58 (81.7%) who received placebo completed 16 weeks of treatment. Mean change in body weight was -3.0 kg (95% CI=-4.0 to -2.0) for the metformin group and -1.0 kg (95% CI=-2.0 to 0.0) for the placebo group, with a between-group difference of -2.0 kg (95% CI=-3.4 to -0.6). Metformin also demonstrated a significant between-group advantage for BMI (-0.7; 95% CI=-1.1 to -0.2), triglyceride level (-20.2 mg/dL; 95% CI=-39.2 to -1.3), and hemoglobin A1c level (-0.07%; 95% CI=-0.14 to -0.004). Metformin-associated side effects were mostly gastrointestinal and generally transient, and they rarely led to treatment discontinuation. Metformin was modestly effective in reducing weight and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease in clinically stable, overweight outpatients with chronic schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder over 16 weeks. A significant time-by-treatment interaction suggests that benefits of metformin may continue to accrue with longer treatment. Metformin may have an important role in diminishing the adverse consequences of obesity and metabolic impairments in patients with schizophrenia.

  15. [Metabolic Syndrome and Bipolar Affective Disorder: A Review of the Literature].

    Jaramillo, Carlos López; Mejía, Adelaida Castaño; Velásquez, Alicia Henao; Restrepo Palacio, Tomás Felipe; Zuluaga, Julieta Osorio

    2013-09-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic psychiatric disorder that is found within the first ten causes of disability and premature mortality. The metabolic syndrome (MS) is a group of risk factors (RF) that predispose to cardiovascular disease (CV), diabetes and early mortality. Both diseases generate high costs to the health system. Major studies have shown that MS has a higher prevalence in patients with mental disorders compared to the general population. The incidence of MS in BD is multifactorial, and due to iatrogenic, genetic, economic, psychological, and behavioral causes related to the health system. The most common RF found is these patients was an increased abdominal circumference, and it was found that the risk of suffering this disease was greater in women and Hispanic patients. As regards the increase in RF to develop a CV in patients with BD, there have been several explanations based on the risky behavior of patients with mental illness, included tobacco abuse, physical inactivity and high calorie diets. An additional explanation described in literature is the view of BD as a multisystemic inflammatory illness, supported by the explanation that inflammation is a crucial element in atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, platelet rupture, and thrombosis. The pathophysiology of MS and BD include factors such as adrenal, thyroid and sympathetic nervous system dysfunction, as well as poor lifestyle and medication common in these patients. This article attempts to give the reader an overall view of the information published in literature to date, as regards the association between BD and MS. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  16. Electronic Health Record for Temporomandibular Joint Disorders – Support in Therapeutic Process

    Hippmann, R.; Nagy, Miroslav; Dostálová, T.; Zvárová, Jana; Seydlová, M.; Feltlová, E.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 1 (2010), s. 27-32 ISSN 1801-5603 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : electronic health record * automatic speech recognition * dental cross * temporomandibular joint * temporomandibular joint disorders * structured data entry * dentistry * data model * text-to-speech system * Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://www.ejbi.org/en/ejbi/article/25-en- electronic - health - record -for-temporomandibular-joint-disorders-support-in-therapeutic-process.html

  17. Maternal educational level and the risk of persistent post-partum glucose metabolism disorders in women with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Gante, Inês; Ferreira, Ana Carina; Pestana, Gonçalo; Pires, Daniela; Amaral, Njila; Dores, Jorge; do Céu Almeida, Maria; Sandoval, José Luis

    2018-03-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) occurs in 5-15% of pregnancies, and lower maternal educational attainment has been associated with higher risk of GDM. We aimed to determine if maternal education level is associated with persistent post-partum glucose metabolism disorders in women with GDM. Retrospective cohort study of women with GDM followed in 25 Portuguese health institutions between 2008 and 2012. Educational attainment was categorised into four levels. Prevalence of post-partum glucose metabolism disorders (type 2 diabetes mellitus, increased fasting plasma glucose or impaired glucose tolerance) was compared and adjusted odds ratios calculated controlling for confounders using logistic regression. We included 4490 women diagnosed with GDM. Educational level ranged as follows: 6.8% (n = 307) were at level 1 (≤ 6th grade), 34.6% (n = 1554) at level 2 (6-9th grade), 30.4% (n = 1364) at level 3 (10-12th grade) and 28.2% (n = 1265) at level 4 (≥ university degree). At 6 weeks post-partum re-evaluation, 10.9% (n = 491) had persistent glucose metabolism disorders. Educational levels 1 and 2 had a higher probability of persistent post-partum glucose metabolism disorders when compared to level 4 (OR = 2.37 [1.69;3.32], p women with GDM and associated with lower maternal educational level. Interventions aimed at this risk group may contribute towards a decrease in prevalence of post-partum glucose metabolism disorders.

  18. Redox Homeostasis in Plants under Abiotic Stress: Role of electron carriers, energy metabolism mediators and proteinaceous thiols

    Dhriti Kapoor

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Contemporaneous presence of both oxidized and reduced forms of electron carriers is mandatory in efficient flux by plant electron transport cascades. This requirement is considered as redox poising that involves the movement of electron from multiple sites in respiratory and photosynthetic electron transport chains to molecular oxygen. This flux triggers the formation of superoxide, consequently give rise to other reactive oxygen species (ROS under adverse environmental conditions like drought, high or low temperature, heavy metal stress etc. that plants owing during their life span. Plant cells synthesize ascorbate, an additional hydrophilic redox buffer, which protect the plants against oxidative challenge. Large pools of antioxidants also preside over the redox homeostasis. Besides, tocopherol is a liposoluble redox buffer, which efficiently scavenges the ROS like singlet oxygen. In addition, proteinaceous thiol members such as thioredoxin, peroxiredoxin and glutaredoxin, electron carriers and energy metabolism mediators phosphorylated (NADP and non-phosphorylated (NAD+ coenzyme forms interact with ROS, metabolize and maintain redox homeostasis.

  19. Structural study of disordered SiC nanowires by three-dimensional rotation electron diffraction

    Li, Duan; Guo, Peng; Wan, Wei; Zou, Ji; Shen, Zhijian; Guzi de Moraes, Elisângela; Colombo, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The structure of disordered SiC nanowires was studied by using the three-dimensional rotation electron diffraction (RED) technique. The streaks shown in the RED images indicated the stacking faults of the nanowire. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging was employed to support the results from the RED data. It suggested that a 2H polytype is most possible for the nanowires. (paper)

  20. Conservation laws in disordered electron systems: Thermodynamic limit and configurational averaging

    Janiš, Václav; Kolorenč, Jindřich

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 241, č. 9 (2004), s. 2032-2042 ISSN 0370-1972 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/04/1055 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : conservation laws * noninteracting disordered electrons * diffusion pole Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.982, year: 2004

  1. Miniworkshop on Methods of Electronic Structure Calculations and Working Group on Disordered Alloys

    Andersen, O K; Mookerjee, A

    1994-01-01

    Developments in the density functional theory and the methods of electronic structure calculations have made it possible to carry out ab-initio studies of a variety of materials efficiently and at a predictable level. This book covers many of those state-of-the-art developments and their applications to ordered and disordered materials, surfaces and interfaces and clusters, etc.

  2. Vertex corrections to the mean-field electrical conductivity in disordered electron systems

    Pokorný, Vladislav; Janiš, Václav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 17 (2013), "175502-1"-"175502-10" ISSN 0953-8984 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : disordered electron systems * electrical conductivity * vertex corrections Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.223, year: 2013

  3. Metabolic disorders and cardiovascular risk in people living with HIV/AIDS without the use of antiretroviral therapy

    Mariana Amaral Raposo

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: Metabolic disorders in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLH have been described even before the introduction of antiretroviral (ARV drugs in the treatment of HIV infection and are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Based on this, the purpose of this study was to assess metabolic disorders and cardiovascular risk in PLH before the initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study of 87 PLH without the use of ART, which was carried out between January and September 2012 at a specialized infectious diseases center in Minas Gerais, Brazil. RESULTS: The main metabolic disorders in the population were low serum levels of HDL-cholesterol, hypertriglyceridemia and abdominal obesity. Dyslipidemia was prevalent in 62.6% of the study population, whereas metabolic syndrome (MS was prevalent in 11.5% of patients assessed by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF criteria and 10.8% assessed by the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP-ATPIII criteria. Regarding cardiovascular risk, 89.7% of the population presented a low coronary risk according to the Framingham Risk Score. A greater proportion of patients diagnosed with MS presented low cardiovascular risk (80% assessed by IDF criteria and 77.8% assessed by NCEP-ATPIII criteria. CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic disorders in this population may be due to HIV infection or lifestyle (smoking, sedentary lifestyle and inadequate diet. The introduction of ART can enhance dyslipidemia, increasing cardiovascular risk, especially among those who have classic risks of cardiovascular disease.

  4. Variability of Creatine Metabolism Genes in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Jessie M. Cameron

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Creatine deficiency syndrome (CDS comprises three separate enzyme deficiencies with overlapping clinical presentations: arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (GATM gene, glycine amidinotransferase, guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT gene, and creatine transporter deficiency (SLC6A8 gene, solute carrier family 6 member 8. CDS presents with developmental delays/regression, intellectual disability, speech and language impairment, autistic behaviour, epileptic seizures, treatment-refractory epilepsy, and extrapyramidal movement disorders; symptoms that are also evident in children with autism. The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that genetic variability in creatine metabolism genes is associated with autism. We sequenced GATM, GAMT and SLC6A8 genes in 166 patients with autism (coding sequence, introns and adjacent untranslated regions. A total of 29, 16 and 25 variants were identified in each gene, respectively. Four variants were novel in GATM, and 5 in SLC6A8 (not present in the 1000 Genomes, Exome Sequencing Project (ESP or Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC databases. A single variant in each gene was identified as non-synonymous, and computationally predicted to be potentially damaging. Nine variants in GATM were shown to have a lower minor allele frequency (MAF in the autism population than in the 1000 Genomes database, specifically in the East Asian population (Fisher’s exact test. Two variants also had lower MAFs in the European population. In summary, there were no apparent associations of variants in GAMT and SLC6A8 genes with autism. The data implying there could be a lower association of some specific GATM gene variants with autism is an observation that would need to be corroborated in a larger group of autism patients, and with sub-populations of Asian ethnicities. Overall, our findings suggest that the genetic variability of creatine synthesis/transport is unlikely to play a part in the pathogenesis of autism

  5. Variability of Creatine Metabolism Genes in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Cameron, Jessie M; Levandovskiy, Valeriy; Roberts, Wendy; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Scherer, Stephen; Loh, Alvin; Schulze, Andreas

    2017-07-31

    Creatine deficiency syndrome (CDS) comprises three separate enzyme deficiencies with overlapping clinical presentations: arginine:glycine amidinotransferase ( GATM gene, glycine amidinotransferase), guanidinoacetate methyltransferase ( GAMT gene), and creatine transporter deficiency ( SLC6A8 gene, solute carrier family 6 member 8). CDS presents with developmental delays/regression, intellectual disability, speech and language impairment, autistic behaviour, epileptic seizures, treatment-refractory epilepsy, and extrapyramidal movement disorders; symptoms that are also evident in children with autism. The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that genetic variability in creatine metabolism genes is associated with autism. We sequenced GATM , GAMT and SLC6A8 genes in 166 patients with autism (coding sequence, introns and adjacent untranslated regions). A total of 29, 16 and 25 variants were identified in each gene, respectively. Four variants were novel in GATM , and 5 in SLC6A8 (not present in the 1000 Genomes, Exome Sequencing Project (ESP) or Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC) databases). A single variant in each gene was identified as non-synonymous, and computationally predicted to be potentially damaging. Nine variants in GATM were shown to have a lower minor allele frequency (MAF) in the autism population than in the 1000 Genomes database, specifically in the East Asian population (Fisher's exact test). Two variants also had lower MAFs in the European population. In summary, there were no apparent associations of variants in GAMT and SLC6A8 genes with autism. The data implying there could be a lower association of some specific GATM gene variants with autism is an observation that would need to be corroborated in a larger group of autism patients, and with sub-populations of Asian ethnicities. Overall, our findings suggest that the genetic variability of creatine synthesis/transport is unlikely to play a part in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum

  6. Relative variations of gut microbiota in disordered cholesterol metabolism caused by high-cholesterol diet and host genetics.

    Bo, Tao; Shao, Shanshan; Wu, Dongming; Niu, Shaona; Zhao, Jiajun; Gao, Ling

    2017-08-01

    Recent studies performed provide mechanistic insight into effects of the microbiota on cholesterol metabolism, but less focus was given to how cholesterol impacts the gut microbiota. In this study, ApoE -/- Sprague Dawley (SD) rats and their wild-type counterparts (n = 12) were, respectively, allocated for two dietary condition groups (normal chow and high-cholesterol diet). Total 16S rDNA of fecal samples were extracted and sequenced by high-throughput sequencing to determine differences in microbiome composition. Data were collected and performed diversity analysis and phylogenetic analysis. The influence of cholesterol on gut microbiota was discussed by using cholesterol dietary treatment as exogenous cholesterol disorder factor and genetic modification as endogenous metabolic disorder factor. Relative microbial variations were compared to illustrate the causality and correlation of cholesterol and gut microbiota. It turned out comparing to genetically modified rats, exogenous cholesterol intake may play more effective role in changing gut microbiota profile, although the serum cholesterol level of genetically modified rats was even higher. Relative abundance of some representative species showed that the discrepancies due to dietary variation were more obvious, whereas some low abundance species changed because of genetic disorders. Our results partially demonstrated that gut microbiota are relatively more sensitive to dietary variation. Nevertheless, considering the important effect of bacteria in cholesterol metabolism, the influence to gut flora by "genetically caused cholesterol disorder" cannot be overlooked. Manipulation of gut microbiota might be an effective target for preventing cholesterol-related metabolic disorders. © 2017 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Multiple-trait estimates of genetic parameters for metabolic disease traits, fertility disorders, and their predictors in Canadian Holsteins.

    Jamrozik, J; Koeck, A; Kistemaker, G J; Miglior, F

    2016-03-01

    Producer-recorded health data for metabolic disease traits and fertility disorders on 35,575 Canadian Holstein cows were jointly analyzed with selected indicator traits. Metabolic diseases included clinical ketosis (KET) and displaced abomasum (DA); fertility disorders were metritis (MET) and retained placenta (RP); and disease indicators were fat-to-protein ratio, milk β-hydroxybutyrate, and body condition score (BCS) in the first lactation. Traits in first and later (up to fifth) lactations were treated as correlated in the multiple-trait (13 traits in total) animal linear model. Bayesian methods with Gibbs sampling were implemented for the analysis. Estimates of heritability for disease incidence were low, up to 0.06 for DA in first lactation. Among disease traits, the environmental herd-year variance constituted 4% of the total variance for KET and less for other traits. First- and later-lactation disease traits were genetically correlated (from 0.66 to 0.72) across all traits, indicating different genetic backgrounds for first and later lactations. Genetic correlations between KET and DA were relatively strong and positive (up to 0.79) in both first- and later-lactation cows. Genetic correlations between fertility disorders were slightly lower. Metritis was strongly genetically correlated with both metabolic disease traits in the first lactation only. All other genetic correlations between metabolic and fertility diseases were statistically nonsignificant. First-lactation KET and MET were strongly positively correlated with later-lactation performance for these traits due to the environmental herd-year effect. Indicator traits were moderately genetically correlated (from 0.30 to 0.63 in absolute values) with both metabolic disease traits in the first lactation. Smaller and mostly nonsignificant genetic correlations were among indicators and metabolic diseases in later lactations. The only significant genetic correlations between indicators and fertility

  8. Method of γ expansions in the electronic theory of disordered alloys

    Masanskii, I.V.; Tokar', V.I.

    1989-01-01

    In the electronic theory of disordered alloys an expansion with respect to the parameter γ = exp( -1/ξ ), where ξ is the dimensionless correlation length of the single-electron Green's function, is proposed. This expansion makes it possible to take into account the presence in the alloy of short-range order and the effects of multiple scattering of the electrons by different sites. It is shown that in the case of sufficiently strong disorder γ is a small parameter of the coherent potential approximation, and the corrections to this approximation are found. It is also shown that in the framework of this approximation the equilibrium values of the parameters of the short-range order can be calculated

  9. Effects of Structural and Electronic Disorder in Topological Insulator Sb2Te3 Thin Films

    Korzhovska, Inna

    Topological quantum matter is a unique and potentially transformative protectorate against disorder-induced backscattering. The ultimate disorder limits to the topological state, however, are still not known - understanding these limits is critical to potential applications in the fields of spintronics and information processing. In topological insulators spin-orbit interaction and time-reversal-symmetry invariance guarantees - at least up to a certain disorder strength - that charge transport through 2D gapless Dirac surface states is robust against backscattering by non-magnetic disorder. Strong disorder may destroy topological protection and gap out Dirac surface states, although recent theories predict that under severe electronic disorder a quantized topological conductance might yet reemerge. Very strong electronic disorder, however, is not trivial to install and quantify, and topological matter under such conditions thus far has not been experimentally tested. This thesis addresses the behavior of three-dimensional (3D) topological insulator (TI) films in a wide range of structural and electronic disorder. We establish strong positional disorder in thin (20-50 nm) Sb2Te 3 films, free of extrinsic magnetic dopants. Sb 2Te3 is a known 2nd generation topological insulator in the low-disorder crystalline state. It is also a known phase-change material that undergoes insulator-to-metal transition with the concurrent orders of magnitude resistive drop, where a huge range of disorder could be controllably explored. In this work we show that even in the absence of magnetic dopants, disorder may induce spin correlations detrimental to the topological state. Chapter 1 contains a brief introduction to the topological matter and describes the role played by disorder. This is followed by theory considerations and a survey of prior experimental work. Next we describe the motivation for our experiments and explain the choice of the material. Chapter 2 describes deposition

  10. Metformin for Weight Loss and Metabolic Control in Overweight Outpatients With Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorder

    Jarskog, L. Fredrik; Hamer, Robert M.; Catellier, Diane J.; Stewart, Dawn D.; LaVange, Lisa; Ray, Neepa; Golden, Lauren H.; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.; Stroup, T. Scott

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to determine whether metformin promotes weight loss in overweight out-patients with chronic schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Method In a double-blind study, 148 clinically stable, overweight (body mass index [BMI] ≥27) outpatients with chronic schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were randomly assigned to receive 16 weeks of metformin or placebo. Metformin was titrated up to 1,000 mg twice daily, as tolerated. All patients continued to receive their prestudy medications, and all received weekly diet and exercise counseling. The primary outcome measure was change in body weight from baseline to week 16. Results Fifty-eight (77.3%) patients who received metformin and 58 (81.7%) who received placebo completed 16 weeks of treatment. Mean change in body weight was −3.0 kg (95% CI=−4.0 to −2.0) for the metformin group and −1.0 kg (95% CI= −2.0 to 0.0) for the placebo group, with a between-group difference of −2.0 kg (95% CI=−3.4 to −0.6). Metformin also demonstrated a significant between-group advantage for BMI (−0.7; 95% CI=−1.1 to −0.2), triglyceride level (−20.2 mg/dL; 95% CI=−39.2 to −1.3), and hemoglobin A1c level (−0.07%; 95% CI=−0.14 to −0.004). Metformin-associated side effects were mostly gastrointestinal and generally transient, and they rarely led to treatment discontinuation. Conclusions Metformin was modestly effective in reducing weight and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease in clinically stable, overweight outpatients with chronic schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder over 16 weeks. A significant time-by-treatment interaction suggests that benefits of metformin may continue to accrue with longer treatment. Metformin may have an important role in diminishing the adverse consequences of obesity and metabolic impairments in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:23846733

  11. Early detection of metabolic and energy disorders by thermal time series stochastic complexity analysis

    Lutaif, N.A. [Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Palazzo, R. Jr [Departamento de Telemática, Faculdade de Engenharia Elétrica e Computação, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Gontijo, J.A.R. [Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2014-01-17

    Maintenance of thermal homeostasis in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) is associated with changes in their thermal balance. The thermodynamic relationship between heat dissipation and energy storage is altered by the ingestion of high-energy diet content. Observation of thermal registers of core temperature behavior, in humans and rodents, permits identification of some characteristics of time series, such as autoreference and stationarity that fit adequately to a stochastic analysis. To identify this change, we used, for the first time, a stochastic autoregressive model, the concepts of which match those associated with physiological systems involved and applied in male HFD rats compared with their appropriate standard food intake age-matched male controls (n=7 per group). By analyzing a recorded temperature time series, we were able to identify when thermal homeostasis would be affected by a new diet. The autoregressive time series model (AR model) was used to predict the occurrence of thermal homeostasis, and this model proved to be very effective in distinguishing such a physiological disorder. Thus, we infer from the results of our study that maximum entropy distribution as a means for stochastic characterization of temperature time series registers may be established as an important and early tool to aid in the diagnosis and prevention of metabolic diseases due to their ability to detect small variations in thermal profile.

  12. Early detection of metabolic and energy disorders by thermal time series stochastic complexity analysis

    Lutaif, N.A.; Palazzo, R. Jr; Gontijo, J.A.R.

    2014-01-01

    Maintenance of thermal homeostasis in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) is associated with changes in their thermal balance. The thermodynamic relationship between heat dissipation and energy storage is altered by the ingestion of high-energy diet content. Observation of thermal registers of core temperature behavior, in humans and rodents, permits identification of some characteristics of time series, such as autoreference and stationarity that fit adequately to a stochastic analysis. To identify this change, we used, for the first time, a stochastic autoregressive model, the concepts of which match those associated with physiological systems involved and applied in male HFD rats compared with their appropriate standard food intake age-matched male controls (n=7 per group). By analyzing a recorded temperature time series, we were able to identify when thermal homeostasis would be affected by a new diet. The autoregressive time series model (AR model) was used to predict the occurrence of thermal homeostasis, and this model proved to be very effective in distinguishing such a physiological disorder. Thus, we infer from the results of our study that maximum entropy distribution as a means for stochastic characterization of temperature time series registers may be established as an important and early tool to aid in the diagnosis and prevention of metabolic diseases due to their ability to detect small variations in thermal profile

  13. Maternal Metabolic Conditions and Risk for Autism and Other Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    Walker, Cheryl K.; Bremer, Andrew A.; Baker, Alice S.; Ozonoff, Sally; Hansen, Robin L.; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We examined whether metabolic conditions (MCs) during pregnancy (diabetes, hypertension, and obesity) are associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), developmental delays (DD), or impairments in specific domains of development in the offspring. METHODS: Children aged 2 to 5 years (517 ASD, 172 DD, and 315 controls) were enrolled in the CHARGE (Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and the Environment) study, a population-based, case-control investigation between January 2003 and June 2010. Eligible children were born in California, had parents who spoke English or Spanish, and were living with a biological parent in selected regions of California. Children’s diagnoses were confirmed by using standardized assessments. Information regarding maternal conditions was ascertained from medical records or structured interview with the mother. RESULTS: All MCs were more prevalent among case mothers compared with controls. Collectively, these conditions were associated with a higher likelihood of ASD and DD relative to controls (odds ratio: 1.61 [95% confidence interval: 1.10–2.37; odds ratio: 2.35 [95% confidence interval: 1.43–3.88], respectively). Among ASD cases, children of women with diabetes had Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL) expressive language scores 0.4 SD lower than children of mothers without MCs (P neurodevelopmental problems in children. With obesity rising steadily, these results appear to raise serious public health concerns. PMID:22492772

  14. Here, there and everywhere: Resistin-like molecules in infection, inflammation, and metabolic disorders.

    Pine, Gabrielle M; Batugedara, Hashini M; Nair, Meera G

    2018-06-01

    The Resistin-Like Molecules (RELM) α, β, and γ and their namesake, resistin, share structural and sequence homology but exhibit significant diversity in expression and function within their mammalian host. RELM proteins are expressed in a wide range of diseases, such as: microbial infections (eg. bacterial and helminth), inflammatory diseases (eg. asthma, fibrosis) and metabolic disorders (eg. diabetes). While the expression pattern and molecular regulation of RELM proteins are well characterized, much controversy remains over their proposed functions, with evidence of host-protective and pathogenic roles. Moreover, the receptors for RELM proteins are unclear, although three receptors for resistin, decorin, adenylyl cyclase-associated protein 1 (CAP1), and Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4) have recently been proposed. In this review, we will first summarize the molecular regulation of the RELM gene family, including transcription regulation and tissue expression in humans and mouse disease models. Second, we will outline the function and receptor-mediated signaling associated with RELM proteins. Finally, we will discuss recent studies suggesting that, despite early misconceptions that these proteins are pathogenic, RELM proteins have a more nuanced and potentially beneficial role for the host in certain disease settings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Metabolic syndrome prevalence in different affective temperament profiles in bipolar-I disorder

    Kursat Altinbas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Temperament originates in the brain structure, and individual differences are attributable to neural and physiological function differences. It has been suggested that temperament is associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS markers, which may be partly mediated by lifestyle and socioeconomic status. Therefore, we aim to compare MetS prevalence between different affective temperamental profiles for each season in bipolar patients. Methods: Twenty-six bipolar type-I patients of a specialized outpatient mood disorder unit were evaluated for MetS according to new definition proposed by the International Diabetes Federation in the four seasons of a year. Temperament was assessed using the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego - autoquestionnaire version (TEMPS-A. Results: The proportions of MetS were 19.2, 23.1, 34.6, and 38.5% in the summer, fall, spring, and winter, respectively. Only depressive temperament scores were higher (p = 0.002 during the winter in patients with MetS. Conclusion: These data suggest that depressive temperament profiles may predispose an individual to the development of MetS in the winter.

  16. Brown Fat and Browning for the Treatment of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders

    So Hun Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brown fat is a specialized fat depot that can increase energy expenditure and produce heat. After the recent discovery of the presence of active brown fat in human adults and novel transcription factors controlling brown adipocyte differentiation, the field of the study of brown fat has gained great interest and is rapidly growing. Brown fat expansion and/or activation results in increased energy expenditure and a negative energy balance in mice and limits weight gain. Brown fat is also able to utilize blood glucose and lipid and results in improved glucose metabolism and blood lipid independent of weight loss. Prolonged cold exposure and beta adrenergic agonists can induce browning of white adipose tissue. The inducible brown adipocyte, beige adipocyte evolving by thermogenic activation of white adipose tissue have different origin and molecular signature from classical brown adipocytes but share the characteristics of high mitochondria content, UCP1 expression and thermogenic capacity when activated. Increasing browning may also be an efficient way to increase whole brown fat activity. Recent human studies have shown possibilities that findings in mice can be reproduced in human, making brown fat a good candidate organ to treat obesity and its related disorders.

  17. Resting metabolic rate, pulmonary functions, and body composition parameters in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Alpaslan, Ahmet Hamdi; Ucok, Kagan; Coşkun, Kerem Şenol; Genc, Abdurrahman; Karabacak, Hatice; Guzel, Halil Ibrahim

    2017-03-01

    Several studies of school-aged children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have found a higher prevalence of overweight/obesity compared with the general population. However, the scientific literature contains insufficient evidence to establish clear conclusions on pulmonary functions, resting metabolic rate (RMR), and body composition in children with ADHD. This study therefore investigates the pulmonary functions tests (PFTs), RMR, and body composition parameters in children with ADHD and evaluates their quality of life. Forty children with ADHD and 40 healthy controls participated in the study. The children's parents completed Conners' parent rating scale (CPRS) and the pediatric quality of life (PedsQL), and their teachers completed Conners' Teacher rating scale (CTRS). The child participants also completed the PedsQL. RMR, PFTs, and body composition parameters were investigated. No significant differences in age, gender, and socioeconomic level were found. All CPRS subscales, except anxiety and psychosomatic conditions, were significantly different (p ADHD group. The results showed that the ADHD group's quality of life is worse than the control group. Body mass index, body composition parameters, RMR, and PFTs were not statistically different between the children with ADHD and the healthy controls. Further studies with complex designs are needed to confirm the results.

  18. Hiperidricidade: uma desordem metabólica Hyperhydricity: a metabolic disorder

    Andréa Guimarães Vieira de Vasconcelos

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A hiperidricidade, anteriormente chamada vitrificação, é considerada uma desordem fisiológica, bioquímica e morfológica decorrente do acúmulo anormal de água no interior das células e tecidos. As plantas cultivadas in vitro estão, indubitavelmente, sob contínua condição de estresse, os quais resultam em alterações metabólicas características do estresse oxidativo. Anatomicamente, plantas ou brotos afetados frequentemente apresentam-se inchados, com coloração verde claro, folhas translúcidas e com aparência de vidro, baixa relação número de células/área celular e hipolignificação. Alterações fisiológicas que ocorrem nas principais vias metabólicas, incluindo fotossíntese, respiração e transpiração, resultam em redução de eficiência dessas vias metabólicas. Os distúrbios morfológicos, fisiológicos e bioquímicos são desencadeados por fatores físicos, relacionados ao ambiente dos recipientes de cultivo e consistência do meio de cultura ou por fatores químicos como os componentes do meio de cultura, em especial dos reguladores de crescimento em altas concentrações. A hiperidricidade ocorre em vários níveis de severidade, chegando a resultar na perda irreversível da capacidade morfogênica e o estabelecimento de um estado neoplásico das células, no entanto, na maioria dos casos, a hiperidricidade é considerada reversível. Esta revisão foca o conhecimento atual sobre o fenômeno da hiperidricidade abordando aspectos morfológicos, fisiológicos, bioquímicos e a reversibilidade do processo.The hyperhydricity, formerly called vitrification, is considered a physiological, biochemistry and morfologic disorder due to abnormal accumulation of water inside the cells and tissues. Plants grown in vitro are undoubtedly under continuous stress condition which results in metabolic changes characteristic of oxidative stress. Anatomically plants or shoots affected often become swollen, with pale green

  19. [Development of lipids and carbohydrates metabolism disorders caused by drinkable water with high content of chlorine organic compounds].

    Luzhetsky, K P; Ustinova, O Yu; Shur, P Z; Kiryanov, D A; Dolgikh, O V; Chigvintsev, v M; Perevalov, A Ya

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of effects caused by environmental peroral exposure to chlorine organic compounds revealed that individuals with AG variation of HTR2A gene are a community with increased sensitivity to chloroform and a risk group for lipid and carbohydrates metabolism disorders. Individual risk of endocrine disorders (ICD: E67.8 excessive nutrition and E66.0 obesity) in these individuals is higher than in general population exposed to chloroform at residence (HQ1.72). Serum serotonin level, that is functionally connected with HTR2A gene, is 1.3 times lower vs. the reference group value.

  20. Excess-electron energy levels, localization and transport in disordered media

    Hamill, W.H.

    1980-01-01

    In disordered dielectrics, the fundamental parameters which control the physics and chemistry of excess electrons are time, temperature and energy or mean scattering distance. Viscosity and hardness do not directly affect the electron affinity of media, the optical spectra, or the chemical reactivity of dry or delocalized electrons or of relaxed localized or trapped electrons. Since the mean scattering distance and the transport mechanism, including barrier height, are fundamental, both liquids and glasses (including polymers) are considered in order to cover the range of relevant information. Based on the above described background, transport, localization, dry electron scavenging, trapped electron scavenging and recombination are explained. There are no available data for the energy of excess dry electrons in the media relative to vacuum in glasses, unfortunately, because of the very small yield of separated charge pairs at cryogenic temperature. Thermoplastic glassy solids provide attractive possibility above 250 K, and deserve consideration as the substitutes for cryogenic glasses. The same consideration applies to the measurements of electron drift mobility, which are essential for the adequate description of electron scavenging. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  1. Ab initio structure determination and quantitative disorder analysis on nanoparticles by electron diffraction tomography.

