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Sample records for meta-analysis reveals consistent

  1. Quantitative meta-analysis of fMRI and PET studies reveals consistent activation in fronto-striatal-parietal regions and cerebellum during antisaccades and prosaccades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharna eJamadar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The antisaccade task is a classic task of oculomotor control that requires participants to inhibit a saccade to a target and instead make a voluntary saccade to the mirror opposite location. By comparison, the prosaccade task requires participants to make a visually-guided saccade to the target. These tasks have been studied extensively using behavioural oculomotor, electrophysiological and neuroimaging in both non-human primates and humans. In humans, the antisaccade task is under active investigation as a potential endophenotype or biomarker for multiple psychiatric and neurological disorders. A large and growing body of literature has used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and positron emission tomography (PET to study the neural correlates of the antisaccade and prosaccade tasks. We present a quantitative meta-analysis of all published voxel-wise fMRI and PET studies (18 of the antisaccade task and show that consistent activation for antisaccades and prosaccades is obtained in a fronto-subcortical-parietal network encompassing frontal and supplementary eye fields, thalamus, striatum and intraparietal cortex. This network is strongly linked to oculomotor control and was activated to a greater extent for antisaccade than prosaccade trials. Antisaccade but not prosaccade trials additionally activated dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices. We also found that a number of additional regions not classically linked to oculomotor control were activated to a greater extent for antisaccade versus prosaccade trials; these regions are often reported in antisaccade studies but rarely commented upon. While the number of studies eligible to be included in this meta-analysis was small, the results of this systematic review reveal that antisaccade and prosaccade trials consistently activate a distributed network of regions both within and outside the classic definition of the oculomotor network.

  2. Personality Consistency in Dogs: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratkin, Jamie L.; Sinn, David L.; Patall, Erika A.; Gosling, Samuel D.

    2013-01-01

    Personality, or consistent individual differences in behavior, is well established in studies of dogs. Such consistency implies predictability of behavior, but some recent research suggests that predictability cannot be assumed. In addition, anecdotally, many dog experts believe that ‘puppy tests’ measuring behavior during the first year of a dog's life are not accurate indicators of subsequent adult behavior. Personality consistency in dogs is an important aspect of human-dog relationships (e.g., when selecting dogs suitable for substance-detection work or placement in a family). Here we perform the first comprehensive meta-analysis of studies reporting estimates of temporal consistency of dog personality. A thorough literature search identified 31 studies suitable for inclusion in our meta-analysis. Overall, we found evidence to suggest substantial consistency (r = 0.43). Furthermore, personality consistency was higher in older dogs, when behavioral assessment intervals were shorter, and when the measurement tool was exactly the same in both assessments. In puppies, aggression and submissiveness were the most consistent dimensions, while responsiveness to training, fearfulness, and sociability were the least consistent dimensions. In adult dogs, there were no dimension-based differences in consistency. There was no difference in personality consistency in dogs tested first as puppies and later as adults (e.g., ‘puppy tests’) versus dogs tested first as puppies and later again as puppies. Finally, there were no differences in consistency between working versus non-working dogs, between behavioral codings versus behavioral ratings, and between aggregate versus single measures. Implications for theory, practice, and future research are discussed. PMID:23372787

  3. Personality consistency in dogs: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratkin, Jamie L; Sinn, David L; Patall, Erika A; Gosling, Samuel D

    2013-01-01

    Personality, or consistent individual differences in behavior, is well established in studies of dogs. Such consistency implies predictability of behavior, but some recent research suggests that predictability cannot be assumed. In addition, anecdotally, many dog experts believe that 'puppy tests' measuring behavior during the first year of a dog's life are not accurate indicators of subsequent adult behavior. Personality consistency in dogs is an important aspect of human-dog relationships (e.g., when selecting dogs suitable for substance-detection work or placement in a family). Here we perform the first comprehensive meta-analysis of studies reporting estimates of temporal consistency of dog personality. A thorough literature search identified 31 studies suitable for inclusion in our meta-analysis. Overall, we found evidence to suggest substantial consistency (r = 0.43). Furthermore, personality consistency was higher in older dogs, when behavioral assessment intervals were shorter, and when the measurement tool was exactly the same in both assessments. In puppies, aggression and submissiveness were the most consistent dimensions, while responsiveness to training, fearfulness, and sociability were the least consistent dimensions. In adult dogs, there were no dimension-based differences in consistency. There was no difference in personality consistency in dogs tested first as puppies and later as adults (e.g., 'puppy tests') versus dogs tested first as puppies and later again as puppies. Finally, there were no differences in consistency between working versus non-working dogs, between behavioral codings versus behavioral ratings, and between aggregate versus single measures. Implications for theory, practice, and future research are discussed.

  4. Personality consistency in dogs: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie L Fratkin

    Full Text Available Personality, or consistent individual differences in behavior, is well established in studies of dogs. Such consistency implies predictability of behavior, but some recent research suggests that predictability cannot be assumed. In addition, anecdotally, many dog experts believe that 'puppy tests' measuring behavior during the first year of a dog's life are not accurate indicators of subsequent adult behavior. Personality consistency in dogs is an important aspect of human-dog relationships (e.g., when selecting dogs suitable for substance-detection work or placement in a family. Here we perform the first comprehensive meta-analysis of studies reporting estimates of temporal consistency of dog personality. A thorough literature search identified 31 studies suitable for inclusion in our meta-analysis. Overall, we found evidence to suggest substantial consistency (r = 0.43. Furthermore, personality consistency was higher in older dogs, when behavioral assessment intervals were shorter, and when the measurement tool was exactly the same in both assessments. In puppies, aggression and submissiveness were the most consistent dimensions, while responsiveness to training, fearfulness, and sociability were the least consistent dimensions. In adult dogs, there were no dimension-based differences in consistency. There was no difference in personality consistency in dogs tested first as puppies and later as adults (e.g., 'puppy tests' versus dogs tested first as puppies and later again as puppies. Finally, there were no differences in consistency between working versus non-working dogs, between behavioral codings versus behavioral ratings, and between aggregate versus single measures. Implications for theory, practice, and future research are discussed.

  5. Rape Myth Consistency and Gender Differences in Perceiving Rape Victims: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockett, Jericho M; Smith, Sara J; Klausing, Cathleen D; Saucier, Donald A

    2016-02-01

    An overview discusses feminist analyses of oppression, attitudes toward rape victims, and previously studied predictors of individuals' attitudes toward rape victims. To better understand such attitudes, this meta-analysis examines the moderating influences of various rape victim, perpetrator, and crime characteristics' rape myth consistency on gender differences in individuals' perceptions of rape victims (i.e., victim responsibility and blame attributions and rape minimizing attitudes). Consistent with feminist theoretical predictions, results indicated that, overall, men perceived rape victims more negatively than women did. However, this sex difference was moderated by the rape myth consistency within the rape vignettes. Implications for research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. CNV-association meta-analysis in 191,161 European adults reveals new loci associated with anthropometric traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macé, Aurélien; Tuke, Marcus A; Deelen, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    There are few examples of robust associations between rare copy number variants (CNVs) and complex continuous human traits. Here we present a large-scale CNV association meta-analysis on anthropometric traits in up to 191,161 adult samples from 26 cohorts. The study reveals five CNV associations ...

  7. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis on the Strength and Consistency of the Associations between Dupuytren Disease and Diabetes Mellitus, Liver Disease, and Epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekstra, Dieuwke C; Groen, Henk; Molenkamp, Sanne; Werker, Paul M N; van den Heuvel, Edwin R

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role of diabetes mellitus, liver disease, and epilepsy as risk factors for Dupuytren disease remains unclear. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, the strength and consistency of these associations were examined. METHODS: The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases were

  8. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis on the Strength and Consistency of the Associations between Dupuytren Disease and Diabetes Mellitus, Liver Disease, and Epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekstra, Dieuwke C; Groen, Henk; Molenkamp, Sanne; Werker, Paul M N; van den Heuvel, Edwin R

    Background: The role of diabetes mellitus, liver disease, and epilepsy as risk factors for Dupuytren disease remains unclear. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, the strength and consistency of these associations were examined. Methods: The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases were

  9. Revealing the association between cerebrovascular accidents and ambient temperature: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorrilla-Vaca, Andrés; Healy, Ryan Jacob; Silva-Medina, Melissa M.

    2017-05-01

    The association between cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) and weather has been described across several studies showing multiple conflicting results. In this paper, we aim to conduct a meta-analysis to further clarify this association, as well as to find the potential sources of heterogeneity. PubMed, EMBASE, and Google Scholar were searched from inception through 2015, for articles analyzing the correlation between the incidence of CVA and temperature. A pooled effect size (ES) was estimated using random effects model and expressed as absolute values. Subgroup analyses by type of CVA were also performed. Heterogeneity and influence of covariates—including geographic latitude of the study site, male percentage, average temperature, and time interval—were assessed by meta-regression analysis. Twenty-six articles underwent full data extraction and scoring. A total of 19,736 subjects with CVA from 12 different countries were included and grouped as ischemic strokes (IS; n = 14,199), intracerebral hemorrhages (ICH; n = 3798), and subarachnoid hemorrhages (SAH; n = 1739). Lower ambient temperature was significantly associated with increase in incidence of overall CVA when using unadjusted (pooled ES = 0.23, P < 0.001) and adjusted data (pooled ES = 0.03, P = 0.003). Subgroup analyses showed that lower temperature has higher impact on the incidence of ICH (pooled ES = 0.34, P < 0.001), than that of IS (pooled ES = 0.22, P < 0.001) and SAH (pooled ES = 0.11, P = 0.012). In meta-regression analysis, the geographic latitude of the study site was the most influencing factor on this association ( Z-score = 8.68). Synthesis of the existing data provides evidence supporting that a lower ambient temperature increases the incidence of CVA. Further population-based studies conducted at negative latitudes are needed to clarify the influence of this factor.

  10. META - ANALYSIS

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    Ivana Ilić

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Meta-analysis is a statistical and analytical method which combines and synthesizes different independent studies and integrates their results into a common result. In the past few years, there has been an increasing interest in meta-analysis from both medical researches and statisticians. One of the main targets of clinical research is to obtain reliable results, although clinical trials with the same topic often give contrasting results. Medical practice is strongly influenced by the results of clinical studies if they are brought to light through important scientific journals. This large amount of information often contains scattered data, and discordant conclusions, and sometimes it is very hard to define the quality and validity of each study. Today, a large number of biomedical journals give importance to articles using meta-analysis in their researches. By using meta-analysis as a method of summarizing, integrating and analyzing a large number of independent studies on the same topic and finally pooling their results into a common result, a researcher can achieve relevant, objective and unbiased conclusions, if the procedure is well-conducted and controlled by the experts. The aim of this paper is to provide the clinical researcher with the basic principles of meta-analysis and its concepts in order to perform a valid clinical study and to report results in the correct way. In today’s evidence-based medical practice, it is crucial for anyone who wants to deal seriously with the scientific work in the biomedical field to learn mathematical and statistical principles that build meta-analysis. In that way, this statistical method could be of great importance to the researcher who wants to respond to new demands of modern medical science.

  11. Heterogeneity revealed through meta-analysis might link geographical differences with nasopharyngeal carcinoma incidence in Han Chinese populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Wen-Hui; Chiu, Chi-Cking; Yao Shugart, Yin

    2015-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an epithelial malignancy highly prevalent in southern China, and incidence rates among Han Chinese people vary according to geographic region. Recently, three independent genome-wide association studies (GWASs) confirmed that HLA-A is the main risk gene for NPC. However, the results of studies conducted in regions with dissimilar incidence rates contradicted the claims that HLA-A is the sole risk gene and that the association of rs29232 is independent of the HLA-A effect in the chromosome 6p21.3 region. We performed a meta-analysis, selecting five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in chromosome 6p21.3 mapped in three published GWASs and four case–control studies. The studies involved 8994 patients with NPC and 11,157 healthy controls, all of whom were Han Chinese. The rs2517713 SNP located downstream of HLA-A was significantly associated with NPC (P = 1.08 × 10 −91 , odds ratio [OR] = 0.58, 95 % confidence interval [CI] = 0.55–0.61). The rs29232 SNP exhibited a moderate level of heterogeneity (I 2 = 47 %) that disappeared (I 2 = 0 %) after stratification by moderate- and high-incidence NPC regions. Our results suggested that the HLA-A gene is strongly associated with NPC risk. In addition, the heterogeneity revealed by the meta-analysis of rs29232 might be associated with regional differences in NPC incidence among Han Chinese people. The higher OR of rs29232 and the fact that rs29232 was independent of the HLA-A effect in the moderate-incidence population suggested that rs29232 might have greater relevance to NPC incidence in a moderate-incidence population than in a high-incidence population. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1607-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  12. Meta-analysis of differentiating mouse embryonic stem cell gene expression kinetics reveals early change of a small gene set.

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    Clive H Glover

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell differentiation involves critical changes in gene expression. Identification of these should provide endpoints useful for optimizing stem cell propagation as well as potential clues about mechanisms governing stem cell maintenance. Here we describe the results of a new meta-analysis methodology applied to multiple gene expression datasets from three mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC lines obtained at specific time points during the course of their differentiation into various lineages. We developed methods to identify genes with expression changes that correlated with the altered frequency of functionally defined, undifferentiated ESC in culture. In each dataset, we computed a novel statistical confidence measure for every gene which captured the certainty that a particular gene exhibited an expression pattern of interest within that dataset. This permitted a joint analysis of the datasets, despite the different experimental designs. Using a ranking scheme that favored genes exhibiting patterns of interest, we focused on the top 88 genes whose expression was consistently changed when ESC were induced to differentiate. Seven of these (103728_at, 8430410A17Rik, Klf2, Nr0b1, Sox2, Tcl1, and Zfp42 showed a rapid decrease in expression concurrent with a decrease in frequency of undifferentiated cells and remained predictive when evaluated in additional maintenance and differentiating protocols. Through a novel meta-analysis, this study identifies a small set of genes whose expression is useful for identifying changes in stem cell frequencies in cultures of mouse ESC. The methods and findings have broader applicability to understanding the regulation of self-renewal of other stem cell types.

  13. Meta-analysis reveals host-dependent nitrogen recycling as a mechanism of symbiont control in Aiptasia

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Guoxin

    2018-02-22

    The metabolic symbiosis with photosynthetic algae of the genus Symbiodinium allows corals to thrive in the oligotrophic environments of tropical seas. Many aspects of this relationship have been investigated using transcriptomic analyses in the emerging model organism Aiptasia. However, previous studies identified thousands of putatively symbiosis-related genes, making it difficult to disentangle symbiosis-induced responses from undesired experimental parameters. Using a meta-analysis approach, we identified a core set of 731 high-confidence symbiosis-associated genes that reveal host-dependent recycling of waste ammonium and amino acid synthesis as central processes in this relationship. Combining transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses, we show that symbiont-derived carbon enables host recycling of ammonium into nonessential amino acids. We propose that this provides a regulatory mechanism to control symbiont growth through a carbon-dependent negative feedback of nitrogen availability to the symbiont. The dependence of this mechanism on symbiont-derived carbon highlights the susceptibility of this symbiosis to changes in carbon translocation, as imposed by environmental stress.

  14. Meta-Analysis of the Transcriptome Reveals a Core Set of Shade-Avoidance Genes in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellaro, Romina; Pacín, Manuel; Casal, Jorge J

    2017-05-01

    The presence of neighboring vegetation modifies the light input perceived by photo-sensory receptors, initiating a signaling cascade that adjusts plant growth and physiology. Thousands of genes can change their expression during this process, but the structure of the transcriptional circuit is poorly understood. Here we present a meta-analysis of transcriptome data from Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to neighbor signals in different contexts, including organs where growth is promoted or inhibited by these signals. We identified a small set of genes that consistently and dynamically respond to neighbor light signals. This group is also affected by light during de-etiolation and day/night cycles. Among these genes, many of those with positive response to neighbor signals are binding targets of PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTORS (PIFs) and function as transcriptional regulators themselves, but none of these features is observed among those with negative response to neighbor signals. Changes. in neighbor signals can mimic the transcriptional signature of auxin, gibberellins, brassinosteroid, abscisic acid, ethylene, jasmonic acid and cytokinin but in a context-dependent manner. We propose the existence of a small core set of genes involved in downstream communication of PIF signaling status and in the control of light sensitivity and chloroplast metabolism. © 2017 The American Society of Photobiology.

  15. Meta-analysis of gene expression in the mouse liver reveals biomarkers associated with inflammation increased early during aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Janice S; Ward, William O; Ren, Hongzu; Vallanat, Beena; Darlington, Gretchen J; Han, Eun-Soo; Laguna, Juan C; DeFord, James H; Papaconstantinou, John; Selman, Colin; Corton, J Christopher

    2012-07-01

    Aging is associated with a loss of cellular homeostasis, a decline in physiological function and an increase in various pathologies. Employing a meta-analysis, hepatic gene expression profiles from four independent mouse aging studies were interrogated. There was little overlap in the number of genes or canonical pathways perturbed, suggesting that independent study-specific factors may play a significant role in determining age-dependent gene expression. However, 43 genes were consistently altered during aging in three or four of these studies, including those that (1) exhibited progressively increased expression starting from 12 months of age, (2) exhibited similar expression changes in models of progeria at young ages and dampened or no changes in old longevity mouse models, (3) were associated with inflammatory tertiary lymphoid neogenesis (TLN) associated with formation of ectopic lymphoid structures observed in chronically inflamed tissues, and (4) overlapped with genes perturbed by aging in brain, muscle, and lung. Surprisingly, around half of the genes altered by aging in wild-type mice exhibited similar expression changes in adult long-lived mice compared to wild-type controls, including those associated with intermediary metabolism and feminization of the male-dependent gene expression pattern. Genes unique to aging in wild-type mice included those linked to TLN. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  16. Meta-analysis of small RNA-sequencing errors reveals ubiquitous post-transcriptional RNA modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebhardt, H Alexander; Tsang, Herbert H; Dai, Denny C; Liu, Yifeng; Bostan, Babak; Fahlman, Richard P

    2009-05-01

    Recent advances in DNA-sequencing technology have made it possible to obtain large datasets of small RNA sequences. Here we demonstrate that not all non-perfectly matched small RNA sequences are simple technological sequencing errors, but many hold valuable biological information. Analysis of three small RNA datasets originating from Oryza sativa and Arabidopsis thaliana small RNA-sequencing projects demonstrates that many single nucleotide substitution errors overlap when aligning homologous non-identical small RNA sequences. Investigating the sites and identities of substitution errors reveal that many potentially originate as a result of post-transcriptional modifications or RNA editing. Modifications include N1-methyl modified purine nucleotides in tRNA, potential deamination or base substitutions in micro RNAs, 3' micro RNA uridine extensions and 5' micro RNA deletions. Additionally, further analysis of large sequencing datasets reveal that the combined effects of 5' deletions and 3' uridine extensions can alter the specificity by which micro RNAs associate with different Argonaute proteins. Hence, we demonstrate that not all sequencing errors in small RNA datasets are technical artifacts, but that these actually often reveal valuable biological insights to the sites of post-transcriptional RNA modifications.

  17. A Case-Control Study and Meta-Analysis Reveal BDNF Val66Met Is a Possible Risk Factor for PTSD

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    Dagmar Bruenig

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is a debilitating condition that develops in some people after exposure to a traumatic event. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is highly expressed in the mammalian brain and is thought to be involved in learning and memory processes. A nonsynonymous polymorphism in the BDNF gene, rs6265 (Val66Met, has been hypothesised to be associated with PTSD. Association studies examining the Val66Met polymorphism and PTSD have been inconclusive, likely due to the variability in type of trauma exposure analysed. Vietnam veterans (n=257 screened for PTSD and controlled for trauma exposure were genotyped for BDNF Val66Met. The association was not significant so we incorporated our data into a meta-analysis to obtain greater statistical power. A comprehensive search of more than 1237 articles revealed eight additional studies suitable for meta-analysis (n=3625. A random-effects meta-analysis observed a potential protective factor of the Val/Val genotype. After removing two studies with violation of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, findings for the Val/Val genotype reached significance. Subgroup analyses confirmed a trend for this finding. Limitations of some studies that inform this meta-analysis include poorly screened controls and a lack of examination of population stratification. Effectively designed studies should inform this line of research in the future.

  18. Meta-analysis reveals conserved cell cycle transcriptional network across multiple human cell types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giotti, Bruno; Joshi, Anagha; Freeman, Tom C

    2017-01-05

    Cell division is central to the physiology and pathology of all eukaryotic organisms. The molecular machinery underpinning the cell cycle has been studied extensively in a number of species and core aspects of it have been found to be highly conserved. Similarly, the transcriptional changes associated with this pathway have been studied in different organisms and different cell types. In each case hundreds of genes have been reported to be regulated, however there seems to be little consensus in the genes identified across different studies. In a recent comparison of transcriptomic studies of the cell cycle in different human cell types, only 96 cell cycle genes were reported to be the same across all studies examined. Here we perform a systematic re-examination of published human cell cycle expression data by using a network-based approach to identify groups of genes with a similar expression profile and therefore function. Two clusters in particular, containing 298 transcripts, showed patterns of expression consistent with cell cycle occurrence across the four human cell types assessed. Our analysis shows that there is a far greater conservation of cell cycle-associated gene expression across human cell types than reported previously, which can be separated into two distinct transcriptional networks associated with the G 1 /S-S and G 2 -M phases of the cell cycle. This work also highlights the benefits of performing a re-analysis on combined datasets.

  19. A meta-analysis of Hodgkin lymphoma reveals 19p13.3 TCF3 as a novel susceptibility locus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cozen, W.; Timofeeva, M.N.; Li, D.; Diepstra, A.; Hazelett, D.; Delahaye-Sourdeix, M.; Edlund, C.K.; Franke, L.; Rostgaard, K.; Berg, D.J. Van Den; Cortessis, V.K.; Smedby, K.E.; Glaser, S.L.; Westra, H.J.; Robison, L.L.; Mack, T.M.; Ghesquieres, H.; Hwang, A.E.; Nieters, A.; Sanjose, S. de; Lightfoot, T.; Becker, N.; Maynadie, M.; Foretova, L.; Roman, E.; Benavente, Y.; Rand, K.A.; Nathwani, B.N.; Glimelius, B.; Staines, A.; Boffetta, P.; Link, B.K.; Kiemeney, B.; Ansell, S.M.; Bhatia, S.; Strong, L.C.; Galan, P.; Vatten, L.; Habermann, T.M.; Duell, E.J.; Lake, A.; Veenstra, R.N.; Visser, L de; Liu, Y.; Urayama, K.Y.; Montgomery, D.; Gaborieau, V.; Weiss, L.M.; Byrnes, G.; Lathrop, M.; Cocco, P.; Best, T.; Skol, A.D.; Adami, H.O.; Melbye, M.; Cerhan, J.R.; Gallagher, A.; Taylor, G.M.; Slager, S.L.; Brennan, P.; Coetzee, G.A.; Conti, D.V.; Onel, K.; Jarrett, R.F.; Hjalgrim, H.; Berg, A. van den; McKay, J.D.

    2014-01-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) have identified associations with genetic variation at both HLA and non-HLA loci; however, much of heritable HL susceptibility remains unexplained. Here we perform a meta-analysis of three HL GWAS totaling 1,816 cases and 7,877

  20. A meta-analysis of Hodgkin lymphoma reveals 19p13.3 TCF3 as a novel susceptibility locus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cozen, W.; Timofeeva, M. N.; Li, D.; Diepstra, A.; Hazelett, D.; Delahaye-Sourdeix, M.; Edlund, C. K.; Franke, L.; Rostgaard, K.; Van Den Berg, D. J.; Cortessis, V. K.; Smedby, K. E.; Glaser, S. L.; Westra, H. -J.; Robison, L. L.; Mack, T. M.; Ghesquieres, H.; Hwang, A. E.; Nieters, A.; de Sanjose, S.; Lightfoot, T.; Becker, N.; Maynadie, M.; Foretova, L.; Roman, E.; Benavente, Y.; Rand, K. A.; Nathwani, B. N.; Glimelius, B.; Staines, A.; Boffetta, P.; Link, B. K.; Kiemeney, L.; Ansell, S. M.; Bhatia, S.; Strong, L. C.; Galan, P.; Vatten, L.; Habermann, T. M.; Duell, E. J.; Lake, A.; Veenstra, R. N.; Visser, Lydia; Liu, Y.; Urayama, K. Y.; Montgomery, D.; Gaborieau, V.; Weiss, L. M.; Byrnes, G.; Lathrop, M.; Cocco, P.; Best, T.; Skol, A. D.; Adami, H. -O.; Melbye, M.; Cerhan, J. R.; Gallagher, A.; Taylor, G. M.; Slager, S. L.; Brennan, P.; Coetzee, G. A.; Conti, D. V.; Onel, K.; Jarrett, R. F.; Hjalgrim, H.; van den Berg, A.; Mckay, J. D.

    Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) have identified associations with genetic variation at both HLA and non-HLA loci; however, much of heritable HL susceptibility remains unexplained. Here we perform a meta-analysis of three HL GWAS totaling 1,816 cases and 7,877

  1. Absolute and Relative Time-Consistent Revealed Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    T. DEMUYNCK

    2007-01-01

    We introduce an Absolute (Relative) Time-consistent Axiom of Revealed Preference which characterizes the consistency of a choice function with the property of absolute (relative) time-consistency and impatience. The axiom requires that the absolute (relative) time-consistent and impatient closure of the revealed preference relation does not conflict with the strict revealed preference relation.

  2. Systematic review and meta-analysis reveals acutely elevated plasma cortisol following fasting but not less severe calorie restriction

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Yuko; Walker, Brian R.; Ikuta, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Elevated plasma cortisol has been reported following caloric restriction, and may contribute to adverse effects including stress-induced overeating, but results from published studies are inconsistent. To clarify the effects of caloric restriction on plasma cortisol, and to assess cortisol as an indicator of stress during caloric restriction, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies in which cortisol was measured following caloric restriction without other manip...

  3. Comparative linkage meta-analysis reveals regionally-distinct, disparate genetic architectures: application to bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brady Tang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available New high-throughput, population-based methods and next-generation sequencing capabilities hold great promise in the quest for common and rare variant discovery and in the search for "missing heritability." However, the optimal analytic strategies for approaching such data are still actively debated, representing the latest rate-limiting step in genetic progress. Since it is likely a majority of common variants of modest effect have been identified through the application of tagSNP-based microarray platforms (i.e., GWAS, alternative approaches robust to detection of low-frequency (1-5% MAF and rare (<1% variants are of great importance. Of direct relevance, we have available an accumulated wealth of linkage data collected through traditional genetic methods over several decades, the full value of which has not been exhausted. To that end, we compare results from two different linkage meta-analysis methods--GSMA and MSP--applied to the same set of 13 bipolar disorder and 16 schizophrenia GWLS datasets. Interestingly, we find that the two methods implicate distinct, largely non-overlapping, genomic regions. Furthermore, based on the statistical methods themselves and our contextualization of these results within the larger genetic literatures, our findings suggest, for each disorder, distinct genetic architectures may reside within disparate genomic regions. Thus, comparative linkage meta-analysis (CLMA may be used to optimize low-frequency and rare variant discovery in the modern genomic era.

  4. A meta-analysis of Hodgkin lymphoma reveals 19p13.3 TCF3 as a novel susceptibility locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozen, W; Timofeeva, M N; Li, D; Diepstra, A; Hazelett, D; Delahaye-Sourdeix, M; Edlund, C K; Franke, L; Rostgaard, K; Van Den Berg, D J; Cortessis, V K; Smedby, K E; Glaser, S L; Westra, H-J; Robison, L L; Mack, T M; Ghesquieres, H; Hwang, A E; Nieters, A; de Sanjose, S; Lightfoot, T; Becker, N; Maynadie, M; Foretova, L; Roman, E; Benavente, Y; Rand, K A; Nathwani, B N; Glimelius, B; Staines, A; Boffetta, P; Link, B K; Kiemeney, L; Ansell, S M; Bhatia, S; Strong, L C; Galan, P; Vatten, L; Habermann, T M; Duell, E J; Lake, A; Veenstra, R N; Visser, L; Liu, Y; Urayama, K Y; Montgomery, D; Gaborieau, V; Weiss, L M; Byrnes, G; Lathrop, M; Cocco, P; Best, T; Skol, A D; Adami, H-O; Melbye, M; Cerhan, J R; Gallagher, A; Taylor, G M; Slager, S L; Brennan, P; Coetzee, G A; Conti, D V; Onel, K; Jarrett, R F; Hjalgrim, H; van den Berg, A; McKay, J D

    2014-06-12

    Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) have identified associations with genetic variation at both HLA and non-HLA loci; however, much of heritable HL susceptibility remains unexplained. Here we perform a meta-analysis of three HL GWAS totaling 1,816 cases and 7,877 controls followed by replication in an independent set of 1,281 cases and 3,218 controls to find novel risk loci. We identify a novel variant at 19p13.3 associated with HL (rs1860661; odds ratio (OR)=0.81, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.76-0.86, P(combined) = 3.5 × 10(-10)), located in intron 2 of TCF3 (also known as E2A), a regulator of B- and T-cell lineage commitment known to be involved in HL pathogenesis. This meta-analysis also notes associations between previously published loci at 2p16, 5q31, 6p31, 8q24 and 10p14 and HL subtypes. We conclude that our data suggest a link between the 19p13.3 locus, including TCF3, and HL risk.

  5. Does moonlight increase predation risk? Meta-analysis reveals divergent responses of nocturnal mammals to lunar cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prugh, Laura R; Golden, Christopher D

    2014-03-01

    The risk of predation strongly affects mammalian population dynamics and community interactions. Bright moonlight is widely believed to increase predation risk for nocturnal mammals by increasing the ability of predators to detect prey, but the potential for moonlight to increase detection of predators and the foraging efficiency of prey has largely been ignored. Studies have reported highly variable responses to moonlight among species, calling into question the assumption that moonlight increases risk. Here, we conducted a quantitative meta-analysis examining the effects of moonlight on the activity of 59 nocturnal mammal species to test the assumption that moonlight increases predation risk. We examined patterns of lunarphilia and lunarphobia across species in relation to factors such as trophic level, habitat cover preference and visual acuity. Across all species included in the meta-analysis, moonlight suppressed activity. The magnitude of suppression was similar to the presence of a predator in experimental studies of foraging rodents (13.6% and 18.7% suppression, respectively). Contrary to the expectation that moonlight increases predation risk for all prey species, however, moonlight effects were not clearly related to trophic level and were better explained by phylogenetic relatedness, visual acuity and habitat cover. Moonlight increased the activity of prey species that use vision as their primary sensory system and suppressed the activity of species that primarily use other senses (e.g. olfaction, echolocation), and suppression was strongest in open habitat types. Strong taxonomic patterns underlay these relationships: moonlight tended to increase primate activity, whereas it tended to suppress the activity of rodents, lagomorphs, bats and carnivores. These results indicate that visual acuity and habitat cover jointly moderate the effect of moonlight on predation risk, whereas trophic position has little effect. While the net effect of moonlight appears

  6. Meta-analysis of 8q24 for seven cancers reveals a locus between NOV and ENPP2 associated with cancer development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brisbin Abra G

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human chromosomal region 8q24 contains several genes which could be functionally related to cancer, including the proto-oncogene c-MYC. However, the abundance of associations around 128 Mb on chromosome 8 could mask the appearance of a weaker, but important, association elsewhere on 8q24. Methods In this study, we completed a meta-analysis of results from nine genome-wide association studies for seven types of solid-tumor cancers (breast, prostate, pancreatic, lung, ovarian, colon, and glioma to identify additional associations that were not apparent in any individual study. Results Fifteen SNPs in the 8q24 region had meta-analysis p-values NOV and ENPP2, which have been shown to play a role in tumor development and motility. An additional region consisting of 5 markers from 128,478,000 bp - 128,524,000 (around gene POU5F1B had p-values Conclusions Further research in this area is warranted as these results demonstrate that the chromosomal region 8q24 may contain a locus that influences general cancer susceptibility between 120,576 and 120,630 kb.

  7. Bayesian Meta-Analysis of Coefficient Alpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannick, Michael T.; Zhang, Nanhua

    2013-01-01

    The current paper describes and illustrates a Bayesian approach to the meta-analysis of coefficient alpha. Alpha is the most commonly used estimate of the reliability or consistency (freedom from measurement error) for educational and psychological measures. The conventional approach to meta-analysis uses inverse variance weights to combine…

  8. Meta-analysis reveals evolution in invasive plant species but little support for Evolution of Increased Competitive Ability (EICA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felker-Quinn, Emmi; Schweitzer, Jennifer A; Bailey, Joseph K

    2013-03-01

    Ecological explanations for the success and persistence of invasive species vastly outnumber evolutionary hypotheses, yet evolution is a fundamental process in the success of any species. The Evolution of Increased Competitive Ability (EICA) hypothesis (Blossey and Nötzold 1995) proposes that evolutionary change in response to release from coevolved herbivores is responsible for the success of many invasive plant species. Studies that evaluate this hypothesis have used different approaches to test whether invasive populations allocate fewer resources to defense and more to growth and competitive ability than do source populations, with mixed results. We conducted a meta-analysis of experimental tests of evolutionary change in the context of EICA. In contrast to previous reviews, there was no support across invasive species for EICA's predictions regarding defense or competitive ability, although invasive populations were more productive than conspecific native populations under noncompetitive conditions. We found broad support for genetically based changes in defense and competitive plant traits after introduction into new ranges, but not in the manner suggested by EICA. This review suggests that evolution occurs as a result of plant introduction and population expansion in invasive plant species, and may contribute to the invasiveness and persistence of some introduced species.

  9. Meta-analysis of global transcriptomics reveals conserved genetic pathways of Quercetin and Tannic acid mediated longevity in C. elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin ePietsch

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has highlighted that the polyphenols Quercetin and Tannic acid are capable of extending the lifespan of C. elegans. To gain a deep understanding of the underlying molecular genetics, we analyzed the global transcriptional patterns of nematodes exposed to Quercetin or Tannic acid concentrations that are non-effective (in lifespan extension, lifespan extending or toxic. By means of an intricate meta-analysis it was possible to compare the transcriptomes of polyphenol exposure to recently published data sets derived from i longevity mutants or ii infection. This detailed comparative in silico analysis facilitated the identification of compound specific and overlapping transcriptional profiles and allowed the formulation of mechanistic models of Quercetin and Tannic acid mediated longevity. Lifespan extension due to Quercetin was predominantly driven by the metabolome, TGF-beta signaling, Insulin-like signaling and the p38 MAPK pathway and Tannic acid’s impact involved, in part, the amino acid metabolism and was modulated by the TGF-beta and the p38 MAPK pathways. DAF-12, which integrates TGF-beta and Insulin-like downstream signaling, therefore seems to be a crucial regulator for both polyphenols.

  10. Mangrove habitat use by juvenile reef fish: meta-analysis reveals that tidal regime matters more than biogeographic region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias M Igulu

    Full Text Available Identification of critical life-stage habitats is key to successful conservation efforts. Juveniles of some species show great flexibility in habitat use while other species rely heavily on a restricted number of juvenile habitats for protection and food. Considering the rapid degradation of coastal marine habitats worldwide, it is important to evaluate which species are more susceptible to loss of juvenile nursery habitats and how this differs across large biogeographic regions. Here we used a meta-analysis approach to investigate habitat use by juvenile reef fish species in tropical coastal ecosystems across the globe. Densities of juvenile fish species were compared among mangrove, seagrass and coral reef habitats. In the Caribbean, the majority of species showed significantly higher juvenile densities in mangroves as compared to seagrass beds and coral reefs, while for the Indo-Pacific region seagrass beds harbored the highest overall densities. Further analysis indicated that differences in tidal amplitude, irrespective of biogeographic region, appeared to be the major driver for this phenomenon. In addition, juvenile reef fish use of mangroves increased with increasing water salinity. In the Caribbean, species of specific families (e.g. Lutjanidae, Haemulidae showed a higher reliance on mangroves or seagrass beds as juvenile habitats than other species, whereas in the Indo-Pacific family-specific trends of juvenile habitat utilization were less apparent. The findings of this study highlight the importance of incorporating region-specific tidal inundation regimes into marine spatial conservation planning and ecosystem based management. Furthermore, the significant role of water salinity and tidal access as drivers of mangrove fish habitat use implies that changes in seawater level and rainfall due to climate change may have important effects on how juvenile reef fish use nearshore seascapes in the future.

  11. Preventing necrotizing enterocolitis by food additives in neonates: A network meta-analysis revealing the efficacy and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wentao; Sui, Wu; Mu, Linsong; Yi, Wenying; Li, Haijuan; Wei, Liqin; Yin, Weihong

    2017-05-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a serious multifactorial gastrointestinal disease which is often discovered in premature infants. Various additives have been used to prevent NEC; yet, their relative efficacy and safety remain disputed. This study aims to compare the efficacy and safety of 5 food additives, namely, probiotics, probiotics + fructo-oligosaccharides, pentoxifylline, arginine, and lactoferrin in preventing NEC in neonates. Embase, PubMed, and Cochrane Library had been searched for all eligible randomized control trials. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated for dichotomous data and mean differences with 95% credible intervals (CrIs) were estimated for continuous data. Surface under the cumulative ranking curve was used to rank efficacy and safety of the prevention methods on each endpoint. A total of 27 eligible studies with 4649 preterm infants were included in this network meta-analysis (NMA), and the efficacy and safety of 5 food additives were evaluated. Probiotic and arginine exhibited better preventive efficacy compared with placebo (OR = 0.50, 95% CrIs: 0.32-0.73; OR = 0.30, 95% CrIs: 0.12-0.73, respectively). Only probiotic achieved a considerable decrease in the risk of mortality compared to placebo (OR = 0.68, 95% CrIs: 0.46-0.98). NEC patients with lactoferrin appeared to have lower incidence of sepsis than those of placebo (OR = 0.13, 95% CrIs: 0.03-0.61) or probiotic (OR = 0.18, 95% CrIs: 0.03-0.83). Based on this NMA, probiotics had the potential to be the most preferable additive, since it exhibited a significant superiority for NEC and mortality as well as a relatively balanced performance in safety.

  12. Meta-analysis of pollen limitation reveals the relevance of pollination generalization in the Atlantic forest of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolowski, Marina; Ashman, Tia-Lynn; Freitas, Leandro

    2014-01-01

    Despite the extensive knowledge of pollen limitation in angiosperms, its assessment within tropical forests is still limited. Especially lacking are large scale comparisons of species within this biome - one that is highly diverse but also becoming increasingly threatened. In fact, many tropical plant species depend upon pollinators for reproduction but evaluation of the impact of this dependence via different levels of pollination specialization has yet to be made at the biome scale. We assessed the occurrence and magnitude of pollen limitation for species in the Brazilian Atlantic forest and tested the association of pollination specialization, breeding system, and life habit with pollination efficiency. We compiled data from studies published between 1985 and 2012. We calculated species' effect size (d) from data on fruit set after hand cross-pollination and natural pollination and conducted standard and phylogenetically independent meta-analysis. Overall pollen limitation was moderate, with magnitude of 0.50, and 95% confidence interval [0.37, 0.62] for 126 species. Pollen limitation was observed in 39% of species. Pollination specialization was the factor that best explained the occurrence of pollen limitation. Specifically, phenotypic and ecological specialists (plants with zygomorphic flowers and pollinated by one species of pollinator, respectively) had higher pollen limitation than generalist plants (actinomorphic flowers and pollination by two or more species). Functional generalists (plants pollinated by three or more functional groups) were not pollen limited. On the other hand, breeding system and life habit were not associated to pollen limitation. Pollen limitation was observed in the Atlantic forest and its magnitude was comparable to that for angiosperms as a whole. The finding that pollination specialization was the strongest predictor of pollen limitation suggests that specialist plants in this biome may be most prone to the reproductive failure

  13. Meta-Analysis of Pollen Limitation Reveals the Relevance of Pollination Generalization in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolowski, Marina; Ashman, Tia-Lynn; Freitas, Leandro

    2014-01-01

    Despite the extensive knowledge of pollen limitation in angiosperms, its assessment within tropical forests is still limited. Especially lacking are large scale comparisons of species within this biome – one that is highly diverse but also becoming increasingly threatened. In fact, many tropical plant species depend upon pollinators for reproduction but evaluation of the impact of this dependence via different levels of pollination specialization has yet to be made at the biome scale. We assessed the occurrence and magnitude of pollen limitation for species in the Brazilian Atlantic forest and tested the association of pollination specialization, breeding system, and life habit with pollination efficiency. We compiled data from studies published between 1985 and 2012. We calculated species' effect size (d) from data on fruit set after hand cross-pollination and natural pollination and conducted standard and phylogenetically independent meta-analysis. Overall pollen limitation was moderate, with magnitude of 0.50, and 95% confidence interval [0.37, 0.62] for 126 species. Pollen limitation was observed in 39% of species. Pollination specialization was the factor that best explained the occurrence of pollen limitation. Specifically, phenotypic and ecological specialists (plants with zygomorphic flowers and pollinated by one species of pollinator, respectively) had higher pollen limitation than generalist plants (actinomorphic flowers and pollination by two or more species). Functional generalists (plants pollinated by three or more functional groups) were not pollen limited. On the other hand, breeding system and life habit were not associated to pollen limitation. Pollen limitation was observed in the Atlantic forest and its magnitude was comparable to that for angiosperms as a whole. The finding that pollination specialization was the strongest predictor of pollen limitation suggests that specialist plants in this biome may be most prone to the reproductive

  14. Meta-analysis of pollen limitation reveals the relevance of pollination generalization in the Atlantic forest of Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Wolowski

    Full Text Available Despite the extensive knowledge of pollen limitation in angiosperms, its assessment within tropical forests is still limited. Especially lacking are large scale comparisons of species within this biome - one that is highly diverse but also becoming increasingly threatened. In fact, many tropical plant species depend upon pollinators for reproduction but evaluation of the impact of this dependence via different levels of pollination specialization has yet to be made at the biome scale. We assessed the occurrence and magnitude of pollen limitation for species in the Brazilian Atlantic forest and tested the association of pollination specialization, breeding system, and life habit with pollination efficiency. We compiled data from studies published between 1985 and 2012. We calculated species' effect size (d from data on fruit set after hand cross-pollination and natural pollination and conducted standard and phylogenetically independent meta-analysis. Overall pollen limitation was moderate, with magnitude of 0.50, and 95% confidence interval [0.37, 0.62] for 126 species. Pollen limitation was observed in 39% of species. Pollination specialization was the factor that best explained the occurrence of pollen limitation. Specifically, phenotypic and ecological specialists (plants with zygomorphic flowers and pollinated by one species of pollinator, respectively had higher pollen limitation than generalist plants (actinomorphic flowers and pollination by two or more species. Functional generalists (plants pollinated by three or more functional groups were not pollen limited. On the other hand, breeding system and life habit were not associated to pollen limitation. Pollen limitation was observed in the Atlantic forest and its magnitude was comparable to that for angiosperms as a whole. The finding that pollination specialization was the strongest predictor of pollen limitation suggests that specialist plants in this biome may be most prone to the

  15. High-resolution bacterial 16S rRNA gene profile meta-analysis and biofilm status reveal common colorectal cancer consortia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewes, Julia L; White, James R; Dejea, Christine M; Fathi, Payam; Iyadorai, Thevambiga; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Roslani, April C; Wick, Elizabeth C; Mongodin, Emmanuel F; Loke, Mun Fai; Thulasi, Kumar; Gan, Han Ming; Goh, Khean Lee; Chong, Hoong Yin; Kumar, Sandip; Wanyiri, Jane W; Sears, Cynthia L

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains the third most common cancer worldwide, with a growing incidence among young adults. Multiple studies have presented associations between the gut microbiome and CRC, suggesting a link with cancer risk. Although CRC microbiome studies continue to profile larger patient cohorts with increasingly economical and rapid DNA sequencing platforms, few common associations with CRC have been identified, in part due to limitations in taxonomic resolution and differences in analysis methodologies. Complementing these taxonomic studies is the newly recognized phenomenon that bacterial organization into biofilm structures in the mucus layer of the gut is a consistent feature of right-sided (proximal), but not left-sided (distal) colorectal cancer. In the present study, we performed 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and biofilm quantification in a new cohort of patients from Malaysia, followed by a meta-analysis of eleven additional publicly available data sets on stool and tissue-based CRC microbiota using Resphera Insight, a high-resolution analytical tool for species-level characterization. Results from the Malaysian cohort and the expanded meta-analysis confirm that CRC tissues are enriched for invasive biofilms (particularly on right-sided tumors), a symbiont with capacity for tumorigenesis ( Bacteroides fragilis ), and oral pathogens including Fusobacterium nucleatum , Parvimonas micra , and Peptostreptococcus stomatis . Considered in aggregate, species from the Human Oral Microbiome Database are highly enriched in CRC. Although no detected microbial feature was universally present, their substantial overlap and combined prevalence supports a role for the gut microbiota in a significant percentage (>80%) of CRC cases.

  16. Meta-Analysis of Public Microarray Datasets Reveals Voltage-Gated Calcium Gene Signatures in Clinical Cancer Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yang Wang

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs are well documented to play roles in cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis; however, whether VGCCs regulate the onset and progression of cancer is still under investigation. The VGCC family consists of five members, which are L-type, N-type, T-type, R-type and P/Q type. To date, no holistic approach has been used to screen VGCC family genes in different types of cancer. We analyzed the transcript expression of VGCCs in clinical cancer tissue samples by accessing ONCOMINE (www.oncomine.org, a web-based microarray database, to perform a systematic analysis. Every member of the VGCCs was examined across 21 different types of cancer by comparing mRNA expression in cancer to that in normal tissue. A previous study showed that altered expression of mRNA in cancer tissue may play an oncogenic role and promote tumor development; therefore, in the present findings, we focus only on the overexpression of VGCCs in different types of cancer. This bioinformatics analysis revealed that different subtypes of VGCCs (CACNA1C, CACNA1D, CACNA1B, CACNA1G, and CACNA1I are implicated in the development and progression of diverse types of cancer and show dramatic up-regulation in breast cancer. CACNA1F only showed high expression in testis cancer, whereas CACNA1A, CACNA1C, and CACNA1D were highly expressed in most types of cancer. The current analysis revealed that specific VGCCs likely play essential roles in specific types of cancer. Collectively, we identified several VGCC targets and classified them according to different cancer subtypes for prospective studies on the underlying carcinogenic mechanisms. The present findings suggest that VGCCs are possible targets for prospective investigation in cancer treatment.

  17. Meta-Analysis of Public Microarray Datasets Reveals Voltage-Gated Calcium Gene Signatures in Clinical Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chih-Yang; Lai, Ming-Derg; Phan, Nam Nhut; Sun, Zhengda; Lin, Yen-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) are well documented to play roles in cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis; however, whether VGCCs regulate the onset and progression of cancer is still under investigation. The VGCC family consists of five members, which are L-type, N-type, T-type, R-type and P/Q type. To date, no holistic approach has been used to screen VGCC family genes in different types of cancer. We analyzed the transcript expression of VGCCs in clinical cancer tissue samples by accessing ONCOMINE (www.oncomine.org), a web-based microarray database, to perform a systematic analysis. Every member of the VGCCs was examined across 21 different types of cancer by comparing mRNA expression in cancer to that in normal tissue. A previous study showed that altered expression of mRNA in cancer tissue may play an oncogenic role and promote tumor development; therefore, in the present findings, we focus only on the overexpression of VGCCs in different types of cancer. This bioinformatics analysis revealed that different subtypes of VGCCs (CACNA1C, CACNA1D, CACNA1B, CACNA1G, and CACNA1I) are implicated in the development and progression of diverse types of cancer and show dramatic up-regulation in breast cancer. CACNA1F only showed high expression in testis cancer, whereas CACNA1A, CACNA1C, and CACNA1D were highly expressed in most types of cancer. The current analysis revealed that specific VGCCs likely play essential roles in specific types of cancer. Collectively, we identified several VGCC targets and classified them according to different cancer subtypes for prospective studies on the underlying carcinogenic mechanisms. The present findings suggest that VGCCs are possible targets for prospective investigation in cancer treatment. PMID:26147197

  18. Meta-analysis reveals that seed-applied neonicotinoids and pyrethroids have similar negative effects on abundance of arthropod natural enemies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooker, John F.

    2016-01-01

    crop species, neonicotinoid active ingredients, or methodological choices. Discussion Our meta-analysis of nearly 1,000 observations from North American and European field studies revealed that seed-applied neonicotinoids reduced the abundance of arthropod natural enemies similarly to broadcast applications of pyrethroid insecticides. These findings suggest that substituting pyrethroids for seed-applied neonicotinoids, or vice versa, will have little net affect on natural enemy abundance. Consistent with previous lab work, our results also suggest that seed-applied neonicotinoids are less toxic to spiders and mites, which can contribute substantially to biological control in many agricultural systems. Finally, our ability to interpret the negative effect of neonicotinoids on natural enemies is constrained by difficulty relating natural-enemy abundance to biological control function; this is an important area for future study. PMID:27957400

  19. Longitudinal Meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hox, J.J.; Maas, C.J.M.; Lensvelt-Mulders, G.J.L.M.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of meta-analysis is to integrate the research results of a number of studies on a specific topic. Characteristic for meta-analysis is that in general only the summary statistics of the studies are used and not the original data. When the published research results to be integrated

  20. Meta-analysis identifies 13 new loci associated with waist-hip ratio and reveals sexual dimorphism in the genetic basis of fat distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heid, Iris M; Jackson, Anne U; Randall, Joshua C; Winkler, Thomas W; Qi, Lu; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Zillikens, M Carola; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Mägi, Reedik; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; White, Charles C; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Harris, Tamara B; Berndt, Sonja I; Ingelsson, Erik; Willer, Cristen J; Weedon, Michael N; Luan, Jian'an; Vedantam, Sailaja; Esko, Tõnu; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Kutalik, Zoltán; Li, Shengxu; Monda, Keri L; Dixon, Anna L; Holmes, Christopher C; Kaplan, Lee M; Liang, Liming; Min, Josine L; Moffatt, Miriam F; Molony, Cliona; Nicholson, George; Schadt, Eric E; Zondervan, Krina T; Feitosa, Mary F; Ferreira, Teresa; Lango Allen, Hana; Weyant, Robert J; Wheeler, Eleanor; Wood, Andrew R; Estrada, Karol; Goddard, Michael E; Lettre, Guillaume; Mangino, Massimo; Nyholt, Dale R; Purcell, Shaun; Smith, Albert Vernon; Visscher, Peter M; Yang, Jian; McCarroll, Steven A; Nemesh, James; Voight, Benjamin F; Absher, Devin; Amin, Najaf; Aspelund, Thor; Coin, Lachlan; Glazer, Nicole L; Hayward, Caroline; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Johansson, Asa; Johnson, Toby; Kaakinen, Marika; Kapur, Karen; Ketkar, Shamika; Knowles, Joshua W; Kraft, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T; Lamina, Claudia; Leitzmann, Michael F; McKnight, Barbara; Morris, Andrew P; Ong, Ken K; Perry, John R B; Peters, Marjolein J; Polasek, Ozren; Prokopenko, Inga; Rayner, Nigel W; Ripatti, Samuli; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Robertson, Neil R; Sanna, Serena; Sovio, Ulla; Surakka, Ida; Teumer, Alexander; van Wingerden, Sophie; Vitart, Veronique; Zhao, Jing Hua; Cavalcanti-Proença, Christine; Chines, Peter S; Fisher, Eva; Kulzer, Jennifer R; Lecoeur, Cecile; Narisu, Narisu; Sandholt, Camilla; Scott, Laura J; Silander, Kaisa; Stark, Klaus; Tammesoo, Mari-Liis; Teslovich, Tanya M; Timpson, Nicholas John; Watanabe, Richard M; Welch, Ryan; Chasman, Daniel I; Cooper, Matthew N; Jansson, John-Olov; Kettunen, Johannes; Lawrence, Robert W; Pellikka, Niina; Perola, Markus; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Alavere, Helene; Almgren, Peter; Atwood, Larry D; Bennett, Amanda J; Biffar, Reiner; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Bornstein, Stefan R; Buchanan, Thomas A; Campbell, Harry; Day, Ian N M; Dei, Mariano; Dörr, Marcus; Elliott, Paul; Erdos, Michael R; Eriksson, Johan G; Freimer, Nelson B; Fu, Mao; Gaget, Stefan; Geus, Eco J C; Gjesing, Anette P; Grallert, Harald; Grässler, Jürgen; Groves, Christopher J; Guiducci, Candace; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hassanali, Neelam; Havulinna, Aki S; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Hicks, Andrew A; Hui, Jennie; Igl, Wilmar; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti; Kajantie, Eero; Kinnunen, Leena; Kolcic, Ivana; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Kroemer, Heyo K; Krzelj, Vjekoslav; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kvaloy, Kirsti; Laitinen, Jaana; Lantieri, Olivier; Lathrop, G Mark; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Luben, Robert N; Ludwig, Barbara; McArdle, Wendy L; McCarthy, Anne; Morken, Mario A; Nelis, Mari; Neville, Matt J; Paré, Guillaume; Parker, Alex N; Peden, John F; Pichler, Irene; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Platou, Carl G P; Pouta, Anneli; Ridderstråle, Martin; Samani, Nilesh J; Saramies, Jouko; Sinisalo, Juha; Smit, Jan H; Strawbridge, Rona J; Stringham, Heather M; Swift, Amy J; Teder-Laving, Maris; Thomson, Brian; Usala, Gianluca; van Meurs, Joyce B J; van Ommen, Gert-Jan; Vatin, Vincent; Volpato, Claudia B; Wallaschofski, Henri; Walters, G Bragi; Widen, Elisabeth; Wild, Sarah H; Willemsen, Gonneke; Witte, Daniel R; Zgaga, Lina; Zitting, Paavo; Beilby, John P; James, Alan L; Kähönen, Mika; Lehtimäki, Terho; Nieminen, Markku S; Ohlsson, Claes; Palmer, Lyle J; Raitakari, Olli; Ridker, Paul M; Stumvoll, Michael; Tönjes, Anke; Viikari, Jorma; Balkau, Beverley; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Bergman, Richard N; Boeing, Heiner; Smith, George Davey; Ebrahim, Shah; Froguel, Philippe; Hansen, Torben; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hveem, Kristian; Isomaa, Bo; Jørgensen, Torben; Karpe, Fredrik; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Laakso, Markku; Lawlor, Debbie A; Marre, Michel; Meitinger, Thomas; Metspalu, Andres; Midthjell, Kristian; Pedersen, Oluf; Salomaa, Veikko; Schwarz, Peter E H; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Valle, Timo T; Wareham, Nicholas J; Arnold, Alice M; Beckmann, Jacques S; Bergmann, Sven; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boomsma, Dorret I; Caulfield, Mark J; Collins, Francis S; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders; Hattersley, Andrew T; Hofman, Albert; Hu, Frank B; Illig, Thomas; Iribarren, Carlos; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kao, W H Linda; Kaprio, Jaakko; Launer, Lenore J; Munroe, Patricia B; Oostra, Ben; Penninx, Brenda W; Pramstaller, Peter P; Psaty, Bruce M; Quertermous, Thomas; Rissanen, Aila; Rudan, Igor; Shuldiner, Alan R; Soranzo, Nicole; Spector, Timothy D; Syvanen, Ann-Christine; Uda, Manuela; Uitterlinden, André; Völzke, Henry; Vollenweider, Peter; Wilson, James F; Witteman, Jacqueline C; Wright, Alan F; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B; Deloukas, Panos; Frayling, Timothy M; Groop, Leif C; Haritunians, Talin; Hunter, David J; Kaplan, Robert C; North, Kari E; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Peltonen, Leena; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Assimes, Themistocles L; Wichmann, H-Erich; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Stefansson, Kari; Cupples, L Adrienne; Loos, Ruth J F; Barroso, Inês; McCarthy, Mark I; Fox, Caroline S; Mohlke, Karen L; Lindgren, Cecilia M

    2010-11-01

    Waist-hip ratio (WHR) is a measure of body fat distribution and a predictor of metabolic consequences independent of overall adiposity. WHR is heritable, but few genetic variants influencing this trait have been identified. We conducted a meta-analysis of 32 genome-wide association studies for WHR adjusted for body mass index (comprising up to 77,167 participants), following up 16 loci in an additional 29 studies (comprising up to 113,636 subjects). We identified 13 new loci in or near RSPO3, VEGFA, TBX15-WARS2, NFE2L3, GRB14, DNM3-PIGC, ITPR2-SSPN, LY86, HOXC13, ADAMTS9, ZNRF3-KREMEN1, NISCH-STAB1 and CPEB4 (P = 1.9 × 10⁻⁹ to P = 1.8 × 10⁻⁴⁰) and the known signal at LYPLAL1. Seven of these loci exhibited marked sexual dimorphism, all with a stronger effect on WHR in women than men (P for sex difference = 1.9 × 10⁻³ to P = 1.2 × 10⁻¹³). These findings provide evidence for multiple loci that modulate body fat distribution independent of overall adiposity and reveal strong gene-by-sex interactions.

  1. Neuroimaging meta-analysis of cannabis use studies reveals convergent functional alterations in brain regions supporting cognitive control and reward processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanes, Julio A; Riedel, Michael C; Ray, Kimberly L; Kirkland, Anna E; Bird, Ryan T; Boeving, Emily R; Reid, Meredith A; Gonzalez, Raul; Robinson, Jennifer L; Laird, Angela R; Sutherland, Matthew T

    2018-03-01

    Lagging behind rapid changes to state laws, societal views, and medical practice is the scientific investigation of cannabis's impact on the human brain. While several brain imaging studies have contributed important insight into neurobiological alterations linked with cannabis use, our understanding remains limited. Here, we sought to delineate those brain regions that consistently demonstrate functional alterations among cannabis users versus non-users across neuroimaging studies using the activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis framework. In ancillary analyses, we characterized task-related brain networks that co-activate with cannabis-affected regions using data archived in a large neuroimaging repository, and then determined which psychological processes may be disrupted via functional decoding techniques. When considering convergent alterations among users, decreased activation was observed in the anterior cingulate cortex, which co-activated with frontal, parietal, and limbic areas and was linked with cognitive control processes. Similarly, decreased activation was observed in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which co-activated with frontal and occipital areas and linked with attention-related processes. Conversely, increased activation among users was observed in the striatum, which co-activated with frontal, parietal, and other limbic areas and linked with reward processing. These meta-analytic outcomes indicate that cannabis use is linked with differential, region-specific effects across the brain.

  2. Large-Scale Cognitive GWAS Meta-Analysis Reveals Tissue-Specific Neural Expression and Potential Nootropic Drug Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Lam

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Here, we present a large (n = 107,207 genome-wide association study (GWAS of general cognitive ability (“g”, further enhanced by combining results with a large-scale GWAS of educational attainment. We identified 70 independent genomic loci associated with general cognitive ability. Results showed significant enrichment for genes causing Mendelian disorders with an intellectual disability phenotype. Competitive pathway analysis implicated the biological processes of neurogenesis and synaptic regulation, as well as the gene targets of two pharmacologic agents: cinnarizine, a T-type calcium channel blocker, and LY97241, a potassium channel inhibitor. Transcriptome-wide and epigenome-wide analysis revealed that the implicated loci were enriched for genes expressed across all brain regions (most strongly in the cerebellum. Enrichment was exclusive to genes expressed in neurons but not oligodendrocytes or astrocytes. Finally, we report genetic correlations between cognitive ability and disparate phenotypes including psychiatric disorders, several autoimmune disorders, longevity, and maternal age at first birth.

  3. Meta-analysis reveals a lack of association between a common catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) polymorphism val¹⁵⁸met and fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhu, Junwei; Chen, Yong; Zhao, Jianning

    2014-01-01

    This study is to evaluate the association between the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene val(158)met polymorphism and FM risk. We performed a meta-analysis of 8 case-control studies that included 589 FM cases and 527 case-free controls. We assessed the strength of the association, using odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Overall, this meta-analysis showed that the COMT gene val(158)met polymorphism was not associated with FM risk in all genetic models, i.e., allele (met vs. val: OR=1.46, 95% CI=0.80-2.66, P heterpgeneitysubgroup analyses by ethnicity and HWE. No publication bias was found in the present study. This meta-analysis suggests that the COMT gene val(158)met polymorphism is not associated with FM risk. Further large and well-designed studies are needed to confirm this association.

  4. Cryptorchidism and testicular germ cell tumors: comprehensive meta-analysis reveals that association between these conditions diminished over time and is modified by clinical characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly eBanks

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Risk of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT is consistently associated with a history of cryptorchidism (CO in epidemiologic studies. Factors modifying the association may provide insights regarding etiology of TGCT and suggest a basis for individualized care of CO. To identify modifiers of the CO-TGCT association, we conducted a comprehensive, quantitative evaluation of epidemiologic data.Materials and Methods: Human studies cited in PubMed or ISI Web of Science indices through December 2011 and selected unpublished epidemiologic data were reviewed to identify 35 articles and one unpublished dataset with high-quality data on the CO-TGCT association. Association data were extracted as point and 95% confidence interval estimates of odds ratio (OR or standardized incidence ratio (SIR, or as tabulated data. Values were recorded for each study population, and for subgroups defined by features of study design, CO and TGCT. Extracted data were used to estimate summary risk ratios (sRR and evaluate heterogeneity of the CO-TGCT association between subgroups.Results: The overall meta-analysis showed that history of CO is associated with four-fold increased TGCT risk (RR=4.1(95%CI=3.6-4.7. Subgroup analyses identified five determinants of stronger association: bilateral CO, unilateral CO ipsilateral to TGCT, delayed CO treatment, TGCT diagnosed before 1970, and seminoma histology. Conclusions: Modifying factors may provide insight into TGCT etiology and suggest improved approaches to managing CO. Based on available data, cryptorchidism patients and their parents or caregivers should be made aware of elevated TGCT risk following orchidopexy, regardless of age at repair, unilateral versus bilateral nondescent, or position of undescended testes.

  5. Meta-analysis identifies 13 new loci associated with waist-hip ratio and reveals sexual dimorphism in the genetic basis of fat distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M. Heid (Iris); A.U. Jackson (Anne); J.C. Randall (Joshua); T.W. Winkler (Thomas); L. Qi (Lu); V. Ssteinthorsdottir (Valgerdur); G. Tthorleifsson (Ggudmar); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); E.K. Sspeliotes (Eelizabeth); R. Mägi (Reedik); T. Workalemahu (Tsegaselassie); C.C. White (Charles); N. Bouatia-Naji (Nabila); T.B. Harris (Tamara); S.I. Berndt (Sonja); E. Ingelsson (Erik); C.J. Willer (Cristen); J. Luan; S. Vedantam (Sailaja); T. Eesko (Tõnu); T.O. Kilpeläinen (Tuomas); Z. Kutalik (Zoltán); S. Li (Shengxu); K.L. Monda (Keri); A.L. Dixon (Anna); C. Holmes (Christopher); R.C. Kaplan (Robert); L. Liang (Liming); J. Min (Josine); M.F. Moffatt (Miriam); C. Molony (Cliona); G. Nicholson (Ggeorge); E.E. Sschadt (Eeric); K.T. Zondervan (Krina); M.F. Feitosa (Mary Furlan); T. Ferreira (Teresa); H.L. Allen; R.J. Weyant (Robert); E. Wheeler (Eleanor); A.R. Wood (Andrew); K. Eestrada (Karol); M.E. Goddard (Michael); G. Lettre (Guillaume); M. Mangino (Massimo); D.R. Nyholt (Dale); S. Purcell (Shaun); A.V. Ssmith; P.M. Visscher (Peter); J. Yang (Joanna); S.A. McCcarroll (Ssteven); J. Nemesh (James); B.F. Voight (Benjamin); D. Absher (Devin); N. Amin (Najaf); T. Aspelund (Thor); L. Coin (Lachlan); N.L. Glazer (Nicole); C. Hayward (Caroline); N. Heard-Ccosta (Nancy); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); A. Johansson (Åsa); T. Johnson (Toby); M. Kaakinen (Marika); K. Kapur (Karen); S. Ketkar (Shamika); J.W. Knowles (Joshua); P. Kraft (Peter); A. Kraja (Aldi); C. Lamina (Claudia); M.F. Leitzmann (Michael); B. McKknight (Barbara); A.D. Morris (Andrew); K. Oong (Ken); J.R.B. Perry (John); M.J. Peters (Marjolein); O. Polasek (Ozren); I. Prokopenko (Inga); N.W. Rayner (Nigel William); S. Ripatti (Samuli); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); N.R. Robertson (Neil); S. Sanna (Serena); U. Sovio (Ulla); I. Surakka (Ida); A. Teumer (Alexander); S. van Wingerden (Sophie); V. Vitart (Veronique); J.H. Zhao (Jing Hua); C. Cavalcanti-Proença (Christine); P.S. Chines (Peter); E. Fisher (Eeva); J.R. Kulzer (Jennifer); C. Lecoeur (Cécile); N. Narisu (Narisu); C. Sandholt (Camilla); L.J. Scott (Laura); K. Silander (Kaisa); K. Stark (Klaus); M.L. Tammesoo; T.M. Teslovich (Tanya); N.J. Timpson (Nicholas); R.P. Welch (Ryan); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); M.N. Cooper (Matthew); J.O. Jansson; J. Kettunen (Johannes); R. Wlawrence (Robert); N. Pellikka (Niina); M. Perola (Markus); L. Vandenput (Liesbeth); H. Alavere (Helene); P. Almgren (Peter); L.D. Atwood (Larry); A.J. Bennett (Amanda); R. Biffar (Reiner); L.L. Bonnycastle (Lori); S.R. Bornstein (Stefan); T.A. Buchanan (Thomas); H. Campbell (Harry); I.N.M. Day (Ian); M. Dei (Mariano); M. Dörr (Marcus); P. Eelliott (Paul); M.R. Eerdos (Micheal); J.G. Eeriksson (Johan); N.B. Freimer (Nelson); M. Fu (Mao); S. Gaget (Stefan); E.J.C. Geus (Eco); A.P. Gjesing (Anette); H. Grallert (Harald); J. Gräßler (Jürgen); C.J. Groves (Christopher); C. Guiducci (Candace); A.L. Hartikainen; N. Hassanali (Neelam); A.S. Havulinna (Aki); K.H. Herzig; A.A. Hicks (Andrew); J. Hui (Jennie); W. Igl (Wilmar); P. Jousilahti (Pekka); A. Jula (Antti); E. Kajantie (Eero); L. Kinnunen (Leena); I. Kolcic (Ivana); S. Koskinen (Seppo); P. Kovacs (Peter); H.K. Kroemer (Heyo); V. Krzelj (Vjekoslav); J. Kuusisto (Johanna); K. Kvaløy (Kirsti); J. Laitinen (Jaana); O. Lantieri (Olivier); G.M. Lathrop (Mark); M.L. Lokki; R.N. Luben (Robert); B. Ludwig (Barbara); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); A. McCcarthy (Anne); M.A. Morken (Mario); M. Nelis (Mari); M.J. Neville (Matthew); G. Paré (Guillaume); A.N. Parker (Alex); J. Peden (John); I. Pichler (Irene); K.H. Pietilainen (Kirsi Hannele); C.P. Platou (Carl); A. Pouta (Anneli); M. Ridderstråle (Martin); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); J. Saramies (Jouko); J. Sinisalo (Juha); J.H. Smit (Jan); R.J. Strawbridge (Rona); H.M. Stringham (Heather); A.J. Swift (Amy); M. Teder-Llaving (Maris); B. Thomson (Brian); G. Usala; J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); G.J. van Ommen (Gert); V. Vatin (Vincent); C.B. Volpato; H. Wallaschofski (Henri); G.B. Walters (Bragi); E. Widen (Elisabeth); S.H. Wild (Sarah); G.A.H.M. Willemsen (Gonneke); D.R. Witte (Deniel); L. Zgaga (Lina); P. Zitting (Paavo); J.P. Beilby (John); A. James (Alan); M. Kähönen (Mika); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); M.S. Nieminen (Markku); C. Ohlsson (Claes); C. Palmer (Cameron); O. Raitakari (Olli); P.M. Ridker (Paul); M. Stumvoll (Michael); A. Tönjes (Anke); J. Viikari (Jorma); B. Balkau (Beverley); Y. Ben-Shlomo; R.N. Bergman (Richard); H. Boeing (Heiner); A.V. Smith (Albert Vernon); S. Eebrahim (Shah); P. Froguel (Philippe); T. Hansen (Torben); C. Hengstenberg (Christian); K. Hveem (Kristian); B. Isomaa (Bo); T. Jørgensen (Torben); F. Karpe (Fredrik); K-T. Khaw (Kay-Tee); M. Laakso (Markku); D.A. Lawlor (Debbie); M. Marre (Michel); T. Meitinger (Thomas); A. Metspalu (Andres); K. Midthjell (Kristian); O. Pedersen (Oluf); V. Salomaa (Veikko); P.E.H. Schwarz (Peter); T. Tuomi (Tiinamaija); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); T.T. Valle (Timo); N.J. Wareham (Nick); A.M. Arnold (Alice); J.S. Beckmann (Jacques); S.M. Bergmann (Sven); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); M. Caulfield (Mark); F.S. Collins (Francis); G. Eeiriksdottir (Gudny); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); U. Gyllensten (Ulf); A. Hamsten (Anders); A.T. Hattersley (Andrew); A. Hofman (Albert); F.B. Hu (Frank); T. Illig (Thomas); C. Iribarren (Carlos); M.R. Järvelin; W.H.L. Kao (Wen); J. Kaprio (Jaakko); L.J. Launer (Lenore); P. Munroe (Patricia); B.A. Oostra (Ben); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); P.P. Pramstaller (Peter Paul); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); T. Quertermous (Thomas); A. Rissanen (Aila); I. Rudan (Igor); A.R. Shuldiner (Alan); N. Soranzo (Nicole); T.D. Spector (Timothy); A.C. Syvanen; M. Uda (Manuela); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); H. Völzke (Henry); P. Vollenweider (Peter); J.F. Wilson (James); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); A.F. Wright (Alan); G.R. Abecasis (Gonçalo); M. Boehnke (Michael); I.B. Borecki (Ingrid); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); L. Groop (Leif); T. Haritunians (Talin); D.J. Hunter (David); K.E. North (Kari); J.R. O'Cconnell (Jeffrey); L. Peltonen (Leena Johanna); D. Schlessinger; D.P. Strachan (David); J.N. Hirschhorn (Joel); T.L. Assimes (Themistocles); H.E. Wichmann (Heinz Erich); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); K. Stefansson (Kari); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); I. Barroso (Inês); C.S. Fox (Caroline); K.L. Mohlke (Karen); C.M. Lindgren (Cecilia); R.M. Watanabe (Richard); M.N. Weedon (Michael)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWaist-hip ratio (WHR) is a measure of body fat distribution and a predictor of metabolic consequences independent of overall adiposity. WHR is heritable, but few genetic variants influencing this trait have been identified. We conducted a meta-analysis of 32 genome-wide association

  6. Meta-analysis of genome wide association studies for the stature of cattle reveals numerous common genes that regulate size in mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stature is affected by many polymorphisms of small effect in humans but in contrast variation in dogs, even within breeds is largely due to variants in six genes. Here we use data from cattle to compare genetic architecture of stature to that in humans and dogs. We conducted a meta-analysis for stat...

  7. Bivariate genome-wide association meta-analysis of pediatric musculoskeletal traits reveals pleiotropic effects at the SREBF1/TOM1L2 locus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Kemp, John P; Dimou, Niki L

    2017-01-01

    Bone mineral density is known to be a heritable, polygenic trait whereas genetic variants contributing to lean mass variation remain largely unknown. We estimated the shared SNP heritability and performed a bivariate GWAS meta-analysis of total-body lean mass (TB-LM) and total-body less head bone...

