WorldWideScience

Sample records for message interpretations media

  1. Media as a “Super Peer”: How Adolescents Interpret Media Messages Predicts their Perception of Alcohol and Tobacco Use Norms

    Elmore, Kristen; Scull, Tracy M.; Kupersmidt, Janis B.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents’ media environment offers information about who uses substances and what happens as a result—how youth interpret these messages likely determines their impact on normative beliefs about alcohol and tobacco use. The Message Interpretation Processing (MIP) theory predicts that substance use norms are influenced by cognitions associated with the interpretation of media messages. This cross-sectional study examined whether high school adolescents’ (n=817, 48% female, 64% white) media-related cognitions (i.e., similarity, realism, desirability, identification) were related to their perceptions of substance use norms. Results revealed that adolescents’ media-related cognitions explained a significant amount of variance in perceived social approval for and estimated prevalence of peer alcohol and tobacco use, above and beyond previous use and demographic covariates. Compared to prevalence norms, social approval norms were more closely related to adolescents’ media-related cognitions. Results suggest that critical thinking about media messages can inhibit normative perceptions that are likely to increase adolescents’ interest in alcohol and tobacco use. PMID:27837371

  2. The Media and the Message.

    Cook, Glenn

    2001-01-01

    The experiences of Columbine and El Cajon high schools with media onslaughts following traumatic shooting incidents underscore the importance of getting the message across and sticking to known facts. In a crisis, speculation can hurt everyone. The most important elements in crisis communications are planning and media relations. (MLH)

  3. Media Literacy Is the Message.

    Trampiets, Frances

    1995-01-01

    Highlights the importance of using music, multimedia, video, and computers to enrich and enhance religious education, and of integrating media education into faith formation. Suggests that media literacy plays an important role in increasing awareness of the influence of mass media on society. (DJM)

  4. An Exploration of the Associations of Alcohol-Related Social Media Use and Message Interpretation Outcomes to Problem Drinking Among College Students.

    Hoffman, Eric W; Austin, Erica Weintraub; Pinkleton, Bruce E; Austin, Bruce W

    2017-07-01

    College students' use of digital communication technology has led to a rapid expansion of digital alcohol marketing efforts. Two surveys (total usable n = 637) were conducted to explore college students' experiences with alcohol-related social media, their decision making related to alcohol use, and their problematic drinking behaviors. Study results indicated that students' use of alcohol-related social media predicted their problem drinking behaviors. In addition, students' wishful identification, perceived desirability, perceived similarity, and normative beliefs predicted their expectancies for drinking alcohol. Finally, students' expectancies for drinking alcohol predicted their problematic drinking behaviors.

  5. Interpretive Media Study and Interpretive Social Science.

    Carragee, Kevin M.

    1990-01-01

    Defines the major theoretical influences on interpretive approaches in mass communication, examines the central concepts of these perspectives, and provides a critique of these approaches. States that the adoption of interpretive approaches in mass communication has ignored varied critiques of interpretive social science. Suggests that critical…

  6. Creating Effective Media Messaging for Rural Smoke-free Policy.

    Riker, Carol A; Butler, Karen M; Ricks, JaNelle M; Record, Rachael A; Begley, Kathy; Anderson, Debra Gay; Hahn, Ellen J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives were to (1) explore perceived effectiveness of existing smoke-free print advertisements in rural communities and (2) generate message content, characteristics, and media delivery channels that resonate with residents. Qualitative methods design. Thirty-nine rural adults recruited by community partners. Content analysis of findings from individuals in four focus groups who participated in general discussion and reviewed eight print ads related to secondhand smoke (SHS) and smoke-free policy. Six content themes were identified: smoking/SHS dangers, worker health, analogies, economic impact, rights, and nostalgia. Seven message characteristics were recognized: short/to the point, large enough to read, graphic images, poignant stories, statistics/charts/graphs, message sender, and messages targeting different groups. Four media delivery channels were considered most effective: local media, technology, billboard messages, and print materials. Seeking input from key informants is essential to reaching rural residents. Use of analogies in media messaging is a distinct contribution to the literature on effective smoke-free campaigns. Other findings support previous studies of effective messaging and delivery channels. Further research is needed to examine effectiveness of themes related to message content in smoke-free ads and delivery strategies. Effective media messaging can lead to policy change in rural communities to reduce exposure to SHS. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Diffusion of Mass Media Messages among Brazilian Farmers.

    Schneider, Ivo A.; Fett, John H.

    1978-01-01

    Reports on a study designed to discover the nature of the flow of messages about recommended agricultural practices first introduced through the mass media in a developing country, and to explore the role opinion leaders plan in the process. (GW)

  8. Expectancy Theory in Media and Message Selection.

    Van Leuven, Jim

    1981-01-01

    Argues for reversing emphasis on uses and gratifications research in favor of an expectancy model which holds that selection of a particular medium depends on (1) the expectation that the choice will be followed by a message of interest and (2) the importance of that message in satisfying user's values. (PD)

  9. Factors influencing message dissemination through social media

    Zheng, Zeyu; Yang, Huancheng; Fu, Yang; Fu, Dianzheng; Podobnik, Boris; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2018-06-01

    Online social networks strongly impact our daily lives. An internet user (a "Netizen") wants messages to be efficiently disseminated. The susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) dissemination model is the traditional tool for exploring the spreading mechanism of information diffusion. We here test our SIR-based dissemination model on open and real-world data collected from Twitter. We locate and identify phase transitions in the message dissemination process. We find that message content is a stronger factor than the popularity of the sender. We also find that the probability that a message will be forwarded has a threshold that affects its ability to spread, and when the probability is above the threshold the message quickly achieves mass dissemination.

  10. Secure Media Independent Handover Message Transport in Heterogeneous Networks

    Cho Choong-Ho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The IEEE 802.21 framework for Media Independent Handover (MIH provides seamless vertical handover support for multimode mobile terminals. MIH messages are exchanged over various wireless media between mobile terminals and access networks to facilitate seamless handover. This calls for the need to secure MIH messages against network security threats in the wireless medium. In this paper, we first analyze IPSec/IKEv2 and DTLS security solution for secure MIH message transport. We show that handover latency can be an impediment to the use of IPSec and DTLS solutions. To overcome the handover overhead and hence minimize authentication time, a new secure MIH message transport solution, referred as MIHSec in this paper, is proposed. Experimental results are obtained for MIH between WLAN and Ethernet networks and the impacts of MIH message security on the handover latency are evaluated for IPSec, DTLS, and MIHSec security solutions. The effectiveness of MIHSec is demonstrated.

  11. Crafting safe and effective suicide prevention media messages: outcomes from a workshop in Australia.

    Ftanou, Maria; Skehan, Jaelea; Krysinska, Karolina; Bryant, Marc; Spittal, Matthew J; Pirkis, Jane

    2018-01-01

    Suicide and suicide-related behaviours are major public health concerns in Australia and worldwide. One universal intervention that has received an increased focus as a means of preventing suicide is the use of media campaigns. There is, however, a lack of understanding of the kinds of campaign messages that are safe and effective. The current paper aims to expand on this knowledge. The study objectives were to: (1) explore what suicide prevention experts consider to be essential characteristics of effective and safe suicide media campaigns; (2) develop suicide prevention media messages; and (3) explore the impact that these messages might have on different audiences. We conducted a workshop in July 2015 which was attended by 21 experts (professionals with knowledge about suicide prevention and/or media campaigns, and people with a lived experience of suicide). The experts were split into three groups, and each group developed a suicide prevention message for one of the following target audiences: people at risk of suicide; family and peers of people at risk of suicide; and people bereaved by suicide. The three groups generally agreed that these messages had to include two key characteristics: (1) validate or reflect the target group's issues and needs; and (2) promote help-seeking behaviours. They noted, however, that messages that might have a positive impact for one target audience might inadvertently have a negative impact for other target audiences. In particular, they were concerned that messages designed for family and peers about being supportive and looking for warning signs might leave those who had been bereaved by suicide feeling isolated, guilty or traumatised. Workshop participants highlighted that gaps exist in relation to the use of appropriate language, were unsure of how to create destigmatising messages without normalising or sensationalising suicide and commented on the lack of evaluative evidence for the efficacy of media campaigns. Developing

  12. Review Media messaging: a synthesis of lessons from the literature ...

    Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health ... work together and draw on methodological pluralism to produce the most useful evaluations. ... Messaging is most successful when it uses a multi-media approach and when it is combined with ... This type of pedagogy is dialogical and allows for engagement with the youth, ...

  13. ["Prisms of Perception": multiple readings of mass media health messages in Northeast Brazil].

    Diógenes, Kátia Castelo Branco Machado; Nations, Marilyn

    2011-12-01

    This anthropological study from February 2009 to November 2010 revealed the comprehension and cultural critique of three mass media health campaigns in Northeast Brazil. Twenty-four ethnographic interviews were conducted, exploring the iconographic and semantic content of the campaigns in the Dendê community in Fortaleza, Ceará State, Brazil. The authors used Content Analysis; Systems of Signs, Significance, and Actions; and Contextualized Semantic Interpretation. There is a gap between the elaboration and reception of messages. Multiple interpretations occur (proximal reading, kaleidoscope of comprehension, and distant reading), depending on the reader's cognitive proximity to (or detachment from) the message. This "perceptual plasticity" arises from the creativity of popular imagination. Health professionals who hear rather than dismiss the "recipient's" subjective voice, which re-signifies authoritative messages, can penetrate the perception of the recipient's "visual world". In the context of poverty, this re-framing is essential for people to comprehend and proactively defend their own health.

  14. Source Similarity and Social Media Health Messages: Extending Construal Level Theory to Message Sources.

    Young, Rachel

    2015-09-01

    Social media users post messages about health goals and behaviors to online social networks. Compared with more traditional sources of health communication such as physicians or health journalists, peer sources are likely to be perceived as more socially close or similar, which influences how messages are processed. This experimental study uses construal level theory of psychological distance to predict how mediated health messages from peers influence health-related cognition and behavioral intention. Participants were exposed to source cues that identified peer sources as being either highly attitudinally and demographically similar to or different from participants. As predicted by construal level theory, participants who perceived sources of social media health messages as highly similar listed a greater proportion of beliefs about the feasibility of health behaviors and a greater proportion of negative beliefs, while participants who perceived sources as more dissimilar listed a greater proportion of positive beliefs about the health behaviors. Results of the study could be useful in determining how health messages from peers could encourage individuals to set realistic health goals.

  15. Exploring Message Meaning: A Qualitative Media Literacy Study of College Freshmen

    Ashley, Seth; Lyden, Grace; Fasbinder, Devon

    2012-01-01

    Critical media literacy demands understanding of the deeper meanings of media messages. Using a grounded theory approach, this study analyzed responses by first-year college students with no formal media literacy education to three types of video messages: an advertisement, a public relations message and a news report. Students did not exhibit…

  16. Image and Issue Political Information: Message Content or Interpretation?

    Johnston, Deirdre D.

    1989-01-01

    Explores the existence of a cognitive bias that affects an individual's processing of political advertisements. Finds that whether voters see messages as issue or image material depends on their predisposition. (RS)

  17. Media's Moral Messages: Assessing Perceptions of Moral Content in Television Programming

    Glover, Rebecca J.; Garmon, Lance C.; Hull, Darrell M.

    2011-01-01

    This study extends the examination of moral content in the media by exploring moral messages in television programming and viewer characteristics predictive of the ability to perceive such messages. Generalisability analyses confirmed the reliability of the Media's Moral Messages (MMM) rating form for analysing programme content and the existence…

  18. New Media and the Military’s Message

    2007-11-01

    Denzin & Lincoln , 2000, p. 5). By combining more than one method, in this case, qualitative personal interviews with both military and media sources, and...the site. Denzin and Lincoln (2000) tell us that the field of qualitative research involves an interpretive approach, meaning that qualitative...analysis of casual relationships between variables, not processes" ( Denzin & Lincoln , 2000, p. 8). While quantitative research could provide statistical

  19. Topicality and impact in social media: diverse messages, focused messengers.

    Weng, Lilian; Menczer, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    We have a limited understanding of the factors that make people influential and topics popular in social media. Are users who comment on a variety of matters more likely to achieve high influence than those who stay focused? Do general subjects tend to be more popular than specific ones? Questions like these demand a way to detect the topics hidden behind messages associated with an individual or a keyword, and a gauge of similarity among these topics. Here we develop such an approach to identify clusters of similar hashtags in Twitter by detecting communities in the hashtag co-occurrence network. Then the topical diversity of a user's interests is quantified by the entropy of her hashtags across different topic clusters. A similar measure is applied to hashtags, based on co-occurring tags. We find that high topical diversity of early adopters or co-occurring tags implies high future popularity of hashtags. In contrast, low diversity helps an individual accumulate social influence. In short, diverse messages and focused messengers are more likely to gain impact.

  20. Legitimacy, Self-Interpretation and Genre in Media Industries

    Alacovska, Ana

    2015-01-01

    . In contrast to prevalent theorisations of paratexts as simultaneous hermeneutic and marketing frameworks that regulate a reader’s interpretive practices (reception) and/or media purchasing habits (consumption), I suggest that paratexts are vehicles through which media production companies engage in auto-communication......, that is, self-interpret with a view to legitimating an ethical, virtuous and authentic institutional self. I furthermore suggest that a media company’s paratextual legitimation efforts unfold in reference to the genre, under the label of which its media products are produced, promoted and distributed....... Genres are central to media institutions’ legitimacy, while the paratext is the principal conduit through which legitimation is conveyed....

  1. Frequency of Risk-Related News Media Messages in 2016 Coverage of Zika Virus.

    Sell, Tara Kirk; Watson, Crystal; Meyer, Diane; Kronk, Marissa; Ravi, Sanjana; Pechta, Laura E; Lubell, Keri M; Rose, Dale A

    2018-01-03

    News media plays a large role in the information the public receives during an infectious disease outbreak, and may influence public knowledge and perceptions of risk. This study analyzed and described the content of U.S. news media coverage of Zika virus and Zika response during 2016. A random selection of 800 Zika-related news stories from 25 print and television news sources was analyzed. The study examined 24 different messages that appeared in news media articles and characterized them using theories of risk perception as messages with characteristics that could increase perception of risk (risk-elevating messages; n = 14), messages that could decrease perception of risk (risk-minimizing messages; n = 8), or messages about travel or testing guidance (n = 2). Overall, 96% of news stories in the study sample contained at least one or more risk-elevating message(s) and 61% contained risk-minimizing message(s). The frequency of many messages changed after local transmission was confirmed in Florida, and differed between sources in locations with or without local transmission in 2016. Forty percent of news stories included messages about negative potential outcomes of Zika virus infection without mentioning ways to reduce risk. Findings from this study may help inform current federal, state, and local Zika responses by offering a detailed analysis of how news media are covering the outbreak and response activities as well as identifying specific messages appearing more or less frequently than intended. Findings identifying the types of messages that require greater emphasis may also assist public health communicators in responding more effectively to future outbreaks. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  2. Why Do You Spread This Message? Understanding Users Sentiment in Social Media Campaigns

    Mahmud, Jalal; Gao, Huiji

    2014-01-01

    Twitter has been increasingly used for spreading messages about campaigns. Such campaigns try to gain followers through their Twitter accounts, influence the followers and spread messages through them. In this paper, we explore the relationship between followers sentiment towards the campaign topic and their rate of retweeting of messages generated by the campaign. Our analysis with followers of multiple social-media campaigns found statistical significant correlations between such sentiment ...

  3. Awareness of media-based antitobacco messages among a community sample of LGBT individuals.

    Matthews, Alicia K; Balsam, Kimberly; Hotton, Anna; Kuhns, Lisa; Li, Chien-Ching; Bowen, Deborah J

    2014-11-01

    Study objectives were to measure awareness of general antitobacco messages in LGBT-focused and general media outlets among LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) individuals and to examine associations between sociodemographic characteristics and awareness levels. Data were based on cross-sectional survey data from a racially diverse sample of participants (N = 726). Participants were primarily male (69.3%), with smaller percentages of female (21.8%) and transgender (8.9%). The median age was 31 years. A higher proportion of participants reported awareness of antitobacco messages in general media outlets compared to LGBT-specific media outlets. Awareness of antitobacco messages in general media was positively associated with current smoking and negatively associated with female gender and Latino ethnicity. Awareness of antitobacco messages in LGBT media was positively associated with younger age, current smoking, frequent reading of LGBT newspapers or magazines, and frequent attendance at LGBT bars and negatively associated with Latino ethnicity. Despite frequent readership, awareness of antitobacco messages in LGBT newspapers/magazines was quite low. We speculate that low awareness is related to the absence of antitobacco messages in LGBT-related media. LGBT-specific media outlets provide an important opportunity for future antitobacco campaigns. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  4. Photo-sharing social media for eHealth: analysing perceived message effectiveness of sexual health information on Instagram.

    O'Donnell, Nicole Hummel; Willoughby, Jessica Fitts

    2017-10-01

    Health professionals increasingly use social media to communicate health information, but it is unknown how visual message presentation on these platforms affects message reception. This study used an experiment to analyse how young adults (n = 839) perceive sexual health messages on Instagram. Participants were exposed to one of four conditions based on visual message presentation. Messages with embedded health content had the highest perceived message effectiveness ratings. Additionally, message sensation value, attitudes and systematic information processing were significant predictors of perceived message effectiveness. Implications for visual message design for electronic health are discussed.

  5. A secure transmission scheme of streaming media based on the encrypted control message

    Li, Bing; Jin, Zhigang; Shu, Yantai; Yu, Li

    2007-09-01

    As the use of streaming media applications increased dramatically in recent years, streaming media security becomes an important presumption, protecting the privacy. This paper proposes a new encryption scheme in view of characteristics of streaming media and the disadvantage of the living method: encrypt the control message in the streaming media with the high security lever and permute and confuse the data which is non control message according to the corresponding control message. Here the so-called control message refers to the key data of the streaming media, including the streaming media header and the header of the video frame, and the seed key. We encrypt the control message using the public key encryption algorithm which can provide high security lever, such as RSA. At the same time we make use of the seed key to generate key stream, from which the permutation list P responding to GOP (group of picture) is derived. The plain text of the non-control message XORs the key stream and gets the middle cipher text. And then obtained one is permutated according to P. In contrast the decryption process is the inverse process of the above. We have set up a testbed for the above scheme and found our scheme is six to eight times faster than the conventional method. It can be applied not only between PCs but also between handheld devices.

  6. How peer conversations about HIV/AIDS media messages affect ...

    2016-06-16

    Jun 16, 2016 ... quency of conversations is positively related to health behaviour. For example ... consumption became more negative, the participants' intentions to refrain from ..... people, and perceived personal relevance of the message.

  7. Effects of media messages on parent-child sexual communication.

    Evans, W Douglas; Davis, Kevin C; Silber Ashley, Olivia; Khan, Munziba

    2012-01-01

    Parent-child communication about sex is an important reproductive health outcome. Consistent, positive perceptions of communication by parents and children can promote behavioral outcomes such as delaying sexual debut and increasing contraceptive use. The authors investigated whether exposure to messages from the Parents Speak Up National Campaign (PSUNC), a social marketing campaign to promote increased parent-child sexual communication, led to increased children's self-reports of communication. Also, the authors examined whether PSUNC message exposure increased agreement about communication between parents and their children. In a randomized experimental design, the authors surveyed children of parents exposed and not exposed to PSUNC messages. Parents and children completed online instruments asking matched questions about sexual attitudes, beliefs, and communication. The authors matched 394 parents and children for analysis. They used ordinal logistic regression modeling and kappa statistics. Children of parents exposed to PSUNC messages were more likely to (a) report sexual communication than were those not exposed and (b) agree with their parents about extent and content. Parent-child pairs of the same gender, younger pairs, and non-White pairs were more likely to agree. Overall, PSUNC message exposure appears to have promoted more extensive sexual communication. Future research should examine behavioral mechanisms and message receptivity among subgroups of parents and children.

  8. Youth audience segmentation strategies for smoking-prevention mass media campaigns based on message appeal.

    Flynn, Brian S; Worden, John K; Bunn, Janice Yanushka; Dorwaldt, Anne L; Connolly, Scott W; Ashikaga, Takamaru

    2007-08-01

    Mass media interventions are among the strategies recommended for youth cigarette smoking prevention, but little is known about optimal methods for reaching diverse youth audiences. Grades 4 through 12 samples of youth from four states (n = 1,230) rated smoking-prevention messages in classroom settings. Similar proportions of African American, Hispanic, and White youth participated. Impact of audience characteristics on message appeal ratings was assessed to provide guidance for audience segmentation strategies. Age had a strong effect on individual message appeal. The effect of gender also was significant. Message ratings were similar among the younger racial/ethnic groups, but differences were found for older African American youth. Lower academic achievement was associated with lower appeal scores for some messages. Age should be a primary consideration in developing and delivering smoking-prevention messages to youth audiences. The unique needs of boys and girls and older African American adolescents should also be considered.

  9. Community Alert: Using Text Messaging and Social Media to Improve Campus Emergency Planning

    Connolly, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    This article describes emergency management and the part that social media technologies and mobile messaging have made when they are included as part of the campus emergency plan. Administrators have found that ample notification and preparedness must be built into campus communication systems. Social media platforms such as Twitter and Facebook…

  10. Negativity Bias in Media Multitasking: The Effects of Negative Social Media Messages on Attention to Television News Broadcasts.

    Kätsyri, Jari; Kinnunen, Teemu; Kusumoto, Kenta; Oittinen, Pirkko; Ravaja, Niklas

    2016-01-01

    Television viewers' attention is increasingly more often divided between television and "second screens", for example when viewing television broadcasts and following their related social media discussion on a tablet computer. The attentional costs of such multitasking may vary depending on the ebb and flow of the social media channel, such as its emotional contents. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that negative social media messages would draw more attention than similar positive messages. Specifically, news broadcasts were presented in isolation and with simultaneous positive or negative Twitter messages on a tablet to 38 participants in a controlled experiment. Recognition memory, gaze tracking, cardiac responses, and self-reports were used as attentional indices. The presence of any tweets on the tablet decreased attention to the news broadcasts. As expected, negative tweets drew longer viewing times and elicited more attention to themselves than positive tweets. Negative tweets did not, however, decrease attention to the news broadcasts. Taken together, the present results demonstrate a negativity bias exists for social media messages in media multitasking; however, this effect does not amplify the overall detrimental effects of media multitasking.

  11. Negativity Bias in Media Multitasking: The Effects of Negative Social Media Messages on Attention to Television News Broadcasts.

    Jari Kätsyri

    Full Text Available Television viewers' attention is increasingly more often divided between television and "second screens", for example when viewing television broadcasts and following their related social media discussion on a tablet computer. The attentional costs of such multitasking may vary depending on the ebb and flow of the social media channel, such as its emotional contents. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that negative social media messages would draw more attention than similar positive messages. Specifically, news broadcasts were presented in isolation and with simultaneous positive or negative Twitter messages on a tablet to 38 participants in a controlled experiment. Recognition memory, gaze tracking, cardiac responses, and self-reports were used as attentional indices. The presence of any tweets on the tablet decreased attention to the news broadcasts. As expected, negative tweets drew longer viewing times and elicited more attention to themselves than positive tweets. Negative tweets did not, however, decrease attention to the news broadcasts. Taken together, the present results demonstrate a negativity bias exists for social media messages in media multitasking; however, this effect does not amplify the overall detrimental effects of media multitasking.

  12. Sarcastic soulmates: Intimacy and irony markers in social media messaging

    Hallmann, K.; Kunneman, F.A.; Liebrecht, C.C.; Bosch, A.P.J. van den; Mulken, M.J.P. van

    2016-01-01

    Verbal irony, or sarcasm, presents a significant technical and conceptual challenge when it comes to automatic detection. Moreover, it can be a disruptive factor in sentiment analysis and opinion mining, because it changes the polarity of a message implicitly. Extant methods for automatic detection

  13. How peer conversations about HIV/AIDS media messages affect ...

    Most existent research on the effects of interpersonal discussions about health campaign messages is based on surveys. In this study, we analysed actual conversations about an HIV/AIDS poster to find out possible effects. Young South African women in 59 dyads (n = 118) participated in conversations about a deliberately ...

  14. Christmas Messages by heads of state Multimodality and media adaptations

    Sauer, C.L.A.; Fetzer, A.; Lauerbach, G.E.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter investigates the multimodal quality of Christmas Messages by European heads of state on TV from a functional-pragmatic and semiotic angle. It defines them as dealing with multiple types of materialities from different modes and sub-modes. Section 1 develops the central concept of

  15. Making the message count: a new CNA media relations strategy

    Metza, P.

    1996-01-01

    The points made, in anecdotal form, are that: experts should be accessible to the media; the CNA should be active in speaking to the media; simple language should be used; the industry should present a human face; nobody should be surprised that reporters are cynical, suspicious and skeptical about industry, government and ''the establishment''

  16. Making the message count: a new CNA media relations strategy

    Metza, P [Canadian Nuclear Association, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    The points made, in anecdotal form, are that: experts should be accessible to the media; the CNA should be active in speaking to the media; simple language should be used; the industry should present a human face; nobody should be surprised that reporters are cynical, suspicious and skeptical about industry, government and ``the establishment``.

  17. Quality of life for our patients: how media images and messages: influence their perceptions.

    Carr, Ellen R

    2008-02-01

    Media messages and images shape patients' perceptions about quality of life (QOL) through various "old" media-literature, film, television, and music-and so-called "new" media-the Internet, e-mail, blogs, and cell phones. In this article, the author provides a brief overview of QOL from the academic perspectives of nursing, psychology, behavioral medicine, multicultural studies, and consumer marketing. Selected theories about mass communication are discussed, as well as new technologies and their impact on QOL in our society. Examples of media messages about QOL and the QOL experience reported by patients with cancer include an excerpt from the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation radio interview with author Carol Shields, the 60 Minutes television interview focusing on Elizabeth Edwards (wife of presidential candidate John Edwards), and an excerpt from the 1994 filmThe Shawshank Redemption. Nurses are challenged to think about how they and their patients develop their perceptions about QOL through the media.

  18. Media and message strategies: consumer input for hospital advertising.

    Flexner, W A; Berkowitz, E N

    1981-01-01

    In summary, the results of the study suggest that a potentially large segment of consumers views advertising as an appropriate way to communicate about hospital services and rates. These consumers are unique not by traditional measures of audience/patient sociodemographic characteristics, but rather by their values and outlook toward hospitals and health care providers. Effective hospital advertising should recognize this segment's perspective in the message that are part of overall advertising strategy.

  19. Two-Way Social Media Messaging in Postoperative Cataract Surgical Patients: Prospective Interventional Study.

    Sanguansak, Thuss; Morley, Katharine E; Morley, Michael G; Thinkhamrop, Kavin; Thuanman, Jaruwan; Agarwal, Isha

    2017-12-19

    Social media offers a new way to provide education, reminders, and support for patients with a variety of health conditions. Most of these interventions use one-way, provider-patient communication. Incorporating social media tools to improve postoperative (postop) education and follow-up care has only been used in limited situations. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility and efficacy of two-way social media messaging to deliver reminders and educational information about postop care to cataract patients. A total of 98 patients undergoing their first eye cataract surgery were divided into two groups: a no message group receiving usual pre- and postop care and a message group receiving usual care plus messages in a mobile social media format with standardized content and timing. Each patient in the message group received nine messages about hand and face hygiene, medication and postop visit adherence, and links to patient education videos about postop care. Patients could respond to messages as desired. Main outcome measures included medication adherence, postop visit adherence, clinical outcomes, and patients' subjective assessments of two-way messaging. The number, types, content, and timing of responses by patients to messages were recorded. Medication adherence was better in the message group at postop day 7, with high adherence in 47 patients (96%, 47/49) versus 36 patients (73%, 36/49) in the no message group (P=.004), but no statistically significant differences in medication adherence between the groups were noted at preop and postop day 30. Visit adherence was higher at postop day 30 in the message group (100%, 49/49) versus the no message group (88%, 43/49; P=.03) but was 100% (49/49) in both groups at postop day 1 and 7. Final visual outcomes were similar between groups. A total of 441 standardized messages were sent to the message group. Out of 270 responses generated, 188 (70%) were simple acknowledgments or "thank you," and 82 (30

  20. An Exploratory Study of Gambling Operators' Use of Social Media and the Latent Messages Conveyed.

    Gainsbury, Sally M; Delfabbro, Paul; King, Daniel L; Hing, Nerilee

    2016-03-01

    Advertisements for gambling products have historically been restricted due to their potential to normalize gambling and contribute to excessive gambling behaviours among vulnerable populations. However, social media enables gambling operators to promote products and brands with fewer constraints than in traditional forms of media. This study investigated how social media is used by gambling operators to promote gambling activities including an analysis of the latent messages that are conveyed. A representative sample of major land-based and online gambling venues and operators, including casinos, clubs, hotels, lottery and wagering operators (n = 101), was obtained. Websites and social media profiles of gambling operators were audited to investigate the types of social media used, content of promotions, and prevalence of responsible gambling messaging. The results showed that Facebook and Twitter were the dominant platforms used, most commonly by casinos and online wagering operators. A key finding was that online gambling operators included gambling content in conjunction with related news and events, as well as unrelated content, as way of normalizing gambling within a broader social context. Unlike land-based gambling promotions, responsible gambling information tended not to feature in operators' posts and profiles. The key messages propagated in social media gambling promotions were positively framed, and tended to encourage gambling using a range of cross-promotional tactics to emphasize the winning aspect of gambling. The implications of freely accessible and pervasive gambling promotions via social media are discussed with respect to the general community as well as vulnerable populations.

  1. Health Communication in Social Media: Message Features Predicting User Engagement on Diabetes-Related Facebook Pages.

    Rus, Holly M; Cameron, Linda D

    2016-10-01

    Social media provides unprecedented opportunities for enhancing health communication and health care, including self-management of chronic conditions such as diabetes. Creating messages that engage users is critical for enhancing message impact and dissemination. This study analyzed health communications within ten diabetes-related Facebook pages to identify message features predictive of user engagement. The Common-Sense Model of Illness Self-Regulation and established health communication techniques guided content analyses of 500 Facebook posts. Each post was coded for message features predicted to engage users and numbers of likes, shares, and comments during the week following posting. Multi-level, negative binomial regressions revealed that specific features predicted different forms of engagement. Imagery emerged as a strong predictor; messages with images had higher rates of liking and sharing relative to messages without images. Diabetes consequence information and positive identity predicted higher sharing while negative affect, social support, and crowdsourcing predicted higher commenting. Negative affect, crowdsourcing, and use of external links predicted lower sharing while positive identity predicted lower commenting. The presence of imagery weakened or reversed the positive relationships of several message features with engagement. Diabetes control information and negative affect predicted more likes in text-only messages, but fewer likes when these messages included illustrative imagery. Similar patterns of imagery's attenuating effects emerged for the positive relationships of consequence information, control information, and positive identity with shares and for positive relationships of negative affect and social support with comments. These findings hold promise for guiding communication design in health-related social media.

  2. Social media analytics and research testbed (SMART: Exploring spatiotemporal patterns of human dynamics with geo-targeted social media messages

    Jiue-An Yang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The multilevel model of meme diffusion conceptualizes how mediated messages diffuse over time and space. As a pilot application of implementing the meme diffusion, we developed the social media analytics and research testbed to monitor Twitter messages and track the diffusion of information in and across different cities and geographic regions. Social media analytics and research testbed is an online geo-targeted search and analytics tool, including an automatic data processing procedure at the backend and an interactive frontend user interface. Social media analytics and research testbed is initially designed to facilitate (1 searching and geo-locating tweet topics and terms in different cities and geographic regions; (2 filtering noise from raw data (such as removing redundant retweets and using machine learning methods to improve precision; (3 analyzing social media data from a spatiotemporal perspective; and (4 visualizing social media data in diagnostic ways (such as weekly and monthly trends, trend maps, top media, top retweets, top mentions, or top hashtags. Social media analytics and research testbed provides researchers and domain experts with a tool that can efficiently facilitate the refinement, formalization, and testing of research hypotheses or questions. Three case studies (flu outbreaks, Ebola epidemic, and marijuana legalization are introduced to illustrate how the predictions of meme diffusion can be examined and to demonstrate the potentials and key functions of social media analytics and research testbed.

  3. Effectiveness of Social Media for Communicating Health Messages in Ghana

    Bannor, Richard; Asare, Anthony Kwame; Bawole, Justice Nyigmah

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop an in-depth understanding of the effectiveness, evolution and dynamism of the current health communication media used in Ghana. Design/methodology/approach: This paper uses a multi-method approach which utilizes a combination of qualitative and quantitative approaches. In-depth interviews are…

  4. Social Media Messages in an Emerging Health Crisis: Tweeting Bird Flu.

    Vos, Sarah C; Buckner, Marjorie M

    2016-01-01

    Limited research has examined the messages produced about health-related crises on social media platforms and whether these messages contain content that would allow individuals to make sense of a crisis and respond effectively. This study uses the crisis and emergency risk communication (CERC) framework to evaluate the content of messages sent via Twitter during an emerging crisis. Using manual and computer-driven content analysis methods, the study analyzed 25,598 tweets about the H7N9 virus that were produced in April 2013. The study found that a large proportion of messages contained sensemaking information. However, few tweets contained efficacy information that would help individuals respond to the crisis appropriately. Implications and recommendations for practice and future study are discussed.

  5. Media Messages and Perception of Risk for Ebola Virus Infection, United States.

    Sell, Tara Kirk; Boddie, Crystal; McGinty, Emma E; Pollack, Keshia; Smith, Katherine Clegg; Burke, Thomas A; Rutkow, Lainie

    2017-01-01

    News media have been blamed for sensationalizing Ebola in the United States, causing unnecessary alarm. To investigate this issue, we analyzed US-focused news stories about Ebola virus disease during July 1-November 30, 2014. We found frequent use of risk-elevating messages, which may have contributed to increased public concern.

  6. Social Media in Health Research: An Example from Childcare Provider Message Boards

    Lynch, Meghan

    2011-01-01

    Social media sites, such as message boards and blogs, provide innovative data sources for researchers as these sites feature people sharing advice and discussing issues in a public arena. Research has found the online context can encourage people to reveal more information than do such traditional methods as interviews or focus groups. However,…

  7. Endorphins and Media Messages: Addicting Students to Mediated Violence and Emotion.

    Gathercoal, Paul

    This paper discusses current developments in neuroscience and cognitive psychology that have significance for education and learning, and considers the effects of violent and emotion-laden media messages. Topics include: (1) the developing brain, including the roles of genetics, experience, metaphorical imagination, and culture; (2) the links…

  8. Effects of messages from a media campaign to increase public awareness of childhood obesity.

    Barry, Colleen L; Gollust, Sarah E; McGinty, Emma E; Niederdeppe, Jeff

    2014-02-01

    To examine how video messages from a recent media campaign affected public attitudes about obesity prevention and weight-based stigma toward obese children. A survey-embedded experiment in May-June 2012 with nationally representative sample (N = 1,677) was conducted. Participants were randomized to view one of three messages of children recounting struggles with obesity, or to a control group. It was examined whether message exposure affected attitudes about: (1) the seriousness of childhood obesity and its consequences; (2) responsibility for addressing obesity; (3) support for prevention policies, and (4) stigma toward obese children. Participants viewing the messages attributed greater responsibility for addressing childhood obesity to the food and beverage industry, schools, and the government, compared to those in the control group. Overweight and female respondents viewing the messages reported lower weight-based stigma compared with overweight and female respondents in the control group, but messages had no effect on healthy weight and male respondents. Messages did not affect attitudes about the seriousness of childhood obesity, its consequences, or support for obesity prevention policies. It will be critical to assess on an ongoing basis how communication campaigns addressing childhood obesity shape public attitudes about obesity prevention. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  9. Developing Social Media-Based Suicide Prevention Messages in Partnership With Young People: Exploratory Study.

    Robinson, Jo; Bailey, Eleanor; Hetrick, Sarah; Paix, Steve; O'Donnell, Matt; Cox, Georgina; Ftanou, Maria; Skehan, Jaelea

    2017-10-04

    Social media is increasingly being used by young people for health-related issues, including communicating about suicide. Due to the concerns about causing distress or inducing suicidal thoughts or behaviors, to date young people neither have been engaged in the development of social media-based suicide prevention interventions nor have interventions focused on educating young people about safe ways to communicate about suicide online. Given the potential that social media holds to deliver messages to vast numbers of people across space and time and the fact that young people often prefer to seek help from their friends and peers, safely educating and engaging young people to develop suicide prevention messages that can be delivered via social media is an obvious next step. The objectives of this study were to (1) provide education to a small number of secondary school students about safe ways to communicate about suicide via social media; (2) engage the same young people in the development of a suite of social media-based suicide prevention multimedia messages; (3) assess the impact of this on participants; and (4) assess the acceptability and safety of the messages developed. This study involved two phases. In phase 1, 20 participants recruited from two schools took part in an 8- to 10-week program during which they were provided with psychoeducation about mental health and suicide, including how to talk safely about suicide online, and they were then supported to design and develop their own media messages. These participants completed an evaluation questionnaire at the conclusion of the program. In phase 2, a larger group of participants (n=69), recruited via an opt-in process, viewed the media messages and completed a short questionnaire about each one. Participants in phase 1 enjoyed the program and reported that they learned new skills, such as how to talk safely about suicide online, and felt more able to provide emotional support to others (16/20, 80%). No

  10. Tweet for Behavior Change: Using Social Media for the Dissemination of Public Health Messages.

    Gough, Aisling; Hunter, Ruth F; Ajao, Oluwaseun; Jurek, Anna; McKeown, Gary; Hong, Jun; Barrett, Eimear; Ferguson, Marbeth; McElwee, Gerry; McCarthy, Miriam; Kee, Frank

    2017-03-23

    Social media public health campaigns have the advantage of tailored messaging at low cost and large reach, but little is known about what would determine their feasibility as tools for inducing attitude and behavior change. The aim of this study was to test the feasibility of designing, implementing, and evaluating a social media-enabled intervention for skin cancer prevention. A quasi-experimental feasibility study used social media (Twitter) to disseminate different message "frames" related to care in the sun and cancer prevention. Phase 1 utilized the Northern Ireland cancer charity's Twitter platform (May 1 to July 14, 2015). Following a 2-week "washout" period, Phase 2 commenced (August 1 to September 30, 2015) using a bespoke Twitter platform. Phase 2 also included a Thunderclap, whereby users allowed their social media accounts to automatically post a bespoke message on their behalf. Message frames were categorized into 5 broad categories: humor, shock or disgust, informative, personal stories, and opportunistic. Seed users with a notable following were contacted to be "influencers" in retweeting campaign content. A pre- and postintervention Web-based survey recorded skin cancer prevention knowledge and attitudes in Northern Ireland (population 1.8 million). There were a total of 417,678 tweet impressions, 11,213 engagements, and 1211 retweets related to our campaign. Shocking messages generated the greatest impressions (shock, n=2369; informative, n=2258; humorous, n=1458; story, n=1680), whereas humorous messages generated greater engagement (humorous, n=148; shock, n=147; story, n=117; informative, n=100) and greater engagement rates compared with story tweets. Informative messages, resulted in the greatest number of shares (informative, n=17; humorous, n=10; shock, n=9; story, n=7). The study findings included improved knowledge of skin cancer severity in a pre- and postintervention Web-based survey, with greater awareness that skin cancer is the most

  11. Message Design and Audience Engagement with Tobacco Prevention Posts on Social Media.

    Strekalova, Yulia A; Damiani, Rachel E

    2018-06-01

    Understanding the appropriate medium to communicate health promotion messages is vital for improving personal and societal health. As increasingly more people utilize social media for health information, public health practitioners use these platforms to engage an existing audience in health promotion messages. In this study, the relational framing theory was used as a lens for studying how message framing may influence social media audience engagement. Specifically, we assessed how posts from Tobacco Free Florida's Facebook page were framed as either dominant-submissive or affiliate-disaffiliate to an implied audience of either smokers, nonsmokers, active quitters, or a mixed audience, and the extent to which a direct call for engagement, in terms of a request to comment, like, or share the post, was used for audience engagement. A three-way interaction for the level of engagement through comments was significant, F(3217) = 7.11, p social media. Implied audiences of Tobacco Free Florida's posts included smokers, those who are trying to quit, and nonsmokers as health promotion can be targeted at the individual's health, social support infrastructure, or the well-being of the society, and implications for strategic message design and audience targeting are discussed.

  12. Mass media campaigns and organ donation: managing conflicting messages and interests.

    Rady, Mohamed Y; McGregor, Joan L; Verheijde, Joseph L

    2012-05-01

    Mass media campaigns are widely and successfully used to change health decisions and behaviors for better or for worse in society. In the United States, media campaigns have been launched at local offices of the states' department of motor vehicles to promote citizens' willingness to organ donation and donor registration. We analyze interventional studies of multimedia communication campaigns to encourage organ-donor registration at local offices of states' department of motor vehicles. The media campaigns include the use of multifaceted communication tools and provide training to desk clerks in the use of scripted messages for the purpose of optimizing enrollment in organ-donor registries. Scripted messages are communicated to customers through mass audiovisual entertainment media, print materials and interpersonal interaction at the offices of departments of motor vehicles. These campaigns give rise to three serious concerns: (1) bias in communicating information with scripted messages without verification of the scientific accuracy of information, (2) the provision of misinformation to future donors that may result in them suffering unintended consequences from consenting to medical procedures before death (e.g, organ preservation and suitability for transplantation), and (3) the unmanaged conflict of interests for organizations charged with implementing these campaigns, (i.e, dual advocacy for transplant recipients and donors). We conclude the following: (1) media campaigns about healthcare should communicate accurate information to the general public and disclose factual materials with the least amount of bias; (2) conflicting interests in media campaigns should be managed with full public transparency; (3) media campaigns should disclose the practical implications of procurement as well as acknowledge the medical, legal, and religious controversies of determining death in organ donation; (4) organ-donor registration must satisfy the criteria of informed

  13. Sustainable Corporate Social Media Marketing Based on Message Structural Features: Firm Size Plays a Significant Role as a Moderator

    Moon Young Kang; Byungho Park

    2018-01-01

    Social media has been receiving attention as a cost-effective tool to build corporate brand image and to enrich customer relationships. This phenomenon calls for more attention to developing a model that measures the impact of structural features, used in corporate social media messages. Based on communication science, this study proposes a model to measure the impact of three essential message structural features (interactivity, formality, and immediacy) in corporate social media on customer...

  14. Public health interventions: reaching Latino adolescents via short message service and social media.

    Vyas, Amita N; Landry, Megan; Schnider, Marisa; Rojas, Angela M; Wood, Susan F

    2012-07-12

    Adolescents are substantial users of short message service (SMS) and social media. The public health community now has more opportunities to reach this population with positive youth development and health messages through these media. Latinos are a growing and youthful population with significant health risks and needs. This population may benefit from SMS and social media health interventions. To examine (1) SMS and social media utilization and behavior among Latino youth, and (2) how SMS and social media can be effectively used as a component of public health interventions focused on decreasing sexual risk taking among Latino youth. A mixed-methods approach, using both quantitative survey data and qualitative interview data, was used to provide a robust understanding of SMS and social media use and behavior for public health interventions. We recruited 428 ninth and tenth grade, self-identifying Latino adolescents to participate in a quantitative survey. Additionally, we conducted five key informant interviews with staff and 15 youth. We found that 90.8% (355/391) of respondents had access to a mobile phone either through having their own or through borrowing or sharing one. Of those who had access to a mobile phone, 94.1% (334/355) used SMS, with 41.1% (113/275) sending and receiving more than 100 text messages per day. Of 395 respondents, 384 (97.2%) had at least one social media account, and the mean number of accounts was 3.0 (range 0-8). A total of 75.8% (291/384) of adolescents logged in to their account daily. Of those with a social media account, 89.1% (342/384) had a Facebook account. Youth who took the survey in English were significantly more likely than those who took it in Spanish to have access to a mobile phone (χ(2) (1 )= 5.3; 93.3% vs 86.3%; P = .02); to be high-volume texters (χ(2) (2 )= 16.8; 49.4% vs 25.3%; P Facebook account (χ(2) (1 )= 9.9; 90.9% vs 79.7%; P = .002); and to have a greater mean number of social media accounts (t(387 )= 7

  15. Tweet for Behavior Change: Using Social Media for the Dissemination of Public Health Messages

    Hunter, Ruth F; Ajao, Oluwaseun; Jurek, Anna; McKeown, Gary; Hong, Jun; Barrett, Eimear; Ferguson, Marbeth; McElwee, Gerry; McCarthy, Miriam; Kee, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Background Social media public health campaigns have the advantage of tailored messaging at low cost and large reach, but little is known about what would determine their feasibility as tools for inducing attitude and behavior change. Objective The aim of this study was to test the feasibility of designing, implementing, and evaluating a social media–enabled intervention for skin cancer prevention. Methods A quasi-experimental feasibility study used social media (Twitter) to disseminate different message “frames” related to care in the sun and cancer prevention. Phase 1 utilized the Northern Ireland cancer charity’s Twitter platform (May 1 to July 14, 2015). Following a 2-week “washout” period, Phase 2 commenced (August 1 to September 30, 2015) using a bespoke Twitter platform. Phase 2 also included a Thunderclap, whereby users allowed their social media accounts to automatically post a bespoke message on their behalf. Message frames were categorized into 5 broad categories: humor, shock or disgust, informative, personal stories, and opportunistic. Seed users with a notable following were contacted to be “influencers” in retweeting campaign content. A pre- and postintervention Web-based survey recorded skin cancer prevention knowledge and attitudes in Northern Ireland (population 1.8 million). Results There were a total of 417,678 tweet impressions, 11,213 engagements, and 1211 retweets related to our campaign. Shocking messages generated the greatest impressions (shock, n=2369; informative, n=2258; humorous, n=1458; story, n=1680), whereas humorous messages generated greater engagement (humorous, n=148; shock, n=147; story, n=117; informative, n=100) and greater engagement rates compared with story tweets. Informative messages, resulted in the greatest number of shares (informative, n=17; humorous, n=10; shock, n=9; story, n=7). The study findings included improved knowledge of skin cancer severity in a pre- and postintervention Web-based survey

  16. Messages of distinction: the HIV/AIDS media campaign in Thailand.

    Lyttleton, C

    1996-03-01

    In predominantly rural Thailand, television is a primary source of HIV/AIDS knowledge. Since 1990, HIV/AIDS warning messages have been aired regularly and repeatedly on television as part of the national strategy to minimize transmission of HIV. The education and prevention messages chosen do more than suggest measures to avoid infection. Within a logic of risk, these messages also define characteristics of people who are signified as threatening agents of infection. In Thailand, prostitutes and drug users are portrayed as the feared Other. Because commercial sex is so widespread, the demarcation of prostitutes as a high risk group signals a diffuse threat not easily subject to conceptual distancing. It is the pervasive and often fear-based associations born of the media material that, in large part, establish the basis for emergent practice when thoughts or actions are triggered by consideration of HIV/AIDS.

  17. First impressions: geographic variation in media messages during the first phase of ACA implementation.

    Gollust, Sarah E; Barry, Colleen L; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Baum, Laura; Fowler, Erika Franklin

    2014-12-01

    Many Americans will learn about the implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) through the mass media. We examined geographic variation in the volume and content of mass media during the initial two-week rollout of the new health insurance marketplaces in October 2013 across 210 US media markets, using data from the Wesleyan Media Project. We found substantial geographic variation in the volume and tone of insurance product advertisements, political advertisements, and news coverage of the ACA marketplaces. News coverage of the ACA airing in media markets located in states operating federal or partnership marketplaces was more negative than coverage airing in markets located in states running their own marketplaces. Intrastate variation in media volume and content was also substantial and appears distinguishable from the local political climate. Variation in exposure to media messages likely affects public sentiment regarding the ACA and could contribute to geographic differences in insurance enrollment and public perceptions of US health care options. Researchers and policy makers evaluating the implementation of the ACA-and insurance enrollment in the marketplaces in particular-should consider addressing media influences. Copyright © 2014 by Duke University Press.

  18. Social media, text messaging, and email-preferences of asthma patients between 12 and 40 years old.

    Baptist, Alan P; Thompson, Michael; Grossman, Karla Stoermer; Mohammed, Layla; Sy, Annie; Sanders, Georgiana M

    2011-10-01

    Electronic media such as social media (Facebook, Twitter, MySpace), email, and text messaging could be useful in the management of asthma. However, patient use and preferences for electronic media in asthma management is currently unknown. A survey was sent to asthma patients between 12-40 years of age. The survey collected demographic information, use of electronic media, interest in using electronic media to receive asthma information, and interest in using electronic media to communicate with a health care provider about asthma. Free text entries were encouraged. 145 completed surveys were returned. Text messaging, email, and Facebook were used at least weekly by a majority of respondents (82%, 77%, and 65%, respectively). Email was clearly the most preferred method to receive asthma information and to communicate with a physician. There was some interest in using Facebook or text messaging, whereas Myspace and Twitter had minimal interest. On logistic regression analysis, female and Black or Hispanic participants were more likely to have an interest in the use of electronic media for asthma care. Frequent users (>1X/week) of each electronic media type had greater enthusiasm for their incorporation into asthma care. Free text entries revealed that many participants felt social media sites were for connecting with friends rather than for health care, and privacy concerns were also raised. Electronic media offers a novel way to improve asthma care. Email was the most preferred method, though text messaging and social media sites like Facebook may be appropriate for certain patients.

  19. Does Socio-Economic Status and Health Consciousness Influence How Women Respond to Health Related Messages in Media?

    Iversen, Anette Christine; Kraft, Pal

    2006-01-01

    During the past few decades, people have been increasingly exposed to health-related messages in the mass media, conveying recommendations for healthy lifestyles. The present study investigates whether these messages represent a stressor, and whether coping responses increase levels of motivation or levels of negative affect. A sample of 403 women…

  20. Music and Deaf Culture: Images from the Media and Their Interpretation by Deaf and Hearing Students.

    Darrow; Loomis

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the study was threefold: (a) to examine how the visual media have portrayed the subject of music and the deaf, (b) to verify the validity of these portrayals with members of the deaf community, and (c) to compare and contrast deaf and hearing audiences' impressions of these portrayals. An additional purpose of the research was to examine the results in light of possible misconceptions that may be construed by music therapists and music educators based upon the media's representation of the relationship between music and deaf culture. Since music therapists and music educators are the primary persons responsible for the music instruction of students in school programs for deaf and hard-of-hearing students, it is particularly important that they receive accurate messages about the relationship of music to deaf culture. Fifty deaf (n = 25) and hearing (n = 25) undergraduate college students individually viewed motion picture and television excerpts related to music and the deaf. Subjects were instructed to take notes as needed regarding the content of each excerpt and their impressions. Students were then interviewed in their native language, English or American Sign Language, as to their interpretations and perceptions regarding these excerpts and their accuracy. Interviews of the deaf students were translated into English from American Sign Language by trained interpreters. Written transcriptions were then made of the interpreters' English translations of the interviews with deaf students and of the verbal interviews with hearing students. Interview transcripts from both groups were coded and analyzed for recurring themes and patterns using content analysis. Data analysis revealed cultural patterns for the two groups, impressions specific to individual subjects, and trends in communication style and content for the two groups. Implications for music therapists and music educators are given regarding the influence of the media, characteristics of deaf

  1. Social media for message testing: a multilevel approach to linking favorable viewer responses with message, producer, and viewer influence on YouTube.