    Krysiak, Yaşar; Barton, Bastian; Marler, Bernd; Neder, Reinhard B; Kolb, Ute

    2018-03-01

    Nanoscaled porous materials such as zeolites have attracted substantial attention in industry due to their catalytic activity, and their performance in sorption and separation processes. In order to understand the properties of such materials, current research focuses increasingly on the determination of structural features beyond the averaged crystal structure. Small particle sizes, various types of disorder and intergrown structures render the description of structures at atomic level by standard crystallographic methods difficult. This paper reports the characterization of a strongly disordered zeolite structure, using a combination of electron exit-wave reconstruction, automated diffraction tomography (ADT), crystal disorder modelling and electron diffraction simulations. Zeolite beta was chosen for a proof-of-principle study of the techniques, because it consists of two different intergrown polymorphs that are built from identical layer types but with different stacking sequences. Imaging of the projected inner Coulomb potential of zeolite beta crystals shows the intergrowth of the polymorphs BEA and BEB. The structures of BEA as well as BEB could be extracted from one single ADT data set using direct methods. A ratio for BEA/BEB = 48:52 was determined by comparison of the reconstructed reciprocal space based on ADT data with simulated electron diffraction data for virtual nanocrystals, built with different ratios of BEA/BEB. In this way, it is demonstrated that this smart interplay of the above-mentioned techniques allows the elaboration of the real structures of functional materials in detail - even if they possess a severely disordered structure.

  2. Associations Between Body Mass Index and Development of Metabolic Disorders in Fertile Women—A Nationwide Cohort Study

    Schmiegelow, Michelle Dalgas; Andersson, Charlotte; Køber, Lars

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Metabolic disorders are relatively uncommon in young women, but may increase with obesity. The associations between body mass index (BMI) and risks of diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia in apparently healthy, young women have been insufficiently investigated, and are the aims...... of this study. METHODS AND RESULTS: Women giving birth during the years 2004-2009, with no history of cardiovascular disease, renal insufficiency, pregnancy-associated metabolic disorders, diabetes, hypertension, or dyslipidemia were identified in nationwide registers. Women were categorized as underweight (BMI......). The cohort comprised 252 472 women with a median age of 30.4 years (IQR=27.2;33.7) and a median follow-up of 5.5 years (IQR=3.9;6.8). In total, 2029 women developed diabetes, 3133 women developed hypertension, and 1549 women developed dyslipidemia. Rate ratios (RRs) of diabetes were: 0.84 (95% confidence...

  3. Goutweed (Aegopodium podagraria L. biological activity and the possibilities of its use for the correction of the lipid metabolism disorders

    O. Tovchiga

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes data concerning the biological activity of the promising herbal raw material: aerial part of goutweed (Aegopodium podagraria L., Apiaceae. This plant since time immemorial has been used as vegetable and fodder plant as well as in folk medicine including the treatment of the metabolic disorders. Nowadays the interest in this plant increases. The technology of obtaining the extract and the tincture from goutweed aerial part is described, the chemical composition of these preparations is elucidated. Pharmacological effects of the preparations obtained from goutweed are characterized with the special emphasis on the possibilities of the lipid metabolism disorders correction and prevention. The presented experimental results substantiate the efficacy of goutweed extract and the tincture under the conditions of alimentary lipemia together with their safety in the intact animals. Thus, the hypolipidemic activity of goutweed extract (1 g/kg intragastrically and goutweed tincture (1 cm3/kg intragastrically was shown in the test with olive oil loading in rats. The extract appeared to be able to decrease significantly the level of triglycerides in blood plasma, while the tincture reduced the content of plasma total lipids. In the intact rats, the extract at doses of 100 mg/kg and 1 g/kg as well as the tincture at doses of 1 and 5 cm3/kg did not influence on the values of the lipid metabolism after 12 days of administration. Total and HDL cholesterol as well as atherogenic index and plasma total lipids level remained unchanged. In contast to the data previously obtained on the models of hyperuricemia, in the intact rats there were no changes in plasma uric acid concentration (which was determined proceeding from the role of the purine metabolism disorders in metabolic syndrome pathogenesis. Thus, goutweed preparations are characterized with the regulatory mode of action and sufficient level of safety. The development of drugs as

  4. Metabolic Syndrome in Obese Men and Women with Binge Eating Disorder: Developmental Trajectories of Eating and Weight-Related Behaviors

    Blomquist, Kerstin K.; Milsom, Vanessa A.; Barnes, Rachel D.; Boeka, Abbe G.; White, Marney A.; Masheb, Robin M.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2012-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetSyn), characterized by vascular symptoms, is strongly correlated with obesity, weight-related medical diseases and mortality, and has increased commensurately with secular increases in obesity in the U.S. Little is known about the distribution of MetSynin obese patients with binge eating disorder (BED) or its associations with different developmental trajectories of dieting, binge eating, and obesity problems. Further, inconsistencies in the limited data necessitate...

  5. N-Acetyl-Cysteine Alleviates Gut Dysbiosis and Glucose Metabolic Disorder in High-Fat Diet-Induced Mice.

    Zheng, Junping; Yuan, Xubing; Zhang, Chen; Jia, Peiyuan; Jiao, Siming; Zhao, Xiaoming; Yin, Heng; Du, Yuguang; Liu, Hongtao

    2018-05-30

    N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), an anti-oxidative reagent for clinical diseases, shows potential application to diabetes and other metabolic diseases. However, it is unknown how NAC modulates the gut microbiota of mice with metabolic syndrome. In present study, we aim to demonstrate the preventive effect of NAC on intestinal dysbiosis and glucose metabolic disorder. C57BL/6J mice were fed with normal chow diet (NCD), NCD plus NAC, high-fat diet (HFD) or HFD plus NAC for five months. After the treatment, the glucose level, circulating endotoxin and metabolism-related key proteins were determined. The fecal samples were analyzed by 16S rRNA sequencing. A novel analysis was carried out to predict the functional changes of gut microbiota. In addition, Spearman's correlation between metabolic biomarkers and bacterial abundance was also assayed. The results show that NAC treatment significantly reversed the glucose intolerance, fasting glucose level, body weight and plasma endotoxin in HFD-fed mice. Further, NAC upregulated the levels of Occludin protein and mucin glycoproteins in proximal colons of HFD-treated mice. Noticeably, NAC promoted the growth of beneficial bacteria such as Akkermansia, Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Allobaculum, and hampered the population of diabetes-related genera including Desulfovibrio and Blautia. Also, NAC may influence the metabolic pathways of intestinal bacteria including lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis, oxidative stress and bacterial motility. Finally, the modified gut microbiota showed close association with the metabolic changes of the NAC treated HFD-fed mice. In summary, NAC may be a potential drug to prevent glucose metabolic disturbance by reshaping the structure of gut microbiota. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Electronic structure at metal-smiconductor surfaces and interfaces: effects of disorder

    Rodrigues, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    The main concern of this work is the study of the electronic structure at metal and semiconductor surfaces or interfaces, with special emphasis in the effects of disorder and local microstructure upon them. Various factors which determine this structure are presented and those of central importance are identified. A model that allows the efficient and exact calculation of the local density of states at disordered interfaces is described. This model is based on a tight-binding hamiltonian that has enough flexibility so as to allow an adequate description of real solids. The disorder is taken into account by including stochastic perturbations in the diagonal elements of the hamiltonian in a site orbital basis. These perturbations are taken at each layer from a lorentzian probability distribution. An exact expression for the calculation of the local density of states is derived and applied to a model surface built up from a type orbitals arranged in a simple cubic lattice. The effects of disorder on the local densities of states and on the existence of surface Tamm states are studied. The properties of the electronic states with this kind of model of disorder are considered. The self-consistent calculation of the electronic structure of the Si(111) - (1x1) surface is presented. The effects of disorder on the electronic properties such as the work function or the position of surface states within the gap are evaluated. The surface of the metallic compound NiSi 2 is also treated. The first self-consistent calculation of the electronic structure of its (111) surface is presented. The electronic structure of the Si/NiSi 2 (111) interfaces is calculated for the two types of junctions that can be grown experimentally. The origin of the difference between the Schottky barrier heights at both interfaces is discussed. The results are compared with available experimental data. The implications of this calculation on existing theories about the microscopic mechanism that causes

  7. The redox mechanism for vascular barrier dysfunction associated with metabolic disorders: Glutathionylation of Rac1 in endothelial cells.

    Han, Jingyan; Weisbrod, Robert M; Shao, Di; Watanabe, Yosuke; Yin, Xiaoyan; Bachschmid, Markus M; Seta, Francesca; Janssen-Heininger, Yvonne M W; Matsui, Reiko; Zang, Mengwei; Hamburg, Naomi M; Cohen, Richard A

    2016-10-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated in increased vascular permeability associated with metabolic disorders, but the underlying redox mechanism is poorly defined. S-glutathionylation, a stable adduct of glutathione with protein sulfhydryl, is a reversible oxidative modification of protein and is emerging as an important redox signaling paradigm in cardiovascular physiopathology. The present study determines the role of protein S-glutathionylation in metabolic stress-induced endothelial cell permeability. In endothelial cells isolated from patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus, protein S-glutathionylation level was increased. This change was also observed in aortic endothelium in ApoE deficient (ApoE -/- ) mice fed on Western diet. Metabolic stress-induced protein S-glutathionylation in human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) was positively correlated with elevated endothelial cell permeability, as reflected by disassembly of cell-cell adherens junctions and cortical actin structures. These impairments were reversed by adenoviral overexpression of a specific de-glutathionylation enzyme, glutaredoxin-1 in cultured HAECs. Consistently, transgenic overexpression of human Glrx-1 in ApoE -/- mice fed the Western diet attenuated endothelial protein S-glutathionylation, actin cytoskeletal disorganization, and vascular permeability in the aorta. Mechanistically, glutathionylation and inactivation of Rac1, a small RhoGPase, were associated with endothelial hyperpermeability caused by metabolic stress. Glutathionylation of Rac1 on cysteine 81 and 157 located adjacent to guanine nucleotide binding site was required for the metabolic stress to inhibit Rac1 activity and promote endothelial hyperpermeability. Glutathionylation and inactivation of Rac1 in endothelial cells represent a novel redox mechanism of vascular barrier dysfunction associated with metabolic disorders. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Cellular Assays for Ferredoxins: A Strategy for Understanding Electron Flow through Protein Carriers That Link Metabolic Pathways.

    Atkinson, Joshua T; Campbell, Ian; Bennett, George N; Silberg, Jonathan J

    2016-12-27

    The ferredoxin (Fd) protein family is a structurally diverse group of iron-sulfur proteins that function as electron carriers, linking biochemical pathways important for energy transduction, nutrient assimilation, and primary metabolism. While considerable biochemical information about individual Fd protein electron carriers and their reactions has been acquired, we cannot yet anticipate the proportion of electrons shuttled between different Fd-partner proteins within cells using biochemical parameters that govern electron flow, such as holo-Fd concentration, midpoint potential (driving force), molecular interactions (affinity and kinetics), conformational changes (allostery), and off-pathway electron leakage (chemical oxidation). Herein, we describe functional and structural gaps in our Fd knowledge within the context of a sequence similarity network and phylogenetic tree, and we propose a strategy for improving our understanding of Fd sequence-function relationships. We suggest comparing the functions of divergent Fds within cells whose growth, or other measurable output, requires electron transfer between defined electron donor and acceptor proteins. By comparing Fd-mediated electron transfer with biochemical parameters that govern electron flow, we posit that models that anticipate energy flow across Fd interactomes can be built. This approach is expected to transform our ability to anticipate Fd control over electron flow in cellular settings, an obstacle to the construction of synthetic electron transfer pathways and rational optimization of existing energy-conserving pathways.

  9. Comparison of electron and ion irradiation effects on order-disorder transition in Ni4Mo

    Banerjee, S.; Sundararaman, M.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of radiation damage in metals and alloys caused by electron and heavy ion beams are quite distinct from the consideration of cascade formation. Microstructural changes occurring with progressive dose of irradiation under cascade forming heavy ion irradiation and under electron irradiation have been systematically studied in Ni 4 Mo in the temperature range of 300 to 1050 K. The ordering transformation in this alloy can be used in understanding the fundamental processes of radiation damage. Conversely, radiation experiments provide an insight into the ordering mechanisms. The ordering in this alloy is governed by a competition between a second order and a first order ordering process. Steady state structures developed at different temperatures have been characterised by electron diffraction and imaging. The steady state diagrams are constructed and compared for both electron and ion irradiation. The essential difference between the nature of cascade forming and non-cascade forming irradiation on the order-disorder transformation has been discussed. (orig.)

  10. Selected vitamin D metabolic gene variants and risk for autism spectrum disorder in the CHARGE Study.

    Schmidt, Rebecca J; Hansen, Robin L; Hartiala, Jaana; Allayee, Hooman; Sconberg, Jaime L; Schmidt, Linda C; Volk, Heather E; Tassone, Flora

    2015-08-01

    Vitamin D is essential for proper neurodevelopment and cognitive and behavioral function. We examined associations between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and common, functional polymorphisms in vitamin D pathways. Children aged 24-60 months enrolled from 2003 to 2009 in the population-based CHARGE case-control study were evaluated clinically and confirmed to have ASD (n=474) or typical development (TD, n=281). Maternal, paternal, and child DNA samples for 384 (81%) families of children with ASD and 234 (83%) families of TD children were genotyped for: TaqI, BsmI, FokI, and Cdx2 in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene, and CYP27B1 rs4646536, GC rs4588, and CYP2R1 rs10741657. Case-control logistic regression, family-based log-linear, and hybrid log-linear analyses were conducted to produce risk estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for each allelic variant. Paternal VDR TaqI homozygous variant genotype was significantly associated with ASD in case-control analysis (odds ratio [OR] [CI]: 6.3 [1.9-20.7]) and there was a trend towards increased risk associated with VDR BsmI (OR [CI]: 4.7 [1.6-13.4]). Log-linear triad analyses detected parental imprinting, with greater effects of paternally-derived VDR alleles. Child GC AA-genotype/A-allele was associated with ASD in log-linear and ETDT analyses. A significant association between decreased ASD risk and child CYP2R1 AA-genotype was found in hybrid log-linear analysis. There were limitations of low statistical power for less common alleles due to missing paternal genotypes. This study provides preliminary evidence that paternal and child vitamin D metabolism could play a role in the etiology of ASD; further research in larger study populations is warranted. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  11. Serum uric acid and disorders of glucose metabolism: the role of glycosuria

    Andrade, J.A.M. [Divisão de Nefrologia, Departamento de Medicina Clínica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Kang, H.C. [Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Greffin, S. [Divisão de Nefrologia, Departamento de Medicina Clínica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Garcia Rosa, M.L. [Departamento de Epidemiologia e Bioestatística, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Lugon, J.R. [Divisão de Nefrologia, Departamento de Medicina Clínica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-08-22

    Hyperuricemia has been associated with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome. We studied the association between hyperuricemia and glycemic status in a nonrandomized sample of primary care patients. This was a cross-sectional study of adults ≥20 years old who were members of a community-based health care program. Hyperuricemia was defined as a value >7.0 mg/dL for men and >6.0 mg/dL for women. The sample comprised 720 participants including controls (n=257) and patients who were hypertensive and euglycemic (n=118), prediabetic (n=222), or diabetic (n=123). The mean age was 42.4±12.5 years, 45% were male, and 30% were white. The prevalence of hyperuricemia increased from controls (3.9%) to euglycemic hypertension (7.6%) and prediabetic state (14.0%), with values in prediabetic patients being statistically different from controls. Overall, diabetic patients had an 11.4% prevalence of hyperuricemia, which was also statistically different from controls. Of note, diabetic subjects with glycosuria, who represented 24% of the diabetic participants, had a null prevalence of hyperuricemia, and statistically higher values for fractional excretion of uric acid, Na excretion index, and prevalence of microalbuminuria than those without glycosuria. Participants who were prediabetic or diabetic but without glycosuria had a similarly elevated prevalence of hyperuricemia. In contrast, diabetic patients with glycosuria had a null prevalence of hyperuricemia and excreted more uric acid and Na than diabetic subjects without glycosuria. The findings can be explained by enhanced proximal tubule reabsorption early in the course of dysglycemia that decreases with the ensuing glycosuria at the late stage of the disorder.

  12. Hereditary kidney cancer syndromes: Genetic disorders driven by alterations in metabolism and epigenome regulation.

    Hasumi, Hisashi; Yao, Masahiro

    2018-03-01

    Although hereditary kidney cancer syndrome accounts for approximately five percent of all kidney cancers, the mechanistic insight into tumor development in these rare conditions has provided the foundation for the development of molecular targeting agents currently used for sporadic kidney cancer. In the late 1980s, the comprehensive study for hereditary kidney cancer syndrome was launched in the National Cancer Institute, USA and the first kidney cancer-associated gene, VHL, was identified through kindred analysis of von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) syndrome in 1993. Subsequent molecular studies on VHL function have elucidated that the VHL protein is a component of E3 ubiquitin ligase complex for hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), which provided the basis for the development of tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting the HIF-VEGF/PDGF pathway. Recent whole-exome sequencing analysis of sporadic kidney cancer exhibited the recurrent mutations in chromatin remodeling genes and the later study has revealed that several chromatin remodeling genes are altered in kidney cancer kindred at the germline level. To date, more than 10 hereditary kidney cancer syndromes together with each responsible gene have been characterized and most of the causative genes for these genetic disorders are associated with either metabolism or epigenome regulation. In this review article, we describe the molecular mechanisms of how an alteration of each kidney cancer-associated gene leads to renal tumorigenesis as well as denote therapeutic targets elicited by studies on hereditary kidney cancer. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  13. Serum uric acid and disorders of glucose metabolism: the role of glycosuria

    Andrade, J.A.M.; Kang, H.C.; Greffin, S.; Garcia Rosa, M.L.; Lugon, J.R.

    2014-01-01

    Hyperuricemia has been associated with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome. We studied the association between hyperuricemia and glycemic status in a nonrandomized sample of primary care patients. This was a cross-sectional study of adults ≥20 years old who were members of a community-based health care program. Hyperuricemia was defined as a value >7.0 mg/dL for men and >6.0 mg/dL for women. The sample comprised 720 participants including controls (n=257) and patients who were hypertensive and euglycemic (n=118), prediabetic (n=222), or diabetic (n=123). The mean age was 42.4±12.5 years, 45% were male, and 30% were white. The prevalence of hyperuricemia increased from controls (3.9%) to euglycemic hypertension (7.6%) and prediabetic state (14.0%), with values in prediabetic patients being statistically different from controls. Overall, diabetic patients had an 11.4% prevalence of hyperuricemia, which was also statistically different from controls. Of note, diabetic subjects with glycosuria, who represented 24% of the diabetic participants, had a null prevalence of hyperuricemia, and statistically higher values for fractional excretion of uric acid, Na excretion index, and prevalence of microalbuminuria than those without glycosuria. Participants who were prediabetic or diabetic but without glycosuria had a similarly elevated prevalence of hyperuricemia. In contrast, diabetic patients with glycosuria had a null prevalence of hyperuricemia and excreted more uric acid and Na than diabetic subjects without glycosuria. The findings can be explained by enhanced proximal tubule reabsorption early in the course of dysglycemia that decreases with the ensuing glycosuria at the late stage of the disorder

  14. The impact of visual media to encourage low protein cooking in inherited metabolic disorders.

    Evans, S; Daly, A; Hopkins, V; Davies, P; MacDonald, A

    2009-10-01

    The use of educational visual aids is one way to help children with inherited metabolic disorders (IMD) understand and develop a positive attitude towards their low protein diet. However, it is difficult to establish their effectiveness in the clinical setting. The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of a low protein recipe book and accompanying DVD for children with IMD. One hundred and five children (53% female; median age = 6-8 years) with IMD on low protein diets were each given a low protein recipe book and DVD. After 6 months, children and carers were posted a questionnaire asking whether they used these resources; identifying any change in frequency of low protein cooking; and the outcome when preparing recipes. One hundred and two questionnaires were returned, representing 105 patients. Seventy percent (n = 71) of questionnaires were from carers. Ninety-three percent (n = 66) of carers acknowledged receipt of the resource; one-third (n = 22) had not watched the DVD and 23% (n = 15) had not opened the recipe book; 55% (n = 36) had tried the recipes; and 71% (n = 47) said the recipe book and/or DVD motivated them to try new recipes. Children were more likely to have watched the DVD (75%; n = 21/28) and read the recipe book (86%; n = 24/28) than carers. Although a helpful educational tool, just over one-half of respondents had used the resource. Identifying visual media that, by itself, will motivate most families of children with IMD to prepare low protein recipes may be unrealistic. The combined approach of visual aids and 'hands-on' practical experience, such as low protein cooking workshops and individual counselling, may be more beneficial.

  15. Maternal high-fat diet induces metabolic stress response disorders in offspring hypothalamus.

    Nguyen, Long The; Saad, Sonia; Tan, Yi; Pollock, Carol; Chen, Hui

    2017-07-01

    Maternal obesity has been shown to increase the risk of obesity and related disorders in the offspring, which has been partially attributed to changes of appetite regulators in the offspring hypothalamus. On the other hand, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy have been implicated in hypothalamic neuropeptide dysregulation, thus may also play important roles in such transgenerational effect. In this study, we show that offspring born to high-fat diet-fed dams showed significantly increased body weight and glucose intolerance, adiposity and plasma triglyceride level at weaning. Hypothalamic mRNA level of the orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY) was increased, while the levels of the anorexigenic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), NPY1 receptor (NPY1R) and melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) were significantly downregulated. In association, the expression of unfolded protein response (UPR) markers including glucose-regulated protein (GRP)94 and endoplasmic reticulum DNA J domain-containing protein (Erdj)4 was reduced. By contrast, protein levels of autophagy-related genes Atg5 and Atg7, as well as mitophagy marker Parkin, were slightly increased. The administration of 4-phenyl butyrate (PBA), a chemical chaperone of protein folding and UPR activator, in the offspring from postnatal day 4 significantly reduced their body weight, fat deposition, which were in association with increased activating transcription factor (ATF)4, immunoglobulin-binding protein (BiP) and Erdj4 mRNA as well as reduced Parkin, PTEN-induced putative kinase (PINK)1 and dynamin-related protein (Drp)1 protein expression levels. These results suggest that hypothalamic ER stress and mitophagy are among the regulatory factors of offspring metabolic changes due to maternal obesity. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  16. Persistent disorders of mineral metabolism after one year of kidney transplantation.

    Gomes, Larissa Kruger; Custódio, Melani Ribeiro; Contieri, Fabiana Loss de Carvalho; Riella, Miguel C; Nascimento, Marcelo Mazza do

    2016-01-01

    The persistence of mineral metabolism disorders after renal transplant (RT) appears to possess a negative impact over graft and patient's survival. To evaluate the parameters of mineral metabolism and the persistence of hyperparathyroidism (HPT) in transplanted patients for a 12-month period after the procedure. Retrospective analysis of 41 transplants (18 women- 44%, mean age of 39 ± 15 years) performed in a University Hospital, evaluating changes of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) and the prevalence of persistent HPT. The patients were divided into two groups accordingly to PTH levels prior to Tx: Group 1 with PTH ≤ 300 pg/mL (n = 21) and Group 2 with PTH > 300 pg/mL (n = 20). The persistency of HPT after transplant was defined as PTH ≥ 100 pg/mL. The evolution of biochemical parameters and the persistency of HPT were analyzed in each group after 1 year of transplant. After a one-year of follow up, 5% of the patients presented hypophosphatemia (p 10.2 mg/dL) and 48% persistency of HPT (PTH ≥ 100 pg/mL). There was a positive correlation between the PTH pre and post Tx (r = 0.42/p = 0.006) and a negative correlation between PTH and Ca pre-Tx (r = -0.45/p = 0.002). However, there was no significant difference among groups 1 and 2 regarding PTH levels pre and post Tx. The findings in this article suggest that mineral metabolism alterations and the persistency of HPT may occur after one year of renal Tx, mainly in patients which present high PTH levels prior toTx. A persistência de distúrbios do metabolismo mineral ósseo após o transplante renal (Tx) parece possuir um impacto negativo sobre a sobrevida do enxerto e do paciente. avaliar os parâmetros do metabolismo mineral e a persistência de hiperparatiroidismo (pHPT) 12 meses após o Tx. Análise retrospectiva de 41 transplantes (18 mulheres- 44%, idade de 39 ± 15 anos) realizados em um Hospital Universitário, avaliando cálcio (Ca), fósforo (P), hormônio da paratire

  17. Electron mobility of two-dimensional electron gas in InGaN heterostructures: Effects of alloy disorder and random dipole scatterings

    Hoshino, Tomoki; Mori, Nobuya

    2018-04-01

    InGaN has a smaller electron effective mass and is expected to be used as a channel material for high-electron-mobility transistors. However, it is an alloy semiconductor with a random distribution of atoms, which introduces additional scattering mechanisms: alloy disorder and random dipole scatterings. In this work, we calculate the electron mobility in InGaN- and GaN-channel high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) while taking into account acoustic deformation potential, polar optical phonon, alloy disorder, and random dipole scatterings. For InGaN-channel HEMTs, we find that not only alloy disorder but also random dipole scattering has a strong impact on the electron mobility and it significantly decreases as the In mole fraction of the channel increases. Our calculation also shows that the channel thickness w dependence of the mobility is rather weak when w > 1 nm for In0.1Ga0.9N-channel HEMTs.

  18. Multifractal character of the electronic states in disordered two-dimensional systems

    Tit, N.; Schreiber, M.

    1994-08-01

    The nature of electronic states in disordered two-dimensional (2D) systems is investigated. To this aim, we present our calculations of both density of states and dc-conductivity for square lattices modelling the Anderson Hamiltonian with on-site energies randomly chosen from a box distribution of width W. For weak disorder (W), the eigenfunctions calculated by means of the Lanczos diagonalization algorithm display spatial fluctuations reflecting their (multi)fractal behaviour. For increasing disorder or energy the observed increase of the curdling of the wavefunction reflects its stronger localization. Our dc-conductivity results suggest a critical fractal dimension d * c =1.48±0.05 to discriminate between the exponentially and the power-law localized states. Consequences of the localization on transport properties are also discussed. (author). 30 refs, 10 figs, 1 tab

  19. Anion-exchange analysis of isotopically labelled nucleotides, nucleosides, and bases in metabolic disorders

    Nissinen, E.A.O.

    1987-01-01

    This paper on the importance of cellular purines and pyrimidines is evidenced by the multitude of diseases, such as hyperuricemia, orotic aciduria, gout, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, immunodeficiencies with B- and T-cell dysfunctions, etc. which result from aberrant metabolism. In addition, the use of purine and pyrimidine analogs in chemotherapy is of growing interest. Purine metabolism consists of a complex network of biochemical pathway. These pathways are under complicated feedback regulation and there also exists a close relationship between purine and pyrimidine metabolism. In addition, these pathways interact with those of the carbohydrate, amino acid, and energy metabolism. Since metabolic pathways are closely interrelated, a change in the concentration of a particular metabolite may lead to many changes in the overall metabolic profiles. For instance, in the area of nucleotide metabolism, the inhibition of IMP dehydrogenase by mycophenolic acid leads to various changes in both purine and pyrimidine nucleotide pools. Inhibition of de nova purine biosynthesis by methotrexate leads to many changes in purine and pyrimidine ribonucleotides and deoxyribonucleotides. Thus, the simultaneous measurement of all cellular purine and pyrimidine metabolites from individuals whose metabolism is altered, either by a metabolic disease or by the action of drugs, may further our understanding of cellular metabolism

  20. Electronic System for Data Record and Automatic Diagnosis Assessment in the Temporomandibular Joint Disorders

    Hippmann, R.; Nagy, Miroslav; Dostálová, T.; Zvárová, Jana; Seydlová, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2011), s. 11-16 ISSN 1801-5603 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : temporomandibular joint * temporomandibular joint disorders * DentCross * electronic health record * AAOP classification Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://www.ejbi.eu/images/2011-1/Hippmann_en.pdf

  1. Electronic structure of disordered binary alloys with short range correlation in Bethe lattice

    Moreno, I.F.

    1987-01-01

    The determination of the electronic structure of a disordered material along the tight-binding model when applied to a Bethe lattice. The diagonal as well as off-diagonal disorder, are considered. The coordination number on the Bethe is fixed lattice to four (Z=4) that occurs in most compound semiconductors. The main proposal was to study the conditions under which a relatively simple model of a disordered material, i.e, a binary alloy, could account for the basic properties of transport or more specifically for the electronic states in such systems. By using a parametrization of the pair probability the behaviour of the electronic density of states (DOS) for different values of the short range order parameter, σ, which makes possible to treat the segregated, random and alternating cases, was analysed. In solving the problem via the Green function technique in the Wannier representation a linear chain of atoms was considered and using the solution of such a 1-D system the problem of the Bethe lattice which is constructed using such renormalized chains as elements, was solved. The results indicate that the obtained DOS are strongly dependent on the correlation assumed for the occupancy in the lattice. (author) [pt

  2. Impact of metabolic disorders on the relation between overweight/obesity and incident myocardial infarction and ischaemic stroke in fertile women

    Andersen, S S; Andersson, C; Berger, S M

    2015-01-01

    and smoking, the risk of the composite outcome of myocardial infarction and ischaemic stroke was assessed with metabolic disorders (i.e. hypertensive conditions, abnormal glucose metabolism and/or dyslipidaemia) included as time-dependent variables. RESULTS: The population comprised 261,489 women with median...

  3. Establishment and metabolic analysis of a model microbial community for understanding trophic and electron accepting interactions of subsurface anaerobic environments

    Yang Zamin K

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Communities of microorganisms control the rates of key biogeochemical cycles, and are important for biotechnology, bioremediation, and industrial microbiological processes. For this reason, we constructed a model microbial community comprised of three species dependent on trophic interactions. The three species microbial community was comprised of Clostridium cellulolyticum, Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, and Geobacter sulfurreducens and was grown under continuous culture conditions. Cellobiose served as the carbon and energy source for C. cellulolyticum, whereas D. vulgaris and G. sulfurreducens derived carbon and energy from the metabolic products of cellobiose fermentation and were provided with sulfate and fumarate respectively as electron acceptors. Results qPCR monitoring of the culture revealed C. cellulolyticum to be dominant as expected and confirmed the presence of D. vulgaris and G. sulfurreducens. Proposed metabolic modeling of carbon and electron flow of the three-species community indicated that the growth of C. cellulolyticum and D. vulgaris were electron donor limited whereas G. sulfurreducens was electron acceptor limited. Conclusions The results demonstrate that C. cellulolyticum, D. vulgaris, and G. sulfurreducens can be grown in coculture in a continuous culture system in which D. vulgaris and G. sulfurreducens are dependent upon the metabolic byproducts of C. cellulolyticum for nutrients. This represents a step towards developing a tractable model ecosystem comprised of members representing the functional groups of a trophic network.

  4. Heavy atom disorder in the high Tsub(c) superconductor Ba2YCu3Osub(7-delta) studied by means of electron microscopy and electron diffraction

    Tendeloo, G. van; Okabe, T.; Zandbergen, H.W.; Amelinckx, S.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that on rapid cooling of the compound Ba 2 YCu 3 Osub(7-δ) one obtains a highly disordered material in which the perovskite framework is conserved but in which barium and yttrium atoms exhibit a high degree of disorder. This leads to lattice deformations, which can be visualized in the electron microscope. The electron diffraction patterns also reveal the disorder. As-quenched specimens are no longer high Tsub(c) superconductors, but the superconducting properties can be recovered by an adequate heat treatment whereby the vacancies become ordered. (author)

  5. Eating patterns in adolescents with type 1 diabetes: Associations with metabolic control, insulin omission, and eating disorder pathology.