  8. Bivariate genome-wide association meta-analysis of pediatric musculoskeletal traits reveals pleiotropic effects at the SREBF1/TOM1L2 locus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C. Medina-Gomez (Carolina); J.P. Kemp (John); Dimou, N.L. (Niki L.); Kreiner, E. (Eskil); A. Chesi (Alessandra); B.S. Zemel (Babette S.); K. Bønnelykke (Klaus); Boer, C.G. (Cindy G.); T.S. Ahluwalia (Tarunveer Singh); H. Bisgaard; E. Evangelou (Evangelos); D.H.M. Heppe (Denise); Bonewald, L.F. (Lynda F.); Gorski, J.P. (Jeffrey P.); M. Ghanbari (Mohsen); S. Demissie (Serkalem); Duque, G. (Gustavo); M.T. Maurano (Matthew T.); D.P. Kiel (Douglas P.); Y.-H. Hsu (Yi-Hsiang); B.C.J. van der Eerden (Bram); Ackert-Bicknell, C. (Cheryl); S. Reppe (Sjur); K.M. Gautvik (Kaare); Raastad, T. (Truls); D. Karasik (David); J. van de Peppel (Jeroen); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); J.H. Tobias (Jon); S.F.A. Grant (Struan); Bagos, P.G. (Pantelis G.); D.M. Evans (David); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractBone mineral density is known to be a heritable, polygenic trait whereas genetic variants contributing to lean mass variation remain largely unknown. We estimated the shared SNP heritability and performed a bivariate GWAS meta-analysis of total-body lean mass (TB-LM) and total-body

  9. Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies 56 bone mineral density loci and reveals 14 loci associated with risk of fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estrada, Karol; Styrkarsdottir, Unnur; Evangelou, Evangelos

    2012-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) is the most widely used predictor of fracture risk. We performed the largest meta-analysis to date on lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD, including 17 genome-wide association studies and 32,961 individuals of European and east Asian ancestry. We tested the top BMD-associ...

  10. Meta-analysis identifies 13 new loci associated with waist-hip ratio and reveals sexual dimorphism in the genetic basis of fat distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heid, Iris M.; Jackson, Anne U.; Randall, Joshua C.; Winkler, Thomas W.; Qi, Lu; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Zillikens, M. Carola; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.; Maegi, Reedik; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; White, Charles C.; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Harris, Tamara B.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Ingelsson, Erik; Willer, Cristen J.; Weedon, Michael N.; Luan, Jianan; Vedantam, Sailaja; Esko, Tonu; Kilpelaeinen, Tuomas O.; Kutalik, Zoltan; Li, Shengxu; Monda, Keri L.; Dixon, Anna L.; Holmes, Christopher C.; Kaplan, Lee M.; Liang, Liming; Min, Josine L.; Moffatt, Miriam F.; Molony, Cliona; Nicholson, George; Schadt, Eric E.; Zondervan, Krina T.; Feitosa, Mary F.; Ferreira, Teresa; Allen, Hana Lango; Weyant, Robert J.; Wheeler, Eleanor; Wood, Andrew R.; Estrada, Karol; Goddard, Michael E.; Lettre, Guillaume; Mangino, Massimo; Nyholt, Dale R.; Purcell, Shaun; Smith, Albert Vernon; Visscher, Peter M.; Yang, Jian; McCarroll, Steven A.; Nemesh, James; Voight, Benjamin F.; Absher, Devin; Amin, Najaf; Aspelund, Thor; Coin, Lachlan; Glazer, Nicole L.; Hayward, Caroline; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Johansson, Asa; Johnson, Toby; Kaakinen, Marika; Kapur, Karen; Ketkar, Shamika; Knowles, Joshua W.; Kraft, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T.; Lamina, Claudia; Leitzmann, Michael F.; McKnight, Barbara; Morris, Andrew P.; Ong, Ken K.; Perry, John R. B.; Peters, Marjolein J.; Polasek, Ozren; Prokopenko, Inga; Rayner, Nigel W.; Ripatti, Samuli; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Robertson, Neil R.; Sanna, Serena; Sovio, Ulla; Surakka, Ida; Teumer, Alexander; van Wingerden, Sophie; Vitart, Veronique; Zhao, Jing Hua; Cavalcanti-Proenca, Christine; Chines, Peter S.; Fisher, Eva; Kulzer, Jennifer R.; Lecoeur, Cecile; Narisu, Narisu; Sandholt, Camilla; Scott, Laura J.; Silander, Kaisa; Stark, Klaus; Tammesoo, Mari-Liis; Teslovich, Tanya M.; Timpson, Nicholas John; Watanabe, Richard M.; Welch, Ryan; Chasman, Daniel I.; Cooper, Matthew N.; Jansson, John-Olov; Kettunen, Johannes; Lawrence, Robert W.; Pellikka, Niina; Perola, Markus; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Alavere, Helene; Almgren, Peter; Atwood, Larry D.; Bennett, Amanda J.; Biffar, Reiner; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Buchanan, Thomas A.; Campbell, Harry; Day, Ian N. M.; Dei, Mariano; Doerr, Marcus; Elliott, Paul; Erdos, Michael R.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Freimer, Nelson B.; Fu, Mao; Gaget, Stefan; Geus, Eco J. C.; Gjesing, Anette P.; Grallert, Harald; Graessler, Juergen; Groves, Christopher J.; Guiducci, Candace; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hassanali, Neelam; Havulinna, Aki S.; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Hicks, Andrew A.; Hui, Jennie; Igl, Wilmar; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti; Kajantie, Eero; Kinnunen, Leena; Kolcic, Ivana; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Kroemer, Heyo K.; Krzelj, Vjekoslav; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kvaloy, Kirsti; Laitinen, Jaana; Lantieri, Olivier; Lathrop, G. Mark; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Luben, Robert N.; Ludwig, Barbara; McArdle, Wendy L.; McCarthy, Anne; Morken, Mario A.; Nelis, Mari; Neville, Matt J.; Pare, Guillaume; Parker, Alex N.; Peden, John F.; Pichler, Irene; Pietilainen, Kirsi H.; Platou, Carl G. P.; Pouta, Anneli; Ridderstrale, Martin; Samani, Nilesh J.; Saramies, Jouko; Sinisalo, Juha; Smit, Jan H.; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Stringham, Heather M.; Swift, Amy J.; Teder-Laving, Maris; Thomson, Brian; Usala, Gianluca; van Meurs, Joyce B. J.; van Ommen, Gert-Jan; Vatin, Vincent; Volpato, Claudia B.; Wallaschofski, Henri; Walters, G. Bragi; Widen, Elisabeth; Wild, Sarah H.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Witte, Daniel R.; Zgaga, Lina; Zitting, Paavo; Beilby, John P.; James, Alan L.; Kahonen, Mika; Lehtimaki, Terho; Nieminen, Markku S.; Ohlsson, Claes; Palmer, Lyle J.; Raitakari, Olli; Ridker, Paul M.; Stumvoll, Michael; Toenjes, Anke; Viikari, Jorma; Balkau, Beverley; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Bergman, Richard N.; Boeing, Heiner; Smith, George Davey; Ebrahim, Shah; Froguel, Philippe; Hansen, Torben; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hveem, Kristian; Isomaa, Bo; Jorgensen, Torben; Karpe, Fredrik; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Laakso, Markku; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Marre, Michel; Meitinger, Thomas; Metspalu, Andres; Midthjell, Kristian; Pedersen, Oluf; Salomaa, Veikko; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Valle, Timo T.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Arnold, Alice M.; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Bergmann, Sven; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Collins, Francis S.; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Hofman, Albert; Hu, Frank B.; Illig, Thomas; Iribarren, Carlos; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kao, W. H. Linda; Kaprio, Jaakko; Launer, Lenore J.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Oostra, Ben; Penninx, Brenda W.; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Quertermous, Thomas; Rissanen, Aila; Rudan, Igor; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Soranzo, Nicole; Spector, Timothy D.; Syvanen, Ann-Christine; Uda, Manuela; Uitterlinden, Andre; Voelzke, Henry; Vollenweider, Peter; Wilson, James F.; Witteman, Jacqueline C.; Wright, Alan F.; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Deloukas, Panos; Frayling, Timothy M.; Groop, Leif C.; Haritunians, Talin; Hunter, David J.; Kaplan, Robert C.; North, Kari E.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Peltonen, Leena; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Wichmann, H-Erich; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Stefansson, Kari; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Barroso, Ines; McCarthy, Mark I.; Fox, Caroline S.; Mohlke, Karen L.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.

    2010-01-01

    Waist-hip ratio (WHR) is a measure of body fat distribution and a predictor of metabolic consequences independent of overall adiposity. WHR is heritable, but few genetic variants influencing this trait have been identified. We conducted a meta-analysis of 32 genome-wide association studies for WHR

  11. Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies 56 bone mineral density loci and reveals 14 loci associated with risk of fracture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Estrada Gil (Karol); U. Styrkarsdottir (Unnur); E. Evangelou (Evangelos); Y.-H. Hsu (Yi-Hsiang); E.L. Duncan (Emma); E.E. Ntzani (Evangelia); L. Oei (Ling); O.M.E. Albagha (Omar M.); N. Amin (Najaf); J.P. Kemp (John); D.L. Koller (Daniel); G. Li (Guo); C.-T. Liu (Ching-Ti); R.L. Minster (Ryan); A. Moayyeri (Alireza); L. Vandenput (Liesbeth); D. Willner (Dana); S.-M. Xiao (Su-Mei); L.M. Yerges-Armstrong (Laura); H.-F. Zheng (Hou-Feng); N. Alonso (Nerea); J. Eriksson (Joel); C.M. Kammerer (Candace); S. Kaptoge (Stephen); P.J. Leo (Paul); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); S.G. Wilson (Scott); J.F. Wilson (James); V. Aalto (Ville); T.A. van Alen (Theo); A.K. Aragaki (Aaron); T. Aspelund (Thor); J.R. Center (Jacqueline); Z. Dailiana (Zoe); C. Duggan; M. Garcia (Melissa); N. Garcia-Giralt (Natàlia); S. Giroux (Sylvie); G. Hallmans (Göran); L.J. Hocking (Lynne); L.B. Husted (Lise Bjerre); K. Jameson (Karen); R. Khusainova (Rita); G.S. Kim (Ghi Su); C. Kooperberg (Charles); T. Koromila (Theodora); M. Kruk (Marcin); M. Laaksonen (Marika); A.Z. LaCroix (Andrea); S.U. Lee (Seung); P.C. Leung (Ping); J.R. Lewis (Joshua); L. Masi (Laura); S. Mencej-Bedrac (Simona); T.V. Nguyen (Tuan); X. Nogues (Xavier); M.S. Patel (Millan); J. Prezelj (Janez); L.M. Rose (Lynda); S. Scollen (Serena); K. Siggeirsdottir (Kristin); G.D. Smith; O. Svensson (Olle); S. Trompet (Stella); O. Trummer (Olivia); N.M. van Schoor (Natasja); M.M. Woo (Margaret M.); K. Zhu (Kun); S. Balcells (Susana); M.L. Brandi; B.M. Buckley (Brendan M.); S. Cheng (Sulin); C. Christiansen; C. Cooper (Charles); G.V. Dedoussis (George); I. Ford (Ian); M. Frost (Morten); D. Goltzman (David); J. González-Macías (Jesús); M. Kähönen (Mika); M. Karlsson (Magnus); E.K. Khusnutdinova (Elza); J.-M. Koh (Jung-Min); P. Kollia (Panagoula); B.L. Langdahl (Bente); W.D. Leslie (William); P. Lips (Paul); O. Ljunggren (Östen); R. Lorenc (Roman); J. Marc (Janja); D. Mellström (Dan); B. Obermayer-Pietsch (Barbara); D. Olmos (David); U. Pettersson-Kymmer (Ulrika); D.M. Reid (David); J.A. Riancho (José); P.M. Ridker (Paul); M.F. Rousseau (Francois); P.E.S. Lagboom (P Eline); N.L.S. Tang (Nelson L.); R. Urreizti (Roser); W. Van Hul (Wim); J. Viikari (Jorma); M.T. Zarrabeitia (María); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); M.C. Castaño Betancourt (Martha); E. Grundberg (Elin); L. Herrera (Lizbeth); T. Ingvarsson (Torvaldur); H. Johannsdottir (Hrefna); T. Kwan (Tony); R. Li (Rui); R.N. Luben (Robert); M.C. Medina-Gomez (Carolina); S. Th Palsson (Stefan); S. Reppe (Sjur); J.I. Rotter (Jerome); G. Sigurdsson (Gunnar); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); D.J. Verlaan (Dominique); F.M. Williams (Frances); A.R. Wood (Andrew); Y. Zhou (Yanhua); K.M. Gautvik (Kaare); T. Pastinen (Tomi); S. Raychaudhuri (Soumya); J.A. Cauley (Jane); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); G.R. Clark (Graeme); S. Cummings; P. Danoy (Patrick); E.M. Dennison (Elaine); R. Eastell (Richard); J.A. Eisman (John); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); A. Hofman (Albert); R.D. Jackson (Rebecca); G. Jones (Graeme); J.W. Jukema (Jan Wouter); K-T. Khaw (Kay-Tee); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); Y. Liu (YongMei); M. Lorentzon (Mattias); E.V. McCloskey (Eugene); B.D. Mitchell (Braxton); K. Nandakumar (Kannabiran); G.C. Nicholson (Geoffrey); B.A. Oostra (Ben); M. Peacock (Munro); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); R.L. Prince (Richard); O. Raitakari (Olli); I.R. Reid (Ian); J. Robbins (John); P.N. Sambrook (Philip); P.C. Sham (Pak); A.R. Shuldiner (Alan); F.A. Tylavsky (Frances); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); N.J. Wareham (Nick); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); M.J. Econs (Michael); D.M. Evans (David); T.B. Harris (Tamara); A.W.C. Kung (Annie); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); J. Reeve (Jonathan); T.D. Spector (Timothy); E.A. Streeten (Elizabeth); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); C. Ohlsson (Claes); D. Karasik (David); J.B. Richards (Brent); M.A. Brown (Matthew); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); S.H. Ralston (Stuart); J.P.A. Ioannidis (John); D.P. Kiel (Douglas); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBone mineral density (BMD) is the most widely used predictor of fracture risk. We performed the largest meta-analysis to date on lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD, including 17 genome-wide association studies and 32,961 individuals of European and east Asian ancestry. We tested the top

  12. Meta-analysis with R

    CERN Document Server

    Schwarzer, Guido; Rücker, Gerta

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to performing meta-analysis using the statistical software R. It is intended for quantitative researchers and students in the medical and social sciences who wish to learn how to perform meta-analysis with R. As such, the book introduces the key concepts and models used in meta-analysis. It also includes chapters on the following advanced topics: publication bias and small study effects; missing data; multivariate meta-analysis, network meta-analysis; and meta-analysis of diagnostic studies.  .

  13. Common Mechanism of Pathogenesis in Gastrointestinal Diseases Implied by Consistent Efficacy of Single Chinese Medicine Formula: A PRISMA-Compliant Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Wei; Li, Yang; Jiang, Wei; Sui, Yi; Zhao, Hai-Lu

    2015-07-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) disorders often manifest similar symptoms with overlapping clinical diagnosis and unmet medical needs. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has history-proven benefits for GI diseases; albeit language barrier prevents Western readers from accessing the original reports in Chinese. The TCM formula Si-Ni-San (SNS) consists of 4 herbs targeting on homeostatic disturbances characterized by "reflux" and "irritable" problems. Here we used SNS as a therapeutic tool to explore the common mechanisms of pathogenesis in non-neoplastic GI diseases.Data sources from PUBMED, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang databases were searched for clinical trials. Comparisons were SNS as intervention and Western conventional medicine as control, which treat patients with upper GI disorders (gastroesophageal reflux disease, peptic ulcer, chronic gastritis, duodenogastric reflux), lower GI diseases (irritable bowel syndrome, ulcerative colitis), and functional dyspepsia. Participants and studies in accordance with the Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Statement were eligible. We used the Jadad scale to assess methodological qualities, the fixed or random-effect model to evaluate therapeutic efficacy, and the funnel plots to explore publication bias. Outcome was clinical efficacy defined by symptom relief with normal GI endoscopy, radiology, and pathology.We included 83 studies involving 7762 participants: 1708 versus 1397 of the upper GI disorders in 34 studies, 901 versus 768 of the lower GI diseases in 19 studies, 1641 versus 1348 of functional dyspepsia in 30 studies, and 328 versus 287 of relapse rate in 8 studies. Six studies had a Jadad score >2 points and the rest were <2 points. Pooled data showed significant efficacy of SNS for the upper GI disorders (odds ratio [OR] = 3.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.09-4.92), lower GI diseases (OR = 4.91, 95% CI = 3.71-6.51), and functional dyspepsia (N

  14. Mass meta-analysis in Talairach space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup

    2004-01-01

    We provide a method for mass meta-analysis in a neuroinformatics database containing stereotaxic Talairach coordinates from neuroimaging experiments. Database labels are used to group the individual experiments, e.g., according to cognitive function, and the consistent pattern of the experiments...... of experiments, and the distances to the null hypotheses are used to sort the voxels across groups of experiments. This allows for mass meta-analysis, with the construction of a list with the most prominent associations between brain areas and group labels. Furthermore, the method can be used for functional...

  15. Bivariate genome-wide association meta-analysis of pediatric musculoskeletal traits reveals pleiotropic effects at the SREBF1/TOM1L2 locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Kemp, John P; Dimou, Niki L; Kreiner, Eskil; Chesi, Alessandra; Zemel, Babette S; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Boer, Cindy G; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Bisgaard, Hans; Evangelou, Evangelos; Heppe, Denise H M; Bonewald, Lynda F; Gorski, Jeffrey P; Ghanbari, Mohsen; Demissie, Serkalem; Duque, Gustavo; Maurano, Matthew T; Kiel, Douglas P; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; C J van der Eerden, Bram; Ackert-Bicknell, Cheryl; Reppe, Sjur; Gautvik, Kaare M; Raastad, Truls; Karasik, David; van de Peppel, Jeroen; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Uitterlinden, André G; Tobias, Jonathan H; Grant, Struan F A; Bagos, Pantelis G; Evans, David M; Rivadeneira, Fernando

    2017-07-25

    Bone mineral density is known to be a heritable, polygenic trait whereas genetic variants contributing to lean mass variation remain largely unknown. We estimated the shared SNP heritability and performed a bivariate GWAS meta-analysis of total-body lean mass (TB-LM) and total-body less head bone mineral density (TBLH-BMD) regions in 10,414 children. The estimated SNP heritability is 43% (95% CI: 34-52%) for TBLH-BMD, and 39% (95% CI: 30-48%) for TB-LM, with a shared genetic component of 43% (95% CI: 29-56%). We identify variants with pleiotropic effects in eight loci, including seven established bone mineral density loci: WNT4, GALNT3, MEPE, CPED1/WNT16, TNFSF11, RIN3, and PPP6R3/LRP5. Variants in the TOM1L2/SREBF1 locus exert opposing effects TB-LM and TBLH-BMD, and have a stronger association with the former trait. We show that SREBF1 is expressed in murine and human osteoblasts, as well as in human muscle tissue. This is the first bivariate GWAS meta-analysis to demonstrate genetic factors with pleiotropic effects on bone mineral density and lean mass.Bone mineral density and lean skeletal mass are heritable traits. Here, Medina-Gomez and colleagues perform bivariate GWAS analyses of total body lean mass and bone mass density in children, and show genetic loci with pleiotropic effects on both traits.

  16. Bivariate genome-wide association meta-analysis of pediatric musculoskeletal traits reveals pleiotropic effects at the SREBF1/TOM1L2 locus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Kemp, John P; Dimou, Niki L

    2017-01-01

    Bone mineral density is known to be a heritable, polygenic trait whereas genetic variants contributing to lean mass variation remain largely unknown. We estimated the shared SNP heritability and performed a bivariate GWAS meta-analysis of total-body lean mass (TB-LM) and total-body less head bone...... mineral density (TBLH-BMD) regions in 10,414 children. The estimated SNP heritability is 43% (95% CI: 34-52%) for TBLH-BMD, and 39% (95% CI: 30-48%) for TB-LM, with a shared genetic component of 43% (95% CI: 29-56%). We identify variants with pleiotropic effects in eight loci, including seven established...... as in human muscle tissue. This is the first bivariate GWAS meta-analysis to demonstrate genetic factors with pleiotropic effects on bone mineral density and lean mass.Bone mineral density and lean skeletal mass are heritable traits. Here, Medina-Gomez and colleagues perform bivariate GWAS analyses of total...

  17. Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies 56 bone mineral density loci and reveals 14 loci associated with risk of fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Karol; Styrkarsdottir, Unnur; Evangelou, Evangelos; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Duncan, Emma L; Ntzani, Evangelia E; Oei, Ling; Albagha, Omar M E; Amin, Najaf; Kemp, John P; Koller, Daniel L; Li, Guo; Liu, Ching-Ti; Minster, Ryan L; Moayyeri, Alireza; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Willner, Dana; Xiao, Su-Mei; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M; Zheng, Hou-Feng; Alonso, Nerea; Eriksson, Joel; Kammerer, Candace M; Kaptoge, Stephen K; Leo, Paul J; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Wilson, Scott G; Wilson, James F; Aalto, Ville; Alen, Markku; Aragaki, Aaron K; Aspelund, Thor; Center, Jacqueline R; Dailiana, Zoe; Duggan, David J; Garcia, Melissa; Garcia-Giralt, Natàlia; Giroux, Sylvie; Hallmans, Göran; Hocking, Lynne J; Husted, Lise Bjerre; Jameson, Karen A; Khusainova, Rita; Kim, Ghi Su; Kooperberg, Charles; Koromila, Theodora; Kruk, Marcin; Laaksonen, Marika; Lacroix, Andrea Z; Lee, Seung Hun; Leung, Ping C; Lewis, Joshua R; Masi, Laura; Mencej-Bedrac, Simona; Nguyen, Tuan V; Nogues, Xavier; Patel, Millan S; Prezelj, Janez; Rose, Lynda M; Scollen, Serena; Siggeirsdottir, Kristin; Smith, Albert V; Svensson, Olle; Trompet, Stella; Trummer, Olivia; van Schoor, Natasja M; Woo, Jean; Zhu, Kun; Balcells, Susana; Brandi, Maria Luisa; Buckley, Brendan M; Cheng, Sulin; Christiansen, Claus; Cooper, Cyrus; Dedoussis, George; Ford, Ian; Frost, Morten; Goltzman, David; González-Macías, Jesús; Kähönen, Mika; Karlsson, Magnus; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Koh, Jung-Min; Kollia, Panagoula; Langdahl, Bente Lomholt; Leslie, William D; Lips, Paul; Ljunggren, Östen; Lorenc, Roman S; Marc, Janja; Mellström, Dan; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara; Olmos, José M; Pettersson-Kymmer, Ulrika; Reid, David M; Riancho, José A; Ridker, Paul M; Rousseau, François; Slagboom, P Eline; Tang, Nelson LS; Urreizti, Roser; Van Hul, Wim; Viikari, Jorma; Zarrabeitia, María T; Aulchenko, Yurii S; Castano-Betancourt, Martha; Grundberg, Elin; Herrera, Lizbeth; Ingvarsson, Thorvaldur; Johannsdottir, Hrefna; Kwan, Tony; Li, Rui; Luben, Robert; Medina-Gómez, Carolina; Palsson, Stefan Th; Reppe, Sjur; Rotter, Jerome I; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; van Meurs, Joyce B J; Verlaan, Dominique; Williams, Frances MK; Wood, Andrew R; Zhou, Yanhua; Gautvik, Kaare M; Pastinen, Tomi; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Cauley, Jane A; Chasman, Daniel I; Clark, Graeme R; Cummings, Steven R; Danoy, Patrick; Dennison, Elaine M; Eastell, Richard; Eisman, John A; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hofman, Albert; Jackson, Rebecca D; Jones, Graeme; Jukema, J Wouter; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Lehtimäki, Terho; Liu, Yongmei; Lorentzon, Mattias; McCloskey, Eugene; Mitchell, Braxton D; Nandakumar, Kannabiran; Nicholson, Geoffrey C; Oostra, Ben A; Peacock, Munro; Pols, Huibert A P; Prince, Richard L; Raitakari, Olli; Reid, Ian R; Robbins, John; Sambrook, Philip N; Sham, Pak Chung; Shuldiner, Alan R; Tylavsky, Frances A; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Wareham, Nick J; Cupples, L Adrienne; Econs, Michael J; Evans, David M; Harris, Tamara B; Kung, Annie Wai Chee; Psaty, Bruce M; Reeve, Jonathan; Spector, Timothy D; Streeten, Elizabeth A; Zillikens, M Carola; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Ohlsson, Claes; Karasik, David; Richards, J Brent; Brown, Matthew A; Stefansson, Kari; Uitterlinden, André G; Ralston, Stuart H; Ioannidis, John P A; Kiel, Douglas P; Rivadeneira, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) is the most important predictor of fracture risk. We performed the largest meta-analysis to date on lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD, including 17 genome-wide association studies and 32,961 individuals of European and East Asian ancestry. We tested the top-associated BMD markers for replication in 50,933 independent subjects and for risk of low-trauma fracture in 31,016 cases and 102,444 controls. We identified 56 loci (32 novel)associated with BMD atgenome-wide significant level (PLRP5), 4q22.1 (MEPE), 2p16.2 (SPTBN1) and 10q21.1 (DKK1). These findings shed light on the genetic architecture and pathophysiological mechanisms underlying BMD variation and fracture susceptibility. PMID:22504420

  18. Meta-analysis of sequence-based association studies across three cattle breeds reveals 25 QTL for fat and protein percentages in milk at nucleotide resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pausch, Hubert; Emmerling, Reiner; Gredler-Grandl, Birgit; Fries, Ruedi; Daetwyler, Hans D; Goddard, Michael E

    2017-11-09

    Genotyping and whole-genome sequencing data have been generated for hundreds of thousands of cattle. International consortia used these data to compile imputation reference panels that facilitate the imputation of sequence variant genotypes for animals that have been genotyped using dense microarrays. Association studies with imputed sequence variant genotypes allow for the characterization of quantitative trait loci (QTL) at nucleotide resolution particularly when individuals from several breeds are included in the mapping populations. We imputed genotypes for 28 million sequence variants in 17,229 cattle of the Braunvieh, Fleckvieh and Holstein breeds in order to compile large mapping populations that provide high power to identify QTL for milk production traits. Association tests between imputed sequence variant genotypes and fat and protein percentages in milk uncovered between six and thirteen QTL (P < 1e-8) per breed. Eight of the detected QTL were significant in more than one breed. We combined the results across breeds using meta-analysis and identified a total of 25 QTL including six that were not significant in the within-breed association studies. Two missense mutations in the ABCG2 (p.Y581S, rs43702337, P = 4.3e-34) and GHR (p.F279Y, rs385640152, P = 1.6e-74) genes were the top variants at QTL on chromosomes 6 and 20. Another known causal missense mutation in the DGAT1 gene (p.A232K, rs109326954, P = 8.4e-1436) was the second top variant at a QTL on chromosome 14 but its allelic substitution effects were inconsistent across breeds. It turned out that the conflicting allelic substitution effects resulted from flaws in the imputed genotypes due to the use of a multi-breed reference population for genotype imputation. Many QTL for milk production traits segregate across breeds and across-breed meta-analysis has greater power to detect such QTL than within-breed association testing. Association testing between imputed sequence variant genotypes and

  19. Transcriptome of Cultured Lung Fibroblasts in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: Meta-Analysis of Publically Available Microarray Datasets Reveals Repression of Inflammation and Immunity Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Plantier

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Heritable profibrotic differentiation of lung fibroblasts is a key mechanism of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF. Its mechanisms are yet to be fully understood. In this study, individual data from four independent microarray studies comparing the transcriptome of fibroblasts cultured in vitro from normal (total n = 20 and IPF (total n = 20 human lung were compiled for meta-analysis following normalization to z-scores. One hundred and thirteen transcripts were upregulated and 115 were downregulated in IPF fibroblasts using the Significance Analysis of Microrrays algorithm with a false discovery rate of 5%. Downregulated genes were highly enriched for Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG functional classes related to inflammation and immunity such as Defense response to virus, Influenza A, tumor necrosis factor (TNF mediated signaling pathway, interferon-inducible absent in melanoma2 (AIM2 inflammasome as well as Apoptosis. Although upregulated genes were not enriched for any functional class, select factors known to play key roles in lung fibrogenesis were overexpressed in IPF fibroblasts, most notably connective tissue growth factor (CTGF and serum response factor (SRF, supporting their role as drivers of IPF. The full data table is available as a supplement.

  20. Meta-analysis Reveals that Hydraulic Traits Explain Cross-Species Patterns of Drought-Induced Tree Mortality across the Globe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderegg, W.

    2016-12-01

    Drought-induced tree mortality has been observed globally and is expected to increase under climate change scenarios, with large potential consequences for the terrestrial carbon sink. Predicting mortality across species is crucial for assessing the effects of climate extremes on forest community biodiversity, composition, and carbon sequestration. However, the physiological traits associated with elevated risk of mortality in diverse ecosystems remain unknown, though these could greatly improve understanding and prediction of tree mortality in forests. We performed a meta-analysis on species' mortality rates across 475 species from 33 studies around the globe to assess which traits determine a species' mortality risk. We found that species-specific mortality anomalies from community mortality rate in a given drought were associated with plant hydraulic traits. Across all species, mortality was best predicted by a low hydraulic safety margin - the difference between typical minimum xylem water potential and that causing xylem dysfunction - and xylem vulnerability to embolism. Angiosperms and gymnosperms experienced roughly equal mortality risk. Our results provide broad support that hydraulic traits capture key mechanisms determining tree death and highlight that physiological traits can improve vegetation models' prediction of tree mortality during climate extremes. We conclude with thoughts about a revised framework for future tree mortality research.

  1. Meta-analysis identifies 13 new loci associated with waist-hip ratio and reveals sexual dimorphism in the genetic basis of fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heid, Iris M; Jackson, Anne U; Randall, Joshua C

    2010-01-01

    adjusted for body mass index (comprising up to 77,167 participants), following up 16 loci in an additional 29 studies (comprising up to 113,636 subjects). We identified 13 new loci in or near RSPO3, VEGFA, TBX15-WARS2, NFE2L3, GRB14, DNM3-PIGC, ITPR2-SSPN, LY86, HOXC13, ADAMTS9, ZNRF3-KREMEN1, NISCH-STAB1...... and CPEB4 (P = 1.9 × 10¿¿ to P = 1.8 × 10¿4°) and the known signal at LYPLAL1. Seven of these loci exhibited marked sexual dimorphism, all with a stronger effect on WHR in women than men (P for sex difference = 1.9 × 10¿³ to P = 1.2 × 10¿¹³). These findings provide evidence for multiple loci that modulate......Waist-hip ratio (WHR) is a measure of body fat distribution and a predictor of metabolic consequences independent of overall adiposity. WHR is heritable, but few genetic variants influencing this trait have been identified. We conducted a meta-analysis of 32 genome-wide association studies for WHR...

  2. An overview of meta-analysis for clinicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Ho

    2018-01-01

    The number of medical studies being published is increasing exponentially, and clinicians must routinely process large amounts of new information. Moreover, the results of individual studies are often insufficient to provide confident answers, as their results are not consistently reproducible. A meta-analysis is a statistical method for combining the results of different studies on the same topic and it may resolve conflicts among studies. Meta-analysis is being used increasingly and plays an important role in medical research. This review introduces the basic concepts, steps, advantages, and caveats of meta-analysis, to help clinicians understand it in clinical practice and research. A major advantage of a meta-analysis is that it produces a precise estimate of the effect size, with considerably increased statistical power, which is important when the power of the primary study is limited because of a small sample size. A meta-analysis may yield conclusive results when individual studies are inconclusive. Furthermore, meta-analyses investigate the source of variation and different effects among subgroups. In summary, a meta-analysis is an objective, quantitative method that provides less biased estimates on a specific topic. Understanding how to conduct a meta-analysis aids clinicians in the process of making clinical decisions. PMID:29277096

  3. Reading the dyslexic brain: multiple dysfunctional routes revealed by a new meta-analysis of PET and fMRI activation studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eraldo ePaulesu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Developmental dyslexia has been the focus of much functional anatomical research. The main trust of this work is that typical developmental dyslexics have a dysfunction of the phonological and orthography to phonology conversion systems, in which the left occipito-temporal cortex has a crucial role. It remains to be seen whether there is a systematic co-occurrence of dysfunctional patterns of different functional systems perhaps converging on the same brain regions associated with the reading deficit. Such evidence would be relevant for theories like, for example, the magnocellular/attentional or the motor/cerebellar ones, which postulate a more basic and anatomically distributed disorder in dyslexia. We addressed this issue with a meta-analysis of all the imaging literature published until September 2013 using a combination of hierarchical clustering and activation likelihood estimates. The clustering analysis on 2360 peaks identified 193 clusters, 92 of which proved significant for spatial extent. Following binomial tests on the clusters, we found left hemispheric network specific for normal controls (i.d. of reduced involvement in dyslexics involving the left inferior frontal, premotor, supramarginal cortices and the left infero-temporal and fusiform region: these were specific for reading and the visual-to-phonology processes. There was also a more dorsal left fronto-parietal network: these clusters included peaks from tasks involving phonological manipulation, but also motoric or visuo-spatial perception/attention. No cluster was identified in area V5 for no task, nor in cerebellar clusters either.We conclude that the available literature demonstrates a specific lack of activation of the left occipitotemporal cortex in dyslexics that is specific for reading and reading-like behaviours and for visuo-phonological tasks. Additional deficits may be associated with altered functionality of dorsal fronto-parietal cortex.

  4. Meta-analysis of DNA methylation biomarkers in hepatocellular carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Cheng; Li, Jinyun; Huang, Tao; Duan, Shiwei; Dai, Dongjun; Jiang, Danjie; Sui, Xinbing; Li, Da; Chen, Yidan; Ding, Fei; Huang, Changxin; Chen, Gongying; Wang, Kaifeng

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we conducted a systematic meta-analysis to evaluate the contribution of DNA methylation to the risk of HCC. A total of 2109 publications were initially retrieved from PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Embase, CNKI and Wanfang literature database. After a four-step filtration, we harvested 144 case-control articles in the meta-analysis. Our results revealed that 24 genes (carcinoma t...

  5. Use of network meta-analysis in systematic reviews: a survey of authors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Andrew W

    2016-01-19

    The reporting of network meta-analysis in systematic reviews has increased rapidly since 2009. This qualitative study was undertaken to identify authors' perceptions of the use of these methods and of what standards for conduct and reporting should apply. This is a survey of authors of systematic reviews reporting network meta-analysis. The response rate was 32 % of the authors contacted, with these authors responsible for 34 % of the fully published systematic reviews identified within the period searched. Almost all authors would use the method again. Elements of reporting standards were proposed. Responses revealed some tensions between the view that use of network meta-analysis should be more easily accessible, particularly in the form of software tools, and concern that there is some inappropriate use of the methods, which wider use and greater accessibility could exacerbate. Authors demonstrated strong support for adoption of standards for conduct and reporting. The elements of reporting standards proposed are consistent with those included in the 2015 Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) extension statement. Adoption of standards for conduct and reporting will be a significant step towards clarifying what is appropriate use of the methods and what is not. This should be followed by the development of a critical appraisal tool to support end users of systematic reviews reporting network meta-analysis.

  6. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 promoter -2518 polymorphism and susceptibility to vasculitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and multiple sclerosis: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y H; Bae, S-C

    2016-03-20

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) promoter -2518 A/G polymorphism (rs1024611) is associated with susceptibility to vasculitis, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), or multiple sclerosis (MS). A meta-analysis was conducted on the association between the MCP-1 -2518 A/G polymorphism and vasculitis, RA, and MS. Fourteen studies from 13 articles, including six on vasculitis, five on RA, and three on MS, consisting of 3,038 patients and 3,545 controls were available for the meta-analysis. The meta-analysis revealed no association between the MCP-1 -2518 G allele and vasculitis (odds ratio [OR] = 0.990, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.749-1.309, p = 0.943). Stratification by ethnicity indicated no association between the G allele of the MCP-1 -2518 A/G polymorphism and vasculitis in Asians and Caucasians. Meta-analysis by vasculitis type revealed an association between the GG+GA genotype of the MCP-1 -2518 A/G polymorphism and Behçet's disease (BD; OR = 1.349, 95% CI = 1.013-1.796, p = 0.040). However, sensitivity analysis showed that the association was not statistically significant after removing a study that was conducted in China (OR = 1.030, 95% CI = 0.667-1.590, p = 0.895), which indicated that the association was not statistically robust. The meta-analysis revealed no association between the MCP-1 -2518 G allele and RA (OR = 0.986, 95% CI = 0.890-1.093, p = 0.793) or MS (OR = 1.281, 95% CI = 0.802-2.046, p = 0.301). Our meta-analysis demonstrates that the MCP-1 -2518 A/G polymorphism is not associated with susceptibility to vasculitis, RA, or MS.

  7. A genome-wide association meta-analysis of circulating sex hormone-binding globulin reveals multiple Loci implicated in sex steroid hormone regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea D Coviello

    Full Text Available Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG is a glycoprotein responsible for the transport and biologic availability of sex steroid hormones, primarily testosterone and estradiol. SHBG has been associated with chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D and with hormone-sensitive cancers such as breast and prostate cancer. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS meta-analysis of 21,791 individuals from 10 epidemiologic studies and validated these findings in 7,046 individuals in an additional six studies. We identified twelve genomic regions (SNPs associated with circulating SHBG concentrations. Loci near the identified SNPs included SHBG (rs12150660, 17p13.1, p = 1.8 × 10(-106, PRMT6 (rs17496332, 1p13.3, p = 1.4 × 10(-11, GCKR (rs780093, 2p23.3, p = 2.2 × 10(-16, ZBTB10 (rs440837, 8q21.13, p = 3.4 × 10(-09, JMJD1C (rs7910927, 10q21.3, p = 6.1 × 10(-35, SLCO1B1 (rs4149056, 12p12.1, p = 1.9 × 10(-08, NR2F2 (rs8023580, 15q26.2, p = 8.3 × 10(-12, ZNF652 (rs2411984, 17q21.32, p = 3.5 × 10(-14, TDGF3 (rs1573036, Xq22.3, p = 4.1 × 10(-14, LHCGR (rs10454142, 2p16.3, p = 1.3 × 10(-07, BAIAP2L1 (rs3779195, 7q21.3, p = 2.7 × 10(-08, and UGT2B15 (rs293428, 4q13.2, p = 5.5 × 10(-06. These genes encompass multiple biologic pathways, including hepatic function, lipid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and T2D, androgen and estrogen receptor function, epigenetic effects, and the biology of sex steroid hormone-responsive cancers including breast and prostate cancer. We found evidence of sex-differentiated genetic influences on SHBG. In a sex-specific GWAS, the loci 4q13.2-UGT2B15 was significant in men only (men p = 2.5 × 10(-08, women p = 0.66, heterogeneity p = 0.003. Additionally, three loci showed strong sex-differentiated effects: 17p13.1-SHBG and Xq22.3-TDGF3 were stronger in men, whereas 8q21.12-ZBTB10 was stronger in women. Conditional analyses identified additional signals at the SHBG gene that together almost double the proportion

  8. A meta-analysis of math performance in Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Joseph M; Reiss, Allan L

    2016-02-01

    Studies investigating the relationship between Turner syndrome and math learning disability have used a wide variation of tasks designed to test various aspects of mathematical competencies. Although these studies have revealed much about the math deficits common to Turner syndrome, their diversity makes comparisons between individual studies difficult. As a result, the consistency of outcomes among these diverse measures remains unknown. The overarching aim of this review is to provide a systematic meta-analysis of the differences in math and number performance between females with Turner syndrome and age-matched neurotypical peers. We provide a meta-analysis of behavioral performance in Turner syndrome relative to age-matched neurotypical populations on assessments of math and number aptitude. In total, 112 comparisons collected across 17 studies were included. Although 54% of all statistical comparisons in our analyses failed to reject the null hypothesis, our results indicate that meaningful group differences exist on all comparisons except those that do not require explicit calculation. Taken together, these results help elucidate our current understanding of math and number weaknesses in Turner syndrome, while highlighting specific topics that require further investigation. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  9. Stimulus Complexity and Categorical Effects in Human Auditory Cortex: An Activation Likelihood Estimation Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Fabienne; Zeffiro, Thomas A.; Toussaint, Alain; Belin, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    Investigations of the functional organization of human auditory cortex typically examine responses to different sound categories. An alternative approach is to characterize sounds with respect to their amount of variation in the time and frequency domains (i.e., spectral and temporal complexity). Although the vast majority of published studies examine contrasts between discrete sound categories, an alternative complexity-based taxonomy can be evaluated through meta-analysis. In a quantitative meta-analysis of 58 auditory neuroimaging studies, we examined the evidence supporting current models of functional specialization for auditory processing using grouping criteria based on either categories or spectro-temporal complexity. Consistent with current models, analyses based on typical sound categories revealed hierarchical auditory organization and left-lateralized responses to speech sounds, with high speech sensitivity in the left anterior superior temporal cortex. Classification of contrasts based on spectro-temporal complexity, on the other hand, revealed a striking within-hemisphere dissociation in which caudo-lateral temporal regions in auditory cortex showed greater sensitivity to spectral changes, while anterior superior temporal cortical areas were more sensitive to temporal variation, consistent with recent findings in animal models. The meta-analysis thus suggests that spectro-temporal acoustic complexity represents a useful alternative taxonomy to investigate the functional organization of human auditory cortex. PMID:21833294

  10. Meta-Analysis in Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Andrade Brei

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Meta-analysis is a method that seeks to aggregate, integrate, and adjust results from previous studies, while considering the different conditions in which the original studies were investigated. The expected benefit is demonstration of the association between one or more variables, and generation of a systematic review and integration of studies. Hence, in the meta-analysis, the researcher can present broad evidence for or against a given theory. This study discusses the methodological and structural aspects of the organization of meta-analytical investigations in marketing. In addition, this paper suggests eight steps to organize the data and interpret the results. Lastly, we discuss the implications of the formulas and the corrections of the effects, as well as proposing paths for investigations that use meta-analysis in marketing. 

  11. Meta-analysis in epidemiology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-07-21

    Jul 21, 1990 ... sciences.8. •. 9 The term refers to the 'epidemiology of results'. Stated more formally, Jenicek3 has defined meta-analysis as. 'the structured and systematic qualitative and quantitative integration of the ... In reality, most research involves re-search! ... Centre for Epidemiological Research in Southern Mrica,.

  12. Online open neuroimaging mass meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup; Kempton, Matthew J.; Williams, Steven C. R.

    We describe a system for meta-analysis where a wiki stores numerical data in a simple format and a web service performs the numerical computation. We initially apply the system on multiple meta-analyses of structural neuroimaging data results. The described system allows for mass meta-analysis, e.......g., meta-analysis across multiple brain regions and multiple mental disorders....

  13. Causal Meta-Analysis : Methodology and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bax, L.J.

    2009-01-01

    Meta-analysis is a statistical method to summarize research data from multiple studies in a quantitative manner. This dissertation addresses a number of methodological topics in causal meta-analysis and reports the development and validation of meta-analysis software. In the first (methodological)

  14. How consistent are associations between stunting and child development? Evidence from a meta-analysis of associations between stunting and multidimensional child development in fifteen low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ann C; Murray, Megan B; Thomson, Dana R; Arbour, Mary Catherine

    2016-06-01

    Despite documented associations between stunting and cognitive development, few population-level studies have measured both indicators in individual children or assessed stunting's associations with other developmental domains. Meta-analysis using publicly available data from fifteen Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS-4) to assess the association between stunting and development, controlling for maternal education, family wealth, books in the home, developmentally supportive parenting and sex of the child, stratified by country prevalence of breast-feeding ('low BF'middle-income countries. Publically available data from 58 513 children aged 36-59 months. Severe stunting (height-for-age Z-score <-3) was negatively associated with on-track development (OR=0·75; 95 % CI 0·67, 0·83). Any stunting (Z-score <-2) was negatively associated with on-track development in countries with high BF prevalence (OR=0·82; 95 % CI 0·75, 0·89). Severe and any stunting were negatively associated with physical development (OR=0·77; 95 % CI 0·66, 0·89 and OR=0·82; 95 % CI 0·74, 0·91, respectively) and literacy/numeracy development in high BF countries (OR=0·45; 95 % CI 0·38, 0·53 and OR=0·59, 95 % CI 0·51, 0·68, respectively), but not low BF countries (OR=0·93; 95 % CI 0·70, 1·23 and OR=0·95, 95 % CI 0·79, 1·12, respectively). Any stunting was negatively associated with learning (OR=0·79; 95 % CI 0·72, 0·88). There was no clear association between stunting and socio-emotional development. Stunting is associated with many but not all developmental domains across a diversity of countries and cultures. However, associations varied by country breast-feeding prevalence and developmental domain.

  15. Meta-analysis of gene expression microarrays with missing replicates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leckie Christopher

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many different microarray experiments are publicly available today. It is natural to ask whether different experiments for the same phenotypic conditions can be combined using meta-analysis, in order to increase the overall sample size. However, some genes are not measured in all experiments, hence they cannot be included or their statistical significance cannot be appropriately estimated in traditional meta-analysis. Nonetheless, these genes, which we refer to as incomplete genes, may also be informative and useful. Results We propose a meta-analysis framework, called "Incomplete Gene Meta-analysis", which can include incomplete genes by imputing the significance of missing replicates, and computing a meta-score for every gene across all datasets. We demonstrate that the incomplete genes are worthy of being included and our method is able to appropriately estimate their significance in two groups of experiments. We first apply the Incomplete Gene Meta-analysis and several comparable methods to five breast cancer datasets with an identical set of probes. We simulate incomplete genes by randomly removing a subset of probes from each dataset and demonstrate that our method consistently outperforms two other methods in terms of their false discovery rate. We also apply the methods to three gastric cancer datasets for the purpose of discriminating diffuse and intestinal subtypes. Conclusions Meta-analysis is an effective approach that identifies more robust sets of differentially expressed genes from multiple studies. The incomplete genes that mainly arise from the use of different platforms may also have statistical and biological importance but are ignored or are not appropriately involved by previous studies. Our Incomplete Gene Meta-analysis is able to incorporate the incomplete genes by estimating their significance. The results on both breast and gastric cancer datasets suggest that the highly ranked genes and associated GO

  16. Child-Centered Play Therapy in the Schools: Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Dee C.; Armstrong, Stephen A.; Balkin, Richard S.; Jayne, Kimberly M.

    2015-01-01

    The authors conducted a meta-analysis and systematic review that examined 23 studies evaluating the effectiveness of child centered play therapy (CCPT) conducted in elementary schools. Meta-analysis results were explored using a random effects model for mean difference and mean gain effect size estimates. Results revealed statistically significant…

  17. Global meta-analysis of transcriptomics studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Caldas

    Full Text Available Transcriptomics meta-analysis aims at re-using existing data to derive novel biological hypotheses, and is motivated by the public availability of a large number of independent studies. Current methods are based on breaking down studies into multiple comparisons between phenotypes (e.g. disease vs. healthy, based on the studies' experimental designs, followed by computing the overlap between the resulting differential expression signatures. While useful, in this methodology each study yields multiple independent phenotype comparisons, and connections are established not between studies, but rather between subsets of the studies corresponding to phenotype comparisons. We propose a rank-based statistical meta-analysis framework that establishes global connections between transcriptomics studies without breaking down studies into sets of phenotype comparisons. By using a rank product method, our framework extracts global features from each study, corresponding to genes that are consistently among the most expressed or differentially expressed genes in that study. Those features are then statistically modelled via a term-frequency inverse-document frequency (TF-IDF model, which is then used for connecting studies. Our framework is fast and parameter-free; when applied to large collections of Homo sapiens and Streptococcus pneumoniae transcriptomics studies, it performs better than similarity-based approaches in retrieving related studies, using a Medical Subject Headings gold standard. Finally, we highlight via case studies how the framework can be used to derive novel biological hypotheses regarding related studies and the genes that drive those connections. Our proposed statistical framework shows that it is possible to perform a meta-analysis of transcriptomics studies with arbitrary experimental designs by deriving global expression features rather than decomposing studies into multiple phenotype comparisons.

  18. A regulation probability model-based meta-analysis of multiple transcriptomics data sets for cancer biomarker identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xin-Ping; Xie, Yu-Feng; Wang, Hong-Qiang

    2017-08-23

    Large-scale accumulation of omics data poses a pressing challenge of integrative analysis of multiple data sets in bioinformatics. An open question of such integrative analysis is how to pinpoint consistent but subtle gene activity patterns across studies. Study heterogeneity needs to be addressed carefully for this goal. This paper proposes a regulation probability model-based meta-analysis, jGRP, for identifying differentially expressed genes (DEGs). The method integrates multiple transcriptomics data sets in a gene regulatory space instead of in a gene expression space, which makes it easy to capture and manage data heterogeneity across studies from different laboratories or platforms. Specifically, we transform gene expression profiles into a united gene regulation profile across studies by mathematically defining two gene regulation events between two conditions and estimating their occurring probabilities in a sample. Finally, a novel differential expression statistic is established based on the gene regulation profiles, realizing accurate and flexible identification of DEGs in gene regulation space. We evaluated the proposed method on simulation data and real-world cancer datasets and showed the effectiveness and efficiency of jGRP in identifying DEGs identification in the context of meta-analysis. Data heterogeneity largely influences the performance of meta-analysis of DEGs identification. Existing different meta-analysis methods were revealed to exhibit very different degrees of sensitivity to study heterogeneity. The proposed method, jGRP, can be a standalone tool due to its united framework and controllable way to deal with study heterogeneity.

  19. Relationship between nurse psychological empowerment and job satisfaction: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huanhuan; Shi, Ying; Li, Yuan; Xing, Zhuangjie; Wang, Shouqi; Ying, Jie; Zhang, Meiling; Sun, Jiao

    2018-02-23

    This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to synthesize and analyse studies that explored the relationship between the psychological empowerment and job satisfaction of nurses. Nurse turnover is an important cause of staff shortage. Job satisfaction is a major predictor of nurse turnover and is connected to the psychological empowerment of nurses. This systematic review and meta-analysis is based on the Joanna Briggs Institute guidelines. A total of 1,572 articles on psychological empowerment and job satisfaction were retrieved from PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE and Web of Science. The articles were written in English and published before or by April 2017. Studies on the relationship between psychological empowerment and job satisfaction were summarized. The majority of the included studies revealed that psychological empowerment and job satisfaction are significantly correlated. Only two studies showed that the two factors are not significantly correlated. The result of this meta-analysis is consistent with the results of most studies. One study reported that psychological empowerment partially mediates the structural empowerment and job satisfaction of school health nurses. Two studies, however, did not find that the mediating role of psychological empowerment between structural empowerment and job satisfaction. The results of this review provided evidence for the importance of psychological empowerment for the job satisfaction of among nurses. Exploring the correlation between psychological empowerment and job satisfaction can provide guidelines and recommendation for the development of strategies to promote nurse retention and alleviate nursing shortage. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Moral development and recidivism: A meta-analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vugt, E.S.; Gibbs, J.; Stams, G.J.; Bijleveld, C.C.J.H.; van der Laan, P.H.; Hendriks, J.

    2011-01-01

    A meta-analysis of 19 studies (N = 15,992 offenders) showed a significant inverse relation between more mature moral development and recidivism. Moderator analyses revealed a larger effect size for moral cognition (r =.20) than for moral emotion (r =.11). Effect sizes for production measures (r

  1. Moral development and recidivism: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vugt, E.; Gibbs, J.; Stams, G.J.; Bijleveld, C.; Hendriks, J.; van der Laan, P.

    2011-01-01

    A meta-analysis of 19 studies (N = 15,992 offenders) showed a significant inverse relation between more mature moral development and recidivism. Moderator analyses revealed a larger effect size for moral cognition (r = .20) than for moral emotion (r = .11). Effect sizes for production measures (r =

  2. Creativity and Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajda, Aleksandra; Karwowski, Maciej; Beghetto, Ronald A.

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on a meta-analysis of 120 studies (total N = 52,578; 782 effects) examining the relationship between creativity and academic achievement in research conducted since the 1960s. Average correlation between creativity and academic achievement was r = 0.22, 95% CI [0.19, 0.24]. An analysis of moderators revealed that this…

  3. Updated Meta-Analysis of Learner Control within Educational Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karich, Abbey C.; Burns, Matthew K.; Maki, Kathrin E.

    2014-01-01

    Giving a student control over their learning has theoretical and intuitive appeal, but its effects are neither powerful nor consistent in the empirical literature base. This meta-analysis updated previous meta-analytic research by Niemiec, Sikorski, and Walberg by studying the overall effectiveness of providing learner control within educational…

  4. Hydropower externalities: A meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattmann, Matteo; Logar, Ivana; Brouwer, Roy

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a meta-analysis of existing research related to the economic valuation of the external effects of hydropower. A database consisting of 81 observations derived from 29 studies valuing the non-market impacts of hydropower electricity generation is constructed with the main aim to quantify and explain the economic values for positive and negative hydropower externalities. Different meta-regression model specifications are used to test the robustness of significant determinants of non-market values, including different types of hydropower impacts. The explanatory and predictive power of the estimated models is relatively high. Whilst controlling for sample and study characteristics, we find significant evidence for public aversion towards deteriorations of landscape, vegetation and wildlife caused by hydropower projects. There is however only weak evidence of willingness to pay for mitigating these effects. The main positive externality of hydropower generation, the avoidance of greenhouse gas emission, positively influences welfare estimates when combined with the share of hydropower in national energy production. Sensitivity to scope is detected, but not linked to specific externalities or non-market valuation methods. - Highlights: • A global meta-analysis of valuation studies of hydropower externalities is presented. • Positive and negative externalities are distinguished. • Welfare losses due to environmental deteriorations outweigh gains of GHG reductions. • There is only weak evidence of public WTP for mitigating negative externalities. • The non-market values of hydropower externalities are sensitive to scope.

  5. Ethnic Differences in Genetic Ion Channelopathies Associated with Sudden Cardiac Death: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Tim; Feulefack, Joseph; Ruether, Kim; Shen, Fan; Zheng, Wang; Chen, Xing-Zhen; Sergi, Consolato

    2017-08-01

    Reports of allele frequencies encoding ion channel, or their interacting proteins associated with sudden cardiac death among different ethnic groups have been inconsistent. Here, we aimed to characterize the distribution of these genes and their alleles among various ethnicities through meta-analysis. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the mean allele frequencies of channelopathy genes SCN5A, NOS1AP, KCNH2, KCNE1 , and KCNQ1 among the Black, Caucasian, Asian, and Hispanic ethnicities. Searches in PubMed, Google Scholar, and Web of Science resulted in 18 reports published before July 2015 that met the eligible criteria. Allele frequencies were averaged by weight, and pooled values were calculated by inverse variance. Fixed-effects and random-effects models were used to pool effect sizes within each study and across different studies, respectively. Moreover, to extend our findings, we used sequenced genomic data from the Exome Aggregation Consortium to compare allele frequencies between different ethnicities. Meta-analysis of published studies supports that Asians had the highest overall mean allele frequencies of NOS1AP (0.36%, 95% CI: 0.30, 0.43; P <0.001), and SCN5A frequencies (0.17%, 95% CI: 0.07, 0.27, P =0.001), and whereas Caucasians had the highest KCNH2 frequency (0.21%, 95% CI: 0.16, 0.25; P <0.001), and Hispanics the highest KCNQ1 frequency (0.16%). Analysis of the Exome Aggregation Consortium also provided consistent data in agreement the meta-analysis. Overall, Asians carried the most alleles of genes associated with sudden cardiac death. The meta-analysis reveals significant differences in allele distribution of channelopathy-associated genes among different ethnic groups. © 2017 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  6. Complications and Carcinogenic Effects of Mustard Gas--a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Yunes; Gholami, Nasrin; Ghojazadeh, Morteza; Moslemi, Farnaz; Naghavi-Behzad, Mohammad; Azami-Aghdash, Saber; Ghaffari, Alireza; Piri, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Catastrophic effects of mustard gas as a chemical warfare agent have always been a major problem for those exposed to this agent. In this meta-analysis it was tried to evaluate carcinogenesis, ocular, cutaneous and respiratory complications of mustard gas exposure among Iranians who had been exposed to this agent during the Iran-Iraq war. In this meta-analysis, the required data were collected using keywords "mustard gas", "sulfur mustard", "cancer", "neoplasm", "respiratory complications", "ocular complications" , "lung disease", "chronic complication", "eye", "skin", "cutaneous complication", "carcinogenesis" and their combination with keywords "Iran", "Iranian", "prevalence", "mortality" and their Farsi equivalent terms from the databases of SID, Iranmedex, Magiran, Pubmed, Science Direct, Google Search engine, Gray Literature and Reference of References. To determine the prevalence of each complication and perform meta-analysis, CMA: 2 (Comprehensive Meta-Analysis) software with a randomized model was used. Of the 542 articles found, 7 national articles, consistent with the aims of this study were selected. Meta- analysis of seven papers revealed that cancer risk, especially cancer of the respiratory system was elevated, so that the relative risk (RR) of cancer role of mustard gas was inconsistent from 2/1 to 4 in this survey. Also prevalence of delayed skin disorders due to sulfur mustard was 94.6%, pulmonary complications 94.5% and ocular complications 89.9%. The incidence of various cancers in victims exposed to mustard gas was 1.7% worldwide where the rate was 2.2% in Iranian victims of the Iraq-Iran war. Based on present study the prevalence of delayed mustard gas related cutaneous, pulmonary and ocular complications is above 90% and risk of carcinogenesis is higher in comparison to worldwide statistics. This may suggest need for long-term and persistent follow-up and rehabilitation procedures for populations exposed to this agent.

  7. Meta-Analysis of Comparing Personal and Environmental Factors Effective in Addiction Relapse (Iran, 2004 -2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    s Safari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This As a meta-analysis, this study aimed to integrate different studies and investigate the impact of individual and environmental factors on the reappearance of addiction in quitted people. Method: This study is a meta-analysis which uses Hunter and Schmidt approach. For this purpose, 28 out of 42 studies enjoying acceptable methodologies were selected, upon which the meta-analysis was conducted. A meta-analysis checklist was the research instrument. Using summary of the study results, the researcher manually calculated effect size and interpreted it based on the meta-analysis approach and Cohen’s table. Findings: Results revealed that the effect size of environmental factors on addiction relapse was 0.64 while it was obtained 0.41 for individual factors on addiction relapse. Conclusion: According to Cohen’s table, the effect sizes are evaluated as moderate and high for individual factors and environmental factors on addiction relapse, respectively.

  8. Meta-analysis of differentially expressed genes in ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y H; Song, G G

    2015-05-18

    The purpose of this study was to identify differentially expressed (DE) genes and biological processes associated with changes in gene expression in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). We performed a meta-analysis using the integrative meta-analysis of expression data program on publicly available microarray AS Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) datasets. We performed Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analyses and pathway analysis using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. Four GEO datasets, including 31 patients with AS and 39 controls, were available for the meta-analysis. We identified 65 genes across the studies that were consistently DE in patients with AS vs controls (23 upregulated and 42 downregulated). The upregulated gene with the largest effect size (ES; -1.2628, P = 0.020951) was integral membrane protein 2A (ITM2A), which is expressed by CD4+ T cells and plays a role in activation of T cells. The downregulated gene with the largest ES (1.2299, P = 0.040075) was mitochondrial ribosomal protein S11 (MRPS11). The most significant GO enrichment was in the respiratory electron transport chain category (P = 1.67 x 10-9). Therefore, our meta-analysis identified genes that were consistently DE as well as biological pathways associated with gene expression changes in AS.

  9. Cognitive Expertise: An ALE Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Nicola; Lotze, Martin; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2016-01-01

    Expert performance constitutes the endpoint of skill acquisition and is accompanied by widespread neuroplastic changes. To reveal common mechanisms of reorganization associated with long-term expertise in a cognitive domain (mental calculation, chess, language, memory, music without motor involvement), we used activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis and compared brain activation of experts to nonexperts. Twenty-six studies matched inclusion criteria, most of which reported an increase and not a decrease of activation foci in experts. Increased activation occurred in the left rolandic operculum (OP 4) and left primary auditory cortex and in bilateral premotor cortex in studies that used auditory stimulation. In studies with visual stimulation, experts showed enhanced activation in the right inferior parietal cortex (area PGp) and the right lingual gyrus. Experts' brain activation patterns seem to be characterized by enhanced or additional activity in domain-specific primary, association, and motor structures, confirming that learning is localized and very specialized. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Sequential Stereotype Priming: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidder, Ciara K; White, Katherine R; Hinojos, Michelle R; Sandoval, Mayra; Crites, Stephen L

    2017-08-01

    Psychological interest in stereotype measurement has spanned nearly a century, with researchers adopting implicit measures in the 1980s to complement explicit measures. One of the most frequently used implicit measures of stereotypes is the sequential priming paradigm. The current meta-analysis examines stereotype priming, focusing specifically on this paradigm. To contribute to ongoing discussions regarding methodological rigor in social psychology, one primary goal was to identify methodological moderators of the stereotype priming effect-whether priming is due to a relation between the prime and target stimuli, the prime and target response, participant task, stereotype dimension, stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA), and stimuli type. Data from 39 studies yielded 87 individual effect sizes from 5,497 participants. Analyses revealed that stereotype priming is significantly moderated by the presence of prime-response relations, participant task, stereotype dimension, target stimulus type, SOA, and prime repetition. These results carry both practical and theoretical implications for future research on stereotype priming.

  11. Meta-analysis Reveals Genome-Wide Significance at 15q13 for Nonsyndromic Clefting of Both the Lip and the Palate, and Functional Analyses Implicate GREM1 As a Plausible Causative Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Kerstin U.; Ahmed, Syeda Tasnim; Böhmer, Anne C.; Sangani, Nasim Bahram; Varghese, Sheryil; Klamt, Johanna; Schuenke, Hannah; Gültepe, Pinar; Hofmann, Andrea; Rubini, Michele; Aldhorae, Khalid Ahmed; Steegers-Theunissen, Regine P.; Rojas-Martinez, Augusto; Reiter, Rudolf; Borck, Guntram; Knapp, Michael; Nakatomi, Mitsushiro; Graf, Daniel; Mangold, Elisabeth; Peters, Heiko

    2016-01-01

    Nonsyndromic orofacial clefts are common birth defects with multifactorial etiology. The most common type is cleft lip, which occurs with or without cleft palate (nsCLP and nsCLO, respectively). Although genetic components play an important role in nsCLP, the genetic factors that predispose to palate involvement are largely unknown. In this study, we carried out a meta-analysis on genetic and clinical data from three large cohorts and identified strong association between a region on chromosome 15q13 and nsCLP (P = 8.13×10−14 for rs1258763; relative risk (RR): 1.46, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.32–1.61)) but not nsCLO (P = 0.27; RR: 1.09 (0.94–1.27)). The 5 kb region of strongest association maps downstream of Gremlin-1 (GREM1), which encodes a secreted antagonist of the BMP4 pathway. We show during mouse embryogenesis, Grem1 is expressed in the developing lip and soft palate but not in the hard palate. This is consistent with genotype-phenotype correlations between rs1258763 and a specific nsCLP subphenotype, since a more than two-fold increase in risk was observed in patients displaying clefts of both the lip and soft palate but who had an intact hard palate (RR: 3.76, CI: 1.47–9.61, Pdifflip or palate defects in Grem1-deficient mice, wild type embryonic palatal shelves developed divergent shapes when cultured in the presence of ectopic Grem1 protein (P = 0.0014). The present study identified a non-coding region at 15q13 as the second, genome-wide significant locus specific for nsCLP, after 13q31. Moreover, our data suggest that the closely located GREM1 gene contributes to a rare clinical nsCLP entity. This entity specifically involves abnormalities of the lip and soft palate, which develop at different time-points and in separate anatomical regions. PMID:26968009

  12. Identification of Potential Transcriptomic Markers in Developing Ankylosing Spondylitis: A Meta-Analysis of Gene Expression Profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Fang; Pan, Jian; Xu, Lixiao; Li, Gang; Wang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify potential transcriptomic markers in developing ankylosing spondylitis by a meta-analysis of multiple public microarray datasets. Using the INMEX (integrative meta-analysis of expression data) program, we performed the meta-analysis to identify consistently differentially expressed (DE) genes in ankylosing spondylitis and further performed functional interpretation (gene ontology analysis and pathway analysis) of the DE genes identified in the meta-analys...

  13. Physical Activity and Cognitive Development: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, William M; Davis, Nicholas; Sands, Stephen A; Whittington, Robert A; Sun, Lena S

    2016-10-01

    Is there an association between regular exercise, defined as a structured program of increased physical activity at least 1 month in duration, and improvements in measures of executive functions compared with children who engage in their normal daily activities? The association between increased physical activity and changes in performance on tasks of executive functions have not been well elucidated in children. Executive functioning is important to intellectual development and academic success in children, and inexpensive, nonpharmacological methods for the treatment of executive dysfunction represent an attractive interventional target. To estimate the effect of a structured regular exercise program on neuropsychological domains of executive function in children ages 7 to 12. We performed a systematic review of English and non-English articles using Cochrane Library, EBSCO CINAHL, Ovid MEDLINE, PSYCInfo, Pubmed, and Web of Science, including all years allowed by each individual search engine. The search string used was "(exercise OR phys*) AND (cognit* OR executive) AND (child* OR preadolesc*)." The authors of the studies selected for review were contacted for any unpublished data. Randomized controlled trials, which enrolled children between the ages of 7 and 12, with randomization to either normal activity or a structured physical activity intervention consisting of scheduled aerobic exercise, at least once per week, for a period of at least 1 month. Eligible studies must have included a neuropsychological battery of tests that measured at least 1 executive function both before and after the intervention was completed. Two independent reviewers examined the screened studies in detail for potential inclusion. The results of the individual examinations were compared; if any discrepancies were present, a third party analyzed the study to determine if it should be included in the meta-analysis. A total of 18 studies were identified by abstract as candidates for

  14. Task versus relationship conflict, team performance and team member satisfaction: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Dreu, C.K.W.; Weingart, L.R.

    2003-01-01

    This study provides a meta-analysis of research on the associations between relationship conflict, task conflict, team performance, and team member satisfaction. Consistent with past theorizing, resultsrevealed strong and negative correlations between relationship conflict, team performance, and

  15. Meta-analysis of DNA methylation biomarkers in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Li, Jinyun; Huang, Tao; Duan, Shiwei; Dai, Dongjun; Jiang, Danjie; Sui, Xinbing; Li, Da; Chen, Yidan; Ding, Fei; Huang, Changxin; Chen, Gongying; Wang, Kaifeng

    2016-12-06

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we conducted a systematic meta-analysis to evaluate the contribution of DNA methylation to the risk of HCC. A total of 2109 publications were initially retrieved from PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Embase, CNKI and Wanfang literature database. After a four-step filtration, we harvested 144 case-control articles in the meta-analysis. Our results revealed that 24 genes (carcinoma tissues vs adjacent tissues), 17 genes (carcinoma tissues vs normal tissues) and six genes (carcinoma serums vs normal serums) were significantly hypermethylated in HCC. Subgroup meta-analysis by geographical populations showed that six genes (carcinoma tissues vs adjacent tissues) and four genes (carcinoma tissues vs normal tissues) were significantly hypermethylated in HCC. Our meta-analysis identified the correlations between a number of aberrant methylated genes (p16, RASSF1A, GSTP1, p14, CDH1, APC, RUNX3, SOCS1, p15, MGMT, SFRP1, WIF1, PRDM2, DAPK1, RARβ, hMLH1, p73, DLC1, p53, SPINT2, OPCML and WT1) and HCC. Aberrant DNA methylation might become useful biomarkers for the prediction and diagnosis of HCC.

  16. Longitudinal analysis of meta-analysis literatures in the database of ISI Web of Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Changtai; Jiang, Ting; Cao, Hao; Sun, Wenguang; Chen, Zhong; Liu, Jinming

    2015-01-01

    The meta-analysis is regarded as an important evidence for making scientific decision. The database of ISI Web of Science collected a great number of high quality literatures including meta-analysis literatures. However, it is significant to understand the general characteristics of meta-analysis literatures to outline the perspective of meta-analysis. In this present study, we summarized and clarified some features on these literatures in the database of ISI Web of Science. We retrieved the meta-analysis literatures in the database of ISI Web of Science including SCI-E, SSCI, A&HCI, CPCI-S, CPCI-SSH, CCR-E, and IC. The annual growth rate, literature category, language, funding, index citation, agencies and countries/territories of the meta-analysis literatures were analyzed, respectively. A total of 95,719 records, which account for 0.38% (99% CI: 0.38%-0.39%) of all literatures, were found in the database. From 1997 to 2012, the annual growth rate of meta-analysis literatures was 18.18%. The literatures involved in many categories, languages, fundings, citations, publication agencies, and countries/territories. Interestingly, the index citation frequencies of the meta-analysis were significantly higher than that of other type literatures such as multi-centre study, randomize controlled trial, cohort study, case control study, and cases report (P<0.0001). The increasing numbers, intensively global influence and high citations revealed that the meta-analysis has been becoming more and more prominent in recent years. In future, in order to promote the validity of meta-analysis, the CONSORT and PRISMA standard should be continuously popularized in the field of evidence-based medicine.

  17. OHBM 2017: Practical intensity based meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Maumet, Camille

    2017-01-01

    "Practical intensity-based meta-analysis" slides from my talk in the OHBM 2017 educational talk on Neuroimaging meta-analysis.http://www.humanbrainmapping.org/files/2017/ED Courses/Neuroimaging Meta-Analysis.pdf

  18. Meta-Analysis in Stata Using Gllamm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagos, Pantelis G.

    2015-01-01

    There are several user-written programs for performing meta-analysis in Stata (Stata Statistical Software: College Station, TX: Stata Corp LP). These include metan, metareg, mvmeta, and glst. However, there are several cases for which these programs do not suffice. For instance, there is no software for performing univariate meta-analysis with…

  19. Trial Sequential Methods for Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulinskaya, Elena; Wood, John

    2014-01-01

    Statistical methods for sequential meta-analysis have applications also for the design of new trials. Existing methods are based on group sequential methods developed for single trials and start with the calculation of a required information size. This works satisfactorily within the framework of fixed effects meta-analysis, but conceptual…

  20. Statistical Power in Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Statistical power is important in a meta-analysis study, although few studies have examined the performance of simulated power in meta-analysis. The purpose of this study is to inform researchers about statistical power estimation on two sample mean difference test under different situations: (1) the discrepancy between the analytical power and…

  1. Statistical Models and Methods for Network Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, L V; Piepho, H-P; Paul, P A

    2016-08-01

    Meta-analysis, the methodology for analyzing the results from multiple independent studies, has grown tremendously in popularity over the last four decades. Although most meta-analyses involve a single effect size (summary result, such as a treatment difference) from each study, there are often multiple treatments of interest across the network of studies in the analysis. Multi-treatment (or network) meta-analysis can be used for simultaneously analyzing the results from all the treatments. However, the methodology is considerably more complicated than for the analysis of a single effect size, and there have not been adequate explanations of the approach for agricultural investigations. We review the methods and models for conducting a network meta-analysis based on frequentist statistical principles, and demonstrate the procedures using a published multi-treatment plant pathology data set. A major advantage of network meta-analysis is that correlations of estimated treatment effects are automatically taken into account when an appropriate model is used. Moreover, treatment comparisons may be possible in a network meta-analysis that are not possible in a single study because all treatments of interest may not be included in any given study. We review several models that consider the study effect as either fixed or random, and show how to interpret model-fitting output. We further show how to model the effect of moderator variables (study-level characteristics) on treatment effects, and present one approach to test for the consistency of treatment effects across the network. Online supplemental files give explanations on fitting the network meta-analytical models using SAS.

  2. Conducting Meta-Analysis Using SAS

    CERN Document Server

    Arthur, Winfried; Huffcutt, Allen I; Arthur, Winfred

    2001-01-01

    Conducting Meta-Analysis Using SAS reviews the meta-analysis statistical procedure and shows the reader how to conduct one using SAS. It presents and illustrates the use of the PROC MEANS procedure in SAS to perform the data computations called for by the two most commonly used meta-analytic procedures, the Hunter & Schmidt and Glassian approaches. This book serves as both an operational guide and user's manual by describing and explaining the meta-analysis procedures and then presenting the appropriate SAS program code for computing the pertinent statistics. The practical, step-by-step instru

  3. Meta-analysis to determine the effects of plant disease management measures: review and case studies on soybean and apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngugi, Henry K; Esker, Paul D; Scherm, Harald

    2011-01-01

    The continuing exponential increase in scientific knowledge, the growing availability of large databases containing raw or partially annotated information, and the increased need to document impacts of large-scale research and funding programs provide a great incentive for integrating and adding value to previously published (or unpublished) research through quantitative synthesis. Meta-analysis has become the standard for quantitative evidence synthesis in many disciplines, offering a broadly accepted and statistically powerful framework for estimating the magnitude, consistency, and homogeneity of the effect of interest across studies. Here, we review previous and current uses of meta-analysis in plant pathology with a focus on applications in epidemiology and disease management. About a dozen formal meta-analyses have been published in the plant pathological literature in the past decade, and several more are currently in progress. Three broad research questions have been addressed, the most common being the comparative efficacy of chemical treatments for managing disease and reducing yield loss across environments. The second most common application has been the quantification of relationships between disease intensity and yield, or between different measures of disease, across studies. Lastly, meta-analysis has been applied to assess factors affecting pathogen-biocontrol agent interactions or the effectiveness of biological control of plant disease or weeds. In recent years, fixed-effects meta-analysis has been largely replaced by random- (or mixed-) effects analysis owing to the statistical benefits associated with the latter and the wider availability of computer software to conduct these analyses. Another recent trend has been the more common use of multivariate meta-analysis or meta-regression to analyze the impacts of study-level independent variables (moderator variables) on the response of interest. The application of meta-analysis to practical problems

  4. Physical Readiness Training: A Meta-Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vickers, Jr, Ross R

    2007-01-01

    .... This meta-analysis of available PRT studies (k = 3) indicated that (a) Fitness gains in the PRT program were equal to the gains in traditional fitness programs, and (b) the injury rate (i.e., hazard ratio...

