Spin tunnelling in mesoscopic systems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We study spin tunnelling in molecular magnets as an instance of a mesoscopic phenomenon, with special emphasis on the molecule Fe8. We show that the tunnel splitting between various pairs of Zeeman levels in this molecule oscillates as a function of applied magnetic ﬁeld, vanishing completely at special points in the ...
Spin tunnelling in mesoscopic systems
Garg, Anupam
2001-02-01
We study spin tunnelling in molecular magnets as an instance of a mesoscopic phenomenon, with special emphasis on the molecule Fe8. We show that the tunnel splitting between various pairs of Zeeman levels in this molecule oscillates as a function of applied magnetic field, vanishing completely at special points in the space of magnetic fields, known as diabolical points. This phenomena is explained in terms of two approaches, one based on spin-coherent-state path integrals, and the other on a generalization of the phase integral (or WKB) method to difference equations. Explicit formulas for the diabolical points are obtained for a model Hamiltonian.
Spin tunnelling in mesoscopic systems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Spin tunnelling; spin path integrals; discrete phase integral method; diabolical points. ... technologies. Our purpose in this article is rather different. The molecular systems have total spin of the order of 10, and magnetocrystalline anisotropies of few tens of Kelvin ...... The point С' is of this new type, and here it may be said to.
Quantum Spin Transport in Mesoscopic Interferometer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zein W. A.
2007-10-01
Full Text Available Spin-dependent conductance of ballistic mesoscopic interferometer is investigated. The quantum interferometer is in the form of ring, in which a quantum dot is embedded in one arm. This quantum dot is connected to one lead via tunnel barrier. Both Aharonov- Casher and Aharonov-Bohm e ects are studied. Our results confirm the interplay of spin-orbit coupling and quantum interference e ects in such confined quantum systems. This investigation is valuable for spintronics application, for example, quantum information processing.
Environmental Effects on Quantum Reversal of Mesoscopic Spins
Giraud, R.; Chiorescu, I.; Wernsdorfer, W.; Barbara, B.; Jansen, A. G. M.; Caneschi, A.; Mueller, A.; Tkachuk, A. M.
2002-10-01
extension of these studies beyond molecular magnetism. Single-ion slow quantum relaxation is observed in rare-earth Ho3+ ions highly diluted in an insulating matrix LiYF4. This relaxation is due to the coherent tunneling of individual Ho3+ spins strongly coupled to their nuclear spins, leading to electro-nuclear entangled states at avoided level crossings. In fact tunneling of the spin system is induced by the hyperfine coupling. Together with the important role of the "spin bath", the roles of cross-spin and spin-phonon relaxations are also considered. All these results confirm the emergence of a new field of research: "mesoscopic magnetism".
Charge and spin transport in mesoscopic superconductors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. J. Wolf
2014-02-01
Full Text Available Background: Non-equilibrium charge transport in superconductors has been investigated intensely in the 1970s and 1980s, mostly in the vicinity of the critical temperature. Much less attention has been paid to low temperatures and the role of the quasiparticle spin.Results: We report here on nonlocal transport in superconductor hybrid structures at very low temperatures. By comparing the nonlocal conductance obtained by using ferromagnetic and normal-metal detectors, we discriminate charge and spin degrees of freedom. We observe spin injection and long-range transport of pure, chargeless spin currents in the regime of large Zeeman splitting. We elucidate charge and spin transport by comparison to theoretical models.Conclusion: The observed long-range chargeless spin transport opens a new path to manipulate and utilize the quasiparticle spin in superconductor nanostructures.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rozhkov, A.V., E-mail: arozhkov@gmail.co [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama, 351-0198 (Japan); Institute for Theoretical and Applied Electrodynamics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 125412, Moscow (Russian Federation); Giavaras, G. [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama, 351-0198 (Japan); Bliokh, Yury P. [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama, 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Physics, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Freilikher, Valentin [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama, 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Physics, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel); Nori, Franco [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama, 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1040 (United States)
2011-06-15
This brief review discusses electronic properties of mesoscopic graphene-based structures. These allow controlling the confinement and transport of charge and spin; thus, they are of interest not only for fundamental research, but also for applications. The graphene-related topics covered here are: edges, nanoribbons, quantum dots, pn-junctions, pnp-structures, and quantum barriers and waveguides. This review is partly intended as a short introduction to graphene mesoscopics.
Dynamic nuclear spin polarization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stuhrmann, H.B. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany)
1996-11-01
Polarized neutron scattering from dynamic polarized targets has been applied to various hydrogenous materials at different laboratories. In situ structures of macromolecular components have been determined by nuclear spin contrast variation with an unprecedented precision. The experiments of selective nuclear spin depolarisation not only opened a new dimension to structural studies but also revealed phenomena related to propagation of nuclear spin polarization and the interplay of nuclear polarisation with the electronic spin system. The observation of electron spin label dependent nuclear spin polarisation domains by NMR and polarized neutron scattering opens a way to generalize the method of nuclear spin contrast variation and most importantly it avoids precontrasting by specific deuteration. It also likely might tell us more about the mechanism of dynamic nuclear spin polarisation. (author) 4 figs., refs.
Spin injection from a normal metal into a mesoscopic superconductor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wolf, Michael J.; Kolenda, Stefan [Institut fuer Nanotechnologie, KIT, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Huebler, Florian [Institut fuer Nanotechnologie, KIT, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Center for Functional Nanostructures, KIT, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, KIT, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Loehneysen, Hilbert v. [Center for Functional Nanostructures, KIT, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, KIT, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Physikalisches Institut, KIT, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Beckmann, Detlef [Institut fuer Nanotechnologie, KIT, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Center for Functional Nanostructures, KIT, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)
2013-07-01
We report on nonlocal transport in superconductor hybrid structures, with ferromagnetic as well as normal-metal tunnel junctions attached to the superconductor. In the presence of a strong Zeeman splitting of the density of states, both charge and spin imbalance is injected into the superconductor. While previous experiments demonstrated spin injection from ferromagnetic electrodes, we show that spin imbalance is also created for normal-metal injector contacts. Using the combination of ferromagnetic and normal-metal detectors allows us to directly discriminate between charge and spin injection, and demonstrate a complete separation of charge and spin imbalance. The relaxation length of the spin imbalance is of the order of several μm and is found to increase with a magnetic field, but is independent of temperature. We further discuss possible relaxation mechanisms for the explanation of the spin relaxation length.
Spin Transport in Mesoscopic Superconducting-Ferromagnetic Hybrid Conductor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zein W. A.
2008-01-01
Full Text Available The spin polarization and the corresponding tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR for a hybrid ferromagnetic/superconductor junction are calculated. The results show that these parameters are strongly depends on the exchange field energy and the bias voltage. The dependence of the polarization on the angle of precession is due to the spin flip through tunneling process. Our results could be interpreted as due to spin imbalance of carriers resulting in suppression of gap energy of the superconductor. The present investigation is valuable for manufacturing magnetic recording devices and nonvolatile memories which imply a very high spin coherent transport for such junction.
Spin Transport in Mesoscopic Superconducting-Ferromagnetic Hybrid Conductor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zein W. A.
2008-01-01
Full Text Available The spin polarization and the corresponding tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR for a hybrid ferromagnetic / superconductor junction are calculated. The results show that these parameters are strongly depends on the exchange field energy and the bias voltage. The dependence of the polarization on the angle of precession is due to the spin flip through tunneling process. Our results could be interpreted as due to spin imbalance of carriers resulting in suppression of gap energy of the superconductor. The present investigation is valuable for manufacturing magnetic recording devices and nonvolatile memories which imply a very high spin coherent transport for such junction.
Optical control of mesoscopic spin ensembles in gallium arsenide
Onur, Alexander
2015-01-01
This PhD thesis describes experiments and theory on the interaction of coherent light with the magnetic moment of localized electrons in a semiconductor. The prospects for achieving accurate control of the electrons’ spin are discussed, particularly addressing the limitations imposed by disturbance
Nuclear spins in nanostructures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coish, W.A.; Baugh, J.
2009-01-01
We review recent theoretical and experimental advances toward understanding the effects of nuclear spins in confined nanostructures. These systems, which include quantum dots, defect centers, and molecular magnets, are particularly interesting for their importance in quantum information processing devices, which aim to coherently manipulate single electron spins with high precision. On one hand, interactions between confined electron spins and a nuclear-spin environment provide a decoherence source for the electron, and on the other, a strong effective magnetic field that can be used to execute local coherent rotations. A great deal of effort has been directed toward understanding the details of the relevant decoherence processes and to find new methods to manipulate the coupled electron-nuclear system. A sequence of spectacular new results have provided understanding of spin-bath decoherence, nuclear spin diffusion, and preparation of the nuclear state through dynamic polarization and more general manipulation of the nuclear-spin density matrix through ''state narrowing.'' These results demonstrate the richness of this physical system and promise many new mysteries for the future. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)
Nuclear spin pumping and electron spin susceptibilities
Danon, J.; Nazarov, Y.V.
2011-01-01
In this work we present a new formalism to evaluate the nuclear spin dynamics driven by hyperfine interaction with nonequilibrium electron spins. To describe the dynamics up to second order in the hyperfine coupling it suffices to evaluate the susceptibility and fluctuations of the electron spin.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1981-11-01
This booklet gives examples of 'nuclear spin off', from research programmes carried out for the UKAEA, under the following headings; non destructive testing; tribology; environmental protection; flow measurement; material sciences; mechanical engineering; marine services; biochemical technology; electronic instrumentation. (U.K.)
Slachter, Abraham; Bakker, Frank Lennart; van Wees, Bart Jan
2011-01-01
In this article we extend the currently established diffusion theory of spin-dependent electrical conduction by including spin-dependent thermoelectricity and thermal transport. Using this theory, we propose experiments aimed at demonstrating novel effects such as the spin-Peltier effect, the
Erlingsson, S.I.
2003-01-01
The main theme of this thesis is the hyperfine interaction between the many lattice nuclear spins and electron spins localized in GaAs quantum dots. This interaction is an intrinsic property of the material. Despite the fact that this interaction is rather weak, it can, as shown in this thesis,
Electron spin and nuclear spin manipulation in semiconductor nanosystems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hirayama, Yoshiro; Yusa, Go; Sasaki, Satoshi
2006-01-01
Manipulations of electron spin and nuclear spin have been studied in AlGaAs/GaAs semiconductor nanosystems. Non-local manipulation of electron spins has been realized by using the correlation effect between localized and mobile electron spins in a quantum dot- quantum wire coupled system. Interaction between electron and nuclear spins was exploited to achieve a coherent control of nuclear spins in a semiconductor point contact device. Using this device, we have demonstrated a fully coherent manipulation of any two states among the four spin levels of Ga and As nuclei. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Zhang, Yue; Zhang, Zhizhong; Wang, Lezhi; Nan, Jiang; Zheng, Zhenyi; Li, Xiang; Wong, Kin; Wang, Yu; Klein, Jacques-Olivier; Khalili Amiri, Pedram; Zhang, Youguang; Wang, Kang L.; Zhao, Weisheng
2017-07-01
Beyond memory and storage, future logic applications put forward higher requirements for electronic devices. All spin logic devices (ASLDs) have drawn exceptional interest as they utilize pure spin current instead of charge current, which could promise ultra-low power consumption. However, relatively low efficiencies of spin injection, transport, and detection actually impede high-speed magnetization switching and challenge perspectives of ASLD. In this work, we study partial spin absorption induced magnetization switching in asymmetrical ASLD at the mesoscopic scale, in which the injector and detector have the nano-fabrication compatible device size (>100 nm) and their contact areas are different. The enlarged contact area of the detector is conducive to the spin current absorption, and the contact resistance difference between the injector and the detector can decrease the spin current backflow. Rigorous spin circuit modeling and micromagnetic simulations have been carried out to analyze the electrical and magnetic features. The results show that, at the fabrication-oriented technology scale, the ferromagnetic layer can hardly be switched by geometrically partial spin current absorption. The voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy (VCMA) effect has been applied on the detector to accelerate the magnetization switching by modulating magnetic anisotropy of the ferromagnetic layer. With a relatively high VCMA coefficient measured experimentally, a voltage of 1.68 V can assist the whole magnetization switching within 2.8 ns. This analysis and improving approach will be of significance for future low-power, high-speed logic applications.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Walker, P.; Dracoulis, G.
1994-01-01
The reaction pathways in stars, where all the heavy elements in the Universe were formed, are inextricably linked with isomers that live long enough to capture a neutron or proton before they decay. These isomers usually have excitation energies below 0.1 MeV. It is also possible to find highly excited isomers, with several MeV of excitation energy, that are trapped because of their large angular momentum (or spin). But attempts to understand the long-lived highly excited isomers, sometimes known as ''spin traps'', have been hampered by the difficulty of producing this exotic form of nuclear matter. Now, a new generation of radioactive ion beams promises a revolution in the study of high-spin nuclear traps. (author)
High-spin nuclear spectroscopy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diamond, R.M.
1986-07-01
High-spin spectroscopy is the study of the changes in nuclear structure, properties, and behavior with increasing angular momentum. It involves the complex interplay between collective and single-particle motion, between shape and deformation changes, particle alignments, and changes in the pairing correlations. A review of progress in theory, experimentation, and instrumentation in this field is given. (DWL)
Spin injection, accumulation, and precession in a mesoscopic nonmagnetic metal island
Zaffalon, M; van Wees, BJ
We experimentally study spin accumulation in an aluminum island with all dimensions smaller than the spin-relaxation length, so that the spin imbalance throughout the island is uniform. Electrical injection and detection of the spin accumulation are carried out in a four-terminal geometry by means
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
IAS Admin
In the context of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), the term relaxation indicates the process by which the magnetic atomic nuclei reach thermal equilibrium with the chaotic molecular environment. In NMR, this process can be very slow, requiring between a fraction of a second to many minutes, depending on the.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khomitsky, D. V., E-mail: khomitsky@phys.unn.ru; Chubanov, A. A.; Konakov, A. A. [Lobachevsky National Research State University of Nizhny Novgorod, Department of Physics (Russian Federation)
2016-12-15
The dynamics of Dirac–Weyl spin-polarized wavepackets driven by a periodic electric field is considered for the electrons in a mesoscopic quantum dot formed at the edge of the two-dimensional HgTe/CdTe topological insulator with Dirac–Weyl massless energy spectra, where the motion of carriers is less sensitive to disorder and impurity potentials. It is observed that the interplay of strongly coupled spin and charge degrees of freedom creates the regimes of irregular dynamics in both coordinate and spin channels. The border between the regular and irregular regimes determined by the strength and frequency of the driving field is found analytically within the quasiclassical approach by means of the Ince–Strutt diagram for the Mathieu equation, and is supported by full quantum-mechanical simulations of the driven dynamics. The investigation of quasienergy spectrum by Floquet approach reveals the presence of non-Poissonian level statistics, which indicates the possibility of chaotic quantum dynamics and corresponds to the areas of parameters for irregular regimes within the quasiclassical approach. We find that the influence of weak disorder leads to partial suppression of the dynamical chaos. Our findings are of interest both for progress in the fundamental field of quantum chaotic dynamics and for further experimental and technological applications of spindependent phenomena in nanostructures based on topological insulators.
QED approach to the nuclear spin-spin coupling tensor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Romero, Rodolfo H.; Aucar, Gustavo A.
2002-01-01
A quantum electrodynamical approach for the calculation of the nuclear spin-spin coupling tensor of nuclear-magnetic-resonance spectroscopy is given. Quantization of radiation fields within the molecule is considered and expressions for the magnetic field in the neighborhood of a nucleus are calculated. Using a generalization of time-dependent response theory, an effective spin-spin interaction is obtained from the coupling of nuclear magnetic moments to a virtual quantized magnetic field. The energy-dependent operators obtained reduce to usual classical-field expressions at suitable limits
Nuclear spin polarization of targets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Happer, W.
1990-01-01
Lasers can be used to produce milligrams to grams of noble gas nuclei with spin polarizations in excess of 50%. These quantities are sufficient to be very useful targets in nuclear physics experiments. Alkali-metal atoms are used to capture the angular momentum of circularly polarized laser photons, and the alkali-metal atoms transfer their angular momentum to noble gas atoms in binary or three-body collisions. Non-radiative collisions between the excited alkali atoms and molecular quenching gases are essential to avoid radiation trapping. The spin exchange can involve gas-phase van der Waals molecules, consisting of a noble gas atom and an alkali metal atom. Surface chemistry is also of great importance in determining the wall-induced relaxation rates of the noble gases
Microwave-induced direct spin-flip transitions in mesoscopic Pd/Co heterojunctions
Pietsch, Torsten; Egle, Stefan; Keller, Martin; Fridtjof-Pernau, Hans; Strigl, Florian; Scheer, Elke
2016-09-01
We experimentally investigate the effect of resonant microwave absorption on the magneto-conductance of tunable Co/Pd point contacts. At the interface a non-equilibrium spin accumulation is created via microwave absorption and can be probed via point contact spectroscopy. We interpret the results as a signature of direct spin-flip excitations in Zeeman-split spin-subbands within the Pd normal metal part of the junction. The inverse effect, which is associated with the emission of a microwave photon in a ferromagnet/normal metal point contact, can also be detected via its unique signature in transport spectroscopy.
Nuclear Spin-Spin Coupling in HD, HT, and DT
Puchalski, Mariusz; Komasa, Jacek; Pachucki, Krzysztof
2018-02-01
The interaction between nuclear spins in a molecule is exceptionally sensitive to the physics beyond the standard model. However, all present calculations of the nuclear spin-spin coupling constant J are burdened by computational difficulties, which hinders the comparison to experimental results. Here, we present a variational approach and calculate the constant J in the hydrogen molecule with the controlled numerical precision, using the adiabatic approximation. The apparent discrepancy with experimental result is removed by an analysis of nonadiabatic effects based on the experimental values of the J constant for HD, HT, and DT molecules. This study significantly improves the reliability of the NMR theory for searching new physics in the spin-spin coupling.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Borunda, M.F.; Liu, X.; Kovalev, A.A.; Liu, X.-J.; Jungwirth, Tomáš; Sinova, J.
2008-01-01
Roč. 78, č. 24 (2008), 245315/1-245315/9 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC510; GA AV ČR KAN400100652; GA ČR GEFON/06/E002 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 015728 - NANOSPIN Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : Aharonov-Casher effect * spin Hall effect * spin-orbit interaction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.322, year: 2008
Controlling a nuclear spin in a nanodiamond
Knowles, Helena S.; Kara, Dhiren M.; Atatüre, Mete
2017-09-01
The sensing capability of a single optically bright electronic spin in diamond can be enhanced by making use of proximal dark nuclei as ancillary spins. Such systems, so far realized only in bulk diamond, can provide orders of magnitude higher sensitivity and spectral resolution in the case of magnetic sensing, as well as improved readout fidelity and state storage time in quantum information schemes. Nanodiamonds offer opportunities for scanning and embedded nanoscale probes, yet electronic-nuclear spin complexes have so far remained inaccessible. Here, we demonstrate coherent control of a 13C nuclear spin located 4 Å from a nitrogen-vacancy center in a nanodiamond and show coherent exchange between the two components of this hybrid spin system. We extract a free precession time T2* of 26 μ s for the nuclear spin, which exceeds the bare-electron free-precession time in nanodiamond by two orders of magnitude.
Alcer, D.; Atkinson, D.
2017-09-01
The separation of spin-up and spin-down conduction channels is fundamental to electronic transport in ferromagnets and essential for spintronic functionality. The spin states available for conduction are defined by the ferromagnetic material, but additional physical factors can affect scattering and modify the spin-dependence of conduction. Here the effect of mesoscopic structuring, arising during the growth of ferromagnetic thin films, on the electronic transport was investigated. Resistivity and anisotropic magnetoresistance were measured in a series of Ni80Fe20 thin films as a function of nominal film thickness from 3 {nm} up to 20 {nm}. The observed thickness dependence of the resisivity and magnetic anisotropy of resistivity are interpreted using a model that accounts for the macroscopic structuring from the growth of the films and incorporates a structural dependence of the spin-flip scattering. The model shows good agreement for both the thickness dependence of the resistivity and the reduction of the anisotropic magnetoresistivity. The latter indicating that increasing mixing of the conducting spin channels occurs in ultra-thin films, mainly a consequence of macroscopic structuring of the films.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaul, Ravi.
1974-01-01
After examining world-wide reactions of the foreign governments and news media to the India's peaceful nuclear experiment (PNE) in the Rajasthan Desert on 18 May 1974, development of nuclear technology in India is assessed and its economic advantages are described. Implications of the Non-Proliferation Treaty are explained. Psychological impact of India's PNE on India's neighbours and superpowers and associated political problems in context of proliferation of nuclear weapons are discussed in detail. (M.G.B.)
Detection and Control of Individual Nuclear Spins Using a Weakly Coupled Electron Spin
Taminiau, T.H.; Wagenaar, J.J.T.; Van der Sar, T.; Jelezko, F.; Dobrovitski, V.V.; Hanson, R.
2012-01-01
We experimentally isolate, characterize, and coherently control up to six individual nuclear spins that are weakly coupled to an electron spin in diamond. Our method employs multipulse sequences on the electron spin that resonantly amplify the interaction with a selected nuclear spin and at the same
Experimental energy-dependent nuclear spin distributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Egidy, T. von; Bucurescu, D.
2009-01-01
A new method is proposed to determine the energy-dependent spin distribution in experimental nuclear-level schemes. This method compares various experimental and calculated moments in the energy-spin plane to obtain the spin-cutoff parameter σ as a function of mass A and excitation energy using a total of 7202 levels with spin assignment in 227 nuclei between F and Cf. A simple formula, σ 2 =0.391 A 0.675 (E-0.5Pa ' ) 0.312 , is proposed up to about 10 MeV that is in very good agreement with experimental σ values and is applied to improve the systematics of level-density parameters.
Nuclear structure of Ra at high spin
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
However, nuclear structure at high spin and excitation energies (∼ 6 MeV) would require a coupling of excited 1p–1h with 208Pb core. The coupling between single- particle orbitals and collective vibrations of core complicates the simple shell model picture. With increasing neutron number, Ra isotopes show an abrupt ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. In this paper we present a qualitative outlook of mesoscopic biology where the typical length scale is of the order of nanometers and the energy scales comparable to thermal energy. ... National Center for Biological Sciences, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, UAS-GKVK Campus, Bangalore 560 065, India ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. In this paper we present a qualitative outlook of mesoscopic biology where the typical length scale is of the order of nanometers and the energy scales comparable to thermal energy. Novel biomolecular machines, governed by coded information at the level of DNA and proteins, operate at these length scales in ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In this paper we present a qualitative outlook of mesoscopic biology where the typical length scale is of the order of nanometers and the energy scales comparable to thermal energy. Novel biomolecular machines, governed by coded information at the level of DNA and proteins, operate at these length scales in biological ...
Quantum computing using nuclear spins
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cejnar, P.
2002-01-01
In December 2001, a group of physicists at Stanford University and at the IBM research center in California announced the first experimental implementation of the Shor quantum factorization algorithm with 7 quantum bits. The nuclear magnetic resonance method applied appears to be a promising approach to the realization of quantum computers. Quantum computing, which is a very interesting field of application of the laws of the quantum world, is demonstrated on examples
Evolution of nuclear shapes at high spins
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, N.R.
1985-01-01
The dynamic electric quadrupole (E2) moments are a direct reflection of the collective aspects of the nuclear wave functions. For this, Doppler-shift lifetime measurements have been done utilizing primarily the recoil-distance technique. The nuclei with neutron number N approx. 90 possess many interesting properties. These nuclei have very shallow minima in their potential energy surfaces, and thus, are very susceptible to deformation driving influences. It is the evolution of nuclear shapes as a function of spin or rotational frequency for these nuclei that has commanded much interest in the lifetime measurements discussed here. There is growing evidence that many deformed nuclei which have prolate shapes in their ground states conform to triaxial or oblate shapes at higher spins. Since the E2 matrix elements along the yrast line are sensitive indicators of deformation changes, measurements of lifetimes of these states to provide the matrix elements has become the major avenue for tracing the evolving shape of a nucleus at high spin. Of the several nuclei we have studied with N approx. 90, those to be discussed here are /sup 160,161/Yb and 158 Er. In addition, the preliminary, but interesting and surprising results from our recent investigation of the N = 98 nucleus, 172 W are briefly discussed. 14 refs., 5 figs
Nuclear spin polarized H and D by means of spin-exchange optical pumping
Stenger, Jörn; Grosshauser, Carsten; Kilian, Wolfgang; Nagengast, Wolfgang; Ranzenberger, Bernd; Rith, Klaus; Schmidt, Frank
1998-01-01
Optically pumped spin-exchange sources for polarized hydrogen and deuterium atoms have been demonstrated to yield high atomic flow and high electron spin polarization. For maximum nuclear polarization the source has to be operated in spin temperature equilibrium, which has already been demonstrated for hydrogen. In spin temperature equilibrium the nuclear spin polarization PI equals the electron spin polarization PS for hydrogen and is even larger than PS for deuterium. We discuss the general properties of spin temperature equilibrium for a sample of deuterium atoms. One result are the equations PI=4PS/(3+PS2) and Pzz=PSṡPI, where Pzz is the nuclear tensor polarization. Furthermore we demonstrate that the deuterium atoms from our source are in spin temperature equilibrium within the experimental accuracy.
Robust techniques for polarization and detection of nuclear spin ensembles
Scheuer, Jochen; Schwartz, Ilai; Müller, Samuel; Chen, Qiong; Dhand, Ish; Plenio, Martin B.; Naydenov, Boris; Jelezko, Fedor
2017-11-01
Highly sensitive nuclear spin detection is crucial in many scientific areas including nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and quantum computing. The tiny thermal nuclear spin polarization represents a major obstacle towards this goal which may be overcome by dynamic nuclear spin polarization (DNP) methods. The latter often rely on the transfer of the thermally polarized electron spins to nearby nuclear spins, which is limited by the Boltzmann distribution of the former. Here we utilize microwave dressed states to transfer the high (>92 % ) nonequilibrium electron spin polarization of a single nitrogen-vacancy center (NV) induced by short laser pulses to the surrounding 13C carbon nuclear spins. The NV is repeatedly repolarized optically, thus providing an effectively infinite polarization reservoir. A saturation of the polarization of the nearby nuclear spins is achieved, which is confirmed by the decay of the polarization transfer signal and shows an excellent agreement with theoretical simulations. Hereby we introduce the polarization readout by polarization inversion method as a quantitative magnetization measure of the nuclear spin bath, which allows us to observe by ensemble averaging macroscopically hidden polarization dynamics like Landau-Zener-Stückelberg oscillations. Moreover, we show that using the integrated solid effect both for single- and double-quantum transitions nuclear spin polarization can be achieved even when the static magnetic field is not aligned along the NV's crystal axis. This opens a path for the application of our DNP technique to spins in and outside of nanodiamonds, enabling their application as MRI tracers. Furthermore, the methods reported here can be applied to other solid state systems where a central electron spin is coupled to a nuclear spin bath, e.g., phosphor donors in silicon and color centers in silicon carbide.
Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy of a single nuclear spin.
Delgado, F; Fernández-Rossier, J
2011-08-12
Detection of a single nuclear spin constitutes an outstanding problem in different fields of physics such as quantum computing or magnetic imaging. Here we show that the energy levels of a single nuclear spin can be measured by means of inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS). We consider two different systems, a magnetic adatom probed with scanning tunneling microscopy and a single Bi dopant in a silicon nanotransistor. We find that the hyperfine coupling opens new transport channels which can be resolved at experimentally accessible temperatures. Our simulations evince that IETS yields information about the occupations of the nuclear spin states, paving the way towards transport-detected single nuclear spin resonance.
Exploring Localization in Nuclear Spin Chains
Wei, Ken Xuan; Ramanathan, Chandrasekhar; Cappellaro, Paola
2018-02-01
Characterizing out-of-equilibrium many-body dynamics is a complex but crucial task for quantum applications and understanding fundamental phenomena. A central question is the role of localization in quenching thermalization in many-body systems and whether such localization survives in the presence of interactions. Probing this question in real systems necessitates the development of an experimentally measurable metric that can distinguish between different types of localization. While it is known that the localized phase of interacting systems [many-body localization (MBL)] exhibits a long-time logarithmic growth in entanglement entropy that distinguishes it from the noninteracting case of Anderson localization (AL), entanglement entropy is difficult to measure experimentally. Here, we present a novel correlation metric, capable of distinguishing MBL from AL in high-temperature spin systems. We demonstrate the use of this metric to detect localization in a natural solid-state spin system using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). We engineer the natural Hamiltonian to controllably introduce disorder and interactions, and observe the emergence of localization. In particular, while our correlation metric saturates for AL, it slowly keeps increasing for MBL, demonstrating analogous features to entanglement entropy, as we show in simulations. Our results show that our NMR techniques, akin to measuring out-of-time correlations, are well suited for studying localization in spin systems.
Yoneda, J.; Otsuka, T.; Nakajima, T.; Takakura, T.; Obata, T.; Pioro-Ladrière, M.; Lu, H.; Palmstrøm, C. J.; Gossard, A. C.; Tarucha, S.
2014-12-01
We demonstrate fast universal electrical spin manipulation with inhomogeneous magnetic fields. With fast Rabi frequency up to 127 MHz, we leave the conventional regime of strong nuclear-spin influence and observe a spin-flip fidelity >96 % , a distinct chevron Rabi pattern in the spectral-time domain, and a spin resonance linewidth limited by the Rabi frequency, not by the dephasing rate. In addition, we establish fast z rotations up to 54 MHz by directly controlling the spin phase. Our findings will significantly facilitate tomography and error correction with electron spins in quantum dots.
Spin squeezing of atomic ensembles via nuclear-electronic spin entanglement
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fernholz, Thomas; Krauter, Hanna; Jensen, Kasper
2008-01-01
quantum limit for quantum memory experiments and applications in quantum metrology and is thus a complementary alternative to spin squeezing obtained via inter-atom entanglement. Squeezing of the collective spin is verified by quantum state tomography.......We demonstrate spin squeezing in a room temperature ensemble of 1012 Cesium atoms using their internal structure, where the necessary entanglement is created between nuclear and electronic spins of each individual atom. This state provides improvement in measurement sensitivity beyond the standard...
Thermodynamics of Rh nuclear spins calculated by exact diagonalization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lefmann, K.; Ipsen, J.; Rasmussen, F.B.
2000-01-01
We have employed the method of exact diagonalization to obtain the full-energy spectrum of a cluster of 16 Rh nuclear spins, having dipolar and RK interactions between first and second nearest neighbours only. We have used this to calculate the nuclear spin entropy, and our results at both positi...
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hankiewicz, E. M.; Li, J.; Jungwirth, Tomáš; Niu, Q.; Shen, S.-Q.; Sinova, J.
2005-01-01
Roč. 72, č. 15 (2005), 155305/1-155305/5 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC510 Grant - others:Research Grant Council of Hong Kong (SQS)(CN) DE-FG03-02ER45958 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : spin Hall effect * spintronics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.185, year: 2005
Optically induced dynamic nuclear spin polarisation in diamond
Scheuer, Jochen; Schwartz, Ilai; Chen, Qiong; Schulze-Sünninghausen, David; Carl, Patrick; Höfer, Peter; Retzker, Alexander; Sumiya, Hitoshi; Isoya, Junichi; Luy, Burkhard; Plenio, Martin B.; Naydenov, Boris; Jelezko, Fedor
2016-01-01
The sensitivity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) depends strongly on nuclear spin polarisation and, motivated by this observation, dynamical nuclear spin polarisation has recently been applied to enhance MRI protocols (Kurhanewicz et al 2011 Neoplasia 13 81). Nuclear spins associated with the 13C carbon isotope (nuclear spin I = 1/2) in diamond possess uniquely long spin lattice relaxation times (Reynhardt and High 2011 Prog. Nucl. Magn. Reson. Spectrosc. 38 37). If they are present in diamond nanocrystals, especially when strongly polarised, they form a promising contrast agent for MRI. Current schemes for achieving nuclear polarisation, however, require cryogenic temperatures. Here we demonstrate an efficient scheme that realises optically induced 13C nuclear spin hyperpolarisation in diamond at room temperature and low ambient magnetic field. Optical pumping of a nitrogen-vacancy centre creates a continuously renewable electron spin polarisation which can be transferred to surrounding 13C nuclear spins. Importantly for future applications we also realise polarisation protocols that are robust against an unknown misalignment between magnetic field and crystal axis.
Stimulated nuclear spin echos and spectral diffusion in glasses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borges, N.M.; Engelsberg, M.
1984-01-01
Experimental results of stimulated nuclear spin echos decay in glasses are presented. The measurements were performed in B 2 O 3 glasses, at the 23Na and 11 B resonance lines. The data analysis allows the study of Spectral diffusion at an inhomogeneous nuclear magnetic (NMR) resonance line, broadened for a desordered system of nuclear spins. A model is proposed to explain the time constants, and the particular form of the decay. (A.C.A.S.) [pt
Statistical methods of spin assignment in compound nuclear reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mach, H.; Johns, M.W.
1984-01-01
Spin assignment to nuclear levels can be obtained from standard in-beam gamma-ray spectroscopy techniques and in the case of compound nuclear reactions can be complemented by statistical methods. These are based on a correlation pattern between level spin and gamma-ray intensities feeding low-lying levels. Three types of intensity and level spin correlations are found suitable for spin assignment: shapes of the excitation functions, ratio of intensity at two beam energies or populated in two different reactions, and feeding distributions. Various empirical attempts are examined and the range of applicability of these methods as well as the limitations associated with them are given. 12 references
Statistical methods of spin assignment in compound nuclear reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mach, H.; Johns, M.W.
1985-01-01
Spin assignment to nuclear levels can be obtained from standard in-beam gamma-ray spectroscopy techniques and in the case of compound nuclear reactions can be complemented by statistical methods. These are based on a correlation pattern between level spin and gamma-ray intensities feeding low-lying levels. Three types of intensity and level spin correlations are found suitable for spin assignment: shapes of the excitation functions, ratio of intensity at two beam energies or populated in two different reactions, and feeding distributions. Various empirical attempts are examined and the range of applicability of these methods as well as the limitations associated with them are given
An endohedral fullerene-based nuclear spin quantum computer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ju Chenyong; Suter, Dieter; Du Jiangfeng
2011-01-01
We propose a new scalable quantum computer architecture based on endohedral fullerene molecules. Qubits are encoded in the nuclear spins of the endohedral atoms, which posses even longer coherence times than the electron spins which are used as the qubits in previous proposals. To address the individual qubits, we use the hyperfine interaction, which distinguishes two modes (active and passive) of the nuclear spin. Two-qubit quantum gates are effectively implemented by employing the electronic dipolar interaction between adjacent molecules. The electron spins also assist in the qubit initialization and readout. Our architecture should be significantly easier to implement than earlier proposals for spin-based quantum computers, such as the concept of Kane [B.E. Kane, Nature 393 (1998) 133]. - Research highlights: → We propose an endohedral fullerene-based scalable quantum computer architecture. → Qubits are encoded on nuclear spins, while electron spins serve as auxiliaries. → Nuclear spins are individually addressed using the hyperfine interaction. → Two-qubit gates are implemented through the medium of electron spins.
Calculations of the indirect nuclear spin-spin coupling constants of PbH_{4}
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kirpekar, Sheela; Sauer, Stephan P. A.
1999-01-01
We report ab initio calculations of the indirect nuclear spin-spin coupling constants of PbH4 using a basis set which was specially optimized for correlated calculations of spin-spin coupling constants. All nonrelativistic contributions and the most important part of the spin-orbit correction wer...
Nuclear spin-lattice relaxation in carbon nanostructures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Panich, A.M., E-mail: pan@bgu.ac.i [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel); Sergeev, N.A. [Institute of Physics, University of Szczecin, 70-451 Szczecin (Poland)
2010-04-15
Interpretation of nuclear spin-lattice relaxation data in the carbon nanostructures is usually based on the analysis of fluctuations of dipole-dipole interactions of nuclear spins and anisotropic electron-nuclear interactions responsible for chemical shielding, which are caused by molecular dynamics. However, many nanocarbon systems such as fullerene and nanotube derivatives, nanodiamonds and carbon onions reveal noticeable amount of paramagnetic defects with unpaired electrons originating from dangling bonds. The interaction between nuclear and electron spins strongly influences the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation, but usually is not taken into account, thus the relaxation data are not correctly interpreted. Here we report on the temperature dependent NMR spectra and spin-lattice relaxation measurements of intercalated fullerenes C{sub 60}(MF{sub 6}){sub 2} (M=As and Sb), where nuclear relaxation is caused by both molecular rotation and interaction between nuclei and unpaired electron spins. We present a detailed theoretical analysis of the spin-lattice relaxation data taking into account both these contributions. Good agreement between the experimental data and calculations is obtained. The developed approach would be useful in interpreting the NMR relaxation data in different nanostructures and their intercalation compounds.
Nuclear spin-lattice relaxation in nitroxide spin-label EPR
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Marsh, Derek
2016-01-01
that the definition of nitrogen nuclear relaxation rate Wn commonly used in the CW-EPR literature for 14N-nitroxyl spin labels is inconsistent with that currently adopted in time-resolved EPR measurements of saturation recovery. Redefinition of the normalised 14N spin-lattice relaxation rate, b = Wn/(2We), preserves...... of spin-lattice relaxation in this three-level system. Expressions for CW-saturation EPR with the revised definitions are summarised. Data on nitrogen nuclear spin-lattice relaxation times are compiled according to the three-level scheme for 14N-relaxation: T1 n = 1/Wn. Results are compared and contrasted...... the expressions used for CW-EPR, whilst rendering them consistent with expressions for saturation recovery rates in pulsed EPR. Furthermore, values routinely quoted for nuclear relaxation times that are deduced from EPR spectral diffusion rates in 14N-nitroxyl spin labels do not accord with conventional analysis...
Electronic readout of a single nuclear spin using a molecular spin transistor
Vincent, R.; Klyastskaya, S.; Ruben, M.; Wernsdorfer, W.; Balestro, F.
2012-02-01
Quantum control of individual spins in condensed matter devices is an emerging field with a wide range of applications ranging from nanospintronics to quantum computing [1,2]. The electron, with its spin and orbital degrees of freedom, is conventionally used as carrier of the quantum information in the devices proposed so far. However, electrons exhibit a strong coupling to the environment leading to reduced relaxation and coherence times. Indeed quantum coherence and stable entanglement of electron spins are extremely difficult to achieve. We propose a new approach using the nuclear spin of an individual metal atom embedded in a single-molecule magnet (SMM). In order to perform the readout of the nuclear spin, the quantum tunneling of the magnetization (QTM) of the magnetic moment of the SMM in a transitor-like set-up is electronically detected. Long spin lifetimes of an individual nuclear spin were observed and the relaxation characteristics were studied. The manipulation of the nuclear spin state of individual atoms embedded in magnetic molecules opens a completely new world, where quantum logic may be integrated.[4pt] [1] L. Bogani, W. Wernsdorfer, Nature Mat. 7, 179 (2008).[0pt] [2] M. Urdampilleta, S. Klyatskaya, J.P. Cleuziou, M. Ruben, W. Wernsdorfer, Nature Mat. 10, 502 (2011).
Quantum computation with nuclear spins in quantum dots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Christ, H.
2008-01-24
The role of nuclear spins for quantum information processing in quantum dots is theoretically investigated in this thesis. Building on the established fact that the most strongly coupled environment for the potential electron spin quantum bit are the surrounding lattice nuclear spins interacting via the hyperfine interaction, we turn this vice into a virtue by designing schemes for harnessing this strong coupling. In this perspective, the ensemble of nuclear spins can be considered an asset, suitable for an active role in quantum information processing due to its intrinsic long coherence times. We present experimentally feasible protocols for the polarization, i.e. initialization, of the nuclear spins and a quantitative solution to our derived master equation. The polarization limiting destructive interference effects, caused by the collective nature of the nuclear coupling to the electron spin, are studied in detail. Efficient ways of mitigating these constraints are presented, demonstrating that highly polarized nuclear ensembles in quantum dots are feasible. At high, but not perfect, polarization of the nuclei the evolution of an electron spin in contact with the spin bath can be efficiently studied by means of a truncation of the Hilbert space. It is shown that the electron spin can function as a mediator of universal quantum gates for collective nuclear spin qubits, yielding a promising architecture for quantum information processing. Furthermore, we show that at high polarization the hyperfine interaction of electron and nuclear spins resembles the celebrated Jaynes-Cummings model of quantum optics. This result opens the door for transfer of knowledge from the mature field of quantum computation with atoms and photons. Additionally, tailored specifically for the quantum dot environment, we propose a novel scheme for the generation of highly squeezed collective nuclear states. Finally we demonstrate that even an unprepared completely mixed nuclear spin
Quantum computation with nuclear spins in quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Christ, H.
2008-01-01
The role of nuclear spins for quantum information processing in quantum dots is theoretically investigated in this thesis. Building on the established fact that the most strongly coupled environment for the potential electron spin quantum bit are the surrounding lattice nuclear spins interacting via the hyperfine interaction, we turn this vice into a virtue by designing schemes for harnessing this strong coupling. In this perspective, the ensemble of nuclear spins can be considered an asset, suitable for an active role in quantum information processing due to its intrinsic long coherence times. We present experimentally feasible protocols for the polarization, i.e. initialization, of the nuclear spins and a quantitative solution to our derived master equation. The polarization limiting destructive interference effects, caused by the collective nature of the nuclear coupling to the electron spin, are studied in detail. Efficient ways of mitigating these constraints are presented, demonstrating that highly polarized nuclear ensembles in quantum dots are feasible. At high, but not perfect, polarization of the nuclei the evolution of an electron spin in contact with the spin bath can be efficiently studied by means of a truncation of the Hilbert space. It is shown that the electron spin can function as a mediator of universal quantum gates for collective nuclear spin qubits, yielding a promising architecture for quantum information processing. Furthermore, we show that at high polarization the hyperfine interaction of electron and nuclear spins resembles the celebrated Jaynes-Cummings model of quantum optics. This result opens the door for transfer of knowledge from the mature field of quantum computation with atoms and photons. Additionally, tailored specifically for the quantum dot environment, we propose a novel scheme for the generation of highly squeezed collective nuclear states. Finally we demonstrate that even an unprepared completely mixed nuclear spin
Quantum description of nuclear spin cooling in a quantum dot
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Giedke, Geza; Christ, H.; Cirac, I. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)
2007-07-01
We study theoretically the cooling of an ensemble of nuclear spins coupled to the spin of a localized electron in a quantum dot. We obtain a master equation for the state of the nuclear spins interacting with a sequence of polarized electrons that allows to study quantitatively the cooling process including the effect of nuclear spin coherences, which can lead to 'dark states' of the nuclear system in which further cooling is inhibited. We show that the inhomogeneous Knight field mitigates this effect strongly and that the remaining dark state limitations can be overcome by very few shifts of the electron wave function, allowing for cooling far beyond the dark state limit. Numerical integration of the master equation indicates that polarizations larger than 90% can be achieved within a millisecond timescale.
Distinction of nuclear spin states with the scanning tunneling microscope.
Natterer, Fabian Donat; Patthey, François; Brune, Harald
2013-10-25
We demonstrate rotational excitation spectroscopy with the scanning tunneling microscope for physisorbed H(2) and its isotopes HD and D(2). The observed excitation energies are very close to the gas phase values and show the expected scaling with the moment of inertia. Since these energies are characteristic for the molecular nuclear spin states we are able to identify the para and ortho species of hydrogen and deuterium, respectively. We thereby demonstrate nuclear spin sensitivity with unprecedented spatial resolution.
Spin-off technologies developed through nuclear activities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1993-01-01
Given the changing role of government research establishments and the interest in maximizing return on capital and intellectual investment, determining the best way to apply or ''spin-off'' technologies from the nuclear field into other industrial and commercial sectors is of increasing concern. This study by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency draws on expertise from numerous countries to determine what the spin-offs are, where they come from, and how they can best be fostered. It looks both at the results and process of spin-offs, and helps decision-makers in government and project leaders and managers in industry to maximize their benefits. (author)
Relaxation of nuclear spin on holes in semiconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gr'ncharova, E.I.; Perel', V.I.
1977-01-01
The longitudienal relaxation time T 1 of nuclear spins due to dipole-dipole interaction with holes in semiconductors is calculated. Expressions for T 1 in cubic and uniaxial semiconductors are obtained for non-degenerate and degenerate cases. On the basis of comparison with available experimental data for silicon the agreement with the theoretical results is obtained. It is demonstrated that in uniaxial semiconductors the time of relaxation on holes for a nuclear spin directed along the c axis is considerably greater than that for a spin in the normal direction
Universal mesoscopic conductance fluctuations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Evangelou, S.N.