    Wisting, Line; Reas, Deborah Lynn; Bang, Lasse; Skrivarhaug, Torild; Dahl-Jørgensen, Knut; Rø, Øyvind

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate eating patterns among male and female adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D), and the associations with age, zBMI, eating disorder (ED) pathology, intentional insulin omission, and metabolic control. The sample consisted of 104 adolescents (58.6% females) with child-onset T1D, mean age of 15.7 years (SD 1.8) and mean zBMI of 0.4 (SD 0.8). The Child Eating Disorder Examination (ChEDE) assessed meal/snack frequency and ED pathology. T1D clinical data was obtained from the Norwegian Childhood Diabetes Registry. A significantly lower proportion of females than males (73.8% vs 97.7%) consumed breakfast on a daily basis. Approximately 50% of both genders ate lunch and 90% ate dinner daily. Among females, skipping breakfast was significantly associated with higher global ED psychopathology, shape concerns, self-induced vomiting, binge eating, insulin omission due to shape/weight concerns, and poorer metabolic control. Less frequent lunch consumption was significantly associated with poorer metabolic control. Skipping dinner was significantly associated with older age, higher dietary restraint, eating concerns, self-induced vomiting, and insulin omission. Among males, less frequent consumption of lunch and evening snacks was associated with attitudinal features of ED, including shape/weight concerns and dietary restraint. Among adolescents with T1D, irregular or infrequent meal consumption appears to signal potential ED pathology, as well as being associated with poorer metabolic control. These findings suggest the importance of routinely assessing eating patterns in adolescents with T1D to improve detection of ED pathology and to facilitate improved metabolic control and the associated risk of somatic complications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Unexpected metabolic disorders induced by endocrine disruptors in Xenopus tropicalis provide new lead for understanding amphibian decline.

    Regnault, Christophe; Usal, Marie; Veyrenc, Sylvie; Couturier, Karine; Batandier, Cécile; Bulteau, Anne-Laure; Lejon, David; Sapin, Alexandre; Combourieu, Bruno; Chetiveaux, Maud; Le May, Cédric; Lafond, Thomas; Raveton, Muriel; Reynaud, Stéphane

    2018-05-08

    Despite numerous studies suggesting that amphibians are highly sensitive to endocrine disruptors (EDs), both their role in the decline of populations and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study showed that frogs exposed throughout their life cycle to ED concentrations low enough to be considered safe for drinking water, developed a prediabetes phenotype and, more commonly, a metabolic syndrome. Female Xenopus tropicalis exposed from tadpole stage to benzo( a )pyrene or triclosan at concentrations of 50 ng⋅L -1 displayed glucose intolerance syndrome, liver steatosis, liver mitochondrial dysfunction, liver transcriptomic signature, and pancreatic insulin hypersecretion, all typical of a prediabetes state. This metabolic syndrome led to progeny whose metamorphosis was delayed and occurred while the individuals were both smaller and lighter, all factors that have been linked to reduced adult recruitment and likelihood of reproduction. We found that F 1 animals did indeed have reduced reproductive success, demonstrating a lower fitness in ED-exposed Xenopus Moreover, after 1 year of depuration, Xenopus that had been exposed to benzo( a )pyrene still displayed hepatic disorders and a marked insulin secretory defect resulting in glucose intolerance. Our results demonstrate that amphibians are highly sensitive to EDs at concentrations well below the thresholds reported to induce stress in other vertebrates. This study introduces EDs as a possible key contributing factor to amphibian population decline through metabolism disruption. Overall, our results show that EDs cause metabolic disorders, which is in agreement with epidemiological studies suggesting that environmental EDs might be one of the principal causes of metabolic disease in humans.

  7. Electronic structure, magnetism and disorder in the Heusler compound Co2TiSn

    Kandpal, Hem Chandra; Ksenofontov, Vadim; Wojcik, Marek; Seshadri, Ram; Felser, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    Polycrystalline samples of the Heusler compound Co 2 TiSn have been prepared and studied using bulk techniques (x-ray diffraction and magnetization) as well as local probes ( 119 Sn Moessbauer spectroscopy and 59 Co nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy) in order to determine how disorder affects the half-metallic behaviour and also to establish the joint use of Moessbauer and NMR spectroscopies as a quantitative probe of local atom ordering in these compounds. Additionally, density functional electronic structure calculations on ordered and partially disordered Co 2 TiSn compounds have been carried out at a number of different levels of theory in order to simultaneously understand how the particular choice of DFT scheme as well as disorder affects the computed magnetization. Our studies suggest that a sample which seems well ordered by x-ray diffraction and magnetization measurements can possess up to 10% of antisite (Co/Ti) disordering. Computations similarly suggest that even 12.5% antisite Co/Ti disorder does not destroy the half-metallic character of this material. However, the use of an appropriate level of non-local DFT is crucial

  8. Electron transport in disordered films of metal nanoparticles linked by organic molecules

    Mueller, K.H.; Wei, G.; Herrmann, J.; Raguse, B.; Baxter, G.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: We have investigated theoretically and experimentally the mechanism of electron transport in films made of ∼10 nm sized gold nanoparticles linked by alkanedithiol molecules. Conduction in these films is due to linker-molecule assisted single-electron tunnelling between neighbouring nanoparticles where electrons have to overcome the Coulomb blockade energy. Strong disorder in our films in the form of separation gap fluctuations between adjacent nanoparticles and variations in Coulomb blockade energies cause electron current percolation. We have found that the dependence of the conduction on the length of the alkanedithiol molecules is affected by the degree of disorder. In addition, we have observed that percolation leads to a non-Arrhenius-like temperature dependence of the conduction and to a film-thickness dependent conductivity. I-V characteristics at low temperatures reveal Coulomb blockade effects. The strong dependence of the electrical conduction on the separation gaps between adjacent nanoparticles can be utilized in strain gauge and gas sensor applications

  9. High-Fat Diet Induces Dysbiosis of Gastric Microbiota Prior to Gut Microbiota in Association With Metabolic Disorders in Mice.

    He, Cong; Cheng, Dandan; Peng, Chao; Li, Yanshu; Zhu, Yin; Lu, Nonghua

    2018-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that high-fat diet (HFD) induced metabolic disorders are associated with dysbiosis of gut microbiota. However, no study has explored the effect of HFD on the gastric microbiota. This study established the HFD animal model to determine the impact of HFD on the gastric microbiota and its relationship with the alterations of gut microbiota. A total of 40 male C57BL/6 mice were randomly allocated to receive a standard chow diet (CD) or HFD for 12 weeks (12CD group and 12HFD group) and 24 weeks (24CD group and 24HFD group) ( n = 10 mice per group). Body weight and length were measured and Lee's index was calculated at different time points. The insulin sensitivity and serum levels of metabolic parameters including blood glucose, insulin and lipid were also evaluated. The gastric mucosa and fecal microbiota of mice were characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The body weight was much heavier and the Lee's index was higher in 24HFD group than 12HFD. The insulin resistance and serum level of lipid were increased in 24HFD group compared to 12HFD, indicating the aggravation of metabolic disorders as HFD went on. 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed dysbiosis of gastric microbiota with decreased community diversity while no significant alteration in gut microbiota after 12 weeks of HFD. The phyla Firmicutes and Proteobacteria tended to increase whereas Bacteroidetes and Verrucomicrobia decrease in the gastric microbiota of 12HFD mice compared to 12CD. Moreover, a remarkable reduction of bacteria especially Akkermansia muciniphila , which has beneficial effects on host metabolism, was observed firstly in the stomach of 12HFD group and then in the gut of 24HFD group, indicating the earlier alterations of microbiota in stomach than gut after HFD. We also found structural segregation of microbiota in the stomach as well as gut between 12HFD and 24HFD group, which is accompanied by the aggregation of metabolic disorders. These data suggest that HFD

  10. Enteric short-chain fatty acids: microbial messengers of metabolism, mitochondria, and mind: implications in autism spectrum disorders

    Derrick F. MacFabe

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Clinical observations suggest that gut and dietary factors transiently worsen and, in some cases, appear to improve behavioral symptoms in a subset of persons with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs, but the reason for this is unclear. Emerging evidence suggests ASDs are a family of systemic disorders of altered immunity, metabolism, and gene expression. Pre- or perinatal infection, hospitalization, or early antibiotic exposure, which may alter gut microbiota, have been suggested as potential risk factors for ASD. Can a common environmental agent link these disparate findings? This review outlines basic science and clinical evidence that enteric short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs, present in diet and also produced by opportunistic gut bacteria following fermentation of dietary carbohydrates, may be environmental triggers in ASD. Of note, propionic acid, a major SCFA produced by ASD-associated gastrointestinal bacteria (clostridia, bacteroides, desulfovibrio and also a common food preservative, can produce reversible behavioral, electrographic, neuroinflammatory, metabolic, and epigenetic changes closely resembling those found in ASD when administered to rodents. Major effects of these SCFAs may be through the alteration of mitochondrial function via the citric acid cycle and carnitine metabolism, or the epigenetic modulation of ASD-associated genes, which may be useful clinical biomarkers. It discusses the hypothesis that ASDs are produced by pre- or post-natal alterations in intestinal microbiota in sensitive sub-populations, which may have major implications in ASD cause, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment.

  11. Determining pathogenetic connection between disorders of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism and non-malignant pathology of thyroid gland in children , born from parents, Chernobyl accident survivors

    Kopilova, O.V.; Stepanenko, O.A.; Belyingyio, T.O.

    2014-01-01

    The 92 children aged 12-17 years were examined with the purpose to study the links between carbohydrate and lipid metabolic abnormalities and non-malignant thyroid disorders in descendants of the Chernobyl accident survivors. Clinical, anthropometrical studies and hormonal assays were applied. Carbohydrate and lipid metabolic abnormalities were revealed in every third case of thyroid disease. It confirms our supposition of such a possibility being due to the fact that radiation impact even in low doses can result in pronounced metabolic disorders lading to entire endocrine disregulation. It is relevant in children of the puberty age

  12. /sup 1/H-NMR urinalysis. Simultaneous screening of inborn errors of metabolism of amino acid and organic acid disorders

    Yamamoto, Hideaki; Yamaguchi, Shuichi

    1988-02-01

    In an effort to examine the usefulness of /sup 1/H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) urinalysis in the diagnosis of congenital metabolic disorders, 70 kinds of urinary metabolites were analysed in relation to the diagnosis of inborn errors of amino acid and organic acid disorders. Homogated decoupling (HMG) method failed to analyze six metabolites within the undetectable range. When non-decoupling method (NON), in which the materials are dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide, was used, the identification of signals became possible. The combination of HMG and NON methods was, therefore, considered to identify all of the metabolites. When the urine samples, which were obtained from patients with hyperglycerolemia, hyperornithinemia, glutaric acidemia type II, or glycerol kinase deficiency, were analysed by using both HMG and NON methods, abnormally increased urinary metabolites were detected. /sup 1/H-NMR urinalysis, if used in the combination of HMG and NON methods, may allow simultanenous screening of inborn errors of metabolism of amino acid and organic acid disorders. (Namekawa, K.).

  13. Nutritional and Acquired Deficiencies in Inositol Bioavailability. Correlations with Metabolic Disorders

    Simona Dinicola

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Communities eating a western-like diet, rich in fat, sugar and significantly deprived of fibers, share a relevant increased risk of both metabolic and cancerous diseases. Even more remarkable is that a low-fiber diet lacks some key components—as phytates and inositols—for which a mechanistic link has been clearly established in the pathogenesis of both cancer and metabolic illness. Reduced bioavailability of inositol in living organisms could arise from reduced food supply or from metabolism deregulation. Inositol deregulation has been found in a number of conditions mechanistically and epidemiologically associated to high-glucose diets or altered glucose metabolism. Indeed, high glucose levels hinder inositol availability by increasing its degradation and by inhibiting both myo-Ins biosynthesis and absorption. These underappreciated mechanisms may likely account for acquired, metabolic deficiency in inositol bioavailability.

  14. Magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate blocks fructose-induced hepatic NF-κB/NLRP3 inflammasome activation and lipid metabolism disorder.

    Zhao, Xiao-Juan; Yang, Yan-Zi; Zheng, Yan-Jing; Wang, Shan-Chun; Gu, Hong-Mei; Pan, Ying; Wang, Shui-Juan; Xu, Hong-Jiang; Kong, Ling-Dong

    2017-08-15

    Magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate as a hepatoprotective agent possesses immune modulation and anti-inflammation, and treats liver diseases. But its effects on immunological-inflammatory and metabolic profiles for metabolic syndrome with liver injury and underlying potential mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate alleviated liver inflammation and lipid accumulation in fructose-fed rats with metabolic syndrome. It also suppressed hepatic inflammatory signaling activation by reducing protein levels of phosphorylation of nuclear factor-kappa B p65 (p-NF-κB p65), inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase α/β (p-IKKα/β) and inhibitor of NF-κB α (p-IκBα) as well as nucleotide-binding domain (NOD)-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein (ASC) and Caspase-1 in rats, being consistent with its reduction of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and IL-6 levels. Furthermore, magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate modulated lipid metabolism-related genes characterized by up-regulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) and carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 (CPT-1), and down-regulating sensor for fatty acids to control-1 (SREBP-1) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD-1) in the liver of fructose-fed rats, resulting in the reduction of triglyceride and total cholesterol levels. These effective actions were further confirmed in fructose-exposed BRL-3A and HepG2 cells. The molecular mechanisms underpinning these observations suggest that magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate may inhibit NF-κB/NLRP3 inflammasome activation to reduce immunological-inflammatory response, which in turn may prevent liver lipid metabolic disorder and accumulation under high fructose condition. Thus, blockade of NF-κB/NLRP3 inflammasome activation and lipid metabolism disorder by magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate may be the potential therapeutic approach for improving fructose-induced liver injury with

  15. Self-consistent electronic structure of disordered Fe/sub 0.65/Ni/sub 0.35/

    Johnson, D.D.; Pinski, F.J.; Stocks, G.M.

    1985-01-01

    We present the results of the first ab initio calculation of the electronic structure of the disordered alloy Fe/sub 0.65/Ni/sub 0.35/. The calculation is based on the multiple-scattering coherent-potential approach (KKR-CPA) and is fully self-consistent and spin polarized. Magnetic effects are included within local-spin-density functional theory using the exchange-correlation function of Vosko--Wilk--Nusair. The most striking feature of the calculation is that electrons of different spins experience different degrees of disorder. The minority spin electrons see a very large disorder, whereas the majority spin electrons see little disorder. Consequently, the minority spin density of states is smooth compared to the very structured majority spin density of states. This difference is due to a subtle balance between exchange splitting and charge neutrality

  16. Metabolomics approach reveals metabolic disorders and potential biomarkers associated with the developmental toxicity of tetrabromobisphenol A and tetrachlorobisphenol A

    Ye, Guozhu; Chen, Yajie; Wang, Hong-Ou; Ye, Ting; Lin, Yi; Huang, Qiansheng; Chi, Yulang; Dong, Sijun

    2016-10-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol A and tetrachlorobisphenol A are halogenated bisphenol A (H-BPA), and has raised concerns about their adverse effects on the development of fetuses and infants, however, the molecular mechanisms are unclear, and related metabolomics studies are limited. Accordingly, a metabolomics study based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was employed to elucidate the molecular developmental toxicology of H-BPA using the marine medaka (Oryzias melastigmas) embryo model. Here, we revealed decreased synthesis of nucleosides, amino acids and lipids, and disruptions in the TCA (tricarboxylic acid) cycle, glycolysis and lipid metabolism, thus inhibiting the developmental processes of embryos exposed to H-BPA. Unexpectedly, we observed enhanced neural activity accompanied by lactate accumulation and accelerated heart rates due to an increase in dopamine pathway and a decrease in inhibitory neurotransmitters following H-BPA exposure. Notably, disorders of the neural system, and disruptions in glycolysis, the TCA cycle, nucleoside metabolism, lipid metabolism, glutamate and aspartate metabolism induced by H-BPA exposure were heritable. Furthermore, lactate and dopa were identified as potential biomarkers of the developmental toxicity of H-BPA and related genetic effects. This study has demonstrated that the metabolomics approach is a useful tool for obtaining comprehensive and novel insights into the molecular developmental toxicity of environmental pollutants.

  17. Chronic pain among patients with opioid use disorder: Results from electronic health records data.

    Hser, Yih-Ing; Mooney, Larissa J; Saxon, Andrew J; Miotto, Karen; Bell, Douglas S; Huang, David

    2017-06-01

    To examine the prevalence of comorbid chronic pain among patients with opioid use disorder (OUD) and to compare other comorbidities (substance use disorder (SUD), mental health disorders, health/disease conditions) among patients in four categories: no chronic pain (No Pain), OUD prior to pain (OUD First), OUD and pain at the same time (Same Time), or pain condition prior to OUD (Pain First). Using an electronic health record (EHR) database from 2006-2015, the study assessed 5307 adult patients with OUD in a large healthcare system; 35.6% were No Pain, 9.7% were OUD First, 14.9% were Same Time, and 39.8% were Pain First. Most OUD patients (64.4%) had chronic pain conditions, and among them 61.8% had chronic pain before their first OUD diagnosis. Other SUDs occurred more frequently among OUD First patients than among other groups in terms of alcohol (33.4% vs. 25.4% for No Pain, 20.7% for Same Time, and 20.3% for Pain First), cocaine (19.0%, vs. 13.8%, 9.4%, 7.1%), and alcohol or drug-induced disorders. OUD First patients also had the highest rates of HIV (4.7%) and hepatitis C virus (HCV; 28.2%) among the four groups. Pain First patients had the highest rates of mental disorder (81.7%), heart disease (72.0%), respiratory disease (68.4%), sleep disorder (41.8%), cancer (23.4%), and diabetes (19.3%). The alarming high rates of chronic pain conditions occurring before OUD and the associated severe mental health and physical health conditions require better models of assessment and coordinated care plans to address these complex medical conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Depressive and anxiety disorders and short leukocyte telomere length: mediating effects of metabolic stress and lifestyle factors.

    Révész, D; Verhoeven, J E; Milaneschi, Y; Penninx, B W J H

    2016-08-01

    Depressive and anxiety disorders are associated with shorter leukocyte telomere length (LTL), an indicator of cellular aging. It is, however, unknown which pathways underlie this association. This study examined the extent to which lifestyle factors and physiological changes such as inflammatory or metabolic alterations mediate the relationship. We applied mediation analysis techniques to data from 2750 participants of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. LTL was assessed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Independent variables were current depressive (30-item Inventory of Depressive Symptoms - Self Report) and anxiety (21-item Beck's Anxiety Inventory) symptoms and presence of a depressive or anxiety disorder diagnosis based on DSM-IV; mediator variables included physiological stress systems, metabolic syndrome components and lifestyle factors. Short LTL was associated with higher symptom severity (B = -2.4, p = 0.002) and current psychiatric diagnosis (B = -63.3, p = 0.024). C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, waist circumference, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and cigarette smoking were significant mediators in the relationship between psychopathology and LTL. When all significant mediators were included in one model, the effect sizes of the relationships between LTL and symptom severity and current diagnosis were reduced by 36.7 and 32.7%, respectively, and the remaining direct effects were no longer significant. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, metabolic alterations and cigarette smoking are important mediators of the association between depressive and anxiety disorders and LTL. This calls for future research on intervention programs that take into account lifestyle changes in mental health care settings.

  19. An approximate method for calculating electron-phonon matrix element of a disordered transition metal and relevant comments on superconductivity

    Zhang, L.

    1981-08-01

    A method based on the tight-binding approximation is developed to calculate the electron-phonon matrix element for the disordered transition metals. With the method as a basis the experimental Tsub(c) data of the amorphous transition metal superconductors are re-analysed. Some comments on the superconductivity of the disordered materials are given

  20. Depressive disorder and gastrointestinal dysfunction after myocardial infarct are associated with abnormal tryptophan-5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism in rats.

    Lu, Xiaofang; Wang, Yuefen; Liu, Chunyan; Wang, Yangang

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the relationship between tryptophan-5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism, depressive disorder, and gastrointestinal dysfunction in rats after myocardial infarction. Our goal was to elucidate the physiopathologic bases of somatic/psychiatric depression symptoms after myocardial infarction. A myocardial infarction model was established by permanent occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Depression-like behavior was evaluated using the sucrose preference test, open field test, and forced swim test. Gastric retention and intestinal transit were detected using the carbon powder labeling method. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase expression in the hippocampus and ileum. High-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence and ultraviolet detection determined the levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine, its precursor tryptophan, and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in the hippocampus, distal ileum, and peripheral blood. All data were analyzed using one-way analyses of variance. Three weeks after arterial occlusion, rats in the model group began to exhibit depression-like symptoms. For example, the rate of sucrose consumption was reduced, the total and central distance traveled in the open field test were reduced, and immobility time was increased, while swimming, struggling and latency to immobility were decreased in the forced swim test. Moreover, the gastric retention rate and gastrointestinal transit rate were increased in the model group. Expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase was increased in the hippocampus and ileum, whereas 5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism was decreased, resulting in lower 5-hydroxytryptamine and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels in the hippocampus and higher levels in the ileum. Depressive disorder and gastrointestinal dysfunction after myocardial infarction involve abnormal tryptophan-5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism, which may explain the somatic, cognitive

  1. Depressive disorder and gastrointestinal dysfunction after myocardial infarct are associated with abnormal tryptophan-5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism in rats.

    Xiaofang Lu

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the relationship between tryptophan-5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism, depressive disorder, and gastrointestinal dysfunction in rats after myocardial infarction. Our goal was to elucidate the physiopathologic bases of somatic/psychiatric depression symptoms after myocardial infarction. A myocardial infarction model was established by permanent occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Depression-like behavior was evaluated using the sucrose preference test, open field test, and forced swim test. Gastric retention and intestinal transit were detected using the carbon powder labeling method. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase expression in the hippocampus and ileum. High-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence and ultraviolet detection determined the levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine, its precursor tryptophan, and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in the hippocampus, distal ileum, and peripheral blood. All data were analyzed using one-way analyses of variance. Three weeks after arterial occlusion, rats in the model group began to exhibit depression-like symptoms. For example, the rate of sucrose consumption was reduced, the total and central distance traveled in the open field test were reduced, and immobility time was increased, while swimming, struggling and latency to immobility were decreased in the forced swim test. Moreover, the gastric retention rate and gastrointestinal transit rate were increased in the model group. Expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase was increased in the hippocampus and ileum, whereas 5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism was decreased, resulting in lower 5-hydroxytryptamine and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels in the hippocampus and higher levels in the ileum. Depressive disorder and gastrointestinal dysfunction after myocardial infarction involve abnormal tryptophan-5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism, which may explain the

  2. Evaluation of plasma cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol and 7-ketocholesterol in inherited disorders related to cholesterol metabolism[S

    Boenzi, Sara; Deodato, Federica; Taurisano, Roberta; Goffredo, Bianca Maria; Rizzo, Cristiano; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Oxysterols are intermediates of cholesterol metabolism and are generated from cholesterol via either enzymatic or nonenzymatic pathways under oxidative stress conditions. Cholestan-3β,5α,6β-triol (C-triol) and 7-ketocholesterol (7-KC) have been proposed as new biomarkers for the diagnosis of Niemann-Pick type C (NP-C) disease, representing an alternative tool to the invasive and time-consuming method of fibroblast filipin test. To test the efficacy of plasma oxysterol determination for the diagnosis of NP-C, we systematically screened oxysterol levels in patients affected by different inherited disorders related with cholesterol metabolism, which included Niemann-Pick type B (NP-B) disease, lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) deficiency, Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS), congenital familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), and sitosterolemia (SITO). As expected, NP-C patients showed significant increase of both C-triol and 7-KC. Strong increase of both oxysterols was observed in NP-B and less pronounced in LAL deficiency. In SLOS, only 7-KC was markedly increased, whereas in both FH and in SITO, oxysterol concentrations were normal. Interestingly, in NP-C alone, we observed that plasma oxysterols correlate negatively with patient’s age and positively with serum total bilirubin, suggesting the potential relationship between oxysterol levels and hepatic disease status. Our results indicate that oxysterols are reliable and sensitive biomarkers of NP-C. PMID:26733147

  3. Smartphone data as an electronic biomarker of illness activity in bipolar disorder

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Vinberg, Maj; Frost, Mads

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Objective methods are lacking for continuous monitoring of illness activity in bipolar disorder. Smartphones offer unique opportunities for continuous monitoring and automatic collection of real-time data. The objectives of the paper were to test the hypotheses that (i) daily electronic...... self-monitored data and (ii) automatically generated objective data collected using smartphones correlate with clinical ratings of depressive and manic symptoms in patients with bipolar disorder. Methods Software for smartphones (the MONARCA I system) that collects automatically generated objective......-monitored data (i.e., mood and activity) and scores on the YMRS. Finally, the automatically generated objective data were able to discriminate between affective states. Conclusions Automatically generated objective data and self-monitored data collected using smartphones correlate with clinically rated...

  4. Spin-charge conversion in disordered two-dimensional electron gases lacking inversion symmetry

    Huang, Chunli; Milletarı, Mirco; Cazalilla, Miguel A.

    2017-11-01

    We study the spin-charge conversion mechanisms in a two-dimensional gas of electrons moving in a smooth disorder potential by accounting for both Rashba-type and Mott's skew scattering contributions. We find that the quantum interference effects between spin-flip and skew scattering give rise to anisotropic spin precession scattering (ASP), a direct spin-charge conversion mechanism that was discovered in an earlier study of graphene decorated with adatoms [Huang et al., Phys. Rev. B 94, 085414 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevB.94.085414]. Our findings suggest that, together with other spin-charge conversion mechanisms such as the inverse galvanic effect, ASP is a fairly universal phenomenon that should be present in disordered two-dimensional systems lacking inversion symmetry.

  5. Multivoxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy detects thalamic neurochemical metabolic changes in patients with major depressive disorder

    Rania E. Mohamed

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: The multi-voxel 1H-MRS can provide an insight to the neurochemical metabolic changes occurring in both thalami in patients with MDD. Increased severity of depression is significantly related to these thalamic neurochemical changes.

  6. The crosstalk between gut microbiota and obesity and related metabolic disorders.

    Xu, Wen-Ting; Nie, Yong-Zhan; Yang, Zhen; Lu, Nong-Hua

    2016-06-01

    Obesity and related metabolic diseases are currently a threat to global public health. The occurrence and development of these conditions result from the combined effects of multiple factors. The human gut is a diverse and vibrant microecosystem, and its composition and function are a focus of research in the fields of life science and medicine. An increasing amount of evidence indicates that interactions between the gut microbiota and their genetic predispositions or dietary changes may be key factors that contribute to obesity and other metabolic diseases. Defining the mechanisms by which the gut microbiota influence obesity and related chronic metabolic diseases will bring about revolutionary changes that will enable practitioners to prevent and control metabolic diseases by targeting the gut microbiota.

  7. Social jetlag, obesity and metabolic disorder: investigation in a cohort study.

    Parsons, M J; Moffitt, T E; Gregory, A M; Goldman-Mellor, S; Nolan, P M; Poulton, R; Caspi, A

    2015-05-01

    Obesity is one of the leading causes of preventable death worldwide. Circadian rhythms are known to control both sleep timing and energy homeostasis, and disruptions in circadian rhythms have been linked with metabolic dysfunction and obesity-associated disease. In previous research, social jetlag, a measure of chronic circadian disruption caused by the discrepancy between our internal versus social clocks, was associated with elevated self-reported body mass index, possibly indicative of a more generalized association with obesity and metabolic dysfunction. We studied participants from the population-representative Dunedin Longitudinal Study (N=1037) to determine whether social jetlag was associated with clinically assessed measurements of metabolic phenotypes and disease indicators for obesity-related disease, specifically, indicators of inflammation and diabetes. Our analysis was restricted to N=815 non-shift workers in our cohort. Among these participants, we found that social jetlag was associated with numerous clinically assessed measures of metabolic dysfunction and obesity. We distinguished between obese individuals who were metabolically healthy versus unhealthy, and found higher social jetlag levels in metabolically unhealthy obese individuals. Among metabolically unhealthy obese individuals, social jetlag was additionally associated with elevated glycated hemoglobin and an indicator of inflammation. The findings are consistent with the possibility that 'living against our internal clock' may contribute to metabolic dysfunction and its consequences. Further research aimed at understanding that the physiology and social features of social jetlag may inform obesity prevention and have ramifications for policies and practices that contribute to increased social jetlag, such as work schedules and daylight savings time.

  8. Activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and inflammatory mediators in major depressive disorder with or without metabolic syndrome.

    Martinac, Marko; Babić, Dragan; Bevanda, Milenko; Vasilj, Ivan; Glibo, Danijela Bevanda; Karlović, Dalibor; Jakovljević, Miro

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the differences in serum CRP, IL-6, TNF-α, ACTH and cortisol among patients with major depressive disorder with or without metabolic syndrome (MS) compared to a healthy control group. The MDD study group consisted of 80 patients (mean age of 50.03±9.55 years). The control group was recruited from the hospital personnel and it consisted of 40 examinees (mean age of 47.20±7.99 years). All patients who participated in the study were diagnosed with depressive disorder using MINI questionnaire, and Hamilton rating scale for depression. Diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome was set by NCEP ATP III criteria. Examinees with depression but without MS had significantly more cortisol concentration when compared to the control group. CRP was significantly higher in the MDD group when compared to the control group and in MDD+MS group when compared to the control group. IL6 serum levels were significantly higher in the MDD group when compared to the healthy control group, and in MDD+MS group when compared to the healthy control group. ACTH had significant independent predictive values for abdominal obesity. Levels of TNF-α were statistically significant independent predictors for hyperglycaemia. Statistically significant predictive values for MDD were found for cortisol, and IL-6. Results shown here emphasise the importance of neuroendocrine and inflammatory factors in pathogenesis of depressive disorder and MS. Further prospective research is necessary to clarify possible causal relationship between depression and MS. It is necessary to investigate the possibility of a joint biological mechanism in pathogenesis of these two disorders with the special attention given to the disturbances in the immune system.

  9. Disorders of carbohydrate metabolism and their relationship with the prevalence of cancer in patients with acromegaly – authors’ own observations

    Joanna Elżbieta Malicka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background . Acromegaly is a rare chronic disease with an excessive secretion of growth hormone, which leads to characteristic changes in appearance, organ and metabolic complications and neoplasms, which are a significant cause of shortened survival time. One of the most common consequences of acromegaly is disturbed carbohydrate metabolism. Objectives . The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of disorders of carbohydrate tolerance and their relationship with the prevalence of malignant tumours in subjects with acromegaly. Material and methods. The study group comprised 69 patients with confirmed acromegaly (26 M, 43 F, aged 26–83 (mean 58.9 ± 11.0. Medical histories and the results of laboratory tests – plasma fasting glucose and oral glucose tolerance test, as well as the results of imaging and histopathological examinations performed in cases of suspected cancer lesions were analyzed. Results Disorders of carbohydrate tolerance were confirmed in a total of 46 patients (66.7%. 23 patients (33.3% had normal glucose tolerance. Diabetes was diagnosed in 22 patients (31.9%, while prediabetes was diagnosed in 24 (34.8% patients. In the analyzed group there were 6 cases of cancers, including 5 patients with concomitant diabetes, which represented a value significantly higher (p = 0.01 compared to patients without diabetes. The sixth case of cancer was detected in a woman with IGT . In patients with normal glucose tolerance there was no case of cancer. Conclusions . Among patients with acromegaly, disorders of carbohydrate tolerance occur in more than half of the cases, which confirms the need for active screening in this group of patients, in which a significant role is played by General Practitioners. General Practitioners should also consider the possibility of acromegaly in the differential diagnosis of glucose tolerance disorders detected in their patients. All patients with acromegaly, especially with concomitant diabetes or

  10. Renormalization group-theoretic approach to electron localization in disordered systems

    Kumar, N.; Heinrichs, J.