  5. Exercise and Bone Density: Meta-Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kelley, George A; Sharpe-Kelley, Kristi

    2007-01-01

    .... Since no meta-analysis had existed using individual patient data (IPD) to examine the effects of exercise on BMD, our second two-year period of funding was devoted to examining the feasibility...

  6. A Meta-analysis of Central Lymph Node Metastasis for Predicting Lateral Involvement in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Xiabin; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Hao; Dong, Wenwu; Wang, Zhihong; Zhang, Ting

    2015-11-01

    Whether central lymph node metastasis is a reliable indicator of lateral lymph node metastasis in papillary thyroid carcinoma remains obscure. To investigate the value of central lymph node metastasis for predicting lateral compartment involvement, we performed a meta-analysis of published studies. A systematic literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases was completed, and the reference lists of the identified articles and prior relevant reviews were examined. Two reviewers extracted data and assessed the quality of eligible studies independently. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were pooled through a random effects meta-analysis model. Twenty-one studies were eligible and further analyzed in this meta-analysis. The risk of lateral lymph node metastasis was significantly higher in the central lymph node-positive group than in the negative group (odds ratio = 7.64, 95% confidence interval: 5.59-10.44), with moderate heterogeneity across studies (P = .007, I(2) = 48.6%). Subgroup analyses and sensitivity analysis suggested that the results were consistent and credible. However, Begg's funnel plot and Egger linear regression test revealed a likelihood of publication bias (P = .000). This meta-analysis suggests that central lymph node metastasis is valuable for predicting lateral compartment involvement in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma. For those patients with central lymph node metastasis, additional attention should be paid to the lateral neck, as the risk of lateral lymph node metastasis was significantly higher in the central lymph node-positive group than in the negative group. Further studies regarding appropriate management for patients with high risk of lateral involvement are needed. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  7. Mild cognitive impairment is not “mild” at all in altered activation of episodic memory brain networks: evidence from ALE meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengyun Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study conducted a quantitative meta-analysis aiming at assessing consensus across the functional neuroimaging studies of episodic memory in individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI and elucidating consistent activation patterns. An activation likelihood estimation (ALE was conducted on the functional neuroimaging studies of episodic encoding and retrieval in aMCI individuals published up to March 31, 2015. Analyses covered 24 studies, which yielded 770 distinct foci. Compared to healthy controls, aMCI individuals showed statistically significant consistent activation differences in a widespread episodic memory network, not only in the bilateral medial temporal lobe and prefrontal cortex, but also in the angular gyrus, precunes, posterior cingulate cortex, and even certain more basic structures. The present ALE meta-analysis revealed that the abnormal patterns of widespread episodic memory network indicated that individuals with aMCI may not be completely mild in nature.

  8. Ischiofemoral impingement syndrome: a meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Adam D.; Subhawong, Ty K.; Jose, Jean; Tresley, Jonathan; Clifford, Paul D. [Jackson Memorial Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Section of Musculoskeletal Imaging, Miami, FL (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The aims of this article are to review the imaging characteristics of ischiofemoral impingement (IFI), summarize measurement thresholds for radiologic diagnosis based on a meta-analysis of the literature and raise awareness among radiologists and clinicians of this entity. A PubMed search restricted to the English language containing the keywords ''ischiofemoral impingement'' and ''quadratus femoris MRI'' was performed, and citations in these articles were also used to identify a total of 27 studies discussing ischiofemoral impingement. After excluding case reports and non-representative studies, there were five remaining articles including 193 hip MRIs of IFI in 154 subjects (133 female, 21 male) and 135 asymptomatic control hip MRIs from 74 subjects (55 female, 19 male). Additionally, we performed a retrospective database search of pelvic and hip MRI reports from our institution including the terms ''quadratus femoris'' or ''ischiofemoral impingement'' from a 9-year period and 24 hip MRIs from 21 patients (18 female, 3 male) with IFI with 5 asymptomatic contralateral control hip MRIs identified. In all, 217 hip MRIs of IFI and 140 control cases were included. A meta-analysis of these hip MRIs was conducted to determine optimal thresholds of the ischiofemoral space (IFS) and quadratus femoris space (QFS) for identifying IFI. Cases of IFI showed significantly smaller IFS and QFS compared to controls (14.91 ± 4.8 versus 26.01 ± 7.98 and 9.57 ± 3.7 versus 15.97 ± 6.07, measured in mm, respectively, p < 0.0001 for both). Pooled analysis revealed that for IFS, using a cutoff of ≤15 mm yielded a sensitivity of 76.9 %, specificity of 81.0 % and overall accuracy of 78.3 %. For QFS, a cutoff of ≤ 10.0 mm resulted in 78.7 % sensitivity, 74.1 % specificity and 77.1 % overall accuracy. IFI is a potential cause of hip pain that can be accurately diagnosed with MRI in conjunction with

  9. Task versus relationship conflict, team performance, and team member satisfaction: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Dreu, Carsten K W; Weingart, Laurie R

    2003-08-01

    This study provides a meta-analysis of research on the associations between relationship conflict, task conflict, team performance, and team member satisfaction. Consistent with past theorizing, results revealed strong and negative correlations between relationship conflict, team performance, and team member satisfaction. In contrast to what has been suggested in both academic research and introductory textbooks, however, results also revealed strong and negative (instead of the predicted positive) correlations between task conflict team performance, and team member satisfaction. As predicted, conflict had stronger negative relations with team performance in highly complex (decision making, project, mixed) than in less complex (production) tasks. Finally, task conflict was less negatively related to team performance when task conflict and relationship conflict were weakly, rather than strongly, correlated.

  10. Drivers of wetland conversion: a global meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanneke van Asselen

    Full Text Available Meta-analysis of case studies has become an important tool for synthesizing case study findings in land change. Meta-analyses of deforestation, urbanization, desertification and change in shifting cultivation systems have been published. This present study adds to this literature, with an analysis of the proximate causes and underlying forces of wetland conversion at a global scale using two complementary approaches of systematic review. Firstly, a meta-analysis of 105 case-study papers describing wetland conversion was performed, showing that different combinations of multiple-factor proximate causes, and underlying forces, drive wetland conversion. Agricultural development has been the main proximate cause of wetland conversion, and economic growth and population density are the most frequently identified underlying forces. Secondly, to add a more quantitative component to the study, a logistic meta-regression analysis was performed to estimate the likelihood of wetland conversion worldwide, using globally-consistent biophysical and socioeconomic location factor maps. Significant factors explaining wetland conversion, in order of importance, are market influence, total wetland area (lower conversion probability, mean annual temperature and cropland or built-up area. The regression analyses results support the outcomes of the meta-analysis of the processes of conversion mentioned in the individual case studies. In other meta-analyses of land change, similar factors (e.g., agricultural development, population growth, market/economic factors are also identified as important causes of various types of land change (e.g., deforestation, desertification. Meta-analysis helps to identify commonalities across the various local case studies and identify which variables may lead to individual cases to behave differently. The meta-regression provides maps indicating the likelihood of wetland conversion worldwide based on the location factors that have

  11. Task modulated brain connectivity of the amygdala: a meta-analysis of psychophysiological interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Xin; Huang, Jia; Biswal, Bharat B

    2017-01-01

    Understanding functional connectivity of the amygdala with other brain regions, especially task modulated connectivity, is a critical step toward understanding the role of the amygdala in emotional processes and the interactions between emotion and cognition. The present study performed coordinate-based meta-analysis on studies of task modulated connectivity of the amygdala which used psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis. We first analyzed 49 PPI studies on different types of tasks using activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis. Widespread cortical and subcortical regions showed consistent task modulated connectivity with the amygdala, including the medial frontal cortex, bilateral insula, anterior cingulate, fusiform gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, thalamus, and basal ganglia. These regions were in general overlapped with those showed coactivations with the amygdala, suggesting that these regions and amygdala are not only activated together, but also show different levels of interactions during tasks. Further analyses with subsets of PPI studies revealed task specific functional connectivities with the amygdala that were modulated by fear processing, face processing, and emotion regulation. These results suggest a dynamic modulation of connectivity upon task demands, and provide new insights on the functions of the amygdala in different affective and cognitive processes. The meta-analytic approach on PPI studies may offer a framework toward systematical examinations of task modulated connectivity.

  12. Meta-analysis of Brucella seroprevalence in dairy cattle of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmare, Kassahun; Krontveit, Randi I; Ayelet, Gelagay; Sibhat, Berhanu; Godfroid, Jacques; Skjerve, Eystein

    2014-12-01

    This meta-analysis estimates a single-group summary (effect size) for seroprevalence of Brucella spp. exposure in dairy cattle of Ethiopia. It also attempts to identify study-level variables that could explain the variation in apparent seroprevalence. The literature search was restricted to studies published in English language from January 2000 to December 2013. A template was designed to retrieve the most biologically plausible and consistent variables from the articles. A total of 29 published papers containing 40 animal-level studies were used in the analyses. The single-group summary of Brucella seroprevalence in cattle was estimated to reach 3.3 % with 95 % confidence interval (CI) (2.6-4.2 %). Of all the variables considered, region was the only specific factor identified to explain about 20 % of between-study variation. Accordingly, the region-based meta-analysis forest plot revealed the highest prevalence in central Ethiopia followed by southern part. The lowest prevalence estimate was observed in the western part of the country. The visual inspection of the funnel plot demonstrated the presence of possible publication bias which might dictate shortage of studies with higher prevalences or variance inflation due to infectiousness of Brucella. In conclusion, the quantitative review showed the seroprevalence to be low but widely distributed. More importantly, the review underscores the need for isolation and characterization of the circulating Brucella spp. to capture the type of Brucella spp. involved and its distribution in cattle in Ethiopia.

  13. Genome-wide association study and meta-analysis of intraocular pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozel, A. Bilge; Reed, David M.; Nika, Melisa; Schmidt, Caroline M.; Akbari, Sara; Scott, Kathleen; Rozsa, Frank; Pawar, Hemant; Musch, David C.; Lichter, Paul R.; Gaasterland, Doug; Branham, Kari; Gilbert, Jesse; Garnai, Sarah J.; Chen, Wei; Othman, Mohammad; Heckenlively, John; Swaroop, Anand; Abecasis, Gonçalo; Friedman, David S.; Zack, Don; Ashley-Koch, Allison; Ulmer, Megan; Kang, Jae H.; Liu, Yutao; Yaspan, Brian L.; Haines, Jonathan; Allingham, R. Rand; Hauser, Michael A.; Pasquale, Louis; Wiggs, Janey; Richards, Julia E.

    2014-01-01

    Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is a major risk factor for glaucoma and is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) reported associations with IOP at TMCO1 and GAS7, and with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) at CDKN2B-AS1, CAV1/CAV2, and SIX1/SIX6. To identify novel genetic variants and replicate the published findings, we performed GWAS and meta-analysis of IOP in >6,000 subjects of European ancestry collected in three datasets: the NEI Glaucoma Human genetics collaBORation, GLAUcoma Genes and ENvironment study, and a subset of the Age-related Macular Degeneration-Michigan, Mayo, AREDS and Pennsylvania study. While no signal achieved genome-wide significance in individual datasets, a meta-analysis identified significant associations with IOP at TMCO1 (rs7518099-G, p = 8.0 × 10−8). Focused analyses of five loci previously reported for IOP and/or POAG, i.e., TMCO1, CDKN2B-AS1, GAS7, CAV1/CAV2, and SIX1/SIX6, revealed associations with IOP that were largely consistent across our three datasets, and replicated the previously reported associations in both effect size and direction. These results confirm the involvement of common variants in multiple genomic regions in regulating IOP and/or glaucoma risk. PMID:24002674

  14. Eliciting mixed emotions: a meta-analysis comparing models, types, and measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrios, Raul; Totterdell, Peter; Kellett, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The idea that people can experience two oppositely valenced emotions has been controversial ever since early attempts to investigate the construct of mixed emotions. This meta-analysis examined the robustness with which mixed emotions have been elicited experimentally. A systematic literature search identified 63 experimental studies that instigated the experience of mixed emotions. Studies were distinguished according to the structure of the underlying affect model—dimensional or discrete—as well as according to the type of mixed emotions studied (e.g., happy-sad, fearful-happy, positive-negative). The meta-analysis using a random-effects model revealed a moderate to high effect size for the elicitation of mixed emotions (dIG+ = 0.77), which remained consistent regardless of the structure of the affect model, and across different types of mixed emotions. Several methodological and design moderators were tested. Studies using the minimum index (i.e., the minimum value between a pair of opposite valenced affects) resulted in smaller effect sizes, whereas subjective measures of mixed emotions increased the effect sizes. The presence of more women in the samples was also associated with larger effect sizes. The current study indicates that mixed emotions are a robust, measurable and non-artifactual experience. The results are discussed in terms of the implications for an affect system that has greater versatility and flexibility than previously thought. PMID:25926805

  15. Voxelwise meta-analysis of gray matter abnormalities in dementia with Lewy bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, JianGuo; Pan, PingLei; Dai, ZhenYu; Shi, HaiCun

    2014-10-01

    Increasing neuroimaging studies have revealed brain gray matter (GM) atrophy by voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) relative to healthy controls. However, the spatial localization of GM abnormalities reported in the existing studies is heterogeneous. Here, we aimed to investigate concurrence across VBM studies to help clarify the structural abnormalities underpinning this condition. A systematic search for VBM studies of DLB patients and healthy controls published in PubMed database from January 2000 to March 2014 was conducted. A quantitative meta-analysis of whole-brain VBM studies in DLB patients and healthy controls was performed by means of Anisotropic Effect Size version of Signed Differential Mapping (AES-SDM) software package. Seven studies comprising 218 DLB patients and 219 healthy controls were included in the present study. Compared to healthy subjects, the patients group showed consistent decreased GM in right lateral temporal/insular cortex and left lenticular nucleus/insular cortex. The results remained largely unchanged in the following jackknife sensitivity analyses. Meta-regression analysis indicated an increased probability of finding brain atrophy in left superior temporal gyrus in patients with lower MMSE scores. The present meta-analysis quantitatively demonstrates a characteristic pattern of GM alternations that contributed to the understanding of pathophysiology underlying DLB. Future studies will benefit from employing meta-analytical comparisons to other dementia subtypes with solid evidence to extend these findings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Gender differences in the initiation of negotiations: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugler, Katharina G; Reif, Julia A M; Kaschner, Tamara; Brodbeck, Felix C

    2018-02-01

    Gender differences in the initiation of negotiation have been suggested to reinforce unequal distributions of resources between men and women. Because previous research had yielded heterogeneous results, the authors conducted a meta-analysis investigating gender differences in initiating negotiation. On the basis of social role theory, they hypothesized that women are less likely to initiate negotiations than men, but also that the effect varies depending on characteristics of the immediate negotiation situation and the wider societal context. The meta-analysis comprised 55 effect sizes with 17,504 individuals, including both students and employees. A random-effects model confirmed that women were indeed less likely to initiate negotiations than men (g = 0.20). Additional moderator analyses, tested with mixed-effects models and metaregressions, revealed that gender differences were smaller when situational ambiguity regarding the appropriateness of negotiating was low rather than high as well as when situational cues were more consistent with the female gender role than with the male gender role. Gender differences decreased by year of publication (from 1977 to 2016) but were unrelated to the degree of gender inequality in the countries in which the studies were conducted. The authors conclude that gender differences in the initiation of negotiation exist, but they are small and context-bound. Finally, they discuss mechanisms that alter the gender difference with a particular focus on potential starting points for practical interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Lucid dreaming incidence: A quality effects meta-analysis of 50years of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, David T; Roe, Chris A; Smith, Graham; Clegg, Helen

    2016-07-01

    We report a quality effects meta-analysis on studies from the period 1966-2016 measuring either (a) lucid dreaming prevalence (one or more lucid dreams in a lifetime); (b) frequent lucid dreaming (one or more lucid dreams in a month) or both. A quality effects meta-analysis allows for the minimisation of the influence of study methodological quality on overall model estimates. Following sensitivity analysis, a heterogeneous lucid dreaming prevalence data set of 34 studies yielded a mean estimate of 55%, 95% C. I. [49%, 62%] for which moderator analysis showed no systematic bias for suspected sources of variability. A heterogeneous lucid dreaming frequency data set of 25 studies yielded a mean estimate of 23%, 95% C. I. [20%, 25%], moderator analysis revealed no suspected sources of variability. These findings are consistent with earlier estimates of lucid dreaming prevalence and frequent lucid dreaming in the population but are based on more robust evidence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Theory of planned behavior interventions for reducing heterosexual risk behaviors: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Mandy; Covey, Judith; Rosenthal, Harriet E S

    2014-12-01

    The meta-analysis reported here examined interventions informed by the theory of planned behavior (TPB) or theory of reasoned action (TRA) aimed at reducing heterosexual risk behaviors (prevention of STDs and unwanted pregnancy). Studies were eligible for inclusion if they were either randomized control trials or quasi-experimental studies that compared the TPB-based intervention against a control group. Search strategy consisted of articles identified in previous reviews, keyword search through search engines, examination of key journals, and contacting key experts. Forty-seven intervention studies were included in the meta-analysis. Random effects models revealed that pooled effect sizes for TPB-based interventions had small but significant effects on behavior and other secondary outcomes (i.e., knowledge, attitudes, normative beliefs, perceived behavioral control, and intentions). Significant heterogeneity found between effect sizes was explored using metaregression. Larger effects were found for interventions that provided opportunities for social comparison. The TPB provides a valuable framework for designing interventions to change heterosexual risk behaviors. However, effect sizes varied quite substantially between studies, and further research is needed to explore the reasons why.

  19. A systematic review and meta-analysis of sleep architecture and chronic traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantua, Janna; Grillakis, Antigone; Mahfouz, Sanaa H; Taylor, Maura R; Brager, Allison J; Yarnell, Angela M; Balkin, Thomas J; Capaldi, Vincent F; Simonelli, Guido

    2018-02-02

    Sleep quality appears to be altered by traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, whether persistent post-injury changes in sleep architecture are present is unknown and relatively unexplored. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the extent to which chronic TBI (>6 months since injury) is characterized by changes to sleep architecture. We also explored the relationship between sleep architecture and TBI severity. In the fourteen included studies, sleep was assessed with at least one night of polysomnography in both chronic TBI participants and controls. Statistical analyses, performed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software, revealed that chronic TBI is characterized by relatively increased slow wave sleep (SWS). A meta-regression showed moderate-severe TBI is associated with elevated SWS, reduced stage 2, and reduced sleep efficiency. In contrast, mild TBI was not associated with any significant alteration of sleep architecture. The present findings are consistent with the hypothesis that increased SWS after moderate-severe TBI reflects post-injury cortical reorganization and restructuring. Suggestions for future research are discussed, including adoption of common data elements in future studies to facilitate cross-study comparability, reliability, and replicability, thereby increasing the likelihood that meaningful sleep (and other) biomarkers of TBI will be identified. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Clinical Significance of Resistin Expression in Osteoarthritis: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Chuan Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of literature evaluating human resistin expression as a diagnostic factor in osteoarthritis development and to quantify the overall diagnostic effect. Method. Relevant studies were identified and evaluated for quality through multiple search strategies. Studies analyzing resistin expression in the development of OA were eligible for inclusion. Data from eligible studies were extracted and included into the meta-analysis using a random-effects model. Results. Four case-control studies consisting of a total of 375 OA patients and 214 controls as well as three sex-stratified analyses composed of 53 males and 104 females were incorporated into our meta-analysis. Our results revealed that resistin levels were significantly higher in male OA subjects and OA patients overall. Country-stratified analysis yielded significantly different estimates in resistin levels between male OA subjects and female OA subjects in the Canadian subgroup but not among the French and USA subgroups. Based on the resistin levels in OA cases and controls, resistin levels were heightened in OA patients in the Dutch population. Conclusion. These results support the hypothesis that high expression of resistin represents a significant and reproducible marker of poor progression in OA patients, especially in males.

  1. Steep discounting of delayed monetary and food rewards in obesity: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amlung, M; Petker, T; Jackson, J; Balodis, I; MacKillop, J

    2016-08-01

    An increasing number of studies have investigated delay discounting (DD) in relation to obesity, but with mixed findings. This meta-analysis synthesized the literature on the relationship between monetary and food DD and obesity, with three objectives: (1) to characterize the relationship between DD and obesity in both case-control comparisons and continuous designs; (2) to examine potential moderators, including case-control v. continuous design, money v. food rewards, sample sex distribution, and sample age (18 years); and (3) to evaluate publication bias. From 134 candidate articles, 39 independent investigations yielded 29 case-control and 30 continuous comparisons (total n = 10 278). Random-effects meta-analysis was conducted using Cohen's d as the effect size. Publication bias was evaluated using fail-safe N, Begg-Mazumdar and Egger tests, meta-regression of publication year and effect size, and imputation of missing studies. The primary analysis revealed a medium effect size across studies that was highly statistically significant (d = 0.43, p food rewards and child/adolescent samples. Limited evidence of publication bias was present, although the Begg-Mazumdar test and meta-regression suggested a slightly diminishing effect size over time. Steep DD of food and money appears to be a robust feature of obesity that is relatively consistent across the DD assessment methodologies and study designs examined. These findings are discussed in the context of research on DD in drug addiction, the neural bases of DD in obesity, and potential clinical applications.

  2. Meta-analysis of Microbial Fuel Cells Using Waste Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdy, F Ryan; Kawakita, Ryan; Lange, Matthew; Simmons, Christopher W

    2017-11-09

    Microbial fuel cell experimentation using waste streams is an increasingly popular field of study. One obstacle to comparing studies has been the lack of consistent conventions for reporting results such that meta-analysis can be used for large groups of experiments. Here, 134 unique microbial fuel cell experiments using waste substrates were compiled for analysis. Findings include that coulombic efficiency correlates positively with volumetric power density (p fuel cell datasets. Recommendations for future consistency in reporting results following a MIAMFCE convention (Minimum Information About a Microbial Fuel Cell Experiment) are included.

  3. Factor analysis of regional brain activation in bipolar and healthy individuals reveals a consistent modular structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, David E; Welge, Jeffrey A; Eliassen, James C; Adler, Caleb M; DelBello, Melissa P; Strakowski, Stephen M

    2018-02-27

    The neurophysiological substrates of cognition and emotion, as seen with fMRI, are generally explained using modular structures. The present study was designed to probe the modular structure of cognitive-emotional processing in bipolar and healthy individuals using factor analysis and compare the results with current conceptions of the neurophysiology of bipolar disorder. Exploratory factor analysis was used to assess patterns of covariation among brain regions-of-interest activated during the Continuous Performance Task with Emotional and Neutral Distractors in healthy and bipolar individuals without a priori constraints on the number or composition of latent factors. Results indicated a common cognitive-emotional network consisting of prefrontal, medial temporal, limbic, parietal, anterior cingulate and posterior cingulate modules. However, reduced brain activation to emotional stimuli in the frontal, medial temporal and limbic modules was apparent in the bipolar relative to the healthy group, potentially accounting for emotional dysregulation in bipolar disorder. This study is limited by a relatively small sample size recruited at a single site. The results have yet to be validated on a larger independent sample. Although the modular structure of cognitive-emotional processing is similar in bipolar and healthy individuals, activation in response to emotional/neutral cues varies. These findings are not only consistent with recent conceptions of mood regulation in bipolar disorder, but also suggest that regional activation can be considered within tighter modular structures without compromising data interpretation. This demonstration may serve as a template for data reduction in future region-of-interest analyses to increase statistical power. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Commensurate comparisons of models with energy budget observations reveal consistent climate sensitivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, K.

    2017-12-01

    Global energy budget observations have been widely used to constrain the effective, or instantaneous climate sensitivity (ICS), producing median estimates around 2°C (Otto et al. 2013; Lewis & Curry 2015). A key question is whether the comprehensive climate models used to project future warming are consistent with these energy budget estimates of ICS. Yet, performing such comparisons has proven challenging. Within models, values of ICS robustly vary over time, as surface temperature patterns evolve with transient warming, and are generally smaller than the values of equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS). Naively comparing values of ECS in CMIP5 models (median of about 3.4°C) to observation-based values of ICS has led to the suggestion that models are overly sensitive. This apparent discrepancy can partially be resolved by (i) comparing observation-based values of ICS to model values of ICS relevant for historical warming (Armour 2017; Proistosescu & Huybers 2017); (ii) taking into account the "efficacies" of non-CO2 radiative forcing agents (Marvel et al. 2015); and (iii) accounting for the sparseness of historical temperature observations and differences in sea-surface temperature and near-surface air temperature over the oceans (Richardson et al. 2016). Another potential source of discrepancy is a mismatch between observed and simulated surface temperature patterns over recent decades, due to either natural variability or model deficiencies in simulating historical warming patterns. The nature of the mismatch is such that simulated patterns can lead to more positive radiative feedbacks (higher ICS) relative to those engendered by observed patterns. The magnitude of this effect has not yet been addressed. Here we outline an approach to perform fully commensurate comparisons of climate models with global energy budget observations that take all of the above effects into account. We find that when apples-to-apples comparisons are made, values of ICS in models are

  5. A Bayesian Nonparametric Meta-Analysis Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabatsos, George; Talbott, Elizabeth; Walker, Stephen G.

    2015-01-01

    In a meta-analysis, it is important to specify a model that adequately describes the effect-size distribution of the underlying population of studies. The conventional normal fixed-effect and normal random-effects models assume a normal effect-size population distribution, conditionally on parameters and covariates. For estimating the mean overall…

  6. Systematic review with meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimer, N; Krag, A; Møller, Søren

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rifaximin is recommended for prevention of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). The effects of rifaximin on overt and minimal HE are debated. AIM: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on rifaximin for HE. METHODS: We performed electronic...

  7. Incorporating Quality Scores in Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Soyeon; Becker, Betsy Jane

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of quality-score weights in meta-analysis. A simulation examines the roles of study characteristics such as population effect size (ES) and its variance on the bias and mean square errors (MSEs) of the estimators for several patterns of relationship between quality and ES, and for specific patterns of systematic…

  8. Wind power externalities: A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattmann, M.; Logar, I.; Brouwer, R.

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the first quantitative meta-analysis of the non-market valuation literature on the external effects associated with wind power production. A data set of 60 observations drawn from 32 studies is constructed. The relative economic values of different types of externalities as well

  9. A genome-wide association meta-analysis identifies new childhood obesity loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradfield, Jonathan P.; Taal, H. Rob; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Scherag, André; Lecoeur, Cecile; Warrington, Nicole M.; Hypponen, Elina; Holst, Claus; Valcarcel, Beatriz; Thiering, Elisabeth; Salem, Rany M.; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Cousminer, Diana L.; Sleiman, Patrick M.A.; Zhao, Jianhua; Berkowitz, Robert I.; Vimaleswaran, Karani S.; Jarick, Ivonne; Pennell, Craig E.; Evans, David M.; St. Pourcain, Beate; Berry, Diane J.; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O; Hofman, Albert; Rivadeinera, Fernando; Uitterlinden, André G.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; van der Valk, Ralf J.P.; de Jongste, Johan C.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Gauderman, William J.; Hassanein, Mohamed T.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Mägi, Reedik; Boreham, Colin A.G.; Neville, Charlotte E.; Moreno, Luis A.; Elliott, Paul; Pouta, Anneli; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Li, Mingyao; Raitakari, Olli; Lehtimäki, Terho; Eriksson, Johan G.; Palotie, Aarno; Dallongeville, Jean; Das, Shikta; Deloukas, Panos; McMahon, George; Ring, Susan M.; Kemp, John P.; Buxton, Jessica L.; Blakemore, Alexandra I.F.; Bustamante, Mariona; Guxens, Mònica; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Gillman, Matthew W.; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Bisgaard, Hans; Gilliland, Frank D.; Heinrich, Joachim; Wheeler, Eleanor; Barroso, Inês; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.; Power, Chris; Palmer, Lyle J.; Hinney, Anke; Widen, Elisabeth; Farooqi, I. Sadaf; McCarthy, Mark I.; Froguel, Philippe; Meyre, David; Hebebrand, Johannes; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V.; Smith, George Davey; Hakonarson, Hakon; Grant, Struan F.A.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple genetic variants have been associated with adult obesity and a few with severe obesity in childhood; however, less progress has been made to establish genetic influences on common early-onset obesity. We performed a North American-Australian-European collaborative meta-analysis of fourteen studies consisting of 5,530 cases (≥95th percentile of body mass index (BMI)) and 8,318 controls (childhood obesity cohorts (n = 2,214 cases and 2,674 controls). Finally, these two loci yielded directionally consistent associations in the GIANT meta-analysis of adult BMI1. PMID:22484627

  10. Meta-Analysis at Middle Age: A Personal History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Gene V.

    2015-01-01

    The 40-year history of meta-analysis is traced from the vantage point of one of its originators. Research syntheses leading to the first examples of meta-analysis are identified. Early meta-analyses of the literature on psychotherapy outcomes and school class size are recounted. The influence on the development of meta-analysis of several…

  11. Physical activity and risk of pancreatic cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Gundula; Jochem, Carmen; Schmid, Daniela; Keimling, Marlen; Ricci, Cristian; Leitzmann, Michael F

    2015-04-01

    Physical activity may prevent pancreatic cancer by regulating body weight and decreasing insulin resistance, DNA damage, and chronic inflammation. Previous meta-analyses found inconsistent evidence for a protective effect of physical activity on pancreatic cancer but those studies did not investigate whether the association between physical activity and pancreatic cancer varies by smoking status, body mass index (BMI), or level of consistency of physical activity over time. To address these issues, we conducted an updated meta-analysis following the PRISMA guidelines among 30 distinct studies with a total of 10,501 pancreatic cancer cases. Random effects meta-analysis of cohort studies revealed a weak, statistically significant reduction in pancreatic cancer risk for high versus low levels of physical activity (relative risk (RR) 0.93, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.88-0.98). By comparison, case-control studies yielded a stronger, statistically significant risk reduction (RR 0.78, 95 % CI 0.66-0.94; p-difference by study design = 0.07). When focusing on cohort studies, physical activity summary risk estimates appeared to be more pronounced for consistent physical activity over time (RR 0.86, 95 % CI 0.76-0.97) than for recent past physical activity (RR 0.95, 95 % CI 0.90-1.01) or distant past physical activity (RR 0.95, 95 % CI 0.79-1.15, p-difference by timing in life of physical activity = 0.36). Physical activity summary risk estimates did not differ by smoking status or BMI. In conclusion, physical activity is not strongly associated with pancreatic cancer risk, and the relation is not modified by smoking status or BMI level. While overall findings were weak, we did find some suggestion of potential pancreatic cancer risk reduction with consistent physical activity over time.

  12. Using Beta Coefficients to Impute Missing Correlations in Meta-Analysis Research: Reasons for Caution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Philip L; Le, Huy; Oh, In-Sue; Van Iddekinge, Chad H; Bobko, Philip

    2018-01-25

    Meta-analysis has become a well-accepted method for synthesizing empirical research about a given phenomenon. Many meta-analyses focus on synthesizing correlations across primary studies, but some primary studies do not report correlations. Peterson and Brown (2005) suggested that researchers could use standardized regression weights (i.e., beta coefficients) to impute missing correlations. Indeed, their beta estimation procedures (BEPs) have been used in meta-analyses in a wide variety of fields. In this study, the authors evaluated the accuracy of BEPs in meta-analysis. We first examined how use of BEPs might affect results from a published meta-analysis. We then developed a series of Monte Carlo simulations that systematically compared the use of existing correlations (that were not missing) to data sets that incorporated BEPs (that impute missing correlations from corresponding beta coefficients). These simulations estimated ρ̄ (mean population correlation) and SDρ (true standard deviation) across a variety of meta-analytic conditions. Results from both the existing meta-analysis and the Monte Carlo simulations revealed that BEPs were associated with potentially large biases when estimating ρ̄ and even larger biases when estimating SDρ. Using only existing correlations often substantially outperformed use of BEPs and virtually never performed worse than BEPs. Overall, the authors urge a return to the standard practice of using only existing correlations in meta-analysis. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Pesticide-induced gene mutations and Parkinson disease risk: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaowei; Ma, Tao; Qu, Bo; Ji, Yan; Liu, Zhi

    2013-11-01

    Increasing scientific evidence suggests that pesticide-induced gene mutations may contribute to increasing susceptibility to Parkinson disease (PD), but many existing studies have yielded inconclusive results. This meta-analysis aims at assessing the exact roles of pesticide-induced gene mutations in the development of PD. An extensive literature search for relevant studies was conducted on PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and CBM databases from their inception through May 1st, 2013. This meta-analysis was performed using the STATA 12.0 software. The crude odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was calculated. Ten case-control studies were included with a total of 1248 PD patients and 1831 healthy controls. Our meta-analysis revealed that PD patients with pesticide exposure had higher gene mutation rates than those of healthy controls. Subgroup analysis by gene type indicated that the mutation rates in the GSTP1, SLC6A3, and MDR1 genes of PD patients with pesticide exposure were higher than those of healthy controls. No publication bias was detected in this meta-analysis. The current meta-analysis indicates that pesticide-induced gene mutations may contribute to increasing susceptibility to PD, especially in the GSTP1, SLC6A3, and MDR1 genes.

  14. Association between Hypertension and Epistaxis: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Hyun Jin; Kang, Hyun; Choi, Geun Joo; Kim, Kyung Soo

    2017-12-01

    Objective Whether there is an association or a cause-and-effect relationship between epistaxis and hypertension is a subject of longstanding controversy. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the association between epistaxis and hypertension and to verify whether hypertension is an independent risk factor of epistaxis. Data Sources A comprehensive search was performed using the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases. Review Methods The review was performed according to the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guidelines and reported using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis guidelines. Results We screened 2768 unique studies and selected 10 for this meta-analysis. Overall, the risk of epistaxis was significantly increased for patients with hypertension (odds ratio, 1.532 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.181-1.986]; number needed to treat, 14.9 [95% CI, 12.3-19.0]). Results of the Q test and I 2 statistics suggested considerable heterogeneity ([Formula: see text] = 0.038, I 2 = 49.3%). The sensitivity analysis was performed by excluding 1 study at a time, and it revealed no change in statistical significance. Conclusion Although this meta-analysis had some limitations, our study demonstrated that hypertension was significantly associated with the risk of epistaxis. However, since this association does not support a causal relationship between hypertension and epistaxis, further clinical trials with large patient populations will be required to determine the impact of hypertension on epistaxis.

  15. Pooling, meta-analysis, and the evaluation of drug safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leizorovicz Alain

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The "integrated safety report" of the drug registration files submitted to health authorities usually summarizes the rates of adverse events observed for a new drug, placebo or active control drugs by pooling the safety data across the trials. Pooling consists of adding the numbers of events observed in a given treatment group across the trials and dividing the results by the total number of patients included in this group. Because it considers treatment groups rather than studies, pooling ignores validity of the comparisons and is subject to a particular kind of bias, termed "Simpson's paradox." In contrast, meta-analysis and other stratified analyses are less susceptible to bias. Methods We use a hypothetical, but not atypical, application to demonstrate that the results of a meta-analysis can differ greatly from those obtained by pooling the same data. In our hypothetical model, a new drug is compared to 1 a placebo in 4 relatively small trials in patients at high risk for a certain adverse event and 2 an active reference drug in 2 larger trials of patients at low risk for this event. Results Using meta-analysis, the relative risk of experiencing the adverse event with the new drug was 1.78 (95% confidence interval [1.02; 3.12] compared to placebo and 2.20 [0.76; 6.32] compared to active control. By pooling the data, the results were, respectively, 1.00 [0.59; 1.70] and 5.20 [2.07; 13.08]. Conclusions Because these findings could mislead health authorities and doctors, regulatory agencies should require meta-analyses or stratified analyses of safety data in drug registration files.

  16. Meta-analysis on the association between toothbrushing and head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xian-Tao; Leng, Wei-Dong; Zhang, Chao; Liu, Jing; Cao, Shi-Yi; Huang, Wei

    2015-05-01

    Epidemiological studies have focused on the association between toothbrushing and head and neck cancer (HNC). However, the question of whether toothbrushing is associated with decreased risk of HNC remains unanswered. Since there is currently no systematic review or meta-analysis available to provide quantitative findings on this important clinical question; we consequently performed this meta-analysis to investigate the association between toothbrushing and HNC risk. We searched PubMed and Embase up to January 13 (updated on October 20), 2014 to identify observational studies that investigated the association between toothbrushing and HNC. After study section and data extraction, the meta-analysis was conducted using RevMan 5.2 software. A total of 18 case-control studies involving 7068 cases and 9990 controls were included. The meta-analysis showed that compared with highest toothbrushing frequency, lowest level was significantly increased risk of HNC 2.08 times (odds ratio=2.08, 95% confidence interval=1.65-2.62). This significant association remained consistent after adjusting for smoking status and alcohol consumption. No publication bias was detected. This meta-analysis found frequency of toothbrushing was significantly associated with HNC risk. Effective toothbrushing may be potentially important for the prevention of HNC and we suggest that the frequency be twice per day (morning and night). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Ataxia Telangiectasia–Mutated Gene Polymorphisms and Acute Normal Tissue Injuries in Cancer Patients After Radiation Therapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Lihua; Cui, Jingkun; Tang, Fengjiao; Cong, Xiaofeng; Han, Fujun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Studies of the association between ataxia telangiectasia–mutated (ATM) gene polymorphisms and acute radiation injuries are often small in sample size, and the results are inconsistent. We conducted the first meta-analysis to provide a systematic review of published findings. Methods and Materials: Publications were identified by searching PubMed up to April 25, 2014. Primary meta-analysis was performed for all acute radiation injuries, and subgroup meta-analyses were based on clinical endpoint. The influence of sample size and radiation injury incidence on genetic effects was estimated in sensitivity analyses. Power calculations were also conducted. Results: The meta-analysis was conducted on the ATM polymorphism rs1801516, including 5 studies with 1588 participants. For all studies, the cut-off for differentiating cases from controls was grade 2 acute radiation injuries. The primary meta-analysis showed a significant association with overall acute radiation injuries (allelic model: odds ratio = 1.33, 95% confidence interval: 1.04-1.71). Subgroup analyses detected an association between the rs1801516 polymorphism and a significant increase in urinary and lower gastrointestinal injuries and an increase in skin injury that was not statistically significant. There was no between-study heterogeneity in any meta-analyses. In the sensitivity analyses, small studies did not show larger effects than large studies. In addition, studies with high incidence of acute radiation injuries showed larger effects than studies with low incidence. Power calculations revealed that the statistical power of the primary meta-analysis was borderline, whereas there was adequate power for the subgroup analysis of studies with high incidence of acute radiation injuries. Conclusions: Our meta-analysis showed a consistency of the results from the overall and subgroup analyses. We also showed that the genetic effect of the rs1801516 polymorphism on acute radiation injuries was

  18. Ataxia Telangiectasia–Mutated Gene Polymorphisms and Acute Normal Tissue Injuries in Cancer Patients After Radiation Therapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Lihua [Department of Radiation Oncology, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun (China); Cui, Jingkun [Department of Internal Medicine, Nanling School District Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun (China); Tang, Fengjiao; Cong, Xiaofeng [Cancer Center, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun (China); Han, Fujun, E-mail: fujun_han@aliyun.com [Cancer Center, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun (China)

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: Studies of the association between ataxia telangiectasia–mutated (ATM) gene polymorphisms and acute radiation injuries are often small in sample size, and the results are inconsistent. We conducted the first meta-analysis to provide a systematic review of published findings. Methods and Materials: Publications were identified by searching PubMed up to April 25, 2014. Primary meta-analysis was performed for all acute radiation injuries, and subgroup meta-analyses were based on clinical endpoint. The influence of sample size and radiation injury incidence on genetic effects was estimated in sensitivity analyses. Power calculations were also conducted. Results: The meta-analysis was conducted on the ATM polymorphism rs1801516, including 5 studies with 1588 participants. For all studies, the cut-off for differentiating cases from controls was grade 2 acute radiation injuries. The primary meta-analysis showed a significant association with overall acute radiation injuries (allelic model: odds ratio = 1.33, 95% confidence interval: 1.04-1.71). Subgroup analyses detected an association between the rs1801516 polymorphism and a significant increase in urinary and lower gastrointestinal injuries and an increase in skin injury that was not statistically significant. There was no between-study heterogeneity in any meta-analyses. In the sensitivity analyses, small studies did not show larger effects than large studies. In addition, studies with high incidence of acute radiation injuries showed larger effects than studies with low incidence. Power calculations revealed that the statistical power of the primary meta-analysis was borderline, whereas there was adequate power for the subgroup analysis of studies with high incidence of acute radiation injuries. Conclusions: Our meta-analysis showed a consistency of the results from the overall and subgroup analyses. We also showed that the genetic effect of the rs1801516 polymorphism on acute radiation injuries was

  19. The Effectiveness of Multiple Intelligence Applications on Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyüp Yurt

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of multiple intelligence applications on academic achievement in Turkey. Accordingly, findings of independent research studies aimed to find out effectiveness of multiple intelligence applications are gathered in a meta-analysis. Total of 71 studies, 66 dissertations and 7 articles were included in the meta-analysis meeting the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis calculations resulted that the multiple intelligence applications have a large and positive effect on academic achievement. It was also revealed that the effect of multiple intelligence applications vary by application period. Thus, as the application period increases, the effect of multiple intelligence application also increases. On the other side, effectiveness of the applications does not vary by; the type of the course, level of the class and the type of the research. Some suggestions made according to the research findings.

  20. Data extraction for complex meta-analysis (DECiMAL) guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedder, Hugo; Sarri, Grammati; Keeney, Edna; Nunes, Vanessa; Dias, Sofia

    2016-12-13

    As more complex meta-analytical techniques such as network and multivariate meta-analyses become increasingly common, further pressures are placed on reviewers to extract data in a systematic and consistent manner. Failing to do this appropriately wastes time, resources and jeopardises accuracy. This guide (data extraction for complex meta-analysis (DECiMAL)) suggests a number of points to consider when collecting data, primarily aimed at systematic reviewers preparing data for meta-analysis. Network meta-analysis (NMA), multiple outcomes analysis and analysis combining different types of data are considered in a manner that can be useful across a range of data collection programmes. The guide has been shown to be both easy to learn and useful in a small pilot study.

  1. Aberrant default mode network in amnestic mild cognitive impairment: a meta-analysis of independent component analysis studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, ChunLei; Pan, Yuan; Liu, YanMei; Xu, Ke; Hao, LanXiang; Huang, Fei; Ke, Juan; Sheng, LiQin; Ma, HaiRong; Guo, WeiFeng

    2018-03-06

    Independent component analysis (ICA) is one of the most popular and valid methods to investigate the default mode network (DMN), an intrinsic network which attracts particular attention in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). However, previous studies present inconsistent results regarding the topographical organization of the DMN in aMCI. Therefore, we conducted a quantitative, voxel-wise meta-analysis of resting-state ICA studies using Seed-based d Mapping to establish the most consistent pattern of DMN functional connectivity alterations in aMCI. Twenty studies, comprising 23 independent datasets involving 535 patients and 586 healthy controls, met the inclusion criteria. Patients with aMCI exhibited reliably lower DMN functional connectivity than the healthy controls in the bilateral precuneus/posterior cingulate cortices and medial temporal lobes, which are implicated in episodic memory deficits. Moreover, an exploratory meta-regression analysis revealed that greater severity of global cognitive impairment in the patient groups was associated with stronger functional connectivity in the bilateral medial frontal cortices (including the anterior cingulate cortices), left angular gyrus, and right temporal pole extending to the middle temporal gyrus, likely reflecting a compensatory mechanism for maintaining cognitive efficiency. This meta-analysis identifies a consistent pattern of aberrant DMN functional connectivity in aMCI, which facilitates understanding of the neurobiological substrates of this disease.

  2. Serum Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 in Patients with De Novo, Drug Naïve Parkinson's Disease: A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dun-Hui Li

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 is reported to be neuroprotective in the setting of Parkinson's disease (PD, and there is increasing interest in the possible association of serum IGF-1 levels with PD patients, but with conflicting results. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the association of serum IGF-1 levels in de novo, drug naïve PD patients compared with healthy controls.Pubmed, ISI Web of Science, OVID, EMBASE, and Cochrane library databases from 1966 to October 2014 were utilized to identify candidate studies using Medical Subjective Headings without language restriction. A random-effects model was chosen, with subgroup analysis and sensitivity analysis conducted to reveal underlying heterogeneity among the included studies.In this meta-analysis, we found that PD patients had higher serum IGF-1 levels compared with healthy controls (summary mean difference [MD] = 17.75, 95%CI = 6.01, 29.48. Subgroup analysis demonstrated that the source of heterogeneity was population differences within the total group. Sensitivity analysis showed that the combined MD was consistent at any time omitting any one study.The results of this meta-analysis demonstrate that serum IGF-1 levels were significantly higher in de novo, drug-naïve PD patients compared with healthy controls. Nevertheless, additional endeavors are required to further explore the association between serum IGF-1 levels and diagnosis, prognosis and early therapy for PD.

  3. Multivariate meta-analysis: Potential and promise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Dan; Riley, Richard; White, Ian R

    2011-01-01

    The multivariate random effects model is a generalization of the standard univariate model. Multivariate meta-analysis is becoming more commonly used and the techniques and related computer software, although continually under development, are now in place. In order to raise awareness of the multivariate methods, and discuss their advantages and disadvantages, we organized a one day ‘Multivariate meta-analysis’ event at the Royal Statistical Society. In addition to disseminating the most recent developments, we also received an abundance of comments, concerns, insights, critiques and encouragement. This article provides a balanced account of the day's discourse. By giving others the opportunity to respond to our assessment, we hope to ensure that the various view points and opinions are aired before multivariate meta-analysis simply becomes another widely used de facto method without any proper consideration of it by the medical statistics community. We describe the areas of application that multivariate meta-analysis has found, the methods available, the difficulties typically encountered and the arguments for and against the multivariate methods, using four representative but contrasting examples. We conclude that the multivariate methods can be useful, and in particular can provide estimates with better statistical properties, but also that these benefits come at the price of making more assumptions which do not result in better inference in every case. Although there is evidence that multivariate meta-analysis has considerable potential, it must be even more carefully applied than its univariate counterpart in practice. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:21268052

  4. Meta-Analysis of Associations Between Interleukin-10 Polymorphisms and Susceptibility to Vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae Hyun; Song, Gwan Gyu; Lee, Young Ho

    2015-01-01

    This study determined whether interleukin-10 (IL-10) polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to vasculitis. A meta-analysis was conducted of the associations between the IL-10 -1082 G/A, -819 C/T, and -592 C/A polymorphisms and the haplotype of the IL-10-1082 G/A, -819 C/T, -592 C/A polymorphisms and vasculitis. A total of 21 comparative studies involving 4121 patients and 5504 controls were considered in the meta-analysis. Meta-analysis revealed no association between the IL-10-1082 G allele and vasculitis in all study subjects (OR = 0.927, 95% CI = 0.780-1.102, p = 0.389). However, disease-specific meta-analysis showed an association between Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) and the IL-10-1082 G allele (OR = 0.729, 95% CI = 0.547-0.971, p = 0.031). Meta-analysis revealed an association between vasculitis and the IL-10-819 C allele (OR = 0.804, 95% CI = 0.706-0.916, p = 0.001) in all study subjects and Behcet's disease (BD) (OR = 0.724, 95% CI = 0.679-0.781, p vasculitis in all study subjects (OR = 0.805, 95% CI = 0.619-0.938, p = 0.005) and BD (OR = 0.718, 95% CI = 0.661-0.781, p vasculitis in Europeans (OR = 1.239, 95% CI = 1.105-1.513, p = 0.035). This meta-analysis showed that IL-10 polymorphisms are associated with vasculitis susceptibility, especially in WG and BD.

  5. Identification of cytokinin-responsive genes using microarray meta-analysis and RNA-Seq in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Apurva; Clabaugh, Ivory; To, Jenn P; Maxwell, Bridey B; Chiang, Yi-Hsuan; Schaller, G Eric; Loraine, Ann; Kieber, Joseph J

    2013-05-01

    Cytokinins are N(6)-substituted adenine derivatives that play diverse roles in plant growth and development. We sought to define a robust set of genes regulated by cytokinin as well as to query the response of genes not represented on microarrays. To this end, we performed a meta-analysis of microarray data from a variety of cytokinin-treated samples and used RNA-seq to examine cytokinin-regulated gene expression in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Microarray meta-analysis using 13 microarray experiments combined with empirically defined filtering criteria identified a set of 226 genes differentially regulated by cytokinin, a subset of which has previously been validated by other methods. RNA-seq validated about 73% of the up-regulated genes identified by this meta-analysis. In silico promoter analysis indicated an overrepresentation of type-B Arabidopsis response regulator binding elements, consistent with the role of type-B Arabidopsis response regulators as primary mediators of cytokinin-responsive gene expression. RNA-seq analysis identified 73 cytokinin-regulated genes that were not represented on the ATH1 microarray. Representative genes were verified using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and NanoString analysis. Analysis of the genes identified reveals a substantial effect of cytokinin on genes encoding proteins involved in secondary metabolism, particularly those acting in flavonoid and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, as well as in the regulation of redox state of the cell, particularly a set of glutaredoxin genes. Novel splicing events were found in members of some gene families that are known to play a role in cytokinin signaling or metabolism. The genes identified in this analysis represent a robust set of cytokinin-responsive genes that are useful in the analysis of cytokinin function in plants.

  6. Safe, stable, nurturing relationships as a moderator of intergenerational continuity of child maltreatment: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Thomas J; Lee, Rosalyn D; Merrick, Melissa T

    2013-10-01

    The present paper summarizes findings of the special issue papers on the intergenerational continuity of child maltreatment and through meta-analysis explores the potential moderating effects of safe, stable, nurturing relationships (SSNRs). Studies were selected for inclusion in this meta-analysis if they (1) were published in peer-reviewed journals; (2) tested for intergenerational continuity in any form of child maltreatment, using prospective, longitudinal data; and (3) tested for moderating effects of any variable of SSNRs on intergenerational continuity of child maltreatment. The search revealed only one additional study beyond the four reports written for this special issue that met inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis. Estimates of intergenerational stability of child maltreatment from the studies included in this special issue are consistent with several other studies, which find that child maltreatment in one generation is positively related to child maltreatment in the next generation. Furthermore, meta-analytic results from the five studies that met the inclusion criteria suggest a protective, moderating effect of SSNRs on intergenerational continuity of child maltreatment. The calculated fail-safe index indicated that 49 unpublished intergenerational studies with an average null effect would be required to render nonsignificant the overall moderation effect of SSNRs on child maltreatment. This special issue expanded the examination of SSNRs beyond the caregiver-child dyad. That is, these studies considered SSNRs in adult relationships as well as parent-child relationships. Results suggest that certain types of SSNRs between parents and other adults (e.g., romantic partner, co-parent, or adult social support resource) may decrease maltreatment continuity. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  7. Gender Differences in Self-Reported Posttraumatic Growth: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnevsky, Tanya; Cann, Arnie; Calhoun, Lawrence G.; Tedeschi, Richard G.; Demakis, George J.

    2010-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to examine the direction and magnitude of gender differences in self-reported posttraumatic growth. Results from 70 studies (N = 16,076) revealed a small to moderate gender difference (g = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.21 -0.32), with women reporting more posttraumatic growth than men. Moderator analyses were then conducted to…

  8. International Entrepreneurship: A Meta-Analysis on the Internationalization and Performance Relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwens, Christian; Zapkau, F.B.; Bierwerth, Michael; Isidor, Rodrigo; Knight, Gary; Kabst, Rüdiger

    2018-01-01

    The article conducts a meta-analysis on the relationship between internationalization and firm performance in international entrepreneurship. Empirical evidence from 15,648 internationalizing entrepreneurial firms nested in 43 independent samples reveals a positive relationship between degree and

  9. Technology's Effect on Achievement in Higher Education: A Stage I Meta-Analysis of Classroom Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Richard F.; Bernard, Robert M.; Borokhovski, Eugene; Tamim, Rana; Abrami, Philip C.; Wade, C. Anne; Surkes, Michael A.; Lowerison, Gretchen

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a Stage I meta-analysis exploring the achievement effects of computer-based technology use in higher education classrooms (non-distance education). An extensive literature search revealed more than 6,000 potentially relevant primary empirical studies. Analysis of a representative sample of 231 studies (k = 310)…

  10. Effectiveness of Various Innovative Learning Methods in Health Science Classrooms: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaian, Sema A.; Kasim, Rafa M.

    2017-01-01

    This study reports the results of a meta-analysis of the available literature on the effectiveness of various forms of innovative small-group learning methods on student achievement in undergraduate college health science classrooms. The results of the analysis revealed that most of the primary studies supported the effectiveness of the…

  11. Meta-Analysis of the English Version of the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erford, Bradley T.; Johnson, Erin; Bardoshi, Gerta

    2016-01-01

    This meta-analysis reviewed 144 studies from 1996 to 2013 using the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition. Internal consistency was 0.89 and test-retest reliability 0.75. Convergent comparisons were robust across 43 depression instruments. Structural validity supported both one- and two-factor solutions and diagnostic accuracy varied according…

  12. How Will DSM-5 Affect Autism Diagnosis? A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulage, Kristine M.; Smaldone, Arlene M.; Cohn, Elizabeth G.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the effect of changes to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-5 on autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and explore policy implications. We identified 418 studies; 14 met inclusion criteria. Studies consistently reported decreases in ASD diagnosis (range 7.3-68.4%) using DSM-5…

  13. Narcissism and Social Networking Behavior: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnambs, Timo; Appel, Markus

    2018-04-01

    The increasing popularity of social networking sites (SNS) such as Facebook and Twitter has given rise to speculations that the intensity of using these platforms is associated with narcissistic tendencies. However, recent research on this issue has been all but conclusive. We present a three-level, random effects meta-analysis including 289 effect sizes from 57 studies (total N = 25,631) on the association between trait narcissism and social networking behavior. The meta-analysis identified a small to moderate effect of ρ = .17 (τ = .11), 95% CI [.13, .21], for grandiose narcissism that replicated across different social networking platforms, respondent characteristics, and time. Moderator analyses revealed pronounced cultural differences, with stronger associations in power-distant cultures. Moreover, social networking behaviors geared toward self-presentation and the number of SNS friends exhibited stronger effects than usage durations. Overall, the study not only supported but also refined the notion of a relationship between engaging in social networking sites and narcissistic personality traits. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Effectiveness of Traditional Strength vs. Power Training on Muscle Strength, Power and Speed with Youth: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Behm

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous national associations and multiple reviews have documented the safety and efficacy of strength training for children and adolescents. The literature highlights the significant training-induced increases in strength associated with youth strength training. However, the effectiveness of youth strength training programs to improve power measures is not as clear. This discrepancy may be related to training and testing specificity. Most prior youth strength training programs emphasized lower intensity resistance with relatively slow movements. Since power activities typically involve higher intensity, explosive-like contractions with higher angular velocities (e.g., plyometrics, there is a conflict between the training medium and testing measures. This meta-analysis compared strength (e.g., training with resistance or body mass and power training programs (e.g., plyometric training on proxies of muscle strength, power, and speed. A systematic literature search using a Boolean Search Strategy was conducted in the electronic databases PubMed, SPORT Discus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar and revealed 652 hits. After perusal of title, abstract, and full text, 107 studies were eligible for inclusion in this systematic review and meta-analysis. The meta-analysis showed small to moderate magnitude changes for training specificity with jump measures. In other words, power training was more effective than strength training for improving youth jump height. For sprint measures, strength training was more effective than power training with youth. Furthermore, strength training exhibited consistently large magnitude changes to lower body strength measures, which contrasted with the generally trivial, small and moderate magnitude training improvements of power training upon lower body strength, sprint and jump measures, respectively. Maturity related inadequacies in eccentric strength and balance might influence the lack of training specificity with

  15. Effectiveness of Traditional Strength vs. Power Training on Muscle Strength, Power and Speed with Youth: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behm, David G.; Young, James D.; Whitten, Joseph H. D.; Reid, Jonathan C.; Quigley, Patrick J.; Low, Jonathan; Li, Yimeng; Lima, Camila D.; Hodgson, Daniel D.; Chaouachi, Anis; Prieske, Olaf; Granacher, Urs

    2017-01-01

    Numerous national associations and multiple reviews have documented the safety and efficacy of strength training for children and adolescents. The literature highlights the significant training-induced increases in strength associated with youth strength training. However, the effectiveness of youth strength training programs to improve power measures is not as clear. This discrepancy may be related to training and testing specificity. Most prior youth strength training programs emphasized lower intensity resistance with relatively slow movements. Since power activities typically involve higher intensity, explosive-like contractions with higher angular velocities (e.g., plyometrics), there is a conflict between the training medium and testing measures. This meta-analysis compared strength (e.g., training with resistance or body mass) and power training programs (e.g., plyometric training) on proxies of muscle strength, power, and speed. A systematic literature search using a Boolean Search Strategy was conducted in the electronic databases PubMed, SPORT Discus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar and revealed 652 hits. After perusal of title, abstract, and full text, 107 studies were eligible for inclusion in this systematic review and meta-analysis. The meta-analysis showed small to moderate magnitude changes for training specificity with jump measures. In other words, power training was more effective than strength training for improving youth jump height. For sprint measures, strength training was more effective than power training with youth. Furthermore, strength training exhibited consistently large magnitude changes to lower body strength measures, which contrasted with the generally trivial, small and moderate magnitude training improvements of power training upon lower body strength, sprint and jump measures, respectively. Maturity related inadequacies in eccentric strength and balance might influence the lack of training specificity with the unilateral

  16. Social cognition and the cerebellum: a meta-analysis of over 350 fMRI studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Overwalle, Frank; Baetens, Kris; Mariën, Peter; Vandekerckhove, Marie

    2014-02-01

    This meta-analysis explores the role of the cerebellum in social cognition. Recent meta-analyses of neuroimaging studies since 2008 demonstrate that the cerebellum is only marginally involved in social cognition and emotionality, with a few meta-analyses pointing to an involvement of at most 54% of the individual studies. In this study, novel meta-analyses of over 350 fMRI studies, dividing up the domain of social cognition in homogeneous subdomains, confirmed this low involvement of the cerebellum in conditions that trigger the mirror network (e.g., when familiar movements of body parts are observed) and the mentalizing network (when no moving body parts or unfamiliar movements are present). There is, however, one set of mentalizing conditions that strongly involve the cerebellum in 50-100% of the individual studies. In particular, when the level of abstraction is high, such as when behaviors are described in terms of traits or permanent characteristics, in terms of groups rather than individuals, in terms of the past (episodic autobiographic memory) or the future rather than the present, or in terms of hypothetical events that may happen. An activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis conducted in this study reveals that the cerebellum is critically implicated in social cognition and that the areas of the cerebellum which are consistently involved in social cognitive processes show extensive overlap with the areas involved in sensorimotor (during mirror and self-judgments tasks) as well as in executive functioning (across all tasks). We discuss the role of the cerebellum in social cognition in general and in higher abstraction mentalizing in particular. We also point out a number of methodological limitations of some available studies on the social brain that hamper the detection of cerebellar activity. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Meta-analysis of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis fingerprints based on a constructed Salmonella database.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zou

    Full Text Available A database was constructed consisting of 45,923 Salmonella pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE patterns. The patterns, randomly selected from all submissions to CDC PulseNet during 2005 to 2010, included the 20 most frequent serotypes and 12 less frequent serotypes. Meta-analysis was applied to all of the PFGE patterns in the database. In the range of 20 to 1100 kb, serotype Enteritidis averaged the fewest bands at 12 bands and Paratyphi A the most with 19, with most serotypes in the 13-15 range among the 32 serptypes. The 10 most frequent bands for each of the 32 serotypes were sorted and distinguished, and the results were in concordance with those from distance matrix and two-way hierarchical cluster analyses of the patterns in the database. The hierarchical cluster analysis divided the 32 serotypes into three major groups according to dissimilarity measures, and revealed for the first time the similarities among the PFGE patterns of serotype Saintpaul to serotypes Typhimurium, Typhimurium var. 5-, and I 4,[5],12:i:-; of serotype Hadar to serotype Infantis; and of serotype Muenchen to serotype Newport. The results of the meta-analysis indicated that the pattern similarities/dissimilarities determined the serotype discrimination of PFGE method, and that the possible PFGE markers may have utility for serotype identification. The presence of distinct, serotype specific patterns may provide useful information to aid in the distribution of serotypes in the population and potentially reduce the need for laborious analyses, such as traditional serotyping.

  18. Voxelwise meta-analysis of gray matter abnormalities in dementia with Lewy bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, JianGuo; Pan, PingLei; Dai, ZhenYu; Shi, HaiCun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We first report the meta-analyses of GM anomalies by VBM studies in DLB. • Lateral temporal/insular and lenticular nucleus/insular cortex atrophy were detected. • A characteristic pattern of GM changes underpinned DLB. - Abstract: Background: Increasing neuroimaging studies have revealed brain gray matter (GM) atrophy by voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) relative to healthy controls. However, the spatial localization of GM abnormalities reported in the existing studies is heterogeneous. Here, we aimed to investigate concurrence across VBM studies to help clarify the structural abnormalities underpinning this condition. Methods: A systematic search for VBM studies of DLB patients and healthy controls published in PubMed database from January 2000 to March 2014 was conducted. A quantitative meta-analysis of whole-brain VBM studies in DLB patients and healthy controls was performed by means of Anisotropic Effect Size version of Signed Differential Mapping (AES-SDM) software package. Results: Seven studies comprising 218 DLB patients and 219 healthy controls were included in the present study. Compared to healthy subjects, the patients group showed consistent decreased GM in right lateral temporal/insular cortex and left lenticular nucleus/insular cortex. The results remained largely unchanged in the following jackknife sensitivity analyses. Meta-regression analysis indicated an increased probability of finding brain atrophy in left superior temporal gyrus in patients with lower MMSE scores. Conclusions: The present meta-analysis quantitatively demonstrates a characteristic pattern of GM alternations that contributed to the understanding of pathophysiology underlying DLB. Future studies will benefit from employing meta-analytical comparisons to other dementia subtypes with solid evidence to extend these findings.

  19. Packaging interventions to increase medication adherence: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Vicki S; Ruppar, Todd M; Chan, Keith C; Dunbar-Jacob, Jacqueline; Pepper, Ginette A; De Geest, Sabina

    2015-01-01

    Inadequate medication adherence is a widespread problem that contributes to increased chronic disease complications and health care expenditures. Packaging interventions using pill boxes and blister packs have been widely recommended to address the medication adherence issue. This meta-analysis review determined the overall effect of packaging interventions on medication adherence and health outcomes. In addition, we tested whether effects vary depending on intervention, sample, and design characteristics. Extensive literature search strategies included examination of 13 computerized databases and 19 research registries, hand searches of 57 journals, and author and ancestry searches. Eligible studies included either pill boxes or blister packaging interventions to increase medication adherence. Primary study characteristics and outcomes were reliably coded. Random-effects analyses were used to calculate overall effect sizes and conduct moderator analyses. Data were synthesized across 22,858 subjects from 52 reports. The overall mean weighted standardized difference effect size for two-group comparisons was 0.593 (favoring treatment over control), which is consistent with the mean of 71% adherence for treatment subjects compared to 63% among control subjects. We found using moderator analyses that interventions were most effective when they used blister packs and were delivered in pharmacies, while interventions were less effective when studies included older subjects and those with cognitive impairment. Methodological moderator analyses revealed significantly larger effect sizes in studies reporting continuous data outcomes instead of dichotomous results and in studies using pharmacy refill medication adherence measures compared with studies with self-report measures. Overall, meta-analysis findings support the use of packaging interventions to effectively increase medication adherence. Limitations of the study include the exclusion of packaging interventions other

  20. Voxelwise meta-analysis of gray matter abnormalities in dementia with Lewy bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, JianGuo; Pan, PingLei [Department of Neurology, Affiliated Yancheng Hospital of Southeast University, Yancheng (China); Dai, ZhenYu [Department of Radiology, Affiliated Yancheng Hospital of Southeast University, Yancheng (China); Shi, HaiCun, E-mail: yc3yhcshi@gmail.com [Department of Neurology, Affiliated Yancheng Hospital of Southeast University, Yancheng (China)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • We first report the meta-analyses of GM anomalies by VBM studies in DLB. • Lateral temporal/insular and lenticular nucleus/insular cortex atrophy were detected. • A characteristic pattern of GM changes underpinned DLB. - Abstract: Background: Increasing neuroimaging studies have revealed brain gray matter (GM) atrophy by voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) relative to healthy controls. However, the spatial localization of GM abnormalities reported in the existing studies is heterogeneous. Here, we aimed to investigate concurrence across VBM studies to help clarify the structural abnormalities underpinning this condition. Methods: A systematic search for VBM studies of DLB patients and healthy controls published in PubMed database from January 2000 to March 2014 was conducted. A quantitative meta-analysis of whole-brain VBM studies in DLB patients and healthy controls was performed by means of Anisotropic Effect Size version of Signed Differential Mapping (AES-SDM) software package. Results: Seven studies comprising 218 DLB patients and 219 healthy controls were included in the present study. Compared to healthy subjects, the patients group showed consistent decreased GM in right lateral temporal/insular cortex and left lenticular nucleus/insular cortex. The results remained largely unchanged in the following jackknife sensitivity analyses. Meta-regression analysis indicated an increased probability of finding brain atrophy in left superior temporal gyrus in patients with lower MMSE scores. Conclusions: The present meta-analysis quantitatively demonstrates a characteristic pattern of GM alternations that contributed to the understanding of pathophysiology underlying DLB. Future studies will benefit from employing meta-analytical comparisons to other dementia subtypes with solid evidence to extend these findings.

  1. Impaired cognitive inhibition in schizophrenia: a meta-analysis of the Stroop interference effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhausen, René; Kompus, Kristiina; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2011-12-01

    Schizophrenia has been consistently shown to be associated with impairment in executive functioning. However, although frequently treated as such, the term executive functioning does not refer to a unitary cognitive function; it rather represents a set of basic, lower-level cognitive sub-components, e.g. updating, shifting, and cognitive inhibition. This specification into sub-components allows for a further differentiation of the executive deficits found in schizophrenia. Focusing on the sub-component of cognitive inhibition, we here present a meta-analysis of interference effect as assessed with the Stroop Color-Word Interference paradigm. Including the results of 36 studies with 1081 schizophrenia patients and 1026 healthy control subjects, it was shown that schizophrenia patients exhibit an increased Stroop interference effect both in response time (mean effect size: M(g) = 0.43; 95% confidence interval, CI95%: 0.35-0.52) and accuracy (M(g) = 0.62; CI95%: 0.47-0.77) measures of interference. However, a meta-regression analysis revealed that the size of the effect varies depending on the version of the Stroop paradigm used. Regarding the response time measures of interference, studies using the classical card version of the paradigm showed a significantly larger effect size than studies using a single-trial computerized version of the paradigm (M(g) = 0.60 vs. M(g) = 0.19). Despite of the dissociation between the two versions of the paradigm, the results of the present meta-analysis indicate that the reported global deficits in executive functioning found to be associated with schizophrenia are at least partly due to a reduced ability of cognitive inhibition. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Respirable quartz dust exposure and airway obstruction: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüske, Irene; Thiering, Elisabeth; Heinrich, Joachim; Huster, Katharina M; Nowak, Dennis

    2014-08-01

    Studies on exposure to respirable quartz dust at the workplace and the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were selected into a systematic review and meta-analysed to obtain an overall estimate of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) reduction. PubMed and Embase were searched from 1970 to 2010. In total, 257 cross-sectional and longitudinal studies were identified that reported on inorganic dust exposure and had available lung function data. Of the 55 publications which met our inclusion criteria, 11 reported on associations with occupational exposure to respirable quartz dust. The combined average effect estimate of respirable quartz dust on spirometric parameters was obtained using a random effects model meta-analysis. Between-study heterogeneity was assessed via the I(2) statistic. Most studies found a significant negative association of FEV1 and FEV1/FVC related to increasing exposure to crystalline quartz at the workplace. One study found an effect only for smokers, and one did not observe such an effect at all. The meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies showed that the mean ratio FEV1 to FVC was reduced and FEV1 of workers exposed to respirable quartz dust was 4.6% less than predicted compared with workers with no/low exposure. Both results showed a statistically significant difference. Occupational exposure to respirable quartz dust was associated with a statistically significant decrease in FEV1 and FEV1/FVC, revealing airway obstruction consistent with COPD. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Online Open Neuroimaging Mass Meta-Analysis with a Wiki

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Arup; Kempton, Matthew J.; Williams, Steven C. R.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a system for meta-analysis where a wiki stores numerical data in a simple comma-separated values format and a web service performs the numerical statistical computation. We initially apply the system on multiple meta-analyses of structural neuroimaging data results. The described system...... allows for mass meta-analysis, e.g., meta-analysis across multiple brain regions and multiple mental disorders providing an overview of important relationships and their uncertainties in a collaborative environment....

  4. Meta-analysis a structural equation modeling approach

    CERN Document Server

    Cheung, Mike W-L

    2015-01-01

    Presents a novel approach to conducting meta-analysis using structural equation modeling. Structural equation modeling (SEM) and meta-analysis are two powerful statistical methods in the educational, social, behavioral, and medical sciences. They are often treated as two unrelated topics in the literature. This book presents a unified framework on analyzing meta-analytic data within the SEM framework, and illustrates how to conduct meta-analysis using the metaSEM package in the R statistical environment. Meta-Analysis: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach begins by introducing the impo

  5. Athlete's heart: a meta-analysis of the echocardiographic experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagard, R H

    1996-11-01

    Meta-analytical techniques were applied to selected echocardiographic reports on athlete's heart. The combined analysis of studies in which competitive long-distance runners were compared to matched nonathletic control subjects, revealed a 10% (p athletes these differences averaged +2.5% (p athletes. There were no differences in left ventricular systolic or diastolic function at rest. The meta-analysis of longitudinal studies, in which athletes were assessed in active and inactive periods, suggested that at least part of the differences from nonathletes can be ascribed to the training per se. In conclusion, the classification of left ventricular hypertrophy in athletes as eccentric or concentric has to be considered as a relative concept, most likely related to the fact that training regimens and/or sports activities are not exclusively of the dynamic or static type but comprise both components to a variable extent.