1992-01-01
The theory of conductance fluctuations in disordered metallic systems with size large compared to the mean free path of the electron but small compared to localization length is considered. It is demonstrates that fluctuations have an universal character and are due to repulsion between levels and spectral rigidity. The basic fluctuation measures for the energy spectrum in the mesoscopic regime of disordered systems are consistent with the Gaussian random matrix ensemble predictions. Although our disordered electron random matrix ensemble does not belong to the Gaussian ensemble the two ensembles turn out to be essentially similar. The level repulsion and the spectral rigidity found in nuclear spectra should also be observed in the metallic regime of Anderson localization. 7 refs. (orig.)
International conference on spin observables of nuclear probes: Summary talk
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garvey, G.T.
1988-01-01
A selected summary of the presentation and discussions at the 4th Telluride Conference is presented. The summary deals mainly with the effects of nuclear spin and isospin on the interaction between nucleons and their consequences in nuclear structure. 11 figs
The domestication of nuclear spins by chemists and biologists
Ernst, R
1992-01-01
The usage of nuclear spins in chemistry and biology for exploring the structure and dynamics of matter is discussed. The main emphasis is put on the methodological aspects of multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy that are responsible for the success of this powerful analytical technique.
Nuclear structure at high spin using multidetector gamma array and ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2014-04-05
Apr 5, 2014 ... Nuclear structure at high spin. Figure 1. Schematic of the orientation of HPGe detector in GDA [4]. These signals were fed to custom-made data acquisition system Freedom [10] which was later used for data reduction. We recorded γ-ray fold of nuclear reaction using multiplicity filter made of BGO scin-.
Spin tunnelling in mesoscopic systems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
insights into the latter, which has obvious implications for magnetic recording and storage technologies. Our purpose ... advantage of using only classical methods of analysis, is in terms of a discrete analogue of the phase integral or .... are fluctuating randomly, different passages may be assumed to be independent, with no.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kirpekar, Sheela; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard; Oddershede, Jens
1997-01-01
Using the quadratic response function at the ab initio SCF level of approximation we have calculated the relativistic corrections from the spin-orbit Hamiltonian, HSO, to the indirect nuclear spin-spin coupling constants of XH4 (X = C, Si, Ge, and Sn). We find that the spin-orbit contributions to...
Polarization transfer from polarized nuclear spin to μ- spin in muonic atom
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuno, Yoshitaka; Nagamine, Kanetada; Yamazaki, Toshimitsu.
1987-02-01
A theoretical study of polarization transfer from an initially-polarized nuclear spin to a μ - spin in a muonic atom is given. The switching of the hyperfine interaction at excited muonic states as well as at the ground 1s state is taken into account. The upper state of hyperfine doublet at the muonic 1s state is considered to proceed down to the lower state. It is found that as the hyperfine interaction becomes effective at higher excited muonic orbitals, a less extent of polarization is transferred from the nuclear spin to the μ - spin. The theoretical values obtained are compared with the recent experiment of μ - repolarization in a polarized 209 Bi target. (author)
Tilted Foils Nuclear Spin Polarization at REX-ISOLDE
Törnqvist, Hans Toshihide
2013-08-08
This thesis will explain and summarize my work and involvement in experiments aimed at producing nuclear spin polarization of post-accelerated beams of ions with the tilted-foils technique at the REX-ISOLDE linear accelerator at CERN. Polarizing the nuclear spin of radioactive beams in particular may provide access to observables which may be difficult to obtain otherwise. Currently, the techniques commonly employed for nuclear spin polarization are restricted to specific nuclides and experimental measurement techniques. Tilted foils polarization may provide a new tool to extend the range of nuclides that can be polarized and the types of experiments that can be performed. The experiments rely not only on the production but also on the method to measure the degree of attained polarization. Two methods will be treated, based on particle scattering in Coulomb excitation that may be utilized for stable beams, and the $\\beta$-NMR that requires $\\beta$-decaying nuclei. The experimental setups and measurements will...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Westlund, P.O.
1994-01-01
Specific mechanisms of relaxation encountered in paramagnetic systems are described: the T1-NMRD curve and the paramagnetically enhanced nuclear spin relaxation (PER) are first discussed and a general theory of PER is proposed (nuclear paramagnetic spin relaxation theory, lattice operators, decomposition approximation, general expression of dipolar correlation functions for slow tumbling complexes, low-field approach). Numerically calculated NMRD curves are described (reorientation model, pseudo-rotation models, vibration models). Experimental studies are then analyzed: NMRD studies of paramagnetic species in an aqueous system, paramagnetic hydrated metal ions in poly-electrolytes and biochemical systems, lyotropic liquid crystalline phases, polymer solutions. 19 fig., 60 ref
Generating highly polarized nuclear spins in solution using dynamic nuclear polarization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wolber, J.; Ellner, F.; Fridlund, B.
2004-01-01
A method to generate strongly polarized nuclear spins in solution has been developed, using Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) at a temperature of 1.2K, and at a field of 3.354T, corresponding to an electron spin resonance frequency of 94GHz. Trityl radicals are used to directly polarize 13C...... and other low-γ nuclei. Subsequent to the DNP process, the solid sample is dissolved rapidly with a warm solvent to create a solution of molecules with highly polarized nuclear spins. Two main applications are proposed: high-resolution liquid state NMR with enhanced sensitivity, and the use...
Nuclear spin relaxation of methane in solid xenon
Sugimoto, Takeru; Arakawa, Ichiro; Yamakawa, Koichiro
2018-03-01
Nuclear spin relaxation of methane in solid xenon has been studied by infrared spectroscopy. From the analysis of the temporal changes of the rovibrational peaks, the rates of the nuclear spin relaxation of I = 2 ← 1 correlated to the rotational relaxation of J = 0 ← 1 were obtained at temperatures of 5.1-11.5 K. On the basis of the temperature dependence of the relaxation rate, the activation energy of the indirect two-phonon process was determined to be 50 ± 6 K, which is in good agreement with the rotational transition energies of J = 2 ← 1 and J = 3 ← 1. Taking into account this result and the spin degeneracy, we argue that the lowest J = 3 level in which the I = 1 and I = 2 states are degenerate acts as the intermediate point of the indirect process.
Squeezing and entangling nuclear spins in helium 3
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Reinaudi, Gael; Sinatra, Alice; Dantan, Aurelien Romain
2007-01-01
We present a realistic model for transferring the squeezing or the entanglement of optical field modes to the collective ground state nuclear spin of 3He using metastability exchange collisions. We discuss in detail the requirements for obtaining good quantum state transfer efficiency and study...
Increasing Spin Coherence in Nanodiamond via Dynamic Nuclear Polarization
Gaebel, Torsten; Rej, Ewa; Boele, Thomas; Waddington, David; Reilly, David
Nanodiamonds are of interest for quantum information technology, as metrological sensors, and more recently as a probe of biological environments. Here we present results examining how intrinsic defects can be used for dynamic nuclear polarization that leads to a dramatic increase in both T1 and T2 for 13C spins in nanodiamond. Mechanisms to explain this enhancement are discussed.
Nuclear moments of inertia at high spin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deleplanque, M.A.
1982-10-01
The competition between collective motion and alignment at high spin can be evaluated by measuring two complementary dynamic moments of inertia. The first, I band, measured in γ-γ correlation experiments, relates to the collective properties of the nucleus. A new moment of inertia I/sub eff/ is defined here, which contains both collective and alignment effects. Both of these can be measured in continuum γ-ray spectra of rotational nuclei up to high frequencies. The evolution of γ-ray spectra for Er nuclei from mass 160 to 154 shows that shell effects can directly be observed in the spectra of the lighter nuclei
Grimme, Stefan; Bannwarth, Christoph; Dohm, Sebastian; Hansen, Andreas; Pisarek, Jana; Pracht, Philipp; Seibert, Jakob; Neese, Frank
2017-11-13
We present a composite procedure for the quantum-chemical computation of spin-spin-coupled 1 H NMR spectra for general, flexible molecules in solution that is based on four main steps, namely conformer/rotamer ensemble (CRE) generation by the fast tight-binding method GFN-xTB and a newly developed search algorithm, computation of the relative free energies and NMR parameters, and solving the spin Hamiltonian. In this way the NMR-specific nuclear permutation problem is solved, and the correct spin symmetries are obtained. Energies, shielding constants, and spin-spin couplings are computed at state-of-the-art DFT levels with continuum solvation. A few (in)organic and transition-metal complexes are presented, and very good, unprecedented agreement between the theoretical and experimental spectra was achieved. The approach is routinely applicable to systems with up to 100-150 atoms and may open new avenues for the detailed (conformational) structure elucidation of, for example, natural products or drug molecules. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
Symmetry rules for the indirect nuclear spin-spin coupling tensor revisited
Buckingham, A. D.; Pyykkö, P.; Robert, J. B.; Wiesenfeld, L.
The symmetry rules of Buckingham and Love (1970), relating the number of independent components of the indirect spin-spin coupling tensor J to the symmetry of the nuclear sites, are shown to require modification if the two nuclei are exchanged by a symmetry operation. In that case, the anti-symmetric part of J does not transform as a second-rank polar tensor under symmetry operations that interchange the coupled nuclei and may be called an anti-tensor. New rules are derived and illustrated by simple molecular models.
Nuclear structure of Ra at high spin
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
to such an aligned configuration in 216Ra, would be of the order of J ∼ 39 ¯h with a wave function of π(h2. 9/2 f 2 ... detectors at 99. ◦. In addition to these matrices, γ-gated γT matrices were generated for getting time spectrum between any two γ's of 216Ra which enabled lifetime measurement of isomeric nuclear levels. 3.
Relaxation of coupled nuclear spin systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koenigsberger, E.
1985-05-01
The subject of the present work is the relaxation behaviour of scalarly coupled spin-1/2 systems. In the theoretical part the semiclassical Redfield equations are used. Dipolar (D), Chemical Shift Anisotropy (CSA) and Random Field (RF) interactions are considered as relaxation mechanisms. Cross correlations of dipolar interactions of different nuclei pairs and those between the D and the CSA mechanisms are important. The model of anisotropic molecular rotational relaxation and the extreme narrowing approximation are used to obtain the spectral density functions. The longitudinal relaxation data are analyzed into normal modes following Werbelow and Grant. The time evolution of normal modes is derived for the AX system with D-CSA cross terms. In the experimental part the hypothesis of dimerization in the cinnamic acid and the methyl cinnamate - AMX systems with DD cross terms - is corroborated by T 1 -time measurements and a calculation of the diffusion constants. In pentachlorobenzene - an AX system - taking into account of D-CSA cross terms enables the complete determination of movements anosotropy and the determination of the sign of the indirect coupling constant 1 Jsub(CH). (G.Q.)
Optical pump - nuclear resonance probe experiments on spin crossover complexes
Sakshath, S.; Jenni, K.; Scherthan, L.; Würtz, P.; Herlitschke, M.; Sergeev, I.; Strohm, C.; Wille, H.-C.; Röhlsberger, R.; Wolny, J. A.; Schünemann, V.
2017-11-01
A novel sample environment enabling optical pump - nuclear resonance probe experiments has been installed at the beamline P01, Petra III, DESY Hamburg. This set-up has been used to investigate optically induced spin state changes of spin crossover (SCO) complexes by nuclear resonant scattering immediately after excitation by an optical laser pulse. Here, we report the technical details as well as first results of the experiments performed at 290 K and 80 K on the SCO complexes [Fe (NH2trz)3]Cl2 and [Fe(PM-BiA)2(NCS)2], respectively. The 57Fe-enriched SCO complexes were excited by a 531 nm laser with a pulse length indicate the presence of high spin (HS) states when the complexes are excited by laser pulses and a pure low spin (LS) state in the absence of any laser pulse. Furthermore, the dependence of the optically excited HS-fraction has been determined as a function of the average optical power.
Nuclear spin relaxation in liquids theory, experiments, and applications
Kowalewski, Jozef
2006-01-01
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is widely used across many fields because of the rich data it produces, and some of the most valuable data come from the study of nuclear spin relaxation in solution. While described to varying degrees in all major NMR books, spin relaxation is often perceived as a difficult, if not obscure, topic, and an accessible, cohesive treatment has been nearly impossible to find.Collecting relaxation theory, experimental techniques, and illustrative applications into a single volume, this book clarifies the nature of the phenomenon, shows how to study it, and explains why such studies are worthwhile. Coverage ranges from basic to rigorous theory and from simple to sophisticated experimental methods, and the level of detail is somewhat greater than most other NMR texts. Topics include cross-relaxation, multispin phenomena, relaxation studies of molecular dynamics and structure, and special topics such as relaxation in systems with quadrupolar nuclei and paramagnetic systems.Avoiding ove...
Nuclear spin: Fifty years of ups and downs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pines, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)
1996-12-31
Rumors of its demise notwithstanding, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) continues to flourish fifty years after our birth. The lecture will be a reminiscence about moments of excitation, coherence and relaxation in the history of NMR which produced, among other developments, spin echoes and time reversal, Fourier transform and multidimensional spectroscopy, magnetic resonance imaging, and high resolution solid state NMR. Applications of modern NMR spectroscopy cut across the boundaries of physics, chemistry, materials, biology and medicine.
Mesoscopic electronics beyond DC transport
di Carlo, Leonardo
Since the inception of mesoscopic electronics in the 1980's, direct current (dc) measurements have underpinned experiments in quantum transport. Novel techniques complementing dc transport are becoming paramount to new developments in mesoscopic electronics, particularly as the road is paved toward quantum information processing. This thesis describes seven experiments on GaAs/AlGaAs and graphene nanostructures unified by experimental techniques going beyond traditional dc transport. Firstly, dc current induced by microwave radiation applied to an open chaotic quantum dot is investigated. Asymmetry of mesoscopic fluctuations of induced current in perpendicular magnetic field is established as a tool for separating the quantum photovoltaic effect from classical rectification. A differential charge sensing technique is next developed using integrated quantum point contacts to resolve the spatial distribution of charge inside a double quantum clot. An accurate method for determining interdot tunnel coupling and electron temperature using charge sensing is demonstrated. A two-channel system for detecting current noise in mesoscopic conductors is developed, enabling four experiments where shot noise probes transmission properties not available in dc transport and Johnson noise serves as an electron thermometer. Suppressed shot noise is observed in quantum point contacts at zero parallel magnetic field, associated with the 0.7 structure in conductance. This suppression evolves with increasing field into the shot-noise signature of spin-lifted mode degeneracy. Quantitative agreement is found with a phenomenological model for density-dependent mode splitting. Shot noise measurements of multi-lead quantum-dot structures in the Coulomb blockade regime distill the mechanisms by which Coulomb interaction and quantum indistinguishability correlate electron flow. Gate-controlled sign reversal of noise cross correlation in two capacitively-coupled dots is observed, and shown to
Armstrong, Seiji; Rogers, Lachlan J.; McMurtrie, Roger L.; Manson, Neil B.
2010-02-01
Features associated with the cross relaxation between spin of the ground electric state of the nitrogen vacancy centre (NV) and other impurity spins, mainly substitutional nitrogen, NS, are observed as changes of the emission intensity as a function of external magnetic field. The features are attributed to NV-NV electron-electron spin interaction, NV- NS electron-nuclear spin interaction and NV electron spin interaction with simultaneous change of an NS electron and nuclear spin change.
Nuclear spin dynamics in double quantum dots : Fixed points, transients, and intermittency
Rudner, M.S.; Koppens, F.H.L.; Folk, J.A.; Vandersypen, L.M.K.; Levitov, L.S.
2011-01-01
Transport through spin-blockaded quantum dots provides a means for electrical control and detection of nuclear spin dynamics in the host material. Although such experiments have become increasingly popular in recent years, interpretation of their results in terms of the underlying nuclear spin
Long lived quantum memory with nuclear atomic spins
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sinatra, A.; Reinaudi, G.; Dantan, A.; Giacobino, E.; Pinard, M.
2005-01-01
We propose store non-classical states of light into the macroscopic collective nuclear spin (10 18 atoms) of a 3 He vapor, using metastability exchange collisions. We show that these collisions currently used to transfer orientation from the metastable state 2 3 S 1 to the ground state state of 3 He, may conserve quantum correlations and give a possible experimental scheme to perfectly map a squeezed vacuum field state onto a nuclear spin state, which should allow for extremely long storage times (hours). In addition to the apparent interest for quantum information, the scheme offers the intriguing possibility to create a long-lived non classical state for spins. During a metastability exchange collision an atom in the ground state state and an atom in the metastable triplet state 2 3 S exchange their electronic spin variables. The ground state atom is then brought into the metastable state and vice-versa. A laser transition is accessible from the metastable state so that the metastable atoms are coupled with light. This, together with metastability exchange collisions, provides an effective coupling between ground state atoms and light. In our scheme, a coherent field and a squeezed vacuum field excite a Raman transition between Zeeman sublevels of the metastable state, after the system is prepared in the fully polarized state by preliminary optical pumping. According to the intensity of the coherent field, which acts as a control parameter, the squeezing of the field can be selectively transferred either to metastable or to ground state atoms. Once it is encoded in the purely nuclear spin of the ground state of 3 He, which is 20 eV apart from the nearest excited state and interacts very little with the environment, the quantum state can survive for times as long as several hours. By lighting up only the coherent field in the same configuration as for the 'writing' phase, the nuclear spin memory can be 'read' after a long delay, the squeezing being transferred
Quantum Transport in Mesoscopic Systems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
988. RESONANCE │ November 2010. GENERAL │ ARTICLE. Quantum Transport in Mesoscopic Systems. CoulombBlockadeandKondoEffect. Navinder Singh. Keywords. Quantum transport, mesoscopic systems, Coulomb blockade,. Kondo effect. Navinder Singh works in the Physical Research. Laboratory, Ahmedabad.
Nuclear structure at high-spin and large-deformation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shimizu, Yoshifumi R.
2000-01-01
Atomic nucleus is a finite quantal system and shows various marvelous features. One of the purposes of the nuclear structure study is to understand such features from a microscopic viewpoint of nuclear many-body problem. Recently, it is becoming possible to explore nuclear states under 'extreme conditions', which are far different from the usual ground states of stable nuclei, and new aspects of such unstable nuclei attract our interests. In this lecture, I would like to discuss the nuclear structure in the limit of rapid rotation, or the extreme states with very large angular momenta, which became accessible by recent advent of large arrays of gamma-ray detecting system; these devices are extremely useful to measure coincident multiple γ-rays following heavy-ion fusion reactions. Including such experimental aspects as how to detect the nuclear rotational states, I review physics of high-spin states starting from the elementary subjects of nuclear structure study. In would like also to discuss the extreme states with very large nuclear deformation, which are easily realized in rapidly rotating nuclei. (author)
Nuclear spin-spin coupling in a van der Waals-bonded system: xenon dimer.
Vaara, Juha; Hanni, Matti; Jokisaari, Jukka
2013-03-14
Nuclear spin-spin coupling over van der Waals bond has recently been observed via the frequency shift of solute protons in a solution containing optically hyperpolarized (129)Xe nuclei. We carry out a first-principles computational study of the prototypic van der Waals-bonded xenon dimer, where the spin-spin coupling between two magnetically non-equivalent isotopes, J((129)Xe - (131)Xe), is observable. We use relativistic theory at the four-component Dirac-Hartree-Fock and Dirac-density-functional theory levels using novel completeness-optimized Gaussian basis sets and choosing the functional based on a comparison with correlated ab initio methods at the nonrelativistic level. J-coupling curves are provided at different levels of theory as functions of the internuclear distance in the xenon dimer, demonstrating cross-coupling effects between relativity and electron correlation for this property. Calculations on small Xe clusters are used to estimate the importance of many-atom effects on J((129)Xe - (131)Xe). Possibilities of observing J((129)Xe - (131)Xe) in liquid xenon are critically examined, based on molecular dynamics simulation. A simplistic spherical model is set up for the xenon dimer confined in a cavity, such as in microporous materials. It is shown that the on the average shorter internuclear distance enforced by the confinement increases the magnitude of the coupling as compared to the bulk liquid case, rendering J((129)Xe - (131)Xe) in a cavity a feasible target for experimental investigation.
Nuclear spin relaxation/resonance of 8Li in Al
Wang, D.; Salman, Z.; Chow, K. H.; Fan, I.; Hossain, M. D.; Keeler, T. A.; Kiefl, R. F.; Levy, C. D. P.; Mansour, A. I.; Morris, G. D.; Pearson, M. R.; Parolin, T. J.; Saadaoui, H.; Smadella, M.; Song, Q.; MacFarlane, W. A.
2009-04-01
A low energy beam of spin polarized 8Li has been used to study the behaviour of isolated 8Li implanted into a 150 nm thick film of Al on an MgO substrate. The spin relaxation rate 1/T1 and β-NMR lineshape were measured as a function of temperature in a large magnetic field of 4.1 T. The resonances from different sites are unresolved due to the large nuclear dipolar interaction with the host 27Al magnetic dipole moments. Nevertheless the temperature variation of the site averaged 1/T1 and Knight shift show evidence for a transition between the octahedral O and substitutional S sites at about 150 K, as observed in other fcc metals.
Single-shot readout of multiple nuclear spin qubits in diamond under ambient conditions
Jacques, Vincent
2013-03-01
Nuclear spins are attractive candidates for solid-state quantum information storage and processing owing to their extremely long coherence time. However, since this appealing property results from a high level of isolation from the environment, it remains a challenging task to polarize, manipulate and readout with high fidelity individual nuclear spins. A promising approach to overcome this limitation consists in utilizing an ancillary single electronic spin to detect and control remote nuclear spins coupled by hyperfine interaction. In this talk, I will show how the electronic spin of a single Nitrogen-Vacancy (NV) defect in diamond can be used as a robust platform to observe the real-time evolution of surrounding single nuclear spins under ambient conditions. Using a diamond sample with a natural abundance of 13C isotopes, we first demonstrate high fidelity initialization and single-shot readout of an individual 13C nuclear spin. By including the intrinsic 14N nuclear spin of the NV defect in the quantum register, we then report the simultaneous observation of quantum jumps linked to both nuclear spin species, providing an efficient initialization of the two qubits. These results open up new avenues for diamond-based quantum information processing (QIP) including active feedback in quantum error correction protocols and tests of quantum correlations with solid-state single spins at room temperature.
Quantum information processing with electronic and nuclear spins in semiconductors
Klimov, Paul Victor
Traditional electronic and communication devices operate by processing binary information encoded as bits. Such digital devices have led to the most advanced technologies that we encounter in our everyday lives and they influence virtually every aspect of our society. Nonetheless, there exists a much richer way to encode and process information. By encoding information in quantum mechanical states as qubits, phenomena such as coherence and entanglement can be harnessed to execute tasks that are intractable to digital devices. Under this paradigm, it should be possible to realize quantum computers, quantum communication networks and quantum sensors that outperform their classical counterparts. The electronic spin states of color-center defects in the semiconductor silicon carbide have recently emerged as promising qubit candidates. They have long-lived quantum coherence up to room temperature, they can be controlled with mature magnetic resonance techniques, and they have a built-in optical interface operating near the telecommunication bands. In this thesis I will present two of our contributions to this field. The first is the electric-field control of electron spin qubits. This development lays foundation for quantum electronics that operate via electrical gating, much like traditional electronics. The second is the universal control and entanglement of electron and nuclear spin qubits in an ensemble under ambient conditions. This development lays foundation for quantum devices that have a built-in redundancy and can operate in real-world conditions. Both developments represent important steps towards practical quantum devices in an electronic grade material.
Graham, Michael J; Krzyaniak, Matthew D; Wasielewski, Michael R; Freedman, Danna E
2017-07-17
Quantum information processing (QIP) has the potential to transform numerous fields from cryptography, to finance, to the simulation of quantum systems. A promising implementation of QIP employs unpaired electronic spins as qubits, the fundamental units of information. Though molecular electronic spins offer many advantages, including chemical tunability and facile addressability, the development of design principles for the synthesis of complexes that exhibit long qubit superposition lifetimes (also known as coherence times, or T 2 ) remains a challenge. As nuclear spins in the local qubit environment are a primary cause of shortened superposition lifetimes, we recently conducted a study which employed a modular spin-free ligand scaffold to place a spin-laden propyl moiety at a series of fixed distances from an S = 1 / 2 vanadium(IV) ion in a series of vanadyl complexes. We found that, within a radius of 4.0(4)-6.6(6) Å from the metal center, nuclei did not contribute to decoherence. To assess the generality of this important design principle and test its efficacy in a different coordination geometry, we synthesized and investigated three vanadium tris(dithiolene) complexes with the same ligand set employed in our previous study: K 2 [V(C 5 H 6 S 4 ) 3 ] (1), K 2 [V(C 7 H 6 S 6 ) 3 ] (2), and K 2 [V(C 9 H 6 S 8 ) 3 ] (3). We specifically interrogated solutions of these complexes in DMF-d 7 /toluene-d 8 with pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and electron nuclear double resonance spectroscopy and found that the distance dependence present in the previously synthesized vanadyl complexes holds true in this series. We further examined the coherence properties of the series in a different solvent, MeCN-d 3 /toluene-d 8 , and found that an additional property, the charge density of the complex, also affects decoherence across the series. These results highlight a previously unknown design principle for augmenting T 2 and open new pathways for the
Radioactive nuclear beams and the North American IsoSpin Laboratory (ISL) initiative
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Casten, R.F.
1992-01-01
Radioactive nuclear beams (RNBs) offer exciting new research opportunities in fields as diverse as nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, astrophysics atomic, materials, and applied science. Their realization in new accelerator complexes also offers important technical challenges. Some of the nuclear physics possibilities afforded by RNBs, with emphasis on low spin nuclear structure, are discussed, accompanied by an outline of the ISL initiative and its status
Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance: investigating the spins of nuclear related materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Charpentier, Th.
2007-10-01
The author reviews his successive research works: his research thesis work on the Multiple Quantum Magic Angle Spinning (MQMAS) which is a quadric-polar nucleus multi-quanta correlation spectroscopy method, the modelling of NMR spectra of disordered materials, the application to materials of interest for the nuclear industry (notably the glasses used for nuclear waste containment). He presents the various research projects in which he is involved: storing glasses, nuclear magnetic resonance in paramagnetism, solid hydrogen storing matrices, methodological and instrument developments in high magnetic field and high resolution solid NMR, long range distance measurement by solid state Tritium NMR (observing the structure and dynamics of biological complex systems at work)
Fingerprints of single nuclear spin energy levels using STM - ENDOR
Manassen, Yishay; Averbukh, Michael; Jbara, Moamen; Siebenhofer, Bernhard; Shnirman, Alexander; Horovitz, Baruch
2018-04-01
We performed STM-ENDOR experiments where the intensity of one of the hyperfine components detected in ESR-STM is recorded while an rf power is irradiated into the tunneling junction and its frequency is swept. When the latter frequency is near a nuclear transition a dip in ESR-STM signal is observed. This experiment was performed in three different systems: near surface SiC vacancies where the electron spin is coupled to a next nearest neighbor 29Si nucleus; Cu deposited on Si(111)7x7 surface, where the unpaired electron of the Cu atom is coupled to the Cu nucleus (63Cu, 65Cu) and on Tempo molecules adsorbed on Au(111), where the unpaired electron is coupled to a Nitrogen nucleus (14N). While some of the hyperfine values are unresolved in the ESR-STM data due to linewidth we find that they are accurately determined in the STM-ENDOR data including those from remote nuclei, which are not detected in the ESR-STM spectrum. Furthermore, STM-ENDOR can measure single nuclear Zeeman frequencies, distinguish between isotopes through their different nuclear magnetic moments and detect quadrupole spectra. We also develop and solve a Bloch type equation for the coupled electron-nuclear system that facilitates interpretation of the data. The improved spectral resolution of STM - ENDOR opens many possibilities for nanometric scale chemical analysis.
Fingerprints of single nuclear spin energy levels using STM - ENDOR.
Manassen, Yishay; Averbukh, Michael; Jbara, Moamen; Siebenhofer, Bernhard; Shnirman, Alexander; Horovitz, Baruch
2018-04-01
We performed STM-ENDOR experiments where the intensity of one of the hyperfine components detected in ESR-STM is recorded while an rf power is irradiated into the tunneling junction and its frequency is swept. When the latter frequency is near a nuclear transition a dip in ESR-STM signal is observed. This experiment was performed in three different systems: near surface SiC vacancies where the electron spin is coupled to a next nearest neighbor 29 Si nucleus; Cu deposited on Si(111)7x7 surface, where the unpaired electron of the Cu atom is coupled to the Cu nucleus ( 63 Cu, 65 Cu) and on Tempo molecules adsorbed on Au(111), where the unpaired electron is coupled to a Nitrogen nucleus ( 14 N). While some of the hyperfine values are unresolved in the ESR-STM data due to linewidth we find that they are accurately determined in the STM-ENDOR data including those from remote nuclei, which are not detected in the ESR-STM spectrum. Furthermore, STM-ENDOR can measure single nuclear Zeeman frequencies, distinguish between isotopes through their different nuclear magnetic moments and detect quadrupole spectra. We also develop and solve a Bloch type equation for the coupled electron-nuclear system that facilitates interpretation of the data. The improved spectral resolution of STM - ENDOR opens many possibilities for nanometric scale chemical analysis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sarmento, E.F.
1980-01-01
Results are found for the correlation dynamic functions (or the correspondent green functions) between any combination including pairs of electronic anel nuclear spin operators in an antiferromagnet semi-infinite media., at low temperature T N . These correlation functions, are used to investigate, at the same time, the properties of surface spin waves in volume and surface. The dispersion relatons of nuclear and electronic spin waves coupled modes, in surface are found, resolving a system of linearized equatons of spin operators a system of linearized equations of spin operators. (author) [pt
Denning, Emil V.; Iles-Smith, Jake; McCutcheon, Dara P. S.; Mork, Jesper
2017-12-01
Multiphoton entangled states are a crucial resource for many applications in quantum information science. Semiconductor quantum dots offer a promising route to generate such states by mediating photon-photon correlations via a confined electron spin, but dephasing caused by the host nuclear spin environment typically limits coherence (and hence entanglement) between photons to the spin T2* time of a few nanoseconds. We propose a protocol for the deterministic generation of multiphoton entangled states that is inherently robust against the dominating slow nuclear spin environment fluctuations, meaning that coherence and entanglement is instead limited only by the much longer spin T2 time of microseconds. Unlike previous protocols, the present scheme allows for the generation of very low error probability polarization encoded three-photon GHZ states and larger entangled states, without the need for spin echo or nuclear spin calming techniques.
Voltage switching technique for detecting nuclear spin polarization in a quantum dot
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takahashi, Ryo; Kono, Kimitoshi; Tarucha, Seigo; Ono, Keiji
2010-01-01
We have introduced a source-drain voltage switching technique for studying nuclear spins in a vertical double quantum dot. Switching the source-drain voltage between the spin-blockade state and the zero-bias Coulomb blockade state can tune the energy difference between the spin singlet and triplet, and effectively turn on/off the hyperfine interaction. Since the change in the nuclear spin state affects the source-drain current, nuclear spin properties can only be detected by transport measurement. Using this technique, we have succeeded in measuring the timescale of nuclear spin depolarization. Furthermore, combining this technique and an RF ac magnetic field, we successfully detected continuous-wave NMR signals of 75 As, 69 Ga, and 71 Ga, which are contained in a quantum dot. (author)
Novel interference effects and a new quantum phase in mesoscopic ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Aharonov–Bohm ring geometry due to spin-flip scattering in one of the arms. Several experimental manifestations of these phenomena and their applications are given. Keywords. Mesoscopic systems; coherence; Aharonov–Bohm effect; persistent currents; parity. PACS Nos 73.23.-b; 72.10.-d; 05.60.Gg; 03.65.Bz. 1.
Mesoscopic photon heat transistor
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ojanen, T.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka
2008-01-01
We show that the heat transport between two bodies, mediated by electromagnetic fluctuations, can be controlled with an intermediate quantum circuit-leading to the device concept of a mesoscopic photon heat transistor (MPHT). Our theoretical analysis is based on a novel Meir-Wingreen-Landauer-typ......We show that the heat transport between two bodies, mediated by electromagnetic fluctuations, can be controlled with an intermediate quantum circuit-leading to the device concept of a mesoscopic photon heat transistor (MPHT). Our theoretical analysis is based on a novel Meir......-Wingreen-Landauer-type of conductance formula, which gives the photonic heat current through an arbitrary circuit element coupled to two dissipative reservoirs at finite temperatures. As an illustration we present an exact solution for the case when the intermediate circuit can be described as an electromagnetic resonator. We discuss...
Cadiz, Fabian; Djeffal, Abdelhak; Lagarde, Delphine; Balocchi, Andrea; Tao, Bingshan; Xu, Bo; Liang, Shiheng; Stoffel, Mathieu; Devaux, Xavier; Jaffres, Henri; George, Jean-Marie; Hehn, Michel; Mangin, Stephane; Carrere, Helene; Marie, Xavier; Amand, Thierry; Han, Xiufeng; Wang, Zhanguo; Urbaszek, Bernhard; Lu, Yuan; Renucci, Pierre
2018-04-11
The emission of circularly polarized light from a single quantum dot relies on the injection of carriers with well-defined spin polarization. Here we demonstrate single dot electroluminescence (EL) with a circular polarization degree up to 35% at zero applied magnetic field. The injection of spin-polarized electrons is achieved by combining ultrathin CoFeB electrodes on top of a spin-LED device with p-type InGaAs quantum dots in the active region. We measure an Overhauser shift of several microelectronvolts at zero magnetic field for the positively charged exciton (trion X + ) EL emission, which changes sign as we reverse the injected electron spin orientation. This is a signature of dynamic polarization of the nuclear spins in the quantum dot induced by the hyperfine interaction with the electrically injected electron spin. This study paves the way for electrical control of nuclear spin polarization in a single quantum dot without any external magnetic field.
Atomic-Scale Nuclear Spin Imaging Using Quantum-Assisted Sensors in Diamond
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Ajoy
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Nuclear spin imaging at the atomic level is essential for the understanding of fundamental biological phenomena and for applications such as drug discovery. The advent of novel nanoscale sensors promises to achieve the long-standing goal of single-protein, high spatial-resolution structure determination under ambient conditions. In particular, quantum sensors based on the spin-dependent photoluminescence of nitrogen-vacancy (NV centers in diamond have recently been used to detect nanoscale ensembles of external nuclear spins. While NV sensitivity is approaching single-spin levels, extracting relevant information from a very complex structure is a further challenge since it requires not only the ability to sense the magnetic field of an isolated nuclear spin but also to achieve atomic-scale spatial resolution. Here, we propose a method that, by exploiting the coupling of the NV center to an intrinsic quantum memory associated with the nitrogen nuclear spin, can reach a tenfold improvement in spatial resolution, down to atomic scales. The spatial resolution enhancement is achieved through coherent control of the sensor spin, which creates a dynamic frequency filter selecting only a few nuclear spins at a time. We propose and analyze a protocol that would allow not only sensing individual spins in a complex biomolecule, but also unraveling couplings among them, thus elucidating local characteristics of the molecule structure.
Nuclear reactivity indices in the context of spin polarized density functional theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cardenas, Carlos; Lamsabhi, Al Mokhtar; Fuentealba, Patricio
2006-01-01
In this work, the nuclear reactivity indices of density functional theory have been generalized to the spin polarized case and their relationship to electron spin polarized indices has been established. In particular, the spin polarized version of the nuclear Fukui function has been proposed and a finite difference approximation has been used to evaluate it. Applications to a series of triatomic molecules demonstrate the ability of the new functions to predict the geometrical changes due to a change in the spin multiplicity. The main equations in the different ensembles have also been presented
Quantum Transport in Mesoscopic Systems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A short introduction to the quantum transport in mesoscopic systems is given, and various regim- es of quantum transport such as diffusive, ballis- tic, and adiabatic are explained. The effect of interactions and inelastic scattering along with the characteristic coherent effects of mesoscopic systems give interesting new ...
Mesoscopic phenomena in solids
Altshuler, BL; Webb, RA
1991-01-01
The physics of disordered systems has enjoyed a resurgence of interest in the last decade. New concepts such as weak localization, interaction effects and Coulomb gap, have been developed for the transport properties of metals and insulators. With the fabrication of smaller and smaller samples and the routine availability of low temperatures, new physics has emerged from the studies of small devices. The new field goes under the name ""mesoscopic physics"" and has rapidly developed, both experimentally and theoretically. This book is designed to review the current status of the field.
Theoretical studies on nuclear spin selective quantum dynamics of non-linear molecules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grohmann, Thomas
2012-01-01
In this thesis the wave packet dynamics of nuclear spin isomers of polyatomic molecules after interaction with static and time-dependent magnetic fields and moderate intense nonresonant laser pulses is investigated. In particular, the process of inducing (internal) molecular rotation as well as alignment of molecules by manipulating their rotational or rotational-torsional degrees of freedom is studied. In the first part of the thesis all theoretical concepts for identifying nuclear spin isomers and for describing their quantum dynamics will be discussed. Especially the symmetrization postulate and themolecular symmetry group will be introduced and illustrated for some examples of molecules. These concepts will be extended to the case of identifying nuclear spin isomers in the presence of an external field. In the second part it is shown for nitromethane that magnetic fields are able to induce unidirectional rotations in opposite directions for different nuclear spin isomers of molecules containing methyl groups if the dipolar interaction is included. Additionally, it is demonstrated that different nuclear spin isomers of a chemical compound may show different alignment after the interaction with a moderate intense laser pulse. As shown for the rigid symmetric top propadien and the rigid asymmetric tops ethene and analogues, distinct pairs of nuclear spin isomers show at certain points in time a complementary behavior: while one isomer is showing alignment the partner isomer is showing anti-alignment. Moreover, it is illustrated that not every nuclear spin isomer can be aligned equally efficient. The alignment of non-rigid molecules is considered as well. As an example for a molecule with feasible torsion in the electronic ground state, the alignment of diboron tetrafluoride is investigated. It becomes apparent that not only rotational but also the torsional dynamics of the molecules is nuclear spin selective; different nuclear spin isomers have at distinct points
Nuclear spin bath effects in molecular nanomagnets: Direct quantum mechanical simulations
Sinitsyn, N. A.; Dobrovitski, V. V.
2004-11-01
We investigate the influence of nuclear spins on the electronic spin tunneling in magnetic molecules such as Fe8 , focusing on the role of the spin diffusion in the nuclear spin bath. We simulate the quantum spin dynamics by numerically solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for the compound system (the electronic spin plus the bath spins). Our results demonstrate that the effect of the spin bath cannot always be modeled as a randomly varying magnetic field acting on the electronic spin. We consider two dynamical regimes: the spin relaxation in a constant magnetic field, and the spin tunneling in the linearly varying magnetic field passing the avoided level crossing, so-called Landau-Zener-Stückelberg (LZS) transition. For the first regime, we confirmed that the hole in the magnetization distribution has the width of the hyperfine fields distribution. For the second regime, we found that the transition probability for moderately slow sweeps deviates from the standard LZS prediction, while for the fast sweeps the deviation is negligible.
High-spin nuclear target of 178m2Hf: creation and nuclear reaction studies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oganessyan, Yu.Ts.; Karamyan, S.A.; Gangrskij, Yu.P.
1993-01-01
A long-lived (31 years) four-quasiparticle isomer 178m 2 Hf(I,K π =16,16 + ) was produced in microweight quantities using the nuclear reaction 176 Yb( 4 He, 2n). Methods of precision chemistry and mass-separation for the purification of the produced Hf material have been developed. Thin targets of isomeric hafnium-178 on carbon backings were prepared and used in experiments on a neutron, proton and deuteron beams. First results on nuclear reactions on a high-spin exotic target were obtained. Experiments on electromagnetic interactions of the isomeric hafnium using methods of the collinear laser spectroscopy as well as of the nuclear orientation of hafnium implanted into a crystalline media were started. 11 refs.; 11 figs.; 2 tabs
Photoinduced nuclear spin conversion of methyl groups of single molecules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sigl, A.
2007-01-01
A methyl group is an outstanding quantum system due to its special symmetry properties. The threefold rotation around one of its bond is isomorphic to the group of even permutations of the remaining protons, a property which imposes severe quantum restrictions on the system, for instance a strict correlation of rotational states with nuclear spin states. The resulting long lifetimes of the rotational tunneling states of the methyl group can be exploited for applying certain high resolution optical techniques, like hole burning or single molecule spectroscopy to optically switch the methyl group from one tunneling state to another therebye changing the nuclear spin of the protons. One goal of the thesis was to perform this switching in single methyl groups. To this end the methyl group was attached to a chromophoric system, in the present case terrylene, which is well suited for single molecule spectroscopy as well as for hole burning. Experiments were performed with the bare terrylene molecule in a hexadecane lattice which served as a reference system, with alphamethyl terrylene and betamethyl terrylene, both embedded in hexadecane, too. A single molecular probe is a highly sensitive detector for dynamic lattice instabilities. Already the bare terrylene probe showed a wealth of interesting local dynamic effects of the hexadecane lattice which could be well acounted for by the assumption of two nearly degenerate sites with rather different optical and thermal properties, all of which could be determined in a quantitative fashion. As to the methylated terrylene systems, the experiments verified that for betamethyl terrylene it is indeed possible to measure rotational tunneling events in single methyl groups. However, the spectral patterns obtained was much more complicated than expected pointing to the presence of three spectroscopically different methyl groups. In order to achieve a definite assignement, molecular mechanics simulations of the terrylene probes in the
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Denning, Emil Vosmar; Iles-Smith, Jake; McCutcheon, Dara P. S.
2017-01-01
Multiphoton entangled states are a crucial resource for many applications inquantum information science. Semiconductor quantum dots offer a promising route to generate such states by mediating photon-photon correlations via a confinedelectron spin, but dephasing caused by the host nuclear spin...... environment typically limits coherence (and hence entanglement) between photons to the spin T2* time of a few nanoseconds. We propose a protocol for the deterministic generation of multiphoton entangled states that is inherently robust against the dominating slow nuclear spin environment fluctuations, meaning...... that coherence and entanglement is instead limited only by the much longer spin T2 time of microseconds. Unlike previous protocols, the present schemeallows for the generation of very low error probability polarisation encoded three-photon GHZ states and larger entangled states, without the need for spin echo...
Nuclear spin-echo detection by means of perturbed angular correlations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kopvillem, U.H.; Shakhmuratova, L.N.
1973-01-01
Recent progress in theory and experiment of NMR detection by means of registration of angular distribution of nuclear radiation (NMR/RD) has stimulated us to consider the problem of spin-echo detection by means of nuclear radiation (s-E/RD). We have considered the case when each decaying radioactive nucleus suffers two pulses of magnetic radiofrequency field in its oriented excited state. The time-differential function of radiation's angular distribution is important in the S-E/RD problem, as it displays the motion of nuclear spins in time. The obtained results show that after the first pulse the anisotropy of radiation's angular distribution strongly decreases because of the dephasing of nuclear spins. After the second pulse there exist certain moments of time, determined by the nuclear spin and geometry of experiment, when the anisotropy of radiation's angular distribution sharply increases, whereas before and after these moments the function is swept. It is possible to observe the spin-echo by means of γ-γ angular correlations and by means of registration of γ-radiation's angular distribution after the nuclear reaction, for example after the bombardment of nuclei by a pulsed particle beam. The spin-echo nuclear radiation detection gives the possibility to explore the relaxation processes by the use of a relatively small number nuclei, as it is a microscopic method. (author)
Multispin-assisted optical pumping of bulk 13C nuclear spin polarization in diamond
Pagliero, Daniela; Rao, K. R. Koteswara; Zangara, Pablo R.; Dhomkar, Siddharth; Wong, Henry H.; Abril, Andrea; Aslam, Nabeel; Parker, Anna; King, Jonathan; Avalos, Claudia E.; Ajoy, Ashok; Wrachtrup, Joerg; Pines, Alexander; Meriles, Carlos A.
2018-01-01
One of the most remarkable properties of the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond is that optical illumination initializes its electronic spin almost completely, a feature that can be exploited to polarize other spin species in their proximity. Here we use field-cycled nuclear magnetic resonance to investigate the mechanisms of spin-polarization transfer from NVs to 13C spins in diamond at room temperature. We focus on the dynamics near 51 mT, where a fortuitous combination of energy-matching conditions between electron and nuclear spin levels gives rise to alternative polarization transfer channels. By monitoring the 13C spin polarization as a function of the applied magnetic field, we show 13C spin pumping takes place via a multispin cross-relaxation process involving the N V- spin and the electronic and nuclear spins of neighboring P1 centers. Further, we find that this mechanism is insensitive to the crystal orientation relative to the magnetic field, although the absolute level of 13C polarization—reaching up to ˜3 % under optimal conditions—can vary substantially depending on the interplay between optical pumping efficiency, photogenerated carriers, and laser-induced heating.