    1977-06-01

    The localization problem for the Anderson tight-binding model with site-diagonal (gaussian) disorder is studied, using a previously established analogy between this problem and the statistical mechanics of a zero-component classical field. The equivalent free-energy functional turns out to have complex coefficients in the bilinear terms but involves a real repulsive quartic interaction. The averaged one-electron propagator corresponds to the two-point correlation function for the equivalent statistical problem and the critical point gives the mobility edge, which is identified with the (real) fixed point energy of the associated renormalization group. Since for convergence reasons the conventional perturbative treatment of Wilson's formula is invalid, it is resorted to a non-perturbative approach which leads to a physical fixed point corresponding to a repulsive quartic interaction. The results for the mobility edge in three dimensions and for the critical disorder for an Anderson transition in two dimensions agree well with previous detailed predictions. The critical indices describing the approach of the transition at the mobility edge of various physical quantities, within the epsilon-expansion are also discussed. The more general problem where both diagonal and off-diagonal disorder is present in the Anderson hamiltonian is considered. In this case it is shown that the Hamilton function for the equivalent zero-component classical field model involves an additional biquadratic exchange term. From a simple generalization of Wilson's recursion relation and its non-perturbative solution explicit expressions for the mobility edges for weak diagonal and off-diagonal disorder in two and three dimensions are obtained. Our treatment casts doubts on the validity of recent conclusions about electron localization based on the renormalization group study of the nm-component spin model

  11. Curcumin Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Hepatic Lipid Metabolism Disorder by Modification of m6 A RNA Methylation in Piglets.

    Lu, Na; Li, Xingmei; Yu, Jiayao; Li, Yi; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian; Zhong, Xiang

    2018-01-01

    N 6 -methyladenosine (m 6 A) regulates gene expression and affects cellular metabolism. In this study, we checked whether the regulation of lipid metabolism by curcumin is associated with m 6 A RNA methylation. We investigated the effects of dietary curcumin supplementation on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury and lipid metabolism disorder, and on m 6 A RNA methylation in weaned piglets. A total of 24 Duroc × Large White × Landrace piglets were randomly assigned to control, LPS, and CurL (LPS challenge and 200 mg/kg dietary curcumin) groups (n = 8/group). The results showed that curcumin reduced the increase in relative liver weight as well as the concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase induced by LPS injection in the plasma and liver of weaning piglets (p < 0.05). The amounts of total cholesterol and triacylglycerols were decreased by curcumin compared to that by the LPS injection (p < 0.05). Additionally, curcumin reduced the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax mRNA, whereas it increased the p53 mRNA level in the liver (p < 0.05). Curcumin inhibited the enhancement of SREBP-1c and SCD-1 mRNA levels induced by LPS in the liver. Notably, dietary curcumin affected the expression of METTL3, METTL14, ALKBH5, FTO, and YTHDF2 mRNA, and increased the abundance of m 6 A in the liver of piglets. In conclusion, the protective effect of curcumin in LPS-induced liver injury and hepatic lipid metabolism disruption might be due to the increase in m 6 A RNA methylation. Our study provides mechanistic insights into the effect of curcumin in protecting against hepatic injury during inflammation and metabolic diseases. © 2018 AOCS.

  12. Hall Conductivity in a Quasi-Two-Dimensional Disordered Electron System

    YANG Yong-Hong; WANG Yong-Gang; LIU Mei

    2002-01-01

    By making use of the diagrammatic techniques in perturbation theory,we have investigated the Hall effect in a quasi-two-dimensional disordered electron system.In the weakly localized regime,the analytical expression for quantum correction to Hall conductivity has been obtained using the Kubo formalism and quasiclassical approximation.The relevant dimensional crossover behavior from three dimensions to two dimensions with decreasing the interlayer hopping energy is discussed.The quantum interference effect is shown to have a vanishing correction t,o the Hall coefficient.

  13. An application of random field theory to analysis of electron trapping sites in disordered media

    Hilczer, M.; Bartczak, W.M.

    1993-01-01

    The potential energy surface in a disordered medium is considered a random field and described using the concepts of the mathematical theory of random fields. The preexisting traps for excess electrons are identified with certain regions of excursion (extreme regions) of the potential field. The theory provides an analytical method of statistical analysis of these regions. Parameters of the cavity-averaged potential field, which are provided by computer simulation of a given medium, serve as input data for the analysis. The statistics of preexisting traps are obtained for liquid methanol as a numerical example of the random field method. 26 refs., 6 figs

  14. Two dimensional electron transport in disordered and ordered distributions of magnetic flux vortices

    Nielsen, M.; Hedegaard, P.

    1994-04-01

    We have considered the conductivity properties of a two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in two different kinds of inhomogeneous magnetic fields, i.e. a disordered distribution of magnetic flux vortices, and a periodic array of magnetic flux vortices. The work falls in two parts. In the first part we show how the phase shifts for an electron scattering on an isolated vortex, can be calculated analytically, and related to the transport properties through the differential cross section. In the second part we present numerical results for the Hall conductivity of the 2DEG in a periodic array of flux vortices found by exact diagonalization. We find characteristic spikes in the Hall conductance, when it is plotted against the filling fraction. It is argued that the spikes can be interpreted in terms of ''topological charge'' piling up across local and global gaps in the energy spectrum. (au) (23 refs.)

  15. Metabolic Disorder, Inflammation, and Deregulated Molecular Pathways Converging in Pancreatic Cancer Development: Implications for New Therapeutic Strategies

    Motoo, Yoshiharu; Shimasaki, Takeo; Ishigaki, Yasuhito; Nakajima, Hideo; Kawakami, Kazuyuki; Minamoto, Toshinari

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer develops and progresses through complex, cumulative biological processes involving metabolic disorder, local inflammation, and deregulated molecular pathways. The resulting tumor aggressiveness hampers surgical intervention and renders pancreatic cancer resistant to standard chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Based on these pathologic properties, several therapeutic strategies are being developed to reverse refractory pancreatic cancer. Here, we outline molecular targeting therapies, which are primarily directed against growth factor receptor-type tyrosine kinases deregulated in tumors, but have failed to improve the survival of pancreatic cancer patients. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) is a member of a serine/threonine protein kinase family that plays a critical role in various cellular pathways. GSK3β has also emerged as a mediator of pathological states, including glucose intolerance, inflammation, and various cancers (e.g., pancreatic cancer). We review recent studies that demonstrate the anti-tumor effects of GSK3β inhibition alone or in combination with chemotherapy and radiation. GSK3β inhibition may exert indirect anti-tumor actions in pancreatic cancer by modulating metabolic disorder and inflammation

  16. Metabolic Disorder, Inflammation, and Deregulated Molecular Pathways Converging in Pancreatic Cancer Development: Implications for New Therapeutic Strategies

    Motoo, Yoshiharu, E-mail: motoo@kanazawa-med.ac.jp [Department of Medical Oncology, Kanazawa Medical University, 1-1 Daigaku, Uchinada, Ishikawa 920-0293 (Japan); Shimasaki, Takeo [Department of Medical Oncology, Kanazawa Medical University, 1-1 Daigaku, Uchinada, Ishikawa 920-0293 (Japan); Division of Translational & Clinical Oncology, Cancer Research Institute, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa (Japan); Ishigaki, Yasuhito [Medical Research Institute, Kanazawa Medical University, 1-1 Daigaku, Uchinada, Ishikawa 920-0293 (Japan); Nakajima, Hideo [Department of Medical Oncology, Kanazawa Medical University, 1-1 Daigaku, Uchinada, Ishikawa 920-0293 (Japan); Kawakami, Kazuyuki; Minamoto, Toshinari [Division of Translational & Clinical Oncology, Cancer Research Institute, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa (Japan)

    2011-01-24

    Pancreatic cancer develops and progresses through complex, cumulative biological processes involving metabolic disorder, local inflammation, and deregulated molecular pathways. The resulting tumor aggressiveness hampers surgical intervention and renders pancreatic cancer resistant to standard chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Based on these pathologic properties, several therapeutic strategies are being developed to reverse refractory pancreatic cancer. Here, we outline molecular targeting therapies, which are primarily directed against growth factor receptor-type tyrosine kinases deregulated in tumors, but have failed to improve the survival of pancreatic cancer patients. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) is a member of a serine/threonine protein kinase family that plays a critical role in various cellular pathways. GSK3β has also emerged as a mediator of pathological states, including glucose intolerance, inflammation, and various cancers (e.g., pancreatic cancer). We review recent studies that demonstrate the anti-tumor effects of GSK3β inhibition alone or in combination with chemotherapy and radiation. GSK3β inhibition may exert indirect anti-tumor actions in pancreatic cancer by modulating metabolic disorder and inflammation.

  17. Association of IL-6 and CRP gene polymorphisms with obesity and metabolic disorders in children and adolescents

    Pâmela F. Todendi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Activation of adipose tissue inflammation is associated with obesity caused by lipid accumulation in adipocytes. Through this activation, proinflammatory cytokines, such as Interleukin-6 (IL-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP seem to influence metabolic disorders. The present study evaluated whether polymorphisms in the CRP (rs1205 and IL-6 (rs1800795, rs2069845 genes are associated with the development of metabolic disorders in children and adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed, consisting of 470 students from the municipality of Santa Cruz do Sul, Brazil, aged 7-17 years. Body mass index (BMI was classified according to overweight and obesity. Genotyping was performed by real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction(PCR. Anthropometric characteristics, biochemical markers, immunological markers and blood pressure were assessed. Descriptive statistics, chi-square and logistic regression were used for the analyses. No association was detected between the rs1800795 polymorphism and the assessed variables. Individuals with the risk genotype in the rs1205 gene were associated with the risk of developing hypercholesterolemia (OR 2.79; CI 1.40, 5.57; p = 0.003. Carriers of the risk genotype in the rs2069845 gene are associated with the risk of developing obesity (OR 3.07; CI 1.08, 8.72; p = 0.03. The polymorphism rs2069845 was associated with obesity and rs1205 was associated with the risk of developing hypercholesterolemia in Brazilian schoolchildren.

  18. Practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of microcytic anemias due to genetic disorders of iron metabolism or heme synthesis.

    Donker, Albertine E; Raymakers, Reinier A P; Vlasveld, L Thom; van Barneveld, Teus; Terink, Rieneke; Dors, Natasja; Brons, Paul P T; Knoers, Nine V A M; Swinkels, Dorine W

    2014-06-19

    During recent years, our understanding of the pathogenesis of inherited microcytic anemias has gained from the identification of several genes and proteins involved in systemic and cellular iron metabolism and heme syntheses. Numerous case reports illustrate that the implementation of these novel molecular discoveries in clinical practice has increased our understanding of the presentation, diagnosis, and management of these diseases. Integration of these insights into daily clinical practice will reduce delays in establishing a proper diagnosis, invasive and/or costly diagnostic tests, and unnecessary or even detrimental treatments. To assist the clinician, we developed evidence-based multidisciplinary guidelines on the management of rare microcytic anemias due to genetic disorders of iron metabolism and heme synthesis. These genetic disorders may present at all ages, and therefore these guidelines are relevant for pediatricians as well as clinicians who treat adults. This article summarizes these clinical practice guidelines and includes background on pathogenesis, conclusions, and recommendations and a diagnostic flowchart to facilitate using these guidelines in the clinical setting. © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology.

  19. Metabolic Disorder, Inflammation, and Deregulated Molecular Pathways Converging in Pancreatic Cancer Development: Implications for New Therapeutic Strategies

    Toshinari Minamoto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer develops and progresses through complex, cumulative biological processes involving metabolic disorder, local inflammation, and deregulated molecular pathways. The resulting tumor aggressiveness hampers surgical intervention and renders pancreatic cancer resistant to standard chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Based on these pathologic properties, several therapeutic strategies are being developed to reverse refractory pancreatic cancer. Here, we outline molecular targeting therapies, which are primarily directed against growth factor receptor-type tyrosine kinases deregulated in tumors, but have failed to improve the survival of pancreatic cancer patients. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β is a member of a serine/threonine protein kinase family that plays a critical role in various cellular pathways. GSK3β has also emerged as a mediator of pathological states, including glucose intolerance, inflammation, and various cancers (e.g., pancreatic cancer. We review recent studies that demonstrate the anti-tumor effects of GSK3β inhibition alone or in combination with chemotherapy and radiation. GSK3β inhibition may exert indirect anti-tumor actions in pancreatic cancer by modulating metabolic disorder and inflammation.

  20. The Microbiological Memory, an Epigenetic Regulator Governing the Balance Between Good Health and Metabolic Disorders

    Christian A. Devaux

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available If the transmission of biological information from one generation to the next is based on DNA, most heritable phenotypic traits such as chronic metabolic diseases, are not linked to genetic variation in DNA sequences. Non-genetic heritability might have several causes including epigenetic, parental effect, adaptive social learning, and influence of the ecological environment. Distinguishing among these causes is crucial to resolve major phenotypic enigmas. Strong evidence indicates that changes in DNA expression through various epigenetic mechanisms can be linked to parent-offspring resemblance in terms of sensitivity to metabolic diseases. Among non-genetic heritable traits, early nutrition could account for a long term deviant programming of genes expression responsible for metabolic diseases in adulthood. Nutrition could shape an inadequate gut microbiota (dysbiosis, triggering epigenetic deregulation of transcription which can be observed in chronic metabolic diseases. We review herein the evidence that dysbiosis might be a major cause of heritable epigenetic patterns found to be associated with metabolic diseases. By taking into account the recent advances on the gut microbiome, we have aggregated together different observations supporting the hypothesis that the gut microbiota could promote the molecular crosstalk between bacteria and surrounding host cells which controls the pathological epigenetic signature. We introduce for the first time the concept of “microbiological memory” as the main regulator of the epigenetic signatures, thereby indicating that different causes of non-genetic heritability can interact in complex pathways to produce inheritance.

  1. Inborn Errors of Metabolism with Hyperammonemia: Urea Cycle Defects and Related Disorders.

    Summar, Marshall L; Mew, Nicholas Ah

    2018-04-01

    The urea cycle disorders are a group of inherited biochemical diseases caused by a complete or partial deficiency of any one of the enzymes or transport proteins required to convert toxic ammonia into urea and to produce arginine and citrulline. The clinical manifestations of these disorders are mostly the result of acute or chronic hyperammonemia, which affects the central nervous system. Affected individuals can also develop hepatic dysfunction. These disorders can present at any age from the immediate newborn to later in life. Early diagnosis and treatment are key to improving outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. d-chiro-Inositol and alpha lipoic acid treatment of metabolic and menses disorders in women with PCOS.

    Cianci, Antonio; Panella, Marco; Fichera, Michele; Falduzzi, Cristina; Bartolo, Manuela; Caruso, Salvatore

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the effects of the combination of d-chiro-inositol (DCI) and alpha lipoic acid on menses and metabolic disorders in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Forty-six women (26 study group subjects and 20 controls) of reproductive age with PCOS according to Rotterdam criteria were enrolled in this prospective study. Fasting serum samples were collected from each woman. Homeostasis model of insulin resistance, insulin levels, lipid profile, frequency of menstrual cycles, number of ovarian peripheral cysts and BMI of both groups were investigated at baseline and after 180 days. Clinical and metabolic aspects of women on DCI and lipoic acid treatment underwent improvement (p treatment has been thought because it plays an essential role in mitochondrial specific pathways that generate energy from glucose and its potent effect as antioxidant. The association might have a strong impact on metabolic profile even with a short-term treatment. Further investigations are needed to evaluate other effects on reproductive physiology of women with PCOS.

  3. Caenorhabditis elegans: A Useful Model for Studying Metabolic Disorders in Which Oxidative Stress Is a Contributing Factor

    Elizabeth Moreno-Arriola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Caenorhabditis elegans is a powerful model organism that is invaluable for experimental research because it can be used to recapitulate most human diseases at either the metabolic or genomic level in vivo. This organism contains many key components related to metabolic and oxidative stress networks that could conceivably allow us to increase and integrate information to understand the causes and mechanisms of complex diseases. Oxidative stress is an etiological factor that influences numerous human diseases, including diabetes. C. elegans displays remarkably similar molecular bases and cellular pathways to those of mammals. Defects in the insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 signaling pathway or increased ROS levels induce the conserved phase II detoxification response via the SKN-1 pathway to fight against oxidative stress. However, it is noteworthy that, aside from the detrimental effects of ROS, they have been proposed as second messengers that trigger the mitohormetic response to attenuate the adverse effects of oxidative stress. Herein, we briefly describe the importance of C. elegans as an experimental model system for studying metabolic disorders related to oxidative stress and the molecular mechanisms that underlie their pathophysiology.

  4. THE DISORDERS OF THE LIPID METABOLISM IN THE EXPERIMENTAL ESTROGENIC DEFICIENCY AND THE EFFECT OF THE VEGETAL ANTIOXIDANTS DIET

    Daniela Badoi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In our days we have a great number of cardiovascular diseases with atherosclerotic etiopathogeny. That`s whythere is a important preocupation for identifying the atherogenic risk factors (lipid metabolism disorders. This studyfollows the effects of the ovarian hormones deficit in surgical menopause (experimental ovariectomy. The absence of theendogen estrogens disrupts the lipid metabolism and diminishes the antioxidant capacity. Another goal was to evaluatethe lipid profile improved by taking a flax seed diet rich in phytoestrogens. The experiment will be performed on whiterats, females, of the Wistar race. The supplementary diet with flax seeds will be administered to the ovariectomizedgroups as well as to the control groups. In the case of animals with a hormonal deficit (ovariectomy we found thepresence of dyslipidemia: hypercholesterolemia and/or hypertriglyceridemia. Supplementing the diet with flax seeds ledto the decreasing of the total seric cholesterol (p>0.05 and of the seric triglycerides (p0.05, after supplementing the diet with whole flax seeds, which suggests the protection of theendothelium, with the diminishing of the risk of triggering endothelial dysfunction. These results demonstrate thebeneficial effects of phytoestrogens from flax seed on lipid metabolism in experimental menopause.

  5. Use of stable isotopes for the in vivo study of metabolic disorders

    Faull, K.F.; Gan, I.; Halpern, B.; Danke, D.M.

    1975-01-01

    Deuterated tyrosine has been used to study tyrosine metabolism in one normal and two tyrosinemic patients. The labeled tyrosine was ingested orally, after which urine and serum samples were examined at regular intervals for residual labeled tyrosine and tyrosine metabolites. Deuteration measurements were made with a combined GC-MS instrument operating under computer control using time averaging and mass fragmentometry. Initial experiments were done with a loading of 829 μmoles of deuterated tyrosine/kg body wt., but we have been able to reduce this by one-third without any loss of precision. The rate of deuterated tyrosine metabolism has allowed us to distinguish between individuals having different clinical manifestations but similar biochemical abnormalities. The sensitivity of the method suggests the procedure has value in the study of metabolic defects

  6. The effect of disorder on the electronic and magnetic properties of Mn2CoAl/GaAs heterostructures

    Feng, Yu; Tian, Chun-lin; Yuan, Hong-kuan; Kuang, An-long; Chen, Hong

    2015-01-01

    We study the effect of disorder, including swap and antisite, on the electronic and magnetic properties of heterostructures by using extensive first-principles calculations within density functional theory. Thirteen kinds of swap disorders and sixteen kinds of antisite disorders are proposed and studied comprehensively. Our calculation reveals that disorders at the interface have low formation energies, indicating that disorders are most likely to appear at the interface instead of the deep layer. Among all kinds of disorders, Mn 1 (Al) (where the interface Mn is occupied by an Al atom) and Mn 1 (As) (where the interface Mn is occupied by an As atom from a GaAs slab) antisite disorders possess the lowest formation energies. This shows that the interface Mn has a higher probability of being replaced by an Al atom, and that an As atom from a GaAs slab easily diffuses into a Mn 2 CoAl slab and occupies the position of the interface Mn. Moreover, further study on the interface electronic structure reveals that interface spin polarization suffers dramatic reduction due to Mn 1 (Al) and Mn 1 (As) antisite disorders. It can be deduced that the interface state, together with Mn 1 (Al) and Mn 1 (As) antisite disorders, may be the main causes of the low TMR ratio of Mn 2 CoAl/GaAs heterostructures. (paper)

  7. Extensive disordering in long-range-ordered Cu3Au induced by severe plastic deformation studied by transmission electron microscopy

    Rentenberger, C.; Karnthaler, H.P.

    2008-01-01

    Bulk nanocrystalline materials can be made by severe plastic deformation. In L1 2 long-range-ordered alloys, this leads to extensive disordering which influences the highly improved properties of these nanocrystalline alloys. Transmission electron microscopy methods were applied to Cu 3 Au; both diffraction contrast images and diffraction patterns reveal that disordering takes place locally. It is concluded that in addition to disordering by the refinement of the grown-in antiphase boundary domains, the formation of antiphase boundary tubes is a prominent process of disordering. The latter is facilitated by the fact that, unlike dislocations, antiphase boundary tubes can be stored at a very high density without causing long-range stresses. The local disordering indicates that the nanocrystalline structure nucleates inhomogeneously in the highly strained disordered regions

  8. Positive effects of voluntary running on metabolic syndrome-related disorders in non-obese hereditary hypertriacylglycerolemic rats.

    Vojt ch Škop

    Full Text Available While metabolic syndrome is often associated with obesity, 25% of humans suffering from it are not obese and the effect of physical activity remains unclear in such cases. Therefore, we used hereditary hypertriaclyglycerolemic (HHTg rats as a unique model for studying the effect of spontaneous physical activity [voluntary running (VR] on metabolic syndrome-related disorders, such as dyslipidemia, in non-obese subjects. Adult HHTg males were fed standard (CD or high-sucrose (HSD diets ad libitum for four weeks. Within both dietary groups, some of the rats had free access to a running wheel (CD+VR, HSD+VR, whereas the controls (CD, HSD had no possibility of extra physical activity. At the end of the four weeks, we measured the effects of VR on various metabolic syndrome-associated parameters: (i biochemical parameters, (ii the content and composition of triacylglycerols (TAG, diacylglycerols (DAG, ceramides and membrane phospholipids, and (iii substrate utilization in brown adipose tissue. In both dietary groups, VR led to various positive effects: reduced epididymal and perirenal fat depots; increased epididymal adipose tissue lipolysis; decreased amounts of serum TAG, non-esterified fatty acids and insulin; a higher insulin sensitivity index. While tissue ceramide content was not affected, decreased TAG accumulation resulted in reduced and modified liver, heart and skeletal muscle DAG. VR also had a beneficial effect on muscle membrane phospholipid composition. In addition, compared with the CD group, the CD+VR rats exhibited increased fatty acid oxidation and protein content in brown adipose tissue. Our results confirm that physical activity in a non-obese model of severe dyslipidemia has many beneficial effects and can even counteract the negative effects of sucrose consumption. Furthermore, they suggest that the mechanism by which these effects are modulated involves a combination of several positive changes in lipid metabolism.

  9. Effects of Creatine Monohydrate Augmentation on Brain Metabolic and Network Outcome Measures in Women With Major Depressive Disorder.

    Yoon, Sujung; Kim, Jieun E; Hwang, Jaeuk; Kim, Tae-Suk; Kang, Hee Jin; Namgung, Eun; Ban, Soonhyun; Oh, Subin; Yang, Jeongwon; Renshaw, Perry F; Lyoo, In Kyoon

    2016-09-15

    Creatine monohydrate (creatine) augmentation has the potential to accelerate the clinical responses to and enhance the overall efficacy of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment in women with major depressive disorder (MDD). Although it has been suggested that creatine augmentation may involve the restoration of brain energy metabolism, the mechanisms underlying its antidepressant efficacy are unknown. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 52 women with MDD were assigned to receive either creatine augmentation or placebo augmentation of escitalopram; 34 subjects participated in multimodal neuroimaging assessments at baseline and week 8. Age-matched healthy women (n = 39) were also assessed twice at the same intervals. Metabolic and network outcomes were measured for changes in prefrontal N-acetylaspartate and changes in rich club hub connections of the structural brain network using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and diffusion tensor imaging, respectively. We found MDD-related metabolic and network dysfunction at baseline. Improvement in depressive symptoms was greater in patients receiving creatine augmentation relative to placebo augmentation. After 8 weeks of treatment, prefrontal N-acetylaspartate levels increased significantly in the creatine augmentation group compared with the placebo augmentation group. Increment in rich club hub connections was also greater in the creatine augmentation group than in the placebo augmentation group. N-acetylaspartate levels and rich club connections increased after creatine augmentation of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment. Effects of creatine administration on brain energy metabolism and network organization may partly underlie its efficacy in treating women with MDD. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Metabolism of Fructophilic Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from the Apis mellifera L. Bee Gut: Phenolic Acids as External Electron Acceptors

    Filannino, Pasquale; Addante, Rocco; Pontonio, Erica; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fructophilic lactic acid bacteria (FLAB) are strongly associated with the gastrointestinal tracts (GITs) of Apis mellifera L. worker bees due to the consumption of fructose as a major carbohydrate. Seventy-seven presumptive lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from GITs of healthy A. mellifera L. adults, which were collected from 5 different geographical locations of the Apulia region of Italy. Almost all of the isolates showed fructophilic tendencies: these isolates were identified as Lactobacillus kunkeei (69%) or Fructobacillus fructosus (31%). A high-throughput phenotypic microarray targeting 190 carbon sources was used to determine that 83 compounds were differentially consumed. Phenotyping grouped the strains into two clusters, reflecting growth performance. The utilization of phenolic acids, such as p-coumaric, caffeic, syringic, or gallic acids, as electron acceptors was investigated in fructose-based medium. Almost all FLAB strains showed tolerance to high phenolic acid concentrations. p-Coumaric acid and caffeic acid were consumed by all FLAB strains through reductases or decarboxylases. Syringic and gallic acids were partially metabolized. The data collected suggest that FLAB require external electron acceptors to regenerate NADH. The use of phenolic acids as external electron acceptors by the 4 FLAB showing the highest phenolic acid reductase activity was investigated in glucose-based medium supplemented with p-coumaric acid. Metabolic responses observed through a phenotypic microarray suggested that FLAB may use p-coumaric acid as an external electron acceptor, enhancing glucose dissimilation but less efficiently than other external acceptors such as fructose or pyruvic acid. IMPORTANCE Fructophilic lactic acid bacteria (FLAB) remain to be fully explored. This study intends to link unique biochemical features of FLAB with their habitat. The quite unique FLAB phenome within the group lactic acid bacteria (LAB) may have practical relevance

  11. Effects of stevia on synaptic plasticity and NADPH oxidase level of CNS in conditions of metabolic disorders caused by fructose.

    Chavushyan, V A; Simonyan, K V; Simonyan, R M; Isoyan, A S; Simonyan, G M; Babakhanyan, M A; Hovhannisyian, L E; Nahapetyan, Kh H; Avetisyan, L G; Simonyan, M A

    2017-12-19

    Excess dietary fructose intake associated with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance and increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Previous animal studies have reported that diabetic animals have significantly impaired behavioural and cognitive functions, pathological synaptic function and impaired expression of glutamate receptors. Correction of the antioxidant status of laboratory rodents largely prevents the development of fructose-induced plurimetabolic changes in the nervous system. We suggest a novel concept of efficiency of Stevia leaves for treatment of central diabetic neuropathy. By in vivo extracellular studies induced spike activity of hippocampal neurons during high frequency stimulation of entorhinal cortex, as well as neurons of basolateral amygdala to high-frequency stimulation of the hippocampus effects of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni plant evaluated in synaptic activity in the brain of fructose-enriched diet rats. In the conditions of metabolic disorders caused by fructose, antioxidant activity of Stevia rebaudiana was assessed by measuring the NOX activity of the hippocampus, amygdala and spinal cord. In this study, the characteristic features of the metabolic effects of dietary fructose on synaptic plasticity in hippocampal neurons and basolateral amygdala and the state of the NADPH oxidase (NOX) oxidative system of these brain formations are revealed, as well as the prospects for development of multitarget and polyfunctional phytopreparations (with adaptogenic, antioxidant, antidiabetic, nootropic activity) from native raw material of Stevia rebaudiana. Stevia modulates degree of expressiveness of potentiation/depression (approaches but fails to achieve the norm) by shifting the percentage balance in favor of depressor type of responses during high-frequency stimulation, indicating its adaptogenic role in plasticity of neural networks. Under the action of fructose an increase (3-5 times) in specific quantity of total fraction of NOX

  12. The effect of electron scattering from disordered grain boundaries on the resistivity of metallic nanostructures

    Arenas, Claudio; Henriquez, Ricardo; Moraga, Luis; Muñoz, Enrique; Munoz, Raul C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Quantum theory of the resistivity arising from electron-grain boundary scattering in nanometric metallic structures. • The resistivity is controlled by the collective properties of the grain assembly, by the allowed Kronig-Penney (KP) bands and by the electron transmission probability across successive grains. • When the grain diameter d is larger than the electron mean free path l, the increase in resistivity arises mainly from a decrease of the number of states at the Fermi surface that are allowed KP bands. • When the grain diameter d is smaller than the electron mean free path l, the increase in resistivity arises primarily from Anderson localization caused by electron transmission across successive grains. - Abstract: We calculate the electrical resistivity of a metallic specimen, under the combined effects of electron scattering by impurities, grain boundaries, and rough surfaces limiting the film, using a quantum theory based upon the Kubo formalism. Grain boundaries are represented by a one-dimensional periodic array of Dirac delta functions separated by a distance “d” giving rise to a Kronig–Penney (KP) potential. We use the Green's function built from the wave functions that are solutions of this KP potential; disorder is included by incorporating into the theory the probability that an electron is transmitted through several successive grain boundaries. We apply this new theory to analyze the resistivity of samples S1, S2, S7 and S8 measured between 4 and 300 K reported in Appl. Surf. Science273, 315 (2013). Although both the classical and the quantum theories predict a resistivity that agrees with experimental data to within a few percent or better, the phenomena giving rise to the increase of resistivity over the bulk are remarkably different. Classically, each grain boundary contributes to the electrical resistance by reflecting a certain fraction of the incoming electrons. In the quantum description, there are states

  13. The effect of electron scattering from disordered grain boundaries on the resistivity of metallic nanostructures

    Arenas, Claudio [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Blanco Encalada 2008, Casilla 487-3, Santiago 8370449 (Chile); Synopsys Inc., Avenida Vitacura 5250, Oficina 708, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Henriquez, Ricardo [Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Av. España 1680, Casilla 110-V, Valparaíso (Chile); Moraga, Luis [Universidad Central de Chile, Toesca 1783, Santiago (Chile); Muñoz, Enrique [Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 7820436 (Chile); Munoz, Raul C., E-mail: ramunoz@ing.uchile.cl [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Blanco Encalada 2008, Casilla 487-3, Santiago 8370449 (Chile)

    2015-02-28

    Highlights: • Quantum theory of the resistivity arising from electron-grain boundary scattering in nanometric metallic structures. • The resistivity is controlled by the collective properties of the grain assembly, by the allowed Kronig-Penney (KP) bands and by the electron transmission probability across successive grains. • When the grain diameter d is larger than the electron mean free path l, the increase in resistivity arises mainly from a decrease of the number of states at the Fermi surface that are allowed KP bands. • When the grain diameter d is smaller than the electron mean free path l, the increase in resistivity arises primarily from Anderson localization caused by electron transmission across successive grains. - Abstract: We calculate the electrical resistivity of a metallic specimen, under the combined effects of electron scattering by impurities, grain boundaries, and rough surfaces limiting the film, using a quantum theory based upon the Kubo formalism. Grain boundaries are represented by a one-dimensional periodic array of Dirac delta functions separated by a distance “d” giving rise to a Kronig–Penney (KP) potential. We use the Green's function built from the wave functions that are solutions of this KP potential; disorder is included by incorporating into the theory the probability that an electron is transmitted through several successive grain boundaries. We apply this new theory to analyze the resistivity of samples S1, S2, S7 and S8 measured between 4 and 300 K reported in Appl. Surf. Science273, 315 (2013). Although both the classical and the quantum theories predict a resistivity that agrees with experimental data to within a few percent or better, the phenomena giving rise to the increase of resistivity over the bulk are remarkably different. Classically, each grain boundary contributes to the electrical resistance by reflecting a certain fraction of the incoming electrons. In the quantum description, there are states

  14. Adipokines: a treasure trove for the discovery of biomarkers for metabolic disorders.

    Lehr, Stefan; Hartwig, Sonja; Sell, Henrike

    2012-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a major endocrine organ, releasing signaling and mediator proteins, termed adipokines, via which adipose tissue communicates with other organs. Expansion of adipose tissue in obesity alters adipokine secretion which may contribute to the development of metabolic diseases. Consequently, this correlation has emphasized the importance to further characterize the adipocyte secretion profile, and several attempts have been made to characterize the complex nature of the adipose tissue secretome by utilizing diverse proteomic profiling approaches. Although the entirety of human adipokines is still incompletely characterized, to date more than 600 potentially secretory proteins were identified providing a rich source to identify putative novel biomarkers associated with metabolic diseases. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Altered Placental Tryptophan Metabolism: A Crucial Molecular Pathway for the Fetal Programming of Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    2015-07-01

    Analysis Brain and placenta tissue samples fresh-frozen in liquid nitrogen were ground into a fine powder using a mortar and pestle cooled with...analyzed for 5-HT concentration with HPLC. See (1) for a detailed protocol. The HPLC analysis of perfusion samples was performed on an Eicom 700... analysis revealed significant effects on TRP metabolic gene expression in the placenta. Placental expression of monoamine oxidase A (Maoa), Ido1 and

  16. Maternal chromium restriction modulates miRNA profiles related to lipid metabolism disorder in mice offspring.

    Zhang, Qian; Xiao, Xinhua; Zheng, Jia; Li, Ming; Yu, Miao; Ping, Fan; Wang, Zhixin; Qi, Cuijuan; Wang, Tong; Wang, Xiaojing

    2017-08-01

    Increasing evidence shows that maternal nutrition status has a vital effect on offspring susceptibility to obesity. MicroRNAs are related to lipid metabolism processes. This study aimed to evaluate whether maternal chromium restriction could affect miRNA expression involved in lipid metabolism in offspring. Weaning C57BL/6J mice born from mothers fed with normal control diet or chromium-restricted diet were fed for 13 weeks. The adipose miRNA expression profile was analyzed by miRNA array analysis. At 16 weeks old, pups from dams fed with chromium-restricted diet exhibit higher body weight, fat weight, and serum TC, TG levels. Six miRNAs were identified as upregulated in the RC group compared with the CC group, whereas eight miRNAs were lower than the threshold level set in the RC group. In the validated target genes of these differentially expressed miRNA, the MAPK signaling pathway serves an important role in the influence of early life chromium-restricted diet on lipid metabolism through miRNA. Long-term programming on various specific miRNA and MAPK signaling pathway may be involved in maternal chromium restriction in the adipose of female offspring. Impact statement For the first time, our study demonstrates important miRNA differences in the effect of maternal chromium restriction in offspring. These miRNAs may serve as "bridges" between the mother and the offspring by affecting the MAPK pathway.