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Hove, Thomas; Jeon, Jehoon

    2013-01-01

    To explore the feasibility of social media for message testing, this study connects favorable viewer responses to antismoking videos on YouTube with the videos' message characteristics (message sensation value [MSV] and appeals), producer types, and viewer influences (viewer rating and number of viewers). Through multilevel modeling, a content analysis of 7,561 viewer comments on antismoking videos is linked with a content analysis of 87 antismoking videos. Based on a cognitive response approach, viewer comments are classified and coded as message-oriented thought, video feature-relevant thought, and audience-generated thought. The three mixed logit models indicate that videos with a greater number of viewers consistently increased the odds of favorable viewer responses, while those presenting humor appeals decreased the odds of favorable message-oriented and audience-generated thoughts. Some significant interaction effects show that videos produced by laypeople may hinder favorable viewer responses, while a greater number of viewer comments can work jointly with videos presenting threat appeals to predict favorable viewer responses. Also, for a more accurate understanding of audience responses to the messages, nuance cues should be considered together with message features and viewer influences.

  2. Does Internalizing Society and Media Messages Cause Body Dissatisfaction, in Turn Causing Disordered Eating?

    Dye, Heather

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the predictive influence that internalization of society and media messages has on body dissatisfaction, as well as the prediction influence that body dissatisfaction has on disordered eating behaviors, such as preoccupation with weight, dieting, and eating restraint. A total of 324 participants completed the demographic questionnaire, the Multidimensional Body Self Relations Questionnaire (Cash, 2001 ), the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire (Heinberg, Thompson, & Stormer, 1995 ) for women, and the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-Revised-Male-Version (Cusumano & Thompson, 1997 ) for men, and the locus of control (Rotter, 1966 ). The results of this study found that high internalization leads to body dissatisfaction, in turn, leading to disordered eating behaviors, such as preoccupation with weight, dieting, and eating restraint. This study proposes the implementation of media literacy and education programs that teach college women and men, girls and boys, to think more critically about the media.

  3. Best Practices for Suicide Prevention Messaging and Evaluating California's "Know the Signs" Media Campaign.

    Acosta, Joie; Ramchand, Rajeev; Becker, Amariah

    2017-09-01

    Although communication is a key component of US strategies to prevent suicide and there are a number of marketing campaigns promoting messages that suicide is a preventable public health problem, there has been little evaluation of these campaigns. The study describes the development of a checklist of best practices for suicide prevention communication campaigns and the use of the checklist to evaluate California's investment in "Know the Signs" (KTS-M), a suicide prevention mass media campaign. We conducted a literature review and solicited expert feedback to identify best practices and then used the RAND/UCLA appropriateness method to assess whether KTS-M was consistent with the identified best practices. Overall, experts agreed that KTS-M adhered to most of the 46 checklist items and suggested that the campaign was among the best suicide prevention media campaigns they had observed. The checklist was developed through expert input and literature review and focuses only on media campaigns. Given the nascent state of the evidence about what makes an effective suicide prevention message and the growing number of campaigns, the checklist of best practices reflects one way of promoting quality in this evolving field. The consistency between the experts' comments and their ratings of KTS-M suggests that the checklist may provide important guidance to inform the development of future campaigns and the evaluation of ongoing campaigns.

  4. Effects of a statewide antismoking campaign on mass media messages and smoking beliefs.

    Murray, D M; Prokhorov, A V; Harty, K C

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND. In 1985, The Minnesota Legislature initiated a long-term and broad-based program to deter adolescent tobacco use. The initiative was funded by higher taxes on tobacco products and combined school-based programming, mass-media campaigns, and local community grants. The Minnesota-Wisconsin Adolescent Tobacco-Use Research Project was designed to evaluate this effort by monitoring adolescent tobacco use and related factors in Minnesota and Wisconsin from 1986 to 1990. The results presented in this paper indicate that the Minnesota initiative dramatically increased Minnesota schoolchildren's reported exposure to the anti-smoking messages in the mass media but had little effect on smoking-related beliefs or smoking behaviors. CONCLUSIONS. These results, together with the findings from other recent studies, suggest that even dramatic increases in exposure to anti-tobacco messages in the mass-media, in the absence of a substantial and sustained school-based tobacco prevention measures, may be insufficient to generate reductions in adolescent tobacco use.

  5. Implementation of Text-Messaging and Social Media Strategies in a Multilevel Childhood Obesity Prevention Intervention: Process Evaluation Results.

    Loh, Ivory H; Schwendler, Teresa; Trude, Angela C B; Anderson Steeves, Elizabeth T; Cheskin, Lawrence J; Lange, Sarah; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2018-01-01

    Social media and text messaging show promise as public health interventions, but little evaluation of implementation exists. The B'more Healthy Communities for Kids (BHCK) was a multilevel, multicomponent (wholesalers, food stores, recreation centers) childhood obesity prevention trial that included social media and text-messaging components. The BHCK was implemented in 28 low-income areas of Baltimore City, Maryland, in 2 waves. The texting intervention targeted 241 low-income African American caregivers (of 283), who received 3 texts/week reinforcing key messages, providing nutrition information, and weekly goals. Regular posting on social media platforms (Facebook, Instagram, Twitter) targeted community members and local stakeholders. High implementation standards were set a priori (57 for social media, 11 for texting), with low implementation defined as social media implementation improved from low-moderate to high reach, dose delivered, and fidelity. Text messaging increased from moderate to high in reach and dose delivered, fidelity decreased from high to moderate. Data were used to monitor and revise the BHCK intervention throughout implementation. Our model for evaluating text messaging-based and social media-based interventions may be applicable to other settings.

  6. Media Literacy and Attitude Change: Assessing the Effectiveness of Media Literacy Training on Children's Responses to Persuasive Messages within the ELM.

    Yates, Bradford L.

    This study adds to the small but growing body of literature that examines the effectiveness of media literacy training on children's responses to persuasive messages. Within the framework of the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) of persuasion, this research investigates whether media literacy training is a moderating variable in the persuasion…

  7. Are media still the message? A comparative study of high and low involvement brands in Serbia

    Jovanović Neda

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the importance of media choice for branding of high and low involvement products. Given the magnitude of branding today and the complexity of the media environment, the lack of modern studies comparing different media from the consumers' perspective especially in different cultural settings, is both profound and surprising. Studies of Larkin (1978 and Stephens (1981 are not only outdated but also US-specific. Furthermore, although McLuhan (2002 has famously claimed that the medium is the message, there is no contemporary marketing study examining this claim in relation to major branding elements such as brand awareness perceived quality, brand attitude, and brand image. The study's major contribution is that it attempts to fill in this research gap by investigating if and how consumers differentiate brands, with respect to the media that they appear in. A comparison between low and high involvement brands was considered apparent for a more comprehensive research approach. This study is a deductive and a quantitative one. Sample consisted of 160 respondents in Serbia, ranging from 18 to 59 years old, and the data collection method was a self-administered e-mail questionnaire. Major findings suggest that different media indeed affect various aspects of branding, with magazines favoring most of brand image characteristics, and television favoring brand awareness. However, analysis also indicated a clustering of television, magazine, and outdoor as media with similar scores in almost every aspect. This clustering has the potential to affect both branding and media planning decisions. Internet is found to be a promising medium for the future in Serbia but not so much for the present.

  8. Body dissatisfaction: can a short media literacy message reduce negative media exposure effects amongst adolescent girls?

    Halliwell, Emma; Easun, Alice; Harcourt, Diana

    2011-05-01

    This experimental study examined whether a brief video intervention identifying the artificial nature of media images could protect adolescent girls from negative media exposure effects and body dissatisfaction. A 2 (intervention condition)×2 (exposure condition) between-groups design was used. Participants were 127 British girls aged between 10 and 13 recruited from two secondary schools. Girls were assigned to one of four experimental conditions. An intervention video was shown to half of the girls immediately before they viewed ultra-thin models or control images. The video was developed by Dove's Self-Esteem Fund and has the benefits of being professionally produced and freely available through the Internet. In the absence of the intervention video, viewing thin idealized models was associated with lower state body satisfaction and lower state body esteem than exposure to control images. However, viewing the video intervention immediately before exposure prevented this negative exposure effect. The results suggest that, in the short term, this widely available video prevents girls from making damaging social comparisons with media models. Although this study only examined short-term effects, the findings add to the growing evidence that media literacy interventions may be useful tools in protecting young girls from body dissatisfaction. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  9. The role of interpretation processes and parental discussion in the media's effects on adolescents' use of alcohol.

    Austin, E W; Pinkleton, B E; Fujioka, Y

    2000-02-01

    The process that connects media use with alcohol-related beliefs and behaviors has not been well documented. To address this issue, we examined adolescents' viewing patterns, beliefs about alcohol and media messages, and parental discussion of media messages in the context of a theoretical model of message interpretation processes. Measures included the degree to which adolescents found portrayals desirable, realistic, and similar to their own lives; the degree to which they wanted to be like (identify with) the portrayals; and the degree to which they associated positive outcomes with drinking alcohol (expectancies). Cross-sectional survey. Two public high schools in the California central coastal area that include a diverse population in terms of ethnic origin, income level, and education level. Ninth-grade students (n = 252) and 12th-grade students (n = 326). Students reported the number of days within the past week watching various genres of television content, along with perceptions of realism of content, desirability of portrayals, identification with portrayals, expectancies toward alcohol use, personal norms for alcohol use, desire for products with alcohol logos, current alcohol use, frequency of parental reinforcement, and counter-reinforcement of television messages. Associations were examined via hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Effects of media exposure on drinking behavior, controlling for grade level, ethnicity, gender, household income, and education levels were primarily positive and indirect, operating through a number of intervening beliefs, especially expectancies (beta =.59; r(2) =.33). Direct associations, primarily with exposure to late-night talk shows (beta =.12; r(2) =.01), were small. Parental discussion also affected behavior indirectly, operating through expectancies, identification, and perceived realism. The appeal of products with alcohol logos, which was higher among the younger students (t = 3.44) and predicted by

  10. A content analysis of oral health messages in Australian mass media.

    Jones, Kelly; Merrick, Jessica; Beasley, Christine

    2015-01-27

    Social analysis regarding oral health and oral health promotion are almost non-existent in the Australian context. The usefulness of such exploration lies in framing and informing research methodologies and health promotion initiatives and can improve our understanding of oral health behaviours and their social contexts. We conducted a systematic content analysis of a random sample of popular Australian magazines, newspapers and television shows from May to September 2012. Our sample included the top three best-selling magazines, six weekly newspapers, one from each available Australian state; and the four highest-ranked Australian prime-time television shows and their associated commercials. Data comprised of 72 hours of prime-time television and 14,628 pages of hardcopy media. 71 oral health related media 'incidents' were counted during a five month period. Only 1.5% of incidents referenced fluoride and only two made dietary references. Women were represented almost six times more than men and the majority of oral health related incidents conveyed no social context (63%). Oral health messages conveyed in Australian media fail to provide a social context for preventative or health-promoting behaviours. In light of increased levels of oral disease and retention of natural teeth, more community-based oral health promotion and support for oral health literacy would be prudent in the Australian context. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Implications of high-/low-context communication for target audience member interpretation of messages in the Nimechill abstinence campaign in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Muraya, Julie Gathoni; Neville Miller, Ann; Mjomba, Leonard

    2011-09-01

    Although it ran on multiple mass media for the better part of a year, end line evaluation of the Nimechill youth abstinence campaign in Kenya indicated that exposure to the campaign had no relationship to youth decisions to defer sexual debut. One possible explanation of this lack of association could be that target audience members derived inconsistent and confusing meanings from visuals as opposed to text in the campaign. Employing Hall's concept of high- and low-context communication, we assessed target population interpretation of four campaign posters via 12 focus-group discussions and four individual in-depth interviews with Nairobi youth. We found that although participants endorsed and recognized campaign objectives, contextual cues in some campaign visuals were interpreted by participants as being contradictory to the abstinence message in the poster texts. In addition noticeable differences arose between the low-income and middle-/high-income groups in interpretation of one of the posters. We conclude with recommendations regarding use of visuals in high-context cultures and involvement of youth from various socioeconomic strata in campaign planning.

  12. Social Activity, School-Related Activity, and Anti-Substance Use Media Messages on Adolescent Tobacco and Alcohol Use

    Moon, Sung Seek; Rao, Uma

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we present the effects of three hypothesized protective factors: social activities, school-related activities, and anti-substance use media messages on adolescent tobacco and alcohol use. Data were drawn from the “Monitoring the Future” (MTF) research project, which was conducted by the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan. The sample included 2,551 twelfth-grade students. The results of the structural equation model showed that exposure to media anti-d...

  13. The Effects of Antismoking Messages From Family, School, and Mass Media on Smoking Behavior and Smoking Intention Among Chinese Adolescents.

    Yu, Shaohua; Koplan, Jeffrey; Eriksen, Michael P; Yao, Shuo; Redmon, Pamela; Song, Julia; Uretsky, Elanah; Huang, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of adolescent smoking has been increasing rapidly in China. Expanding adolescent exposure to antismoking messages may be an effective approach to prevent tobacco use among this population. Using a cross-sectional sample of 8,444 high school students in four Chinese cities, this study assessed the relation between self-reported exposure to antismoking messages from families, schools, and mass media and the rate of past 30-day smoking and smoking intention among junior and senior high school students. Results from logistic regression suggested that antismoking messages delivered via school and media inhibited both tobacco use and the intention to smoke. The effects of familial warnings about harmful effects of smoking, in contrast, were at best insignificant.

  14. Optimizing the Presentation of Mental Health Information in Social Media: The Effects of Health Testimonials and Platform on Source Perceptions, Message Processing, and Health Outcomes.

    Quintero Johnson, Jessie M; Yilmaz, Gamze; Najarian, Kristy

    2017-09-01

    Using social media for the purpose of disseminating mental health information is a critical area of scientific inquiry for health communication professionals. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the presence of a first-person testimonial in educational mental health information placed in Facebook and Twitter messages influenced college students' (N = 257) source perceptions, information processing, cognitive elaboration, health information recall, beliefs, and behavioral intentions. Results show that exposure to social media messages that featured mental health information embedded with a testimonial predicted less source homophily and more critical thoughts about the social media source, less systematic message processing, and less cognitive elaboration. Health information recall was significantly impacted by both the social media platform and message content such that participants in the testimonial condition on Facebook were more likely to recall the health facts in those messages whereas participants who viewed the testimonial in Twitter were less likely to recall the facts in those tweets. Compared to those who read Facebook messages, participants who read Twitter messages reported higher levels of systematic message processing. These findings suggest that the integration of health testimonials into social media messages might inadvertently provoke psychological resistance to mental health information, thereby reducing the persuasive impact of those messages.

  15. Framing risk: communication messages in the Australian and Swedish print media surrounding the 2009 H1N1 pandemic.

    Sandell, Tiffany; Sebar, Bernadette; Harris, Neil

    2013-12-01

    Australia and Sweden have similar immunisation rates. However, during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic the uptake of immunisation was 60% in Sweden and 18% in Australia. During pandemics, perceptions of risk are largely formed by media communication which may influence the public's response. The study aimed to compare the differences in how the media framed the 2009 H1N1 pandemic message and the associated public perceptions of risk as expressed through the uptake of vaccinations in Australia and Sweden. A qualitative content analysis was conducted on 81 articles from the Australian and Swedish print media: 45 and 36, respectively. The risk of H1N1 was communicated similarly in Australia and Sweden. However, major differences were found in how the Australian and Swedish media framed the pandemic in terms of responsibility, self-efficacy, and uncertainty. In Australia, responsibility was predominantly reported negatively, blaming various organisations for a lack of information, compared to Sweden where responsibility was placed on the community to help protect public health. Furthermore, there was limited self-efficacy measures reported in the Australian media compared to Sweden and Sweden's media was more transparent about the uncertainties of the pandemic. This study affirms the association between the framing of health messages in the media and the public's perception of risk and related behaviour. Governments need to actively incorporate the media into pandemic communication planning.

  16. Social Activity, School-Related Activity, and Anti-Substance Use Media Messages on Adolescent Tobacco and Alcohol Use.

    Moon, Sung Seek; Rao, Uma

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we present the effects of three hypothesized protective factors: social activities, school-related activities, and anti-substance use media messages on adolescent tobacco and alcohol use. Data were drawn from the "Monitoring the Future" (MTF) research project, which was conducted by the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan. The sample included 2,551 twelfth-grade students. The results of the structural equation model showed that exposure to media anti-drug messages had an indirect negative effect on tobacco and alcohol use through school-related activity and social activity. The results suggest that comprehensive ecological interventions encompassing media, family, and school can increase on the preventive effects of adolescent's substance use.

  17. An ensemble heterogeneous classification methodology for discovering health-related knowledge in social media messages.

    Tuarob, Suppawong; Tucker, Conrad S; Salathe, Marcel; Ram, Nilam

    2014-06-01

    The role of social media as a source of timely and massive information has become more apparent since the era of Web 2.0.Multiple studies illustrated the use of information in social media to discover biomedical and health-related knowledge.Most methods proposed in the literature employ traditional document classification techniques that represent a document as a bag of words.These techniques work well when documents are rich in text and conform to standard English; however, they are not optimal for social media data where sparsity and noise are norms.This paper aims to address the limitations posed by the traditional bag-of-word based methods and propose to use heterogeneous features in combination with ensemble machine learning techniques to discover health-related information, which could prove to be useful to multiple biomedical applications, especially those needing to discover health-related knowledge in large scale social media data.Furthermore, the proposed methodology could be generalized to discover different types of information in various kinds of textual data. Social media data is characterized by an abundance of short social-oriented messages that do not conform to standard languages, both grammatically and syntactically.The problem of discovering health-related knowledge in social media data streams is then transformed into a text classification problem, where a text is identified as positive if it is health-related and negative otherwise.We first identify the limitations of the traditional methods which train machines with N-gram word features, then propose to overcome such limitations by utilizing the collaboration of machine learning based classifiers, each of which is trained to learn a semantically different aspect of the data.The parameter analysis for tuning each classifier is also reported. Three data sets are used in this research.The first data set comprises of approximately 5000 hand-labeled tweets, and is used for cross validation of the

  18. Online De-Radicalization? Countering Violent Extremist Narratives: Message, Messenger and Media Strategy

    Omar Ashour

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Is “online de-radicalization” possible? Given the two growing phenomena of “online radicalization” and “behavioral/ideological/organizational de-radicalization,” this article outlines a broad strategy for countering the narratives of violent extremists. It argues that an effective counter-narrative should be built on three pillars. The first is an effective comprehensive message that dismantles and counter-argues against every dimension of the extremist narrative, namely the theological, political, historical, instrumental and socio-psychological dimensions. The second pillar is the messengers. The article argues that for the first time in the history of Jihadism a “critical mass” of former militants, who rebelled not only against the current behaviour of their former colleagues but also against the ideology supporting it, has come into existence. This “critical mass” can constitute the core of credible messengers, especially the few de-radicalized individuals and groups that still maintain influence and respect among vulnerable communities. The third pillar is the dissemination and attraction strategy of the counter-narratives(s which focuses on the role of the media. The author of the article outlines a broad framework, which is a part of a UN-sponsored, comprehensive research project on countering the extremists narrative.

  19. The problematic messages of nutritional discourse: A case-based critical media analysis.

    Dodds, Antonia; Chamberlain, Kerry

    2017-01-01

    Nutritional science has assumed a fundamental importance in shaping food meanings and practices in the developed world. This study critically analysed the content of one weekly nutrition column written by a nutritional expert in a popular New Zealand magazine, from a social constructionist perspective, to investigate how nutritional advice constructs food, food practices and eaters. The analysis identified a range of ways in which the nutrition information communicated in the articles was potentially problematic for readers. The articles advocated eating for health with recommendations based on nutritional science, but depicted nutritional information as inconclusive, changeable and open to interpretation. Fear-based messages were used to motivate making 'healthy' food choices, through linking 'unhealthy' food choices with fatness and chronic ill health. Unhealthy foods were portrayed as more enjoyable than healthy foods, social occasions involving food were constructed as problematic, and exercise was defined only as a way to negate food consumption. Healthy eating was portrayed as a matter of personal choice, obscuring the situational factors that impact on food choice and health. We conclude that the nutritional advice analysed in this study constructs a way of understanding food that, if internalised by eaters, may evoke anxiety, confusion and dissatisfaction around food and eating. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Coverage of breast cancer in the Australian print media--does advertising and editorial coverage reflect correct social marketing messages?

    Jones, Sandra C

    2004-01-01

    Early detection of breast cancer by mammographic screening has the potential to dramatically reduce mortality rates, but many women do not comply with screening recommendations. The media are an important source of health information for many women--through both direct social marketing advertisements and indirect dissemination of information via editorial content. This study investigated the accuracy of breast cancer detection messages in the top-selling Australian women's magazines and three weekend newspapers in the six-month period from December 2000 to May 2001 that included any reference to breast cancer and found that current coverage of breast cancer in the Australian print media conveys messages that are unlikely to encourage appropriate screening.

  1. College Students' Responses to Emotional Anti-Alcohol Abuse Media Messages: Should We Scare or Amuse Them?

    Lee, Moon J

    2018-05-01

    This study examined college students' responses to emotional anti-alcohol abuse media messages (i.e., fear vs. humor appeal) aimed at discouraging heavy/binge drinking. An experiment was conducted with 94 college students. As expected, college students generally expressed higher levels of interest in anti-alcohol abuse media messages when watching fear appeal than those watching humor appeal. However, college binge drinkers who watched the fear appeal reported lower levels of readiness to change their drinking behavior than those who watched the humor appeal. This pattern was the opposite among college nonbinge drinkers, in that college nonbinge drinkers were more likely to say they would change their drinking behaviors when exposed to fear appeal than those who were exposed to humor appeal or those who did not watch any media messages. Conventional fear appeal to scare college binge drinkers seems ineffective and even counterproductive while humor appeal, if well designed, could offer alternative ways to communicate with college binge drinkers.

  2. Questionnaire-based study showed that neonatal chest radiographs could be reliably interpreted using the WhatsApp messaging application.

    Gross, Itai; Langer, Yshia; Pasternak, Yehonatan; Abu Ahmad, Wiessam; Eventov-Friedman, Smadar; Koplewitz, Benjamin Z

    2018-06-11

    We surveyed whether clinicians used the WhatsApp messaging application to view neonatal chest radiographs and asked a sub-sample to compare them with computer screen viewings. The study was conducted at three university-affiliated medical centres in Israel from June-December 2016. Questionnaires on using smartphones for professional purposes were completed by 68/71 paediatric residents and 20/28 neonatologists. In addition, 11 neonatologists viewed 20 chest radiographs on a computer screen followed by a smartphone and 10 viewed the same radiographs in the opposite order, separated by a washout period of two months. After another two months, five from each group viewed the same radiographs on a computer screen. Different interpretations between viewing modes were assessed. Most respondents used WhatsApp to send chest radiographs for consultation: 82% of the paediatric residents and 80% of the neonatologists. The mean number of inconsistencies in diagnosis was 3.7/20 between two computer views and 2.9/20 between computer and smartphone views (p=0.88) and the disease severity means were 3.7/20 and 2.85/20, respectively (p=0.94). Neonatologists using WhatsApp only determined umbilical line placement in 80% of cases. WhatsApp was reliable for preliminary interpretation of neonatal chest radiographs, but caution was needed when assessing umbilical lines. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Boys to Men: Sports Media. Messages about Masculinity: A National Poll of Children, Focus Groups, and Content Analysis of Sports Programs and Commercials.

    Messner, Mike; Hunt, Darnell; Dunbar, Michele; Chen, Perry; Lapp, Joan; Miller, Patti

    Sports programming plays a significant role in the media messages that American boys receive today. To explore the messages that sports programming presents to its audience, this report relates the findings of a study that analyzed a representative selection of sports programs and their accompanying commercials; also presented are findings from a…

  4. Health-Seeking Influence Reflected by Online Health-Related Messages Received on Social Media: Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Iftikhar, Rahila; Abaalkhail, Bahaa

    2017-11-16

    Major social networking platforms, such as Facebook, WhatsApp, and Twitter, have become popular means through which people share health-related information, irrespective of whether messages disseminated through these channels are authentic. This study aims to describe the demographic characteristics of patients that may demonstrate their attitudes toward medical information shared on social media networks. Second, we address how information found through social media affects the way people deal with their health. Third, we examine whether patients initiate or alter/discontinue their medications based on information derived from social media. We conducted a cross-sectional survey between April and June 2015 on patients attending outpatient clinics at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Patients who used social media (Facebook, WhatsApp, and Twitter) were included. We designed a questionnaire with closed-ended and multiple-choice questions to assess the type of social media platforms patients used and whether information received on these platforms influenced their health care decisions. We used chi-square test to establish the relationship between categorical variables. Of the 442 patients who filled in the questionnaires, 401 used Facebook, WhatsApp, or Twitter. The majority of respondents (89.8%, 397/442) used WhatsApp, followed by Facebook (58.6%, 259/442) and Twitter (42.3%, 187/442). In most cases, respondents received health-related messages from WhatsApp and approximately 42.6% (171/401) reported ever stopping treatment as advised on a social media platform. A significantly higher proportion of patients without heart disease (P=.001) and obese persons (P=.01) checked the authenticity of information received on social media. Social media messages influenced decision making among patients without heart disease (P=.04). Respondents without heart disease (P=.001) and obese persons (P=.01) were more likely to discuss health-related information

  5. Health-Seeking Influence Reflected by Online Health-Related Messages Received on Social Media: Cross-Sectional Survey

    2017-01-01

    Background Major social networking platforms, such as Facebook, WhatsApp, and Twitter, have become popular means through which people share health-related information, irrespective of whether messages disseminated through these channels are authentic. Objective This study aims to describe the demographic characteristics of patients that may demonstrate their attitudes toward medical information shared on social media networks. Second, we address how information found through social media affects the way people deal with their health. Third, we examine whether patients initiate or alter/discontinue their medications based on information derived from social media. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey between April and June 2015 on patients attending outpatient clinics at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Patients who used social media (Facebook, WhatsApp, and Twitter) were included. We designed a questionnaire with closed-ended and multiple-choice questions to assess the type of social media platforms patients used and whether information received on these platforms influenced their health care decisions. We used chi-square test to establish the relationship between categorical variables. Results Of the 442 patients who filled in the questionnaires, 401 used Facebook, WhatsApp, or Twitter. The majority of respondents (89.8%, 397/442) used WhatsApp, followed by Facebook (58.6%, 259/442) and Twitter (42.3%, 187/442). In most cases, respondents received health-related messages from WhatsApp and approximately 42.6% (171/401) reported ever stopping treatment as advised on a social media platform. A significantly higher proportion of patients without heart disease (P=.001) and obese persons (P=.01) checked the authenticity of information received on social media. Social media messages influenced decision making among patients without heart disease (P=.04). Respondents without heart disease (P=.001) and obese persons (P=.01) were more likely to

  6. Forensic Investigation of Social Media and Instant Messaging Services in Firefox OS: Facebook, Twitter, Google+, Telegram, OpenWapp and Line as Case Studies

    Yusoff, Mohd Najwadi; Dehghantanha, Ali; Mahmod, Ramlan

    2017-01-01

    Mobile devices are increasingly utilized to access social media and instant messaging services, which allow users to communicate with others easily and quickly. However, the misuse of social media and instant messaging services facilitated conducting different cybercrimes such as cyber stalking, cyber bullying, slander spreading and sexual harassment. Therefore, mobile devices are an important evidentiary piece in digital investigation. In this chapter, we report the results of our investigat...

  7. Sustainable Corporate Social Media Marketing Based on Message Structural Features: Firm Size Plays a Significant Role as a Moderator

    Moon Young Kang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Social media has been receiving attention as a cost-effective tool to build corporate brand image and to enrich customer relationships. This phenomenon calls for more attention to developing a model that measures the impact of structural features, used in corporate social media messages. Based on communication science, this study proposes a model to measure the impact of three essential message structural features (interactivity, formality, and immediacy in corporate social media on customers’ purchase intentions, mediated by brand attitude and corporate trust. Especially, social media platforms are believed to provide a good marketing platform for small and medium enterprises (SMEs by providing access to huge audiences at a very low cost. The findings from this study based on a structural equation model suggest that brand attitude and corporate trust have larger impacts on purchase intention for SMEs than large firms. This implies that SMEs with little to no presence in the market should pay more attention to building corporate trust and brand attitude for their sustainable growth.

  8. Access to mass media messages, and use of family planning in Nigeria: a spatio-demographic analysis from the 2013 DHS.

    Ajaero, Chukwuedozie K; Odimegwu, Clifford; Ajaero, Ijeoma D; Nwachukwu, Chidiebere A

    2016-05-24

    Nigeria has the highest population in sub-Saharan Africa with high birth and growth rates. There is therefore need for family planning to regulate and stabilize this population. This study examined the relationship between access to mass media messages on family planning and use of family planning in Nigeria. It also investigated the impacts of spatio-demographic variables on the relationship between access to mass media messages and use of family planning. Data from the 2013 demographic and health survey of Nigeria which was conducted in all the 36 states of Nigeria, and Abuja were used for the study. The sample was weighted to ensure representativeness. Univariate, bivariate and binary logistic regressions were conducted. The relationship between each of the access to mass media messages, and the family planning variables were determined with Pearson correlation analysis. The correlation results showed significant but weak direct relationships between the access to mass media messages and use of family planning at p mass media messages on family planning, and on the use of family planning. The results showed that access to mass media messages increases the likelihood of the use of family planning. Also people with higher socioeconomic status and those from the Southern part of the country make more use of family planning. There is need to improve the socioeconomic status of the populations. Also, the quality and regularity of mass media messages should be improved, while other communication avenues such as traditional institutions, blogs, and seminars for youths should be used to make family planning messages more acceptable.

  9. What matters most in advertising campaigns? The relative effect of media expenditure and message content strategy

    van den Putte, B.

    2009-01-01

    Three main factors determine the effect of advertising campaigns: message content strategy, advertising expenditure and previous consumer behaviour. This study investigates the relative strength of each of these influences. Four possible campaign targets are taken into account: campaign recall,

  10. Making the message meaningful: a qualitative assessment of media promoting all-terrain vehicle safety.

    Brann, Maria; Mullins, Samantha Hope; Miller, Beverly K; Eoff, Shane; Graham, James; Aitken, Mary E

    2012-08-01

    Millions of all-terrain vehicles (ATV) are used around the world for recreation by both adults and youth. This increase in use has led to a substantial increase in the number of injuries and fatalities each year. Effective strategies for reducing this incidence are clearly needed; however, minimal research exists regarding effective educational interventions. This study was designed to assess rural ATV riders' preferences for and assessment of safety messages. 13 focus group discussions with youth and adult ATV riders were conducted. 88 formative research participants provided feedback on existing ATV safety materials, which was used to develop more useful ATV safety messages. 60 evaluative focus group participants critiqued the materials developed for this project. Existing ATV safety materials have limited effectiveness, in part because they may not address the content or design needs of the target population. ATV riders want educational and action-oriented safety messages that inform youth and adult riders about their responsibilities to learn, educate and implement safety behaviours (eg, appropriate-sized ATV, safety gear, solo riding, speed limits, riding locations). In addition, messages should be clear, realistic, visually appealing and easily accessible. Newly designed ATV safety materials using the acronym TRIPSS (training, ride off-road, impairment, plan ahead, safety gear, single rider) meet ATV riders' safety messaging needs. To reach a target population, it is crucial to include them in the development and assessment of safety messages. Germane to this particular study, ATV riders provided essential information for creating useful ATV safety materials.

  11. Sugar-sweetened beverages coverage in the British media: an analysis of public health advocacy versus pro-industry messaging.

    Elliott-Green, Alex; Hyseni, Lirije; Lloyd-Williams, Ffion; Bromley, Helen; Capewell, Simon

    2016-07-19

    To assess the extent of media-based public health advocacy versus pro-industry messaging regarding sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). We conducted a systematic analysis to identify and examine all articles regarding SSBs published in all mainstream British print newspapers and their online news websites from 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2014. We initially conducted a brief literature search to develop appropriate search terms and categorisations for grouping and analysing the articles. Articles were then coded according to the publishing newspaper, article type, topic, prominence and slant (pro-SSB or anti-SSB). A contextual analysis was undertaken to examine key messages in the articles. We identified 374 articles published during 2014. The majority of articles (81%) suggested that SSBs are unhealthy. Messaging from experts, campaign groups and health organisations was fairly consistent about the detrimental effects of SSB on health. However, relatively few articles assessed any approaches or solutions to potentially combat the problems associated with SSBs. Only one-quarter (24%) suggested any policy change. Meanwhile, articles concerning the food industry produced consistent messages emphasising consumer choice and individual responsibility for making choices regarding SSB consumption, and promoting and advertising their products. The food industry thus often managed to avoid association with the negative press that their products were receiving. SSBs were frequently published in mainstream British print newspapers and their online news websites during 2014. Public health media advocacy was prominent throughout, with a growing consensus that sugary drinks are bad for people's health. However, the challenge for public health will be to mobilise supportive public opinion to help implement effective regulatory policies. Only then will our population's excess consumption of SSBs come under control. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use

  12. How does the mass media report and interpret radiation data? The results of media content analysis

    Perko, T. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK.CEN, Institute for Environment Health and Safety (Belgium); Cantone, M.C. [University of Milano, Faculty of Medicine (Italy); Tomkiv, Y. [Norwegian University of Life Sciences (Norway); Prezelj, I. [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Social Sciences (Slovenia); Gallego, E. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain); Melekhova, E. [Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    In communication with the general population, experts often provide quantitative information related to ionizing radiation, expressed with different units of radioactivity. However, quantitative information about radiation risks may be meaningful only to people who have the ability to comprehend basic numerical concepts and possess knowledge related to radiation. Thus, the media, as a bridge between experts and the general population, has to 'translate' quantitative information into a qualitative one. How successful and accurate are the mass media in this transformation of scientific results into publicly understandable information? Our research investigates media reporting on the concept of ionizing radiation in a case of nuclear emergencies. The presentation is focused on summarizing the 'lessons learned' from the use of radiation data in media reporting about the Fukushima nuclear accident. The in-depth media content analysis was conducted in twelve quality newspapers in Belgium, Slovenia, Italy, Spain, Norway and Russia using the same scientific methodology and analyzing the same time period. Preliminary results identified miss concepts of radiation data by media and even within emergency responders and decision makers. The research is a result of FP7 project Innovative integrated tools and platforms for radiological emergency preparedness and post-accident response in Europe - PREPARE and upgraded with a Russian experience. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  13. Designing Microblog Direct Messages to Engage Social Media Users With Suicide Ideation: Interview and Survey Study on Weibo.

    Tan, Ziying; Liu, Xingyun; Liu, Xiaoqian; Cheng, Qijin; Zhu, Tingshao

    2017-12-12

    While Web-based interventions can be efficacious, engaging a target population's attention remains challenging. We argue that strategies to draw such a population's attention should be tailored to meet its needs. Increasing user engagement in online suicide intervention development requires feedback from this group to prevent people who have suicide ideation from seeking treatment. The goal of this study was to solicit feedback on the acceptability of the content of messaging from social media users with suicide ideation. To overcome the common concern of lack of engagement in online interventions and to ensure effective learning from the message, this research employs a customized design of both content and length of the message. In study 1, 17 participants suffering from suicide ideation were recruited. The first (n=8) group conversed with a professional suicide intervention doctor about its attitudes and suggestions for a direct message intervention. To ensure the reliability and consistency of the result, an identical interview was conducted for the second group (n=9). Based on the collected data, questionnaires about this intervention were formed. Study 2 recruited 4222 microblog users with suicide ideation via the Internet. The results of the group interviews in study 1 yielded little difference regarding the interview results; this difference may relate to the 2 groups' varied perceptions of direct message design. However, most participants reported that they would be most drawn to an intervention where they knew that the account was reliable. Out of 4222 microblog users, we received responses from 725 with completed questionnaires; 78.62% (570/725) participants were not opposed to online suicide intervention and they valued the link for extra suicide intervention information as long as the account appeared to be trustworthy. Their attitudes toward the intervention and the account were similar to those from study 1, and 3 important elements were found

  14. Access to mass media messages, and use of family planning in Nigeria: a spatio-demographic analysis from the 2013 DHS

    Chukwuedozie K. Ajaero

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nigeria has the highest population in sub-Saharan Africa with high birth and growth rates. There is therefore need for family planning to regulate and stabilize this population. This study examined the relationship between access to mass media messages on family planning and use of family planning in Nigeria. It also investigated the impacts of spatio-demographic variables on the relationship between access to mass media messages and use of family planning. Methods Data from the 2013 demographic and health survey of Nigeria which was conducted in all the 36 states of Nigeria, and Abuja were used for the study. The sample was weighted to ensure representativeness. Univariate, bivariate and binary logistic regressions were conducted. The relationship between each of the access to mass media messages, and the family planning variables were determined with Pearson correlation analysis. Results The correlation results showed significant but weak direct relationships between the access to mass media messages and use of family planning at p < 0.0001 with access to television messages (r = 0.239 being associated with highest use of family planning. Some of the results of the adjusted regression analysis showed that access to television messages (OR = 1.2.225; p < 0.0001, and radio messages (OR = 1.945; p < 0.0001 increase the likelihood of the use of family planning. The adjusted regression model also indicated increased likelihood in the use of family planning by respondents with secondary education (OR = 2.709; p < 0.0001, the married (OR = 1.274; p < 0.001, and respondents within the highest wealth quintiles (OR = 3.442; p < 0.0001. Conclusions There exist significant variations within spatio-demographic groups with regards to having access to mass media messages on family planning, and on the use of family planning. The results showed that access to mass media messages increases the

  15. Boys to Men: Conference Report. Media Messages about Masculinity: Annual Children & the Media Conference (Los Angeles, California, September 1999).

    Lapp, Joan

    The Sixth Annual Children and the Media Conference, hosted by Children Now, focused on the media's role and potential influence on boys. This report highlights the thinking of participating advocates, academics, entertainment industry leaders, and children. Following excerpts from a keynote address by William Pollack of Harvard Medical School, the…

  16. Can Heterosexist Music Cause Hiring Discrimination Against Sexual Minority Men? Testing the Effects of Prejudicial Media Messages.

    Binder, Kevin; Ward, L Monique

    2016-01-01

    Workplace heterosexism is a pervasive issue affecting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) employees. This study investigated the influence of heterosexist media on hiring decisions by exposing 171 heterosexual undergraduate men to heterosexist rap music, nonheterosexist rap music, or no music and measuring their evaluations of a heterosexual and gay male professorial job applicant immediately afterward. As expected, participants exposed to the heterosexist music provided lower evaluations of the gay applicant than those exposed to no music, for two of the eight dimensions measured. Also, participants exposed to heterosexist messages were less willing to recommend and meet one-on-one with a gay candidate than a heterosexual one. Music condition effects remained, even with demographic factors controlled. These findings suggest that media heterosexism may affect hiring decisions for GBT men and may also influence the treatment of these men in a workplace environment.

  17. DIGITAL ETHIC IN SOCIAL MEDIA:INVESTIGATION OF VIOLENT MESSAGES ON TWITTER

    BAYRAK, Tamer

    2017-01-01

    Today’s world is changing with technology. Especially all of the media is very attractive for people. Conventional media becomes new media. This is because of people’s request. But new media is not so innocent. Some ethical concerns are fairly considered in terms of today’s world. Communication is as old as humanity history. Data is base factor for communication in terms of process of communication. So, data is circling from person to person speedly. But communication is not pure. It has some...

  18. Media advertising and consumerism: How children and adolescents understand and resist persuasive messages

    Buijzen, M.A.; Rozendaal, E.; Reijmersdal, E.A. van; Lemish, D.

    2013-01-01

    In the first decade of the new millennium, children and adolescents' commercial media environment has changed dramatically. Advertisers have rapidly adopted new advertising techniques including branded websites, brand placement in video games, and viral marketing in social media (Buijzen et al.,

  19. PROPOSALS FOR MEASURING THE INFORMATION LOAD OF MEDIA MESSAGES AND ITS EFFECTS

    Luís Fernando Morales Morante

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article offers a reflection about the validity of basic concepts that define the grammar and structure of audiovisual discourses and its functionality in current communication processes dominated by digital convergence and interactivity. Also, the article offers a theoretical proposal for measuring the load of messages and its expressive-narrative communicative behavior, that is based on semantic coherence (the element that matches the communicative intention of the sender and receiver's attention.

  20. How peer conversations about HIV/AIDS media messages affect comprehension and beliefs of young South African women

    E. Lubinga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Most existent research on the effects of interpersonal discussions about health campaign messages is based on surveys. In this study, we analysed actual conversations about an HIV/AIDS poster to find out possible effects. Young South African women in 59 dyads (n = 118 participated in conversations about a deliberately puzzling HIV and AIDS poster that cautioned the target group to be faithful to one sexual partner. We measured their comprehension of the poster and beliefs about the message, before and after the conversations. Overall, actual comprehension (AC was low, and we observed a large discrepancy between actual and perceived comprehension. In general, conversations did not improve AC. It proved to be even more probable that a correct interpretation before a conversation turned into an incorrect interpretation than the other way around. However, having a well-informed conversation partner increased the chance of acquiring adequate subsequent comprehension. We found, in general, that conversations did not decrease undesirable beliefs. One important undesirable belief even became reinforced after the conversations. Conversations among peers might be valuable in health campaigns, but our study shows that intended positive effects do not automatically follow.

  1. Police message diffusion on Twitter : analysing the reach of social media communications

    van de Velde, Bob; Meijer, Albert; Homburg, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Social media are becoming increasingly important for communication between government organisations and citizens. Although research on this issue is expanding, the structure of these new communication patterns is still poorly understood. This study contributes to our understanding of these new

  2. Emerging Media Crisis Value Model: A Comparison of Relevant, Timely Message Strategies for Emergency Events

    Sabrina Page

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Communication during an emergency or crisis event is essential for emergency responders, the community involved, and those watching on television as well as receiving information via social media from family members, friends or other community members. The evolution of communication during an emergency/crisis event now includes utilizing social media. To better understand this evolution the Emerging Media Crisis Value Model (EMCVM is used in comparing two emergency events; Hurricane Irene (2011, a natural disaster, and the theater shooting in Aurora, Colorado (2012, a man-made crisis. The EMCVM provides a foundation for future studies focusing on the use of social media, emergency responders at the local, state and national levels are better prepared to educate a community thus, counteracting public uncertainty, fear, while providing timely, accurate information.

  3. Media Baru: Tantangan dan Peluang Dakwah

    Efa Rubawati

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This book describes Da'wah in the New Media Era. The presence of the Internet with the characteristics of interactivity and connectivity, making a new paradigm in preaching. Da'i is no longer the main factor of receiving the message of da'wah maximally by mad'u (object of da'wah because in the networking society, mad'u not only receive passive message of da'wah, they are actively processing and interpreting the message -the message they receive and reshare it in their social media. This becomes a challenge as well as da'wah opportunities, the challenge lies in how the messages of dakwah are not predicted by the logic of the media as well as the understanding of the recitation of the message preachers. But the opportunity to get the messages of dakwah quickly and wisely makes the new media into an effective medium in the activities of propaganda today

  4. Two Drugs, Different Messages: Media and Marijuana and Alcohol Regulation in Uruguay

    Mauricio Coitiño

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Uruguay’s cannabis market became regulated while the alcohol market regulation was discussed. Cannabis regulation policy receives more strong opposition than support among Uruguayan public opinion (Boidi, Queirolo y Cruz, 2016a. In contrast, alcohol regulation receives majoritarian approval (Cifra, 2015. Why are these two regulations, both discussed at the same historical time, receiving such a different support from citizens? Is it possible that media coverage on alcohol regulation is positive, while cannabis regulation is mostly negative? This article analyzes Uruguayan main press media coverage on both regulations, and identifies which are the predominant frames and the differences among the treatment received by each regulation.

  5. Uses and Gratifications of Social Media: A Comparison of Facebook and Instant Messaging

    Quan-Haase, Anabel; Young, Alyson L.

    2010-01-01

    Users have adopted a wide range of digital technologies into their communication repertoire. It remains unclear why they adopt multiple forms of communication instead of substituting one medium for another. It also raises the question: What type of need does each of these media fulfill? In the present article, the authors conduct comparative work…

  6. Public Reactions to Celebrity Cancer Disclosures via Social Media: Implications for Campaign Message Design and Strategy

    Pavelko, Rachelle L.; Myrick, Jessica Gall; Verghese, Roshni S.; Hester, Joe Bob

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to analyse social media users' reactions to a celebrity's cancer announcement in order to inform future cancer-related campaigns. Design: A content analysis of Facebook users' written responses to the actor Hugh Jackman's 2013 post announcing his skin cancer diagnosis. Setting: Facebook's application…

  7. Getting the message: media images and stereotypes and their effect on Asian Americans.

    Mok, T A

    1998-01-01

    Mass media sources such as television and movies arguably offer up little in the way of positive Asian/Asian American images or role models. This article contends that the media do not often portray the diversity that is inherent within the Asian American culture and that such a paucity of Asian images may greatly affect perceptions Asian Americans may hold both of their own racial group and of the larger society. This article examines both media images of Asians and Asian Americans and autobiographical information from Asian American literature to illustrate the potentially detrimental effects of being a person of color in a society that emphasizes a monoracial standard of beauty. Information gleaned from first-hand accounts from Asian Americans often points to the media as a potent source of information as to how attractiveness is defined and measured. This article concludes with a discussion of some brief case examples and ethical imperatives for mental health workers in terms of both self-awareness and education as well as considerations for culturally sensitive therapy.

  8. Little girls in a grown up world: Exposure to sexualized media, internalization of sexualization messages, and body image in 6-9 year-old girls.

    Slater, Amy; Tiggemann, Marika

    2016-09-01

    Despite widespread public concern about the early sexualization of young girls, as yet there has been little empirical examination of potential negative effects. In the present study a sample of 300 6-9 year-old girls completed individual interviews assessing exposure to sexualized media, internalization of sexualized messages (measured via preference for sexualized clothing), and body image attitudes (body esteem, body dissatisfaction). Exposure to sexualized media was found to be correlated with internalization of sexualization messages, itself correlated with negative body image. The findings provide preliminary evidence that sexualized messages appear to be internalized by very young girls which, in turn, has negative implications for how they feel about their bodies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Erasing the Scarlet Letter: How Positive Media Messages about Sex Can Lead to Better Sexual Health among College Men and Women

    Johnson, Erika K.

    2017-01-01

    This study explores how positive media messages about sex can lead to better sexual health among young adults (college students at a large university, N = 228) by de-emphasizing sensation seeking, condom embarrassment, and stigma. Employing social learning theory and normative influence frameworks, the research found that college-age women had…

  10. Medical messages in the media – barriers and solutions to improving medical journalism

    Larsson, Anna; Oxman, Andrew D; Carling, Cheryl; Herrin, Jeph

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Context  Medical issues are widely reported in the mass media. These reports influence the general public, policy makers and health‐care professionals. This information should be valid, but is often criticized for being speculative, inaccurate and misleading. An understanding of the obstacles medical reporters meet in their work can guide strategies for improving the informative value of medical journalism. Objective  To investigate constraints on improving the informative value of medical reports in the mass media and elucidate possible strategies for addressing these. Design  We reviewed the literature and organized focus groups, a survey of medical journalists in 37 countries, and semi‐structured telephone interviews. Results  We identified nine barriers to improving the informative value of medical journalism: lack of time, space and knowledge; competition for space and audience; difficulties with terminology; problems finding and using sources; problems with editors and commercialism. Lack of time, space and knowledge were the most common obstacles. The importance of different obstacles varied with the type of media and experience. Many health reporters feel that it is difficult to find independent experts willing to assist journalists, and also think that editors need more education in critical appraisal of medical news. Almost all of the respondents agreed that the informative value of their reporting is important. Nearly everyone wanted access to short, reliable and up‐to‐date background information on various topics available on the Internet. A majority (79%) was interested in participating in a trial to evaluate strategies to overcome identified constraints. Conclusion  Medical journalists agree that the validity of medical reporting in the mass media is important. A majority acknowledge many constraints. Mutual efforts of health‐care professionals and journalists employing a variety of strategies will be needed to address

  11. Medium Moderates the Message. How Users Adjust Their Communication Trajectories to Different Media in Collaborative Task Solving.

    Karolina Lisiecka

    Full Text Available Rapid development of information and communications technologies (ICT has triggered profound changes in how people manage their social contacts in both informal and professional contexts. ICT mediated communication may seem limited in possibilities compared to face-to-face encounters, but research shows that puzzlingly often it can be just as effective and satisfactory. We posit that ICT users employ specific communication strategies adapted to particular communication channels, which results in a comparable effectiveness of communication. In order to maintain a satisfactory level of conversational intelligibility they calibrate the content of their messages to a given medium's richness and adjust the whole conversation trajectory so that every stage of the communication process runs fluently. In the current study, we compared complex task solving trajectories in chat, mobile phone and face-to-face dyadic conversations. Media conditions did not influence the quality of decision outcomes or users' perceptions of the interaction, but they had impact on the amount of time devoted to each of the identified phases of decision development. In face-to-face contacts the evaluation stage of the discussion dominated the conversation; in the texting condition the orientation-evaluation-control phases were evenly distributed; and the phone condition provided a midpoint between these two extremes. The results show that contemporary ICT users adjust their communication behavior to the limitations and opportunities of various media through the regulation of attention directed to each stage of the discussion so that as a whole the communication process remains effective.

  12. Medium Moderates the Message. How Users Adjust Their Communication Trajectories to Different Media in Collaborative Task Solving.

    Lisiecka, Karolina; Rychwalska, Agnieszka; Samson, Katarzyna; Łucznik, Klara; Ziembowicz, Michał; Szóstek, Agnieszka; Nowak, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Rapid development of information and communications technologies (ICT) has triggered profound changes in how people manage their social contacts in both informal and professional contexts. ICT mediated communication may seem limited in possibilities compared to face-to-face encounters, but research shows that puzzlingly often it can be just as effective and satisfactory. We posit that ICT users employ specific communication strategies adapted to particular communication channels, which results in a comparable effectiveness of communication. In order to maintain a satisfactory level of conversational intelligibility they calibrate the content of their messages to a given medium's richness and adjust the whole conversation trajectory so that every stage of the communication process runs fluently. In the current study, we compared complex task solving trajectories in chat, mobile phone and face-to-face dyadic conversations. Media conditions did not influence the quality of decision outcomes or users' perceptions of the interaction, but they had impact on the amount of time devoted to each of the identified phases of decision development. In face-to-face contacts the evaluation stage of the discussion dominated the conversation; in the texting condition the orientation-evaluation-control phases were evenly distributed; and the phone condition provided a midpoint between these two extremes. The results show that contemporary ICT users adjust their communication behavior to the limitations and opportunities of various media through the regulation of attention directed to each stage of the discussion so that as a whole the communication process remains effective.