  6. Personality traits and personal values: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks-Leduc, Laura; Feldman, Gilad; Bardi, Anat

    2015-02-01

    Personality traits and personal values are important psychological characteristics, serving as important predictors of many outcomes. Yet, they are frequently studied separately, leaving the field with a limited understanding of their relationships. We review existing perspectives regarding the nature of the relationships between traits and values and provide a conceptual underpinning for understanding the strength of these relationships. Using 60 studies, we present a meta-analysis of the relationships between the Five-Factor Model (FFM) of personality traits and the Schwartz values, and demonstrate consistent and theoretically meaningful relationships. However, these relationships were not generally large, demonstrating that traits and values are distinct constructs. We find support for our premise that more cognitively based traits are more strongly related to values and more emotionally based traits are less strongly related to values. Findings also suggest that controlling for personal scale-use tendencies in values is advisable. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  7. Personality and transformational and transactional leadership: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bono, Joyce E; Judge, Timothy A

    2004-10-01

    This study was a meta-analysis of the relationship between personality and ratings of transformational and transactional leadership behaviors. Using the 5-factor model of personality as an organizing framework, the authors accumulated 384 correlations from 26 independent studies. Personality traits were related to 3 dimensions of transformational leadership--idealized influence-inspirational motivation (charisma), intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration--and 3 dimensions of transactional leadership--contingent reward, management by exception-active, and passive leadership. Extraversion was the strongest and most consistent correlate of transformational leadership. Although results provided some support for the dispositional basis of transformational leadership--especially with respect to the charisma dimension--generally, weak associations suggested the importance of future research to focus on both narrower personality traits and nondispositional determinants of transformational and transactional leadership. (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved

  8. Meta-analysis of grain yield QTL identified during agricultural drought in grasses showed consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, B P Mallikarjuna; Vikram, Prashant; Dixit, Shalabh; Ahmed, H U; Kumar, Arvind

    2011-06-16

    In the last few years, efforts have been made to identify large effect QTL for grain yield under drought in rice. However, identification of most precise and consistent QTL across the environments and genetics backgrounds is essential for their successful use in Marker-assisted Selection. In this study, an attempt was made to locate consistent QTL regions associated with yield increase under drought by applying a genome-wide QTL meta-analysis approach. The integration of 15 maps resulted in a consensus map with 531 markers and a total map length of 1821 cM. Fifty-three yield QTL reported in 15 studies were projected on a consensus map and meta-analysis was performed. Fourteen meta-QTL were obtained on seven chromosomes. MQTL1.2, MQTL1.3, MQTL1.4, and MQTL12.1 were around 700 kb and corresponded to a reasonably small genetic distance of 1.8 to 5 cM and they are suitable for use in marker-assisted selection (MAS). The meta-QTL for grain yield under drought coincided with at least one of the meta-QTL identified for root and leaf morphology traits under drought in earlier reports. Validation of major-effect QTL on a panel of random drought-tolerant lines revealed the presence of at least one major QTL in each line. DTY12.1 was present in 85% of the lines, followed by DTY4.1 in 79% and DTY1.1 in 64% of the lines. Comparative genomics of meta-QTL with other cereals revealed that the homologous regions of MQTL1.4 and MQTL3.2 had QTL for grain yield under drought in maize, wheat, and barley respectively. The genes in the meta-QTL regions were analyzed by a comparative genomics approach and candidate genes were deduced for grain yield under drought. Three groups of genes such as stress-inducible genes, growth and development-related genes, and sugar transport-related genes were found in clusters in most of the meta-QTL. Meta-QTL with small genetic and physical intervals could be useful in Marker-assisted selection individually and in combinations. Validation and comparative

  9. Effect of dietary fiber on constipation: a meta analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Wang, Hai-Peng; Zhou, Li; Xu, Chun-Fang

    2012-12-28

    To investigate the effect of dietary fiber intake on constipation by a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We searched Ovid MEDLINE (from 1946 to October 2011), Cochrane Library (2011), PubMed for articles on dietary fiber intake and constipation using the terms: constipation, fiber, cellulose, plant extracts, cereals, bran, psyllium, or plantago. References of important articles were searched manually for relevant studies. Articles were eligible for the meta-analysis if they were high-quality RCTs and reported data on stool frequency, stool consistency, treatment success, laxative use and gastrointestinal symptoms. The data were extracted independently by two researchers (Yang J and Wang HP) according to the described selection criteria. Review manager version 5 software was used for analysis and test. Weighted mean difference with 95%CI was used for quantitative data, odds ratio (OR) with 95%CI was used for dichotomous data. Both I(2) statistic with a cut-off of ≥ 50% and the χ(2) test with a P value Dietary fiber showed significant advantage over placebo in stool frequency (OR = 1.19; 95%CI: 0.58-1.80, P 50%). Three studies reported laxative use, quantitative data was shown in one study, and the pooled analysis of the other two studies showed no significant difference between treatment and placebo groups in laxative use (OR = 1.07; 95%CI 0.51-2.25), and no heterogeneity was found (P = 0.84, I(2)= 0). Three studies evaluated painful defecation: one study presented both quantitative and dichotomous data, the other two studies reported quantitative and dichotomous data separately. We used dichotomous data for analysis. Dietary fiber intake can obviously increase stool frequency in patients with constipation. It does not obviously improve stool consistency, treatment success, laxative use and painful defecation.

  10. Association between FOXP3 polymorphisms and susceptibility to autoimmune diseases: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Gu; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Lee, Young Ho

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore whether the FOXP3 -3279 A/C polymorphism and (GT)n microsatellite polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to autoimmune diseases. A meta-analysis was conducted on the associations between the FOXP3 -3279 A/C polymorphism and (GT)15 and (GT)16 polymorphisms and autoimmune diseases. Twenty-two comparative studies with a total of 7962 patients and 7453 controls were included in the meta-analysis. Meta-analysis revealed an association between autoimmune disease and the FOXP3 -3279 AA + AC genotype (OR = 1.480, 95% CI = 1.263-1.614, p autoimmune diseases in Asians (OR = 1.416, 95% CI = 1.225-1.637, p = 2.5 × 10(-7)) and non-Caucasians (OR = 1.432, 95% CI = 1.245-1.647, p = 7.5 × 10(-8)). In addition, corrected p values for multiple testing remained significant. Meta-analysis revealed no association between autoimmune disease and the FOXP3 (GT)15 allele (OR = 1.051, 95% CI = 0.933-1.183, p = 0.413). Similarly, the FOXP3 (GT)16 allele showed no associations with autoimmune disease. This meta-analysis indicates that the FOXP3 -3279 A/C polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to autoimmune disease in Asians and non-Caucasians.

  11. Visualizing the flow of evidence in network meta-analysis and characterizing mixed treatment comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Jochem; Krahn, Ulrike; Binder, Harald

    2013-12-30

    Network meta-analysis techniques allow for pooling evidence from different studies with only partially overlapping designs for getting a broader basis for decision support. The results are network-based effect estimates that take indirect evidence into account for all pairs of treatments. The results critically depend on homogeneity and consistency assumptions, which are sometimes difficult to investigate. To support such evaluation, we propose a display of the flow of evidence and introduce new measures that characterize the structure of a mixed treatment comparison. Specifically, a linear fixed effects model for network meta-analysis is considered, where the network estimates for two treatments are linear combinations of direct effect estimates comparing these or other treatments. The linear coefficients can be seen as the generalization of weights known from classical meta-analysis. We summarize properties of these coefficients and display them as a weighted directed acyclic graph, representing the flow of evidence. Furthermore, measures are introduced that quantify the direct evidence proportion, the mean path length, and the minimal parallelism of mixed treatment comparisons. The graphical display and the measures are illustrated for two published network meta-analyses. In these applications, the proposed methods are seen to render transparent the process of data pooling in mixed treatment comparisons. They can be expected to be more generally useful for guiding and facilitating the validity assessment in network meta-analysis. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Relaxation training for anxiety: a ten-years systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, Gian Mauro; Pagnini, Francesco; Castelnuovo, Gianluca; Molinari, Enrico

    2008-06-02

    Relaxation training is a common treatment for anxiety problems. Lacking is a recent quantitative meta-analysis that enhances understanding of the variability and clinical significance of anxiety reduction outcomes after relaxation treatment. All studies (1997-2007), both RCT, observational and without control group, evaluating the efficacy of relaxation training (Jacobson's progressive relaxation, autogenic training, applied relaxation and meditation) for anxiety problems and disorders were identified by comprehensive electronic searches with Pubmed, Psychinfo and Cochrane Registers, by checking references of relevant studies and of other reviews. Our primary outcome was anxiety measured with psychometric questionnaires. Meta-analysis was undertaken synthesizing the data from all trials, distinguishing within and between effect sizes. 27 studies qualified for the inclusion in the meta-analysis. As hypothesized, relaxation training showed a medium-large effect size in the treatment of anxiety. Cohen's d was .57 (95% CI: .52 to .68) in the within analysis and .51 (95% CI: .46 to .634) in the between group analysis. Efficacy was higher for meditation, among volunteers and for longer treatments. Implications and limitations are discussed. The results show consistent and significant efficacy of relaxation training in reducing anxiety. This meta-analysis extends the existing literature through facilitation of a better understanding of the variability and clinical significance of anxiety improvement subsequent to relaxation training.

  13. Relaxation training for anxiety: a ten-years systematic review with meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castelnuovo Gianluca

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Relaxation training is a common treatment for anxiety problems. Lacking is a recent quantitative meta-analysis that enhances understanding of the variability and clinical significance of anxiety reduction outcomes after relaxation treatment. Methods All studies (1997–2007, both RCT, observational and without control group, evaluating the efficacy of relaxation training (Jacobson's progressive relaxation, autogenic training, applied relaxation and meditation for anxiety problems and disorders were identified by comprehensive electronic searches with Pubmed, Psychinfo and Cochrane Registers, by checking references of relevant studies and of other reviews. Our primary outcome was anxiety measured with psychometric questionnaires. Meta-analysis was undertaken synthesizing the data from all trials, distinguishing within and between effect sizes. Results 27 studies qualified for the inclusion in the meta-analysis. As hypothesized, relaxation training showed a medium-large effect size in the treatment of anxiety. Cohen's d was .57 (95% CI: .52 to .68 in the within analysis and .51 (95% CI: .46 to .634 in the between group analysis. Efficacy was higher for meditation, among volunteers and for longer treatments. Implications and limitations are discussed. Conclusion The results show consistent and significant efficacy of relaxation training in reducing anxiety. This meta-analysis extends the existing literature through facilitation of a better understanding of the variability and clinical significance of anxiety improvement subsequent to relaxation training.

  14. A Review of Meta-Analysis Packages in R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanin, Joshua R.; Hennessy, Emily A.; Tanner-Smith, Emily E.

    2017-01-01

    Meta-analysis is a statistical technique that allows an analyst to synthesize effect sizes from multiple primary studies. To estimate meta-analysis models, the open-source statistical environment R is quickly becoming a popular choice. The meta-analytic community has contributed to this growth by developing numerous packages specific to…

  15. Teaching meta-analysis using MetaLight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas James

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Meta-analysis is a statistical method for combining the results of primary studies. It is often used in systematic reviews and is increasingly a method and topic that appears in student dissertations. MetaLight is a freely available software application that runs simple meta-analyses and contains specific functionality to facilitate the teaching and learning of meta-analysis. While there are many courses and resources for meta-analysis available and numerous software applications to run meta-analyses, there are few pieces of software which are aimed specifically at helping those teaching and learning meta-analysis. Valuable teaching time can be spent learning the mechanics of a new software application, rather than on the principles and practices of meta-analysis. Findings We discuss ways in which the MetaLight tool can be used to present some of the main issues involved in undertaking and interpreting a meta-analysis. Conclusions While there are many software tools available for conducting meta-analysis, in the context of a teaching programme such software can require expenditure both in terms of money and in terms of the time it takes to learn how to use it. MetaLight was developed specifically as a tool to facilitate the teaching and learning of meta-analysis and we have presented here some of the ways it might be used in a training situation.

  16. Meta-analysis in epidemiology | Yach | South African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meta-analysis is the structured and systematic qualitative and quantitative integration of the results of several independent studies (Le. the epidemiology of results). As in any epidemiological study, a meta-analysis needs to start with clearly stated aims and objectives. Attention needs to be paid to selection bias in selecting ...

  17. Systematic reviews with meta-analysis: Why, when, and how?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crocetti, E.

    2016-01-01

    Systematic reviews with meta-analysis represent the gold standard for conducting reliable and transparent reviews of the literature. The purpose of this article is threefold: (a) to address why and when it is worthwhile to conduct a systematic review with meta-analysis, covering advantages of this

  18. Statistical learning in specific language impairment : A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammertink, Imme; Boersma, Paul; Wijnen, Frank; Rispens, Judith

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The current meta-analysis provides a quantitative overview of published and unpublished studies on statistical learning in the auditory verbal domain in people with and without specific language impairment (SLI). The database used for the meta-analysis is accessible online and open to

  19. Meta-analysis in a nutshell: Techniques and general findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce the technique and main findings of meta-analysis to the reader, who is unfamiliar with the field and has the usual objections. A meta-analysis is a quantitative survey of a literature reporting estimates of the same parameter. The funnel showing...

  20. Physical Activity and Risk of Lymphoma: A Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermaete, N.V.H.; Wolter, P.; Verhoef, G.E.G.; Kollen, B.J.; Kwakkel, G.; Schepers, L.; Gosselink, R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Physical activity has a protective effect on some types of cancer. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to explore the literature on the association between physical activity and risk of lymphoma. Methods: A meta-analysis was conducted for cohort and case-control studies examining

  1. Physical Activity and Risk of Lymphoma : A Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermaete, Nele V. H.; Wolter, Pascal; Verhoef, Gregor E. G.; Kollen, Boudewijn J.; Kwakkel, Gert; Schepers, Leen; Gosselink, Rik

    Background: Physical activity has a protective effect on some types of cancer. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to explore the literature on the association between physical activity and risk of lymphoma. Methods: A meta-analysis was conducted for cohort and case-control studies examining

  2. Estimating individual rates of discount: A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Percoco, M.; Nijkamp, P.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we present the results from a meta-analysis conducted over 44 experimental and field studies, which report individual discount rate estimates. We find in our research that the experimental design of a study has a decisive impact on these estimates, and conclude that meta-analysis,

  3. The health effects of education: A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Furnée, C.A.; Groot, W.; Maassen van den Brink, H.

    2008-01-01

    Background: There is an abundance of empirical evidence, mainly from the epidemiological and social science literature, on the relation between education and health. Until now a meta-analysis of the relation between education and health was not available. This article presents a meta-analysis of

  4. Comparing Active Pediatric Obesity Treatments Using Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilles, Allyson; Cassano, Michael; Shepherd, Elizabeth J.; Higgins, Diana; Hecker, Jeffrey E.; Nangle, Douglas W.

    2008-01-01

    The current meta-analysis reviews research on the treatment of pediatric obesity focusing on studies that have been published since 1994. Eleven studies (22 comparisons, 115 effect sizes, N = 447) were included in the present meta-analysis. Results indicated that comprehensive behavioral interventions may be improved in at least two ways:…

  5. META-ANALYSIS: THE WAY FORWARD IN MEDICAL DISCOVERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    data, and (6) report the results. Define the Research Question. A meta-analysis begins with a question. Common questions addressed in meta-analyses are whether one. META-ANALYSIS: THE WAY FORWARD IN MEDICAL DISCOVERY. Akinyemi J.O. MSc (Medical Statistics), B Tech (Comp. Sc.) Correspondence:.

  6. Identification of Potential Transcriptomic Markers in Developing Ankylosing Spondylitis: A Meta-Analysis of Gene Expression Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fang; Pan, Jian; Xu, Lixiao; Li, Gang; Wang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify potential transcriptomic markers in developing ankylosing spondylitis by a meta-analysis of multiple public microarray datasets. Using the INMEX (integrative meta-analysis of expression data) program, we performed the meta-analysis to identify consistently differentially expressed (DE) genes in ankylosing spondylitis and further performed functional interpretation (gene ontology analysis and pathway analysis) of the DE genes identified in the meta-analysis. Three microarray datasets (26 cases and 29 controls in total) were collected for meta-analysis. 905 consistently DE genes were identified in ankylosing spondylitis, among which 482 genes were upregulated and 423 genes were downregulated. The upregulated gene with the smallest combined rank product (RP) was GNG11 (combined RP = 299.64). The downregulated gene with the smallest combined RP was S100P (combined RP = 335.94). In the gene ontology (GO) analysis, the most significantly enriched GO term was “immune system process” (P = 3.46 × 10−26). The most significant pathway identified in the pathway analysis was antigen processing and presentation (P = 8.40 × 10−5). The consistently DE genes in ankylosing spondylitis and biological pathways associated with those DE genes identified provide valuable information for studying the pathophysiology of ankylosing spondylitis. PMID:25688367

  7. Identification of Potential Transcriptomic Markers in Developing Ankylosing Spondylitis: A Meta-Analysis of Gene Expression Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Fang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to identify potential transcriptomic markers in developing ankylosing spondylitis by a meta-analysis of multiple public microarray datasets. Using the INMEX (integrative meta-analysis of expression data program, we performed the meta-analysis to identify consistently differentially expressed (DE genes in ankylosing spondylitis and further performed functional interpretation (gene ontology analysis and pathway analysis of the DE genes identified in the meta-analysis. Three microarray datasets (26 cases and 29 controls in total were collected for meta-analysis. 905 consistently DE genes were identified in ankylosing spondylitis, among which 482 genes were upregulated and 423 genes were downregulated. The upregulated gene with the smallest combined rank product (RP was GNG11 (combined RP=299.64. The downregulated gene with the smallest combined RP was S100P (combined RP=335.94. In the gene ontology (GO analysis, the most significantly enriched GO term was “immune system process” (P=3.46×10-26. The most significant pathway identified in the pathway analysis was antigen processing and presentation (P=8.40×10-5. The consistently DE genes in ankylosing spondylitis and biological pathways associated with those DE genes identified provide valuable information for studying the pathophysiology of ankylosing spondylitis.

  8. Identification of potential transcriptomic markers in developing ankylosing spondylitis: a meta-analysis of gene expression profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fang; Pan, Jian; Xu, Lixiao; Li, Gang; Wang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify potential transcriptomic markers in developing ankylosing spondylitis by a meta-analysis of multiple public microarray datasets. Using the INMEX (integrative meta-analysis of expression data) program, we performed the meta-analysis to identify consistently differentially expressed (DE) genes in ankylosing spondylitis and further performed functional interpretation (gene ontology analysis and pathway analysis) of the DE genes identified in the meta-analysis. Three microarray datasets (26 cases and 29 controls in total) were collected for meta-analysis. 905 consistently DE genes were identified in ankylosing spondylitis, among which 482 genes were upregulated and 423 genes were downregulated. The upregulated gene with the smallest combined rank product (RP) was GNG11 (combined RP=299.64). The downregulated gene with the smallest combined RP was S100P (combined RP=335.94). In the gene ontology (GO) analysis, the most significantly enriched GO term was "immune system process" (P=3.46×10(-26)). The most significant pathway identified in the pathway analysis was antigen processing and presentation (P=8.40×10(-5)). The consistently DE genes in ankylosing spondylitis and biological pathways associated with those DE genes identified provide valuable information for studying the pathophysiology of ankylosing spondylitis.

  9. DNA barcoding of bark and ambrosia beetles reveals excessive NUMTs and consistent east-west divergence across Palearctic forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordal, Bjarte H; Kambestad, Marius

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive DNA barcoding library is very useful for rapid identification and detection of invasive pest species. We tested the performance of species identification in the economically most damaging group of wood-boring insects - the bark and ambrosia beetles - with particular focus on broad geographical sampling across the boreal Palearctic forests. Neighbour-joining and Bayesian analyses of cytochrome oxidase I (COI) sequences from 151 species in 40 genera revealed high congruence between morphology-based identification and sequence clusters. Inconsistencies with morphological identifications included the discovery of a likely cryptic Nearctic species of Dryocoetes autographus, the possible hybrid origin of shared mitochondrial haplotypes in Pityophthorus micrographus and P. pityographus, and a possible paraphyletic Xyleborinus saxeseni. The first record of Orthotomicus suturalis in North America was confirmed by DNA barcoding. The mitochondrial data also revealed consistent divergence across the Palearctic or Holarctic, confirmed in part by data from the large ribosomal subunit (28S). Some populations had considerable variation in the mitochondrial barcoding marker, but were invariant in the nuclear ribosomal marker. These findings must be viewed in light of the high number of nuclear insertions of mitochondrial DNA (NUMTs) detected in eight bark beetle species, suggesting the possible presence of additional cryptic NUMTs. The occurrence of paralogous COI copies, hybridization or cryptic speciation demands a stronger focus on data quality assessment in the construction of DNA barcoding databases. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Consistent pivotal role of posterior cingulate cortex in the default mode network revealed by partial correlation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Li, Juan; Miao, Xiaoyan; Yao, Li; Wu, Xia

    2010-03-01

    Resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) studies have suggested the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) plays a pivotal role in the default mode network (DMN), a set of co-activated brain regions characterizing the resting-state brain. Concerning this finding we propose the following questions in this study: Does PCC consistently play the equally crucial role in the DMN across different subjects, such as healthy young and healthy old subjects? Whether the fMRI scan environments or parameters would affect the results? To address these questions, we collected resting-state fMRI data on four groups of subjects: two healthy young groups scanned under 3-T and 1.5-T MRI systems respectively, and two healthy elderly groups both scanned under 3-T MRI system but with different scan parameters. Then group independent component analysis was used to isolate the DMN, and partial correlation analysis was employed to reveal the direct interactions between brain regions from the DMN. Finally, we measured the connectivity between brain regions based on the number of significantly interacted links to every region within this network. We found that PCC was the brain region consistently having the largest number of directly interacted regions in the four groups, suggesting the pivotal role of PCC in the DMN was stable and consistent across healthy subjects. The results also suggested the function of PCC would be more critical in healthy elderly subjects compared with healthy young subjects. And the factors of scan environments and parameters did not show any obvious impact on the above conclusions in this investigation.

  11. [Meta-analysis of extralevator abdominoperineal excision for rectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yilin; Chi, Pan

    2017-03-25

    To evaluate the efficacy of extralevator abdominoperineal excision (ELAPE) of rectal cancer. PubMed, Cochrane Library and Embase database were searched for clinical studies comparing the ELAPE and abdominoperineal excision (APE) for rectal cancer between 2007 and 2016. Two reviewers independently screened the articles and extracted the data. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) was used to evaluate the quality of the observational studies and the score more than 5 points was the inclusion criteria. Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions v5.1.0 was used to evaluate the quality of the randomized controlled trials (RCT). Intra-operative perforation rate, circumferential resection margin (CRM) involvement, local recurrence rate, perineal wound complications were brought into meta-analysis by Review Manager 5.3 software. A total of 556 articles were retrieved and 12 articles were enrolled finally, including 11 observational studies and 1 RCT study. All the 12 articles were high quality (scores of all observational studies were more than 11 points, RCT study accorded with 6 criteria of the quality evaluation). A total of 3 788 patients were enrolled, including 2 141 cases of ELAPE and 1 647 cases of APE. Meta-analysis revealed that intra-operative perforation rate of ELAPE was lower than APE (RR=0.52, 95%CI:0.34-0.79, P=0.002). There were no significant differences between two groups in CRM involvement (RR=0.72, 95%CI:0.49-1.07, P=0.10), local recurrence rate (OR=0.55, 95%CI:0.24-1.29, P=0.17) and perineal wound complications (RR=0.94, 95%CI:0.58-1.53, P=0.800). Compared with APE, ELAPE reduces the intra-operative perforation rate, and does not increase the perineal wound complications, but it has no advantages in decreasing the CRM involvement and local recurrence rate.

  12. Personality and Parkinson's disease: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangelo, Gabriella; Garramone, Federica; Baiano, Chiara; D'Iorio, Alfonsina; Piscopo, Fausta; Raimo, Simona; Vitale, Carmine

    2018-04-01

    Personality changes are considered pre-motor features of Parkinson's disease (PD). Cross-sectional studies revealed that PD patients were more introvert, apprehensive, and cautious than healthy subjects (HS), whereas other studies failed to disclose these behavioural traits. Some studies found mixed results concerning Novelty Seeking (NS) and Harm Avoidance (HA) profiles in PD patients. To better clarify the personality profile in PD we performed a meta-analysis on studies exploring such topic according to both Cloninger's Psychobiological Model (PM) and Big Five Model (BFM) METHODS: The meta-analysis included 17 studies evaluating the personality in PD patients compared with HS. The outcomes were the dimensions of the temperament and character of the PM and personality traits of BFM. Effect sizes from data reported in the primary studies were computed using Hedges'g unbiased approach. Heterogeneity among the studies and publication bias were assessed. Meta-regressions were conducted with age at evaluation, gender, schooling, and type of personality trait tools as moderators. As for PM, PD patients scored higher on HA and lower on NS than HS. No difference was found on Reward Dependence, Perseverance/Persistence and on character level. As for BFM, higher levels of Neuroticism, but lower levels of Openness and Extraversion were associated with PD. The personality profile in PD is characterized by high Neuroticism and HA, and by low Openness, Extraversion and NS. The personality profile delineated in the present study on PD patients seems to reflect the premorbid one and might contribute to development and persistence of affective disorders. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Childhood maltreatment and obesity: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danese, A; Tan, M

    2014-05-01

    Obesity is a prevalent global-health problem associated with substantial morbidity, impairment and economic burden. Because most readily available forms of treatment are ineffective in the long term, it is essential to advance knowledge of obesity prevention by identifying potentially modifiable risk factors. Findings from experimental studies in non-human primates suggest that adverse childhood experiences may influence obesity risk. However, observations from human studies showed heterogeneous results. To address these inconsistencies, we performed Medline, PsycInfo and Embase searches till 1 August 2012 for articles examining the association between childhood maltreatment and obesity. We then conducted a meta-analysis of the identified studies and explored the effects of various possible sources of bias. A meta-analysis of 41 studies (190 285 participants) revealed that childhood maltreatment was associated with elevated risk of developing obesity over the life-course (odds ratio=1.36; 95% confidence interval=1.26-1.47). Results were not explained by publication bias or undue influence of individual studies. Overall, results were not significantly affected by the measures or definitions used for maltreatment or obesity, nor by confounding by childhood or adult socioeconomic status, current smoking, alcohol intake or physical activity. However, the association was not statistically significant in studies of children and adolescents, focusing on emotional neglect, or adjusting for current depression. Furthermore, the association was stronger in samples including more women and whites, but was not influenced by study quality. Child maltreatment is a potentially modifiable risk factor for obesity. Future research should clarify the mechanisms through which child maltreatment affects obesity risk and explore methods to remediate this effect.

  14. Cerebellar atrophy in neurodegeneration-a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellersen, Helena M; Guo, Christine C; O'Callaghan, Claire; Tan, Rachel H; Sami, Saber; Hornberger, Michael

    2017-09-01

    The cerebellum has strong cortical and subcortical connectivity, but is rarely taken into account for clinical diagnosis in many neurodegenerative conditions, particularly in the absence of clinical ataxia. The current meta-analysis aims to assess patterns of cerebellar grey matter atrophy in seven neurodegenerative conditions (Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), multiple system atrophy (MSA), progressive supranuclear palsy (MSP)). We carried out a systematic search in PubMed (any date: 14 July 2016) and a hand search of references from pertinent articles according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The authors were contacted to provide missing coordinate data. Peer-reviewed studies with direct comparison of patient and control groups, and availability of coordinate data of grey matter cerebellar atrophy in patients were included. These coordinates were used in an anatomical likelihood estimation meta-analysis. Across 54 studies, clusters of cerebellar atrophy were found for AD, ALS, FTD, MSA, and PSP. Atrophy patterns were largely disease-specific, with overlap in certain areas of the cerebellar hemisphere, which showed marked atrophy in AD, ALS, FTD and PSP (Crus I/II), and MSA and PSP (lobules I-IV), respectively. Atrophy colocated with cerebellar areas implicated for motor (PSP, MSA) or cognitive symptoms (FTD, ALS, PSP) in the diseases. Our findings suggest that cerebellar changes are largely disease-specific and correspond to cortical or subcortical changes in neurodegenerative conditions. High clinical variability in PD and HD samples may explain the absence of findings for consistent grey matter loss across studies. Our results have clinical implications for diagnosis and cerebellar neuroimaging referencing approaches. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated

  15. Meta-analysis of melanin-concentrating hormone signaling-deficient mice on behavioral and metabolic phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenkichi Takase

    Full Text Available The demand for meta-analyses in basic biomedical research has been increasing because the phenotyping of genetically modified mice does not always produce consistent results. Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH has been reported to be involved in a variety of behaviors that include feeding, body-weight regulation, anxiety, sleep, and reward behavior. However, the reported behavioral and metabolic characteristics of MCH signaling-deficient mice, such as MCH-deficient mice and MCH receptor 1 (MCHR1-deficient mice, are not consistent with each other. In the present study, we performed a meta-analysis of the published data related to MCH-deficient and MCHR1-deficient mice to obtain robust conclusions about the role of MCH signaling. Overall, the meta-analysis revealed that the deletion of MCH signaling enhanced wakefulness, locomotor activity, aggression, and male sexual behavior and that MCH signaling deficiency suppressed non-REM sleep, anxiety, responses to novelty, startle responses, and conditioned place preferences. In contrast to the acute orexigenic effect of MCH, MCH signaling deficiency significantly increased food intake. Overall, the meta-analysis also revealed that the deletion of MCH signaling suppressed the body weight, fat mass, and plasma leptin, while MCH signaling deficiency increased the body temperature, oxygen consumption, heart rate, and mean arterial pressure. The lean phenotype of the MCH signaling-deficient mice was also confirmed in separate meta-analyses that were specific to sex and background strain (i.e., C57BL/6 and 129Sv. MCH signaling deficiency caused a weak anxiolytic effect as assessed with the elevated plus maze and the open field test but also caused a weak anxiogenic effect as assessed with the emergence test. MCH signaling-deficient mice also exhibited increased plasma corticosterone under non-stressed conditions, which suggests enhanced activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. To the best of our

  16. Early Start DENVER Model: A Meta - analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane P. Canoy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Each child with Autism Spectrum Disorder has different symptoms, skills and types of impairment or disorder with other children. This is why the word “spectrum” is included in this disorder. Eapen, Crncec, and Walter, 2013 claimed that there was an emerging evidence that early interventions gives the greatest capacity of child’s development during their first years of life as “brain plasticity” are high during this period. With this, the only intervention program model for children as young as 18 months that has been validated in a randomized clinical trial is “Early Start Denver Model” (ESDM. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of the outcome of “Early Start Denver Model” (ESDM towards young children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. This study made use of meta-analysis method. In this study, the researcher utilized studies related to “Early Start Denver Model (ESDM” which is published in a refereed journal which are all available online. There were five studies included which totals 149 children exposed to ESDM. To examine the “pooled effects” of ESDM in a variety of outcomes, a meta-analytic procedure was performed after the extraction of data of the concrete outcomes. Comprehensive Meta Analysis Version 3.3.070 was used to analyze the data.  The effectiveness of the outcome of “Early Start Denver Model” towards young children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD highly depends on the intensity of intervention and the younger child age. This study would provide the basis in effectively implementing an early intervention to children with autism such as the “Early Start Denver Model” (ESDM that would show great outcome effects to those children that has “Autism Spectrum Disorder”.

  17. How Acute Total Sleep Loss Affects the Attending Brain: A Meta-Analysis of Neuroimaging Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Dinges, David F.; Basner, Mathias; Rao, Hengyi

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Attention is a cognitive domain that can be severely affected by sleep deprivation. Previous neuroimaging studies have used different attention paradigms and reported both increased and reduced brain activation after sleep deprivation. However, due to large variability in sleep deprivation protocols, task paradigms, experimental designs, characteristics of subject populations, and imaging techniques, there is no consensus regarding the effects of sleep loss on the attending brain. The aim of this meta-analysis was to identify brain activations that are commonly altered by acute total sleep deprivation across different attention tasks. Design: Coordinate-based meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies of performance on attention tasks during experimental sleep deprivation. Methods: The current version of the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) approach was used for meta-analysis. The authors searched published articles and identified 11 sleep deprivation neuroimaging studies using different attention tasks with a total of 185 participants, equaling 81 foci for ALE analysis. Results: The meta-analysis revealed significantly reduced brain activation in multiple regions following sleep deprivation compared to rested wakefulness, including bilateral intraparietal sulcus, bilateral insula, right prefrontal cortex, medial frontal cortex, and right parahippocampal gyrus. Increased activation was found only in bilateral thalamus after sleep deprivation compared to rested wakefulness. Conclusion: Acute total sleep deprivation decreases brain activation in the fronto-parietal attention network (prefrontal cortex and intraparietal sulcus) and in the salience network (insula and medial frontal cortex). Increased thalamic activation after sleep deprivation may reflect a complex interaction between the de-arousing effects of sleep loss and the arousing effects of task performance on thalamic activity. Citation: Ma N, Dinges DF, Basner M, Rao H. How acute total

  18. Effect of soy isoflavone supplementation on plasma lipoprotein(a) concentrations: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simental-Mendía, Luis E; Gotto, Antonio M; Atkin, Stephen L; Banach, Maciej; Pirro, Matteo; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    Soy supplementation has been shown to reduce total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, while increasing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. However, contradictory effects of soy isoflavone supplementation on lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] have been reported suggesting the need for a meta-analysis to be undertaken. The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of supplementation with soy isoflavones on plasma Lp(a) levels through a systematic review and meta-analysis of eligible randomized placebo-controlled trials. The search included PubMed-Medline, Scopus, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Google Scholar databases (by March 26, 2017), and quality of studies was evaluated according to Cochrane criteria. Quantitative data synthesis was performed using a random-effects model, with standardized mean difference and 95% confidence interval as summary statistics. Meta-regression and leave-one-out sensitivity analysis were performed to assess the modifiers of treatment response. Ten eligible studies comprising 11 treatment arms with 973 subjects were selected for the meta-analysis. Meta-analysis did not suggest any significant alteration of plasma Lp(a) levels after supplementation with soy isoflavones (standardized mean difference: 0.08, 95% confidence interval: -0.05, 0.20, P = .228). The effect size was robust in the leave-one-out sensitivity analysis. In meta-regression analysis, neither dose nor duration of supplementation with soy isoflavones was significantly associated with the effect size. This meta-analysis of the 10 available randomized placebo-controlled trials revealed no significant effect of soy isoflavones treatment on plasma Lp(a) concentrations. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Meta-analysis: Problems with Russian Publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbitskaya, E V

    2015-01-01

    Meta-analysis is a powerful tool to identify Evidence Based medical technologies (interventions) for use in every day practice. Meta-analysis uses statistical approaches to combine results from multiple studies in an effort to increase power (over individual studies), improve estimates of the size of the effect and/or to resolve uncertainty when reports disagree. Meta-analysis is a quantitative, formal study design used to systematically assess previous research studies to derive conclusions from this research. Meta-analysis may provide more precise estimate of the effect of treatment or risk factor for a disease, or other outcomes, than any individual study contributing to the pooled analysis.We have quite a substantial number of Russian medical publications, but not so many Meta-Analyses published in Russian. Russian publications are cited in English language papers not so often. A total of 90% of clinical studies included in published Meta-Analyses incorporate only English language papers. International studies or papers with Russian co-authors are published in English language. The main question is: what is the problem with inclusion of Russian medical publications in Meta-Analysis? The main reasons for this are the following: 1) It is difficult to find Russian papers, difficult to work with them and to work with Russian journals:a. There are single Russian Biomedical Journals, which are translated into English and are included in databases (PubMed, Scopus and other), despite the fact that all of them have English language abstracts.b. The majority the meta-analyses authors use in their work different citation management software such as the Mendeley, Reference Manager, ProCite, EndNote, and others. These citation management systems allow scientists to organize their own literature databases with internet searches and have adds-on for the Office programs what makes process of literature citation very convenient. The Internet sites of the majority of

  20. A meta-analysis of corrosion studies for Maritime Patrol and Reconnaissance Aircraft (MPRA)

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited It is very important to find means and methods to reduce maritime patrol and reconnaissance aircraft (MPRA) corrosion costs. This thesis examines recent Department of Defense (DOD) and Government Accounting Office (GAO) corrosion studies to conduct meta-analysis and make recommendations based on correlated findings. The methods adopted for this thesis consist of a literature review, heuristic flow diagram, case study selections and met...

  1. Protocol-Based Resuscitation for Septic Shock: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials and Observational Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woo Kyung; Kim, Ha Yeon; Lee, Jinae; Koh, Shin Ok; Kim, Jeong Min; Na, Sungwon

    2016-09-01

    Owing to the recommendations of the Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines, protocol-based resuscitation or goal-directed therapy (GDT) is broadly advocated for the treatment of septic shock. However, the most recently published trials showed no survival benefit from protocol-based resuscitation in septic shock patients. Hence, we aimed to assess the effect of GDT on clinical outcomes in such patients. We performed a systematic review that included a meta-analysis. We used electronic search engines including PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane database to find studies comparing protocol-based GDT to common or standard care in patients with septic shock and severe sepsis. A total of 13269 septic shock patients in 24 studies were included [12 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and 12 observational studies]. The overall mortality odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] for GDT versus conventional care was 0.746 (0.631-0.883). In RCTs only, the mortality OR (95% CI) for GDT versus conventional care in the meta-analysis was 0.93 (0.75-1.16). The beneficial effect of GDT decreased as more recent studies were added in an alternative, cumulative meta-analysis. No significant publication bias was found. The result of this meta-analysis suggests that GDT reduces mortality in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. However, our cumulative meta-analysis revealed that the reduction of mortality risk was diminished as more recent studies were added.

  2. Exposure to radiation therapy is associated with female reproductive health among childhood cancer survivors: a meta-analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Liang, Jin-Xiao; Yan, Qiu

    2015-08-01

    Many epidemiological studies have revealed a positive correlation between medical radiation exposure and the reproductive health in female childhood cancer survivors. However, because of variations in the samples size, such studies showed partly inconsistent conclusions. The aim of this meta-analysis was to clarify the association between radiotherapy and the risk of reproductive health impairment for female who survived from childhood cancer. Fourteen cohort studies involving childhood radiotherapy were selected as the exposure of interest and the impaired reproductive health condition during the childbearing age as the outcome. Among meta-analysis of observational studies found in Pubmed and Embase from 1900 to 2014, we evaluated those relevant observational studies which surveyed the association of medical radiation and reproductive health in female childhood cancer survivors. Review Manager 5.2 and STATA 12.0 software were used to perform the meta-analysis. Study-specific estimations for each outcome were combined into a pooled relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) by a meta-analytic approach. Based on a random-effects meta-analysis, significant association between infertility (RR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.16-1.42), acute ovarian failure (AOF) (RR = 9.51, 95% CI = 5.03-17.96), low level of anti mullerian hormone (AMH) (childhood cancer survivors' reproductive capability and pregnancy outcomes. Although there were some limitations, our meta-analysis further supported that radiotherapy was a risk factor for reproductive health problems of female who survived from childhood cancer.

  3. Novel method for analysis of allele specific expression in triploid Oryzias latipes reveals consistent pattern of allele exclusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzintzuni I Garcia

    Full Text Available Assessing allele-specific gene expression (ASE on a large scale continues to be a technically challenging problem. Certain biological phenomena, such as X chromosome inactivation and parental imprinting, affect ASE most drastically by completely shutting down the expression of a whole set of alleles. Other more subtle effects on ASE are likely to be much more complex and dependent on the genetic environment and are perhaps more important to understand since they may be responsible for a significant amount of biological diversity. Tools to assess ASE in a diploid biological system are becoming more reliable. Non-diploid systems are, however, not uncommon. In humans full or partial polyploid states are regularly found in both healthy (meiotic cells, polynucleated cell types and diseased tissues (trisomies, non-disjunction events, cancerous tissues. In this work we have studied ASE in the medaka fish model system. We have developed a method for determining ASE in polyploid organisms from RNAseq data and we have implemented this method in a software tool set. As a biological model system we have used nuclear transplantation to experimentally produce artificial triploid medaka composed of three different haplomes. We measured ASE in RNA isolated from the livers of two adult, triploid medaka fish that showed a high degree of similarity. The majority of genes examined (82% shared expression more or less evenly among the three alleles in both triploids. The rest of the genes (18% displayed a wide range of ASE levels. Interestingly the majority of genes (78% displayed generally consistent ASE levels in both triploid individuals. A large contingent of these genes had the same allele entirely suppressed in both triploids. When viewed in a chromosomal context, it is revealed that these genes are from large sections of 4 chromosomes and may be indicative of some broad scale suppression of gene expression.

  4. Meniscal allograft transplantation: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Bruycker Manolito

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This meta-analysis evaluates the mid- to long-term survival outcome of MAT (meniscal allograft transplantation. Potential prognosticators, with particular focus on chondral status and age of the patient at the time of transplantation, were also analysed. Study design: Meta-analysis. Methods: An online database search was performed using following search string: “meniscal allograft transplantation” and “outcome”. A total of 65 articles were analysed for a total of 3157 performed MAT with a mean follow-up of 5.4 years. Subjective and clinical data was analysed. Results: The subjective and objective results of 2977 patients (3157 allografts were analysed; 70% were male, 30% were female. Thirty-eight percent received an isolated MAT. All other patients underwent at least one concomitant procedure. Lysholm, Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome (KOOS, International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS scores were analysed. All scores showed a good patient satisfaction at long-term follow-up. The mean overall survival rate was 80.9%. Complication rates were comparable to standard meniscal repair surgery. There was a degenerative evolution in osteoarthritis with at least one grade in 1760 radiographically analysed patients. Concomitant procedures seem to have no effect on the outcome. Age at transplantation is a negative prognosticator. The body mass index (BMI of the patient shows a slightly negative correlation with the outcome of MAT. Conclusions: MAT is a viable solution for the younger patient with chronic pain in the meniscectomised knee joint. The complications are not severe and comparable to meniscal repair. The overall failure rate at final follow-up is acceptable and the allograft heals well in most cases, but MAT cannot be seen as a definitive solution for post-meniscectomy pain. The correct approach to the chronic painful total meniscectomised knee joint thus requires consideration of all

  5. Adolescent Sexual Health Communication and Condom Use: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widman, Laura; Noar, Seth M.; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Francis, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Objective Condom use is critical for the health of sexually active adolescents, and yet many adolescents fail to use condoms consistently. One interpersonal factor that may be key to condom use is sexual communication between sexual partners; however, the association between communication and condom use has varied considerably in prior studies of youth. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to synthesize the growing body of research linking adolescents’ sexual communication to condom use, and to examine several moderators of this association. Methods A total of 41 independent effect sizes from 34 studies with 15,046 adolescent participants (Mage=16.8, age range=12–23) were meta-analyzed. Results Results revealed a weighted mean effect size of the sexual communication-condom use relationship of r = .24, which was statistically heterogeneous (Q=618.86, pcommunication topic and communication format were statistically significant moderators (pcommunication about condom use (r = .34) than communication about sexual history (r = .15) or general safer sex topics (r = .14). Effect sizes were also larger for communication behavior formats (r = .27) and self-efficacy formats (r = .28), than for fear/concern (r = .18), future intention (r = .15), or communication comfort (r = −.15) formats. Conclusions Results highlight the urgency of emphasizing communication skills, particularly about condom use, in HIV/STI prevention work for youth. Implications for the future study of sexual communication are discussed. PMID:25133828

  6. Strength Training for Middle- and Long-Distance Performance: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Nicolas; Mujika, Inigo; Arvisais, Denis; Roubeix, Marie; Binet, Carl; Bosquet, Laurent

    2018-01-01

    To assess the net effects of strength training on middle- and long-distance performance through a meta-analysis of the available literature. Three databases were searched, from which 28 of 554 potential studies met all inclusion criteria. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) were calculated and weighted by the inverse of variance to calculate an overall effect and its 95% confidence interval (CI). Subgroup analyses were conducted to determine whether the strength-training intensity, duration, and frequency and population performance level, age, sex, and sport were outcomes that might influence the magnitude of the effect. The implementation of a strength-training mesocycle in running, cycling, cross-country skiing, and swimming was associated with moderate improvements in middle- and long-distance performance (net SMD [95%CI] = 0.52 [0.33-0.70]). These results were associated with improvements in the energy cost of locomotion (0.65 [0.32-0.98]), maximal force (0.99 [0.80-1.18]), and maximal power (0.50 [0.34-0.67]). Maximal-force training led to greater improvements than other intensities. Subgroup analyses also revealed that beneficial effects on performance were consistent irrespective of the athletes' level. Taken together, these results provide a framework that supports the implementation of strength training in addition to traditional sport-specific training to improve middle- and long-distance performance, mainly through improvements in the energy cost of locomotion, maximal power, and maximal strength.

  7. Long-term effects of prevention and treatment on youth antisocial behavior: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Aaron M; Borduin, Charles M; Dopp, Alex R

    2015-12-01

    Youth antisocial behavior exacts a tremendous toll on society and often persists into adulthood. Although researchers have identified a number of psychosocial interventions that prevent or reduce youth antisocial behavior in the short term, evidence of long-term intervention benefits has only recently become available. In addition, research on such interventions spans two substantial but largely separate bodies of literature: prevention and therapy. The present study used meta-analysis to integrate research on the long-term effects of preventive and therapeutic interventions for youth antisocial behavior and examined potential moderators of these effects. Results from 66 intervention trials (i.e., 34 prevention, 32 therapy) indicated that a broad range of youth psychosocial interventions demonstrated modest effects on antisocial behavior (mean d=0.31, 95% confidence interval=0.23-0.39) for at least one year beyond the end of interventions relative to control conditions. Among other findings, moderator analyses revealed that inclusion of a peer group intervention component was associated with reduced intervention effects for samples consisting predominantly of boys or older youths. The results of this study have important implications for service providers, administrators, and policymakers involved in the implementation of preventive and therapeutic interventions targeting youth antisocial behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Probing emotional influences on cognitive control: an ALE meta-analysis of cognition emotion interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromheeke, Sofie; Mueller, Sven C

    2014-05-01

    Increasing research documents an integration of cognitive control and affective processes. Despite a surge of interest in investigating the exact nature of this integration, no consensus has been reached on the precise neuroanatomical network involved. Using the activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis method, we examined 43 functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies (total number of foci = 332; total number of participants, N = 820) from the literature that have reported significant interactions between emotion and cognitive control. Meta-analytic results revealed that concurrent emotion (relative to emotionally neutral trials) consistently increased neural activation during high relative to low cognitive control conditions across studies and paradigms. Specifically, these activations emerged in regions commonly implicated in cognitive control, such as the lateral prefrontal cortex (inferior frontal junction, inferior frontal gyrus), the medial prefrontal cortex, and the basal ganglia. In addition, some areas emerged during the interaction contrast that were not present during one of the main effects and included the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex and the precuneus. These data provide new evidence for a network of cognition emotion interaction within a cognitive control setting. The findings are discussed within current theories of cognitive and attentional control.

  9. Suppression and expression of emotion in social and interpersonal outcomes: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervonsky, Elizabeth; Hunt, Caroline

    2017-06-01

    Emotion expression is critical for the communication of important social information, such as emotional states and behavioral intentions. However, people tend to vary in their level of emotional expression. This meta-analysis investigated the relationships between levels of emotion expression and suppression, and social and interpersonal outcomes. PsycINFO databases, as well as reference lists were searched. Forty-three papers from a total of 3,200 papers met inclusion criteria, allowing for 105 effect sizes to be calculated. Meta-analyses revealed that greater suppression of emotion was significantly associated with poorer social wellbeing, including more negative first impressions, lower social support, lower social satisfaction and quality, and poorer romantic relationship quality. Furthermore, the expression of positive and general/nonspecific emotion was related to better social outcomes, while the expression of anger was associated with poorer social wellbeing. Expression of negative emotion generally was also associated with poorer social outcomes, although this effect size was very small and consisted of mixed results. These findings highlight the importance of considering the role that regulation of emotional expression can play in the development of social dysfunction and interpersonal problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Social cognitive theory and physical activity: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, M D; Plotnikoff, R C; Collins, C E; Callister, R; Morgan, P J

    2014-12-01

    This review investigated three research questions (i) What is the utility of social cognitive theory (SCT) to explain physical activity (PA)?; (ii) Is the effectiveness of SCT moderated by sample or methodological characteristics? and (iii) What is the frequency of significant associations between the core SCT constructs and PA? Ten electronic databases were searched with no date or sample restrictions. Forty-four studies were retrieved containing 55 SCT models of PA. Methodological quality was assessed using a standardized tool. A random-effects meta-analysis revealed that SCT accounted for 31% of the variance in PA. However, methodological quality was mostly poor for these models. Methodological quality and sample age moderated the PA effect size, with increases in both associated with greater variance explained. Although self-efficacy and goals were consistently associated with PA, outcome expectations and socio-structural factors were not. This review determined that SCT is a useful framework to explain PA behaviour. Higher quality models explained more PA variance, but overall methodological quality was poor. As such, high-quality studies examining the utility of SCT to explain PA are warranted. © 2014 World Obesity.

  11. Production of Verb Tense in Agrammatic Aphasia: A Meta-Analysis and Further Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen; Friedman, Laura

    2015-01-01

    In a majority of languages, the time of an event is expressed by marking tense on the verb. There is substantial evidence that the production of verb tense in sentences is more severely impaired than other functional categories in persons with agrammatic aphasia. The underlying source of this verb tense impairment is less clear, particularly in terms of the relative contribution of conceptual-semantic and processing demands. This study aimed to provide a more precise characterization of verb tense impairment by examining if there is dissociation within tenses (due to conceptual-semantic differences) and an effect of experimental task (mediated by processing limitations). Two sources of data were used: a meta-analysis of published research (which yielded 143 datasets) and new data from 16 persons with agrammatic aphasia. Tensed verbs were significantly more impaired than neutral (nonfinite) verbs, but there were no consistent differences between past, present, and future tenses. Overall, tense accuracy was mediated by task, such that picture description task was the most challenging, relative to sentence completion, sentence production priming, and grammaticality judgment. An interaction between task and tense revealed a past tense disadvantage for a sentence production priming task. These findings indicate that verb tense impairment is exacerbated by processing demands of the elicitation task and the conceptual-semantic differences between tenses are too subtle to show differential performance in agrammatism.

  12. Detecting deception in children: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongola, Jennifer; Scurich, Nicholas; Quas, Jodi A

    2017-02-01

    Although research reveals that children as young as 3 can use deception and will take steps to obscure truth, research concerning how well others detect children's deceptive efforts remains unclear. Yet adults regularly assess whether children are telling the truth in a variety of contexts, including at school, in the home, and in legal settings, particularly in investigations of maltreatment. We conducted a meta-analysis to synthesize extant research concerning adults' ability to detect deceptive statements produced by children. We included 45 experiments involving 7,893 adult judges and 1,858 children. Overall, adults could accurately discriminate truths/lies at an average rate of 54%, which is slightly but significantly above chance levels. The average rate at which true statements were correctly classified as honest was higher (63.8%), whereas the rate at which lies were classified as dishonest was not different from chance (47.5%). A small positive correlation emerged between judgment confidence and judgment accuracy. Professionals (e.g., social workers, police officers, teachers) slightly outperformed laypersons (e.g., college undergraduates). Finally, exploratory analyses revealed that the child's age did not significantly affect the rate at which adults could discriminate truths/lies from chance. Future research aimed toward improving lie detection accuracy might focus more on individual differences in children's lie-telling abilities in order to uncover any reliable indicators of deception. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. A Meta-Analysis of the Relations among Training Criteria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alliger, George

    1998-01-01

    .... Meta-analysis results among criteria using this framework include the finding of substantial reliabilities across training criteria and reasonable convergence among subdivisions of criteria within a larger level...

  14. Meta-Analysis of Complex Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner-Smith, Emily E; Grant, Sean

    2018-04-01

    Meta-analysis is a prominent method for estimating the effects of public health interventions, yet these interventions are often complex in ways that pose challenges to using conventional meta-analytic methods. This article discusses meta-analytic techniques that can be used in research syntheses on the effects of complex public health interventions. We first introduce the use of complexity frameworks to conceptualize public health interventions. We then present a menu of meta-analytic procedures for addressing various sources of complexity when answering questions about the effects of public health interventions in research syntheses. We conclude with a review of important practices and key resources for conducting meta-analyses on complex interventions, as well as future directions for research synthesis more generally. Overall, we argue that it is possible to conduct meaningful quantitative syntheses of research on the effects of public health interventions, though these meta-analyses may require the use of advanced techniques to properly consider and attend to issues of complexity.

  15. Relationship between hypothyroidism and the incidence of gestational diabetes: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Li-Li; Liu, He; Liu, Li-Hong

    2016-04-01

    Hypothyroidism disorders and gestational diabetes are among the most common endocrinopathies during pregnancy. We conducted a meta-analysis to investigate whether hypothyroidism in pregnancy is associated with gestational diabetes risk. Published literature from PubMed and EMBASE were searched for eligible publications. Pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using a fixed- or random-effects model. Seven articles described the relationship between hypothyroidism and risk of gestational diabetes. This meta-analysis revealed that overt hypothyroidism was associated with an increased risk of gestational diabetes (OR 1.892, 95% CI 1.679-2.132, p hypothyroidism, with the OR of 1.558 (95% CI 1.292-1.877, p hypothyroidism was 1.749 (95% CI 1.586-1.928, p hypothyroidism may be a risk factor for gestational diabetes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Disclosure of sensitive behaviors across self-administered survey modes: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnambs, Timo; Kaspar, Kai

    2015-12-01

    In surveys, individuals tend to misreport behaviors that are in contrast to prevalent social norms or regulations. Several design features of the survey procedure have been suggested to counteract this problem; particularly, computerized surveys are supposed to elicit more truthful responding. This assumption was tested in a meta-analysis of survey experiments reporting 460 effect sizes (total N =125,672). Self-reported prevalence rates of several sensitive behaviors for which motivated misreporting has been frequently observed were compared across self-administered paper-and-pencil versus computerized surveys. The results revealed that computerized surveys led to significantly more reporting of socially undesirable behaviors than comparable surveys administered on paper. This effect was strongest for highly sensitive behaviors and surveys administered individually to respondents. Moderator analyses did not identify interviewer effects or benefits of audio-enhanced computer surveys. The meta-analysis highlighted the advantages of computerized survey modes for the assessment of sensitive topics.

  17. Affective mapping: An activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Lauren A J; Robinson, Jennifer L

    2017-11-01

    Functional neuroimaging has the spatial resolution to explain the neural basis of emotions. Activation likelihood estimation (ALE), as opposed to traditional qualitative meta-analysis, quantifies convergence of activation across studies within affective categories. Others have used ALE to investigate a broad range of emotions, but without the convenience of the BrainMap database. We used the BrainMap database and analysis resources to run separate meta-analyses on coordinates reported for anger, anxiety, disgust, fear, happiness, humor, and sadness. Resultant ALE maps were compared to determine areas of convergence between emotions, as well as to identify affect-specific networks. Five out of the seven emotions demonstrated consistent activation within the amygdala, whereas all emotions consistently activated the right inferior frontal gyrus, which has been implicated as an integration hub for affective and cognitive processes. These data provide the framework for models of affect-specific networks, as well as emotional processing hubs, which can be used for future studies of functional or effective connectivity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Meta-analysis for psychiatric research using free software R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ding-Geng

    2015-06-25

    This paper provides a brief overview of meta-analysis (MA) with emphasis on classical fixedeffects and random-effects MA models. It illustrates the application of MA models with the open-source software R using publicly available data from five studies on lamotrigine to treat bipolar depression and finds that meta-analysis identifies a statistically significant advantage of lamotrigine over placebo that was not evident in the individual studies.

  19. The Neural Correlates of Moral Thinking: A Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas J. Bryant; Wang F; Kelley Deardeuff; Emily Zoccoli; Chang S. Nam

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate current research that aims to map the neural correlates of two typical conditions of moral judgment: right-wrong moral judgments and decision-making in moral dilemmas. Utilizing the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) method, we conducted a meta-analysis using neuroimaging data obtained from twenty-one previous studies that measured responses in one or the other of these conditions. We found that across the studies (n = 400), distinct neural circuit...

  20. Association between BANK1 polymorphisms and susceptibility to autoimmune diseases: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, S-C; Lee, Y H

    2017-03-31

    This study aimed to explore whether BANK1 polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to autoimmune diseases. We conducted a meta-analysis on the associations between the BANK1 rs10516487, rs3733197, and rs17266594 polymorphisms and autoimmune diseases. Twenty-two articles with a total of 22,684 patients and 36,437 controls were included in the meta-analysis. Meta-analysis revealed a significant association between autoimmune diseases and the BANK1 rs10516487 T allele (OR = 1.161, 95% CI = 1.092-1.275, p = 1.9 × 10-6, heterogeneity pautoimmune diseases and the BANK1 rs3733197 A allele (OR = 1.178, 95% CI = 1.105-1.256, p = 4.5 × 10-7, heterogeneity p = 0.002) and the rs17266594 T allele (OR = 1.189, 95% CI = 1.073-1.315, p = 0.001, heterogeneity pautoimmune disease type revealed an association between both systemic lupus erythematosus and systemic sclerosis and the BANK1 rs10516487 T allele (OR = 1.294, 95% CI = 1.232-1.360, pautoimmune diseases.

  1. The effects of aromatherapy on sleep improvement: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Eunhee; Shin, Sujin

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the existing data on aromatherapy interventions for improvement of sleep quality. Systematic literature review and meta-analysis on the effects of aromatherapy. Study Sources: Electronic databases, including the Korea Education and Research Information Service (KERIS), Korean studies Information Service System (KISS), National Assembly Library, and eight academies within the Korean Society of Nursing Science, were searched to identify studies published between 2000 and August 2013. Randomized controlled and quasi-experimental trials that included aromatherapy for the improvement of sleep quality. Of the 245 publications identified, 13 studies met the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and 12 studies were used in the meta-analysis. Meta-analysis of the 12 studies using a random-effects model revealed that the use of aromatherapy was effective in improving sleep quality (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.540-1.745; Z=3.716). Subgroup analysis revealed that inhalation aromatherapy (95% CI, 0.792-1.541; Z=6.107) was more effective than massage therapy (95% CI, 0.128-2.166; Z=2.205) in unhealthy (95% CI, 0.248-1.100; Z=3.100) and healthy (95% CI, 0.393-5.104; Z=2.287) participants, respectively. Readily available aromatherapy treatments appear to be effective and promote sleep. Thus, it is essential to develop specific guidelines for the efficient use of aromatherapy.

  2. Effects of consumer-oriented health information technologies in diabetes management over time: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Da; Wang, Tieyan; Wang, Tieshan; Liu, Shuang; Qu, Xingda

    2017-09-01

    To reveal the effects of consumer-oriented health information technologies (CHITs) on patient outcomes in diabetes management over time through systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched 5 electronic databases (from database inception to July 2016) for studies that reported on randomized controlled trials examining the effects of CHITs on glycemic control and other patient outcomes in diabetes management. Data were analyzed using either meta-analysis or a narrative synthesis approach. Eighty randomized controlled trial studies, representing 87 individual trials, were identified and included for analysis. Overall, the meta-analysis showed that the use of CHITs resulted in significant improvement in glycemic control compared to usual care (standardized mean difference = -0.31%, 95% confidence interval -0.38 to -0.23, P  < .001) in patients with diabetes. Specifically, improvement in glycemic control was significant at intervention durations of 3, 6, 8, 9, 12, 15, 30, and 60 months, while no significant differences were found at other time points reported. The narrative synthesis provided mixed effects of CHITs on other clinical, psychosocial, behavioral, and knowledge outcomes. The use of CHITs appears to be more effective than usual care in improving glycemic control for patients with diabetes. However, their effectiveness did not remain consistent over time and in other patient outcomes. Further efforts are required to examine long-term effects of CHITs and to explore factors that can moderate the effects over time. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  3. Influence of Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet on blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis on randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saneei, P; Salehi-Abargouei, A; Esmaillzadeh, A; Azadbakht, L

    2014-12-01

    Findings were not consistent on the therapeutic effect of Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet on blood pressure. We aimed to review systematically and perform a meta-analysis to assess the magnitude of the effect of the DASH diet on blood pressure in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) among adults. We conducted a systematic review and random effects meta-analysis of all RCTs which evaluated the effect of the DASH diet on blood pressure including published papers until June 2013, using PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Scopus and Google scholar database. Subgroup analysis and meta-regression were used to find out possible sources of between-study heterogeneity. Seventeen RCTs contributing 20 comparisons with 2561 participants were included. Meta-analysis showed that the DASH diet significantly reduced systolic blood pressure by 6.74 mmHg (95%CI: -8.25, -5.23, I(2) = 78.1%) and diastolic blood pressure by 3.54 mmHg (95%CI: -4.29, -2.79, I(2) = 56.7%). RCTs with the energy restriction and those with hypertensive subjects showed a significantly greater decrease in blood pressure. Meta-regression showed that mean baseline of SBP and DBP was explained 24% and 49% of the variance between studies for SBP and DBP, respectively. The results revealed the profitable reducing effect of the DASH-like diet on both systolic and diastolic blood pressure in adults; although there was a variation in the extent of the fall in blood pressure in different subgroups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The Effects of Choice on Intrinsic Motivation and Related Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis of Research Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patall, Erika A.; Cooper, Harris; Robinson, Jorgianne Civey

    2008-01-01

    A meta-analysis of 41 studies examined the effect of choice on intrinsic motivation and related outcomes in a variety of settings with both child and adult samples. Results indicated that providing choice enhanced intrinsic motivation, effort, task performance, and perceived competence, among other outcomes. Moderator tests revealed the effect…

  5. A meta-analysis of 25 years of mood-creativity research : Hedonic tone, activation, or regulatory focus?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, Matthijs; De Dreu, Carsten K. W.; Nijstad, Bernard A.

    2008-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized 102 effect sizes reflecting the relation between specific moods and creativity. Effect sizes overall revealed that positive moods produce more creativity than mood-neutral controls (r =.15), but no significant differences between negative moods and mood-neutral

  6. A Meta-Analysis of Two Decades of Sustainability Accounting Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murthy, Vijaya; Parisi, Cristiana

    The purpose of this article is to examine the literature on sustainability accounting research (SAR), by performing a meta-analysis of literature and critiquing of SAR articles in selected accounting journals covering twenty years: the period 1993-2012 inclusive. We conduct a descriptive meta......-analysis of 473 SAR articles, published in ten top ranked managerial accounting journals providing a global perspective of the field. We use a method previously employed in various other fields, to select and classify the academic articles. Our findings show that SAR has been consistently developing......, in particular to the ‘social side’ of SAR. The research gaps presented in the paper provide a needed starting point for further thinking and discussion about the challenges and opportunities associated with corporate sustainability performance. Based on our findings and given the growing attention devoted...

  7. Music therapy research in the NICU: an updated meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standley, Jayne

    2012-01-01

    To provide an overview of developmental and medical benefits of music therapy for preterm infants. Meta-analysis. Empirical music studies with preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Evidence-based NICU music therapy (NICU -MT ) was highly beneficial with an overall large significant effect size (Cohen's d = 0.82). Effects because of music were consistently in a positive direction. Results of the current analysis replicated findings of a prior meta-analysis and included extended use of music.(1) Benefits were greatest for live music therapy (MT ) and for use early in the infant's NICU stay (birth weight music listening for pacification, music reinforcement of sucking, and music pacification as the basis for multilayered, multimodal stimulation.

  8. Meta-analysis: Its role in psychological methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Kastrin

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Meta-analysis refers to the statistical analysis of a large collection of independent observations for the purpose of integrating results. The main objectives of this article are to define meta-analysis as a method of data integration, to draw attention to some particularities of its use, and to encourage researchers to use meta-analysis in their work. The benefits of meta-analysis include more effective exploitation of existing data from independent sources and contribution to more powerful domain knowledge. It may also serve as a support tool to generate new research hypothesis. The idea of combining results of independent studies addressing the same research question dates back to sixteenth century. Metaanalysis was reinvented in 1976 by Glass, to refute the conclusion of an eminent colleague, Eysenck, that psychotherapy was essentially ineffective. We review some major historical landmarks of metaanalysis and its statistical background. We present the concept of effect size measure, the problem of heterogeneity and two models which are used to combine individual effect sizes (fixed and random effect model in great details. Two visualization techniques, forest and funnel plot graphics are demonstrated. We developed RMetaWeb, simple and fast web server application to conduct meta-analysis online. RMetaWeb is the first web meta-analysis application and is completely based on R software environment for statistical computing and graphics.

  9. Network meta-analysis of longitudinal data using fractional polynomials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, J P; Vieira, M C; Cope, S

    2015-07-10

    Network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are often based on one treatment effect measure per study. However, many studies report data at multiple time points. Furthermore, not all studies measure the outcomes at the same time points. As an alternative to a network meta-analysis based on a synthesis of the results at one time point, a network meta-analysis method is presented that allows for the simultaneous analysis of outcomes at multiple time points. The development of outcomes over time of interventions compared in an RCT is modeled with fractional polynomials, and the differences between the parameters of these polynomials within a trial are synthesized across studies with a Bayesian network meta-analysis. The proposed models are illustrated with an analysis of RCTs evaluating interventions for osteoarthritis of the knee. Fixed and random effects second order fractional polynomials were applied to the case study. Network meta-analysis with models that represent the treatment effects in terms of several parameters using fractional polynomials can be considered a useful addition to models for network meta-analysis of repeated measures previously proposed. When RCTs report treatment effects at multiple follow-up times, these models can be used to synthesize the results even if reporting times differ across the studies. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Association between Vitamin D level and/or deficiency, and systemic lupus erythematosus: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sang-Cheol; Lee, Young Ho

    2018-01-31

    This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between the level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We searched the PUBMED, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases and performed a meta-analysis examining the vitamin D level and/or deficiency in patients with SLE, compared with that in healthy controls. In total, 18 studies consisting of 1,083 patients with SLE and 1,273 controls were included. Vitamin D level was significantly lower in the SLE group than in the control group (standardized mean difference [SMD] = -0.938, 95% CI = -1.352 to -0.524, p = 9.0 × 10-6). Stratification by ethnicity showed a significantly decreased vitamin D level in the SLE group in the European and Arab populations (SMD = -1.485, 95% CI = -2.427 to -0.543, p = 0.002; SMD = -1.067, 95% CI = -1.251 to -0.883, p < 1.0 × 10-8), and an association tendency between decreased vitamin D level and SLE in the Asian population (SMD = -0.874, 95% CI = -2.073 to -0.324, p = 0.153). Subgroup analysis by sample size showed a significantly lower vitamin D level in the SLE group in small- (n ≤ 100) and large-sample (n > 100) populations (SMD = -1.008, 95% CI = -1.672 to -0.344, p = 0.003; SMD = -0.863, 95% CI = -1.444 to -0.293, p = 0.003). Meta-analysis revealed a significant association between SLE and vitamin D deficiency (RR = 2.321, 95% CI = 1.361-3.960, p = 0.002). Stratification by ethnicity showed a significant association between SLE and vitamin D deficiency in European and Arab populations (RR = 2.182, 95% CI = 1.024-4.648, p = 0.043; RR = 4.550, 95% CI = 3.471-5.965, p < 1.0 × 10-8). Our meta-analysis demonstrates that compared with controls, patients with SLE show significantly low serum levels of vitamin D, and that a deficiency of vitamin D is associated with SLE.

  11. Health effects of exposure to carbon nanofibers: Systematic review, critical appraisal, meta analysis and research to practice perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genaidy, Ash; Tolaymat, Thabet; Sequeira, Reynold; Rinder, Magda; Dionysiou, Dion

    2009-01-01

    Background: Literature reviews examining the relationship between exposure to carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and health consequences are qualitative in nature and do not employ an evidence-based assessment. Objective: This research deals with a systematic review, critical appraisal, and meta-analysis designed to examine the potential health effects associated with exposure to CNFs. The utilization of research findings into practice is also explored. Methods: Published articles were obtained from a search of electronic databases and bibliographies of identified articles. A critical appraisal was conducted using an 'Experimental Appraisal Instrument' developed in this study. The meta-analysis was established using statistical techniques with/without the incorporation of overall study quality. The likelihood of utilizing research findings into practice (i.e., from research to practice) was computed using a four-step algorithm based on the criteria of: strength of association, consistency among studies, temporality, biological gradient, type of experimental unit, type of CNF (single- and multi-wall nanotubes), CNF grade (commercial or altered), exposure dose, exposure duration, and support by analogy from the published literature. Results: Twenty-one experimental studies satisfied the inclusion criteria and were performed on human cells, experimental animal models and animal cells as experimental units. The methodological qualities of published studies ranged from 'very poor' to 'excellent', with 'overall study description' scoring 'good' and 'study execution' equal to 'moderate'. The random-effects model was applied in the meta-analysis calculations as heterogeneity was significant at the 10% for all outcomes reported. The mean standardized meta-estimates for the experimental groups were significantly lower than those for the control groups for cell viability and cell death, respectively. Incorporating the effect of overall study quality score widened the gap between the

  12. Ethnic density effects for adult mental health: systematic review and meta-analysis of international studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bécares, Laia; Dewey, Michael E; Das-Munshi, Jayati

    2017-12-14

    Despite increased ethnic diversity in more economically developed countries it is unclear whether residential concentration of ethnic minority people (ethnic density) is detrimental or protective for mental health. This is the first systematic review and meta-analysis covering the international literature, assessing ethnic density associations with mental health outcomes. We systematically searched Medline, PsychINFO, Sociological Abstracts, Web of Science from inception to 31 March 2016. We obtained additional data from study authors. We conducted random-effects meta-analysis taking into account clustering of estimates within datasets. Meta-regression assessed heterogeneity in studies due to ethnicity, country, generation, and area-level deprivation. Our main exposure was ethnic density, defined as the residential concentration of own racial/ethnic minority group. Outcomes included depression, anxiety and the common mental disorders (CMD), suicide, suicidality, psychotic experiences, and psychosis. We included 41 studies in the review, with meta-analysis of 12 studies. In the meta-analyses, we found a large reduction in relative odds of psychotic experiences [odds ratio (OR) 0.82 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.76-0.89)] and suicidal ideation [OR 0.88 (95% CI 0.79-0.98)] for each 10 percentage-point increase in own ethnic density. For CMD, depression, and anxiety, associations were indicative of protective effects of own ethnic density; however, results were not statistically significant. Findings from narrative review were consistent with those of the meta-analysis. The findings support consistent protective ethnic density associations across countries and racial/ethnic minority populations as well as mental health outcomes. This may suggest the importance of the social environment in patterning detrimental mental health outcomes in marginalized and excluded population groups.

  13. Association between Functional CYP2D6 Polymorphisms and Susceptibility to Autoimmune Diseases: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Ho; Bae, Sang-Cheol

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to explore whether functional CYP2D6 polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to autoimmune diseases. A meta-analysis was conducted on associations between autoimmune diseases and functional CYP2D6*4 1934 A/G and *3 polymorphisms and CYP2D6 phenotypes. Twelve studies with 1,472 patients and 3,328 controls were included. Autoimmune disease and the CYP2D6 1934 A allele were significantly associated in the overall group, consistent with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (OR = 1.227, 95% CI = 1.071-1.406, p = 0.003); stratification by ethnicity indicated that the CYP2D6 1934 A allele and autoimmune diseases were associated in Caucasians (OR = 1.225, 95% CI = 1.010-1.485, p = 0.039). The CYP2D6*3 allele was also associated with autoimmune diseases in Caucasians (OR = 1.977, 95% CI = 1.125-3.472, p = 0.018). Stratified by autoimmune disease type revealed that the CYP2D6 1934 AA genotype was associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE; OR = 2.007, 95% CI = 1.170-3.442, p = 0.011) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS; OR = 2.317, 95% CI = 1.422-3.774, p = 0.001). The CYP2D6 PM+IM phenotype was significantly associated with autoimmune diseases in Caucasians (OR = 1.526, 95% CI = 1.038-2.246, p = 0.032) and with SLE (OR = 1.778, 95% CI = 1.249-2.532, p = 0.001). This meta-analysis indicates that CYP2D6*4 and *3 polymorphisms and the CYP2D6 phenotype are associated with susceptibility to autoimmune diseases in Caucasians; particularly, the CYP2D6*4 polymorphism and CYP2D6 PM+IM phenotype are risk factors for SLE development.