  17. Effect of disorder on the density of states of a two-dimensional electron gas under magnetic field

    Bonifacie, S.; Meziani, Y.M.; Chaubet, C.; Jouault, B.; Raymond, A.

    2004-01-01

    We have calculated the density of states (DOS) of a two-dimensional electron gas in a perpendicular magnetic field, using a multiple scattering method, in the ultraquantum limit. We have considered doped and disordered 2D systems. The results of the scattering method are compared with direct simulations of disordered samples. Using the DOS, we have studied the metal-insulator transition and the magnetic freeze-out including a comparison with experimental results

  18. The method of the transfer matrix applied to the study of the electronic properties of the Kronig- Penney model with structural disorder

    Miranda S, Anabel; Landauro S, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    In the present work the transfer matrix method is employed to study the electronic properties of the Kronig-Penney model including disorder in the periodic system. The results show that although the electronic properties are very similar to the corresponding periodic case, disorder in the system produces a decrease of the transmission in the whole range of energies which indicates clearly a reduction of the electronic transport (conductivity) due to the disorder in the system. (author)

  19. Electrical resistivity of 5 f -electron systems affected by static and dynamic spin disorder

    Havela, L.; Paukov, M.; Buturlim, V.; Tkach, I.; Drozdenko, D.; Cieslar, M.; Mašková, S.; Dopita, M.; Matěj, Z.

    2017-06-01

    Metallic 5 f materials have very strong coupling of magnetic moments and electrons mediating electrical conduction. It is caused by strong spin-orbit interaction, coming with high atomic number Z , together with involvement of the 5 f states in metallic bonding. We have used the recently discovered class of uranium (ultra)nanocrystalline hydrides, which are ferromagnets with high ordering temperature, to disentangle the origin of negative temperature coefficient of electrical resistivity. In general, the phenomenon of electrical resistivity decreasing with increasing temperature in metals can have several reasons. The magnetoresistivity study of these hydrides reveals that quantum effects related to spin-disorder scattering can explain the resistivity behavior of a broad class of actinide compounds.

  20. Electronic screen media for persons with autism spectrum disorders: results of a survey.

    Shane, Howard C; Albert, Patti Ducoff

    2008-09-01

    Social and anecdotal reports suggest a predilection for visual media among individuals on the autism spectrum, yet no formal investigation has explored the extent of that use. Using a distributed questionnaire design, parents and caregivers report on time allotted toward media, including observable behaviors and communicative responses. More time was spent engaged with electronic screen media (ESM) than any other leisure activity. Television and movie viewing was more popular than computer usage. Across media platforms, animated programs were more highly preferred. Prevalent verbal and physical imitation was reported to occur during and following exposure to ESM. Clinical implications to strategically incorporate ESM into learning approaches for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are provided.

  1. The role of nanotechnology and nano and micro-electronics in monitoring and control of cardiovascular diseases and neurological disorders

    Varadan, Vijay K.

    2007-04-01

    Nanotechnology has been broadly defined as the one for not only the creation of functional materials and devices as well as systems through control of matter at the scale of 1-100 nm, but also the exploitation of novel properties and phenomena at the same scale. Growing needs in the point-of-care (POC) that is an increasing market for improving patient's quality of life, are driving the development of nanotechnologies for diagnosis and treatment of various life threatening diseases. This paper addresses the recent development of nanodiagnostic sensors and nanotherapeutic devices with functionalized carbon nanotube and/or nanowire on a flexible organic thin film electronics to monitor and control of the three leading diseases namely 1) neurodegenerative diseases, 2) cardiovascular diseases, and 3) diabetes and metabolic diseases. The sensors developed include implantable and biocompatible devices, light weight wearable devices in wrist-watches, hats, shoes and clothes. The nanotherapeutics devices include nanobased drug delivery system. Many of these sensors are integrated with the wireless systems for the remote physiological monitoring. The author's research team has also developed a wireless neural probe using nanowires and nanotubes for monitoring and control of Parkinson's disease. Light weight and compact EEG, EOG and EMG monitoring system in a hat developed is capable of monitoring real time epileptic patients and patients with neurological and movement disorders using the Internet and cellular network. Physicians could be able to monitor these signals in realtime using portable computers or cell phones and will give early warning signal if these signals cross a pre-determined threshold level. In addition the potential impact of nanotechnology for applications in medicine is that, the devices can be designed to interact with cells and tissues at the molecular level, which allows high degree of functionality. Devices engineered at nanometer scale imply a

  2. Disorders of bone-mineral metabolism and their correction with women who have body weight deficiency at pregravid stage and during pregnancy

    L. P. Shelestova

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The processes in bone-mineral metabolism provide normal course of pregnancy, labour and fetus development, women with body weight deficiency are at risk reduction of bone tissue mineral density, progressing of osteopenia and osteoporosis. This shows the necessity of medical and preventive measures that have the aim to correct calcium- phosphorus and bone metabolism with women who have body weight deficiency. Aim. To elaborate and to evaluate medical and preventive measures that have the aim to correct disorders in bone-mineral metabolism with women who have body weight deficiency at pregravid stage and during pregnancy. Materials and methods. The efficiency of adding combined medicine of calcium carbonate and cholecalciferol and dietary nourishment to traditional treatment that affected the state of bone-mineral metabolism with women who have body weight deficiency at pregravid stage and during pregnancy was studied. Results. With women who have body weight deficiency at pregravid stage and during pregnancy it is noted statistically considerable reduction in blood of total calcium and bone tissue markers that grows with the course of gestation. The changes in mineral density of bone tissue can be seen from the existence of osteopenic syndrome at pregravid stage that occurs with every third woman who has body weight deficiency and with every second before labour. The use of elaborated medical and preventive measures including combined medicine of calcium carbonate and cholecalciferol allows to normalize the indexes of bone-mineral metabolism with women who have body weight deficiency. Conclusions. Women with body weight deficiency already at pregravid stage have disorders in bone metabolism and coming of pregnancy lead to aggravation of bone metabolism disorders. The additional use of combined medicine of calcium carbonate and cholecalciferol and dietary nourishment made the indexes of calcium-phosphorus and bone metabolism better and osteopenic

  3. Salivary melatonin levels and sleep-wake rhythms in pregnant women with hypertensive and glucose metabolic disorders: A prospective analysis.

    Shimada, Mieko; Seki, Hiroyuki; Samejima, Michikazu; Hayase, Mako; Shirai, Fumie

    2016-02-01

    In preeclampsia and gestational diabetes, the sympathetic nerves are activated, leading to disrupted sleep. Melatonin, which transmits information to regulate the sleep-wake rhythm and other such biorhythms, has been implicated in insulin resistance, antioxidant behaviors, and metabolic syndrome. In addition, its reduced secretion increases the risk of hypertension and diabetes. The aim of this study was to elucidate the features of melatonin secretion, sleep quality, and sleep-wake rhythms in pregnant women with complications. Fifty-eight pregnant women with pregnancy complications (hypertensive or glucose metabolic disorders) and 40 healthy pregnant women completed questionnaires, including sleep logs and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), during the second to third trimesters. Their salivary melatonin levels were also measured. Pregnant women with complications had significantly lower morning (p melatonin values than healthy pregnant women. Pregnant women with complications also had significantly smaller melatonin amplitudes than healthy pregnant women (p melatonin secretion, and their values were lower throughout the day than healthy pregnant women.

  4. The Effects of Sinapic Acid on the Development of Metabolic Disorders Induced by Estrogen Deficiency in Rats

    Maria Zych

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sinapic acid is a natural phenolic acid found in fruits, vegetables, and cereals, exerting numerous pharmacological effects. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of sinapic acid on biochemical parameters related to glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as markers of antioxidant abilities and parameters of oxidative damage in the blood serum in estrogen-deficient rats. The study was performed on 3-month-old female Wistar rats, divided into 5 groups, including sham-operated control rats, ovariectomized control rats, and ovariectomized rats administered orally with estradiol (0.2 mg/kg or sinapic acid (5 and 25 mg/kg for 28 days. The levels of estradiol, progesterone, interleukin 18, insulin, glucose, fructosamine, lipids, and enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione; total antioxidant capacity; and oxidative damage parameters (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, protein carbonyl groups, and advanced oxidation protein products were determined in the serum. Estradiol counteracted the carbohydrate and cholesterol metabolism disorders induced by estrogen deficiency. Sinapic acid increased the serum estradiol concentration; decreased insulin resistance and the triglyceride and total cholesterol concentrations; and favorably affected the parameters of antioxidant abilities (reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase and oxidative damage (advanced oxidation protein products.

  5. Metabolic Disorders and Diabetic Complications in Spontaneously Diabetic Torii Leprfa Rat: A New Obese Type 2 Diabetic Model

    Yusuke Kemmochi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneously Diabetic Torii Leprfa (SDT fatty rat, established by introducing the fa allele of the Zucker fatty rat into SDT rat genome, is a new model of obese type 2 diabetes. Both male and female SDT fatty rats show overt obesity, and hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia are observed at a young age as compared with SDT rats. With early incidence of diabetes mellitus, diabetic complications, such as nephropathy, retinopathy, and neuropathy, in SDT fatty rats were seen at younger ages compared to those in the SDT rats. In this paper, we overview pathophysiological features in SDT fatty rats and also describe new insights regarding the hematology, blood pressure, renal complications, and sexual dysfunction. The SDT fatty rats showed an increase of leukocytes, especially the monocyte count, prominent hypertension associated with salt drinking, end-stage renal disease with aging, and hypogonadism. Unlike other diabetic models, the characteristic of SDT fatty rat is to present an incidence of diabetes in females, hypertension, and retinopathy. SDT fatty rat is a useful model for analysis of various metabolic disorders and the evaluation of drugs related to metabolic disease.

  6. Mineral metabolism disorders, vertebral fractures and aortic calcifications in stable kidney transplant recipients: The role of gender (EMITRAL study).

    Torres, Armando; Torregrosa, Vicens; Marcen, Roberto; Campistol, Josep María; Arias, Manuel; Hernández, Domingo; Fernández, Constantino; Esforzado, Nuria; Paschoalin, Raphael; Pérez, Nuria; García, Ana Isabel; Del Amo, Montserrat; Pomés, Jaume; González Rinne, Ana; Marrero, Domingo; Pérez, Estefanía; Henríquez, Fernando; Díaz, Juan Manuel; Silva, Irene; López, Verónica; Perello, Manuel; Ramos, David; Beneyto, Isabel; Cruzado, José María; Martínez Castelao, Alberto; Bravo, Juan; Rodríguez, Minerva; Díaz, Carmen; Crespo, Josep; Anaya, Fernando; Rodríguez, María Luisa; Cubero, Juan José; Pascual, Pilar; Romero, Rafael; Andrés Belmonte, Amado; Checa, María Dolores; Jiménez, Carlos; Escuin, Fernando; Crespo, Marta; Mir, Marisa; Gómez, Gonzalo; Bayes, Beatriz; González, María José; Gutiérrez, Alex; Cuberes, Marta; Rodríguez Benoit, Alberto; García, Teresa; Llamas, Francisco; Ortega, Agustín; Conde, José Luis; Gómez Alamillo, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between mineral metabolism disorders, bone fractures and vascular calcifications in kidney transplant recipients has not been established. We performed a cross-sectional study in 727 stable recipients from 28 Spanish transplant clinics. Mineral metabolism parameters, the semi-quantification of vertebral fractures and abdominal aortic calcifications were determined centrally. Vitamin D deficiency (25OHD3<15ng/ml) was more common in female recipients at CKD-T stages I-III (29.6% vs 44.4%; p=0.003). The inverse and significant correlation between 25OHD3 and PTH was gender-specific and women exhibited a steeper slope than men (p=0.01). Vertebral fractures (VFx) with deformity grade ≥2 were observed in 15% of recipients. Factors related to VFx differed by gender; in males, age (OR 1.04; 95% CI 1.01-1.06) and CsA treatment (OR: 3.2; 95% CI: 1.6-6.3); in females, age (OR 1.07; 95% CI: 1.03-1.12) and PTH levels (OR per 100pg/ml increase: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.043-1.542). Abdominal aortic calcifications were common (67.2%) and related to classical risk factors but not to mineral metabolism parameters. Vitamin D deficiency is more common among female kidney transplant recipients at earlier CKD-T stages, and it contributes to secondary hyperparathyroidism. Prevalent vertebral fractures are only related to high serum PTH levels in female recipients. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Dysregulation of glucose metabolism since young adulthood increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases in patients with bipolar disorder

    Pao-Huan Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aging patients with bipolar disorder (BD are at a high risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs. However, few studies have directly examined the association between metabolic risks and CVDs in patients with BD across the lifespan. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine lifetime metabolic risk factors for CVDs in patients with BD. We recruited BD-I patients who were more than 50 years old and had had at least one psychiatric hospitalization. Patients who had a cardiologist-confirmed CVD diagnosis (ICD-9 code 401–414 were assigned to the case group. Fifty-five cases were matched with 55 control patient without CVDs based on age and sex. Clinical data were obtained by retrospectively reviewing 30 years of hospital records. Compared to control subjects, a significantly higher proportion of cases had impaired fasting glucose between ages 31 and 40 (44.0% versus 17.4%, p = 0.046, diabetes mellitus between ages 41 and 50 (25.6% versus 8.6%, p = 0.054, and diabetes mellitus after age 51 (36.3% versus 12.7%, p = 0.005. No significant difference was found in overweight, obesity, or dyslipidemia. After adjusting for years of education, first episode as mania, and second generation antipsychotic use, lifetime diabetes mellitus remained a risk factor for CVDs (OR = 4.45, 95% CI = 1.89–10.66, p = 0.001. The findings suggest that glucose dysregulation across the adult age span is probably the major metabolic risk contributing to CVDs in patients with BD. Clinicians therefore have to notice the serum fasting glucose levels of BD patients since young adulthood.

  8. Evidence for Treatable Inborn Errors of Metabolism in a Cohort of 187 Greek Patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD

    Martha eSpilioti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We screened for the presence of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM in 187 children (105 males; 82 females, ages 4 -14 years old who presented with confirmed features of ASD. Twelve patients (7% manifested increased 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid (3-OH-IVA excretion in urine, and minor to significant improvement in autistic features was observed in seven patients following supplementation with biotin. Five diagnoses included: Lesch Nyhan syndrome (2, succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH deficiency (2 and phenylketonuria (1 (2.7%. Additional metabolic disturbances suggestive of IEMs included two patients whose increased urine 3-OH-IVA was accompanied by elevated methylcitrate and lactate in sera, and 30 patients that showed abnormal glucose-loading tests. In the latter group, 16/30 patients manifested increased sera beta hydroxybutyrate (b-OH-b production and 18/30 had a paradoxical increase of sera lactate. Six patients with elevated b-OH-b in sera showed improved autistic features following implementation of a ketogenic diet. Five patients showed decreased serum ketone body production with glucose loading. Twelve of 187 patients demonstrated nonspecific MRI pathology, while 25/187 had abnormal EEG findings. Finally, family history was positive for 22/187 patients (1st or 2nd degree relative with comparable symptomatology and consanguinity was documented for 12/187 patients. Our data provide evidence for a new biomarker (3-OH-IVA and novel treatment approaches in ASD patients.Concise 1 sentence take-home message: Detailed metabolic screening in a Greek cohort of autismspectrum disorder (ASD patients revealed biomarkers (urine 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid and serum b-OH-b in 7% (13/187 of patients for whom biotin supplementation or institution of a ketogenic diet resulted in mild to significant clinical improvement in autistic features.

  9. Leptin and Adiponectin Levels in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C with Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism Disorders

    T. V. Antonova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to analyze leptin and adiponectin serum levels in patients with chronic hepatitis C in comparison with metabolic syndrome components, biochemical features and stage of hepatitis.Materials and methods: In 93 patients with chronic HCV in age 20-55 with a few symptomatic HCV-infection and minimal liver fibrosis stage serum leptin and adiponectin was measured. Associations between leptin, adiponectin and metabolic abnormalities, biochemical features, and hepatic fibrosis were determined.Results: Abdominal obesity was revealed at 40% patients, overweight – at 41%, insulin resistance – at 36,6% cases. The leptin and adiponectin levels were within normal limits range at most patients. Patients with minimal liver fibrosis had higher index of leptin by comparison to patients with moderate and severe fibrosis (r= – 0,402, р= 0,018. In patients with HCV genotype 3a the adiponectin level was below, than in HCV genotype 1b. Patients with abdominal obesity and overweight had higher leptin and lower adiponectin indexes by comparison to patients without these metabolic abnormalities. Direct cross-correlation between the leptin level and body mass index (r=0,358, p=0,001, waist circumference (r=0,292, p=0,01; negative cross-correlation between the adiponectin level and body mass index (r=- 0,435, р <0,021, waist circumference (r=- 0,386, р =0,001 were displayed.Conclusion: Leptin and adiponectin blood levels in HCVpatientis associated with abdominal obesity and overweight. The connection of leptin level and liver fibrosis stage was revealed. Difference of adiponectin level in HCV-patients with 3a and 1b genotypes of virus was found.

  10. Creatine metabolism and psychiatric disorders: Does creatine supplementation have therapeutic value?

    Allen, Patricia J.

    2012-01-01

    Athletes, body builders, and military personnel use dietary creatine as an ergogenic aid to boost physical performance in sports involving short bursts of high-intensity muscle activity. Lesser known is the essential role creatine, a natural regulator of energy homeostasis, plays in brain function and development. Creatine supplementation has shown promise as a safe, effective, and tolerable adjunct to medication for the treatment of brain-related disorders linked with dysfunctional energy me...

  11. Altered Placental Tryptophan Metabolism: A Crucial Molecular Pathway for the Fetal Programming of Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    2016-09-01

    Medline Patterson PH (2002) Maternal infection: window on neuroimmune inter- actions in fetal brain development and mental illness . Curr Opin Neuro- biol...early stages of pre- and postnatal development has long-term consequences on adult brain function and behavior. Thus, 5-HT is a good candidate for...mediating the fetal programming of mental disorders such as ASD that appear later in life. In early pregnancy the placenta converts maternal TRP to 5-HT

  12. Sympathetic, Metabolic Adaptations, and Oxidative Stress in Autism Spectrum Disorders: How Far From Physiology?

    Antonietta Messina

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASD is a complex and multifaceted neurobehavioral syndrome with no specific cause still identified, despite the worldwide increasing (prevalence for 1,000 children from 6.7 to 14.6, between 2000 and 2012. Many biological and instrumental markers have been suggested as potential predictive factors for the precocious diagnosis during infancy and/or pediatric age. Many studies reported structural and functional abnormalities in the autonomic system in subjects with ASD. Sleep problems in ASD are a prominent feature, having an impact on the social interaction of the patient. Considering the role of orexins (A and B in wake-sleep circadian rhythm, we could speculate that ASD subjects may present a dysregulation in orexinergic neurotransmission. Conversely, oxidative stress is implicated in the pathophysiology of many neurological disorders. Nonetheless, little is known about the linkage between oxidative stress and the occurrence or the progress of autism and autonomic functioning; some markers, such as heart rate (HR, heart rate variability (HRV, body temperature, and galvanic skin response (GSR, may be altered in the patient with this so complex disorder. In the present paper, we analyzed an autism case report, focusing on the rule of the sympathetic activity with the aim to suggest that it may be considered an important tool in ASD evaluation. The results of this case confirm our hypothesis even if further studies needed.

  13. Extract of Kuding tea prevents high-fat diet-induced metabolic disorders in C57BL/6 mice via liver X receptor (LXR β antagonism.

    Shengjie Fan

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of ilex kudingcha C. J. Tseng (kuding tea, a traditional beverage in China, on the metabolic disorders in C57BL/6 mice induced by high-fat diets.For the preventive experiment, the female C57BL/6 mice were fed with a standard diet (Chow, high-fat diet (HF, and high-fat diet mixed with 0.05% ethanol extract of kuding tea (EK for 5 weeks. For the therapeutic experiment, the C57BL/6 mice were fed high-fat diet for 3 months, and then mice were split and EK was given with oral gavages for 2 weeks at 50 mg/day/kg. Body weight and daily food intake amounts were measured. At the end of treatment, the adipocyte images were assayed with a scanning electron microscope, and the fasting blood glucose, glucose tolerance test, serum lipid profile and lipids in the livers were analyzed. A reporter gene assay system was used to test the whether EK could act on nuclear receptor transcription factors, and the gene expression analysis was performed with a quantitative PCR assay.In the preventive treatment, EK blocked the body weight gain, reduced the size of the adipocytes, lowered serum triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, fasting blood glucose levels and glucose tolerance in high-fat diet-fed C57BL/6 mice. In the therapeutic treatment, EK reduced the size of the white adipocytes, serum TG and fasting blood glucose levels in obese mice. With the reporter assay, EK inhibited LXRβ transactivity and mRNA expression of LXRβ target genes.We observed that EK has both preventive and therapeutic roles in metabolic disorders in mice induced with high-fat diets. The effects appear to be mediated through the antagonism of LXRβ transactivity. Our data indicate that kuding tea is a useful dietary therapy and a potential source for the development of novel anti-obesity and lipid lowering drugs.

  14. The Menkes and Wilson disease genes counteract in copper toxicosis in Labrador retrievers: a new canine model for copper-metabolism disorders

    Fieten, Hille; Gill, Yadvinder; Martin, Alan J.; Concilli, Mafalda; Dirksen, Karen; van Steenbeek, Frank G.; Spee, Bart; van den Ingh, Ted S. G. A. M.; Martens, Ellen C. C. P.; Festa, Paola; Chesi, Giancarlo; van de Sluis, Bart; Houwen, Roderick H. J. H.; Watson, Adrian L.; Aulchenko, Yurii S.; Hodgkinson, Victoria L.; Zhu, Sha; Petris, Michael J.; Polishchuk, Roman S.; Leegwater, Peter A. J.; Rothuizen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The deleterious effects of a disrupted copper metabolism are illustrated by hereditary diseases caused by mutations in the genes coding for the copper transporters ATP7A and ATP7B. Menkes disease, involving ATP7A, is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder of copper deficiency. Mutations in ATP7B lead to

  15. The Menkes and Wilson disease genes counteract in copper toxicosis in Labrador retrievers : a new canine model for copper-metabolism disorders

    Fieten, Hille; Gill, Yadvinder; Martin, Alan J.; Concilli, Mafalda; Dirksen, Karen; van Steenbeek, Frank G.; Spee, Bart; van den Ingh, Ted S. G. A. M.; Martens, Ellen C. C. P.; Festa, Paola; Chesi, Giancarlo; Sluis, van de Bart; Houwen, Roderick H. J. H.; Watson, Adrian L.; Aulchenko, Yurii S.; Hodgkinson, Victoria L.; Zhu, Sha; Petris, Michael J.; Polishchuk, Roman S.; Leegwater, Peter A. J.; Rothuizen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The deleterious effects of a disrupted copper metabolism are illustrated by hereditary diseases caused by mutations in the genes coding for the copper transporters ATP7A and ATP7B. Menkes disease, involving ATP7A, is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder of copper deficiency. Mutations in ATP7B lead to

  16. Cerebral metabolism in dogs assessed by 18F-FDG PET. A pilot study to understand physiological changes in behavioral disorders in dogs

    Irimajiri, Mami; Jaeger, C.B.; Luescher, A.U.; Miller, M.A.; Hutchins, G.D.; Green, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    The positron emission tomography (PET) imaging technique, which is utilized in human behavior and psychiatric disorder research, was performed on the brains of clinically normal mixed breed dogs, 3 hound-type (long floppy ears) mixed breed dogs and 3 non-hound retriever-type mixed breed dogs. Glucose metabolism was obtained with F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), and quantitative analysis was performed by standardized uptake value (SUV) measurement. Magnetic resonance (MR) images were obtained in each dog, and these images were superimposed on PET images to identify anatomical locations. The glucose metabolism in each region of interest was compared between the three hound-type dogs and 3 non-hound-type dogs. The two anatomically different types of dog were compared to assess whether breed-typical behavioral tendencies (e.g., sniffing behavior in hound-type dogs, staring and retrieving in Labrador-type dogs) are reflected in baseline brain metabolic activity. There were no significant differences between the hound-type dogs and non-hound-type dogs in cerebral SUV values. These data might serve as normal canine cerebral metabolism data for FDG PET studies in dogs and form the basis for investigations into behavioral disorders in dogs such as compulsive disorder, anxiety disorders and cognitive dysfunction. (author)

  17. Blood metabolomics analysis identifies abnormalities in the citric acid cycle, urea cycle, and amino acid metabolism in bipolar disorder.

    Yoshimi, Noriko; Futamura, Takashi; Kakumoto, Keiji; Salehi, Alireza M; Sellgren, Carl M; Holmén-Larsson, Jessica; Jakobsson, Joel; Pålsson, Erik; Landén, Mikael; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2016-06-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe and debilitating psychiatric disorder. However, the precise biological basis remains unknown, hampering the search for novel biomarkers. We performed a metabolomics analysis to discover novel peripheral biomarkers for BD. We quantified serum levels of 116 metabolites in mood-stabilized male BD patients (n = 54) and age-matched male healthy controls (n = 39). After multivariate logistic regression, serum levels of pyruvate, N-acetylglutamic acid, α-ketoglutarate, and arginine were significantly higher in BD patients than in healthy controls. Conversely, serum levels of β-alanine, and serine were significantly lower in BD patients than in healthy controls. Chronic (4-weeks) administration of lithium or valproic acid to adult male rats did not alter serum levels of pyruvate, N-acetylglutamic acid, β-alanine, serine, or arginine, but lithium administration significantly increased serum levels of α-ketoglutarate. The metabolomics analysis demonstrated altered serum levels of pyruvate, N-acetylglutamic acid, β-alanine, serine, and arginine in BD patients. The present findings suggest that abnormalities in the citric acid cycle, urea cycle, and amino acid metabolism play a role in the pathogenesis of BD.

  18. Oxidative Stress and Metabolic Perturbations in Wooden Breast Disorder in Chickens.

    Behnam Abasht

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to characterize metabolic features of the breast muscle (pectoralis major in chickens affected with the Wooden Breast myopathy. Live birds from two purebred chicken lines and one crossbred commercial broiler population were clinically examined by manual palpation of the breast muscle (pectoralis major at 47-48 days of age. Metabolite abundance was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS using breast muscle tissue samples from 16 affected and 16 unaffected chickens. Muscle glycogen content was also quantified in breast muscle tissue samples from affected and unaffected chickens. In total, levels of 140 biochemicals were significantly different (FDR1.3 or <0.77 between affected and unaffected chickens. Glycogen content measurements were considerably lower (1.7-fold in samples taken from Wooden Breast affected birds when compared with samples from unaffected birds. Affected tissues exhibited biomarkers related to increased oxidative stress, elevated protein levels, muscle degradation, and altered glucose utilization. Affected muscle also showed elevated levels of hypoxanthine, xanthine, and urate molecules, the generation of which can contribute to altered redox homeostasis. In conclusion, our findings show that Wooden Breast affected tissues possess a unique metabolic signature. This unique profile may identify candidate biomarkers for diagnostic utilization and provide mechanistic insight into altered biochemical processes contributing to tissue hardening associated with the Wooden Breast myopathy in commercial chickens.

  19. The histamine H₃ receptor as a therapeutic drug target for metabolic disorders: status, challenges and opportunities.

    Plancher, Jean-Marc

    2011-01-01

    Since the histamine-3 receptor (H₃R) was cloned in 1999, huge efforts have been made by most of the key players in the pharmaceutical industry as well as in smaller biotech companies to increase the knowledge on this peculiar receptor, with the ultimate goal of bringing new drugs to the market. This review gives a survey on the most valuable chemical tools discovered so far and the significant pharmacological experiments on metabolic disease models published to date. Pharmacology of H₃R antagonists turns out to be very complex due to various functional activities, species selectivity, presence of H₃R isoforms and the poorly understood dichotomy in efficacy between CNS and metabolic disease models. Adding an extra layer of complexity, researchers have to cope with some recurrent safety concerns, some of them being tightly linked to the nature of the H₃R pharmacophore. Therefore this review also strives to summarize the major hurdles and some of the contradictions seen in the H₃R field, together with a brief overview of the clinical trials currently running.

  20. 1H-NMR, 1H-NMR T2-edited, and 2D-NMR in bipolar disorder metabolic profiling.

    Sethi, Sumit; Pedrini, Mariana; Rizzo, Lucas B; Zeni-Graiff, Maiara; Mas, Caroline Dal; Cassinelli, Ana Cláudia; Noto, Mariane N; Asevedo, Elson; Cordeiro, Quirino; Pontes, João G M; Brasil, Antonio J M; Lacerda, Acioly; Hayashi, Mirian A F; Poppi, Ronei; Tasic, Ljubica; Brietzke, Elisa

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to identify molecular alterations in the human blood serum related to bipolar disorder, using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and chemometrics. Metabolomic profiling, employing 1 H-NMR, 1 H-NMR T 2 -edited, and 2D-NMR spectroscopy and chemometrics of human blood serum samples from patients with bipolar disorder (n = 26) compared with healthy volunteers (n = 50) was performed. The investigated groups presented distinct metabolic profiles, in which the main differential metabolites found in the serum sample of bipolar disorder patients compared with those from controls were lipids, lipid metabolism-related molecules (choline, myo-inositol), and some amino acids (N-acetyl-L-phenyl alanine, N-acetyl-L-aspartyl-L-glutamic acid, L-glutamine). In addition, amygdalin, α-ketoglutaric acid, and lipoamide, among other compounds, were also present or were significantly altered in the serum of bipolar disorder patients. The data presented herein suggest that some of these metabolites differentially distributed between the groups studied may be directly related to the bipolar disorder pathophysiology. The strategy employed here showed significant potential for exploring pathophysiological features and molecular pathways involved in bipolar disorder. Thus, our findings may contribute to pave the way for future studies aiming at identifying important potential biomarkers for bipolar disorder diagnosis or progression follow-up.