  13. Medium Moderates the Message. How Users Adjust Their Communication Trajectories to Different Media in Collaborative Task Solving

    Rychwalska, Agnieszka; Samson, Katarzyna; Łucznik, Klara; Ziembowicz, Michał; Szóstek, Agnieszka; Nowak, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Rapid development of information and communications technologies (ICT) has triggered profound changes in how people manage their social contacts in both informal and professional contexts. ICT mediated communication may seem limited in possibilities compared to face-to-face encounters, but research shows that puzzlingly often it can be just as effective and satisfactory. We posit that ICT users employ specific communication strategies adapted to particular communication channels, which results in a comparable effectiveness of communication. In order to maintain a satisfactory level of conversational intelligibility they calibrate the content of their messages to a given medium’s richness and adjust the whole conversation trajectory so that every stage of the communication process runs fluently. In the current study, we compared complex task solving trajectories in chat, mobile phone and face-to-face dyadic conversations. Media conditions did not influence the quality of decision outcomes or users’ perceptions of the interaction, but they had impact on the amount of time devoted to each of the identified phases of decision development. In face-to-face contacts the evaluation stage of the discussion dominated the conversation; in the texting condition the orientation-evaluation-control phases were evenly distributed; and the phone condition provided a midpoint between these two extremes. The results show that contemporary ICT users adjust their communication behavior to the limitations and opportunities of various media through the regulation of attention directed to each stage of the discussion so that as a whole the communication process remains effective. PMID:27337037

  14. But We're Not Like the People on TV: A Qualitative Examination of How Media Messages are Perceived by Pregnant and Parenting Youth.

    Harrison, Megan E; Clarkin, Chantalle; Worth, Kerry; Norris, Mark L; Rohde, Kristina

    2016-03-01

    The media has long been established as influential in the formation of youth attitudes. It remains unknown, however, whether popular media depictions of teenage pregnancy and motherhood shape the meanings pregnant and parenting youth (PPY) construct. This study explored PPY's perceptions of media messages portraying PPY. Five focus groups were conducted at three urban centres that service pregnant youth and young parents. Convenience sample of 26 participants was recruited across sites. Focus groups were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed thematically. Participants were a mean age of 18.7 years. Participants felt that the storylines in television reality programs featuring PPY were highly incongruent with their lived experiences and that these representations glamorized teenage pregnancy while failing to capture other realities, such as financial hardship. Further, it was felt that such representations informed public opinion and created a double standard for teen parents. Participants felt that healthcare providers were not immune to media messaging; some participants reported withdrawing socially and others delayed accessing health services because of what they perceived as negative media-fuelled public views. This study highlights the need for heightened awareness of the influence of popular media on the portrayal of PPY. Acknowledging and challenging stereotypes of teen pregnancy, as well as initiating dialogue with youth about the impact media has on their lives should be encouraged as a means of facilitating ongoing engagement with health care services.

  15. 'He left me a message on Facebook': comparing the risk profiles of self-harming patients who leave paper suicide notes with those who leave messages on new media.

    Barrett, Jessica R; Shetty, Hitesh; Broadbent, Matthew; Cross, Sean; Hotopf, Matthew; Stewart, Robert; Lee, William

    2016-05-01

    In cases of non-fatal self-harm, suicide notes are a major risk factor for repeated self-harm and suicide. Suicide notes can now be left on new media services, emails or text messages, as well as on paper. In a group of people who had harmed themselves, we aimed to compare new media note-leavers with paper note-leavers and characterise these groups demographically and by risk factors. Clinical notes of patients who presented with non-fatal self-harm to two London emergency departments were anonymously searched for mentions of new media use. These were categorised and risk factors were compared for those who had left a new media note, a paper note, or no note to establish differences in risk of note-leaving. New media note-leaving was associated with younger age and substance use; both risk factors for repeated self-harm. However, suicidal intent remained highest in paper note-leavers. Paper note-leavers remain at greatest risk, however new media note leaving is still correlated with risk factors related to repeated self-harm and suicide. Clinicians should enquire about new media use during emergency department assessments of self-harm. None. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence.

  16. Social Media Impact of the Food and Drug Administration's Drug Safety Communication Messaging About Zolpidem: Mixed-Methods Analysis.

    Sinha, Michael S; Freifeld, Clark C; Brownstein, John S; Donneyong, Macarius M; Rausch, Paula; Lappin, Brian M; Zhou, Esther H; Dal Pan, Gerald J; Pawar, Ajinkya M; Hwang, Thomas J; Avorn, Jerry; Kesselheim, Aaron S

    2018-01-05

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issues drug safety communications (DSCs) to health care professionals, patients, and the public when safety issues emerge related to FDA-approved drug products. These safety messages are disseminated through social media to ensure broad uptake. The objective of this study was to assess the social media dissemination of 2 DSCs released in 2013 for the sleep aid zolpidem. We used the MedWatcher Social program and the DataSift historic query tool to aggregate Twitter and Facebook posts from October 1, 2012 through August 31, 2013, a period beginning approximately 3 months before the first DSC and ending 3 months after the second. Posts were categorized as (1) junk, (2) mention, and (3) adverse event (AE) based on a score between -0.2 (completely unrelated) to 1 (perfectly related). We also looked at Google Trends data and Wikipedia edits for the same time period. Google Trends search volume is scaled on a range of 0 to 100 and includes "Related queries" during the relevant time periods. An interrupted time series (ITS) analysis assessed the impact of DSCs on the counts of posts with specific mention of zolpidem-containing products. Chow tests for known structural breaks were conducted on data from Twitter, Facebook, and Google Trends. Finally, Wikipedia edits were pulled from the website's editorial history, which lists all revisions to a given page and the editor's identity. In total, 174,286 Twitter posts and 59,641 Facebook posts met entry criteria. Of those, 16.63% (28,989/174,286) of Twitter posts and 25.91% (15,453/59,641) of Facebook posts were labeled as junk and excluded. AEs and mentions represented 9.21% (16,051/174,286) and 74.16% (129,246/174,286) of Twitter posts and 5.11% (3,050/59,641) and 68.98% (41,138/59,641) of Facebook posts, respectively. Total daily counts of posts about zolpidem-containing products increased on Twitter and Facebook on the day of the first DSC; Google searches increased on the week of the

  17. Pleasing the masses: messages for daily life management in African American women's popular media sources.

    Black, Angela Rose; Peacock, Nadine

    2011-01-01

    Using African American women's insights on their own health experiences, we explored how their daily life management was linked to the "strong Black woman" (SBW) script, and the health implications of that script. Using the search term "strong Black woman," we identified 20 articles from African American women's magazines and 10 blog sites linked to the SBW script and analyzed their content. We created thematic categories (role management, coping, and self-care) and extracted issues relevant to African American women's health. Adherence to the SBW script was linked to women's daily life management and health experiences. Themes such as self-sacrificial role management ("please the masses"), emotional suppression ("game face"), and postponement of self-care ("last on the list") incited internal distress and evinced negative health consequences. Scientists, activists, and health care professionals would be aided in forming initiatives aimed at reducing health disparities among African American women by heeding the insights on their health experiences that they express in popular media sources.

  18. Australian print news media coverage of sweet, non-alcoholic drinks sends mixed health messages.

    Bonfiglioli, Catriona; Hattersley, Libby; King, Lesley

    2011-08-01

    This study aimed to analyse the contribution of Australian print news coverage to the public profile of sweet, non-alcoholic beverages. News media portrayal of health contributes to individuals' decision-making. The focus on sugar-sweetened beverages reflects their contribution to excessive energy intake. One year's coverage of sweet, non-alcoholic beverages by major Australian newspapers was analysed using content and frame analysis. Research questions addressed which sweet drinks are most prominently covered, what makes sweet drinks newsworthy and how are the health aspects of sweet drinks framed? Fruit juice was the most widely covered sweet drink, closely followed by carbonated, sugar-sweetened soft drinks. Overall coverage was positively oriented towards sweet drinks, with fruit juice primarily portrayed as having health benefits. Some coverage mentioned risks of sweet drinks, such as obesity, tooth decay, metabolic syndrome and heart attack. Sweet drinks often enjoy positive coverage, with their health benefits and harms central to their ability to attract journalists' attention. However, the mix of coverage may be contributing to consumer confusion about whether it is safe and/or healthy to consume sweet non-alcoholic drinks. Framing of sweet drinks as healthy may undermine efforts to encourage individuals to avoid excess consumption of energy-dense drinks which offer few or minimal health benefits. © 2011 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2011 Public Health Association of Australia.

  19. Between school, family and media: do the children carry energy-saving messages and practices?

    Bartiaux, Francoise (Inst. of Demography, Univ. Catholique de Louvain (Belgium)). e.mail: francoise.bartiaux@uclouvain.be

    2009-07-01

    Today, children are the focus of communication and sensitisation measures to increase their environmental concern and their energy saving behaviours. This paper aims at exploring whether, with whom and how children may be actors relative to these environment and energy issues. In particular, this paper identifies the sources of information and influence of the children and shows whether the children influence other actors, especially their family, to save energy in their daily life. This paper is based on a qualitative research that has been realised in French-speaking Belgium in 2007-2008; data were gathered in 13 families whose elder child is 10 or 11 years old. In-depth interviews were realised with at least this child (and sometimes with younger brother(s) and/or sister(s) too) and one parent. Topics covered included energy-related practices and knowledge of the children as well as the network of actors surrounding them. Results indicate that the child is neither powerful nor passive, nor a trustful carrier of energy-related 'good' practices. The necessary conditions for the child being such a good carrier are shed into light and depend on the relations within and between the different organisations the child belongs to (family, school, pairs) or has access to (media, Internet).

  20. Using Culturally Sensitive Media Messages to Reduce HIV-associated Sexual Behavior in High-risk African-American Adolescents: Results from a Randomized Trial

    Sznitman, Sharon; Vanable, Peter A.; Carey, Michael P.; Hennessy, Michael; Brown, Larry K.; Valois, Robert F.; Stanton, Bonita F.; Salazar, Laura F.; DiClemente, Ralph; Farber, Naomi; Romer, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To test the long-term effects of a mass media intervention that used culturally and developmentally appropriate messages to enhance HIV-preventive beliefs and behavior of high-risk African-American adolescents. Methods Television and radio messages were delivered over three years in two cities (Syracuse, NY and Macon, GA) that were randomly selected within each of two regionally matched city pairs with the other cities (Providence, RI and Columbia, SC) serving as controls. African American adolescents ages 14 to 17 (N = 1710), recruited in the four cities over a 16-month period, completed audio computer-assisted self-interviews at recruitment and again at 3, 6, 12 and 18-months post-recruitment to assess the long-term effects of the media program. To identify the unique effects of the media intervention, youth who completed at least one follow-up and who did not test positive for any of three sexually transmitted infections at recruitment or at 6 and 12-month follow-up were retained for analysis (N=1346). Results The media intervention reached virtually all of the adolescents in the trial and produced a range of effects including improved normative condom-use negotiation expectancies and increased sex refusal self-efficacy. Most importantly, older adolescents (ages 16-17) exposed to the media program exhibited a less risky age trajectory of unprotected sex than those in the non-media cities. Conclusions Culturally tailored mass media messages delivered consistently over time have the potential to reach a large audience of high-risk adolescents, to support changes in HIV-preventive beliefs, and to reduce HIV-associated risk behaviors among older youth. PMID:21856515

  1. Mixed messages: An evaluation of NHS Trust Social Media policies in the North West of England

    Scragg, B.; Shaikh, S.; Robinson, L.; Mercer, C.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Despite National Health Service (NHS) information strategy promoting the use of Social Media (SoMe) to encourage greater engagement between service users and providers, a team investigating online SoMe interaction between breast screening practitioners and clients found that practitioners alleged discouragement from employers' policies. This study aimed to investigate whether this barrier was genuine, and illuminate whether local policy differed from national strategy. Method: The study used a qualitative grounded theory approach to generate a theory. Nine policies from the North West of England were analysed. A framework was derived from the data, and an analysis of policy tone followed by a detailed coding of policy content was undertaken. Comparative analysis continued by reviewing the literature, and a condensed framework revealed five broad categories that policies addressed. Results: The analysis revealed the policies varied in content, but not in tone, which was mostly discouraging. Coding the content revealed that the most frequently addressed point was that of protecting the employers' reputation, and after further analysis, the resultant condensed framework showed that policies were imbalanced and heavily skewed towards Security, Conduct & Behaviour and Reputation. Conclusion: Practitioners within breast screening services are discouraged by overly prohibitive and prescriptive SoMe policies; with these varying tremendously in comprehensiveness, but with a narrow focus on security and employers reputation; in contrast with national strategy. Recommendations are that policy revision is undertaken with consultation by more than one stakeholder, and SoMe training is offered for all members of NHS staff. - Highlights: • Practitioners are discouraged from using SoMe by employers' policies. • This is at odds with national strategy of engagement with all stakeholders. • Policies are skewed towards protecting reputation and

  2. Mixed messages: An evaluation of NHS Trust Social Media policies in the North West of England.

    Scragg, B; Shaikh, S; Robinson, L; Mercer, C

    2017-08-01

    Despite National Health Service (NHS) information strategy promoting the use of Social Media (SoMe) to encourage greater engagement between service users and providers, a team investigating online SoMe interaction between breast screening practitioners and clients found that practitioners alleged discouragement from employers' policies. This study aimed to investigate whether this barrier was genuine, and illuminate whether local policy differed from national strategy. The study used a qualitative grounded theory approach to generate a theory. Nine policies from the North West of England were analysed. A framework was derived from the data, and an analysis of policy tone followed by a detailed coding of policy content was undertaken. Comparative analysis continued by reviewing the literature, and a condensed framework revealed five broad categories that policies addressed. The analysis revealed the policies varied in content, but not in tone, which was mostly discouraging. Coding the content revealed that the most frequently addressed point was that of protecting the employers' reputation, and after further analysis, the resultant condensed framework showed that policies were imbalanced and heavily skewed towards Security, Conduct & Behaviour and Reputation. Practitioners within breast screening services are discouraged by overly prohibitive and prescriptive SoMe policies; with these varying tremendously in comprehensiveness, but with a narrow focus on security and employers reputation; in contrast with national strategy. Recommendations are that policy revision is undertaken with consultation by more than one stakeholder, and SoMe training is offered for all members of NHS staff. Copyright © 2017 The College of Radiographers. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The impact of health education transmitted via social media or text messaging on adolescent and young adult risky sexual behavior: a systematic review of the literature.

    Jones, Krista; Eathington, Patricia; Baldwin, Kathleen; Sipsma, Heather

    2014-07-01

    Despite the increased use of social media and text messaging among adolescents, it is unclear how effective education transmitted via these mechanisms is for reducing sexual risk behavior. Accordingly, we conducted a systematic review of the literature to examine the effectiveness of social media and text messaging interventions designed to increase sexually transmitted disease (STD) knowledge, increase screening/testing, decrease risky sexual behaviors, and reduce the incidence of STDs among young adults aged 15 through 24 years. Eleven studies met our inclusion criteria. Most of the included studies used a control group to explore intervention effects and included both young men and women. Sample sizes ranged from 32 to 7606 participants, and follow-up periods ranged between 4 weeks and 12 months. These studies provide preliminary evidence indicating that social media and text messaging can increase knowledge regarding the prevention of STDs. These interventions may also affect behavior, such as screening/testing for STDs, sexual risk behaviors, and STD acquisition, but the evidence for effect is weak. Many of these studies had several limitations that future research should address, including a reliance on self-reported data, small sample sizes, poor retention, low generalizability, and low analytic rigor. Additional research is needed to determine the most effective and engaging approaches for young men and women.

  4. Parental mediation of media messages does matter: more interaction about objectionable content is associated with emerging adults' sexual attitudes and behaviors.

    Radanielina-Hita, Marie Louise

    2015-01-01

    An online survey of undergraduates explored the effects of recalled parent-child interaction regarding media on their critical thinking skills, beliefs about alcohol and sex, and current reports of attitudes and risky sexual behaviors. Students from a northwestern university completed the questionnaire three times during the fall of 2011. Effective parental mediation was found to be a protective factor against the negative effects of objectionable content on sexual attitudes and behaviors through its effect on critical thinking toward media content and expectancies. Participants whose parents critiqued media portrayals reported a higher level of critical thinking. More critical orientation toward media decreased the effects of objectionable content on expectancies and sexual behaviors. On the other hand, participants whose parents endorsed media portrayals reported lower levels of critical thinking. Developing critical thinking toward media is an effective approach to helping young people make good decisions about their health. Although viewers' understanding of media content may be biased by the emotional aspect of decision making, critical thinking was shown to decrease the appeal of mediated messages on behaviors. Parents play an important role in developing children's critical thinking skills, and those who mediate their children's media use can establish behaviors that will prove beneficial to their children later in life.

  5. Media and Persuasive Messages.

    Simonson, Michael R.

    1984-01-01

    Discussion of attitude change through mediated instruction and how attitudes are related to learning is followed by guidelines for the use of six categories of persuasion techniques by instructional designers. Summaries of research findings on the effectiveness of each technique in mediated instruction are included. (MBR)

  6. Physical interpretation of the fringe shift measured on Michelson interferometer in optical media

    Demjanov, V.V.

    2010-01-01

    The shift of the interference fringe in the Michelson interferometer is absent in vacuum but present in measurements performed in dielectric media with the refractive index greater than unity. This experimental observation induced me to interpret physical processes occurred in the Michelson interferometer in a conceptually new way. I rejected the generally accepted additive rule c±v for composition of the velocity v of the inertial body and the speed c of light as inapplicable in principle to non-inertial objects which electromagnetic waves just belong to. I used instead the non-relativistic formula of Fresnel for drag of light by a moving optical medium. This formula, and taking into account the physical effect of Lorentz contraction of the arm of interferometer, enabled me to construct the theoretical model that reproduces in essential features the parabolic dependence of the shift of the interference fringe on the dielectric permittivity of the light-carrying material. The Earth's speed relative to aether found from the experimental curve was estimated as 140-480 km/s. The range of the values refers to the projection of the speed on the horizontal plane of the experimental setup measured at various time of day and night.

  7. How Peer Conversations About HIV/AIDS Media Messages Affect Comprehension and Beliefs of Young South African Women.

    Lubinga, Elizabeth; Maes, A.; Jansen, C. J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Most existent research on the effects of interpersonal discussions about health campaign messages is based on surveys. In this study, we analysed actual conversations about an HIV/AIDS poster to find out possible effects. Young South African women in 59 dyads (n = 118) participated in conversations

  8. Repeated exposure to media messages encouraging parent-child communication about sex: differential trajectories for mothers and fathers.

    Blitstein, Jonathan L; Evans, W Douglas; Davis, Kevin C; Kamyab, Kian

    2012-01-01

    To examine changes in parent-child communication related to sexual behavior after exposure to public health messages. Randomized, controlled trial that was part of precampaign message testing. Exposure occurred online or through DVDs mailed to participants and viewed on their personal computers. Data collection occurred via a secure Web site. Participants included parents (n  =  1969) living with a child age 10 to 14 years drawn from a nationally representative sample of U.S. households. Treatment participants were exposed to video, audio, and print advertisements that promoted the benefits of speaking to their children early and often about delaying initiation of sexual activity; messages also directed parents to an informational Web site. The dependent variable assessed frequency of parent-child communication related to sexual behavior. The primary independent variable was treatment assignment. Longitudinal growth modeling that included five waves of data. The trajectory of growth over time differed between fathers in the treatment group and fathers in the control group (F[1, 2357]  =  4.15; p groups. This study demonstrates that father-child and mother-child communication patterns differ over time in response to public health messages. Findings have implication for researchers developing health marketing campaigns.

  9. Ugandan Adolescents' Sources, Interpretation and Evaluation of Sexual Content in Entertainment Media Programming

    Miller, Ann Neville; Nalugya, Evangeline; Gabolya, Charles; Lagot, Sarah; Mulwanya, Richard; Kiva, Joseph; Nabasaaka, Grace; Chibita, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Although mounting evidence in Western nations indicates that entertainment media influence young people's sexual socialisation, virtually no research has addressed the topic in sub-Saharan Africa. The present study employed 14 focus groups of Ugandan high school students to identify media through which they were exposed to sexual content, how they…

  10. Is the medium the message? Perceptions of and reactions to crisis communication on twitter, blogs and traditional media

    Schultz, F.; Utz, S.; Göritz, A.

    2011-01-01

    Value changes and the rapid emergence of media innovations (internet, social web) in society lead to an institutionalization of crisis communication, in which especially new media play a crucial role. The key contributions of the paper include deepening and refocusing the theoretical foundations of

  11. Interpreting the enigma of media-evangelist Joel Osteen: an analysis of his contexts, expressive theology and media use

    Haire Jr., Earle Ross

    2017-01-01

    This thesis provides an analysis of one of the leading twenty-first century media-evangelists: Joel Osteen. His popularity is worldwide and has only increased over his seventeen years of ministry. His preaching and teachings enjoy sustained popularity resulting in book sales, internet downloads, radio listenership and television viewership in the millions. He has also created arguably the largest interracial congregation in the United States, boasting around 50,000 members, the...

  12. Innovations and Reproduction in Second Language (L2 New Media: A Discursive- Semiotic Study of Selected SMS Text Messages in Nigeria

    Tunde Opeibi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the turn of the new millennium, the new media has continued to alter the communication configuration in modern societies. The social media tools have been influencing the way we interact and communicate. These wireless networks have confirmed that our world has indeed become a global village by creating a superhighway for communication possibilities never witnessed in human history. While scholars  have explored the roles of  some of the new media platforms e.g. Facebook  blogging, and twitter for private and public discourses(e.g., Taiwo, 2010; Presley, 2010, 2012,  previous studies in the use of SMS in Nigeria have concentrated more on sociolinguistic, lexical, or morpho-syntactic  features of text messages (e.g., Awonusi, 2004; Chiluwa, 2010. The present study, however, considers aspects of the new media discourse strategies as resources in a second language setting that demonstrate users’ bilingual creativity. It adopts a discursive-semiotic approach in its analytical paradigm to examine how participants, sharing the mobile protocols, deploy linguistic and non-linguistic facilities as well as contextual resources to create relationship and to enact meaning. The approaches of Discourse Analysis (DA and Semiotics (Schiffrin, 1994; Chandler, 2001 as well as insight from Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC, and Computer-Mediated Discourse Analysis (CMDA(Herring 2001, 2004;  O’Riley, 2005;  Herring, 2007 provide the theoretical underpinning for this study.  CMC and CMDA, for instance, have been used as tool kits to study and   to explain how the new media technologies influence the strategies with which language users within a given virtual sphere engage a wide range of audience through the virtual protocols. The study finds that the use of text messages has opened up creative ways of deploying the resources of a non-native language (English among bilinguals in Nigeria. The outcome of this innovative and reproduction process

  13. Boys to Men: Entertainment Media. Messages about Masculinity: A National Poll of Children, Focus Groups, and Content Analysis of Entertainment Media.

    Heintz-Knowles, Katharine; Li-Vollmer, Meredith; Chen, Perry; Harris, Tarana; Haufler, Adrienne; Lapp, Joan; Miller, Patti

    Boys are especially active users of media, and researchers have suggested that the cumulative impact of media, such as television, movies, and music videos, may make them some of the most influential forces in boys' lives. This report presents the findings of a national poll of 1,200 young people (ages 10 to 17) and focus groups in which boys…

  14. Popular Mobilization Messaging

    James Garrison

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This Research Paper examines the Iraqi Popular Mobilization Unit’s (PMU messaging on the organisation’s website and social media platforms through early January 2017 to develop a more nuanced understanding of the PMU’s outlook, both present and future. After providing an overview of the PMU’s media presence online, the paper discusses how the organisation promotes its core narrative: that it is a cross-confessional and patriotic force for the defence of all Iraqis against a brutal and evil IS. The paper then addresses the PMU’s use of messaging to refute the sectarian portrayal of the organisation in some quarters before turning to the way the PMU approaches regional and international states in its media. Finally, the paper summarises the PMU’s messaging strategy and discusses how this strategy implies a less threatening future for the organisation than is often anticipated.

  15. Wanna know about vaping? Patterns of message exposure, seeking and sharing information about e-cigarettes across media platforms

    Emery, Sherry L; Vera, Lisa; Huang, Jidong; Szczypka, Glen

    2014-01-01

    Background Awareness and use of electronic cigarettes has rapidly grown in the USA recently, in step with increased product marketing. Using responses to a population survey of US adults, we analysed demographic patterns of exposure to, searching for and sharing of e-cigarette-related information across media platforms. Methods An online survey of 17 522 US adults was conducted in 2013. The nationally representative sample was drawn from GfK Group's KnowledgePanel plus off-panel recruitment. Fixed effects logit models were applied to analyse relationships between exposure to, searching for and sharing of e-cigarette-related information and demographic characteristics, e-cigarette and tobacco use, and media behaviours. Results High levels of awareness about e-cigarettes were indicated (86% aware; 47% heard through media channels). Exposure to e-cigarette-related information was associated with tobacco use, age, gender, more education, social media use and time spent online. Although relatively small proportions of the sample had searched for (∼5%) or shared (∼2%) e-cigarette information, our analyses indicated demographic patterns to those behaviours. Gender, high income and using social media were associated with searching for e-cigarette information; lesbian, gay and bisexual and less education were associated with sharing. Current tobacco use, age, being Hispanic and time spent online were associated with both searching and sharing. Conclusions US adults are widely exposed to e-cigarette marketing through the media; such marketing may differentially target specific demographic groups. Further research should longitudinally examine how exposure to, searching for and sharing of e-cigarette information relate to subsequent use of e-cigarettes and/or combustible tobacco. PMID:24935893

  16. Wanna know about vaping? Patterns of message exposure, seeking and sharing information about e-cigarettes across media platforms.

    Emery, Sherry L; Vera, Lisa; Huang, Jidong; Szczypka, Glen

    2014-07-01

    Awareness and use of electronic cigarettes has rapidly grown in the USA recently, in step with increased product marketing. Using responses to a population survey of US adults, we analysed demographic patterns of exposure to, searching for and sharing of e-cigarette-related information across media platforms. An online survey of 17,522 US adults was conducted in 2013. The nationally representative sample was drawn from GfK Group's KnowledgePanel plus off-panel recruitment. Fixed effects logit models were applied to analyse relationships between exposure to, searching for and sharing of e-cigarette-related information and demographic characteristics, e-cigarette and tobacco use, and media behaviours. High levels of awareness about e-cigarettes were indicated (86% aware; 47% heard through media channels). Exposure to e-cigarette-related information was associated with tobacco use, age, gender, more education, social media use and time spent online. Although relatively small proportions of the sample had searched for (∼5%) or shared (∼2%) e-cigarette information, our analyses indicated demographic patterns to those behaviours. Gender, high income and using social media were associated with searching for e-cigarette information; lesbian, gay and bisexual and less education were associated with sharing. Current tobacco use, age, being Hispanic and time spent online were associated with both searching and sharing. US adults are widely exposed to e-cigarette marketing through the media; such marketing may differentially target specific demographic groups. Further research should longitudinally examine how exposure to, searching for and sharing of e-cigarette information relate to subsequent use of e-cigarettes and/or combustible tobacco. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Filtering Entities to Optimize Identification of Adverse Drug Reaction From Social Media: How Can the Number of Words Between Entities in the Messages Help?

    Abdellaoui, Redhouane; Schück, Stéphane; Texier, Nathalie; Burgun, Anita

    2017-06-22

    With the increasing popularity of Web 2.0 applications, social media has made it possible for individuals to post messages on adverse drug reactions. In such online conversations, patients discuss their symptoms, medical history, and diseases. These disorders may correspond to adverse drug reactions (ADRs) or any other medical condition. Therefore, methods must be developed to distinguish between false positives and true ADR declarations. The aim of this study was to investigate a method for filtering out disorder terms that did not correspond to adverse events by using the distance (as number of words) between the drug term and the disorder or symptom term in the post. We hypothesized that the shorter the distance between the disorder name and the drug, the higher the probability to be an ADR. We analyzed a corpus of 648 messages corresponding to a total of 1654 (drug and disorder) pairs from 5 French forums using Gaussian mixture models and an expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm . The distribution of the distances between the drug term and the disorder term enabled the filtering of 50.03% (733/1465) of the disorders that were not ADRs. Our filtering strategy achieved a precision of 95.8% and a recall of 50.0%. This study suggests that such distance between terms can be used for identifying false positives, thereby improving ADR detection in social media. ©Redhouane Abdellaoui, Stéphane Schück, Nathalie Texier, Anita Burgun. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 22.06.2017.

  18. The Press and America: An Interpretative History of the Mass Media. 3rd Edition.

    Emery, Edwin

    This book presents a history of journalism in the United States. The opening chapters discuss the European roots of American journalism and cover the time-span ending with the Civil War; the primary concern is an exposition of the principles of the American press. The remaining chapters examine the mass media--newspapers, television, radio,…

  19. The Importance of Teaching Preservice Teachers To Interpret Media and Advertising.

    Hall, Katherine L.

    Preservice teachers must learn about the media's impact so that they can educate their future students on how to become more savvy consumers and understand the negative effects of advertising. Students in every grade level can learn not to believe everything they read and see. Because teenagers hang out at malls, malls tend to capitalize on…

  20. Secular variation of the amount of nuclear information and its interpretation by a media-public interaction model

    Ohnishi, Teruaki

    1998-01-01

    Time dependent characteristics of the amount of nuclear information fed by the Japanese press are explained by a nonlinear model with mutual interaction between the media and the public. In the secular variation of that amount since the early 1950s, there appears semicyclicly oscillating fine structure of that amount with a period of several months superposed on a background having a feature of slowly varying wave of information with a period of around ten years. A model is proposed such that an individual media determines its reportorial stance using the response of the public to the preceding information and the general tendency of the other media as measures of judgement. Since the structure of this model resembles to that of an evolving ecosystem, the paradigm shift in nuclear information can be interpreted by analogy with the succession of facies in an ecological system. Moreover, the slowly time-varying waves of information associated with the paradigm shift is found to be grasped as a resultant of prevalence phenomenon if the nuclear paradigm is regarded as a sort of prevalence. The oscillation of the amount of information in a short time scale, on the other hand, is found to appear as a result of the competition between the extent of reflection of the present amount of information to the next information and the extent of reflection of the reportorial state of the other media also to the next information under the existence of public response. Those characteristics regarding the amount of nuclear information are found to come out as necessary consequences of the society with mutual stimulation between the media and the public. (author)

  1. "Telling our stories": Print media interpretations of Moscow lesbians' life stories in 2004 and 2005.

    Bingham, Natasha

    2017-01-02

    This article analyzes print media interviews of Moscow lesbians in Moskovsky Komsomolets in 2004 and 2005 using qualitative content analysis. The qualitative content analysis shows recurring and consistent themes: (1) the stereotypes lesbians face; (2) public negativity toward same-sex relations and the impact on their families; (3) the expectations of heterosexuality and all that that entails; (4) the existence of lesbian-only spaces in Russia and the importance of those spaces; and (5) the complexities of navigating motherhood, previous heterosexual relationships, and current partnerships. Analysis of print media representations of female same-sex sexuality in a period of economic prosperity, popular culture visibility, and before restrictive laws were passed that suppress homosexuality adds to the previous literature on lesbianism in Russia.

  2. The Opinion Function: Editorial and Interpretive Writing for the News Media.

    Hulteng, John L.

    This guide to editorial and interpretive writing focuses on generating ideas and developing editorials that are striking, lucid, and persuasive. It covers the devices of argumentation and effective writing, considers the fine points of technique and style, catalogues pitfalls common to new writers of opinion pieces, and discusses factors that…

  3. 1-D DC Resistivity Modeling and Interpretation in Anisotropic Media Using Particle Swarm Optimization

    Pekşen, Ertan; Yas, Türker; Kıyak, Alper

    2014-09-01

    We examine the one-dimensional direct current method in anisotropic earth formation. We derive an analytic expression of a simple, two-layered anisotropic earth model. Further, we also consider a horizontally layered anisotropic earth response with respect to the digital filter method, which yields a quasi-analytic solution over anisotropic media. These analytic and quasi-analytic solutions are useful tests for numerical codes. A two-dimensional finite difference earth model in anisotropic media is presented in order to generate a synthetic data set for a simple one-dimensional earth. Further, we propose a particle swarm optimization method for estimating the model parameters of a layered anisotropic earth model such as horizontal and vertical resistivities, and thickness. The particle swarm optimization is a naturally inspired meta-heuristic algorithm. The proposed method finds model parameters quite successfully based on synthetic and field data. However, adding 5 % Gaussian noise to the synthetic data increases the ambiguity of the value of the model parameters. For this reason, the results should be controlled by a number of statistical tests. In this study, we use probability density function within 95 % confidence interval, parameter variation of each iteration and frequency distribution of the model parameters to reduce the ambiguity. The result is promising and the proposed method can be used for evaluating one-dimensional direct current data in anisotropic media.

  4. E-Cigarette Social Media Messages: A Text Mining Analysis of Marketing and Consumer Conversations on Twitter

    Lazard, Allison J; Saffer, Adam J; Wilcox, Gary B; Chung, Arnold DongWoo; Mackert, Michael S; Bernhardt, Jay M

    2016-01-01

    Background As the use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) rises, social media likely influences public awareness and perception of this emerging tobacco product. Objective This study examined the public conversation on Twitter to determine overarching themes and insights for trending topics from commercial and consumer users. Methods Text mining uncovered key patterns and important topics for e-cigarettes on Twitter. SAS Text Miner 12.1 software (SAS Institute Inc) was used for descriptiv...

  5. Wanna know about vaping? Patterns of message exposure, seeking and sharing information about e-cigarettes across media platforms

    Emery, Sherry L; Vera, Lisa; Huang, Jidong; Szczypka, Glen

    2014-01-01

    Background Awareness and use of electronic cigarettes has rapidly grown in the USA recently, in step with increased product marketing. Using responses to a population survey of US adults, we analysed demographic patterns of exposure to, searching for and sharing of e-cigarette-related information across media platforms. Methods An online survey of 17 522 US adults was conducted in 2013. The nationally representative sample was drawn from GfK Group's KnowledgePanel plus off-panel recruitment. ...

  6. Getting the message out about cognitive health: a cross-cultural comparison of older adults' media awareness and communication needs on how to maintain a healthy brain.

    Friedman, Daniela B; Laditka, James N; Hunter, Rebecca; Ivey, Susan L; Wu, Bei; Laditka, Sarah B; Tseng, Winston; Corwin, Sara J; Liu, Rui; Mathews, Anna E

    2009-06-01

    Evidence suggests that physical activity and healthy diets may help to maintain cognitive function, reducing risks of developing Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Using a cross-cultural focus, we describe older adults' awareness about cognitive health, and their ideas about how to inform and motivate others to engage in activities that may maintain brain health. Nineteen focus groups were conducted in 3 states (California, North Carolina, South Carolina) with 177 adults aged 50 years and older. Six groups were with African Americans (AAs), 4 with Chinese, 3 with Vietnamese, 4 with non-Hispanic Whites, and 2 with American Indians (AIs). A qualitative thematic analysis was conducted. Many participants did not recall reading or hearing about brain health in the media. Participants recommended a multimedia approach to inform others about brain health. Both interpersonal and social/group motivational strategies were suggested. Word of mouth and testimonials were recommended most often by Chinese and Vietnamese. AAs and AIs suggested brain health education at church; AAs, Chinese, and Vietnamese said brain health slogans should be spiritual. Participants' perceived barriers to seeking brain health information included watching too much TV and confusing media information. Findings on communication strategies for reaching racial/ethnic groups with brain health information will help guide message and intervention development for diverse older adults.

  7. Getting Your Message Across: Mobile Phone Text Messaging

    Beecher, Constance C.; Hayungs, Lori

    2017-01-01

    Want to send a message that 99% of your audience will read? Many Extension professionals are familiar with using social media tools to enhance Extension programming. Extension professionals may be less familiar with the use of mobile phone text-based marketing tools. The purpose of this article is to introduce SMS (short message system) marketing…

  8. Assisted Interpretation of Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectra of Egg-Based Binding Media Using Total Emission Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    Anglos, D.; Nevin, A.

    2006-01-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy can provide nondestructive, qualitative analysis of protein-based binding media found in artworks. Fluorescence emissions from proteins in egg yolk and egg white are due to auto fluorescent aromatic amino acids as well as other native and age-related fluorophores, but the potential of fluorescence spectroscopy for the differentiation between binding media is dependent on the choice of a suitable excitation wavelength and limited by problems in interpretation. However, a better understanding of emission spectra associated with LIF can be achieved following comparisons with total emission fluorescence spectra where a series of consecutive emission spectra are recorded over a specific range. Results using nanosecond UV laser sources for LIF of egg-based binding media are presented which are rationalised following comparisons with total emission spectra. Specifically, fluorescence is assigned to tryptophan and oxidation products of amino acids; in the case of egg yolk, fatty-acid polymerisation and age-related degradation products account for the formation of fluorophores.

  9. Manufacturing consent?: Media messages in the mobilization against HIV/AIDS in India and lessons for health communication.

    Khan, Shamshad

    2014-01-01

    Despite repeated calls for a more critical and "culture-centered" approach to health communication, textual analysis of televised public service advertising (PSA) campaigns has been largely neglected, even by critical communication scholars. In the case of "developing" countries in particular, there is an acute shortage of such literature. On the other hand, following the outbreak of major public health diseases such as AIDS, most countries have adopted PSA campaigns as the most preferred means of communicating messages. Drawing on insights from cultural studies (especially Antonio Gramsci and Stuart Hall), this article engages in textual analysis of the televised PSA campaigns launched by the Indian state to prevent HIV/AIDS between 2002 and 2005. Through such analysis, it argues that although few diseases in Indian history have spurred such massive and creative efforts for mass mobilization as AIDS, these efforts, in terms of their ethical implications, have been far from emancipatory. In fact, they have constructed and perpetuated the logic of domination and control along class, gender, sexuality, and knowledge systems, often contradicting and potentially harming the very goal of HIV prevention and of health promotion and empowerment. This article also holds that assessing public health campaigns through textual analysis, a highly neglected tool in health communication, can shed important light on a far more complex and changing nature of the state and public policy, especially in the developing world, thereby opening up space for alternative theorizing for health communication and social change.

  10. Grounding in Instant Messaging

    Fox Tree, Jean E.; Mayer, Sarah A.; Betts, Teresa E.

    2011-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigated predictions of the "collaborative theory of language use" (Clark, 1996) as applied to instant messaging (IM). This theory describes how the presence and absence of different grounding constraints causes people to interact differently across different communicative media (Clark & Brennan, 1991). In Study 1, we…

  11. The message is the message-maker.

    Chalkley, A B

    1977-03-01

    For those engaged in family planning or other demographic work of an active kind, serious errors can be made and much money and skill wasted unless there is a clear idea of available means of communication. Literacy and media-diffusion figures offer vague parameters, especially in Asia, and the role of spoken communication -- considered key in "illiterate" societies -- is even more difficult to assess. For mass media, the starting point is "diffusion rates" representing numbers of TV sets owned or newspapers sold per 1000 population and so on -- measures of quantity. This article surveys the population growth rates, urban-rural distribution, educational levels, literacy rates, numbers of newspapers bought, radios and TVs owned (per 1000 population) for 12 Asian countries, and discusses their meaning in terms of media use. Chief among the points made are that print media still have an enormous role to play in the developing countries -- newspaper diffusion rates are quite high, even in countries with low urban population (especially India). The quality of electronic media (too often considered the natural "wave of the future" everywhere) varies but is generally not high. Where they are fully developed their role is vital -- but it might be noted that it is the message makers themselves who are most vital. Choosing the right medium and the proper message for it is essential.

  12. The impact of cessation media messages on cessation-related outcomes: results from a national experiment of smokers.

    Duke, Jennifer C; Nonnemaker, James M; Davis, Kevin C; Watson, Kimberly A; Farrelly, Matthew C

    2014-01-01

    Examine effects of exposure to two types of cessation advertisements on changes in cessation-related outcomes. Experimental data from a nationally representative, longitudinal sample of smokers, collected in three waves over 4 weeks. National. Subjects. Three thousand and two adult U.S. smokers aged 18+ completed baseline and follow-up interviews at 2 and 4 weeks, from December 2010 to February 2011. Six randomly assigned conditions consisting of repeated exposure to cessation advertisements: why-to-quit advertisements featuring emotional, personal testimonies (1: WTQ-T) or graphic images (2: WTQ-G); how-to-quit advertisements (3: HTQ), a combination of both (4: WTQ-T + HTQ; 5: WTQ-G + HTQ), and no-ad condition (6: control). Cessation-related beliefs, attitudes, intentions, and quitting behavior. Multivariable ordinary least squares and logistic regressions testing whether exposure to antitobacco television advertisements were associated with changes in tobacco-related outcomes. Exposure to WTQ-T or WTQ-G advertisements, both alone and combined with HTQ advertisements, elicited positive change in beliefs, attitudes, and intentions as compared to controls. Smokers in three of four WTQ conditions were substantially more likely to have quit smoking at 4 weeks than controls (odds ratios range from 5.9 to 10.1, p advertisements markedly increases the odds that a smoker will quit in the study period, suggesting positive movement toward successful, long-term cessation. HTQ advertisements did not enhance advertising effectiveness and may not be suitable as a primary message strategy.

  13. Developing antitobacco mass media campaign messages in a low-resource setting: experience from the Kingdom of Tonga.

    Sugden, C; Phongsavan, P; Gloede, S; Filiai, S; Tongamana, V O

    2017-05-01

    Tobacco use has become the leading cause of preventable death in Tonga, a small island nation in the South Pacific. One pragmatic and economical strategy to address this worrying trend is to adapt effective antitobacco mass media materials developed in high-income countries for local audiences. Using Tonga as an example, this paper shares the practical steps involved in adapting antitobacco campaign materials for local audiences with minimal resources, a limited budget and without the need for an external production team. The Tongan experience underscores the importance of an adaptation process that draws from evidence-based best-practice models and engages local and regional stakeholders to ensure that campaign materials are tailored to the local context and are embedded within a mix of antitobacco strategies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Developing antitobacco mass media campaign messages in a low-resource setting: experience from the Kingdom of Tonga

    Sugden, C; Phongsavan, P; Gloede, S; Filiai, S; Tongamana, V O

    2017-01-01

    Tobacco use has become the leading cause of preventable death in Tonga, a small island nation in the South Pacific. One pragmatic and economical strategy to address this worrying trend is to adapt effective antitobacco mass media materials developed in high-income countries for local audiences. Using Tonga as an example, this paper shares the practical steps involved in adapting antitobacco campaign materials for local audiences with minimal resources, a limited budget and without the need for an external production team. The Tongan experience underscores the importance of an adaptation process that draws from evidence-based best-practice models and engages local and regional stakeholders to ensure that campaign materials are tailored to the local context and are embedded within a mix of antitobacco strategies. PMID:26969171

  15. E-Cigarette Social Media Messages: A Text Mining Analysis of Marketing and Consumer Conversations on Twitter

    2016-01-01

    Background As the use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) rises, social media likely influences public awareness and perception of this emerging tobacco product. Objective This study examined the public conversation on Twitter to determine overarching themes and insights for trending topics from commercial and consumer users. Methods Text mining uncovered key patterns and important topics for e-cigarettes on Twitter. SAS Text Miner 12.1 software (SAS Institute Inc) was used for descriptive text mining to reveal the primary topics from tweets collected from March 24, 2015, to July 3, 2015, using a Python script in conjunction with Twitter’s streaming application programming interface. A total of 18 keywords related to e-cigarettes were used and resulted in a total of 872,544 tweets that were sorted into overarching themes through a text topic node for tweets (126,127) and retweets (114,451) that represented more than 1% of the conversation. Results While some of the final themes were marketing-focused, many topics represented diverse proponent and user conversations that included discussion of policies, personal experiences, and the differentiation of e-cigarettes from traditional tobacco, often by pointing to the lack of evidence for the harm or risks of e-cigarettes or taking the position that e-cigarettes should be promoted as smoking cessation devices. Conclusions These findings reveal that unique, large-scale public conversations are occurring on Twitter alongside e-cigarette advertising and promotion. Proponents and users are turning to social media to share knowledge, experience, and questions about e-cigarette use. Future research should focus on these unique conversations to understand how they influence attitudes towards and use of e-cigarettes. PMID:27956376

  16. E-Cigarette Social Media Messages: A Text Mining Analysis of Marketing and Consumer Conversations on Twitter.

    Lazard, Allison J; Saffer, Adam J; Wilcox, Gary B; Chung, Arnold DongWoo; Mackert, Michael S; Bernhardt, Jay M

    2016-12-12

    As the use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) rises, social media likely influences public awareness and perception of this emerging tobacco product. This study examined the public conversation on Twitter to determine overarching themes and insights for trending topics from commercial and consumer users. Text mining uncovered key patterns and important topics for e-cigarettes on Twitter. SAS Text Miner 12.1 software (SAS Institute Inc) was used for descriptive text mining to reveal the primary topics from tweets collected from March 24, 2015, to July 3, 2015, using a Python script in conjunction with Twitter's streaming application programming interface. A total of 18 keywords related to e-cigarettes were used and resulted in a total of 872,544 tweets that were sorted into overarching themes through a text topic node for tweets (126,127) and retweets (114,451) that represented more than 1% of the conversation. While some of the final themes were marketing-focused, many topics represented diverse proponent and user conversations that included discussion of policies, personal experiences, and the differentiation of e-cigarettes from traditional tobacco, often by pointing to the lack of evidence for the harm or risks of e-cigarettes or taking the position that e-cigarettes should be promoted as smoking cessation devices. These findings reveal that unique, large-scale public conversations are occurring on Twitter alongside e-cigarette advertising and promotion. Proponents and users are turning to social media to share knowledge, experience, and questions about e-cigarette use. Future research should focus on these unique conversations to understand how they influence attitudes towards and use of e-cigarettes. ©Allison J Lazard, Adam J Saffer, Gary B Wilcox, Arnold DongWoo Chung, Michael S Mackert, Jay M Bernhardt. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 12.12.2016.

  17. Media, messages, and medication: strategies to reconcile what patients hear, what they want, and what they need from medications.

    Kravitz, Richard L; Bell, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, patients' options for accessing information about prescription drugs have expanded dramatically. In this narrative review, we address four questions: (1) What information sources are patients exposed to, and are they paying attention? (2) Is the information they hear credible and accurate? (3) When patients ask for a prescription, what do they really want and need? Finally, (4) How can physicians reconcile what patients hear, want, and need? A critical synthesis of the literature is reported. Observations indicate that the public is generally aware of and attends to a growing body of health information resources, including traditional news media, advertising, and social networking. However, lay audiences often have no reliable way to assess the accuracy of health information found in the media, on the Internet, or in direct-to-consumer advertising. This inability to assess the information can lead to decision paralysis, with patients questioning what is known, what is knowable, and what their physicians know. Many patients have specific expectations for the care they wish to receive and have little difficulty making those expectations known. However, there are hazards in assuming that patients' expressed desires are direct reflections of their underlying wants or needs. In trying to reconcile patients' wants and needs for information about prescription medicines, a combination of policy and clinical initiatives may offer greater promise than either approach alone. Patients are bombarded by information about medicines. The problem is not a lack of information; rather, it is knowing what information to trust. Making sure patients get the medications they need and are prepared to take them safely requires a combination of policy and clinical interventions.

  18. On the interpretation of double-packer tests in heterogeneous porous media: Numerical simulations using the stochastic continuum analogue

    Follin, S.

    1992-12-01

    Flow in fractured crystalline (hard) rocks is of interest in Sweden for assessing the postclosure radiological safety of a deep repository for high-level nuclear waste. For simulation of flow and mass transport in the far field different porous media concepts are often used, whereas discrete fracture/channel network concepts are often used for near-field simulations. Due to lack of data, it is generally necessary to have resort to single-hole double-packer test data for the far-field simulations, i.e., test data on a small scale are regularized in order to fit a comparatively coarser numerical discretization, which is governed by various computational constraints. In the present study the Monte Carlo method is used to investigate the relationship between the transmissivity value interpreted and the corresponding radius of influence in conjunction with single-hole double-packer tests in heterogeneous formations. The numerical flow domain is treated as a two-dimensional heterogeneous porous medium with a spatially varying diffusivity on 3 m scale. The Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate the sensitivity to the correlation range of a spatially varying diffusivity field. In contradiction to what is tacitly assumed in stochastic subsurface hydrology, the results show that the lateral support scale (e.g., the radius of influence) of transmissivity measurements in heterogeneous porous media is a random variable, which is affected by both the hydraulic and statistical characteristics. If these results are general, the traditional methods for scaling-up, assuming a constant lateral scale of support and a multi normal distribution, may lead to an underestimation of the persistence and connectivity of transmissive zones, particularly in highly heterogeneous porous media

  19. Influencing the Message: The Role of Media Ownership on the Press Coverage of the 2015 Presidential Electoral Campaign in Nigeria

    Fatima Iyabo Abubakre

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the role of media ownership on the press coverage of the 2015 presidential election campaign in Nigeria. Using content analysis, the aim of the study was to identify the themes and examine the direction of the coverage of election campaign news items between the two main political parties in the country-Peoples’ Democratic Party (PDP and the All Progressives Congress (APC published in The Nation on one hand and the Nigerian Tribune on the other hand, between January 2015 and March 2015. Findings from the study indicate coverage replete with biases, although with some remarkable incidents of objectivity and balancing, and show that the two newspapers analysed in this study merely reflected the political leanings of their respective publishers. Este estudo se centra no papel da propriedade da mídia na cobertura jornalística das eleições presidenciais de 2015 na Nigéria. Por meio de análise de conteúdo, seu objetivo é identificar os temas e examinar os direcionamentos dos itens noticiosos relacionados à cobertura da campanha ente os dois principais partidos do país – Peoples’ Democratic Party (PDP e o All Progressives Congress (APC – e que foram publicados entre janeiro e março de 2015 nos jornais The Natione Nigerian Tribune. Os resultados do estudo apontam para uma cobertura repleta de vieses, apesar de alguns incidentes relevantes de objetividade e de equilíbrio, e mostram que os dois jornais analisados simplesmente refletem os direcionamentos políticos de seus respectivos proprietários. Este estudio se centra en el papel de la propiedad de los medios en la cobertura de prensa de las campañas electorales presidenciales de 2015 en Nigeria. Utilizando análisis de contenido, el objetivo del estudio fue identificar los temas y examinar el direccionamiento de la cobertura y de las noticias sobre la campaña electoral entre los dos principales partidos políticos del país: el Peoples’ Democratic Party

  20. Examining How Media Literacy and Personality Factors Predict Skepticism Toward Alcohol Advertising.

    Austin, Erica Weintraub; Muldrow, Adrienne; Austin, Bruce W

    2016-05-01

    To examine the potential effectiveness of media literacy education in the context of well-established personality factors, a survey of 472 young adults, focused on the issue of alcohol marketing messages, examined how individual differences in personality associate with constructs representing aspects of media literacy. The results showed that need for cognition predicted social expectancies and wishful identification with media portrayals in alcohol advertising only through critical thinking about media sources and media content, which are foci of media literacy education. Need for affect did not associate with increased or diminished levels of critical thinking. Critical thinking about sources and messages affected skepticism, represented by expectancies through wishful identification, consistent with the message interpretation process model. The results support the view that critical thinking about media sources is an important precursor to critical thinking about media messages. The results also suggest that critical thinking about media (i.e., media literacy) reflects more than personality characteristics and can affect wishful identification with role models observed in media, which appears to be a key influence on decision making. This adds support to the view that media literacy education can improve decision making across personality types regarding alcohol use by decreasing the potential influence of alcohol marketing messages.