Probing the Nuclear Spin-Lattice Relaxation Time at the Nanoscale
Wagenaar, J.C.; Den Haan, A. M J; de Voogd, J.M.; Bossoni, L; de Jong, T.A.; de Wit, M.; Bastiaans, K. M.; Thoen, D.J.; Endo, A.; Klapwijk, T.M.; Zaanen, J.; Oosterkamp, TH
2016-01-01
Nuclear spin-lattice relaxation times are measured on copper using magnetic-resonance force microscopy performed at temperatures down to 42 mK. The low temperature is verified by comparison with the Korringa relation. Measuring spin-lattice relaxation times locally at very low temperatures opens up
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cho, Herman M.; Washton, Nancy M.; Mueller, Karl T.; Sears, Jr., Jesse A.; Townsend, Mark R.; Ewing, James R.
2016-06-14
A magic-angle-spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) probe is described that includes double containment enclosures configured to seal and contain hazardous samples for analysis. The probe is of a modular design that ensures containment of hazardous samples during sample analysis while preserving spin speeds for superior NMR performance and convenience of operation.
Robust quantum-network memory using decoherence-protected subspaces of nuclear spins
Reiserer, A.A.; Kalb, N.; Blok, M.S.; van Bemmelen, Koen J M; Taminiau, T.H.; Hanson, R.; Twitchen, Daniel J.; Markham, Matthew
2016-01-01
The realization of a network of quantum registers is an outstanding challenge in quantum science and technology. We experimentally investigate a network node that consists of a single nitrogen-vacancy center electronic spin hyperfine coupled to nearby nuclear spins. We demonstrate individual
The determination of the in situ structure by nuclear spin contrast variation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stuhrmann, H.B.; Nierhaus, K.H.
1994-01-01
Polarized neutron scattering from polarized nuclear spins in hydrogenous substances opens a new way of contrast variation. The enhanced contrast due to proton spin polarization was used for the in situ structure determination of tRNA of the functional complex of the E.coli ribosome
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sarmento, E.F.
1981-01-01
Results are found for the dynamical correlation functions (or its corresponding Green's functions) among any combination including operator pairs of electronic and nuclear spins in an antiferromagnet semi-infinite medium, at low temperatures T [pt
Nuclear-Spin Gyroscope Based on an Atomic Co-Magnetometer
Romalis, Michael; Komack, Tom; Ghost, Rajat
2008-01-01
An experimental nuclear-spin gyroscope is based on an alkali-metal/noblegas co-magnetometer, which automatically cancels the effects of magnetic fields. Whereas the performances of prior nuclear-spin gyroscopes are limited by sensitivity to magnetic fields, this gyroscope is insensitive to magnetic fields and to other external perturbations. In addition, relative to prior nuclear-spin gyroscopes, this one exhibits greater sensitivity to rotation. There is commercial interest in development of small, highly sensitive gyroscopes. The present experimental device could be a prototype for development of nuclear spin gyroscopes suitable for navigation. In comparison with fiber-optic gyroscopes, these gyroscopes would draw less power and would be smaller, lighter, more sensitive, and less costly.
Belsito, S; Bartucci, R; Montesano, G; Marsh, D; Sportelli, L
2000-01-01
Spin-label electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, together with optical density measurements, has been used to investigate, at both the molecular and supramolecular levels, the interactions of N-poly(ethylene glycol)-phosphatidylethanolamines (PEG-PE) with phosphatidylcholine (PC) in aqueous dispersions. PEG-PEs are micelle-forming hydrophilic polymer-grafted lipids that are used extensively for steric stabilization of PC liposomes to increase their lifetimes in the blood circulation. All lipids had dipalmitoyl (C16:0) chains, and the polymer polar group of the PEG-PE lipids had a mean molecular mass of either 350 or 2000 Da. PC/PEG-PE mixtures were investigated over the entire range of relative compositions. Spin-label ESR was used quantitatively to investigate bilayer-micelle conversion with increasing PEG-PE content by measurements at temperatures for which the bilayer membrane component of the mixture was in the gel phase. Both saturation transfer ESR and optical density measurements were used to obtain information on the dependence of lipid aggregate size on PEG-PE content. It is found that the stable state of lipid aggregation is strongly dependent not only on PEG-PE content but also on the size of the hydrophilic polar group. These biophysical properties may be used for optimized design of sterically stabilized liposomes. PMID:10692327
Electrically tunable dynamic nuclear spin polarization in GaAs quantum dots at zero magnetic field
Manca, M.; Wang, G.; Kuroda, T.; Shree, S.; Balocchi, A.; Renucci, P.; Marie, X.; Durnev, M. V.; Glazov, M. M.; Sakoda, K.; Mano, T.; Amand, T.; Urbaszek, B.
2018-04-01
In III-V semiconductor nano-structures, the electron and nuclear spin dynamics are strongly coupled. Both spin systems can be controlled optically. The nuclear spin dynamics are widely studied, but little is known about the initialization mechanisms. Here, we investigate optical pumping of carrier and nuclear spins in charge tunable GaAs dots grown on 111A substrates. We demonstrate dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) at zero magnetic field in a single quantum dot for the positively charged exciton X+ state transition. We tune the DNP in both amplitude and sign by variation of an applied bias voltage Vg. Variation of ΔVg on the order of 100 mV changes the Overhauser splitting (nuclear spin polarization) from -30 μeV (-22%) to +10 μeV (+7%) although the X+ photoluminescence polarization does not change sign over this voltage range. This indicates that absorption in the structure and energy relaxation towards the X+ ground state might provide favourable scenarios for efficient electron-nuclear spin flip-flops, generating DNP during the first tens of ps of the X+ lifetime which is on the order of hundreds of ps. Voltage control of DNP is further confirmed in Hanle experiments.
All-electric control of donor nuclear spin qubits in silicon
Sigillito, Anthony J.; Tyryshkin, Alexei M.; Schenkel, Thomas; Houck, Andrew A.; Lyon, Stephen A.
2017-10-01
The electronic and nuclear spin degrees of freedom of donor impurities in silicon form ultra-coherent two-level systems that are potentially useful for applications in quantum information and are intrinsically compatible with industrial semiconductor processing. However, because of their smaller gyromagnetic ratios, nuclear spins are more difficult to manipulate than electron spins and are often considered too slow for quantum information processing. Moreover, although alternating current magnetic fields are the most natural choice to drive spin transitions and implement quantum gates, they are difficult to confine spatially to the level of a single donor, thus requiring alternative approaches. In recent years, schemes for all-electrical control of donor spin qubits have been proposed but no experimental demonstrations have been reported yet. Here, we demonstrate a scalable all-electric method for controlling neutral 31P and 75As donor nuclear spins in silicon. Using coplanar photonic bandgap resonators, we drive Rabi oscillations on nuclear spins exclusively using electric fields by employing the donor-bound electron as a quantum transducer, much in the spirit of recent works with single-molecule magnets. The electric field confinement leads to major advantages such as low power requirements, higher qubit densities and faster gate times. Additionally, this approach makes it possible to drive nuclear spin qubits either at their resonance frequency or at its first subharmonic, thus reducing device bandwidth requirements. Double quantum transitions can be driven as well, providing easy access to the full computational manifold of our system and making it convenient to implement nuclear spin-based qudits using 75As donors.
Search for electric dipole moment in 129Xe atom using active nuclear spin maser
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ichikawa Y.
2014-03-01
Full Text Available An experimental search for an electric dipole moment in the diamagnetic atom 129Xe is in progress through the precision measurement of spin precession frequency using an active nuclear spin maser. A 3He comagnetometer has been incorporated into the active spin maser system in order to cancel out the long-term drifts in the external magnetic field. Also, a double-cell geometry has been adopted in order to suppress the frequency shifts due to interaction with polarized Rb atoms. The first EDM measurement with the 129Xe active spin maser and the 3He comagnetometer has been conducted.
Tensor quasiparticle interaction and spin-isospin sound in nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haensel, P.
1979-01-01
The effect of the tensor components of the quasiparticle interaction in nuclear matter on the spin-isospin sound type excitations is studied. Numerical results are obtained using a simplified model of the quasiparticle interaction in nuclear matter. The quasiparticle distribution matrix corresponding to the spin-isospin sound is found to be qualitatively different from that obtained for purely central quasiparticle interaction. The macroscopic effects, however, are restricted to a small change in the phase velocity of the spin-isospin sound. (Auth.)
Noise-Resilient Quantum Computing with a Nitrogen-Vacancy Center and Nuclear Spins.
Casanova, J; Wang, Z-Y; Plenio, M B
2016-09-23
Selective control of qubits in a quantum register for the purposes of quantum information processing represents a critical challenge for dense spin ensembles in solid-state systems. Here we present a protocol that achieves a complete set of selective electron-nuclear gates and single nuclear rotations in such an ensemble in diamond facilitated by a nearby nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center. The protocol suppresses internuclear interactions as well as unwanted coupling between the NV center and other spins of the ensemble to achieve quantum gate fidelities well exceeding 99%. Notably, our method can be applied to weakly coupled, distant spins representing a scalable procedure that exploits the exceptional properties of nuclear spins in diamond as robust quantum memories.
Observation of nuclear spin waves in spin-polarized atomic hydrogen gas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johson, B.R.; Denker, J.S.; Bigelow, N.; Levy, L.P.; Freed, J.H.; Lee, D.M.
1984-04-23
We have observed narrow, distinct resonances in the NMR spectrum of dilute spin-polarized atomic hydrogen gas (nroughly-equal10/sup 16/ atoms/cm/sup 3/). The dependence of the observed spectra on temperature, density, polarization, and magnetic field gradient is consistent with theoretical predictions for spin-wave excitations damped by diffusion. We have measured the parameter ..mu.., which is a measure of the importance of exchange effects in spin transport processes, and the diffusion coefficient D/sub 0/, both of which are in reasonable agreement with theory.
Solid-state nuclear-spin quantum computer based on magnetic resonance force microscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berman, G. P.; Doolen, G. D.; Hammel, P. C.; Tsifrinovich, V. I.
2000-01-01
We propose a nuclear-spin quantum computer based on magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM). It is shown that an MRFM single-electron spin measurement provides three essential requirements for quantum computation in solids: (a) preparation of the ground state, (b) one- and two-qubit quantum logic gates, and (c) a measurement of the final state. The proposed quantum computer can operate at temperatures up to 1 K. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society
The MONSTER solves nuclear structure problems at low and high spins
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hammaren, E.; Schmid, K.W.; Gruemmer, F.
1984-01-01
A microscopic, particle-number and spin conserving nuclear structure model is discussed. Within a unique theory the model can describe excitation energies, moments, transitions and spectroscopic factors at low and high spins of odd-mass and doubly-even nuclei in all mass regions. With a realistic two-body Hamiltonian extracted via a G-matric description from nucleon-nucleon scattering data. The model is here applied to nuclei in the A=130 region
RPA spin-isospin nuclear response in the deep inelastic region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alberico, W.M.; Molinari, A.; De Pace, A.; Johnson, M.B.; Ericson, M.
1985-11-01
The spin-isospin volume responses of a finite nucleus are evaluated in the RPA frame, utilizing a harmonic oscillator basis. Particular emphasis is given to the mixing between the longitudinal and transverse couplings, which arise at the nuclear surface. We show that it reduces somewhat the contrast between the two spin responses. We compare the calculated transverse response with the experimental one extracted from deep inelastic electron scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoodbhoy, P.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge; Quaid-i-Azam Univ., Islamabad
1990-01-01
Inclusive photo-production from polarized targets of arbitrary spin is analyzed by using multipoles. The Drell-Hearn-Gerasimov sum rule, which was originally fromulated for spin-1/2 targets, is generalized to all spins and multipoles, and shown to have some interesting consequences. Measurements to test the new rules, or to derive nuclear structure information from them, could be incorporated into existing plans at electron accelerator facilities. Finally, the possible relevance of these generalized sum rules to sum rules measurable in polarized lepton-polarized target deep inelastic inclusive scattering is discussed. (orig.)
Nuclear inelastic scattering study of a dinuclear iron(II) complex showing a direct spin transition
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wolny, J. A., E-mail: wolny@physik.uni-kl.de [University of Kaiserslautern, Department of Physics (Germany); Garcia, Y. [Université Catholique de Louvain, Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences, Molecules, Solids and Reactivity (IMCN/MOST) (Belgium); Faus, I.; Rackwitz, S. [University of Kaiserslautern, Department of Physics (Germany); Schlage, K.; Wille, H.-C. [DESY (Germany); Schünemann, V. [University of Kaiserslautern, Department of Physics (Germany)
2016-12-15
The results of the nuclear inelastic scattering (NIS)/nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) for the powder spectra of dimeric [Fe {sub 2}L{sub 5}(NCS) {sub 4}] (L = N-salicylidene-4-amino-1,2,4-triazole) complex are presented. This system is spin crossover (SCO) material tagged with a fluorophore that can sense or “feel” the SCO signal ripping through the molecular network and thereby providing an opportunity to register the SCO transition. The spectra have been measured for the low-spin and high-spin phases of the complex. The high-spin isomer reveals one broad band above 200 cm {sup −1}, while the low-spin one displays two intense bands in the range from 390 to 430 cm {sup −1}, accompanied by a number of weaker bands below this area and one at ca. 490 cm {sup −1}. A normal coordinate analysis based on density functional calculations yields the assignment of the spin marker bands to particular molecular modes. In addition the vibrational contribution to the spin transition has been estimated.
Mesoscopic quantum cryptography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Molotkov, S. N., E-mail: sergei.molotkov@gmail.com [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Solid State Physics (Russian Federation)
2017-03-15
Since a strictly single-photon source is not yet available, in quantum cryptography systems, one uses, as information quantum states, coherent radiation of a laser with an average number of photons of μ ≈ 0.1–0.5 in a pulse, attenuated to the quasi-single-photon level. The linear independence of a set of coherent quasi-single-photon information states leads to the possibility of unambiguous measurements that, in the presence of losses in the line, restrict the transmission range of secret keys. Starting from a certain value of critical loss (the length of the line), the eavesdropper knows the entire key, does not make errors, and is not detected—the distribution of secret keys becomes impossible. This problem is solved by introducing an additional reference state with an average number of photons of μ{sub cl} ≈ 10{sup 3}–10{sup 6}, depending on the length of the communication line. It is shown that the use of a reference state does not allow the eavesdropper to carry out measurements with conclusive outcome while remaining undetected. A reference state guarantees detecting an eavesdropper in a channel with high losses. In this case, information states may contain a mesoscopic average number of photons in the range of μ{sub q} ≈ 0.5–10{sup 2}. The protocol proposed is easy to implement technically, admits flexible adjustment of parameters to the length of the communication line, and is simple and transparent for proving the secrecy of keys.
Optimal control of the inversion of two spins in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Assémat, E.; Attar, L.; Penouilh, M.-J.; Picquet, M.; Tabard, A.; Zhang, Y.; Glaser, S.J.; Sugny, D.
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► We investigate the simultaneous optimal control of the inversion of two spins. ► We examine the energy minimum solution. ► We compare this solution with the time-minimum one. ► Experimental implementation using techniques of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. -- Abstract: We investigate the optimal control of the inversion of two spin 1/2 particles in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. The two spins, which differ by their resonance offset, are controlled by the same radio frequency magnetic field. Using the Pontryagin Maximum Principle, we compute the optimal control sequence which allows to reach the target state in a given time, while minimizing the energy of the magnetic field. A comparison with the time-optimal solution for bounded control amplitude realizing the same control in the same time is made. An experimental illustration is done using techniques of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance.
Nuclear-Spin-Induced Circular Dichroism in the Infrared Region for Liquids.
Chen, Fang; Yao, Guo-hua; Zhang, Zhen-lin; Liu, Fan-chen; Chen, Dong-ming
2015-06-22
Recently, the nuclear-spin-induced optical rotation (NSOR) and circular dichroism (NSCD) for liquids were discovered and extensively studied and developed. However, so far, nuclear-spin-induced magnetic circular dichroism in the IR region (IR-NSCD) has not been explored, even though all polyatomic molecules exhibit extensive IR spectra. Herein, IR-NSCD is proposed and discussed theoretically. The results indicate that in favorable conditions the IR-NSCD angle may be much larger than the NSOR angle in the UV/Vis region due to a vibrational resonance effect and can be measurable by using the NSOR experiment scheme. IR-NSCD can automatically combine and give NMR spectra and IRCD spectra of the nuclear spin prepolarized samples in liquids, which, in principle, could be developed to become a unique, novel analytical tool. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Enevoldsen, Thomas; Oddershede, Jens; Sauer, Stephan P. A.
1998-01-01
We present correlated calculations of the indirect nuclear spin-spin coupling constants of HD, HF, H2O, CH4, C2H2, BH, AlH, CO and N2 at the level of the second-order polarization propagator approximation (SOPPA) and the second-order polarization propagator approximation with coupled-cluster sing...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Faber, Rasmus; Sauer, Stephan P. A.
2018-01-01
The basis set convergence of nuclear spin-spin coupling constants (SSCC) calculated at the coupled cluster singles and doubles (CCSD) level has been investigated for ten difficult molecules. Eight of the molecules contain fluorine atoms and nine contain double or triple bonds. Results obtained us...
Mesoscopic models of biological membranes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Venturoli, M.; Sperotto, Maria Maddalena; Kranenburg, M.
2006-01-01
Phospholipids are the main components of biological membranes and dissolved in water these molecules self-assemble into closed structures, of which bilayers are the most relevant from a biological point of view. Lipid bilayers are often used, both in experimental and by theoretical investigations...... to coarse grain a biological membrane. The conclusion of this comparison is that there can be many valid different strategies, but that the results obtained by the various mesoscopic models are surprisingly consistent. A second objective of this review is to illustrate how mesoscopic models can be used...
Nuclear orientation of radioactive nuclei the spin program
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Dupák, Jan; Finger, M.; Finger jr., M.; Janata, A.; Kracíková, T. I.; Lebedev, N. A.; Nováková, D.; Ota, J.; Rotter, M.; Slunečka, M.; Slunečková, V.; Virus, M.; Yushkevich, Y. V.
2000-01-01
Roč. 50, Supp. S1 (2000), s. 253-268 ISSN 0011-4626. [Symmetry and Spin. Praha, 05.09.1999-12.09.1999] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK1067601 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2065902 Subject RIV: JR - Other Machinery Impact factor: 0.298, year: 2000
Nuclear and hadronic reaction mechanisms producing spin asymmetry
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
naka
This may be possible in the framework of the QRC model by considering an annihilation and creation mechanism, as shown in figure 2, where the initial valence u quark, which carries the proton's spin information, annihilates with u in the target proton and then ss pair is created through the gluon propagation, and the s ...
Chip-Scale Combinatorial Atomic Navigator (C-SCAN) Low Drift Nuclear Spin Gyroscope
2018-01-01
AFRL-RY-WP-TR-2017-0199 CHIP-SCALE COMBINATORIAL ATOMIC NAVIGATOR (C-SCAN) Low Drift Nuclear Spin Gyroscope Michael Romalis...January 2018 Final 3 May 2013 – 31 July 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CHIP-SCALE COMBINATORIAL ATOMIC NAVIGATOR (C-SCAN) Low Drift Nuclear Spin Gyroscope...gyroscope probed by ⁸⁷Rb atoms . We batch fabricated gyroscope cells with a yield exceeding 85% and achieved ¹²⁹Xe T₂ time of 300 sec and 3He T2 time of
Nuclear spin-orbit interaction from chiral pion-nucleon dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaiser, N.
2002-01-01
Using the two-loop approximation of chiral perturbation theory, we calculate the momentum and density dependent nuclear spin-orbit strength U ls (p,k f ). This quantity is derived from the spin-dependent part of the interaction energy Σ spin =((i)/(2))σ→·(q→xp→)U ls (p,k f ) of a nucleon scattering off weakly inhomogeneous isospin symmetric nuclear matter. We find that iterated 1π-exchange generates at saturation density, k f0 =272.7 MeV, a spin-orbit strength at p=0 of U ls (0,k f0 )≅35 MeV fm 2 , in perfect agreement with the empirical value used in the shell model. This novel spin-orbit strength is neither of relativistic nor of short range origin. The potential V ls underlying the empirical spin-orbit strength Ubar ls =V ls r ls 2 becomes a rather weak one, V ls ≅17 MeV, after the identification r ls =m π -1 as suggested by the present calculation. We observe, however, a strong p-dependence of U ls (p,k f0 ) leading even to a sign change above p=200 MeV. This and other features of the emerging spin-orbit Hamiltonian which go beyond the usual shell model parametrization leave questions about the ultimate relevance of the spin-orbit interaction generated by 2π-exchange for a finite nucleus. We also calculate the complex-valued isovector single-particle potential U I (p,k f )+iW I (p,k f ) in isospin asymmetric nuclear matter proportional to τ 3 (N-Z)/(N+Z). For the real part we find reasonable agreement with empirical values and the imaginary part vanishes at the Fermi-surface p=k f
Canadian experience with spin-offs from nuclear technology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lennox, C.G.; Garvey, P.M.
1989-01-01
The innovation process introduced into AECL's research laboratories is described, with its achievements in increased commercial and spin-off businesses. In particular, the role of the champion or entrepreneur is emphasized in the manner in which he/she interacts within a dedicated team to pursue each opportunity. Examples are provided of several commercial and business development opportunities resulting from the background research programs
Statewide mesoscopic simulation for Wyoming.
2013-10-01
This study developed a mesoscopic simulator which is capable of representing both city-level and statewide roadway : networks. The key feature of such models are the integration of (i) a traffic flow model which is efficient enough to : scale to larg...
Quantum Transport in Mesoscopic Systems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 11. Quantum Transport in Mesoscopic Systems - Coulomb Blockade and Kondo Effect ... Author Affiliations. Navinder Singh1. Room No 457 Theoretical Physics Division Physical Research Laboratory Navrangpura Ahmedabad 380 009 ...
Kondo effect and mesoscopic fluctuations
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Slave boson/fermion mean-field approach. A complete solution of this problem would presumably involve developing a Fermi liquid theory 'à la Nozières' [15] taking properly into account the mesoscopic fluctuations. A first step in this direction is to use a mean-field treatment based on the slave boson/fermion technique [1] ...
Thermal mixing in multiple-pulse nuclear quadrupole resonance spin-locking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beltjukov, P A; Kibrik, G E; Furman, G B; Goren, S D
2007-01-01
We report on an experimental and theoretical nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) multiple-pulse spin-locking study of the thermal mixing process in solids containing nuclei of two different sorts, I>1/2 and S = 1/2, coupled by dipole-dipole interactions and influenced by an external magnetic field. Two coupled equations for the inverse spin temperatures of both the spin systems describing the mutual spin-lattice relaxation and the thermal mixing were obtained using the method of the nonequilibrium state operator. It is shown that the relaxation process is realized with non-exponential time dependence described by a sum of two exponents. The calculated relaxation time versus the multiple-pulse field parameters agrees well with the obtained experimental data in 1,4-dichloro-2-nitrobenzene. The calculated magnetization relaxation time versus the strength of the applied magnetic field agrees well with the obtained experimental data
Towards the improvement of spin-isospin properties in nuclear energy density functionals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roca-Maza, X.; Colò, G.; Liang, H. Z.; Sagawa, H.; Meng, J.; Ring, P.; Zhao, P. W.
2016-01-01
We address the problem of improving existing nuclear Energy Density Functionals (EDFs) in the spin-isospin channel. For that, we propose two different ways. The first one is to carefully take into account in the fitting protocol some of the key ground state properties for an accurate description of the most studied spin-isospin resonances: the Gamow-Teller Resonance (GTR) [1]. The second consists in providing a strategy to build local covariant EDF keeping the main features from their non-local counterparts [2]. The RHF model based on a Lagrangian where heavy mesons carry the nuclear effective interaction have been shown to be successful in the description of spin-isospin resonances [3]. (paper)
Shell structure at high spin and the influence on nuclear shapes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khoo, T.L.; Chowdhury, P.; Ahmad, I.
1982-01-01
Nuclear structure at high spin is influenced by a combination of liquid-drop and shell-structure effects. For N 90. The competition between oblate and prolate driving effects leads to a prolate-to-oblate shape transition in 154 Dy 88 . The role of rotation-aligned configurations in the shape change is discussed
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jacobsen, H.J.; Skibsted, J.; Kristensen, Martin
2001-01-01
Magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of 31P and 29Si have been achieved for a thin silica film doped with only 1.8% 31P and deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition on a pure silicon wafer. The observation of a symmetric 31P chemical shift tensor is consistent...
Nuclear spin dependence of the reaction of H(3)+ with H2. I. Kinetics and modeling.
Crabtree, Kyle N; Tom, Brian A; McCall, Benjamin J
2011-05-21
The chemical reaction H(3)(+) + H(2) → H(2) + H(3)(+) is the simplest bimolecular reaction involving a polyatomic, yet is complex enough that exact quantum mechanical calculations to adequately model its dynamics are still unfeasible. In particular, the branching fractions for the "identity," "proton hop," and "hydrogen exchange" reaction pathways are unknown, and to date, experimental measurements of this process have been limited. In this work, the nuclear-spin-dependent steady-state kinetics of the H(3)(+) + H(2) reaction is examined in detail, and employed to generate models of the ortho:para ratio of H(3)(+) formed in plasmas of varying ortho:para H(2) ratios. One model is based entirely on nuclear spin statistics, and is appropriate for temperatures high enough to populate a large number of H(3)(+) rotational states. Efforts are made to include the influence of three-body collisions in this model by deriving nuclear spin product branching fractions for the H(5)(+) + H(2) reaction. Another model, based on rate coefficients calculated using a microcanonical statistical approach, is appropriate for lower-temperature plasmas in which energetic considerations begin to compete with the nuclear spin branching fractions. These models serve as a theoretical framework for interpreting the results of laboratory studies on the reaction of H(3)(+) with H(2). © 2011 American Institute of Physics.
Effects of tensor forces in nuclear spin-orbit splittings from ab initio calculations
Shen, Shihang; Liang, Haozhao; Meng, Jie; Ring, Peter; Zhang, Shuangquan
2018-03-01
A systematic and specific pattern due to the effects of the tensor forces is found in the evolution of spin-orbit splittings in neutron drops. This result is obtained from relativistic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock theory using the bare nucleon-nucleon interaction. It forms an important guide for future microscopic derivations of relativistic and nonrelativistic nuclear energy density functionals.
Isotopic and spin-nuclear effects in solid hydrogens (Review Article)
Freiman, Yuri A.; Crespo, Yanier
2017-12-01
The multiple isotopic family of hydrogens (H2, HD, D2, HT, DT, T2) due to large differences in the de Boer quantum parameter and inertia moments displays a diversity of pronounced quantum isotopic solid-state effects. The homonuclear members of this family (H2, D2, T2) due to the permutation symmetry are subjects of the constraints of quantum mechanics which link the possible rotational states of these molecules to their total nuclear spin giving rise to the existence of two spin-nuclear modifications, ortho- and parahydrogens, possessing substantially different properties. Consequently, hydrogen solids present an unique opportunity for studying both isotope and spin-nuclear effects. The rotational spectra of heteronuclear hydrogens (HD, HT, DT) are free from limitations imposed by the permutation symmetry. As a result, the ground state of these species in solid state is virtually degenerate. The most dramatic consequence of this fact is an effect similar to the Pomeranchuk effect in 3He which in the case of the solid heteronuclear hydrogens manifests itself as the reentrant broken symmetry phase transitions. In this review article we discuss thermodynamic and kinetic effects pertaining to different isotopic and spin-nuclear species, as well as problems that still remain to be solved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Repisky, Michal; Komorovsky, Stanislav; Malkina, Olga L.; Malkin, Vladimir G.
2009-01-01
The relativistic four-component density functional approach based on the use of restricted magnetically balanced basis (mDKS-RMB), applied recently for calculations of NMR shielding, was extended for calculations of NMR indirect nuclear spin-spin coupling constants. The unperturbed equations are solved with the use of a restricted kinetically balanced basis set for the small component while to solve the second-order coupled perturbed DKS equations a restricted magnetically balanced basis set for the small component was applied. Benchmark relativistic calculations have been carried out for the X-H and H-H spin-spin coupling constants in the XH 4 series (X = C, Si, Ge, Sn and Pb). The method provides an attractive alternative to existing approximate two-component methods with transformed Hamiltonians for relativistic calculations of spin-spin coupling constants of heavy-atom systems. In particular, no picture-change effects arise in our method for property calculations
Nuclear structure of 94,95Mo at high spins
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kharraja, B.; Ghugre, S.S.; Garg, U.; Janssens, R.V.; Carpenter, M.P.; Crowell, B.; Khoo, T.L.; Lauritsen, T.; Nisius, D.; Reviol, W.; Mueller, W.F.; Riedinger, L.L.; Kaczarowski, R.
1998-01-01
The high-spin level structures of 94,95 Mo (N=52,53) have been investigated via the 65 Cu( 36 S, αp2n) 94 Mo and 65 Cu( 36 S, αpn) 95 Mo reactions at 142 MeV. The level schemes have been extended up to spin J∼19ℎ and excitation energies E x ∼12 MeV. Spherical shell-model calculations have been performed and compared with the experimental energy levels. The level structure of 94 Mo exhibits a single-particle nature and the higher-angular-momentum states are dominated by the excitation of a g 9/2 neutron across the N=50 shell gap. The level sequences observed in 95 Mo have been interpreted on the basis of the spherical shell model and weak coupling of a d 5/2 or a g 7/2 neutron to the 94 Mo core. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society
Magnetic pseudo-fields in a rotating electron-nuclear spin system
Wood, A. A.; Lilette, E.; Fein, Y. Y.; Perunicic, V. S.; Hollenberg, L. C. L.; Scholten, R. E.; Martin, A. M.
2017-11-01
Analogous to the precession of a Foucault pendulum observed on the rotating Earth, a precessing spin observed in a rotating frame of reference appears frequency-shifted. This can be understood as arising from a magnetic pseudo-field in the rotating frame that nevertheless has physically significant consequences, such as the Barnett effect. To detect these pseudo-fields, a rotating-frame sensor is required. Here we use quantum sensors, nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centres, in a rapidly rotating diamond to detect pseudo-fields in the rotating frame. Whereas conventional magnetic fields induce precession at a rate proportional to the gyromagnetic ratio, rotation shifts the precession of all spins equally, and thus primarily affect 13C nuclear spins in the sample. We are thus able to explore these effects via quantum sensing in a rapidly rotating frame, and define a new approach to quantum control using rotationally induced nuclear spin-selective magnetic fields. This work provides an integral step towards realizing precision rotation sensing and quantum spin gyroscopes.
Determination of nuclear spins of short-lived isotopes by laser induced fluorescence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buchinger, F.; Dabkiewicz, P.; Kremmling, H.; Kuehl, T.; Mueller, A.C.; Schuessler, H.A.
1980-01-01
The spins of several nuclear ground and isomeric states have been measured for a number of mercury isotopes. The fluorescent light from the 6s6p 3 P 1 state is observed at 2537 Angstroem after excitation with the frequency doubled output of a pulsed dye laser. Four different laser induced fluorescence techniques were tested for their applicability: double resonance, Hanle effect, time delayed integral Hanle beats, and time resolved quantum beats. The sensitivity and selectivity of these models are compared with emphasis on the determination of spins of nuclei far from beta-stability, where short half lives and low production yields restrict the number of available atoms. The experiments were carried out on-line with the ISOLDE isotope separator at CERN at densities as low as 10 6 atoms/cm 3 . Results for the very neutron deficient high spin mercury isomers with half lives of several seconds, but also for the ground states of the abundant low spin stable mercury isotopes, are given as examples. The test measurements determined the nuclear spins of the odd sup(185m-191m)Hg isomers to be I = 13/2. (orig.)
Advances and applications of dynamic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baltisberger, Jay Harvey [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
1993-06-01
This dissertation describes nuclear magnetic resonance experiments and theory which have been developed to study quadrupolar nuclei (those nuclei with spin greater than one-half) in the solid state. Primarily, the technique of dynamic-angle spinning (DAS) is extensively reviewed and expanded upon in this thesis. Specifically, the improvement in both the resolution (two-dimensional pure-absorptive phase methods and DAS angle choice) and sensitivity (pulse-sequence development), along with effective spinning speed enhancement (again through choice of DAS conditions or alternative multiple pulse schemes) of dynamic-angle spinning experiment was realized with both theory and experimental examples. The application of DAS to new types of nuclei (specifically the {sup 87}Rb and {sup 85}Rb nuclear spins) and materials (specifically amorphous solids) has also greatly expanded the possibilities of the use of DAS to study a larger range of materials. This dissertation is meant to demonstrate both recent advances and applications of the DAS technique, and by no means represents a comprehensive study of any particular chemical problem.
Advances and applications of dynamic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baltisberger, J.H.
1993-06-01
This dissertation describes nuclear magnetic resonance experiments and theory which have been developed to study quadrupolar nuclei (those nuclei with spin greater than one-half) in the solid state. Primarily, the technique of dynamic-angle spinning (DAS) is extensively reviewed and expanded upon in this thesis. Specifically, the improvement in both the resolution (two-dimensional pure-absorptive phase methods and DAS angle choice) and sensitivity (pulse-sequence development), along with effective spinning speed enhancement (again through choice of DAS conditions or alternative multiple pulse schemes) of dynamic-angle spinning experiment was realized with both theory and experimental examples. The application of DAS to new types of nuclei (specifically the 87 Rb and 85 Rb nuclear spins) and materials (specifically amorphous solids) has also greatly expanded the possibilities of the use of DAS to study a larger range of materials. This dissertation is meant to demonstrate both recent advances and applications of the DAS technique, and by no means represents a comprehensive study of any particular chemical problem
Parametric excitation of nuclear spin waves in MnCO3 antiferromagnetic crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Govorkov, S.A.; Tulin, V.A.
1976-01-01
Parametric excitation of nuclear spin waves in the antiferromagnetic crystal MnCO 3 is investigated at 1080 MHz by the parallel pumping technique. Two threshold processes are observed in the experiments. One refers to spin wave excitation in a nuclear magnetic system and the other to excitation of magneto-elastic waves. The post-threshold sample susceptibility in such processes is studied. After the second threshold a very pronounced overheating of the nuclear magnetic system of the sample with respect to the lattice is observed. The nature of these overheating phenomena shows that two magneto-elastic oscillation branches are excited in the second threshold process. The dependence of the threshold field on wave vector is more complicated in a small magnetic field due to magnetization processes in the sample. In a large magnetic field complications are evoked by the magneto-elastic coupling
Nuclear spin optical rotation and Faraday effect in gaseous and liquid water.
Pennanen, Teemu S; Ikäläinen, Suvi; Lantto, Perttu; Vaara, Juha
2012-05-14
Nuclear spin optical rotation (NSOR) of linearly polarized light, due to the nuclear spins through the Faraday effect, provides a novel probe of molecular structure and could pave the way to optical detection of nuclear magnetization. We determine computationally the effects of the liquid medium on NSOR and the Verdet constant of Faraday rotation (arising from an external magnetic field) in water, using the recently developed theory applied on a first-principles molecular dynamics trajectory. The gas-to-liquid shifts of the relevant antisymmetric polarizability and, hence, NSOR magnitude are found to be -14% and -29% for (1)H and (17)O nuclei, respectively. On the other hand, medium effects both enhance the local electric field in water and, via bulk magnetization, the local magnetic field. Together these two effects partially cancel the solvation influence on the single-molecular property. We find a good agreement for the hydrogen NSOR with a recent pioneering experiment on H(2)O(l).
Spin Coherence in Semiconductor Nanostructures
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Flatte, Michael E
2006-01-01
... dots, tuning of spin coherence times for electron spin, tuning of dipolar magnetic fields for nuclear spin, spontaneous spin polarization generation and new designs for spin-based teleportation and spin transistors...
Nuclear structure at high spin using multidetector gamma array and ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2014-04-05
Apr 5, 2014 ... A multidetector gamma array (GDA), for studying nuclear structure was built with ancillary devices namely gamma multiplicity filter and charged particle detector array. This facility was designed for in-beam gamma spectroscopy measurements in fusion evaporation reactions at Inter-University Accelerator ...
Nuclear structure at high spin using multidetector gamma array and ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2014-04-05
Apr 5, 2014 ... erator Centre, New Delhi. The rolled 209Bi target thickness was 3.5 mg/cm2. Beam was pulsed at 4 MHz to measure lifetimes of nuclear isomers by electronics method. GDA used in the present work has improved the quality of coincidence spectra, enabling us to identify and place several weak transitions ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wylie, Benjamin J.; Dzikovski, Boris G.; Pawsey, Shane; Caporini, Marc; Rosay, Melanie; Freed, Jack H.; McDermott, Ann E.
2015-01-01
We demonstrate that dynamic nuclear polarization of membrane proteins in lipid bilayers may be achieved using a novel polarizing agent: pairs of spin labels covalently bound to a protein of interest interacting at an intermolecular interaction surface. For gramicidin A, nitroxide tags attached to the N-terminal intermolecular interface region become proximal only when bimolecular channels forms in the membrane. We obtained signal enhancements of sixfold for the dimeric protein. The enhancement effect was comparable to that of a doubly tagged sample of gramicidin C, with intramolecular spin pairs. This approach could be a powerful and selective means for signal enhancement in membrane proteins, and for recognizing intermolecular interfaces
Mesoscopic models of biological membranes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Venturoli, M.; Sperotto, Maria Maddalena; Kranenburg, M.
2006-01-01
Phospholipids are the main components of biological membranes and dissolved in water these molecules self-assemble into closed structures, of which bilayers are the most relevant from a biological point of view. Lipid bilayers are often used, both in experimental and by theoretical investigations......, as model systems to understand the fundamental properties of biomembranes. The properties of lipid bilayers can be studied at different time and length scales. For some properties it is sufficient to envision a membrane as an elastic sheet, while for others it is important to take into account the details...... to coarse grain a biological membrane. The conclusion of this comparison is that there can be many valid different strategies, but that the results obtained by the various mesoscopic models are surprisingly consistent. A second objective of this review is to illustrate how mesoscopic models can be used...
Mesoscopic model for binary fluids
Echeverria, C.; Tucci, K.; Alvarez-Llamoza, O.; Orozco-Guillén, E. E.; Morales, M.; Cosenza, M. G.
2017-10-01
We propose a model for studying binary fluids based on the mesoscopic molecular simulation technique known as multiparticle collision, where the space and state variables are continuous, and time is discrete. We include a repulsion rule to simulate segregation processes that does not require calculation of the interaction forces between particles, so binary fluids can be described on a mesoscopic scale. The model is conceptually simple and computationally efficient; it maintains Galilean invariance and conserves the mass and energy in the system at the micro- and macro-scale, whereas momentum is conserved globally. For a wide range of temperatures and densities, the model yields results in good agreement with the known properties of binary fluids, such as the density profile, interface width, phase separation, and phase growth. We also apply the model to the study of binary fluids in crowded environments with consistent results.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goldmann, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1967-02-15
This work describes methods of dynamic nuclear polarization in solids based on the thermal mixing between nuclear spin systems. The description of the thermal mixing processes involves most of the fundamental aspects of the spin temperature theory. The experiments, conducted with paradichlorobenzene and para-dibromobenzene, yield a detailed confirmation of the theoretical predictions. (author) [French] Ce travail decrit des methodes de polarisation dynamique nucleaire dans les solides basees sur le melange thermique entre systemes de spins nucleaires. La description des processus de melange thermique met en jeu la plupart des aspects fondamentaux de la theorie de la temperature de spin. Les experiences, realisees avec du paradichlorobenzene et du paradibromobenzene, apportent une confirmation detaillee des previsions theoriques. (auteur)
55Mn nuclear spin relaxation and lifetime of magnons in MnF2 near the spin-flop transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boucher, J.P.; King, A.R.
1977-01-01
A divergence in the nuclear relaxation rate (T 1 -1 ) of 55 Mn is observed in MnF 2 when the magnetic field approaches the field of the spin-flop transition (H=92.94Oe). The field dependence of T 1 -1 at 4.2 and 2K was studied together with its temperature dependence at 92.4 and 85 kOe. Near the transition, T 1 -1 is governed, below 8K, by the processes induced by the dipolar coupling and, above 8K, by those induced by exchange interactions. On the contrary, in weaker fields (H=85Oe), the only exchange induced processes are important [fr
Spin assignments of nuclear levels above the neutron binding energy in $^{88}$Sr
Neutron resonances reveal nuclear levels in the highly excited region of the nucleus around the neutron binding energy. Nuclear level density models are therefore usually calibrated to the number of observed levels in neutron-induced reactions. The gamma-ray cascade from the decay of the highly excited compound nucleus state to the ground state show dierences dependent on the initial spin. This results in a dierence in the multiplicity distribution which can be exploited. We propose to use the 4${\\pi}$ total absorption calorimeter (TAC) at the n TOF facility to determine the spins of resonances formed by neutrons incident on a metallic $^{87}$Sr sample by measuring the gamma multiplicity distributions for the resolved resonances. In addition we would like to use the available enriched $^{87}$Sr target for cross section measurements with the C$\\scriptscriptstyle{6}$D$\\scriptscriptstyle{6}$ detector setup.
Effect of deformation and orientation on spin orbit density dependent nuclear potential
Mittal, Rajni; Kumar, Raj; Sharma, Manoj K.
2017-11-01
Role of deformation and orientation is investigated on spin-orbit density dependent part VJ of nuclear potential (VN=VP+VJ) obtained within semi-classical Thomas Fermi approach of Skyrme energy density formalism. Calculations are performed for 24-54Si+30Si reactions, with spherical target 30Si and projectiles 24-54Si having prolate and oblate shapes. The quadrupole deformation β2 is varying within range of 0.023 ≤ β2 ≤0.531 for prolate and -0.242 ≤ β2 ≤ -0.592 for oblate projectiles. The spin-orbit dependent potential gets influenced significantly with inclusion of deformation and orientation effect. The spin-orbit barrier and position gets significantly influenced by both the sign and magnitude of β2-deformation. Si-nuclei with β220. The possible role of spin-orbit potential on barrier characteristics such as barrier height, barrier curvature and on the fusion pocket is also probed. In reference to prolate and oblate systems, the angular dependence of spin-orbit potential is further studied on fusion cross-sections.
Hsu, Chen-Hsuan; Stano, Peter; Klinovaja, Jelena; Loss, Daniel
2018-03-01
The electrons in the edge channels of two-dimensional topological insulators can be described as a helical Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid. They couple to nuclear spins embedded in the host materials through the hyperfine interaction, and are therefore subject to elastic spin-flip backscattering on the nuclear spins. We investigate the nuclear-spin-induced edge resistance due to such backscattering by performing a renormalization-group analysis. Remarkably, the effect of this backscattering mechanism is stronger in a helical edge than in nonhelical channels, which are believed to be present in the trivial regime of InAs/GaSb quantum wells. In a system with sufficiently long edges, the disordered nuclear spins lead to an edge resistance which grows exponentially upon lowering the temperature. On the other hand, electrons from the edge states mediate an anisotropic Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida nuclear spin-spin interaction, which induces a spiral nuclear spin order below the transition temperature. We discuss the features of the spiral order, as well as its experimental signatures. In the ordered phase, we identify two backscattering mechanisms, due to charge impurities and magnons. The backscattering on charge impurities is allowed by the internally generated magnetic field, and leads to an Anderson-type localization of the edge states. The magnon-mediated backscattering results in a power-law resistance, which is suppressed at zero temperature. Overall, we find that in a sufficiently long edge the nuclear spins, whether ordered or not, suppress the edge conductance to zero as the temperature approaches zero.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Obaid, Rana [Institut für Theoretische Chemie, Universität Wien, Währinger Str. 17, 1090 Wien (Austria); Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Quds University, Abu Dis, Palestine (Country Unknown); Kinzel, Daniel; Oppel, Markus, E-mail: markus.oppel@univie.ac.at; González, Leticia [Institut für Theoretische Chemie, Universität Wien, Währinger Str. 17, 1090 Wien (Austria)
2014-10-28
Despite the concept of nuclear spin isomers (NSIs) exists since the early days of quantum mechanics, only few approaches have been suggested to separate different NSIs. Here, a method is proposed to discriminate different NSIs of a quinodimethane derivative using its electronic excited state dynamics. After electronic excitation by a laser field with femtosecond time duration, a difference in the behavior of several quantum mechanical operators can be observed. A pump-probe experimental approach for separating these different NSIs is then proposed.