  14. Can retention forestry help conserve biodiversity? A meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedrowitz, Katja; Koricheva, Julia; Baker, Susan C; Lindenmayer, David B; Palik, Brian; Rosenvald, Raul; Beese, William; Franklin, Jerry F; Kouki, Jari; Macdonald, Ellen; Messier, Christian; Sverdrup-Thygeson, Anne; Gustafsson, Lena

    2014-01-01

    consistent among taxonomic groups for forest and open-habitat species, respectively. Synthesis and applications. Our meta-analysis provides support for wider use of retention forestry since it moderates negative harvesting impacts on biodiversity. Hence, it is a promising approach for integrating biodiversity conservation and production forestry, although identifying optimal solutions between these two goals may need further attention. Nevertheless, retention forestry will not substitute for conservation actions targeting certain highly specialized species associated with forest-interior or open-habitat conditions. Our meta-analysis provides support for wider use of retention forestry since it moderates negative harvesting impacts on biodiversity. Hence, it is a promising approach for integrating biodiversity conservation and production forestry, although identifying optimal solutions between these two goals may need further attention. Nevertheless, retention forestry will not substitute for conservation actions targeting certain highly specialized species associated with forest-interior or open-habitat conditions. PMID:25552747

  15. Fluoroquinolone Sequential Therapy for Helicobacter pylori: A Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale-Pradhan, Pramodini B; Mihaescu, Anela; Wilhelm, Sheila M

    2015-08-01

    As resistance of Helicobacter pylori to standard first-line therapy is increasing globally, alternative treatment regimens, such as a fluoroquinolone-based sequential regimen, have been explored. The objective of this meta-analysis was to compare the efficacy of fluoroquinolone-based sequential therapy with standard first-line treatment for H. pylori infection. Meta-analysis of six randomized controlled trials. A total of 738 H. pylori-infected, treatment-naive adults who received fluoroquinolone-based sequential therapy (5-7 days of a proton pump inhibitor [PPI] and amoxicillin therapy followed by 5-7 days of a PPI, a fluoroquinolone, and metronidazole or tinidazole or furazolidone therapy) and 733 H. pylori-infected, treatment-naive adults who received guideline-recommended, first-line therapy with standard triple therapy (7-14 days of a PPI plus amoxicillin and clarithromycin) or standard sequential therapy (5 days of a PPI plus amoxicillin, followed by an additional 5 days of triple therapy consisting of a PPI, clarithromycin, and metronidazole or tinidazole). A systematic literature search of the MEDLINE, PubMed, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases (from inception through January 2015) was conducted to identify randomized controlled trials that compared fluoroquinolone-based sequential therapy with guideline-recommended, first-line treatment regimens in H. pylori-infected, treatment-naive adults. All selected trials confirmed H. pylori infection prior to treatment as well as post-treatment eradication. A meta-analysis was performed by using Review Manager 5.2. Treatment effect was determined with a random-effects model by using the Mantel-Haenszel method and was reported as a risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). In the six randomized controlled trials that met the inclusion criteria, 648 (87.8%) of 738 patients receiving fluoroquinolone-based sequential therapy and 521 (71.1%) of 733 patients receiving standard

  16. 16PF research into addiction: meta-analysis and extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuite, D R; Luiten, J W

    1986-03-01

    Meta-analysis of 34 studies on Cattell's 16PF test reveals ragged egos (C-), guilt (O), distrust (L), frustration (Q4), alienation (G-), vague identity (Q3-), alarm (H-), resentment (Q1), quasi-autism (M), scattered intellect (B-), grandiosity (E), autonomy (Q2), infantilism (I), avoidance (A-), and deviousness (N). The aberrant scores on E, G, I, Q1, and Q2 discriminate addicts from suicidals and the chronically ill or unemployed. We found nine types of addicts in our developmental study of 83 members of Alcoholics Anonymous. On the more stable second-order 16PF factors, 43% were highest on Autonomous, 37% on Desperate, 16% on Tough Poise, and 4% on Extravert. Profiles differed more by sexual preference than by gender. Recidivism was highest among homosexual men (38%) and the desperate (25%). Only the Fourth and Fifth Steps of the AA program seem crucial to recovery. Treatment programs based on these and tailored to sexual preference and the second-order personality types seem highly advisable.

  17. Yttrium synovectomy: a meta-analysis of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.

    1993-01-01

    Yttrium synovectomy for chronic synovitis of the knee enjoys widespread usage in Australia with approximately 400 patients receiving yttrium-90 in 1991. Despite abundant anecdotal evidence of its efficacy there is a paucity of controlled trials and those that have been done have produced conflicting results and have been of insufficient sample size. To critically and quantitatively evaluate the published English literature on comparative trials of yttrium-90 therapy for chronic synovitis of the knee, the technique of meta-analysis was utilised. The literature search was carried out using the MeSH terms of synovectomy and knee; and yttrium. This was augmented by referring to reviews, current textbooks and back-references. Outcome measures varied between trials but could be grouped as treatment success. The Peto modification of Mantel and Haenszl was used for statistical pooling of data yielding a pooled odds ratio (OR). The literature search revealed ten controlled trials of which two were excluded from further analysis. It was found that yttrium was superior to placebo (OR 2.42, 95% CI 1.02-5.73) but it is recommended that this result should be interpreted with caution due to possible publication bias. It is concluded that there is insufficient evidence from comparative trials of yttrium in the English literature to show that yttrium synovectomy is convincingly superior to triamcinolone (OR 1.89, 95% CI 0.81-10.55) or other active modalities (OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.72-1.52). 25 refs., 4 tabs

  18. Bayesian multivariate meta-analysis of multiple factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lifeng; Chu, Haitao

    2018-02-09

    In medical sciences, a disease condition is typically associated with multiple risk and protective factors. Although many studies report results of multiple factors, nearly all meta-analyses separately synthesize the association between each factor and the disease condition of interest. The collected studies usually report different subsets of factors, and the results from separate analyses on multiple factors may not be comparable because each analysis may use different subpopulation. This may impact on selecting most important factors to design a multifactor intervention program. This article proposes a new concept, multivariate meta-analysis of multiple factors (MVMA-MF), to synthesize all available factors simultaneously. By borrowing information across factors, MVMA-MF can improve statistical efficiency and reduce biases compared with separate analyses when factors were missing not at random. As within-study correlations between factors are commonly unavailable from published articles, we use a Bayesian hybrid model to perform MVMA-MF, which effectively accounts for both within- and between-study correlations. The performance of MVMA-MF and the conventional methods are compared using simulations and an application to a pterygium dataset consisting of 29 studies on 8 risk factors. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Affective empathy in schizophrenia: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfils, Kelsey A; Lysaker, Paul H; Minor, Kyle S; Salyers, Michelle P

    2016-08-01

    Affective empathy, or the emotional response one has to the experiences or emotional states of others, contributes to relationship-maintaining behaviors and is key in fostering social connections, yet no work has synthesized the body of literature for people with schizophrenia. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to determine the extent to which those diagnosed with schizophrenia experience deficits in affective empathy. A literature search was conducted of studies examining empathy. Data were analyzed using a random effects meta-analytic model with Hedges' g standardized mean difference effect size. Individuals with schizophrenia exhibited significant, medium deficits in affective empathy (k=37). Measurement type moderated the affective empathy deficit such that performance-based measures showed larger schizophrenia group deficits than self-report measures. Consistent, significant deficits in affective empathy were found comparing people with schizophrenia to healthy controls, especially when using performance-based assessments. The medium effect suggests an important role for empathy in the realm of social cognitive research, and points to the need for further investigation of measurement techniques and associations with functional outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Copper in Diabetes Mellitus: a Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review of Plasma and Serum Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Qihong; Zhang, Fuping; Zhu, Wenjun; Wu, Juan; Liang, Min

    2017-05-01

    Copper (Cu) is an important trace element involved in oxidative stress, which is associated with the onset and progression of diabetes mellitus (DM). However, clinical studies comparing plasma or serum Cu levels in patients with DM and in healthy individuals report conflicting findings. Therefore, in this meta-analysis, we analyzed the circulating levels of Cu associated with DM (including type 1 diabetes mellitus [T1DM] and type 2 diabetes mellitus [T2DM]). We searched the articles indexed in PubMed, OVID, and Cochrane databases, published through January 2016 and meeting our predefined criteria. Requisite data were extracted, and a random-effect model or a fixed-effect model was used to conduct the meta-analysis. Fifteen eligible studies involving a total of 1079 DM patients and 561 healthy controls were identified. Overall, the DM patients showed higher Cu levels than the healthy controls (plasma Cu mean difference [MD] = 1.69 μmol/L, p diabetes also indicated higher levels of Cu in the plasma and serum of DM patients than in healthy controls, respectively. Stratification of DM patients associated with and without complications also revealed similar results. This meta-analysis suggests that DM patients carried higher levels of Cu than healthy individuals. However, international cohort studies are needed to corroborate our findings.

  1. Steep Delay Discounting and Addictive Behavior: A Meta-Analysis of Continuous Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amlung, Michael; Vedelago, Lana; Acker, John; Balodis, Iris; MacKillop, James

    2016-01-01

    Aims To synthesize continuous associations between delayed reward discounting (DRD) and both addiction severity and quantity-frequency (QF); to examine moderators of these relationships; and to investigate publication bias. Methods Meta-analysis of published studies examining continuous associations between DRD and addictive behaviors. Published, peer-reviewed studies on addictive behaviors (alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, stimulants, opiates, and gambling) were identified via PubMed, MEDLINE, and PsycInfo. Studies were restricted to DRD measures of monetary gains. Random effects meta-analysis was conducted using Pearson’s r as the effect size. Publication bias was evaluated using fail-safe N, Begg-Mazumdar and Egger’s tests, meta-regression of publication year and effect size, and imputation of missing studies. Results The primary meta-analysis revealed a small magnitude effect size that was highly significant (r = 0.14, p addictive behavior (p = 0.30) or DRD assessment (p = 0.90). Indices of publication bias suggested a modest impact of unpublished findings. Conclusions Delayed reward discounting is robustly associated with continuous measures of addiction severity and quantity-frequency. This relation is generally robust across type of addictive behavior and delayed reward discounting assessment modality. PMID:27450931

  2. Associations between depression and specific childhood experiences of abuse and neglect: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infurna, Maria Rita; Reichl, Corinna; Parzer, Peter; Schimmenti, Adriano; Bifulco, Antonia; Kaess, Michael

    2016-01-15

    Research documents a strong relationship between childhood maltreatment and depression. However, only few studies have examined the specific effects of various types of childhood abuse/neglect on depression. This meta-analysis estimated the associations between depression and different types of childhood maltreatment (antipathy, neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and psychological abuse) assessed with the same measure, the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse (CECA) interview. A systematic search in scientific databases included use of CECA interview and strict clinical assessment for major depression as criteria. Our meta-analysis utilized Cohen's d and relied on a random-effects model. The literature search yielded 12 primary studies (reduced from 44), with a total of 4372 participants and 34 coefficients. Separate meta-analyses for each type of maltreatment revealed that psychological abuse and neglect were most strongly associated with the outcome of depression. Sexual abuse, although significant, was less strongly related. Furthermore, the effects of specific types of childhood maltreatment differed across adult and adolescent samples. Our strict criteria for selecting the primary studies resulted in a small numbers of available studies. It restricted the analyses for various potential moderators. This meta-analysis addressed the differential effects of type of childhood maltreatment on major depression, partially explaining between-study variance. The findings clearly highlight the potential impact of the more "silent" types of childhood maltreatment (other than physical and sexual abuse) on the development of depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effectiveness of problem-based learning in Chinese pharmacy education: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiyin; Zhou, Shiwen; Huang, Chunji; Xu, Rufu; Zhang, Zuo; Zeng, Shengya; Qian, Guisheng

    2016-01-19

    This review provides a critical overview of problem-based learning (PBL) practices in Chinese pharmacy education. PBL has yet to be widely applied in pharmaceutical education in China. The results of those studies that have been conducted are published in Chinese and thus may not be easily accessible to international researchers. Therefore, this meta-analysis was carried out to review the effectiveness of PBL. Databases were searched for studies in accordance with the inclusion criteria. Two reviewers independently performed the study identification and data extraction. A meta-analysis was conducted using Revman 5.3 software. Sixteen randomized controlled trials were included. The meta-analysis revealed that PBL had a positive association with higher theoretical scores (SMD = 1.17, 95% CI [0.77, 11.57], P education. PBL methods could be an optional, supplementary method of pharmaceutical teaching in China. However, Chinese pharmacy colleges and universities should revise PBL curricula according to their own needs, which would maximize the effectiveness of PBL.

  4. Early-injection laryngoplasty may lower risk of thyroplasty: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, Peter M; Bhatt, Neel K; Paniello, Randal C

    2018-04-01

    To determine whether injection laryngoplasty within 6 months following the onset of unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP) decreases the rate of permanent thyroplasty in adults. Search strategies created by a medical librarian were implemented in multiple online research databases. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were designed to capture randomized clinical trials and cohort studies examining adults with UVFP who received injection laryngoplasty early in the course of treatment, within 6 months of onset, or who were observed. The primary outcome was the rate of thyroplasty. The Newcastle-Ottawa scale was used to assess quality of included cohort studies. Random effects meta-analysis was used to calculate an overall relative risk (RR). Heterogeneity was evaluated with the I 2 statistic. The search strategy resulted in 1,177 studies, of which four cohort studies remained for meta-analysis after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. All studies were rated as 9 of 9 on the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Meta-analysis of 275 patients with UVFP revealed that the overall pooled RR of undergoing thyroplasty in those receiving an early injection was 0.25 (95% confidence interval 0.14-0.45) compared to conservative management (late or no injection). The I 2 overall was 62.4%. Otolaryngologists should offer injection laryngoplasty to patients with a diagnosis of UVFP within 6 months of diagnosis (recommendation based on grade C evidence with a preponderance of benefit over harm). Laryngoscope, 128:935-940, 2018. © 2018 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  5. Interventions to reduce stress in university students: a review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regehr, Cheryl; Glancy, Dylan; Pitts, Annabel

    2013-05-15

    Recent research has revealed concerning rates of anxiety and depression among university students. Nevertheless, only a small percentage of these students receive treatment from university health services. Universities are thus challenged with instituting preventative programs that address student stress and reduce resultant anxiety and depression. A systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis was conducted to examine the effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing stress in university students. Studies were eligible for inclusion if the assignment of study participants to experimental or control groups was by random allocation or parallel cohort design. Retrieved studies represented a variety of intervention approaches with students in a broad range of programs and disciplines. Twenty-four studies, involving 1431 students were included in the meta-analysis. Cognitive, behavioral and mindfulness interventions were associated with decreased symptoms of anxiety. Secondary outcomes included lower levels of depression and cortisol. Included studies were limited to those published in peer reviewed journals. These studies over-represent interventions with female students in Western countries. Studies on some types of interventions such as psycho-educational and arts based interventions did not have sufficient data for inclusion in the meta-analysis. This review provides evidence that cognitive, behavioral, and mindfulness interventions are effective in reducing stress in university students. Universities are encouraged to make such programs widely available to students. In addition however, future work should focus on developing stress reduction programs that attract male students and address their needs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Non-cognate translation priming in masked priming lexical decision experiments: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yun; van Heuven, Walter J B

    2017-06-01

    The masked translation priming paradigm has been widely used in the last 25 years to investigate word processing in bilinguals. Motivated by studies reporting mixed findings, in particular for second language (L2) to first language (L1) translation priming, we conducted, for the first time in the literature, a meta-analysis of 64 masked priming lexical decision experiments across 24 studies to assess the effect sizes of L1-L2 and L2-L1 non-cognate translation priming effects in bilinguals. Our meta-analysis also investigated the influence of potential moderators of translation priming effects. The results provided clear evidence of significant translation priming effects for both directions, with L1-L2 translation priming significantly larger than L2-L1 translation priming (i.e., effect size of 0.86 vs. 0.31). The analyses also revealed that L1-L2 translation effect sizes were moderated by the interval between prime and target (ISI), whereas L2-L1 translation effect sizes were modulated by the number of items per cell. Theoretical and methodological implications of this meta-analysis are discussed and recommendations for future studies are provided.

  7. Circulating Resistin Levels and Risk of Colorectal Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Published data on resistin levels in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC were conflicting and heterogeneous. We conducted a meta-analysis of observational studies to examine the association of circulating resistin levels with carcinogenesis of the CRC. Methods. Potentially eligible studies published up to November 2015 were searched through MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded database, CNKI, and WanFang database. The pooled weighted mean differences (WMDs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs calculated by fixed- or random-effect model were used to estimate the effects. Results. A total of 11 studies involving 965 patients were admitted in our meta-analysis. The pooled effects indicated that resistin levels were higher in CRC patients compared to healthy controls (WMD: 1.47 ng/mL; 95% CI: 0.78 to 2.16, with significant heterogeneity across the studies (I2=72%, p<0.0001. Subgroup analyses and sensitivity analyses revealed that study quality, design, sample type, and resistin assays may account for this heterogeneity. No publication bias was observed. Conclusions. Our meta-analysis suggests that increased circulating resistin levels are associated with greater risk of colorectal cancer. Given the limited number of available studies and significant heterogeneity, larger well-designed randomized studies are warranted.

  8. Transcriptomic responses to biotic stresses in Malus x domestica: a meta-analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, Bipin; Marra, Francesco Paolo; Caruso, Tiziano; Martinelli, Federico

    2018-01-31

    RNA-Seq analysis is a strong tool to gain insight into the molecular responses to biotic stresses in plants. The objective of this work is to identify specific and common molecular responses between different transcriptomic data related to fungi, virus and bacteria attacks in Malus x domestica. We analyzed seven transcriptomic datasets in Malus x domestica divided in responses to fungal pathogens, virus (Apple Stem Grooving Virus) and bacteria (Erwinia amylovora). Data were dissected using an integrated approach of pathway- and gene- set enrichment analysis, Mapman visualization tool, gene ontology analysis and inferred protein-protein interaction network. Our meta-analysis revealed that the bacterial infection enhanced specifically genes involved in sugar alcohol metabolism. Brassinosteroids were upregulated by fungal pathogens while ethylene was highly affected by Erwinia amylovora. Gibberellins and jasmonates were strongly repressed by fungal and viral infections. The protein-protein interaction network highlighted the role of WRKYs in responses to the studied pathogens. In summary, our meta-analysis provides a better understanding of the Malus X domestica transcriptome responses to different biotic stress conditions; we anticipate that these insights will assist in the development of genetic resistance and acute therapeutic strategies. This work would be an example for next meta-analysis works aiming at identifying specific common molecular features linked with biotic stress responses in other specialty crops.

  9. Meta-analysis of programmed cell death 1 polymorphisms with systemic lupus erythematosus risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jie; Gai, Nan; Wang, Li; Liu, Kang; Liu, Xing-Han; Wei, Lin-Ting; Tian, Tian; Li, Shan-Li; Zheng, Yi; Deng, Yu-Jiao; Dai, Zhi-Jun; Fu, Rong-Guo

    2017-05-30

    The association of polymorphisms in programmed cell death 1 (PDCD1) gene with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) risk is inconsistent across different studies. This meta-analysis is aimed to provide reliable evidence to the association of five common PDCD1 polymorphisms (PD1.1, PD1.2, PD1.3, PD1.5 and PD1.6) with SLE risk. A total of 28 studies with 4,344 SLE cases and 5,474 healthy controls were included in this meta-analysis. PD1.3 polymorphism was significantly associated with SLE in the overall population (A vs. G: OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.12-1.63; GA vs.GG: OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.12-1.76; AA+GA vs. GG: OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.13-1.7). In the stratified analyses based on ethnicity, we found a significant association in Caucasians and in Mexicans. In the subgroup analyses by gender, a significant association was found between PD1.3 polymorphism and SLE risk in males. The results also suggested an association between the PD1.6 polymorphism and decreased SLE risk (A vs. G: OR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.73-0.96). Our meta-analysis revealed that PD1.3 polymorphism may increase the susceptibility to SLE, particularly in Caucasians, while PD1.6 may be a protective factor to SLE.

  10. Prevalence of retinopathy of prematurity in Iran: asystematic review and Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saman Maroufizadeh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To estimate overall prevalence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP in Iran using a systematic review and Meta-analysis. METHODS: A systematic review and Meta-analysis was performed of all published studies pertaining to prevalence of ROP using international and national electronic databases (ISI Web of Sciences, PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, SID, MagIran, and IranMedex from their inception until May 2016 with standard keywords. Begg and Egger tests were used to examine the publication bias and Cochran test and I2 statistics were used to evaluate the statistical heterogeneity. Pooled estimate of the prevalence of ROP were calculated using random effects Meta-analysis. RESULTS: The publication bias assumption was rejected by Egger tests with P-value equal to 0.024. The results of Cochran test and I2 statistics revealed substantial heterogeneity (Q=1099.02, df=25, I2=97.7%, P=0.001. The overall prevalence of ROP using the random effect model in Iran was 26.1% (95% CI: 20.3%-31.8%. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of ROP is relatively high in Iran. Low birth weight and gestational age are significant risk factors for the disease. Improved care, including oxygen delivery and monitoring, for preterm babies in all facility settings would reduce the number of babies affected with ROP.

  11. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Depression and Anxiety among North Korean Refugees: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Benjamin Eric; Chekaluk, Eugene; Bennett, Joanne

    2017-09-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder is common among North Korean refugees who have fled their country for economic, financial and humanitarian reasons. Co-morbid depression and anxiety are also common among North Korean refugees, due to the difficulties they have faced within their country and during their escape journey. Depression and anxiety complicate treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder, and lead to poorer outcomes. Thus, the aim of the present study was to provide a meta-analysis of studies investigating post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety among North Korean refugees. Selected articles were published in English, and included measures of post-traumatic stress, and/or depression and anxiety. 10 studies were included in the depression meta-analysis, and 6 in the anxiety meta-analysis. A random-effects model revealed strong, significant associations between post-traumatic stress and depression, r=0.63, 95% CI (0.51, 0.72), ppost-traumatic stress, depression and anxiety were higher among adults and those with more than five years outside of North Korea. Depression appears to be an important treatment focus for North Korean refugees with post-traumatic stress.

  12. The complex genetics of gait speed: genome-wide meta-analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Avraham, Dan; Karasik, David; Verghese, Joe; Lunetta, Kathryn L; Smith, Jennifer A; Eicher, John D; Vered, Rotem; Deelen, Joris; Arnold, Alice M; Buchman, Aron S; Tanaka, Toshiko; Faul, Jessica D; Nethander, Maria; Fornage, Myriam; Adams, Hieab H; Matteini, Amy M; Callisaya, Michele L; Smith, Albert V; Yu, Lei; De Jager, Philip L; Evans, Denis A; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hofman, Albert; Pattie, Alison; Corley, Janie; Launer, Lenore J; Knopman, Davis S; Parimi, Neeta; Turner, Stephen T; Bandinelli, Stefania; Beekman, Marian; Gutman, Danielle; Sharvit, Lital; Mooijaart, Simon P; Liewald, David C; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J; Ohlsson, Claes; Moed, Matthijs; Verlinden, Vincent J; Mellström, Dan; van der Geest, Jos N; Karlsson, Magnus; Hernandez, Dena; McWhirter, Rebekah; Liu, Yongmei; Thomson, Russell; Tranah, Gregory J; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Weir, David R; Zhao, Wei; Starr, John M; Johnson, Andrew D; Ikram, M Arfan; Bennett, David A; Cummings, Steven R; Deary, Ian J; Harris, Tamara B; Kardia, Sharon L R; Mosley, Thomas H; Srikanth, Velandai K; Windham, Beverly G; Newman, Ann B; Walston, Jeremy D; Davies, Gail; Evans, Daniel S; Slagboom, Eline P; Ferrucci, Luigi; Kiel, Douglas P; Murabito, Joanne M; Atzmon, Gil

    2017-01-10

    Emerging evidence suggests that the basis for variation in late-life mobility is attributable, in part, to genetic factors, which may become increasingly important with age. Our objective was to systematically assess the contribution of genetic variation to gait speed in older individuals. We conducted a meta-analysis of gait speed GWASs in 31,478 older adults from 17 cohorts of the CHARGE consortium, and validated our results in 2,588 older adults from 4 independent studies. We followed our initial discoveries with network and eQTL analysis of candidate signals in tissues. The meta-analysis resulted in a list of 536 suggestive genome wide significant SNPs in or near 69 genes. Further interrogation with Pathway Analysis placed gait speed as a polygenic complex trait in five major networks. Subsequent eQTL analysis revealed several SNPs significantly associated with the expression of PRSS16, WDSUB1 and PTPRT, which in addition to the meta-analysis and pathway suggested that genetic effects on gait speed may occur through synaptic function and neuronal development pathways. No genome-wide significant signals for gait speed were identified from this moderately large sample of older adults, suggesting that more refined physical function phenotypes will be needed to identify the genetic basis of gait speed in aging.

  13. A meta-analysis of the effects of β-adrenergic blockers in chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaojian; Shen, Chengwu; Zhai, Shujun; Liu, Yukun; Yue, Wen-Wei; Han, Li

    2016-10-01

    Adrenergic β-blockers are drugs that bind to, but do not activate β-adrenergic receptors. Instead they block the actions of β-adrenergic agonists and are used for the treatment of various diseases such as cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, hypertension, headache, migraines, stress, anxiety, prostate cancer, and heart failure. Several meta-analysis studies have shown that β-blockers improve the heart function and reduce the risks of cardiovascular events, rate of mortality, and sudden death through chronic heart failure (CHF) of patients. The present study identified results from recent meta-analyses of β-adrenergic blockers and their usefulness in CHF. Databases including Medline/Embase/Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and PubMed were searched for the periods May, 1985 to March, 2011 and June, 2013 to August, 2015, and a number of studies identified. Results of those studies showed that use of β-blockers was associated with decreased sudden cardiac death in patients with heart failure. However, contradictory results have also been reported. The present meta-analysis aimed to determine the efficacy of β-blockers on mortality and morbidity in patients with heart failure. The results showed that mortality was significantly reduced by β-blocker treatment prior to the surgery of heart failure patients. The results from the meta-analysis studies showed that β-blocker treatment in heart failure patients correlated with a significant decrease in long-term mortality, even in patients that meet one or more exclusion criteria of the MERIT-HF study. In summary, the findings of the current meta-analysis revealed beneficial effects different β-blockers have on patients with heart failure or related heart disease.

  14. How acute total sleep loss affects the attending brain: a meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Dinges, David F; Basner, Mathias; Rao, Hengyi

    2015-02-01

    Attention is a cognitive domain that can be severely affected by sleep deprivation. Previous neuroimaging studies have used different attention paradigms and reported both increased and reduced brain activation after sleep deprivation. However, due to large variability in sleep deprivation protocols, task paradigms, experimental designs, characteristics of subject populations, and imaging techniques, there is no consensus regarding the effects of sleep loss on the attending brain. The aim of this meta-analysis was to identify brain activations that are commonly altered by acute total sleep deprivation across different attention tasks. Coordinate-based meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies of performance on attention tasks during experimental sleep deprivation. The current version of the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) approach was used for meta-analysis. The authors searched published articles and identified 11 sleep deprivation neuroimaging studies using different attention tasks with a total of 185 participants, equaling 81 foci for ALE analysis. The meta-analysis revealed significantly reduced brain activation in multiple regions following sleep deprivation compared to rested wakefulness, including bilateral intraparietal sulcus, bilateral insula, right prefrontal cortex, medial frontal cortex, and right parahippocampal gyrus. Increased activation was found only in bilateral thalamus after sleep deprivation compared to rested wakefulness. Acute total sleep deprivation decreases brain activation in the fronto-parietal attention network (prefrontal cortex and intraparietal sulcus) and in the salience network (insula and medial frontal cortex). Increased thalamic activation after sleep deprivation may reflect a complex interaction between the de-arousing effects of sleep loss and the arousing effects of task performance on thalamic activity. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  15. Llama heavy-chain V regions consist of at least four distinct subfamilies revealing novel sequence features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruuls, R.C.; Nijman, I.J.; Niewold, T.A.; Frenken, L.G.J.; Geus, de B.

    2000-01-01

    In addition to conventional antibodies (Abs), camelids possess Abs consisting of only heavy chains. The variable domain of such a heavy-chain Ab (VHH) is fully capable of antigen (Ag) binding. Earlier analysis of 47 VHHs showed sequence features unique to VHH domains. These include the presence of

  16. Survival after radiotherapy in gastric cancer: Systematic review and meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentini, Vincenzo; Cellini, Francesco; Minsky, Bruce D.; Mattiucci, Gian Carlo; Balducci, Mario; D'Agostino, Giuseppe; D'Angelo, Elisa; Dinapoli, Nicola; Nicolotti, Nicola; Valentini, Chiara; La Torre, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to assess the impact of radiotherapy on both 3- and 5-year survival in patients with resectable gastric cancer. Methods: Randomized Clinical Trials (RCTs) in which radiotherapy, (preoperative, postoperative and/or intraoperative), was compared with surgery alone or surgery plus chemotherapy in resectable gastric cancer were identified by searching web-based databases and supplemented by manual examination of reference lists. Meta-analysis was performed using Risk Ratios (RRs). Random or fixed effects models were used to combine data. The methodological quality was evaluated by Chalmers' score. Results: Radiotherapy had a significant impact on 5-year survival. Using an intent to treat (ITT) and a Per Protocol (PP) analysis, the overall 5-year RR was 1.26 (95% CI: 1.08-1.48; NNT = 17) and 1.31 (95% CI: 1.04-1.66; NNT = 13), respectively. Although the quality of the studies was variable, the data were consistent and no clear publication bias was found. Conclusion: This meta-analysis showed a statistically significant 5-year survival benefit with the addition of radiotherapy in patients with resectable gastric cancer. Radiotherapy remains a standard component in the treatment of resectable gastric cancer and new RCTs need to address the impact of new conformal radiotherapy technologies.

  17. Systemic Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Chronic Periodontitis: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress biomarkers have been observed in peripheral blood of chronic periodontitis patients; however, their associations with periodontitis were not consistent. This meta-analysis was performed to clarify the associations between chronic periodontitis and oxidative biomarkers in systemic circulation. Electronic searches of PubMed and Embase databases were performed until October 2014 and articles were selected to meet inclusion criteria. Data of oxidative biomarkers levels in peripheral blood of periodontitis patients and periodontal healthy controls were extracted to calculate standardized mean differences (SMDs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs by using random-effects model. Of 31 eligible articles, 16 articles with available data were included in meta-analysis. Our results showed that periodontitis patients had significantly lower levels of total antioxidant capacity (SMD = −2.02; 95% CI: −3.08, −0.96; P=0.000 and higher levels of malondialdehyde (SMD = 0.99; 95% CI: 0.12, 1.86; P=0.026 and nitric oxide (SMD = 4.98; 95% CI: 2.33, 7.63; P=0.000 than periodontal healthy control. Superoxide dismutase levels between two groups were not significantly different (SMD = −1.72; 95% CI: −3.50, 0.07; P=0.059. In conclusion, our meta-analysis showed that chronic periodontitis is significantly associated with circulating levels of three oxidative stress biomarkers, indicating a role of chronic periodontitis in systemic diseases.

  18. The association between COMT Val158Met polymorphism and migraine risk: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yao-Jun; Jiang, Jing-Ru; Jin, San-Qing

    2017-05-01

    Background The COMT Val158Met polymorphism has long been regarded as a risk factor for migraine. The possible association between COMT Val158Met polymorphism and migraine has been evaluated in several studies, but the results are not consistent. Therefore, we conduct this meta-analysis to address these issues. Methods The WEB OF SCIENCE and EMBASE databases were searched for eligible studies. The odds ratio (OR) with the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated to estimate the strength of the association between COMT Val158Met polymorphism and migraine. Results Five studies with 979 cases and 1870 controls were ultimately included in the present meta-analysis. The overall data showed no significant association between COMT Val158Met polymorphism and migraine in the multiplicative model (OR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.78-1.21, p = 0.805) and dominant model (OR = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.75-1.48, p = 0.773), neither in the additive model (OR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.77-1.23, p = 0.817) nor in the recessive model (OR = 0.88, 95% CI: 0.71-1.09, p = 0.246). In subgroup analysis, both for Caucasian and Asian populations, no statistically significant associations were observed in any genetic models. Conclusions Our meta-analysis suggested that the COMT Val158Met polymorphism was not associated with migraine risk.

  19. Night Shift Work and Risk of Depression: Meta-analysis of Observational Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Aeyoung; Myung, Seung Kwon; Cho, Jung Jin; Jung, Yu Jin; Yoon, Jong Lull; Kim, Mee Young

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to assess whether night shift work is associated with the risk of depression by using a meta-analysis of observational studies. We searched PubMed and EMBASE in August, 2016 to locate eligible studies and investigated the association between night shift work and the risk of depression, reporting outcome measures with adjusted odds ratios (ORs) or relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). In the meta-analysis of a total of 11 observational studies with 9 cross-sectional study, 1 longitudinal study, and 1 cohort study, night shift work was significantly associated with an increased risk of depression (OR/RR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.24-1.64; I² = 78.0%). Also, subgroup meta-analyses by gender, night shift work duration, type of occupation, continent, and type of publication showed that night shift work was consistently associated with the increased risk of depression. The current meta-analysis suggests that night shift work is associated with the increased risk of depression. However, further large prospective cohort studies are needed to confirm this association. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  20. The Effect of Three Different Meditation Exercises on Hypertension: A Network Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongchang Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to use the pairwise and network meta-analysis to estimate the effects of different meditation exercises on the control of systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs were retrieved from PubMed and Embase up to June 2016, which are published in English and reported on meditation exercise for hypertensive patients. Risks of bias assessment of the included studies were assessed by Cochrane Collaboration Recommendations and network meta-analysis was performed by ADDIS. Mean difference (MD and its 95% confidence interval (CI were used as the effect size. A number of 19 RCTs were included in this study. Results of pairwise comparisons indicated that meditation exercise could significantly decrease the SBP and DBP, compared with other interventions (MD = −7.10, 95% CI: −10.82 to −3.39; MD = −4.02, 95% CI: −6.12 to −1.92. With good consistence and convergence, network meta-analysis showed that there were no significant differences between meditation and other interventions on SBP. For DBP, Qigong was significantly lower than “no intervention” (MD = −11.73, 95% CI: −19.85 to −3.69. Qigong may be the optimal exercise way in lowering SBP and DBP of hypertensive patients, but a detailed long-term clinical research should be needed in the future.

  1. Alcohol Intake and Risk of Thyroid Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seung-Hee; Myung, Seung-Kwon; Kim, Hyeon Suk

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether alcohol intake is associated with the risk of thyroid cancer by a meta-analysis of observational studies. We searched PubMed and EMBASE in June of 2015 to locate eligible studies. We included observational studies such as cross-sectional studies, case-control studies, and cohort studies reporting odd ratios (ORs) or relative risk (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We included 33 observational studies with two cross-sectional studies, 20 case-controls studies, and 11 cohort studies, which involved a total of 7,725 thyroid cancer patients and 3,113,679 participants without thyroid cancer in the final analysis. In the fixed-effect model meta-analysis of all 33 studies, we found that alcohol intake was consistently associated with a decreased risk of thyroid cancer (OR or RR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.67 to 0.83; I 2 =38.6%). In the subgroup meta-analysis by type of study, alcohol intake also decreased the risk of thyroid cancer in both case-control studies (OR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.65 to 0.92; I 2 =29.5%; n=20) and cohort studies (RR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.60 to 0.82; I 2 =0%; n=11). Moreover, subgroup meta-analyses by type of thyroid cancer, gender, amount of alcohol consumed, and methodological quality of study showed that alcohol intake was significantly associated with a decreased risk of thyroid cancer. The current meta-analysis of observational studies found that, unlike most of other types of cancer, alcohol intake decreased the risk of thyroid cancer.

  2. Swimming attendance during childhood and development of asthma: Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeriani, Federica; Protano, Carmela; Vitali, Matteo; Romano Spica, Vincenzo

    2017-05-01

    The association between asthma and swimming pool attendance has not been demonstrated and currently there are conflicting results. In order to clarify the association between asthma diagnosis in children and swimming pool attendance, and to assess the consistency of the available epidemiological studies, we completed a literature analysis on the relationship between the exposure to disinfection by-products in indoor swimming pools during childhood and asthma diagnosis. Following the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) criteria, a systematic review and meta-analysis was performed by searching MEDLINE via PubMed, TOXNET, and Scopus databases (from inception to 20 April 2015) using the key word "Asthma" together with "swimming pool", "disinfection by-products", "indoor air pollution" and "children". Inclusion criteria were: English language, a complete analytic study design involving a cohort of children (0-16 years), a well-defined definition of exposure, and the presence of data on effect and variance. Studies on in vivo, in vitro or professional and accidental exposure were excluded. After a screening process, seven reports (n = 5851 subjects) were included out of a total of 2928 references. The reported OR of the association between swimming pool attendance and asthma prevalence ranged from 0.58 to 2.30. The present meta-analysis failed to identify a significant difference in asthma development between children attending swimming pools and controls (OR, 1.084; 95% CI: 0.89-1.31). Swimming in childhood does not increase the likelihood of doctor-diagnosed asthma. Based on this meta-analysis review, the association of the disease with indoor pool attendance is still unclear. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  3. Association Between Periodontitis and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves Lima, Rafael Paschoal; Cyrino, Renata Magalhães; de Carvalho Dutra, Bernardo; Oliveira da Silveira, Juliana; Martins, Carolina Castro; Miranda Cota, Luis Otávio; Costa, Fernando Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    To the best of the authors' knowledge, there is no systematic review of the potential association between periodontitis and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the current literature. The aim of the present systematic review and meta-analysis is to search for scientific evidence regarding the association between periodontitis and GDM. The present study was conducted in accordance with the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement and registered (CRD2014010728) with PROSPERO (International prospective register for systematic reviews, University of York, York, UK). A search was conducted in three electronic databases without restrictions regarding language or date of publication. From 190 studies selected, 15 underwent full-text analysis. Eight studies were eligible (five cross-sectional and three case-control studies), and seven were entered in the meta-analysis. Meta-analysis was performed with tests for sensitivity and statistical heterogeneity. Summary effect measures were calculated by odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). There was a significant association between periodontitis and GDM in the meta-analyses of four cross-sectional studies (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.20 to 2.32) and two case-control studies (OR 2.66, 95% CI 1.52 to 4.65). However, sensitivity tests for case-control studies showed a lack of consistency in data; when including one case-control study, the significance was null (meta-analysis of three case-control studies: OR 1.69, 95% CI 0.68 to 4.21). There was substantial clinical, methodologic, and statistical heterogeneity among the studies. The scientific evidence cannot affirm a positive association between periodontitis and GDM. Future studies with different designs in distinct populations should be conducted to investigate this association.

  4. Risk Factors for Cement Leakage After Vertebroplasty or Kyphoplasty: A Meta-Analysis of Published Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Yi; Jiang, Jianzhong; Liao, Haifen; Tan, Haitao; Yang, Keqin

    2017-05-01

    Cement leakage is the most common complication of vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty. So far, the reported risk factors remain conflicting because of limited data and lack of uniform measurement and evaluation. Here, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of potential risk factors for cement leakage after vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty. Relevant literature was retrieved using PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Controlled Trial Register, and MEDLINE with no language restriction, supplemented by a hand search of the reference lists of selected articles. A fixed-effects model was used if homogeneity existed among included studies; otherwise, a random-effects model was used. The results were presented with weighted mean difference for continuous outcomes and odds ratio (OR) for dichotomous outcomes with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Twenty-two studies consisting of 2872 patients with 4187 vertebrae were included in the meta-analysis. The incidences of cement leakage for percutaneous vertebroplasty and percutaneous balloon kyphoplasty were 54.7% and 18.4%, respectively. The significant risk factors for new vertebral compression fractures were intravertebral cleft (OR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.09-1.78; P risk factors. The results of this meta-analysis suggest that patients with intravertebral cleft, cortical disruption, low cement viscosity, and high volume of injected cement may be at high risk for cement leakage after vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty. Rigorous patient selection and individual therapeutic strategy irrespective of age, sex and fracture type, operation level, and surgical approach may reduce the occurrence of cement leakage. Given the inherent limitation of the meta-analysis, more large sample-sized randomized controlled trials are needed to further validate the present findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Interaction between the FTO gene, body mass index and depression: meta-analysis of 13701 individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Margarita; Locke, Adam E; Corre, Tanguy; Czamara, Darina; Wolf, Christiane; Ching-Lopez, Ana; Milaneschi, Yuri; Kloiber, Stefan; Cohen-Woods, Sara; Rucker, James; Aitchison, Katherine J; Bergmann, Sven; Boomsma, Dorret I; Craddock, Nick; Gill, Michael; Holsboer, Florian; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Korszun, Ania; Kutalik, Zoltan; Lucae, Susanne; Maier, Wolfgang; Mors, Ole; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Owen, Michael J; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Preisig, Martin; Rice, John; Rietschel, Marcella; Tozzi, Federica; Uher, Rudolf; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Willemsen, Gonneke; Craig, Ian W; Farmer, Anne E; Lewis, Cathryn M; Breen, Gerome; McGuffin, Peter

    2017-08-01

    Background Depression and obesity are highly prevalent, and major impacts on public health frequently co-occur. Recently, we reported that having depression moderates the effect of the FTO gene, suggesting its implication in the association between depression and obesity. Aims To confirm these findings by investigating the FTO polymorphism rs9939609 in new cohorts, and subsequently in a meta-analysis. Method The sample consists of 6902 individuals with depression and 6799 controls from three replication cohorts and two original discovery cohorts. Linear regression models were performed to test for association between rs9939609 and body mass index (BMI), and for the interaction between rs9939609 and depression status for an effect on BMI. Fixed and random effects meta-analyses were performed using METASOFT. Results In the replication cohorts, we observed a significant interaction between FTO , BMI and depression with fixed effects meta-analysis (β = 0.12, P = 2.7 × 10 -4 ) and with the Han/Eskin random effects method ( P = 1.4 × 10 -7 ) but not with traditional random effects (β = 0.1, P = 0.35). When combined with the discovery cohorts, random effects meta-analysis also supports the interaction (β = 0.12, P = 0.027) being highly significant based on the Han/Eskin model ( P = 6.9 × 10 -8 ). On average, carriers of the risk allele who have depression have a 2.2% higher BMI for each risk allele, over and above the main effect of FTO Conclusions This meta-analysis provides additional support for a significant interaction between FTO , depression and BMI, indicating that depression increases the effect of FTO on BMI. The findings provide a useful starting point in understanding the biological mechanism involved in the association between obesity and depression. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.

  6. Meta-analysis of functional brain imaging in specific phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipser, Jonathan C; Singh, Leesha; Stein, Dan J

    2013-07-01

    Although specific phobia is a prevalent anxiety disorder, evidence regarding its underlying functional neuroanatomy is inconsistent. A meta-analysis was undertaken to identify brain regions that were consistently responsive to phobic stimuli, and to characterize changes in brain activation following cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). We searched the PubMed, SCOPUS and PsycINFO databases to identify positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies comparing brain activation in specific phobia patients and healthy controls. Two raters independently extracted study data from all the eligible studies, and pooled coordinates from these studies using activation likelihood estimation, a quantitative meta-analytic technique. Resulting statistical parametric maps were compared between patients and healthy controls, in response to phobic versus fear-evoking stimuli, and before and after therapy. Thirteen studies were included, comprising 327 participants. Regions that were consistently activated in response to phobic stimuli included the left insula, amygdala, and globus pallidus. Compared to healthy controls, phobic subjects had increased activation in response to phobic stimuli in the left amygdala/globus pallidus, left insula, right thalamus (pulvinar), and cerebellum. Following exposure-based therapy widespread deactivation was observed in the right frontal cortex, limbic cortex, basal ganglia and cerebellum, with increased activation detected in the thalamus. Exposure to phobia-specific stimuli elicits brain activation that is consistent with current understandings of the neuroanatomy of fear conditioning and extinction. There is evidence that the effects of CBT in specific phobia may be mediated through the same underlying neurocircuitry. © 2013 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2013 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  7. Network meta-analysis of survival data with fractional polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Jeroen P

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pairwise meta-analysis, indirect treatment comparisons and network meta-analysis for aggregate level survival data are often based on the reported hazard ratio, which relies on the proportional hazards assumption. This assumption is implausible when hazard functions intersect, and can have a huge impact on decisions based on comparisons of expected survival, such as cost-effectiveness analysis. Methods As an alternative to network meta-analysis of survival data in which the treatment effect is represented by the constant hazard ratio, a multi-dimensional treatment effect approach is presented. With fractional polynomials the hazard functions of interventions compared in a randomized controlled trial are modeled, and the difference between the parameters of these fractional polynomials within a trial are synthesized (and indirectly compared across studies. Results The proposed models are illustrated with an analysis of survival data in non-small-cell lung cancer. Fixed and random effects first and second order fractional polynomials were evaluated. Conclusion (Network meta-analysis of survival data with models where the treatment effect is represented with several parameters using fractional polynomials can be more closely fitted to the available data than meta-analysis based on the constant hazard ratio.

  8. Network meta-analysis of survival data with fractional polynomials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Jeroen P

    2011-05-06

    Pairwise meta-analysis, indirect treatment comparisons and network meta-analysis for aggregate level survival data are often based on the reported hazard ratio, which relies on the proportional hazards assumption. This assumption is implausible when hazard functions intersect, and can have a huge impact on decisions based on comparisons of expected survival, such as cost-effectiveness analysis. As an alternative to network meta-analysis of survival data in which the treatment effect is represented by the constant hazard ratio, a multi-dimensional treatment effect approach is presented. With fractional polynomials the hazard functions of interventions compared in a randomized controlled trial are modeled, and the difference between the parameters of these fractional polynomials within a trial are synthesized (and indirectly compared) across studies. The proposed models are illustrated with an analysis of survival data in non-small-cell lung cancer. Fixed and random effects first and second order fractional polynomials were evaluated. (Network) meta-analysis of survival data with models where the treatment effect is represented with several parameters using fractional polynomials can be more closely fitted to the available data than meta-analysis based on the constant hazard ratio.

  9. Anatomical likelihood estimation meta-analysis of grey and white matter anomalies in autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas P. DeRamus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASD are characterized by impairments in social communication and restrictive, repetitive behaviors. While behavioral symptoms are well-documented, investigations into the neurobiological underpinnings of ASD have not resulted in firm biomarkers. Variability in findings across structural neuroimaging studies has contributed to difficulty in reliably characterizing the brain morphology of individuals with ASD. These inconsistencies may also arise from the heterogeneity of ASD, and wider age-range of participants included in MRI studies and in previous meta-analyses. To address this, the current study used coordinate-based anatomical likelihood estimation (ALE analysis of 21 voxel-based morphometry (VBM studies examining high-functioning individuals with ASD, resulting in a meta-analysis of 1055 participants (506 ASD, and 549 typically developing individuals. Results consisted of grey, white, and global differences in cortical matter between the groups. Modeled anatomical maps consisting of concentration, thickness, and volume metrics of grey and white matter revealed clusters suggesting age-related decreases in grey and white matter in parietal and inferior temporal regions of the brain in ASD, and age-related increases in grey matter in frontal and anterior-temporal regions. White matter alterations included fiber tracts thought to play key roles in information processing and sensory integration. Many current theories of pathobiology ASD suggest that the brains of individuals with ASD may have less-functional long-range (anterior-to-posterior connections. Our findings of decreased cortical matter in parietal–temporal and occipital regions, and thickening in frontal cortices in older adults with ASD may entail altered cortical anatomy, and neurodevelopmental adaptations.

  10. RNA-seq reveals more consistent reference genes for gene expression studies in human non-melanoma skin cancers

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    Van L.T. Hoang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Identification of appropriate reference genes (RGs is critical to accurate data interpretation in quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR experiments. In this study, we have utilised next generation RNA sequencing (RNA-seq to analyse the transcriptome of a panel of non-melanoma skin cancer lesions, identifying genes that are consistently expressed across all samples. Genes encoding ribosomal proteins were amongst the most stable in this dataset. Validation of this RNA-seq data was examined using qPCR to confirm the suitability of a set of highly stable genes for use as qPCR RGs. These genes will provide a valuable resource for the normalisation of qPCR data for the analysis of non-melanoma skin cancer.

  11. Meta-analysis in plant pathology: synthesizing research results.

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    Rosenberg, M S; Garrett, K A; Su, Z; Bowden, R L

    2004-09-01

    ABSTRACT Meta-analysis is a set of statistical procedures for synthesizing research results from a number of different studies. An estimate of a statistical effect, such as the difference in disease severity for plants with or without a management treatment, is collected from each study along with a measure of the variance of the estimate of the effect. Combining results from different studies will generally result in increased statistical power so that it is easier to detect small effects. Combining results from different studies may also make it possible to compare the size of the effect as a function of other predictor variables such as geographic region or pathogen species. We present a review of the basic methodology for meta-analysis. We also present an example of meta-analysis of the relationship between disease severity and yield loss for foliar wheat diseases, based on data collected from a decade of fungicide and nematicide test results.

  12. Trial Sequential Analysis in systematic reviews with meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wetterslev, Jørn; Jakobsen, Janus Christian; Gluud, Christian

    2017-01-01

    . The results of the meta-analyses should relate the total number of randomised participants to the estimated required meta-analytic information size accounting for statistical diversity. When the number of participants and the corresponding number of trials in a meta-analysis are insufficient, the use......BACKGROUND: Most meta-analyses in systematic reviews, including Cochrane ones, do not have sufficient statistical power to detect or refute even large intervention effects. This is why a meta-analysis ought to be regarded as an interim analysis on its way towards a required information size...... for statistical significance when the diversity-adjusted required information size and the corresponding number of required trials for the meta-analysis have not been reached. Trial Sequential Analysis provides a frequentistic approach to control both type I and type II errors. We define the required information...

  13. Formalizing the definition of meta-analysis in Molecular Ecology.

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    ArchMiller, Althea A; Bauer, Eric F; Koch, Rebecca E; Wijayawardena, Bhagya K; Anil, Ammu; Kottwitz, Jack J; Munsterman, Amelia S; Wilson, Alan E

    2015-08-01

    Meta-analysis, the statistical synthesis of pertinent literature to develop evidence-based conclusions, is relatively new to the field of molecular ecology, with the first meta-analysis published in the journal Molecular Ecology in 2003 (Slate & Phua 2003). The goal of this article is to formalize the definition of meta-analysis for the authors, editors, reviewers and readers of Molecular Ecology by completing a review of the meta-analyses previously published in this journal. We also provide a brief overview of the many components required for meta-analysis with a more specific discussion of the issues related to the field of molecular ecology, including the use and statistical considerations of Wright's FST and its related analogues as effect sizes in meta-analysis. We performed a literature review to identify articles published as 'meta-analyses' in Molecular Ecology, which were then evaluated by at least two reviewers. We specifically targeted Molecular Ecology publications because as a flagship journal in this field, meta-analyses published in Molecular Ecology have the potential to set the standard for meta-analyses in other journals. We found that while many of these reviewed articles were strong meta-analyses, others failed to follow standard meta-analytical techniques. One of these unsatisfactory meta-analyses was in fact a secondary analysis. Other studies attempted meta-analyses but lacked the fundamental statistics that are considered necessary for an effective and powerful meta-analysis. By drawing attention to the inconsistency of studies labelled as meta-analyses, we emphasize the importance of understanding the components of traditional meta-analyses to fully embrace the strengths of quantitative data synthesis in the field of molecular ecology. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Signature of a Nonharmonic Potential as Revealed from a Consistent Shape and Fluctuation Analysis of an Adherent Membrane

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    Daniel Schmidt

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of fluid membranes with a scaffold, which can be a planar surface or a more complex structure, is intrinsic to a number of systems from artificial supported bilayers and vesicles to cellular membranes. In principle, these interactions can be either discrete and protein mediated, or continuous. In the latter case, they emerge from ubiquitous intrinsic surface interaction potentials as well as nature-designed steric contributions of the fluctuating membrane or from the polymers of the glycocalyx. Despite the fact that these nonspecific potentials are omnipresent, their description has been a major challenge from experimental and theoretical points of view. Here, we show that a full understanding of the implications of the continuous interactions can be achieved only by expanding the standard superposition models commonly used to treat these types of systems, beyond the usual harmonic level of description. Supported by this expanded theoretical framework, we present three independent, yet mutually consistent, experimental approaches to measure the interaction potential strength and the membrane tension. Upon explicitly taking into account the nature of shot noise as well as the nature of finite experimental resolution, excellent agreement with the augmented theory is obtained, which finally provides a coherent view of the behavior of the membrane in the vicinity of a scaffold.

  15. A random effects meta-analysis model with Box-Cox transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Yusuke; Maruo, Kazushi; Partlett, Christopher; Riley, Richard D

    2017-07-19

    In a random effects meta-analysis model, true treatment effects for each study are routinely assumed to follow a normal distribution. However, normality is a restrictive assumption and the misspecification of the random effects distribution may result in a misleading estimate of overall mean for the treatment effect, an inappropriate quantification of heterogeneity across studies and a wrongly symmetric prediction interval. We focus on problems caused by an inappropriate normality assumption of the random effects distribution, and propose a novel random effects meta-analysis model where a Box-Cox transformation is applied to the observed treatment effect estimates. The proposed model aims to normalise an overall distribution of observed treatment effect estimates, which is sum of the within-study sampling distributions and the random effects distribution. When sampling distributions are approximately normal, non-normality in the overall distribution will be mainly due to the random effects distribution, especially when the between-study variation is large relative to the within-study variation. The Box-Cox transformation addresses this flexibly according to the observed departure from normality. We use a Bayesian approach for estimating parameters in the proposed model, and suggest summarising the meta-analysis results by an overall median, an interquartile range and a prediction interval. The model can be applied for any kind of variables once the treatment effect estimate is defined from the variable. A simulation study suggested that when the overall distribution of treatment effect estimates are skewed, the overall mean and conventional I 2 from the normal random effects model could be inappropriate summaries, and the proposed model helped reduce this issue. We illustrated the proposed model using two examples, which revealed some important differences on summary results, heterogeneity measures and prediction intervals from the normal random effects model. The

  16. Chronic subdural hematoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis of surgical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiming; Bakker, Nicolaas A; Groen, Rob J M

    2014-09-01

    In this paper the authors systematically evaluate the results of different surgical procedures for chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH). The MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and other databases were scrutinized according to the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis) statement, after which only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs were included. At least 2 different neurosurgical procedures in the management of chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) had to be evaluated. Included studies were assessed for the risk of bias. Recurrence rates, complications, and outcome including mortality were taken as outcome measures. Statistical heterogeneity in each meta-analysis was assessed using the T(2) (tau-squared), I(2), and chi-square tests. The DerSimonian-Laird method was used to calculate the summary estimates using the fixed-effect model in meta-analysis. Of the 297 studies identified, 19 RCTs were included. Of them, 7 studies evaluated the use of postoperative drainage, of which the meta-analysis showed a pooled OR of 0.36 (95% CI 0.21-0.60; p < 0.001) in favor of drainage. Four studies compared twist drill and bur hole procedures. No significant differences between the 2 methods were present, but heterogeneity was considered to be significant. Three studies directly compared the use of irrigation before drainage. A fixed-effects meta-analysis showed a pooled OR of 0.49 (95% CI 0.21-1.14; p = 0.10) in favor of irrigation. Two studies evaluated postoperative posture. The available data did not reveal a significant advantage in favor of the postoperative supine posture. Regarding positioning of the catheter used for drainage, it was shown that a frontal catheter led to a better outcome. One study compared duration of drainage, showing that 48 hours of drainage was as effective as 96 hours of drainage. Postoperative drainage has the advantage of reducing recurrence without increasing complications

  17. Trial Sequential Analysis in systematic reviews with meta-analysis

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    Jørn Wetterslev

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most meta-analyses in systematic reviews, including Cochrane ones, do not have sufficient statistical power to detect or refute even large intervention effects. This is why a meta-analysis ought to be regarded as an interim analysis on its way towards a required information size. The results of the meta-analyses should relate the total number of randomised participants to the estimated required meta-analytic information size accounting for statistical diversity. When the number of participants and the corresponding number of trials in a meta-analysis are insufficient, the use of the traditional 95% confidence interval or the 5% statistical significance threshold will lead to too many false positive conclusions (type I errors and too many false negative conclusions (type II errors. Methods We developed a methodology for interpreting meta-analysis results, using generally accepted, valid evidence on how to adjust thresholds for significance in randomised clinical trials when the required sample size has not been reached. Results The Lan-DeMets trial sequential monitoring boundaries in Trial Sequential Analysis offer adjusted confidence intervals and restricted thresholds for statistical significance when the diversity-adjusted required information size and the corresponding number of required trials for the meta-analysis have not been reached. Trial Sequential Analysis provides a frequentistic approach to control both type I and type II errors. We define the required information size and the corresponding number of required trials in a meta-analysis and the diversity (D2 measure of heterogeneity. We explain the reasons for using Trial Sequential Analysis of meta-analysis when the actual information size fails to reach the required information size. We present examples drawn from traditional meta-analyses using unadjusted naïve 95% confidence intervals and 5% thresholds for statistical significance. Spurious conclusions in

  18. Meta-Analysis of Correlations Among Usability Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornbæk, Kasper Anders Søren; Effie Lai Chong, Law

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the relation between usability measures seems crucial to deepen our conception of usability and to select the right measures for usability studies. We present a meta-analysis of correlations among usability measures calculated from the raw data of 73 studies. Correlations are genera......Understanding the relation between usability measures seems crucial to deepen our conception of usability and to select the right measures for usability studies. We present a meta-analysis of correlations among usability measures calculated from the raw data of 73 studies. Correlations...

  19. A meta-analysis of cerebrovascular disease and hyperhomocysteinaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, G M; Tvedegaard, K C; Andersen, Niels Trolle

    2000-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinaemia has been identified as a risk factor for stroke and cerebrovascular disease in several studies. To evaluate the evidence we performed a meta-analysis. We found 21 studies searching Medline from 1966-July 1999 using the key words homocysteine, homocystine and cerebrovascular...... was used. The reports on 8 cross-sectional and 4 longitudinal studies gave data on the mean and standard deviations of plasma or serum homocysteine for both cases and controls, and these studies were included in the meta-analysis. The results of the 5 excluded studies all pointed to a positive relationship...

  20. Moral responsibility and free will: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltz, Adam; Cova, Florian

    2014-11-01

    Fundamental beliefs about free will and moral responsibility are often thought to shape our ability to have healthy relationships with others and ourselves. Emotional reactions have also been shown to have an important and pervasive impact on judgments and behaviors. Recent research suggests that emotional reactions play a prominent role in judgments about free will, influencing judgments about determinism's relation to free will and moral responsibility. However, the extent to which affect influences these judgments is unclear. We conducted a meta-analysis to estimate the impact of affect. Our meta-analysis indicates that beliefs in free will are largely robust to emotional reactions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Joint MiRNA/mRNA expression profiling reveals changes consistent with development of dysfunctional corpus luteum after weight gain.

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    Andrew P Bradford

    Full Text Available Obese women exhibit decreased fertility, high miscarriage rates and dysfunctional corpus luteum (CL, but molecular mechanisms are poorly defined. We hypothesized that weight gain induces alterations in CL gene expression. RNA sequencing was used to identify changes in the CL transcriptome in the vervet monkey (Chlorocebus aethiops during weight gain. 10 months of high-fat, high-fructose diet (HFHF resulted in a 20% weight gain for HFHF animals vs. 2% for controls (p = 0.03 and a 66% increase in percent fat mass for HFHF group. Ovulation was confirmed at baseline and after intervention in all animals. CL were collected on luteal day 7-9 based on follicular phase estradiol peak. 432 mRNAs and 9 miRNAs were differentially expressed in response to HFHF diet. Specifically, miR-28, miR-26, and let-7b previously shown to inhibit sex steroid production in human granulosa cells, were up-regulated. Using integrated miRNA and gene expression analysis, we demonstrated changes in 52 coordinately regulated mRNA targets corresponding to opposite changes in miRNA. Specifically, 2 targets of miR-28 and 10 targets of miR-26 were down-regulated, including genes linked to follicular development, steroidogenesis, granulosa cell proliferation and survival. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of dietary-induced responses of the ovulating ovary to developing adiposity. The observed HFHF diet-induced changes were consistent with development of a dysfunctional CL and provide new mechanistic insights for decreased sex steroid production characteristic of obese women. MiRNAs may represent novel biomarkers of obesity-related subfertility and potential new avenues for therapeutic intervention.

  2. Fall-Risk-Increasing Drugs: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis: I. Cardiovascular Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Max; Seppala, Lotta J; Daams, Joost G; van de Glind, Esther M M; Masud, Tahir; van der Velde, Nathalie

    2018-04-01

    Use of certain medications is recognized as a major and modifiable risk factor for falls. Although the literature on psychotropic drugs is compelling, the literature on cardiovascular drugs as potential fall-risk-increasing drugs is conflicting. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to provide a comprehensive overview of the associations between cardiovascular medications and fall risk in older adults. Design: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Medline, Embase, and PsycINFO. Key search concepts were "fall," "aged," "causality," and "medication." Studies that investigated cardiovascular medications as risk factors for falls in participants ≥60 years old or participants with a mean age of 70 or older were included. A meta-analysis was performed using the generic inverse variance method, pooling unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) separately. In total, 131 studies were included in the qualitative synthesis. Meta-analysis using adjusted ORs showed significant results (pooled OR [95% confidence interval]) for loop diuretics, OR 1.36 (1.17, 1.57), and beta-blocking agents, OR 0.88 (0.80, 0.97). Meta-analysis using unadjusted ORs showed significant results for digitalis, OR 1.60 (1.08, 2.36); digoxin, OR 2.06 (1.56, 2.74); and statins, OR 0.80 (0.65, 0.98). Most of the meta-analyses resulted in substantial heterogeneity that mostly did not disappear after stratification for population and setting. In a descriptive synthesis, consistent associations were not observed. Loop diuretics were significantly associated with increased fall risk, whereas beta-blockers were significantly associated with decreased fall risk. Digitalis and digoxin may increase the risk of falling, and statins may reduce it. For the majority of cardiovascular medication groups, outcomes were inconsistent. Furthermore, recent studies indicate that specific drug properties, such as selectivity of beta-blockers, may affect fall risk, and drug-disease interaction also may play

  3. Sleep duration and obesity in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lian; Zhang, Shuang; Huang, Yubei; Chen, Kexin

    2017-04-01

    Childhood obesity is a major public problem worldwide, and sleep duration may be associated with childhood obesity. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to estimate the associations between sleep duration and obesity/body mass index (BMI) in children. PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched. For the meta-analysis, the pooled relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated to reveal the association between short sleep duration and obesity. For the review, the outcomes focused on BMI change or subsequent BMI status. A total of 12 studies (15 populations) met the criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Short sleep duration was significantly associated with obesity (RR: 1.45; 95% CI: 1.14-1.85). After excluding two cohorts that substantially affected the heterogeneity, the pooled results remained significant (RR: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.20-1.42), and the association was not substantially altered in the subgroup analysis. In addition, we summarised 24 studies that met the criteria for our review of the relationship between sleeping and BMI. The present meta-analysis indicated that short sleep duration increased the risk of childhood obesity. Public health efforts that encourage children to have sufficient sleep time may be important in combating obesity. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  4. Comparison between transrectal and transperineal prostate biopsy for detection of prostate cancer: a meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jianxin; Qin, Zhiqiang; Cai, Hongzhou; Zhang, Chuanjie; Li, Xiao; Xu, Weizhang; Wang, Jingyuan; Xu, Zicheng; Yu, Bin; Xu, Ting; Zou, Qin

    2017-04-04

    To systematically assess the efficacy and complications of transrectal (TR) versus transperineal (TP) prostate biopsy in the detection of prostate cancer (PCa). A meta-analysis was performed by searching the databases Pubmed, Embase and Web of science for the relevant available studies until September 1st, 2016, and thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria. The pooled odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated to evaluate the differences of TR and TP groups in PCa detection rate. Then, trial sequential analysis was performed to reduce the risk of type I error and estimated whether the evidence of the results was reliable. Overall, this meta-analysis included a total of 4280 patients, who had been accrued between April 2000 and Aug 2014 and randomly divided into TR group and TP group. Prostate biopsies included sextant, extensive and saturation biopsy procedures. Patients who received TP prostate biopsy had no significant improvement in PCa detection rate, comparing TR group. Moreover, when comparing TR and TP studies, no significant difference was found in abnormal DRE findings, serum PSA level measurement, Gleason score, prostate volume. Besides, this meta-analysis showed no obvious differences between these two groups in terms of relevant complications. Therefore, this meta-analysis revealed that no significant differences were found in PCa detection rate between TP and TR approaches for prostate biopsy. However, with regard to pain relief and additional anesthesia, TR prostate needle biopsy was relatively preferable, compared to TP prostate biopsy.

  5. Association between fat mass- and obesity-associated (FTO gene polymorphism and polycystic ovary syndrome: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianli Cai

    Full Text Available Many studies have investigated the relationship between FTO gene polymorphism and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS susceptibility but revealed mixed results. In this study, we aimed to perform a meta-analysis to clarify this association.Published literature from PubMed, Embase and CNKI was retrieved. Meta-analysis was performed to calculate pooled odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence interval (CI using the random- or fix- effects model.A total of 5 studies (4778 cases and 4272 controls were included in our meta-analysis. The results suggested that FTO rs9939609 polymorphism (or its proxy was marginally associated with PCOS risk after adjustment for body mass index (BMI (OR = 1.26; 95%CI: 1.02-1.55. However, the marginal association was not stable after sensitivity analysis. In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, the association was significant in East Asians (OR = 1.43, 95%CI = 1.30-1.59 but not in Caucasians (OR = 1.04, 95%CI = 0.85-1.29.Our present meta-analysis indicated that FTO rs9939609 polymorphism (or its proxy might not be associated with risk of PCOS in overall population. However, in East Asians, there might be a direct association between FTO variant and PCOS risk, which is independent of BMI (adiposity.

  6. Increased risk of high grade cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions in systemic lupus erythematosus: A meta-analysis of the literature.

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    Zard, Emilie; Arnaud, Laurent; Mathian, Alexis; Chakhtoura, Zeina; Hie, Miguel; Touraine, Philippe; Heard, Isabelle; Amoura, Zahir

    2014-07-01

    Conflicting data have been published regarding the risk of cervical lesions among women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We systematically reviewed the evidence for an association of SLE with cervical precancerous lesions (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, HSIL), and performed a meta-analysis to determine the risk of HSIL in SLE patients. Observational studies identified up to February 2013 from the Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases were selected if they assessed the prevalence of HSIL in female SLE patients versus healthy female controls and included in a meta-analysis with pooled effect estimates obtained using a random-effects model. Of 235 citations retrieved, 7 studies met inclusion criteria. The pooled odds ratio for the risk of HSIL in SLE patients (n=416) versus female controls (n=11,408) was 8.66 (95% CI: 3.75-20.00), without significant heterogeneity across studies. Cumulative meta-analysis according to year of study publication revealed a slight increase in the risk of HSIL in the 2001-2011 period and then a stabilization afterwards. This meta-analysis shows that the risk of HSIL is significantly increased in SLE patients, compared to healthy female controls. This suggests that women with SLE may benefit from HPV vaccines and specific cervical cancer screening. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The relationship between serum lipids and sudden sensorineural hearing loss: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Jen Chang

    Full Text Available Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL is a relatively common condition that is usually of unknown etiology. A number of individual studies have investigated the association between various serum lipids and SSNHL; however, the findings have been inconsistent. In an attempt to obtain more definitive information on the relationship between serum lipids and SSNHL, we carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis.Medline, the Cochrane Library, and EMBASE were searched using the following key words: lipid, cholesterol, triglyceride, fat, serum, blood, sudden hearing loss, hearing loss, hearing disorders. Randomized controlled trials, prospective cohort studies, and retrospective case-control studies involving patients with SSNHL and healthy controls that examined the relationship (reported as odds ratios [OR] between lipid profiles and SSNHL were included. Primary outcomes were total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C concentrations. Secondary outcomes were triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and lipoprotein(a concentrations.A total of 6 case-control studies were included in this systematic review/meta-analysis. The total number of participants ranged from 30 to 250 in the case group and from 43 to 271 in the control group. Meta-analysis revealed no significant difference in total cholesterol levels between the case and control groups (pooled OR = 1.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.98 to 3.26, P = 0.057. Likewise, meta-analysis revealed no significant difference in LDL-C concentrations between the case and control groups (pooled OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 0.64 to 2.07, P = 0.639. Since there were an insufficient number of studies reporting data for the secondary outcomes, meta-analysis was not possible.Our results do not provide evidence for serum lipids being associated with SSNHL, nor do they definitively rule out such an association. Additional studies are needed to ascertain the relationship, or lack

  8. Association between interferon-γ +874 T/A polymorphism and susceptibility to autoimmune diseases: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y H; Bae, S-C

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore whether the interferon (IFN)-γ +874 T/A polymorphism plays a role in modifying the risk of autoimmune diseases. A meta-analysis was conducted on the association between the IFN-γ +874 T/A polymorphism and autoimmune diseases. Eighteen studies with a total of 2952 patients and 3832 controls were included in the meta-analysis. The meta-analysis revealed no association between autoimmune diseases and the IFN-γ +874 T allele in all study subjects (odds ratio (OR)=1.023, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.894-1.171, p = 0.738), but stratification by ethnicity indicated an association between the IFN-γ +874 T allele and autoimmune diseases in Latin American subjects (OR = 0.780, 95% CI = 0.629-0.953, p = 0.015). Meta-analysis also revealed an association between autoimmune diseases and the IFN-γ +874 T/A polymorphism in Caucasian and Middle Eastern subjects under a dominant inheritance model (OR = 0.686, 95% CI = 0.489-0.964, p = 0.003; OR = 1.414, 95% CI = 1.102-1.813, p = 0.006). Meta-analysis by autoimmune disease type indicated an association between ITP and the IFN-γ +874 T allele (OR = 1.753, 95% CI = 1.228-2.503, p = 0.002), but not for vasculitis, vitiligo, and auto-immune thyroid disease. Meta-analysis also showed a significant association between the IFN-γ +874 T/A polymorphism and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) under the dominant model (OR = 1.668, 95% CI = 1.114-2.497, p = 0.013). This meta-analysis indicates that the IFN-γ +874 T/A polymorphism may play a significant role in modifying the risk of autoimmune diseases in Caucasian, Latin American, and Middle Eastern subjects, and in particular shows that the IFN-γ +874 T/A polymorphism is associated with increased genetic susceptibility to idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and SLE. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Challenges in the use of literature-based meta-analysis to examine gene-environment interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palla, Luigi; Higgins, Julian P T; Wareham, Nicholas J; Sharp, Stephen J

    2010-06-01

    Statistical interactions between genes and environmental exposures with respect to disease outcomes may help to identify biologic mechanisms and pathways and inform behavioral interventions. The number of persons required for a single study to have sufficient statistical power to detect such interactions may be considered prohibitively large, making a meta-analysis of published literature an apparently attractive alternative. However, meta-analysis of gene-environment interactions using published literature is challenging, with the conclusions being likely to suffer from bias and lack of generalizability. The authors highlight these challenges and biases using an illustrative example: meta-analysis of interactions between the Pro12Ala variant of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) gene and various diet and lifestyle factors in the risk of diabetes. The authors conclude that literature-based meta-analysis conducted to examine gene-environment interactions is unlikely to provide a meaningful quantitative conclusion. Alternative strategies are required, including analyses in scientific consortia established to assess main genetic effects, where individual participant data can be shared, allowing both greater power and consistency of analysis methods. However, these consortia are likely to be limited by lack of standardization of the measures of environmental factors. This issue may ultimately only be resolvable by the de novo establishment of large single or multicenter cohorts using comparable methods.

  10. Meta-analysis method for discovering reliable biomarkers by integrating statistical and biological approaches: An application to liver toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyeyoung; Kim, Hyosil; Na, Dokyun; Kim, So Youn; Jo, Deokyeon; Lee, Doheon

    2016-03-04

    Biomarkers that are identified from a single study often appear to be biologically irrelevant or false positives. Meta-analysis techniques allow integrating data from multiple studies that are related but independent in order to identify biomarkers across multiple conditions. However, existing biomarker meta-analysis methods tend to be sensitive to the dataset being analyzed. Here, we propose a meta-analysis method, iMeta, which integrates t-statistic and fold change ratio for improved robustness. For evaluation of predictive performance of the biomarkers identified by iMeta, we compare our method with other meta-analysis methods. As a result, iMeta outperforms the other methods in terms of sensitivity and specificity, and especially shows robustness to study variance increase; it consistently shows higher classification accuracy on diverse datasets, while the performance of the others is highly affected by the dataset being analyzed. Application of iMeta to 59 drug-induced liver injury studies identified three key biomarker genes: Zwint, Abcc3, and Ppp1r3b. Experimental evaluation using RT-PCR and qRT-PCR shows that their expressional changes in response to drug toxicity are concordant with the result of our method. iMeta is available at http://imeta.kaist.ac.kr/index.html. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Does Music Training Enhance Literacy Skills? A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Reyna L.; Fehd, Hilda M.; McCandliss, Bruce D.