  1. Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) view it differently than non-LGBT: Exposure to tobacco-related couponing, e-cigarette advertisements, and anti-tobacco messages on social and traditional media.

    Emory, Kristen; Buchting, Francisco O; Trinidad, Dennis R; Vera, Lisa; Emery, Sherry L

    2018-03-12

    LGBT populations use tobacco at disparately higher rates nationwide, compared to national averages. The tobacco industry has a history targeting LGBT with marketing efforts, likely contributing to this disparity. This study explores whether exposure to tobacco content on traditional and social media is associated with tobacco use among LGBT and non-LGBT. This study reports results from LGBT (N=1,092) and non-LGBT (N=16,430) respondents to a 2013 nationally representative cross-sectional online survey of US adults (N=17,522). Frequency and weighted prevalence were estimated and adjusted logistic regression analyses were conducted. LGBT reported significantly higher rates of past 30-day tobacco media exposure compared to non-LGBT, this effect was strongest among LGBT who were smokers (pe-cigarettes, and anti-tobacco on new or social media (e.g. Twitter, Facebook, etc.) than did non-LGBT (pe-cigarettes, and cigars compared to non-LGBT, adjusting for past 30-day media exposure and covariates (p≤0.0001). LGBT (particularly LGBT smokers) are more likely to be exposed to and interact with tobacco-related messages on new and social media than their non-LGBT counterparts. Higher levels of tobacco-media exposure were significantly associated with higher likelihood of tobacco use. This suggests tobacco control must work toward reaching LGBT across a variety of media platforms, particularly new and social media outlets.

  2. Improving Type Error Messages in OCaml

    Charguéraud , Arthur

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Cryptic type error messages are a major obstacle to learning OCaml or other ML-based languages. In many cases, error messages cannot be interpreted without a sufficiently-precise model of the type inference algorithm. The problem of improving type error messages in ML has received quite a bit of attention over the past two decades, and many different strategies have been considered. The challenge is not only to produce error messages that are both sufficiently concise ...

  3. Media Literacy Is the Message

    Burniske, R. W.

    2005-01-01

    If educators listen carefully to the voices from the classroom, they discover the importance of teaching students how to "look through" the lens of information and communications technology while simultaneously "looking at" technology in a critical fashion. By making time for this deliberate oscillation educators enable…

  4. New Media--New Messages?

    Scott, Robin

    1979-01-01

    Reviews advances in production hardware and techniques, film, teletext and the distribution of television by cable, direct broadcast satellite, home video, and video disc. It is suggested that production broadcasters should come to terms with home video. (RAO)

  5. Toward Predicting Popularity of Social Marketing Messages

    Yu, Bei; Chen, Miao; Kwok, Linchi

    Popularity of social marketing messages indicates the effectiveness of the corresponding marketing strategies. This research aims to discover the characteristics of social marketing messages that contribute to different level of popularity. Using messages posted by a sample of restaurants on Facebook as a case study, we measured the message popularity by the number of "likes" voted by fans, and examined the relationship between the message popularity and two properties of the messages: (1) content, and (2) media type. Combining a number of text mining and statistics methods, we have discovered some interesting patterns correlated to "more popular" and "less popular" social marketing messages. This work lays foundation for building computational models to predict the popularity of social marketing messages in the future.

  6. Massenmedien und Bildung: Eine padagogische Interpretation der Adorno-Benjamin-Kontroverse (Mass Media and Education: A Pedagogical Interpretation of the Controversy between Theodore Adorno and Walter Benjamin).

    Imai, Yasuo

    1997-01-01

    Gives a pedagogical interpretation of the controversy between Adorno (Theodore) and Benjamin (Walter). Sketches their different conceptions of what constitutes a pedagogical problem and discusses differences between their positions against the background of their shared concern, best described as "experiential poverty." (DSK)

  7. Subtle Messages.

    Tamplin de Poinsot, Nan

    1999-01-01

    Describes a self-portrait assignment inspired by the work of Frida Kahlo. Discusses Frida Kahlo's artwork and use of surrealist and symbolist views. States that each student had to incorporate personal symbolism in the portrait to convey a message about him or herself in a subtle manner. (CMK)

  8. Advanced Messaging Concept Development Basic Safety Message

    Department of Transportation — Contains all Basic Safety Messages (BSMs) collected during the Advanced Messaging Concept Development (AMCD) field testing program. For this project, all of the Part...

  9. DMS message design workshops.

    2009-03-01

    This report summarizes the training conducted statewide regarding the design and display of messages on : dynamic message signs. The training is based on the Dynamic Message Sign Message Design and Display : Manual (0-4023-P3). Researchers developed ...

  10. Skills and Strategies for Media Education.

    Thoman, Elizabeth

    1999-01-01

    To thrive in our media-saturated culture, children must become media literate and learn five lessons: media messages are constructed by a few for the many; constructions involve creative languages; different people experience the same media message differently; media are primarily profit-driven businesses; and media have embedded values and…

  11. Messages about Sexuality: An Ecological Perspective

    Boone, Tanya L.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this two-part study was to identify the perceived influence of sexuality messages from parents, peers, school and the media--four microsystems within the Ecological Model--on emerging adult US college women's sexual attitudes. Findings suggest that parents were the most likely source of the message to "remain abstinent until…

  12. [Media Studies: a diachronic and cross-curricular approach].

    Tomei, G; Di Giorgio, V; Tomei, F; Sancini, A

    2011-01-01

    Studies on Media have generated analysis and remarks involving many different disciplines. We have just entered the age of Mass Communication. Each media (papers, radio, movie, TV and web too) wants to interpret reality and offer it to its audience. Each message coming from media is sifted and proposed according to the structural and technical characteristics of the media itself (as M.McLuhan said "the medium is the message"). In time there have been interpretations in favour or against as well, as experts detractors or defenders of media; U Eco called them "apocalyptic" and "integrated". In Medicine there are many different pathologies referable to excessive or incorrect utilization of mass-media: obesity due to high-calorie intake caused by sedentary use of TV, anorexia caused by forced imitation of models created by media, anxiety and sleeping disorders in teen-agers caused by watching TV news. Research are being carried out on mental effort due to incorrect use of screen, similar to the research on VDU operators. Categories gathered from Cognitive Ergonomics are suggested to hypothesize models of correct use of media and maybe the capacity of getting free from the influence of media so that aware audience can have a conscious perspective and not the perception of reality based entirely on the use of any media.

  13. Effectiveness of antismoking media messages and education among adolescents in Malaysia and Thailand: findings from the international tobacco control southeast Asia project.

    Zawahir, Shukry; Omar, Maizurah; Awang, Rahmat; Yong, Hua-Hie; Borland, Ron; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Fong, Geoffrey T; Hammond, David

    2013-02-01

    Finding ways to discourage adolescents from taking up smoking is important because those who begin smoking at an earlier age are more likely to become addicted and have greater difficulty in quitting. This article examined whether anti smoking messages and education could help to reduce smoking susceptibility among adolescents in two Southeast Asian countries and to explore the possible moderating effect of country and gender. Data came from Wave 1 of the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Project (ITC-SEA) survey conducted in Malaysia (n = 1,008) and Thailand (n = 1,000) where adolescents were asked about receiving antismoking advice from nurses or doctors, being taught at schools about the danger of smoking, noticing antismoking messages, knowledge of health effects of smoking, beliefs about the health risks of smoking, smoking susceptibility, and demographic information. Data were analyzed using chi-square tests and logistic regression models. Overall, significantly more Thai adolescents reported receiving advice from their nurses or doctors about the danger of smoking (p < .001), but no country difference was observed for reported antismoking education in schools and exposure to antismoking messages. Multivariate analyses revealed that only provision of antismoking education at schools was significantly associated with reduced susceptibility to smoking among female Malaysian adolescents (OR = 0.26). Higher knowledge of smoking harm and higher perceived health risk of smoking were associated with reduced smoking susceptibility among Thai female (OR = 0.52) and Malaysian male adolescents (OR = 0.63), respectively. Educating adolescents about the dangers of smoking in schools appears to be the most effective means of reducing adolescents' smoking susceptibility in both countries, although different prevention strategies may be necessary to ensure effectiveness for male and female adolescents.

  14. Mixed messages

    Chen, Christopher B.; Hall, Kevin; Tsuyuki, Ross T.

    2014-01-01

    Background: More than 5 years ago, the Blueprint for Pharmacy developed a plan for transitioning pharmacy practice toward more patient-centred care. Much of the strategy for change involves communicating the new vision. Objective: To evaluate the communication of the Vision for Pharmacy by the organizations and corporations that signed the Blueprint for Pharmacy’s Commitment to Act. Methods: The list of 88 signatories of the Commitment to Act was obtained from the Blueprint for Pharmacy document. The website of each of these signatories was searched for all references to the Blueprint for Pharmacy or Vision for Pharmacy. Each of the identified references was then analyzed using summative content analysis. Results: A total of 934 references were identified from the webpages of the 88 signatories. Of these references, 549 were merely links to the Blueprint for Pharmacy’s website, 350 of the references provided some detailed information about the Blueprint for Pharmacy and only 35 references provided any specific plans to transition pharmacy practice. Conclusion: Widespread proliferation of the Vision for Pharmacy has not been achieved. One possible explanation for this is that communication of the vision by the signatories has been incomplete. To ensure the success of future communications, change leaders must develop strategies that consider how individual pharmacists and pharmacies understand the message. PMID:24660012

  15. Showcase your service: social media and marketing basics in a dynamic, over-populated, mixed-message, and highly competitive world.

    Kuechel, Marie Czenko

    2010-11-01

    This article discusses social media as a means of communication between the aesthetic medical practice and clients. Discussion of the various types of social media and how each can support a physician's practice, brand, market, and tolerances is presented. Blogs, wikis, networks, viral marketing, and electronic communications are presented in terms of what they can provide a practice and their limitations and pitfalls. Emphasis is on finding the combination of methods to showcase the individual style and personality of a practice. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Correlates of smoking among young adults: the role of lifestyle, attitudes/beliefs, demographics, and exposure to anti-tobacco media messaging.

    Dietz, Noella A; Sly, David F; Lee, David J; Arheart, Kristopher L; McClure, Laura A

    2013-06-01

    Young adults (18-24 years) have the highest smoking rate of any age group. Unlike youth/adult populations where there is one primary message targeting behavior, anti-tobacco campaigns targeting young adults should contain messages of prevention and cessation. The objective was to identify factors influencing young adult cigarette use, employing the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention logic model, with an emphasis on the role of lifestyle, tobacco use tolerance, and attitudes/beliefs. Cross-sectional data were collected from 4401 young adults using telephone interviews in 2010 as part of the evaluation for the Tobacco Free Florida Campaign. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between current smoking status and lifestyles, tolerance of tobacco use, and attitude/belief variables. The young adult cigarette prevalence rate is 20.3%, with males more likely to be smokers (25.1%) than females (15.6%) and non-Hispanic Whites more likely to be smokers than other racial/ethnic groups (23.8%). Significant associations were found between lifestyle variables (frequent bar/club, drinks per month, and number of friends who smoke), tolerance of tobacco use (allow smoke in house/car and moderate tobacco use), and four attitude/belief indices and current smoking behavior. Results suggest lifestyles and attitudes/beliefs should be key behavioral targets of prevention programs aimed at young adults. Data strongly suggest that as young adults reject negative labels attached to smokers, they are more likely to smoke. Prevention (and cessation) programs may need to reduce barriers that result in segregating nonsmokers/smokers so smokers can have an increased chance of adopting attitudes/beliefs of nonsmokers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cultural objects as objects: materiality, urban space, and the interpretation of AIDS campaigns in Accra, Ghana.

    McDonnell, Terence E

    2010-05-01

    AIDS media lead unexpected lives once distributed through urban space: billboards fade, posters go missing, bumper stickers travel to other cities. The materiality of AIDS campaign objects and of the urban settings in which they are displayed structures how the public interprets their messages. Ethnographic observation of AIDS media in situ and interview data reveal how the materiality of objects and places shapes the availability of AIDS knowledge in Accra, Ghana. Significantly for AIDS organizations, these material conditions often systematically obstruct access to AIDS knowledge for particular groups. Attending to materiality rethinks how scholars assess the cultural power of media.

  18. Literasi Media dan Interpretasi atas Bencana

    Wisnu Martha Adiputra

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important things facing the disaster is the media literacy of disaster information. This paper will examine the role of literacy of disaster information on disaster event. First, it will explore the theoretical concept of media literacy. Second, it will explore the role of communication technology and understanding of disaster message. Third, it will explore the interpretation skill toward disaster information. Socio-cultural contexts of societal environment are being important to produce the literacy skill toward disaster information.

  19. Social media mediated interaction with peers, experts and anonymous authors: Conversation partner and message framing effects on risk perception and sense-making of organic food

    Hilverda, Marie-Susanne Dieudonnée; Kuttschreuter, Margôt; Giebels, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    With the increased popularity of organic food production, new information about the risks attached to food products has become available. Consumers need to make sense of this information, interpret the information in terms of risks and benefits, and consequently choose whether to buy these products

  20. Social media mediated interaction with peers, experts and anonymous authors : Conversation partner and message framing effects on risk perception and sense-making of organic food

    Hilverda, Femke; Kuttschreuter, Margôt; Giebels, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    With the increased popularity of organic food production, new information about the risks attached to food products has become available. Consumers need to make sense of this information, interpret the information in terms of risks and benefits, and consequently choose whether to buy these products

  1. Evaluation of Sexual Communication Message Strategies

    2011-01-01

    Parent-child communication about sex is an important proximal reproductive health outcome. But while campaigns to promote it such as the Parents Speak Up National Campaign (PSUNC) have been effective, little is known about how messages influence parental cognitions and behavior. This study examines which message features explain responses to sexual communication messages. We content analyzed 4 PSUNC ads to identify specific, measurable message and advertising execution features. We then develop quantitative measures of those features, including message strategies, marketing strategies, and voice and other stylistic features, and merged the resulting data into a dataset drawn from a national media tracking survey of the campaign. Finally, we conducted multivariable logistic regression models to identify relationships between message content and ad reactions/receptivity, and between ad reactions/receptivity and parents' cognitions related to sexual communication included in the campaign's conceptual model. We found that overall parents were highly receptive to the PSUNC ads. We did not find significant associations between message content and ad reactions/receptivity. However, we found that reactions/receptivity to specific PSUNC ads were associated with increased norms, self-efficacy, short- and long-term expectations about parent-child sexual communication, as theorized in the conceptual model. This study extends previous research and methods to analyze message content and reactions/receptivity. The results confirm and extend previous PSUNC campaign evaluation and provide further evidence for the conceptual model. Future research should examine additional message content features and the effects of reactions/receptivity. PMID:21599875

  2. Radon-222: tracer of geological systems dynamics. Methodology and signal processing, interpretation of radon-222 behaviour in active geological media

    Richon, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Gases, especially radon, have often been cited as indicators of large-scale geodynamic processes, or as precursors of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. Measurable in the air, water and rocks, natural radon concentrations are generally extremely low, because 1 Bq m -3 corresponds to a mixing ratio of 1,77 * 10 -20 in air at normal temperature and pressure (NPT). Expressed in a usual unit in chemistry of air pollution, an usual activity concentration of 37 Bq m -3 is only a billion th of ppb by volume (ppbv) in the atmosphere. Yet such, concentrations of radon are very easy to measure, because the decay α is an energetic phenomenon: It makes it theoretically possible to detect a single atom of radon, which is an inaccessible performance by chemical analysis. This feature, combined with a half-life of 3.82 days, makes radon so interesting for tracing natural phenomena. But the major drawback is that radon becomes very sensitive to subsurface meteorological and hydrogeological processes especially if the measurement methodology is not perfectly controlled. These aspects are not addressed in the past and in recent literatures and are rarely taken into account when analyzing and interpreting radon signal. We review these issues by addressing problems related to instrumentation, to measurement methods, and to data processing. We show how to extract signatures of geodynamical processes dissimulated in radon data for very different sites with strong dynamic like volcanic sites (La Soufriere of Guadeloupe, FWI, Merapi, Indonesia), tectonic sites (Syabru-Bensi in Nepal and the Kunlun fault in Tibet) and underground laboratories (Roselend and Argentiere). For this, we had to develop signals processing tools that allow us to extract the effect of barometric and gravimetric tide waves from the radon signal. This is a very sensitive for a detailed survey of the transport processes of radon that are closely linked to geodynamic processes involved in different sites. The

  3. Tu Amigo Pepe: Evaluation of a Multi-media Marketing Campaign that Targets Young Latino Immigrant MSM with HIV Testing Messages.

    Solorio, Rosa; Norton-Shelpuk, Pamela; Forehand, Mark; Montaño, Daniel; Stern, Joshua; Aguirre, Joel; Martinez, Marcos

    2016-09-01

    Latino immigrant men who have sex with men (MSM) are at risk for HIV and delayed diagnosis in the United States. This paper describes the evaluation of a pilot of the Tu Amigo Pepe, a multimedia HIV testing campaign aimed at Latino MSM in Seattle, WA particularly targeting immigrants who may not identify as gay, ages 18-30 years old. The 16-week campaign included Spanish-language radio public service announcements (PSAs), a Web site, social media outreach, a reminder system using mobile technology, print materials and a toll-free hotline. In developing the PSAs, the Integrated Behavioral Model was used as a framework to reframe negative attitudes, beliefs and norms towards HIV testing with positive ones as well as to promote self-efficacy towards HIV testing. The campaign had a significant and immediate impact on attitudes, beliefs, norms and self-efficacy towards HIV testing as well as on actual behavior, with HIV testing rates increasing over time.

  4. EMI Messaging Guidelines

    Cons, L.

    2011-01-01

    Guidelines for potential users of messaging within EMI. The goal is to provide enough practical information so that EMI product teams can start investigating whether using messaging in their products can be beneficial or not.

  5. Media Literacy in ‘Big Kitchen (1952’ historical documentary

    Ali Mohd. Nor Shahizan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gen Y as a whole have different abilities in interpretation on the text media. Therefore, each issue necessary media texts not to cause confusion in the interpretation of the message. In line with the rapid pace of information technology to make all information more easily accessible lead the audience (Gen Y became more confused in making the interpretation of the meaning; depending on their literacy level. The importance of media literacy should be considered in the process of reading on historical documentary. This article explores the interpretation of Gen Y at the Institute of Higher Learning on the historical documentary ‘Big Kitchen (1952’ work of Malay Film Unit. A focus group discussion was conducted on seven informants selected. The discussion focuses on the literacy aspect and the overall interpretation of the historical documentary narrative as a message. A historical documentary has given rise to different interpretations among them. The results supports that the Gen Y who totally exposed to the media environment in everyday life able to understand the narrative of the historical documentary. The results showed that the transformation of social technologies and the impact of extensive and open information have influenced the interpretation of Gen Y.

  6. Understanding text as social practice: An exploration of the potential of systemic functional grammar to facilitate students' interpretation of media texts.

    Jenny Clarence-Fincham

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available It has frequently been claimed that Halliday's Systemic Functional Grammar (SFG is apowerful linguistic tool which facilitates analytical and interpretative skills and provides aflexible, yet structured set of analytical tools with which to interpret texts. With this claim asa backdrop, this article asks whether SFG is, in fact an appropriate analytical approach forunder-graduate students and whether it can facilitate their ability to analyse texts. Its contextis a second level course, Analysing Media Texts, offered at Natal University. Broadly framedby critical discourse analysis, it traces the development of a thirteen week module and,using student analyses for illustrative purposes, identifies pedagogical challenges anddifficulties that need to be confronted before any strong claims can be made. It is concludedthat, on the evidence of students' responses to texts analysed during this course, it is not yetpossible to make strong claims about the benefits of SFG. There is enough positiveevidence, however, to pursue the possibility that with innovative curriculum development andthe careful scaffolding and integration of concepts, SFG will be clearly shown to have anextremely important role to play.Daar is dikwels beweer dat Halliday se Sistemies-Funksionele Grammatika (SFG 'n kragtige linguistiese middel is wat analitiese en interpreterende vaardighede bevorder en 'n plooibare, dog gestruktureere stel analitiese gereedskap verskaf waarmee tekste gei"nterpreteer kan word. Met die bewering as agtergrond vra hierdie artikel of SFG inderdaad 'n toepas like analitiese benadering vir voorgraadse studente is en of dit hulle vermoe om tekste te ontleed, bevorder. Die konteks is 'n tweedejaarskursus, Analysing Media Texts, wat aan die Universiteit van Natal aangebied word. Breedweg omraam deur kritiese diskoersanalise, speur die artikel die ontwikkeling van 'n module van dertien weke na, met gebruik van studenteontledings ter illustrasie en identifiseer

  7. Effects of news media messages about mass shootings on attitudes toward persons with serious mental illness and public support for gun control policies.

    McGinty, Emma E; Webster, Daniel W; Barry, Colleen L

    2013-05-01

    In recent years, mass shootings by persons with serious mental illness have received extensive news media coverage. The authors test the effects of news stories about mass shootings on public attitudes toward persons with serious mental illness and support for gun control policies. They also examine whether news coverage of proposals to prevent persons with serious mental illness from having guns exacerbates the public's negative attitudes toward this group. The authors conducted a survey-embedded randomized experiment using a national sample (N=1,797) from an online panel. Respondents were randomly assigned to groups instructed to read one of three news stories or to a no-exposure control group. The news stories described, respectively, a mass shooting by a person with serious mental illness, the same mass shooting and a proposal for gun restrictions for persons with serious mental illness, and the same mass shooting and a proposal to ban large-capacity magazines. Outcome measures included attitudes toward working with or living near a person with serious mental illness, perceived dangerousness of persons with serious mental illness, and support for gun restrictions for persons with serious mental illness and for a ban on large-capacity magazines. Compared with the control group, the story about a mass shooting heightened respondents' negative attitudes toward persons with serious mental illness and raised support for gun restrictions for this group and for a ban on large-capacity magazines. Including information about the gun restriction policy in a story about a mass shooting did not heighten negative attitudes toward persons with serious mental illness or raise support for the restrictions. The aftermath of mass shootings is often viewed as a window of opportunity to garner support for gun control policies, but it also exacerbates negative attitudes toward persons with serious mental illness.

  8. RSA Key Development Using Fingerprint Image on Text Message

    Rahman, Sayuti; Triana, Indah; Khairani, Sumi; Yasir, Amru; Sundari, Siti

    2017-12-01

    Along with the development of technology today, humans are very facilitated in accessing information and Communicate with various media, including through the Internet network . Messages are sent by media such as text are not necessarily guaranteed security. it is often found someone that wants to send a secret message to the recipient, but the messages can be known by irresponsible people. So the sender feels dissappointed because the secret message that should be known only to the recipient only becomes known by the irresponsible people . It is necessary to do security the message by using the RSA algorithm, Using fingerprint image to generate RSA key.This is a solution to enrich the security of a message,it is needed to process images firstly before generating RSA keys with feature extraction.

  9. Tendency to Message Delivery in Internet Viral Marketing

    Mostafa Ghazizadeh; Ahmad Sardari; Seyyed Reza Shojaee; Mehdi Samizadeh

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The main goal of this research is to review and determine the factors associated with tendency to forward the marketing messages in viral marketing plans of Fast-food industries. In other words, in this study, the effects of three critical determinants, i.e. commercial intention, attractiveness, and media richness have been examined on receivers' intention to forward marketing message in Tehran, Isfahan and Shiraz. Findings imply that receivers’ attitude toward the message has pos...

  10. Cross-tools and cross-media effects

    Voorveld, H.

    2013-01-01

    Effects of persuasive messages depend on the content of the message itself and on the media or tools that deliver the persuasive messages. Nowadays almost all campaigns make use of multiple media or multiple promotional tools. Therefore, it is important to study so-called cross-media (or

  11. MESSAGE 2 space experiment with Rhodospirillum rubrum S1H

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — R. rubrum S1H inoculated on solid agar rich media was sent to the ISS in October 2003 (MESSAGE-part 2 experiment). After 10 days flight R. rubrum cultures returned...

  12. Understanding health food messages on Twitter for health literacy promotion.

    Zhou, J; Liu, F; Zhou, H

    2018-05-01

    With the popularity of social media, Twitter has become an important tool to promote health literacy. However, many health-related messages on Twitter are dead-ended and cannot reach many people. This is unhelpful for health literacy promotion. This article aims to examine the features of online health food messages that people like to retweet. We adopted rumour theory as our theoretical foundation and extracted seven characteristics (i.e. emotional valence, attractiveness, sender's authoritativeness, external evidence, argument length, hashtags, and direct messages). A total of 10,025 health-related messages on Twitter were collected, and 1496 messages were randomly selected for further analysis. Each message was treated as one unit and then coded. All the hypotheses were tested with logistic regression. Emotional valence, attractiveness, sender's authoritativeness, argument length, and direct messages in a Twitter message had positive effects on people's retweet behaviour. The effect of external evidence was negative. Hashtags had no significant effect after consideration of other variables. Online health food messages containing positive emotions, including pictures, containing direct messages, having an authoritative sender, having longer arguments, or not containing external URLs are more likely to be retweeted. However, a message only containing positive or negative emotions or including direct messages without any support information will not be retweeted.

  13. Real Time Assessment of Young Adults' Attitudes toward Tobacco Messages.

    Hébert, Emily T; Vandewater, Elizabeth A; Businelle, Michael S; Harrell, Melissa B; Kelder, Steven H; Perry, Cheryl L

    2018-01-01

    We used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to examine young adults' attitudes towards pro-tobacco messages encountered in real time and their association with intentions to use tobacco. Young adults (N = 92, ages 18-29) recorded sightings of marketing or social media related to tobacco in real time via mobile app for 28 days. Participants reported message characteristics, their attitudes towards the message, and intentions to use the depicted product for each submission. We used generalized linear mixed models to examine factors related to attitude towards message and intentions to use tobacco. Messages depicting e-cigarettes (p < .001) or hookah (p < .05) were associated with significantly more favorable attitudes compared with traditional cigarettes. Positive attitude towards the message was significantly associated with intention to use the depicted product (p < .001). Messages depicting e-cigarettes and hookah were significantly associated with higher intention to use. Message source was not significantly related to attitudes towards the message or product use intentions. Marketing featuring e-cigarettes and hookah is an important target for future regulation. Given that pro-tobacco and e-cigarette messages are prevalent online, future research should consider the Internet and social media as important venues for counter-marketing and intervention efforts.

  14. Evaluation of Sexual Communication Message Strategies

    Khan Munziba

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Parent-child communication about sex is an important proximal reproductive health outcome. But while campaigns to promote it such as the Parents Speak Up National Campaign (PSUNC have been effective, little is known about how messages influence parental cognitions and behavior. This study examines which message features explain responses to sexual communication messages. We content analyzed 4 PSUNC ads to identify specific, measurable message and advertising execution features. We then develop quantitative measures of those features, including message strategies, marketing strategies, and voice and other stylistic features, and merged the resulting data into a dataset drawn from a national media tracking survey of the campaign. Finally, we conducted multivariable logistic regression models to identify relationships between message content and ad reactions/receptivity, and between ad reactions/receptivity and parents' cognitions related to sexual communication included in the campaign's conceptual model. We found that overall parents were highly receptive to the PSUNC ads. We did not find significant associations between message content and ad reactions/receptivity. However, we found that reactions/receptivity to specific PSUNC ads were associated with increased norms, self-efficacy, short- and long-term expectations about parent-child sexual communication, as theorized in the conceptual model. This study extends previous research and methods to analyze message content and reactions/receptivity. The results confirm and extend previous PSUNC campaign evaluation and provide further evidence for the conceptual model. Future research should examine additional message content features and the effects of reactions/receptivity.

  15. Media literacy for clinicians and parents.

    Villani, V Susan; Olson, Cheryl K; Jellinek, Michael S

    2005-07-01

    Families and children are in the midst of a media revolution. Television, Internet access, instant messaging, cell phones, and interactive video games are delivering more information for more hours than ever in history. Exposure is occurring at younger and younger ages, often without parental oversight or interpretation. The impact on children is just beginning to be studied. Does media exposure prepare children for the world in which they live or deprive them of critical developmental opportunities? Does the steady display of violence contribute to violent behavior? This article presents a developmental context, discusses the research conducted to date, reviews the recommendations of major organizations, and tries to take a balanced perspective in the midst of a rising tide of media, technology, commercialism, and controversy.

  16. Unified Internet Messaging

    Healy, Paul; Barber, Declan

    2015-01-01

    As telephony services, mobile services and internet services continue to converge, the prospect of providing Unified Messaging and even Unified Communications becomes increasingly achievable. This paper discusses the growing importance of IP-based networks to Unified Messaging developments and examines some of the key services and protocols that are likely to make Unified Messaging more widely available. In this initial paper, we limit ourselves initially to the unification of text-based mess...

  17. A message to school girls.

    Akinwande, A

    1993-06-01

    Information, education, and communication (IEC) programs need to be strengthened to appeal to adolescents, who are increasingly contributing to unwanted pregnancy and are using abortion as a means of birth control. Successful IEC programs have the following characteristics: 1) established communication theories that guide development of materials; 2) a multimedia and a mass media approach to information dissemination, and 3) emphasis on visual displays. The primary emphasis should be on presentation of a concise, clear message with the appropriate visual medium. Many communication specialists in developing countries, however, lack the training to design and use effective IEC software. Designing effective messages involves a process of integrating scientific ideas with artistic appeal. The aim is to stimulate the target audience to change its behavior of life style. The message must be convincing and contain practical and useful information. The IEC Software Design Cycle focuses on analysis and diagnosis, design production, pretesting and modification, and distribution and evaluation. Each of these processes are described. Necessary before any attempt is made is obtaining data on historical, sociocultural, and demographic characteristics, economic activities, health and social services, communication infrastructure, marriage and family life patterns, and decision making systems. Focus group discussions may be used to collect information about the target group. An example is given of the process of development, in a course through the Center or African Family Studies, of a poster about premarital sex directed to 11-16 year olds. On the basis of focus group discussions, it was decided that the message would be to encourage girls to talk with their mothers about family life and premarital sex. The poster was produced with 2 school girls talking in front of the school. The evaluation yielded modifications such as including a school building that resembled actual

  18. CDC MessageWorks: Designing and Validating a Social Marketing Tool to Craft and Defend Effective Messages

    Cole, Galen E.; Keller, Punam A.; Reynolds, Jennifer; Schaur, Michelle; Krause, Diane

    2016-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, in partnership with Oak Ridge Associated Universities, designed an online social marketing strategy tool, MessageWorks, to help health communicators effectively formulate messages aimed at changing health behaviors and evaluate message tactics and audience characteristics. MessageWorks is based on the advisor for risk communication model that identifies 10 variables that can be used to predict target audience intentions to comply with health recommendations. This article discusses the value of the MessageWorks tool to health communicators and to the field of social marketing by (1) describing the scientific evidence supporting use of MessageWorks to improve health communication practice and (2) summarizing how to use MessageWorks and interpret the results it produces. PMID:26877714

  19. When communications collide with recipients' actions: effects of post-message behavior on intentions to follow the message recommendation.

    Albarracín, Dolores; Cohen, Joel B; Kumkale, G Tarcan

    2003-07-01

    Two experiments investigated the processes through which post-message behavior (e.g., noncompliance) influences resistance to the message. Participants in Experiment 1 read preventive, consumer-education messages that either opposed the consumption of an alcohol-like product or recommended moderation. Half of the participants then tried the product, whereas the remaining participants performed a filler task. In the absence of trial, the two messages had the same effect. However, recipients of the abstinence-promoting preventive message who tried the product had stronger intentions to use the product in the future than recipients of the moderation message. This finding suggests that assessments of message impact may be inadequate unless an opportunity for trial is also provided. Results are interpreted in terms of self-perception and cognitive dissonance and contrasted from psychological reactance.

  20. When Communications Collide With Recipients’ Actions: Effects of Post-Message Behavior on Intentions to Follow the Message Recommendation

    Albarracín, Dolores; Cohen, Joel B.; Kumkale, G. Tarcan

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the processes through which post-message behavior (e.g., noncompliance) influences resistance to the message. Participants in Experiment 1 read preventive, consumer-education messages that either opposed the consumption of an alcohol-like product or recommended moderation. Half of the participants then tried the product, whereas the remaining participants performed a filler task. In the absence of trial, the two messages had the same effect. However, recipients of the abstinence-promoting preventive message who tried the product had stronger intentions to use the product in the future than recipients of the moderation message. This finding suggests that assessments of message impact may be inadequate unless an opportunity for trial is also provided. Results are interpreted in terms of self-perception and cognitive dissonance and contrasted from psychological reactance. PMID:15018672

  1. CDC MessageWorks: Designing and Validating a Social Marketing Tool to Craft and Defend Effective Messages.

    Cole, Galen E; Keller, Punam A; Reynolds, Jennifer; Schaur, Michelle; Krause, Diane

    2016-03-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, in partnership with Oak Ridge Associated Universities, designed an online social marketing strategy tool, MessageWorks, to help health communicators effectively formulate messages aimed at changing health behaviors and evaluate message tactics and audience characteristics. MessageWorks is based on the advisor for risk communication model that identifies 10 variables that can be used to predict target audience intentions to comply with health recommendations. This article discusses the value of the MessageWorks tool to health communicators and to the field of social marketing by (1) describing the scientific evidence supporting use of MessageWorks to improve health communication practice and (2) summarizing how to use MessageWorks and interpret the results it produces.

  2. Engineered cell-cell communication via DNA messaging

    Ortiz Monica E

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evolution has selected for organisms that benefit from genetically encoded cell-cell communication. Engineers have begun to repurpose elements of natural communication systems to realize programmed pattern formation and coordinate other population-level behaviors. However, existing engineered systems rely on system-specific small molecules to send molecular messages among cells. Thus, the information transmission capacity of current engineered biological communication systems is physically limited by specific biomolecules that are capable of sending only a single message, typically “regulate transcription.” Results We have engineered a cell-cell communication platform using bacteriophage M13 gene products to autonomously package and deliver heterologous DNA messages of varying lengths and encoded functions. We demonstrate the decoupling of messages from a common communication channel via the autonomous transmission of various arbitrary genetic messages. Further, we increase the range of engineered DNA messaging across semisolid media by linking message transmission or receipt to active cellular chemotaxis. Conclusions We demonstrate decoupling of a communication channel from message transmission within engineered biological systems via the autonomous targeted transduction of user-specified heterologous DNA messages. We also demonstrate that bacteriophage M13 particle production and message transduction occurs among chemotactic bacteria. We use chemotaxis to improve the range of DNA messaging, increasing both transmission distance and communication bit rates relative to existing small molecule-based communication systems. We postulate that integration of different engineered cell-cell communication platforms will allow for more complex spatial programming of dynamic cellular consortia.

  3. Crafting a Real-Time Information Aggregator for Mobile Messaging

    Jenq-Shiou Leu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile messaging is evolving beyond SMS (Short Message Service text messaging with the introduction of MMS (Multimedia Messaging Service. In the past, such a scheme is used for peer-to-peer communication. Messages are generally displayed on a cellular phone with a limited-sized screen. However, such a visualizing process is not suitable to broadcast real-time SMS/MMS messages to people in public. To facilitate the instancy and publicity, we develop a real-time information aggregator—Visualizing SMS and MMS Messages System (VSMMS—to realize the concept by integrating SMS and MMS messaging over GSM/GPRS/UMTS onto a remote display device. The device exhibits messages on a larger display device in public. VSMMS features a revolutionized variation of mass media broadcasting. In this paper, we practically illustrate how to design and implement VSMMS and use a M/M/1 model to conduct a theoretical analysis about the message delay in the system queue. Meanwhile, we make an empirical performance evaluation about the message transmission time over different networks.

  4. The effectiveness of different approaches to media literacy in modifying adolescents' responses to alcohol.

    Chen, Yi-Chun Yvonnes

    2013-01-01

    Fearing the negative effect that alcohol advertising might have on adolescents' receptiveness to the consumption of alcohol, health educators have used media literacy as an effective strategy to mitigate the effect of these messages in the media. The present study applied parental mediation to the design and evaluations of a media literacy curriculum that targets alcohol decision-making processes illustrated in the message interpretation process model. The authors conducted a pretest-posttest quasi-experiment of 171 adolescents to examine the effect of a negative evaluative approach and a balanced evaluative approach (a combination of negative and positive evaluative strategies) to media literacy on modifying adolescents' responses to alcohol messages. Results showed that different media literacy approaches had varying degrees of effectiveness on adolescent boys and girls. After receiving a negative media literacy lesson, adolescent boys regarded television characters as less realistic and believed that drinking alcohol had negative consequences. In contrast, adolescent girls benefited more from a balanced evaluative approach as their media skepticism attitude was enhanced. Results suggest that health educators should choose tailored pedagogical approaches that are based on gender to improve decision making regarding alcohol consumption.

  5. Philosophy of Media – Is the Message

    Alić, Sead

    2011-01-01

    The theoretical position dealing with the significance of the mediator in the cognition process partially enters the area of epistemology. By both striving to reach the essence of what is thought about and eliminating everything that belongs to the mediator in the cognition process, this position is also in part a kind of “expanded hermeneutics”. Finally, by studying the advancement of the knowledge on the mediation of knowledge itself and the advancement of the experience within the context ...

  6. Mainstream Media and Social Media Reactions to the Discovery of Extraterrestrial Life

    Jones, Morris

    The rise of online social media (such as Facebook and Twitter) has overturned traditional top-down and stovepiped channels for mass communications. As social media have risen, traditional media sources have been steadily crippled by economic problems, resulting in a loss of capabilities and credibility. Information can propagate rapidly without the inclusion of traditional editorial checks and controls. Mass communications strategies for any type of major announcement must account for this new media landscape. Scientists announcing the discovery of extraterrestrial life will trigger a multifaceted and unpredictable percolation of the story through the public sphere. They will also potentially struggle with misinformation, rumours and hoaxes. The interplay of official announcements with the discussions of an extraterrestrial discovery on social media has parallels with traditional theories of mass communications. A wide spectrum of different messages is likely to be received by different segments of the community, based on their usage patterns of various media and online communications. The presentation and interpretation of a discovery will be hotly debated and contested within online media environments. In extreme cases, this could lead to "editorial wars" on collaborative media projects as well as cyber-attacks on certain online services and individuals. It is unlikely that a clear and coherent message can be propagated to a near-universal level. This has the potential to contribute to inappropriate reactions in some sectors of the community. Preventing unnecessary panic will be a priority. In turn, the monitoring of online and social media will provide a useful tool for assessing public reactions to a discovery of extraterrestrial life. This will help to calibrate public communications strategies following in the wake of an initial announcement.

  7. Mental health message appeals and audience engagement: Evidence from Australia.

    Yap, Jo En; Zubcevic-Basic, Nives; Johnson, Lester W; Lodewyckx, Michaela A

    2017-09-07

    Social media platforms are increasingly used to disseminate social marketing messages about mental health and wellbeing. This study presents a range of message appeals used in social media enabled mental health promotion and stigma reduction messages. Furthermore, it examines the relationship between the type of message appeals and audience engagement. A content analysis of 65 organisation-generated YouTube videos about depression and anxiety and stigma reduction was conducted. The most utilised message appeal was Sorrow, followed by Affiliation, Ease/Convenience, Hope, Humour, Guilt/Shame, Heroic/Successful, and Fear. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between the type of message appeals and audience engagement in terms of the number of likes, comments, and shares. The analysis revealed that Sorrow is the most useful message appeal for generating audience comments. However, Sorrow is negatively associated with the number of likes and shares. The results suggest that mental health promotion messages may engage a larger audience through Affiliation and Hope as they have a positive impact on the number of shares. This could, in effect, turn audiences into vocal advocates for mental health promotion and stigma reduction messages. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Auctioning Bulk Mobile Messages

    S. Meij (Simon); L-F. Pau (Louis-François); H.W.G.M. van Heck (Eric)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe search for enablers of continued growth of SMS traffic, as well as the take-off of the more diversified MMS message contents, open up for enterprises the potential of bulk use of mobile messaging , instead of essentially one-by-one use. In parallel, such enterprises or value added

  9. Countering Islamic State Messaging Through “Linkage-Based” Analysis

    J.M. Berger

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Islamic State’s recent losses on the battlefield, including significant casualties within its media and propaganda division, offer a unique opportunity to inject competing and alternative messages into the information space. This paper proposes that the content of such messages should be guided by a linkage-based analysis of existing Islamic State messaging. A linkage-based analysis of a top-level 2017 audio message by Islamic State spokesperson Abu Hasan al Muhajir offers several potential insights into crafting effective content for competing and alternative messages. A comparison of the 2017 work to earlier Islamic State messaging also reveals specific opportunities to undermine the credibility of the organisation’s broader propaganda programme by highlighting the organisation’s repeated failure to follow through on its extravagantly promised commitment to achieving its stated goals.

  10. Improving Type Error Messages in OCaml

    Arthur Charguéraud

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cryptic type error messages are a major obstacle to learning OCaml or other ML-based languages. In many cases, error messages cannot be interpreted without a sufficiently-precise model of the type inference algorithm. The problem of improving type error messages in ML has received quite a bit of attention over the past two decades, and many different strategies have been considered. The challenge is not only to produce error messages that are both sufficiently concise and systematically useful to the programmer, but also to handle a full-blown programming language and to cope with large-sized programs efficiently. In this work, we present a modification to the traditional ML type inference algorithm implemented in OCaml that, by significantly reducing the left-to-right bias, allows us to report error messages that are more helpful to the programmer. Our algorithm remains fully predictable and continues to produce fairly concise error messages that always help making some progress towards fixing the code. We implemented our approach as a patch to the OCaml compiler in just a few hundred lines of code. We believe that this patch should benefit not just to beginners, but also to experienced programs developing large-scale OCaml programs.

  11. Kompresi Teks Menggunakan Algoritma Huffman Dan Md5 Pada Instant Messaging Smartphone Android

    Chulkamdi, M. Taofik; Pramono, Sholeh Hadi; Yudaningtyas, Erni

    2015-01-01

    Instant messaging is one of Android social media application that make user possible to send short messages directly in the same time (real time) using text to another user that online in the some network, more ever a lot of user using this application as an alternative communication via short message service (SMS). Remembering how important this application, so writer make an instant message application with small text transmission that will provide in the current needs with Huffman algorith...

  12. Age Differences in Children's Perceptions of Message Intent: An Exploratory Study.

    Blosser, Betsy J.; Roberts, Donald F.

    To determine when and how children begin to differentiate among messages with different goals and to examine whether such differentiation leads to differences in interpretational strategies, 90 children between the ages of 4 and 11 viewed each of five different television messages representing four different message types. The types were: (1)…

  13. How adolescent girls interpret weight-loss advertising.

    Hobbs, Renee; Broder, Sharon; Pope, Holly; Rowe, Jonelle

    2006-10-01

    While they demonstrate some ability to critically analyze the more obvious forms of deceptive weight-loss advertising, many girls do not recognize how advertising evokes emotional responses or how visual and narrative techniques are used to increase identification in weight-loss advertising. This study examined how girls aged 9-17 years interpreted magazine advertising, television (TV) advertising and infomercials for weight-loss products in order to determine whether deceptive advertising techniques were recognized and to assess pre-existing media-literacy skills. A total of 42 participants were interviewed in seven geographic regions of the United States. In groups of three, participants were shown seven print and TV advertisements (ads) for weight-loss products and asked to share their interpretations of each ad. Common factors in girls' interpretation of weight-loss advertising included responding to texts emotionally by identifying with characters; comparing and contrasting persuasive messages with real-life experiences with family members; using prior knowledge about nutrition management and recognizing obvious deceptive claims like 'rapid' or 'permanent' weight loss. Girls were less able to demonstrate skills including recognizing persuasive construction strategies including message purpose, target audience and subtext and awareness of economic factors including financial motives, credibility enhancement and branding.

  14. The Dual Role of Media Internalization in Adolescent Sexual Behavior.

    Rousseau, Ann; Beyens, Ine; Eggermont, Steven; Vandenbosch, Laura

    2017-08-01

    Sexualizing media content is prevalent in various media types. Sexualizing media messages and portrayals emphasize unattainable body and appearance ideals as the primary components of sexual desirability. The internalization of these ideals is positively related to self-objectification and sexual body consciousness. In turn, self-objectification and sexual body consciousness affect adolescents' sexual behavior, albeit in opposing directions. While objectifying self-perceptions are linked to higher levels of sexual behavior, body consciousness during physical intimacy is linked to lower levels of sexual behavior. Based on this knowledge, the present three-wave panel study of 824 Belgian, predominant heterosexual adolescents (M age  = 15.33; SD = 1.45) proposes a dual-pathway model that investigates two different pathways through which the internalization of media ideals may impact adolescents' sexual behavior. An inhibitory pathway links media internalization to lower levels of sexual behavior through sexual body consciousness, and a supportive pathway links media internalization to higher levels of sexual behavior through self-objectification. Structural equation analyses supported the proposed dual-pathway, showing that the impact of media internalization on adolescents' sexual behavior proceeds through an inhibitory pathway and a supportive pathway. Regarding the supportive pathway, media internalization (W1) positively predicted sexual behavior (W3), through valuing appearance over competence (W2). Regarding the inhibitory pathway, media internalization (W1) positively predicted body surveillance, which, in turn, positively predicted sexual body consciousness (all W2). Sexual body consciousness (W2) is negatively related to sexual behavior (W3). From a sexual developmental perspective, these findings emphasize the importance of guiding adolescents in interpreting and processing sexualizing media messages.

  15. Instant Messaging by SIP

    Muhi, Daniel; Dulai, Tibor; Jaskó, Szilárd

    2008-11-01

    SIP is a general-purpose application layer protocol which is able to establish sessions between two or more parties. These sessions are mainly telephone calls and multimedia conferences. However it can be used for other purposes like instant messaging and presence service. SIP has a very important role in mobile communication as more and more communicating applications are going mobile. In this paper we would like to show how SIP can be used for instant messaging purposes.

  16. The value of fame: preadolescent perceptions of popular media and their relationship to future aspirations.

    Uhls, Yalda T; Greenfield, Patricia M

    2012-03-01

    In line with Greenfield's (2009) theory of social change and human development, current popular preadolescent TV shows suggest that fame, an individualistic goal, is an important and achievable aspiration (Uhls & Greenfield, 2011). Such messages may be particularly salient for preadolescents, ages 10-12. This study used focus groups and mixed analytic methods (qualitative and quantitative) to examine how popular media, passive and interactive, are interpreted by preadolescents and how their interpretations relate to their media practices and future goals. Quantitative analysis revealed that fame was the number one value, selected as the most important value for participants' future goals significantly more frequently than expected by chance. Qualitative analysis of focus group discourse suggested that (a) youth absorb messages in their media environment regarding fame as a future goal and (b) their interpretations of these messages highlight the importance and value of public recognition. Enacting the value of fame, the majority of preadolescent participants use online video sharing sites (e.g., YouTube) to seek an audience beyond their immediate community. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Prosocial effects of media.

    Hogan, Marjorie J

    2012-06-01

    Parents, teachers, health care providers, and other caring adults worry about the harmful influence of media messages and images on children and teens and wonder how to recognize and encourage positive and healthy use of media. For decades, experts have commented on the power of media. Media depictions can lead to negative attitudes and behavior in some young viewers. This article discusses whether prosocial, tolerant, and cooperative attitudes and behavior can be learned and imitated by children and adolescents and whether media can nurture or stimulate creativity or actively promote health and well-being in young consumers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Are Digital Media Changing Language?

    Baron, Naomi S.

    2009-01-01

    Are instant messaging and text messaging killing language? To hear what the popular media say, a handful of OMGs (oh my Gods) and smiley faces, along with a paucity of capital letters and punctuation marks, might be bringing English to its knees. Although journalists tend to sensationalize the linguistic strangeness of "online lingo," quantitative…

  19. Audience Activity and Media Use.

    Rubin, Alan M.

    1993-01-01

    Explores a view of audience behavior that lies between the extremes of a passive audience expected to be influenced by communication messages and an active audience expected to make rational decisions about what media content to accept and reject. (RS)

  20. The universal imperial power of the Christian Text and yet the vulnerability of its message

    Johann-Albrecht Meylahn

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Is there anything outside the Christian Text or is the Christian Text all there is? The article will argue that the Christian Text has formed and shaped Western thinking to such an extent that it is impossible to think in the global world, co-created by various Western texts, without Christianity. The fact that the West colonised the world, and that today the Western media dominates the language of the global village, makes it nearly impossible to think outside the Christian Text and thus the universal domination by the Text. This article will first argue that for the Western-influenced world, there is nothing beyond the Christian Texts, and then it will argue that although this Text has universal (global dominance, there is an interpretation of its central message as a message of weakness and vulnerability, which challenges (deconstructs its imperialism. This leads towards the question: what is a possible praxis of such a universal and ‘imperial’ Text with its message of vulnerable weakness, specifically from a post-colonial context like South Africa?

  1. An Examination of Adolescent Recall of Anti-Smoking Messages: Attitudes, Message Type, and Message Perceptions.

    Bigsby, Elisabeth; Monahan, Jennifer L; Ewoldsen, David R

    2017-04-01

    Delayed message recall may be influenced by currently held accessible attitudes, the nature of the message, and message perceptions (perception of bias and message elaboration). This study examined the potential of message perceptions to mediate the influence of valenced attitude accessibility and message type on unaided recall of anti-smoking Public Service Announcements (PSAs). In a field experiment, ninth grade students (N = 244) watched three PSAs and responded to items on laptop computers. Twelve weeks later, follow-up telephone surveys were conducted to assess unaided recall. Both valenced attitude accessibility and message type were associated with message perceptions. However, only perception of message bias partially mediated the relationship between message type and unaided recall.

  2. Media Use and Performance in Air Force Organizations: Testing the Value of Media Richness Theory

    Harrison

    1997-01-01

    .... Media Richness Theory (MRT) recognizes that communication needs, and the ability of various media to support them, are influenced by a number of factors involving the message content, situational elements, and its symbolic aspects...

  3. Expanding the Scope of Instant Messaging with Bidirectional Haptic Communication

    Kim, Youngjae; Hahn, Minsoo

    2010-01-01

    This work was conducted on the combination of two fields, i.e., haptic and social messaging. Haptic is one of the most attention-drawing fields and the biggest buzzwords among nextgeneration users. Haptic is being applied to conventional devices such as the cellular phone and even the door lock. Diverse forms of media such as blogs, social network services, and instant messengers are used to send and receive messages. That is mainly why we focus on the messaging experience, the most frequent ...