Xiao, Yunlong; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Wenjian
2014-10-28
Both kinetically balanced (KB) and kinetically unbalanced (KU) rotational London orbitals (RLO) are proposed to resolve the slow basis set convergence in relativistic calculations of nuclear spin-rotation (NSR) coupling tensors of molecules containing heavy elements [Y. Xiao and W. Liu, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 134104 (2013)]. While they perform rather similarly, the KB-RLO Ansatz is clearly preferred as it ensures the correct nonrelativistic limit even with a finite basis. Moreover, it gives rise to the same "direct relativistic mapping" between nuclear magnetic resonance shielding and NSR coupling tensors as that without using the London orbitals [Y. Xiao, Y. Zhang, and W. Liu, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 10, 600 (2014)].
Corrections to nucleon spin structure asymmetries measured on nuclear polarized targets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rondon, O.A.
1999-01-01
The nucleon spin structure functions have been extracted from measurements of asymmetries in deep inelastic scattering of polarized leptons on polarized nuclei. The polarized nuclei present in practical targets: H, 2 H, 3 He, 14 N, 15 N, 6 Li, and 7 Li, are, with the exception of hydrogen, systems of bound nucleons, some of which can attain significant degrees of alignment. All the aligned nucleons contribute to the asymmetries. The contributions of each nuclear species to the asymmetry have to be carefully determined, before a reliable value for the net nucleon asymmetry is obtained. For this purpose, the spin component of the nuclear angular momentum for every nuclear state and the probability of each state have to be known with sufficient accuracy. In this paper I discuss the basic corrections used to estimate the contributions of the different nuclei, with emphasis on the A=6 and 7 Li isotopes present in the Li 2 H polarized target used during SLAC Experiment 155 to study the deuteron spin structure. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society
Nuclear spin singlet states as a contrast mechanism for NMR spectroscopy.
Devience, Stephen J; Walsworth, Ronald L; Rosen, Matthew S
2013-10-01
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of complex chemical mixtures often contain unresolved or hidden spectral components, especially when strong background signals overlap weaker peaks. In this article we demonstrate a quantum filter utilizing nuclear spin singlet states, which allows undesired NMR spectral background to be removed and target spectral peaks to be uncovered. The quantum filter is implemented by creating a nuclear spin singlet state with spin quantum numbers j = 0, mz = 0 in a target molecule, applying a continuous RF field to both preserve the singlet state and saturate the magnetization of undesired molecules and then mapping the target molecule singlet state back into an NMR observable state so that its spectrum can be read out unambiguously. The preparation of the target singlet state can be carefully controlled with pulse sequence parameters, so that spectral contrast can be achieved between molecules with very similar structures. We name this NMR contrast mechanism 'Suppression of Undesired Chemicals using Contrast-Enhancing Singlet States' (SUCCESS) and we demonstrate it in vitro for three target molecules relevant to neuroscience: aspartate, threonine and glutamine. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Quantum cognition: The possibility of processing with nuclear spins in the brain
Fisher, Matthew P. A.
2015-11-01
The possibility that quantum processing with nuclear spins might be operative in the brain is explored. Phosphorus is identified as the unique biological element with a nuclear spin that can serve as a qubit for such putative quantum processing-a neural qubit-while the phosphate ion is the only possible qubit-transporter. We identify the "Posner molecule", Ca9(PO4)6, as the unique molecule that can protect the neural qubits on very long times and thereby serve as a (working) quantum-memory. A central requirement for quantum-processing is quantum entanglement. It is argued that the enzyme catalyzed chemical reaction which breaks a pyrophosphate ion into two phosphate ions can quantum entangle pairs of qubits. Posner molecules, formed by binding such phosphate pairs with extracellular calcium ions, will inherit the nuclear spin entanglement. A mechanism for transporting Posner molecules into presynaptic neurons during vesicle endocytosis is proposed. Quantum measurements can occur when a pair of Posner molecules chemically bind and subsequently melt, releasing a shower of intra-cellular calcium ions that can trigger further neurotransmitter release and enhance the probability of post-synaptic neuron firing. Multiple entangled Posner molecules, triggering non-local quantum correlations of neuron firing rates, would provide the key mechanism for neural quantum processing. Implications, both in vitro and in vivo, are briefly mentioned.
Mesoscopic effects in the quantum Hall regime
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 58; Issue 2 ... Mesoscopic effects; quantum Hall transitions; ﬁnite-size scaling. ... When band mixing between multiple Landau levels is present, mesoscopic effects cause a crossover from a sequence of quantum Hall transitions for weak disorder to classical behavior ...
A NEW METHOD FOR EXTRACTING SPIN-DEPENDENT NEUTRON STRUCTURE FUNCTIONS FROM NUCLEAR DATA
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kahn, Y.F.; Melnitchouk, W.
2009-01-01
High-energy electrons are currently the best probes of the internal structure of nucleons (protons and neutrons). By collecting data on electrons scattering off light nuclei, such as deuterium and helium, one can extract structure functions (SFs), which encode information about the quarks that make up the nucleon. Spin-dependent SFs, which depend on the relative polarization of the electron beam and the target nucleus, encode quark spins. Proton SFs can be measured directly from electron-proton scattering, but those of the neutron must be extracted from proton data and deuterium or helium-3 data because free neutron targets do not exist. At present, there is no reliable method for accurately determining spin-dependent neutron SFs in the low-momentum-transfer regime, where nucleon resonances are prominent and the functions are not smooth. The focus of this study was to develop a new method for extracting spin-dependent neutron SFs from nuclear data. An approximate convolution formula for nuclear SFs reduces the problem to an integral equation, for which a recursive solution method was designed. The method was then applied to recent data from proton and deuterium scattering experiments to perform a preliminary extraction of spin-dependent neutron SFs in the resonance region. The extraction method was found to reliably converge for arbitrary test functions, and the validity of the extraction from data was verifi ed using a Bjorken integral, which relates integrals of SFs to a known quantity. This new information on neutron structure could be used to assess quark-hadron duality for the neutron, which requires detailed knowledge of SFs in all kinematic regimes.
Experimental Realization of a Quantum Spin Pump
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Watson, Susan; Potok, R.; M. Marcus, C.
2003-01-01
We demonstrate the operation of a quantum spin pump based on cyclic radio-frequency excitation of a GaAs quantum dot, including the ability to pump pure spin without pumping charge. The device takes advantage of bidirectional mesoscopic fluctuations of pumped current, made spin......-dependent by the application of an in-plane Zeeman field. Spin currents are measured by placing the pump in a focusing geometry with a spin-selective collector....
Hyperfine structure, nuclear spins and magnetic moments of some cesium isotopes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ekstroem, C.; Ingelman, S.; Wannberg, G.
1977-03-01
Using an atomic-beam magnetic resonance apparatus connected on-line with the ISOLDE isotope separator, CERN, hyperfine structure measurements have been performed in the 2 Ssub(1/2) electronic ground state of some cesium isotopes. An on-line oven system which efficiently converts a mass separated ion-beam of alkali isotopes to an atomic beam is described in some detail. Experimentally determined nuclear spins of sup(120, 121, 121m, 122, 122m, 123, 124, 126, 128, 130m, 135m)Cs and magnetic moments of sup(122, 123, 124, 126, 128, 130)Cs are reported and discussed in terms of different nuclear models. The experimental data indicate deformed nuclear shapes of the lightest cesium isotopes. (Auth.)
Relation between molecular electronic structure and nuclear spin-induced circular dichroism
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Štěpánek, Petr; Coriani, Sonia; Sundholm, Dage
2017-01-01
with the spatial distribution of the excited states and couplings between them, reflecting changes in molecular structure and conformation. This constitutes a marked difference to the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shift, which only reflects the local molecular structure in the ground electronic state......The recently theoretically described nuclear spin-induced circular dichroism (NSCD) is a promising method for the optical detection of nuclear magnetization. NSCD involves both optical excitations of the molecule and hyperfine interactions and, thus, it offers a means to realize a spectroscopy...... with spatially localized, high-resolution information. To survey the factors relating the molecular and electronic structure to the NSCD signal, we theoretically investigate NSCD of twenty structures of the four most common nucleic acid bases (adenine, guanine, thymine, cytosine). The NSCD signal correlates...
Pure spin-3/2 propagator for use in particle and nuclear physics
Kristiano, J.; Clymton, S.; Mart, T.
2017-11-01
We propose the use of a pure spin-3/2 propagator in the (3 /2 ,0 )⊕(0 ,3 /2 ) representation in particle and nuclear physics. To formulate the propagator in a covariant form we use the antisymmetric tensor spinor representation and we consider the Δ resonance contribution to the elastic π N scattering as an example. We find that the use of a conventional gauge-invariant interaction Lagrangian leads to a problem: the obtained scattering amplitude does not exhibit the resonance behavior. To overcome this problem we modify the interaction by adding a momentum dependence. As in the case of the Rarita-Schwinger formalism, we find that a perfect resonance description could be obtained in the pure spin-3/2 formulation only if hadronic form factors were considered in the interactions.
Impact of hadronic and nuclear corrections on global analysis of spin-dependent parton distributions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jimenez-Delgado, Pedro [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Accardi, Alberto [Hampton University, Hampton, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Melnitchouk, Wally [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)
2014-02-01
We present the first results of a new global next-to-leading order analysis of spin-dependent parton distribution functions from the most recent world data on inclusive polarized deep-inelastic scattering, focusing in particular on the large-x and low-Q^2 regions. By directly fitting polarization asymmetries we eliminate biases introduced by using polarized structure function data extracted under nonuniform assumptions for the unpolarized structure functions. For analysis of the large-x data we implement nuclear smearing corrections for deuterium and 3He nuclei, and systematically include target mass and higher twist corrections to the g_1 and g_2 structure functions at low Q^2. We also explore the effects of Q^2 and W^2 cuts in the data sets, and the potential impact of future data on the behavior of the spin-dependent parton distributions at large x.
Nuclear spin relaxation/resonance of {sup 8}Li in Al
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Salman, Z. [Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, Oxford University, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); ISIS Facility, Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Chow, K.H.; Fan, I. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2G7 (Canada); Hossain, M.D.; Keeler, T.A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Kiefl, R.F., E-mail: kiefl@triumf.c [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Canadian Institute for Advanced Research (Canada); Levy, C.D.P. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Mansour, A.I. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2G7 (Canada); Morris, G.D.; Pearson, M.R. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Parolin, T.J. [Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z3 (Canada); Saadaoui, H.; Smadella, M.; Song, Q. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); MacFarlane, W.A. [Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z3 (Canada)
2009-04-15
A low energy beam of spin polarized {sup 8}Li has been used to study the behaviour of isolated {sup 8}Li implanted into a 150 nm thick film of Al on an MgO substrate. The spin relaxation rate 1/T{sub 1} and beta-NMR lineshape were measured as a function of temperature in a large magnetic field of 4.1 T. The resonances from different sites are unresolved due to the large nuclear dipolar interaction with the host {sup 27}Al magnetic dipole moments. Nevertheless the temperature variation of the site averaged 1/T{sub 1} and Knight shift show evidence for a transition between the octahedral O and substitutional S sites at about 150 K, as observed in other fcc metals.
Herlitschke, M.; Disch, S.; Sergueev, I.; Schlage, K.; Wetterskog, E.; Bergström, L.; Hermann, R. P.
2016-04-01
The manuscript reports the investigation of spin disorder in maghemite nanoparticles of different shape by a combination of polarized small-angle neutron scattering (SANSPOL) and nuclear forward scattering (NFS) techniques. Both methods are sensitive to magnetization on the nanoscale. SANSPOL allows for investigation of the particle morphology and spatial magnetization distribution and NFS extends this nanoscale information to the atomic scale, namely the orientation of the hyperfine field experienced by the iron nuclei. The studied nanospheres and nanocubes with diameters of 7.4 nm and 10.6 nm, respectively, exhibit a significant spin disorder. This effect leads to a reduction of the magnetization to 44% and 58% of the theoretical maghemite bulk value, observed consistently by both techniques.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reich, H.; Jaensch, H.J.
1990-01-01
An improvement of the Heidelberg source for polarized heavy ions (PSI) is described. To produce a nuclear spin polarized atomic Na beam an electro-optically modulated laser beam has been used for optical pumping. An electro-optic modulator (EOM) was constructed with a bandwidth of 1.8 GHz. Without a spin separating Stern-Gerlach magnet it is now possible to prepare a Na atomic beam in one single hyperfine magnetic substate. Thus the beam figure of merit (polarization 2 x intensity of the beam) has been improved by a factor of 4 as compared to the previous setup. Experiences with the new system collected from several beam times are discussed. (orig.)
Generalized nuclear Fukui functions in the framework of spin-polarized density-functional theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chamorro, E.; Proft, F. de; Geerlings, P.
2005-01-01
An extension of Cohen's nuclear Fukui function is presented in the spin-polarized framework of density-functional theory (SP-DFT). The resulting new nuclear Fukui function indices Φ Nα and Φ Sα are intended to be the natural descriptors for the responses of the nuclei to changes involving charge transfer at constant multiplicity and also the spin polarization at constant number of electrons. These generalized quantities allow us to gain new insights within a perturbative scheme based on DFT. Calculations of the electronic and nuclear SP-DFT quantities are presented within a Kohn-Sham framework of chemical reactivity for a sample of molecules, including H 2 O, H 2 CO, and some simple nitrenes (NX) and phosphinidenes (PX), with X=H, Li, F, Cl, OH, SH, NH 2 , and PH 2 . Results have been interpreted in terms of chemical bonding in the context of Berlin's theorem, which provides a separation of the molecular space into binding and antibinding regions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Parks, C; Sullivan, N S [Department of Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Stachowiak, P [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, PO Box 1410, 50-950 Wroclaw (Poland)], E-mail: Sullivan@phys.ufl.edu
2009-02-01
Measurements of the {sup 3}He nuclear spin-spin relaxation time, T{sub 2}, have been carried out for commensurate layers of {sup 3}He-Ne mixtures adsorbed on hexagonal boron nitride for temperatures 0.2< T <10 K. A temperature independent relaxation is observed at low temperatures and is interpreted in terms of the effective exchange frequencies for {sup 3}He particle exchange on the surface. The results show a strong dependence on the fraction of neon in the adsorbed layer. This variation is discussed in terms of a multiple spin exchange model for {sup 3}He in a monolayer. The contributions to T{sub 2} from different components of the exchange, 2-spin exchange (J{sub 2}), 3-spin exchange (J{sub 3}), 4-spin exchange (J{sub 4}) and higher exchange permutations depend on the {sup 3}He coverage and thus permit the separation of the amplitudes of the different exchange rates, and in particular allow one to deduce the relative strengths of 2-atom and 3-atom exchange where other methods are sensitive only to the effective two-particle term J{sub eff} = J{sub 2} - 2J{sub 3}.
To a better management of nuclear wastes. SPIN program: chemical separations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Madic, C.
1995-01-01
This document is a compilation of transparencies for a conference about the techniques used in France for the reprocessing of spent fuels. A description of the different steps of the fuel cycle and of the Purex process (TBP extraction etc..) is given. According to December 30, 1991 nuclear waste policy acts, the ultimate disposal of long life radioactive wastes is prohibited. The SPIN program has been created to develop separation and transmutation processes for high activity radioactive wastes prior to their storage in surface facilities or disposal in deep geologic repositories. The two main axes of the SPIN program are the reduction of waste volume and the reduction of long-life radionuclides quantity using new chemical processes (Diamex) and extractants (diamides, picolinamides, calixarenes, ether-crown), and destruction processes. The principal targets of the SPIN program are the minor actinides (neptunium..) and the long-life fission products (technetium, zirconium..). The processes used are derived from Purex and involve additional hydrometallurgical (pyrometallurgical) operations in order to minimize the induced secondary waste fluxes. (J.S.). 20 figs., 2 tabs
Quantum correlations in a system of nuclear s = 1/2 spins in a strong magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fel’dman, E B; Kuznetsova, E I; Yurishchev, M A
2012-01-01
Entanglement and quantum discord for a pair of nuclear spins s = 1/2 in a nanopore filled with a gas of spin-carrying molecules (atoms) are studied. The correlation functions describing dynamics of dipolar-coupled spins in a nanopore are found. The dependence of spin-pair entanglement on the temperature and the number of spins is obtained from the reduced density matrix, which is centrosymmetric (CS). An analytic expression for the concurrence is obtained for an arbitrary CS density matrix. It is shown that the quantum discord as a measure of quantum correlations attains a significant value at low temperatures. It is also shown that the discord in the considered model has ‘flickering’ character and disappears periodically in the course of time evolution of the system. The geometric discord is studied for arbitrary 4 × 4 CS density matrices. (paper)
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Bouř, Petr; Raich, I.; Kaminsky, J.; Hrabal, R.; Čejka, J.; Sychrovský, Vladimír
2004-01-01
Roč. 108, - (2004), s. 6365-6372 ISSN 1089-5639 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4055104; GA MŠk LN00A032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : spin-spin coupling Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.639, year: 2004
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Furukawa, Takeshi; Wakui, Takashi; Yang, Xiaofei; Fujita, Tomomi; Imamura, Kei; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro; Tetsuka, Hiroki; Tsutsui, Yoshiki; Mitsuya, Yosuke; Ichikawa, Yuichi; Ishibashi, Yoko; Yoshida, Naoki; Shirai, Hazuki; Ebara, Yuta; Hayasaka, Miki; Arai, Shino; Muramoto, Sosuke
2013-01-01
Highlights: • Development of a novel nuclear laser spectroscopy method using superfluid helium. • Observation of the Zeeman resonance with the 85 Rb beam introduced into helium. • Demonstration of deducing the nuclear spins from the observed resonance spectrum. -- Abstract: We have been developing a novel nuclear laser spectroscopy method “OROCHI” for determining spins and moments of exotic radioisotopes. In this method, we use superfluid helium as a stopping material of energetic radioisotope beams and then stopped radioisotope atoms are subjected to in situ laser spectroscopy in superfluid helium. To confirm the feasibility of this method for rare radioisotopes, we carried out a test experiment using a 85 Rb beam. In this experiment, we have successfully measured the Zeeman resonance signals from the 85 Rb atoms stopped in superfluid helium by laser-RF double resonance spectroscopy. This method is efficient for the measurement of spins and moments of more exotic nuclei
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Furukawa, Takeshi, E-mail: takeshi@tmu.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Wakui, Takashi [Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Yang, Xiaofei [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); School of Physics, Peking University, Chengfu Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100871 (China); Fujita, Tomomi [Department of Physics, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Imamura, Kei; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro [Department of Physics, Meiji University, 1-1-1 Higashi-Mita, Tama, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 214-8571 (Japan); Tetsuka, Hiroki; Tsutsui, Yoshiki [Department of Physics, Tokyo Gakugei University, 4-1-1 Nukuikitamachi, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8501,Japan (Japan); Mitsuya, Yosuke [Department of Physics, Meiji University, 1-1-1 Higashi-Mita, Tama, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 214-8571 (Japan); Ichikawa, Yuichi [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Ishibashi, Yoko [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Physics, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Yoshida, Naoki; Shirai, Hazuki [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Ebara, Yuta; Hayasaka, Miki [Department of Physics, Tokyo Gakugei University, 4-1-1 Nukuikitamachi, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8501,Japan (Japan); Arai, Shino; Muramoto, Sosuke [Department of Physics, Meiji University, 1-1-1 Higashi-Mita, Tama, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 214-8571 (Japan); and others
2013-12-15
Highlights: • Development of a novel nuclear laser spectroscopy method using superfluid helium. • Observation of the Zeeman resonance with the {sup 85}Rb beam introduced into helium. • Demonstration of deducing the nuclear spins from the observed resonance spectrum. -- Abstract: We have been developing a novel nuclear laser spectroscopy method “OROCHI” for determining spins and moments of exotic radioisotopes. In this method, we use superfluid helium as a stopping material of energetic radioisotope beams and then stopped radioisotope atoms are subjected to in situ laser spectroscopy in superfluid helium. To confirm the feasibility of this method for rare radioisotopes, we carried out a test experiment using a {sup 85}Rb beam. In this experiment, we have successfully measured the Zeeman resonance signals from the {sup 85}Rb atoms stopped in superfluid helium by laser-RF double resonance spectroscopy. This method is efficient for the measurement of spins and moments of more exotic nuclei.
Quantum Coherence and Random Fields at Mesoscopic Scales
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rosenbaum, Thomas F. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)
2016-03-01
We seek to explore and exploit model, disordered and geometrically frustrated magnets where coherent spin clusters stably detach themselves from their surroundings, leading to extreme sensitivity to finite frequency excitations and the ability to encode information. Global changes in either the spin concentration or the quantum tunneling probability via the application of an external magnetic field can tune the relative weights of quantum entanglement and random field effects on the mesoscopic scale. These same parameters can be harnessed to manipulate domain wall dynamics in the ferromagnetic state, with technological possibilities for magnetic information storage. Finally, extensions from quantum ferromagnets to antiferromagnets promise new insights into the physics of quantum fluctuations and effective dimensional reduction. A combination of ac susceptometry, dc magnetometry, noise measurements, hole burning, non-linear Fano experiments, and neutron diffraction as functions of temperature, magnetic field, frequency, excitation amplitude, dipole concentration, and disorder address issues of stability, overlap, coherence, and control. We have been especially interested in probing the evolution of the local order in the progression from spin liquid to spin glass to long-range-ordered magnet.
Semiclassical approaches to mesoscopic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brack, M.
2001-01-01
We review semiclassical methods of determining both average trends and quantum shell effects in the properties of finite fermion systems. I. Extended Thomas-Fermi model (ETF): the average, self-consistent mean field can be determined by density variational calculations using the semiclassical gradient-expanded ETF density functional for the kinetic energy. From this, average ground-state properties such as binding energies, densities, separation energies, etc. can be derived. II. Periodic orbit theory (POT): quantum oscillations in a mean-field system can be obtained from the semiclassical trace formula that expresses the quantum-mechanical density of states in terms of the periodic orbits of the corresponding classical system. Only the shortest periodic orbits with highest degeneracy are important for the coarse-grained level density, i.e., for the gross shell effects. Particular uniform approximations are required to treat systems with mixed classical dynamics due to the effects of symmetry breaking and orbit bifurcations. Ill. Local-current approximation (LCA): the collective dynamics of the fermions can be described in linear-response theory, approximating the particle-hole excitation operators semi-classically by local current distributions. The method is suitable in combination with both the ETF density variational approach or with the Kohn-Sham density functional approach for the ground state, and allows one to describe optic response properties such as static polarizabilities and plasmon resonances. Applications of all methods to metal clusters and various mesoscopic nano-structures are given. (author)
Nuclear spin polarized alkali beams (Li and Na): Production and acceleration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jaensch, H.; Becker, K.; Blatt, K.; Leucker, H.; Fick, D.
1987-01-01
Recent improvements of the Heidelberg source for polarized heavy ions (PSI) are described. By means of optical pumping in combination with the existing multipole separation magnet the beam figure of merit (polarization 2 x intensity) was doubled. 7 Li and 23 Na atomic beams can now be produced in pure hyperfine magnetic substates. Fast switching of the polarization is achieved by an adiabatic medium field transition. The hyperfine magnetic substate population is determined by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. In routine operation atomic beams with nuclear polarization p α ≥0.85 (α=z, zz) are obtained. The acceleration of polarized 23 Na - ions by a 12 MV tandem accelerator introduces a new problem: the energy at the terminal stripper foil is not sufficient to produce a usable yield of naked ions. For partially stripped ions hyperfine interaction of the remaining electrons with the nuclear spin reduces the nuclear polarization. Using in addition the Heidelberg postaccelerator 23 Na 9+ beams of energies between 49 and 184 MeV were obtained with an alignment on target of P zz ≅0.45. 7 Li beams have also been accelerated up to 45 MeV with an alignment of P zz =0.69. (orig.)
Albert, Brice J; Pahng, Seong Ho; Alaniva, Nicholas; Sesti, Erika L; Rand, Peter W; Saliba, Edward P; Scott, Faith J; Choi, Eric J; Barnes, Alexander B
2017-10-01
Cryogenic sample temperatures can enhance NMR sensitivity by extending spin relaxation times to improve dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) and by increasing Boltzmann spin polarization. We have developed an efficient heat exchanger with a liquid nitrogen consumption rate of only 90L per day to perform magic-angle spinning (MAS) DNP experiments below 85K. In this heat exchanger implementation, cold exhaust gas from the NMR probe is returned to the outer portion of a counterflow coil within an intermediate cooling stage to improve cooling efficiency of the spinning and variable temperature gases. The heat exchange within the counterflow coil is calculated with computational fluid dynamics to optimize the heat transfer. Experimental results using the novel counterflow heat exchanger demonstrate MAS DNP signal enhancements of 328±3 at 81±2K, and 276±4 at 105±2K. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huffman, P.R.; Roberson, N.R.; Wilburn, W.S.; Gould, C.R.; Haase, D.G.; Keith, C.D.; Raichle, B.W.; Seely, M.L.; Walston, J.R.
1997-01-01
A test of parity-conserving, time-reversal noninvariance (PC TRNI) has been performed in 5.9 MeV polarized neutron transmission through nuclear spin aligned holmium. The experiment searches for the T-violating fivefold correlation via a double modulation technique emdash flipping the neutron spin while rotating the alignment axis of the holmium. Relative cross sections for spin-up and spin-down neutrons are found to be equal to within 1.2x10 -5 (80% confidence). This is a two orders of magnitude improvement compared to traditional detailed balance studies of time reversal, and represents the most precise test of PC TRNI in a dynamical process, to our knowledge. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soubies, B.; Boulc'h, J.; Elsensohn, O.; Le Meur, M.; Henry, J.Y.
1994-01-01
The process of licensing nuclear power plants for operation consists of mandatory steps featuring detailed examination of the instrumentation and control system. Significant changes were introduced by the operator in the process of designing and producing 1400 MWe pressurized water reactor safety systems and, in particular, in the case of the Digital Integrated Protection System, (French abbreviation SPIN). The methodology applied by the Institute of Protection and Nuclear Safety (IPSN) to examine the software of this system is described. It consists of the methods used by the manufacturer to develop SPIN software for the 1400 MWe PWRs, and the approach adopted by the IPSN to evaluate SPIN safety softwares of the protection system for the N4 series of reactors. (R.P.). 2 refs
Modelling the molecular composition and nuclear-spin chemistry of collapsing prestellar sources
Hily-Blant, P.; Faure, A.; Rist, C.; Pineau des Forêts, G.; Flower, D. R.
2018-04-01
We study the gravitational collapse of prestellar sources and the associated evolution of their chemical composition. We use the University of Grenoble Alpes Astrochemical Network (UGAN), which includes reactions involving the different nuclear-spin states of H2, H+3, and of the hydrides of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, for reactions involving up to seven protons. In addition, species-to-species rate coefficients are provided for the ortho/para interconversion of the H_3^+ + H2 system and isotopic variants. The composition of the medium is followed from an initial steady state through the early phase of isothermal gravitational collapse. Both the freeze-out of the molecules on to grains and the coagulation of the grains were incorporated in the model. The predicted abundances and column densities of the spin isomers of ammonia and its deuterated forms are compared with those measured recently towards the prestellar cores H-MM1, L16293E, and Barnard B1. We find that gas-phase processes alone account satisfactorily for the observations, without recourse to grain-surface reactions. In particular, our model reproduces both the isotopologue abundance ratios and the ortho:para ratios of NH2D and NHD2 within observational uncertainties. More accurate observations are necessary to distinguish between full scrambling processes—as assumed in our gas-phase network—and direct nucleus- or atom-exchange reactions.
Huang, Susie Y.; Lin, Yung-Ya; Lisitza, Natalia; Warren, Warren S.
2002-06-01
Artifacts arising from aperiodic turbulent spin dynamics in gradient-based nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) applications are comprehensively surveyed and numerically simulated by a nonlinear Bloch equation. The unexpected dynamics, triggered by the joint action of radiation damping and the distant dipolar field, markedly deteriorate the performance of certain pulse sequences incorporating weak pulsed-field gradients and long evolution times. The effects are demonstrated in three general classes of gradient NMR applications: solvent signal suppression, diffusion measurements, and coherence pathway selection. Gradient-modulated solvent transverse magnetization can be partially rephased in a series of self-refocusing gradient echoes that blank out solute resonances in the CHESS (chemical-shift-selective spectroscopy) and WATERGATE (gradient-tailored water suppression) solvent suppression schemes. In addition, the discovered dynamics contribute to erratic echo attenuation in pulsed gradient spin echo (PGSE) and PGSE stimulated echo diffusion measurements and produce coherence leakage in gradient-selected DQFCOSY and HMQC experiments. Specific remedies for minimizing unwanted effects are presented.
Quantum non demolition measurement of a single nuclear spin in a room temperature solid
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Neumann, Phillip; Beck, Johannes; Steiner, Matthias; Rathgen, Helmut; Rempp, Florian; Zarrabi, Navid; Dolde, Florian; Jelezko, Fedor; Wrachtrup, Joerg [Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany); Hemmer, Philip [A and M University, Texas (United States)
2010-07-01
The measurement process and its interpretation are in the focus of quantum mechanics since its early days. Today's ability to isolate single quantum objects allows experimental demonstration of former ''gedankenexperiments'' like measurement induced quantum state collaps. Rapidly growing quantum technologies explore fundamental aspects of measurements in quantum computing, however for solid state systems such experiments require operation at very low temperatures. Here we show that projective quantum measurement can be performed on a single nuclear spin in diamond under ambient conditions. Using quantum non demolition (QND) readout we are able to detect quantum jumps and the quantum Zeno effect emphasising the addressability of fundamental questions of quantum mechanics in solids. Single shot measurements with fidelities exceeding 0.9 enable efficient state initialization, quantum error correction and entanglement pumping that is crucial for quantum information processing including measurement based schemes and distributed quantum networks.
Theory of radiative muon capture with applications to nuclear spin and isospin doublets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hwang, W.P.; Primakoff, H.
1978-01-01
A theory of radiative muon capture, with applications to nuclear spin and isospin doublets, is formulated on the basis of the conservation of the hadronic electromagnetic current, the conservation of the hadronic weak polar currents, the partial conservation of the hadronic weak axial-vector current, the SU(2) x SU(2) current algebra for the various hadronic current, and a simplifying dynamical approximation for the hadron-radiating part of the transition amplitude: the ''linearity hypothesis''. The resultant total transition amplitude, which also includes the muon-radiating part, is worked out explicitly and applied to treat the processes μ - p → ν/sub μ/nγ and μ - 3 He → ν/sub μ/ 3 Hγ
Fuson, Michael M.
2017-01-01
Laboratories studying the anisotropic rotational diffusion of bromobenzene using nuclear spin relaxation and molecular dynamics simulations are described. For many undergraduates, visualizing molecular motion is challenging. Undergraduates rarely encounter laboratories that directly assess molecular motion, and so the concept remains an…
Quantum switching of polarization in mesoscopic ferroelectrics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sa de Melo, C.A.
1996-01-01
A single domain of a uniaxial ferroelectric grain may be thought of as a classical permanent memory. At the mesoscopic level this system may experience considerable quantum fluctuations due to tunneling between two possible memory states, thus destroying the classical permanent memory effect. To study these quantum effects the concrete example of a mesoscopic uniaxial ferroelectric grain is discussed, where the orientation of the electric polarization determines two possible memory states. The possibility of quantum switching of the polarization in mesoscopic uniaxial ferroelectric grains is thus proposed. To determine the degree of memory loss, the tunneling rate between the two polarization states is calculated at zero temperature both in the absence and in the presence of an external static electric field. In addition, a discussion of crossover temperature between thermally activated behavior and quantum tunneling behavior is presented. And finally, environmental effects (phonons, defects, and surfaces) are also considered. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Coulomb drag in the mesoscopic regime
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mortensen, N. Asger; Flensberg, Karsten; Jauho, Antti-Pekka
2002-01-01
We present a theory for Coulomb drug between two mesoscopic systems which expresses the drag in terms of scattering matrices and wave functions. The formalism can be applied to both ballistic and disordered systems and the consequences can be studied either by numerical simulations or analytic...... means such as perturbation theory or random matrix theory. The physics of Coulomb drag in the mesoscopic regime is very different from Coulomb drag between extended electron systems. In the mesoscopic regime we in general find fluctuations of the drag comparable to the mean value. Examples are vanishing...... average drag for chaotic 2D-systems and dominating fluctuations of drag between quasi-ballistic wires with almost ideal transmission....
Coulomb drag in the mesoscopic regime
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mortensen, N.A.; Flensberg, Karsten; Jauho, Antti-Pekka
2002-01-01
We present a theory for Coulomb drag between two mesoscopic systems which expresses the drag in terms of scattering matrices and wave functions. The formalism can be applied to both ballistic and disordered systems and the consequences can be studied either by numerical simulations or analytic...... means such as perturbation theory or random matrix theory. The physics of Coulomb drag in the mesoscopic regime is very different from Coulomb drag between extended electron systems. In the mesoscopic regime we in general find fluctuations of the drag comparable to the mean value. Examples are vanishing...... average drag for chaotic 2D-systems and dominating fluctuations of drag between quasi-ballistic wires with almost ideal transmission....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lainetti, Paulo E.O.
2013-01-01
Nuclear spin-off has at least two dimensions. It may provide benefits to the society such as enlarge knowledge base, strengthen infrastructure and benefit technology development. Besides this, to emphasize that some useful technologies elapsed from nuclear activities can affect favorably the public opinion about nuclear energy. In this paper is described a technology developed initially by the Rockwell Int. company in the USA more than thirty years ago to solve some problems of nuclear fuel cycle wastes. For different reasons the technology was not employed. In the last years the interest in the technology was renewed and IPEN has developed his version of the method applicable mainly to the safe degradation of hazardous wastes. This study was motivated by the world interest in the development of advanced processes of waste decomposition, due to the need of safer decomposition processes, particularly for the POPs - persistent organic pollutants and particularly for the organ chlorides. A tendency observed at several countries is the adoption of progressively more demanding legislation for the atmospheric emissions, resultants of the waste decomposition processes. The suitable final disposal of hazardous organic wastes such as PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), pesticides, herbicides and hospital residues constitutes a serious problem. In some point of their life cycles, these wastes should be destroyed, in reason of the risk that they represent for the human being, animals and plants. The process involves using a chemical reactor containing molten salts, sodium carbonate or some alkaline carbonates mixtures to decompose the organic waste. The decomposition is performed by submerged oxidation and the residue is injected below the surface of a turbulent salt bath along with the oxidizing agent. Decomposition of halogenated compounds, among which some pesticides, is particularly effective in molten salts. The process presents properties such as intrinsically safe
Coulomb drag in coherent mesoscopic systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mortensen, Niels Asger; Flensberg, Karsten; Jauho, Antti-Pekka
2001-01-01
We present a theory for Coulomb drag between two mesoscopic systems. Our formalism expresses the drag in terms of scattering matrices and wave functions, and its range of validity covers both ballistic and disordered systems. The consequences can be worked out either by analytic means, such as th......We present a theory for Coulomb drag between two mesoscopic systems. Our formalism expresses the drag in terms of scattering matrices and wave functions, and its range of validity covers both ballistic and disordered systems. The consequences can be worked out either by analytic means...
Demonstration of a Sensitive Method to Measure Nuclear-Spin-Dependent Parity Violation
Altuntaş, Emine; Ammon, Jeffrey; Cahn, Sidney B.; DeMille, David
2018-04-01
Nuclear-spin-dependent parity violation (NSD-PV) effects in atoms and molecules arise from Z0 boson exchange between electrons and the nucleus, and from the magnetic interaction between electrons and the parity-violating nuclear anapole moment. We demonstrate measurements of NSD-PV that use an enhancement of the effect in diatomic molecules, here using the test system 138Ba 19. Our sensitivity surpasses that of any previous atomic parity violation measurement. We show that systematic errors can be suppressed to at least the level of the present statistical sensitivity. We measure the matrix element W of the NSD-PV interaction with total uncertainty δ W /(2 π )<0.7 Hz , for each of two configurations where W must have different signs. This sensitivity would be sufficient to measure NSD-PV effects of the size anticipated across a wide range of nuclei including 137Ba in 137BaF, where |W |/(2 π )≈5 Hz is expected.
Altuntaş, Emine; Ammon, Jeffrey; Cahn, Sidney B.; DeMille, David
2018-04-01
Nuclear-spin-dependent parity violation (NSD-PV) effects in atoms and molecules arise from Z0 boson exchange between electrons and the nucleus and from the magnetic interaction between electrons and the parity-violating nuclear anapole moment. It has been proposed to study NSD-PV effects using an enhancement of the observable effect in diatomic molecules [D. DeMille et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 023003 (2008), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.100.023003]. Here we demonstrate highly sensitive measurements of this type, using the test system 138Ba19F. We show that systematic errors associated with our technique can be suppressed to at least the level of the present statistical sensitivity. With ˜170 h of data, we measure the matrix element W of the NSD-PV interaction with uncertainty δ W /(2 π )<0.7 Hz for each of two configurations where W must have different signs. This sensitivity would be sufficient to measure NSD-PV effects of the size anticipated across a wide range of nuclei.
Mananga, Eugene Stephane; Charpentier, Thibault
2015-04-01
In this paper we present a theoretical perturbative approach for describing the NMR spectrum of strongly dipolar-coupled spin systems under fast magic-angle spinning. Our treatment is based on two approaches: the Floquet approach and the Floquet-Magnus expansion. The Floquet approach is well known in the NMR community as a perturbative approach to get analytical approximations. Numerical procedures are based on step-by-step numerical integration of the corresponding differential equations. The Floquet-Magnus expansion is a perturbative approach of the Floquet theory. Furthermore, we address the " γ -encoding" effect using the Floquet-Magnus expansion approach. We show that the average over " γ " angle can be performed for any Hamiltonian with γ symmetry.
Microwave field distribution in a magic angle spinning dynamic nuclear polarization NMR probe.
Nanni, Emilio A; Barnes, Alexander B; Matsuki, Yoh; Woskov, Paul P; Corzilius, Björn; Griffin, Robert G; Temkin, Richard J
2011-05-01
We present a calculation of the microwave field distribution in a magic angle spinning (MAS) probe utilized in dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) experiments. The microwave magnetic field (B(1S)) profile was obtained from simulations performed with the High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS) software suite, using a model that includes the launching antenna, the outer Kel-F stator housing coated with Ag, the RF coil, and the 4mm diameter sapphire rotor containing the sample. The predicted average B(1S) field is 13μT/W(1/2), where S denotes the electron spin. For a routinely achievable input power of 5W the corresponding value is γ(S)B(1S)=0.84MHz. The calculations provide insights into the coupling of the microwave power to the sample, including reflections from the RF coil and diffraction of the power transmitted through the coil. The variation of enhancement with rotor wall thickness was also successfully simulated. A second, simplified calculation was performed using a single pass model based on Gaussian beam propagation and Fresnel diffraction. This model provided additional physical insight and was in good agreement with the full HFSS simulation. These calculations indicate approaches to increasing the coupling of the microwave power to the sample, including the use of a converging lens and fine adjustment of the spacing of the windings of the RF coil. The present results should prove useful in optimizing the coupling of microwave power to the sample in future DNP experiments. Finally, the results of the simulation were used to predict the cross effect DNP enhancement (ϵ) vs. ω(1S)/(2π) for a sample of (13)C-urea dissolved in a 60:40 glycerol/water mixture containing the polarizing agent TOTAPOL; very good agreement was obtained between theory and experiment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Electric charges in superconducting mesoscopic samples
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Yampolskii, S. V.; Baelus, P.; Peeters, F. M.; Koláček, Jan
2002-01-01
Roč. 52, č. 2 (2002), s. 303-306 ISSN 0011-4626 Grant - others:GA-(XX) FWO-VI; GA-(BE) IUAP-VI; GA-(BE) GOA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : mesoscopic superconductor * Meissner state * vortex charge Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.311, year: 2002
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grohmann, Thomas
2012-05-31
In this thesis the wave packet dynamics of nuclear spin isomers of polyatomic molecules after interaction with static and time-dependent magnetic fields and moderate intense nonresonant laser pulses is investigated. In particular, the process of inducing (internal) molecular rotation as well as alignment of molecules by manipulating their rotational or rotational-torsional degrees of freedom is studied. In the first part of the thesis all theoretical concepts for identifying nuclear spin isomers and for describing their quantum dynamics will be discussed. Especially the symmetrization postulate and themolecular symmetry group will be introduced and illustrated for some examples of molecules. These concepts will be extended to the case of identifying nuclear spin isomers in the presence of an external field. In the second part it is shown for nitromethane that magnetic fields are able to induce unidirectional rotations in opposite directions for different nuclear spin isomers of molecules containing methyl groups if the dipolar interaction is included. Additionally, it is demonstrated that different nuclear spin isomers of a chemical compound may show different alignment after the interaction with a moderate intense laser pulse. As shown for the rigid symmetric top propadien and the rigid asymmetric tops ethene and analogues, distinct pairs of nuclear spin isomers show at certain points in time a complementary behavior: while one isomer is showing alignment the partner isomer is showing anti-alignment. Moreover, it is illustrated that not every nuclear spin isomer can be aligned equally efficient. The alignment of non-rigid molecules is considered as well. As an example for a molecule with feasible torsion in the electronic ground state, the alignment of diboron tetrafluoride is investigated. It becomes apparent that not only rotational but also the torsional dynamics of the molecules is nuclear spin selective; different nuclear spin isomers have at distinct points
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hejduk, Michal; Dohnal, Petr; Varju, Jozef; Rubovič, Peter; Plašil, Radek; Glosík, Juraj
2012-01-01
We have applied a continuous-wave near-infrared cavity ring-down spectroscopy method to study the parameters of a H 3 + -dominated plasma at temperatures in the range 77–200 K. We monitor populations of three rotational states of the ground vibrational state corresponding to para and ortho nuclear spin states in the discharge and the afterglow plasma in time and conclude that abundances of para and ortho states and rotational temperatures are well defined and stable. The non-trivial dependence of a relative population of para- H 3 + on a relative population of para-H 2 in a source H 2 gas is described. The results described in this paper are valuable for studies of state-selective dissociative recombination of H 3 + ions with electrons in the afterglow plasma and for the design of sources of H 3 + ions in a specific nuclear spin state. (paper)
Hejduk, Michal; Dohnal, Petr; Varju, Jozef; Rubovič, Peter; Plašil, Radek; Glosík, Juraj
2012-04-01
We have applied a continuous-wave near-infrared cavity ring-down spectroscopy method to study the parameters of a H_3^+ -dominated plasma at temperatures in the range 77-200 K. We monitor populations of three rotational states of the ground vibrational state corresponding to para and ortho nuclear spin states in the discharge and the afterglow plasma in time and conclude that abundances of para and ortho states and rotational temperatures are well defined and stable. The non-trivial dependence of a relative population of para- H_3^+ on a relative population of para-H2 in a source H2 gas is described. The results described in this paper are valuable for studies of state-selective dissociative recombination of H_3^+ ions with electrons in the afterglow plasma and for the design of sources of H_3^+ ions in a specific nuclear spin state.
Gregorovič, Alan; Apih, Tomaž; Lužnik, Janko; Pirnat, Janez; Trontelj, Zvone
A simple, yet effective technique to enhance the 14N NQR trinitrotoluene notoriously low sensitivity is the use of multipulse sequences. Here we investigate the off-resonance effects of the Spin-Lock Spin-Echo multipulse sequence, a predecessor of many advanced pulse sequences used for the same enhancement. Two samples have been used: paranitrotoluene, with a single 14N site as a model compound for trinitrotoluene, and trinitrotoluene itself, with six 14N sites. Our main focus has been the irradiation frequency dependence of the NQR signal, which is important when 14N NQR is used for remote detection of explosives. The two related principal issues are: the target temperature uncertainty and the existence of multiplets with several closely spaced resonance frequencies. The first applies to any explosive, since in remote detection the temperature is only approximately known, whereas the second applies mainly to trinitrotoluene, with 12 resonance frequencies between 837 and 871 kHz. Our frequency dependent investigation shows that the signal intensity as well as the effective spinspin relaxation time varies substantially with irradiation frequency in both samples. We provide a theoretical explanation of this variation which describes very well the observations and can be useful for increasing the reliability of remote detection signal processing.