    2015-01-01

    Children's engagement in music practice is associated with enhancements in literacy-related language skills, as demonstrated by multiple reports of correlation across these two domains. Training studies have tested whether engaging in music training directly transfers benefit to children's literacy skill development. Results of such studies, however, are mixed. Interpretation of these mixed results is made more complex by the fact that a wide range of literacy-related outcome measures are used across these studies. Here, we address these challenges via a meta-analytic approach. A comprehensive literature review of peer-reviewed music training studies was built around key criteria needed to test the direct transfer hypothesis, including: (a) inclusion of music training vs. control groups; (b) inclusion of pre- vs. post-comparison measures, and (c) indication that reading instruction was held constant across groups. Thirteen studies were identified (n = 901). Two classes of outcome measures emerged with sufficient overlap to support meta-analysis: phonological awareness and reading fluency. Hours of training, age, and type of control intervention were examined as potential moderators. Results supported the hypothesis that music training leads to gains in phonological awareness skills. The effect isolated by contrasting gains in music training vs. gains in control was small relative to the large variance in these skills (d = 0.2). Interestingly, analyses revealed that transfer effects for rhyming skills tended to grow stronger with increased hours of training. In contrast, no significant aggregate transfer effect emerged for reading fluency measures, despite some studies reporting large training effects. The potential influence of other study design factors were considered, including intervention design, IQ, and SES. Results are discussed in the context of emerging findings that music training may enhance literacy development via changes in brain mechanisms that

  12. Musicians have better memory than nonmusicians: A meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altoè, Gianmarco; Carretti, Barbara; Grassi, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Background Several studies have found that musicians perform better than nonmusicians in memory tasks, but this is not always the case, and the strength of this apparent advantage is unknown. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis with the aim of clarifying whether musicians perform better than nonmusicians in memory tasks. Methods Education Source; PEP (WEB)—Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing; Psychology and Behavioral Science (EBSCO); PsycINFO (Ovid); PubMed; ScienceDirect—AllBooks Content (Elsevier API); SCOPUS (Elsevier API); SocINDEX with Full Text (EBSCO) and Google Scholar were searched for eligible studies. The selected studies involved two groups of participants: young adult musicians and nonmusicians. All the studies included memory tasks (loading long-term, short-term or working memory) that contained tonal, verbal or visuospatial stimuli. Three meta-analyses were run separately for long-term memory, short-term memory and working memory. Results We collected 29 studies, including 53 memory tasks. The results showed that musicians performed better than nonmusicians in terms of long-term memory, g = .29, 95% CI (.08–.51), short-term memory, g = .57, 95% CI (.41–.73), and working memory, g = .56, 95% CI (.33–.80). To further explore the data, we included a moderator (the type of stimulus presented, i.e., tonal, verbal or visuospatial), which was found to influence the effect size for short-term and working memory, but not for long-term memory. In terms of short-term and working memory, the musicians’ advantage was large with tonal stimuli, moderate with verbal stimuli, and small or null with visuospatial stimuli. Conclusions The three meta-analyses revealed a small effect size for long-term memory, and a medium effect size for short-term and working memory, suggesting that musicians perform better than nonmusicians in memory tasks. Moreover, the effect of the moderator suggested that, the type of stimuli influences this advantage. PMID:29049416

  13. The Effects of Music on Pain: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Hyung

    2016-01-01

    Numerous meta-analyses have been conducted on the topic of music and pain, with the latest comprehensive study published in 2006. Since that time, more than 70 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been published, necessitating a new and comprehensive review. The aim of this meta-analysis was to examine published RCT studies investigating the effect of music on pain. The present study included RCTs published between 1995 and 2014. Studies were obtained by searching 12 databases and hand-searching related journals and reference lists. Main outcomes were pain intensity, emotional distress from pain, vital signs, and amount of analgesic intake. Study quality was evaluated according to the Cochrane Collaboration guidelines. Analysis of the 97 included studies revealed that music interventions had statistically significant effects in decreasing pain on 0-10 pain scales (MD = -1.13), other pain scales (SMD = -0.39), emotional distress from pain (MD = -10.83), anesthetic use (SMD = -0.56), opioid intake (SMD = -0.24), non-opioid intake (SMD = -0.54), heart rate (MD = -4.25), systolic blood pressure (MD = -3.34), diastolic blood pressure (MD = -1.18), and respiration rate (MD = -1.46). Subgroup and moderator analyses yielded additional clinically informative outcomes. Considering all the possible benefits, music interventions may provide an effective complementary approach for the relief of acute, procedural, and cancer/chronic pain in the medical setting. © the American Music Therapy Association 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Does music training enhance literacy skills? A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyna L Gordon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Children’s engagement in music practice is associated with enhancements in literacy-related language skills, as demonstrated by multiple reports of correlation across these two domains. Training studies have tested whether engaging in music training directly transfers benefit to children’s literacy skill development. Results of such studies, however, are mixed. Interpretation of these mixed results is made more complex by the fact that a wide range of literacy-related outcome measures are used across these studies. Here, we address these challenges via a meta-analytic approach. A comprehensive literature review of peer-reviewed music training studies was focused on rigorous criteria needed to test the direct transfer hypothesis, including: a inclusion of music training versus control groups; b inclusion of pre vs. post comparison measures, and c indication that reading instruction was held constant across groups. Twelve studies were identified (n= 901. Two classes of outcome measures emerged with sufficient overlap to support meta-analysis: phonological awareness and reading fluency. Hours of training, age, and type of control intervention were examined as potential moderators. Results supported the hypothesis that music training leads to gains in phonological awareness skills. The effect isolated by contrasting gains in music training versus gains in control was small relative to the large variance in these skills (d=0.2. Interestingly, analyses revealed that transfer effects for rhyming skills tended to grow stronger with increased hours of training. In contrast, no significant aggregate transfer effect emerged for reading fluency measures, despite some studies reporting large training effects. The potential influence of other study design factors were considered, including intervention design, IQ, and SES. Results are discussed in the context of emerging findings that music training may enhance literacy development via changes in brain

  15. The prevalence of compulsive buying: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraz, Aniko; Griffiths, Mark D; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2016-03-01

    To estimate the pooled prevalence of compulsive buying behaviour (CBB) in different populations and to determine the effect of age, gender, location and screening instrument on the reported heterogeneity in estimates of CBB and whether publication bias could be identified. Three databases were searched (Medline, PsychInfo, Web of Science) using the terms 'compulsive buying', 'pathological buying' and 'compulsive shopping' to estimate the pooled prevalence of CBB in different populations. Forty studies reporting 49 prevalence estimates from 16 countries were located (n = 32,000). To conduct the meta-analysis, data from non-clinical studies regarding mean age and gender proportion, geographical study location and screening instrument used to assess CBB were extracted by multiple independent observers and evaluated using a random-effects model. Four a priori subgroups were analysed using pooled estimation (Cohen's Q) and covariate testing (moderator and meta-regression analysis). The CBB pooled prevalence of adult representative studies was 4.9% (3.4-6.9%, eight estimates, 10,102 participants), although estimates were higher among university students: 8.3% (5.9-11.5%, 19 estimates, 14,947 participants) in adult non-representative samples: 12.3% (7.6-19.1%, 11 estimates, 3929 participants) and in shopping-specific samples: 16.2% (8.8-27.8%, 11 estimates, 4686 participants). Being young and female were associated with increased tendency, but not location (United States versus non-United States). Meta-regression revealed large heterogeneity within subgroups, due mainly to diverse measures and time-frames (current versus life-time) used to assess CBB. A pooled estimate of compulsive buying behaviour in the populations studied is approximately 5%, but there is large variation between samples accounted for largely by use of different time-frames and measures. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  16. Musicians have better memory than nonmusicians: A meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Talamini

    Full Text Available Several studies have found that musicians perform better than nonmusicians in memory tasks, but this is not always the case, and the strength of this apparent advantage is unknown. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis with the aim of clarifying whether musicians perform better than nonmusicians in memory tasks.Education Source; PEP (WEB-Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing; Psychology and Behavioral Science (EBSCO; PsycINFO (Ovid; PubMed; ScienceDirect-AllBooks Content (Elsevier API; SCOPUS (Elsevier API; SocINDEX with Full Text (EBSCO and Google Scholar were searched for eligible studies. The selected studies involved two groups of participants: young adult musicians and nonmusicians. All the studies included memory tasks (loading long-term, short-term or working memory that contained tonal, verbal or visuospatial stimuli. Three meta-analyses were run separately for long-term memory, short-term memory and working memory.We collected 29 studies, including 53 memory tasks. The results showed that musicians performed better than nonmusicians in terms of long-term memory, g = .29, 95% CI (.08-.51, short-term memory, g = .57, 95% CI (.41-.73, and working memory, g = .56, 95% CI (.33-.80. To further explore the data, we included a moderator (the type of stimulus presented, i.e., tonal, verbal or visuospatial, which was found to influence the effect size for short-term and working memory, but not for long-term memory. In terms of short-term and working memory, the musicians' advantage was large with tonal stimuli, moderate with verbal stimuli, and small or null with visuospatial stimuli.The three meta-analyses revealed a small effect size for long-term memory, and a medium effect size for short-term and working memory, suggesting that musicians perform better than nonmusicians in memory tasks. Moreover, the effect of the moderator suggested that, the type of stimuli influences this advantage.

  17. Musicians have better memory than nonmusicians: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talamini, Francesca; Altoè, Gianmarco; Carretti, Barbara; Grassi, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Several studies have found that musicians perform better than nonmusicians in memory tasks, but this is not always the case, and the strength of this apparent advantage is unknown. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis with the aim of clarifying whether musicians perform better than nonmusicians in memory tasks. Education Source; PEP (WEB)-Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing; Psychology and Behavioral Science (EBSCO); PsycINFO (Ovid); PubMed; ScienceDirect-AllBooks Content (Elsevier API); SCOPUS (Elsevier API); SocINDEX with Full Text (EBSCO) and Google Scholar were searched for eligible studies. The selected studies involved two groups of participants: young adult musicians and nonmusicians. All the studies included memory tasks (loading long-term, short-term or working memory) that contained tonal, verbal or visuospatial stimuli. Three meta-analyses were run separately for long-term memory, short-term memory and working memory. We collected 29 studies, including 53 memory tasks. The results showed that musicians performed better than nonmusicians in terms of long-term memory, g = .29, 95% CI (.08-.51), short-term memory, g = .57, 95% CI (.41-.73), and working memory, g = .56, 95% CI (.33-.80). To further explore the data, we included a moderator (the type of stimulus presented, i.e., tonal, verbal or visuospatial), which was found to influence the effect size for short-term and working memory, but not for long-term memory. In terms of short-term and working memory, the musicians' advantage was large with tonal stimuli, moderate with verbal stimuli, and small or null with visuospatial stimuli. The three meta-analyses revealed a small effect size for long-term memory, and a medium effect size for short-term and working memory, suggesting that musicians perform better than nonmusicians in memory tasks. Moreover, the effect of the moderator suggested that, the type of stimuli influences this advantage.

  18. Drug-Induced Reduction in Albuminuria Is Associated with Subsequent Renoprotection: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heerspink, Hiddo J Lambers; Kröpelin, Tobias F; Hoekman, Jarno; de Zeeuw, Dick

    2015-08-01

    Albuminuria has been proposed as a surrogate end point in randomized clinical trials of renal disease progression. Most evidence comes from observational analyses showing that treatment-induced short-term changes in albuminuria correlate with risk change for ESRD. However, such studies are prone to selection bias and residual confounding. To minimize this bias, we performed a meta-analysis of clinical trials to correlate the placebo-corrected drug effect on albuminuria and ESRD to more reliably delineate the association between changes in albuminuria and ESRD. MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for clinical trials reported between 1950 and April 2014. Included trials had a mean follow-up of ≥1000 patient-years, reported ESRD outcomes, and measured albuminuria at baseline and during follow-up. Twenty-one clinical trials involving 78,342 patients and 4183 ESRD events were included. Median time to first albuminuria measurement was 6 months. Fourteen trials tested the effect of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system inhibitors and seven trials tested other interventions. We observed variability across trials in the treatment effect on albuminuria (range, -1.3% to -32.1%) and ESRD (range, -55% to +35% risk change). Meta-regression analysis revealed that the placebo-adjusted treatment effect on albuminuria significantly correlated with the treatment effect on ESRD: for each 30% reduction in albuminuria, the risk of ESRD decreased by 23.7% (95% confidence interval, 11.4% to 34.2%; P=0.001). The association was consistent regardless of drug class (P=0.73) or other patient or trial characteristics. These findings suggest albuminuria may be a valid substitute for ESRD in many circumstances, even taking into account possible other drug-specific effects that may alter renal outcomes. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  19. Slow-growth high-mortality: A meta-analysis for insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ke-Wei; Chen, Yigen

    2018-04-01

    The slow growth-high mortality hypothesis (SG-HG) predicts that slower growing herbivores suffer greater mortality due to a prolonged window of vulnerability. Given diverse plant-herbivore-natural enemy systems resulting from different feeding ecologies of herbivores and natural enemies, this hypothesis might not always be applicable to all systems. This is evidenced by mixed support from empirical data. In this study, a meta-analysis of the SG-HM hypothesis for insects was conducted, aiming to find conditions that favor or reject SG-HM. The analysis revealed significant within- and between-group heterogeneity for almost all explanatory variables and overall did not support SG-HM. In this analysis, SG-HM was supported when any of the following 5 conditions was met: (1) host food consisted of artificial diet; (2) herbivore growth was measured as larval mass; (3) herbivores were generalists; (4) no or multiple species of natural enemies were involved in the study; and (5) parasitoids (i.e., parasitic insects) involved in the study were gregarious. SG-HM was rejected when any of the following 5 conditions was met: (1) herbivores were from the order Hymentoptera; (2) parasitoids from more than 1 order caused herbivore mortality; (2) parasitoids were specialists; (3) parasitoids were solitary; (4) parasitoids were idiobionts or koinobionts; and (5) single species of natural enemy caused mortality of specialist herbivores. All known studies investigated herbivore mortality for a short period of their life cycle. Researchers are encouraged to monitor herbivore mortality during the entire window of susceptibility or life cycle using life tables. Studies involving multiple mortality factors (i.e., both biotic and abiotic) or multiple natural enemy species are also encouraged since herbivores in nature face a multitude of risks during the entire life cycle. More comprehensive studies may increase our understanding of factors influencing the relationships between herbivore

  20. General and specialized brain correlates for analogical reasoning: A meta-analysis of functional imaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobeika, Lucie; Diard-Detoeuf, Capucine; Garcin, Béatrice; Levy, Richard; Volle, Emmanuelle

    2016-05-01

    Reasoning by analogy allows us to link distinct domains of knowledge and to transfer solutions from one domain to another. Analogical reasoning has been studied using various tasks that have generally required the consideration of the relationships between objects and their integration to infer an analogy schema. However, these tasks varied in terms of the level and the nature of the relationships to consider (e.g., semantic, visuospatial). The aim of this study was to identify the cerebral network involved in analogical reasoning and its specialization based on the domains of information and task specificity. We conducted a coordinate-based meta-analysis of 27 experiments that used analogical reasoning tasks. The left rostrolateral prefrontal cortex was one of the regions most consistently activated across the studies. A comparison between semantic and visuospatial analogy tasks showed both domain-oriented regions in the inferior and middle frontal gyri and a domain-general region, the left rostrolateral prefrontal cortex, which was specialized for analogy tasks. A comparison of visuospatial analogy to matrix problem tasks revealed that these two relational reasoning tasks engage, at least in part, distinct right and left cerebral networks, particularly separate areas within the left rostrolateral prefrontal cortex. These findings highlight several cognitive and cerebral differences between relational reasoning tasks that can allow us to make predictions about the respective roles of distinct brain regions or networks. These results also provide new, testable anatomical hypotheses about reasoning disorders that are induced by brain damage. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1953-1969, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Treatment of endometriosis in different ethnic populations: a meta-analysis of two clinical trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Approaches to the treatment of endometriosis vary worldwide, but studies comparing endometriosis medications in different ethnic groups are rare. A systematic literature search identified two studies directly comparing dienogest (DNG) versus gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues in European and Japanese populations. Meta-analysis of visual analogue scale scores revealed no heterogeneity in response between the trials, indicating equivalent efficacy of DNG and GnRH analogues for endometriosis-related pain across populations. DNG was significantly superior to GnRH analogues for bone mineral density change in both trials, but significant heterogeneity between the studies may indicate ethnic differences in physiology. PMID:22515510

  2. Treatment of endometriosis in different ethnic populations: a meta-analysis of two clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerlinger Christoph

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Approaches to the treatment of endometriosis vary worldwide, but studies comparing endometriosis medications in different ethnic groups are rare. A systematic literature search identified two studies directly comparing dienogest (DNG versus gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH analogues in European and Japanese populations. Meta-analysis of visual analogue scale scores revealed no heterogeneity in response between the trials, indicating equivalent efficacy of DNG and GnRH analogues for endometriosis-related pain across populations. DNG was significantly superior to GnRH analogues for bone mineral density change in both trials, but significant heterogeneity between the studies may indicate ethnic differences in physiology.

  3. Efficacy of killed whole-parasite vaccines in the prevention of leishmaniasis: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noazin, Sassan; Khamesipour, Ali; Moulton, Lawrence H; Tanner, Marcel; Nasseri, Kiumarss; Modabber, Farrokh; Sharifi, Iraj; Khalil, E A G; Bernal, Ivan Dario Velez; Antunes, Carlos M F; Smith, Peter G

    2009-07-30

    Despite decades of investigation in countries on three continents, an efficacious vaccine against Leishmania infections has not been developed. Although some indication of protection was observed in some of the controlled trials conducted with "first-generation" whole, inactivated Leishmania parasite vaccines, convincing evidence of protection was lacking. After reviewing all previously published or unpublished randomized, controlled field efficacy clinical trials of prophylactic candidate vaccines, a meta-analysis of qualified trials was conducted to evaluate whether there was some evidence of protection revealed by considering the results of all trials together. The findings indicate that the whole-parasite vaccine candidates tested do not confer significant protection against human leishmaniasis.

  4. Striatal dopamine in Parkinson disease: A meta-analysis of imaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaasinen, Valtteri; Vahlberg, Tero

    2017-12-01

    A meta-analysis of 142 positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography studies that have investigated striatal presynaptic dopamine function in Parkinson disease (PD) was performed. Subregional estimates of striatal dopamine metabolism are presented. The aromatic L-amino-acid decarboxylase (AADC) defect appears to be consistently smaller than the dopamine transporter and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 defects, suggesting upregulation of AADC function in PD. The correlation between disease severity and dopamine loss appears linear, but the majority of longitudinal studies point to a negative exponential progression pattern of dopamine loss in PD. Ann Neurol 2017;82:873-882. © 2017 American Neurological Association.

  5. Neuroimaging support for discrete neural correlates of basic emotions: a voxel-based meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vytal, Katherine; Hamann, Stephan

    2010-12-01

    What is the basic structure of emotional experience and how is it represented in the human brain? One highly influential theory, discrete basic emotions, proposes a limited set of basic emotions such as happiness and fear, which are characterized by unique physiological and neural profiles. Although many studies using diverse methods have linked particular brain structures with specific basic emotions, evidence from individual neuroimaging studies and from neuroimaging meta-analyses has been inconclusive regarding whether basic emotions are associated with both consistent and discriminable regional brain activations. We revisited this question, using activation likelihood estimation (ALE), which allows spatially sensitive, voxelwise statistical comparison of results from multiple studies. In addition, we examined substantially more studies than previous meta-analyses. The ALE meta-analysis yielded results consistent with basic emotion theory. Each of the emotions examined (fear, anger, disgust, sadness, and happiness) was characterized by consistent neural correlates across studies, as defined by reliable correlations with regional brain activations. In addition, the activation patterns associated with each emotion were discrete (discriminable from the other emotions in pairwise contrasts) and overlapped substantially with structure-function correspondences identified using other approaches, providing converging evidence that discrete basic emotions have consistent and discriminable neural correlates. Complementing prior studies that have demonstrated neural correlates for the affective dimensions of arousal and valence, the current meta-analysis results indicate that the key elements of basic emotion views are reflected in neural correlates identified by neuroimaging studies.

  6. Neural signatures of social conformity: A coordinate-based activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of functional brain imaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiyan; Luo, Yi; Feng, Chunliang

    2016-12-01

    People often align their behaviors with group opinions, known as social conformity. Many neuroscience studies have explored the neuropsychological mechanisms underlying social conformity. Here we employed a coordinate-based meta-analysis on neuroimaging studies of social conformity with the purpose to reveal the convergence of the underlying neural architecture. We identified a convergence of reported activation foci in regions associated with normative decision-making, including ventral striatum (VS), dorsal posterior medial frontal cortex (dorsal pMFC), and anterior insula (AI). Specifically, consistent deactivation of VS and activation of dorsal pMFC and AI are identified when people's responses deviate from group opinions. In addition, the deviation-related responses in dorsal pMFC predict people's conforming behavioral adjustments. These are consistent with current models that disagreement with others might evoke "error" signals, cognitive imbalance, and/or aversive feelings, which are plausibly detected in these brain regions as control signals to facilitate subsequent conforming behaviors. Finally, group opinions result in altered neural correlates of valuation, manifested as stronger responses of VS to stimuli endorsed than disliked by others. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Meta-Analysis of Extensive Reading Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate the overall effectiveness of extensive reading, whether learners' age impacts learning, and whether the length of time second language learners engage in extensive reading influences test scores. The author conducted a meta-analysis to answer research questions and to identify future research…

  8. Effectiveness of Secondary Pregnancy Prevention Programs: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Jacqueline; Pillai, Vijayan K.

    2007-01-01

    Because subsequent pregnancy in teen parents often worsens the impact of adolescent parenting; therefore, a common goal of teenage parent programs has been to reduce repeat pregnancy. To examine the impact of this goal, a meta-analysis was conducted on 16 control-comparison group studies that evaluated the effect of teenage pregnancy and parenting…

  9. The Categorical Perception Deficit in Dyslexia: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordenbos, Mark W.; Serniclaes, Willy

    2015-01-01

    Speech perception in dyslexia is characterized by a categorical perception (CP) deficit, demonstrated by weaker discrimination of acoustic differences between phonemic categories in conjunction with better discrimination of acoustic differences within phonemic categories. We performed a meta-analysis of studies that examined the reliability of the…

  10. A Meta-Analysis of Outdoor Adventure Programming with Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, Dana; Gillis, H. L. Lee

    1994-01-01

    Meta-analysis of 143 effect sizes in 43 studies of adventure programming for adolescents found an overall effect size of 0.31. Summary effect sizes of outcome categories differed significantly among categories, however. Effect size was related to program length and participant age but not to delinquent status. Discusses the lack of pertinent…

  11. Effectiveness of Conceptual Change Texts: A Meta Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armagan, Fulya Öner; Keskin, Melike Özer; Akin, Beril Salman

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the overall effectiveness of conceptual change texts (CCTs) on academic achievement and to find out if effectiveness was related to some characteristics of the study. It followed up a Meta-analysis research approach. 42 published and unpublished studies, published between 1995 and 2010, and 42 experiment…

  12. Macroeconomics of natural disasters : Meta-analysis and policy options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A.G. van Bergeijk (Peter); S. Lazzaroni (Sara)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWe use the case of the impact of natural disasters to analyse strengths and weaknesses of meta-analysis in an emerging research field. Macroeconomists have published on this issue since 2002 (we identified 22 studies to date). The results of the studies are contradictory and

  13. Visuo-Spatial Performance in Autism: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muth, Anne; Hönekopp, Johannes; Falter, Christine M.

    2014-01-01

    Visuo-spatial skills are believed to be enhanced in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). This meta-analysis tests the current state of evidence for Figure Disembedding, Block Design, Mental Rotation and Navon tasks in ASD and neurotypicals. Block Design (d = 0.32) and Figure Disembedding (d = 0.26) showed superior performance for ASD with large…

  14. Meta-analysis of graduated driver licensing laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of GDL programs for reducing total, injury, and fatal crashes among drivers 15 to 20 years old by conducting a meta-analysis of GDL research since 2001 that evaluated the effectivenes...

  15. Multivariate Meta-Analysis Using Individual Participant Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, R. D.; Price, M. J.; Jackson, D.; Wardle, M.; Gueyffier, F.; Wang, J.; Staessen, J. A.; White, I. R.

    2015-01-01

    When combining results across related studies, a multivariate meta-analysis allows the joint synthesis of correlated effect estimates from multiple outcomes. Joint synthesis can improve efficiency over separate univariate syntheses, may reduce selective outcome reporting biases, and enables joint inferences across the outcomes. A common issue is…

  16. Meta-analysis of landscape conservation plan evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaela Foster; M. Nils Peterson; Frederick Cubbage; Gerard McMahon

    2016-01-01

    The number of studies evaluating the quality and content of many types of plans have grown in recent decades. Natural resource conservation plans have been included in some of these plan evaluation studies; however, no meta-analysis of natural resource planning literature has been conducted. This focus is needed because natural resource conservation planning differs...

  17. Does College Teach Critical Thinking? A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Christopher R.; Kuncel, Nathan R.

    2016-01-01

    Educators view critical thinking as an essential skill, yet it remains unclear how effectively it is being taught in college. This meta-analysis synthesizes research on gains in critical thinking skills and attitudinal dispositions over various time frames in college. The results suggest that both critical thinking skills and dispositions improve…

  18. A Meta-Analysis: Acoustic Measurement of Roughness and Breathiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    v. Latoszek, Ben Barsties; Maryn, Youri; Gerrits, Ellen; De Bodt, Marc

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Over the last 5 decades, many acoustic measures have been created to measure roughness and breathiness. The aim of this study is to present a meta-analysis of correlation coefficients (r) between auditory-perceptual judgment of roughness and breathiness and various acoustic measures in both sustained vowels and continuous speech. Method:…

  19. [The meta-analysis of data from individual patients].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rovers, M.M.; Reitsma, J.B.

    2012-01-01

    - An IPD (Individual Participant Data) meta-analysis requires collecting original individual patient data and calculating an estimated effect based on these data.- The use of individual patient data has various advantages: the original data and the results of published analyses are verified,

  20. The Psychological Effects of Meditation: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlmeier, Peter; Eberth, Juliane; Schwarz, Marcus; Zimmermann, Doreen; Haarig, Frederik; Jaeger, Sonia; Kunze, Sonja

    2012-01-01

    In this meta-analysis, we give a comprehensive overview of the effects of meditation on psychological variables that can be extracted from empirical studies, concentrating on the effects of meditation on nonclinical groups of adult meditators. Mostly because of methodological problems, almost 3/4 of an initially identified 595 studies had to be…

  1. The Economic Value of Mangroves: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwa Salem; D. Evan Mercer

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a synthesis of the mangrove ecosystem valuation literature through a meta-regression analysis. The main contribution of this study is that it is the first meta-analysis focusing solely on mangrove forests, whereas previous studies have included different types of wetlands. The number of studies included in the regression analysis is 44 for a total...

  2. Insight in psychosis and neuropsychological function - Meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aleman, Andre; Agrawal, Niruj; Morgan, Kevin D.; David, Anthony S.

    Background One factor contributing to impaired awareness of illness (poor insight) in psychotic disorders may be neurocognitive deficits. Method A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted after data extraction. Following an overall analysis, in which measures of different cognitive domains

  3. Drivers of Wetland Conversion: a Global Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Asselen, S.; Verburg, P.H.; Vermaat, J.E.; Janse, J.

    2013-01-01

    Meta-analysis of case studies has become an important tool for synthesizing case study findings in land change. Meta-analyses of deforestation, urbanization, desertification and change in shifting cultivation systems have been published. This present study adds to this literature, with an analysis

  4. Lead and Conduct Problems: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, David K.; Fulton, Jessica J.; Clarke, Erin J.

    2010-01-01

    This meta-analysis examined the association between conduct problems and lead exposure. Nineteen studies on 8,561 children and adolescents were included. The average "r" across all 19 studies was 0.19 (p less than 0.001), which is considered a medium effect size. Studies that assessed lead exposure using hair element analysis yielded…

  5. A meta-analysis of electroconvulsive therapy efficacy in depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kho, King Han; van Vreeswijk, Michiel Floris; Simpson, Steve; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.

    2003-01-01

    Recently published controlled studies comparing electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) with other treatments for depression offer the opportunity to perform a meta-analysis of ECT in depression. Fifteen studies were identified which fulfilled the inclusion criteria. From these controlled trials, 20 effect

  6. The Construct Validity of Language Aptitude: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaofeng

    2016-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to examine the construct validity of language aptitude by synthesizing the existing research that has been accumulated over the past five decades. The study aimed to provide a thorough understanding of the construct by aggregating the data reported in the primary research on its correlations with other individual…

  7. Psychological treatment of generalized anxiety disorder: A meta-analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.; Sijbrandij, M.; Koole, S.L.; Huibers, M.J.H.; Berking, M.; Andersson, G.

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have seen a near-doubling of the number of studies examining the effects of psychotherapies for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in adults. The present article integrates this new evidence with the older literature through a quantitative meta-analysis. A total of 41 studies (with 2132

  8. A Meta-analysis of School Effectiveness Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheerens, Jaap; Witziers, Bob; Steen, Rien

    2013-01-01

    A meta-analysis was carried out on the basis of 155 research studies on school effectiveness, comprising a total of 1.211 associations between school effectiveness enhancing factors and student outcome variables. The original studies were carried out between 1984 and 2005. The school effectiveness

  9. ADDIS : an automated way to do network meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Jing; van Valkenhoef, Gert; de Brock, E.O.; Hillege, Hans

    2012-01-01

    In evidence-based medicine, meta-analysis is an important statistical technique for combining the findings from independent clinical trials which have attempted to answer similar questions about treatment's clinical eectiveness [1]. Normally, such meta-analyses are pair-wise treatment comparisons,

  10. How to do Meta-Analysis using HLM software

    OpenAIRE

    Petscher, Yaacov

    2013-01-01

    This is a step-by-step presentation of how to run a meta-analysis using HLM software. Because it's a variance known model, it is not run through the GUI, but batch mode. These slides show how to prepare the data and run the analysis.

  11. The Relationship Between Parenting and Delinquency: A Meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, M.; Dubas, J.S.; Eichelsheim, V.I.; Laan, P.H. van der; Smeenk, W.H.; Gerris, J.R.M.

    2009-01-01

    This meta-analysis of 161 published and unpublished manuscripts was conducted to determine whether the association between parenting and delinquency exists and what the magnitude of this linkage is. The strongest links were found for parental monitoring, psychological control, and negative aspects

  12. The relationship between parenting and delinquency: A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, M.; Dubas, J.S.; Eichelsheim, V.I.; van der Laan, P.H.; Smeenk, W.; Gerris, J.R.M.

    2009-01-01

    This meta-analysis of 161 published and unpublished manuscripts was conducted to determine whether the association between parenting and delinquency exists and what the magnitude of this linkage is. The strongest links were found for parental monitoring, psychological control, and negative aspects

  13. Why Is Family Firms' Internationalization Unique? : A Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arregle, Jean-Luc; Duran, Patricio; Hitt, Michael A.; van Essen, M.

    Despite its importance, there is no clear understanding of the uniqueness of family firms' internationalization. This article sheds new light on this issue with a meta-analysis of 76 studies covering 41 countries. We show that the considerable study and cross-country differences in the relationship

  14. A Meta-Analysis of Advance-Organizer Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Carol Leth

    Long term studies of advance organizers (AO) were analyzed with Glass's meta-analysis technique. AO's were defined as bridges from reader's previous knowledge to what is to be learned. The results were compared with predictions from Ausubel's model of assimilative learning. The results of the study indicated that advance organizers were associated…

  15. A Meta-Analysis of Advanced Organizer Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Carol Leth

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-nine reports yielding 112 studies were analyzed with Glass's meta-analysis technique, and results were compared with predictions from Ausubel's model of assimilative learning. Overall, advance organizers were shown to be associated with increased learning and retention of material to be learned. (Author)

  16. Contemporary management of frontal sinus mucoceles: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courson, Andy M; Stankiewicz, James A; Lal, Devyani

    2014-02-01

    To analyze trends in the surgical management of frontal and fronto-ethmoid mucoceles through meta-analysis. Meta-analysis and case series. A systematic literature review on surgical management of frontal and fronto-ethmoid mucoceles was conducted. Studies were divided into historical (1975-2001) and contemporary (2002-2012) groups. A meta-analysis of these studies was performed. The historical and contemporary cohorts were compared (surgical approach, recurrence, and complications). To study evolution in surgical management, a senior surgeon's experience over 28 years was analyzed separately. Thirty-one studies were included for meta-analysis. The historical cohort included 425 mucoceles from 11 studies. The contemporary cohort included 542 mucoceles from 20 studies. More endoscopic techniques were used in the contemporary versus historical cohort (53.9% vs. 24.7%; P = contemporary). In the historical cohort, higher recurrence was noted in the external group (P = 0.03). Results from endoscopic and open approaches are comparable. Although endoscopic techniques are being increasingly adopted, comparison with our series shows that more cases could potentially be treated endoscopically. Frequent use of open approaches may reflect efficacy, or perhaps lack of expertise and equipment required for endoscopic management. Most contemporary authors favor endoscopic management, limiting open approaches for specific indications (unfavorable anatomy, lateral disease, and scarring). N/A. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  17. The Psychophysiology of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pole, Nnamdi

    2007-01-01

    This meta-analysis of 58 resting baseline studies, 25 startle studies, 17 standardized trauma cue studies, and 22 idiographic trauma cue studies compared adults with and without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on psychophysiological variables: facial electromyography (EMG), heart rate (HR), skin conductance (SC), and blood pressure.…

  18. Risk factors for ectopic pregnancy: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ankum, W. M.; Mol, B. W.; van der Veen, F.; Bossuyt, P. M.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review current knowledge on the risk of ectopic pregnancy (EP), with the exception of contraceptive methods. DESIGN: Meta-analysis. SETTING: Case control and cohort studies published between 1978 and 1994 in English, French, German, or Dutch, retrieved by Medline search, crossover

  19. Predictors of efficacy in depression prevention programmes. Meta-analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jané Llopis, E.; Hosman, C.M.H.; Jenkins, R.B.; Anderson, P.D.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Worldwide, 340 million people are affected by depression, with high comorbid, social and economic costs. AIMS: To identify potential predictors of effect in prevention programmes. METHOD: A meta-analysis was made of 69 programmes to reduce depression or depressive symptoms. RESULTS: The

  20. Clothiapine for acute psychotic illness: a meta-analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QuickSilver

    12. Clothiapine for acute psychotic illness: a meta-analysis. Introduction. Acute psychosis requires psychological and pharmacological treatment and, when a risk of self-harm or harm to others is present, the need for treatment can become urgent. Ideally, the drug(s) used in urgent treatment of acute psychosis should have.

  1. Digital Simulation-Based Training: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gegenfurtner, Andreas; Quesada-Pallarès, Carla; Knogler, Maximilian

    2014-01-01

    This study examines how design characteristics in digital simulation-based learning environments moderate self-efficacy and transfer of learning. Drawing on social cognitive theory and the cognitive theory of multimedia learning, the meta-analysis psychometrically cumulated k?=?15 studies of 25 years of research with a total sample size of…

  2. A Meta-Analysis on Unconscious Thought Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strick, M.A.; Dijksterhuis, A.J.; Bos, M.W.; Sjoerdsma, A.; Baaren, R.B. van; Nordgren, L.F.

    2011-01-01

    A meta-analysis was performed on the unconscious thought effect (UTE). All available published and unpublished data on unconscious thought were included. Our aims were to provide a statistically robust estimate of the effect size of the UTE, to identify significant moderators, and to

  3. and risk of Down's syndrome child: meta-analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    syndrome child: meta-analysis. AMANDEEP KAUR and ANUPAM KAUR. ∗. Department of Human Genetics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143 005, India. Abstract. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is the most important gene that participates in folate metabolism. Presence of valine instead of alanine at ...

  4. Abnormal vascular endothelial growth factor protein expression may be correlated with poor prognosis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Sun, Jiang Hong; Quan, Li-Na; Tian, Yu-Yang; Jia, Chui-Ming; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Ai-Chun

    2016-01-01

    We conducted the present meta-analysis with relevant cohort studies to determine whether expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor. (VEGF) could predict the prognosis of diffuse large B.cell lymphoma. (DLBCL). The MEDLINE (1966-2013), the Cochrane Library Database (Issue 12, 2013), EMBASE (1980-2013), CINAHL (1982--2013), Web of Science (1945-2013), and the Chinese Biomedical Database (1982-2013) were searched without any language restrictions. Meta-analysis was conducted using STATA software (Version 12.0, Stata Corporation, College Station, Texas USA). Hazard ratios (HR) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated. Eight clinical cohort studies, which recruited a total 670 DLBCL patients, were included in the meta-analysis. The results of this meta-analysis indicate that DLBCL patients with positive VEGF expression had a shorter overall survival than those with negative VEGF expression. (HR = 1.58, 95% CI = 0.80-2.36, P analysis illustrates that high expression levels of VEGF may be significantly correlated with poor DLBCL prognosis among both Caucasian and Asian populations. (Caucasian: HR = 1.73, 95% CI = 0.56-2.90, P = 0.004; Asian: HR = 1.45, 95% CI = 0.41-2.50, P = 0.006). The major findings of our meta-analysis reveal that the aberrant expression of VEGF may correspond to shorter overall survival of patients with DLBCL, revealing that VEGF expression could be an unbiased prognostic determinant in the management of DLBCL patients.

  5. Impact of Instructional Decisions on the Effectiveness of Cooperative Learning in Chemistry through Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apugliese, Andrew; Lewis, Scott E.

    2017-01-01

    Meta-analysis can provide a robust description of the impact of educational reforms and also offer an opportunity to explore the conditions where such reforms are more or less effective. This article describes a meta-analysis on the impact of cooperative learning on students' chemistry understanding. Modifiers in the meta-analysis are purposefully…

  6. Efficacy of antidepressive medication for depression in Parkinson disease: a network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Chuanjun; Xue, Rong; Luo, Lanlan; Ji, Feng; Tian, Hongjun; Qu, Hongru; Lin, Xiaodong; Jiang, Ronghuan; Tao, Ran

    2017-06-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) was considered as the 2nd most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer disease, while depression is a prevailing nonmotor symptom of PD. Typically used antidepression medication includes tricyclic antidepressants (TCA), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRI), monoamine-oxidase inhibitors (MAOI), and dopamine agonists (DA). Our study aimed at evaluating the efficacy of antidepressive medications for depression of PD. Web of Science, PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane library were searched for related articles. Traditional meta-analysis and network meta-analysis (NMA) were performed with outcomes including depression score, UPDRS-II, UPDRS-III, and adverse effects. Surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA) was also performed to illustrate the rank probabilities of different medications on various outcomes. The consistency of direct and indirect evidence was also assessed by node-splitting method. Results of traditional pairwise meta-analysis were performed. Concerning depression score, significant improvement was observed in AD, MAOI, SSRI, and SNRI compared with placebo. NMA was performed and more information could be obtained. DA was illustrated to be effective over placebo concerning UPDRS-III, MAOI, and SNRI. DA demonstrated a better prognosis in UPDRS-II scores compared with placebo and MAOI. However, DA and SSRI demonstrated a significant increase in adverse effects compared with placebo. The SUCRA value was calculated to evaluate the ranking probabilities of all medications on investigated outcomes, and the consistency between direct and indirect evidences was assessed by node-splitting method. SSRI had a satisfying efficacy for the depression of PD patients and could improve activities of daily living and motor function of patient but the adverse effects are unneglectable. SNRI are the safest medication with high efficacy for depression as well while

  7. Efficacy and complications of polyethylene glycols for treatment of constipation in children: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Si-Le; Cai, Shi-Rong; Deng, Liang; Zhang, Xin-Hua; Luo, Te-Dong; Peng, Jian-Jun; Xu, Jian-Bo; Li, Wen-Feng; Chen, Chuang-Qi; Ma, Jin-Ping; He, Yu-Long

    2014-10-01

    Constipation is a common childhood complaint. In 90% to 95% of children, constipation is functional, which means that there is no objective evidence of an underlying pathological condition. Polyethylene glycol (PEG or macrogol) solution is an osmotic laxative agent that is absorbed in only trace amounts from the gastrointestinal tract and routinely used to treat chronic constipation in adults. Here, we report the results of a meta-analysis of PEG-based laxatives compared with lactulose, milk of magnesia (magnesium hydroxide), oral liquid paraffin (mineral oil), or acacia fiber, psyllium fiber, and fructose in children. This meta-analysis was conducted in accordance with PRISMA guidelines and involved searches of MEDLINE, Cochrane, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases up to February 10, 2014, using the keywords (Constipation OR Functional Constipation OR Fecal Impaction) AND (Children) AND (Polyethylene Glycol OR Laxative). Primary efficacy outcomes included a number of stool passages/wk and percentage of patients who reported satisfactory stool consistency. Secondary safety outcomes included diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea or vomiting, pain or straining at defecation, bloating or flatulence, hard stool consistency, poor palatability, and rectal bleeding. We identified 231 articles, 27 of which were suitable for full-text review and 10 of which were used in the meta-analysis. Patients who were treated with PEG experienced more successful disimpaction compared with those treated with non-PEG laxatives. Treatment-related adverse events were acceptable and generally well tolerated. PEG-based laxatives are effective and safe for chronic constipation and for resolving fecal impaction in children. Children's acceptance of PEG-based laxatives appears to be better than non-PEG laxatives. Optimal dosages, routes of administration, and PEG regimens should be determined in future randomized controlled studies and meta-analyses.

  8. Association between cadmium exposure and urolithiasis risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhen-Lang; Wang, Jun-Yue; Gong, Lei-Liang; Gan, Shu; Gu, Chi-Ming; Wang, Shu-Sheng

    2018-01-01

    We performed a meta-analysis to determine whether a consistent relationship exists between cadmium exposure and urolithiasis in humans. Accordingly, we summarized and reviewed previously published quantitative studies. Eligible studies with reference lists published before June 1, 2017 were obtained from searching several databases. Random effects models were used to summary the overall estimate of the multivariate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Six observational studies involving 88,045 participants were identified and stratified into the following categories according to cadmium assessment results: occupational (n = 4) and dietary (n = 2). The findings of the meta-analysis suggested that the risk of urolithiasis increases significantly by 1.32 times at higher cadmium exposure (OR = 1.32; 95% CI = 1.08-1.62; for highest vs lowest category urinary cadmium values). The summary OR in occupational exposure (OR = 1.56; 95% CI = 1.13-2.14) increased at the same condition. Meanwhile, no association was observed between cadmium exposure and urolithiasis risk in dietary exposure (OR = 1.13; 95% CI = 0.87-1.47). A significant association remained consistent, as indicated by subgroup analyses and sensitivity analyses. The meta-analysis indicated that increased risk of urolithiasis is associated with high cadmium exposure, and this association is higher in occupational exposure than in dietary exposure. Nevertheless, well-designed observational studies with different ethnic populations are still needed. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Air ions and mood outcomes: a review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Psychological effects of air ions have been reported for more than 80 years in the media and scientific literature. This study summarizes a qualitative literature review and quantitative meta-analysis, where applicable, that examines the potential effects of exposure to negative and positive air ions on psychological measures of mood and emotional state. Methods A structured literature review was conducted to identify human experimental studies published through August, 2012. Thirty-three studies (1957–2012) evaluating the effects of air ionization on depression, anxiety, mood states, and subjective feelings of mental well-being in humans were included. Five studies on negative ionization and depression (measured using a structured interview guide) were evaluated by level of exposure intensity (high vs. low) using meta-analysis. Results Consistent ionization effects were not observed for anxiety, mood, relaxation/sleep, and personal comfort. In contrast, meta-analysis results showed that negative ionization, overall, was significantly associated with lower depression ratings, with a stronger association observed at high levels of negative ion exposure (mean summary effect and 95% confidence interval (CI) following high- and low-density exposure: 14.28 (95% CI: 12.93-15.62) and 7.23 (95% CI: 2.62-11.83), respectively). The response to high-density ionization was observed in patients with seasonal or chronic depression, but an effect of low-density ionization was observed only in patients with seasonal depression. However, no relationship between the duration or frequency of ionization treatment on depression ratings was evident. Conclusions No consistent influence of positive or negative air ionization on anxiety, mood, relaxation, sleep, and personal comfort measures was observed. Negative air ionization was associated with lower depression scores particularly at the highest exposure level. Future research is needed to evaluate the biological

  10. CrossFit Overview: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudino, João Gustavo; Gabbett, Tim J; Bourgeois, Frank; Souza, Helton de Sá; Miranda, Rafael Chagas; Mezêncio, Bruno; Soncin, Rafael; Cardoso Filho, Carlos Alberto; Bottaro, Martim; Hernandez, Arnaldo Jose; Amadio, Alberto Carlos; Serrão, Julio Cerca

    2018-02-26

    CrossFit is recognized as one of the fastest growing high-intensity functional training modes in the world. However, scientific data regarding the practice of CrossFit is sparse. Therefore, the objective of this study is to analyze the findings of scientific literature related to CrossFit via systematic review and meta-analysis. Systematic searches of the PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Bireme/MedLine, and SciELO online databases were conducted for articles reporting the effects of CrossFit training. The systematic review followed the PRISMA guidelines. The Oxford Levels of Evidence was used for all included articles, and only studies that investigated the effects of CrossFit as a training program were included in the meta-analysis. For the meta-analysis, effect sizes (ESs) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated and heterogeneity was assessed using a random-effects model. Thirty-one articles were included in the systematic review and four were included in the meta-analysis. However, only two studies had a high level of evidence at low risk of bias. Scientific literature related to CrossFit has reported on body composition, psycho-physiological parameters, musculoskeletal injury risk, life and health aspects, and psycho-social behavior. In the meta-analysis, significant results were not found for any variables. The current scientific literature related to CrossFit has few studies with high level of evidence at low risk of bias. However, preliminary data has suggested that CrossFit practice is associated with higher levels of sense of community, satisfaction, and motivation.

  11. Evaluation the efficacy and safety of simultaneous splenectomy in liver transplantation patients: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chao; Liu, Xiaojuan; Peng, Wei; Li, Chuan; Wen, Tian-Fu

    2018-03-01

    Simultaneous splenectomy during liver transplantation (LT) is debated. The present meta-analysis assessed the efficacy and safety of splenectomy on the outcome of LT patients. We searched PubMed, Embase, and Wanfang databases for relevant studies published until the date of July 15, 2017. Quality assessment of the included studies was performed using a modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale judgment. The data were analyzed using RevMan5.3 software. A total of 16 studies consisting of 2198 patients (892 patients received splenectomy during LT [SPLT group] and 1306 patients received LT only [LT group]) were included in the present meta-analysis. Efficacy analysis revealed that pooled hazard ratio for overall survival (OS) between 2 groups was not significantly different (hazard ratio = 1.03; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.71-1.50). SPLT group had less postoperative rejection (odds ratio [OR] = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.50-0.79) and small for size syndrome (OR = 0.23, 95% CI: 0.07-0.79). SPLT group had significantly lower preoperative platelet (mean difference [MD] = -17.23, 95% CI: -19.54, -14.91), but significantly higher postoperative platelet (MD = 170.45, 95% CI: 108.33-232.56). Conversely, SPLT group had significant higher preoperative portal pressure (MD = 1.54, 95% CI: 0.75-2.33) and significant lower postoperative portal pressure (MD = -1.17, 95% CI: -2.24, -0.11). Safety analysis revealed that SPLT group had significantly longer operation time (MD = 56.66, 95% CI: 35.96-77.35), more intraoperative blood loss (MD = 1.08, 95% CI: 0.25-1.91), and more intraoperative red blood cell (RBC) transfusion (MD = 3.77, 95% CI: 3.22-4.33). Furthermore, SPLT group had significantly higher incidence of postoperative hemorrhage (OR = 3.07, 95% CI: 1.92-4.91), postoperative thrombosis (OR = 3.63, 95% CI: 1.06-12.45), and perioperative infection (OR = 2.62, 95% CI: 1.76-3.90). In addition, perioperative mortality was significantly higher in

  12. Methods for network meta-analysis of continuous outcomes using individual patient data: a case study in acupuncture for chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saramago, Pedro; Woods, Beth; Weatherly, Helen; Manca, Andrea; Sculpher, Mark; Khan, Kamran; Vickers, Andrew J; MacPherson, Hugh

    2016-10-06

    Network meta-analysis methods, which are an extension of the standard pair-wise synthesis framework, allow for the simultaneous comparison of multiple interventions and consideration of the entire body of evidence in a single statistical model. There are well-established advantages to using individual patient data to perform network meta-analysis and methods for network meta-analysis of individual patient data have already been developed for dichotomous and time-to-event data. This paper describes appropriate methods for the network meta-analysis of individual patient data on continuous outcomes. This paper introduces and describes network meta-analysis of individual patient data models for continuous outcomes using the analysis of covariance framework. Comparisons are made between this approach and change score and final score only approaches, which are frequently used and have been proposed in the methodological literature. A motivating example on the effectiveness of acupuncture for chronic pain is used to demonstrate the methods. Individual patient data on 28 randomised controlled trials were synthesised. Consistency of endpoints across the evidence base was obtained through standardisation and mapping exercises. Individual patient data availability avoided the use of non-baseline-adjusted models, allowing instead for analysis of covariance models to be applied and thus improving the precision of treatment effect estimates while adjusting for baseline imbalance. The network meta-analysis of individual patient data using the analysis of covariance approach is advocated to be the most appropriate modelling approach for network meta-analysis of continuous outcomes, particularly in the presence of baseline imbalance. Further methods developments are required to address the challenge of analysing aggregate level data in the presence of baseline imbalance.

  13. Association between a Functional HLA-G 14-bp Insertion/deletion Polymorphism and Susceptibility to Autoimmune Diseases: A Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y H; Bae, S-C

    2015-12-09

    The aim of this study was to determine whether a functional human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) 14-bp insertion (I)/deletion (D) polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to autoimmune diseases. A meta-analysis was conducted to assess the association between an HLA-G 14-bp I/D polymorphism and autoimmune diseases using 1) allele contrast, as well as 2) recessive, 3) dominant, and 4) codominant models. Sixteen articles that included 20 comparative studies with 3,555 patients and 5,225 controls were included in the meta-analysis. These studies were performed on nine Caucasian, six South American, three Asian, one Arab, and one African population samples. Our meta-analysis revealed no association between autoimmune diseases and the HLA-G 14-bp I/D polymorphism [odds ratio (OR) for allele I = 1.055; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.963-1.156; p = 0.251)]. However, meta-analysis according to autoimmune disease type revealed an association between systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and the II+ID genotype of the HLA-G 14-bp I/D polymorphism (OR = 1.205; 95% CI = 1.036-1.403; p = 0.016). Furthermore, analysis using a codominant model revealed an association between this polymorphism and SLE (OR for ID vs. DD = 1.203; 95% CI = 1.024-1.413; p = 0.024). In contrast, our meta-analysis revealed no association between rheumatoid arthritis (RA), multiple sclerosis (MS), or Crohn's disease (CD) and the HLA-G 14-bp I/D polymorphism. This meta-analysis showed that the HLA-G 14-bp I/D polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to a subgroup of autoimmune diseases such as SLE, but not RA, MS, or CD. These results support the existence of an association between the HLA-G gene and a subgroup of autoimmune diseases.

  14. Living network meta-analysis compared with pairwise meta-analysis in comparative effectiveness research: empirical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolakopoulou, Adriani; Mavridis, Dimitris; Furukawa, Toshi A; Cipriani, Andrea; Tricco, Andrea C; Straus, Sharon E; Siontis, George C M; Egger, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine whether the continuous updating of networks of prospectively planned randomised controlled trials (RCTs) (“living” network meta-analysis) provides strong evidence against the null hypothesis in comparative effectiveness of medical interventions earlier than the updating of conventional, pairwise meta-analysis. Design Empirical study of the accumulating evidence about the comparative effectiveness of clinical interventions. Data sources Database of network meta-analyses of RCTs identified through searches of Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews until 14 April 2015. Eligibility criteria for study selection Network meta-analyses published after January 2012 that compared at least five treatments and included at least 20 RCTs. Clinical experts were asked to identify in each network the treatment comparison of greatest clinical interest. Comparisons were excluded for which direct and indirect evidence disagreed, based on side, or node, splitting test (Pmeta-analysis. The frequency and time to strong evidence was compared against the null hypothesis between pairwise and network meta-analyses. Results 49 comparisons of interest from 44 networks were included; most (n=39, 80%) were between active drugs, mainly from the specialties of cardiology, endocrinology, psychiatry, and rheumatology. 29 comparisons were informed by both direct and indirect evidence (59%), 13 by indirect evidence (27%), and 7 by direct evidence (14%). Both network and pairwise meta-analysis provided strong evidence against the null hypothesis for seven comparisons, but for an additional 10 comparisons only network meta-analysis provided strong evidence against the null hypothesis (P=0.002). The median time to strong evidence against the null hypothesis was 19 years with living network meta-analysis and 23 years with living pairwise meta-analysis (hazard ratio 2.78, 95% confidence interval 1.00 to 7.72, P=0.05). Studies directly comparing

  15. Associations between interleukin-1 polymorphisms and susceptibility to vasculitis: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, G G; Kim, J-H; Lee, Y H

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether interleukin-1 (IL-1) polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to vasculitis. A meta-analysis was conducted to investigate possible associations between IL-1A, IL-1B, and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL1RN) polymorphisms and vasculitis. A total of 17 studies involving 1384 vasculitis cases [Behçet's disease (BD), IgA vasculitis, anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV), Kawasaki disease (KD), giant cell arteritis, and Takayasu's arteritis] and 2710 controls were included in the meta-analysis. This analysis showed an association between BD and the TT + TC genotypes of the IL-1A-889 C/T polymorphism in the entire study population [odds ratio (OR) = 0.623, 95 % CI = 0.395-0.981, p = 0.045), and a trend toward an association in a Turkish population (OR = 0.578, 95 % CI = 0.331-1.010, p = 0.054). A meta-analysis of the IL1RN polymorphism revealed no association with vasculitis in all study subjects (OR for IL1RN*2 = 0.904, 95 % CI = 0.626-1.304, p = 0.588). However, stratification by ethnicity revealed a significant association between the IL1RN*2 allele and vasculitis including AAV, BD, KD in Asians (OR = 2.393, 95 % CI = 1.429-4.006, p = 0.001), but not in Caucasian and Turkish populations (OR = 0.776, 95 % CI = 0.487-1.238, p = 0.288; OR = 0.914, 95 % CI = 0.667-1.252, p = 0.576, respectively). No association was found between vasculitis and the IL-1B-511 C/T polymorphism, or the IL-1B+3953 C/T polymorphism. This meta-analysis suggests that the IL-1A-889 C/T polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to BD, and that the IL1RN*2 allele is associated with susceptibility to vasculitis including AAV, BD, and KD in Asians.

  16. Income and obesity: what is the direction of the relationship? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Jun; von dem Knesebeck, Olaf

    2018-01-05

    It was repeatedly shown that lower income is associated with higher risks for subsequent obesity. However, the perspective of a potential reverse causality is often neglected, in which obesity is considered a cause for lower income, when obese people drift into lower-income jobs due to labour-market discrimination and public stigmatisation. This review was performed to explore the direction of the relation between income and obesity by specifically assessing the importance of social causation and reverse causality. Systematic review and meta-analysis. A systematic literature search was conducted in January 2017. The databases Medline, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts, International Bibliography of Social Sciences and Sociological Index were screened to identify prospective cohort studies with quantitative data on the relation between income and obesity. Meta-analytic methods were applied using random-effect models, and the quality of studies assessed with the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. In total, 21 studies were eligible for meta-analysis. All included studies originated from either the USA (n=16), the UK (n=3) or Canada (n=2). From these, 14 studies on causation and 7 studies on reverse causality were found. Meta-analyses revealed that lower income is associated with subsequent obesity (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.47; risk ratio 1.52, 95% CI 1.08 to 2.13), though the statistical significance vanished once adjusted for publication bias. Studies on reverse causality indicated a more consistent relation between obesity and subsequent income, even after taking publication bias into account (standardised mean difference -0.15, 95% CI -0.30 to 0.01). Sensitivity analyses implied that the association is influenced by obesity measurement, gender, length of observation and study quality. Findings suggest that there is more consistent evidence for reverse causality. Therefore, there is a need to examine reverse causality processes in more detail to understand the relation between

  17. Enhancing well-being and alleviating depressive symptoms with positive psychology interventions: A practice-friendly meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sin, NL; Lyubomirsky, S

    2009-01-01

    Do positive psychology interventions - that is, treatment methods or intentional activities aimed at cultivating positive feelings, positive behaviors, or positive cognitions - enhance well-being and ameliorate depressive symptoms? A meta-analysis of 51 such interventions with 4,266 individuals was conducted to address this question and to provide practical guidance to clinicians. The results revealed that positive psychology interventions do indeed significantly enhance well-being (mean r=.2...

  18. Meta-analysis of Genome-Wide Association Studies Identifies Novel Loci Associated With Optic Disc Morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Springelkamp, Henriët; Mishra, Aniket; Hysi, Pirro G.; Gharahkhani, Puya; Höhn, René; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Cooke Bailey, Jessica N.; Luo, Xiaoyan; Ramdas, Wishal D.; Vithana, Eranga; Koh, Victor; Yazar, Seyhan; Xu, Liang; Forward, Hannah; Kearns, Lisa S.

    2015-01-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma is the most common optic neuropathy and an important cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. The optic nerve head or optic disc is divided in two parts: a central cup (without nerve fibers) surrounded by the neuroretinal rim (containing axons of the retinal ganglion cells). The International Glaucoma Genetics Consortium conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies consisting of 17,248 individuals of European ancestry and 6,841 individuals of Asia...

  19. Enteral immunonutrition versus enteral nutrition for gastric cancer patients undergoing a total gastrectomy: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Ying; Zhang, Junfeng; Zhang, Liwei; Wu, Juan; Zhan, Zhen

    2018-01-01

    Background Nutrition support is a common means for patients with gastric cancer, especially for those undergoing elective surgery. Recently, enteral immunonutrition (EIN) was increasingly found to be more effective than enteral nutrition (EN) in enhancing the host immunity and eventually improving the prognosis of gastric cancer patients undergoing gastrectomy. However, the results reported were not consistent. This meta-analysis aimed to assess the impact of EIN for patients with GC on bioch...

  20. Association between MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and male infertility: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Yin, Guo-Ying; Liu, Juan; Liang, Yue; Li, Yao-Yan; Zhao, Jing-Yu; Zhang, Li-Wen; Wang, Bai-Qi; Tang, Nai-Jun

    2017-04-01

    There have been several epidemiological studies evaluating the potential association between the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) A1298C polymorphism and the risk of male infertility. However, the results obtained were inconsistent. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to further examine the association between the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and male infertility. A comprehensive search was conducted to identify all eligible studies from the online literature databases published prior to January 15th, 2016. A total of 20 studies with 4293 cases and 4507 controls were included. An odds ratio (OR) and a 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated to assess the strength of the association. A cumulative meta-analysis, sensitivity analysis and assessment of the publication bias were also performed in this study. The results showed that in the overall analysis, the association between the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and male infertility was not significant. A stratified analysis by ethnicity revealed a significant increase in the risk of male infertility in the Asian population with the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism (especially in the heterozygote model: OR=1.20, 95% CI=1.01-1.44, P=0.994; the dominant model: OR=1.23, 95% CI=1.04-1.45, P=0.996; and the allele model: OR=1.20, 95% CI=1.04-1.39, P=0.985) but not in the Caucasian population. In the stratified analyses, no significant association was observed between the different types of male infertility. This meta-analysis suggests the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism may be a potential risk factor for male infertility, especially in the Asian population.

  1. Meta-analysis of gene expression signatures defining the epithelial to mesenchymal transition during cancer progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian J Gröger

    Full Text Available The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT represents a crucial event during cancer progression and dissemination. EMT is the conversion of carcinoma cells from an epithelial to a mesenchymal phenotype that associates with a higher cell motility as well as enhanced chemoresistance and cancer stemness. Notably, EMT has been increasingly recognized as an early event of metastasis. Numerous gene expression studies (GES have been conducted to obtain transcriptome signatures and marker genes to understand the regulatory mechanisms underlying EMT. Yet, no meta-analysis considering the multitude of GES of EMT has been performed to comprehensively elaborate the core genes in this process. Here we report the meta-analysis of 18 independent and published GES of EMT which focused on different cell types and treatment modalities. Computational analysis revealed clustering of GES according to the type of treatment rather than to cell type. GES of EMT induced via transforming growth factor-β and tumor necrosis factor-α treatment yielded uniformly defined clusters while GES of models with alternative EMT induction clustered in a more complex fashion. In addition, we identified those up- and downregulated genes which were shared between the multitude of GES. This core gene list includes well known EMT markers as well as novel genes so far not described in this process. Furthermore, several genes of the EMT-core gene list significantly correlated with impaired pathological complete response in breast cancer patients. In conclusion, this meta-analysis provides a comprehensive survey of available EMT expression signatures and shows fundamental insights into the mechanisms that are governing carcinoma progression.

  2. Living near nuclear power plants and thyroid cancer risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaeyoung; Bang, Yejin; Lee, Won Jin

    2016-02-01

    There has been public concern regarding the safety of residing near nuclear power plants, and the extent of risk for thyroid cancer among adults living near nuclear power plants has not been fully explored. In the present study, a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies was conducted to investigate the association between living near nuclear power plants and the risk of thyroid cancer. A comprehensive literature search was performed on studies published up to March 2015 on the association between nuclear power plants and thyroid cancer risk. The summary standardized incidence ratio (SIR), standardized mortality ratio (SMR), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random-effect model of meta-analysis. Sensitivity analyses were performed by study quality. Thirteen studies were included in the meta-analysis, covering 36 nuclear power stations in 10 countries. Overall, summary estimates showed no significant increased thyroid cancer incidence or mortality among residents living near nuclear power plants (summary SIR=0.98; 95% CI 0.87-1.11, summary SMR=0.80; 95% CI 0.62-1.04). The pooled estimates did not reveal different patterns of risk by gender, exposure definition, or reference population. However, sensitivity analysis by exposure definition showed that living less than 20 km from nuclear power plants was associated with a significant increase in the risk of thyroid cancer in well-designed studies (summary OR=1.75; 95% CI 1.17-2.64). Our study does not support an association between living near nuclear power plants and risk of thyroid cancer but does support a need for well-designed future studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Dental implants in patients with osteoporosis: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Medeiros, F C F L; Kudo, G A H; Leme, B G; Saraiva, P P; Verri, F R; Honório, H M; Pellizzer, E P; Santiago Junior, J F

    2018-04-01

    There is currently no consensus regarding the survival rate of osseointegrated implants in patients with osteoporosis. A systematic review with meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the survival rate of implants in such patients. The PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and SciELO databases were used to identify articles published up to September 2016. The systematic review was performed in accordance with PRISMA/PICO requirements and the risk of bias was assessed (Australian National Health and Medical Research Council scale). The relative risk (RR) of implant failure and mean marginal bone loss were analyzed within a 95% confidence interval (CI). Fifteen studies involving 8859 patients and 29,798 implants were included. The main outcome of the meta-analysis indicated that there was no difference in implant survival rate between patients with and without osteoporosis, either at the implant level (RR 1.39, 95% CI 0.93-2.08; P=0.11) or at the patient level (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.50-1.89; P=0.94). However, the meta-analysis for the secondary outcome revealed a significant difference in marginal bone loss around implants between patients with and without osteoporosis (0.18mm, 95% CI 0.05-0.30, P=0.005). Data heterogeneity was low. An increase in peri-implant bone loss was observed in the osteoporosis group. Randomized and controlled clinical studies should be conducted to analyze possible biases. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cognitive deficits in individuals with methamphetamine use disorder: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Stéphane; Pelletier, Julie; Grot, Stéphanie; Hébert, Catherine; Barr, Alasdair M; Lecomte, Tania

    2018-05-01

    Methamphetamine has long been considered as a neurotoxic substance causing cognitive deficits. Recently, however, the magnitude and the clinical significance of the cognitive effects associated with methamphetamine use disorder (MUD) have been debated. To help clarify this controversy, we performed a meta-analysis of the cognitive deficits associated with MUD. A literature search yielded 44 studies that assessed cognitive dysfunction in 1592 subjects with MUD and 1820 healthy controls. Effect size estimates were calculated using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis, for the following 12 cognitive domains: attention, executive functions, impulsivity/reward processing, social cognition, speed of processing, verbal fluency/language, verbal learning and memory, visual learning and memory, visuo-spatial abilities and working memory. Findings revealed moderate impairment across most cognitive domains, including attention, executive functions, language/verbal fluency, verbal learning and memory, visual memory and working memory. Deficits in impulsivity/reward processing and social cognition were more prominent, whereas visual learning and visuo-spatial abilities were relatively spared cognitive domains. A publication bias was observed. These results show that MUD is associated with broad cognitive deficits that are in the same range as those associated with alcohol and cocaine use disorder, as recently shown by way of meta-analysis. The prominent effects of MUD on social cognition and impulsivity/reward processing are based on a small number of studies, and as such, these results will need to be replicated. The functional consequences (social and occupational) of the cognitive deficits of methamphetamine will also need to be determined. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Prognostic role of microRNA-150 in various carcinomas: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang W

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Wei Wang, Xinshuai Wang, Yali Zhang, Dan Wang, Hui Gao, Lijuan Wang, Shegan Gao Henan Key Laboratory of Cancer Epigenetics, Cancer Institute, The First Affiliated Hospital, and College of Clinical Medicine of Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang, Henan, People’s Republic of China Objective: MicroRNA-150 (miR-150 was revealed to be an attractive prognostic biomarker in recent studies. However, the prognostic significance of miR-150 expression in cancer remains inconclusive. The aim of this study was to summarize the global predicting role of miR-150 in survival in patients with various carcinomas.Methods: Eligible studies were identified through multiple search strategies. Data were extracted from the studies by investigating the relationship between miR-150 expression and survival in patients with cancer. A meta-analysis of the hazard ratio (HR was then performed to evaluate the prognostic role of miR-150 in different tumors. Pooled HRs of miR-150 for overall survival and progression-free survival were calculated to measure the effect of miR-150 expression on prognosis.Results: This meta-analysis included nine published studies concerning various carcinomas. Our results indicate that an elevated miR-150 expression is associated with an enhanced overall survival in the digestive tract cancer subgroup (HR =0.57, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.37–0.90 and a poor progression-free survival in various cancers (HR =3.08, 95% CI: 2.00–4.75.Conclusion: miR-150 may have the potential to become a new useful prognostic factor to monitor cancer prognosis and progression. However, given the current insufficient relevant data, further clinical studies are needed. Keywords: microRNA-150, carcinomas, prognosis, meta-analysis

  6. Prognostic value of LGR5 in colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qing; Zhang, Xin; Li, Wei-Min; Ji, Yu-Qiang; Cao, Hao-Zhe; Zheng, Pengsheng

    2014-01-01

    Leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 5 (LGR5) has recently been reported to be a marker of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in colorectal cancer (CRC), and the prognostic value of LGR5 in CRC has been evaluated in several studies. However, the conclusions remain controversial. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the association between the expression of LGR5 and the outcome of CRC patients by performing a meta-analysis. We systematically searched for relevant studies published up to February 2014 using the PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE and Wangfang databases. Only articles in which LGR5 expression was detected by immunohistochemistry were included. A meta-analysis was performed using STATA 12.0, and pooled hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to estimate the strength of the association between LGR5 expression and the prognosis of CRC patients. A total of 7 studies comprising 1833 CRC patients met the inclusion criteria, including 6 studies comprising 1781 patients for overall survival (OS) and 3 studies comprising 528 patients for disease-free survival (DFS). Our results showed that high LGR5 expression was significantly associated with poor prognosis in terms of OS (HR: 1.87, 95% CI: 1.23-2.84; P = 0.003) and DFS (HR: 2.44, 95% CI: 1.49-3.98; Panalysis revealed that many factors, including the study region, number of patients, follow-up duration and cutoff value, affected the significance of the association between LGR5 expression and a worse prognosis in patients with CRC. In addition, there was no evidence of publication bias, as suggested by Begg's and Egger's tests. The present meta-analysis indicated that high LGR5 expression was associated with poor prognosis in patients with CRC and that LGR5 is an efficient prognostic factor in CRC.

  7. Association among Dietary Flavonoids, Flavonoid Subclasses and Ovarian Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Ruxu; Yang, Yu; Liao, Jing; Chen, Dongsheng; Yu, Lixiu

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have indicated that intake of dietary flavonoids or flavonoid subclasses is associated with the ovarian cancer risk, but presented controversial results. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to derive a more precise estimation of these associations. Methods We performed a search in PubMed, Google Scholar and ISI Web of Science from their inception to April 25, 2015 to select studies on the association among dietary flavonoids, flavonoid subclasses and ovarian cancer risk. The information was extracted by two independent authors. We assessed the heterogeneity, sensitivity, publication bias and quality of the articles. A random-effects model was used to calculate the pooled risk estimates. Results Five cohort studies and seven case-control studies were included in the final meta-analysis. We observed that intake of dietary flavonoids can decrease ovarian cancer risk, which was demonstrated by pooled RR (RR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.68–0.98). In a subgroup analysis by flavonoid subtypes, the ovarian cancer risk was also decreased for isoflavones (RR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.50–0.92) and flavonols (RR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.58–0.80). While there was no compelling evidence that consumption of flavones (RR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.71–1.03) could decrease ovarian cancer risk, which revealed part sources of heterogeneity. The sensitivity analysis indicated stable results, and no publication bias was observed based on the results of Funnel plot analysis and Egger’s test (p = 0.26). Conclusions This meta-analysis suggested that consumption of dietary flavonoids and subtypes (isoflavones, flavonols) has a protective effect against ovarian cancer with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer except for flavones consumption. Nevertheless, further investigations on a larger population covering more flavonoid subclasses are warranted. PMID:26960146

  8. Death and Disability in Patients with Sleep Apnea - A Meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Maria Inês Pires, E-mail: pinespines@gmail.com; Pereira, Telmo; Caseiro, Paulo [Instituto Politécnico de Coimbra - ESTESC - Departamento de Fisiologia Clínica, Coimbra (Portugal)

    2015-01-15

    Several studies have been attempting to ascertain the risks of Sleep Apnea Syndrome (SAS) and its morbidity and mortality. The main objective was to verify whether SAS increases the risk of death; the secondary objective was to evaluate its morbidity in relation to cardiovascular disease and the number of days hospitalized. A systematic review and a meta-analysis were performed of the published literature. The research focused on studies comparing the number of deaths in patients with untreated SAS and in patients with non-SAS. The meta-analysis was based on 13 articles, corresponding to a total of 13394 participants divided into two groups (non-SAS = 6631; SAS = 6763). The meta-analysis revealed a clear association of SAS with the occurrence of fatal events, where the presence of SAS corresponded to a 61% higher risk of total mortality (OR=1.61; CI: 1.43 - 1.81; p < 0.00001), while the risk of death from cardiac causes was 2.52 times higher in these patients (OR = 2.52; IC: 1.80 - 3.52; p < 0.00001). Similar results were obtained for mortality from other causes (OR = 1.68; CI: 1.08 - 2.61; p = 0.02). Resembling results were obtained in the remaining outcomes: non-fatal cardiovascular events were higher in the SAS group (OR = 2.46; IC: 1.80 - 3.36; p < 0.00001), the average number of days hospitalized was also higher in the SAS group (IV = 18.09; IC: 13.34 - 22.84; p < 0.00001). The results show that untreated SAS significantly increases the risk of death, cardiovascular events and the average number of days hospitalized.