  4. The Age of Interpretation

    Gianni Vattimo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gianni Vattimo, who is both a Catholic and a frequent critic of the Church, explores the surprising congruence between Christianity and hermeneutics in light of the dissolution of metaphysical truth. As in hermeneutics, Vatimo claims, interpretation is central to Christianity. Influenced by hermeneutics and borrowing largely from the Nietzschean and Heideggerian heritage, the Italian philosopher, who has been instrumental in promoting a nihilistic approach to Christianity, draws here on Nietzsche’s writings on nihilism, which is not to be understood in a purely negative sense. Vattimo suggests that nihilism not only expands the Christian message of charity, but also transforms it into its endless human potential. In “The Age of Interpretation,” the author shows that hermeneutical radicalism “reduces all reality to message,” so that the opposition between facts and norms turns out to be misguided, for both are governed by the interpretative paradigms through which someone (always a concrete, historically situated someone makes sense of them. Vattimo rejects some of the deplorable political consequences of hermeneutics and claims that traditional hermeneutics is in collusion with various political-ideological neutralizations.

  5. SMS Messaging Applications

    Pero, Nicola

    2009-01-01

    Cell phones are the most common communication device on the planet, and Short Message Service (SMS) is the chief channel for companies to offer services, accept requests, report news, and download binary files over cell phones. This guide describes the protocols and best practices (things that ensure you won't get sued or lose your right to offer a service) you need to know to make SMS messaging part of an organizational service. Issues such as character sets, differences among vendors, common practices in Europe and North America, and API choices are covered.

  6. Social media fingerprints of unemployment.

    Llorente, Alejandro; Garcia-Herranz, Manuel; Cebrian, Manuel; Moro, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    Recent widespread adoption of electronic and pervasive technologies has enabled the study of human behavior at an unprecedented level, uncovering universal patterns underlying human activity, mobility, and interpersonal communication. In the present work, we investigate whether deviations from these universal patterns may reveal information about the socio-economical status of geographical regions. We quantify the extent to which deviations in diurnal rhythm, mobility patterns, and communication styles across regions relate to their unemployment incidence. For this we examine a country-scale publicly articulated social media dataset, where we quantify individual behavioral features from over 19 million geo-located messages distributed among more than 340 different Spanish economic regions, inferred by computing communities of cohesive mobility fluxes. We find that regions exhibiting more diverse mobility fluxes, earlier diurnal rhythms, and more correct grammatical styles display lower unemployment rates. As a result, we provide a simple model able to produce accurate, easily interpretable reconstruction of regional unemployment incidence from their social-media digital fingerprints alone. Our results show that cost-effective economical indicators can be built based on publicly-available social media datasets.

  7. Social media fingerprints of unemployment.

    Alejandro Llorente

    Full Text Available Recent widespread adoption of electronic and pervasive technologies has enabled the study of human behavior at an unprecedented level, uncovering universal patterns underlying human activity, mobility, and interpersonal communication. In the present work, we investigate whether deviations from these universal patterns may reveal information about the socio-economical status of geographical regions. We quantify the extent to which deviations in diurnal rhythm, mobility patterns, and communication styles across regions relate to their unemployment incidence. For this we examine a country-scale publicly articulated social media dataset, where we quantify individual behavioral features from over 19 million geo-located messages distributed among more than 340 different Spanish economic regions, inferred by computing communities of cohesive mobility fluxes. We find that regions exhibiting more diverse mobility fluxes, earlier diurnal rhythms, and more correct grammatical styles display lower unemployment rates. As a result, we provide a simple model able to produce accurate, easily interpretable reconstruction of regional unemployment incidence from their social-media digital fingerprints alone. Our results show that cost-effective economical indicators can be built based on publicly-available social media datasets.

  8. New Texts, New Tools: An Argument for Media Literacy.

    McBrien, J. Lynn

    1999-01-01

    Adults cannot adequately prevent their children from observing media messages. Students are actually safer if they are educated about analyzing and assessing unsavory messages for themselves. Appropriate media-literacy pedagogy involves five essential elements: background, tools, deconstruction of media techniques, product evaluation, and original…

  9. "Where Is the Love?" Expanding and Theorizing With LGBTQ Memorable Messages of Sex and Sexuality.

    Rubinsky, Valerie; Cooke-Jackson, Angela

    2017-12-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) women exist as a population with an increased complexity in the relationship between themselves and their sexuality. For the LGBTQ community, sexual behaviors are often silenced or erased. This exploratory qualitative research examines 186 memorable messages that emerged from 91 LGBTQ women and gender minorities who participated in a national study. Each participant was asked to share memorable messages they received about sex, sexuality, and sexual health. Consistent with past research, "advice" was a common memorable messages form; however, negative attributes and media-derived messages emerged. The results contribute to understanding the messages that LGTBQ individuals confront on topics of sex and sexuality.

  10. Are Instant Messages Speech?

    Baron, Naomi S.

    Instant messaging (IM) is commonly viewed as a “spoken” medium, in light of its reputation for informality, non-standard spelling and punctuation, and use of lexical shortenings and emoticons. However, the actual nature of IM is an empirical issue that bears linguistic analysis.

  11. Microprocessorized message multiplexer

    Ejzman, S.; Guglielmi, L.; Jaeger, J.J.

    1980-07-01

    The 'Microprocessorized Message Multiplexer' is an elementary development tool used to create and debug the software of a target microprocessor (User Module: UM). It connects together four devices: a terminal, a cassette recorder, the target microprocessor and a host computer where macro and editor for the M 6800 microprocessor are resident [fr

  12. The Prodiguer Messaging Platform

    Denvil, S.; Greenslade, M. A.; Carenton, N.; Levavasseur, G.; Raciazek, J.

    2015-12-01

    CONVERGENCE is a French multi-partner national project designed to gather HPC and informatics expertise to innovate in the context of running French global climate models with differing grids and at differing resolutions. Efficient and reliable execution of these models and the management and dissemination of model output are some of the complexities that CONVERGENCE aims to resolve.At any one moment in time, researchers affiliated with the Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL) climate modeling group, are running hundreds of global climate simulations. These simulations execute upon a heterogeneous set of French High Performance Computing (HPC) environments. The IPSL's simulation execution runtime libIGCM (library for IPSL Global Climate Modeling group) has recently been enhanced so as to support hitherto impossible realtime use cases such as simulation monitoring, data publication, metrics collection, simulation control, visualizations … etc. At the core of this enhancement is Prodiguer: an AMQP (Advanced Message Queue Protocol) based event driven asynchronous distributed messaging platform. libIGCM now dispatches copious amounts of information, in the form of messages, to the platform for remote processing by Prodiguer software agents at IPSL servers in Paris. Such processing takes several forms: Persisting message content to database(s); Launching rollback jobs upon simulation failure; Notifying downstream applications; Automation of visualization pipelines; We will describe and/or demonstrate the platform's: Technical implementation; Inherent ease of scalability; Inherent adaptiveness in respect to supervising simulations; Web portal receiving simulation notifications in realtime.

  13. 3. Secure Messaging

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 1. Electronic Commerce - Secure Messaging. V Rajaraman. Series Article Volume 6 Issue 1 January 2001 pp 8-17. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/01/0008-0017 ...

  14. Does the Screening Status of Message Characters Affect Message Effects?

    Alber, Julia M.; Glanz, Karen

    2018-01-01

    Public health messages can be used to increase awareness about colorectal cancer screenings. Free or inexpensive images for creating health messages are readily available, yet little is known about how a pictured individual's engagement in the behavior of interest affects message outcomes. Participants (N = 360), aged 50 to 75 years, completed an…

  15. Production of trichothecenes and other secondary metabolites by Fusarium culmorum and Fusarium equiseti on common laboratory media and a soil organic matter agar: An ecological interpretation

    Hestbjerg, H.; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Thrane, Ulf

    2002-01-01

    trichothecene production was detected for 94 of 102 F culmorum isolates, only 8 of 57 F equiseti isolates were positive. Profiles of secondary metabolites were compared by following growth on yeast extract sucrose agar (YES), potato sucrose agar (PSA), and an agar medium, prepared from soil organic matter (SOM......), which was included to simulate growth, conditions in soil. SOM supported the production of chrysogine by F culmorum. The two species utilized the media differently. F culmorum produced zearalenone (ZEA) on YES, whereas some F. equiseti isolates produced ZEA on PSA. Other F. equiseti isolates produced...

  16. Tracing How Normative Messages May Influence Physical Activity Intention.

    van Bavel, René; Esposito, Gabriele; Baranowski, Tom; Duch-Brown, Néstor

    2017-04-01

    Normative messages have been shown to increase intention to do physical activity. We traced how "positive" and "negative" normative messages influenced physical activity intention by comparing constructs of the model of goal-directed behavior with descriptive norms (MGDB + DNs) across control and treatment groups in an experiment. For this purpose, 16-24-year-old respondents (n = 1,200) in Bulgaria, Croatia, and Romania were asked about their age, sex, and levels of physical activity before being exposed to positive and negative normative messages and completing a questionnaire with MGDB + DNs scales. Different MGDB + DNs constructs were influenced by the normative messages: compared with the control, the negative message group showed stronger attitudes (p = .003) and the positive message group showed higher positive anticipated emotions (p = .005). The positive message's effect is consistent with the literature on conformity to social norms. The negative message's effect lends itself to interpretations based on social identity and deviance regulation theories.

  17. Degree sequence in message transfer

    Yamuna, M.

    2017-11-01

    Message encryption is always an issue in current communication scenario. Methods are being devised using various domains. Graphs satisfy numerous unique properties which can be used for message transfer. In this paper, I propose a message encryption method based on degree sequence of graphs.

  18. Message from Fermilab Director

    2009-01-01

    With this issue’s message, Fermilab Director Pier Oddone opens a new series of occasional exchanges between CERN and other laboratories world-wide. As part of this exchange, CERN Director-General Rolf Heuer, wrote a message in Tuesday’s edition of Fermilab TodayPerspectivesNothing is more important for our worldwide particle physics community than successfully turning on the LHC later this year. The promise for great discoveries is huge, and many of the plans for our future depend on LHC results. Those of us planning national programmes in anticipation of data from the LHC face formidable challenges to develop future facilities that are complementary to the LHC, whatever the physics discoveries may be. At Fermilab, this has led us to move forcefully with a programme at the intensity frontier, where experiments with neutrinos and rare decays open a complementary window into nature. Our ultimate goal for a unified picture of nat...

  19. Social Media as Collaborative Media in Workplace Learning

    Thomas, Kristopher J.; Akdere, Mesut

    2013-01-01

    As a result of rapid changes in technology, much is discussed about the use of social media in branding, marketing, and in general corporate communications. The intensity with which social media tools--blogs, wikis, Twitter, instant messaging (IM) and Facebook, among others--have proliferated is staggering. Increasingly important is the role of…

  20. Manipulative Use of Short Messaging Service (SMS Text Messages by Nigerian Telecommunications Companies

    Ayoola, Kehinde A.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an application of Relevance Theory for the interpretation of short messaging service (SMS text messages emanating from Nigerian telecommunications companies to their subscribers. The aim of the research was to identify and describe the manipulative strategies employed by Nigerian telecommunications companies to induce subscribers to part with their money through sales promotion lotteries. 100 SMS texts were purposively extracted from the cell phones of randomly selected residents of Lagos Nigeria who had received promotional SMS text messages from three major Nigerian telecommunications companies. Using Sperber and Wilson's Relevance Theory (1995 as its theoretical framework, the paper described the manipulative use of SMS by Nigerian telecommunications companies. The analysis revealed that SMS text messages were encoded to achieve maximization of relevance through explicature and implicature; contextual implication and strengthening; and the reduction of processing effort through violating the maxim of truthfulness and the creative use of graphology. The paper concludes that SMS text-messages were used manipulatively by Nigerian telecommunications companies to earn indirect income from sales promotion lottery.

  1. Lost in Interpretation – Communicating Risk to the Public

    Meschenmoser, P.

    2016-01-01

    Communicating radiation incidents and emergencies to the public always has been challenging. No other type of emergency is related to such disproportional risk perception, so little public knowledge about the subject matter and so many contradicting expert analyses when it comes to public communications. The rise of social media and citizen journalism resulted in a dramatic acceleration of global communications and widespread misinformation. News does not break on television anymore but on Twitter, Facebook & Co. As a consequence, professional communicators not only have to take initiative considerably faster than in the past and deal with rumours. Their message has to be brief and on the point and is sometimes limited to just some 140 characters, the maximum length of a Tweet. More than ever it is essential to timely communicate in plain language and to clearly tell what needs to be done to be safe and to remain safe. Otherwise, the public will be lost in interpretation. (author)

  2. Lost in Interpretation – Communicating Risk to the Public

    Meschenmoser, P.

    2017-01-01

    Communicating radiation incidents and emergencies to the public always has been challenging. No other type of emergency is related to such disproportional risk perception, so little public knowledge about the subject matter and so many contradicting expert analyses when it comes to public communications. The rise of social media and citizen journalism resulted in a dramatic acceleration of global communications and widespread misinformation. News does not break on television anymore but on Twitter, Facebook & Co. As a consequence, professional communicators not only have to take initiative considerably faster than in the past and deal with rumours. Their message has to be brief and on the point and is sometimes limited to just some 140 characters, the maximum length of a Tweet. More than ever it is essential to timely communicate in plain language and to clearly tell what needs to be done to be safe and to remain safe. Otherwise, the public will be lost in interpretation. (author)

  3. A Message Without a Code?

    Tom Conley

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available The photographic paradox is said to be that of a message without a code, a communication lacking a relay or gap essential to the process of communication. Tracing the recurrence of Barthes's definition in the essays included in Image/Music/Text and in La Chambre claire , this paper argues that Barthes's definition is platonic in its will to dematerialize the troubling — graphic — immediacy of the photograph. He writes of the image in order to flee its signature. As a function of media, his categories are written in order to be insufficient and inadequate; to maintain an ineluctable difference between language heard and letters seen; to protect an idiom of loss which the photograph disallows. The article studies the strategies of his definition in «The Photographic Paradox» as instrument of abstraction, opposes the notion of code, in an aural sense, to audio-visual markers of closed relay in advertising, and critiques the layout and order of La Chambre claire in respect to Barthes's ideology of absence.

  4. Expanding Media Reach

    2007-11-01

    In this podcast, two nurses serving a Chinese American community show how they have used local ethnic media to communicate health messages.  Created: 11/1/2007 by National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), a joint program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.   Date Released: 11/11/2007.

  5. Shaping guanxi networks at work through instant messaging

    Ou, Carol; Davison, R.M.

    Instant messaging (IM) has become increasingly prevalent in social life. However, the use of IM at work remains controversial, owing to its unclear benefits to organizations. In this study, we employ media performance theories and the concept model of communicative ecology to examine the impact of

  6. Exploring Factors Influencing Mobile Users' Intention to Adopt Multimedia Messaging Service

    Chang, Shuchih Ernest; Pan, Ying-Hui Vera

    2011-01-01

    While short messaging service (SMS) is discussed often in recent literature, multimedia messaging service (MMS), a media rich successor of SMS, is seldom heard or understood by mobile users in Taiwan. The adoption rates of MMS are far from satisfactory, implying that there might be some factors keeping the potential users away from using MMS. This…

  7. How Do Skilled and Less-Skilled Spellers Write Text Messages? A Longitudinal Study

    Bernicot, J.; Goumi, A.; Bert-Erboul, A.; Volckaert-Legrier, O.

    2014-01-01

    The link between students' spelling level and their text-messaging practice gives rise to numerous questions from teachers, parents and the media. A corpus of 4524 text messages produced in daily-life situations by students in sixth and seventh grade (n?=?19, 11-12 years of age) was compiled. None of the participants had ever owned or used a…

  8. Evaluation of driver reactions for effective use of dynamic message signs in Richmond, Virginia.

    2010-02-01

    Dynamic message signs (DMS) are used in conjunction with other media to communicate traffic conditions, general information, and recommended diversion strategies to motorists. Previous studies using loop detector data to estimate diversion rates attr...

  9. Interpretative commenting.

    Vasikaran, Samuel

    2008-08-01

    * Clinical laboratories should be able to offer interpretation of the results they produce. * At a minimum, contact details for interpretative advice should be available on laboratory reports.Interpretative comments may be verbal or written and printed. * Printed comments on reports should be offered judiciously, only where they would add value; no comment preferred to inappropriate or dangerous comment. * Interpretation should be based on locally agreed or nationally recognised clinical guidelines where available. * Standard tied comments ("canned" comments) can have some limited use.Individualised narrative comments may be particularly useful in the case of tests that are new, complex or unfamiliar to the requesting clinicians and where clinical details are available. * Interpretative commenting should only be provided by appropriately trained and credentialed personnel. * Audit of comments and continued professional development of personnel providing them are important for quality assurance.

  10. Fighting obesity or obese persons? Public perceptions of obesity-related health messages.

    Puhl, R; Peterson, J L; Luedicke, J

    2013-06-01

    This study examined public perceptions of obesity-related public health media campaigns with specific emphasis on the extent to which campaign messages are perceived to be motivating or stigmatizing. In summer 2011, data were collected online from a nationally representative sample of 1014 adults. Participants viewed a random selection of 10 (from a total of 30) messages from major obesity public health campaigns from the United States, the United Kingdom and Australia, and rated each campaign message according to positive and negative descriptors, including whether it was stigmatizing or motivating. Participants also reported their familiarity with each message and their intentions to comply with the message content. Participants responded most favorably to messages involving themes of increased fruit and vegetable consumption, and general messages involving multiple health behaviors. Messages that have been publicly criticized for their stigmatizing content received the most negative ratings and the lowest intentions to comply with message content. Furthermore, messages that were perceived to be most positive and motivating made no mention of the word 'obesity' at all, and instead focused on making healthy behavioral changes without reference to body weight. These findings have important implications for framing messages in public health campaigns to address obesity, and suggest that certain types of messages may lead to increased motivation for behavior change among the public, whereas others may be perceived as stigmatizing and instill less motivation to improve health.

  11. Influence of Advertisement Message on Fitbar Billboard Towards Brand Awareness and Its Implication to Brand Image

    Yuliana Riana Pand

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The assumption that snacks could cause problem in diet and bodyweight, makes this study interesting. Because this product, Fitbar, appears on the market as a healthy snack that is contrary to this assumption. This product is about to prove that there is a healthy and tasty snack as snacks. Marketing communications through advertising billboards with the media aims to reach the target market. Fitbar billboard ads convey the message content in the form of information about the attributes and benefits of products such as nutritional content and product slogans. This study uses path analysis techniques to determine the effect of variable X (advertisement message to variable Y (brand awareness and its implications on the variable Z (brand image. The results showed that the content of the message components such as message structure, message display, message format, and the source of the message have contributed in the formation of brand awareness, which further on has implications on brand image. Influence on brand awareness message content is equal to 0.609. The effect of variable X (message and Y (brand awareness to variable Z (brand image amounted to 0,365. Therefore, the use of billboards media in conveying the message to the target market of Fitbar products is to build brand awareness and the implications for brand image. 

  12. A finite parallel zone model to interpret and extend Giddings' coupling theory for the eddy-dispersion in porous chromatographic media.

    Desmet, Gert

    2013-11-01

    The finite length parallel zone (FPZ)-model is proposed as an alternative model for the axial- or eddy-dispersion caused by the occurrence of local velocity biases or flow heterogeneities in porous media such as those used in liquid chromatography columns. The mathematical plate height expression evolving from the model shows that the A- and C-term band broadening effects that can originate from a given velocity bias should be coupled in an exponentially decaying way instead of harmonically as proposed in Giddings' coupling theory. In the low and high velocity limit both models converge, while a 12% difference can be observed in the (practically most relevant) intermediate range of reduced velocities. Explicit expressions for the A- and C-constants appearing in the exponential decay-based plate height expression have been derived for each of the different possible velocity bias levels (single through-pore and particle level, multi-particle level and trans-column level). These expressions allow to directly relate the band broadening originating from these different levels to the local fundamental transport parameters, hence offering the possibility to include a velocity-dependent and, if, needed retention factor-dependent transversal dispersion coefficient. Having developed the mathematics for the general case wherein a difference in retention equilibrium establishes between the two parallel zones, the effect of any possible local variations in packing density and/or retention capacity on the eddy-dispersion can be explicitly accounted for as well. It is furthermore also shown that, whereas the lumped transport parameter model used in the basic variant of the FPZ-model only provides a first approximation of the true decay constant, the model can be extended by introducing a constant correction factor to correctly account for the continuous transversal dispersion transport in the velocity bias zones. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Objective interpretation as conforming interpretation

    Lidka Rodak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The practical discourse willingly uses the formula of “objective interpretation”, with no regards to its controversial nature that has been discussed in literature.The main aim of the article is to investigate what “objective interpretation” could mean and how it could be understood in the practical discourse, focusing on the understanding offered by judicature.The thesis of the article is that objective interpretation, as identified with textualists’ position, is not possible to uphold, and should be rather linked with conforming interpretation. And what this actually implies is that it is not the virtue of certainty and predictability – which are usually associated with objectivity- but coherence that makes the foundation of applicability of objectivity in law.What could be observed from the analyses, is that both the phenomenon of conforming interpretation and objective interpretation play the role of arguments in the interpretive discourse, arguments that provide justification that interpretation is not arbitrary or subjective. With regards to the important part of the ideology of legal application which is the conviction that decisions should be taken on the basis of law in order to exclude arbitrariness, objective interpretation could be read as a question “what kind of authority “supports” certain interpretation”? that is almost never free of judicial creativity and judicial activism.One can say that, objective and conforming interpretation are just another arguments used in legal discourse.

  14. Antioxidant health messages in Canadian women's magazines.

    Steinberg, Alissa; Paisley, Judy; Bandayrel, Kristofer

    2011-01-01

    Recently, antioxidants have taken centre stage in media and advertising messages. While 80% of Canadians think they are well-informed about nutrition, many are confused about the health effects of specific nutrients. Forty-six percent of Canadians seek information from newspapers and books, and 67% of women rely on magazines. We examined the content and accuracy of antioxidant health messages in Canadian women's magazines. The top three Canadian magazines targeted at women readers were selected. A screening tool was developed, pilot tested, and used to identify eligible articles. A coding scheme was created to define variables, which were coded and analyzed. Seventy-seven percent of 36 magazine issues contained articles that mentioned antioxidants (n=56). Seventy-one percent (n=40) of articles reported positive health effects related to antioxidant consumption, and 36% and 40% of those articles framed those effects as definite and potential, respectively (p<0.01). The articles sampled conveyed messages about positive antioxidant health effects that are not supported by current evidence. Improved standards of health reporting are needed. Nutrition professionals may need to address this inaccuracy when they develop communications on antioxidants and health risk.

  15. Interpretations of Resilience and Change and The Catalytic Roles of Media: A Case of Canadian Daily Newspaper Discourse on Natural Disasters

    Choudhury, Mahed-Ul-Islam; Emdad Haque, C.

    2018-02-01

    The varied interpretations of the concept of resilience in natural hazards research literature has attracted numerous criticisms. A common criticism centers around a poor understanding of the changes caused by natural disasters by the research stream. Considering resilience as a metaphor of change, and newspaper as a catalyst that often highlights post-disaster opportunities for "forward looking" (rather than bouncing back) changes, we examined some specific aspects of change in Canadian communities by analyzing coverage of natural disasters in daily newspapers. We posit that post-disaster newspaper discourse on resilience and change can not only assist enhancing academic inquiries on resilience but also contribute to improving practices for transformative changes in post-disaster contexts. We adopted a social constructivist approach to analyzing newspaper discourse, using the ProQuest database to find articles from the 1996-2017 period. The findings exhibited a trend of the increased use of narratives on resilience in Canadian newspapers since the 1990s that substantiates the hypothesis that transformative change in the personal and practical spheres requires alteration of peoples' attitude, behavior, and thinking toward environmental risks. The discourse emphasized incremental changes at the policy level: (i) to improve response and recovery, and (ii) to address the needs of vulnerable and disaster-affected population. Our findings overall underscore the importance of documentation and efforts towards streamlining learning; application of learning at multiple interconnected levels for progressive changes to enhance community resilience, and the need for building consensus among academicians, practitioners and policy makers regarding the meaning and use of the concept of resilience.

  16. Interpretations of Resilience and Change and The Catalytic Roles of Media: A Case of Canadian Daily Newspaper Discourse on Natural Disasters.

    Choudhury, Mahed-Ul-Islam; Emdad Haque, C

    2018-02-01

    The varied interpretations of the concept of resilience in natural hazards research literature has attracted numerous criticisms. A common criticism centers around a poor understanding of the changes caused by natural disasters by the research stream. Considering resilience as a metaphor of change, and newspaper as a catalyst that often highlights post-disaster opportunities for "forward looking" (rather than bouncing back) changes, we examined some specific aspects of change in Canadian communities by analyzing coverage of natural disasters in daily newspapers. We posit that post-disaster newspaper discourse on resilience and change can not only assist enhancing academic inquiries on resilience but also contribute to improving practices for transformative changes in post-disaster contexts. We adopted a social constructivist approach to analyzing newspaper discourse, using the ProQuest database to find articles from the 1996-2017 period. The findings exhibited a trend of the increased use of narratives on resilience in Canadian newspapers since the 1990s that substantiates the hypothesis that transformative change in the personal and practical spheres requires alteration of peoples' attitude, behavior, and thinking toward environmental risks. The discourse emphasized incremental changes at the policy level: (i) to improve response and recovery, and (ii) to address the needs of vulnerable and disaster-affected population. Our findings overall underscore the importance of documentation and efforts towards streamlining learning; application of learning at multiple interconnected levels for progressive changes to enhance community resilience, and the need for building consensus among academicians, practitioners and policy makers regarding the meaning and use of the concept of resilience.

  17. Reaching adolescent girls through social networking: a new avenue for smoking prevention messages.

    Struik, Laura Louise; Bottorff, Joan L; Jung, Mary; Budgen, Claire

    2012-09-01

    Because adolescent girls are being targeted on social networking sites by the tobacco industry, new online tobacco control (TC) initiatives are needed. The purpose of this interpretive descriptive study was to explore adolescent girls' perspectives on the use of social networking sites to deliver TC messages targeting young women. Focus groups were conducted with 17 girls aged 16 to 19. Seven TC messages were provided for evaluation and as context for discussion about the delivery of TC messages on social networking sites. Data were analyzed for themes, which included concerns about the effectiveness of current TC messages and the stereotypical representations of gender, factors perceived to influence the effectiveness of TC messages on social networking sites, and suggestions for enhancing the effectiveness of TC messages placed on social networking sites. Endorsement of TC messaging on social networking sites suggests that this medium is an untapped resource for smoking prevention.

  18. Visual communication on social media Case: Suomen Partiolaiset

    Tuominen, Enni

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate what kind of visual messages the Central Association of Scouts and Guides in Finland use in their social media, how the messages are perceived and how they could be optimized. The theoretical part explains the key concepts of social media and how it is used among Finnish youth. The chosen social media platforms, Instagram and Twitter are also looked into, fol-lowed by chapters explaining the science of studying social media monitoring, visual m...

  19. Media in Action: From Exorcism to Mesmerism

    Stephan Gregory

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Bavaria of 1775, the popular exorcist practices performed by the catholic priest Johann Joseph Gassner were discredited and superseded by the enlightened, ‘scientific’ system of Franz Anton Mesmers “Animal Magnetism”. As the article argues, this replacement could happen so easily because–below the apparent ideological differences–both procedures were based on the same idea of technical functioning, they relied on the same principle of operation. Gassnerism as well as Mesmerism revolved around the idea of communication, and in both cases this ‘communication’ was not about conveying a message, a meaning, it was a about mediating between two corporeal states which were marked by an imbalance of energy. In the frame of this common operating system, the message was nothing, transmission everything; and so both Gassner’s and Mesmer’s deliberations concentrated on the technical means and media which could allow for such a transport of forces. A hypothesis drawn from this episode is that throughout the early modern period there can be found basically two ways of understanding supernatural communication (and, maybe, communication tout court: One might be called ‘contact paradigm’ and would among others include the practices of Gassner and Mesmer, the second one could be named ‘code paradigm’ and would unite all magical practices primarily based on the interpretation of signs. Perhaps one can find here an origin of the theoretical bifurcations that still govern todays media and communication studies: medium vs. message, channel vs. content, hardware vs. software, presence culture vs. meaning culture.

  20. Children, Adolescents, and the Media.

    2013-11-01

    Media, from television to the "new media" (including cell phones, iPads, and social media), are a dominant force in children's lives. Although television is still the predominant medium for children and adolescents, new technologies are increasingly popular. The American Academy of Pediatrics continues to be concerned by evidence about the potential harmful effects of media messages and images; however, important positive and prosocial effects of media use should also be recognized. Pediatricians are encouraged to take a media history and ask 2 media questions at every well-child visit: How much recreational screen time does your child or teenager consume daily? Is there a television set or Internet-connected device in the child's bedroom? Parents are encouraged to establish a family home use plan for all media. Media influences on children and teenagers should be recognized by schools, policymakers, product advertisers, and entertainment producers. Copyright © 2013 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  1. A Messaging Infrastructure for WLCG

    Casey, James; Cons, Lionel; Lapka, Wojciech; Paladin, Massimo; Skaburskas, Konstantin

    2011-01-01

    During the EGEE-III project operational tools such as SAM, Nagios, Gridview, the regional Dashboard and GGUS moved to a communication architecture based on ActiveMQ, an open-source enterprise messaging solution. LHC experiments, in particular ATLAS, developed prototypes of systems using the same messaging infrastructure, validating the system for their use-cases. In this paper we describe the WLCG messaging use cases and outline an improved messaging architecture based on the experience gained during the EGEE-III period. We show how this provides a solid basis for many applications, including the grid middleware, to improve their resilience and reliability.

  2. Comics: a medium for today's development messages.

    Opilas, E A

    1978-03-01

    Filipino illustrated magazines, or the comics, may yet prove to be the most effective media, if not the most effective, for spreading the country's development messages. Long criticized by intellectuals and the social elite, the comics have been grossly underrated in their potential to inform, persuade, and even influence the life-style of the people. The government's Commission on Population (Popcom) has developed an information-education-communication program using the comics, among other media, to disseminate stories on family planning, responsible parenthood, and related topics. Its best quality is popular appeal, and for publishers and distribution outlets, the comics provide good business. A review of these materials shows that their themes reflect the following topics or issues: 1) population trends and consequences; 2) socioeconomic benefits of family planning; 3) customs which influence family planning; 4) family planning concepts; 5) family planning methods; 6) human sexuality and reproduction; 7) the husband-wife relationship; 8) guides for family planning motivation or communication; and 9) guides for teaching family planning. The materials were developed with 4 qualities in mind so as to attract audience or reader interest: simplicity, familiarity, realism, and attractiveness of materials. The consensus is that in the comics, population and development agencies may have found a "secret weapon" in getting these messages across, and that this new-found use for the illustrated magazines may be giving them a new respectability without in any way diminishing their popular appeal.

  3. Electronic folklore among teenagers: SMS messages

    Cvjetićanin Tijana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of ICT media made way for a new form of folklore communication. Newly developed media, such as mobile phones, make it possible for their users to participate in electronically mediated communication, thus approaching the form of oral communication. The exchange of special type of SMS text messages represents a new way of transmitting contemporary folklore short forms. These messages use poetic language, they have standard style themes, patterns and formulas, and they form different genres and categories corresponding with already existing familiar folklore forms. The communication process that happens during the exchange of these messages also has folklore’s characteristics: it takes place within small groups, the communication is informal, the texts circulate in chain style, and undergo different transformation which generates the making of variants, etc. This form of electronic folklore is especially popular among teenagers, where it’s social functions and meanings are also most emphasized. Within this population, it adds to an older tradition of children’s written folklore poetry albums. Like poetry albums, SMS exchange influences the development of girls’ gender identity, providing also a socially defined channel for contacts between the sexes. It also functions as a mechanism of socialization and stratification within the group. At the same time, it creates a new field of meaning, which derives from the very media’s novelty and significance. In this sense, the exchange of SMS represents a symbolic act of acknowledging one’s belonging to the group of mobile telephone users. In this way, a new phenomenon is being symbolically processed through a new form of folklore.

  4. Survey of Instant Messaging Applications Encryption Methods

    Kabakuş, Abdullah; Kara, Resul

    2015-01-01

    Instant messaging applications has already taken the place of traditional Short Messaging Service (SMS) and Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) due to their popularity and usage easement they provide. Users of instant messaging applications are able to send both text and audio messages, different types of attachments such as photos, videos, contact information to their contacts in real time. Because of instant messaging applications use internet instead of Short Message Service Technical Reali...

  5. Subliminal Messages in Advertising.

    Olson, Miles C.

    The technique of subliminal information giving has been considerably broadened in recent years so that magazine ads now employ it by carefully hiding images where they are not usually perceived with the conscious eye. In his recent book, "Subliminal Seduction: Ad Media's Manipulation of a Not So Innocent America," Wilson B. Key…

  6. Lexical Cues of Interaction Involvement in Dyadic Instant Messaging Conversations

    Nguyen, Duyen T.; Fussell, Susan R.

    2014-01-01

    We explore how people express and interpret lexical cues of interaction involvement in dyadic conversations via instant messaging (IM) in two studies. In Study 1, an experiment with 60 participants, we manipulated level of involvement in a conversation with a distraction task. We examined how participants' uses of verbal cues such as pronouns…

  7. Social media sentiment and consumer confidence

    Daas, Piet J.H.; Puts, Marco J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the sentiment of Dutch public social media messages were compared with changes in monthly consumer confidence over a period of three-and-a-half years, revealing that both were highly correlated (up to r = 0.9) and that both series cointegrated. This phenomenon is predominantly affected by changes in the sentiment of all Dutch public Facebook messages. The inclusion of various selections of public Twitter messages improved this association and the response to changes in sentiment. G...

  8. Penultimate interpretation.

    Neuman, Yair

    2010-10-01

    Interpretation is at the center of psychoanalytic activity. However, interpretation is always challenged by that which is beyond our grasp, the 'dark matter' of our mind, what Bion describes as ' O'. O is one of the most central and difficult concepts in Bion's thought. In this paper, I explain the enigmatic nature of O as a high-dimensional mental space and point to the price one should pay for substituting the pre-symbolic lexicon of the emotion-laden and high-dimensional unconscious for a low-dimensional symbolic representation. This price is reification--objectifying lived experience and draining it of vitality and complexity. In order to address the difficulty of approaching O through symbolization, I introduce the term 'Penultimate Interpretation'--a form of interpretation that seeks 'loopholes' through which the analyst and the analysand may reciprocally save themselves from the curse of reification. Three guidelines for 'Penultimate Interpretation' are proposed and illustrated through an imaginary dialogue. Copyright © 2010 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  9. A Visualized Message Interface (VMI) for intelligent messaging services

    Endo, T.; Kasahara, H.; Nakagawa, T.

    1984-01-01

    In CCITT, Message Handling Systems (MHS) have been studied from the viewpoint of communications protocol standardization. In addition to MHS services, Message Processing (MP) services, such as image processing, filing and retrieving services, will come into increasing demand in office automation field. These messaging services, including MHS services, can be thought of as Intelligent Messaging (IM) services. IM services include many basic services, optional user facilities and service parameters. Accordingly, it is necessary to deal with these parameters and MP procedures in as systematic and user-friendly a manner as possible. As one step towards realizing a user-friendly IM services interface, the characteristics of IM service parameters are studied and a Visualized Message Interface (VMI) which resembles a conventional letter exchange format is presented. The concept of VMI formation is discussed using the generic document structure concept as well as a Screen Interface and Protocol Interface conversion package

  10. Women candidates: the relationships between gender, media and discourse

    Claudia Maria Finamore

    Full Text Available On this paper we discuss, within the cross over of two representations - woman and politic function - the media’s power to influence voters’ choices and their roles as interpreters of media messages. Under a position that understands the relativity of the media’s power, we set the idea of gender discourse as a mediator of its influence. Whereas literature shows how a candidate suffers an important effect of media exposition, transformed in a marketing product, we suggest that women in politics suffer from the stereotype that states "women’s place is at home". We conclude that women politic participation is strongly linked to the way in which they are represented in the common sense and a change in the hegemonic discourses about women that cross individuals and social groups becomes necessary as to have this situation modified.

  11. The message architecture of the LEP control system

    Altaber, J.; van der Stok, P.; Frammery, V.; Gareyte, C.; Rausch, R.

    1985-01-01

    The LEP control system will be constructed as a global communication system where microprocessors will be used everywhere, from the management of the communication mechanisms, the execution of complex control procedures, and the supervision of the equipment. To achieve this, the global control problem has been cut into sizeable functions which will be encapsulated into microprocessor modules containing enough hardware for the function to be mostly self-contained. This leads to a function architecture where messages are exchanged between the functions on miscellaneous media. It is shown how these message exchanges can be organized into a uniform flow of data all through the system

  12. Interpreting Physics

    MacKinnon, Edward

    2012-01-01

    This book is the first to offer a systematic account of the role of language in the development and interpretation of physics. An historical-conceptual analysis of the co-evolution of mathematical and physical concepts leads to the classical/quatum interface. Bohrian orthodoxy stresses the indispensability of classical concepts and the functional role of mathematics. This book analyses ways of extending, and then going beyond this orthodoxy orthodoxy. Finally, the book analyzes how a revised interpretation of physics impacts on basic philosophical issues: conceptual revolutions, realism, and r

  13. The underlying processes of creative media advertising

    Rauwers, F.; van Noort, G.; Verlegh, P.; Voorveld, H.; Eisend, M.

    2016-01-01

    Consumers are exposed to a large volume of advertising messages on a daily basis. This excess of commercial messages is called advertising clutter. Marketers are searching for new innovative advertising strategies to break through this clutter and creative media advertising is considered as one of

  14. Understanding Self-Effects in Social Media

    Valkenburg, P.M.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to improve understanding of self-effects in social media, and to compare self-effects with reception effects. Self-effects are the effects of messages the cognitions, emotions, attitudes, and behaviors of the message creators/senders themselves. A total of 4 theories have

  15. The media`s reception of the risk associated with radioactive disasters

    Vettenranta, S. [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Dragvoll (Norway). Dept. of edcation

    1996-12-31

    There is an urgent need to develop methodologies to examine the response by the media to radioactive disasters. `Reception study` is a new research approach in the field of mass communication, studying how the viewers construct meaning from TV news. This ongoing reception study explores how fifteen respondents, all involved in the Chernobyl disaster in 1986, recall and interpret TV news coverage nine years after the accident. The main aim is to discover how the news affects the recipients` interpretations of a disaster and what kind of thoughts, reactions and associations risk messages provoke in retrospect, in the present and in the beliefs about the future. The initial findings indicate that the Chernobyl news on TV was mainly based on technical rationality, while viewers construct meaning founded on symbolic, cultural rationality. The transmission of catastrophe news is not just a matter of responding to the information needs of the public. Denotative risk messages simultaneously convey connotative, symbolic resonance of risk on a metaphysical level. (author).

  16. Calcium, Vitamin D, Iron, and Folate Messages in Three Canadian Magazines.

    Cooper, Marcia; Zalot, Lindsay; Wadsworth, Laurie A

    2014-12-01

    Data from the Canadian Community Health Survey showed that calcium, vitamin D, iron, and folate are nutrients of concern for females 19-50 years of age. The study objectives were to assess the quantity, format, and accuracy of messages related to these nutrients in selected Canadian magazines and to examine their congruency with Canadian nutrition policies. Using content analysis methodology, messages were coded using a stratified sample of a constructed year for Canadian Living, Chatelaine, and Homemakers magazines (n = 33) from 2003-2008. Pilot research was conducted to assess inter-coder agreement and to develop the study coding sheet and codebook. The messages identified (n = 595) averaged 18 messages per magazine issue. The most messages were found for calcium, followed by folate, iron, and vitamin D, and the messages were found primarily in articles (46%) and advertisements (37%). Overall, most messages were coded as accurate (82%) and congruent with Canadian nutrition policies (90%). This research demonstrated that the majority of messages in 3 Canadian magazines between 2003 and 2008 were accurate and reflected Canadian nutrition policies. Because Canadian women continue to receive much nutrition information via print media, this research provides important insights for dietitians into media messaging.

  17. Populism and the media

    Esser, Frank; Stepinska, Agnieszka; Hopmann, David Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    European media systems have gone through major changes in the last few decades, and these changes have included increased opportunity structures for the dissemination of populist messages. Chapter 12 (‘Switzerland’) rightly states that the disappearance of the traditional party press, increased...... media ownership concentration, dependence on advertising, and a stronger orientation toward news values have worked in favor of a growing populist discourse. The newly established online media are seen as having a high afnity to populism’s rhetorical persuasion because both aim for the “quick kick....../click” with a broad audience. As was stated in Chapter 1 in this volume, the role that the media play in the dissemination of populism is largely under-explored. In the classical research literature dealing with populism (see, e.g., Canovan, 1981; Taggart, 2000), communication and media are not addressed at all. When...

  18. Performing Interpretation

    Kothe, Elsa Lenz; Berard, Marie-France

    2013-01-01

    Utilizing a/r/tographic methodology to interrogate interpretive acts in museums, multiple areas of inquiry are raised in this paper, including: which knowledge is assigned the greatest value when preparing a gallery talk; what lies outside of disciplinary knowledge; how invitations to participate invite and disinvite in the same gesture; and what…

  19. Using Text Message Surveys to Evaluate a Mobile Sexual Health Question-and-Answer Service.

    Willoughby, Jessica Fitts; L'Engle, Kelly Ladin; Jackson, Kennon; Brickman, Jared

    2018-01-01

    Text message programs for sexual health are becoming increasingly popular as practitioners aim to meet youth on media they use frequently. Two-way mobile health (mHealth) interventions allow for feedback solicitation from participants. This study explores the use of a text message survey to assess demographics and program feedback from users of an adolescent sexual health text message question-and-answer service. Development and feasibility of the short-message service survey are discussed. The text message survey achieved a 43.9% response rate, which is comparable to response rates of surveys conducted via other methods. When compared to respondents who used the service and completed an online in-school questionnaire, text survey respondents were more likely to be female and older. They also reported higher service satisfaction. Results have implications for text message service providers and researchers. This article examines a community application of a new intervention strategy and research methodology.

  20. Juggling with media : The consequences of media multitasking for adolescent development

    van der Schuur, W.A.

    2018-01-01

    More than ever, adolescents juggle with media. They use multiple media simultaneously, for example, they send text messages to their friends while watching a movie. In addition, they use media during academic and social activities, such as watching YouTube videos while doing homework. Although this

  1. MODERN MEDIA EDUCATION MODELS

    Alexander Fedorov

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The author supposed that media education models can be divided into the following groups:- educational-information models (the study of the theory, history, language of media culture, etc., based on the cultural, aesthetic, semiotic, socio-cultural theories of media education;- educational-ethical models (the study of moral, religions, philosophical problems relying on the ethic, religious, ideological, ecological, protectionist theories of media education;- pragmatic models (practical media technology training, based on the uses and gratifications and ‘practical’ theories of media education;- aesthetical models (aimed above all at the development of the artistic taste and enriching the skills of analysis of the best media culture examples. Relies on the aesthetical (art and cultural studies theory; - socio-cultural models (socio-cultural development of a creative personality as to the perception, imagination, visual memory, interpretation analysis, autonomic critical thinking, relying on the cultural studies, semiotic, ethic models of media education.

  2. The family's role in children's interpretation of advertising

    Buijzen, M.A.; Blades, M.; Oates, C.; Blumberg, F.; Gunter, B.

    2014-01-01

    Family communication is often considered the most effective tool in the management of advertising influence on children. The family context not only influences how children use the media and the messages they get from them, but also how literate they become as media users. In this chapter, I discuss

  3. Interpreting conjunctions.

    Bott, Lewis; Frisson, Steven; Murphy, Gregory L

    2009-04-01

    The interpretation generated from a sentence of the form P and Q can often be different to that generated by Q and P, despite the fact that and has a symmetric truth-conditional meaning. We experimentally investigated to what extent this difference in meaning is due to the connective and and to what extent it is due to order of mention of the events in the sentence. In three experiments, we collected interpretations of sentences in which we varied the presence of the conjunction, the order of mention of the events, and the type of relation holding between the events (temporally vs. causally related events). The results indicated that the effect of using a conjunction was dependent on the discourse relation between the events. Our findings contradict a narrative marker theory of and, but provide partial support for a single-unit theory derived from Carston (2002). The results are discussed in terms of conjunction processing and implicatures of temporal order.

  4. Young children's perceptions of fire-safety messages: do framing and parental mediation matter?

    Borzekowski, Dina; Clearfield, Elizabeth; Rimal, Rajiv; Gielen, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Media can deliver health and safety messages promoting child health and injury prevention. This study examined the effects of message framing and parental mediation on children's perceptions of fire-safety messages. Using a 2 × 3 randomized experimental design, this study considered both message framing (gain or loss) and parental mediation (no mediation/control, unscripted, or scripted) with 320 children who were 4 and 5 years of age. Children saw two messages (burn and smoke inhalation) embedded in a cartoon. Afterward, researchers assessed children's recall, understanding, and perceptions of self-efficacy and social norms. Children were more likely to recall the safety messages if they were older (burn: adjusted odds ration [AOR] = 2.74 and smoke: AOR = 2.58), and could recall the smoke inhalation message if they had unscripted mediation (AOR = 3.16). Message understanding was poor, with only about 50% of children choosing a correct behavior in a similar scenario. For the burn message, correct understanding was associated with gain-framing and scripted mediation (AOR = 3.22 and 5.77, respectively). Only the scripted mediation group was significantly associated with an increase in perceived social norms (burn: coefficient =.37 and smoke: coefficient =.55; P video-based messages to teach children safety behaviors needs to be enhanced.

  5. Content analysis of Student's short messages; Tehran's universities

    Masoud Kowsari

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, cell phone, as an unlimited media, in comparison with others, has deeply changed the modes of interpersonal connections. Accessibility, and inexpensiveness, in addition to the transcendence of normal face to face relation restrictions, could be taken for granted as most fascinating features of SMS. Therefore, content analysis of the SMS could help to clarify the communicative subjectivities in interpersonal communications. This study tends to analyze the content of 2651 short messages exchanged among 80 students both genders, in various universities in Tehran. This paper attempts to answer the following questions: Who are the main senders of the messages? In what time are the SMS s frequently s sent or received? What are the most frequent contents? Is there any relationship between the gender of recipients/senders and the content of the messages? Whether the contents are related to the marital statue of the receiver and sender or not?

  6. Interpretive Medicine

    Reeve, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Patient-centredness is a core value of general practice; it is defined as the interpersonal processes that support the holistic care of individuals. To date, efforts to demonstrate their relationship to patient outcomes have been disappointing, whilst some studies suggest values may be more rhetoric than reality. Contextual issues influence the quality of patient-centred consultations, impacting on outcomes. The legitimate use of knowledge, or evidence, is a defining aspect of modern practice, and has implications for patient-centredness. Based on a critical review of the literature, on my own empirical research, and on reflections from my clinical practice, I critique current models of the use of knowledge in supporting individualised care. Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM), and its implementation within health policy as Scientific Bureaucratic Medicine (SBM), define best evidence in terms of an epistemological emphasis on scientific knowledge over clinical experience. It provides objective knowledge of disease, including quantitative estimates of the certainty of that knowledge. Whilst arguably appropriate for secondary care, involving episodic care of selected populations referred in for specialist diagnosis and treatment of disease, application to general practice can be questioned given the complex, dynamic and uncertain nature of much of the illness that is treated. I propose that general practice is better described by a model of Interpretive Medicine (IM): the critical, thoughtful, professional use of an appropriate range of knowledges in the dynamic, shared exploration and interpretation of individual illness experience, in order to support the creative capacity of individuals in maintaining their daily lives. Whilst the generation of interpreted knowledge is an essential part of daily general practice, the profession does not have an adequate framework by which this activity can be externally judged to have been done well. Drawing on theory related to the

  7. Media multitasking in adolescence.

    Cain, Matthew S; Leonard, Julia A; Gabrieli, John D E; Finn, Amy S

    2016-12-01

    Media use has been on the rise in adolescents overall, and in particular, the amount of media multitasking-multiple media consumed simultaneously, such as having a text message conversation while watching TV-has been increasing. In adults, heavy media multitasking has been linked with poorer performance on a number of laboratory measures of cognition, but no relationship has yet been established between media-multitasking behavior and real-world outcomes. Examining individual differences across a group of adolescents, we found that more frequent media multitasking in daily life was associated with poorer performance on statewide standardized achievement tests of math and English in the classroom, poorer performance on behavioral measures of executive function (working memory capacity) in the laboratory, and traits of greater impulsivity and lesser growth mindset. Greater media multitasking had a relatively circumscribed set of associations, and was not related to behavioral measures of cognitive processing speed, implicit learning, or manual dexterity, or to traits of grit and conscientiousness. Thus, individual differences in adolescent media multitasking were related to specific differences in executive function and in performance on real-world academic achievement measures: More media multitasking was associated with poorer executive function ability, worse academic achievement, and a reduced growth mindset.

  8. Boost Your Body: Self-Improvement Magazine Messages Increase Body Satisfaction in Young Adults.

    Veldhuis, Jolanda; Konijn, Elly A; Knobloch-Westerwick, Silvia

    2017-02-01

    The verbal messages that contextualize exposure to idealized body imagery may moderate media users' body satisfaction. Such contextualizing verbal messages often take the form of social comparison motives in fashion magazines, while body dissatisfaction is an important mechanism underlying various body image-related health issues like depression and unbalanced weight status. Hence, the present study applied social comparison motives as induced through magazine cover messages. Hypotheses were tested in an experimental design with social comparison motives (self-improvement vs. self-evaluation vs. control) and recipient gender as between-subjects factors and body satisfaction as within-subjects factor (N = 150). Results showed that self-improvement messages accompanying ideal body media models increased body satisfaction, compared to control messages and baseline measures. In contrast, the self-evaluation messages did not impact body satisfaction. Results imply that inconsistencies regarding effects from exposure to idealized body imagery are explained by the context in which media images are portrayed, evoking differential social comparison motives. Moreover, the findings imply that health communication interventions can use verbal messages on body improvement as helpful tools, if they draw on social comparison motives effectively.

  9. Provenance data in social media

    Barbier, Geoffrey; Gundecha, Pritam

    2013-01-01

    Social media shatters the barrier to communicate anytime anywhere for people of all walks of life. The publicly available, virtually free information in social media poses a new challenge to consumers who have to discern whether a piece of information published in social media is reliable. For example, it can be difficult to understand the motivations behind a statement passed from one user to another, without knowing the person who originated the message. Additionally, false information can be propagated through social media, resulting in embarrassment or irreversible damages. Provenance data

  10. Body image, eating disorders, and the relationship to adolescent media use.

    Benowitz-Fredericks, Carson A; Garcia, Kaylor; Massey, Meredith; Vasagar, Brintha; Borzekowski, Dina L G

    2012-06-01

    Historically and currently, media messages around body shape and size emphasize the importance of being below-average weight for women and hypermuscular for men. The media messages around physical appearance are not realistic for most and lead to body dissatisfaction for most adolescents. Interventions designed to mitigate the influence of negative media messages on adolescents' body image are presented; however, most have shown limited success. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Objective interpretation as conforming interpretation

    Lidka Rodak

    2011-01-01

    The practical discourse willingly uses the formula of “objective interpretation”, with no regards to its controversial nature that has been discussed in literature.The main aim of the article is to investigate what “objective interpretation” could mean and how it could be understood in the practical discourse, focusing on the understanding offered by judicature.The thesis of the article is that objective interpretation, as identified with textualists’ position, is not possible to uphold, and ...