Garcon, Antoine; Aybas, Deniz; Blanchard, John W.; Centers, Gary; Figueroa, Nataniel L.; Graham, Peter W.; Kimball, Derek F. Jackson; Rajendran, Surjeet; Gil Sendra, Marina; Sushkov, Alexander O.; Trahms, Lutz; Wang, Tao; Wickenbrock, Arne; Wu, Teng; Budker, Dmitry
2018-01-01
The cosmic axion spin precession experiment (CASPEr) is a nuclear magnetic resonance experiment (NMR) seeking to detect axion and axion-like particles which could make up the dark matter present in the Universe. We review the predicted couplings of axions and axion-like particles with baryonic matter that enable their detection via NMR. We then describe two measurement schemes being implemented in CASPEr. The first method, presented in the original CASPEr proposal, consists of a resonant search via continuous-wave NMR spectroscopy. This method offers the highest sensitivity for frequencies ranging from a few Hz to hundreds of MHz, corresponding to masses {m}{{a}}∼ {10}-14–{10}-6 eV. Sub-Hz frequencies are typically difficult to probe with NMR due to the diminishing sensitivity of magnetometers in this region. To circumvent this limitation, we suggest new detection and data processing modalities. We describe a non-resonant frequency-modulation detection scheme, enabling searches from mHz to Hz frequencies ({m}{{a}}∼ {10}-17–{10}-14 eV), extending the detection bandwidth by three decades.
Dynamical suppression of nuclear-spin decoherence time in Si and GaAs using inversion pulses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Watanabe, S.; Harada, J.; Sasaki, S.; Hirayama, Y.
2007-01-01
We found that nuclear-spin decoherence is suppressed by applying inversion pulses such as alternating phase Carr-Purcell (APCP) and Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) sequences in silicon and GaAs. The decoherence time reaches ∼1.3s by applying inversion pulses, which is ∼200 times as long as the characteristic decay time obtained from the Hahn echo sequence (∼6ms) in silicon
Contact Geometry of Mesoscopic Thermodynamics and Dynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miroslav Grmela
2014-03-01
Full Text Available The time evolution during which macroscopic systems reach thermodynamic equilibrium states proceeds as a continuous sequence of contact structure preserving transformations maximizing the entropy. This viewpoint of mesoscopic thermodynamics and dynamics provides a unified setting for the classical equilibrium and nonequilibrium thermodynamics, kinetic theory, and statistical mechanics. One of the illustrations presented in the paper is a new version of extended nonequilibrium thermodynamics with fluxes as extra state variables.
X-ray diffraction from mesoscopic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Press, W.; Bahr, D.; Tolan, M.; Burandt, B.; Mueller, M.; Mueller-Buschbaum, P.; Nitz, V.; Stettner, J.
1994-01-01
Two activities of our group concerning structures on mesoscopic length scales are presented: (1) CoSi 2 layers buried in Si-wafers have been studied with many scattering geometries; the emphasis is on diffuse scattering from rough interfaces and diffuse scattering from atomic scale defects. (2) The other example is an investigation of laterally structured surfaces in the region of total external reflection and around Bragg peaks. In both cases extensions of the presently available models are necessary. ((orig.))
Detecting Spin-Polarized Currents in Ballistic Nanostructures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Potok, R.; Folk, J.; M. Marcus, C.
2002-01-01
We demonstrate a mesoscopic spin polarizer/analyzer system that allows the spin polarization of current from a quantum point contact in an in-plane magnetic field to be measured. A transverse focusing geometry is used to couple current from an emitter point contact into a collector point contact....
Mesoscopic colonization of a spectral band
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertola, M; Lee, S Y; Mo, M Y
2009-01-01
We consider the unitary matrix model in the limit where the size of the matrices becomes infinite and in the critical situation when a new spectral band is about to emerge. In previous works, the number of expected eigenvalues in the neighborhood of the band was fixed and finite, a situation that was termed 'birth of a cut' or 'first colonization'. We now consider the transitional regime where this microscopic population in the new band grows without bounds but at a slower rate than the size of the matrix. The local population in the new band organizes in a 'mesoscopic' regime, in between the macroscopic behavior of the full system and the previously studied microscopic one. The mesoscopic colony may form a finite number of new bands, with a maximum number dictated by the degree of criticality of the original potential. We describe the delicate scaling limit that realizes and controls the mesoscopic colony. The method we use is the steepest descent analysis of the Riemann-Hilbert problem that is satisfied by the associated orthogonal polynomials.
Nuclear shape transitions and some properties of aligned-particle configurations at high spin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koo, T.L.; Chowdhury, P.; Emling, H.
1982-01-01
Two topics are addressed in this paper. First, we discuss the variation of shapes with spin and neutron number for nuclei in the N approx. = 88 transitional region. Second, we present comments on the feeding times of very high spin single-particle yrast states
Collective spin by linearization of the Schrodinger equation for nuclear collective motion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greiner, M.; Scheid, W.; Herrmann, R.
1988-01-01
The free Schrodinger equation for multipole degrees of freedom is linearized so that energy and momentum operators appear only in first order. As an example, the authors demonstrate the linearization procedure for quadrupole degrees of freedom. The wave function solving this equation carries a spin. The authors derive the operator of the collective spin and its eigen values depending on multipolarity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wolny, Juliusz A., E-mail: wolny@physik.uni-kl.de; Rackwitz, Sergej [University of Kaiserslautern, Department of Physics (Germany); Achterhold, Klaus [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Physics (Germany); Muffler, Kai; Schuenemann, Volker [University of Kaiserslautern, Department of Physics (Germany)
2012-03-15
The vibrational properties of Fe(II) 1D spin crossover polymers have been characterized by nuclear inelastic scattering (NIS). The complexes under study were the tosylate and perchlorate salts of ([Fe(4-amino-1,2,4-triazole){sub 3}] <{sup +2}){sub n} complexes. The complexes have LS (S = 0) marker bands in the range of 300-500 cm{sup - 1}, while the marker bands corresponding to the HS (S = 2) state are detected between 200 cm{sup - 1} and 300 cm{sup - 1}, in line with the decreasing Fe-N bond strengths during the transition from LS to HS. Accompanying DFT calculations using the functional B3LYP and the basis set CEP-31G confirm these assignments.
In a spin at Brookhaven spin physics
Makdisi, Y I
2003-01-01
The mysterious quantity that is spin took centre stage at Brookhaven for the SPIN2002 meeting last September. The 15th biennial International Spin Physics Symposium (SPIN2002) was held at Brookhaven National Laboratory on 9-14 September 2002. Some 250 spin enthusiasts attended, including experimenters and theorists in both nuclear and high-energy physics, as well as accelerator physicists and polarized target and polarized source experts. The six-day symposium included 23 plenary talks and 150 parallel talks. SPIN2002 was preceded by a one-day spin physics tutorial for students, postdocs, and anyone else who felt the need for a refresher course. (2 refs).
Urdampilleta, M.; Klyatskaya, S.; Ruben, M.; Wernsdorfer, W.
2013-05-01
A multiterminal device based on a carbon nanotube quantum dot was used at very low temperature to probe a single electronic and nuclear spin embedded in a bis-(phthalocyaninato) terbium (III) complex (TbPc2). A spin-valve signature with large conductance jumps was found when two molecules were strongly coupled to the nanotube. The application of a transverse field separated the magnetic signal of both molecules and enabled single-shot read-out of the terbium nuclear spin. The Landau-Zener (LZ) quantum tunneling probability was studied as a function of field sweep rate, establishing a good agreement with the LZ equation and yielding the tunnel splitting Δ. It was found that Δ increased linearly as a function of the transverse field. These studies are an essential prerequisite for the coherent manipulation of a single nuclear spin in TbPc2.
Theory of long-lived nuclear spin states in methyl groups and quantum-rotor induced polarisation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dumez, Jean-Nicolas; Håkansson, Pär; Mamone, Salvatore; Meier, Benno; Stevanato, Gabriele; Hill-Cousins, Joseph T.; Roy, Soumya Singha; Brown, Richard C. D.; Pileio, Giuseppe; Levitt, Malcolm H.
2015-01-01
Long-lived nuclear spin states have a relaxation time much longer than the longitudinal relaxation time T 1 . Long-lived states extend significantly the time scales that may be probed with magnetic resonance, with possible applications to transport and binding studies, and to hyperpolarised imaging. Rapidly rotating methyl groups in solution may support a long-lived state, consisting of a population imbalance between states of different spin exchange symmetries. Here, we expand the formalism for describing the behaviour of long-lived nuclear spin states in methyl groups, with special attention to the hyperpolarisation effects observed in 13 CH 3 groups upon rapidly converting a material with low-barrier methyl rotation from the cryogenic solid state to a room-temperature solution [M. Icker and S. Berger, J. Magn. Reson. 219, 1 (2012)]. We analyse the relaxation properties of methyl long-lived states using semi-classical relaxation theory. Numerical simulations are supplemented with a spherical-tensor analysis, which captures the essential properties of methyl long-lived states
Nuclear magnetic relaxation by the dipolar EMOR mechanism: Multi-spin systems
Chang, Zhiwei; Halle, Bertil
2017-08-01
In aqueous systems with immobilized macromolecules, including biological tissues, the longitudinal spin relaxation of water protons is primarily induced by exchange-mediated orientational randomization (EMOR) of intra- and intermolecular magnetic dipole-dipole couplings. Starting from the stochastic Liouville equation, we have previously developed a rigorous EMOR relaxation theory for dipole-coupled two-spin and three-spin systems. Here, we extend the stochastic Liouville theory to four-spin systems and use these exact results as a guide for constructing an approximate multi-spin theory, valid for spin systems of arbitrary size. This so-called generalized stochastic Redfield equation (GSRE) theory includes the effects of longitudinal-transverse cross-mode relaxation, which gives rise to an inverted step in the relaxation dispersion profile, and coherent spin mode transfer among solid-like spins, which may be regarded as generalized spin diffusion. The GSRE theory is compared to an existing theory, based on the extended Solomon equations, which does not incorporate these phenomena. Relaxation dispersion profiles are computed from the GSRE theory for systems of up to 16 protons, taken from protein crystal structures. These profiles span the range from the motional narrowing limit, where the coherent mode transfer plays a major role, to the ultra-slow motion limit, where the zero-field rate is closely related to the strong-collision limit of the dipolar relaxation rate. Although a quantitative analysis of experimental data is beyond the scope of this work, it is clear from the magnitude of the predicted relaxation rate and the shape of the relaxation dispersion profile that the dipolar EMOR mechanism is the principal cause of water-1H low-field longitudinal relaxation in aqueous systems of immobilized macromolecules, including soft biological tissues. The relaxation theory developed here therefore provides a basis for molecular-level interpretation of endogenous soft
Statistical wave scattering: from the atomic nucleus to mesoscopic systems to microwave cavities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mello, P.A. [IFUNAM, 01000 Mexico Distrito Federal (Mexico)
2007-12-15
Universal statistical aspects of wave scattering by a variety of physical systems ranging from atomic nuclei to mesoscopic systems and microwave cavities are described. A statistical model for the scattering matrix is employed to address the problem of quantum chaotic scattering. The model, introduced in the past in the context of nuclear physics, discusses the problem in terms of a prompt and an equilibrated component: it incorporates the average value of the scattering matrix to account for the prompt processes and satisfies the requirements of flux conservation, causality and ergodicity. The main application of the model is the analysis of electronic transport through ballistic mesoscopic cavities whose classical dynamics is chaotic, although it can be applied to the propagation of microwaves through cavities of a similar shape. The model describes well the results from the numerical solutions of the Schrodinger equation for two-dimensional cavities. (Author)
Aoyagi, Yoshinobu; Goodnick, Stephen M.
2006-05-01
This special issue of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains the proceedings of the joint Seventh International Conference on New Phenomena in Mesoscopic Structures and Fifth International Conference on Surfaces and Interfaces of Mesoscopic Devices, which was held from November 27th - December 2nd, 2005, at the Ritz Carlton Kapalua, Maui, Hawaii. The string of these conferences dates back to the first one in 1989. Of special importance is that this year's conference was dedicated to Professor Gottfried Landwehr, in recognition of his many outstanding contributions to semiconductor physics. A personal tribute to Prof Landwehr by Dr K von Klitzing leads off this issue. The scope of NPMS-7/SIMD-5 spans nano-fabrication through complex phase coherent mesoscopic systems including nano-transistors and nano-scale characterization. Topics of interest include: •Nanoscale fabrication: high-resolution electron lithography, FIB nano-patterning, scanning- force-microscopy (SFM) lithography, SFM-stimulated growth, novel patterning, nano-imprint lithography, special etching, and self-assembled monolayers •Nanocharacterization: SFM characterization, ballistic-electron emission microscopy (BEEM), optical studies of nanostructures, tunneling, properties of discrete impurities, phase coherence, noise, THz studies, and electro-luminescence in small structures •Nanodevices: ultra-scaled FETs, quantum single-electron transistors (SETS), resonant tunneling diodes, ferromagnetic and spin devices, superlattice arrays, IR detectors with quantum dots and wires, quantum point contacts, non-equilibrium transport, simulation, ballistic transport, molecular electronic devices, carbon nanotubes, spin selection devices, spin-coupled quantum dots, and nanomagnetics •Quantum-coherent transport: the quantum Hall effect, ballistic quantum systems, quantum-computing implementations and theory, and magnetic spin systems •Mesoscopic structures: quantum wires and dots, quantum chaos
What is novel in quantum transport for mesoscopics?
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The understanding of mesoscopic transport has now attained an ultimate simplicity. Indeed, orthodox quantum kinetics would seem to say little about mesoscopics that has not been revealed – nearly effortlessly – by more popular means. Such is far from the case, however. The fact that kinetic theory remains very much in ...
Role of mesoscopic morphology in charge transport of doped ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 58; Issue 2. Role of mesoscopic morphology in charge transport of doped polyaniline ... In doped polyaniline (PANI), the charge transport properties are determined by mesoscopic morphology, which in turn is controlled by the molecular recognition interactions among ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saiz-Jimenez, C.; Hawkins, B.L.; Maciel, G.E.
1986-01-01
Cross polarization, magic-angle spinning /sup 13/C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to characterize humic fractions isolated from different soils. The humic acid fractions are more aromatic than the humin fractions, probably due to the higher polysaccharide content of humins. However, fulvic acid fractions are more aromatic than the corresponding humic acid and humin fractions. These results can be interpreted in terms of the isolation procedure, because the high affinity of Polyclar AT for phenols results in higher aromaticities as compared with other isolation methods (e.g. charcoal).
Song, Xuerui; Wang, Liujun; Feng, Fupan; Lou, Liren; Diao, Wenting; Duan, Chongdi
2018-03-01
Developing gyroscopes based on quantum systems are important for inertial sensing applications, and its underlying physics is of fundamental interest. In this paper, we proposed a new type of gyroscope based on the Berry phase generated during rotation of the quantum system by using a single 13C nuclear spin coupled with a nearby nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond. Due to the atom-scale size of the quantum system, rotation information can be obtained with high spatial resolution. The gyroscope can be manipulated at room temperature and without the need for a strong magnetic field, which is also beneficial to its further applications.
Spin-current noise from fluctuation relations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lim, Jong Soo [Institut de Fisica Interdisciplinària i Sistemes Complexos IFISC (UIB-CSIC), E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Sánchez, David; López, Rosa [Institut de Fisica Interdisciplinària i Sistemes Complexos IFISC (UIB-CSIC), E-07122 Palma de Mallorca, Spain and Departement de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)
2013-12-04
We present fluctuation relations that connect spin-polarized current and noise in mesoscopic conductors. In linear response, these relations are equivalent to the fluctuation-dissipation theorem that relates equilibrium current-current correlations to the linear conductance. More interestingly, in the weakly nonlinear regime of transport, these relations establish a connection between the leading-order rectification spin conductance, the spin noise susceptibility and the third cumulant of spin current fluctuations at equilibrium. Our results are valid even for systems in the presence of magnetic fields and coupled to ferromagnetic electrodes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Manna, P.K.; Yusuf, S.M.; Mukadam, M.D.; Kohlbrecher, J.
2013-01-01
The fundamental properties of a magnetic material vary considerably at the nanoscale as compared to its bulk counterpart. This is often ascribed to the presence of disordered spins at the surface of the nanoparticles. The magnetic behavior of these surface-spins is different from the core-spins, and hence we can consider such nanoparticles as a core-shell type. However, it is difficult to get an evidence of this shell in a 'bare' nanoparticle system, because the magnetization-contributions of core and shell become indistinguishable in most cases. We have used a combination of microscopic neutron diffraction, mesoscopic polarized neutron small angle scattering (SANSPOL), and macroscopic dc-magnetization techniques to investigate core-shell structure in 'bare' La 0.2 Ce 0.8 CrO 3 nanoparticles, synthesized by using a two-step method. It is noteworthy to mention here that, in our study, the La 0.2 Ce 0.8 CrO 3 nanoparticles showed a novel coexistence of magnetization and exchange-bias-field sign-reversal, which might have an application in designing volatile and thermally assisted magnetic memory elements. The first evidence of a possible core-shell structure was obtained from the presence of surface roughness/defects in the high resolution transmission electron microscopy images. Microscopic neutron diffraction study depicted that these nanoparticles are antiferromagnetic in nature. However, the SANSPOL data at 2.5 K under a 3.5-T magnetic field show the presence of a pronounced asymmetric scattering in the iso-intensity plot signifying the presence of a strong interference between nuclear and magnetic scattering amplitudes. It has been argued that the presence of such asymmetric scattering in the SANSPOL data of these antiferromagnetic nanoparticles arises from the shell. The mean core diameter and shell thickness are found to be 12.3 ± 1.1, and 2.8 ± 0.4 nm, respectively. The net magnetization (observed from the dc magnetization study), arising from the shell of
Mesoscopic quantum coherence in an optical lattice
Haycock; Alsing; Deutsch; Grondalski; Jessen
2000-10-16
We observe the quantum coherent dynamics of atomic spinor wave packets in the double-well potentials of a far-off-resonance optical lattice. With appropriate initial conditions the system Rabi oscillates between the left and right localized states of the ground doublet, and at certain times the wave packet corresponds to a coherent superposition of these mesoscopically distinct quantum states. The atom/optical double-well potential is a flexible and powerful system for further study of quantum coherence, quantum control, and the quantum/classical transition.
Quantum gambling using mesoscopic ring qubits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pakula, Ireneusz
2007-01-01
Quantum Game Theory provides us with new tools for practising games and some other risk related enterprices like, for example, gambling. The two party gambling protocol presented by Goldenberg et al. is one of the simplest yet still hard to implementapplications of Quantum Game Theory. We propose potential physical realisation of the quantum gambling protocol with use of three mesoscopic ring qubits. We point out problems in implementation of such game. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Probing eukaryotic cell mechanics via mesoscopic simulations
Pivkin, Igor V.; Lykov, Kirill; Nematbakhsh, Yasaman; Shang, Menglin; Lim, Chwee Teck
2017-11-01
We developed a new mesoscopic particle based eukaryotic cell model which takes into account cell membrane, cytoskeleton and nucleus. The breast epithelial cells were used in our studies. To estimate the viscoelastic properties of cells and to calibrate the computational model, we performed micropipette aspiration experiments. The model was then validated using data from microfluidic experiments. Using the validated model, we probed contributions of sub-cellular components to whole cell mechanics in micropipette aspiration and microfluidics experiments. We believe that the new model will allow to study in silico numerous problems in the context of cell biomechanics in flows in complex domains, such as capillary networks and microfluidic devices.
Coulomb drag in coherent mesoscopic systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mortensen, Asger; Flensberg, Karsten; Jauho, Antti-Pekka
2001-01-01
We present a theory for Coulomb drag between two mesoscopic systems. Our formalism expresses the drag in terms of scattering matrices and wave functions, and its range of validity covers both ballistic and disordered systems. The consequences can be worked out either by analytic means......, such as the random matrix theory, or by numerical simulations. We show that Coulomb drag is sensitive to localized states. which usual transport measurements do not probe. For chaotic 2D systems we find a vanishing average drag, with a nonzero variance. Disordered 1D wires show a finite drag, with a large variance...
Efficient calculation of nuclear spin-rotation constants from auxiliary density functional theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zuniga-Gutierrez, Bernardo, E-mail: bzuniga.51@gmail.com [Departamento de Ciencias Computacionales, Universidad de Guadalajara, Blvd. Marcelino García Barragán 1421, C.P. 44430 Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico); Camacho-Gonzalez, Monica [Universidad Tecnológica de Tecámac, División A2, Procesos Industriales, Carretera Federal México Pachuca Km 37.5, Col. Sierra Hermosa, C.P. 55740 Tecámac, Estado de México (Mexico); Bendana-Castillo, Alfonso [Universidad Tecnológica de Tecámac, División A3, Tecnologías de la Información y Comunicaciones, Carretera Federal México Pachuca Km 37.5, Col. Sierra Hermosa, C.P. 55740 Tecámac, Estado de México (Mexico); Simon-Bastida, Patricia [Universidad Tecnlógica de Tulancingo, División Electromecánica, Camino a Ahuehuetitla No. 301, Col. Las Presas, C.P. 43642 Tulancingo, Hidalgo (Mexico); Calaminici, Patrizia; Köster, Andreas M. [Departamento de Química, CINVESTAV, Avenida Instituto Politécnico Nacional 2508, A.P. 14-740, México D.F. 07000 (Mexico)
2015-09-14
The computation of the spin-rotation tensor within the framework of auxiliary density functional theory (ADFT) in combination with the gauge including atomic orbital (GIAO) scheme, to treat the gauge origin problem, is presented. For the spin-rotation tensor, the calculation of the magnetic shielding tensor represents the most demanding computational task. Employing the ADFT-GIAO methodology, the central processing unit time for the magnetic shielding tensor calculation can be dramatically reduced. In this work, the quality of spin-rotation constants obtained with the ADFT-GIAO methodology is compared with available experimental data as well as with other theoretical results at the Hartree-Fock and coupled-cluster level of theory. It is found that the agreement between the ADFT-GIAO results and the experiment is good and very similar to the ones obtained by the coupled-cluster single-doubles-perturbative triples-GIAO methodology. With the improved computational performance achieved, the computation of the spin-rotation tensors of large systems or along Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics trajectories becomes feasible in reasonable times. Three models of carbon fullerenes containing hundreds of atoms and thousands of basis functions are used for benchmarking the performance. Furthermore, a theoretical study of temperature effects on the structure and spin-rotation tensor of the H{sup 12}C–{sup 12}CH–DF complex is presented. Here, the temperature dependency of the spin-rotation tensor of the fluorine nucleus can be used to identify experimentally the so far unknown bent isomer of this complex. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time that temperature effects on the spin-rotation tensor are investigated.
Pseudogap Behavior of the Nuclear Spin-Lattice Relaxation Rate in FeSe Probed by 77Se-NMR
Shi, Anlu; Arai, Takeshi; Kitagawa, Shunsaku; Yamanaka, Takayoshi; Ishida, Kenji; Böhmer, Anna E.; Meingast, Christoph; Wolf, Thomas; Hirata, Michihiro; Sasaki, Takahiko
2018-01-01
We conducted 77Se-nuclear magnetic resonance studies of the iron-based superconductor FeSe in magnetic fields of 0.6 to 19 T to investigate the superconducting and normal-state properties. The nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate divided by the temperature (T1T)-1 increases below the structural transition temperature Ts but starts to be suppressed below T*, well above the superconducting transition temperature Tc(H), resulting in a broad maximum of (T1T)-1 at Tp(H). This is similar to the pseudogap behavior in optimally doped cuprate superconductors. Because T* and Tp(H) decrease in the same manner as Tc(H) with increasing H, the pseudogap behavior in FeSe is ascribed to superconducting fluctuations, which presumably originate from the theoretically predicted preformed pair above Tc(H).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wakasa, Tomotsugu
1997-01-01
We have measured a complete set of polarization transfer observables has been measured for quasi-free (p vector, n vector) reactions on 2 H, 6 Li, 12 C, 40 Ca, and 208 Pb at a bombarding energy of 346MeV and a laboratory scattering angle of 22deg (q=1.7 fm -1 ). The polarization transfer observables for all five targets are remarkably similar. These polarization observables yield separated spin-longitudinal (σ·q) and spin-transverse (σxq) nuclear responses. These results are compared to the spin-transverse responses measured in deep-inelastic electron scattering as well as to nuclear responses based on the random phase approximation. Such a comparison reveals an enhancement in the (p vector, n vector) spin-transverse channel, which masks the effect of pionic correlations in the response ratio. Second, the double differential cross sections at θ lab between 0deg and 12.3deg and the polarization transfer D NN at 0deg for the 90 Zr(p,n) reaction are measured at a bombarding energy of 295MeV. The Gamow-Teller(GT) strength B(GT) in the continuum deduced from the L=0 cross section is compared both with the perturbative calculation by Bertsch and Hamamoto and with the second-order random phase approximation calculation by Drozdz et al. The sum of B(GT) values up to 50MeV excitation becomes S β- =28.0±1.6 after subtracting the contribution of the isovector spin-monopole strength. This S β- value of 28.0±1.6 corresponds to about (93±5)% of the minimum value of the sum-rule 3(N-Z)=30. Last, first measurements of D NN (0deg) for (p vector, n vector) reactions at 295MeV yield large negative values up to 50MeV excitation for the 6 Li, 11 B, 12 C, 13 C(p vector, n vector) reactions. DWIA calculations using the Franey and Love (FL) 270MeV interaction reproduce differential cross sections and D NN (0deg) values, while the FL 325MeV interaction yield D NN (0deg) values less negative than the experimental values. (J.P.N.)
Mesoscopic hydro-thermodynamics of phonons
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aurea R. Vasconcellos
2013-07-01
Full Text Available A generalized Hydrodynamics, referred to as Mesoscopic Hydro-Thermodynamics, of phonons in semiconductors is presented. It involves the descriptions of the motion of the quasi-particle density and of the energy density. The hydrodynamic equations, which couple both types of movement via thermo-elastic processes, are derived starting with a generalized Peierls-Boltzmann kinetic equation obtained in the framework of a Non-Equilibrium Statistical Ensemble Formalism, providing such Mesoscopic Hydro-Thermodynamics. The case of a contraction in first order is worked out in detail. The associated Maxwell times are derived and discussed. The densities of quasi-particles and of energy are found to satisfy coupled Maxwell-Cattaneo-like (hyperbolic equations. The analysis of thermo-elastic effects is done and applied to investigate thermal distortion in silicon mirrors under incidence of high intensity X-ray pulses in FEL facilities. The derivation of a generalized Guyer-Krumhansl equation governing the flux of heat and the associated thermal conductivity coefficient is also presented.
Devices and process for high-pressure magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoyt, David W.; Sears, Jesse A.; Turcu, Romulus V. F.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Hu, Jian Zhi
2017-12-05
A high-pressure magic angle spinning (MAS) rotor is detailed that includes a high-pressure sample cell that maintains high pressures exceeding 150 bar. The sample cell design minimizes pressure losses due to penetration over an extended period of time.
Determination of spins and radioactive widths of tellurium nuclear levels with capturre gamma rays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bianchini, F.G.
1973-01-01
Spins and levels widths of the tellurium, mainly 128 Te and 130 Te, were determinated by gamma spectroscopy. Measurements of inelastic and elastic scattering, angular distribution and scattering temperature dependence, were still made. Energy levels of this isotopes, were also determinated [pt
Fu, Chenghua; Hu, Zhanning
2018-03-01
In this paper, we investigate the characteristics of the nuclear spin entanglement generated by an intermedium with an optically excited triplet. Significantly, the interaction between the two nuclear spins presents to be a direct XY coupling in each of the effective subspace Hamiltonians which are obtained by applying a transformation on the natural Hamiltonian. The quantum concurrence and negativity are discussed to quantitatively describe the quantum entanglement, and a comparison between them can reveal the nature of their relationship. An innovative general equation describing the relationship between the concurrence and negativity is explicitly obtained.
Nanomembrane-based mesoscopic superconducting hybrid junctions.
Thurmer, Dominic J; Bof Bufon, Carlos Cesar; Deneke, Christoph; Schmidt, Oliver G
2010-09-08
A new method for combining top-down and bottom-up approaches to create superconductor-normal metal-superconductor niobium-based Josephson junctions is presented. Using a rolled-up semiconductor nanomembrane as scaffolding, we are able to create mesoscopic gold filament proximity junctions. These are created by electromigration of gold filaments after inducing an electric field mediated breakdown in the semiconductor nanomembrane, which can generate nanometer sized structures merely using conventional optical lithography techniques. We find that the created point contact junctions exhibit large critical currents of a few milliamps at 4.2 K and an I(c)R(n) product placing their characteristic frequency in the terahertz region. These nanometer-sized filament devices can be further optimized and integrated on a chip for their use in superconductor hybrid electronics circuits.
Transport properties of mesoscopic graphene rings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, N.; Ding, J.W.; Wang, B.L.; Shi, D.N.; Sun, H.Q.
2012-01-01
Based on a recursive Green's function method, we investigate the conductance of mesoscopic graphene rings in the presence of disorder, in the limit of phase coherent transport. Two models of disorder are considered: edge disorder and surface disorder. Our simulations show that the conductance decreases exponentially with the edge disorder and the surface disorder. In the presence of flux, a clear Aharonov-Bohm conductance oscillation with the period Φ 0 (Φ 0 =h/e) is observed. The edge disorder and the surface disorder have no effect on the period of AB oscillation. The amplitudes of AB oscillations vary with gate voltage and flux, which is consistent with the previous results. Additionally, ballistic rectification and negative differential resistance are observed in I-V curves, with on/off characteristic.
Vortex-antivortex patterns in mesoscopic superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Teniers, Gerd; Moshchalkov, V.V.; Chibotaru, L.F.; Ceulemans, Arnout
2003-01-01
We have studied the nucleation of superconductivity in mesoscopic structures of different shape (triangle, square and rectangle). This was made possible by using an analytical gauge transformation for the vector potential A which gives A n =0 for the normal component along the boundary line of the rectangle. As a consequence the superconductor-vacuum boundary condition reduces to the Neumann boundary condition. By solving the linearized Ginzburg-Landau equation with this boundary condition we have determined the field-temperature superconducting phase boundary and the corresponding vortex patterns. The comparison of these patterns for different structures demonstrates that the critical parameters of a superconductor can be manipulated and fine-tuned through nanostructuring
Mesoscopic and continuum modelling of angiogenesis
Spill, F.
2014-03-11
Angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones in response to chemical signals secreted by, for example, a wound or a tumour. In this paper, we propose a mesoscopic lattice-based model of angiogenesis, in which processes that include proliferation and cell movement are considered as stochastic events. By studying the dependence of the model on the lattice spacing and the number of cells involved, we are able to derive the deterministic continuum limit of our equations and compare it to similar existing models of angiogenesis. We further identify conditions under which the use of continuum models is justified, and others for which stochastic or discrete effects dominate. We also compare different stochastic models for the movement of endothelial tip cells which have the same macroscopic, deterministic behaviour, but lead to markedly different behaviour in terms of production of new vessel cells. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
1974-01-01
The survey of negative pion absorption reactions on light and medium nuclei was continued. Muon spin precession was studied using an iron target. An impulse approximation model of the pion absorption process implied that the ion will absorb almost exclusively on nucleon pairs, single nucleon absorption being suppressed by energy and momentum conservation requirements. For measurements on both paramagnetic and ferromagnetic iron, the external magnetic field was supplied by a large C-type electromagnet carrying a current of about 100 amperes.
Equilibrium and shot noise in mesoscopic systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martin, T.
1994-10-01
Within the last decade, there has been a resurgence of interest in the study of noise in Mesoscopic devices, both experimentally and theoretically. Noise in solid state devices can have different origins: there is 1/f noise, which is believed to arise from fluctuations in the resistance of the sample due to the motion of impurities. On top of this contribution is a frequency independent component associated with the stochastic nature of electron transport, which will be the focus of this paper. If the sample considered is small enough that dephasing and inelastic effects can be neglected, equilibrium (thermal) and excess noise can be completely described in terms of the elastic scattering properties of the sample. As mentioned above, noise arises as a consequence of random processes governing the transport of electrons. Here, there are two sources of randomness: first, electrons incident on the sample occupy a given energy state with a probability given by the Fermi-Dirac distribution function. Secondly, electrons can be transmitted across the sample or reflected in the same reservoir where they came from with a probability given by the quantum mechanical transmission/reflection coefficients. Equilibrium noise refers to the case where no bias voltage is applied between the leads connected to the sample, where thermal agitation alone allows the electrons close to the Fermi level to tunnel through the sample. In general, equilibrium noise is related to the conductance of the sample via the Johnson-Nyquist formula. In the presence of a bias, in the classical regime, one expects to recover the full shot noise < {Delta}{sup 2}I >= 2I{Delta}{mu} as was observed a long time ago in vacuum diodes. In the Mesoscopic regime, however, excess noise is reduced below the shot noise level. The author introduces a more intuitive picture, where the current passing through the device is a superposition of pulses, or electron wave packets, which can be transmitted or reflected.
Aggregation of Frenkel defects under irradiation: a mesoscopic approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soppe, W.; Kotomin, E.
1993-08-01
The radiation-induced aggregation of Frenkel defects in solids is studied in terms of a mesoscopic approach. The asymmetry in elastic interactions between mobile interstitials (I-I) and between interstitials and vacancies (I-V) plays a decisive role in the aggregation of similar defects. The conditions for defect aggregation are studied in detail for NaCl crystals. The critical dose rate for aggregation has been calculated as a function of the temperature as well as the aggregation rate as a function of temperature and dose rate. Furthermore, the role of deep traps (like impurities and di-vacancies), reducing the mobility of interstitials, and the role of dislocations serving as sinks for interstitials, are studied. The aggregation appears to reach a maximum at a distinct temperature which is in agreement both with experiment and the Jain-Lidiard theory. The model also predicts a shift of this maximum towards lower temperatures if the dose rate is decreased. The consequences of the model for the disposal of nuclear waste in rock salt formations, are briefly discussed. (orig.)
Tatsumisago, M.; Angell, C. A.; Martin, S. W.
1992-11-01
Following the recent resolution of the longstanding problem of reconciling constant frequency nuclear-spin lattice relaxation (SLR) activation energies and d.c. conductivity activity energies in ion conducting glasses, we point out a new problem which seems not to have been discussed previously. We report conductivity data measured at a series of fixed frequencies and variable temperatures on a lithium chloroborate glass and compare them with SLR data on identically prepared samples, also using different fixed frequencies. While phenomenological similarities due to comparable departures from exponential relaxation are found in each case, pronounced differences in the most probable relaxation times themselves are observed. The conductivity relaxation at 500 K occurs on a time scale shorter by some 2 orders of magnitude than the 7Li SLR correlation, and has a significantly lower activation energy. We show from a literature review that this distinction is a common but unreported finding for highly decoupled (fast-ion conducting) systems, and that an inverse relationship is found in supercoupled salt/polymer ``solid'' electrolytes. In fast-ion conducting glasses, the slower SLR process would imply special features in the fast-ion motion which permit spin correlations to survive many more successive ion displacements than previously expected. It is conjectured that the SLR in superionic glasses depends on the existence of a class of low-lying traps infrequently visited by migrating ions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oehms, Ole Benjamin
2009-07-10
In the framework of this thesis a combined method of ultrasound and nuclear-spin tomography is presented. Via ultrasound pulses by the sound-radiation force in liquids and tissue phantoms motions are generated, which depend on ther viscoelastic properties. This motions are made visible by a motion-sensitive tomograph sequence in the phase image of the tomograph in form of a phase change. The first measurements on simple phantoms and liquids are presented. [German] Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wird eine kombinierte Methode aus Ultraschall und Kernspintomographie vorgestellt. Ueber Ultraschallpulse werden durch die Schallstrahlungskraft in Fluessigkeiten und Gewebephantomen Bewegungen erzeugt, die von den viskoelastischen Eigenschaften abhaengen. Diese Bewegungen werden mit einer bewegungssensitiven Tomographensequenz im Phasenbild des Tomographen in Form einer Phasenaenderung sichtbar gemacht. Die ersten Messungen an einfachen Phantomen und Fluessigkeiten werden praesentiert. (orig.)
Spin-lattice relaxation attenuation coefficients for on-line nuclear orientation experiments
Vénos, D; Severijns, N
2003-01-01
In on-line nuclear orientation experiments the relaxation process is of great importance. During implantation of the radioactive beam, the nuclear sublevel populations attain a secular equilibrium. For this case secular orientation parameters are introduced: B sublambda(sec)=rho sublambda B sublambda(th). Previously attenuation coefficients rho sublambda have already been tabulated, but only for lambda=2,4. In the last few years the number of nuclear orientation experiments in which beta or alpha particles are studied has increased. For these experiments the terms with lambda=1,3,6, and 8 are also necessary. Therefore, we have calculated the values of rho sublambda in full scope.
Cherkasov, FG; Mustafin, RG; L'vov, SG; Denisenko, GA; den Hartog, HW; Vainshtein, D. I.
1998-01-01
Data from an investigation of electron spin resonance and nuclear magnetic resonance of NaCl-K (similar to 1 mole%) crystals strongly irradiated with electrons imply the observation of a metal-insulator transition with decreasing temperature and the manifestation of quasi-one-dimensional electron
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jankowska, Marzena; Kupka, Teobald; Stobiński, Leszek
2016-01-01
corrections were calculated with the scalar and spin-orbit zeroth-order regular approximation Hamiltonian in combination with the large Slater-type basis set QZ4P as well as with the 4-component Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian using Dyall’s acv4z basis sets. The relativistic corrections to the nuclear magnetic...
Thermal coupling in low fields between the nuclear and electronic spins in Tm2+ doped CaF2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Urbina, Cristian.
1977-01-01
It is shown that in a CaF 2 crystal doped with divalent thulium ions there is in low fields, a thermal coupling between the electron magnetic moments of Tm 2+ and the nuclear moments of 19 F. When these ones have been lowered down to temperature through dynamical high-field polarization and adiabatic demagnetization in succession the resulting polarisation of the formed ones can overstep their original polarization in high field. A trial is given to explain this Zeeman electronic energy cooling through nuclear Zeeman energy with invoking a thermal coupling between both systems through the spin-spin electronic interaction but no theoretical model is developed in view of a quantitative explanation of the dynamics of such a process. The magnetic resonance spectrum of Tm 2 + in low field is also investigated: an important shift and narrowing of the electron resonance line in low field are obtained when 19 F nuclei are very cold. This special spectral characters are explained as due to magnetic interactions between electronic impurities and the neighbouring 19 F nuclei and a theoretical model is developed (based on the local Weiss field approximation) which explains rather well the changes in the spectral shift as a function of the 19 F nucleus temperature. A second theoretical model has also been developed in view of a quantitative explanation of both the narrowing and shift of the spectrum, but its prediction disagree with the experimental results. It is shown that in low fieldsx it is possible to get rid of paramagnetic impurities after they have been reused as reducing agents for 19 F nucleus entropy populating at about 80%, a non magnetic metastable state with these impurities [fr
Hu, Jian Zhi; Sears, Jr., Jesse A.; Hoyt, David W.; Mehta, Hardeep S.; Peden, Charles H. F.
2015-11-24
A continuous-flow (CF) magic angle sample spinning (CF-MAS) NMR rotor and probe are described for investigating reaction dynamics, stable intermediates/transition states, and mechanisms of catalytic reactions in situ. The rotor includes a sample chamber of a flow-through design with a large sample volume that delivers a flow of reactants through a catalyst bed contained within the sample cell allowing in-situ investigations of reactants and products. Flow through the sample chamber improves diffusion of reactants and products through the catalyst. The large volume of the sample chamber enhances sensitivity permitting in situ .sup.13C CF-MAS studies at natural abundance.
Matsuo, Mamoru; Saitoh, Eiji; Maekawa, Sadamichi
2017-01-01
We investigate the interconversion phenomena between spin and mechanical angular momentum in moving objects. In particular, the recent results on spin manipulation and spin-current generation by mechanical motion are examined. In accelerating systems, spin-dependent gauge fields emerge, which enable the conversion from mechanical angular momentum into spins. Such a spin-mechanical effect is predicted by quantum theory in a non-inertial frame. Experiments which confirm the effect, i.e., the resonance frequency shift in nuclear magnetic resonance, the stray field measurement of rotating metals, and electric voltage generation in liquid metals, are discussed.
Sandoval-Santana, J. C.; Ibarra-Sierra, V. G.; Azaizia, S.; Carrère, H.; Bakaleinikov, L. A.; Kalevich, V. K.; Ivchenko, E. L.; Marie, X.; Amand, T.; Balocchi, A.; Kunold, A.
2018-03-01
We propose an experimental procedure to track the evolution of electronic and nuclear spins in Ga2+ centers in GaAsN dilute semiconductors. The method is based on a pump-probe scheme that enables to monitor the time evolution of the three components of the electronic and nuclear spin variables. In contrast to other characterization methods, as nuclear magnetic resonance, this one only needs moderate magnetic fields (B≈ 10 mT), and does not require microwave irradiation. Specifically, we carry out a series of tests for different experimental conditions in order to optimize the procedure for maximum sensitivity in the measurement of the circular degree of polarization. Based on previous experimental results and the theoretical calculations presented here, we estimate that the method could yield a time resolution of about 10ps.
Nuclear thermodynamics below particle threshold
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schiller, A.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Algin, E.; Bagheri, A.; Chankova, R.; Guttormsen, M.; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Rekstad, J.; Siem, S.; Sunde, A. C.; Voinov, A.
2005-01-01
From a starting point of experimentally measured nuclear level densities, we discuss thermodynamical properties of nuclei below the particle emission threshold. Since nuclei are essentially mesoscopic systems, a straightforward generalization of macroscopic ensemble theory often yields unphysical results. A careful critique of traditional thermodynamical concepts reveals problems commonly encountered in mesoscopic systems. One of which is the fact that microcanonical and canonical ensemble theory yield different results, another concerns the introduction of temperature for small, closed systems. Finally, the concept of phase transitions is investigated for mesoscopic systems
Persistent Optical Nuclear Spin Narrowing in a Singly Charged InAs Quantum Dot
2012-02-01
hole envelope wave function, Ah is the hyper- fine coupling constant, and c0 is the lattice parameter. Since the external magnetic field is in the x̂...February 2012 / J. Opt. Soc. Am. B A121 where γs (γt) is the spin (trion) dephasing rate, χ is half the pump Rabi frequency ΩR (ΩR # μEℏ , where μ is...probe ab- sorption at the dark state dip (αdip) and the Rabi sideband (αpeak): αdip # α0 χ2γs & γt$γ2s% χ4 & 2χ2γtγs & γ2t γ2s ; (11) αpeak # α0 χ2γs
Effect of nuclear spin on chemical reactions and internal molecular rotation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sterna, L.L.