  9. Death and Disability in Patients with Sleep Apnea - A Meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, Maria Inês Pires; Pereira, Telmo; Caseiro, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have been attempting to ascertain the risks of Sleep Apnea Syndrome (SAS) and its morbidity and mortality. The main objective was to verify whether SAS increases the risk of death; the secondary objective was to evaluate its morbidity in relation to cardiovascular disease and the number of days hospitalized. A systematic review and a meta-analysis were performed of the published literature. The research focused on studies comparing the number of deaths in patients with untreated SAS and in patients with non-SAS. The meta-analysis was based on 13 articles, corresponding to a total of 13394 participants divided into two groups (non-SAS = 6631; SAS = 6763). The meta-analysis revealed a clear association of SAS with the occurrence of fatal events, where the presence of SAS corresponded to a 61% higher risk of total mortality (OR=1.61; CI: 1.43 - 1.81; p < 0.00001), while the risk of death from cardiac causes was 2.52 times higher in these patients (OR = 2.52; IC: 1.80 - 3.52; p < 0.00001). Similar results were obtained for mortality from other causes (OR = 1.68; CI: 1.08 - 2.61; p = 0.02). Resembling results were obtained in the remaining outcomes: non-fatal cardiovascular events were higher in the SAS group (OR = 2.46; IC: 1.80 - 3.36; p < 0.00001), the average number of days hospitalized was also higher in the SAS group (IV = 18.09; IC: 13.34 - 22.84; p < 0.00001). The results show that untreated SAS significantly increases the risk of death, cardiovascular events and the average number of days hospitalized

  10. Meta-analysis of ascorbic acid for prevention of postoperative atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, William L; Coleman, Craig I

    2016-12-15

    Results of a systematic review and meta-analysis of published data on use of ascorbic acid to prevent postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) after cardiac surgery are presented. MEDLINE and other sources were searched for reports on trials evaluating the effects of preoperative and/or postoperative use of ascorbic acid in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. For each study selected for meta-analysis, an assessment for risks of methodological bias was performed. Data on POAF frequency and length of stay (LOS) outcomes were pooled and analyzed via random-effects modeling. The 11 identified studies involved patients receiving coronary artery bypass grafts with or without valve replacement; both i.v. and oral ascorbic acid formulations were used. Analysis of pooled outcomes data on treatment and control groups indicated that ascorbic acid prophylaxis was associated with reductions in POAF frequency (odds ratio, 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.32 to 0.61), intensive care unit (ICU) LOS (difference in means, -0.24 day; 95% CI, -0.45 to -0.03 day), and total hospital LOS (difference in means, -0.94 day; 95% CI, -1.65 to -0.23 day). Significant statistical, methodological, and clinical heterogeneity were observed. A meta-analysis revealed that, compared with use of a placebo or a nonplacebo control, perioperative administration of ascorbic acid to patients undergoing cardiac surgery was associated with a reduced frequency of POAF and a shorter ICU LOS and total hospital LOS. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Sleep and mental disorders: A meta-analysis of polysomnographic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglioni, Chiara; Nanovska, Svetoslava; Regen, Wolfram; Spiegelhalder, Kai; Feige, Bernd; Nissen, Christoph; Reynolds, Charles F; Riemann, Dieter

    2016-09-01

    Investigating sleep in mental disorders has the potential to reveal both disorder-specific and transdiagnostic psychophysiological mechanisms. This meta-analysis aimed at determining the polysomnographic (PSG) characteristics of several mental disorders. Relevant studies were searched through standard strategies. Controlled PSG studies evaluating sleep in affective, anxiety, eating, pervasive developmental, borderline and antisocial personality disorders, attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and schizophrenia were included. PSG variables of sleep continuity, depth, and architecture, as well as rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep were considered. Calculations were performed with the "Comprehensive Meta-Analysis" and "R" software. Using random effects modeling, for each disorder and each variable, a separate meta-analysis was conducted if at least 3 studies were available for calculation of effect sizes as standardized means (Hedges' g). Sources of variability, that is, sex, age, and mental disorders comorbidity, were evaluated in subgroup analyses. Sleep alterations were evidenced in all disorders, with the exception of ADHD and seasonal affective disorders. Sleep continuity problems were observed in most mental disorders. Sleep depth and REM pressure alterations were associated with affective, anxiety, autism and schizophrenia disorders. Comorbidity was associated with enhanced REM sleep pressure and more inhibition of sleep depth. No sleep parameter was exclusively altered in 1 condition; however, no 2 conditions shared the same PSG profile. Sleep continuity disturbances imply a transdiagnostic imbalance in the arousal system likely representing a basic dimension of mental health. Sleep depth and REM variables might play a key role in psychiatric comorbidity processes. Constellations of sleep alterations may define distinct disorders better than alterations in 1 single variable. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. A meta-analysis of breastfeeding and osteoporotic fracture risk in the females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, X; Wang, J; Jiang, X

    2017-02-01

    Our meta-analysis included 12 studies from PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science. Finding indicated breastfeeding may well reduce the risk of osteoporotic fracture. Several epidemiologic studies have investigated that breastfeeding is associated with short-term bone loss in the women, but the long-term effect on osteoporotic fracture risk remains unclear. Thus, we conducted this meta-analysis to explore the potential association between breastfeeding and osteoporotic fracture risk in the females and possible dose-response relationship between them. We searched PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science (ISI) up to April 2016 for relevant articles associated between breastfeeding and osteoporotic fracture. Pooled relative risks (RRs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated with a random-effects model. Dose-response analysis was performed by restricted cubic spline. Twelve articles including 14,954 participants were identified. The pooled RRs of osteoporotic hip and forearm fracture for the highest vs lowest duration of breastfeeding were 0.84 (95 % CI 0.67-1.05), 0.72 (95 % CI 0.52-0.99), and 0.82 (95 % CI 0.56-1.19), respectively. In subgroup analysis, breastfeeding was associated with a decreased risk of osteoporotic fracture in case-control study (RR = 0.70, 95 % CI 0.49-0.99) and postmenopausal women (RR = 0.66, 95 % CI 0.47-0.93). In dose-response analysis, osteoporotic and hip fracture risk decreased by 0.9 and 1.2 % for each month increment of breastfeeding, respectively. Our meta-analysis revealed that breastfeeding may well reduce the risk of osteoporotic fracture. More cohort studies with large sample sizes are needed to confirm the conclusion.

  13. Robotic-assisted versus laparoscopic colorectal surgery: a meta-analysis of four randomized controlled trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Robotic-assisted laparoscopy is popularly performed for colorectal disease. The objective of this meta-analysis was to compare the safety and efficacy of robotic-assisted colorectal surgery (RCS) and laparoscopic colorectal surgery (LCS) for colorectal disease based on randomized controlled trial studies. Methods Literature searches of electronic databases (Pubmed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library) were performed to identify randomized controlled trial studies that compared the clinical or oncologic outcomes of RCS and LCS. This meta-analysis was performed using the Review Manager (RevMan) software (version 5.2) that is provided by the Cochrane Collaboration. The data used were mean differences and odds ratios for continuous and dichotomous variables, respectively. Fixed-effects or random-effects models were adopted according to heterogeneity. Results Four randomized controlled trial studies were identified for this meta-analysis. In total, 110 patients underwent RCS, and 116 patients underwent LCS. The results revealed that estimated blood losses (EBLs), conversion rates and times to the recovery of bowel function were significantly reduced following RCS compared with LCS. There were no significant differences in complication rates, lengths of hospital stays, proximal margins, distal margins or harvested lymph nodes between the two techniques. Conclusions RCS is a promising technique and is a safe and effective alternative to LCS for colorectal surgery. The advantages of RCS include reduced EBLs, lower conversion rates and shorter times to the recovery of bowel function. Further studies are required to define the financial effects of RCS and the effects of RCS on long-term oncologic outcomes. PMID:24767102

  14. Association of TNF-alpha G-308A gene polymorphism with depression: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin KH

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Kwang-Hee Shin,1 Hyeon Cheol Jeong,1 Dong-Hee Choi,2 Sung Nyun Kim,3 Tae-Eun Kim4 1College of Pharmacy, Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, 2Department of Medical Science, Konkuk University School of Medicine, 3Department of Psychiatry, Seoul Medical Center, 4Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea Background: Although many studies have investigated the association of a single nucleotide polymorphism in TNF-α G-308A gene with depression, their association is still controversial. To clarify this, we performed a meta-analysis.Method: Studies related to TNF-α G-308A and depression were retrieved from PubMed, Medline, Embase, and Scopus (up to April 18, 2017. The odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were estimated in the models of allele comparison (G vs A, homozygote comparison (GG vs AA, dominant (GG vs GA + AA, and recessive (GG + GA vs AA to estimate the strength of the associations.Results: A total of 10 case–control studies were included in this meta-analysis. Overall, no significant association between TNF-α G-308A and depression was found (G vs A: OR [95% CI] =1.09 [0.92, 1.29]; GG vs AA: 1.24 [0.71, 2.15]; GG vs GA + AA: 1.01 [0.76, 1.35]; GG + GA vs AA: 1.22 [0.70, 2.13]. In subgroup analyses by ethnicity or age group, no statistically significant association between TNF-α G-308A polymorphisms and depression was shown.Conclusion: This meta-analysis revealed that TNF-α G-308A polymorphism is not associated with susceptibility to depression. Keywords: TNF-α G-308A, rs1800629, genetic polymorphism, depressive disorder

  15. Lack of association between MTHFR A1298C variant and Alzheimer's disease: evidence from a systematic review and cumulative meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shumin; Wu, Yongfu; Liu, Xu; Zhou, Jiahui; Wang, Ziyou; He, Zhiwei; Huang, Zunnan

    2017-05-01

    Previous studies have investigated the association between MTHFR A1298C (rs1801131) polymorphism and susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Nevertheless, an ultimate conclusion remains obscure. We then executed this meta-analysis to estimate this association more precisely. Related studies were systematically searched on PubMed, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Google scholar, and AlzGene databases. The association was evaluated by reviewing the odds ratios (ORs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Publication bias, sensitivity analysis, and cumulative meta-analysis were performed to help draw a more definite conclusion. Ten eligible studies were finally enrolled in this meta-analysis. Lack of association between MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and AD risk was observed in five genetic models (allelic: OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 0.88-1.56; homozygous: OR = 1.15, 95% CI: 0.87-1.53; heterozygous: OR = 1.19, 95% CI: 0.76-1.86; dominant: OR = 1.23, 95% CI: 0.81-1.87; recessive: OR = 1.16, 95% CI: 0.89-1.52). The result of cumulative meta-analysis sorted by publication year was also detected a dynamic tendency of no correlation between MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and AD. This meta-analysis reveals that MTHFR A1298C polymorphism may not be associated with AD risk.

  16. Prognostic value of long noncoding RNA ZFAS1 in various carcinomas: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Dan; Mu, Zhongyi; Wang, Wei; Xin, Na; Song, Xiaowen; Shao, Yue; Zhao, Chenghai

    2017-10-13

    A number of studies have revealed that zinc finger antisense 1 (ZFAS1), a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), is aberrantly regulated in various cancers, and high ZFAS1 expression is associated with poor prognosis and increased risk of lymph node metastasis (LNM). This meta-analysis was conducted to identify the potential value of ZFAS1 as a biomarker for cancer prognosis. We searched electronic database PubMed, Web of Science, and China Wanfang Data (up to June 1, 2017) to collect all relevant studies and explore the association of ZFAS1 expression with overall survival (OS) and LNM. The results showed that cancer patients with high ZFAS1 expression had a worse OS than those with low ZFAS1 expression (HR: 1.94, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.41-2.47, P analysis revealed that high ZFAS1 expression was significantly related to high incidence of LNM in subgroups of sample size more than 88 (OR: 3.16, 95% CI: 2.06-4.86, P value and publication year did not result in the inter-study heterogeneity. In conclusion, the present meta-analysis demonstrates that high ZFAS1 expression may potentially serve as a reliable biomarker for poor clinical outcome in various cancers.

  17. Effects of inspiratory muscle training in COPD patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Marc; Forget, Patrice; Couturaud, Francis; Reychler, Gregory

    2018-04-17

    In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), quality of life and exercise capacity are altered in relationship to dyspnea. Benefits of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) on quality of life, dyspnea and exercise capacity were demonstrated, but when it is associated to pulmonary rehabilitation (PR), its efficacy on dyspnea is not demonstrated. The aim of this systematic review with meta analysis was to verify the effect of IMT using threshold devices in COPD patients on dyspnea, quality of life, exercise capacity and inspiratory muscles strength, and the added effect on dyspnea of IMT associated with PR (versus PR alone). This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted on the databases from PubMed, Science direct, Cochrane library, Web of science, Pascal. Following key words were used: inspiratory, respiratory, ventilatory, muscle and training. The searching period extended to December 2017. Two reviewers independently assessed studies quality. Forty-three studies were included in the systematic review and thirty- seven studies in the meta-analysis. Overall treatment group consisted of six hundred forty two patients. Dyspnea (Baseline Dyspnea Index) is decreased after IMT. Quality of life (Saint George's Respiratory Questionnaire), exercise capacity (six minute walk test) and Maximal inspiratory pressure were increased after IMT. During PR, no added effect of IMT on dyspnea was found. IMT using threshold devices improves inspiratory muscle strength, exercise capacity and quality of life, decreases dyspnea. However, there is no added effect of IMT on dyspnea during PR (compared with PR alone). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Coordinate based random effect size meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tench, C R; Tanasescu, Radu; Constantinescu, C S; Auer, D P; Cottam, W J

    2017-06-01

    Low power in neuroimaging studies can make them difficult to interpret, and Coordinate based meta-analysis (CBMA) may go some way to mitigating this issue. CBMA has been used in many analyses to detect where published functional MRI or voxel-based morphometry studies testing similar hypotheses report significant summary results (coordinates) consistently. Only the reported coordinates and possibly t statistics are analysed, and statistical significance of clusters is determined by coordinate density. Here a method of performing coordinate based random effect size meta-analysis and meta-regression is introduced. The algorithm (ClusterZ) analyses both coordinates and reported t statistic or Z score, standardised by the number of subjects. Statistical significance is determined not by coordinate density, but by a random effects meta-analyses of reported effects performed cluster-wise using standard statistical methods and taking account of censoring inherent in the published summary results. Type 1 error control is achieved using the false cluster discovery rate (FCDR), which is based on the false discovery rate. This controls both the family wise error rate under the null hypothesis that coordinates are randomly drawn from a standard stereotaxic space, and the proportion of significant clusters that are expected under the null. Such control is necessary to avoid propagating and even amplifying the very issues motivating the meta-analysis in the first place. ClusterZ is demonstrated on both numerically simulated data and on real data from reports of grey matter loss in multiple sclerosis (MS) and syndromes suggestive of MS, and of painful stimulus in healthy controls. The software implementation is available to download and use freely. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The efficacy and toxicity profile of metronomic chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer: A meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangyang Liu

    Full Text Available The current meta-analysis aimed to summarize the available evidence for the efficacy and serious adverse events (AEs associated with use of metronomic chemotherapy (MCT in patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC.Electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE database, Web of Knowledge, and the Cochrane database were systematically searched for articles related to the use of MCT in MBC patients. Eligible studies included clinical trials of MBC patients treated with MCT that presented sufficient data related to tumor response, progression-free survival (PFS, overall survival (OS, and grade 3/4 AEs. A meta-analysis was performed using a random effects model.This meta-analysis consists of 22 clinical trials with 1360 patients. The pooled objective response rate and clinical benefit rate of MCT were 34.1% (95% CI 27.4-41.5 and 55.6% (95% CI 49.2-61.9, respectively. The overall 6-month PFS, 12-month OS, and 24-month OS rates were 56.8% (95% CI 48.3-64.9, 70.3% (95% CI 62.6-76.9, and 40.0% (95% CI 30.6-50.2, respectively. The pooled incidence of grade 3/4 AEs was 29.5% (95% CI 21.1-39.5. There was no statistically significant difference observed in any endpoint between subgroups defined by concomitant anti-cancer therapies or chemotherapy regimens. After excluding one controversial study, we observed a trend showing lower toxicity rates with the use of MCT alone compared to use of MCT with other anti-cancer therapies (P = 0.070.Metronomic chemotherapy may be effective for use in patients with metastatic breast cancer. MCT used alone is possibly equally effective and less toxic than combination therapies. Well-designed RCTs are needed to obtain more evidence.

  20. Epilepsy and neurocysticercosis in Latin America: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Bruno

    Full Text Available The difference in epilepsy burden existing among populations in tropical regions has been attributed to many factors, including the distribution of infectious diseases with neurologic sequels. To define the burden of epilepsy in Latin American Countries (LAC and to investigate the strength of association with neurocysticercosis (NCC, considered one of the leading causes of epilepsy, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature.Studies published until 2012 were selected applying predefined inclusion criteria. Lifetime epilepsy (LTE prevalence, active epilepsy (AE prevalence, incidence, mortality, treatment gap (TG and NCC proportion among people with epilepsy (PWE were extracted. Median values were obtained for each estimate using random effects meta-analysis. The impact of NCC prevalence on epilepsy estimates was determined using meta-regression models. To assess the association between NCC and epilepsy, a further meta-analysis was performed on case-control studies.The median LTE prevalence was 15.8/1,000 (95% CI 13.5-18.3, the median AE prevalence was 10.7/1,000 (95% CI 8.4-13.2, the median incidence was 138.2/100,000 (95% CI 83.6-206.4, the overall standardized mortality ratio was 1.4 (95% CI 0.01-6.1 and the overall estimated TG was 60.6% (95% CI 45.3-74.9. The median NCC proportion among PWE was 32.3% (95% CI 26.0-39.0. Higher TG and NCC estimates were associated with higher epilepsy prevalence. The association between NCC and epilepsy was significant (p<0.001 with a common odds ratio of 2.8 (95% CI 1.9-4.0.A high burden of epilepsy and of NCC in LAC and a consistent association between these two diseases were pointed out. Furthermore, NCC prevalence and TG were identified as important factors influencing epilepsy prevalence to be considered in prevention and intervention strategies.

  1. Random effects meta-analysis: Coverage performance of 95% confidence and prediction intervals following REML estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partlett, Christopher; Riley, Richard D

    2017-01-30

    A random effects meta-analysis combines the results of several independent studies to summarise the evidence about a particular measure of interest, such as a treatment effect. The approach allows for unexplained between-study heterogeneity in the true treatment effect by incorporating random study effects about the overall mean. The variance of the mean effect estimate is conventionally calculated by assuming that the between study variance is known; however, it has been demonstrated that this approach may be inappropriate, especially when there are few studies. Alternative methods that aim to account for this uncertainty, such as Hartung-Knapp, Sidik-Jonkman and Kenward-Roger, have been proposed and shown to improve upon the conventional approach in some situations. In this paper, we use a simulation study to examine the performance of several of these methods in terms of the coverage of the 95% confidence and prediction intervals derived from a random effects meta-analysis estimated using restricted maximum likelihood. We show that, in terms of the confidence intervals, the Hartung-Knapp correction performs well across a wide-range of scenarios and outperforms other methods when heterogeneity was large and/or study sizes were similar. However, the coverage of the Hartung-Knapp method is slightly too low when the heterogeneity is low (I 2   30%) and study sizes are similar. In other situations, especially when heterogeneity is small and the study sizes are quite varied, the coverage is far too low and could not be consistently improved by either increasing the number of studies, altering the degrees of freedom or using variance inflation methods. Therefore, researchers should be cautious in deriving 95% prediction intervals following a frequentist random-effects meta-analysis until a more reliable solution is identified. © 2016 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John

  2. Aortic Dissection and Aortic Aneurysms Associated with Fluoroquinolones: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sonal; Nautiyal, Amit

    2017-12-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the association between fluoroquinolone use and aortic dissection or aortic aneurysm in a systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched Medline, Embase, and Scopus from inception to February 15, 2017. We selected controlled studies for inclusion if they reported data on aortic dissection and aortic aneurysm associated with fluoroquinolones exposure versus no exposure. Data were extracted by 2 independent reviewers, with disagreements resolved through further discussion. We assessed the quality of studies using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale for observational studies and the strength of evidence using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach. The odds ratios (ORs) from observational studies were pooled using the fixed-effect inverse variance method, and statistical heterogeneity was assessed using the I 2 statistic. After a review of 714 citations, we included 2 observational studies in the meta-analysis. Current use of fluoroquinolones was associated with a statistically significantly increased risk of aortic dissection (OR, 2.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.31-3.37; I 2  = 0%) and aortic aneurysm (OR, 2.25; 95% CI, 2.03-2.49; I 2  = 0%) in a fixed-effects meta-analysis. The unadjusted OR estimates and sensitivity analysis using a random-effects model showed similar results. We rated the strength of evidence to be of moderate quality. The number needed to treat to harm for aortic aneurysm for elderly patients aged more than 65 years who were current users of fluoroquinolones was estimated to be 618 (95% CI, 518-749). Evidence from a small number of studies suggests that exposure to fluoroquinolones is consistently associated with a small but significantly increased risk of aortic dissection and aortic aneurysm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Association Between MGMT Promoter Methylation and Patients with Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiaolong; Xu, Jifei; Fang, Weiyang; Zhao, Zhenfeng; Wang, Fan; Tong, Zhuting

    2017-04-01

    Several previous studies have suggested that MGMT promoter methylation is significantly associated with gastric cancer, but the results were not consistent. Hence, we conducted a systematic meta-analysis to explore the potential correlation of MGMT promoter methylation with gastric cancer and its clinicopathologic characteristics. Searches of PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) literature databases were conducted to identify relevant studies published in English or Chinese before July 1, 2016. The meta-analysis was performed using Stata 12.0 software. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to assess the association between MGMT promoter methylation and gastric cancer. We also conducted a subgroup analysis and metaregression to explore sources of heterogeneity. We identified 12 articles that met the inclusion criteria. The 12 articles described 14 studies that included 1571 tumor tissues and 1243 controls. The meta-analysis results demonstrated that the frequency of MGMT promoter methylation was higher in gastric cancer tissues compared with adjacent tissues and normal tissues (OR = 4.06, 95% CI: 2.55-6.46, p MGMT promoter methylation and clinicopathological characteristics indicated that MGMT promoter hypermethylation was significantly associated with tumor-node-metastasis stage, lymph node metastasis, and distant metastasis (OR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.18-3.75, p = 0.011; OR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.47-2.68, p MGMT promoter methylation could play an important role in gastric carcinogenesis and may serve as an important biomarker for gastric cancer progression.

  4. The prevalence of chronic fatigue syndrome/ myalgic encephalomyelitis: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnston S

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Samantha Johnston,1 Ekua W Brenu,1 Donald Staines,1,2 Sonya Marshall-Gradisnik1 1Griffith Health Institute, School of Medical Sciences, National Centre for Neuroimmunology and Emerging Diseases, Griffith University, Parklands, QLD, Australia; 2Gold Coast Public Health Unit, Queensland Health, Robina, QLD, Australia Purpose: To perform a meta-analysis to examine variability among prevalence estimates for CFS/ME, according to the method of assessment used. Methods: Databases were systematically searched for studies on CFS/ME prevalence in adults that applied the 1994 Centers for Disease Control (CDC case definition.1 Estimates were categorized into two methods of assessment: self-reporting of symptoms versus clinical assessment of symptoms. Meta-analysis was performed to pool prevalences by assessment using random effects modeling. This was stratified by sample setting (community or primary care and heterogeneity was examined using the I2 statistic. Results: Of 216 records found, 14 studies were considered suitable for inclusion. The pooled prevalence for self-reporting assessment was 3.28% (95% CI: 2.24–4.33 and 0.76% (95% CI: 0.23–1.29 for clinical assessment. High variability was observed among self-reported estimates, while clinically assessed estimates showed greater consistency. Conclusion: The observed heterogeneity in CFS/ME prevalence may be due to differences in method of assessment. Stakeholders should be cautious of prevalence determined by the self-reporting of symptoms alone. The 1994 CDC case definition appeared to be the most reliable clinical assessment tool available at the time of these studies. Improving clinical case definitions and their adoption internationally will enable better comparisons of findings and inform health systems about the true burden of CFS/ME. Keywords: chronic fatigue syndrome, myalgic encephalomyelitis, prevalence, meta-analysis

  5. A meta-analysis of motivational interviewing process: Technical, relational, and conditional process models of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magill, Molly; Apodaca, Timothy R; Borsari, Brian; Gaume, Jacques; Hoadley, Ariel; Gordon, Rebecca E F; Tonigan, J Scott; Moyers, Theresa

    2018-02-01

    In the present meta-analysis, we test the technical and relational hypotheses of Motivational Interviewing (MI) efficacy. We also propose an a priori conditional process model where heterogeneity of technical path effect sizes should be explained by interpersonal/relational (i.e., empathy, MI Spirit) and intrapersonal (i.e., client treatment seeking status) moderators. A systematic review identified k = 58 reports, describing 36 primary studies and 40 effect sizes (N = 3,025 participants). Statistical methods calculated the inverse variance-weighted pooled correlation coefficient for the therapist to client and the client to outcome paths across multiple target behaviors (i.e., alcohol use, other drug use, other behavior change). Therapist MI-consistent skills were correlated with more client change talk (r = .55, p technical hypothesis was supported. Specifically, proportion MI consistency was related to higher proportion change talk (r = .11, p = .004) and higher proportion change talk was related to reductions in risk behavior at follow up (r = -.16, p technical hypothesis path effect sizes was partially explained by inter- and intrapersonal moderators. This meta-analysis provides additional support for the technical hypothesis of MI efficacy; future research on the relational hypothesis should occur in the field rather than in the context of clinical trials. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Effect of Glycemic Index of Breakfast on Energy Intake at Subsequent Meal among Healthy People: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Hua Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Meals with low glycemic index (GI may suppress short-term appetite and reduce subsequent food intake compared with high-GI meals. However, no meta-analysis has been conducted to synthesize the evidence. This meta-analytic study was conducted to assess the effect of high- and low-GI breakfast on subsequent short-term food intake. Trials were identified through MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials, and manual searches of bibliographies until May 2015. Randomized controlled and cross-over trials comparing the effect of low- with high-GI breakfast on subsequent energy intake among healthy people were included. Nine studies consisting of 11 trials met the inclusion criteria. Only one trial was classified with high methodological quality. A total of 183 participants were involved in the trials. The meta-analytic results revealed no difference in breakfast GI (high-GI vs. low-GI on subsequent short-term energy intake. In conclusion, it seems that breakfast GI has no effect on short-term energy intake among healthy people. However, high quality studies are still warranted to provide more concrete evidence.

  7. A meta-analysis of perceptual and cognitive functions involved in useful-field-of-view test performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woutersen, Karlijn; Guadron, Leslie; van den Berg, Albert V; Boonstra, F Nienke; Theelen, Thomas; Goossens, Jeroen

    2017-12-01

    The useful-field-of-view (UFOV) test measures the amount of information someone can extract from a visual scene in one glance. Its scores show relatively strong relationships with everyday activities. The UFOV test consists of three computer tests, suggested to measure processing speed and central vision, divided attention, and selective attention. However, other functions seem to be involved as well. In order to investigate the contribution of these suggested and other perceptual and cognitive functions, we performed a meta-analysis of 116 Pearson's correlation coefficients between UFOV scores and other test scores reported in 18 peer-reviewed articles. We divided these correlations into nine domains: attention, executive functioning, general cognition, memory, spatial ability, visual closure, contrast sensitivity, visual processing speed, and visual acuity. A multivariate mixed-effects model analysis revealed that each domain correlated significantly with each of the UFOV subtest scores. These correlations were stronger for Subtests 2 and 3 than for Subtest 1. Furthermore, some domains were more strongly correlated to the UFOV than others across subtests. We did not find interaction effects between subtest and domain, indicating that none of the UFOV subtests is more selectively sensitive to a particular domain than the others. Thus, none of the three UFOV subtests seem to measure one clear construct. Instead, a range of visual and cognitive functions is involved. Perhaps this is the reason for the UFOV's high ecological validity, as it involves many functions at once, making it harder to compensate if one of them fails.

  8. Augmentation procedures using bone substitute materials or autogenous bone - a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nawas, Bilal; Schiegnitz, Eik

    2014-01-01

    Bone substitute materials (BSM) are described as a reasonable alternative to autologous bone (AB) to simplify the grafting procedure. In a systematic review and meta-analysis, the influence of BSM compared to AB on treatment success in augmentation procedures of the edentulous jaw was analysed. Literature analysis resulted in only two studies addressing reconstruction of the totally edentulous jaw using BSM. Therefore the literature analysis was extended to partially and totally edentulous jaws. The following augmentation procedures were analysed: maxillary sinus floor augmentation (MSFA) and vertical and/or lateral alveolar ridge augmentation; guided bone regeneration (minor and contained defects) were excluded. Meta-analysis was implemented using the literature from the years 2000 to early 2014 and only studies with a mean follow-up of at least 10 months were included. After screening 843 abstracts from the electronic database, 52 studies in qualitative and 14 in quantitative synthesis were included. In studies examining MSFA, the mean implant survival rate was 98.6% ± 2.6 for BSM, 88.6 ± 4.1% for BSM mixed with AB and 97.4 ± 2.2% for AB alone. For MSFA, meta-analysis showed a trend towards a higher implant survival when using BSM compared to AB, however the difference was not statistically significant ([OR], 0.59; [CI], 0.33-1.03). No statistically significant difference in implant survival for MSFA between BSM mixed with AB and AB was seen ([OR], 0.84; [CI], 0.5-1.42). Concerning ridge augmentation, the mean implant survival rate was 97.4 ± 2.5% for BSM, 100 ± 0% for BSM mixed with AB and 98.6 ± 2.9% for AB alone. Metaanalysis revealed no statistically significant difference in implant survival for ridge augmentation using BSM or AB ([OR], 1.85; [CI], 0.38 to 8.94). For BSM mixed with AB versus AB alone, a meta-analysis was not possible due to missing data. Within the limitation of the meta-analytical approach taken, implant survival seems to be

  9. The HLA-G 14-bp polymorphism and recurrent implantation failure: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wei; Huang, Zhongying; Li, Shangwei; Xiao, Zhun

    2017-11-01

    The human leucocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) 14-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism was implicated in recurrent implantation failure (RIF), but individual published studies showed inconclusive results. Thus, a meta-analysis was performed to clarify the effect of HLA-G 14-bp polymorphism on RIF risk. A comprehensive search for relevant articles was conducted. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for HLA-G 14-bp polymorphism and RIF were calculated. A total of five studies were included. In studies conducted in RIF patients and controls who had at least one spontaneous pregnancy, meta-analysis revealed no statistically significant association between the HLA-G 14-bp polymorphism and RIF in allele contrast and all genetic models in the overall population, but significant association was found in the population of Caucasian origin under allele contrast (OR = 1.73, 95% CI, 1.20, 2.50) and genetic models of +14 bp/+14 bp vs. -14 bp/-14 bp (OR = 3.09, 95% CI, 1.43, 6.65). In studies conducted in RIF patients and controls who had successful pregnancy following IVF-ET, the meta-analysis showed that there was statistically significant association between the HLA-G 14 bp polymorphism and RIF in allele contrast (OR = 1.74, 95% CI, 1.13, 2.67) and genetic models of +14 bp/+14 bp vs. -14 bp/-14 bp (OR = 10.20, 95% CI, 2.47, 42.14) and dominant model (OR = 4.34, 95% CI, 1.72, 10.92). No publication bias was found in the present studies. This meta-analysis suggested that the HLA-G 14-bp insertion allele may increase the risk of RIF in Caucasians. Further studies with large sample size of different ethnic populations are necessary.

  10. Efficacy of escitalopram compared to citalopram: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Stuart; Hansen, Thomas; Kasper, Siegfried

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this review was to assess the clinical relevance of the relative antidepressant efficacy of escitalopram and citalopram by meta-analysis. Studies in major depressive disorder (MDD) with both escitalopram and citalopram treatment arms were identified. Adult patients had to meet DSM-IV criteria for MDD. The primary outcome measure was the treatment difference in Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total score at week 8 (or last assessment if escitalopram, n=995; citalopram, n=1014). Escitalopram was significantly more effective than citalopram in overall treatment effect, with an estimated mean treatment difference of 1.7 points at week 8 (or last assessment if escitalopram. In this meta-analysis, the statistically significant superior efficacy of escitalopram compared to citalopram was shown to be clinically relevant.

  11. Immunotherapy in advanced melanoma: a network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyo, Jung-Soo; Kang, Guhyun

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of various immunotherapeutic agents and chemotherapy for unresected or metastatic melanomas. We performed a network meta-analysis using a Bayesian statistical model to compare objective response rate (ORR) of various immunotherapies from 12 randomized controlled studies. The estimated ORRs of immunotherapy and chemotherapy were 0.224 and 0.108, respectively. The ORRs of immunotherapy in untreated and pretreated patients were 0.279 and 0.176, respectively. In network meta-analysis, the odds ratios for ORR of nivolumab (1 mg/kg)/ipilmumab (3 mg/kg), pembrolizumab 10 mg/kg and nivolumab 3 mg/kg were 8.54, 5.39 and 4.35, respectively, compared with chemotherapy alone. Our data showed that various immunotherapies had higher ORRs rather than chemotherapy alone.

  12. Road safety effects of roundabouts: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvik, Rune

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents a meta-analysis of the road safety effects of converting junctions to roundabouts. 44 studies containing a total of 154 estimates of effect were included. Based on a meta-regression analysis, converting junctions to roundabouts is associated with a reduction of fatal accidents of about 65% and a reduction of injury accidents of about 40%. The mean effect on property-damage-only accidents is ambiguous. Summary estimates of effect are robust for fatal and injury accidents, but vary depending on the model of meta-analysis and the treatment of outlying data points for property-damage-only accidents. A trim-and-fill analysis suggests a weak tendency for publication bias, with modest influence on summary estimates of effect. It is concluded that roundabouts are very effective in reducing traffic fatalities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Dividend Policy and Corporate Value (A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tifani Titah Dwi Tyastari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to understand the effect of dividend policy on corporate value, as well as to examine and analyze the variation of result study on corporate value in Indonesia.Dividend Signaling Model was the grand theory used to explain the effect of dividend policy on corporate value. This study used meta-analysis approach with the sample were 70 researches in Indonesia, both the published and unpublished in 2007-2015. The result of this study, meta-analysis strengthens the findings of the previous study which stated that the dividend policy could increase the corporate value. The differences of the previous studies were due to the presence of moderation effect from the measurement model of corporate value and dividend corporate.

  14. Meta-Analysis of Correlations Among Usability Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornbæk, Kasper Anders Søren; Effie Lai Chong, Law

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the relation between usability measures seems crucial to deepen our conception of usability and to select the right measures for usability studies. We present a meta-analysis of correlations among usability measures calculated from the raw data of 73 studies. Correlations are genera......Understanding the relation between usability measures seems crucial to deepen our conception of usability and to select the right measures for usability studies. We present a meta-analysis of correlations among usability measures calculated from the raw data of 73 studies. Correlations...... ± .062. Changes in task complexity do not influence these correlations, but use of more complex measures attenuates them. Standard questionnaires for measuring satisfaction appear more reliable than homegrown ones. Measures of users' perceptions of phenomena are generally not correlated with objective...

  15. Meta-Analysis of Social Cognition in Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Emre; Yener, Görsev G

    2017-07-01

    Social cognitive abilities are impaired in Alzheimer disease and other dementias. Recent studies suggested that social cognitive abilities might be also impaired in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Current meta-analysis aimed to summarize available evidence for deficits in theory of mind (ToM) and emotion recognition in MCI. In this meta-analysis of 17 studies, facial emotion recognition and ToM performances of 513 individuals with MCI and 693 healthy controls were compared. Mild cognitive impairment was associated with significant impairments falling in the medium effect sizes range in ToM ( d = 0.63) and facial emotion recognition ( d = 0.58). Among individual emotions, recognition of fear and sadness were particularly impaired. There were no significant between-group differences in recognition of disgust, happiness, and surprise. Social cognitive deficits were more severe in multidomain MCI. There is a need for longitudinal studies investigating the potential role of social cognitive impairment in predicting conversion to dementia.

  16. The prevalence of food allergy: A meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rona, Roberto J.; Keil, Thomas; Summers, Colin

    2007-01-01

    Background: There is uncertainty about the prevalence of food allergy in communities. Objective: To assess the prevalence of food allergy by performing a meta-analysis according to the method of assessment used. Methods: The foods assessed were cow's milk, hen's egg, peanut, fish, shellfish......, and an overall estimate of food allergy. We summarized the information in 5 categories: self-reported symptoms, specific IgE positive, specific skin prick test positive, symptoms combined with sensitization, and food challenge studies. We systematically searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for publications since 1990....... The meta-analysis included only original studies. They were stratified by age groups: infant/preschool, school children, and adults. Results: A total of 934 articles were identified, but only 51 were considered appropriate for inclusion. The prevalence of self-reported food allergy was very high compared...

  17. Computer use and carpal tunnel syndrome: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiri, Rahman; Falah-Hassani, Kobra

    2015-02-15

    Studies have reported contradictory results on the role of keyboard or mouse use in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). This meta-analysis aimed to assess whether computer use causes CTS. Literature searches were conducted in several databases until May 2014. Twelve studies qualified for a random-effects meta-analysis. Heterogeneity and publication bias were assessed. In a meta-analysis of six studies (N=4964) that compared computer workers with the general population or other occupational populations, computer/typewriter use (pooled odds ratio (OR)=0.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.58-0.90), computer/typewriter use ≥1 vs. computer/typewriter use ≥4 vs. computer/typewriter use (pooled OR=1.34, 95% CI 1.08-1.65), mouse use (OR=1.93, 95% CI 1.43-2.61), frequent computer use (OR=1.89, 95% CI 1.15-3.09), frequent mouse use (OR=1.84, 95% CI 1.18-2.87) and with years of computer work (OR=1.92, 95% CI 1.17-3.17 for long vs. short). There was no evidence of publication bias for both types of studies. Studies that compared computer workers with the general population or several occupational groups did not control their estimates for occupational risk factors. Thus, office workers with no or little computer use are a more appropriate comparison group than the general population or several occupational groups. This meta-analysis suggests that excessive computer use, particularly mouse usage might be a minor occupational risk factor for CTS. Further prospective studies among office workers with objectively assessed keyboard and mouse use, and CTS symptoms or signs confirmed by a nerve conduction study are needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Air pollution and quality of sperm: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi Najafi, Tahereh; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Namvar, Farideh; Ghavami Ghanbarabadi, Vahid; Hadizadeh Talasaz, Zahra; Esmaeli, Mahin

    2015-04-01

    Air pollution is common in all countries and affects reproductive functions in men and women. It particularly impacts sperm parameters in men. This meta-analysis aimed to examine the impact of air pollution on the quality of sperm. The scientific databases of Medline, PubMed, Scopus, Google scholar, Cochrane Library, and Elsevier were searched to identify relevant articles published between 1978 to 2013. In the first step, 76 articles were selected. These studies were ecological correlation, cohort, retrospective, cross-sectional, and case control ones that were found through electronic and hand search of references about air pollution and male infertility. The outcome measurement was the change in sperm parameters. A total of 11 articles were ultimately included in a meta-analysis to examine the impact of air pollution on sperm parameters. The authors applied meta-analysis sheets from Cochrane library, then data extraction, including mean and standard deviation of sperm parameters were calculated and finally their confidence interval (CI) were compared to CI of standard parameters. The CI for pooled means were as follows: 2.68 ± 0.32 for ejaculation volume (mL), 62.1 ± 15.88 for sperm concentration (million per milliliter), 39.4 ± 5.52 for sperm motility (%), 23.91 ± 13.43 for sperm morphology (%) and 49.53 ± 11.08 for sperm count. The results of this meta-analysis showed that air pollution reduces sperm motility, but has no impact on the other sperm parameters of spermogram.

  19. Induced abortion rate in Iran: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motaghi, Zahra; Poorolajal, Jalal; Keramat, Afsaneh; Shariati, Mohammad; Yunesian, Masud; Masoumi, Seyyedeh Zahra

    2013-10-01

    About 44 million induced abortions take place worldwide annually, of which 50% are unsafe. The results of studies investigated the induced abortion rate in Iran are inconsistent. The aim of this meta-analysis was to estimate the incidence rate of induced abortion in Iran. National and international electronic databases, as well as conference databases until July 2012 were searched. Reference lists of articles were screened and the studies' authors were contacted for additional unpublished studies. Cross-sectional studies addressing induced abortion in Iran were included in this meta-analysis. The primary outcome of interest was the induced abortion rate (the number of abortions per 1000 women aged 15-44 years in a year) or the ratio (the number of abortions per 100 live births in a year). The secondary outcome of interest was the prevalence of unintended pregnancies (the number of mistimed, unplanned, or unwanted pregnancies per total pregnancies). Data were analyzed using random effect models. Of 603 retrieved studies, using search strategy, 10 studies involving 102,394 participants were eventually included in the meta-analysis. The induced abortion rate and ratio were estimated as 8.9 per 1000 women aged 15-44 years (95% CI: 5.46, 12.33) and 5.34 per 100 live births (95% CI: 3.61, 7.07), respectively. The prevalence of unintended pregnancy was estimated as 27.94 per 100 pregnant women (95% CI: 23.46, 32.42). The results of this meta-analysis helped a better understanding of the incidence of induced abortion in Iran compared to the other developing countries in Asia. However, additional sources of data on abortion other than medical records and survey studies are needed to estimate the true rate of unsafe abortion in Iran.

  20. Motivational interviewing: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubak, Sune; Sandbæk, Annelli; Lauritzen, Torsten; Christensen, Bo

    2005-01-01

    Background Motivational Interviewing is a well-known, scientifically tested method of counselling clients developed by Miller and Rollnick and viewed as a useful intervention strategy in the treatment of lifestyle problems and disease. Aim To evaluate the effectiveness of motivational interviewing in different areas of disease and to identify factors shaping outcomes. Design of study A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials using motivational interviewing as the intervention. Method After selection criteria a systematic literature search in 16 databases produced 72 randomised controlled trials the first of which was published in 1991. A quality assessment was made with a validated scale. A meta-analysis was performed as a generic inverse variance meta-analysis. Results Meta-analysis showed a significant effect (95% confidence interval) for motivational interviewing for combined effect estimates for body mass index, total blood cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, blood alcohol concentration and standard ethanol content, while combined effect estimates for cigarettes per day and for HbA1c were not significant. Motivational interviewing had a significant and clinically relevant effect in approximately three out of four studies, with an equal effect on physiological (72%) and psychological (75%) diseases. Psychologists and physicians obtained an effect in approximately 80% of the studies, while other healthcare providers obtained an effect in 46% of the studies. When using motivational interviewing in brief encounters of 15 minutes, 64% of the studies showed an effect. More than one encounter with the patient ensures the effectiveness of motivational interviewing. Conclusion Motivational interviewing in a scientific setting outperforms traditional advice giving in the treatment of a broad range of behavioural problems and diseases. Large-scale studies are now needed to prove that motivational interviewing can be implemented into daily

  1. Thyroid Cytology in India: Contemporary Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Shipra; Jain, Deepali

    2017-11-01

    Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a screening test for triaging thyroid nodules, aiding in subsequent clinical management. However, the advantages have been overshadowed by the multiplicity of reporting systems and a wide range of nomenclature used. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (TBSRTC) was formulated in 2007, to give the world a uniform thyroid cytology reporting system, facilitating easy interpretation by the clinicians. Here, we review the status of thyroid FNAC in India in terms of various reporting systems used including a meta-analysis of the previously published data. An extensive literature search was performed using internet search engines. The reports with detailed classification system used in thyroid cytology were included. The meta-analysis of published data was compared with the implied risk of malignancy by TBSRTC. More than 50 studies were retrieved and evaluated. TBSRTC is currently the most widely used reporting system with different studies showing good efficacy and interobserver concordance. Ancillary techniques have, as of now, limited applicability and acceptability in thyroid cytology in India. Twenty-eight published articles met the criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis. When compared with TBSRTC recommendations, the meta-analysis showed a higher risk of malignancy for categories I and III. Thyroid FNAC is practiced all over India. TBSRTC has found widespread acceptance, with most institutions using this system for routine thyroid cytology reporting. However, reasons for a high malignancy risk for categories I and III need to be looked into. Various possible contributing factors are discussed in the review.

  2. Meta-analysis of surgical techniques for preventing parotidectomy sequelae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Joseph M; King, Nancy; Reiter, David; Fisher, Kyle; Heffelfinger, Ryan N; Pribitkin, Edmund A

    2009-01-01

    To conduct a meta-analysis of the literature on surgical methods for the prevention of Frey syndrome and concave facial deformity after parotidectomy. A PubMed search through February 2008 identified more than 60 English-language studies involving surgical techniques for prevention of these parameters. Analyzed works included 15 retrospective or prospective controlled studies reporting quantitative data for all included participants for 1 or more of the measured parameters in patients who had undergone parotidectomy. Report quality was assessed by the strength of taxonomy recommendation (SORT) score. Data were directly extracted from reports and dichotomized into positive and negative outcomes. The statistical significance was then calculated. The mean SORT score for all studies was 2.34, and the mean SORT score for all the analyzed studies was 1.88. Meta-analysis for multiple techniques to prevent symptomatic Frey syndrome, positive starch-iodine test results, and contour deformity favored intervention with a cumulative odds ratio (OR) of 3.88 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.81-5.34); OR, 3.66 (95% CI; 2.32-5.77); and OR, 5.25 (95% CI, 3.57-7.72), respectively. Meta-analysis of operative techniques to prevent symptomatic Frey syndrome, positive starch-iodine test results, and facial asymmetry suggests that such methods are likely to reduce the incidence of these complications after parotidectomy.

  3. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yu-Liang; Shu, Long; Zheng, Pei-Fen; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Si, Cai-Juan; Yu, Xiao-Long; Gao, Wei; Zhang, Lun

    2017-05-01

    The analysis of dietary patterns has recently drawn considerable attention as a method of investigating the association between the overall whole diet and the risk of colorectal cancer. However, the results have yielded conflicting findings. Here, we carried out a meta-analysis to identify the association between dietary patterns and the risk of colorectal cancer. A total of 40 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. The highest category of 'healthy' dietary pattern compared with the lowest category was apparently associated with a decreased risk for colorectal cancer [odds ratio (OR)=0.75; confidence interval (CI): 0.68-0.83; Pcolorectal cancer was shown for the highest compared with the lowest category of a 'western-style' dietary pattern (OR=1.40; CI: 1.26-1.56; Pcolorectal cancer in the highest compared with the lowest category of 'alcohol-consumption' pattern (OR=1.44; CI: 1.13-1.82; P=0.003). The results of this meta-analysis indicate that a 'healthy' dietary pattern may decrease the risk of colorectal cancer, whereas 'western-style' and 'alcohol-consumption' patterns may increase the risk of colorectal cancer.

  4. Transgender Phonosurgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Tara Elena; Jiang, Nancy

    2017-05-01

    Objectives Different surgical techniques have been described in the literature to increase vocal pitch. The purpose of this study is to systematically review these surgeries and perform a meta-analysis to determine which technique increases pitch the most. Data Sources CINAHL, Cochrane, Embase, Medline, PubMed, and Science Direct. Review Methods A systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature was performed using the CINAHL, Cochrane, Embase, Medline, PubMed, and Science Direct databases. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they evaluated pitch-elevating phonosurgical techniques in live humans and performed pre- and postoperative acoustic analysis. Data were gathered regarding surgical technique, pre- and postoperative fundamental frequencies, perioperative care measures, and complications. Results Twenty-nine studies were identified. After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, a total of 13 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Mechanisms of pitch elevation included increasing vocal cord tension (cricothyroid approximation), shortening the vocal cord length (cold knife glottoplasty, laser-shortening glottoplasty), and decreasing mass (laser reduction glottoplasty). The most common interventions were shortening techniques and cricothyroid approximation (6 studies each). The largest increase in fundamental frequency was seen with techniques that shortened the vocal cords. Preoperative speech therapy, postoperative voice rest, and reporting of patient satisfaction were inconsistent. Many of the studies were limited by low power and short length of follow-up. Conclusions Multiple techniques for elevation of vocal pitch exist, but vocal cord shortening procedures appear to result in the largest increase in fundamental frequency.

  5. Coffee and gastric cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botelho Francisco

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We systematically reviewed the literature on the association between coffee consumption and gastric cancer and performed a meta-analysis of the results. Published cohort and case-control studies were identified in PubMed and reference lists. Random effects meta-analysis was used to pool effects from 23 studies, and heterogeneity was explored by stratification and meta-regression. The odds ratio (OR for the overall association between coffee and gastric cancer (highest vs. lowest category of exposure was 0.97 (95%CI: 0.86-1.09, similar for cohort (OR = 1.02; 95%CI: 0.76-1.37 and case-control studies (population-based: OR = 0.90; 95%CI: 0.70-1.15; hospital-based: OR = 0.97; 95%CI: 0.83-1.13. The OR was 1.26 (95%CI: 1.02-1.57 when considering five studies conducted in the USA, 0.97 (95%CI: 0.82-1.14 for the five Japanese studies, 0.98 (95%CI: 0.81-1.17 for the six studies from Europe, and 0.64 (95%CI: 0.47-0.86 for the two studies from South America. In this meta-analysis we found no adverse effect of coffee associated with gastric cancer. Knowledge on the level of exposure to different coffee constituents may provide a deeper understanding of this reassuring result and the real role of coffee on cancer risk.

  6. Coffee and gastric cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Botelho

    Full Text Available We systematically reviewed the literature on the association between coffee consumption and gastric cancer and performed a meta-analysis of the results. Published cohort and case-control studies were identified in PubMed and reference lists. Random effects meta-analysis was used to pool effects from 23 studies, and heterogeneity was explored by stratification and meta-regression. The odds ratio (OR for the overall association between coffee and gastric cancer (highest vs. lowest category of exposure was 0.97 (95%CI: 0.86-1.09, similar for cohort (OR = 1.02; 95%CI: 0.76-1.37 and case-control studies (population-based: OR = 0.90; 95%CI: 0.70-1.15; hospital-based: OR = 0.97; 95%CI: 0.83-1.13. The OR was 1.26 (95%CI: 1.02-1.57 when considering five studies conducted in the USA, 0.97 (95%CI: 0.82-1.14 for the five Japanese studies, 0.98 (95%CI: 0.81-1.17 for the six studies from Europe, and 0.64 (95%CI: 0.47-0.86 for the two studies from South America. In this meta-analysis we found no adverse effect of coffee associated with gastric cancer. Knowledge on the level of exposure to different coffee constituents may provide a deeper understanding of this reassuring result and the real role of coffee on cancer risk.

  7. Radiosurgery of Glomus Jugulare Tumors: A Meta-Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guss, Zachary D.; Batra, Sachin; Limb, Charles J.; Li, Gordon; Sughrue, Michael E.; Redmond, Kristin; Rigamonti, Daniele; Parsa, Andrew T.; Chang, Steven; Kleinberg, Lawrence; Lim, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: During the past two decades, radiosurgery has arisen as a promising approach to the management of glomus jugulare. In the present study, we report on a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available published data on the radiosurgical management of glomus jugulare tumors. Methods and Materials: To identify eligible studies, systematic searches of all glomus jugulare tumors treated with radiosurgery were conducted in major scientific publication databases. The data search yielded 19 studies, which were included in the meta-analysis. The data from 335 glomus jugulare patients were extracted. The fixed effects pooled proportions were calculated from the data when Cochrane's statistic was statistically insignificant and the inconsistency among studies was 36 months. In these studies, 95% of patients achieved clinical control and 96% achieved tumor control. The gamma knife, linear accelerator, and CyberKnife technologies all exhibited high rates of tumor and clinical control. Conclusions: The present study reports the results of a meta-analysis for the radiosurgical management of glomus jugulare. Because of its high effectiveness, we suggest considering radiosurgery for the primary management of glomus jugulare tumors.

  8. Modafinil augmentation therapy in unipolar and bipolar depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Alexander J; Kaser, Muzaffer; Costafreda, Sergi G; Sahakian, Barbara J; Fu, Cynthia H Y

    2013-11-01

    Current pharmacologic treatments for a depressive episode in unipolar major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar depression are limited by low rates of remission. Residual symptoms include a persistent low mood and neurovegetative symptoms such as fatigue. The objective of this study was to examine the efficacy and tolerability of augmentation of first-line therapies with the novel stimulant-like agent modafinil in MDD and bipolar depression. MEDLINE/PubMed, PsycINFO, 1980-April 2013 were searched using the following terms: (modafinil or armodafinil) and (depressi* or depressed or major depressive disorder or major depression or unipolar or bipolar or dysthymi*). Inclusion criteria were as follows: randomized controlled trial (RCT) design, sample comprising adult patients (18-65 years) with unipolar or bipolar depression, diagnosis according to DSM-IV, ICD-10, or other well-recognized criteria, modafinil or armodafinil given as augmentation therapy in at least 1 arm of the trial, and publication in English in a peer-reviewed journal. Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials of adjunctive treatment with modafinil or armodafinil of standard treatment for depressive episodes in MDD and bipolar depression were selected. Two independent appraisers assessed the eligibility of the trials. A random-effects meta-analysis with DerSimonian-Laird method was used. Moderator effects were evaluated by meta-regression. Data from 6 RCTs, with a total of 910 patients with MDD or bipolar depression, consisting of 4 MDD RCTs (n = 568) and 2 bipolar depression RCTs (n = 342) were analyzed. The meta-analysis revealed significant effects of modafinil on improvements in overall depression scores (point estimate = -0.35; 95% CI, -0.61 to -0.10) and remission rates (odds ratio = 1.61; 95% CI, 1.04 to 2.49). The treatment effects were evident in both MDD and bipolar depression, with no difference between disorders. Modafinil showed a significant positive effect on

  9. A meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of breast cancer identifies two novel susceptibility loci at 6q14 and 20q11

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siddiq, Afshan; Couch, Fergus J.; Chen, Gary K.; Lindström, Sara; Eccles, Diana; Millikan, Robert C.; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Stram, Daniel O.; Beckmann, Lars; Rhie, Suhn Kyong; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Amiano, Pilar; Apicella, Carmel; Baglietto, Laura; Bandera, Elisa V.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Berg, Christine D.; Bernstein, Leslie; Blomqvist, Carl; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brinton, Louise; Bui, Quang M.; Buring, Julie E.; Buys, Saundra S.; Campa, Daniele; Carpenter, Jane E.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chen, Constance; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Czene, Kamila; Deming, Sandra L.; Diasio, Robert B.; Diver, W. Ryan; Dunning, Alison M.; Durcan, Lorraine; Ekici, Arif B.; Fasching, Peter A.; Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Fejerman, Laura; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Fletcher, Olivia; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Gaudet, Mia M.; Gerty, Susan M.; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L.; Giles, Graham G.; van Gils, Carla H.; Godwin, Andrew K.; Graham, Nikki; Greco, Dario; Hall, Per; Hankinson, Susan E.; Hartmann, Arndt; Hein, Rebecca; Heinz, Judith; Hoover, Robert N.; Hopper, John L.; Hu, Jennifer J.; Huntsman, Scott; Ingles, Sue A.; Irwanto, Astrid; Isaacs, Claudine; Jacobs, Kevin B.; John, Esther M.; Justenhoven, Christina; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Coetzee, Gerhard A.; Lathrop, Mark; Le Marchand, Loic; Lee, Adam M.; Lee, I.-Min; Lesnick, Timothy; Lichtner, Peter; Liu, Jianjun; Lund, Eiliv; Makalic, Enes; Martin, Nicholas G.; McLean, Catriona A.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Meindl, Alfons; Miron, Penelope; Monroe, Kristine R.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nickels, Stefan; Nyante, Sarah J.; Olswold, Curtis; Overvad, Kim; Palli, Domenico; Park, Daniel J.; Palmer, Julie R.; Pathak, Harsh; Peto, Julian; Pharoah, Paul; Rahman, Nazneen; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Schmidt, Daniel F.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Slager, Susan; Southey, Melissa C.; Stevens, Kristen N.; Sinn, Hans-Peter; Press, Michael F.; Ross, Eric; Riboli, Elio; Ridker, Paul M.; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Severi, Gianluca; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Stone, Jennifer; Sund, Malin; Tapper, William J.; Thun, Michael J.; Travis, Ruth C.; Turnbull, Clare; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Waisfisz, Quinten; Wang, Xianshu; Wang, Zhaoming; Weaver, Joellen; Schulz-Wendtland, Rüdiger; Wilkens, Lynne R.; van den Berg, David; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G.; Ziv, Elad; Nevanlinna, Heli; Easton, Douglas F.; Hunter, David J.; Henderson, Brian E.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Kraft, Peter; Haiman, Christopher A.; Vachon, Celine M.

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of breast cancer defined by hormone receptor status have revealed loci contributing to susceptibility of estrogen receptor (ER)-negative subtypes. To identify additional genetic variants for ER-negative breast cancer, we conducted the largest meta-analysis of

  10. The Trans-Contextual Model of Autonomous Motivation in Education: Conceptual and Empirical Issues and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagger, Martin S; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L D

    2016-06-01

    The trans-contextual model outlines the processes by which autonomous motivation toward activities in a physical education context predicts autonomous motivation toward physical activity outside of school, and beliefs about, intentions toward, and actual engagement in, out-of-school physical activity. In the present article, we clarify the fundamental propositions of the model and resolve some outstanding conceptual issues, including its generalizability across multiple educational domains, criteria for its rejection or failed replication, the role of belief-based antecedents of intentions, and the causal ordering of its constructs. We also evaluate the consistency of model relationships in previous tests of the model using path-analytic meta-analysis. The analysis supported model hypotheses but identified substantial heterogeneity in the hypothesized relationships across studies unattributed to sampling and measurement error. Based on our meta-analysis, future research needs to provide further replications of the model in diverse educational settings beyond physical education and test model hypotheses using experimental methods.

  11. Source attribution of human salmonellosis using a meta-analysis of case-control studies of sporadic infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho Calado Domingues, Ana Rita; Pires, Sara Monteiro; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella is an important cause of human illness. Disease is frequently associated with foodborne transmission, but other routes of exposure are recognized. Identifying sources of disease is essential for prioritizing public health interventions. Numerous case-control studies of sporadic......-control studies and a meta-analysis of obtained results. Thirty-five Salmonella case-control studies were identified. In the meta-analysis, heterogeneity between studies and possible sources of bias were investigated, and pooled odds ratios estimated. Results suggested that travel, predisposing factors, eating...... salmonellosis have been published, often using different methodologies and settings. Systematic reviews consist of a formal process for literature review focused on a research question. With the objective of identifying the most important risk factors for salmonellosis, we performed a systematic review of case...

  12. Individual patient data meta-analysis shows a significant association between the ATM rs1801516 SNP and toxicity after radiotherapy in 5456 breast and prostate cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Christian Nicolaj; Rosenstein, Barry S; Kerns, Sarah L

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Several small studies have indicated that the ATM rs1801516 SNP is associated with risk of normal tissue toxicity after radiotherapy. However, the findings have not been consistent. In order to test this SNP in a well-powered study, an individual patient data meta-analysis was carried ou...

  13. Population-level impact, herd immunity, and elimination after human papillomavirus vaccination: a systematic review and meta-analysis of predictions from transmission-dynamic models.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brisson, Marc; Bénard, Élodie; Drolet, Mélanie; Bogaards, Johannes A; Baussano, Iacopo; Vänskä, Simopekka; Jit, Mark; Boily, Marie-Claude; Smith, Megan A; Berkhof, Johannes; Canfell, Karen; Chesson, Harrell W; Burger, Emily A; Choi, Yoon H; De Blasio, Birgitte Freiesleben; De Vlas, Sake J; Guzzetta, Giorgio; Hontelez, Jan A C; Horn, Johannes; Jepsen, Martin R; Kim, Jane J; Lazzarato, Fulvio; Matthijsse, Suzette M; Mikolajczyk, Rafael; Pavelyev, Andrew; Pillsbury, Matthew; Shafer, Leigh Anne; Tully, Stephen P; Turner, Hugo C; Usher, Cara; Walsh, Cathal

    2016-01-01

    Modelling studies have been widely used to inform human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination policy decisions; however, many models exist and it is not known whether they produce consistent predictions of population-level effectiveness and herd effects. We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of

  14. Effects of Computer Support, Collaboration, and Time Lag on Performance Self-Efficacy and Transfer of Training: A Longitudinal Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gegenfurtner, Andreas; Veermans, Koen; Vauras, Marja

    2013-01-01

    This meta-analysis (29 studies, k = 33, N = 4158) examined the longitudinal development of the relationship between performance self-efficacy and transfer before and after training. A specific focus was on training programs that afforded varying degrees of computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL). Consistent with social cognitive theory,…

  15. Rate of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Byrne, Susan

    2010-11-03

    Background The population rate of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS) is frequently reported as 10%. However, a systematic review and meta-analysis of the true population based frequency of FALS has never been performed. Method A Medline literature review identified all original articles reporting a rate of FALS. Studies were grouped according to the type of data presented and examined for sources of case ascertainment. A systematic review and meta-analysis of reported rates of FALS was then conducted to facilitate comparison between studies and calculate a pooled rate of FALS. Results 38 papers reported a rate of FALS. Thirty-three papers were included in analysis and the rate of FALS for all studies was 4.6% (95% CI 3.9% to 5.5%). Restricting the analysis to prospective population based registry data revealed a rate of 5.1% (95% CI 4.1% to 6.1%). The incidence of FALS was lower in southern Europe. There was no correlation between rate of FALS and reported SOD1 mutation rates. Conclusion The rate of FALS among prospective population based registries is 5.1% (CI 4.1 to 6.1%), and not 10% as is often stated. Further detailed prospective population based studies of familial ALS are required to confirm this rate.

  16. Rate of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Byrne, Susan

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: The population rate of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS) is frequently reported as 10%. However, a systematic review and meta-analysis of the true population based frequency of FALS has never been performed. METHOD: A Medline literature review identified all original articles reporting a rate of FALS. Studies were grouped according to the type of data presented and examined for sources of case ascertainment. A systematic review and meta-analysis of reported rates of FALS was then conducted to facilitate comparison between studies and calculate a pooled rate of FALS. RESULTS: 38 papers reported a rate of FALS. Thirty-three papers were included in analysis and the rate of FALS for all studies was 4.6% (95% CI 3.9% to 5.5%). Restricting the analysis to prospective population based registry data revealed a rate of 5.1% (95% CI 4.1% to 6.1%). The incidence of FALS was lower in southern Europe. There was no correlation between rate of FALS and reported SOD1 mutation rates. CONCLUSION: The rate of FALS among prospective population based registries is 5.1% (CI 4.1 to 6.1%), and not 10% as is often stated. Further detailed prospective population based studies of familial ALS are required to confirm this rate.

  17. The pterygoalar bar: A meta-analysis of its prevalence, morphology and morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pękala, Przemysław A; Henry, Brandon Michael; Pękala, Jakub R; Frączek, Paulina A; Taterra, Dominik; Natsis, Konstantinos; Piagkou, Maria; Skrzat, Janusz; Tomaszewska, Iwona M

    2017-09-01

    The pterygoalar (PA) bar is a bony bridge resulting from the partial or complete ossification of a PA ligament. The aim of this meta-analysis was to systematically analyze and provide the most comprehensive data on the prevalence, morphology and topographical anatomy of the PA bar. A comprehensive search of the major electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, ScienceDirect, SciELO, BIOSIS, and Web of Science) was conducted in order to identify relevant studies. Studies reporting the prevalence, side of occurrence, gender dimorphism and morphometry of the PA bar were included in the current study. A total of 25 articles (n = 16,168 subjects) were included in the meta-analysis. The overall pooled prevalence of the complete PA bar was 4.4% (95% CI: 3.0-6.0) and of the incomplete was 8.4% (95% CI: 4.6-13.3). The PA bar was most often observed unilaterally, on the left side. Analysis of geographical subgroups revealed considerable differences, with the lowest prevalence rates in Europe for both incomplete and complete PA bars. Considering the prevalence and anatomical characteristics of the PA bar, caution is recommended while planning or performing transfacial needle approach to the foramen ovale and when considering a differential diagnosis for nerve compression or entrapment syndromes. Copyright © 2017 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Antiphospholipid syndrome and recurrent miscarriage: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Thaís da Silva; Ieque, Andressa Lorena; de Carvalho, Hayalla Corrêa; Sell, Ana Maria; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana; Demarchi, Izabel Galhardo; de Lima Neto, Quirino Alves; Teixeira, Jorge Juarez Vieira

    2017-09-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune condition that is associated with thrombosis and morbidity in pregnancy. The exact mechanisms by which these associations occur appear to be heterogeneous and are not yet well understood. The aim of this study was to identify and analyze publications in recent years to better understand the diagnosis and its contribution to monitoring APS among women with recurrent miscarriage (RM). This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted using the PubMed and Web of Knowledge databases, with articles published between 2010 and 2014, according to the PRISMA statement. Of the 85 identified studies, nine were selected. Most of the studies reported an association between recurrent miscarriage and specific antiphospholipid antibodies, as anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL), lupus anticoagulant (LA), anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies (aβ2GPI) and antiphosphatidylserine (aPS), which showed a relationship with RM. The main result of the meta-analysis revealed association between antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs) and/or APS compared to the patients with RM (OR: 0.279; 95% CI: 0.212-0.366) and APS cases compared to the patients with RM (OR: 0.083; 95% CI: 0.036-0.189). High heterogeneity among these studies (I 2 =100.0%, p antiphospholipid antibodies and/or antiphospholipid syndrome in patients with recurrent miscarriage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A meta-analysis of the impacts of genetically modified crops.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelm Klümper

    Full Text Available Despite the rapid adoption of genetically modified (GM crops by farmers in many countries, controversies about this technology continue. Uncertainty about GM crop impacts is one reason for widespread public suspicion.We carry out a meta-analysis of the agronomic and economic impacts of GM crops to consolidate the evidence.Original studies for inclusion were identified through keyword searches in ISI Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar, EconLit, and AgEcon Search.Studies were included when they build on primary data from farm surveys or field trials anywhere in the world, and when they report impacts of GM soybean, maize, or cotton on crop yields, pesticide use, and/or farmer profits. In total, 147 original studies were included.Analysis of mean impacts and meta-regressions to examine factors that influence outcomes.On average, GM technology adoption has reduced chemical pesticide use by 37%, increased crop yields by 22%, and increased farmer profits by 68%. Yield gains and pesticide reductions are larger for insect-resistant crops than for herbicide-tolerant crops. Yield and profit gains are higher in developing countries than in developed countries.Several of the original studies did not report sample sizes and measures of variance.The meta-analysis reveals robust evidence of GM crop benefits for farmers in developed and developing countries. Such evidence may help to gradually increase public trust in this technology.

  20. Socioeconomic status and antisocial behaviour among children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowska, Patrycja J; Stride, Christopher B; Croft, Simone E; Rowe, Richard

    2015-02-01

    Previous research on the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and child and adolescent antisocial behaviour has produced mixed findings showing variation in the strength of association. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to summarise evidence on the relationship between socioeconomic status and broadly conceptualised antisocial behaviour, investigating variation across a range of antisocial subtypes and other potential moderators, including age, sex and informant. We identified 133 studies containing data suitable for effect size calculation, and 139 independent effect sizes were analysed (total N=339868). The global meta-analysis showed that lower family socioeconomic status was associated with higher levels of antisocial behaviour. Moderation analyses revealed this relationship was stronger where callous-unemotional traits were the outcome, and where antisocial behaviour was reported by parents or teachers rather than self-reported. The relationship between family SES and antisocial behaviour, however, was independent of higher-level constructs such as national income inequality. These results indicate that SES can be considered a robust correlate of broadly conceptualised antisocial behaviour but the strength of this relationship may depend on the antisocial subtype under investigation and the design of the study. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. The role of social norms on preferences towards climate change policies: A meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alló, Maria; Loureiro, Maria L.

    2014-01-01

    The present study provides a review of existing assessments of preferences for climate change mitigation and adaptation policies through a worldwide meta-analysis. In this study, we analyze the impact of social values and norms on preferences towards climate change adaptation and mitigation policies. In a sample of 58 international studies, we found that mitigation actions were preferred over adaptation actions, and that preferences towards climate change policies are affected by attitudes towards time and social norms. In particular, societies with a long-term orientation display greater support towards climate change policies. These results therefore reveal the role of social factors as being crucial in order to understand the acceptability of climate change policies at a worldwide level. - highlights: • Effective policy design is required in order to curb climate change. • Using a meta-analysis, we find that mitigation actions are preferred over adaptation actions. • Economic conditions play a crucial role for supporting efforts to combat climate change. • Cultural and social dimensions are relevant for the acceptability of climate policies. • Understanding social norms and cultural variables may help with the climate change debate

  2. Garlic consumption and colorectal cancer risk in man: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavarini, Manuela; Minelli, Liliana; Fabiani, Roberto

    2016-02-01

    Colorectal cancer shows large incidence variations worldwide that have been attributed to different dietary factors. We conducted a meta-analysis on the relationship between garlic consumption and colorectal cancer risk. We systematically reviewed publications obtained by searching ISI Web of Knowledge, MEDLINE and EMBASE literature databases. We extracted the risk estimate of the highest and the lowest reported categories of intake from each study and conducted meta-analysis using a random-effects model. The pooled analysis of all fourteen studies, seven cohort and seven case-control, indicated that garlic consumption was not associated with colorectal cancer risk (OR=0·93; 95 % CI 0·82, 1·06, P=0·281; I 2=83·6 %, P≤0·001). Separate analyses on the basis of cancer sites and sex also revealed no statistically significant effects on cancer risk. However, when separately analysed on the basis of study type, we found that garlic was associated with an approximately 37 % reduction in colorectal cancer risk in the case-control studies (combined risk estimate=0·63, 95 % CI 0·48, 0·82, P=0·001; I 2=75·6 %, P≤0·001). Our results suggest that consumption of garlic is not associated with a reduced colorectal cancer risk. Further investigations are necessary to clarify the discrepancy between results obtained from different types of epidemiological studies.

  3. Cruciferous vegetables and risk of colorectal neoplasms: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Genevieve; Eslick, Guy D

    2014-01-01

    Evidence shows cruciferous vegetables exhibit chemoprotective properties, commonly attributed to their rich source of isothiocyanates. However, epidemiological data examining the association between cruciferous vegetable intake and colorectal neoplasms have been inconclusive. This meta-analysis examines the epidemiological evidence to characterize the association between cruciferous vegetable intake and risk of developing colorectal neoplasms. Thirty-three articles were included in the meta-analysis after a literature search of electronic databases. Subgroup analysis for individual cruciferae types (n = 8 studies) and GST polymorphism (n = 8 studies) were performed. Pooled adjusted odds ratios (ORs) comparing highest and lowest categories of dietary pattern scores were calculated. Results show a statistically significant inverse association between cruciferous vegetable intake and colon cancer [OR = 0.84; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.72-0.98; P value heterogeneity colorectal (CRC) neoplasms (OR = 0.80; 95% CI: 0.65-0.99; P value heterogeneity = 0.02). Stratification by GST genotype reveals that the GSTT1 null genotype confers a reduction in CRC risk (OR = 0.78; 95% CI: 0.64-0.95; P value heterogeneity = 0.32). This study provides support to the hypothesis that cruciferous vegetable intake protects against cancer of the colon. This study also demonstrates the significance of gene-diet interactions and the importance of assessing individual cruciferous vegetables.

  4. Prognostic Value of microRNA-9 in Various Cancers: a Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunyuan; Zhou, Jun; Sun, Meiling; Sun, Guirong; Cao, Yongxian; Zhang, Haiping; Tian, Runhua; Zhou, Lan; Duan, Liang; Chen, Xian; Lun, Limin

    2017-07-01

    Recently, there are more and more evidences from studies have revealed the association between microRNA-9 (miR-9) expression and outcome in multiple cancers, but inconsistent results have also been reported. It is necessary to rationalize a meta analysis of all available data to clarify the prognostic role of miR-9. Eligible studies were selected through multiple search strategies and the quality was assessed by MOOSE. Data was extracted from studies according to the key statistics index. All analyses were performed using STATA software. Twenty studies were selected in the meta-analysis to evaluate the prognostic role of miR-9 in multiple tumors. MiR-9 expression level was an independent prognostic biomarker for OS in tumor patients using multivariate and univariate analyses. High expression levels of miR-9 was demonstrated to associated with poor overall survival (OS) (HR = 2.23, 95 % CI: 1.56-3.17, P analysis showed that residence region (China and Japan), sample size, cancer type (solid or leukemia), follow-up months and analysis method (qPCR) did not alter the predictive value of miR-9 on OS in various cancers. Furthermore, no significant associations were detected for miR-9 expression and lymph node metastasis or distant metastasis. The present results suggest that promoted miR-9 expression is associated with poor OS in patients with general cancers.

  5. Evidence-based hydro- and balneotherapy in Hungary—a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, T.; Bálint, G.; Prohászka, Z.; Géher, P.; Tefner, I. K.

    2014-04-01

    Balneotherapy is appreciated as a traditional treatment modality in medicine. Hungary is rich in thermal mineral waters. Balneotherapy has been in extensive use for centuries and its effects have been studied in detail. Here, we present a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials conducted with Hungarian thermal mineral waters, the findings of which have been published by Hungarian authors in English. The 122 studies identified in different databases include 18 clinical trials. Five of these evaluated the effect of hydro- and balneotherapy on chronic low back pain, four on osteoarthritis of the knee, and two on osteoarthritis of the hand. One of the remaining seven trials evaluated balneotherapy in chronic inflammatory pelvic diseases, while six studies explored its effect on various laboratory parameters. Out of the 18 studies, 9 met the predefined criteria for meta-analysis. The results confirmed the beneficial effect of balneotherapy on pain with weight bearing and at rest in patients with degenerative joint and spinal diseases. A similar effect has been found in chronic pelvic inflammatory disease. The review also revealed that balneotherapy has some beneficial effects on antioxidant status, and on metabolic and inflammatory parameters. Based on the results, we conclude that balneotherapy with Hungarian thermal-mineral waters is an effective remedy for lower back pain, as well as for knee and hand osteoarthritis.