  12. Pendidikan gizi dan pesan gizi melalui short message service terhadap pengetahuan, perilaku, dan kepatuhan ibu hamil minum tablet besi

    Kusfriyadi, Mars Khendra; Hadi, Hamam; Fuad, Anis

    2012-01-01

    Background: Low compliance as one cause of high prevalence of anemia in Indonesia is mainly due to forgetfulness. Nutrition education and short message service (SMS) are expected to become media to send nutrition message and remind pregnant mothers of taking iron tablet. Objective: To identify impact of nutrition education and nutrition message through SMS to knowledge, behavior and compliance of pregnant mothers with taking iron tablet. Method: The study was a quasi experiment that use...

  13. Social Media in School Emergency Management: Using New Media Technology to Improve Emergency Management Communications

    Stephens, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Social Media is the use of social networking sites, messaging sites, texting, and other web-based or mobile technologies to support social interaction. Facebook is by far the most widely used social networking site. Twitter is by far the most widely used messaging site. The goals of this presentation are: (1) To provide an understanding of the…

  14. GPS Ephemeris Message Broadcast Simulation

    Browne, Nathan J; Light, James J

    2005-01-01

    The warfighter constantly needs increased accuracy from GPS and a means to increasing this accuracy to the decimeter level is a broadcast ephemeris message containing GPS satellite orbit and clock corrections...

  15. Processos verbais no discurso jornalístico: frequência e organização da mensagem Verbal processes in media discourse: frequency and organization of the message

    Sara Regina Scotta Cabral

    2012-01-01

    Sayer, the mood of the clauses and the organization of the message. By using the computer program WordSmith Tools (SCOTT, 2008, the data were quantified from a set of 656 news collected from Folha de São Paulo and London BBC in 2009. The results point to the existence of three main patterns used by journalists concerning the five verbs analyzed. Other particularities are: a Sayers that usually represent official sources, what is done by nouns, pronouns or noun groups in which the modifier indicates the position held; b predominance of the indicative mood and the simple past tense, especially in the third person singular; c a balance between quoting and projection, that one generally before the verbal process.

  16. Using the media.

    1994-01-01

    To use the mass media (newspaper, radio, and TV) to reach a large audience with information about AIDS, it is important to choose the media outlets carefully, since they use information that satisfies their audience in content and style. For example, radio, TV, or videos are best to reach illiterate groups. Ways to approach each sector of the written and electronic media include press releases, news conferences, information kits, and personal contacts. Letters to the editor and offers of submitting articles for publication are additional ways to approach newspapers. Audio- or videocassettes with interviews or images conveying HIV/AIDS prevention messages can be submitted to TV and radio stations. It is important to present the information attractively to gain the journalists' attention. News releases should include sources of information and a contact name. It is important to inform the mass media of successes revolving around AIDS prevention, emphasizing local successes. One should identify what media slots have the most influence. For example, a medical officer in Chiang Mai, Thailand, notes that popular disc jockeys have more influence than do government information broadcasts. It is best to promote facts that probably will increase support for AIDS prevention campaigns. If possible, groups should seek free space or air time for AIDS prevention messages. AIDS prevention messages should not use fear because it does not promote safer sexual behavior. Instead, they should link condom use with a sense of independence, responsibility, and being fashionable. Leaflets, posters, videotapes, slides, displays, slogans, audiocassettes, T-shirts, stickers, and other activities or products reinforce the effectiveness of media campaigns. Interviews with or feature articles and programs about people infected or affected by HIV/AIDS chip away at the belief that "AIDS could never happen to me."

  17. Military Message Experiment. Volume II.

    1982-04-01

    elements of the Department of Defense. This resulted in a memorandum from the Director, Telecomunications and Comand and Control, OSD, in June 1975...1978 to April 1979 and provides a discussion of the telecomunications inter- face aspects of the experiment. This Final Report covers the period of...arise in the telecomunication system which require A retransmission of an outgoing message. A "service" message may be created within the

  18. Comprehension of digital media

    Kim, Ju Hwan

    2008-11-01

    This book is divided four parts. The first part describes media and mark on sign and media, what is the sign?, interpretation of sign and semiotics. The second part is for production sign theory and origin of digital revolution such as the problem of origin of digital revolution, homogeneity of producing goods and sign : triple triangle model for production sign theory, triple triangle model for producing goods, triple triangle model of producing sign and triple triangle model of art works. The third parts deals with development of the media and meaning of digital revolution with four changes : invention of letter, appearance of printed media and establishment modernity, appearance electronic media and mess media and appearance of digital media. The last part mentions ontology of world wide web.

  19. Comprehension of digital media

    Kim, Ju Hwan

    2008-11-15

    This book is divided four parts. The first part describes media and mark on sign and media, what is the sign?, interpretation of sign and semiotics. The second part is for production sign theory and origin of digital revolution such as the problem of origin of digital revolution, homogeneity of producing goods and sign : triple triangle model for production sign theory, triple triangle model for producing goods, triple triangle model of producing sign and triple triangle model of art works. The third parts deals with development of the media and meaning of digital revolution with four changes : invention of letter, appearance of printed media and establishment modernity, appearance electronic media and mess media and appearance of digital media. The last part mentions ontology of world wide web.

  20. The meaning of violence or the meaningless violence: adolescents' view on the media

    Kathie Njaine

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article is based on a qualitative study that aims to investigate the meanings attributed by adolescents to the violence in the media, especially on television, and the ways in which this group interacts with this media and appropriates its messages. The goal is to understand how the phenomenon of violence, mediated by television, is interpreted, incorporated or disapproved by adolescents in their everyday lives. Four focus groups with students from the seventh and eighth grades in São Gonçalo were conducted, in two public schools (one state and one municipal and two private schools (one of middle-class and one of lower-class students, totalizing 33 adolescents. It was concluded that one of the challenges for the field of public health is to improve its performance in the prevention of violence, taking into account the relevance of the media in constructing a discourse on violence. We call attention for the urgent need to understand the dimension and the psychological and cultural impact of violence in the media on Brazilian children and adolescents, once this phenomenon has been creating feeling of fear, anguish, and the seek for security. The positive aspect of the media as a potential partner in the education and promotion of children and adolescents' health is pointed out. The denaturalization of some notions of violence given by the media, and the construction of spaces in the media for the youngsters to express themselves are some ways for health promotion and violence prevention.

  1. Mammographic interpretation

    Tabor, L.

    1987-01-01

    For mammography to be an effective diagnostic method, it must be performed to a very high standard of quality. Otherwise many lesions, in particular cancer in its early stages, will simply not be detectable on the films, regardless of the skill of the mammographer. Mammographic interpretation consists of two basic steps: perception and analysis. The process of mammographic interpretation begins with perception of the lesion on the mammogram. Perception is influenced by several factors. One of the most important is the parenchymal pattern of the breast tissue, detection of pathologic lesions being easier with fatty involution. The mammographer should use a method for the systematic viewing of the mammograms that will ensure that all parts of each mammogram are carefully searched for the presence of lesions. The method of analysis proceeds according to the type of lesion. The contour analysis of primary importance in the evaluation of circumscribed tumors. After having analyzed the contour and density of a lesion and considered its size, the mammographer should be fairly certain whether the circumscribed tumor is benign or malignant. Fine-needle puncture and/or US may assist the mammographer in making this decision. Painstaking analysis is required because many circumscribed tumors do not need to be biopsied. The perception of circumscribed tumors seldom causes problems, but their analysis needs careful attention. On the other hand, the major challenge with star-shaped lesions is perception. They may be difficult to discover when small. Although the final diagnosis of a stellate lesion can be made only with the help of histologic examination, the preoperative mammorgraphic differential diagnosis can be highly accurate. The differential diagnostic problem is between malignant tumors (scirrhous carcinoma), on the one hand, and traumatic fat necrosis as well as radial scars on the other hand

  2. Media Choice for Intra-School Communication: The Role of Environment, User, and Medium

    Caspi, Avner; Blau, Ina

    2011-01-01

    The influence of media richness, media attentional load, social influence and users' prior experience with media on selection of media to transmit different messages to peers within an educational organization was tested. Media were discriminated by all potential variables. Support was found for the role of prior experience and social influence in…

  3. Message framing strategies to increase influenza immunization uptake among pregnant African American women.

    Marsh, Heather A; Malik, Fauzia; Shapiro, Eve; Omer, Saad B; Frew, Paula M

    2014-09-01

    We explored the attitudes, opinions, and concerns of African American women regarding influenza vaccination during pregnancy. As influenza immunization coverage rates remain suboptimal in the United States among this population, we elicited message framing strategies for multicomponent interventions aimed at decreasing future incident cases of maternal and neonatal influenza. Semi-structured in-depth interviews (N = 21) were conducted with pregnant African American women at urban OB/GYN clinics who had not received an influenza vaccine. Interviews were transcribed, subjected to intercoder reliability assessment, and content analyzed to identify common thematic factors related to acceptance of the influenza vaccine and health communication message preferences. Four major themes were identified. These were communication approaches, normal vaccine behavior, pregnancy vaccination, and positive versus negative framing. Two strong themes emerged: positively-framed messages were preferred over negatively-framed messages and those emphasizing the health of the infant. Additionally, previous immunization, message source, and vaccine misperceptions also played important roles in decision-making. The majority of women indicated that positively framed messages focusing on the infant's health would encourage them to receive an influenza vaccine. Messages emphasizing immunization benefits such as protection against preterm birth and low birth weight outcomes have potential to overcome widespread negative community perceptions and cultural beliefs. Additionally, messages transmitted via interpersonal networks and social media strongly influence motivation to obtain vaccination during pregnancy. The findings of this study will assist in developing tailored messages that change pregnant African American women's influenza vaccination decision-making to achieve improved coverage.

  4. Clear message for causality

    Steinberg, Aephraim M. [Institute for Experimental Physics, University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2003-12-01

    Experiment confirms that information cannot be transmitted faster than the speed of light. Ever since Einstein stated that nothing can travel faster than light, physicists have delighted in finding exceptions. One after another, observations of such 'superluminal' propagation have been made. However, while some image or pattern- such as the motion of a spotlight projected on a distant wall - might have appeared to travel faster than light, it seemed that there was no way to use the superluminal effect to transmit energy or information. In recent years, the superluminal propagation of light pulses through certain media has led to renewed controversy. In 1995, for example, Guenther Nimtz of the University of Cologne encoded Mozart's 40th Symphony on a microwave beam, which he claimed to have transmitted at a speed faster than light. Others maintain that such a violation of Einstein's speed limit would wreak havoc on our most fundamental ideas about causality, allowing an effect to precede its cause. Relativity teaches us that sending a signal faster than light would be equivalent to sending it backwards in time. (U.K.)

  5. An Interpreter's Interpretation: Sign Language Interpreters' View of Musculoskeletal Disorders

    Johnson, William L

    2003-01-01

    Sign language interpreters are at increased risk for musculoskeletal disorders. This study used content analysis to obtain detailed information about these disorders from the interpreters' point of view...

  6. MessageSpace: a messaging system for health research

    Escobar, Rodrigo D.; Akopian, David; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Esparza, Laura

    2013-03-01

    Mobile Health (mHealth) has emerged as a promising direction for delivery of healthcare services via mobile communication devices such as cell phones. Examples include texting-based interventions for chronic disease monitoring, diabetes management, control of hypertension, smoking cessation, monitoring medication adherence, appointment keeping and medical test result delivery; as well as improving patient-provider communication, health information communication, data collection and access to health records. While existing messaging systems very well support bulk messaging and some polling applications, they are not designed for data collection and processing of health research oriented studies. For that reason known studies based on text-messaging campaigns have been constrained in participant numbers. In order to empower healthcare promotion and education research, this paper presents a system dedicated for healthcare research. It is designed for convenient communication with various study groups, feedback collection and automated processing.

  7. How to work through the news media

    Chapman, M.

    1986-01-01

    There are essentially four steps that anyone must follow if the objective is to communicate a message through the news media: 1) Understand media (adversarial relationship, code of ethics, importance of First Amendment); 2) Redefine the relationship (become acquainted with reporter, save steps for the reporter); 3) Communicate clearly; and 4) Use alternatives when appropriate. These four steps are discussed

  8. Personalised Access to Social Media

    Clements, M.

    2010-01-01

    On many websites users can personally contribute information, ranging from short text messages to photos and videos. Users can see the information contributed by others and respond to it. These social media actively engage their community in the structuring of the collection by making use of

  9. Personalised Access to Social Media

    M. Clements (Maarten)

    2010-01-01

    htmlabstractOn many websites users can personally contribute information, ranging from short text messages to photos and videos. Users can see the information contributed by others and respond to it. These social media actively engage their community in the structuring of the collection by making

  10. Critical Media Literacy: TV Programs.

    Henry, Laurie

    Television programming has a huge impact on the lives of children. This lesson focuses on the stereotypical and racial messages that are portrayed through television programming with a focus on situational comedies. During the four 45-minute lessons, grade 6-8 students will: analyze portrayals of different groups of people in the media;…

  11. Reactions to threatening health messages.

    Ten Hoor, Gill A; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Y; Kalagi, Janice; de Groot, Lianne; Grootjans, Karlijne; Huschens, Alexander; Köhninger, Constanze; Kölgen, Lizan; Pelssers, Isabelle; Schütt, Toby; Thomas, Sophia; Ruiter, Robert A C; Kok, Gerjo

    2012-11-21

    Threatening health messages that focus on severity are popular, but frequently have no effect or even a counterproductive effect on behavior change. This paradox (i.e. wide application despite low effectiveness) may be partly explained by the intuitive appeal of threatening communication: it may be hard to predict the defensive reactions occurring in response to fear appeals. We examine this hypothesis by using two studies by Brown and colleagues, which provide evidence that threatening health messages in the form of distressing imagery in anti-smoking and anti-alcohol campaigns cause defensive reactions. We simulated both Brown et al. experiments, asking participants to estimate the reactions of the original study subjects to the threatening health information (n = 93). Afterwards, we presented the actual original study outcomes. One week later, we assessed whether this knowledge of the actual study outcomes helped participants to more successfully estimate the effectiveness of the threatening health information (n = 72). Results showed that participants were initially convinced of the effectiveness of threatening health messages and were unable to anticipate the defensive reactions that in fact occurred. Furthermore, these estimates did not improve after participants had been explained the dynamics of threatening communication as well as what the effects of the threatening communication had been in reality. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the effectiveness of threatening health messages is intuitively appealing. What is more, providing empirical evidence against the use of threatening health messages has very little effect on this intuitive appeal.

  12. How Chinese Semantics Capability Improves Interpretation in Visual Communication

    Cheng, Chu-Yu; Ou, Yang-Kun; Kin, Ching-Lung

    2017-01-01

    A visual representation involves delivering messages through visually communicated images. The study assumed that semantic recognition can affect visual interpretation ability, and the result showed that students graduating from a general high school achieve satisfactory results in semantic recognition and image interpretation tasks than students…

  13. Interpreting the Customary Rules on Interpretation

    Merkouris, Panos

    2017-01-01

    International courts have at times interpreted the customary rules on interpretation. This is interesting because what is being interpreted is: i) rules of interpretation, which sounds dangerously tautological, and ii) customary law, the interpretation of which has not been the object of critical

  14. The media's reception of the risk associated with radioactive disasters

    Vettenranta, S.

    1996-01-01

    There is an urgent need to develop methodologies to examine the response by the media to radioactive disasters. 'Reception study' is a new research approach in the field of mass communication, studying how the viewers construct meaning from TV news. This ongoing reception study explores how fifteen respondents, all involved in the Chernobyl disaster in 1986, recall and interpret TV news coverage nine years after the accident. The main aim is to discover how the news affects the recipients' interpretations of a disaster and what kind of thoughts, reactions and associations risk messages provoke in retrospect, in the present and in the beliefs about the future. The initial findings indicate that the Chernobyl news on TV was mainly based on technical rationality, while viewers construct meaning founded on symbolic, cultural rationality. The transmission of catastrophe news is not just a matter of responding to the information needs of the public. Denotative risk messages simultaneously convey connotative, symbolic resonance of risk on a metaphysical level. (author)

  15. Perceptions of anti-smoking messages amongst high school students in Pakistan

    Imam Syed H

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surveys have provided evidence that tobacco use is widely prevalent amongst the youth in Pakistan. Several reviews have evaluated the effectiveness of various tobacco control programs, however, few have taken into account the perceptions of students themselves regarding these measures. The aim of this study was to determine the most effective anti-smoking messages that can be delivered to high-school students in Pakistan, based on their self-rated perceptions. It also aimed to assess the impact of pictorial/multi-media messages compared with written health warnings and to discover differences in perceptions of smokers to those of non-smokers to health warning messages. Methods This study was carried out in five major cities of Pakistan in private English-medium schools. A presentation was delivered at each school that highlighted the well-established health consequences of smoking using both written health warnings and pictorial/multi-media health messages. Following the presentation, the participants filled out a graded questionnaire form, using which they rated the risk-factors and messages that they thought were most effective in stopping or preventing them from smoking. The Friedman test was used to rank responses to each of the questions in the form. The Wilcoxon Signed Rank test used to analyze the impact of pictorial/multi-media messages over written statements. The Mann Whitney U test was used to compare responses of smokers with those of non-smokers. Results Picture of an oral cavity cancer, videos of a cancer patient using an electronic voice box and a patient on a ventilator, were perceived to be the most effective anti-smoking messages by students. Addiction, harming others through passive smoking and impact of smoking on disposable incomes were perceived to be less effective messages. Pictorial/multi-media messages were perceived to be more effective than written health warnings. Health warnings were perceived as

  16. Extracting messages masked by chaos

    Perez, G.; Cerdeira, H.A.

    1995-01-01

    We show how to extract messages that are masked by a chaotic signal in a system of two Lorenz oscillators. This mask removal is done for two different modes of transmission, a digital one where a parameter of the sender is switched between two values, and an analog mode, where a small amplitude message is added to the carrier signal. We achieve this without using a second Lorenz oscillator as receiver, and without doing a full reconstruction of the dynamics. This method is robust with respect to transformations that impede the unmasking using a Lorenz receiver, and is not affected by the broad-band noise that is inherent to the synchronization process. We also discuss the limitations of this way of extraction for messages in high frequency bands. (author). 12 refs, 4 figs

  17. Understanding the Impact of Using Mass Media as a Pedagogical Tool for Nutrition Education of Healthcare Workers in the Community College Classroom

    Shumaker Jeffrey, Penny Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Nutrition-related messages inundate mass media advertisements in the United States but it is unclear as to how those messages affect a person's food selection behavior and awareness of nutrient and non-nutrient message content. This dissertation is a culmination of research examining the use of mass media (television and print) as a pedagogical…

  18. The dual role of media internalization in adolescent sexual behavior

    Rousseau, A.; Beyens, I.; Eggermont, S.; Vandenbosch, L.

    Sexualizing media content is prevalent in various media types. Sexualizing media messages and portrayals emphasize unattainable body and appearance ideals as the primary components of sexual desirability. The internalization of these ideals is positively related to self-objectification and sexual

  19. The Amount of Media and Information Literacy Among Isfahan University of Medical Sciences' Students Using Iranian Media and Information Literacy Questionnaire (IMILQ).

    Ashrafi-Rizi, Hasan; Ramezani, Amir; Koupaei, Hamed Aghajani; Kazempour, Zahra

    2014-12-01

    Media and Information literacy (MIL) enables people to interpret and make informed judgments as users of information and media, as well as to become skillful creators and producers of information and media messages in their own right. The purpose of this research was to determine the amount of Media and Information Literacy among Isfahan University of Medical Sciences' students using Iranian Media and Information Literacy Questionnaire (IMILQ). This is an applied analytical survey research in which the data were collected by a researcher made questionnaire, provided based on specialists' viewpoints and valid scientific works. Its validity and reliability were confirmed by Library and Information Sciences specialists and Cronbach's alpha (r=0.89) respectively. Statistical population consisted of all students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (6000 cases) and the samples were 361. Sampling method was random stratified sampling. Data were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings showed that the mean level of Media and Information Literacy among Isfahan University of Medical Sciences' students was 3.34±0.444 (higher than average). The highest mean was promotion of scientific degree with 3.84±0.975 and the lowest mean was difficulties in starting research with 2.50±1.08. There was significant difference between educational degree, college type and family's income and amount of Media and Information Literacy. The results showed that the students didn't have enough skills in starting the research, defining the research subject as well as confining the research subject. In general, all students and education practitioners should pay special attention to factors affecting in improving Media and Information Literacy as a main capability in using printed and electronic media.

  20. Radiating Messages: An International Perspective.

    Walker, Janet

    2003-01-01

    Negative messages about the detrimental impacts of divorce on children prompted urgent calls in the United Kingdom for a reinstatement of traditional family values. Suggests that although the effects of divorce are real, care should be taken to avoid exaggeration, thus moving the debate to one centered on providing better support, advice, and…

  1. Re: Design Changing the Message

    Wall, Miranda Wakeman

    2008-01-01

    The advertisements that flood everyone's visual culture are designed to create desire. From the author's experience, most high school students are not aware of the messages that they are bombarded with every day, and if they are, few care or think about them critically. The author's goals for this lesson were to increase students' awareness of the…

  2. Instant Apache Camel message routing

    Ibryam, Bilgin

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. This short, instruction-based guide shows you how to perform application integration using the industry standard Enterprise Integration Patterns.This book is intended for Java developers who are new to Apache Camel and message- oriented applications.

  3. Spatial variation in messaging effects

    Warshaw, Christopher

    2018-05-01

    There is large geographic variation in the public's views about climate change in the United States. Research now shows that climate messages can influence public beliefs about the scientific consensus on climate change, particularly in the places that are initially more skeptical.

  4. How social media influence college students' smoking attitudes and intentions.

    Yoo, Woohyun; Yang, JungHwan; Cho, Eunji

    2016-11-01

    Building on the influence of presumed influence (IPI) model, this study examines how smoking- related messages on social media influence college students' smoking. We surveyed 366 college students from three U.S. Midwestern universities in 2012 and examined the effects of expression and reception of smoking-related messages on smoking using path analysis. We found that the expression and reception of prosmoking messages not only directly affected smoking but also had indirect effects on smoking through (1) perceived peer expression of prosmoking messages and (2) perceived peer smoking norms. For antismoking messages, only reception had a significant indirect influence on smoking through (1) perceived peer reception of antismoking messages and (2) perceived peer smoking norms. In conclusion, social media function as an effective communication channel for generating, sharing, receiving, and commenting on smoking-related content and are thus influential on college students' smoking.

  5. How social media influence college students’ smoking attitudes and intentions

    Yoo, Woohyun; Yang, JungHwan; Cho, Eunji

    2016-01-01

    Building on the influence of presumed influence (IPI) model, this study examines how smoking- related messages on social media influence college students’ smoking. We surveyed 366 college students from three U.S. Midwestern universities in 2012 and examined the effects of expression and reception of smoking-related messages on smoking using path analysis. We found that the expression and reception of prosmoking messages not only directly affected smoking but also had indirect effects on smoking through (1) perceived peer expression of prosmoking messages and (2) perceived peer smoking norms. For antismoking messages, only reception had a significant indirect influence on smoking through (1) perceived peer reception of antismoking messages and (2) perceived peer smoking norms. In conclusion, social media function as an effective communication channel for generating, sharing, receiving, and commenting on smoking-related content and are thus influential on college students’ smoking. PMID:27956757

  6. Messages to new mothers: an analysis of breast pump advertisements.

    Sheehan, Athena; Bowcher, Wendy L

    2017-04-01

    The mass media is replete with all kinds of advice, products and ideas about 'motherhood' with advertising being a major source of information on the latest products and consumer trends. Advertising is a key means of promoting ideas about infant feeding, and yet, there has been little in the way of critical analyses of breast pump advertisements in order to reveal the kinds of messages they convey about this method of feeding. This article makes an important step towards addressing this gap through analysing three advertisements for breast pumps from a popular Australian magazine for mothers. We utilize a social semiotic framework to investigate not just what choices are made in the design of the ads but also what those choices mean in terms of the overall message of the ads. Our analysis identifies three core messages: 'breastfeeding and breast pumping are the same with the purpose being to produce breast milk only', 'using breast pumps facilitates quality time with the baby' and 'mothers need outside expertise (including breast pumps) to ensure baby's development'. We believe it is important for those who provide information and support for breastfeeding women to be aware of the subtle, naturalized messages that ads convey so that they may better understand what may be underlying women's decisions regarding methods of infant feeding. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Functional effectiveness of threat appeals in exercise promotion messages

    Olivier Mairesse

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As more than 70% of individuals in Western societies can be categorized as sedentary and inactivity has been recognized to lead to a series of serious physical and psychological disorders, the importance of physical activity promotion is ever more emphasized. Many social marketing campaigns use threat (or fear appeals to promote healthy behaviors. Theoretical models, such as the Extended Parallel Process Model integrate concepts as 'perceived threat' and 'perceived efficacy' to explain how such messages operate and can cause diverse behavioral reactions. It is however still not entirely clear how these different aspects are valuated and combined to determine desired versus undesired response behaviors in individuals. In a functional integration task, threat-appeal based exercise promotion messages varying in psychological threat and efficacy content were shown to sedentary employees in order to assess how they affect their intention to engage in physical exercise. Our results show that individuals can be categorized in 4 different clusters depending on the way they valuate threat and efficacy appeals: i.e. individuals sensitive to both types of cues, those sensitive to either the threat or the efficacy component in the message and those insensitive to either one of them. As different segments of receivers of the message react differently to threat and efficacy combinations, it is concluded that different approaches to designing effective mass media campaigns may be required for effective exercise promotion.

  8. Reactions to threatening health messages

    ten Hoor Gill A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Threatening health messages that focus on severity are popular, but frequently have no effect or even a counterproductive effect on behavior change. This paradox (i.e. wide application despite low effectiveness may be partly explained by the intuitive appeal of threatening communication: it may be hard to predict the defensive reactions occurring in response to fear appeals. We examine this hypothesis by using two studies by Brown and colleagues, which provide evidence that threatening health messages in the form of distressing imagery in anti-smoking and anti-alcohol campaigns cause defensive reactions. Methods We simulated both Brown et al. experiments, asking participants to estimate the reactions of the original study subjects to the threatening health information (n = 93. Afterwards, we presented the actual original study outcomes. One week later, we assessed whether this knowledge of the actual study outcomes helped participants to more successfully estimate the effectiveness of the threatening health information (n = 72. Results Results showed that participants were initially convinced of the effectiveness of threatening health messages and were unable to anticipate the defensive reactions that in fact occurred. Furthermore, these estimates did not improve after participants had been explained the dynamics of threatening communication as well as what the effects of the threatening communication had been in reality. Conclusions These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the effectiveness of threatening health messages is intuitively appealing. What is more, providing empirical evidence against the use of threatening health messages has very little effect on this intuitive appeal.

  9. Representing culture in interstellar messages

    Vakoch, Douglas A.

    2008-09-01

    As scholars involved with the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) have contemplated how we might portray humankind in any messages sent to civilizations beyond Earth, one of the challenges they face is adequately representing the diversity of human cultures. For example, in a 2003 workshop in Paris sponsored by the SETI Institute, the International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) SETI Permanent Study Group, the International Society for the Arts, Sciences and Technology (ISAST), and the John Templeton Foundation, a varied group of artists, scientists, and scholars from the humanities considered how to encode notions of altruism in interstellar messages . Though the group represented 10 countries, most were from Europe and North America, leading to the group's recommendation that subsequent discussions on the topic should include more globally representative perspectives. As a result, the IAA Study Group on Interstellar Message Construction and the SETI Institute sponsored a follow-up workshop in Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA in February 2005. The Santa Fe workshop brought together scholars from a range of disciplines including anthropology, archaeology, chemistry, communication science, philosophy, and psychology. Participants included scholars familiar with interstellar message design as well as specialists in cross-cultural research who had participated in the Symposium on Altruism in Cross-cultural Perspective, held just prior to the workshop during the annual conference of the Society for Cross-cultural Research . The workshop included discussion of how cultural understandings of altruism can complement and critique the more biologically based models of altruism proposed for interstellar messages at the 2003 Paris workshop. This paper, written by the chair of both the Paris and Santa Fe workshops, will explore the challenges of communicating concepts of altruism that draw on both biological and cultural models.

  10. SOCIAL MEDIA

    RESPONSIBILITY CENTCOM COALITION MEDIA SOCIAL MEDIA NEWS ARTICLES PRESS RELEASES IMAGERY VIDEOS TRANSCRIPTS VISITORS AND PERSONNEL FAMILY CENTER FAMILY READINESS CENTCOM WEBMAIL SOCIAL MEDIA SECURITY ACCOUNTABILITY HomeMEDIASOCIAL MEDIA Social Media CENTCOM'S ENGLISH SOCIAL MEDIA ACCOUNTS There are many U.S. military commands

  11. "Sharing Our Stories with All Canadians": Decolonizing Aboriginal Media and Aboriginal Media Politics in Canada

    Knopf, Kerstin

    2010-01-01

    The mass media are an essential constituent in the construction of a nation's and an individual's self-image. Whether people like and know it or not, from early childhood on people are surrounded by media images and messages that to a great extent shape their perception and understanding of the world as well as contribute to their identity…

  12. Main messages for the new nuclear unit in Finland

    Nikula, Anneli

    2001-01-01

    have been held both in Finland and abroad. Training related to messages has been arranged both for the company's own personnel and for partners in co-operation. It has also included TV-performance training. The most important political instances were informed about the submission of the application for decision in principle. The application did not come as a surprise. A large amount of various kinds of material was prepared for the media. The material was available e.g. as CD-files and on TVO's Internet website. A publicity survey was made of the newspaper articles published after the submission of the application. The survey showed that TVO's messages had come out extremely well

  13. Message Collision Avoidance Protocols for Detecting Stray Nodes in a Scuba Diving Group Using Ultrasonic Multi-Hop Message Communication

    Shinya Kaido

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen a growing interest in underwater communication and some progress has been made in this area. However, underwater communication is still immature compared with terrestrial communication. A prime reason for this is that the underwater environment is intrinsically not suitable for propagation of electric waves. Instead, ultrasonic waves are mainly used for underwater communication. Since ultrasonic waves cannot provide sufficient communication speed or capacity, they cannot use existing network technologies, which assume use of radio waves. In particular, communication in shallow water is still an uncharted territory. Few communication technologies are employed in environments where people enjoy scuba diving. This paper addresses problems faced by recreational scuba divers. It proposes constructing an ad hoc mesh-shaped network between divers within a group and use ultrasonic waves as transmission media in order to enable the detection of a stray diver. It also proposes a communication protocol in which messages are relayed in multiple hops, and a message collision avoidance method, which is intended to reduce the rate of packet loss caused by message propagation delay. We have implemented the proposed methods in a network simulator, and compared them with an existing communication method that has no message collision avoidance function, in terms of the packet loss rate, the stray driver detection rate, and the rate of the ability to communicate in multiple hops.

  14. Feasibility and reliability of a mobile tool to evaluate exposure to tobacco product marketing and messages using ecological momentary assessment.

    Hébert, Emily T; Vandewater, Elizabeth A; Businelle, Michael S; Harrell, Melissa B; Kelder, Steven H; Perry, Cheryl L

    2017-10-01

    Existing measures of tobacco marketing and messaging exposure are limited, relying on recall, recognition, or proxy measures. This study aimed to determine the feasibility and reliability of a mobile application for the measurement of tobacco and e-cigarette marketing and message exposure using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Young adults from Austin, TX (n=181, ages 18-29) were instructed to use a mobile application to record all sightings of marketing or social media related to tobacco (including e-cigarettes) in real-time for 28days (Event EMAs). Tobacco product use and recall of message encounters were assessed daily using an app-initiated EMA (Daily EMAs). The mobile app was a feasible and acceptable method to measure exposure to tobacco messages. The majority of messages (45.0%) were seen on the Internet, and many were user-generated. Thirty-day recall of messages at baseline was poorly correlated with messages reported via Event EMA during the study period; however, the correlation between post-study 30-day recall and Event EMA was much stronger (r=0.603 for industry-sponsored messages, r=0.599 for user-generated messages). Correlations between Daily EMAs and 30-day recall of message exposure (baseline and post-study) were small (baseline: r=0.329-0.389) to large (post-study: r=0.656-0.766). These findings suggest that EMA is a feasible and reliable method for measuring tobacco message exposure, especially given the prevalence of messages encountered online and on social media. Recall measures are limited in their ability to accurately represent marketing exposure, but might be improved by a period of priming or clearer response categories. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Building an Understanding of the Role of Media Literacy for Latino/a High School Students

    Boske, Christa; McCormack, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Popular media is a social phenomenon, especially for young audiences. This qualitative study examined how eleven Latino/a high school students and a Latino teacher understood the impact of media messages in an animated children's film. Findings suggest participants identified negative cultural messages embedded throughout the film regarding…

  16. Message design strategies to raise public awareness of social determinants of health and population health disparities.

    Niederdeppe, Jeff; Bu, Q Lisa; Borah, Porismita; Kindig, David A; Robert, Stephanie A

    2008-09-01

    Raising public awareness of the importance of social determinants of health (SDH) and health disparities presents formidable communication challenges. This article reviews three message strategies that could be used to raise awareness of SDH and health disparities: message framing, narratives, and visual imagery. Although few studies have directly tested message strategies for raising awareness of SDH and health disparities, the accumulated evidence from other domains suggests that population health advocates should frame messages to acknowledge a role for individual decisions about behavior but emphasize SDH. These messages might use narratives to provide examples of individuals facing structural barriers (unsafe working conditions, neighborhood safety concerns, lack of civic opportunities) in efforts to avoid poverty, unemployment, racial discrimination, and other social determinants. Evocative visual images that invite generalizations, suggest causal interpretations, highlight contrasts, and create analogies could accompany these narratives. These narratives and images should not distract attention from SDH and population health disparities, activate negative stereotypes, or provoke counterproductive emotional responses directed at the source of the message. The field of communication science offers valuable insights into ways that population health advocates and researchers might develop better messages to shape public opinion and debate about the social conditions that shape the health and well-being of populations. The time has arrived to begin thinking systematically about issues in communicating about SDH and health disparities. This article offers a broad framework for these efforts and concludes with an agenda for future research to refine message strategies to raise awareness of SDH and health disparities.

  17. Towards a democratisation of new media spaces in multilingual ...

    Towards a democratisation of new media spaces in multilingual/multicultural Africa: A ... and can lead to misinterpretation and misunderstanding of the messages. ... also demonstrate that language and 'culture' are products of social activities.

  18. 78 FR 52166 - Quantitative Messaging Research

    2013-08-22

    ... COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION Quantitative Messaging Research AGENCY: Commodity Futures... survey will follow qualitative message testing research (for which CFTC received fast-track OMB approval... message testing research (for which CFTC received fast-track OMB approval) and is necessary to identify...

  19. Effects of Text Messaging on Academic Performance

    Barks Amanda; Searight H. Russell; Ratwik Susan

    2011-01-01

    University students frequently send and receive cellular phone text messages during classroominstruction. Cognitive psychology research indicates that multi-tasking is frequently associatedwith performance cost. However, university students often have considerable experience withelectronic multi-tasking and may believe that they can devote necessary attention to a classroomlecture while sending and receiving text messages. In the current study, university students whoused text messaging were ...

  20. Message exchange in the building industry

    Vries, de B.; Somers, L.J.A.M.

    1995-01-01

    A process model is described for exchanging information in the building industry. In this model participants send and receive messages. On receipt of a message an activity is executed if all required information is available. Otherwise a message will be sent to another participant to obtain the

  1. Framing of health information messages.

    Akl, Elie A; Oxman, Andrew D; Herrin, Jeph; Vist, Gunn E; Terrenato, Irene; Sperati, Francesca; Costiniuk, Cecilia; Blank, Diana; Schünemann, Holger

    2011-12-07

    -planned subgroup analyses based on the type of message (screening, prevention, and treatment). The primary outcome was behaviour. We did not assess any adverse outcomes. We included 35 studies involving 16,342 participants (all health consumers) and reporting 51 comparisons.In the context of attribute framing, participants in one included study understood the message better when it was framed negatively than when it was framed positively (1 study; SMD -0.58 (95% confidence interval (CI) -0.94 to -0.22); moderate effect size; low quality evidence). Although positively-framed messages may have led to more positive perception of effectiveness than negatively-framed messages (2 studies; SMD 0.36 (95% CI -0.13 to 0.85); small effect size; low quality evidence), there was little or no difference in persuasiveness (11 studies; SMD 0.07 (95% CI -0.23 to 0.37); low quality evidence) and behavior (1 study; SMD 0.09 (95% CI -0.14 to 0.31); moderate quality evidence).In the context of goal framing, loss messages led to a more positive perception of effectiveness compared to gain messages for screening messages (5 studies; SMD -0.30 (95% CI -0.49 to -0.10); small effect size; moderate quality evidence) and may have been more persuasive for treatment messages (3 studies; SMD -0.50 (95% CI -1.04 to 0.04); moderate effect size; very low quality evidence). There was little or no difference in behavior (16 studies; SMD -0.06 (95% CI -0.15 to 0.03); low quality evidence). No study assessed the effect on understanding. Contrary to commonly held beliefs, the available low to moderate quality evidence suggests that both attribute and goal framing may have little if any consistent effect on health consumers' behaviour. The unexplained heterogeneity between studies suggests the possibility of a framing effect under specific conditions. Future research needs to investigate these conditions.

  2. Reactions to threatening health messages

    ten Hoor, Gill A; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Y; Kalagi, Janice; de Groot, Lianne; Grootjans, Karlijne; Huschens, Alexander; K?hninger, Constanze; K?lgen, Lizan; Pelssers, Isabelle; Sch?tt, Toby; Thomas, Sophia; Ruiter, Robert AC; Kok, Gerjo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Threatening health messages that focus on severity are popular, but frequently have no effect or even a counterproductive effect on behavior change. This paradox (i.e. wide application despite low effectiveness) may be partly explained by the intuitive appeal of threatening communication: it may be hard to predict the defensive reactions occurring in response to fear appeals. We examine this hypothesis by using two studies by Brown and colleagues, which provide evidence th...

  3. Instant Messaging in Dental Education.

    Khatoon, Binish; Hill, Kirsty B; Walmsley, A Damien

    2015-12-01

    Instant messaging (IM) is when users communicate instantly via their mobile devices, and it has become one of the most preferred choices of tools to communicate amongst health professions students. The aim of this study was to understand how dental students communicate via IM, faculty members' perspectives on using IM to communicate with students, and whether such tools are useful in the learning environment. After free-associating themes on online communication, two draft topic guides for structured interviews were designed that focussed on mobile device-related communication activities. A total of 20 students and six faculty members at the University of Birmingham School of Dentistry agreed to take part in the interviews. Students were selected from years 1-5 representing each year group. The most preferred communication tools were emails, social networking, and IM. Emails were used for more formal messages, and IM and social networking sites were used for shorter messages. WhatsApp was the most used IM app because of its popular features such as being able to check if recipients have read and received messages and group work. The students reported that changes were necessary to improve their communication with faculty members. The faculty members reported having mixed feelings toward the use of IM to communicate with students. The students wished to make such tools a permanent part of their learning environment, but only with the approval of faculty members. The faculty members were willing to accept IM as a communication tool only if it is monitored and maintained by the university and has a positive effect on learning.

  4. A Modular Instant Messaging System

    Mohamad Raad; Zouhair Bazzal; Majd Ghareeb; Hanan Farhat; Semar Bahmad

    2017-01-01

    Instant Messaging (IM) Android applications are a trend nowadays. These applications are categorized according to their features: usability, flexibility, privacy and security. However, IM applications tend to be inflexible in terms of functionality offered. The “Dble-U” system was developed as a solution to this inflexibility, with a focus on privacy as an example use case. “Dble-U” is a configurable modular system consisting of an Android chatting application, a privacy controller applicatio...

  5. When Can Social Media Lead Financial Markets?

    Zheludev, Ilya; Smith, Robert; Aste, Tomaso

    2014-02-01

    Social media analytics is showing promise for the prediction of financial markets. However, the true value of such data for trading is unclear due to a lack of consensus on which instruments can be predicted and how. Current approaches are based on the evaluation of message volumes and are typically assessed via retrospective (ex-post facto) evaluation of trading strategy returns. In this paper, we present instead a sentiment analysis methodology to quantify and statistically validate which assets could qualify for trading from social media analytics in an ex-ante configuration. We use sentiment analysis techniques and Information Theory measures to demonstrate that social media message sentiment can contain statistically-significant ex-ante information on the future prices of the S&P500 index and a limited set of stocks, in excess of what is achievable using solely message volumes.

  6. New media and tobacco control.

    Freeman, Becky

    2012-03-01

    This paper reviews how the tobacco industry is promoting its products online and examines possible regulation models to limit exposure to this form of marketing. Opportunities to use new media to advance tobacco control are also discussed and future research possibilities are proposed. Published articles and grey literature reports were identified through searches of the electronic databases, PUBMED and Google Scholar using a combination of the following search terms: tobacco or smoking and new media, online media, social media, internet media, Web 2.0, Facebook, YouTube and Twitter. A possible obstacle to fully realising the benefits of regulating tobacco marketing activities and effectively communicating tobacco control messages is the rapid evolution of the media landscape. New media also offer the tobacco industry a powerful and efficient channel for rapidly countering the denormalising strategies and policies of tobacco control. Evidence of tobacco promotion through online media is emerging, with YouTube being the most researched social media site in the tobacco control field. The explosive rise in Internet use and the shift to these new media being driven by consumer generated content through social platforms may mean that fresh approaches to regulating tobacco industry marketing are needed.

  7. Effectiveness of a Non-Classroom News Media Literacy Intervention among Different Undergraduate Populations

    Vraga, Emily K.; Tully, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we test the effectiveness of a short news media literacy message with audiences who differ in their media literacy education. We manipulate whether individuals are exposed to a news media literacy public service announcement (PSA) immediately before viewing a political program among two groups: students enrolled in media education…

  8. Nonblocking and orphan free message logging protocols

    Alvisi, Lorenzo; Hoppe, Bruce; Marzullo, Keith

    1992-12-01

    Currently existing message logging protocols demonstrate a classic pessimistic vs. optimistic tradeoff. We show that the optimistic-pessimistic tradeoff is not inherent to the problem of message logging. We construct a message-logging protocol that has the positive features of both optimistic and pessimistic protocol: our protocol prevents orphans and allows simple failure recovery; however, it requires no blocking in failure-free runs. Furthermore, this protocol does not introduce any additional message overhead as compared to one implemented for a system in which messages may be lost but processes do not crash.

  9. Distributed parallel messaging for multiprocessor systems

    Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip; Salapura, Valentina; Senger, Robert M; Steinmacher-Burrow, Burhard; Sugawara, Yutaka

    2013-06-04

    A method and apparatus for distributed parallel messaging in a parallel computing system. The apparatus includes, at each node of a multiprocessor network, multiple injection messaging engine units and reception messaging engine units, each implementing a DMA engine and each supporting both multiple packet injection into and multiple reception from a network, in parallel. The reception side of the messaging unit (MU) includes a switch interface enabling writing of data of a packet received from the network to the memory system. The transmission side of the messaging unit, includes switch interface for reading from the memory system when injecting packets into the network.

  10. Entity-based Classification of Twitter Messages

    Yerva, Surender Reddy; Miklós, Zoltán; Aberer, Karl

    2012-01-01

    Twitter is a popular micro-blogging service on theWeb, where people can enter short messages, which then become visible to some other users of the service. While the topics of these messages varies, there are a lot of messages where the users express their opinions about some companies or their products. These messages are a rich source of information for companies for sentiment analysis or opinion mining. There is however a great obstacle for analyzing the messages directly: as the company n...

  11. Video: useful tool for delivering family planning messages.

    Sumarsono, S K

    1985-10-01

    In 1969, the Government of Indonesia declared that the population explosion was a national problem. The National Family Planning Program was consequently launched to encourage adoption of the ideal of a small, happy and prosperous family norm. Micro-approach messages are composed of the following: physiology of menstruation; reproductive process; healthy pregnancy; rational family planning; rational application of contraceptives; infant and child care; nutrition improvement; increase in breastfeeding; increase in family income; education in family life; family health; and deferred marriage age. Macro-approach messages include: the population problem and its impact on socioeconomic aspects; efforts to cope with the population problem; and improvement of women's lot. In utilizing the media and communication channels, the program encourages the implementation of units and working units of IEC to produce IEC materials; utilizes all possible existing media and IEC channels; maintains the consistent linkage between the activity of mass media and the IEC activities in the field; and encourages the private sector to participate in the production of IEC media and materials. A media production center was set up and carries out the following activities: producing video cassettes for tv broadcasts of family planning drama, family planning news, and tv spots; producing duplicates of the video cassettes for distribution to provinces in support of the video network; producing teaching materials for family planning workers; and transfering family planning films into video cassettes. A video network was developed and includes video monitors in family planning service points such as hospitals, family planning clinics and public places like bus stations. In 1985, the program will be expanded by 50 mobile information units equipped with video monitors. Video has potentials to increase the productivity and effectiveness of the family planning program. The video production process is

  12. Asynchronous Message Service Reference Implementation

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    This software provides a library of middleware functions with a simple application programming interface, enabling implementation of distributed applications in conformance with the CCSDS AMS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems Asynchronous Message Service) specification. The AMS service, and its protocols, implement an architectural concept under which the modules of mission systems may be designed as if they were to operate in isolation, each one producing and consuming mission information without explicit awareness of which other modules are currently operating. Communication relationships among such modules are self-configuring; this tends to minimize complexity in the development and operations of modular data systems. A system built on this model is a society of generally autonomous, inter-operating modules that may fluctuate freely over time in response to changing mission objectives, modules functional upgrades, and recovery from individual module failure. The purpose of AMS, then, is to reduce mission cost and risk by providing standard, reusable infrastructure for the exchange of information among data system modules in a manner that is simple to use, highly automated, flexible, robust, scalable, and efficient. The implementation is designed to spawn multiple threads of AMS functionality under the control of an AMS application program. These threads enable all members of an AMS-based, distributed application to discover one another in real time, subscribe to messages on specific topics, and to publish messages on specific topics. The query/reply (client/server) communication model is also supported. Message exchange is optionally subject to encryption (to support confidentiality) and authorization. Fault tolerance measures in the discovery protocol minimize the likelihood of overall application failure due to any single operational error anywhere in the system. The multi-threaded design simplifies processing while enabling application nodes to

  13. Physical activity promotion through the mass media: inception, production, transmission and consumption.

    Finlay, Sara-Jane; Faulkner, Guy

    2005-02-01

    Evaluations of physical activity and health media campaigns have been limited and ignore the complex process of communication and the socially constructed nature of news messages. A systematic search strategy was conducted of the literature which was then assessed from two perspectives. First, studies since 1998 were reviewed for their success in impacting message recall and behavior change. Second, employing a critical media studies perspective the papers were assessed for the presence of a more sophisticated understanding of the media processes of inception, transmission and reception. Overall, recent studies support mass media interventions in influencing short-term physical activity message recall and to a lesser extent associated changes in physical activity knowledge. However, the majority of the papers were found to follow a social marketing or media advocacy theory of media promotion with little in-depth consideration of the comprehensive media processes involved in creating media messages and meaning. Simplistic understandings of media transmission dominate in assessing physical activity and health media campaigns. Fuller understandings of the success of media campaigns, the recall of media messages or associated behaviour change can only truly be understood through the application of a more sophisticated form of media analysis.

  14. Messages about appearance, food, weight and exercise in "tween" television.

    Simpson, Courtney C; Kwitowski, Melissa; Boutte, Rachel; Gow, Rachel W; Mazzeo, Suzanne E

    2016-12-01

    Tweens (children ages ~8-14years) are a relatively recently defined age group, increasingly targeted by marketers. Individuals in this age group are particularly vulnerable to opinions and behaviors presented in media messages, given their level of cognitive and social development. However, little research has examined messages about appearance, food, weight, and exercise in television specifically targeting tweens, despite the popularity of this media type among this age group. This study used a content analytic approach to explore these messages in the five most popular television shows for tweens on the Disney Channel (as of 2015). Using a multiple-pass approach, relevant content in episodes from the most recently completed seasons of each show was coded. Appearance related incidents occurred in every episode; these most frequently mentioned attractiveness/beauty. Food related incidents were also present in every episode; typically, these situations were appearance and weight neutral. Exercise related incidents occurred in 53.3% of episodes; the majority expressed resistance to exercise. Weight related incidents occurred in 40.0% of the episodes; the majority praised the muscular ideal. Women were more likely to initiate appearance incidents, and men were more likely to initiate exercise incidents. These results suggest that programs specifically marketed to tweens reinforce appearance ideals, including stereotypes about female attractiveness and male athleticism, two constructs linked to eating pathology and body dissatisfaction. Given the developmental vulnerability of the target group, these findings are concerning, and highlight potential foci for prevention programming, including media literacy, for tweens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. LESSONS ON SOCIAL JUSTICE: A PEDAGOGICAL REFLECTION ON THE EDUCATIONAL MESSAGE OF THE BOXTROLLS

    Anna Odrowaz-Coates

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The author engages critical media education and norm-critical pedagogy to map out possible methods of critical engagement of students during interpretation of the pedagogical facets of The Boxtrolls (film - 2014. The paper discusses rich analytical material that may be explored by employing The Boxtrolls story. The paper considers the application of social theories in an exploration of the film. Freirean critical consciousness may help to expose conflict, power distribution, social stigma and social divisions. Social structures of oppression, politics of exclusion, masses ruled by fear, prejudice, misunderstanding and violence are explored using the theoretical frameworks of M. Foucault, B. Bourdieu, Z. Bauman and R. Braidotti. The moral values depicted in the film are set against excessive consumption, class divisions, selfishness and deficient parental skills; these are analysed as educational tools for all scholastic levels. Evil is punished and values of friendship, trust, cohesion and cooperation (key ingredients of social capital are victorious. There is also the opportunity for redemption and social rehabilitation, revealing the complexity of humans and their intersectional positioning. Whilst the human condition and the story are universal, the means of conveying the message reflect technological and societal change.

  16. Guidelines for designing messages in risk communication

    Takashita, Hirofumi; Horikoshi, Hidehiko

    2004-07-01

    Risk Communication Study Team (hereafter called RC team) has designed messages for risk communication based on the analysis of the local residents' opinions which were expressed in several questionnaire surveys. The messages are described in a side format (Power Point format) every single content. This report provides basic guidelines for making messages that are used for risk communication, and does not include concrete messages which RC team designed. The RC team has already published the report entitled 'Information materials for risk communication' (JNC TN8450 2003-008) separately, and it gives the concrete messages. This report shows general cautions and checklists in designing messages, comments on the messages from outside risk communication experts, and opinions from local residents. (author)

  17. One Message, Many Voices: Mobile Audio Counselling in Health Education.

    Pimmer, Christoph; Mbvundula, Francis

    2018-01-01

    Health workers' use of counselling information on their mobile phones for health education is a central but little understood phenomenon in numerous mobile health (mHealth) projects in Sub-Saharan Africa. Drawing on empirical data from an interpretive case study in the setting of the Millennium Villages Project in rural Malawi, this research investigates the ways in which community health workers (CHWs) perceive that audio-counselling messages support their health education practice. Three main themes emerged from the analysis: phone-aided audio counselling (1) legitimises the CHWs' use of mobile phones during household visits; (2) helps CHWs to deliver a comprehensive counselling message; (3) supports CHWs in persuading communities to change their health practices. The findings show the complexity and interplay of the multi-faceted, sociocultural, political, and socioemotional meanings associated with audio-counselling use. Practical implications and the demand for further research are discussed.