1980-12-01
Part I of this dissertation is a study of the magnetic isotope effect, and results are presented for the separation of 13 C and 12 C isotopes. Two models are included in the theoretical treatment of the effect. In the first model the spin states evolve quantum mechanically, and geminate recombination is calculated by numerically integrating the collision probability times the probability the radical pair is in a singlet state. In the second model the intersystem crossing is treated via first-order rate constants which are average values of the hyperfine couplings. Using these rate constants and hydrodynamic diffusion equations, an analytical solution, which accounts for all collisions, is obtained for the geminate recombination. The two reactions studied are photolysis of benzophenone and toluene and the photolytic decomposition of dibenzylketone (1,3-diphenyl-2-propanone). No magnetic isotope effect was observed in the benzophenone reaction. 13 C enrichment was observed for the dibenzylketone reaction, and this enrichment was substantially enhanced at intermediate viscosities and low temperatures. Part II of this dissertation is a presentation of theory and results for the use of Zeeman spin-lattice relaxation as a probe of methyl group rotation in the solid state. Experimental results are presented for the time and angular dependences of rotational polarization, the methyl group magnetic moment, and methyl-methyl steric interactions. The compounds studied are 2,6-dimethylphenol, methyl iodide, 1,4,5,8-tetramethylanthracene, 1,4,5,8-tetramethylnaphthalene, 1,2,4,5-tetramethylbenzene, and 2,3-dimethylmaleicanhydride
Nuclear spin-lattice relaxation of Cu-62 at low temperatures in iron
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Golovko, V. V.; Zákoucký, Dalibor; Srnka, Dušan; Honusek, Milan
2006-01-01
Roč. 74, č. 4 (2006), 044313 ISSN 0556-2813 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/02/0848 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : orientation experiments * HPGE detectors * ionization Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 3.327, year: 2006
Fukuda, Takamitsu; Matsumura, Kazuya; Ishikawa, Naoto
2013-10-10
Nuclear spin driven quantum tunneling of magnetization (QTM) phenomena, which arise from admixture of more than two orthogonal electronic spin wave functions through the couplings with those of the nuclear spins, are one of the important magnetic relaxation processes in lanthanide single molecule magnets (SMMs) in the low temperature range. Although recent experimental studies have indicated that the presence of the intramolecular f-f interactions affects their magnetic relaxation processes, little attention has been given to their mechanisms and, to the best of our knowledge, no rational theoretical models have been proposed for the interpretations of how the nuclear spin driven QTMs are influenced by the f-f interactions. Since quadruple-decker phthalocyanine complexes with two terbium or dysprosium ions as the magnetic centers show moderate f-f interactions, these are appropriate to investigate the influence of the f-f interactions on the dynamic magnetic relaxation processes. In the present paper, a theoretical model including ligand field (LF) potentials, hyperfine, nuclear quadrupole, magnetic dipolar, and the Zeeman interactions has been constructed to understand the roles of the nuclear spins for the QTM processes, and the resultant Zeeman plots are obtained. The ac susceptibility measurements of the magnetically diluted quadruple-decker monoterbium and diterbium phthalocyanine complexes, [Tb-Y] and [Tb-Tb], have indicated that the presence of the f-f interactions suppresses the QTMs in the absence of the external magnetic field (H(dc)) being consistent with previous reports. On the contrary, the faster magnetic relaxation processes are observed for [Tb-Tb] than [Tb-Y] at H(dc) = 1000 Oe, clearly demonstrating that the QTMs are rather enhanced in the presence of the external magnetic field. Based on the calculated Zeeman diagrams, these observations can be attributed to the enhanced nuclear spin driven QTMs for [Tb-Tb]. At the H(dc) higher than 2000 Oe, the
Electron spin resonance of Gd in the nuclear cooling agent: PrNi5 single crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Levin, R.; Davidov, D.; Grayevsky, A.; Shaltiel, D.; Zevin, V.
1980-01-01
The ESR of Gd in single crystals of PrNi 5 is observed to exhibit significant angular dependence of the resonance position and linewidth at low temperatures. This is interpreted in terms of the axial spin Hamiltonian which takes the anisotropic susceptibility and the Gd-Pr exchange into consideration. From lineshape analysis the axial crystal field parameter and isotropic Gd-Pr exchange are derived. The Gd ESR linewidth increases with temperature; the thermal broadening is angularly dependent. This is similar to that observed for the Pr NMR in PrNi 5 single crystals. Both the NMR and ESR thermal broadenings are attributed to low-frequency fluctuations of the Pr ions induced by the Pr-Pr exchange coupling. A model for hexagonal Van-Vleck compounds is given and with the linewidth enables the Pr-Pr exchange coupling, under the assumption of a Gaussian or a Lorenzian distribution of the low-frequency fluctuation spectra, to be extracted. It is suggested that the angular dependence of the ESR thermal broadening is due to the Gd-Pr exchange coupling. (UK)
Difusão de spins nucleares em meios porosos - uma abordagem computacional da RMN
Éverton Lucas-Oliveira
2015-01-01
A Ressonância Magnética Nuclear (RMN) é uma importante técnica empregada nas principais áreas de conhecimento, tais como, Física, Química e Medicina. Importantes trabalhos da RMN aplicada ao estudo da dinâmica de moléculas em fluidos presentes em meios porosos permitiram que esta técnica ganhasse também notoriedade na indústria do petróleo. O presente projeto é fundamentado em alguns destes trabalhos seminais, reproduzindo, através de modelos físico-computacionais, os principais efeitos físic...
What can we learn from noise? - Mesoscopic nonequilibrium statistical physics.
Kobayashi, Kensuke
2016-01-01
Mesoscopic systems - small electric circuits working in quantum regime - offer us a unique experimental stage to explorer quantum transport in a tunable and precise way. The purpose of this Review is to show how they can contribute to statistical physics. We introduce the significance of fluctuation, or equivalently noise, as noise measurement enables us to address the fundamental aspects of a physical system. The significance of the fluctuation theorem (FT) in statistical physics is noted. We explain what information can be deduced from the current noise measurement in mesoscopic systems. As an important application of the noise measurement to statistical physics, we describe our experimental work on the current and current noise in an electron interferometer, which is the first experimental test of FT in quantum regime. Our attempt will shed new light in the research field of mesoscopic quantum statistical physics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bohler, C.L.; Schearer, L.D.; Leduc, M.; Nacher, P.J.; Zachorowski, L.; Milner, R.G.; McKeown, R.D.; Woodward, C.E.
1988-01-01
Several Nd:YAP lasers were constructed which could be broadly tuned in the 1083-nm region which includes the helium 2 3 S-2 3 P transition, using a Lyot filter and thin, uncoated etalons within the laser cavity. 1 W of power could be extracted at 1083 nm through a 1% transmitting output coupler. This laser beam was used to optically pump metastable 4 He and 3 He 2 3 S helium atoms in a weak discharge cell, spin polarizing the metastable ensemble. In a 3 He cell the polarization is transferred to the nuclear spin system. A 3 He target cell at 0.3 Torr was polarized to 52% in a few minutes. We describe the application of this system to the design of polarized targets for experiments in nuclear physics
Fleurov, V.; Ivanov, V. A.; Peeters, F. M.; Vagner, I. D.
2001-01-01
Spatially nonhomogeneously spin polarized nuclei are proposed as a new mechanism to monitor electron states in a nanostructure, or as a means to createn and, if necessary, reshape such nanostructures in the course of the experiment. We found that a polarization of nulear spins may lift the spin polarization of the electron states in a nanostructure and, if sufficiently strong, leads to a polarization of the electron spins. Polarized nuclear spins may form an energy landscape capable of bindin...
Ishikawa, Yuya; Ohya, Kenta; Fujii, Yutaka; Fukuda, Akira; Miura, Shunsuke; Mitsudo, Seitaro; Yamamori, Hidetomo; Kikuchi, Hikomitsu
2018-04-01
We report a Fabry-Pérot resonator with spherical and flat mirrors to allow simultaneous electron-spin resonance (ESR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements that could be used for double magnetic resonance (DoMR). In order to perform simultaneous ESR and NMR measurements, the flat mirror must reflect millimeter wavelength electromagnetic waves and the resonator must have a high Q value ( Q > 3000) for ESR frequencies, while the mirror must simultaneously let NMR frequencies pass through. This requirement can be achieved by exploiting the difference of skin depth for the two frequencies, since skin depth is inversely proportional to the square root of the frequency. In consideration of the skin depth, the optimum conditions for conducting ESR and NMR using a gold thin film are explored by examining the relation between the Q value and the film thickness. A flat mirror with a gold thin film was fabricated by sputtering gold on an epoxy plate. We also installed a Helmholtz radio frequency coil for NMR and tested the system both at room and low temperatures with an optimally thick gold film. As a result, signals were obtained at 0.18 K for ESR and at 1.3 K for NMR. A flat-mirrored resonator with a thin gold film surface is an effective way to locate NMR coils closer to the sample being examined with DoMR.
Mukuda, Hidekazu; Matsumura, Takashi; Maki, Shota; Yashima, Mitsuharu; Kitaoka, Yoshio; Miyake, Kazumasa; Murakami, Hironaru; Giraldo-Gallo, Paula; Geball, Theodore H.; Fisher, Ian R.
2018-02-01
We report the results of a 125Te NMR study of single crystalline Pb1-xTlxTe (x = 0, 0.35, 1.0%) as a window on the novel electronic states associated with the thallium impurities in PbTe. The Knight shift is enhanced as x increases, corresponding to an increase in the average density of states (DOS) coupled to a strong spatial variation in the local DOS surrounding each Tl dopant. Remarkably, for the superconducting composition (x = 1.0%), the 125Te nuclear spin relaxation rate (1/T1T) for Te ions that are close to the Tl dopants is unexpectedly enhanced in the normal state below a characteristic temperature of ˜10 K, below which the resistivity experiences an upturn. Such a simultaneous upturn in both the resistivity and (1/T1T) was not suppressed in the high magnetic field. We suggest that these observations are consistently accounted for by dynamical charge fluctuations in the absence of paramagnetism, which is anticipated by the charge Kondo scenario associated with the Tl dopants. In contrast, such anomalies were not detected in the non-superconducting samples (x = 0 and 0.35%), suggesting a connection between dynamical valence fluctuations and the occurrence of superconductivity in Pb1-xTlxTe.
Chatterji, T; Jalarvo, N; Kumar, C M N; Xiao, Y; Brückel, Th
2013-07-17
We have investigated low energy nuclear spin excitations in the strongly correlated electron compound HoCrO3. We observe clear inelastic peaks at E = 22.18 ± 0.04 μeV in both energy loss and gain sides. The energy of the inelastic peaks remains constant in the temperature range 1.5-40 K at which they are observed. The intensity of the inelastic peak increases at first with increasing temperature and then decreases at higher temperatures. The temperature dependence of the energy and intensity of the inelastic peaks is very unusual compared to that observed in other Nd, Co, V and also simple Ho compounds. Huge quasielastic scattering appears at higher temperatures presumably due to the fluctuating electronic moments of the Ho ions that get increasingly disordered at higher temperatures. The strong quasielastic scattering may also originate in the first Ho crystal-field excitations at about 1.5 meV.
Salman, Z.; Kiefl, R. F.; Chow, K. H.; Hossain, M. D.; Keeler, T. A.; Kreitzman, S. R.; Levy, C. D. P.; Miller, R. I.; Parolin, T. J.; Pearson, M. R.; Saadaoui, H.; Schultz, J. D.; Smadella, M.; Wang, D.; Macfarlane, W. A.
2006-04-01
We demonstrate that zero-field β-detected nuclear quadrupole resonance and spin relaxation of low energy Li8 can be used as a sensitive local probe of structural phase transitions near a surface. We find that the transition near the surface of a SrTiO3 single crystal occurs at Tc˜150K, i.e., ˜45K higher than Tcbulk, and that the tetragonal domains formed below Tc are randomly oriented.
Magnetic response of superconducting mesoscopic-size YBCO powder
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Deimling, C.V. [Grupo de Supercondutividade e Magnetismo, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: cesard@df.ufscar.br; Motta, M.; Lisboa-Filho, P.N. [Laboratorio de Materiais Supercondutores, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Bauru, SP Brazil (Brazil); Ortiz, W.A. [Grupo de Supercondutividade e Magnetismo, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)
2008-07-15
In this work it is reported the magnetic behavior of submicron and mesoscopic-size superconducting YBCO powders, prepared by a modified polymeric precursors method. The grain size and microstructure were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Measurements of magnetization and AC-susceptibility as a function of temperature were performed with a quantum design SQUID magnetometer. Our results indicated significant differences on the magnetic propreties, in connection with the calcination temperature and the pressure used to pelletize the samples. This contribution is part of an effort to study vortex dynamics and magnetic properties of submicron and mesoscopic-size superconducting samples.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Quade, U.
2005-12-01
Full Text Available In the 1980ies, Siempelkamp foundry in Krefeld, Germany, developed a process to melt medium and slightly radioactive metals from decommissioning and maintenance works in nuclear power plants. Since 1989, in the CARLA melting plant which is licensed according to the German radiation protection ordinance (StrlSchV, metals are being molten which, for the largest part, can be reused. Since 1998, in a second plant, the GERTA melting plant, metals with a content of mercury up to 1 weight %, natural radioactivity up to 500 Bq/g and other chemical contaminations are being molten and completely decontaminated, so that these metals can be reused in the steel cycle. The following text is describing the melting process, acceptance criteria for contaminated scrap and recycling paths for the produced ingots and slags.
La fundición Siempelkamp en Krefeld, Alemania, desarrolló, en los años 80, un proceso para fundir metales mediana y levemente radioactivos, procedentes de reparaciones o desmantelamiento de plantas nucleares. En la planta de fundición CARLA, que cumple los requisitos del decreto de protección contra radiaciones de la República Federal de Alemania, se funden metales desde 1989, de los cuales la mayor parte puede ser utilizada nuevamente. Desde 1998, en una segunda planta, fundición GERTA, se funden y descontaminan totalmente, metales de hasta un 1 % de peso de mercurio, con una radioactividad natural de hasta 500 Bq/g y con otros contaminantes químicos. De este modo los metales pueden ser nuevamente utilizados en el ciclo metálico. El texto adjunto describe el método para el fundido, los criterios para aceptar chatarra contaminada y las vías de utilización para los bloques de metal y escorias generadas en el proceso.
Wood, R. M.; Saha, D.; McCarthy, L. A.; Tokarski, J. T.; Sanders, G. D.; Kuhns, P. L.; McGill, S. A.; Reyes, A. P.; Reno, J. L.; Stanton, C. J.; Bowers, C. R.
2014-10-01
A combined experimental-theoretical study of optically pumped nuclear magnetic resonance (OPNMR) has been performed in a GaAs /A l0.1G a0.9As quantum well film epoxy bonded to a Si substrate with thermally induced biaxial strain. The photon energy dependence of the Ga OPNMR signal was recorded at magnetic fields of 4.9 and 9.4 T at a temperature of 4.8-5.4 K. The data were compared to the nuclear spin polarization calculated from the electronic structure and differential absorption to spin-up and spin-down states of the electron conduction band using a modified k .p model based on the Pidgeon-Brown model. Comparison of theory with experiment facilitated the assignment of features in the OPNMR energy dependence to specific interband Landau level transitions. The results provide insight into how effects of strain and quantum confinement are manifested in optical nuclear polarization in semiconductors.
Characterization of Chemical Exchange Using Relaxation Dispersion of Hyperpolarized Nuclear Spins.
Liu, Mengxiao; Kim, Yaewon; Hilty, Christian
2017-09-05
Chemical exchange phenomena are ubiquitous in macromolecules, which undergo conformational change or ligand complexation. NMR relaxation dispersion (RD) spectroscopy based on a Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill pulse sequence is widely applied to identify the exchange and measure the lifetime of intermediate states on the millisecond time scale. Advances in hyperpolarization methods improve the applicability of NMR spectroscopy when rapid acquisitions or low concentrations are required, through an increase in signal strength by several orders of magnitude. Here, we demonstrate the measurement of chemical exchange from a single aliquot of a ligand hyperpolarized by dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (D-DNP). Transverse relaxation rates are measured simultaneously at different pulsing delays by dual-channel 19 F NMR spectroscopy. This two-point measurement is shown to allow the determination of the exchange term in the relaxation rate expression. For the ligand 4-(trifluoromethyl)benzene-1-carboximidamide binding to the protein trypsin, the exchange term is found to be equal within error limits in neutral and acidic environments from D-DNP NMR spectroscopy, corresponding to a pre-equilibrium of trypsin deprotonation. This finding illustrates the capability for determination of binding mechanisms using D-DNP RD. Taking advantage of hyperpolarization, the ligand concentration in the exchange measurements can reach on the order of tens of μM and protein concentration can be below 1 μM, i.e., conditions typically accessible in drug discovery.
Mesoscopic Electronics in Solid State Nanostructures
Heinzel, Thomas
2007-01-01
This text treats electronic transport in the regime where conventional textbook models are no longer applicable, including the effect of electronic phase coherence, energy quantization and single-electron charging. This second edition is completely updated and expanded, and now comprises new chapters on spin electronics and quantum information processing, transport in inhomogeneous magnetic fields, organic/molecular electronics, and applications of field effect transistors. The book also provides an overview of semiconductor processing technologies and experimental techniques. With a number of
Effects of finite size on spin glass dynamics
Sato, Tetsuya; Komatsu, Katsuyoshi
2010-12-01
In spite of comprehensive studies to clarify a variety of interesting phenomena of spin glasses, their understanding has been insufficiently established. To overcome such a problem, fabrication of a mesoscopic spin glass system, whose dynamics can be observed over the entire range to the equilibrium, is useful. In this review the challenges of research that has been performed up to now in this direction and our recent related studies are introduced. We have established to study the spin glass behaviour in terms of droplet picture using nanofabricated mesoscopic samples to some extent, but some problems that should be clarified have been left. Finally, the direction of some new studies is proposed to solve the problems.
Lattice Boltzmann model capable of mesoscopic vorticity computation.
Peng, Cheng; Guo, Zhaoli; Wang, Lian-Ping
2017-11-01
It is well known that standard lattice Boltzmann (LB) models allow the strain-rate components to be computed mesoscopically (i.e., through the local particle distributions) and as such possess a second-order accuracy in strain rate. This is one of the appealing features of the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) which is of only second-order accuracy in hydrodynamic velocity itself. However, no known LB model can provide the same quality for vorticity and pressure gradients. In this paper, we design a multiple-relaxation time LB model on a three-dimensional 27-discrete-velocity (D3Q27) lattice. A detailed Chapman-Enskog analysis is presented to illustrate all the necessary constraints in reproducing the isothermal Navier-Stokes equations. The remaining degrees of freedom are carefully analyzed to derive a model that accommodates mesoscopic computation of all the velocity and pressure gradients from the nonequilibrium moments. This way of vorticity calculation naturally ensures a second-order accuracy, which is also proven through an asymptotic analysis. We thus show, with enough degrees of freedom and appropriate modifications, the mesoscopic vorticity computation can be achieved in LBM. The resulting model is then validated in simulations of a three-dimensional decaying Taylor-Green flow, a lid-driven cavity flow, and a uniform flow passing a fixed sphere. Furthermore, it is shown that the mesoscopic vorticity computation can be realized even with single relaxation parameter.
Strain induced anomalous red shift in mesoscopic iron oxide ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Wintec
Abstract. Nano magnetic oxides are promising candidates for high density magnetic storage and other appli- cations. Nonspherical mesoscopic iron oxide particles are also candidate materials for studying the shape, size and strain induced modifications of various physical properties viz. optical, magnetic and structural.
Role of mesoscopic morphology in charge transport of doped ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In doped polyaniline (PANI), the charge transport properties are determined by mesoscopic morphology, which in turn is controlled by the molecular recognition interactions among polymer chain, dopant and solvent. Molecular recognition plays a signiﬁcant role in chain conformation and charge delocalization.
What is novel in quantum transport for mesoscopics?
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Indeed, orthodox quantum kinetics would seem to say little about mesoscopics that has not been revealed – nearly effortlessly – by more popular means. Such is far from the case, however. The fact that kinetic theory remains very much in charge is best appreciated through the physics of a quantum point contact.
Charge densities and charge noise in mesoscopic conductors
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We introduce a hierarchy of density of states to characterize the charge distribution in a mesoscopic conductor. At the bottom of this hierarchy are the partial density of states which represent the contribution to the local density of states if both the incident and the out-going scattering channel is prescribed. The partial density ...
NMR Probe for Electrons in Semiconductor Mesoscopic Structures
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2009-11-14
Nov 14, 2009 ... NMR Probe for Electrons in. Semiconductor. Mesoscopic Structures. Vikram Tripathi. TIFR, Mumbai. IInd Platinum Jubilee Meeting. Indian Academy of Sciences. Bangalore ... We showed NMR techniques can be very useful in such circumstances. .... Exploit the main physical difference. Low energy (long ...
Reaction rates for mesoscopic reaction-diffusion kinetics.
Hellander, Stefan; Hellander, Andreas; Petzold, Linda
2015-02-01
The mesoscopic reaction-diffusion master equation (RDME) is a popular modeling framework frequently applied to stochastic reaction-diffusion kinetics in systems biology. The RDME is derived from assumptions about the underlying physical properties of the system, and it may produce unphysical results for models where those assumptions fail. In that case, other more comprehensive models are better suited, such as hard-sphere Brownian dynamics (BD). Although the RDME is a model in its own right, and not inferred from any specific microscale model, it proves useful to attempt to approximate a microscale model by a specific choice of mesoscopic reaction rates. In this paper we derive mesoscopic scale-dependent reaction rates by matching certain statistics of the RDME solution to statistics of the solution of a widely used microscopic BD model: the Smoluchowski model with a Robin boundary condition at the reaction radius of two molecules. We also establish fundamental limits on the range of mesh resolutions for which this approach yields accurate results and show both theoretically and in numerical examples that as we approach the lower fundamental limit, the mesoscopic dynamics approach the microscopic dynamics. We show that for mesh sizes below the fundamental lower limit, results are less accurate. Thus, the lower limit determines the mesh size for which we obtain the most accurate results.
Characterizing the nonclassicality of mesoscopic optical twin-beam states
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Allevi, A.; Lamperti, M.; Bondani, M.; Peřina ml., Jan; Michálek, Václav; Haderka, O.; Machulka, R.
2013-01-01
Roč. 88, č. 6 (2013), "063807-1"-"063807-9" ISSN 1050-2947 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0382 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : mesoscopic optical twin-beam states * photon-number domain Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.991, year: 2013
Lattice Boltzmann model capable of mesoscopic vorticity computation
Peng, Cheng; Guo, Zhaoli; Wang, Lian-Ping
2017-11-01
It is well known that standard lattice Boltzmann (LB) models allow the strain-rate components to be computed mesoscopically (i.e., through the local particle distributions) and as such possess a second-order accuracy in strain rate. This is one of the appealing features of the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) which is of only second-order accuracy in hydrodynamic velocity itself. However, no known LB model can provide the same quality for vorticity and pressure gradients. In this paper, we design a multiple-relaxation time LB model on a three-dimensional 27-discrete-velocity (D3Q27) lattice. A detailed Chapman-Enskog analysis is presented to illustrate all the necessary constraints in reproducing the isothermal Navier-Stokes equations. The remaining degrees of freedom are carefully analyzed to derive a model that accommodates mesoscopic computation of all the velocity and pressure gradients from the nonequilibrium moments. This way of vorticity calculation naturally ensures a second-order accuracy, which is also proven through an asymptotic analysis. We thus show, with enough degrees of freedom and appropriate modifications, the mesoscopic vorticity computation can be achieved in LBM. The resulting model is then validated in simulations of a three-dimensional decaying Taylor-Green flow, a lid-driven cavity flow, and a uniform flow passing a fixed sphere. Furthermore, it is shown that the mesoscopic vorticity computation can be realized even with single relaxation parameter.
Martin, Rachel W.; Paulson, Eric K.; Zilm, Kurt W.
2003-06-01
Standard design and construction practices used in building nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) probes for the study of solid state samples become difficult if not entirely impractical to implement as the 1H resonance frequency approaches the self resonance frequency of commercial capacitors. We describe an approach that utilizes short variable transmission line segments as tunable reactances. Such an approach effectively controls stray reactances and provides a higher Q alternative to ceramic chip capacitors. The particular probe described is built to accommodate a 2.5 mm magic angle spinning rotor system, and is triply tuned to 13C, 15N, and 1H frequencies for use at 18.8 T (200, 80, and 800 MHz, respectively). Isolation of the three radio frequency (rf) channels is achieved using both a rejection trap and a transmission line notch filter. The compact geometry of this design allows three channels with high power handling capability to fit in a medium bore (63 mm) magnet. Extended time variable temperature operation is integral to the mechanical design, enabling the temperature control necessary for investigation of biological macromolecules. Accurate measurement of the air temperature near the sample rotor is achieved using a fiber optic thermometer, which does not interfere with the rf electronics. We also demonstrate that acceptable line shapes are only readily achieved using zero magnetic susceptibility wire in construction of the sample coil. Computer simulation of the circuit aided in the physical design of the probe. Representative data illustrating the efficiency, rf homogeneity, and signal to noise factor of the probe are presented.
A study on the improvement of spin-off effectiveness of national nuclear R and D activities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, Maeng Ho; Lee, T. J.
1997-02-01
This study consists of two parts. One is to identify factors affecting technological effectiveness of the spin-off process that is defined as the technology transfer process from government sponsored research institutes (GRI's) to the civilian sector. The other is to analyze the environment of the spin-off process and to suggest guidelines for addition, this study also examines spin-off effectiveness with technology transfer types. To validate the conceptual model and hypotheses of the spin-off process, data are collected from 12 cases through in-depth interviews and questionnaires. Spearman correlation analysis is employed in order to test the hypotheses on the spin-off process. (author). 50 refs., 17 tabs., 12 figs
Nuclear spin relaxation of 8Li in a thin film of La 0.67Ca 0.33MnO 3
Miller, R. I.; Arseneau, D.; Chow, K. H.; Daviel, S.; Engelbertz, A.; Hossain, MD.; Keeler, T.; Kiefl, R. F.; Kreitzman, S.; Levy, C. D. P.; Morales, P.; Morris, G. D.; MacFarlane, W. A.; Parolin, T. J.; Poutissou, R.; Saadaoui, H.; Salman, Z.; Wang, D.; Wei, J. Y. T.
2006-03-01
We report β-NMR measurements of the nuclear spin relaxation rate (1/T1) in a thin film of La 0.67Ca 0.33MnO 3 (LCMO) using a low-energy beam of spin-polarized 8Li. In a small magnetic field of 150 G, there is a broad peak in 1/T1 near the Curie temperature (Tc=259 K) and a dramatic decrease in 1/T1 at lower temperatures. This is attributed to a critical slowing down of the spin fluctuations near Tc and freezing of the magnetic excitations at low temperatures, respectively. In addition, there is a small amplitude, slow relaxing component at high temperatures, which we attribute to 8Li in the SrTiO 3 substrate. There is an indication that the spin relaxation rate in the substrate is also peaked at Tc due to close proximity to the magnetic film. These results establish that low-energy β-NMR can be used as a probe of magnetic fluctuations in magnetic thin films over a wide range of temperatures.
Antiferromagnetic Spin Wave Field-Effect Transistor
Cheng, Ran; Daniels, Matthew W.; Zhu, Jian-Gang; Xiao, Di
2016-01-01
In a collinear antiferromagnet with easy-axis anisotropy, symmetry dictates that the spin wave modes must be doubly degenerate. Theses two modes, distinguished by their opposite polarization and available only in antiferromagnets, give rise to a novel degree of freedom to encode and process information. We show that the spin wave polarization can be manipulated by an electric field induced Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction and magnetic anisotropy. We propose a prototype spin wave field-effect transistor which realizes a gate-tunable magnonic analog of the Faraday effect, and demonstrate its application in THz signal modulation. Our findings open up the exciting possibility of digital data processing utilizing antiferromagnetic spin waves and enable the direct projection of optical computing concepts onto the mesoscopic scale. PMID:27048928
2002-01-01
We aim at establishing an unambiguous spin determination of the ground and isomeric states in the neutron rich Cu-isotopes from A=72 up to A=78 and to measure the magnetic and quadrupole moments between the N=28 and N=50 shell closures. This study will provide information on the double-magicity of $^{56}$Ni and $^{78}$Ni, both at the extremes of nuclear stability. It will provide evidence on the suggested inversion of ground state spin around A$\\approx$74, due to the monopole migration of the $\\pi f_{5/2}$ level. The collinear laser spectroscopy technique will be used, which furthermore provides information on the changes in mean square charge radii between both neutron shell closures, probing a possible onset of deformation in this region.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kath, Matthias
2009-11-06
In this thesis the experimental study of the spin dynamics of solid {sup 3}He is described. By means of magnetization measurements above 3 mK a Curie-Weiss behaviour was found with {theta}{sub W}{approx}2.1 mK and by this an order parameter of J={theta}{sub W}k{sub B}/{approx}-0.5 Kk{sub B} was observed, while in the range of 1 to 3 mK a pure Curie behaviour was found. By means of NMR measurements the values of {tau}{sub 1}(6 mK)=240 ms{+-}12 ms and {tau}{sub 1}(1 mK){approx} 40 ms were determined, while spin-echo measurements yielded the spin-spin relaxation time {tau}{sub 2}(6 mK)=4540 {mu}s{+-}140 {mu}s. Furthermore neutron scattering studies were performed. (HSI)
Chang, Zhiwei; Halle, Bertil
2016-02-28
In aqueous systems with immobilized macromolecules, including biological tissue, the longitudinal spin relaxation of water protons is primarily induced by exchange-mediated orientational randomization (EMOR) of intra- and intermolecular magnetic dipole-dipole couplings. We have embarked on a systematic program to develop, from the stochastic Liouville equation, a general and rigorous theory that can describe relaxation by the dipolar EMOR mechanism over the full range of exchange rates, dipole coupling strengths, and Larmor frequencies. Here, we present a general theoretical framework applicable to spin systems of arbitrary size with symmetric or asymmetric exchange. So far, the dipolar EMOR theory is only available for a two-spin system with symmetric exchange. Asymmetric exchange, when the spin system is fragmented by the exchange, introduces new and unexpected phenomena. Notably, the anisotropic dipole couplings of non-exchanging spins break the axial symmetry in spin Liouville space, thereby opening up new relaxation channels in the locally anisotropic sites, including longitudinal-transverse cross relaxation. Such cross-mode relaxation operates only at low fields; at higher fields it becomes nonsecular, leading to an unusual inverted relaxation dispersion that splits the extreme-narrowing regime into two sub-regimes. The general dipolar EMOR theory is illustrated here by a detailed analysis of the asymmetric two-spin case, for which we present relaxation dispersion profiles over a wide range of conditions as well as analytical results for integral relaxation rates and time-dependent spin modes in the zero-field and motional-narrowing regimes. The general theoretical framework presented here will enable a quantitative analysis of frequency-dependent water-proton longitudinal relaxation in model systems with immobilized macromolecules and, ultimately, will provide a rigorous link between relaxation-based magnetic resonance image contrast and molecular parameters.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
IAS Admin
Nuclei occur in many different species, called nuclides, which are defined by the numbers of protons and neutrons they contain. The chemical nature of an atom is defined by the number of protons in its nucleus. For example, all atoms of carbon have six protons in the nucleus, and all atoms of hydrogen have a single proton ...
Salman, Z; Kiefl, R F; Chow, K H; Hossain, M D; Keeler, T A; Kreitzman, S R; Levy, C D P; Miller, R I; Parolin, T J; Pearson, M R; Saadaoui, H; Schultz, J D; Smadella, M; Wang, D; MacFarlane, W A
2006-04-14
We demonstrate that zero-field beta-detected nuclear quadrupole resonance and spin relaxation of low energy (8)Li can be used as a sensitive local probe of structural phase transitions near a surface. We find that the transition near the surface of a SrTiO(3) single crystal occurs at T(c) approximately 150K, i.e., approximately 45K higher than T(c)bulk, and that the tetragonal domains formed below T(c) are randomly oriented.
Mesoscopic Fluctuations for the Thinned Circular Unitary Ensemble
Berggren, Tomas; Duits, Maurice
2017-09-01
In this paper we study the asymptotic behavior of mesoscopic fluctuations for the thinned Circular Unitary Ensemble. The effect of thinning is that the eigenvalues start to decorrelate. The decorrelation is stronger on the larger scales than on the smaller scales. We investigate this behavior by studying mesoscopic linear statistics. There are two regimes depending on the scale parameter and the thinning parameter. In one regime we obtain a CLT of a classical type and in the other regime we retrieve the CLT for CUE. The two regimes are separated by a critical line. On the critical line the limiting fluctuations are no longer Gaussian, but described by infinitely divisible laws. We argue that this transition phenomenon is universal by showing that the same transition and their laws appear for fluctuations of the thinned sine process in a growing box. The proofs are based on a Riemann-Hilbert problem for integrable operators.
Role of mesoscopic morphology in charge transport of doped polyaniline
Mukherjee, A. K.; Menon, Reghu
2002-02-01
In doped polyaniline (PANI), the charge transport properties are determined by mesoscopic morphology, which in turn is controlled by the molecular recognition interactions among polymer chain, dopant and solvent Molecular recognition plays a significant role in chain conformation and charge delocalization. The resistivity of PANI doped by camphor sulfonic acid (CSA)/2-acrylo-amido-1-propane sulfonic acid (AMPSA)/dodecyl benzene sulfonic acid (DBSA) is around 0.02 W cm. PANI-CSA and PANI-AMPSA show a metallic positive temperature coefficient of resistivity above 150 K, with a finite value of conductivity at 1.4 K; whereas, PANI-DBSA shows hopping transport at low temperatures. The magnetoresistance is positive (negative) for PANI-CSA (PANI-AMPSA); and PANI-DBSA has a large positive MR. The behavior of MR suggests subtle variations in mesoscopic morphology between PANI-CSA and PANI-AMPSA.
Insight or illusion? seeing inside the cell with mesoscopic simulations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shillcock, Julian C.
2008-01-01
The expulsion of material from a cell by fusion of vesicles at the plasma membrane, and the entry of a virus by membrane invagination are complex membrane-associatedprocesses whose control is crucial to cell survival. Our ability to visualize the dynamics of such processes experimentally is limit...... paying because mesoscopic simulations can generate new insight into the complex, dynamic life of a cell....
Dynamics of mesoscopic systems: Non-equilibrium Green's functions approach
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Špička, Václav; Kalvová, Anděla; Velický, B.
2010-01-01
Roč. 42, č. 3 (2010), s. 525-538 ISSN 1386-9477 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/08/0361 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520; CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : mesoscopic systems * NGF * initial condition * correlations * Ward identities * transients Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.304, year: 2010
Liquid lubrication in sheet metal forming at mesoscopic scale
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hubert, C.; Dubar, L.; Bay, Niels
2012-01-01
The lubricant entrapment and escape phenomena in metal forming are studied experimentally as well as numerically. Experiments are carried out in strip reduction of aluminium sheet applying a transparent die to study the fluid flow between mesoscopic cavities. The numerical strategy is based...... on a weak fluid/structure coupling involving the Finite Element Method and analytical calculations. It allows to quantify the final shape of the lubricant pockets...
Vortex chirality control in mesoscopic disk magnets observed by PEEM
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taniuchi, T.; Oshima, M.; Akinaga, H.; Ono, K.
2004-01-01
Full text: We present the magnetic vortex chirality control in mesoscopic disk magnets observed by photoelectron emission microscopy (PEEM). Magnetic vortex structure specific to mesoscopic magnet attracts consider- able attention because of the importance in ultrahigh density data storage technologies such as hard disk drives (HDDs) or magnetic random access memories (MRAMs). The current hot topic is the vortex chirality control, that is, to control clockwise or counter-clockwise magnetic flux circulation in a vortex. We have designed a chirality-controllable mesoscopic device (Fig. 1a) based on micromagnetic simulation results. PEEM has a capability for the direct real-space observation of magnetic moments combined with x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). Since there is no stray magnetic ld from vortices with closed magnetic flux, PEEM is considered as one of the best techniques to observe the vortex chirality. The PEEM experiments were performed at the NE1B of PF-AR ring. Magnetic field was applied in the atmosphere before the measurement. PEEM images shown in Fig. 1b clearly indicate that the vortex chirality is successfully controlled by the external magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pahlavani, H.; Kolur, E. Rahmanpour
2016-01-01
Based on the electrical charge discreteness, the Hamiltonian operator for the mutual inductance coupled quantum mesoscopic LC circuits has been found. The persistent current on two driven coupled mesoscopic electric pure L circuits (two quantum loops) has been obtained by using algebraic quantum dynamic approach. The influence of the mutual inductance on energy spectrum and quantum fluctuations of the charge and current for two coupled quantum electric mesoscopic LC circuits have been investigated.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lafon, Olivier [Universite de Lille Nord de France; Thankamony, Aany S. Lilly [Universite de Lille Nord de France; Kokayashi, Takeshi [Ames Laboratory; Carnevale, Diego [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne; Vitzthum, Veronika [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne; Slowing, Igor I. [Ames Laboratory; Kandel, Kapil [Ames Laboratory; Vezin, Herve [Universite de Lille Nord de France; Amoureux, Jean-Paul [Universite de Lille Nord de France; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne; Pruski, Marek [Ames Laboratory
2012-12-21
We show that dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) can be used to enhance NMR signals of 13C and 29Si nuclei located in mesoporous organic/inorganic hybrid materials, at several hundreds of nanometers from stable radicals (TOTAPOL) trapped in the surrounding frozen disordered water. The approach is demonstrated using mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN), functionalized with 3-(N-phenylureido)propyl (PUP) groups, filled with the surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The DNP-enhanced proton magnetization is transported into the mesopores via 1H–1H spin diffusion and transferred to rare spins by cross-polarization, yielding signal enhancements εon/off of around 8. When the CTAB molecules are extracted, so that the radicals can enter the mesopores, the enhancements increase to εon/off ≈ 30 for both nuclei. A quantitative analysis of the signal enhancements in MSN with and without surfactant is based on a one-dimensional proton spin diffusion model. The effect of solvent deuteration is also investigated.
The persistent current and energy spectrum on a driven mesoscopic LC-circuit with Josephson junction
Pahlavanias, Hassan
2018-03-01
The quantum theory for a mesoscopic electric circuit including a Josephson junction with charge discreteness is studied. By considering coupling energy of the mesoscopic capacitor in Josephson junction device, a Hamiltonian describing the dynamics of a quantum mesoscopic electric LC-circuit with charge discreteness is introduced. We first calculate the persistent current on a quantum driven ring including Josephson junction. Then we obtain the persistent current and energy spectrum of a quantum mesoscopic electrical circuit which includes capacitor, inductor, time-dependent external source and Josephson junction.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mazumder, S.
2011-01-01
Investigations of cement is still in its infancy despite the fact that cement is ubiquitous material which is indispensable in the construction industry, in nuclear energy programs for immobilization of non heat-generating low-level radioactive waste, and in the petroleum industry to line oil wells by pumping cement slurry to isolate productive zones and with global production exceeding that of any other material of technological importance. The total world consumption of cement in 2008 was about 2.5 billion metric tons almost double of that of steel. Manufacturing of cement contributes about 4% of global and 5-7% of the total man-made CO 2 emissions. The understanding of the mechanism of its hydration and evolution of cement-water mixtures into a material of high compressive strength is paramount to improve its life time and other macroscopic properties such as compressive strength, permeability, elastic modulus etc. The mechanism of hydration of cement and evolution of cement-water mixtures into gels of high compressive strength is poorly understood, despite extensive research over the past century. Recent investigations, based on neutron scattering measurements, aims at unraveling this enigma and outlines, for the first time, the evolution of the mesoscopic structure of the cement paste which exhibits temporal oscillations, strongly dependent on the scale of observation and on the medium of hydration (light or heavy water). While the formation of hydration products is synchronous for hydration with H 2 O, the process is non-synchronous for hydration with D 2 O. The reason why morphological patterns of domains at different times look dissimilar, as seen before, for different hydration media emerges as a natural consequence of this finding. Mesoscopic structure of cement paste exhibits isotope effect. The structures arise from well- characterised chemical reactions as water diffuses through the porous material to bring about the water-surface interactions within
Little, Reginald B; McClary, Felicia; Rice, Bria; Jackman, Corine; Mitchell, James W
2012-12-14
The recent observation of the explosive oxidation of graphene with enhancement for decreasing temperature and the requirements for synchronizing oxidants for collective oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions presented a chemical scenario for the thermal harvesting by the magnetic spin Hall Effect. More experimental data are presented to demonstrate such spin Hall Effect by determining the influence of spins of so-called spectator fermionic cations. Furthermore, the so-called spectator bosonic cations are discovered to cause a Klein tunneling effect during the redox reaction of graphene. The Na(+) and K(+), fermionic cations and the Mg(2+) and Ca(2+), bosonic cations were observed and compared under a variety of experimental conditions: adiabatic reactions with initial temperatures (18-22 °C); reactions toward infinite dilution; isothermal reactions under nonadiabatic conditions at low temperature of 18 °C; reactions under paramagnetic O(2) or diamagnetic N(2) atmospheres of different permeabilities; reactions in applied and no applied external magnetic field; and reactions toward excess concentrations of common and uncommon Na(+) and Mg(2+) cations. The observed reaction kinetics and dynamics under these various, diverse conditions are consistent with the spin Hall mechanism, energy harvesting and short time violation of Second Law of Thermodynamics for redox reactions of graphene by the Na(+)K(+) mixture and are consistent with the Klein tunnel mechanism for the redox reactions of graphene by the Mg(2+)Ca(2+) mixture. Mixed spin Hall and Klein tunnel mechanisms are discovered to slow and modulate explosive redox reactions. Such spin Hall Effect also gives explanation of recent tunneling of electrons through boron nitride.
Chiba, Meiro; Ajiro, Yoshitami; Satoh, Eiji; Kubo, Takeji
1996-02-01
In one-dimensional (1-D) magnets the singlet-ground-state (SGS) due to the quantum spin effect is one of the most interesting phenomena. The temperature and the field dependences of the proton spin-lattice relaxation under magnetic fields up to 15 T have been observed for SGS materials, namely, NENP (Haldane system) and CuCI 2(γ-picoline) 2 (alternating antiferromagnetic chain). The results clearly show the excitation of SGS with a characteristic energy gap in the magnetic excited state. The observed relaxation rate is discussed in terms of the number of magnetic excitons in focussing on the dissimilarity between two systems.
Spin interferometry in anisotropic spin-orbit fields
Saarikoski, Henri; Reynoso, Andres A.; Baltanás, José Pablo; Frustaglia, Diego; Nitta, Junsaku
2018-03-01
Electron spins in a two-dimensional electron gas can be manipulated by spin-orbit (SO) fields originating from either Rashba or Dresselhaus interactions with independent isotropic characteristics. Together, though, they produce anisotropic SO fields with consequences on quantum transport through spin interference. Here we study the transport properties of modeled mesoscopic rings subject to Rashba and Dresselhaus [001] SO couplings in the presence of an additional in-plane Zeeman field acting as a probe. By means of one- and two-dimensional quantum transport simulations we show that this setting presents anisotropies in the quantum resistance as a function of the Zeeman field direction. Moreover, the anisotropic resistance can be tuned by the Rashba strength up to the point to invert its response to the Zeeman field. We also find that a topological transition in the field texture that is associated with a geometric phase switching is imprinted in the anisotropy pattern. We conclude that resistance anisotropy measurements can reveal signatures of SO textures and geometric phases in spin carriers.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krueckl, Viktor
2013-05-01
At the beginning of 21th century, the range of solid state materials was extended by crystals featuring charge excitations with a chiral spin or pseudo-spin texture close to the Fermi energy. Such exceptional electronic properties can be found in graphene or topological insulators, which both render a great potential for upcoming electronic devices. In this thesis, mesoscopic systems of such solid state materials are investigated by a time-dependent scheme, which describes the electronic excitations by the propagation of wave packets. Based on the time evolution of initial states dynamical and static observables are studied and new electronic phenomena are revealed. For example, the motion of electrons in graphene or topological insulators exhibit time-dependent features like Bloch-Zener oscillations or wave-packet revivals, which are not present in conventional electron gases. Also static properties, like transport characteristics, are encoded in the time evolution. For instance, the switching features of a topological insulator constriction can be extracted from a single wave-packet injected into a lead. The underlying effect builds the foundation of a novel charge and spin-transistor, which is presented in this thesis alongside other proposals for novel experiments in graphene or topological insulators.
Quantum transport through mesoscopic disordered interfaces, junctions, and multilayers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nikolic, Branislav K.
2002-01-01
This study explores perpendicular transport through macroscopically inhomogeneous three-dimensional disordered conductors using mesoscopic methods (the real-space Green function technique in a two-probe measuring geometry). The nanoscale samples (containing ∼ 1000 atoms) are modelled by a tight-binding Hamiltonian on a simple cubic lattice where disorder is introduced in the on-site potential energy. I compute the transport properties of: disordered metallic junctions formed by concatenating two homogeneous samples with different kinds of microscopic disorder, a single strongly disordered interface, and multilayers composed of such interfaces and homogeneous layers characterized by different strengths of the same type of microscopic disorder. This allows us to: contrast the resistor model (semiclassical) approach with a fully quantum description of dirty mesoscopic multilayers; study the transmission properties of dirty interfaces (where the Schep-Bauer distribution of transmission eigenvalues is confirmed for a single interface, as well as for a stack of such interfaces that is thinner than the localization length); and elucidate the effect of coupling to ideal leads ('measuring apparatus') on the conductance of both bulk conductors and dirty interfaces. When a multilayer contains a ballistic layer in between two interfaces, its disorder-averaged conductance oscillates as a function of the Fermi energy. I also address some fundamental issues in quantum transport theory - the relationship between the Kubo formula in the exact state representation and the 'mesoscopic Kubo formula' (which gives the exact zero-temperature conductance of a finite-size sample attached to two semi-infinite ideal leads) is thoroughly re-examined by comparing their outcomes for both the junctions and homogeneous samples. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
X. H. Liu
2015-10-01
Full Text Available We report a novel method of measuring the spin polarization of alkali-metal atoms by detecting the NMR frequency shifts of noble gases. We calculated the profile of 87Rb D1 line absorption cross sections. We then measured the absorption profile of the sample cell, from which we calculated the 87Rb number densities at different temperatures. Then we measured the frequency shifts resulted from the spin polarization of the 87Rb atoms and calculated its polarization degrees at different temperatures. The behavior of frequency shifts versus temperature in experiment was consistent with theoretical calculation, which may be used as compensative signal for the NMRG closed-loop control system.