  1. Sex- and age-specific associations between major depressive disorder and metabolic syndrome in two general population samples in Germany.

    Block, Andrea; Schipf, Sabine; Van der Auwera, Sandra; Hannemann, Anke; Nauck, Matthias; John, Ulrich; Völzke, Henry; Freyberger, Harald Jürgen; Dörr, Marcus; Felix, Stephan; Zygmunt, Marek; Wallaschofski, Henri; Grabe, Hans Jörgen

    2016-11-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been associated with the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). As previous data strongly suggested sex and age effects on this association, this study aimed to analyse the association between MDD and MetS in two general population samples under explicit consideration of sex and age. This study analysed cross-sectional data based on two independent general population samples: SHIP-0 (n = 4083; 20-81 years; 49.4% male) and SHIP-TREND-0 (n = 3957; 20-83 years; 49.0% male) that were part of the Study of Health in Pomerania. MDD (SHIP-0: 12.6%; SHIP-TREND-0: 27.2%) was assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic-Screener (CID-S) in both samples. Interview assessment of MDD diagnosis according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV (DSM-IV) criteria was performed in SHIP-TREND-0 (18.1% MDD). MetS was defined by abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure, elevated glucose, elevated triglycerides and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol according to established criteria. Data analysis was performed sex- and age-stratified. Prevalence of MetS was high in both samples: 19.4% of females and 30.2% of males in SHIP-0 and 22.1% and 33.2% in SHIP-TREND-0, respectively. Effect modifications were observed by sex and age on the association between MDD and MetS. Particularly, younger females (20-49 years) with MDD were more often affected by MetS than younger females without MDD: OR = 2.21 (95% CI = 1.39-3.50). This association vanished in elderly participants (50-82 years). The data suggest that especially younger (presumably pre-menopausal) females with MDD are more likely to have MetS than those without major depressive disorders, and that age extenuates this association.

  2. Free Radical Oxidation Induced by Iron Metabolism Disorder in Femoral and Pelvic Fractures and Potential for Its Correction

    Y. P. Orlov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the pathogenic significance of iron ions in the activation of free radical oxidation in trau matic disease and valuate the efficacy of Desferal in the complex therapy of patients with femoral and pelvic fractions.Materials and methods. Iron metabolism and the intensity of free radical oxidation have been studed in 30 patients with traumas. The patients were randomized into two groups by gender, age and the severity of injury. Group I (n=15 included the injured patients who received the standard intensive therapy. Group II (n=15 included the patients who were treated with Desferal of 8 mg/kg twice daily in 12 hours along with the intensive therapy. The control group comprized of 10 healthy individuals of the same age. The concentration of total and free hemoglobine, serum iron, transferrin, total antioxidant activity of blood serum, the intensity of free radical oxida tion by the Fe2+induced chemiluminescence and hemostatic parameters were studied on admittance as well as on 3rd and 5th day of hospitalization. The parameters of sistemic hemodyamics were checked by integral rheovasog raphy. Statistical processing of data was carried out using Biostat and MS Excel software. The results were pre sented as a mean and standart deviation (M±δ. The Student’s (t and MannWhitney tests were used to prove the hypotheses. The critical level of significance was P=0.05.Results. It was determined that the disorders of iron metabolism in patients with traumatic disease were accompanied by intra and extravascular hemolysis, the excess off reduced iron ions catalizing the free radical oxidation, and failure of antioxidant system and disorders of hemostatic system and central hemodynamics. Desferal lowered the level of reduced iron in blood serum, diminished the intensity of free radical oxidation and eliminated the disorders in hemostasis and systemic hemodynamics.Conclusion. Data confirm the pathogenic role of iron ions in the

  3. [Effect of a new low-cholesterol meat and vegetal product on correction of simulated lipid metabolism disorders in rats].

    Gorlov, I F; Slozhenkina, M I; Karpenko, E V; Giro, T M; Andreeva, S V

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the biomedical evaluation of meat and cereal spread from low-cholesterol raw material with vegetable ingredients, recommended as a functional food. The experimental model with myocardial infarction like changes in hearts of the animals, accompanied by vascular changes similar to atherosclerotic changes in humans, as well as the modeling of the metabolic imbalance of lipids have been carried out by intramuscular injection of epinephrine and unbalanced feeding the animals with food rich in cholesterol, with a high content of carbohydrates and fats. Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups of 12 animals each. The rats in groups 1-3 were induced the cardio distress with intramuscular injection of epinephrine; group IV consisted of intact (healthy) animals. Dramatic changes in biochemical blood status that indicated heart disease have been observed within 2 days after the injection of epinephrine (0.2 ml per 1 kg of animal body weight) to the tested animals. During the experiment a sharp increase in activity of indicator enzymes of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferases (AST), with a predominance of AST over ALT, along with an increase in LDH activity have been observed. The 1.4-1.6 fold increase in blood serum creatinine has also been found. Later the animals in groups 1, 2, 3 with simulated cardio pathology were fed a ration with intervention of food rich in cholesterol, with a high content of carbohydrates and fats (50% of the diet) for a month for induction of lipid metabolism disorders. An increase in the concentration of cholesterol and triglycerides by 3 fold or more has been observed. In addition, an accumulation of sulfhydryl groups has been noted, as evidenced by increased rates of thymol. For further normalization of lipid metabolism, the animals in tested group I were fed the diet with intervention of spread, developed in accordance with GOST 12318-91 "Canned meat "Meat spread"; the rats of group 2 were fed with

  4. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and glial integrity: S100B, cytokines and kynurenine metabolism - effects of medication

    Schwarz Markus J

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD show a marked temporal variability in their display of symptoms and neuropsychological performance. This could be explained in terms of an impaired glial supply of energy to support neuronal activity. Method We pursued one test of the idea with measures of a neurotrophin reflecting glial integrity (S100B and the influences of 8 cytokines on the metabolism of amino-acids, and of tryptophan/kynurenine to neuroprotective or potentially toxic products that could modulate glial function. Serum samples from 21 medication-naïve children with ADHD, 21 typically-developing controls, 14 medicated children with ADHD and 7 healthy siblings were analysed in this preliminary exploration of group differences and associations. Results There were no marked group differences in levels of S100B, no major imbalance in the ratios of pro- to anti-inflammatory interleukins nor in the metabolism of kynurenine to toxic metabolites in ADHD. However, four trends are described that may be worthy of closer examination in a more extensive study. First, S100B levels tended to be lower in ADHD children that did not show oppositional/conduct problems. Second, in medicated children raised interleukin levels showed a trend to normalisation. Third, while across all children the sensitivity to allergy reflected increased levels of IL-16 and IL-10, the latter showed a significant inverse relationship to measures of S100B in the ADHD group. Fourthly, against expectations healthy controls tended to show higher levels of toxic 3-hydroxykynurenine (3 HK than those with ADHD. Conclusions Thus, there were no clear signs (S100B that the glial functions were compromised in ADHD. However, other markers of glial function require examination. Nonetheless there is preliminary evidence that a minor imbalance of the immunological system was improved on medication. Finally, if lower levels of the potentially toxic 3

  5. Brain networks predict metabolism, diagnosis and prognosis at the bedside in disorders of consciousness.

    Chennu, Srivas; Annen, Jitka; Wannez, Sarah; Thibaut, Aurore; Chatelle, Camille; Cassol, Helena; Martens, Géraldine; Schnakers, Caroline; Gosseries, Olivia; Menon, David; Laureys, Steven

    2017-08-01

    Recent advances in functional neuroimaging have demonstrated novel potential for informing diagnosis and prognosis in the unresponsive wakeful syndrome and minimally conscious states. However, these technologies come with considerable expense and difficulty, limiting the possibility of wider clinical application in patients. Here, we show that high density electroencephalography, collected from 104 patients measured at rest, can provide valuable information about brain connectivity that correlates with behaviour and functional neuroimaging. Using graph theory, we visualize and quantify spectral connectivity estimated from electroencephalography as a dense brain network. Our findings demonstrate that key quantitative metrics of these networks correlate with the continuum of behavioural recovery in patients, ranging from those diagnosed as unresponsive, through those who have emerged from minimally conscious, to the fully conscious locked-in syndrome. In particular, a network metric indexing the presence of densely interconnected central hubs of connectivity discriminated behavioural consciousness with accuracy comparable to that achieved by expert assessment with positron emission tomography. We also show that this metric correlates strongly with brain metabolism. Further, with classification analysis, we predict the behavioural diagnosis, brain metabolism and 1-year clinical outcome of individual patients. Finally, we demonstrate that assessments of brain networks show robust connectivity in patients diagnosed as unresponsive by clinical consensus, but later rediagnosed as minimally conscious with the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised. Classification analysis of their brain network identified each of these misdiagnosed patients as minimally conscious, corroborating their behavioural diagnoses. If deployed at the bedside in the clinical context, such network measurements could complement systematic behavioural assessment and help reduce the high misdiagnosis rate reported

  6. Formation of quinones by one-electron oxidation in the metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene and 6-fluorobenzo[a]pyrene

    Cavalieri, E.; Wong, A.; Cremonesi, P.; Warner, C.; Rogan, E.

    1986-01-01

    Metabolic activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), as well as other chemical carcinogens, occurs by two major pathways: One-electron oxidation and two-electron oxidation, or monooxygenation. One-electron oxidation generates radical cations or radicals, depending on the molecule in which the oxidation occurs, whereas two-electron oxidation produces oxygenated metabolites. Radical cations of PAH are ultimate electrophilic metabolites capable of binding to cellular macromolecules to initiate the tumor process. In this paper the authors will provide evidence that one-electron oxidation is involved not only in PAH carcinogenesis, but also in the formation of certain metabolites. Metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene (BP) by cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase yields three classes of products: phenols, dihydrodiols and the quinones, 1,6-, 3,6- and 6,12- dione

  7. Molecular mechanisms of disorders of lipid metabolism in chronic kidney disease.

    Moradi, Hamid; Vaziri, Nosratola D

    2018-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a progressive condition marked by protracted kidney damage which over time can lead to end stage renal disease (ESRD). CKD can be categorized into different stages based on the extent of renal damage and degree of renal dysfunction with ESRD requiring renal replacement therapy considered the final stage. It is important to note that CKD in all of its forms is associated with accelerated atherosclerosis, cardiovascular (CV) disease and poor CV outcomes. While a number of factors contribute to the high risk of CV mortality in this patient population, dyslipidemia is considered to be a key player in the pathogenesis of CV disease in CKD. Molecular mechanisms responsible for CKD-associated lipid disorders are unique and greatly influenced by the stage of renal disease, presence and degree of proteinuria and in patients with ESRD, modality of renal replacement therapy. This article provides a detailed overview of the molecular mechanisms which cause dyslipidemia and the nature of lipid disorders associated with CKD and ESRD.

  8. Reentrant behavior in the superconducting phase-dependent resistance of a disordered two-dimensional electron gas

    den Hartog, S.G.; Wees, B.J.van; Klapwijk, T.M; Nazarov, Y.V.; Borghs, G.

    1997-01-01

    We have investigated the bias-voltage dependence of the phase-dependent differential resistance of a disordered T-shaped two-dimensional electron gas coupled to two superconducting terminals. The resistance oscillations first increase upon lowering the energy. For bias voltages below the Thouless

  9. Critical metal-insulator transition and divergence in a two-particle irreducible vertex in disordered and interacting electron systems

    Janiš, Václav; Pokorný, Vladislav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 4 (2014), "045143-1"-"045143-11" ISSN 1098-0121 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : metal-insulator transition * disordered and interacting electron systems * dynamical mean-field theory * critical behavior Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.736, year: 2014

  10. Main Achievements 2003-2004 - Condensed Matter Studies - Electronic structure of disordered alloys studied by Compton scattering

    2005-01-01

    3D momentum density and the Fermi surface of disordered Cu 0.86 Al 0.16 alloy were reconstructed from high-resolution Compton profiles. The effect known as ''nesting'' of the Fermi surface was revealed (cooperation with KEK, Tsukuba, Japan). This feature of the Fermi surface, when present, is believed to lead to local ordering phenomena in disordered systems. Our electron diffraction studies showed that a short-range order was indeed present in the alloy. Moreover, the character of the diffuse scattering (the four-fold splitting of the diffuse spots) pointed to the ''nesting'' of the Fermi surface as the origin of this ordering. The results lend support to the notion that the formation of the short-range order in nondiluted, disordered alloys can be driven by their electronic properties like the shape of the Fermi surface

  11. The vacancy order-disorder transition in Ba2YCu3Osub(7-delta) observed by means of electron diffraction and electron microscopy

    Tendeloo, G. Van; Amelinckx, S.; Zandbergen, H.W.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown by means of electron microscopy and electron diffraction that the ''structural'' vacancies in Ba 2 YCu 3 Osub(7-delta) undergo an order-disorder transformation accompanied by a change in symmetry from orthorhombic to tetragonal. A superstructure due to the ordering of vacancies was found in certain crystal parts; it leads to doubling of the asub(0) parameter. It is shown that the ordering of the vacancies is important for the superconducting behaviour. In order to obtain a high Tsub(c) superconductor the final heat treatment is crucial. (author)

  12. Electronic Health Record Based Algorithm to Identify Patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Todd Lingren

    Full Text Available Cohort selection is challenging for large-scale electronic health record (EHR analyses, as International Classification of Diseases 9th edition (ICD-9 diagnostic codes are notoriously unreliable disease predictors. Our objective was to develop, evaluate, and validate an automated algorithm for determining an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD patient cohort from EHR. We demonstrate its utility via the largest investigation to date of the co-occurrence patterns of medical comorbidities in ASD.We extracted ICD-9 codes and concepts derived from the clinical notes. A gold standard patient set was labeled by clinicians at Boston Children's Hospital (BCH (N = 150 and Cincinnati Children's Hospital and Medical Center (CCHMC (N = 152. Two algorithms were created: (1 rule-based implementing the ASD criteria from Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Diseases 4th edition, (2 predictive classifier. The positive predictive values (PPV achieved by these algorithms were compared to an ICD-9 code baseline. We clustered the patients based on grouped ICD-9 codes and evaluated subgroups.The rule-based algorithm produced the best PPV: (a BCH: 0.885 vs. 0.273 (baseline; (b CCHMC: 0.840 vs. 0.645 (baseline; (c combined: 0.864 vs. 0.460 (baseline. A validation at Children's Hospital of Philadelphia yielded 0.848 (PPV. Clustering analyses of comorbidities on the three-site large cohort (N = 20,658 ASD patients identified psychiatric, developmental, and seizure disorder clusters.In a large cross-institutional cohort, co-occurrence patterns of comorbidities in ASDs provide further hypothetical evidence for distinct courses in ASD. The proposed automated algorithms for cohort selection open avenues for other large-scale EHR studies and individualized treatment of ASD.

  13. In situ disordering of monoclinic titanium monoxide Ti5O5 studied by transmission electron microscope TEM.

    Rempel, А А; Van Renterghem, W; Valeeva, А А; Verwerft, M; Van den Berghe, S

    2017-09-07

    The superlattice and domain structures exhibited by ordered titanium monoxide Ti 5 O 5 are disrupted by low energy electron beam irradiation. The effect is attributed to the disordering of the oxygen and titanium sublattices. This disordering is caused by the displacement of both oxygen and titanium atoms by the incident electrons and results in a phase transformation of the monoclinic phase Ti 5 O 5 into cubic B1 titanium monoxide. In order to determine the energies required for the displacement of titanium or oxygen atoms, i.e. threshold displacement energies, a systematic study of the disappearance of superstructure reflections with increasing electron energy and electron bombardment dose has been performed in situ in a transmission electron microscope (TEM). An incident electron energy threshold between 120 and 140 keV has been observed. This threshold can be ascribed to the displacements of titanium atoms with 4 as well as with 5 oxygen atoms as nearest neighbors. The displacement threshold energy of titanium atoms in Ti 5 O 5 corresponding with the observed incident electron threshold energy lies between 6.0 and 7.5 eV. This surprisingly low value can be explained by the presence of either one or two vacant oxygen lattice sites in the nearest neighbors of all titanium atoms.

  14. Cannabis, Cannabinoids, and Cerebral Metabolism: Potential Applications in Stroke and Disorders of the Central Nervous System.

    Latorre, Julius Gene S; Schmidt, Elena B

    2015-09-01

    No compound has generated more attention in both the scientific and recently in the political arena as much as cannabinoids. These diverse groups of compounds referred collectively as cannabinoids have both been vilified due to its dramatic and potentially harmful psychotropic effects and glorified due to its equally dramatic and potential application in a number of acute and chronic neurological conditions. Previously illegal to possess, cannabis, the plant where natural form of cannabinoids are derived, is now accepted in a growing number of states for medicinal purpose, and some even for recreational use, increasing opportunities for more scientific experimentation. The purpose of this review is to summarize the growing body of literature on cannabinoids and to present an overview of our current state of knowledge of the human endocannabinoid system in the hope of defining the future of cannabinoids and its potential applications in disorders of the central nervous system, focusing on stroke.

  15. Disordering of two-dimensional oxyxgen lattices on Mo(011) initiated by electron transitions in oxygen and molybdenum atoms

    Zasimovich, I.N.; Klimenko, E.V.; Naumovets, A.G.

    1988-01-01

    The first observation of electron-induced disordering (EID) of the submonolayer film of heavier adsorbate-oxygen is reported. The investigation of energy dependence of the effective cross section of this process, which points to the fact that EID can be initiated by the electron transitions not only in adatoms, but in the substrate, is also presented. When irradiating by electrons, the sample surface cooled up to 77 K, intensity of diffraction reflects of the (2x2) and (6x2) structures decreases rather quickly, but the reflects of more dense (6x1) lattice do not practically attenuate. The conclusions are made that the knowledge of physical factors, determining the probability of radiation defect formation in an adfilm, gives the possibility either to avoid disordering, if it is undesirable, or to use it to control the surface properties

  16. Filter paper saturated by urine sample in metabolic disorders detection by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Blasco, Hélène; Garrigue, Marie-Ange; De Vos, Aymeric; Antar, Catherine; Labarthe, François; Maillot, François; Andres, Christian R; Nadal-Desbarats, Lydie

    2010-02-01

    NMR spectroscopy of urine samples is able to diagnose many inborn errors of metabolism (IEM). However, urinary metabolites have a poor stability, requiring special care for routine analysis (storage of urine at -20 or -80 degrees C, fast transport). The aim of our study was to investigate the reliability of dried urine filter paper for urine storage and transport and to evaluate the ability of NMR to detect several IEM using this method. Urine samples from five healthy subjects were analyzed by (1)H NMR following different storage conditions (-20 vs 4 degrees C vs dried on filter paper) and at different time points (24 h, 48 h, 96 h, and 7 days). Urine pattern of fresh urine was considered as a reference. We analyzed the conservation of some amino acids and organic acids using Bland and Altman plot with intraclass correlation coefficient determination. Then, we evaluated the use of filter paper to detect four different IEM (methylmalonic and isovaleric acidurias, ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, and cystinuria). Analysis of urine samples from healthy subjects revealed a high stability of studied molecules (ICC > 0.8) even after 7 days of storage on filter paper. Moreover, an excellent preservation of metabolites specifically accumulated in IEM was observed when analysis of dried urine filter paper was compared to fresh urine (coefficient of variation storage of dried urine on filter paper is reliable for (1)H NMR spectroscopy analysis. Preservation of urine molecules over time using that method is convenient for routine clinical practice.

  17. The effects of age, metabolic syndrome, nocturnal polyuria and sleep disorders on nocturia.

    Sağlam, Hasan S; Gökkaya, C Serkan; Salar, Remzi; Memiş, Ali; Adsan, Oztuğ

    2013-01-01

    Nocturia, which is especially frequent among older men, adversely affects the individual's quality of life. It is regarded as one of the most bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). The aim of the study was to investigate factors contributing to the frequency of nocturia. Men ≥ 40 years with LUTS were enrolled in this study. After medical histories were taken and physical examinations conducted, biochemical tests and measures for LUTS were carried out. Anthropometric measurements were performed and Epworth scores (ES) were examined. Patients were divided into two groups with respect to nocturia: the first group having no nocturia or one incident of nocturia per night, and the second group with two or more nightly incidents of nocturia. The data were analyzed statistically; p polyuria was associated with nocturia, systolic blood pressure and IPSS. Age, nocturnal polyuria, metabolic syndrome and sleep disturbances have been shown to be contributing factors in the frequency of nocturia and LUTS. Therefore, steps taken to alleviate factors that can be altered - such as hypertension, weight gain, sleep disturbances and IPSS - may improve the individual's quality of life.

  18. Lipid metabolic perturbation is an early-onset phenotype in adult spinster mutants: a Drosophila model for lysosomal storage disorders.

    Hebbar, Sarita; Khandelwal, Avinash; Jayashree, R; Hindle, Samantha J; Chiang, Yin Ning; Yew, Joanne Y; Sweeney, Sean T; Schwudke, Dominik

    2017-12-15

    Intracellular accumulation of lipids and swollen dysfunctional lysosomes are linked to several neurodegenerative diseases, including lysosomal storage disorders (LSD). Detailed characterization of lipid metabolic changes in relation to the onset and progression of neurodegeneration is currently missing. We systematically analyzed lipid perturbations in spinster (spin) mutants, a Drosophila model of LSD-like neurodegeneration. Our results highlight an imbalance in brain ceramide and sphingosine in the early stages of neurodegeneration, preceding the accumulation of endomembranous structures, manifestation of altered behavior, and buildup of lipofuscin. Manipulating levels of ceramidase and altering these lipids in spin mutants allowed us to conclude that ceramide homeostasis is the driving force in disease progression and is integral to spin function in the adult nervous system. We identified 29 novel physical interaction partners of Spin and focused on the lipid carrier protein, Lipophorin (Lpp). A subset of Lpp and Spin colocalize in the brain and within organs specialized for lipid metabolism (fat bodies and oenocytes). Reduced Lpp protein was observed in spin mutant tissues. Finally, increased levels of lipid metabolites produced by oenocytes in spin mutants allude to a functional interaction between Spin and Lpp, underscoring the systemic nature of lipid perturbation in LSD. © 2017 Hebbar et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  19. Effects of a Weight Loss Program on Metabolic Syndrome, Eating Disorders and Psychological Outcomes: Mediation by Endocannabinoids.

    Pataky, Zoltan; Carrard, Isabelle; Gay, Valerie; Thomas, Aurélien; Carpentier, Anne; Bobbioni-Harsch, Elisabetta; Golay, Alain

    2018-04-10

    To evaluate the effects of weight loss on endocannabinoids, cardiometabolic and psychological parameters, eating disorders (ED) as well as quality of life (QoL) and to elucidate the role of endocannabinoids in metabolic syndrome (MS). In total, 114 patients with obesity were prospectively included in a 12-month weight loss program. Plasma endocannabinoids were measured by mass spectrometry; ED, psychological and QoL-related parameters were evaluated by self-reported questionnaires; physical activity was measured by accelerometer. Nutritional assessment was done by a 3-day food diary. Among completers (n = 87), body weight decreased in 35 patients (-9.1 ± 8.6 kg), remained stable in 39 patients, and increased in 13 patients (+5.8 ± 3.4 kg). 75% of patients with MS at baseline were free of MS at follow-up, and their baseline plasma N-palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) values were significantly lower when compared to patients with persisting MS. At baseline, there was a positive relationship between PEA and waist circumference (p = 0.005, R2 = 0.08), fasting glucose (p < 0.0001, R2 = 0.12), total cholesterol (p = 0.001, R2 = 0.11), triglycerides (p = 0.001, R2 = 0.11), LDL-cholesterol (p = 0.03, R2 = 0.05) as well as depression score (p = 0.002, R2 = 0.29). Plasma PEA might play a role in metabolic improvement after weight loss. Even in subjects without weight loss, a multidisciplinary intervention improves psychological outcomes, ED, and QoL. © 2018 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  20. Effects of a Weight Loss Program on Metabolic Syndrome, Eating Disorders and Psychological Outcomes: Mediation by Endocannabinoids?

    Zoltan Pataky

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effects of weight loss on endocannabinoids, cardiometabolic and psychological parameters, eating disorders (ED as well as quality of life (QoL and to elucidate the role of endocannabinoids in metabolic syndrome (MS. Methods: In total, 114 patients with obesity were prospectively included in a 12-month weight loss program. Plasma endocannabinoids were measured by mass spectrometry; ED, psychological and QoL-related parameters were evaluated by self-reported questionnaires; physical activity was measured by accelerometer. Nutritional assessment was done by a 3-day food diary. Results: Among completers (n = 87, body weight decreased in 35 patients (-9.1 ± 8.6 kg, remained stable in 39 patients, and increased in 13 patients (+5.8 ± 3.4 kg. 75% of patients with MS at baseline were free of MS at follow-up, and their baseline plasma N-palmitoylethanolamide (PEA values were significantly lower when compared to patients with persisting MS. At baseline, there was a positive relationship between PEA and waist circumference (p = 0.005, R2 = 0.08, fasting glucose (p 2 = 0.12, total cholesterol (p = 0.001, R2 = 0.11, triglycerides (p = 0.001, R2 = 0.11, LDL-cholesterol (p = 0.03, R2 = 0.05 as well as depression score (p = 0.002, R2 = 0.29. Conclusion: Plasma PEA might play a role in metabolic improvement after weight loss. Even in subjects without weight loss, a multidisciplinary intervention improves psychological outcomes, ED, and QoL.

  1. [The relationship between metabolic disorders and small for gestational age with idiopathic premature adrenarche].

    Mejorado Molano, Francisco Javier; Andrés Zallo, Laura; Fornos Rodríguez, Marta; Pérez Segura, Pilar; Gavela Pérez, Teresa; Sanz Calvo, María Luisa; Soriano Guillén, Leandro

    2017-11-01

    There is still controversy on the relationship between idiopathic premature adrenarche (IPA) and a history of small for gestational age, as well as the concomitant presence of obesity and other metabolic disturbances. An attempt is made to study these potential associations in a cohort of girls with IPA from our hospital. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted that included girls with a diagnosis of IPA from the Paediatric Department of the Fundación Jiménez Díaz (Madrid, Spain) between January 2007 and May 2015. A record was made of family and personal history with perinatal data, as well as anthropometric data and biochemical values at the time of diagnosis. Out of a total of 76 girls with IPA, 2.7% had a history of small for gestational age. When body mass index was analysed according to modified criteria of WHO 2007/Cole 2000, 11.8% were overweight, and 11.8% were obese at diagnosis. Using the criteria set by the Spanish Ministry of Health, 6.6% were overweight and 18.4% obese, with 21.2% of the girls being insulin resistance, and 13.95% having dyslipidaemia. None of them had hypertension. From a comparative analysis between normal and overweight and obesity IPA girls, the latter had significantly higher levels of triglycerides and insulin, a higher HOMA index, and lower levels of HDL cholesterol. IPA girls included in the study do not have a higher prevalence of small for gestational age compared to the general population. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in girls with IPA is not higher than the prevalence in the normal population. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Long-term interdisciplinary therapy decreases symptoms of binge eating disorder and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adults with obesity.

    Leite, Paula Bresciani; Dâmaso, Ana Raimunda; Poli, Vanessa Schoenardie; Sanches, Ricardo Badan; Silva, Stephan Garcia Andrade; Fidalgo, João Pedro Novo; Nascimento, Maythe Amaral; de Oliveira, Camila Aparecida Machado; Caranti, Danielle Arisa

    2017-04-01

    Obesity-associated comorbidities greatly impact the quality and expectancy of life. Binge eating disorder (BED) is the most prevalent eating disorder and it is an important risk factor for obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS). For these reasons, we aimed to assess the effect of an interdisciplinary therapy on the symptoms of BED and the prevalence of MetS in obese adults. It was hypothesized that the interdisciplinary therapy would decrease symptoms of BED and markers of MetS. Twenty-four volunteers (BMI 34.80±3.17 kg/m 2 ; 41.21±6.28 years old) completed a 32-week intervention. Biochemical characteristics, body composition, the degree of symptoms of binge eating, and macronutrients, and sodium consumption pre- and post-treatment were determined. The prevalence of MetS dropped from 75% to 45.8%, post-therapy. Among the markers of MetS, waist circumference and systolic blood pressure decreased significantly, whereas high-density lipoprotein levels increased. Fasting plasma glucose, diastolic blood pressure, and triglycerides did not change. Based on binge-eating scale (BES) scores, before therapy, 33.3% of volunteers were classified as moderate bingers, and after therapy all volunteers were classified as having no BED symptoms. No difference in the prevalence of MetS between individuals classified as normal or moderate bingers was observed, but we found a positive post-therapy correlation between the BES score and body fat, gynoid fat and trunk fat. Sodium, fat, and carbohydrate consumption decreased. Protein intake did not change. In conclusion, the interdisciplinary approach was efficient in reducing symptoms of BED and MetS prevalence in this population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Therapeutic approach for metabolic disorders and infertility in women with PCOS.

    Morgante, G; Massaro, M G; Di Sabatino, A; Cappelli, V; De Leo, V

    2018-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine disorder affecting 5-10% of women of reproductive age. It generally shows with oligo/amenorrhea, anovulatory cycles, clinical o biochemical hirsutism, polycystic ovaries and, in a significant percentage of cases, insulin resistance. PCOS is defined as a multifactorial pathology, determined by the association of many factors: genetic, endocrine and environmental. The first and most effective treatment of PCOS is to change life-style and lose weight. The use of oral contraceptives has been shown effective in reducing acne and hirsutism and regulates the menstrual cycle. For women with severe hirsutism, the addition of antiandrogens to estrogen-progestin therapy has significantly improved the results. In cases of anovulatory infertility, the drug of first choice is clomiphene citrate, followed by low-dose gonadotropins. Recently, insulin-sensitizing drugs have been widely prescribed for PCOS patients. They are particularly effective in reducing insulin resistance and improving ovulatory performance. Besides insulin-sensitizing drugs, natural substances, such as inositol, seems to have good efficacy, similar to metformin with fewer side effects. New substances that could be used include statins and natural statins, such as monakolin, alone or combined with myo-inositol. These substances do not have side effects and greatly reduce the hyperandrogenic component in these patients.

  4. Genetic disorder in carbohydrates metabolism: hereditary fructose intolerance associated with celiac disease.

    Păcurar, Daniela; Leşanu, Gabriela; Dijmărescu, Irina; Ţincu, Iulia Florentina; Gherghiceanu, Mihaela; Orăşeanu, Dumitru

    2017-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) has been associated with several genetic and immune disorders, but association between CD and hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) is extremely rare. HFI is an autosomal recessive disease caused by catalytic deficiency of aldolase B (fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase). We report the case of a 5-year-old boy suffering from CD, admitted with an initial diagnosis of Reye's-like syndrome. He presented with episodic unconsciousness, seizures, hypoglycemia, hepatomegaly and abnormal liver function. The patient has been on an exclusion diet for three years, but he still had symptoms: stunting, hepatomegaly, high transaminases, but tissue transglutaminase antibodies were negative. Liver biopsy showed hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial damage. The dietary history showed an aversion to fruits, vegetables and sweet-tasting foods. The fructose tolerance test was positive, revealing the diagnostic of hereditary fructose intolerance. Appropriate dietary management and precautions were recommended. The patient has been symptom-free and exhibited normal growth and development until 10 years of age.

  5. Implementation of Electronic Health Records and Entrepreneurial Strategic Orientation in Substance Use Disorder Treatment Organizations.