  18. Using Media Literacy to Explore Stereotypes of Mexican Immigrants.

    Vargas, Lucila; dePyssler, Bruce

    1998-01-01

    Examines media portrayals of Mexican immigrants, and interplay between these images and portrayals of U.S.-born Latinos. Argues that examining media images is imperative because the influence of media saturation is almost overwhelming. Suggests a media-literacy framework for developing abilities for interpreting media and giving students control…

  19. Interpreters, Interpreting, and the Study of Bilingualism.

    Valdes, Guadalupe; Angelelli, Claudia

    2003-01-01

    Discusses research on interpreting focused specifically on issues raised by this literature about the nature of bilingualism. Suggests research carried out on interpreting--while primarily produced with a professional audience in mind and concerned with improving the practice of interpreting--provides valuable insights about complex aspects of…

  20. HIV/AIDS messages as a spur for conversation among young South ...

    The participants indicated that they were willing to discuss the themes addressed in either a poster or radio advertisement because they appreciated the message and felt that its content ... Keywords: communication strategies; health behaviour; HIV prevention; mass media; public health; radio advertisements; rhetoric; youth

  1. "Pervy Role-Play and Such": Girls' Experiences of Sexual Messaging Online

    Nielsen, Silja; Paasonen, Susanna; Spisak, Sanna

    2015-01-01

    Sexting is one of the recurring causes of concern in public discussion of young people and network media. This paper builds on findings from a survey with 1269 Finnish female respondents aged 11-18 conducted using a popular online community for girls on their experiences of and views on online messages concerning sex and sexuality. Sixty-five per…

  2. "Jimmy Cap Before You Tap": Developing Condom Use Messages for African American Women.

    Hood, Kristina B; Shook, Natalie J; Belgrave, Faye Z

    This study examined which characteristics of persuasive communications are most effective in changing African American women's condom use attitudes. Focus groups were convened with 40 African American women (M age  = 25.54, SD = 4.67) to assess their opinions on current effective strategies used to promote condom use among their peers. Participants discussed effective characteristics of messaging campaigns (i.e., source, message type, channel) and how these could be used in future prevention messages. Findings revealed that making messages that are fun, catchy, and informative, delivered frequently through social media, TV, or radio by a peer or celebrity would be perceived as most effective in changing young African American women's attitudes. Other themes that emerged were that condom use is more strongly associated with pregnancy prevention than HIV prevention and that sexual partners were perceived to have negative condom use attitudes. Recommendations centered on increasing exposure of HIV prevention messages by placing messages on the Internet and including a funny phrase or jingle in the message so that it is easy to remember and could potentially serve as a conversation starter for discussing safe sex with partners.

  3. Improving the effectiveness of fundraising messages: The impact of charity goal attainment, message framing, and evidence on persuasion

    Das, E.; Kerkhof, P.; Kuiper, J.

    2008-01-01

    This experimental study assessed the effectiveness of fundraising messages. Based on recent findings regarding the effects of message framing and evidence, effective fundraising messages should combine abstract, statistical information with a negative message frame and anecdotal evidence with a

  4. Effects of Text Messaging on Academic Performance

    Barks Amanda

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available University students frequently send and receive cellular phone text messages during classroominstruction. Cognitive psychology research indicates that multi-tasking is frequently associatedwith performance cost. However, university students often have considerable experience withelectronic multi-tasking and may believe that they can devote necessary attention to a classroomlecture while sending and receiving text messages. In the current study, university students whoused text messaging were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: 1. a group that sent andreceived text messages during a lecture or, 2. a group that did not engage in text messagingduring the lecture. Participants who engaged in text messaging demonstrated significantlypoorer performance on a test covering lecture content compared with the group that did notsend and receive text messages. Participants exhibiting higher levels of text messaging skill hadsignificantly lower test scores than participants who were less proficient at text messaging. It ishypothesized that in terms of retention of lecture material, more frequent task shifting by thosewith greater text messaging proficiency contributed to poorer performance. Overall, the findingsdo not support the view, held by many university students, that this form of multitasking has littleeffect on the acquisition of lecture content. Results provide empirical support for teachers andprofessors who ban text messaging in the classroom.

  5. Pengaruh Social Media Marketing melalui Blackberry Messenger terhadap Minat Beli Konsumen di PT Agung Automall (Agung Toyota) Harapan Raya Pekanbaru

    Lubis, Evawani Elysa; Pratama, Lian

    2016-01-01

    The rise of social media is the new media can be used as marketing at once to do consumer interaction, called social media marketing. One of the social media marketing which is now popular among business people, IE blackberry messenger. Through this application can send a message text, sound, and images for free about their business or place information and promotions offered from their products so that it formed an interest to buy from someone, with the blackberry messenger messages or infor...

  6. 'Hidden messages' emerging from Afrocentric management perspectives

    H. Van den Heuvel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper aims to examine how 'African management' discourse has emerged in South Africa. Altogether, it has stimulated debates - sometimes in controversial ways - on 'taboo issues', e.g. relating to 'cultural diversity' and 'ethnicity'. The stimulation of such debates within organisations is probably a more valuable contribution than a static, essentialised 'African identity' that it proclaims. Design/Methodology/Approach: The paper draws on a qualitative research project conducted in South Africa in 2003-2004. Its relevance lies in gaining in-depth insights into ('non-western' local management discourse. It seeks to contribute to the body of knowledge on political and cultural contexts in which South African organizations operate, and how they impact on local management perspectives, and vice versa. Findings: The research findings make clear how and under what circumstances 'African management' discourse has come about in South Africa, and how it could be interpreted. Implications: 'African management' advocates allegedly attempt to revise dominant management thinking and promote 'humane-ness' and participatory decision-making in South African organisations, in search of a contextualised management approach. Amongst others, it has produced new meanings of 'Africanness' and has opened up space for 'hidden messages', resentments and aspirations to become openly articulated. This throws another light on phenomena such as cultural diversity and ethnicity that usually tend to be 'neutralised'. This may turn out to be far healthier for blooming organisational cultures in South Africa than relentlessly hammering on prescribed 'corporate values'. Originality/Value: This paper informs the reader in detail about the emergence and evolvement of 'African management' discourse in South Africa. It is a unique attempt to develop an interpretative viewpoint on this intriguing phenomenon that offers a potentially valuable contribution in reading

  7. Evaluation of an Australian Alcohol Media Literacy Program.

    Gordon, Chloe S; Howard, Steven J; Jones, Sandra C; Kervin, Lisa K

    2016-11-01

    A 10-lesson alcohol media literacy program was developed, underpinned by the message interpretation processing model, inoculation theory, and constructivist learning theory, and was tailored to be culturally relevant to the Australian context. This program aimed to increase students' media deconstruction skills and reduce intent to drink alcohol. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the program in achieving these goals through a short-term quasi-experimental trial. Elementary schools were assigned to either the intervention group (83 students) or a wait-list control group (82 students). Student questionnaires were administered at three time points (baseline, after the intervention group completed the program, and after the wait-list control group completed the program) to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention. The intervention and wait-list control groups reported significantly higher media deconstruction skills as a result of the intervention. Both groups reported significantly lower social norms, whereas the wait-list control group reported significantly lower positive alcohol expectancies. There were no significant changes to self-efficacy to refuse alcohol, preference for alcohol-branded merchandise, and understanding of persuasive intent as a result of the intervention. To date, the majority of alcohol media literacy studies have been conducted in the United States and have focused on deconstructing television and print-based ads. This evaluation provides evidence that an alcohol media literacy program that was developed for a specific cultural context, and that incorporates a broad range of multimodal advertisements, can have a positive impact on beliefs and attitudes that are known predictors/precursors of drinking behaviors.

  8. Humanitarian Branding & the Media

    Vestergaard, Anne

    2006-01-01

    are becoming increasingly commercialized. This paper explores the use of media discourse for the communication of ethical messages by humanitarian organizations, caught, as they are, in a tension between, on the one hand, the commercial strategies of visibility and still greater dependence on the media, and......The development of corporate communication in recent years has brought about a fading of the division of labor between commercial and non-commercial organizations. While the practices of commercial organizations are becoming increasingly ethicalized, so the practices of non-profit organizations......'s branding strategies testify to a high degree of reflexivity about the conditions of what Luc Boltanski calls a Crisis of Pity. The analysis illustrates how, in the face of compassion fatigue, the organization manages to carve out a new space for itself in the marketized ethical discourse, and leads...

  9. The Impact of Islamic Messages on Twitter Towards Moslem Youth

    Fathan Hidayatullah, Ahmad; Hamzah, Almed

    2017-03-01

    The presence of social media has increased the opportunities for the Moslem in sharing and gaining knowledge about the religion of Islam. In general, Twitter can be an alternative for people to deliver and obtain Islamic messages. As the biggest moslem community, Indonesian people has made use of Twitter as a tool for them to gain knowledge about religion. As a matter of fact, there are many Islamic preachers that have been utilize Twitter as a media of proselytizing various topic related to religion practice. The most popular preacher usually has many follower. The result shows that there is a strong correlation between the two. There is a correlation between the number of tweets with the number of follower. The more preacher post a tweets the more follower they attained. Moreover, several topics are identified as the most frequently occurred. The tweets which contain about worship, love, information, and purification of soul have become the most favourable subject among preachers and scholars.

  10. The WLCG Messaging Service and its Future

    Cons, Lionel; Paladin, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    Enterprise messaging is seen as an attractive mechanism to simplify and extend several portions of the Grid middleware, from low level monitoring to experiments dashboards. The production messaging service currently used by WLCG includes four tightly coupled brokers operated by EGI (running Apache ActiveMQ and designed to host the Grid operational tools such as SAM) as well as two dedicated services for ATLAS-DDM and experiments dashboards (currently also running Apache ActiveMQ). In the future, this service is expected to grow in numbers of applications supported, brokers and technologies. The WLCG Messaging Roadmap identified three areas with room for improvement (security, scalability and availability/reliability) as well as ten practical recommendations to address them. This paper describes a messaging service architecture that is in line with these recommendations as well as a software architecture based on reusable components that ease interactions with the messaging service. These two architectures will support the growth of the WLCG messaging service.

  11. Hand hygiene posters: motivators or mixed messages?

    Jenner, E A; Jones, F; Fletcher, B C; Miller, L; Scott, G M

    2005-07-01

    Poster campaigns regarding hand hygiene are commonly used by infection control teams to improve practice, yet little is known of the extent to which they are based on established theory or research. This study reports on the content analysis of hand hygiene posters (N=69) and their messages (N=75) using message-framing theory. The results showed that posters seldom drew on knowledge about effective ways to frame messages. Frequently, they simply conveyed information 'telling' rather than 'selling' and some of this was confusing. Most posters were not designed to motivate, and some conveyed mixed messages. Few used fear appeals. Hand hygiene posters could have a greater impact if principles of message framing were utilized in their design. Suggestions for gain-framed messages are offered, but these need to be tested empirically.

  12. Message Scheduling and Forwarding in Congested DTNs

    Elwhishi, Ahmed; Ho, Pin-Han; Shihada, Basem

    2012-01-01

    Multi-copy utility-based routing has been considered as one of the most applicable approaches to effective message delivery in Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs). By allowing multiple message replicas launched, the ratio of message delivery or delay can be significantly reduced compared with other counterparts. Such an advantage, nonetheless, is at the expense of taking more buffer space at each node and higher complexity in message forwarding decisions. This paper investigates an efficient message scheduling and dropping policy via analytical modeling approach, aiming to achieve optimal performance in terms of message delivery delay. Extensive simulation results, based on a synthetic mobility model and real mobility traces, show that the proposed scheduling framework can achieve superb performance against its counterparts in terms of delivery delay.

  13. Diabetes education via mobile text messaging.

    Wangberg, Silje C; Arsand, Eirik; Andersson, Niklas

    2006-01-01

    Living with diabetes makes great educational demands on a family. We have tested the feasibility of using the mobile phone short message service (SMS) for reaching people with diabetes information. We also assessed user satisfaction and perceived pros and cons of the medium through interviews. Eleven parents of children with type 1 diabetes received messages for 11 weeks. The parents were positive about the system and said that they would like to continue to use it. The pop-up reminding effect of SMS messages in busy everyday life was noted as positive. Some parents experienced the messages as somewhat intrusive, arriving too often and at inconvenient times. The parents also noted the potential of the messages to facilitate communication with their adolescent children. The inability to store all of the messages or to print them out were seen as major disadvantages. Overall, the SMS seems to hold promise as means of delivering diabetes information.

  14. CMLOG: A common message logging system

    Chen, J.; Akers, W.; Bickley, M.; Wu, D.; Watson, W. III

    1997-01-01

    The Common Message Logging (CMLOG) system is an object-oriented and distributed system that not only allows applications and systems to log data (messages) of any type into a centralized database but also lets applications view incoming messages in real-time or retrieve stored data from the database according to selection rules. It consists of a concurrent Unix server that handles incoming logging or searching messages, a Motif browser that can view incoming messages in real-time or display stored data in the database, a client daemon that buffers and sends logging messages to the server, and libraries that can be used by applications to send data to or retrieve data from the database via the server. This paper presents the design and implementation of the CMLOG system meanwhile it will also address the issue of integration of CMLOG into existing control systems. CMLOG into existing control systems

  15. Message Scheduling and Forwarding in Congested DTNs

    Elwhishi, Ahmed

    2012-08-19

    Multi-copy utility-based routing has been considered as one of the most applicable approaches to effective message delivery in Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs). By allowing multiple message replicas launched, the ratio of message delivery or delay can be significantly reduced compared with other counterparts. Such an advantage, nonetheless, is at the expense of taking more buffer space at each node and higher complexity in message forwarding decisions. This paper investigates an efficient message scheduling and dropping policy via analytical modeling approach, aiming to achieve optimal performance in terms of message delivery delay. Extensive simulation results, based on a synthetic mobility model and real mobility traces, show that the proposed scheduling framework can achieve superb performance against its counterparts in terms of delivery delay.

  16. Application of a Tsunami Warning Message Metric to refine NOAA NWS Tsunami Warning Messages

    Gregg, C. E.; Johnston, D.; Sorensen, J.; Whitmore, P.

    2013-12-01

    In 2010, the U.S. National Weather Service (NWS) funded a three year project to integrate social science into their Tsunami Program. One of three primary requirements of the grant was to make improvements to tsunami warning messages of the NWS' two Tsunami Warning Centers- the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) in Palmer, Alaska and the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) in Ewa Beach, Hawaii. We conducted focus group meetings with a purposive sample of local, state and Federal stakeholders and emergency managers in six states (AK, WA, OR, CA, HI and NC) and two US Territories (US Virgin Islands and American Samoa) to qualitatively asses information needs in tsunami warning messages using WCATWC tsunami messages for the March 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami event. We also reviewed research literature on behavioral response to warnings to develop a tsunami warning message metric that could be used to guide revisions to tsunami warning messages of both warning centers. The message metric is divided into categories of Message Content, Style, Order and Formatting and Receiver Characteristics. A message is evaluated by cross-referencing the message with the operational definitions of metric factors. Findings are then used to guide revisions of the message until the characteristics of each factor are met. Using findings from this project and findings from a parallel NWS Warning Tiger Team study led by T. Nicolini, the WCATWC implemented the first of two phases of revisions to their warning messages in November 2012. A second phase of additional changes, which will fully implement the redesign of messages based on the metric, is in progress. The resulting messages will reflect current state-of-the-art knowledge on warning message effectiveness. Here we present the message metric; evidence-based rational for message factors; and examples of previous, existing and proposed messages.

  17. Message Received: Virtual Ethnography in Online Message Boards

    Kevin F. Steinmetz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available As the Internet begins to encapsulate more people within online communities, it is important that the social researcher have well-rounded ethnographic methodologies for observing these phenomena. This article seeks to contribute to methodology by detailing and providing insights into three specific facets of virtual ethnography that need attention: space and time, identity and authenticity, and ethics. Because the Internet is a globalized and instantaneous medium where space and time collapse, identity becomes more playful, and ethics become more tenuous; understanding these aspects is crucial to the study of online social groups. A second focus of this article is to apply these notions to the study of online message boards—a frequently used medium for online communication that is frequently overlooked by methodologists.

  18. Terrorism as Media Event

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Proving that terrorism should be seen as a media event (as defined by Dayan and Katzafter 9/11 and treated accordingly. We have turned to the work of Dayan and Katz and GeorgeGerbner’s for a definition of media events and of violence in the mass media. This paper is ahermeneutical interpretation of the concept of terrorism and its relation to communication. We haveput forward a better understanding of the complex concept of terrorism and its definitions in the massmedia context. Terrorism nowadays should always be defined within its inherent relation with themedia. The article is the first to define terrorism as media evenit in Dayan and Katz’s terms.

  19. Message framing in social networking sites.

    Kao, Danny Tengti; Chuang, Shih-Chieh; Wang, Sui-Min; Zhang, Lei

    2013-10-01

    Online social networking sites represent significant new opportunities for Internet advertisers. However, results based on the real world cannot be generalized to all virtual worlds. In this research, the moderating effects of need for cognition (NFC) and knowledge were applied to examine the impact of message framing on attitudes toward social networking sites. A total of 216 undergraduates participated in the study. Results reveal that for social networking sites, while high-NFC individuals form more favorable attitudes toward negatively framed messages than positively framed messages, low-NFC individuals form more favorable attitudes toward positively framed messages than negatively framed messages. In addition, low-knowledge individuals demonstrate more favorable attitudes toward negatively framed messages than positively framed messages; however, the framing effect does not differentially affect the attitudes of high-knowledge individuals. Furthermore, the framing effect does not differentially affect the attitudes of high-NFC individuals with high knowledge. In contrast, low-NFC individuals with low knowledge hold more favorable attitudes toward positively framed messages than negatively framed messages.

  20. Marketing research for choosing the promotional message content for domestic organic products

    Salai Suzana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Choosing the content of promotional messages is a part of the activities of integrated marketing communication. As far as organic products in the world are concerned, research related to the choice of promotional message content is the object of much attention, primarily based on the conduct of research among the consumers of these product (information for defining the aim of promotion, creating and testing promotional messages, selecting media and media mix, and determining the number and frequency of promotional events. Promoting domestic organic products also inevitably implies conducting consumer-centred marketing research, in order to choose the appropriate promotional message. In this respect, this article defines several goals: study the choice of the promotional message content in relation to other activities of integrated marketing communication; consider this question in the context of relevant foreign market research into organic product consumers; determine the level of marketing research, which could be used for approaching the issue from the domestic perspective; and establish which recommendations and implication could be generated when domestic organic products are concerned.

  1. Terse messaging and public health in the midst of natural disasters: the case of the Boulder floods.

    Sutton, Jeannette; League, Cedar; Sellnow, Timothy L; Sellnow, Deanna D

    2015-01-01

    Social media are quickly becoming the channel of choice for disseminating emergency warning messages. However, relatively little data-driven research exists to inform effective message design when using these media. The present study addresses that void by examining terse health-related warning messages sent by public safety agencies over Twitter during the 2013 Boulder, CO, floods. An examination of 5,100 tweets from 52 Twitter accounts over the course of the 5-day flood period yielded several key conclusions and implications. First, public health messages posted by local emergency management leaders are most frequently retweeted by organizations in our study. Second, emergency public health messages focus primarily on drinking water in this event. Third, terse messages can be designed in ways that include imperative/instructional and declarative/explanatory styles of content, both of which are essential for promoting public health during crises. These findings demonstrate that even terse messages delivered via Twitter ought to provide information about the hazard event, its impact, and actionable instructions for self-protection.

  2. Media education.

    Strasburger, Victor C

    2010-11-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recognizes that exposure to mass media (eg, television, movies, video and computer games, the Internet, music lyrics and videos, newspapers, magazines, books, advertising) presents health risks for children and adolescents but can provide benefits as well. Media education has the potential to reduce the harmful effects of media and accentuate the positive effects. By understanding and supporting media education, pediatricians can play an important role in reducing harmful effects of media on children and adolescents.

  3. Cued Speech Transliteration: Effects of Accuracy and Lag Time on Message Intelligibility

    Krause, Jean C.; Lopez, Katherine A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper is the second in a series concerned with the level of access afforded to students who use educational interpreters. The first paper (Krause & Tessler, 2016) focused on factors affecting accuracy of messages produced by Cued Speech (CS) transliterators (expression). In this study, factors affecting intelligibility (reception by deaf…

  4. The Symbolic Role of Organizational Message Artifacts in a Communication System Assessment.

    Meyer, John C.

    This paper calls for the inclusion of narrative, thematic, and metaphor analysis as organizational assessment or communication audit methods and discusses some practical means of integrating these symbolic interpretational devices. The paper begins by defining the notion of symbol as the message content important to the organizational member. It…

  5. Inoculation message treatments for curbing noncommunicable disease development.

    Mason, Alicia M; Miller, Claude H

    2013-07-01

    To study the effect of various types of inoculation message treatments on resistance to persuasive and potentially deceptive health- and nutrition-related (HNR) content claims of commercial food advertisers. A three-phase experiment was conducted among 145 students from a Midwestern U.S. university. Quantitative statistical analyses were used to interpret the results. RESULTS provide clear evidence that integrating regulatory focus/fit considerations enhances the treatment effectiveness of inoculation messages. Inoculation messages that employed a preventative, outcome focus with concrete language were most effective at countering HNR advertising claims. The findings indicate that inoculation fosters resistance equally across the most common types of commercially advertised HNR product claims (e.g., absolute, general, and structure/function claims). As the drive to refine the inoculation process model continues, further testing and application of this strategy in a public health context is needed to counter ongoing efforts by commercial food advertisers to avoid government regulations against deceptive practices such as dubious health/nutrition claims. This research advances inoculation theory by providing evidence that 1) good regulatory fit strengthens the effect of refutational preemption and 2) an inoculation approach is highly effective at fostering resistance to commercial advertisers' HNR content claims. This macro approach appears far superior to education or information-based promotional health campaigns targeted solely at specific populations demonstrating rising rates of noncommunicable disease.

  6. Inoculation message treatments for curbing noncommunicable disease development

    Alicia M. Mason

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of various types of inoculation message treatments on resistance to persuasive and potentially deceptive health- and nutrition-related (HNR content claims of commercial food advertisers. METHODS: A three-phase experiment was conducted among 145 students from a Midwestern U.S. university. Quantitative statistical analyses were used to interpret the results. Results: Results provide clear evidence that integrating regulatory focus/fit considerations enhances the treatment effectiveness of inoculation messages. Inoculation messages that employed a preventative, outcome focus with concrete language were most effective at countering HNR advertising claims. The findings indicate that inoculation fosters resistance equally across the most common types of commercially advertised HNR product claims (e.g., absolute, general, and structure/function claims. CONCLUSIONS: As the drive to refine the inoculation process model continues, further testing and application of this strategy in a public health context is needed to counter ongoing efforts by commercial food advertisers to avoid government regulations against deceptive practices such as dubious health/nutrition claims. This research advances inoculation theory by providing evidence that 1 good regulatory fit strengthens the effect of refutational preemption and 2 an inoculation approach is highly effective at fostering resistance to commercial advertisers' HNR content claims. This macro approach appears far superior to education or information-based promotional health campaigns targeted solely at specific populations demonstrating rising rates of noncommunicable disease.

  7. Center for Media Literacy Unveils the CML Medialit Kit[TM]: A Free Educational Framework that Helps Students Challenge and Understand Media

    Social Studies, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Five key questions form the basis of the new CML MediaLit Kit, an educational framework and curriculum guide developed by the Center for Media Literacy. Adaptable to all grades, the key questions help children and young people evaluate the thousands of media messages that bombard them daily. More than two years in development and available for…

  8. Transformation optics, isotropic chiral media and non-Riemannian geometry

    Horsley, S A R

    2011-01-01

    The geometrical interpretation of electromagnetism in transparent media (transformation optics) is extended to include chiral media that are isotropic but inhomogeneous. It was found that such media may be described through introducing the non-Riemannian geometrical property of torsion into the Maxwell equations, and it is shown how such an interpretation may be applied to the design of optical devices.

  9. On court interpreters' visibility

    Dubslaff, Friedel; Martinsen, Bodil

    of the service they receive. Ultimately, the findings will be used for training purposes. Future - and, for that matter, already practising - interpreters as well as the professional users of interpreters ought to take the reality of the interpreters' work in practice into account when assessing the quality...... on the interpreter's interpersonal role and, in particular, on signs of the interpreter's visibility, i.e. active co-participation. At first sight, the interpreting assignment in question seems to be a short and simple routine task which would not require the interpreter to deviate from the traditional picture...

  10. The Book Trailer Project: Media Production within an Integrated Classroom

    Festa, Karen

    2017-01-01

    A special education co-teacher in an integrated elementary classroom describes key aspects of media literacy pedagogy for all students, including opportunities for critical analysis and creative media production. After elementary school students learned about author's craft, purpose, theme/message, three types of writing, and target audience, they…

  11. Electronic Media: A Motivational Strategy for Student Success

    Finamore, Dora C. D.; Hochanadel, Aaron J.; Hochanadel, Cathleen E.; Millam, Loretta A.; Reinhardt, Michelle M.

    2012-01-01

    Motivation, engagement, goal attainment and effective interaction are essential components for college students to be successful in the online educational environment. The popularity and influx of electronic media applications has allowed educators the opportunity to incorporate social media (Facebook, Twitter), and volitional messages (Simple…

  12. Consumer Responses to Creative Media Advertising: A Literature Review

    Eelen, J.; Rauwers, R.; Wottrich, V. M.; Voorveld, H. A. M.; van Noort, G.; de Pelsmacker, P.

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the state of knowledge about creative media advertising; choosing a novel medium that implicitly communicates the message. It explains what creative media advertising is and how it differs from other unconventional marketing communication formats. It addresses the

  13. Empowering Students through Critical Media Literacy: This Means War

    Rodesiler, Luke

    2010-01-01

    Media messages are increasingly packaged in ways that blur distinctions between genres. The U.S. Army National Guard's recent campaign incorporating rock stars and popular music to appeal to potential recruits exemplifies this trend, as commercials and music videos become one and the same. Given this increasing trend, critical media literacy…

  14. LP II--A GOAL PROGRAMMING MODEL FOR MEDIA.

    CHARNES, A.; AND OTHERS

    A GOAL PROGRAMING MODEL FOR SELECTING MEDIA IS PRESENTED WHICH ALTERS THE OBJECTIVE AND EXTENDS PREVIOUS MEDIA MODELS BY ACCOUNTING FOR CUMULATIVE DUPLICATING AUDIENCES OVER A VARIETY OF TIME PERIODS. THIS PERMITS DETAILED CONTROL OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF MESSAGE FREQUENCIES DIRECTED AT EACH OF NUMEROUS MARKETING TARGETS OVER A SEQUENCE OF…

  15. Child Sacrifice: Black America's Price of Paying the Media Piper.

    Orange, Carolyn M.; George, Amiso M.

    2000-01-01

    Explores the sacrifice of African American children to the broadcast media and video games in terms of the players ("media pipers"), the messages ("piping"), and the consequences to children. Proposes some solutions for the problems associated with excessive television viewing and undesirable programming. (SLD)

  16. Violence and the Media: Teaching Strategies and a Rationale.

    Gathercoal, Paul

    This paper suggests teaching strategies for grades 4 through 12 that examine the commercial media and their messages as agenda setters, i.e., as mechanisms for selecting social issues, establishing their importance, and defining socially acceptable attitudes and responses to those issues. The strategies also explore how the media can create biased…

  17. [Physical activity guidelines for Canadians: strategies for dissemination of the message, expectations for change and evaluation].

    Brawley, Lawrence R; Latimer, Amy E

    2007-01-01

    Physical activity guidelines offer evidence-based behavioural benchmarks that relate to reduced risk of morbidity and mortality if people adhere to them. Essentially, the guidelines tell people what to do, but not why and how they should do it. Thus, to motivate adherence, messages that translate guidelines should convey not only how much physical activity one should attempt and why it is recommended, but also how to achieve such a recommendation. Canada's physical activity guides exemplify how guidelines can be translated. This paper (i) provides a brief overview of the challenges encountered in creating the existing guides and (ii) highlights important practical issues and empirical evidence that should be considered in the future when translating guidelines into messages and disseminating these messages. We draw on the successes of past efforts to translate the goals of physical activity guidelines and on recent literature on messages and media campaigns to make recommendations. Information to motivate people to move toward the goals in physical activity guidelines should be translated into a set of messages that are informative, thought provoking, and persuasive. These messages should be disseminated to the public via a multi-phase social-marketing campaign that is carefully planned and thoroughly evaluated.

  18. Physical activity guides for Canadians: messaging strategies, realistic expectations for change, and evaluation.

    Brawley, Lawrence R; Latimer, Amy E

    2007-01-01

    Physical activity guidelines offer evidence-based behavioural benchmarks that relate to reduced risk of morbidity and mortality if people adhere to them. Essentially, the guidelines tell people what to do, but not why and how they should do it. Thus, to motivate adherence, messages that translate guidelines should convey not only how much physical activity one should attempt and why it is recommended, but also how to achieve such a recommendation. Canada's physical activity guides exemplify how guidelines can be translated. This paper (i) provides a brief overview of the challenges encountered in creating the existing guides and (ii) highlights important practical issues and empirical evidence that should be considered in the future when translating guidelines into messages and disseminating these messages. We draw on the successes of past efforts to translate the goals of physical activity guidelines and on recent literature on messages and media campaigns to make recommendations. Information to motivate people to move toward the goals in physical activity guidelines should be translated into a set of messages that are informative, thought provoking, and persuasive. These messages should be disseminated to the public via a multi-phase social-marketing campaign that is carefully planned and thoroughly evaluated.

  19. 7 CFR 201.56 - Interpretation.

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.56 Interpretation. (a) A seed shall be... and the final count. During the progress of the germination test, seeds which are obviously dead and... evaluation of germination tests made on approved artificial media. This is intended to provide a method of...

  20. Online Social Media in Crisis Events

    Palen, Leysia

    2008-01-01

    As social media--which includes blogs, social networking environments, person-to-person and broadcast messaging, and other Web 2.0 applications--becomes more pervasive, their use has significant implications for emergency management practice and policy. Information and communication technology (ICT) enables people--disaster survivors, curious…

  1. Interpreting Impoliteness: Interpreters’ Voices

    Tatjana Radanović Felberg

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Interpreters in the public sector in Norway interpret in a variety of institutional encounters, and the interpreters evaluate the majority of these encounters as polite. However, some encounters are evaluated as impolite, and they pose challenges when it comes to interpreting impoliteness. This issue raises the question of whether interpreters should take a stance on their own evaluation of impoliteness and whether they should interfere in communication. In order to find out more about how interpreters cope with this challenge, in 2014 a survey was sent to all interpreters registered in the Norwegian Register of Interpreters. The survey data were analyzed within the theoretical framework of impoliteness theory using the notion of moral order as an explanatory tool in a close reading of interpreters’ answers. The analysis shows that interpreters reported using a variety of strategies for interpreting impoliteness, including omissions and downtoning. However, the interpreters also gave examples of individual strategies for coping with impoliteness, such as interrupting and postponing interpreting. These strategies border behavioral strategies and conflict with the Norwegian ethical guidelines for interpreting. In light of the ethical guidelines and actual practice, mapping and discussing different strategies used by interpreters might heighten interpreters’ and interpreter-users’ awareness of the role impoliteness can play in institutional interpreter– mediated encounters. 

  2. Impact of malaria related messages on insecticide-treated net (ITN) use for malaria prevention in Ghana

    Owusu Adjah, Ebenezer S; Panayiotou, Andrie G

    2014-01-01

    Background: Media messages have been used in Ghana to promote insecticide-treated net (ITN)/bed net usage in an effort to impact on malaria prevention. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of such malaria-related messages delivered through electronic/print media and by volunteers/health workers on the use of ITNs by children living in a household. Methods: Data was collected from September to November of 2008 using a structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire by the Ghana St...

  3. Should We Ban Instant Messaging In School?

    Texley, Sharon; DeGennaro, Donna

    2005-01-01

    This article is a brief debate on the pros and cons of allowing students to use instant messaging (IM) in school. On one hand, teenagers' desire to socialize can overcome other priorities and schools may set policies to ban instant messaging. The contrary view is that schools should embrace the IM technology being popularized by youth and find…

  4. 78 FR 64202 - Quantitative Messaging Research

    2013-10-28

    ... COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION Quantitative Messaging Research AGENCY: Commodity Futures... survey will follow qualitative message testing research (for which CFTC received fast- track OMB approval... comments. Please submit your comments using only one method and identify that it is for the ``Quantitative...

  5. Undergraduates' Text Messaging Language and Literacy Skills

    Grace, Abbie; Kemp, Nenagh; Martin, Frances Heritage; Parrila, Rauno

    2014-01-01

    Research investigating whether people's literacy skill is being affected by the use of text messaging language has produced largely positive results for children, but mixed results for adults. We asked 150 undergraduate university students in Western Canada and 86 in South Eastern Australia to supply naturalistic text messages and to complete…

  6. Arbitrated quantum signature scheme with message recovery

    Lee, Hwayean; Hong, Changho; Kim, Hyunsang; Lim, Jongin; Yang, Hyung Jin

    2004-01-01

    Two quantum signature schemes with message recovery relying on the availability of an arbitrator are proposed. One scheme uses a public board and the other does not. However both schemes provide confidentiality of the message and a higher efficiency in transmission

  7. Suspecting Neurological Dysfunction From E Mail Messages ...

    A non medical person suspected and confirmed neurological dysfunction in an individual, based only on e mail messages sent by the individual. With email communication becoming rampant “peculiar” email messages may raise the suspicion of neurological dysfunction. Organic pathology explaining the abnormal email ...

  8. Stereotypes in media and media literacy among young people

    Đerić Ivana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Young people, the most common consumers of media content, bear out the view that media shapes people’s lives. Therefore we must not underestimate the effect media exerts on young people’s values and behavioral patterns. Television is the medium which draws children and young people for the greatest part of their free time. Regardless whether television programs are described as positive or negative, whether they abound with stereotypes or not, it is important that young people develop a critical attitude towards them so that they may resist different forms of media manipulation. The paper discusses how stereotypes are generated and used by media and the manners in which stereotypical concepts affect young people’s attitudes. It highlights the importance of the development of media literacy which implies a critical attitude towards media images and discourses, the development of criteria for the selection and evaluation of information broadcast by media, the development of skills in interpreting and understanding stereotypical concepts and familiarity with alternative forms of media culture. The paper draws special attention to the issue of media education. The conclusion is that schools should offer media literacy as part of their curriculum and in it possible solutions to the problems discussed. .

  9. Visual Literacy and Message Design

    Pettersson, Rune

    2009-01-01

    Many researchers from different disciplines have explained their views and interpretations and written about visual literacy from their various perspectives. Visual literacy may be applied in almost all areas such as advertising, anatomy, art, biology, business presentations, communication, education, engineering, etc. (Pettersson, 2002a). Despite…

  10. The WLCG Messaging Service and its Future

    Cons, Lionel

    2012-01-01

    Enterprise messaging is seen as an attractive mechanism to simplify and extend several portions of the Grid middleware, from low level monitoring to experiments dashboards. The production messaging service currently used by WLCG includes four tightly coupled brokers operated by EGI (running Apache ActiveMQ and designed to host the Grid operational tools such as SAM) as well as two dedicated services for ATLAS-DDM and experiments dashboards (currently also running Apache ActiveMQ). In the future, this service is expected to grow in numbers of applications supported, brokers and technologies. The WLCG Messaging Roadmap identified three areas with room for improvement (security, scalability and availability/reliability) as well as ten practical recommendations to address them. This paper describes a messaging service architecture that is in line with these recommendations as well as a software architecture based on reusable components that ease interactions with the messaging service. These two architectures wil...

  11. AMS: Area Message Service for SLC

    Crane, M.; Mackenzie, R.; Millsom, D.; Zelazny, M.

    1993-04-01

    The Area Message Service (AMS) is a TCP/IP based messaging service currently in use at SLAC. A number of projects under development here at SLAC require and application level interface to the 4.3BSD UNIX socket level communications functions using TCP/IP over ethernet. AMS provides connection management, solicited message transfer, unsolicited message transfer, and asynchronous notification of pending messages. AMS is written completely in ANSI 'C' and is currently portable over three hardware/operating system/network manager platforms, VAX/VMS/Multinet, PC/MS-DOS/Pathworks, VME 68K/pSOS/pNA. The basic architecture is a client-server connection where either end of the interface may be the server. This allows for connections and data flow to be initiated from either end of the interface. Included in the paper are details concerning the connection management, the handling of the multi-platform code, and the implementation process

  12. Hand hygiene posters: selling the message.

    Jenner, E A; Jones, F; Fletcher, B C; Miller, L; Scott, G M

    2005-02-01

    This literature review was undertaken to determine the established theory and research that might be utilized to inform the construction of persuasive messages on hand hygiene posters. It discusses the principles of message framing and the use of fear appeals. Current theory suggests that the most effective messages for health promotion behaviours should be framed in terms of gains rather than losses for the individual. However, as clinical hand hygiene is largely for the benefit of others (i.e. patients), messages should also invoke a sense of personal responsibility and appeal to altruistic behaviour. The use of repeated minimal fear appeals have their place. Posters that simply convey training messages are not effective persuaders.

  13. Evidence-Based Support for the Characteristics of Tsunami Warning Messages for Local, Regional and Distant Sources

    Gregg, C. E.; Johnston, D. M.; Sorensen, J. H.; Vogt Sorensen, B.; Whitmore, P.

    2014-12-01

    Many studies since 2004 have documented the dissemination and receipt of risk information for local to distant tsunamis and factors influencing people's responses. A few earlier tsunami studies and numerous studies of other hazards provide additional support for developing effective tsunami messages. This study explores evidence-based approaches to developing such messages for the Pacific and National Tsunami Warning Centers in the US. It extends a message metric developed for the NWS Tsunami Program. People at risk to tsunamis receive information from multiple sources through multiple channels. Sources are official and informal and environmental and social cues. Traditionally, official tsunami messages followed a linear dissemination path through relatively few channels from warning center to emergency management to public and media. However, the digital age has brought about a fundamental change in the dissemination and receipt of official and informal communications. Information is now disseminated in very non-linear paths and all end-user groups may receive the same message simultaneously. Research has demonstrated a range of factors that influence rapid respond to an initial real or perceived threat. Immediate response is less common than one involving delayed protective actions where people first engage in "milling behavior" to exchange information and confirm the warning before taking protective action. The most important message factors to achieve rapid response focus on the content and style of the message and the frequency of dissemination. Previously we developed a tsunami message metric consisting of 21 factors divided into message content and style and receiver characteristics. Initially, each factor was equally weighted to identify gaps, but here we extend the work by weighting specific factors. This utilizes recent research that identifies the most important determinants of protective action. We then discuss the prioritization of message information

  14. Language Skills and Level of Experience among Arabic-Speaking Healthcare Interpreters in Denmark

    Itani, Nada; Khalil, Mohammad; Sodemann, Morten

    2017-01-01

    services has recently been discussed by politicians and the media. The present explorative study investigated the sociodemographic characteristics, level of experience and linguistic skills of Arabic-speaking healthcare interpreters in Denmark. Method: Snowball sampling (including social media) was used...

  15. Examining Media Literacy Levels of Prospective Teachers

    Taskın INAN

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available As in many other countries, following the 2007-2008 education year when media literacy courses began to be included in the curricula, media literacy has become one of the discussion topics among educators and decision makers in Turkey. Discussion topics related to media literacy have included who is going to give the media literacy courses, what qualifications will be sought out in media literacy education teachers, what will be included in the media literacy curriculum in terms of its content, and at what level the media literacy course will be given. The current study which aims to examine media literacy levels of prospective teachers utilized thesurvey method. The sample of the study included prospective teachers (480 attending Elementary School Education, Social Studies Education and Turkish Language Education departments in the Education Faculty at the Dumlupinar University in the 2008-2009 education year. The results of the study showed that prospective teachers have a low level of reaction to media messages, do not educate people around enough about the effects of media, but make use of different sources of media to gain information, and are cognizant of media literacy.

  16. Examining media literacy levels of prospective teachers

    Taşkın İnan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available As in many other countries, following the 2007-2008 education year when media literacy courses began to be included in the curricula, media literacy has become one of the discussion topics among educators and decision makers in Turkey. Discussion topics related to media literacy have included who is going to give the media literacy courses, what qualifications will be sought out in media literacy education teachers, what will be included in the media literacy curriculum in terms of its content, and at what level the media literacy course will be given. The current study which aims to examine media literacy levels of prospective teachers utilized the survey method. The sample of the study included prospective teachers (480 attending Elementary School Education, Social Studies Education and Turkish Language Education departments in the Education Faculty at the Dumlupinar University in the 2008-2009 education year. The results of the study showed that prospective teachers have a low level of reaction to media messages, do not educate people around enough about the effects of media, but make use of different sources of media to gain information, and are cognizant of media literacy.

  17. Media and youth: access, exposure, and privatization.

    Roberts, D F

    2000-08-01

    To describe U.S. youth's access and exposure to the full array of media, as well as the social contexts in which media exposure occurs. A cross-sectional national random sample of 2065 adolescents aged 8 through 18 years, including oversamples of African-American and Hispanic youth, completed questionnaires about use of television, videotapes, movies, computers, video games, radio, compact discs, tape players, books, newspapers, and magazines. U.S. youngsters are immersed in media. Most households contain most media (computers and video game systems are the exception); the majority of youth have their own personal media. The average youth devotes 6 3/4 h to media; simultaneous use of multiple media increases exposure to 8 h of media messages daily. Overall, media exposure and exposure to individual media vary as a function of age, gender, race/ethnicity, and family socioeconomic level. Television remains the dominant medium. About one-half of the youth sampled uses a computer daily. A substantial proportion of children's and adolescents' media use occurs in the absence of parents. American youth devote more time to media than to any other waking activity, as much as one-third of each day. This demands increased parental attention and research into the effects of such extensive exposure.

  18. Media Komunitas dan Media Literacy

    Pawito .

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:This essay deals with community media in relation to media literacy. After a short discussion on a number of community media characters is made the essay goes further with somewhat detail theoretical presumptions of the roles of media community with respect primarily to the development as Amartya Sen mentioned about. The author suggests that community media may play some significant roles in the development including (a disseminating information (from varieties of perspective, (b facilitating public discussion, (c helping to reach solutions of problems, (d encouraging participations, and (e encouraging the development of media literacy. Regarding the last point the author remarks that media community may have a dual-roles i.e facilitating community’s member in media participation and facilitating community’s member in media education.

  19. Designing Anti-Binge Drinking Prevention Messages: Message Framing vs. Evidence Type.

    Kang, Hannah; Lee, Moon J

    2017-09-27

    We investigated whether presenting anti-binge drinking health campaign messages in different message framing and evidence types influences college students' intention to avoid binge drinking, based on prospect theory (PT) and exemplification theory. A 2 (message framing: loss-framed message/gain-framed message) X 2 (evidence type: statistical/narrative) between-subjects factorial design with a control group was conducted with 156 college students. College students who were exposed to the loss-framed message condition exhibited a higher level of intention to avoid binge drinking in the near future than those who did not see any messages (the control group). This finding was mainly among non-binge drinkers. Regardless of evidence type, those who were exposed to the messages exhibited a higher level of intention to avoid binge drinking than those in the control group. This is also mainly among non-binge drinkers. We also found the main effects of message framing and evidence type on attitude toward the message and the main effect of message framing on attitude toward drinking.

  20. Media analysis of radioactive wastes

    Janowski, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    The radioactive waste cleanup community has not effectively utilized its most powerful communications tool to inform the general public; the print and broadcast media. Environmental interest groups have known of the value of accessing the media for their message for years and have used it effectively. The radioactive waste cleanup community's efforts to date have not been focused on education of the media so that they in turn can inform the public of our cleanup mission. Their focus must be to learn of the importance of the media, develop training programs that train technical people in how to know and respond to the media's needs for information, and then incorporate that training into a comprehensive program of public information in which access to the media is a key communications tool. This paper discusses how media education and access is a cost-effective means of accomplishing community relations goals of public information and public participation in radioactive waste cleanup and has been effectively utilized at the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project

  1. Social media in public health.

    Kass-Hout, Taha A; Alhinnawi, Hend

    2013-01-01

    While social media interactions are currently not fully understood, as individual health behaviors and outcomes are shared online, social media offers an increasingly clear picture of the dynamics of these processes. Social media is becoming an increasingly common platform among clinicians and public health officials to share information with the public, track or predict diseases. Social media can be used for engaging the public and communicating key public health interventions, while providing an important tool for public health surveillance. Social media has advantages over traditional public health surveillance, as well as limitations, such as poor specificity, that warrant additional study. Social media can provide timely, relevant and transparent information of public health importance; such as tracking or predicting the spread or severity of influenza, west nile virus or meningitis as they propagate in the community, and, in identifying disease outbreaks or clusters of chronic illnesses. Further work is needed on social media as a valid data source for detecting or predicting diseases or conditions. Also, whether or not it is an effective tool for communicating key public health messages and engaging both, the general public and policy-makers.

  2. Suicide and the media. Part III: Theoretical issues.

    Blood, R W; Pirkis, J

    2001-01-01

    The body of evidence suggests that there is a causal association between nonfictional media reporting of suicide (in newspapers, on television, and in books) and actual suicide, and that there may be one between fictional media portrayal (in film and television, in music, and in plays) and actual suicide. This finding has been explained by social learning theory. The majority of studies upon which this finding is based fall into the media "effects tradition," which has been criticized for its positivist-like approach that fails to take into account of media content or the capacity of audiences to make meaning out of messages. A cultural studies approach that relies on discourse and frame analyses to explore meanings, and that qualitatively examines the multiple meanings that audiences give to media messages, could complement the effects tradition. Together, these approaches have the potential to clarify the notion of what constitutes responsible reporting of suicide, and to broaden the framework for evaluating media performance.

  3. Improving the Effectiveness of Fundraising Messages: The Impact of Charity Goal Attainment, Message Framing, and Evidence on Persuasion

    Das, Enny; Kerkhof, Peter; Kuiper, Joyce

    2008-01-01

    This experimental study assessed the effectiveness of fundraising messages. Based on recent findings regarding the effects of message framing and evidence, effective fundraising messages should combine abstract, statistical information with a negative message frame and anecdotal evidence with a positive message frame. In addition, building on…

  4. Tipografi pada Media 3 Dimensi sebagai Duta Pesan yang Efektif

    Inda Ariesta

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Typography is now no longer considered as a science application on flat dimensions. Beyond the flat dimension, it is now often found not only in the form of dots, colors, lines, textures, Shapes and forms, but also thrived on typography users. Typography was used to deliver the message, through the formation of the language contained writings as title, subtitle, to captions on television media, but is now also used by other disciplines to deliver messages more readable than using other design elements. The purpose of this paper is to see the application of typography on the form, and how it can be delivered in addition to communicating the message letters by letters that can be strung into words, symbols, but in form. Typography was enjoyed so far for only words by words containing in newspapers, magazines, posters, flyers, brochures, etc., but now it can be enjoyed through out the media to the extent shapes, which also maximizes the delivery of messages. The character selecting skill which is adjusted in media and the message is one of new factors, because media controlling and materials are crossing disciplines of Visual Communication Design, which is in contact with the Product Design and Interior Design, which could work together to maximize the the message.   

  5. Explaining Intentions to Seek Help for Depressive Symptoms in the Context of Responsibility Message Framing.

    Lueck, Jennifer; Yzer, Marco

    2018-08-01

    U.S. college students are disproportionally affected by depression but typically do not seek help. To advance understanding of the role of health messages in shaping college students' help-seeking intentions, we used a reasoned action approach to experimentally investigate help-seeking intentions for depressive symptoms. Due to negative interpretation biases among those who suffer from depression, scholars have previously warned against attempts to decrease feelings of responsibility for one's depression in health messages. We tested the determinants of help-seeking intentions as a function of exposure to depression help-seeking messages that differed in responsibility cues. Findings revealed that in our sample low responsibility health message framing did not affect determinants of help-seeking intentions. We identified instrumental attitude (β = .53) and descriptive norms (β = .24) as determinants of intentions to seek help (R 2  = .42) across message conditions and across levels of depression. These findings indicate potentially important targets for messages that seek to increase help-seeking among depressed college students.

  6. Explaining the Efficacy of Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV Prevention: A Qualitative Study of Message Framing and Messaging Preferences Among US Men Who have Sex with Men.

    Underhill, Kristen; Morrow, Kathleen M; Colleran, Christopher; Calabrese, Sarah K; Operario, Don; Salovey, Peter; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2016-07-01

    We investigated message comprehension and message framing preferences for communicating about PrEP efficacy with US MSM. We conducted eight focus groups (n = 38) and n = 56 individual interviews with MSM in Providence, RI. Facilitators probed comprehension, credibility, and acceptability of efficacy messages, including percentages, non-numerical paraphrases, efficacy ranges versus point estimates, and success- versus failure-framed messages. Our findings indicated a range of comprehension and operational understandings of efficacy messages. Participants tended to prefer percentage-based and success-framed messages, although preferences varied for communicating about efficacy using a single percentage versus a range. Participants reported uncertainty about how to interpret numerical estimates, and many questioned whether trial results would predict personal effectiveness. These results suggest that providers and researchers implementing PrEP may face challenges in communicating with users about efficacy. Efforts to educate MSM about PrEP should incorporate percentage-based information, and message framing decisions may influence message credibility and overall PrEP acceptability.

  7. Exploring Madoka Magica: Producing Narratives in Japanese Media Franchises

    SIMON ELLIOTT GOUGH

    2018-01-01

    This thesis examines the changing patterns of media production and consumption in the Japanese anime media marketplace. By performing a deep analysis of the Madoka Magica media franchise, this thesis highlights how the franchise demonstrates a particular system of media production within Japan, focused on fostering individual interpretation of its intellectual property.

  8. A paradigm shift in advertising and its meaning for advertising-supported media

    Pérez-Latre, F.J. (Francisco Javier)

    2007-01-01

    The changing role of advertising is altering the behavior of advertisers with significant implications for advertising-supported media. Advertisers are struggling to understand changes in audience media usage and to changes in attention paid to commercial messages. In order to maintain relevance, media firms need to lead the way in helping advertising understand and adjust to the changes.