Hysteresis in mesoscopic superconducting disks: The Bean-Livingston barrier
Singha Deo, P.; Schweigert, V. A.; Peeters, F. M.
1999-03-01
Depending on the size of mesoscopic superconducting disks, the magnetization can show hysteretic behavior which we explain by using the Ginzburg-Landau (GL) theory and properly taking into account the demagnetization effects due to geometrical form factors. In large disks the hysteresis is due to the Bean-Livingston surface barrier while in small disks it is the volume barrier which is responsible for it. Although the sample magnetization is diamagnetic (negative) we show that the measured magnetization can be positive at certain fields as observed experimentally and which is a consequence of both the demagnetization effect and the experimental setup.
Introduction to wave scattering, localization, and mesoscopic phenomena
Sheng, Ping
1995-01-01
This book gives readers a coherent picture of waves in disordered media, including multiple scattered waves. The book is intended to be self-contained, with illustrated problems and solutions at the end of each chapter to serve the double purpose of filling out the technical and mathematical details and giving the students exercises if used as a course textbook.The study of wave behavior in disordered media has applications in:Condensed matter physics (semi and superconductor nanostructures and mesoscopic phenomena)Materials science/analytical chemistry (analysis of composite and crystalline structures and properties)Optics and electronics (microelectronic and optoelectronic devices)Geology (seismic exploration of Earths subsurface)
Mesoscopic Rydberg Gate Based on Electromagnetically Induced Transparency
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mueller, M.; Lesanovsky, I.; Zoller, P.; Weimer, H.; Buechler, H. P.
2009-01-01
We demonstrate theoretically a parallelized C-NOT gate which allows us to entangle a mesoscopic ensemble of atoms with a single control atom in a single step, with high fidelity and on a microsecond time scale. Our scheme relies on the strong and long-ranged interaction between Rydberg atoms triggering electromagnetically induced transparency. By this we can robustly implement a conditional transfer of all ensemble atoms between two logical states, depending on the state of the control atom. We outline a many-body interferometer which allows a comparison of two many-body quantum states by performing a measurement of the control atom.
Fabrication of mesoscopic floating Si wires by introducing dislocations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Motohashi, Mitsuya; Shimizu, Kazuya; Niwa, Masaaki; Suzuki, Toshiaki
2014-01-01
We fabricated a mesoscopic Si wire by introducing dislocations in a silicon wafer before HF anodization. The dislocations formed along the (111) crystal plane. The outline of the dislocation line was an inverted triangle. The resulting wire floated on a bridge girder and had a hybrid structure consisting of a porous layer and crystalline Si. The cross section of the wire had an inverted triangle shape. The wire formation mechanism is discussed in terms of carrier transport, crystal structure, and dislocation formation during anodization. (paper)
Fabrication of mesoscopic floating Si wires by introducing dislocations
Motohashi, Mitsuya; Shimizu, Kazuya; Suzuki, Toshiaki; Niwa, Masaaki
2014-12-01
We fabricated a mesoscopic Si wire by introducing dislocations in a silicon wafer before HF anodization. The dislocations formed along the (111) crystal plane. The outline of the dislocation line was an inverted triangle. The resulting wire floated on a bridge girder and had a hybrid structure consisting of a porous layer and crystalline Si. The cross section of the wire had an inverted triangle shape. The wire formation mechanism is discussed in terms of carrier transport, crystal structure, and dislocation formation during anodization.
Mesoscopic Modeling of Multiphysicochemical Transport Phenomena in Porous Media
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qinjun Kang
2010-01-01
Full Text Available We present our recent progress on mesoscopic modeling of multiphysicochemical transport phenomena in porous media based on the lattice Boltzmann method. Simulation examples include injection of CO2-saturated brine into a limestone rock, two-phase behavior and flooding phenomena in polymer electrolyte fuel cells, and electroosmosis in homogeneously charged porous media. It is shown that the lattice Boltzmann method can account for multiple, coupled physicochemical processes in these systems and can shed some light on the underlying physics occurring at the fundamental scale. Therefore, it can be a potential powerful numerical tool to analyze multiphysicochemical processes in various energy, earth, and environmental systems.
Superconducting proximity effect in mesoscopic superconductor/normal-metal junctions
Takayanagi, H; Toyoda, E
1999-01-01
The superconducting proximity effect is discussed in mesoscopic superconductor/normal-metal junctions. The newly-developed theory shows long-range phase-coherent effect which explaines early experimental results of giant magnetoresistance oscillations in an Andreev interferometer. The theory also shows that the proximity correction to the conductance (PCC) has a reentrant behavior as a function of energy. The reentrant behavior is systematically studied in a gated superconductor-semiconductor junction. A negative PCC is observed in the case of a weak coupling between the normal metal and the external reservoir. Phase coherent ac effect is also observed when rf is irradiated to the junction.
S-matrix formulation of mesoscopic systems and evanescent modes.
Chowdhury, Sheelan Sengupta; Deo, P Singha; Jayannavar, A M; Manninen, M
2010-01-13
Validity of the Landauer-Buttiker formalism for studying linear transport in mesoscopic systems is well established theoretically as well as experimentally. Akkermans et al (1991 Phys. Rev. Lett. 66 76) have shown that the formalism can be extended to study thermodynamic properties like persistent currents. This extension was verified for simple one-dimensional systems. We study the applicability of Akkermans et al' s formula for quasi-one-dimensional systems with several conducting channels. In the case that all modes are propagating the formula is still valid but in the case of evanescent modes it requires reinterpretation.
Near-Field Effects in Mesoscopic Light Transport.
Rezvani Naraghi, R; Sukhov, S; Sáenz, J J; Dogariu, A
2015-11-13
In dense multiple scattering media, optical fields evolve through both homogeneous and evanescent waves. New regimes of light transport emerge because of the near-field coupling between individual scattering centers at mesoscopic scales. We present a novel propagation model that is developed in terms of measurable far- and near-field scattering cross sections. Our quantitative description explains the increase of total transmission in dense scattering media and its accuracy is established through both full-scale numerical calculations and enhanced backscattering experiments.
Quantum Effect in a Diode Included Nonlinear Inductance-Capacitance Mesoscopic Circuit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yan Zhanyuan; Zhang Xiaohong; Ma Jinying
2009-01-01
The mesoscopic nonlinear inductance-capacitance circuit is a typical anharmonic oscillator, due to diodes included in the circuit. In this paper, using the advanced quantum theory of mesoscopic circuits, which based on the fundamental fact that the electric charge takes discrete value, the diode included mesoscopic circuit is firstly studied. Schroedinger equation of the system is a four-order difference equation in p-circumflex representation. Using the extended perturbative method, the detail energy spectrum and wave functions are obtained and verified, as an application of the results, the current quantum fluctuation in the ground state is calculated. Diode is a basis component in a circuit, its quantization would popularize the quantum theory of mesoscopic circuits. The methods to solve the high order difference equation are helpful to the application of mesoscopic quantum theory.
Valenzuela, Sergio O; Saitoh, Eiji; Kimura, Takashi
2012-01-01
In a new branch of physics and technology called spin-electronics or spintronics, the flow of electrical charge (usual current) as well as the flow of electron spin, the so-called 'spin current', are manipulated and controlled together. This book provides an introduction and guide to the new physics and application of spin current.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bendali, N.; Duong, H.T.; Saint-Jalm, J.M.; Vialle, J.L.
1984-01-01
Measurement of nuclear spin in the collinear laser spectroscopy method has been investigated using a fast sodium atomic beam excited collinearly by a C.W. single mode dye laser beam. The atomic magnetic moments are first aligned by optical pumping process, then they interact with a static magnetic field H 0 . The magnetic alignment of the atomic system just at the exit of the magnetic field is monitored by the laser induced fluorescence. Upon varying the amplitude of H 0 , the fluorescence signal presents a fringed structure. This structure is due to the Larmor precession of the aligned magnetic moments around H 0 , and therefore it is a signature of the spin involved. The modulation patterns corresponding to different relative orientations of H 0 and light polarization direction, are fitted by an analytical formula. In a second step, a classical magnetic resonance experiment with a static magnetic field and a radiofrequency field has been performed. The monocinetic character of our fast atomic beam allowed us to observe, even at high r.f. power, resonances line shapes in agreement with the Majorana formula
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kleber, R.; Jung, K.; Ehrhardt, H. (Fachbereich Physik, Univ. Kaiserslautern (Germany)); Muehling, I.; Breuer, K. (Technische Univ. Chemnitz, Sektion Physik/Elektronische Bauelemente (Germany)); Metz, H.; Engelke, F. (Karl-Marx-Univ., Sektion Physik, Leipzig (Germany))
1991-12-01
a-C:H layers prepared at different ion energies have been investigated by several methods including {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and electron spin resonance (ESR). The sp{sup 2} fraction of the samples rose from 27% to about 60 at.% with increasing ion energies from 30 eV to 170 eV. In the EELS spectra of these layers the intensity of the {pi}{yields}{pi}{sup *} transition between 4 and 7 eV showed no significant variation. But a shift of the peak is observed from 7 eV to lower energy losses with increasing ion energies indicating an enhanced formation of larger sp{sup 2} cluster sizes. This shift is accompanied by a broadening of the energy loss peak, suggesting a broadening of the cluster size distribution. The ESR spectra showed an increase of the spin density by more than one order of magnitude with increasing ion energies. Simultaneously the linewidth of the ESR signal gets narrower. This can also be interpreted as an increasing cluster size from single benzene rings to three and four fused six-fold rings. Hence, the EELS and ESR spectra lead to the same conclusions with respect to the microstructure of the a-C:H network. (orig.).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Piotto Martial
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Providing information on cancerous tissue samples during a surgical operation can help surgeons delineate the limits of a tumoral invasion more reliably. Here, we describe the use of metabolic profiling of a colon biopsy specimen by high resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to evaluate tumoral invasion during a simulated surgical operation. Case presentation Biopsy specimens (n = 9 originating from the excised right colon of a 66-year-old Caucasian women with an adenocarcinoma were automatically analyzed using a previously built statistical model. Conclusions Metabolic profiling results were in full agreement with those of a histopathological analysis. The time-response of the technique is sufficiently fast for it to be used effectively during a real operation (17 min/sample. Metabolic profiling has the potential to become a method to rapidly characterize cancerous biopsies in the operation theater.
Righi, Valeria; Parenti, Francesca; Tugnoli, Vitaliano; Schenetti, Luisa; Mucci, Adele
2015-09-30
Intact Crocus sativus petals were studied for the first time by high-resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (HR-MAS NMR) spectroscopy, revealing the presence of kinsenoside (2) and goodyeroside A (3), together with 3-hydroxy-γ-butyrolactone (4). These findings were confirmed by HR-NMR analysis of the ethanol extract of fresh petals and showed that, even though carried out rapidly, partial hydrolysis of glucopyranosyloxybutanolides occurs during extraction. On the other hand, kaempferol 3-O-sophoroside (1), which is "NMR-silent" in intact petals, is present in extracts. These results suggest to evaluate the utilization of saffron petals for phytopharmaceutical and nutraceutical purposes to exploit a waste product of massive production of commercial saffron and point to the application of HR-MAS NMR for monitoring bioactive compounds directly on intact petals, avoiding the extraction procedure and the consequent hydrolysis reaction.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Kaneko
2017-03-01
Full Text Available We have investigated the local structure of alkali atoms in mixed alkali silicate, borate, and borosilicate glasses, which contain Cs+ and Na+, using strong magnetic field magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR spectroscopy of 133Cs and 23Na. The spectral peaks of 133Cs in borosilicate (Si:B = 1:1 and Si-rich borosilicate (Si:B = 2:1 glasses shifted to upfield with increasing Cs+/(Na+ + Cs+ ratio, which implies that the coordination number of Cs+ decreased as in the case of silicate and borate glasses. However, this trend was not observed in the 23Na spectra of either borosilicate glass. This might be because the chemical shift of 23Na in borosilicate glass is strongly affected by nearby species such as Si or B, and not by the coordination number of Na+.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soubies, B.; Boulc'h, J.; Elsensohn, O.; Le Meur, M.; Henry, J.Y.
1994-06-01
The licensing procedures process of nuclear plants features compulsory steps which bring about a thorough exam of the commands control system. This analysis accounts for the aspects linked to technologies (integrated circuits, software packages) which have been chosen by the manufacturer for the programmed systems in charge of safety functions. Important innovations have been introduced in terms of design and manufacturing processes of safety systems of 1400 MWe pressurized water reactors, more precisely for the integrated numerical protection system (SPIN). The methodology used by the IPSN for the exam of the software of this system is presented in the communication. This methodology leads the IPSN to carry out studies and developments of tools keeping in sight as their main goal to bring substantial help to analysis. (authors). 2 refs
Mesoscopic Iron-Oxide Nanorod Polymer Nanocomposite Films
Ferrier, Robert; Ohno, Kohji; Composto, Russell
2012-02-01
Dispersion of nanostructures in polymer matrices is required in order to take advantage of the unique properties of the nano-sized filler. This work investigates the dispersion of mesoscopic (200 nm long) iron-oxide rods (FeNRs) grafted with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) brushes having molecular weights (MWs) of 3.7K, 32K and 160K. These rods were then dispersed in either a poly(methyl methacrylate) or poly(oxyethylene) (PEO) matrix film so that the matrix/brush interaction is either entropic (PMMA matrix) or enthalpic and entropic (PEO matrix). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to determine the dispersion of the FeNRs in the polymer matrix. The results show that the FeNRs with the largest brush were always dispersed in the matrix, whereas the rods with the shorter brushes always aggregated in the matrix. This suggests that the brush MW is a critical parameter to achieve dispersion of these mesoscopic materials. This work can be extended to understand the dispersion of other types of mesocopic particles
Numerical simulation of lubrication mechanisms at mesoscopic scale
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hubert, C.; Bay, Niels; Christiansen, Peter
2011-01-01
The mechanisms of liquid lubrication in metal forming are studied at a mesoscopic scale, adopting a 2D sequential fluid-solid weak coupling approach earlier developed in the first author's laboratory. This approach involves two computation steps. The first one is a fully coupled fluid-structure F......The mechanisms of liquid lubrication in metal forming are studied at a mesoscopic scale, adopting a 2D sequential fluid-solid weak coupling approach earlier developed in the first author's laboratory. This approach involves two computation steps. The first one is a fully coupled fluid......'s equation, at the asperity level, in order to quantify the fluid leakage in the cavity/plateau network using the lubricant pressure computed previously. The numerical simulation is validated by experimental tests in plane strain strip reduction of aluminium sheet provided with model cavities in form......PlastoHydroDynamic Lubrication (MPHDL) as well as cavity shrinkage due to lubricant compression and escape and strip deformation....
Mesoscopic structure conditions the emergence of cooperation on social networks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lozano, S.; Arenas, A.; Sanchez, A.
2008-12-01
We study the evolutionary Prisoner's Dilemma on two social networks substrates obtained from actual relational data. We find very different cooperation levels on each of them that cannot be easily understood in terms of global statistical properties of both networks. We claim that the result can be understood at the mesoscopic scale, by studying the community structure of the networks. We explain the dependence of the cooperation level on the temptation parameter in terms of the internal structure of the communities and their interconnections. We then test our results on community-structured, specifically designed artificial networks, finding a good agreement with the observations in both real substrates. Our results support the conclusion that studies of evolutionary games on model networks and their interpretation in terms of global properties may not be sufficient to study specific, real social systems. Further, the study allows us to define new quantitative parameters that summarize the mesoscopic structure of any network. In addition, the community perspective may be helpful to interpret the origin and behavior of existing networks as well as to design structures that show resilient cooperative behavior.
Coherent current states in mesoscopic four-terminal Josephson junction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zareyan, M.; Omelyanchouk, A.N.
1999-01-01
A theory is offered for the ballistic 4-terminal Josephson junction. The studied system consist of a mesoscopic two-dimensional normal rectangular layer which is attached on each side to the bulk superconducting banks (terminals). A relation is obtained between the currents through the different terminals, that is valid for arbitrary temperatures and junction sizes. The nonlocal coupling of the supercurrent leads to a new effect, specific for the mesoscopic weak link between two superconducting rings; an applied magnetic flux through one of the rings produces a magnetic flux in the other ring even in the absence of an external flux through the other one. The phase dependent distributions of the local density of Andreev states, of the supercurrents and of the induced order parameter are obtained. The 'interference pattern' for the anomalous average inside the two-dimensional region cam be regulated by the applied magnetic fluxes or the transport currents. For some values of the phase differences between the terminals, the current vortex state and two-dimensional phase slip center appear
Hu, Jian Zhi; Hu, Mary Y.; Townsend, Mark R.; Lercher, Johannes A.; Peden, Charles H. F.
2015-10-06
Re-usable ceramic magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR rotors constructed of high-mechanic strength ceramics are detailed that include a sample compartment that maintains high pressures up to at least about 200 atmospheres (atm) and high temperatures up to about least about 300.degree. C. during operation. The rotor designs minimize pressure losses stemming from penetration over an extended period of time. The present invention makes possible a variety of in-situ high pressure, high temperature MAS NMR experiments not previously achieved in the prior art.
Jenni, Kevin; Scherthan, Lena; Faus, Isabelle; Marx, Jennifer; Strohm, Cornelius; Herlitschke, Marcus; Wille, Hans-Christian; Würtz, Peter; Schünemann, Volker; Wolny, Juliusz A
2017-07-26
Nuclear inelastic scattering (NIS) experiments have been performed in order to study the vibrational dynamics of the low- and high-spin states of the polynuclear 1D spin crossover compound [Fe(1,2,4-triazole) 2 (1,2,4-triazolato)](BF 4 ) (1). Density functional theory (DFT) calculations using the functional B3LYP* and the basis set CEP-31G for heptameric and nonameric models of the compound yielded the normal vibrations and electronic energies for high-spin and low-spin isomers of three models differing in the distribution of anionic trz - ligands and BF 4 - anions. On the basis of the obtained energies a structural model with a centrosymmetric Fe(trzH) 4 (trz - ) 2 coordination core of the mononuclear unit of the chain is proposed. The obtained distribution of the BF 4 - counteranions in the proposed structure is similar to that obtained on the basis of X-ray powder diffraction studies by Grossjean et al. (Eur. J. Inorg. Chem., 2013, 796). The NIS data of the system diluted to 10% Fe(ii) content in a 90% Zn(ii) matrix (compound (2)) show a characteristic change of the spectral pattern of the low-spin centres, compared to the low-spin phase of the parent Fe(ii) complex (1). DFT calculations reveal that this is caused by a change of the structure of the neighbours of the low-spin centres. The spectral pattern of the high-spin centres in (2) is within a good approximation identical to that of the high-spin Fe(ii) isomer of (1). The inspection of the molecular orbitals of the monomeric model systems of [Fe(trzH) 4 (trz - ) 2 ] and [Fe(trzH) 6 ], together with calculations of spin transition energies, point towards the importance of an electrostatic effect caused by the negatively charged ligands. This results in the stabilisation of the low-spin state of the complex containing the anionic ligand and shortening of the Fe-N(trz - ) compared to the Fe-N(trzH) bond in high-spin, but not in low-spin [Fe(trzH) 4 (trz - ) 2 ].
Efficient room temperature spin-Hall injection across an oxide barrier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Shuhan; Qin, Chuan; Ji, Yi
2014-01-01
Spin Hall injection is demonstrated at room temperature using Pt metal and AlO x barriers. A substantial spin accumulation, comparable to that of a magnetic spin injection, is transferred into a mesoscopic Cu wire from an adjacent Pt wire across an AlO x barrier. The Pt spin Hall angle is 0.030 ± 0.007 when assuming a Pt spin diffusion length λ pt > 6 nm and 0.09 ± 0.02 when assuming λ pt = 2 nm. Nearly (66 ± 6)% of the spin accumulation on the Pt surface is transferred into the Cu across the AlO x , enabling an efficient spin Hall injection scheme.
Quantum spin dynamics in molecular magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leuenberger, M.N.; Meier, F.; Loss, D.
2003-01-01
The detailed theoretical understanding of quantum spin dynamics in various molecular magnets is an important step on the roadway to technological applications of these systems. Quantum effects in both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic molecular clusters are, by now, theoretically well understood. Ferromagnetic molecular clusters allow one to study the interplay of incoherent quantum tunneling and thermally activated transitions between states with different spin orientation. The Berry phase oscillations found in Fe 8 are signatures of the quantum mechanical interference of different tunneling paths. Antiferromagnetic molecular clusters are promising candidates for the observation of coherent quantum tunneling on the mesoscopic scale. Although challenging, application of molecular magnetic clusters for data storage and quantum data processing are within experimental reach already with present day technology. Refs. 77 (author)
Thermodynamically consistent mesoscopic model of the ferro/paramagnetic transition
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Benešová, Barbora; Kružík, Martin; Roubíček, Tomáš
2013-01-01
Roč. 64, Č. 1 (2013), s. 1-28 ISSN 0044-2275 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100750802; GA ČR GA106/09/1573; GA ČR GAP201/10/0357 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA106/08/1397; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06052 Program:GA; LC Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : ferro-para-magnetism * evolution * thermodynamics Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics; BA - General Mathematics (UT-L) Impact factor: 1.214, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/MTR/kruzik-thermodynamically consistent mesoscopic model of the ferro-paramagnetic transition.pdf
Wetting of Heterogeneous Surfaces at the Mesoscopic Scale
De Coninck, J; Ruiz, J
2003-01-01
We consider the problem of wetting on a heterogeneous wall with mesoscopic defects: i.e.\\ defects of order $L^{\\varepsilon}$, $0<\\varepsilon<1$, where $L$ is some typical length--scale of the system. In this framework, we extend several former rigorous results which were shown for walls with microscopic defects \\cite{DMR,DMR2}. Namely, using statistical techniques applied to a suitably defined semi-infinite Ising-model, we derive a generalization of Young's law for rough and heterogeneous surfaces, which is known as the generalized Cassie-Wenzel's equation. In the homogeneous case, we also show that for a particular geometry of the wall, the model can exhibit a surface phase transition between two regimes which are either governed by Wenzel's or by Cassie's law.
Simulating mesoscopic reaction-diffusion systems using the Gillespie algorithm
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bernstein, David
2004-12-12
We examine an application of the Gillespie algorithm to simulating spatially inhomogeneous reaction-diffusion systems in mesoscopic volumes such as cells and microchambers. The method involves discretizing the chamber into elements and modeling the diffusion of chemical species by the movement of molecules between neighboring elements. These transitions are expressed in the form of a set of reactions which are added to the chemical system. The derivation of the rates of these diffusion reactions is by comparison with a finite volume discretization of the heat equation on an unevenly spaced grid. The diffusion coefficient of each species is allowed to be inhomogeneous in space, including discontinuities. The resulting system is solved by the Gillespie algorithm using the fast direct method. We show that in an appropriate limit the method reproduces exact solutions of the heat equation for a purely diffusive system and the nonlinear reaction-rate equation describing the cubic autocatalytic reaction.
Mesoscopic analysis of drying shrinkage damage in a cementitious material
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Moonen, P.; Pedersen, R.R.; Simone, A.
2008-01-01
Concrete and cement-based materials exhibit shrinkage when exposed to drying. Structural effects and inhomogeneity of material properties adverse free shrinkage, hereby inducing stress concentrations and possibly damage. In this contribution, the magnitude of shrinkage- induced damage during...... a typical sample preparation procedure is assessed. To this extent, a coupled hygro-thermo-mechanical model, incorporating rate-effects, is developed. The constitutive model is applied at a mesoscopic level where the aggregates and the interfacial transition zone (ITZ) are explicitly modelled. Two drying...... temperatures are considered: 35 °C and 50 °C. Significantly more micro-damage and higher internal stresses are found for the latter, revealing the importance of drying shrinkage damage, even at laboratory scale....
The interplay between microscopic and mesoscopic structures in complex networks.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jörg Reichardt
Full Text Available Understanding a complex network's structure holds the key to understanding its function. The physics community has contributed a multitude of methods and analyses to this cross-disciplinary endeavor. Structural features exist on both the microscopic level, resulting from differences between single node properties, and the mesoscopic level resulting from properties shared by groups of nodes. Disentangling the determinants of network structure on these different scales has remained a major, and so far unsolved, challenge. Here we show how multiscale generative probabilistic exponential random graph models combined with efficient, distributive message-passing inference techniques can be used to achieve this separation of scales, leading to improved detection accuracy of latent classes as demonstrated on benchmark problems. It sheds new light on the statistical significance of motif-distributions in neural networks and improves the link-prediction accuracy as exemplified for gene-disease associations in the highly consequential Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man database.
Collective excitability in a mesoscopic neuronal model of epileptic activity
Jedynak, Maciej; Pons, Antonio J.; Garcia-Ojalvo, Jordi
2018-01-01
At the mesoscopic scale, the brain can be understood as a collection of interacting neuronal oscillators, but the extent to which its sustained activity is due to coupling among brain areas is still unclear. Here we address this issue in a simplified situation by examining the effect of coupling between two cortical columns described via Jansen-Rit neural mass models. Our results show that coupling between the two neuronal populations gives rise to stochastic initiations of sustained collective activity, which can be interpreted as epileptic events. For large enough coupling strengths, termination of these events results mainly from the emergence of synchronization between the columns, and thus it is controlled by coupling instead of noise. Stochastic triggering and noise-independent durations are characteristic of excitable dynamics, and thus we interpret our results in terms of collective excitability.
Manipulating mesoscopic multipartite entanglement with atom-light interfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stasinska, J.; Rodo, C.; Paganelli, S.; Birkl, G.; Sanpera, A.
2009-01-01
Entanglement between two macroscopic atomic ensembles induced by measurement on an ancillary light system has proven to be a powerful method for engineering quantum memories and quantum state transfer. Here we investigate the feasibility of such methods for generation, manipulation, and detection of genuine multipartite entanglement (Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and clusterlike states) between mesoscopic atomic ensembles without the need of individual addressing of the samples. Our results extend in a nontrivial way the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entanglement between two macroscopic gas samples reported experimentally in [B. Julsgaard, A. Kozhekin, and E. Polzik, Nature (London) 413, 400 (2001)]. We find that under realistic conditions, a second orthogonal light pulse interacting with the atomic samples, can modify and even reverse the entangling action of the first one leaving the samples in a separable state.
Reaction-Transport Systems Mesoscopic Foundations, Fronts, and Spatial Instabilities
Horsthemke, Werner; Mendez, Vicenc
2010-01-01
This book is an introduction to the dynamics of reaction-diffusion systems, with a focus on fronts and stationary spatial patterns. Emphasis is on systems that are non-standard in the sense that either the transport is not simply classical diffusion (Brownian motion) or the system is not homogeneous. A important feature is the derivation of the basic phenomenological equations from the mesoscopic system properties. Topics addressed include transport with inertia, described by persistent random walks and hyperbolic reaction-transport equations and transport by anomalous diffusion, in particular subdiffusion, where the mean square displacement grows sublinearly with time. In particular reaction-diffusion systems are studied where the medium is in turn either spatially inhomogeneous, compositionally heterogeneous or spatially discrete. Applications span a vast range of interdisciplinary fields and the systems considered can be as different as human or animal groups migrating under external influences, population...
Coherent X-ray diffraction studies of mesoscopic materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shabalin, Anatoly
2015-12-01
This thesis is devoted to three separate projects, which can be considered as independent. First, the dynamical scattering effects in the Coherent X-ray Diffractive Imaging (CXDI) method are discussed. Based on the simulation results, a straightforward method for correction for the refraction and absorption artifacts in the Bragg CXDI reconstruction is suggested. The second part summarizes the results of an Coherent X-ray Diffractive Imaging experiment with a single colloidal crystal grain. A remarkable result is that positions of individual particles in the crystal lattice have been resolved in three dimensions. The third project is devoted to X-ray diffraction experimental studies of structural evolution of colloidal crystalline films upon incremental heating. Based on the results of the analysis a model of structural evolution of a colloidal crystal upon heating on nanoscopic and mesoscopic length scales is suggested.
Limitations of optically pumped spin-exchange-polarized targets
Walker, T.; Anderson, L. W.
1993-12-01
The effects of spin-exchange collisions on the polarization of dense spin-polarized samples of hydrogen and deuterium are analyzed. It is shown that even in large magnetic fields spin-exchange collisions transfer angular momentum between the electrons and the nuclei. This effect has important implications for the operation of spin-polarized targets and sources of hydrogen and deuterium. For the specific case of sources that are spin-polarized by spin-exchange collisions with optically pumped alkali atoms, spin-exchange not only polarizes the hydrogen and deuterium electron spins, but polarizes the nuclear spins as well.
Mesoscopic organization reveals the constraints governing Caenorhabditis elegans nervous system.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Raj Kumar Pan
Full Text Available One of the biggest challenges in biology is to understand how activity at the cellular level of neurons, as a result of their mutual interactions, leads to the observed behavior of an organism responding to a variety of environmental stimuli. Investigating the intermediate or mesoscopic level of organization in the nervous system is a vital step towards understanding how the integration of micro-level dynamics results in macro-level functioning. The coordination of many different co-occurring processes at this level underlies the command and control of overall network activity. In this paper, we have considered the somatic nervous system of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, for which the entire neuronal connectivity diagram is known. We focus on the organization of the system into modules, i.e., neuronal groups having relatively higher connection density compared to that of the overall network. We show that this mesoscopic feature cannot be explained exclusively in terms of considerations such as, optimizing for resource constraints (viz., total wiring cost and communication efficiency (i.e., network path length. Even including information about the genetic relatedness of the cells cannot account for the observed modular structure. Comparison with other complex networks designed for efficient transport (of signals or resources implies that neuronal networks form a distinct class. This suggests that the principal function of the network, viz., processing of sensory information resulting in appropriate motor response, may be playing a vital role in determining the connection topology. Using modular spectral analysis we make explicit the intimate relation between function and structure in the nervous system. This is further brought out by identifying functionally critical neurons purely on the basis of patterns of intra- and inter-modular connections. Our study reveals how the design of the nervous system reflects several constraints, including
Interfacial nanorheology: Probing molecular mobility in mesoscopic polymeric systems
Sills, Scott E.
Investigating the finite size limited structural relaxations in mesoscopic polymer systems is central to nanotechnological applications involving thin films, complex structures, and nanoscale phase-separated systems; for example, polymer electrolyte membranes, optoelectronic devices, and ultrahigh-density thermomechanical data storage (terabit recording). In such systems, bulk statistical averaging and continuum models are jeopardized. Interfacial constraints lead to bulk-deviating molecular dynamics and dictate material and transport properties. The objective of this dissertation is to provide insight to the exotic mesoscopic behaviors in thin films by developing novel rheological and tribological analytical methods based on scanning probe microscopy (SPM). Activation energies are deduced for the molecular motions associated with internal friction dissipation, and the temperature resolved length scale for cooperative motion during the glass transition is directly obtained for polystyrene. These results confirm the dynamical heterogeneity of the glass transition and reveal a crossover from intra- to inter-molecular relaxation in the transition regime. The impact of dimensional constraints on molecular mobility in ultrathin polymer films is explored through interfacial glass-transition profiles. With these profiles, a structural model of the rheological changes near interfacial boundaries is constructed as function of molecular weight and crosslinking density. The manifestation of interfacial constraints in nanotechnological applications is illustrated for thermomechanical recording, where rheological gradients near the substrate dictate the contact pressure and strain shielding at the substrate compromises film stability. A foundation for the critical aspects of interfacial stability is developed, and mechanically graded interfaces and modulus-matching techniques are explored as a means of improving the stability, durability, and stress transmission characteristics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Murphy, P.D.
1979-07-01
Pulsed Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) has been applied to: (1) Measurements of the prinicpal components of the proton shielding tensors of the hydrides of zirconium chloride and zirconium bromide. Multiple-Pulse techniques have been used to remove static homonuclear dipolar coupling. The anisotropies and isotropic shifts of these tensors have been used to infer the possible locations of the hydrogen within the sandwich-like layers of these unusual compounds. (2) Studies of the oscillatory transfer of magnetic polarization between /sup 1/H and /sup 29/Si in substituted silanes. The technique of J Cross Polarization has been used to enhance sensitivity. The /sup 29/Si NMR shifts of -Si-O- model compounds have been investigated as a possible probe for future studies of the environment of bound oxygen in coal-derived liquids. (3) Measurements of the aromatic fraction of /sup 13/C in whole coals. The techniques of /sup 1/H-/sup 13/C Cross Polarization and Magic-Angle Spinning have been used to enhance sensitivity and remove shift anisotropy. Additional topics described are: (4) Calculation and properties of the broadened lineshape of the shileding Powder Pattern. (5) Calculation of the oscillatory transfer of magnetic polarization for an I-S system. (6) Numerical convolution and its uses. (7) The technique of digital filtering applied in the frequency domain. (8) The designs and properties of four NMR probe-circuits. (9) The design of a single-coil double-resonance probe for combined Magic-Angle Spinning and Cross Polarization. (10) The designs of low Q and high Q rf power amplifiers with emphasis on the rf matching circuitry.
Charge densities and charge noise in mesoscopic conductors
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Interest in spin transport will require spin resolved partial density of states. In hybrid normal superconducting systems [51] a resolution of both electron and hole density of states is conceptually useful [52,53]. The description of electrical conduction processes in terms of transmission and reflection probabilities has become ...
Ac transport properties of electrons in parallel-plate mesoscopic capacitors in series
Chuen, J.; Wang, J. H.
2017-10-01
In a self-consistent manner by taking into account three aspects: the frequency of the bias, geometry of the capacitor (e.g. plate separation) and the Fermi energy of the system, ac transport properties of electrons in parallel-plate mesoscopic capacitor in series under an bias are discussed. The charge density, the internal characteristic potential caused by electrons interaction and the size-dependent mesoscopic capacitance are calculated. Results show that these quantities are complex number with very small finite imaginary part in mesoscopic scale, and the current conservation is satisfied in our numerical calculation. Moreover, when the plate separation is large enough, the mesoscopic capacitance approaches to the geometric capacitance, and the imaginary parts vanish. When the plate separation is small, there are some differences between them.
Quantum bit string commitment protocol using polarization of mesoscopic coherent states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mendonca, Fabio Alencar; Ramos, Rubens Viana
2008-01-01
In this work, we propose a quantum bit string commitment protocol using polarization of mesoscopic coherent states. The protocol is described and its security against brute force and quantum cloning machine attack is analyzed
Quantum bit string commitment protocol using polarization of mesoscopic coherent states
Mendonça, Fábio Alencar; Ramos, Rubens Viana
2008-02-01
In this work, we propose a quantum bit string commitment protocol using polarization of mesoscopic coherent states. The protocol is described and its security against brute force and quantum cloning machine attack is analyzed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sigl, A.
2007-12-28
A methyl group is an outstanding quantum system due to its special symmetry properties. The threefold rotation around one of its bond is isomorphic to the group of even permutations of the remaining protons, a property which imposes severe quantum restrictions on the system, for instance a strict correlation of rotational states with nuclear spin states. The resulting long lifetimes of the rotational tunneling states of the methyl group can be exploited for applying certain high resolution optical techniques, like hole burning or single molecule spectroscopy to optically switch the methyl group from one tunneling state to another therebye changing the nuclear spin of the protons. One goal of the thesis was to perform this switching in single methyl groups. To this end the methyl group was attached to a chromophoric system, in the present case terrylene, which is well suited for single molecule spectroscopy as well as for hole burning. Experiments were performed with the bare terrylene molecule in a hexadecane lattice which served as a reference system, with alphamethyl terrylene and betamethyl terrylene, both embedded in hexadecane, too. A single molecular probe is a highly sensitive detector for dynamic lattice instabilities. Already the bare terrylene probe showed a wealth of interesting local dynamic effects of the hexadecane lattice which could be well acounted for by the assumption of two nearly degenerate sites with rather different optical and thermal properties, all of which could be determined in a quantitative fashion. As to the methylated terrylene systems, the experiments verified that for betamethyl terrylene it is indeed possible to measure rotational tunneling events in single methyl groups. However, the spectral patterns obtained was much more complicated than expected pointing to the presence of three spectroscopically different methyl groups. In order to achieve a definite assignement, molecular mechanics simulations of the terrylene probes in the
Electron Spin Dynamics in Semiconductor Quantum Dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marie, X.; Belhadj, T.; Urbaszek, B.; Amand, T.; Krebs, O.; Lemaitre, A.; Voisin, P.
2011-01-01
An electron spin confined to a semiconductor quantum dot is not subject to the classical spin relaxation mechanisms known for free carriers but it strongly interacts with the nuclear spin system via the hyperfine interaction. We show in time resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy experiments on ensembles of self assembled InAs quantum dots in GaAs that this interaction leads to strong electron spin dephasing.
Kinouchi, H; Mukuda, H; Yashima, M; Kitaoka, Y; Shirage, P M; Eisaki, H; Iyo, A
2011-07-22
We report 75As nuclear quadrupole resonance studies on (Ca4Al2O(6-y))(Fe2As2) with T(c) = 27 K. Measurement of nuclear-spin-relaxation rate 1/T1 has revealed a significant development of two-dimensional antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations down to T(c) in association with the smallest As-Fe-As bond angle. Below T(c), the temperature dependence of 1/T1 without any trace of the coherence peak is well accounted for by a nodeless s(±)-wave multiple-gaps model. From the fact that its T(c) is comparable to T(c) = 28 K in the optimally doped LaFeAsO(1-y) in which antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations are not dominant, we remark that antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations are not a unique factor for enhancing T(c) among Fe-based superconductors, but a condition for optimizing superconductivity should be addressed from the lattice structure point of view.
Shishmarev, Dmitry; Wright, Alan J; Rodrigues, Tiago B; Pileio, Giuseppe; Stevanato, Gabriele; Brindle, Kevin M; Kuchel, Philip W
2018-03-01
Fumarate is an important probe of metabolism in hyperpolarized magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy. It is used to detect the release of fumarase in cancer tissues, which is associated with necrosis and drug treatment. Nevertheless, there are limited reports describing the detailed kinetic studies of this enzyme in various cells and tissues. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the sub-minute kinetics of human red blood cell fumarase using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and to provide a quantitative description of the enzyme that is relevant to the use of fumarate as a probe of cell rupture. The fumarase reaction was studied using time courses of 1 H spin-echo and 13 C-NMR spectra. 1 H-NMR experiments showed that the fumarase reaction in hemolysates is sufficiently rapid to make its kinetics amenable to study in a period of approximately 3 min, a timescale characteristic of hyperpolarized 13 C-NMR spectroscopy. The rapid-dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (RD-DNP) technique was used to hyperpolarize [1,4- 13 C]fumarate, which was injected into concentrated hemolysates. The kinetic data were analyzed using recently developed FmR α analysis and modeling of the enzymatic reaction using Michaelis-Menten equations. In RD-DNP experiments, the decline in the 13 C-NMR signal from fumarate, and the concurrent rise and fall of that from malate, were captured with high spectral resolution and signal-to-noise ratio, which allowed the robust quantification of fumarase kinetics. The kinetic parameters obtained indicate the potential contribution of hemolysis to the overall rate of the fumarase reaction when 13 C-NMR RD-DNP is used to detect necrosis in animal models of implanted tumors. The analytical procedures developed will be applicable to studies of other rapid enzymatic reactions using conventional and hyperpolarized substrate NMR spectroscopy. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Tambio, Sacris Jeru; Deschamps, Michaël; Sarou-Kanian, Vincent; Etiemble, Aurélien; Douillard, Thierry; Maire, Eric; Lestriez, Bernard
2017-09-01
Lithium-ion batteries are electrochemical storage devices using the electrochemical activity of the lithium ion in relation to intercalation compounds owing to mass transport phenomena through diffusion. Diffusion of the lithium ion in the electrode pores has been poorly understood due to the lack of experimental techniques for measuring its self-diffusion coefficient in porous media. Magic-Angle Spinning, Pulsed Field Gradient, Stimulated-Echo Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (MAS-PFG-STE NMR) was used here for the first time to measure the self-diffusion coefficients of the electrolyte species in the LP30 battery electrolyte (i.e. a 1 M solution of LiPF6 dissolved in 1:1 Ethylene Carbonate - Dimethyl Carbonate) in model composites. These composite electrodes were made of alumina, carbon black and PVdF-HFP. Alumina's magnetic susceptibility is close to the measured magnetic susceptibility of the LP30 electrolyte thereby limiting undesirable internal field gradients. Interestingly, the self-diffusion coefficient of lithium ions decreases with increasing carbon content. FIB-SEM was used to describe the 3D geometry of the samples. The comparison between the reduction of self-diffusion coefficients as measured by PFG-NMR and as geometrically derived from FIB/SEM tortuosity values highlights the contribution of specific interactions at the material/electrolyte interface on the lithium transport properties.
Vagner, Israel D.
2003-01-01
The electron spin transport in condensed matter, Spintronics, is a subject of rapidly growing interest both scientifically and from the point of view of applications to modern and future electronics. In many cases the electron spin transport cannot be described adequately without accounting for the hyperfine interaction between electron and nuclear spins. Here, the progress in physics and applications of these phenomena will be reviewed.
Valenzuela, Sergio O; Saitoh, Eiji; Kimura, Takashi
2017-01-01
Since the discovery of the giant magnetoresistance effect in magnetic multilayers in 1988, a new branch of physics and technology, called spin-electronics or spintronics, has emerged, where the flow of electrical charge as well as the flow of electron spin, the so-called “spin current,” are manipulated and controlled together. The physics of magnetism and the application of spin current have progressed in tandem with the nanofabrication technology of magnets and the engineering of interfaces and thin films. This book aims to provide an introduction and guide to the new physics and applications of spin current, with an emphasis on the interaction between spin and charge currents in magnetic nanostructures.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Gover
2006-06-01
Full Text Available The problems of spin-polarized free-electron beam interaction with electromagnetic wave at electron-spin resonance conditions in a magnetic field and of superradiant spin-flip radiative emission are analyzed in the framework of a comprehensive classical model. The spontaneous emission of spin-flip radiation from electron beams is very weak. We show that the detectivity of electron spin resonant spin-flip and combined spin-flip/cyclotron-resonance-emission radiation can be substantially enhanced by operating with ultrashort spin-polarized electron beam bunches under conditions of superradiant (coherent emission. The proposed radiative spin-state modulation and the spin-flip radiative emission schemes can be used for control and noninvasive diagnostics of polarized electron/positron beams. Such schemes are of relevance in important scattering experiments off nucleons in nuclear physics and off magnetic targets in condensed matter physics.
2003-08-01
applications, a ferromagnetic metal may be used as a source of spin-polarized electronics to be injected into a semiconductor, a superconductor or a...physical phenomena in II-VI and III-V semiconductors. In II-VI systems, the Mn2+ ions act to boost the electron spin precession up to terahertz ...conductors, proximity effect between ferromagnets and superconductors , and the effects of spin injection on the physical properties of the
Vozková, Markéta
2011-01-01
1 ABSTRACT The aim of this text is to provide an analysis of the phenomenon of spin doctoring in the Euro-Atlantic area. Spin doctors are educated people in the fields of semiotics, cultural studies, public relations, political communication and especially familiar with the infrastructure and the functioning of the media industry. Critical reflection of manipulative communication techniques puts spin phenomenon in historical perspective and traces its practical use in today's social communica...
Microscopic understanding of spin current probed by shot noise
Arakawa, Tomonori
The spin currents is one of key issue in the spintronics field and the generation and detection of those have been intensively studied by using various materials. The analysis of experiments, however, relies on phenomenological parameters such as spin relaxation length and spin flip time. The microscopic nature of the spin current such as energy distribution and energy relaxation mechanism, has not yet well understood. To establish a better microscopic understanding of spin currents, I focused on the shot noise measurement which is well established technique in the field of mesoscopic physics [Y. M. Blanter and M. B üttiker, Phys. Rep. 336, 1 (2000).]. Although there are many theoretically works about shot noise in the presence of spin currents, for example detection of spin accumulation [J. Meair, P. Stano, and P. Jacquod, Phys. Rev. B 84 (2011).], estimation of spin flip currents, and so on, these predictions have never been experimentally confirmed. In this context, we reported the first experimental detention of shot noise in the presence of the spin accumulation in a (Ga,Mn)As/tunnel barrier/n-GaAs based lateral spin valve device [T. Arakawa et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 016601 (2015).]. Together with this result, we found however that the effective temperature of the spin current drastically increases due to the spin injection process. This heating of electron system could be a big problem to realize future spin current devices by using quantum coherence, because the effective temperature rise directly related to the destruction of the coherence of the spin current. Therefore, then we focused on the mechanism of this heating and the energy relaxation in a diffusive channel. By measuring current noise and the DC offset voltage in the usual non-local spin valve signal as a function of the spin diffusion channel length, we clarified that the electron-electron interaction length, which is the characteristic length for the relaxation of the electron system, is
Mesoscopic non-equilibrium thermodynamic analysis of molecular motors.