    Fields, Dail; Riesenmy, Kelly; Blum, Terry C; Roman, Paul M

    2015-11-01

    This research studied the relationships of the components of entrepreneurial strategic orientation (ESO) with implementation of electronic health records (EHRs) within organizations that treat patients with substance use disorders (SUDs). A national sample of 317 SUD treatment providers were studied in a period after the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act was enacted (2009) and meaningful use EHR requirements were established (2010), but before implementation of the Affordable Care Act. The study sample was selected using stratified random sampling and was part of a longitudinal study of treatment providers across the United States. After we controlled for potentially confounding variables, four components of ESO had a significant relationship with EHR implementation. Levels of slack resources in an organization moderated the relationship of ESO with meaningful use of EHRs, increasing the strength of the relationship for some components but reducing the strength of others. From a policy and practice perspective, the results suggest that training and education to develop higher levels of ESO within SUD treatment organizations are likely to increase their level of meaningful use of EHRs, which in turn may enhance the integration of SUD treatment with primary medical providers, better preparing SUD treatment providers for the environmental changes of the Affordable Care Act.

  6. Upper extremities musculoskeletal disorders: Prevalence and associated ergonomic factors in an electronic assembly factory

    Somthus Pullopdissakul

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:To determine the magnitude, distribution and associated ergonomic factors of upper extremities musculoskeletal disorders (UEMSD among workers of electronic assembly in Thailand. Material and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. 591 of 853 workers in an electronic and electrical appliance assembly factory in Bangkok, Thailand, participated in this study. A self-administered questionnaire consisting of demographic data and ergonomic factors was collected from October 2010 to January 2011. Clinical examination of each worker was performed by an occupational physician. The criteria for diagnosis of UEMSD came as a result of a consensus reached by a group of orthopedists. The associated factors were analyzed using a multiple logistic regression. Results: The point prevalence of clinically diagnosed UEMSD was as follows: radial styloid tenosynovitis - 13.03% (95% CI: 10.31-15.75, trigger finger - 9.48% (95% CI: 7.11-11.84, carpal tunnel syndrome - 8.12% (95% CI: 5.91-10.33, lateral epicondylitis - 3.38% (95% CI: 1.92-4.85, and medial epicondylitis - 1.69% (95% CI: 0.65-2.73, respectively. The adjusted odds ratio with statistical significance associated with UEMSD was as follows: high force of wrist - 1.78 (95% CI: 1.06-2.99, awkward posture of wrist - 2.37 (95% CI: 1.28-4.37 and contact stress at wrists - 1.75 (95% CI: 1.02-3.00 to develop radial styloid tenosynovitis. For trigger finger, the ratios were awkward posture of fingers - 2.09 (95% CI: 1.12-3.90 and contact stress on finger - 1.86 (95% CI: 1.04-3.34. For medial epicondylitis, it was an awkward posture of using elbows - 3.14 (95% CI: 1.10-8.95. However, this study did not find any associations between repetitive motion and any UEMSD. Conclusions: UEMSD are most commonly found in electronic assembly workers. The relevant parties should provide comprehensive ergonomic resolution for these workers.

  7. Effect of disorder on the magnetic and electronic structure of a prospective spin-gapless semiconductor MnCrVAl

    P. Kharel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent discovery of a new class of materials, spin-gapless semiconductors (SGS, has attracted considerable attention in the last few years, primarily due to potential applications in the emerging field of spin-based electronics (spintronics. Here, we investigate structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of one potential SGS compound, MnCrVAl, using various experimental and theoretical techniques. Our calculations show that this material exhibits ≈ 0.5 eV band gap for the majority-spin states, while for the minority-spin it is nearly gapless. The calculated magnetic moment for the completely ordered structure is 2.9 μB/f.u., which is different from our experimentally measured value of almost zero. This discrepancy is explained by the structural disorder. In particular, A2 type disorder, where Mn or Cr atoms exchange their positions with Al atoms, results in induced antiferromagnetic exchange coupling, which, at a certain level of disorder, effectively reduces the total magnetic moment to zero. This is consistent with our x-ray diffraction measurements which indicate the presence of A2 disorder in all of our samples. In addition, we also show that B2 disorder does not result in antiferromagnetic exchange coupling and therefore does not significantly reduce the total magnetic moment.

  8. The IFSO Website (www.ifso.com): the Online Gateway to Obesity and Metabolic Disorders for Bariatric Surgery Professionals and Patients: On behalf of the IFSO Communications Committee.

    Khwaja, Haris; Coelho, António Jamel; Mazzarella, Manuela; Miller, Karl; Nimeri, Abdelrahman; Ponce, Jaime; Prachand, Vivek; Shikora, Scott; van Wagensveld, Bart; Weiner, Rudolf; Zundel, Natan

    2015-11-01

    The refurbished International Federation for the Surgery of Obesity and Metabolic Disorders (IFSO) website ( www.ifso.com ) showcases a wealth of high-quality information for bariatric surgery professionals and patients. The website provides free online access to the organisational structure of IFSO and useful information on IFSO-endorsed congresses, symposia and courses. Online access to the journal, Obesity Surgery, and the IFSO Newsletter can also be obtained via the IFSO website. There is also easy-to-understand information on the topics of obesity and the various bariatric/metabolic surgeries for our patients.

  9. Possible effect of pentoxifylline on oxidative stress and certain metabolic disorders in gamma irradiated rats

    Ashry, O.M.; Salama, S.F.; El Tahawy, N.A.

    2007-01-01

    Pentoxifylline (PTX) is a methylxanthine derivative and phospho-di esterase inhibitor used to treat cerebral, diabetic or functional disorders of vascular system. It lowers blood viscosity and improves erythrocyte flexibility and it has anti-oxidant properties and anti-inflammatory activity. In this study, PTX effects on antioxidant status of cerebral cortex and certain organ functions in rats subjected to 2 fractionated irradiation doses 4 and 8 Gy were investigated. Animals were divided into 4 groups: Group 1: which served as a control. Group 2: in which PTX was administered (1200 mg/ L daily for 6 rats) in drinking water for 8 and 16 days. Group 3: which was irradiated with fractionated irradiation at dose levels of 4 and 8 Gy (2 Gy every 4 days) for 8 and 16 days. Group 4: in which PTX was administered together with fractionated irradiation 4 and 8 Gy for 8 and 16 days. The cerebral cortex levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and malonaldehyde (MDA) levels as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, were determined. Serum ALT and AST activities and contents of glucose, uric acid and liver glycogen were also measured. Fractionated irradiation of 4 and 8 Gy significantly elevated GSH and MDA contents and SOD activity in cerebral cortex, while CAT activity was depressed. Exposure to fractionated dose level of 8 Gy caused significant elevation of serum ALT and AST activities, as well as liver glycogen contents and depressed uric acid level. PTX depressed MDA level and elevated the activity of antioxidant enzymes in cerebral cortex. ALT, AST activities and levels of uric acid and liver glycogen were lowered by PTX administration. Serum glucose was significantly decreased by all treatments applied. PTX might hold promise, as a useful therapeutic intervention, reducing late radiation injury via antioxidant pathway

  10. PSEUDOAFFINITY CHROMATOGRAPHY ENRICHMENT OF GLYCATED PEPTIDES FOR MONITORING ADVANCED GLYCATION END PRODUCTS (AGES IN METABOLIC DISORDERS

    Rajasekar R. Prasanna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Advanced Glycation End (AGE products are produced due to diabetic progression and they are responsible for many complications in the diabetic disorder. The diabetic progression is measured, particularly following glycated hemoglobin using specific antibodies. However, the most abundant protein in blood, human serum albumin, is also found to be glycated which has a much shorter half life and gives information on short term glycemic control. In addition, glycated albumins are considered as markers of diabetic complications such as nephropathy, peripheral vascular calcification and also in Alzheimer’s disease. The glycation proceeds from the interaction between aldehyde group of sugar and the free amino group of the protein, resulting in the formation of Schiff’s base, which undergoes a series of modifications leading to generation of imidazoyl derivatives of amino acids known as Amadori rearrangement products. The imidazoyl derivatives from arginine and lysine are the most prominent modifications observed in proteins in the presence of reducing sugar and these imidazoyl derivatives have an affinity towards certain transition metal ions. Based on our earlier exhaustive work on trapping the histidine peptides using transition metal ion, Cu(II linked to imino-diacetate complex, we explored Cu(II immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC as a potential tool for specific detection of glycated peptides of human serum albumin. Our results clearly demonstrate that Cu(II IMAC is able to detect glycated peptides very efficiently while the non-glycated forms were not retained on the Cu (II column as confirmed by LC-MS/MS analysis. We further discuss the utility of IMAC technology to enrich the detection of AGE products in plasma. We anticipate that these studies may provide valuable information on understanding disease pathologies and the potential of AGE products as biomarkers of various diseases including neurodegenerative, renal and

  11. Extracellular matrix metabolism disorder induced by mechanical strain on human parametrial ligament fibroblasts.

    Min, Jie; Li, Bingshu; Liu, Cheng; Guo, Wenjun; Hong, Shasha; Tang, Jianming; Hong, Li

    2017-05-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a global health problem that may seriously impact the quality of life of the sufferer. The present study aimed to investigate the potential mechanisms underlying alterations in extracellular matrix (ECM) metabolism in the pathogenesis of POP, by investigating the expression of ECM components in human parametrial ligament fibroblasts (hPLFs) subject to various mechanical strain loads. Fibroblasts derived from parametrial ligaments were cultured from patients with POP and without malignant tumors, who underwent vaginal hysterectomy surgery. Fibroblasts at generations 3‑6 of exponential phase cells were selected, and a four‑point bending device was used for 0, 1,333 or 5,333 µ mechanical loading of cells at 0.5 Hz for 4 h. mRNA and protein expression levels of collagen type I α 1 chain (COL1A1), collagen type III α 1 chain (COL3A1), elastin, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) ‑2 and ‑9, and transforming growth factor (TGF)‑β1 were detected by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. Under increased mechanical strain (5,333 µ), mRNA and protein expression levels of COL1A1, COL3A1 elastin and TGF‑β1 decreased, particularly COL1A1; however, mRNA and protein expression levels of MMP‑2 and ‑9 were significantly increased, compared with the control group (0 µ strain). Following 1,333 µ mechanical strain, mRNA and protein expression levels of COL1A1, COL3A1 elastin and MMP‑2 increased, and MMP‑9 decreased, whereas no significant differences were observed in TGF‑β1 mRNA and protein expression levels. In conclusion, ECM alterations may be involved in pathogenesis of POP, with decreased synthesis and increased degradation of collagen and elastin. Furthermore, the TGF‑β1 signaling pathway may serve an important role in this process and thus may supply a new target and strategy for understanding the etiology and therapy of POP.

  12. Giant Andreev Backscattering through a Quantum Point Contact Coupled via a Disordered Two-Dimensional Electron Gas to Superconductors

    den Hartog, S.G.; van Wees, B.J.; Klapwijk, T.M.; Nazarov, Y.V.; Borghs, G.

    1997-01-01

    We have investigated the superconducting-phase-modulated reduction in the resistance of a ballistic quantum point contact (QPC) connected via a disordered two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) to superconductors. We show that this reduction is caused by coherent Andreev backscattering of holes through the QPC, which increases monotonically by reducing the bias voltage to zero. In contrast, the magnitude of the phase-dependent resistance of the disordered 2DEG displays a nonmonotonic reentrant behavior versus bias voltage. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  13. Role of Metabolic Genes in Blood Arsenic Concentrations of Jamaican Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Mohammad H. Rahbar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a toxic metalloid with known adverse effects on human health. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST genes, including GSTT1, GSTP1, and GSTM1, play a major role in detoxification and metabolism of xenobiotics. We investigated the association between GST genotypes and whole blood arsenic concentrations (BASC in Jamaican children with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD. We used data from 100 ASD cases and their 1:1 age- and sex-matched typically developing (TD controls (age 2–8 years from Jamaica. Using log-transformed BASC as the dependent variable in a General Linear Model, we observed a significant interaction between GSTP1 and ASD case status while controlling for several confounding variables. However, for GSTT1 and GSTM1 we did not observe any significant associations with BASC. Our findings indicate that TD children who had the Ile/Ile or Ile/Val genotype for GSTP1 had a significantly higher geometric mean BASC than those with genotype Val/Val (3.67 µg/L vs. 2.69 µg/L, p < 0.01. Although, among the ASD cases, this difference was not statistically significant, the direction of the observed difference was consistent with that of the TD control children. These findings suggest a possible role of GSTP1 in the detoxification of arsenic.

  14. Defects and related phenomena in electron irradiated ordered or disordered Fe-Co and Fe-Co-V alloys

    Riviere, J.P.; Dinhut, J.F.; Desarmot, G.

    1983-01-01

    Two B 2 type alloys Fe 50 at.%-Co 50 at.% and Fe 49 at.%-Co 49 at.%-V 2 at.% either in the ordered or the disordered state have been irradiated with 2.5 MeV electrons at liquid hydrogen temperature. The recovery of the resistivity damage was studied during subsequent isochronal annealing up to 700 K. The resistivity damage rates for both initially disordered Fe-Co and Fe-Co-V alloys are interpreted in terms of point defect production. The intrinsic resistivities rhosub(F) of Frenkel pairs and the effective recombination volumes V 0 are determined. In the Fe-Co ordered alloy point defect production superimposed with a disordering process can account for the resistivity damage. The effective displacement rate causing disordering is determined, indicating that replacement collisions are the dominant disordering mechanism. A calculation of the average number of replacements along directions per Frenkel pair is proposed. During the recovery of the radiation induced resistivity three main stages are observed in both ordered and disordered alloys. The particular resistivity behavior of the Fe-Co-V alloy complicates the interpretation of production and recovery data. (author)

  15. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism analysis in parkinsonian disorders; Pathologie extrapyramidale. Apport de l'imagerie de perfusion et du metabolisme (TEP, TEM)

    Defebvre, L. [Hopital Roger Salengro, Service de Neurologie, 59 - Lille (France)

    1999-12-01

    Main metabolic and hemodynamic abnormalities detected by single photon emission computerized tomography and positron emission tomography in extra-pyramidal disorders are reported. In the first stage of Parkinson's disease, cortical metabolism and perfusion can be in normal range or moderately and uniformly reduced. A significant decrease may appear with the disease evolution. Marked abnormalities are observed in parkinsonian patients with dementia (subcortical dementia), involving especially the frontal cortex. A marked diffuse cortical hypo-metabolism (temporal, parietal, occipital and frontal cortex) may suggest the diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies, especially in case of fluctuating cognitive decline with recurrent visual hallucinations. In progressive supra-nuclear palsy, a frontal cortex hypo-metabolism is reported precociously, preceding sometimes the cognitive impairment. Metabolic pattern find in multiple system atrophy reflects dysfunction of both nigrostriatal pathways and striatum, with a decrease glucose uptake in putamen and caudate nucleus which also involves cerebellum for the patients with cerebellar syndrome. In cortico-basal degeneration, asymmetric fronto-parietal and striatal hypo-metabolism observed in the controlateral hemisphere to the clinically most affected side, constitute the main characteristic well correlated with apraxia. (author)

  16. [Age-related aspects of the extent of lipid metabolism and post-traumatic stress disorders among veterans of modern warfare].

    Torgashov, M N; Miakotnykh, V S; Pal'tsev, A I

    2013-01-01

    The peculiarities of violations of lipid metabolism and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in 161 patients of 25-69 years, veterans of the military actions on the territory of Afghanistan and the Northern Caucasus were investigated. The dependence of the formation of dyslipidemia and related changes of atherosclerosis in the young age on neuroendocrine effects, accompanying the effects of combat stress and promoting accelerated aging was determined. On the other hand, with the time, after 15-25 years after participating in hostilities, the intensity of PTSD and its influence on the development of violations of lipid spectrum may decline. The leading role in the pathogenesis of dyslipidemia goes to age-related changes, accompanying a process of accelerated aging of veterans of combat operations, and to pathological disorders of metabolism in liver associated with alcohol abuse and the consequences of infectious diseases.

  17. Early life stress induces attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like behavioral and brain metabolic dysfunctions: functional imaging of methylphenidate treatment in a novel rodent model.

    Bock, J; Breuer, S; Poeggel, G; Braun, K

    2017-03-01

    In a novel animal model Octodon degus we tested the hypothesis that, in addition to genetic predisposition, early life stress (ELS) contributes to the etiology of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder-like behavioral symptoms and the associated brain functional deficits. Since previous neurochemical observations revealed that early life stress impairs dopaminergic functions, we predicted that these symptoms can be normalized by treatment with methylphenidate. In line with our hypothesis, the behavioral analysis revealed that repeated ELS induced locomotor hyperactivity and reduced attention towards an emotionally relevant acoustic stimulus. Functional imaging using ( 14 C)-2-fluoro-deoxyglucose-autoradiography revealed that the behavioral symptoms are paralleled by metabolic hypoactivity of prefrontal, mesolimbic and subcortical brain areas. Finally, the pharmacological intervention provided further evidence that the behavioral and metabolic dysfunctions are due to impaired dopaminergic neurotransmission. Elevating dopamine in ELS animals by methylphenidate normalized locomotor hyperactivity and attention-deficit and ameliorated brain metabolic hypoactivity in a dose-dependent manner.

  18. Use of diphosphonates to correct disorders in calcium metabolism and mineral composition of bone tissue with 60-day hypokinesia in rats

    Morukov, B. V.; Zaychik, V. YE.; Ivanov, V. M.; Orlov, O. I.

    1988-01-01

    Compounds of the diphosphonate group suppress bone resorption and bone tissue metabolism, from which it was assumed that they can be used for the prevention of osteoporosis and disorders of calcium homeostasis in humans during space flight. Two compounds of this group were used for preventive purposes in 60 day hypokinesia in rats. The results showed that diphosphonates have a marked effect on calcium metabolism and the condition of the bone tissues under conditions of long term hypokinesia: they reduce the content of ionized calcium in blood, delay the loss of calcium and phosphorus by the bone tissue, and to a considerable degree prevent reduction of bone density. This confirms the possibility of using compounds of this group for correcting and preventing changes of bone tissue and mineral metabolism during long term hypokinesia.

  19. Symptoms of Eating Disorders and Depression in Emerging Adults with Early-Onset, Long-Duration Type 1 Diabetes and Their Association with Metabolic Control.

    Christina Bächle

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the prevalence of and association between symptoms of eating disorders and depression in female and male emerging adults with early-onset, long-duration type 1 diabetes and investigated how these symptoms are associated with metabolic control.In a nationwide population-based survey, 211 type 1 diabetes patients aged 18-21 years completed standardized questionnaires, including the SCOFF questionnaire for eating disorder symptoms and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9 for symptoms of depression and severity of depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 score. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were used to analyze the association between eating disorder and depressive symptoms and their associations with HbA1c.A total of 30.2% of the women and 9.5% of the men were screening positive for eating disorders. The mean PHQ-9 score (standard deviation was 5.3 (4.4 among women and 3.9 (3.6 among men. Screening positive for an eating disorder was associated with more severe depressive symptoms among women (βwomen 3.8, p<0.001. However, neither eating disorder symptoms nor severity of depressive symptoms were associated with HbA1c among women, while HbA1c increased with the severity of depressive symptoms among men (βmen 0.14, p=0.006.Because of the high prevalence of eating disorder and depressive symptoms, their interrelationship, and their associations with metabolic control, particularly among men, regular mental health screening is recommended for young adults with type 1 diabetes.

  20. Symptoms of Eating Disorders and Depression in Emerging Adults with Early-Onset, Long-Duration Type 1 Diabetes and Their Association with Metabolic Control.

    Bächle, Christina; Lange, Karin; Stahl-Pehe, Anna; Castillo, Katty; Scheuing, Nicole; Holl, Reinhard W; Giani, Guido; Rosenbauer, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed the prevalence of and association between symptoms of eating disorders and depression in female and male emerging adults with early-onset, long-duration type 1 diabetes and investigated how these symptoms are associated with metabolic control. In a nationwide population-based survey, 211 type 1 diabetes patients aged 18-21 years completed standardized questionnaires, including the SCOFF questionnaire for eating disorder symptoms and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) for symptoms of depression and severity of depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 score). Multiple linear and logistic regression models were used to analyze the association between eating disorder and depressive symptoms and their associations with HbA1c. A total of 30.2% of the women and 9.5% of the men were screening positive for eating disorders. The mean PHQ-9 score (standard deviation) was 5.3 (4.4) among women and 3.9 (3.6) among men. Screening positive for an eating disorder was associated with more severe depressive symptoms among women (βwomen 3.8, peating disorder symptoms nor severity of depressive symptoms were associated with HbA1c among women, while HbA1c increased with the severity of depressive symptoms among men (βmen 0.14, p=0.006). Because of the high prevalence of eating disorder and depressive symptoms, their interrelationship, and their associations with metabolic control, particularly among men, regular mental health screening is recommended for young adults with type 1 diabetes.

  1. Disordered redox metabolism of brain cells in rats exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation or UHF electromagnetic radiation.

    Burlaka, A P; Druzhyna, M O; Vovk, A V; Lukin, S М

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the changes of redox-state of mammalian brain cells as the critical factor of initiation and formation of radiation damage of biological structures in setting of continuous exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation or fractionated ultra high frequency electromagnetic radiation (UHF EMR) at non-thermal levels. The influence of low-intensity ionizing radiation was studied on outbred female rats kept for 1.5 years in the Chernobyl accident zone. The effects of total EMR in the UHF band of non-thermal spectrum were investigated on Wistar rats. The rate of formation of superoxide radicals and the rate of NO synthesis in mitochondria were determined by the EPR. After exposure to ionizing or UHF radiation, the levels of ubisemiquinone in brain tissue of rats decreased by 3 and 1.8 times, respectively. The content of NO-FeS-protein complexes in both groups increased significantly (р < 0.05). In the conditions of ionizing or EMR the rates of superoxide radical generation in electron-transport chain of brain cell mitochondria increased by 1.5- and 2-fold, respectively (р < 0.05). In brain tissue of rats kept in the Chernobyl zone, significant increase of NO content was registered; similar effect was observed in rats treated with UHFR (р < 0.05). The detected changes in the electron transport chain of mitochondria of brain cells upon low-intensity irradiation or UHF EMR cause the metabolic reprogramming of cell mitochondria that increases the rate of superoxide radical generation and nitric oxide, which may initiate the development of neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "The Chornobyl Nuclear Accident: Thirty Years After".

  2. High-Glucose or -Fructose Diet Cause Changes of the Gut Microbiota and Metabolic Disorders in Mice without Body Weight Change

    Moon Ho Do

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available High fat diet-induced changes in gut microbiota have been linked to intestinal permeability and metabolic endotoxemia, which is related to metabolic disorders. However, the influence of a high-glucose (HGD or high-fructose (HFrD diet on gut microbiota is largely unknown. We performed changes of gut microbiota in HGD- or HFrD-fed C57BL/6J mice by 16S rRNA analysis. Gut microbiota-derived endotoxin-induced metabolic disorders were evaluated by glucose and insulin tolerance test, gut permeability, Western blot and histological analysis. We found that the HGD and HFrD groups had comparatively higher blood glucose and endotoxin levels, fat mass, dyslipidemia, and glucose intolerance without changes in bodyweight. The HGD- and HFrD-fed mice lost gut microbial diversity, characterized by a lower proportion of Bacteroidetes and a markedly increased proportion of Proteobacteria. Moreover, the HGD and HFrD groups had increased gut permeability due to alterations to the tight junction proteins caused by gut inflammation. Hepatic inflammation and lipid accumulation were also markedly increased in the HGD and HFrD groups. High levels of glucose or fructose in the diet regulate the gut microbiota and increase intestinal permeability, which precedes the development of metabolic endotoxemia, inflammation, and lipid accumulation, ultimately leading to hepatic steatosis and normal-weight obesity.

  3. Relationship between diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis, abdominal aortic calcification and associated metabolic disorders: Data from the Camargo Cohort.

    Pariente-Rodrigo, Emilio; Sgaramella, Giusi Alessia; Olmos-Martínez, José Manuel; Pini-Valdivieso, Stefanie Francesca; Landeras-Alvaro, Rosa; Hernández-Hernández, José Luis

    2017-09-08

    Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) and abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) are related to an increased cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to analyse a possible relationship between both entities and also the association between metabolic disorders and DISH. Analytic cross-sectional study in a population-based cohort. DISH (with Resnick-Niwayama criteria) and AAC (with AAC-24 scale) were assessed on plain x-ray images. Interaction terms between DISH and forty clinical covariates were also investigated, through correlation analysis and multivariate regression. Nine hundred eighty-seven males aged≥50 years, with a mean age=65,5±9 years, were evaluated. Prevalence rates of DISH and AAC were 21.6% and 58.7%, respectively. DISH+ subjects were older (68.1±9 vs. 63.8±9 years; P=.0001) and more likely to be affected by metabolic syndrome (MS) (55.6% vs. 36.6%; P=.0001). In DISH+ subjects, the AAC was 3.7±5 points, whereas in DISH- subjects it was 3.3±5 (P=.25). AAC was associated with an increased risk of prevalent DISH (unadjusted OR=1.4 [CI95%: 1.01-1.9]; P=.04), that disappeared when it was adjusted for age (adjusted OR=1.1 [CI95%: 0.8-1.5];P=.47]. No association was found between DISH and hypertension, diabetes or dyslipidaemia; however, age (OR=2.2 [CI95%: 1.6-3]; P=.0001), BMI (OR=1.5 [CI95%: 1.1-2]; P=.007), waist circumference (OR=1.5 [CI95%: 1.04-2,3]; P=.03) and MS (OR=1.7 [CI95%: 1.1-2.4]; P=.005) showed a significant relationship with DISH after adjusting for confounders. The study was not able to demonstrate a consistent association between DISH and AAC, proving only a weak and age-dependent relationship between them. DISH proved to be significantly associated with age, BMI, waist circumference and MS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Carbohydrate metabolism and metabolic disorders in horses Metabolismo de carboidratos e disfunções metabólicas em equinos

    Rhonda M. Hoffman

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Horses evolved consuming primarily fermentable forage carbohydrates, but forage diets have been traditionally supplemented with grain meals rich in starch and sugar in order to provide additional calories, protein and micronutrients. Starch and sugar are important for performance horses, but the consumption starch-rich meals may cause equine digestive and metabolic disorders. The critical capacity for preileal starch digestibility appears to be 0.35 to 0.4% but may be as little, depending on the source of starch. Small intestinal absorption of simple sugars is limited by the activity and expression of two classes of glucose carrier proteins, which are affected by chronic intake of hydrolyzable carbohydrate but may be sluggish to respond to abrupt changes in diet, further exacerbating the risk of overload. The most rapid fermentation occurs during starch overload or in the presence of fructans. Rapid fermentation perturbs the microbial and pH balance of the cecum and colon, favoring proliferation of Lactobacillus spp and acid production and increasing the risk of colic and laminitis. In addition to digestive disturbances, feeding grain concentrates rich in hydrolyzable carbohydrate may increase the risk of insulin resistance, which has been associated with obesity, laminitis and chronic founder, developmental orthopedic disease, and Cushing's disease in horses. This threshold concentration of starch intake may be a starting point for horse owners, feed manufacturers and veterinarians that may be claimed to be "low" enough to reduce risk in insulin resistant horses sensitive to grain-associated disorders.Equinos desenvolvem-se consumindo primordialmente os carboidratos fermentáveis das forragens, porém as dietas a base de forragens vem sendo suplementadas com dietas a base de grãos, ricas em amido e açúcar, visando fornecer adicionais calorias, proteínas e micronutrientes. Amido e açucares são importantes para os equinos atletas, porém o

  5. "RISK ASSESSMENT OF DEVELOPING DISTAL UPPER EXTREMITY DISORDERS BY STRAIN INDEX METHOD IN AN ASSEMBLING ELECTRONIC INDUSTRY"

    M. Pourmahabadian

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The strain index (SI is a substantial advancement and has been devised to analyze ergonomic risks for distal upper extremity (DUE disorders. This semi-quantitative tool allows for the measurement of hazards and does not require unduly lengthy training to begin to use it accurately. Uses of the strain index include analysis of a current job to assess whether it is safe or hazardous, quantification of the risks, and assistance in the initial design of a job or in the redesign of a job. The aim of this study was to assess and analyze risk of developing DUE disorders in different jobs as well as hazard classification in an assembling electronic industry through SI method. Also, DUE disorders prevalence, work-related absenteeism and turnover extracted from SI results were compared and assessed by those obtained by Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire (NMQ. The findings of this study showed that more than 50% of investigated jobs are categorized as "hazardous" and there is a significant difference between SI mean in hazardous and safe jobs (P < 0.0001. In addition, significant difference was found between prevalence of DUE disorders in "safe" and "hazardous" jobs (P < 0.049. But, no significant difference (P = 0.3 was obtained between mean absenteeism in "safe" and hazardous jobs. Also, no significant difference statistically was found between turnover in "safe" and hazardous jobs (X2 = 0.133, P = 1 and high prevalence of DUE disorders is due to low turnover rate of workers.

  6. Stress-activated miR-21/miR-21* in hepatocytes promotes lipid and glucose metabolic disorders associated with high-fat diet consumption.

    Calo, Nicolas; Ramadori, Pierluigi; Sobolewski, Cyril; Romero, Yannick; Maeder, Christine; Fournier, Margot; Rantakari, Pia; Zhang, Fu-Ping; Poutanen, Matti; Dufour, Jean-François; Humar, Bostjan; Nef, Serge; Foti, Michelangelo

    2016-11-01

    miR-21 is an oncomir highly upregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma and in early stages of liver diseases characterised by the presence of steatosis. Whether upregulation of miR-21 contributes to hepatic metabolic disorders and their progression towards cancer is unknown. This study aims at investigating the role of miR-21/miR-21* in early stages of metabolic liver disorders associated with diet-induced obesity (DIO). Constitutive miR-21/miR-21* knockout (miR21KO) and liver-specific miR-21/miR-21* knockout (LImiR21KO) mice were generated. Mice were then fed with high-fat diet (HFD) and alterations of the lipid and glucose metabolism were investigated. Serum and ex vivo explanted liver tissue were analysed. Under normal breeding conditions and standard diet, miR-21/miR-21* deletion in mice was not associated with any detectable phenotypic alterations. However, when mice were challenged with an obesogenic diet, glucose intolerance, steatosis and adiposity were improved in mice lacking miR-21/miR-21* . Deletion of miR-21/miR-21* specifically in hepatocytes led to similar improvements in mice fed an HFD, indicating a crucial role for hepatic miR-21/miR-21* in metabolic disorders associated with DIO. Further molecular analyses demonstrated that miR-21/miR-21* deletion in hepatocytes increases insulin sensitivity and modulates the expression of multiple key metabolic transcription factors involved in fatty acid uptake, de novo lipogenesis, gluconeogenesis and glucose output. Hepatic miR-21/miR-21* deficiency prevents glucose intolerance and steatosis in mice fed an obesogenic diet by altering the expression of several master metabolic regulators. This study points out miR-21/miR-21 * as a potential therapeutic target for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and the metabolic syndrome. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. CYP2D6 predicted metabolizer status and safety in adult patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder participating in a large placebo-controlled atomoxetine maintenance of response clinical trial.