  9. Showtime Science: Effective Use of Popular Media to Enhance Instruction of Simple Machines and Energy Transfer

    Bergman, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The messages students receive through popular media such as movies, television, the internet, and music videos have a powerful influence and can shape their thinking. A national survey of media use by 8- to 18-year-olds found the average adolescent spends over seven and a half hours daily with entertainment media (KFF 2010). Rather than viewing…

  10. Analysis of Social Media Influencers and Trends on Online and Mobile Learning

    Shen, Chien-wen; Kuo, Chin-Jin; Ly, Pham Thi Minh

    2017-01-01

    Although educational practitioners have adopted social media to their online or mobile communities, little attention has been paid to investigate the social media messages related to online or mobile learning. The purpose of this research is to identify social media influencers and trends by mining Twitter posts related to online learning and…

  11. Creative Media Use Increases Online Sharing of Your Ad (but Seems Less Effective for Your Brand)

    Eelen, J.; Seiler, R.V.J.; Verlegh, P.W.J.; Voorveld, H.A.M.; Eisend, M.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown beneficial advertising effects of creative media use (i.e., creatively choosing a novel medium to implicitly communicate a message) in comparison with traditional media use. Because of the increasing importance of marketing initiatives through social media, the authors

  12. Text messages as a learning tool for midwives | Woods | South ...

    The use of cell phone text messaging to improve access to continuing ... with 50 of the message recipients, demonstrated that the text messages were well received by ... services, such as the management of HIV-infected children and adults.

  13. The influence of advertising media on brand awareness

    Domazet, Ivana; Đokić, Ines; Milovanov, Olja

    2018-01-01

    In modern business conditions, the company sends its messages through various instruments of promotion, and therefore the different media. One of the instruments of promotion economic propaganda (advertising), which uses a number of media such as television, radio, newspapers, billboards, Internet and others.. By using various media, the company affects the consumer awareness of the brand, spreads information about themselves and the brand, educates consumers, creates a brand image and the li...

  14. The Influence of advertising media on brand awareness

    Ivana S. Domazet; Ines Đokić; Olja Milovanov

    2017-01-01

    In modern business conditions, the company sends its promotional message through various instruments of promotion, and therefore the different media. One of the instruments of promotion is economic propaganda (advertising), which uses a number of media such as television, radio, newspapers, billboards, Internet and others. By using various media, the company affects the consumer awareness of the brand, spreads information about themselves and the brand, educates consumers, creates a brand ima...

  15. Assessing Sentiment In Conflict Zones Through Social Media

    2016-12-01

    polling and social media data, utilizing over 1.4 million geo-referenced messages sent through the Twitter network from Yemen over the period from...a difficult test country. Compared to Western countries, Yemen has low levels of Internet access and social media users. The country is also beset...consisted of over 1.4 million tweets, observed in Yemen over the period October 2013 to January 2014. From our research we conclude that social media

  16. Message Passing Framework for Globally Interconnected Clusters

    Hafeez, M; Riaz, N; Asghar, S; Malik, U A; Rehman, A

    2011-01-01

    In prevailing technology trends it is apparent that the network requirements and technologies will advance in future. Therefore the need of High Performance Computing (HPC) based implementation for interconnecting clusters is comprehensible for scalability of clusters. Grid computing provides global infrastructure of interconnecting clusters consisting of dispersed computing resources over Internet. On the other hand the leading model for HPC programming is Message Passing Interface (MPI). As compared to Grid computing, MPI is better suited for solving most of the complex computational problems. MPI itself is restricted to a single cluster. It does not support message passing over the internet to use the computing resources of different clusters in an optimal way. We propose a model that provides message passing capabilities between parallel applications over the internet. The proposed model is based on Architecture for Java Universal Message Passing (A-JUMP) framework and Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) named as High Performance Computing Bus. The HPC Bus is built using ActiveMQ. HPC Bus is responsible for communication and message passing in an asynchronous manner. Asynchronous mode of communication offers an assurance for message delivery as well as a fault tolerance mechanism for message passing. The idea presented in this paper effectively utilizes wide-area intercluster networks. It also provides scheduling, dynamic resource discovery and allocation, and sub-clustering of resources for different jobs. Performance analysis and comparison study of the proposed framework with P2P-MPI are also presented in this paper.

  17. Improved Message Authentication and Confidentiality Checking

    Ismail Jabiullah, M.; Abdullah Al-Shamim, M.; Lutfar Rahman, M.

    2005-01-01

    The most confusing areas of the secured network communications are the message authentication and confidentiality checking. The attacks and the counter measures have become so convoluted that the users in this area begin to account for all contingencies. Two session-key generation techniques are used here to generate two separate session keys K 1 and K 2 ; and both the sender and the reveiver share these keys for higher degree of authentication and confidentiality. For this, the message is first encrypted by the key K 1 , and then the intermediary message authenticatin code (MAC) is generated by encrypting the encrypted message using the key K 2 . Then, the encrypted message and the intermediary MAC is again encrypted by using the K 2 and concatenated with the encrypted message and sent to the destination. At the receiving end, first, the received ciphertext is encrypted by using key K 2 and compared to the received MAC. The received ciphertext again is decrypted by the key K 2 and compared with the first decrypted MAC twice by the key K 2 . The plaintext is obtained by decrypting the received ciphertext first by K 2 and then by K 1 , using the corresponding decryption techniques respectively. The encryption techniques with key K 2 provides the authentication and with key K 1 provides the confidentiality checking of the transmitted message. The developed technique can be applied to both academic and commercial applications in online or offline electronic transactions for security.(authors)

  18. MEDIA AND WOMEN HEALTH IN INDIA

    K. Parkavi

    2017-01-01

    Health Communication is an important domain in communication arena aims at disseminating health messages to the public. In this study the role of media in giving health information to women is analysed. The portrayal of women in media, the impact it creates on the minds of women, both urban and rural background is scrutinised separately. The responsibility of media in the rural health of women is critically studied and media’s role in Idealising body images in the mind of urban women is also ...

  19. Theological Media Literacy Education and Hermeneutic Analysis of Soviet Audiovisual Anti-Religious Media Texts in Students' Classroom

    Fedorov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    This article realized the Russian way of theological media education literacy and hermeneutic analysis of specific examples of Soviet anti-religious audiovisual media texts: a study of the process of interpretation of these media texts, cultural and historical factors influencing the views of the media agency/authors. The hermeneutic analysis…

  20. Genre and Interpretation

    Auken, Sune

    2015-01-01

    Despite the immensity of genre studies as well as studies in interpretation, our understanding of the relationship between genre and interpretation is sketchy at best. The article attempts to unravel some of intricacies of that relationship through an analysis of the generic interpretation carrie...

  1. Engineering Definitional Interpreters

    Midtgaard, Jan; Ramsay, Norman; Larsen, Bradford

    2013-01-01

    A definitional interpreter should be clear and easy to write, but it may run 4--10 times slower than a well-crafted bytecode interpreter. In a case study focused on implementation choices, we explore ways of making definitional interpreters faster without expending much programming effort. We imp...

  2. Are you Scared Yet?: Evaluating Fear Appeal Messages in Tweets about the Tips Campaign.

    Emery, Sherry L; Szczypka, Glen; Abril, Eulàlia Puig; Kim, Yoonsang; Vera, Lisa

    2014-04-01

    In March 2012, the CDC launched "Tips from Former Smokers," a $54 million national campaign featuring individuals experiencing long-term health consequences of smoking. The campaign approach was based on strong evidence that anti-tobacco ads portraying fear, graphic images, and personal testimonials are associated with attitudinal and behavior change. Yet it was also controversial; critics cited the danger that viewers might reject such intensely graphic messages. Tasked with informing this debate, our study analyzes the corpus of Tips campaign-related tweets obtained via the Twitter Firehose. We provide a novel and rigorous method for media campaign evaluation within the framework of the Extended Parallel Process Model. Among the relevant Tweets, 87% showed evidence of message acceptance, while 7% exhibited message rejection.

  3. Management and Archiving e-mail Messages in Governmental Organization

    Ashraf Mohamed A.Mohsen

    2006-01-01

    The study deals great issue of digital preservation that is e-mail archiving, it covered all aspects of the topic; it discuss: e-mail system, components of e-mail message, advantages and disadvantages of e-mail, official e-mail messages, management of e-mail messages, organizing and arrangement of e-mail messages, keeping and deleting messages, archiving e-mail messages, and some related issues like: privacy and security.

  4. Dakwah Islam Dan Inovasi Media: Peluang Dan Ancaman Media Global Atas Dakwah Islam

    Fakhruroji, Moch

    2010-01-01

    The development of dakwah science is not as fast as the development of dakwah activities. In this globalsociety, dakwah activities can even be found in the world wide web. They transform greatly in public space as spiritualteachings and are actualized in various forms. These various forms of dakwah activities are supported by dakwah media. Indakwah science, media becomes a channel used by the agents of dakwah activities to deliver the messages

  5. DAKWAH ISLAM DAN INOVASI MEDIA: PELUANG DAN ANCAMAN MEDIA GLOBAL ATAS DAKWAH ISLAM

    Moch. Fakhruroji

    2015-01-01

    The development of dakwah science is not as fast as the development of dakwah activities. In this global society, dakwah activities can even be found in the world wide web. They transform greatly in public space as spiritual teachings and are actualized in various forms. These various forms of dakwah activities are supported by dakwah media. In dakwah science, media becomes a channel used by the agents of dakwah activities to deliver the messages

  6. Penggunaan Media Visual dalam Proses Pembelajaran

    Haris Budiman

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Conventional teaching and learning process it has many shortcomings, which are caused by not all teachers have the same competence, differences in absorption of learners in listening to lessons, teaching materials that teachers have limited and learning activities for students as objects tend to be boring.                For that teachers are required to have creativity in teaching, teachers are required able to stimulate learners to be proactive in learning activities. Like a bridge connecting the two sides, the role played by media learning in a teaching system. That role becomes vital for visual learning media is not only responsible for the arrival of a message to student learning, but also ensures that the message does not degrade or irregularities meaning. Thus a learning process by using visual media can boost creativity and motivation for learners to learn and can be done effectively and efficiently.

  7. Multimedia Messaging Service teleradiology in the provision of emergency neurosurgery services.

    Ng, Wai Hoe; Wang, Ernest; Ng, Ivan

    2007-04-01

    Neurosurgical emergencies constitute a significant proportion of workload of a tertiary neurosurgical service. Prompt diagnosis and emergent institution of definitive treatment are critical to reduce neurological mortality and morbidity. Diagnosis is highly dependent on accurate interpretation of scans by experienced clinicians. This expertise may not be readily available especially after office hours because many neurosurgical units are manned by middle-level neurosurgical staff with varying levels of experience in scan interpretation. Multimedia Messaging Service mobile phone technology offers a simple, cheap, quick, and effective solution to the problem of scan interpretation. An MMS takes only a few minutes to send and receive and allows senior doctors to view important images and make important clinical decisions to enhance patient management in an emergency situation. A mobile phone (with VGA camera and MMS capabilities) was provided to the neurosurgery registrar on call. The on-call mobile phone is passed on to the corresponding registrar on-call the next day. All consultants had personal mobile phones that are MMS-enabled. Relevant representative CT/MRI images can be taken directly from the mobile phone from the PACS off the computer screen. When only hard copies are available, the images can be taken off the light box. After a 12-month trial period, a questionnaire was given to all staff involved in the project to ascertain the usefulness of the MMS teleradiology service. The survey on the use of the MMS service in a tertiary neurosurgical service demonstrated that the technology significantly improved the level of confidence of the senior-level staff in emergent clinical decision making. Significantly, the MMS images were of sufficient quality and resolution to obviate the need to view the actual scans. The impact of MMS is less pronounced in the middle-level staff, but there was a trend that most of the junior staff found the service more useful. The MMS

  8. Locative media

    Wilken, Rowan

    2014-01-01

    Not only is locative media one of the fastest growing areas in digital technology, but questions of location and location-awareness are increasingly central to our contemporary engagements with online and mobile media, and indeed media and culture generally. This volume is a comprehensive account of the various location-based technologies, services, applications, and cultures, as media, with an aim to identify, inventory, explore, and critique their cultural, economic, political, social, and policy dimensions internationally. In particular, the collection is organized around the perception that the growth of locative media gives rise to a number of crucial questions concerning the areas of culture, economy, and policy.

  9. Media Entrepreneurship

    Khajeheian, Datis

    2017-01-01

    Media Entrepreneurship has been an ambiguous, unclear and controversial concept and despite of growing academic efforts in the last decade, it is still a poorly defined subject. This paper is an effort to fill this gap by providing a comprehensive definition of media entrepreneurship. Firstly......, a literature review conducted and entrepreneurship, media, opportunity and innovation as building blocks of media entrepreneurship explained. Then by using of a mixed of bibliographic method and a Delphi method with multi-stage analysis process, a consensual definition of media entrepreneurship proposed...... entrepreneurship....

  10. Media Framing

    Pedersen, Rasmus T.

    2017-01-01

    The concept of media framing refers to the way in which the news media organize and provide meaning to a news story by emphasizing some parts of reality and disregarding other parts. These patterns of emphasis and exclusion in news coverage create frames that can have considerable effects on news...... consumers’ perceptions and attitudes regarding the given issue or event. This entry briefly elaborates on the concept of media framing, presents key types of media frames, and introduces the research on media framing effects....

  11. Social Media Marketing

    Hollensen, Svend; Raman, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Social media marketing can be understood as a group of Internet-based applications that build on the foundations of Web 2.0 and that then allows the creation and exchange of ‘User Generated Content’. In the ‘Bowling’ marketing world, marketers target certain customer groups and send out...... this is a very direct one-way communication approach. In a social media marketing world, the bowling metaphor does not fit anymore. On this arena marketing can be better described as playing “Pinball”: Companies serve up a “marketing ball” (brands and brand-building messages) into a dynamic and chaotic market...... environment. The “marketing ball” is then diverted and often accelerated by social media “bumpers”, which change the ball’s course in chaotic ways. Occasionally, the marketing ball will come back to the company. At this point, the firm (brand) has to use the flippers to interact and throw it back...

  12. When message-frame fits salient cultural-frame, messages feel more persuasive.

    Uskul, Ayse K; Oyserman, Daphna

    2010-03-01

    The present study examines the persuasive effects of tailored health messages comparing those tailored to match (versus not match) both chronic cultural frame and momentarily salient cultural frame. Evidence from two studies (Study 1: n = 72 European Americans; Study 2: n = 48 Asian Americans) supports the hypothesis that message persuasiveness increases when chronic cultural frame, health message tailoring and momentarily salient cultural frame all match. The hypothesis was tested using a message about health risks of caffeine consumption among individuals prescreened to be regular caffeine consumers. After being primed for individualism, European Americans who read a health message that focused on the personal self were more likely to accept the message-they found it more persuasive, believed they were more at risk and engaged in more message-congruent behaviour. These effects were also found among Asian Americans who were primed for collectivism and who read a health message that focused on relational obligations. The findings point to the importance of investigating the role of situational cues in persuasive effects of health messages and suggest that matching content to primed frame consistent with the chronic frame may be a way to know what to match messages to.

  13. Comment ameliorer la selection et le traitement des messages verbaux? (How to Improve the Selection and Processing of Verbal Messages)

    Rivenez, Marie; Darwin, Chris; Guillaume, Anne

    2005-01-01

    L'objectif de cette recherche est d'ameliorer la selection des messages verbaux. Nous cherchons a determiner les facteurs influencant le traitement d'un message verbal lorsque l'attention est portee sur un autre message...

  14. Social Media Management Strategies for Organizational Impression Management and their Effect on Public Perception

    Benthaus, Janek; Risius, Marten; Beck, Roman

    2016-01-01

    strategy, help companies to positively influence the public perception among social media users. A mixed methods approach is applied, where we quantitatively analyze 15 million user-generated Twitter messages containing information about 45 large global companies highly active on Twitter, as well as almost......With the growing importance of social media, companies increasingly rely on social media management tools to analyze social media activities and to professionalize their social media engagement. In this study, we evaluate how social media management tools, as part of an overarching social media...... 160 thousand corresponding messages sent from these companies via their corporate Twitter accounts. Additionally, we conducted interviews with six social media experts to gain complementary insights. By these means, we are able to identify significant differences between different social media...

  15. Advocates' Experiences With Media and the Impact of Media on Human Trafficking Advocacy.

    Houston-Kolnik, Jaclyn D; Soibatian, Christina; Shattell, Mona M

    2017-02-01

    The present qualitative study explores advocates' opinions of misinformation about human trafficking in the media and describes advocates' strategies to counter the misinformation presented by the media. Thus, 15 advocates who work against human trafficking in Chicago-based nonprofit organizations participated in semistructured interviews about their opinions and strategies. Data were analyzed using thematic content analysis. The present study identifies specific misperceptions of human trafficking in the media, highlights advocates' opinions of this misinformation, and discusses advocates' strategies to counteract inaccurate media, adding support to the role of media advocacy. Advocates note how media images shape and perpetuate stereotypes of trafficking through glamorizing sex work and sensationalizing stories that are most often international depictions of trafficking. Advocates report media generally shares only a piece of the story, simplifying the stories of survivors and the issue of human trafficking. Advocates critique media perpetuating these misperceptions for how they may contribute to policies and programs which fail to address structural factors that create vulnerabilities to be trafficked and the multisystem needs of survivors. However, advocates also note misperceptions can be counteracted by producing sensitive, informed media through social platforms. Advocates share their strategies counteracting misinformation through engaging in informative conversations, utilizing social media to educate, and promoting media messages of survivor agency. Research, clinical, and policy implications are also discussed. The present study emphasizes the importance of decision makers and service providers being critical consumers of media and to assess how media portrayals may (or may not) inform their understanding and response to the issue.

  16. Enterprise Social Media

    Khajeheian, Datis

    2018-01-01

    This article reports an ethnographic research on effect of enterprise social media on communication of members in entrepreneurial teams. The researcher acted as an entrepreneur and as a team member in two entrepreneurial projects to observe the communication of team members within the enterprise...... social media. In addition to observation, he conducted some interviews with team members to collect supplementary data. A theoretical framework developed from an array of three metaphors: leaky pipe, echo chamber and social lubricant, and four organizational learning processes: social capital, boundary...... work, attention allocation and social analytics. By the interpretation of the collected data, a new metaphor of “living room” was proposed. This metaphor suggests that enterprise social media provide a space for interaction of internal-external people similar to what home members and guests do...

  17. Media for Reflection

    Knudsen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    This article develops the concept media for reflection in the interest of conceptualizing the interpretative frames that enable and limit reflection in management and leadership education. The concept ‘media for reflection’ allows us to conceptualize the social and cultural mediation of reflection...... without reducing reflection to an effect of the social structures and cultural norms in which it is embedded. Based on the developed theoretical framework, this article analyses how a renaissance ‘mirror for princes’ and contemporary research-based management education mediate reflection. The content...... of the mediations is analysed as well as the societal and organizational background. Furthermore, the means by which the two media enable and limit reflection in different ways is compared. Finally, the article discusses possible implications of the analysis in terms of management and leadership education....

  18. Sensitive Media

    Malinowska Anna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper engages with what we refer to as “sensitive media,” a concept associated with developments in the overall media environment, our relationships with media devices, and the quality of the media themselves. Those developments point to the increasing emotionality of the media world and its infrastructures. Mapping the trajectories of technological development and impact that the newer media exert on human condition, our analysis touches upon various forms of emergent affect, emotion, and feeling in order to trace the histories and motivations of the sensitization of “the media things” as well as the redefinition of our affective and emotional experiences through technologies that themselves “feel.”

  19. Media Ecology

    Marina Ašković

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Does the trend in which electronic media are gradually becoming extension of human body have to move towards full enslavement of a human and his personality, or the same human will unpredictably, with the aid of his personal media literacy, exit the whirls of media and technological censorships? Personality crisis is closely related to the crisis of language no matter how contradicted to global ideology of transnational transhumanism it may seem. Considering the fact that recent media presentations of the world are based on commercialization of environmentalism, philosophical and aesthetic thought appears as an important subject of ecology. As media mediates, the scenery of civilized living increasingly becomes more appealing even though it derives from commercial and political background. Consequently, the future of humanity depends by large on the philosophy of media. Media have to truly ecologise returning the humanum to its essence making it into the extension of the natural world.

  20. Media advocacy: lessons from community experiences.

    Jernigan, D H; Wright, P A

    1996-01-01

    Media advocacy is the strategic use of mass media and community organizing as a resource for advancing a social or public policy initiative. Across the United States, communities are using media advocacy to promote healthier public policies and environments. The U.S. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention commissioned numerous case studies of media advocacy on alcohol and tobacco issues in a diverse array of communities, including efforts in African-American and Latino communities or using computer-based electronic communication systems. The paper describes these efforts briefly, and summarizes lessons learned, including: media advocacy can lead to larger victories when used as a complement to community organizing in the context of a larger strategic vision for policy change; like policy advocacy, media advocacy is best done in the context of clear long-term goals; conscious framing, guiding the choice of spokespeople, visuals, and messages, can alter media coverage and public debate of health policies; advocates need to respect the media but also remember that they have power in relation to the media; and media advocacy is often controversial and not suited to every situation. The case studies show that media advocacy is a potent tool for public health workers, making an important contribution to campaigns to promote healthier public policies.

  1. Development of a smoking prevention mass media program using diagnostic and formative research.

    Worden, J K; Flynn, B S; Geller, B M; Chen, M; Shelton, L G; Secker-Walker, R H; Solomon, D S; Solomon, L J; Couchey, S; Costanza, M C

    1988-09-01

    The process of developing a mass media campaign to prevent smoking among adolescents is described in detail. This campaign supplements a school smoking prevention program and shares educational objectives with the school program but is otherwise independent. It comprises various television and radio 30- and 60-sec "spot" messages. The campaign development process includes identifying educational objectives and strategies for appealing to young people; conducting diagnostic surveys and focus groups to determine target audience interests and perceptions about smoking and media content; suggesting approaches to producers to create preliminary television and radio messages for testing; conducting formative pretests with target groups to select optimal messages and suggest improvements to those messages; producing final messages for media presentation; and developing a media exposure plan to place messages in local media at optimal times for reception by target audiences. The media campaign is being evaluated in a 5-year project with 5,500 adolescents in four communities to determine the additional effect of mass media over a school program alone in preventing smoking.

  2. Instant messaging and nursing students' clinical learning experience.

    Pimmer, Christoph; Brühlmann, Florian; Odetola, Titilayo Dorothy; Dipeolu, Oluwafemi; Gröhbiel, Urs; Ajuwon, Ademola J

    2018-05-01

    Although learning in clinical settings is a key element of nursing education, for many learners these are challenging developmental contexts often marked by isolation and a lack of belongingness. Despite the massive appropriation of mobile instant messaging (MIM) platforms and the connective properties attendant to them, very little is known about their role in and impact on nursing students' clinical learning experiences. To address this gap, the study, which was part of a multinational research project on the use of mobile social media in health professions education in developing countries, examined the use of the instant messaging platform WhatsApp by nursing students during placements and potential associations with socio-professional indicators. The survey involved a total number of 196 nursing students from 5 schools in Oyo State, Nigeria. The findings suggest that students used WhatsApp relatively frequently and they perceived that this platform strongly enhanced their communication with other students and nurses. WhatsApp use during placements was positively associated with students' maintained social capital with peer students, the development of a professional identity, placement satisfaction and with reduced feelings of isolation from professional communities. The determinants that influenced WhatsApp use during placements were perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use. No associations were found between WhatsApp use during placement and age, attitude, subjective norms and placement duration. This study is one of the first of its kind that points to the relevance of mobile instant messaging as part of nursing students' (inter)personal learning environments in clinical settings and, particularly, in the development setting under investigation. Further research is needed to corroborate these findings, to enhance the understanding of the impact mechanisms, and to evaluate a more systematic use of MIM in clinical learning contexts. Copyright © 2018

  3. Changing knowledge and beliefs through an oral health pregnancy message.

    Bates, S Brady; Riedy, Christine A

    2012-01-01

    Pregnancy can be a critical and important period in which to intervene to improve oral health in both the mother and her child. This study examined an online approach for promoting awareness of oral health messages targeted at pregnant women, and whether this type of health messaging impacts oral health knowledge and beliefs. The study was conducted in three parts: production and pilot testing of a brief commercial, Web site/commercial launch and testing, and dissemination and monitoring of the commercial on a video-sharing site. The brief commercial and pre- and postsurveys were produced and pilot tested among a convenience sample of pregnant women (n = 13). The revised commercial and surveys were launched on a newly created Web site and monitored for activity. After 2 months, the commercial was uploaded to a popular video-sharing Web site. Fifty-five individuals completed both the pre- and postsurveys after the Web site was launched. No one responded 100 percent correctly on the presurvey; 77.4 percent responded correctly about dental visits during pregnancy, 66.0 percent about cavity prevention, and 50.9 percent about transmission of bacteria by saliva. Most respondents recalled the correct information on the posttest; 100 percent or close to 100 percent accurately responded about visiting the dentist during pregnancy and preventing cavities, while 79.2 percent responded correctly to the transmission question. Social media can effectively provide dental health messages during pregnancy. This approach can play an important role in increasing awareness and improving oral health of both mother and child. © 2011 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  4. Message passing for quantified Boolean formulas

    Zhang, Pan; Ramezanpour, Abolfazl; Zecchina, Riccardo; Zdeborová, Lenka

    2012-01-01

    We introduce two types of message passing algorithms for quantified Boolean formulas (QBF). The first type is a message passing based heuristics that can prove unsatisfiability of the QBF by assigning the universal variables in such a way that the remaining formula is unsatisfiable. In the second type, we use message passing to guide branching heuristics of a Davis–Putnam–Logemann–Loveland (DPLL) complete solver. Numerical experiments show that on random QBFs our branching heuristics give robust exponential efficiency gain with respect to state-of-the-art solvers. We also manage to solve some previously unsolved benchmarks from the QBFLIB library. Apart from this, our study sheds light on using message passing in small systems and as subroutines in complete solvers

  5. Anxiety, Construct Differentiation, and Message Production.

    Shepherd, Gregory J.; Condra, Mollie B.

    1989-01-01

    Examines the nature of the construct differentiation/anxiety relationship in light of messages produced. Considers recent and complex conceptualizations of social-cognitive development and anxiety. Finds no significant relationship between state anxiety and construct differentiation. (MM)

  6. MORPHOLOGICAL STRATEGIES IN TEXT MESSAGING AMONG ...

    Text messaging is the application of abridged morphological forms in order ... the emergence of the Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) in the world. ... Our thesis statement is that these morphological patterns as used in SMS are ...

  7. Safety message broadcast in vehicular networks

    Bi, Yuanguo; Zhuang, Weihua; Zhao, Hai

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the current research on safety message dissemination in vehicular networks, covering medium access control and relay selection for multi-hop safety message broadcast. Along with an overall overview of the architecture, characteristics, and applications of vehicular networks, the authors discuss the challenging issues in the research on performance improvement for safety applications, and provide a comprehensive review of the research literature. A cross layer broadcast protocol is included to support efficient safety message broadcast by jointly considering geographical location, physical-layer channel condition, and moving velocity of vehicles in the highway scenario. To further support multi-hop safety message broadcast in a complex road layout, the authors propose an urban multi-hop broadcast protocol that utilizes a novel forwarding node selection scheme. Additionally, a busy tone based medium access control scheme is designed to provide strict priority to safety applications in vehicle...

  8. Photometric requirements for portable changeable message signs.

    2001-09-01

    This project reviewed the performance of pchangeable message signs (PCMSs) and developed photometric standards to establish performance requirements. In addition, researchers developed photometric test methods and recommended them for use in evaluati...

  9. Wyoming CV Pilot Traveler Information Message Sample

    Department of Transportation — This dataset contains a sample of the sanitized Traveler Information Messages (TIM) being generated by the Wyoming Connected Vehicle (CV) Pilot. The full set of TIMs...

  10. Getting the message across: age differences in the positive and negative framing of health care messages.

    Shamaskin, Andrea M; Mikels, Joseph A; Reed, Andrew E

    2010-09-01

    Although valenced health care messages influence impressions, memory, and behavior (Levin, Schneider, & Gaeth, 1998) and the processing of valenced information changes with age (Carstensen & Mikels, 2005), these 2 lines of research have thus far been disconnected. This study examined impressions of, and memory for, positively and negatively framed health care messages that were presented in pamphlets to 25 older adults and 24 younger adults. Older adults relative to younger adults rated positive pamphlets more informative than negative pamphlets and remembered a higher proportion of positive to negative messages. However, older adults misremembered negative messages to be positive. These findings demonstrate the age-related positivity effect in health care messages with promise as to the persuasive nature and lingering effects of positive messages. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Fear, threat and efficacy in threat appeals: message involvement as a key mediator to message acceptance.

    Cauberghe, Verolien; De Pelsmacker, Patrick; Janssens, Wim; Dens, Nathalie

    2009-03-01

    In a sample of 170 youngsters, the effect of two versions of a public service announcement (PSA) threat appeal against speeding, placed in four different contexts, on evoked fear, perceived threat (severity and probability of occurrence), perceived response efficacy and self-efficacy, message involvement and anti-speeding attitude and anti-speeding intention is investigated. Evoked fear and perceived threat and efficacy independently influence message involvement. Message involvement is a full mediator between evoked fear, perceived threat and efficacy perception on the one hand, and attitudes towards the message and behavioral intention to accept the message on the other. Speeding experience has a significantly negative impact on anti-speeding attitudes. Message and medium context threat levels and context thematic congruency have a significant effect on evoked fear and to a lesser extent on perceived threat.

  12. Social media - a political journalist’s friend or foe? - Political journalists’ opinions on how social media influence their job and possibilities to communicate with politicians

    Rosenback, Michaela

    2017-01-01

    Developing technologies and social media platforms offer new ways of producing and receiving political content. The political elites need to follow, and update social media on a regular basis, and political messages are being blended into the world of entertainment and show business. At the same time, journalists have incorporated social media in their daily job and use social media platforms as working tools. This affects the interconnections between journalists and politicians, making their...

  13. The persuasive power of oral health promotion messages: a theory of planned behavior approach to dental checkups among young adults.

    Anderson, Christina N; Noar, Seth M; Rogers, Brandi D

    2013-01-01

    Although routine dental checkups are important for both oral and overall health, several factors influence young adults' use or nonuse of dental services. The two studies included in this report tested the theory of reasoned action (TRA), the theory of planned behavior (TPB), and an expanded TPB model in predicting young adults' routine dental checkups. Additionally, the study tested the perceived message effectiveness of TPB-based messages. Results support the use of an expanded TPB model (particularly adding satisfaction with the dentist and environmental constraints to the traditional model) for an understanding of routine dental checkup intention and behavior, and, most notably, provide support for the use of subjective norm-based messages to prompt dental checkups. This study lays the groundwork for a health communication campaign encouraging routine dental checkups among young adults. The use of targeting and tailoring to design effective oral health media campaign messages is discussed.

  14. Message-driven factors influencing opening and forwarding of mobile advertising messages

    Sanz Blas, Silvia; Ruiz Mafé, Carla; Martí Parreño, José

    2015-01-01

    This work aims to analyse the influence of message-driven factors -informativeness, ubiquity, frequency and personalization- on consumer attitude and behaviour -opening and forwarding- towards mobile advertising messages. A theoretical model was developed and empirically tested using a sample of 355 Spanish teenager mobile users. Findings show that frequency is the dimension accounting the most -and significantly- of the four message-driven factors analysed on attitude toward mobile advertisi...

  15. When message-frame fits salient cultural-frame, messages feel more persuasive

    Uskul, Ayse K.; Oyserman, Daphna

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines the persuasive effects of tailored health messages comparing those tailored to match (versus not match) both chronic cultural frame and momentarily salient cultural frame. Evidence from two studies (Study 1: n = 72 European Americans; Study 2: n = 48 Asian Americans) supports the hypothesis that message persuasiveness increases when chronic cultural frame, health message tailoring and momentarily salient cultural frame all match. The hypothesis was tested using a me...

  16. Persuasive messages. Development of persuasive messages may help increase mothers' compliance of their children's immunization schedule.

    Gore, P; Madhavan, S; Curry, D; McClurg, G; Castiglia, M; Rosenbluth, S A; Smego, R A

    1998-01-01

    Effective immunization campaigns can be designed by determining which persuasion strategy is most effective in attracting the attention of mothers of preschoolers. The authors assess the impact of three persuasional strategies: fear-arousal, motherhood-arousal, and rational messages, on mothers of preschoolers who are late for their immunizations. The fear-arousal message was found to be most effective, followed by the motherhood-arousal, and then the rational message, in attracting mothers' attention to their child's immunization status.

  17. Promoting nuclear energy through corporate media tools

    Moore, Alexander

    2002-01-01

    This presentation looks at the best way of communicating a specific message and how Urenco Ltd have achieved this by promoting the benefits of nuclear energy through current corporate media. The presentation is split in to two segments; firstly considering the basics of good communication and how communication tools can be used in a variety of ways to maximize the effectiveness of messages and ideas. Secondly, examples of how Urenco have used current corporate publications in order to present the benefits of nuclear energy to a wider audience. (author)

  18. Recent computer attacks via Instant Messaging

    IT Department

    2008-01-01

    Be cautious of any unexpected messages containing web links even if they appear to come from known contacts. If you happen to click on such a link and if your permission is requested to run or install software, always decline it. Several computers at CERN have recently been broken into by attackers who have tricked users of Instant Messaging applications (e.g. MSN, Yahoo Messenger, etc.) into clicking on web links which appeared to come from known contacts. The links appeared to be photos from ‘friends’ and requested software to be installed. In practice, attacker software was installed and the messages did not come from real contacts. In the past such fake messages were mainly sent by email but now a wider range of applications are being targeted, including Instant Messaging. Cybercriminals are making growing use of fake messages to try to trick you into clicking on Web links which will help them to install malicious software on your computer. Anti-virus software cann...

  19. Gender messages in contemporary popular Malay songs

    Collin Jerome

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Gender has been an important area of research in the field of popular music studies. Numerous scholars have found that contemporary popular music functions as a locus of diverse constructions and expressions of gender. While most studies focus on content analyses of popular music, there is still a need for more research on audience’s perception of popular music’s messages. This study examined adult Malay listeners’ perceptions of gender messages in contemporary Malay songs. A total of 16 contemporary Malay songs were analysed using Fairclough’s (1992 method of text analysis. The content of the songs that conveyed messages about gender were the basis for analysis. The results showed that the messages revolve mainly around socially constructed gender roles and expectations in romantic relationships. Gender stereotypes are also used in the songs to reinforce men’s and women’s roles in romantic relationships. The results also showed that, while listeners acknowledge the songs’ messages about gender, their own perceptions of gender and what it means to be a gendered being in today’s world are neither represented nor discussed fully in the songs analysed. It is hoped the findings from this, particularly the mismatch between projected and perceived notions of gender, contribute to the field of popular Malay music studies in particular, and popular music studies in general where gender messages in popular songs and their influence on listeners’ perceptions of their own gender is concerned.

  20. Quantum signature scheme for known quantum messages

    Kim, Taewan; Lee, Hyang-Sook

    2015-01-01

    When we want to sign a quantum message that we create, we can use arbitrated quantum signature schemes which are possible to sign for not only known quantum messages but also unknown quantum messages. However, since the arbitrated quantum signature schemes need the help of a trusted arbitrator in each verification of the signature, it is known that the schemes are not convenient in practical use. If we consider only known quantum messages such as the above situation, there can exist a quantum signature scheme with more efficient structure. In this paper, we present a new quantum signature scheme for known quantum messages without the help of an arbitrator. Differing from arbitrated quantum signature schemes based on the quantum one-time pad with the symmetric key, since our scheme is based on quantum public-key cryptosystems, the validity of the signature can be verified by a receiver without the help of an arbitrator. Moreover, we show that our scheme provides the functions of quantum message integrity, user authentication and non-repudiation of the origin as in digital signature schemes. (paper)

  1. Influence of Advertisement Message on Fitbar Billboard Towards Brand Awareness and Its Implication to Brand Image

    Yuliana Riana Pand; Wiliany Gui

    2016-01-01

    The assumption that snacks could cause problem in diet and bodyweight, makes this study interesting. Because this product, Fitbar, appears on the market as a healthy snack that is contrary to this assumption. This product is about to prove that there is a healthy and tasty snack as snacks. Marketing communications through advertising billboards with the media aims to reach the target market. Fitbar billboard ads convey the message content in the form of information about the attributes and be...

  2. How do the media communicate cancer with us : A content analysis in UK Newspaper and Facebook

    Wu, Yingqiu; Dijkstra, Arie

    2017-01-01

    Background: Based on the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM), people’s health behavior to prevent cancer might be changed by external messages. The media play an important role in increasing people’s exposure to these messages and further influencing people’s preventative behavior. It is

  3. Media conflicts : the complicated relationship between ‘media’ and ‘revolutions’

    2012-01-01

    Over the years, technological innovations have created new opportunities in conflict situations. Control of the media means not only the power to have your message heard, but also to drown out or disrupt the messages of your adversaries. Innovations like satellite communications, the internet (which

  4. Advertising vs. Public Service Announcements: The Role of Message Type in Safer-Sex Campaigns and Third-Person Perception.

    Chapin, John

    Fifteen years ago, W. Davison introduced the third-person effect hypothesis, that individuals believe they are less influenced than others by media messages. Although third-person effect is a perceptual bias, Davison believed that individuals act on such misperceptions. Few studies since have tested the behavioral aspect of the third-person…

  5. Competing frames and tone in corporate communication versus media coverage during a crisis

    Nijkrake, Jos; Gosselt, Jordi Franciscus; Gutteling, Jan M.

    2015-01-01

    Managing corporate communication through a crisis response strategy may limit negative media coverage, thereby affecting public perceptions during crisis situations. However, because different stakeholders are being informed via multiple channels, different messages may reach the public, creating

  6. Partnership of Media with the Public

    Bajram Kosumi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is addressed the new media status, which is created in the digital age. Media in the digital age tends to be a business and policy partners, whether for traditional reasons, or because with new digital technology is not known where media is divided from the technology, so where is divided journalism as a profession from the business journalism. Media has become an equal partner with business and politics, but has lost its partnership with the public. Where is leading the journalism this partnership? Theoretical approach in this paper is within the critical cultural school and in which are intended to be detected trends, messages and ideologies of new digital media.

  7. Body image, eating disorders, and the media.

    Hogan, Marjorie J; Strasburger, Victor C

    2008-12-01

    Adolescence is a time of tremendous change in physical appearance. Many adolescents report dissatisfaction with their body shape and size. Forming one's body image is a complex process, influenced by family, peers, and media messages. Increasing evidence shows that the combination of ubiquitous ads for foods and emphasis on female beauty and thinness in both advertising and programming leads to confusion and dissatisfaction for many young people. Sociocultural factors, specifically media exposure, play an important role in the development of disordered body image. Of significant concern, studies have revealed a link between media exposure and the likelihood of having symptoms of disordered eating or a frank eating disorder. Pediatricians and other adults must work to promote media education and make media healthier for young people. More research is needed to identify the most vulnerable children and adolescents.

  8. Use of Social Media in Radiology Education.

    Ranginwala, Saad; Towbin, Alexander J

    2018-01-01

    Social media has become the dominant method of mass digital communication over the past decade. Public figures and corporations have learned how to use this new approach to deliver their messages directly to their followers. Recently, medical educators have begun to use social media as a means to deliver educational content directly to learners. The purpose of this article is to describe the benefits of using social media for medical education. Because each social media platform has different platform-specific constraints, several different popular social media networks are discussed. For each network, the authors discuss the basics of the platform and its benefits and disadvantages for users and provide examples of how they have used each platform to target a unique audience. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Gender and age in media education

    Elżbieta Gajek,

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays mass media shape the perception of social values and roles. Thus, aspects of media education that deal with various kinds of inequalities influence general sensitivity to diversity and its consequences. In this respect media and intercultural competences interrelate. Not only minorities’ rights have to be secured, but also majorities rights have to considered if it happens that majorities are discriminated. Widely accepted gender and age inequalities presented on the media in stereotypes and safely-looking conservatist behaviours may lead to harassment and even violence. That is why understanding media messages and identifying overt and covert forms of discrimination are of special interest of educators. In this article several activities for class teachers are presented to encourage them to introduce the touchy topic of gender and age inequalities into their school practice.

  10. Media Flow

    Kabel, Lars

    2016-01-01

    News and other kinds of journalistic stories, 16-17 hours a day, all year round, on all platforms, also the moderated social media. The key research thesis behind this article is that the continuous and speedy stream of news stories and media content now is becoming the centre of the production...... processes and the value creation in converged multimedia newsrooms. The article identify new methods and discuss editorial challenges in handling media flow....

  11. Interaksi Antarmanusia melalui Media Sosial Facebook Mengenai Topik Keagamaan

    Benedictus A Simangunsong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Human interaction has shifted with the advent of new media, the internet, especially with the presence of social media. The keyword of social media is a medium intended to share among individuals in order to achieve a better quality of life. The resarch aims finding human interaction trend influenced by social media i.e. Facebook, by looking at the content of the message delivered in sensitive issues phenomena, such as religious belief. Data analysis has been done through descriptive qualitative based on Martin Buber. These result indicates that interaction model can be established if the content of the message delivered in accordance with the wishes of communication, often obtained a description of the interaction that can be done by users against other users so that the purpose of the use of social media can be achieved.

  12. Interpreting land records

    Wilson, Donald A

    2014-01-01

    Base retracement on solid research and historically accurate interpretation Interpreting Land Records is the industry's most complete guide to researching and understanding the historical records germane to land surveying. Coverage includes boundary retracement and the primary considerations during new boundary establishment, as well as an introduction to historical records and guidance on effective research and interpretation. This new edition includes a new chapter titled "Researching Land Records," and advice on overcoming common research problems and insight into alternative resources wh

  13. Reach and messages of the world's largest ivory burn.

    Braczkowski, Alexander; Holden, Matthew H; O'Bryan, Christopher; Choi, Chi-Yeung; Gan, Xiaojing; Beesley, Nicholas; Gao, Yufang; Allan, James; Tyrrell, Peter; Stiles, Daniel; Brehony, Peadar; Meney, Revocatus; Brink, Henry; Takashina, Nao; Lin, Ming-Ching; Lin, Hsien-Yung; Rust, Niki; Salmo, Severino G; Watson, James Em; Kahumbu, Paula; Maron, Martine; Possingham, Hugh P; Biggs, Duan

    2018-03-01

    Recent increases in ivory poaching have depressed African elephant populations. Successful enforcement has led to ivory being stockpiled. Stockpile destruction is becoming increasingly popular, and most destruction has occurred in the last five years. Ivory destruction is intended to send a strong message against ivory consumption, both in promoting a taboo on ivory use and catalyzing policy change. However, there has been no effort to establish the distribution and extent of media reporting on ivory destruction events globally. We analyze media coverage across eleven important nation states of the largest ivory destruction event in history (Kenya, 30 April 2016). We used a well-accepted online media crawling tool and key language translations to search online and print newspapers. We found most online news on the ivory burn came from the US (81% of articles), while print news was dominated by Kenya (61% of articles). We subjected online articles from five key countries and territories to content analysis and found 86-97% of all online articles reported the burn as a positive conservation action, while between 4-50% discussed ivory burning as having a negative impact on elephant conservation. Most articles discussed law enforcement and trade bans as effective for elephant conservation. There was more relative search interest globally on the 2016 Kenyan ivory burn than any other in five years. Our study is the first attempt to track the spread of media around an ivory burn and is a case study in tracking the effects of a conservation-marketing event. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Portrayals of schizophrenia by entertainment media: a content analysis of contemporary movies.

    Owen, Patricia R

    2012-07-01

    Critics of entertainment media have indicated that cinematic depictions of schizophrenia are stereotypic and characterized by misinformation about symptoms, causes, and treatment. The pervasiveness and nature of misinformation are difficult to ascertain because of the lack of empirically based studies of movies portraying schizophrenia. This study analyzed portrayals of schizophrenia in contemporary movies to ascertain prevalence of stereotypes and misinformation about schizophrenia. English-language movies featuring at least one main character with schizophrenia that were released for showing in theaters between 1990 and 2010 were analyzed for depictions of schizophrenia. Two researchers independently rated each character with a checklist that assessed demographic characteristics, symptoms and stereotypes, causation, and treatment. Forty-two characters from 41 movies were identified, a majority of whom were male and Caucasian. Most characters displayed positive symptoms of schizophrenia. Delusions were featured most frequently, followed by auditory and visual hallucinations. A majority of characters displayed violent behavior toward themselves or others, and nearly one-third of violent characters engaged in homicidal behavior. About one-fourth of characters committed suicide. Causation of schizophrenia was infrequently noted, although about one-fourth of movies implied that a traumatic life event was significant in causation. Of movies alluding to or showing treatment, psychotropic medications were most commonly portrayed. The finding that misinformation and negative portrayals of schizophrenia in contemporary movies are common underscores the importance of determining how viewers interpret media messages and how these interpretations inform attitudes and beliefs both of the general public and of people with schizophrenia.

  15. Comparing tailored and untailored text messages for smoking cessation

    Skov-Ettrup, L S; Ringgaard, L W; Dalum, P

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to compare the effectiveness of untailored text messages for smoking cessation to tailored text messages delivered at a higher frequency. From February 2007 to August 2009, 2030 users of an internet-based smoking cessation program with optional text message support aged 15-25 years were...... of text messages increases quit rates among young smokers....

  16. A hazard-independent approach for the standardised multi-channel dissemination of warning messages

    Esbri Palomares, M. A.; Hammitzsch, M.; Lendholt, M.

    2012-04-01

    capabilities of different dissemination channels such as SMS, email and television, have bearing on the information processing required for delivery and consumption of a DEWS EDXL-DE/CAP message over each dissemination channel. These messages may include additional information in the form of maps, graphs, documents, sensor observations, etc. Therefore, the generated messages are pre-processed by channel adaptors in the information dissemination services converting it into a format that is suitable for end-to-end delivery over the dissemination channels without any semantic distortion. The approach followed by DEWS for disseminating warnings not only relies on traditional communication ways used by the already established early warnings such as the delivery of faxes and phone calls but takes into consideration the use of other broadly used communication channels such as SMS, email, narrowcast and broadcast television, instant messaging, Voice over IP, and radio. It also takes advantage of social media channels like RSS feeds, Facebook, Twitter, etc., enabling a multiplier effect, like in the case of radio and television, and thus allowing to create mash-ups by aggregating other sources of information to the original message. Finally, status information is also important in order to assess and understand whether the process of disseminating the warning to the message consumers has been successfully completed or the process failed at some point of the dissemination chain. To that end, CAP-based messages generated within the information dissemination services provide the semantics for those fields that are of interest within the context of reporting the warning dissemination status in DEWS.

  17. Art messaging to engage homeless young adults.

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Slagle, Alexandra; Thomas, Alexandra; Hudson, Angela; Kahilifard, Farinaz; Avila, Glenna; Orser, Julie; Cuchilla, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Art has been shown to be an empowering and engaging entity with numerous benefits to vulnerable populations, including the homeless persons and young adults. However, little is known how homeless young adults perceive the use of art as messages that can communicate the danger of initiating or continuing drug and alcohol use. The purpose of this study was to solicit perspectives of homeless, drug-using young adults as to how art can be used to design messages for their peers about the danger of initiating or continuing drug and alcohol use. Qualitative methodology via focus group discussions was utilized to engage 24 homeless young adults enrolled from a drop-in site in Santa Monica, California. The findings revealed support for a myriad of delivery styles, including in-person communication, flyers, music, documentary film, and creative writing. The young adults also provided insight into the importance of the thematic framework of messages. Such themes ranged from empowering and hopeful messages to those designed to scare young homeless adults into not experimenting with drugs. The findings indicate that in addition to messages communicating the need to prevent or reduce drug and alcohol use, homeless young adults respond to messages that remind them of goals and dreams they once had for their future, and to content that is personal, real, and truthful. Our research indicates that messages that reinforce protective factors such as hope for the future and self-esteem may be as important to homeless young adults as information about the risks and consequences of drug use.

  18. Beliefs Underlying Messages of Anti-Cancer-Screening

    Okuhara, Tsuyoshi; Ishikawa, Hirono; Okada, Masahumi; Kato, Mio; Kiuchi, Takahiro

    2018-02-26

    Background: Cancer screening rates are lower in Japan than in Western countries. Meanwhile, anti-cancer-screening activists take to the internet to spread their messages that cancer screening has little or no efficacy, poses substantial health risks such as side effects from radiation exposure, and that people should forgo cancer screening. We applied a qualitative approach to explore the beliefs underlying the messages of anti-cancer-screening websites, by focusing on perceived value the beliefs provided to those who held them. Methods: We conducted online searches using Google Japan and Yahoo! Japan, targeting websites we classified as “pro,” “anti,” or “neutral” depending on their claims. We applied a dual analytic approach- inductive thematic analysis and deductive interpretative analysis- to the textual data of the anti websites. Results: Of the 88 websites analyzed, five themes that correspond to beliefs were identified: destruction of common knowledge, denial of standard cancer control, education about right cancer control, education about hidden truths, and sense of superiority that only I know the truth. Authors of anti websites ascribed two values (“safety of people” and “self-esteem”) to their beliefs. Conclusion: The beliefs of authors of anti-cancer-screening websites were supposed to be strong. It would be better to target in cancer screening promotion not outright screening refusers but screening hesitant people who are more amenable to changing their attitudes toward screening. The possible means to persuade them were discussed. Creative Commons Attribution License

  19. Media Influence on Sexual Activity and Contraceptive Use: A Cross Sectional Survey among Young Women in Urban Nigeria.

    Bajoga, Ummulkhulthum A; Atagame, Ken L; Okigbo, Chinelo C

    2015-09-01

    This study assessed the relationship between recent exposure to family planning (FP) messages in the media (newspaper, radio, television, and mobile phones) and use of modern contraceptive methods among women aged 15-24 years living in six cities in Nigeria. Logistic regression models were used to predict recent media exposure to FP messages and its association with sexual experience and modern contraceptive method use. About 45% of our sample had ever had sex with only a quarter of them using a modern contraceptive method at the time of survey. Approximately 71% of our sample was exposed to FP messages in the media within the three months preceding the survey. The main sources of media exposure were mobile phones (48%), radio (37%), and television (29%). Controlling for relevant factors, recent media exposure to FP messages predicted both sexual experience and use of modern contraceptive methods, although there were city-level differences.

  20. Re-Thinking Anxiety: Using Inoculation Messages to Reduce and Reinterpret Public Speaking Fears.

    Jackson, Ben; Compton, Josh; Thornton, Ashleigh L; Dimmock, James A

    2017-01-01

    Inoculation theory offers a framework for protecting individuals against challenges to an existing attitude, belief, or state. Despite the prevalence and damaging effects of public speaking anxiety, inoculation strategies have yet to be used to help individuals remain calm before and during public speaking. We aimed to test the effectiveness of an inoculation message for reducing the onset of public speaking anxiety, and helping presenters interpret their speech-related anxiety more positively. Participants (Mage = 20.14, SD = 2.72) received either an inoculation (n = 102) or control (n = 128) message prior to engaging a public speaking task and reported a range of anxiety-related perceptions. Accounting for personality characteristics and perceptions of task importance, and relative to control participants, those who received the inoculation message reported significantly lower pre-task anxiety, and following the task, reported that they had experienced lower somatic anxiety, and that the inoculation message had caused them to view their nerves in a less debilitating light. Inoculation messages may be an effective strategy for helping participants reframe and reduce their apprehension about public speaking, and investigating their efficacy in other stress-inducing contexts may be worthwhile.