  6. An efficient Bayesian meta-analysis approach for studying cross-phenotype genetic associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Arunabha; Haldar, Tanushree; Bhattacharya, Sourabh; Witte, John S

    2018-02-01

    Simultaneous analysis of genetic associations with multiple phenotypes may reveal shared genetic susceptibility across traits (pleiotropy). For a locus exhibiting overall pleiotropy, it is important to identify which specific traits underlie this association. We propose a Bayesian meta-analysis approach (termed CPBayes) that uses summary-level data across multiple phenotypes to simultaneously measure the evidence of aggregate-level pleiotropic association and estimate an optimal subset of traits associated with the risk locus. This method uses a unified Bayesian statistical framework based on a spike and slab prior. CPBayes performs a fully Bayesian analysis by employing the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique Gibbs sampling. It takes into account heterogeneity in the size and direction of the genetic effects across traits. It can be applied to both cohort data and separate studies of multiple traits having overlapping or non-overlapping subjects. Simulations show that CPBayes can produce higher accuracy in the selection of associated traits underlying a pleiotropic signal than the subset-based meta-analysis ASSET. We used CPBayes to undertake a genome-wide pleiotropic association study of 22 traits in the large Kaiser GERA cohort and detected six independent pleiotropic loci associated with at least two phenotypes. This includes a locus at chromosomal region 1q24.2 which exhibits an association simultaneously with the risk of five different diseases: Dermatophytosis, Hemorrhoids, Iron Deficiency, Osteoporosis and Peripheral Vascular Disease. We provide an R-package 'CPBayes' implementing the proposed method.

  7. Epley and Semont maneuvers for posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo: A network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Ao-Bo; Bai, Xue; Zhang, Shuang

    2016-04-01

    Using network meta-analysis, we aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of Epley and Semont maneuvers as treatment options for posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Network meta-analysis. Randomized controlled studies with a Jadad score ≥ 3 that used an Epley or Semont maneuver in posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo patients were analyzed in this project. The following efficacy outcomes included 1-week recovery rate and end of study recovery rate. Recurrence rate was used to assess the safety of each treatment. Of 589 articles, 12 studies that enrolled 999 posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo patients were selected. The pooled analysis revealed that the Epley maneuver was as efficacious as the Semont maneuver, in both the 1-week recovery rate and end of study recovery rate (odds ratio [OR] = 1.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.48-7.00; OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 0.47-7.20), and had a similar recurrence rate (OR = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.33-4.4). These two techniques were both better than sham-controlled treatment in the two efficacy indicators. No difference was observed in recurrence rate for treatments. The Epley maneuver was similar to the Semont maneuver in both efficacy and safety for posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo in short-term effects, and both were superior to the sham-controlled treatment. NA. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  8. Nasal vs Oronasal CPAP for OSA Treatment: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Rafaela G S; Viana, Fernanda M; Nascimento, Juliana A; Drager, Luciano F; Moffa, Adriano; Brunoni, André R; Genta, Pedro R; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo

    2018-03-01

    Nasal CPAP is the "gold standard" treatment for OSA. However, oronasal masks are frequently used in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of all randomized and nonrandomized trials that compared nasal vs oronasal masks on CPAP level, residual apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), and CPAP adherence to treat OSA. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, and Web of Science were searched for relevant studies in any language with the following terms: "sleep apnea" and "CPAP" or "sleep apnea" and "oronasal mask" or "OSA" and "oronasal CPAP" or "oronasal mask" and "adherence." Studies on CPAP treatment for OSA were included, based on the following criteria: (1) original article; (2) randomized or nonrandomized trials; and (3) comparison between nasal and oronasal CPAP including pressure level, and/or residual AHI, and/or CPAP adherence. We identified five randomized and eight nonrandomized trials (4,563 patients) that reported CPAP level and/or residual AHI and/or CPAP adherence. Overall, the random-effects meta-analysis revealed that as compared with nasal, oronasal masks were associated with a significantly higher CPAP level (Hedges' g, -0.59; 95% CI, -0.82 to -0.37; P CPAP level, higher residual AHI, and poorer adherence than nasal masks. PROSPERO database; No.: CRD42017064584; URL: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Sleep in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a meta-analysis of polysomnographic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Avi; Pergamin, Lee; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2006-12-01

    The links between sleep and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been a topic for intense ongoing research and clinical interest. Previous narrative literature reviews conveyed a consensus that parents of children with ADHD are more likely to report sleep problems in their children in comparison to parents of control children. However, when objective measures are considered the results appear to be more complex and inconsistent. This review is based on a meta-analysis of relevant polysomnographic studies. We assessed measures related to sleep architecture, breathing disorders, and periodic limb movements in sleep (PLMS), and the role of potential moderators such as age, gender, and other methodological factors. The meta-analysis revealed only one significant combined effect that indicates that children with ADHD are more likely than controls to suffer from PLMS. Factors such as age, gender, inclusion of adaptation night, and comorbidity appear to play a moderating role in the associations between sleep characteristics and ADHD. To provide new insight regarding the links between sleep and ADHD research in this field should adopt new strict guidelines and consider the role of multiple pertinent moderating factors.

  10. Sexual orientation and neurocognitive ability: A meta-analysis in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yin; Norton, Sam; Rahman, Qazi

    2017-12-01

    The cross-sex-shift hypothesis predicts that homosexual men and women will be similar in certain neurobehavioral traits to their opposite-sex counterparts. Accordingly, it predicts that homosexual men should perform in the direction of heterosexual women, and homosexual women in the direction of heterosexual men, on neurocognitive tests that show normative sex differences. We conducted a meta-analysis on the relationship between sexual orientation and cognitive performance, and tested the effects of potential moderating variables separately by sex. A total of 106 samples and 254,231 participants were included. The meta-analysis revealed that homosexual men performed like heterosexual women in both male-favouring (e.g., spatial cognition) and female-favouring (e.g., verbal fluency) cognitive tests, while homosexual women performed like heterosexual men only in male-favouring tests. The magnitude of the sexual orientation difference varied across cognitive domains (larger for spatial abilities). It was also larger in studies comparing exclusive heterosexuals with exclusive homosexuals compared to studies comparing exclusive heterosexuals with non-exclusive homosexuals for both sexes. The results may narrow down potential sites for sexual orientation-related neural differences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence of tic disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Tristan; Steeves, Thomas; Day, Lundy; Lowerison, Mark; Jette, Nathalie; Pringsheim, Tamara

    2012-08-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence of tic disorders. MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched, using terms specific to Tourette syndrome and tic disorders, for studies of incidence, prevalence, and epidemiology. Thirty-five studies reporting data from 1985-2011 on the incidence or prevalence of tic disorders in a defined population were included. One reported incidence, and 34 reported prevalence. Meta-analysis of 13 studies of children yielded a prevalence of Tourette syndrome at 0.77% (95% confidence interval, 0.39-1.51%). Prevalence is higher in boys: 1.06% of boys were affected (95% confidence interval, 0.54-2.09%) vs 0.25% of girls (95% confidence interval, 0.05-1.20%). Transient tic disorder comprised the most common tic disorder in children, affecting 2.99% (95% confidence interval, 1.60-5.61%). Meta-analysis of two studies assessing adults for Tourette syndrome revealed a prevalence of 0.05% (95% confidence interval, 0.03-0.08%). The prevalence of tic disorders was higher in all studies performed in special education populations. Tic disorders are more common in children than adults, in boys than girls, and in special education populations. Parents, educators, healthcare professionals, and administrators should be aware of the frequency with which tic disorders occur, and ensure proper access to appropriate care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Association between Serum Homocysteine Level and Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is a common problem that affects human health. Researches have reported a variety of results with reference to the association between OSA and serum homocysteine (Hcy level. This meta-analysis is proposed to figure out the association between serum Hcy level and OSA. Methods. Eligible studies were identified via searching PubMed, Embase, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI. Two independent reviewers reviewed studies. The Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale (NOS was employed for quality assessment of included studies. RevMan (5.1 software and STATA (12.0 software were applied to data analyses. Results. 10 studies containing 839 subjects were included in the present meta-analysis; results revealed that Hcy levels in OSA group were 2.40 μmol/l higher than that in control group (95% confidence interval: 0.6 to 4.20, P= 30. Conclusions. Serum Hcy levels and OSA have close-knit and significant association. Analyses demonstrated that patients with OSA had a higher serum Hcy level than healthy controls. In addition, this difference is more significant in moderate or severe OSA patients.

  13. Babies and math: A meta-analysis of infants' simple arithmetic competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulou, Joan; Lac, Andrew; Moore, David S

    2017-08-01

    Wynn's (1992) seminal research reported that infants looked longer at stimuli representing "incorrect" versus "correct" solutions of basic addition and subtraction problems and concluded that infants have innate arithmetical abilities. Since then, infancy researchers have attempted to replicate this effect, yielding mixed findings. The present meta-analysis aimed to systematically compile and synthesize all of the primary replications and extensions of Wynn (1992) that have been conducted to date. The synthesis included 12 studies consisting of 26 independent samples and 550 unique infants. The summary effect, computed using a random-effects model, was statistically significant, d = +0.34, p < .001, suggesting that the phenomenon Wynn originally reported is reliable. Five different tests of publication bias yielded mixed results, suggesting that while a moderate level of publication bias is probable, the summary effect would be positive even after accounting for this issue. Out of the 10 metamoderators tested, none were found to be significant, but most of the moderator subgroups were significantly different from a null effect. Although this meta-analysis provides support for Wynn's original findings, further research is warranted to understand the underlying mechanisms responsible for infants' visual preferences for "mathematically incorrect" test stimuli. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Comprehensive Transcriptome Meta-analysis to Characterize Host Immune Responses in Helminth Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guangyan; Stevenson, Mary M.; Geary, Timothy G.; Xia, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    Helminth infections affect more than a third of the world’s population. Despite very broad phylogenetic differences among helminth parasite species, a systemic Th2 host immune response is typically associated with long-term helminth infections, also known as the “helminth effect”. Many investigations have been carried out to study host gene expression profiles during helminth infections. The objective of this study is to determine if there is a common transcriptomic signature characteristic of the helminth effect across multiple helminth species and tissue types. To this end, we performed a comprehensive meta-analysis of publicly available gene expression datasets. After data processing and adjusting for study-specific effects, we identified ~700 differentially expressed genes that are changed consistently during helminth infections. Functional enrichment analyses indicate that upregulated genes are predominantly involved in various immune functions, including immunomodulation, immune signaling, inflammation, pathogen recognition and antigen presentation. Down-regulated genes are mainly involved in metabolic process, with only a few of them are involved in immune regulation. This common immune gene signature confirms previous observations and indicates that the helminth effect is robust across different parasite species as well as host tissue types. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first comprehensive meta-analysis of host transcriptome profiles during helminth infections. PMID:27058578

  15. Meta-analysis and candidate gene mining of low-phosphorus tolerance in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongwei; Uddin, Mohammed Shalim; Zou, Cheng; Xie, Chuanxiao; Xu, Yunbi; Li, Wen-Xue

    2014-03-01

    Plants with tolerance to low-phosphorus (P) can grow better under low-P conditions, and understanding of genetic mechanisms of low-P tolerance can not only facilitate identifying relevant genes but also help to develop low-P tolerant cultivars. QTL meta-analysis was conducted after a comprehensive review of the reports on QTL mapping for low-P tolerance-related traits in maize. Meta-analysis produced 23 consensus QTL (cQTL), 17 of which located in similar chromosome regions to those previously reported to influence root traits. Meanwhile, candidate gene mining yielded 215 genes, 22 of which located in the cQTL regions. These 22 genes are homologous to 14 functionally characterized genes that were found to participate in plant low-P tolerance, including genes encoding miR399s, Pi transporters and purple acid phosphatases. Four cQTL loci (cQTL2-1, cQTL5-3, cQTL6-2, and cQTL10-2) may play important roles for low-P tolerance because each contains more original QTL and has better consistency across previous reports. © 2014 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  16. Enhanced meta-analysis and replication studies identify five new psoriasis susceptibility loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoi, Lam C; Spain, Sarah L; Ellinghaus, Eva; Stuart, Philip E; Capon, Francesca; Knight, Jo; Tejasvi, Trilokraj; Kang, Hyun M; Allen, Michael H; Lambert, Sylviane; Stoll, Stefan; Weidinger, Stephan; Gudjonsson, Johann E; Koks, Sulev; Kingo, Külli; Esko, Tonu; Das, Sayantan; Metspalu, Andres; Weichenthal, Michael; Enerback, Charlotta; Krueger, Gerald G.; Voorhees, John J; Chandran, Vinod; Rosen, Cheryl F; Rahman, Proton; Gladman, Dafna D; Reis, Andre; Nair, Rajan P; Franke, Andre; Barker, Jonathan NWN; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Trembath, Richard C; Elder, James T

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic autoimmune disease with complex genetic architecture. Previous genomewide association studies (GWAS) and a recent meta-analysis using Immunochip data have uncovered 36 susceptibility loci. Here, we extend our previous meta-analysis of European ancestry by refined genotype calling and imputation and by the addition of 5,033 cases and 5,707 controls. The combined analysis, consisting of over 15,000 cases and 27,000 controls, identifies five new psoriasis susceptibility loci at genomewide significance (p < 5 × 10−8). The newly identified signals include two that reside in intergenic regions (1q31.1 and 5p13.1) and three residing near PLCL2 (3p24.3), NFKBIZ (3q12.3), and CAMK2G (10q22.2). We further demonstrate that NFKBIZ is a TRAF3IP2–dependent target of IL-17 signaling in human skin keratinocytes, thereby functionally linking two strong candidate genes. These results further integrate the genetics and immunology of psoriasis, suggesting new avenues for functional analysis and improved therapies. PMID:25939698

  17. A Bayesian network meta-analysis of whole brain radiotherapy and stereotactic radiotherapy for brain metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xi; Liu, Wen-Jie; Li, Bing; Shen, Ze-Tian; Shen, Jun-Shu; Zhu, Xi-Xu

    2017-08-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effects of whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) and stereotactic radiotherapy (SRS) in treatment of brain metastasis.A systematical retrieval in PubMed and Embase databases was performed for relative literatures on the effects of WBRT and SRS in treatment of brain metastasis. A Bayesian network meta-analysis was performed by using the ADDIS software. The effect sizes included odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). A random effects model was used for the pooled analysis for all the outcome measures, including 1-year distant control rate, 1-year local control rate, 1-year survival rate, and complication. The consistency was tested by using node-splitting analysis and inconsistency standard deviation. The convergence was estimated according to the Brooks-Gelman-Rubin method.A total of 12 literatures were included in this meta-analysis. WBRT + SRS showed higher 1-year distant control rate than SRS. WBRT + SRS was better for the 1-year local control rate than WBRT. SRS and WBRT + SRS had higher 1-year survival rate than the WBRT. In addition, there was no difference in complication among the three therapies.Comprehensively, WBRT + SRS might be the choice of treatment for brain metastasis.

  18. A meta-analysis of the anterior cingulate contribution to social pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemogne, Cedric; Hinfray, Sophie; Huguet, Pascal; Grynszpan, Ouriel; Tartour, Eric; George, Nathalie; Fossati, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Many functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have explored the neural correlates of social pain that results from social threat, exclusion, rejection, loss or negative evaluation. Although activations have consistently been reported within the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), it remains unclear which ACC subdivision is particularly involved. To provide a quantitative estimation of the specific involvement of ACC subdivisions in social pain, we conducted a voxel-based meta-analysis. The literature search identified 46 articles that included 940 subjects, the majority of which used the cyberball task. Significant likelihoods of activation were found in both the ventral and dorsal ACC for both social pain elicitation and self-reported distress during social pain. Self-reported distress involved more specifically the subgenual and pregenual ACC than social pain-related contrasts. The cyberball task involved the anterior midcingulate cortex to a lesser extent than other experimental tasks. During social pain, children exhibited subgenual activations to a greater extent than adults. Finally, the ventro-dorsal gradient of ACC activations in cyberball studies was related to the length of exclusion phases. The present meta-analysis contributes to a better understanding of the role of ACC subdivisions in social pain, and it could be of particular importance for guiding future studies of social pain and its neural underpinnings. PMID:25140048

  19. Comparison of Bone Mineral Density between Urban and Rural Areas: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika Matsuzaki

    Full Text Available Studies from high income countries (HIC have generally shown higher osteoporotic fracture rates in urban areas than rural areas. Low bone mineral density (BMD increases susceptibility to fractures. This review aimed to assess whether urbanicity is consistently associated with lower BMD globally.Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Global Health (-April 2013 were searched for articles investigating differences in bone mineral content (BMC or BMD between urban and rural areas. Ratio of means (RoM of BMD were used to estimate effect sizes in meta-analysis, with an exception for one study that only presented BMC data.Fifteen articles from eleven distinct populations were included in the review; seven populations from four high income countries and four from three low and middle income countries (LMIC. Meta-analysis showed conflicting evidence for urban-rural difference in BMD; studies from high income countries generally showed higher BMD in rural areas while the results were more mixed in studies from low and middle income countries (HIC RoM = 0.05; 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.06; LMIC RoM = -0.04: 95% CI: -0.1 to 0.01.Urban-rural differences of bone mineral density may be context-specific. BMD may be higher in urban areas in some lower income countries. More studies with robust designs and analytical techniques are needed to understand mechanisms underlying the effects of urbanization on bone mass accrual and loss.

  20. Comparison of multiplex meta analysis techniques for understanding the acute rejection of solid organ transplants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khatri Purvesh

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Combining the results of studies using highly parallelized measurements of gene expression such as microarrays and RNAseq offer unique challenges in meta analysis. Motivated by a need for a deeper understanding of organ transplant rejection, we combine the data from five separate studies to compare acute rejection versus stability after solid organ transplantation, and use this data to examine approaches to multiplex meta analysis. Results We demonstrate that a commonly used parametric effect size estimate approach and a commonly used non-parametric method give very different results in prioritizing genes. The parametric method providing a meta effect estimate was superior at ranking genes based on our gold-standard of identifying immune response genes in the transplant rejection datasets. Conclusion Different methods of multiplex analysis can give substantially different results. The method which is best for any given application will likely depend on the particular domain, and it remains for future work to see if any one method is consistently better at identifying important biological signal across gene expression experiments.

  1. Which diet for prevention of type 2 diabetes? A meta-analysis of prospective studies.

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    Esposito, Katherine; Chiodini, Paolo; Maiorino, Maria Ida; Bellastella, Giuseppe; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes; Giugliano, Dario

    2014-09-01

    No specific diet is recommended to prevent type 2 diabetes. We did a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to assess the association between different diets and prevention of type 2 diabetes. We did a comprehensive search of multiple electronic databases (Medline, Scopus, EMBASE, and ISI web of knowledge) until August 2013 using predefined criteria. We included prospective cohort studies that evaluated the role of different diets in type 2 diabetes prevention. Studies were selected by 2 independent reviewers. We did random-effects meta-analyses to determine the relative risk (RR) of incident diabetes associated with healthful dietary patterns. A total of 21,372 cases of incident diabetes, from 18 prospective studies, with 20 cohorts, in 4 world regions were identified. In the random-effect meta-analysis of the 20 cohorts, RR was 0.80 (95 % confidence interval (CI) = 0.74-0.86, P diabetes did not appreciably change considering the geography (USA, Europe, and Asia), the duration of follow-up (≤10 and >10 years), and type of diets (Mediterranean and DASH, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension, diets). There was a difference between at risk and general population (P = 0.0487), but the evidence was limited to two studies only. The results of our study demonstrate that several healthy diets are equally and consistently associated with a 20 % reduced risk of future type 2 diabetes.

  2. The Efficacy of Bisphosphonates for Prevention of Osteoporotic Fracture: An Update Meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Ji-Hye; Jang, Sunmee; Lee, Sumin; Park, Suyeon; Yoon, Hyun Koo

    2017-01-01

    Background The efficacy of bisphosphonates for osteoporotic fracture has been consistently reported in recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs) enrolling hundreds of patients. The objective of this study was to update knowledge on the efficacy of available bisphosphonates in the prevention of vertebral and non-vertebral fractures. Methods An approach “using systematic reviews” on PubMed and Cochrane Library was taken. Twenty-four RCTs investigating the effects of bisphosphonates for the prevention of osteoporotic fracture were included in final analysis. A pairwise meta-analysis was conducted with a random effects model. Subgroup analysis was performed according to the type of bisphosphonate. Results The use of bisphosphonate decrease the risk of overall osteoporotic fracture (odds ratio [OR] 0.62; Posteoporotic fractures but no significance was observed for etidronate (OR 0.34; P=0.127). Conclusions This update meta-analysis re-confirmed that bisphosphonate use can effectively reduce the risk of osteoporotic fracture. However, there is a lack of evidence regarding etidronate for the prevention of osteoporotic fracture. PMID:28326300

  3. How does vineyard management intensity affect ecosystem services and disservices - insights from a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Silvia; Zaller, Johann G.; Kratschmer, Sophie; Pachinger, Bärbel; Strauss, Peter; Bauer, Thomas; Paredes, Daniel; Gómez, José A.; Guzmán, Gema; Landa, Blanca; Nicolai, Annegret; Burel, Francoise; Cluzeau, Daniel; Popescu, Daniela; Bunea, Claudiu-Ioan; Potthoff, Martin; Guernion, Muriel; Batáry, Péter

    2016-04-01

    Viticultural agro-ecosystems provide a range of different ecosystem services which are affected by management decisions of winegrowers. At the global scale, vineyards are often high intensity agricultural systems with bare soil or inter-row vegetation consisting of only a few plant species. These systems primarily aim at optimizing wine production by reducing competition for water and nutrients between grapevines and weeds and by preventing the outbreak of pests and diseases. At the same time, this kind of management is often associated with ecosystem disservices such as high rates of soil erosion, degradation of soil structure and fertility, contamination of groundwater and decline of biodiversity. Recently, several initiatives across the world tried to overcome detrimental effects of that management style by creating biodiversity friendly vineyards. The consequences of establishing divers cover crop mixes or tolerating spontaneous vegetation in vineyards for ecosystem services (including yield) overstretching local case studies has not been investigated yet. This meta-analysis will provide an overview of all published studies comparing the effects of different vineyard management practices on a range of different ecosystem services like biodiversity, pest control, pollination, soil conservation and carbon sequestration. The aggregated effect size will point out which management measures can provide the best overall net sum of ecosystem services. This meta-analysis is part of the transdisciplinary BiodivERsA project VineDivers and will ultimately lead into management and policy recommendations for various stakeholder groups engaged in viticulture.

  4. Prevalence of peptic ulcer in Iran: Systematic review and meta-analysis methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayehmiri, Kourosh; Abangah, Ghobad; Kalvandi, Gholamreza; Tavan, Hamed; Aazami, Sanaz

    2018-01-01

    Background: Peptic ulcer is a prevalent problem and symptoms include epigastria pain and heartburn. This study aimed at investigating the prevalence and causes of peptic ulcers in Iran using systematic review and meta-analysis. Materials and Methods: Eleven Iranian papers published from 2002 to 2016 are selected using valid keywords in the SID, Goggle scholar, PubMed and Elsevier databases. Results of studies pooled using random effects model in meta-analysis. The heterogeneity of the sample was checked using Q test and I2 index. Results: Total sample size in this study consist of 1335 individuals with peptic ulcer (121 samples per article). The prevalence of peptic ulcers was estimated 34% (95% CI= 0.25 – 0.43). The prevalence of peptic ulcers was 30% and 60% in woman and man respectively. The highest environmental factor (cigarette) has been addressed in 30% (95% CI= 0.23-0.37) of patients. The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori was estimated in 62% (95% CI= 0.49-0.75) of patients. Conclusion: The results of this study show that prevalence of peptic ulcers in Iran (34%) is higher that worldwide rate (6% to 15%). There was an increasing trend in the prevalence of peptic ulcer over a decade from 2002 to 2016. PMID:29456565

  5. Prognostic Value of MACC1 in Digestive System Neoplasms: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhenzhen; Zhou, Rui; Su, Yuqi; Sun, Li; Liao, Yulin; Liao, Wangjun

    2015-01-01

    Metastasis associated in colon cancer 1 (MACC1), a newly identified oncogene, has been associated with poor survival of cancer patients by multiple studies. However, the prognostic value of MACC1 in digestive system neoplasms needs systematic evidence to verify. Therefore, we aimed to provide further evidence on this topic by systematic review and meta-analysis. Literature search was conducted in multiple databases and eligible studies analyzing survival data and MACC1 expression were included for meta-analysis. Hazard ratio (HR) for clinical outcome was chosen as an effect measure of interest. According to our inclusion criteria, 18 studies with a total of 2,948 patients were identified. Pooled HRs indicated that high MACC1 expression significantly correlates with poorer OS in patients with digestive system neoplasms (HR = 1.94; 95% CI: 1.49-2.53) as well as poorer relapse-free survival (HR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.33-2.82). The results of subgroup studies categorized by methodology, anatomic structure, and cancer subtype for pooled OS were all consistent with the overall pooled HR for OS as well. No publication bias was detected according to test of funnel plot asymmetry and Egger's test. In conclusion, high MACC1 expression may serve as a prognostic biomarker to guide individualized management in clinical practice for digestive system neoplasms.

  6. Serum homocysteine level and gestational diabetes mellitus: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Tian; Wang, Jing; Yang, Mei; Shao, Yan; Liu, Juning; Wu, Qianlan; Xu, Qinhua; Wang, Huiying; He, Xiuyu; Chen, Yunzhen; Xu, Rong; Wang, Yun

    2016-07-01

    Homocysteine levels during pregnancy in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have been studied; however, it remains unclear whether hyperhomocysteinemia is a useful predictor of insulin resistance. The present study aimed to evaluate the relationship between homocysteine level and GDM. PubMed, Elsevier, Web of Science and CNKI were searched for relevant studies published up to January 2015. Manual searches of references of the relevant original studies were carried out. Meta-analysis was used to assessed the relationship between homocysteine level and GDM using the stata 12.0 software. Homocysteine levels were significantly elevated in women with GDM compared with those without GDM (weighted mean difference 0.77, 95% confidence interval 0.44-1.10). This evidence was more consistent during the second trimester measurement of homocysteine (weighted mean difference 0.95, 95% confidence interval 0.67-1.23) and for women aged older than 30 years (weighted mean difference 0.90, 95% confidence interval 0.63-1.17). The present meta-analysis shows that homocysteine level is significantly elevated among women with GDM compared with women with normal glucose tolerance, and this finding persists more during the second trimester. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. African American Race and Prevalence of Atrial Fibrillation:A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlow B. Hernandez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It has been observed that African American race is associated with a lower prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF compared to Caucasian race. To better quantify the association between African American race and AF, we performed a meta-analysis of published studies among different patient populations which reported the presence of AF by race. Methods. A literature search was conducted using electronic databases between January 1999 and January 2011. The search was limited to published studies in English conducted in the United States, which clearly defined the presence of AF in African American and Caucasian subjects. A meta-analysis was performed with prevalence of AF as the primary endpoint. Results. In total, 10 studies involving 1,031,351 subjects were included. According to a random effects analysis, African American race was associated with a protective effect with regard to AF as compared to Caucasian race (odds ratio 0.51, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.59, <0.001. In subgroup analyses, African American race was significantly associated with a lower prevalence of AF in the general population, those hospitalized or greater than 60 years old, postcoronary artery bypass surgery patients, and subjects with heart failure. Conclusions. In a broad sweep of subjects in the general population and hospitalized patients, the prevalence of AF in African Americans is consistently lower than in Caucasians.

  8. Markers of atherosclerosis in patients with Cushing's syndrome: a meta-analysis of literature studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupoli, Roberta; Ambrosino, Pasquale; Tortora, Anna; Barba, Livia; Lupoli, Gelsy Arianna; Di Minno, Matteo Nicola Dario

    2017-05-01

    Several studies reported an increased cardiovascular (CV) risk in Cushing's syndrome (CS). We performed a meta-analysis on the impact of CS on major markers of atherosclerosis. Studies on intima-media thickness (IMT), carotid plaques prevalence, and flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in CS patients and controls were searched in the PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and EMBASE. Differences between cases and controls were expressed as mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for continuous variables, and as Odds Ratio (OR) with 95%CI for dichotomous variables. Fourteen studies (332 CS, 462 controls) were included. Compared with controls, CS patients showed higher IMT (MD: 0.20 mm; 95% CI: 0.12, 0.28; p atherosclerosis and CV risk. These findings could help establish more specific CV prevention strategies in this clinical setting. Key messages A series of studies reported an increased cardiovascular risk in patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS). In the present meta-analysis we demonstrated that CS is associated with an increased intima-media thickness, higher prevalence of carotid plaques, and lower flow-mediated dilation as compared with controls. These data consistently suggest the need for a strict monitoring of early signs of subclinical atherosclerosis in CS patients.

  9. Association Between MGMT Promoter Methylation and Breast Cancer: a Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Nairui; Shi, Yu; Ye, Peng; Pan, Zhongya; Long, Xinghua

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies have suggested that the promoter methylation status of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) is significantly associated with breast cancer. However, these studies have not demonstrated consistent results. To obtain more accurate results for this possible association, we performed a meta-analysis-based study using the relevant data. A total of 14 articles were included in this meta-analysis. Our study showed that the frequency of MGMT promoter methylation was significantly higher in patients with breast cancer than non-breast cancer subjects with an Odds Ratio (OR) of 4.47, a 95% Confidence Interval (CI) ranging between 1.95 - 10.25 and a P value of 0.0004. Moreover, MGMT methylation was significantly associated with the negative expression of the MGMT protein (OR = 4.65, 95%CI = 2.66 - 8.12, P 50 (OR = 1.07, 95%CI = 0.46 - 2.51, P = 0.88). Our study suggests that MGMT promoter methylation may be an early biomarker for the diagnosis of breast cancer. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Detecting and correcting for publication bias in meta-analysis - A truncated normal distribution approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qiaohao; Carriere, K C

    2016-01-01

    Publication bias can significantly limit the validity of meta-analysis when trying to draw conclusion about a research question from independent studies. Most research on detection and correction for publication bias in meta-analysis focus mainly on funnel plot-based methodologies or selection models. In this paper, we formulate publication bias as a truncated distribution problem, and propose new parametric solutions. We develop methodologies of estimating the underlying overall effect size and the severity of publication bias. We distinguish the two major situations, in which publication bias may be induced by: (1) small effect size or (2) large p-value. We consider both fixed and random effects models, and derive estimators for the overall mean and the truncation proportion. These estimators will be obtained using maximum likelihood estimation and method of moments under fixed- and random-effects models, respectively. We carried out extensive simulation studies to evaluate the performance of our methodology, and to compare with the non-parametric Trim and Fill method based on funnel plot. We find that our methods based on truncated normal distribution perform consistently well, both in detecting and correcting publication bias under various situations.

  11. Bisphosphonates in multiple myeloma: an updated network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhaskar, Rahul; Kumar, Ambuj; Miladinovic, Branko; Djulbegovic, Benjamin

    2017-12-18

    Bisphosphonates are specific inhibitors of osteoclastic activity and are used in the treatment of patients with multiple myeloma (MM). While bisphosphonates are shown to be effective in reducing vertebral fractures and pain, their role in improving overall survival (OS) remains unclear. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2002 and previously updated in 2010 and 2012. To assess the evidence related to benefits and harms associated with use of various types of bisphosphonates (aminobisphosphonates versus non-aminobisphosphonates) in the management of patients with MM. Our primary objective was to determine whether adding bisphosphonates to standard therapy in MM improves OS and progression-free survival (PFS), and decreases skeletal-related morbidity. Our secondary objectives were to determine the effects of bisphosphonates on pain, quality of life, incidence of hypercalcemia, incidence of bisphosphonate-related gastrointestinal toxicities, osteonecrosis of jaw (ONJ) and hypocalcemia. We searched MEDLINE, Embase (September 2011 to July 2017) and the CENTRAL (2017, Issue 7) to identify all randomized controlled trial (RCT) in MM up to July 2017 using a combination of text and MeSH terms. Any randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing bisphosphonates versus placebo/no treatment/bisphosphonates and observational studies or case reports examining bisphosphonate-related ONJ in patients with MM were eligible for inclusion. Two review authors extracted the data. Data were pooled and reported as hazard ratio (HR) or risk ratio (RR) using a random-effects model. We used meta-regression to explore statistical heterogeneity. Network meta-analysis using Bayesian approach was conducted. In this update, we included four new studies (601 participants), resulting in a total of 24 included studies.Twenty RCTs compared bisphosphonates with either placebo or no treatment and four RCTs involved another bisphosphonate as a comparator. The 24 included RCTs enrolled

  12. Contextual and perceptual brain processes underlying moral cognition: a quantitative meta-analysis of moral reasoning and moral emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevinc, Gunes; Spreng, R Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Human morality has been investigated using a variety of tasks ranging from judgments of hypothetical dilemmas to viewing morally salient stimuli. These experiments have provided insight into neural correlates of moral judgments and emotions, yet these approaches reveal important differences in moral cognition. Moral reasoning tasks require active deliberation while moral emotion tasks involve the perception of stimuli with moral implications. We examined convergent and divergent brain activity associated with these experimental paradigms taking a quantitative meta-analytic approach. A systematic search of the literature yielded 40 studies. Studies involving explicit decisions in a moral situation were categorized as active (n = 22); studies evoking moral emotions were categorized as passive (n = 18). We conducted a coordinate-based meta-analysis using the Activation Likelihood Estimation to determine reliable patterns of brain activity. Results revealed a convergent pattern of reliable brain activity for both task categories in regions of the default network, consistent with the social and contextual information processes supported by this brain network. Active tasks revealed more reliable activity in the temporoparietal junction, angular gyrus and temporal pole. Active tasks demand deliberative reasoning and may disproportionately involve the retrieval of social knowledge from memory, mental state attribution, and construction of the context through associative processes. In contrast, passive tasks reliably engaged regions associated with visual and emotional information processing, including lingual gyrus and the amygdala. A laterality effect was observed in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, with active tasks engaging the left, and passive tasks engaging the right. While overlapping activity patterns suggest a shared neural network for both tasks, differential activity suggests that processing of moral input is affected by task demands. The results provide novel

  13. Meta-analysis of the serotonin transporter promoter variant (5-HTTLPR) in relation to adverse environment and antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tielbeek, Jorim J; Karlsson Linnér, Richard; Beers, Koko; Posthuma, Danielle; Popma, Arne; Polderman, Tinca J C

    2016-07-01

    Several studies have suggested an association between antisocial, aggressive, and delinquent behavior and the short variant of the serotonin transporter gene polymorphism (5-HTTLPR). Yet, genome wide and candidate gene studies in humans have not convincingly shown an association between these behaviors and 5-HTTLPR. Moreover, individual studies examining the effect of 5-HTTLPR in the presence or absence of adverse environmental factors revealed inconsistent results. We therefore performed a meta-analysis to test for the robustness of the potential interaction effect of the "long-short" variant of the 5-HTTLPR genotype and environmental adversities, on antisocial behavior. Eight studies, comprising of 12 reasonably independent samples, totaling 7,680 subjects with an effective sample size of 6,724, were included in the meta-analysis. Although our extensive meta-analysis resulted in a significant interaction effect between the 5-HTTLPR genotype and environmental adversities on antisocial behavior, the methodological constraints of the included studies hampered a confident interpretation of our results, and firm conclusions regarding the direction of effect. Future studies that aim to examine biosocial mechanisms that influence the etiology of antisocial behavior should make use of larger samples, extend to genome-wide genetic risk scores and properly control for covariate interaction terms, ensuring valid and well-powered research designs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Accuracy of infrared tympanic thermometry used in the diagnosis of Fever in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Chen; Xia, Zhang; Ya Jun, Zhou; Long, Li; Jian, Shuai; Gui Ju, Cai; Long, Li

    2015-02-01

    Accurate determination and detection of fever is essential in the appropriate treatment of pediatric population. It is widely known that improper definitions of fever can cause grave and dangerous consequences in medical procedures. Infrared tympanic thermometry seems a relatively new and popular alternative for traditional measurement in the diagnosis of pediatric fever. However, its accuracy in the diagnosis of fever remains a major concern. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Medline, Ovid, Elsevier, Google Scholar, and Cochrane library. Cross-sectional, prospective design. Two investigators independently assessed selected studies and extracted data. Disagreements were resolved by discussion with other reviewers. A total of 25 articles were included in our meta-analysis. The summary estimates revealed that the pooled sensitivity was 0.70 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.68-0.72), pooled specificity was 0.86 (95% CI = 0.85-0.88), and pooled diagnostic odds ratio was 47.3 (95% CI = 29.76-75.18), for the diagnosis of fever using infrared tympanic thermometry. Additionally, the area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.94, and Q* value was 0.87. A total of 25 articles that encompassing 31 studies were analyzed. Based on our meta-analysis, accuracy of infrared tympanic thermometry in diagnosing fever is high. We can cautiously make conclusion that infrared tympanic thermometry should be widely used as fever of thermometer. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. The effect of slow release insemination on pregnancy rates: report of two randomized controlled pilot studies and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschalek, Julian; Franz, Maximilian; Gonen, Yael; Kruessel, Jan-Steffen; Weichselbaum, Amnon; Kuessel, Lorenz; Trofaier, Marie-Louise; Ott, Johannes

    2017-04-01

    A modified application technique of intrauterine insemination (IUI) is slow release insemination (SRI), first described by Muharib et al. (Hum Reprod 7(2):227-229, 1992), who postulated higher pregnancy rates with a slow release of spermatozoa for 3 h. To investigate this approach, two randomized controlled, cross-over pilot studies were performed from 2004 to 2006 in Israel and Germany to compare SRI with the standard bolus IUI. We aimed to present the results and perform a meta-analysis on available data for SRI. Univariate comparisons of pregnancy rates were performed using one-tailed z tests for method superiority. For meta-analysis, a fixed-effect Mantel-Haentzel weighted average of relative risk was performed. Fifty treatment cycles (IUI: n = 25, SRI: n = 25) were performed in Germany, achieving four pregnancies (IUI: 4%, SRI: 12%, p > 0.05). Thirty-nine treatment cycles (IUI: n = 19, SRI: n = 20) were performed in Israel achieving six pregnancies (IUI: 10.5%, SRI: 20%; p > 0.05). Meta-analysis of all eligible studies for SRI (n = 3) revealed a combined relative risk for pregnancy after SRI of 2.64 (95% CI 1.04-6.74), p = 0.02). In conclusion, these results lend support to the hypothesis that the pregnancy rate might be improved by SRI compared to the standard bolus technique.

  16. The effect of appendectomy in future tubal infertility and ectopic pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elraiyah, Tarig; Hashim, Yassar; Elamin, Mohamed; Erwin, Patricia J; Zarroug, Abdalla E

    2014-12-01

    Ruptured appendicitis has been implicated in causing scarring, which can lead to infertility and/or ectopic pregnancy. To assess the degree of association and the quality of evidence supporting the relation among appendectomy, female fertility outcomes, and ectopic pregnancy. We systematically searched multiple electronic databases from inception through May 2013 for randomized trials and observational studies. Reviewers working independently and in duplicate extracted the study characteristics, the quality of the included studies, and the outcomes of interest. Random effects meta-analysis was used to pool the odds ratio (OR) from the included studies. Our meta-analysis based on seven observational studies provided evidence that previous appendectomy is not associated with increased incidence of infertility in women (OR = 1.03, 0.86-1.24, P = 0.71). This finding was further augmented by several noncomparative cohorts that discussed the same issue and reported nearly the same conclusion; however, these studies pointed toward putative negative impact of surgery for complicated appendicitis on fertility. Our second meta-analysis revealed the effect of appendectomy on ectopic pregnancy was found to be significant based on a pooled estimate from four studies (OR = 1.78, 95% confidence interval = 1.46-2.16, P pregnancy but not significantly associated with future infertility in women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Resveratrol supplementation and plasma adipokines concentrations? A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi-Sartang, Mohsen; Mazloom, Zohreh; Sohrabi, Zahra; Sherafatmanesh, Saeed; Barati-Boldaji, Reza

    2017-03-01

    The results of human clinical trials have revealed that the effects of resveratrol on adipokines are inconsistent. Our objective was to elucidate the role of resveratrol supplementation on adipokines through a systematic review and a meta-analysis of available randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCTs). 1 The search included PubMed-MEDLINE, SCOPUS and ISI web of sciences database till up to 6th November 2016. Weight mean differences (WMD) 2 were calculated for net changes in adipokines using fixed-effects or random-effects models; meta-regression analysis and publication bias were conducted in accordance with standard methods. Nine RCTs with 11 treatment arms were eligible for inclusion in this systematic review and meta-analysis. Meta-analysis of data from 10 treatment arms showed a significant change in plasma adiponectin concentrations following resveratrol supplementation (WMD: 1.10μg/ml, 95%CI: 0.88, 1.33, presveratrol supplementation (WMD: 3.77ng/ml, 95% CI: -2.28, 9.83, p=0.222; Q=8.00, I 2 =50.01%). Resveratrol significantly improves adiponectin but does not affect leptin concentrations. Additional studies are required to further evaluate the potential benefits of resveratrol on adipokines in humans. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Effect of Whey Supplementation on Circulating C-Reactive Protein: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ling-Mei; Xu, Jia-Ying; Rao, Chun-Ping; Han, Shufen; Wan, Zhongxiao; Qin, Li-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Whey supplementation is beneficial for human health, possibly by reducing the circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) level, a sensitive marker of inflammation. Thus, a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials was conducted to evaluate their relationship. A systematic literature search was conducted in July, 2014, to identify eligible studies. Either a fixed-effects model or a random-effects model was used to calculate pooled effects. The meta-analysis results of nine trials showed a slight, but no significant, reduction of 0.42 mg/L (95% CI −0.96, 0.13) in CRP level with the supplementation of whey protein and its derivates. Relatively high heterogeneity across studies was observed. Subgroup analyses showed that whey significantly lowered CRP by 0.72 mg/L (95% CI −0.97, −0.47) among trials with a daily whey dose ≥20 g/day and by 0.67 mg/L (95% CI −1.21, −0.14) among trials with baseline CRP ≥3 mg/L. Meta-regression analysis revealed that the baseline CRP level was a potential effect modifier of whey supplementation in reducing CRP. In conclusion, our meta-analysis did not find sufficient evidence that whey and its derivates elicited a beneficial effect in reducing circulating CRP. However, they may significantly reduce CRP among participants with highly supplemental doses or increased baseline CRP levels. PMID:25671415

  19. Long non-coding RNA HOTTIP is able to predict poor prognosis in various neoplasms: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ning; Yang, Ling-Yun; Xu, Zi-Peng

    2017-08-01

    HOXA distal transcript antisense RNA (HOTTIP), a critical oncogenic long non-coding RNA, has been reported to be aberrantly regulated in various cancer types. The present meta-analysis aimed to investigate HOTTIP as a potential clinical applicable prognostic biomarker in malignant neoplasms. Literature collections were performed by searching the electronic databases, PubMed and Web of Science (up to July 20, 2016). All the relevant searches were conducted to identify the association of HOTTIP with the overall survival (OS) rate. A total of six articles consisting of 508 patients were included in the present meta-analysis. The results suggested that the overexpression of HOTTIP is closely correlated with poor OS (hazard ratio=2.28; 95% confidence interval=1.71-3.04; P=0.000). In conclusion, the present meta-analysis has demonstrated that an increased expression level of HOTTIP is correlated with poor OS in different types of cancer, suggesting that HOTTIP potentially serves as a reliable prognostic biomarker in different types of cancer.

  20. Neural signatures of human fear conditioning: an updated and extended meta-analysis of fMRI studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullana, M A; Harrison, B J; Soriano-Mas, C; Vervliet, B; Cardoner, N; Àvila-Parcet, A; Radua, J

    2016-04-01

    Classical Pavlovian fear conditioning remains the most widely employed experimental model of fear and anxiety, and continues to inform contemporary pathophysiological accounts of clinical anxiety disorders. Despite its widespread application in human and animal studies, the neurobiological basis of fear conditioning remains only partially understood. Here we provide a comprehensive meta-analysis of human fear-conditioning studies carried out with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), yielding a pooled sample of 677 participants from 27 independent studies. As a distinguishing feature of this meta-analysis, original statistical brain maps were obtained from the authors of 13 of these studies. Our primary analyses demonstrate that human fear conditioning is associated with a consistent and robust pattern of neural activation across a hypothesized genuine network of brain regions resembling existing anatomical descriptions of the 'central autonomic-interoceptive network'. This finding is discussed with a particular emphasis on the neural substrates of conscious fear processing. Our associated meta-analysis of functional deactivations-a scarcely addressed dynamic in fMRI fear-conditioning studies-also suggests the existence of a coordinated brain response potentially underlying the 'safety signal' (that is, non-threat) processing. We attempt to provide an integrated summary on these findings with the view that they may inform ongoing studies of fear-conditioning processes both in healthy and clinical populations, as investigated with neuroimaging and other experimental approaches.

  1. Adjacent segment degeneration after lumbar spinal fusion compared with motion-preservation procedures: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Aixing; Hai, Yong; Yang, Jincai; Zhou, Lijin; Chen, Xiaolong; Guo, Hui

    2016-05-01

    This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the efficacy of motion-preservation procedures to prevent the adjacent segment degeneration (ASDeg) or adjacent segment disease (ASDis) compared with fusion in lumbar spine. PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library were comprehensively searched and a meta-analysis was performed of all randomized controlled trials and well designed prospective or retrospective comparative cohort studies assessing the lumbar fusion and motion-preservation procedures. We compared the ASDeg and ASDis rate, reoperation rate, operation time, blood loss, length of hospital stay, visual analogue scale (VAS) and oswestry disability index (ODI) improvement of the two procedures. A total of 15 studies consisting of 1474 patients were included in this study. The meta-analysis indicated that the prevalence of ASDeg, ASDis and reoperation rate on the adjacent level were lower in motion-preservation procedures group than in the fusion group (P = 0.001; P = 0.0004; P adjacent segment degeneration compared with the lumbar fusion. And the clinical outcomes of the two procedures are similar.

  2. Effects of Growth Hormone Replacement Therapy on Bone Mineral Density in Growth Hormone Deficient Adults: A Meta-Analysis

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    Peng Xue

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Growth hormone deficiency patients exhibited reduced bone mineral density compared with healthy controls, but previous researches demonstrated uncertainty about the effect of growth hormone replacement therapy on bone in growth hormone deficient adults. The aim of this study was to determine whether the growth hormone replacement therapy could elevate bone mineral density in growth hormone deficient adults. Methods. In this meta-analysis, searches of Medline, Embase, and The Cochrane Library were undertaken to identify studies in humans of the association between growth hormone treatment and bone mineral density in growth hormone deficient adults. Random effects model was used for this meta-analysis. Results. A total of 20 studies (including one outlier study with 936 subjects were included in our research. We detected significant overall association of growth hormone treatment with increased bone mineral density of spine, femoral neck, and total body, but some results of subgroup analyses were not consistent with the overall analyses. Conclusions. Our meta-analysis suggested that growth hormone replacement therapy could have beneficial influence on bone mineral density in growth hormone deficient adults, but, in some subject populations, the influence was not evident.

  3. Hyperuricemia and risk of incident hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

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    Ji Wang

    Full Text Available Observational studies of the relationship between hyperuricemia and the incidence of hypertension are controversial. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the association and consistency between uric acid levels and the risk of hypertension development.We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CBM (Chinese Biomedicine Database through September 2013 and reference lists of retrieved studies to identify cohort studies and nested case-control studies with uric acid levels as exposure and incident hypertension as outcome variables. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed study quality using Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Extracted information included study design, population, definition of hyperuricemia and hypertension, number of incident hypertension, effect sizes, and adjusted confounders. Pooled relative risks (RRs and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs for the association between hyperuricemia and risk of hypertension were calculated using a random-effects model.We included 25 studies with 97,824 participants assessing the association between uric acid and incident hypertension in our meta-analysis. The quality of included studies is moderate to high. Random-effects meta-analysis showed that hyperuricemia was associated with a higher risk of incident hypertension, regardless of whether the effect size was adjusted or not, whether the data were categorical or continuous as 1 SD/1 mg/dl increase in uric acid level (unadjusted: RR = 1.73, 95% CI 1.46∼2.06 for categorical data, RR = 1.22, 95% CI 1.03∼1.45 for a 1 SD increase; adjusted: RR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.33∼1.65 for categorical data, RR = 1.15, 95% CI 1.06∼1.26 for a 1 mg/dl increase, and the risk is consistent in subgroup analyses and have a dose-response relationship.Hyperuricemia may modestly increase the risk of hypertension incidence, consistent with a dose-response relationship.

  4. The Effectiveness of Cognitive Bias Modification Interventions for Substance Addictions: A Meta-Analysis.

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    Ioana A Cristea

    Full Text Available Cognitive bias modification (CBM interventions, presumably targeting automatic processes, are considered particularly promising for addictions. We conducted a meta-analysis examining randomized controlled trials (RCTs of CBM for substance addiction outcomes.Studies were identified through systematic searches in bibliographical databases. We included RCTs of CBM interventions, alone or in combination with other treatments, for any type of addiction. We examined trial risk of bias, publication bias and possible moderators. Effects sizes were computed for post-test and follow-up, using a random-effects model. We grouped outcome measures and reported results for addiction (all related measures, craving and cognitive bias.We identified 25 trials, 18 for alcohol problems, and 7 for smoking. At post-test, there was no significant effect of CBM for addiction, g = 0.08 (95% CI -0.02 to 0.18 or craving, g = 0.05 (95% CI -0.06 to 0.16, but there was a significant, moderate effect on cognitive bias, g = 0.60 (95% CI 0.39 to 0.79. Results were similar for alcohol and smoking outcomes taken separately. Follow-up addiction outcomes were reported in 7 trials, resulting in a small but significant effect of CBM, g = 0.18 (95% CI 0.03 to 0.32. Results for addiction and craving did not differ by substance type, sample type, delivery setting, bias targeted or number of sessions. Risk of bias was high or uncertain in most trials, for most criteria considered. Meta-regression analyses revealed significant inverse relationships between risk of bias and effect sizes for addiction outcomes and craving. The relationship between cognitive bias and respectively addiction ESs was not significant. There was consistent evidence of publication bias in the form of funnel plot asymmetry.Our results cast serious doubts on the clinical utility of CBM interventions for addiction problems, but sounder methodological trials are necessary before this issue can be settled. We found no

  5. Meta-analysis of air pollution exposure association with allergic sensitization in European birth cohorts.

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    Gruzieva, Olena; Gehring, Ulrike; Aalberse, Rob; Agius, Raymond; Beelen, Rob; Behrendt, Heidrun; Bellander, Tom; Birk, Matthias; de Jongste, Johan C; Fuertes, Elaine; Heinrich, Joachim; Hoek, Gerard; Klümper, Claudia; Koppelman, Gerard; Korek, Michal; Krämer, Ursula; Lindley, Sarah; Mölter, Anna; Simpson, Angela; Standl, Marie; van Hage, Marianne; von Berg, Andrea; Wijga, Alet; Brunekreef, Bert; Pershagen, Göran

    2014-03-01

    Evidence on the long-term effects of air pollution exposure on childhood allergy is limited. We investigated the association between air pollution exposure and allergic sensitization to common allergens in children followed prospectively during the first 10 years of life. Five European birth cohorts participating in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects project were included: BAMSE (Sweden), LISAplus and GINIplus (Germany), MAAS (Great Britain), and PIAMA (The Netherlands). Land-use regression models were applied to assess the individual residential outdoor levels of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5), the mass concentration of particles between 2.5 and 10 μm in size, and levels of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 μm (PM10), as well as measurement of the blackness of PM2.5 filters and nitrogen dioxide and nitrogen oxide levels. Blood samples drawn at 4 to 6 years of age, 8 to 10 years of age, or both from more than 6500 children were analyzed for allergen-specific serum IgE against common allergens. Associations were assessed by using multiple logistic regression and subsequent meta-analysis. The prevalence of sensitization to any common allergen within the 5 cohorts ranged between 24.1% and 40.4% at the age of 4 to 6 years and between 34.8% and 47.9% at the age of 8 to 10 years. Overall, air pollution exposure was not associated with sensitization to any common allergen, with odds ratios ranging from 0.94 (95% CI, 0.63-1.40) for a 1 × 10(-5) ∙ m(-1) increase in measurement of the blackness of PM2.5 filters to 1.26 (95% CI, 0.90-1.77) for a 5 μg/m(3) increase in PM2.5 exposure at birth address. Further analyses did not provide consistent evidence for a modification of the air pollution effects by sex, family history of atopy, or moving status. No clear associations between air pollution exposure and development of allergic sensitization in children up to 10 years of age

  6. Association between low bone mineral density and fibromyalgia: a meta-analysis.

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    Lee, Young Ho; Song, Gwan Gyu

    2017-11-01

    We aimed to evaluate the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and fibromyalgia (FM). Meta-analyses were performed comparing BMD in FM patients and healthy controls, and in FM patients in subgroups based on ethnicity, BMD site, age, sex, and measurement method. Twelve studies including 695 FM patients and 784 controls were selected. Meta-analysis by ethnicity revealed a significantly lower BMD in the FM group in Caucasian populations [standardized mean difference (SMD) = -0.144, 95% CI = -0.271-(-0.017), p = 0.026], but not in Turkish populations. Subgroup analysis by BMD site showed that BMD was significantly lower in the FM group than in the control group in the lumbar spine [SMD = -0.588 (medium), 95% CI = -1.142-(-0.033), p = 0.038], but not in the femur neck and hip. Stratification by measurement method revealed a significantly lower BMD in the FM group by dual X-ray absorptiometry and dual-photon absorptiometry [SMD = -0.531 (medium), 95% CI = -1.040-(-0.023), p = 0.041; SMD = -0.315 (small), 95% CI = -0.544-(-0.085), p = 0.007, respectively], but not by quantitative ultrasound, but not by quantitative ultrasound. Subgroup analysis by sex, menopause status, and age revealed a significantly lower BMD in the female FM group [SMD = -0.588 (medium), 95% CI = -1.142-(-0.033), p = 0.038], but not in the pre-menopausal group and the group greater than mean age 50 years old. Our meta-analysis demonstrated that BMD was significantly lower in FM patients in Caucasian and female populations.

  7. Meta-Analysis of Massage Therapy on Cancer Pain.

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    Lee, Sook-Hyun; Kim, Jong-Yeop; Yeo, Sujung; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Lim, Sabina

    2015-07-01

    Cancer pain is the most common complaint among patients with cancer. Conventional treatment does not always relieve cancer pain satisfactorily. Therefore, many patients with cancer have turned to complementary therapies to help them with their physical, emotional, and spiritual well-being. Massage therapy is increasingly used for symptom relief in patients with cancer. The current study aimed to investigate by meta-analysis the effects of massage therapy for cancer patients experiencing pain. Nine electronic databases were systematically searched for studies published through August 2013 in English, Chinese, and Korean. Methodological quality was assessed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) and Cochrane risk-of-bias scales. Twelve studies, including 559 participants, were used in the meta-analysis. In 9 high-quality studies based on the PEDro scale (standardized mean difference, -1.24; 95% confidence interval, -1.72 to -0.75), we observed reduction in cancer pain after massage. Massage therapy significantly reduced cancer pain compared with no massage treatment or conventional care (standardized mean difference, -1.25; 95% confidence interval, -1.63 to -0.87). Our results indicate that massage is effective for the relief of cancer pain, especially for surgery-related pain. Among the various types of massage, foot reflexology appeared to be more effective than body or aroma massage. Our meta-analysis indicated a beneficial effect of massage for relief of cancer pain. Further well-designed, large studies with longer follow-up periods are needed to be able to draw firmer conclusions regarding the effectiveness. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Toxocariasis and epilepsy: systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Graziella Quattrocchi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Human toxocariasis is a zoonotic infection caused by the larval stages of Toxocara canis (T. canis and less frequently Toxocara cati (T. cati. A relationship between toxocariasis and epilepsy has been hypothesized. We conducted a systematic review and a meta-analysis of available data to evaluate the strength of association between epilepsy and Toxocara spp. seropositivity and to propose some guidelines for future surveys. DATA SOURCES: Electronic databases, the database from the Institute of Neuroepidemiology and Tropical Neurology of the University of Limoges (http://www-ient.unilim.fr/ and the reference lists of all relevant papers and books were screened up to October 2011. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of literature on toxocariasis (the exposure and epilepsy (the outcome. Two authors independently assessed eligibility and study quality and extracted data. A common odds ratio (OR was estimated using a random-effects meta-analysis model of aggregated published data. RESULTS: Seven case-control studies met the inclusion criteria, for a total of 1867 participants (850 cases and 1017 controls. The percentage of seropositivity (presence of anti-Toxocara spp. antibodies was higher among people with epilepsy (PWE in all the included studies even if the association between epilepsy and Toxocara spp. seropositivity was statistically significant in only 4 studies, with crude ORs ranging 2.04-2.85. Another study bordered statistical significance, while in 2 of the included studies no significant association was found. A significant (p < 0.001 common OR of 1.92 [95% confidence interval (CI 1.50-2.44] was estimated. Similar results were found when meta-analysis was restricted to the studies considering an exclusively juvenile population and to surveys using Western Blot as confirmatory or diagnostic serological assay. CONCLUSION: Our results support the existence of a positive association between Toxocara spp. seropositivity and

  9. Exhaled carbon monoxide in asthmatics: a meta-analysis

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    Huang Mao

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The non-invasive assessment of airway inflammation is potentially advantageous in asthma management. Exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO measurement is cheap and has been proposed to reflect airway inflammation and oxidative stress but current data are conflicting. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to determine whether eCO is elevated in asthmatics, is regulated by steroid treatment and reflects disease severity and control. Methods A systematic search for English language articles published between 1997 and 2009 was performed using Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases. Observational studies comparing eCO in non-smoking asthmatics and healthy subjects or asthmatics before and after steroid treatment were included. Data were independently extracted by two investigators and analyzed to generate weighted mean differences using either a fixed or random effects meta-analysis depending upon the degree of heterogeneity. Results 18 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The eCO level was significantly higher in asthmatics as compared to healthy subjects and in intermittent asthma as compared to persistent asthma. However, eCO could not distinguish between steroid-treated asthmatics and steroid-free patients nor separate controlled and partly-controlled asthma from uncontrolled asthma in cross-sectional studies. In contrast, eCO was significantly reduced following a course of corticosteroid treatment. Conclusions eCO is elevated in asthmatics but levels only partially reflect disease severity and control. eCO might be a potentially useful non-invasive biomarker of airway inflammation and oxidative stress in nonsmoking asthmatics.

  10. Prevalence of smoking in northwest Iran: a meta-analysis

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    Mahmood Moosazadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco addiction is a major cause of preventable death worldwide. Thus, efforts to eliminate its use have the potential of producing significant health benefits. The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of cigarette smoking among people in the age range of 15 to 64. The specific objective of this meta-analysis was to provide valid data that policy makers can use to make evidence-based decisions. Methods: To determine the prevalence of smoking among the adult population in northwest Iran, we used reports published by the surveillance system used to assess the risk factors for non-communicable diseases in different provinces in northwest Iran for the years 2004 and 2006-2009. Several variables were extracted, including the years of study, gender, ages, and smoking prevalence. Based on the heterogeneity of the results, we used fixed or random effects models to estimate the overall prevalence of cigarette smoking. The analyses were performed using Stata 11 software. Results: A total of 28,436 subjects (14,248 males and 14,188 females in five age groups, i.e., 15-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, and 55-64, were interviewed. Meta-analysis in men showed that, across the age groups, the lowest prevalence was 22.9%, the highest prevalence was 26.5%, and the average prevalence was 24.7%. Among women, the lowest prevalence was 0.3%, the highest prevalence was 0.8%, and the average prevalence was 0.5%. Conclusion: We found that approximately one-fourth of males in the age range of 15-64 in northwest Iran smoked cigarettes daily. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct effective interventions to reduce the prevalence of addiction to tobacco in this area.

  11. The Effects of Alveolar Ridge Preservation: A Meta-Analysis.

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    Willenbacher, Maximillian; Al-Nawas, Bilal; Berres, Manfred; Kämmerer, Peer W; Schiegnitz, Eik

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this article was to analyze the horizontal, vertical, and histological effects of alveolar ridge preservation (ARP) versus the ones of unassisted socket healing, in the format of an up-to-date review and meta-analysis. An extensive electronic search in the electronic databases of the National Library of Medicine was conducted for articles published up to June 2014 to identify literature presenting data on the topic of ARP. Only randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, and prospective trials were included for meta-analysis. After screening 903 abstracts from the electronic database, we included 64 studies in qualitative and 18 in quantitative synthesis. Quality assessment characterized a medium risk of bias for the included literature. The meta-analysis showed a mean difference between test and control groups of approximately 1.31 to 1.54 mm in bucco-oral bone width and 0.91 to 1.12 mm in bone height. Additionally, the intergroup difference in percentage of vital bone was assessed to be inconclusive across the included studies. Implants could be inserted into the determined position without further augmentation in 90.1% of the experimental sites, while this was the case in only 79.2% of the control sockets. Resorption of the alveolar ridge cannot be totally stopped by ARP, while it still can be prevented compared with unassisted healing. No reliable predictions on the histological effects could be made due to limited data. Further on, no recommendation for a specific technique of ARP could be made. In conclusion, there is still need for ongoing research on the topic, even though the lower percentage of implant sites that needed additional augmentation in test sockets seemed to bring a patient benefit. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Alcohol consumption and dry eye syndrome: a Meta-analysis.

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    You, Yong-Sheng; Qu, Nai-Bin; Yu, Xiao-Ning

    2016-01-01

    To quantify the association between alcohol consumption and dry eye syndrome (DES) with Meta-analysis of published case-control and cross-sectional studies. Three databases were screened for potentially eligible studies through Nov. 30, 2015, PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library. Odds ratios (ORs) were pooled with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to evaluate the relationship between alcohol consumption and DES risk. Subgroup analyses were performed according to diagnostic criteria, publication year, sample size, alcohol intake and adjusted factors. A total of 10 (9 case-control and 1 cross-sectional) studies from 8 articles were included in this Meta-analysis. The pooled results showed that alcohol consumption would significantly increase the risk of DES (OR 1.15, 95% CI: 1.02-1.30), and the results were independent of smoking, hypertension, diabetes and thyroid disease history. And the results of subgroup analyses indicated an increased incidence of DES diagnosed by typical DES symptoms and positive objective tests together (OR 1.18, 95% CI: 1.01-1.39) among drinkers, but not by typical DES symptoms alone (OR 1.11, 95% CI: 0.94-1.32). What's more, any drinkers were at higher risk of suffering from DES (OR 1.33, 95% CI: 1.31-1.34), while heavy drinkers not (OR 1.01, 95% CI: 0.86-1.18). The present Meta-analysis suggests that alcohol consumption may be a significant risk factor for DES. Alcohol-induced peripheral neuropathymay falsely reduce the prevalence of DES among heavy drinkers. Future prospective studies of alcohol consumption and DES risk are needed to confirm our results.

  13. Robotic thyroidectomy versus endoscopic thyroidectomy: a meta-analysis

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    Lin Shuang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To conduct a meta-analysis to determine the relative merits of robotic thyroidectomy (RT and endoscopic thyroidectomy (ET. Methods A literature search was performed to identify comparative studies reporting peri-operative outcomes for RT and ET. Pooled odds ratios (ORs and weighted mean differences (WMDs with 95% confidence interval (95% CI were calculated using either a fixed-effects or a random-effects model. Results Six studies matched the selection criteria, which reported on 2048 subjects, of whom 978 underwent RT and 1070 underwent ET. Comparing the outcomes of RT with ET, this meta-analysis indicated that RT was associated with more complications (WMD = 1.51, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.94 and greater amount of drainage fluid (WMD = 17.10, 95% CI 5.69 to 28.51. Meanwhile, operating time (WMD = 1.50, 95% CI −39.59 to 42.58, conversion (WMD = 0.63, 95% CI 0.07 to 6.17, post-operative hospital stay (WMD = −0.05; 95% CI −0.18 to 0.08, and the number of lymph nodes harvested (WMD = 0.62, 95% CI −0.29 to 1.53 were similar for both procedures. Conclusion The results of this meta-analysis indicated that RT is associated with an increased risk of complications and a greater amount of drainage fluid. Therefore, RT does not appear to have any advantage over ET. Further studies are required to confirm these results.

  14. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Ethiopia: a meta-analysis.

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    Eshetie, Setegn; Tarekegn, Fentahun; Moges, Feleke; Amsalu, Anteneh; Birhan, Wubet; Huruy, Kahsay

    2016-11-21

    The burden of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a major public health concern worldwide; however the overall epidemiology of multidrug resistant strains is neither coordinated nor harmonized, particularly in developing countries including Ethiopia. Therefore, the aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the burden of methicillin resistant Staphylococcos aureus and its antibiotic resistance pattern in Ethiopia at large. PubMed, Google Scholar, and lancet databases were searched and a total of 20 studies have been selected for meta-analysis. Six authors have independently extracts data on the prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus among clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. Statistical analysis was achieved by using Open meta-analyst (version 3.13) and Comprehensive meta-analysis (version 3.3) softwares. The overall prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and its antibiotic resistance pattern were pooled by using the forest plot, table and figure with 95% CI. The pooled prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus was 32.5% (95% CI, 24.1 to 40.9%). Moreover, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains were found to be highly resistant to penicillin, ampicillin, erythromycin, and amoxicillin, with a pooled resistance ratio of 99.1, 98.1, 97.2 and 97.1%, respectively. On the other hand, comparably low levels of resistance ratio were noted to vancomycin, 5.3%. The overall burden of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus is considerably high, besides these strains showed extreme resistance to penicillin, ampicillin, erythromycin and amoxicillin. In principle, appropriate use of antibiotics, applying safety precautions are the key to reduce the spread of multidrug resistant strains, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in particular.

  15. Scientists Admitting to Plagiarism: A Meta-analysis of Surveys.

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    Pupovac, Vanja; Fanelli, Daniele

    2015-10-01

    We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of anonymous surveys asking scientists whether they ever committed various forms of plagiarism. From May to December 2011 we searched 35 bibliographic databases, five grey literature databases and hand searched nine journals for potentially relevant studies. We included surveys that asked scientists if, in a given recall period, they had committed or knew of a colleague who committed plagiarism, and from each survey extracted the proportion of those who reported at least one case. Studies that focused on academic (i.e. student) plagiarism were excluded. Literature searches returned 12,460 titles from which 17 relevant survey studies were identified. Meta-analysis of studies reporting committed (N = 7) and witnessed (N = 11) plagiarism yielded a pooled estimate of, respectively, 1.7% (95% CI 1.2-2.4) and 30% (95% CI 17-46). Basic methodological factors, including sample size, year of survey, delivery method and whether survey questions were explicit rather than indirect made a significant difference on survey results. Even after controlling for these methodological factors, between-study differences in admission rates were significantly above those expected by sampling error alone and remained largely unexplained. Despite several limitations of the data and of this meta-analysis, we draw three robust conclusions: (1) The rate at which scientists report knowing a colleague who committed plagiarism is higher than for data fabrication and falsification; (2) The rate at which scientists report knowing a colleague who committed plagiarism is correlated to that of fabrication and falsification; (3) The rate at which scientists admit having committed either form of misconduct (i.e. fabrication, falsification and plagiarism) in surveys has declined over time.

  16. Rethinking Meta-Analysis: Applications for Air Pollution Data and Beyond

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    Goodman, Julie E; Petito Boyce, Catherine; Sax, Sonja N; Beyer, Leslie A; Prueitt, Robyn L

    2015-01-01

    Meta-analyses offer a rigorous and transparent systematic framework for synthesizing data that can be used for a wide range of research areas, study designs, and data types. Both the outcome of meta-analyses and the meta-analysis process itself can yield useful insights for answering scientific questions and making policy decisions. Development of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards illustrates many potential applications of meta-analysis. These applications demonstrate the strengths and limitations of meta-analysis, issues that arise in various data realms, how meta-analysis design choices can influence interpretation of results, and how meta-analysis can be used to address bias and heterogeneity. Reviewing available data from a meta-analysis perspective can provide a useful framework and impetus for identifying and refining strategies for future research. Moreover, increased pervasiveness of a meta-analysis mindset—focusing on how the pieces of the research puzzle fit together—would benefit scientific research and data syntheses regardless of whether or not a quantitative meta-analysis is undertaken. While an individual meta-analysis can only synthesize studies addressing the same research question, the results of separate meta-analyses can be combined to address a question encompassing multiple data types. This observation applies to any scientific or policy area where information from a variety of disciplines must be considered to address a broader research question. PMID:25969128

  17. Efficacy and safety of intraocular implants: a Meta-analysis

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    Ren-Liang Huang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To systemically evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of intraocular implants for vitreous retinal surgery. METHODS: We performed a comprehensive search for studies reporting vitreous surgery with intraocular implants randomized controlled and a retrospective controlled clinical trials from China Hownet(CNKI, Wanfang database, and VIP literature database. Studies obtained from those database were filtered according to the criteria, and data were retrieved from eligible studies for further analysis. Then we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intraocular implants using comprehensive Meta-analysis software version 2(Biostat, Englewood, NJ.RESULTS: In total 36 studies were recruited for our Meta-analysis, including 5 092 cases. Meta analysis showed: 1regarding the efficacy of repairing the retinal detachment, silicone oil was a better intraocular implants than C3F8(OR=1.76; 95% CI: 1.19-2.60, P=0.0047and SF6(OR= 4.68; 95% CI: 1.48-14.81, P=0.0087; 2regarding the risk of postoperative cataract, silicone oil showed significant higher risk than BBS(OR=3.24; 95% CI: 2.10-4.99, P=1.09 e-7, and C3F8(OR=3.03; 95% CI: 1.50-6.10, P=0.0019; 3regarding the risk of postoperative intraocular pressure, silicone oil showed significant higher risk than BBS(OR=6.74; 95% CI: 3.38-13.41, P=5.67 e-08, and C3F8 also showed a higher risk than BBS(OR=4.79; 95% CI: 2.37-9.68, P=1.29 e-05. In addition, silicone oil showed significant lower risk as compared with heavy silicone oil(OR=0.16; 95% CI: 0.08-0.53, P=0.0026. CONCLUSION: The intraocular implants for the treatment of retinal detachment in vitreous retinal surgery are mainly divided into two major categories, liquid and gas implants. The silicone oil, a major liquid implant, shows higher efficacy in terms of treating retinal detachment than the gas implants. However, the silicone oil is associated with a higher risk of postoperative cataract and intraocular pressure as compared

  18. The effectiveness of low-level laser therapy in accelerating orthodontic tooth movement: a meta-analysis.

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    Long, Hu; Zhou, Yang; Xue, Junjie; Liao, Lina; Ye, Niansong; Jian, Fan; Wang, Yan; Lai, Wenli

    2015-04-01

    Low-level laser therapy is claimed to accelerate bone remodeling. The aim of this meta-analysis was to critically appraise current evidence and to determine the effectiveness of low-level laser therapy in accelerating orthodontic tooth movement. PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Embase, CENTRAL, ProQuest Dissertations &Theses, and SIGLE were electronically searched from Jan 1990 to Jun 2013. Article screening, data extraction, assessment of risk of bias and evaluation of evidence quality through GRADE were conducted independently and in duplicate by two reviewer authors. Outcome of interest in this meta-analysis was accumulative moved distance (AMD). Meta-analyses were performed in Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Version 2.2.064 (Biostat, Englewood, NJ, USA). Finally, five studies were included in this meta-analysis. The meta-analysis revealed that the pooled difference in mean (DM) was 0.33 [95 % CI: (0.03-0.64)], 0.76 [95 % CI: (-0.14, 1.65)] and 0.43 [95 % CI: (-0.05, 0.91)] for AMD within 1 month, AMD within 2 months and AMD within 3 months, respectively. However, significant heterogeneities and instability of the pooled results were detected. Moreover, publication bias was found for AMD within 3 months. The subgroup analysis on the wavelength of 780 nm revealed that the pooled DM of AMD were 0.54 (95 % CI = 0.18-0.91), 1.11 (95 % CI = 0.91-1.31) and 1.25 (95 % CI = 0.68-1.82) for 1, 2, and 3 months, respectively. For the output power of 20 mW, the subgroup analysis showed that the pooled DM of AMD was 0.45 (95 % CI = 0.26-0.64), 1.11 (95 % CI = 0.91-1.31), and 1.25 (95 % CI = 0.68-1.82) for 1, 2, and 3 months, respectively. Weak evidence