    Fijal, Bonnie A; Guo, Yingying; Li, Si G; Ahl, Jonna; Goto, Taro; Tanaka, Yoko; Nisenbaum, Laura K; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P

    2015-10-01

    Atomoxetine, which is indicated for treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), is predominantly metabolized by genetically polymorphic cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6). Based on identified CYP2D6 genotypes, individuals can be categorized into 4 phenotypic metabolizer groups as ultrarapid, extensive, intermediate, and poor. Previous studies have focused on observed differences between poor and extensive metabolizers, but it is not well understood whether the safety profile of intermediate metabolizers differs from that of ultrarapid and extensive metabolizers. This study compared safety and tolerability among the different CYP2D6 metabolizer groups in the 12-week open-label phase of an atomoxetine study in adult patients with ADHD. Genotyping identified 1039 patients as extensive/ultrarapid metabolizers, 780 patients as intermediate metabolizers, and 117 patients as poor metabolizers. Common (≥5% frequency) treatment-emergent adverse events did not significantly differ between extensive/ultrarapid and intermediate metabolizers (odds ratios were 0.5). Poor metabolizers had higher frequencies of dry mouth, erectile dysfunction, hyperhidrosis, insomnia, and urinary retention compared with the other metabolizer groups. There were no significant differences between extensive/ultrarapid and intermediate metabolizers in changes from baseline in vital signs. These results suggest that data from CYP2D6 intermediate and extensive/ultrarapid metabolizers can be combined when considering safety analyses related to atomoxetine. © 2015, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  8. Pericardial adipose tissue and the metabolic syndrome is increased in patients with chronic major depressive disorder compared to acute depression and controls.

    Kahl, K G; Herrmann, J; Stubbs, B; Krüger, T H C; Cordes, J; Deuschle, M; Schweiger, U; Hüper, K; Helm, S; Birkenstock, A; Hartung, D

    2017-01-04

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with an estimated fourfold risk for premature death, largely attributed to cardiovascular disorders. Pericardial adipose tissue (PAT), a fat compartment surrounding the heart, has been implicated in the development of coronary artery disease. An unanswered question is whether people with chronic MDD are more likely to have elevated PAT volumes versus acute MDD and controls (CTRL). The study group consists of sixteen patients with chronic MDD, thirty-four patients with acute MDD, and twenty-five CTRL. PAT and adrenal gland volume were measured by magnetic resonance tomography. Additional measures comprised factors of the metabolic syndrome, cortisol, relative insulin resistance, and pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6; IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α, TNF-α). PAT volumes were significantly increased in patients with chronic MDD>patients with acute MDD>CTRL. Adrenal gland volume was slightly enlarged in patients with chronic MDD>acute MDD>CTRL, although this difference failed to reach significance. The PAT volume was correlated with adrenal gland volume, and cortisol concentrations were correlated with depression severity, measured by BDI-2 and MADRS. Group differences were found concerning the rate of the metabolic syndrome, being most frequent in chronic MDD>acute MDD>CTRL. Further findings comprised increased fasting cortisol, increased TNF-α concentration, and decreased physical activity level in MDD compared to CTRL. Our results extend the existing literature in demonstrating that patients with chronic MDD have the highest risk for developing cardiovascular disorders, indicated by the highest PAT volume and prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The correlation of PAT with adrenal gland volume underscores the role of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal system as mediator for body-composition changes. Metabolic monitoring, health advices and motivation for the improvement of physical fitness may be recommended in

  9. Influence of chemical disorder on the electronic level spacing distribution of the Ag{sub 5083} nanoparticle: A tight-binding study

    Medrano, L.R., E-mail: leonardoms20@gmail.com [Faculty of Physical Sciences, National University of San Marcos, P.O. Box 14-0149, Lima 14 (Peru); Landauro, C.V., E-mail: clandauros@unmsm.edu.pe [Faculty of Physical Sciences, National University of San Marcos, P.O. Box 14-0149, Lima 14 (Peru)

    2013-03-01

    In the present work we study, employing a tight-binding Hamiltonian, the influence of chemical disorder on the electronic level spacing distribution of a silver nanoparticle containing 5083 atoms (∼ 5.5 nm). This nanoparticle was obtained by molecular dynamics simulations with a tight-binding atomic potential. The results indicate that in the absence of disorder the level spacing distributions are similar to those expected for systems belonging to the Gaussian Orthogonal Ensemble. Whereas, after increasing the chemical disorder, the electronic level spacing distribution and the Σ{sub 2} statistics tend to the corresponding form for the Poisson Ensemble, i.e., the silver nanoparticle acquires an insulating character which is expected for strongly disordered systems. Hence, this kind of disorder produces the localization of the electronic states of the nanoparticle.

  10. The Electronic CardioMetabolic Program (eCMP) for Patients With Cardiometabolic Risk: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Azar, Kristen M J; Koliwad, Suneil; Poon, Tak; Xiao, Lan; Lv, Nan; Griggs, Robert; Ma, Jun

    2016-05-27

    Effective lifestyle interventions targeting high-risk adults that are both practical for use in ambulatory care settings and scalable at a population management level are needed. Our aim was to examine the potential effectiveness, feasibility, and acceptability of delivering an evidence-based Electronic Cardio-Metabolic Program (eCMP) for improving health-related quality of life, improving health behaviors, and reducing cardiometabolic risk factors in ambulatory care high-risk adults. We conducted a randomized, wait-list controlled trial with 74 adults aged ≥18 years recruited from a large multispecialty health care organization. Inclusion criteria were (1) BMI ≥35 kg/m(2) and prediabetes, previous gestational diabetes and/or metabolic syndrome, or (2) BMI ≥30 kg/m(2) and type 2 diabetes and/or cardiovascular disease. Participants had a mean age of 59.7 years (SD 11.2), BMI 37.1 kg/m(2) (SD 5.4) and were 59.5% female, 82.4% white. Participants were randomized to participate in eCMP immediately (n=37) or 3 months later (n=37). eCMP is a 6-month program utilizing video conferencing, online tools, and pre-recorded didactic videos to deliver evidence-based curricula. Blinded outcome assessments were conducted at 3 and 6 months postbaseline. Data were collected and analyzed between 2014 and 2015. The primary outcome was health-related quality of life. Secondary outcomes included biometric cardiometabolic risk factors (eg, body weight), self-reported diet and physical activity, mental health status, retention, session attendance, and participant satisfaction. Change in quality of life was not significant in both immediate and delayed participants. Both groups significantly lost weight and reduced waist circumference at 6 months, with some cardiometabolic factors trending accordingly. Significant reduction in self-reported anxiety and perceived stress was seen in the immediate intervention group at 6 months. Retention rate was 93% at 3 months and 86% at 6 months

  11. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    ... of ASA in older babies and children include: Breathing problems High levels of ammonia in the bloodIntense headache, especially after a high-protein meal (for example, a large meal of meat, fish or eggs) Little appetite and disliking meat and ...

  12. Sleep and Metabolism: An Overview

    Sunil Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep and its disorders are increasingly becoming important in our sleep deprived society. Sleep is intricately connected to various hormonal and metabolic processes in the body and is important in maintaining metabolic homeostasis. Research shows that sleep deprivation and sleep disorders may have profound metabolic and cardiovascular implications. Sleep deprivation, sleep disordered breathing, and circadian misalignment are believed to cause metabolic dysregulation through myriad pathways involving sympathetic overstimulation, hormonal imbalance, and subclinical inflammation. This paper reviews sleep and metabolism, and how sleep deprivation and sleep disorders may be altering human metabolism.

  13. Usefulness of a new anthropometric indicator - VAI (Visceral Adiposity Index) in the evaluation of metabolic and hormonal disorders in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Brończyk-Puzoń, Anna; Jagielski, Paweł; Kulik-Kupka, Karolina; Koszowska, Aneta; Nowak, Justyna; Zubelewicz-Szkodzińska, Barbara

    2017-08-01

    Visceral adiposity index (VAI) is a new anthropometric indicator that makes it possible to define the risk of obesity-related cardiometabolic complications even before the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. Evaluating the usefulness of VAI in order to differentiate metabolically unhealthy women (MU-PCOS) and defining the usefulness of this index in everyday practice. A prospective study was conducted among 43 women who met the Rotterdam criteria for diagnosing polycystic ovarian syndrome. Body composition was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Statistical analysis was performed using STATISTICA v. 10 and relevant statistical tests. The adopted significance level was p = 0.05. Based on the study results, a significant positive correlation was found between the value of VAI and the concentration of insulin (r = 0.33; p index (r = 0.46; p correlation between VAI and the concentration of SHBG (r = -0.53; p HDL cholesterol (r = -0.88; p adiposity index makes it possible to introduce early prevention of metabolic disorders (including cardiometabolic disorders), as well as to evaluate the increase of hyperandrogenemia in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. The use of the cut-off point of VAI = 1.675 is a simple way to evaluate women with MU-PCOS.

  14. Correction of protein metabolic disorders by composite extract of Musa paradisiaca and Coccinia indica in streptozotocin-induced diabetic albino rat: an approach through the pancreas.

    Mallick, Chhanda; De, Debasis; Ghosh, Debidas

    2009-04-01

    The study focused on the ability of the extracts of Musa paradisiaca and Coccinia indica on protein metabolic disorders in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. Wistar strain rats were divided into 6 groups as control, control + composite extract treated, STZ-induced diabetes, diabetic + composite extract treated, composite extract-pretreated diabetes, and composite extract-pretreated diabetes + composite extract treated. Protein metabolic status was assessed by serum levels of urea, uric acid, albumin, and creatinine along with urine urea and albumin levels. Diabetic therapeutic ability was assessed by blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, and serum insulin levels. Histology of the pancreas, liver, and kidney was evaluated. Indices of protein metabolic disorders were deviated from control in STZ-induced diabetes, which were protected significantly after the treatment of composite extract of M. paradisiaca and C. indica. This protection was more prominent when the extract-pretreated animals were subjected to diabetes induction by STZ. The composite extract has a protective therapeutic effect against diabetes through beta-cell regeneration capacity.

  15. Risk factor assessment and counselling for 12 months reduces metabolic and cardiovascular risk in overweight or obese patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders: The CRESSOB study.

    Gutiérrez-Rojas, Luis; Pulido, Susana; Azanza, Jose R; Bernardo, Miguel; Rojo, Luis; Mesa, Francisco J; Martínez-Ortega, Jose M

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) and cardiovascular risk factors (CRF) have been associated with patients with schizophrenia. The main objective is to assess the evolution of CRF and prevalence of MS for 12 months in a cohort of overweight patients diagnosed with schizophrenia schizophreniform disorder or schizoaffective disorder in which the recommendations for the assessment and control of metabolic and cardiovascular risk were applied. The Control of Metabolic and Cardiovascular Risk in Patients with Schizophrenia and Overweight (CRESSOB) study is a 12-month, observational, prospective, open-label, multicentre, naturalistic study including 109 community mental health clinics of Spain. The study included a total of 403 patients, of whom we could collect all variables related to CRF and MS in 366 patients. Of these 366 patients, 286 completed the follow-up, (baseline, months 3, 6 and 12) where they underwent a complete physical examination and a blood test (glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides), they were asked about their health-related habits (smoking, diet and exercise) and they were given a series of recommendations to prevent cardiovascular risk and MS. A total of 403 patients were included, 63% men, mean age (mean; (SD)) 40.5 (10.5) years. After 12 months, the study showed statistically significant decrease in weight (prisk of heart disease at 10 years (p=0.0353). Overweight patients with schizophrenia who receive appropriate medical care, including CRF monitoring and control of health-related habits experience improvements with regard to most CRFs.

  16. Preventing the development of metabolic syndrome in people with psychotic disorders--difficult, but possible: experiences of staff working in psychosis outpatient care in Sweden.

    Bergqvist, Anette; Karlsson, Maria; Foldemo, Anniqa; Wärdig, Rikard; Hultsjö, Sally

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to explore mental health staffs' experiences of assisting people with psychotic disorders to implement lifestyle changes in an effort to prevent metabolic syndrome. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 12 health care professionals working in psychosis outpatient care in Sweden. Data were analysed using a qualitative content analysis. The results illustrate that implementation of lifestyle changes among people with psychotic disorders was experienced as difficult, but possible. The greatest obstacles experienced in this work were difficulties due to the reduction of cognitive functions associated with the disease. Guidelines available to staff in order to help them identify and prevent physical health problems in the group were not always followed and the content was not always relevant. Staff further described feelings of uncertainty about having to motivate people to take anti-psychotic medication while simultaneously being aware of the risks of metabolic deviations. Nursing interventions focusing on organising daily routines before conducting a more active prevention of metabolic syndrome, including information and practical support, were experienced as necessary. The importance of healthy eating and physical activity needs to be communicated in such a way that it is adjusted to the person's cognitive ability, and should be repeated over time, both verbally and in writing. Such efforts, in combination with empathic and seriously committed community-based social support, were experienced as having the best effect over time. Permanent lifestyle changes were experienced as having to be carried out on the patient's terms and in his or her home environment.

  17. Patient characteristics related to metabolic disorders and chronic complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients hospitalized at the Qingdao Endocrine and Diabetes Hospital from 2006 to 2012 in China.

    Dong, Yanhu; Gao, Weiguo; Zhang, Lei; Wei, Jia; Hammar, Niklas; Cabrera, Claudia S; Wu, Xiaoli; Qiao, Qing

    2017-01-01

    To study the clinical characteristics related to metabolic disorders and complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients hospitalized in the Qingdao Endocrine and Diabetes Hospital from 2006 to 2012 in Qingdao, China. Data from 14,289 (51% males) type 2 diabetes mellitus patients hospitalized between 2006 and 2012 were collected and analysed. Information on patients' demographic, anthropometric, laboratory and disease histories were extracted from electronic medical records. The mean age of the patients was 60.5 years, with median diabetes duration of 9.0 years. Mean haemoglobin A1c was 8.4%, where 1.9% had hypertriglyceridaemia. Retinopathy was diagnosed in 51.1% of patients, nephropathy in 21.6%, neuropathy in 50.4%, hypertension in 77.4%, coronary heart disease in 27.6% and peripheral vascular disease in 58.6%. Once hospitalized, 71.1% of patients underwent insulin injection treatments, either mono-therapy or combined with other anti-diabetic drugs. Metformin was prescribed to 36.9% of patients, followed by acarbose 29.9%, thiazolidinediones 18.1%, meglitinides 14.8% and sulfonylureas 10.7%. Inadequate control of hyperglycaemia, poor metabolic profiles and diabetic complications were common challenges for long-term diabetes management in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Thermoelectric performance and the role of anti-site disorder in the 24-electron Heusler TiFe2Sn

    Buffon, Malinda L. C.; Laurita, Geneva; Lamontagne, Leo; Levin, Emily E.; Mooraj, Shahryar; Lloyd, Demetrious L.; White, Natalie; Pollock, Tresa M.; Seshadri, Ram

    2017-10-01

    Heusler compounds XY 2 Z with 24 valence electrons per formula unit are potential thermoelectric materials, given their thermal and chemical stability and their relatively earth-abundant constituent elements. We present results on the 24-electron compound TiFe2Sn here. First principles calculations on this compound suggest semiconducting behavior. A relatively flat conduction band that could be associated with a high Seebeck coefficient upon electron doping is found. A series of compounds have been prepared and characterized using a combination of synchrotron x-ray and neutron diffraction studies to understand the effects of site order/disorder phenomena and n-type doping. Samples fabricated by a three step processing approach were subjected to high temperature Seebeck and electrical resistivity measurements. Ti:Fe anti-site disorder is present in the stoichiometric compound and these defects are reduced when starting Ti-rich compositions are employed. Additionally, we investigate control of the Seebeck coefficient through the introduction of carriers through the substitution of Sb on the Sn site in these intrinsically p-type materials.

  19. Effects of electronic and nuclear stopping power on disorder induced in GaN under swift heavy ion irradiation

    Moisy, F., E-mail: moisy@ganil.fr [CIMAP, Normandie Universite ENSICAEN/CEA/CNRS, 6 Bd Maréchal Juin, 14050 Caen (France); Sall, M.; Grygiel, C.; Balanzat, E.; Boisserie, M.; Lacroix, B. [CIMAP, Normandie Universite ENSICAEN/CEA/CNRS, 6 Bd Maréchal Juin, 14050 Caen (France); Simon, P. [CNRS, UPR 3079 CEMHTI, CS 90055, 45071 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Monnet, I. [CIMAP, Normandie Universite ENSICAEN/CEA/CNRS, 6 Bd Maréchal Juin, 14050 Caen (France)

    2016-08-15

    Wurtzite GaN epilayers, grown on the c-plane of sapphire substrate, have been irradiated with swift heavy ions at different energies and fluences, and thereafter studied by Raman scattering spectroscopy, UV–visible spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Raman spectra show strong structural modifications in the GaN layer. Indeed, in addition to the broadening of the allowed modes, a large continuum and three new modes at approximately 200 cm{sup −1}, 300 cm{sup −1} and 670 cm{sup −1} appear after irradiation attributed to disorder-activated Raman scattering. In this case, spectra are driven by the phonon density of states of the material due to the loss of translation symmetry of the lattice induced by defects. It was shown qualitatively that both electronic excitations and elastic collisions play an important role in the disorder induced by irradiation. UV–visible spectra reveal an absorption band at 2.8 eV which is linked to the new mode at 300 cm{sup −1} observed in irradiated Raman spectra and comes from Ga-vacancies. These color centers are produced by elastic collisions (without any visible effect of electronic excitations).

  20. Thermoelectric performance and the role of anti-site disorder in the 24-electron Heusler TiFe2Sn.

    Buffon, Malinda L C; Laurita, Geneva; Lamontagne, Leo; Levin, Emily E; Mooraj, Shahryar; Lloyd, Demetrious L; White, Natalie; Pollock, Tresa M; Seshadri, Ram

    2017-10-11

    Heusler compounds XY 2 Z with 24 valence electrons per formula unit are potential thermoelectric materials, given their thermal and chemical stability and their relatively earth-abundant constituent elements. We present results on the 24-electron compound TiFe 2 Sn here. First principles calculations on this compound suggest semiconducting behavior. A relatively flat conduction band that could be associated with a high Seebeck coefficient upon electron doping is found. A series of compounds have been prepared and characterized using a combination of synchrotron x-ray and neutron diffraction studies to understand the effects of site order/disorder phenomena and n-type doping. Samples fabricated by a three step processing approach were subjected to high temperature Seebeck and electrical resistivity measurements. Ti:Fe anti-site disorder is present in the stoichiometric compound and these defects are reduced when starting Ti-rich compositions are employed. Additionally, we investigate control of the Seebeck coefficient through the introduction of carriers through the substitution of Sb on the Sn site in these intrinsically p-type materials.

  1. Specific SIRT1 activation mimics low energy levels and protects against diet-induced metabolic disorders by enhancing fat oxidation

    Feige, Jérôme N.; Lagouge, Marie; Canto, Carles; Strehle, Axelle; Houten, Sander M.; Milne, Jill C.; Lambert, Philip D.; Mataki, Chikage; Elliott, Peter J.; Auwerx, Johan

    2008-01-01

    The NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase SIRT1 controls metabolic processes in response to low nutrient availability. We report the metabolic phenotype of mice treated with SRT1720, a specific and potent synthetic activator of SIRT1 that is devoid of direct action on AMPK. SRT1720 administration robustly

  2. The prevalence of metabolic disorders in various phenotypes of polycystic ovary syndrome: a community based study in Southwest of Iran.

    Tehrani, Fahimeh Ramezani; Rashidi, Homeira; Khomami, Mahnaz Bahri; Tohidi, Maryam; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2014-09-16

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrinopathy, associated with metabolic abnormalities. Metabolic features of various phenotypes of this syndrome are still debatable. The aim of present study hence was to evaluate the metabolic and hormonal features of PCOS phenotypes in comparison to a group of healthy control. A total of 646 reproductive-aged women were randomly selected using the stratified, multistage probability cluster sampling method. The subjects were divided into five phenotypes: A (oligo/anovulation + hyperandrogenism + polycystic ovaries), B (oligo/anovulation + hyperandrogenism), C (hyperandrogenism + polycystic ovaries) and D (oligo/anovulation + polycystic ovaries). Hormonal and metabolic profiles and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among these groups were compared using ANCOVA adjusted for age and body mass index. Among women with PCOS (n = 85), those of groups A and C had higher serum levels of insulin and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), compared to PCOS women of group D. Serum concentrations of cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, triglycerides and glucose in group A were higher than in other phenotypes, whereas the metabolic syndrome was more prevalent among group B. Women who had all three components of the syndrome showed the highest level of metabolic disturbances indicating that metabolic screening of the severest phenotype of PCOS may be necessary.

  3. Diagnosis and management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and related metabolic disorders: Consensus statement from the Study Group of Liver and Metabolism, Chinese Society of Endocrinology

    Gao, Xin; Fan, Jian-Gao

    2013-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease in Western countries, affecting 20%–33% of the general population. Large population-based surveys in China indicate a prevalence of approximately 15%–30%. Worldwide, including in China, the prevalence of NAFLD has increased rapidly in parallel with regional trends of obesity, type2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. In addition, NAFLD has contributed significantly to increased overall, as well as cardiovascular and liver-related, mortality in the general population. In view of rapid advances in research into NAFLD in recent years, this consensus statement provides a brief update on the progress in the field and suggests preferred approaches for the comprehensive management of NAFLD and its related metabolic diseases. PMID:23560695

  4. Calculating electronic tunnel currents in networks of disordered irregularly shaped nanoparticles by mapping networks to arrays of parallel nonlinear resistors

    Aghili Yajadda, Mir Massoud [CSIRO Manufacturing Flagship, P.O. Box 218, Lindfield NSW 2070 (Australia)

    2014-10-21

    We have shown both theoretically and experimentally that tunnel currents in networks of disordered irregularly shaped nanoparticles (NPs) can be calculated by considering the networks as arrays of parallel nonlinear resistors. Each resistor is described by a one-dimensional or a two-dimensional array of equal size nanoparticles that the tunnel junction gaps between nanoparticles in each resistor is assumed to be equal. The number of tunnel junctions between two contact electrodes and the tunnel junction gaps between nanoparticles are found to be functions of Coulomb blockade energies. In addition, the tunnel barriers between nanoparticles were considered to be tilted at high voltages. Furthermore, the role of thermal expansion coefficient of the tunnel junction gaps on the tunnel current is taken into account. The model calculations fit very well to the experimental data of a network of disordered gold nanoparticles, a forest of multi-wall carbon nanotubes, and a network of few-layer graphene nanoplates over a wide temperature range (5-300 K) at low and high DC bias voltages (0.001 mV–50 V). Our investigations indicate, although electron cotunneling in networks of disordered irregularly shaped NPs may occur, non-Arrhenius behavior at low temperatures cannot be described by the cotunneling model due to size distribution in the networks and irregular shape of nanoparticles. Non-Arrhenius behavior of the samples at zero bias voltage limit was attributed to the disorder in the samples. Unlike the electron cotunneling model, we found that the crossover from Arrhenius to non-Arrhenius behavior occurs at two temperatures, one at a high temperature and the other at a low temperature.

  5. MbT-Tool: An open-access tool based on Thermodynamic Electron Equivalents Model to obtain microbial-metabolic reactions to be used in biotechnological process.

    Araujo, Pablo Granda; Gras, Anna; Ginovart, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Modelling cellular metabolism is a strategic factor in investigating microbial behaviour and interactions, especially for bio-technological processes. A key factor for modelling microbial activity is the calculation of nutrient amounts and products generated as a result of the microbial metabolism. Representing metabolic pathways through balanced reactions is a complex and time-consuming task for biologists, ecologists, modellers and engineers. A new computational tool to represent microbial pathways through microbial metabolic reactions (MMRs) using the approach of the Thermodynamic Electron Equivalents Model has been designed and implemented in the open-access framework NetLogo. This computational tool, called MbT-Tool (Metabolism based on Thermodynamics) can write MMRs for different microbial functional groups, such as aerobic heterotrophs, nitrifiers, denitrifiers, methanogens, sulphate reducers, sulphide oxidizers and fermenters. The MbT-Tool's code contains eighteen organic and twenty inorganic reduction-half-reactions, four N-sources (NH4 (+), NO3 (-), NO2 (-), N2) to biomass synthesis and twenty-four microbial empirical formulas, one of which can be determined by the user (CnHaObNc). MbT-Tool is an open-source program capable of writing MMRs based on thermodynamic concepts, which are applicable in a wide range of academic research interested in designing, optimizing and modelling microbial activity without any extensive chemical, microbiological and programing experience.

  6. MbT-Tool: An open-access tool based on Thermodynamic Electron Equivalents Model to obtain microbial-metabolic reactions to be used in biotechnological process

    Pablo Araujo Granda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modelling cellular metabolism is a strategic factor in investigating microbial behaviour and interactions, especially for bio-technological processes. A key factor for modelling microbial activity is the calculation of nutrient amounts and products generated as a result of the microbial metabolism. Representing metabolic pathways through balanced reactions is a complex and time-consuming task for biologists, ecologists, modellers and engineers. A new computational tool to represent microbial pathways through microbial metabolic reactions (MMRs using the approach of the Thermodynamic Electron Equivalents Model has been designed and implemented in the open-access framework NetLogo. This computational tool, called MbT-Tool (Metabolism based on Thermodynamics can write MMRs for different microbial functional groups, such as aerobic heterotrophs, nitrifiers, denitrifiers, methanogens, sulphate reducers, sulphide oxidizers and fermenters. The MbT-Tool's code contains eighteen organic and twenty inorganic reduction-half-reactions, four N-sources (NH4+, NO3−, NO2−, N2 to biomass synthesis and twenty-four microbial empirical formulas, one of which can be determined by the user (CnHaObNc. MbT-Tool is an open-source program capable of writing MMRs based on thermodynamic concepts, which are applicable in a wide range of academic research interested in designing, optimizing and modelling microbial activity without any extensive chemical, microbiological and programing experience.

  7. Effect of site disorder on the electronic properties of Fe2VAl Heusler alloy

    Venkatesh, Ch.; Srinivas, V.; Rao, V.V.; Srivastava, S.K.; Babu, P. Sudheer

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •The role of site-disorder on physical properties of Fe 2 VAl has been investigated through experiments as well as DFT calculations. •Metal to semiconductor-like behaviour in electrical transport of anti-site disordered Fe 2 VAl was consistently explained. •Both itinerant and localized magnetic behaviours of anti-site disordered Fe 2 VAl are discussed. •Justification of metallic-like transition in site-disordered Fe 2 VAl is given. -- Abstract: Ab initio calculations on ordered L2 1 structure of Fe 2 VAl alloy have been carried out by introducing B2, DO 3 , A2′ and XY–XZ type disorders in order to understand the role of anti-site disorder on magnetic and transport properties. These studies show an enhancement of individual spin moments of anti-site Fe atoms in DO 3 , A2′ and XY–XZ type anti-site disorder, making the Fe 2 VAl alloy magnetically active. These calculations also show that hybridization due to covalent distribution of valance states among the atoms is important in Fe 2 VAl, defining its unusual physical properties. From the density of states spectrum obtained near the Fermi level, we have noticed formation of intermediate defect-like states that couple the edges of the pseudo gap on both sides of the Fermi level, driving the material from semi-metallic to metallic type in electrical transport. We also present experimental results on structural, magnetic and electrical properties of Fe 2 VAl Heusler alloy. A comparison of present experimental data with calculations shows an existence of DO 3 type anti-site disorder due to the Al-deficiency in Fe 2 VAl alloy which causes deviations in theoretical results on the magnetic and transport behaviour of pure Fe 2 VAl. The temperature dependence of electrical transport and magnetic data analysed on the basis of impurity band model which provides convincing evidence for itinerant character of this alloy system with an anti-site disorder

  8. Energy metabolism disorders in rare and common diseases. Toward bioenergetic modulation therapy and the training of a new generation of European scientists.

    Rossignol, Rodrigue

    2015-06-01

    Energy metabolism alterations are found in a large number of rare and common diseases of genetic or environmental origin. The number of patients that could benefit from bioenergetic modulation therapy (BIOMET) is therefore very important and includes individuals with pathologies as diverse as mitochondrial diseases, acute coronary syndrome, chronic kidney disease, asthma or even cancer. Although, the alteration of energy metabolism is disease specific and sometimes patient specific, the strategies for BIOMET could be common and target a series of bioenergetic regulatory mechanisms discussed in this article. An excellent training of scientists in the field of energy metabolism, related human diseases and drug discovery is also crucial to form a young generation of MDs, PHDs and Pharma or CRO-group leaders who will discover novel personalized bioenergetic medicines, through pharmacology, genetics, nutrition or adapted exercise training. The Mitochondrial European Educational Training (MEET) consortium was created to pursue this goal, and we dedicated here a special issue of Organelle in Focus (OiF) to highlight their objectives. A total of 10 OiFs articles constitute this Directed Issue on Mitochondrial Medicine. As part of this editorial article, we asked timely questions to the PR. Jan W. Smeitink, professor of Mitochondrial Medicine and CEO of Khondrion, a mitochondrial medicine company. He shared with us his objectives and strategies for the study of mitochondrial diseases and the identification of future treatments. This article is part of a Directed Issue entitled: Energy Metabolism Disorders and Therapies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Real-space mapping of a disordered two-dimensional electron system in the quantum Hall regime

    Hashimoto, K; Hirayama, Y; Wiebe, J; Wiesendanger, R; Inaoka, T; Morgenstern, M

    2011-01-01

    By using scanning tunnelling spectroscopy, we study the influence of potential disorder on an adsorbate-induced two-dimensional electron system in the integer quantum Hall regime. The real-space imaged local density of states exhibits transition from localized drift states encircling the potential minima to another type of localized drift states encircling the potential maxima. While the former states show regular round shapes, the latter have irregular-shaped patterns. This difference is induced by different sources for the potential minima and maxima, i.e., substrate donors and an inhomogeneous distribution of the adsorbates, respectively.

  10. Therapeutic role of ursolic acid on ameliorating hepatic steatosis and improving metabolic disorders in high-fat diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease rats.

    Li, Songtao; Liao, Xilu; Meng, Fanyu; Wang, Yemei; Sun, Zongxiang; Guo, Fuchuan; Li, Xiaoxia; Meng, Man; Li, Ying; Sun, Changhao

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most prevalent liver diseases around the world, and is closely associated with obesity, diabetes, and insulin resistance. Ursolic acid (UA), an ubiquitous triterpenoid with multifold biological roles, is distributed in various plants. This study was conducted to investigate the therapeutic effect and potential mechanisms of UA against hepatic steatosis in a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) rat model. Obese NAFLD model was established in Sprague-Dawley rats by 8-week HFD feeding. Therapeutic role of UA was evaluated using 0.125%, 0.25%, 0.5% UA-supplemented diet for another 6 weeks. The results from both morphologic and histological detections indicated that UA significantly reversed HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and liver injury. Besides, hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α was markedly up-regulated at both mRNA and protein levels by UA. Knocking down PPAR-α significantly inhibited the anti-steatosis role of UA in vitro. HFD-induced adverse changes in the key genes, which participated in hepatic lipid metabolism, were also alleviated by UA treatment. Furthermore, UA significantly ameliorated HFD-induced metabolic disorders, including insulin resistance, inflammation and oxidative stress. These results demonstrated that UA effectively ameliorated HFD-induced hepatic steatosis through a PPAR-α involved pathway, via improving key enzymes in the controlling of lipids metabolism. The metabolic disorders were accordingly improved with the decrease of hepatic steatosis. Thereby, UA could be a promising candidate for the treatment of NAFLD.

  11. Therapeutic role of ursolic acid on ameliorating hepatic steatosis and improving metabolic disorders in high-fat diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease rats.

    Songtao Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is one of the most prevalent liver diseases around the world, and is closely associated with obesity, diabetes, and insulin resistance. Ursolic acid (UA, an ubiquitous triterpenoid with multifold biological roles, is distributed in various plants. This study was conducted to investigate the therapeutic effect and potential mechanisms of UA against hepatic steatosis in a high-fat diet (HFD-induced obese non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD rat model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Obese NAFLD model was established in Sprague-Dawley rats by 8-week HFD feeding. Therapeutic role of UA was evaluated using 0.125%, 0.25%, 0.5% UA-supplemented diet for another 6 weeks. The results from both morphologic and histological detections indicated that UA significantly reversed HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and liver injury. Besides, hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-α was markedly up-regulated at both mRNA and protein levels by UA. Knocking down PPAR-α significantly inhibited the anti-steatosis role of UA in vitro. HFD-induced adverse changes in the key genes, which participated in hepatic lipid