Kjelstrup, S; Rubi, J M; Pagonabarraga, I; Bedeaux, D
2013-11-28
We show that the kinetics of a molecular motor fueled by ATP and operating between a deactivated and an activated state can be derived from the principles of non-equilibrium thermodynamics applied to the mesoscopic domain. The activation by ATP, the possible slip of the motor, as well as the forward stepping carrying a load are viewed as slow diffusion along a reaction coordinate. Local equilibrium is assumed in the reaction coordinate spaces, making it possible to derive the non-equilibrium thermodynamic description. Using this scheme, we find expressions for the velocity of the motor, in terms of the driving force along the spacial coordinate, and for the chemical reaction that brings about activation, in terms of the chemical potentials of the reactants and products which maintain the cycle. The second law efficiency is defined, and the velocity corresponding to maximum power is obtained for myosin movement on actin. Experimental results fitting with the description are reviewed, giving a maximum efficiency of 0.45 at a myosin headgroup velocity of 5 × 10(-7) m s(-1). The formalism allows the introduction and test of meso-level models, which may be needed to explain experiments.
Mesoscopic kinetic basis of macroscopic chemical thermodynamics: A mathematical theory.
Ge, Hao; Qian, Hong
2016-11-01
Gibbs' macroscopic chemical thermodynamics is one of the most important theories in chemistry. Generalizing it to mesoscaled nonequilibrium systems is essential to biophysics. The nonequilibrium stochastic thermodynamics of chemical reaction kinetics suggested a free energy balance equation dF^{(meso)}/dt=E_{in}-e_{p} in which the free energy input rate E_{in} and dissipation rate e_{p} are both non-negative, and E_{in}≤e_{p}. We prove that in the macroscopic limit by merely allowing the molecular numbers to be infinite, the generalized mesoscopic free energy F^{(meso)} converges to φ^{ss}, the large deviation rate function for the stationary distributions. This generalized macroscopic free energy φ^{ss} now satisfies a balance equation dφ^{ss}(x)/dt=cmf(x)-σ(x), in which x represents chemical concentration. The chemical motive force cmf(x) and entropy production rate σ(x) are both non-negative, and cmf(x)≤σ(x). The balance equation is valid generally in isothermal driven systems and is different from mechanical energy conservation and the first law; it is actually an unknown form of the second law. Consequences of the emergent thermodynamic quantities and equalities are further discussed. The emergent "law" is independent of underlying kinetic details. Our theory provides an example showing how a macroscopic law emerges from a level below.
Nazarov, Vladimir U.
2017-06-01
We find an exact analytical solution to the exchange-only time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) problem for a significant class of quasi-low-dimensional (QLD) materials: QLD electron gas with only one band filled in the direction perpendicular to the layer or wire. The theory yields the TD exchange potential as an explicit nonlocal operator of the TD spin density. The dressed interband (image states) excitation spectra of quasi-two-dimensional electron gas are obtained, while the comparison with the Kohn-Sham transitions provides insights into the qualitative and quantitative role of the many-body interactions. Important cancellations between the Hartree fH and the exchange fx kernels of TDDFT are found in the low-density regime, elucidating the interrelations between the Kohn-Sham and the many-body dynamics in mesoscopic systems.
Bovier, Anton
2007-01-01
Spin glass theory is going through a stunning period of progress while finding exciting new applications in areas beyond theoretical physics, in particular in combinatorics and computer science. This collection of state-of-the-art review papers written by leading experts in the field covers the topic from a wide variety of angles. The topics covered are mean field spin glasses, including a pedagogical account of Talagrand's proof of the Parisi solution, short range spin glasses, emphasizing the open problem of the relevance of the mean-field theory for lattice models, and the dynamics of spin glasses, in particular the problem of ageing in mean field models. The book will serve as a concise introduction to the state of the art of spin glass theory, usefull to both graduate students and young researchers, as well as to anyone curious to know what is going on in this exciting area of mathematical physics.
Spin correlations in Ho2Ti2O7: A dipolar spin ice system
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bramwell, S.T.; Harris, M.J.; Hertog, B.C. den
2001-01-01
described by a nearest neighbor spin ice model and very accurately described by a dipolar spin ice model. The heat capacity is well accounted for by the sum of a dipolar spin ice contribution and an expected nuclear spin contribution, known to exist in other Ho(3+) salts. These results settle the question......The pyrochlore material Ho(2)Ti(2)O(7) has been suggested to show "spin ice" behavior. We present neutron scattering and specific heat results that establish unambiguously that Ho(2)Ti(2)O(7) exhibits spin ice correlations at low temperature. Diffuse magnetic neutron scattering is quite well...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shingledecker, Christopher N.; Le Gal, Romane; Hincelin, Ugo; Herbst, Eric [Department of Chemistry, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Bergner, Jennifer B. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Öberg, Karin I., E-mail: shingledecker@virginia.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)
2016-10-20
The chemistry of dense interstellar regions was analyzed using a time-dependent gas–grain astrochemical simulation and a new chemical network that incorporates deuterated chemistry, taking into account nuclear spin states for the hydrogen chemistry and its deuterated isotopologues. With this new network, the utility of the [HCO{sup +}]/[DCO{sup +}] abundance ratio as a probe of the cosmic-ray ionization rate has been re-examined, with special attention paid to the effect of the initial value of the ortho-to-para ratio (OPR) of molecular hydrogen. After discussing the use of the probe for cold cores, we compare our results with previous theoretical and observational results for a molecular cloud close to the supernova remnant W51C, which is thought to have an enhanced cosmic-ray ionization rate ζ caused by the nearby γ -ray source. In addition, we attempt to use our approach to estimate the cosmic-ray ionization rate for L1174, a dense core with an embedded star. Beyond the previously known sensitivity of [HCO{sup +}]/[DCO{sup +}] to ζ , we demonstrate its additional dependence on the initial OPR and, secondarily, on the age of the source, its temperature, and its density. We conclude that the usefulness of the [HCO{sup +}]/[DCO{sup +}] abundance ratio in constraining the cosmic-ray ionization rate in dense regions increases with the age of the source and the ionization rate as the ratio becomes far less sensitive to the initial value of the OPR.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meyer, Benjamin Michael [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)
2003-01-01
As time progresses, the world is using up more of the planet's natural resources. Without technological advances, the day will eventually arrive when these natural resources will no longer be sufficient to supply all of the energy needs. As a result, society is seeing a push for the development of alternative fuel sources such as wind power, solar power, fuel cells, and etc. These pursuits are even occurring in the state of Iowa with increasing social pressure to incorporate larger percentages of ethanol in gasoline. Consumers are increasingly demanding that energy sources be more powerful, more durable, and, ultimately, more cost efficient. Fast Ionic Conducting (FIC) glasses are a material that offers great potential for the development of new batteries and/or fuel cells to help inspire the energy density of battery power supplies. This dissertation probes the mechanisms by which ions conduct in these glasses. A variety of different experimental techniques give a better understanding of the interesting materials science taking place within these systems. This dissertation discusses Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques performed on FIC glasses over the past few years. These NMR results have been complimented with other measurement techniques, primarily impedance spectroscopy, to develop models that describe the mechanisms by which ionic conduction takes place and the dependence of the ion dynamics on the local structure of the glass. The aim of these measurements was to probe the cause of a non-Arrhenius behavior of the conductivity which has been seen at high temperatures in the silver thio-borosilicate glasses. One aspect that will be addressed is if this behavior is unique to silver containing fast ion conducting glasses. more specifically, this study will determine if a non-Arrhenius correlation time, τ, can be observed in the Nuclear Spin Lattice Relaxation (NSLR) measurements. If so, then can this behavior be modeled with a new single
Nuclear spin relaxation of {sup 8}Li in a thin film of La{sub 0.67}Ca{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3}
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miller, R.I. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 2A3 (Canada); Arseneau, D. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Chow, K.H. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alta., T6G 2J1 (Canada); Daviel, S. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Engelbertz, A. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Hossain, MD. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Keeler, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Kiefl, R.F. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada)]|[Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z1 (Canada)]|[Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Toronto, Ont., Canada M5G 1Z8 (Canada)]. E-mail: kiefl@triumf.ca; Kreitzman, S. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Levy, C.D.P. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Morales, P. [Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont., M5S 1A7 (Canada); Morris, G.D. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); MacFarlane, W.A. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada): Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Parolin, T.J. [Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Poutissou, R. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Saadaoui, H.; Wang, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Salman, Z. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Wei, J.Y.T. [Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Toronto, Ont., M5G 1Z8 (Canada)]|[Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont., M5S 1A7 (Canada)
2006-03-31
We report {beta}-NMR measurements of the nuclear spin relaxation rate (1/T{sub 1}) in a thin film of La{sub 0.67}Ca{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} (LCMO) using a low-energy beam of spin-polarized {sup 8}Li. In a small magnetic field of 150G, there is a broad peak in 1/T{sub 1} near the Curie temperature (T{sub c}=259K) and a dramatic decrease in 1/T{sub 1} at lower temperatures. This is attributed to a critical slowing down of the spin fluctuations near T{sub c} and freezing of the magnetic excitations at low temperatures, respectively. In addition, there is a small amplitude, slow relaxing component at high temperatures, which we attribute to {sup 8}Li in the SrTiO{sub 3} substrate. There is an indication that the spin relaxation rate in the substrate is also peaked at T{sub c} due to close proximity to the magnetic film. These results establish that low-energy {beta}-NMR can be used as a probe of magnetic fluctuations in magnetic thin films over a wide range of temperatures.
Papaemmanouil, Christina; Tsiafoulis, Constantinos G; Alivertis, Dimitrios; Tzamaloukas, Ouranios; Miltiadou, Despoina; Tzakos, Andreas G; Gerothanassis, Ioannis P
2015-06-10
We report a rapid, direct, and unequivocal spin-chromatographic separation and identification of minor components in the lipid fraction of milk and common dairy products with the use of selective one-dimensional (1D) total correlation spectroscopy (TOCSY) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments. The method allows for the complete backbone spin-coupling network to be elucidated even in strongly overlapped regions and in the presence of major components from 4 × 10(2) to 3 × 10(3) stronger NMR signal intensities. The proposed spin-chromatography method does not require any derivatization steps for the lipid fraction, is selective with excellent resolution, is sensitive with quantitation capability, and compares favorably to two-dimensional (2D) TOCSY and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methods of analysis. The results of the present study demonstrated that the 1D TOCSY NMR spin-chromatography method can become a procedure of primary interest in food analysis and generally in complex mixture analysis.
Impact of Disorder on Spin Dependent Transport Phenomena
Saidaoui, Hamed
2016-07-03
The impact of the spin degree of freedom on the transport properties of electrons traveling through magnetic materials has been known since the pioneer work of Mott [1]. Since then it has been demonstrated that the spin angular momentum plays a key role in the scattering process of electrons in magnetic multilayers. This role has been emphasized by the discovery of the Giant Magnetoresistance in 1988 by Fert and Grunberg [2, 3]. Among the numerous applications and effects that emerged in mesoscopic devices two mechanisms have attracted our attention during the course of this thesis: the spin transfer torque and the spin Hall effects. The former consists in the transfer of the spin angular momentum from itinerant carriers to local magnetic moments [4]. This mechanism results in the current-driven magnetization switching and excitations, which has potential application in terms of magnetic data storage and non-volatile memories. The latter, spin Hall effect, is considered as well to be one of the most fascinating mechanisms in condensed matter physics due to its ability of generating non-equilibrium spin currents without the need for any magnetic materials. In fact the spin Hall effect relies only on the presence of the spin-orbit interaction in order to create an imbalance between the majority and minority spins. The objective of this thesis is to investigate the impact of disorder on spin dependent transport phenomena. To do so, we identified three classes of systems on which such disorder may have a dramatic influence: (i) antiferromagnetic materials, (ii) impurity-driven spin-orbit coupled systems and (iii) two dimensional semiconducting electron gases with Rashba spin-orbit coupling. Antiferromagnetic materials - We showed that in antiferromagnetic spin-valves, spin transfer torque is highly sensitive to disorder, which prevents its experimental observation. To solve this issue, we proposed to use either a tunnel barrier as a spacer or a local spin torque using
Mesoscopics of ultrasound and seismic waves: application to passive imaging
Larose, É.
2006-05-01
This manuscript deals with different aspects of the propagation of acoustic and seismic waves in heterogeneous media, both simply and multiply scattering ones. After a short introduction on conventional imaging techniques, we describe two observations that demonstrate the presence of multiple scattering in seismic records: the equipartition principle, and the coherent backscattering effect (Chap. 2). Multiple scattering is related to the mesoscopic nature of seismic and acoustic waves, and is a strong limitation for conventional techniques like medical or seismic imaging. In the following part of the manuscript (Chaps. 3 5), we present an application of mesoscopic physics to acoustic and seismic waves: the principle of passive imaging. By correlating records of ambient noise or diffuse waves obtained at two passive sensors, it is possible to reconstruct the impulse response of the medium as if a source was placed at one sensor. This provides the opportunity of doing acoustics and seismology without a source. Several aspects of this technique are presented here, starting with theoretical considerations and numerical simulations (Chaps. 3, 4). Then we present experimental applications (Chap. 5) to ultrasound (passive tomography of a layered medium) and to seismic waves (passive imaging of California, and the Moon, with micro-seismic noise). Physique mésoscopique des ultrasons et des ondes sismiques : application à l'imagerie passive. Cet article de revue rassemble plusieurs aspects fondamentaux et appliqués de la propagation des ondes acoustiques et élastiques dans les milieux hétérogènes, en régime de diffusion simple ou multiple. Après une introduction sur les techniques conventionelles d'imagerie sismique et ultrasonore, nous présentons deux expériences qui mettent en évidence la présence de diffusion multiple dans les enregistrements sismologiques : l'équipartition des ondes, et la rétrodiffusion cohérente (Chap. 2). La diffusion multiple des
Mesoscopic kinetic Monte Carlo modeling of organic photovoltaic device characteristics
Kimber, Robin G. E.; Wright, Edward N.; O'Kane, Simon E. J.; Walker, Alison B.; Blakesley, James C.
2012-12-01
Measured mobility and current-voltage characteristics of single layer and photovoltaic (PV) devices composed of poly{9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-bis[N,N'-(4-butylphenyl)]bis(N,N'-phenyl-1,4-phenylene)diamine} (PFB) and poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-benzothiadiazole) (F8BT) have been reproduced by a mesoscopic model employing the kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) approach. Our aim is to show how to avoid the uncertainties common in electrical transport models arising from the need to fit a large number of parameters when little information is available, for example, a single current-voltage curve. Here, simulation parameters are derived from a series of measurements using a self-consistent “building-blocks” approach, starting from data on the simplest systems. We found that site energies show disorder and that correlations in the site energies and a distribution of deep traps must be included in order to reproduce measured charge mobility-field curves at low charge densities in bulk PFB and F8BT. The parameter set from the mobility-field curves reproduces the unipolar current in single layers of PFB and F8BT and allows us to deduce charge injection barriers. Finally, by combining these disorder descriptions and injection barriers with an optical model, the external quantum efficiency and current densities of blend and bilayer organic PV devices can be successfully reproduced across a voltage range encompassing reverse and forward bias, with the recombination rate the only parameter to be fitted, found to be 1×107 s-1. These findings demonstrate an approach that removes some of the arbitrariness present in transport models of organic devices, which validates the KMC as an accurate description of organic optoelectronic systems, and provides information on the microscopic origins of the device behavior.
Mesoscopic dynamics of diffusion-influenced enzyme kinetics.
Chen, Jiang-Xing; Kapral, Raymond
2011-01-28
A particle-based mesoscopic model for enzyme kinetics is constructed and used to investigate the influence of diffusion on the reactive dynamics. Enzymes and enzyme-substrate complexes are modeled as finite-size soft spherical particles, while substrate, product, and solvent molecules are point particles. The system is evolved using a hybrid molecular dynamics-multiparticle collision dynamics scheme. Both the nonreactive and reactive dynamics are constructed to satisfy mass, momentum, and energy conservation laws, and reversible reaction steps satisfy detailed balance. Hydrodynamic interactions among the enzymes and complexes are automatically accounted for in the dynamics. Diffusion manifests itself in various ways, notably in power-law behavior in the evolution of the species concentrations. In accord with earlier investigations, regimes where the product production rate exhibits either monotonic or nonmonotonic behavior as a function of time are found. In addition, the species concentrations display both t(-1/2) and t(-3/2) power-law behavior, depending on the dynamical regime under investigation. For high enzyme volume fractions, cooperative effects influence the enzyme kinetics. The time dependent rate coefficient determined from the mass action rate law is computed and shown to depend on the enzyme concentration. Lifetime distributions of substrate molecules newly released in complex dissociation events are determined and shown to have either a power-law form for rebinding to the same enzyme from which they were released or an exponential form for rebinding to different enzymes. The model can be used and extended to explore a variety of issues related concentration effects and diffusion on enzyme kinetics.
Mesoscopic dynamics of diffusion-influenced enzyme kinetics
Chen, Jiang-Xing; Kapral, Raymond
2011-01-01
A particle-based mesoscopic model for enzyme kinetics is constructed and used to investigate the influence of diffusion on the reactive dynamics. Enzymes and enzyme-substrate complexes are modeled as finite-size soft spherical particles, while substrate, product, and solvent molecules are point particles. The system is evolved using a hybrid molecular dynamics-multiparticle collision dynamics scheme. Both the nonreactive and reactive dynamics are constructed to satisfy mass, momentum, and energy conservation laws, and reversible reaction steps satisfy detailed balance. Hydrodynamic interactions among the enzymes and complexes are automatically accounted for in the dynamics. Diffusion manifests itself in various ways, notably in power-law behavior in the evolution of the species concentrations. In accord with earlier investigations, regimes where the product production rate exhibits either monotonic or nonmonotonic behavior as a function of time are found. In addition, the species concentrations display both t^{-1/2} and t^{-3/2} power-law behavior, depending on the dynamical regime under investigation. For high enzyme volume fractions, cooperative effects influence the enzyme kinetics. The time dependent rate coefficient determined from the mass action rate law is computed and shown to depend on the enzyme concentration. Lifetime distributions of substrate molecules newly released in complex dissociation events are determined and shown to have either a power-law form for rebinding to the same enzyme from which they were released or an exponential form for rebinding to different enzymes. The model can be used and extended to explore a variety of issues related concentration effects and diffusion on enzyme kinetics.
Effect of mesoscopic fluctuations on equation of state in cluster-forming systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Ciach
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Equation of state for systems with particles self-assembling into aggregates is derived within a mesoscopic theory combining density functional and field-theoretic approaches. We focus on the effect of mesoscopic fluctuations in the disordered phase. The pressure - volume fraction isotherms are calculated explicitly for two forms of the short-range attraction long-range repulsion potential. Mesoscopic fluctuations lead to an increased pressure in each case, except for very small volume fractions. When large clusters are formed, the mechanical instability of the system is present at much higher temperature than found in mean-field approximation. In this case phase separation competes with the formation of periodic phases (colloidal crystals. In the case of small clusters, no mechanical instability associated with separation into dilute and dense phases appears.
Primary thermometry triad at 6 mK in mesoscopic circuits
Iftikhar, Z.; Anthore, A.; Jezouin, S.; Parmentier, F. D.; Jin, Y.; Cavanna, A.; Ouerghi, A.; Gennser, U.; Pierre, F.
2016-09-01
Quantum physics emerge and develop as temperature is reduced. Although mesoscopic electrical circuits constitute an outstanding platform to explore quantum behaviour, the challenge in cooling the electrons impedes their potential. The strong coupling of such micrometre-scale devices with the measurement lines, combined with the weak coupling to the substrate, makes them extremely difficult to thermalize below 10 mK and imposes in situ thermometers. Here we demonstrate electronic quantum transport at 6 mK in micrometre-scale mesoscopic circuits. The thermometry methods are established by the comparison of three in situ primary thermometers, each involving a different underlying physics. The employed combination of quantum shot noise, quantum back action of a resistive circuit and conductance oscillations of a single-electron transistor covers a remarkably broad spectrum of mesoscopic phenomena. The experiment, performed in vacuum using a standard cryogen-free dilution refrigerator, paves the way towards the sub-millikelvin range with additional thermalization and refrigeration techniques.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Niţa, Marian; Ostahie, Bogdan; Marinescu, D C; Manolescu, Andrei; Gudmundsson, Vidar
2012-01-01
When subjected to a linearly polarized terahertz pulse, a mesoscopic ring endowed with spin-orbit interaction (SOI) of the Rashba-Dresselhaus type exhibits non-uniform azimuthal charge and spin distributions. Both types of SOI couplings are considered linear in the electron momentum. Our results are obtained within a formalism based on the equation of motion satisfied by the density operator which is solved numerically for different values of the angle φ, the angle determining the polarization direction of the laser pulse. Solutions thus obtained are later employed in determining the time-dependent charge and spin currents, whose values are calculated in the stationary limit. Both these currents exhibit an oscillatory behavior complicated in the case of the spin current by a beating pattern. We explain this occurrence on account of the two spin-orbit interactions which force the electron spin to oscillate between the two spin quantization axes corresponding to Rashba and Dresselhaus interactions. The oscillation frequencies are explained using the single particle spectrum.
Novel interference effects and a new quantum phase in mesoscopic ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
... experiments is given. Some consequences of parity violation are elaborated. Finally, we brieﬂy describe the dephasing of Aharonov–Bohm oscillations in Aharonov–Bohm ring geometry due to spin-ﬂip scattering in one of the arms. Several experimental manifestations of these phenomena and their applications are given.
TOPICAL REVIEW: Spin current, spin accumulation and spin Hall effect
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Saburo Takahashi and Sadamichi Maekawa
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Nonlocal spin transport in nanostructured devices with ferromagnetic injector (F1 and detector (F2 electrodes connected to a normal conductor (N is studied. We reveal how the spin transport depends on interface resistance, electrode resistance, spin polarization and spin diffusion length, and obtain the conditions for efficient spin injection, spin accumulation and spin current in the device. It is demonstrated that the spin Hall effect is caused by spin–orbit scattering in nonmagnetic conductors and gives rise to the conversion between spin and charge currents in a nonlocal device. A method of evaluating spin–orbit coupling in nonmagnetic metals is proposed.
Buhrman, Robert; Daughton, James; Molnár, Stephan; Roukes, Michael
2004-01-01
This report is a comparative review of spin electronics ("spintronics") research and development activities in the United States, Japan, and Western Europe conducted by a panel of leading U.S. experts in the field. It covers materials, fabrication and characterization of magnetic nanostructures, magnetism and spin control in magnetic nanostructures, magneto-optical properties of semiconductors, and magnetoelectronics and devices. The panel's conclusions are based on a literature review and a series of site visits to leading spin electronics research centers in Japan and Western Europe. The panel found that Japan is clearly the world leader in new material synthesis and characterization; it is also a leader in magneto-optical properties of semiconductor devices. Europe is strong in theory pertaining to spin electronics, including injection device structures such as tunneling devices, and band structure predictions of materials properties, and in development of magnetic semiconductors and semiconductor heterost...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fischer, K.H.; Hertz, J.A.
1993-01-01
Spin glasses, simply defined by the authors as a collection of spins (i.e., magnetic moments) whose low-temperature state is a frozen disordered one, represent one of the fascinating new fields of study in condensed matter physics, and this book is the first to offer a comprehensive account of the subject. Included are discussions of the most important developments in theory, experimental work, and computer modeling of spin glasses, all of which have taken place essentially within the last two decades. The first part of the book gives a general introduction to the basic concepts and a discussion of mean field theory, while the second half concentrates on experimental results, scaling theory, and computer simulation of the structure of spin glasses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sotty, C.
2013-01-01
The underlying structure in the region A ∼ 100, N ∼ 60 has been under intensive and extensive investigation, mainly by β-decay and γ-ray spectroscopy from fission processes. Around N ∼ 60, by adding just few neutrons, protons a rapid shape change occurs from spherical-like to well deformed g.s. shape. Shape coexistence has been observed in the Sr and Zr nuclei, and is expected to take place in the whole region. The mechanisms involved in the appearance of the deformation is not well understood. The interplay between down-sloping and up-sloping neutron Nilsson orbital is evoked as one of the main reasons for the sudden shape change. However, a clear identification of the active proton and neutron orbitals was still on-going. For that purpose, the neutron rich 93;95;97;99 Rb isotopes have been studied by Coulomb excitation at CERN (ISOLDE) using the REX-ISOLDE post-accelerator and the MINIBALL setup. The completely unknown structures of 97;99 Rb have been populated and observed. Prompt γ-ray coincidences of low-lying states have been observed and time-correlated in order to build level schemes. The associated transition strengths have been extracted with the GOSIA code. The observed matrix elements of the electromagnetic operator constituted new inputs of further theoretical calculations giving new insight on the involved orbitals. The sensitivity of such experiment can be increased using nuclear spin polarized radioactive ion beam. For that purpose the Tilted Foils Technique (TFT) of polarization has been investigated at CERN. This technique consists to spin polarize the ion beam, passing through thin foils tilted at an oblique angle with respect to the beam direction. The initially obtained atomic polarization is transferred to the nucleus by hyperfine interaction. This technique does not depend on the chemical nature of the element. Short lived nuclei can be polarized in-flight without any need to be stopped in a catcher. It opens up the possibility to
Recent trends in mesoscopic solar cells based on molecular and nanopigment light harvesters
Grätzel, Carole
2013-01-01
Mesoscopic solar cells are one of the most promising photovoltaic technologies among third generation photovoltaics due to their low cost and high efficiency. The morphology of wide-band semiconductors, sensitized with molecular or nanosized light harvesters, used as electron collectors contribute substantially to the device performance. Recent developments in the use of organic-inorganic layer structured perovskites as light absorbers and as electron or hole transport materials allows reduction in the thickness of photoanodes to the submicron level and have raised the power conversion efficiency of solid state mesoscopic solar cells above the 10% level.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sugiyama, Masaaki; Annaka, Masahiko; Hara, Kazuhiro
2003-01-01
reveal that, depending upon the [NIPA]/[SA] ratio, the dehydrated NIPA-SA gel shows two mesoscopic structures: one consists of randomly distributed SA-rich islands in NIPA matrix, while the other is a microphase-separated structure, composed of NIPA-rich and SA-rich domains. In addition, the SANS...... experiments reveal the mesoscopic structural features during the dehydration process. As the concentration of the network polymers increases, NIPA-rich and water-rich domains segregate in the gel. Then, an electrostatic interaction between the segregated domains induces a microphase-separated structure...... in the limit of the dehydrated NIPA-SA gel....
Mesoscopic fluctuations in the critical current in InAs-coupled Josephson junctions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takayanagi, Hideaki; Hansen, J.B.; Nitta, Junsaku
1994-01-01
Mesoscopic fluctuations were confirmed for the critical current in a p-type InAs-coupled Josephson junction. The critical current was measured as a function of the gate voltage corresponding to the change in the Fermi energy. The critical current showed a mesoscopic fluctuation and its behavior was the same as that of the conductance measured at the same time in both the weak and strong localization regimes. The magnitude and the typical period of the fluctuation are discussed and compared to theoretical predictions. ((orig.))
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Angel Esteban
2003-02-01
Full Text Available Abstract: The known solvent dependence of 1J(Cc,Hf and 2J(C1,Hf couplings in acetaldehyde is studied from a theoretical viewpoint based on the density functional theory approach where the dielectric solvent effect is taken into account with the polarizable continuum model. The four terms of scalar couplings, Fermi contact, paramagnetic spin orbital, diamagnetic spin orbital and spin dipolar, are calculated but the solvent effect analysis is restricted to the first term since for both couplings it is by far the dominant contribution. Experimental trends of ÃŽÂ”1J(Cc,Hf and ÃŽÂ”2J(C1,Hf Vs ÃŽÂµ (the solvent dielectric constant are correctly reproduced although they are somewhat underestimated. Specific interactions between solute and solvent molecules are studied for dimethylsulfoxide, DMSO, solutions considering two different one-to-one molecular complexes between acetaldehyde and DMSO. They are determined by interactions of type C=O---H---C and S=O---H---C, and the effects of such interactions on 1J(Cc,Hf and 2J(C1,Hf couplings are analyzed. Even though only in a semiquantitative way, it is shown that the effect of such interactions on the solvent effects, of ÃŽÂ”1J(Cc,Hf and ÃŽÂ”2J(C1,Hf, tend to improve the agreement between calculated and experimental values. These results seem to indicate that a continuum dielectric model has not enough flexibility for describing quantitatively solvent effects on spin-spin couplings. Apparently, even for relatively weak hydrogen bonding, the contribution from Ã¢Â€ÂœdirectÃ¢Â€Â interactions is of the same order of magnitude as the Ã¢Â€ÂœdielectricÃ¢Â€Â effect.
Shot noise of charge and spin transport in a junction with a precessing molecular spin
Filipović, Milena; Belzig, Wolfgang
2018-03-01
Magnetic molecules and nanomagnets can be used to influence the electronic transport in mesoscopic junction. In a magnetic field, the precessional motion leads to resonances in the dc- and ac-transport properties of a nanocontact, in which the electrons are coupled to the precession. Quantities such as the dc conductance or the ac response provide valuable information, such as the level structure and the coupling parameters. Here, we address the current-noise properties of such contacts. This encompasses the charge current and spin-torque shot noise, which both show a steplike behavior as functions of bias voltage and magnetic field. The charge-current noise shows pronounced dips around the steps, which we trace back to interference effects of electrons in quasienergy levels coupled by the molecular spin precession. We show that some components of the noise of the spin-torque currents are directly related to the Gilbert damping, and hence are experimentally accessible. Our results show that the noise characteristics allow us to investigate in more detail the coherence of spin transport in contacts containing magnetic molecules.
Nonperturbative stochastic method for driven spin-boson model
Orth, Peter P.; Imambekov, Adilet; Le Hur, Karyn
2013-01-01
We introduce and apply a numerically exact method for investigating the real-time dissipative dynamics of quantum impurities embedded in a macroscopic environment beyond the weak-coupling limit. We focus on the spin-boson Hamiltonian that describes a two-level system interacting with a bosonic bath of harmonic oscillators. This model is archetypal for investigating dissipation in quantum systems, and tunable experimental realizations exist in mesoscopic and cold-atom systems. It finds abundant applications in physics ranging from the study of decoherence in quantum computing and quantum optics to extended dynamical mean-field theory. Starting from the real-time Feynman-Vernon path integral, we derive an exact stochastic Schrödinger equation that allows us to compute the full spin density matrix and spin-spin correlation functions beyond weak coupling. We greatly extend our earlier work [P. P. Orth, A. Imambekov, and K. Le Hur, Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.82.032118 82, 032118 (2010)] by fleshing out the core concepts of the method and by presenting a number of interesting applications. Methodologically, we present an analogy between the dissipative dynamics of a quantum spin and that of a classical spin in a random magnetic field. This analogy is used to recover the well-known noninteracting-blip approximation in the weak-coupling limit. We explain in detail how to compute spin-spin autocorrelation functions. As interesting applications of our method, we explore the non-Markovian effects of the initial spin-bath preparation on the dynamics of the coherence σx(t) and of σz(t) under a Landau-Zener sweep of the bias field. We also compute to a high precision the asymptotic long-time dynamics of σz(t) without bias and demonstrate the wide applicability of our approach by calculating the spin dynamics at nonzero bias and different temperatures.
T violating neutron spin rotation asymmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Masuda, Yasushiro.
1993-01-01
A new experiment on T-violation is proposed, where a spin-rotating-neutron transmission through a polarized nuclear target is measuered. The method to control the neutron spin is discussed for the new T-violation experiment. The present method has possibility to provide us more accurate T-violation information than the neutron EDM measurement
Spin dynamics in high-Tc cuprates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fukuyama, H.; Kohno, H.; Normand, B.; Tanamoto, T.
1995-01-01
Characteristic features of the spin excitations in high-T c cuprates revealed by neutron scattering and nuclear magnetic resonance experiments are summarised, and analysed on the basis of the slave-boson mean-field theory for the extended t-J model, placing special emphasis on the spin-gap phenomenon. (orig.)
Conceptual density functional theory for electron transfer and transport in mesoscopic systems.
Bueno, Paulo R; Miranda, David A
2017-02-22
Molecular and supramolecular systems are essentially mesoscopic in character. The electron self-exchange, in the case of energy fluctuations, or electron transfer/transport, in the case of the presence of an externally driven electrochemical potential, between mesoscopic sites is energetically driven in such a manner where the electrochemical capacitance (C [small mu, Greek, macron] ) is fundamental. Thus, the electron transfer/transport through channels connecting two distinct energetic (ΔE [small mu, Greek, macron] ) and spatially separated mesoscopic sites is capacitively modulated. Remarkably, the relationship between the quantum conductance (G) and the standard electrochemical rate constant (k r ), which is indispensable to understanding the physical and chemical characteristics governing electron exchange in molecular scale systems, was revealed to be related to C [small mu, Greek, macron] , that is, C [small mu, Greek, macron] = G/k r . Accordingly, C [small mu, Greek, macron] is the proportional missing term that controls the electron transfer/transport in mesoscopic systems in a wide-range, and equally it can be understood from first principles density functional quantum mechanical approaches. Indeed the differences in energy between states is calculated (or experimentally accessed) throughout the electrochemical capacitance as ΔE [small mu, Greek, macron] = β/C [small mu, Greek, macron] , and thus constitutes the driving force for G and/or k r , where β is only a proportional constant that includes the square of the unit electron charge times the square of the number of electron particles interchanged.
Vortex pinning by mesoscopic defects. A way to levitation at liquid oxygen temperature
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Muralidhar, M.; Sakai, N.; Jirsa, Miloš; Koshizuka, N.; Murakami, M.
2003-01-01
Roč. 83, č. 24 (2003), s. 5005-5007 ISSN 0003-6951 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : vortex pinning * mesoscopic defects * levitation * (Nd,Eu,Gd)BaCuO y * liquid oxygen Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.049, year: 2003
Mesoscopic Numerical Computation of Compressive Strength and Damage Mechanism of Rubber Concrete
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Z. H. Xie
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Evaluations of both macroscopic and mesoscopic strengths of materials have been the topic of a great deal of recent research. This paper presents the results of a study, based on the Walraven equation of the production of a mesoscopic random aggregate structure containing various rubber contents and aggregate sizes. On a mesoscopic scale, the damage mechanism in the rubber concrete and the effects of the rubber content and aggregate-mortar interface on the rubber concrete’s compressive resistance property were studied. The results indicate that the random aggregate structural model very closely approximates the experimental results in terms of the fracture distribution and damage characteristics under uniaxial compression. The aggregate-mortar interface mechanical properties have a substantial impact on the test sample’s strength and fracture distribution. As the rubber content increases, the compressive strength and elastic modulus of the test sample decrease proportionally. This paper presents graphics of the entire process from fracture propagation to structural failure of the test piece by means of the mesoscopic finite-element method, which provides a theoretical reference for studying the damage mechanism in rubber concrete and performing parametric calculations.
Incompatibility of strains and its application to mesoscopic studies of plasticity
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Gröger, Roman; Lookman, T.; Saxena, A.
2010-01-01
Roč. 82, č. 14 (2010), Art. No. 144104 ISSN 1098-0121 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : incompatibility * dislocation * mesoscopic Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.772, year: 2010
Continuous pumping and control of mesoscopic superposition state in a lossy QED cavity
de Oliveira, M. C.; Moussa, M. H. Y.; Mizrahi, S. S.
2000-01-01
Here we consider the continuous pumping of a dissipative QED cavity and derive the time-dependent density operator of the cavity field prepared initially as a superposition of mesoscopic coherent states. The control of the coherence of this superposition is analyzed considering the injection of a beam of two-level Rydberg atoms through the cavity. Our treatment is compared to other approaches.
Dispersion of PMMA-grafted, mesoscopic iron-oxide rods in polymer films.
Ferrier, Robert C; Huang, Yun; Ohno, Kohji; Composto, Russell J
2016-03-07
This study investigates the parameters that affect the dispersion of polymer grafted mesoscopic iron-oxide rods (FeMRs) in polymer matrices. FeMRs (212 nm long by 36 nm in diameter) are grafted with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) at three different brush molecular weights: 3.7 kg mol(-1), 32 kg mol(-1), and 160 kg mol(-1). Each FeMR sample was cast in a polymer thin film consisting of either PMMA or poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) each at a molecular weight much higher or much lower than the brush molecular weight. We find that the FeMRs with 160 kg mol(-1) brush disperse in all matrices while the FeMRs with 32 kg mol(-1) and 3.7 kg mol(-1) brushes aggregate in all matrices. We perform simple free energy calculations, taking into account steric repulsion from the brush and van der Waals attraction between FeMRs. We find that there is a barrier for aggregation for the FeMRs with the largest brush, while there is no barrier for the other FeMRs. Therefore, for these mesoscopic particles, the brush size is the main factor that determines the dispersion state of FeMRs in polymer matrices with athermal or weakly attractive brush-matrix interactions. These studies provide new insight into the mechanisms that affect dispersion in polymer matrices of mesoscopic particles and therefore guide the design of composite films with well-dispersed mesoscopic particles.
Orbital Effects of In-Plane Magnetic Fields Probed by Mesoscopic Conductance Fluctuations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zumbuhl, D.; Miller, Jessica; M. Marcus, C.
2003-01-01
We use the high sensitivity to magnetic flux of mesoscopic conductance fluctuations in large quantum dots to investigate changes in the two-dimensional electron dispersion caused by an in-plane magnetic field. In particular, changes in effective mass and the breaking of momentum reversal symmetry...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Armen N. Kocharian
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Rashba spin-orbit effects and electron correlations in the two-dimensional cylindrical lattices of square geometries are assessed using mesoscopic two-, three- and four-leg ladder structures. Here the electron transport properties are systematically calculated by including the spin-orbit coupling in tight binding and Hubbard models threaded by a magnetic flux. These results highlight important aspects of possible symmetry breaking mechanisms in square ladder geometries driven by the combined effect of a magnetic gauge field spin-orbit interaction and temperature. The observed persistent current, spin and charge polarizations in the presence of spin-orbit coupling are driven by separation of electron and hole charges and opposite spins in real-space. The modeled spin-flip processes on the pairing mechanism induced by the spin-orbit coupling in assembled nanostructures (as arrays of clusters engineered in various two-dimensional multi-leg structures provide an ideal playground for understanding spatial charge and spin density inhomogeneities leading to electron pairing and spontaneous phase separation instabilities in unconventional superconductors. Such studies also fall under the scope of current challenging problems in superconductivity and magnetism, topological insulators and spin dependent transport associated with numerous interfaces and heterostructures.
Fast electrical switching of spin injection in nonlocal spin transport devices
Fuhrer, A.; Alvarado, S. F.; Salis, G.; Allenspach, R.
2011-05-01
We present spin-injection experiments in a nonlocal spin transport device where spin is injected from a ferromagnetic FeCo electrode into a GaAs epilayer. The magnetization of the injection contact is switched by Oersted fields generated by alternating current pulses. This enables fast and offset-free measurements of nonlocal spin signals. Due to a negligible time-averaged electron spin polarization, dynamic nuclear polarization effects are small and Hanle curves measured down to T =3 K can be fit very accurately by drift-diffusion theory if a small constant Overhauser field BN=0.4 mT is accounted for.
Adiabatic quantum computing with spin qubits hosted by molecules.
Yamamoto, Satoru; Nakazawa, Shigeaki; Sugisaki, Kenji; Sato, Kazunobu; Toyota, Kazuo; Shiomi, Daisuke; Takui, Takeji
2015-01-28
A molecular spin quantum computer (MSQC) requires electron spin qubits, which pulse-based electron spin/magnetic resonance (ESR/MR) techniques can afford to manipulate for implementing quantum gate operations in open shell molecular entities. Importantly, nuclear spins, which are topologically connected, particularly in organic molecular spin systems, are client qubits, while electron spins play a role of bus qubits. Here, we introduce the implementation for an adiabatic quantum algorithm, suggesting the possible utilization of molecular spins with optimized spin structures for MSQCs. We exemplify the utilization of an adiabatic factorization problem of 21, compared with the corresponding nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) case. Two molecular spins are selected: one is a molecular spin composed of three exchange-coupled electrons as electron-only qubits and the other an electron-bus qubit with two client nuclear spin qubits. Their electronic spin structures are well characterized in terms of the quantum mechanical behaviour in the spin Hamiltonian. The implementation of adiabatic quantum computing/computation (AQC) has, for the first time, been achieved by establishing ESR/MR pulse sequences for effective spin Hamiltonians in a fully controlled manner of spin manipulation. The conquered pulse sequences have been compared with the NMR experiments and shown much faster CPU times corresponding to the interaction strength between the spins. Significant differences are shown in rotational operations and pulse intervals for ESR/MR operations. As a result, we suggest the advantages and possible utilization of the time-evolution based AQC approach for molecular spin quantum computers and molecular spin quantum simulators underlain by sophisticated ESR/MR pulsed spin technology.
Acoustically induced spin transport in (110)GaAs quantum wells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Couto, Odilon D.D. Jr.
2008-09-29
In this work, we employ surface acoustic waves (SAWs) to transport and manipulate optically generated spin ensembles in (110) GaAs quantum wells (QWs). The strong carrier confinement into the SAW piezoelectric potential allows for the transport of spin-polarized carrier packets along well-defined channels with the propagation velocity of the acoustic wave. In this way, spin transport over distances exceeding 60 m is achieved, corresponding to spin lifetimes longer than 20 ns. The demonstration of such extremely long spin lifetimes is enabled by three main factors: (i) Suppression of the D'yakonov-Perel' spin relaxation mechanism for z-oriented spins in (110) IIIV QWs; (ii) Suppression of the Bir-Aronov-Pikus spin relaxation mechanism caused by the type-II SAW piezoelectric potential; (iii) Suppression of spin relaxation induced by the mesoscopic carrier confinement into narrow stripes along the SAW wave front direction. A spin transport anisotropy under external magnetic fields (B{sub ext}) is demonstrated for the first time. Employing the well-defined average carrier momentum impinged by the SAW, we analyze the spin dephasing dynamics during transport along the [001] and [1 anti 10] in-plane directions. For transport along [001], fluctuations of the internal magnetic field (B{sub int}), which arises from the spin-orbit interaction associated with the bulk inversion asymmetry of the crystal, lead to decoherence within 2 ns as the spins precess around B{sub ext}. In contrast, for transport along the [1 anti 10] direction, the z-component of the spin polarization is maintained for times one order of magnitude longer due to the non-zero average value of B{sub int}. The dephasing anisotropy between the two directions is fully understood in terms of the dependence of the spin-orbit coupling on carrier momentum direction, as predicted by the D'yakonov-Perel' mechanism for the (110) system. (orig.)
Directed self-assembly of mesoscopic components for led applications
Tkachenko, Anton
Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) constitute a rapidly evolving and fast growing technology that promises to replace incandescent bulbs and compact fluorescent lights in many illumination applications. Large-area LED luminaires have a capability to transform lighting by providing a venue for development of smart lighting systems with additional benefits, such as visible light communications, sensing, health and productivity improvement through color temperature control, capability of creating "virtual sky" ceiling, and many others. The objective of this work is to explore directed self-assembly (DSA) approaches suitable for cost-effective assembly of large amount of LEDs and other mesoscopic (i.e. millimeter and sub-millimeter) electronic components and thus to enable manufacturing of smart lighting luminaires. Existing alternative approaches for assembly of semiconductor dies are examined including transfer printing, laser-assisted die transfer, and various directed self-assembly approaches using shape-recognition, magnetic and capillary forces, etc. After comparing their advantages and limitations, we developed two approaches to magnetic force-assisted DSA of LEDs on a large-area substrate in liquid and air medium. The first approach involves pick-up of buoyant and magnetic dies from the liquid surface onto the flexible substrate in a roll-to-roll process. The possibility of high-speed assembly of LED dies is demonstrated, but with a low yield due to the influence of the capillary force of the carrier liquid and the difficulty in ensuring reliable supply of dies to the assembly interface. To overcome the aforementioned challenges this process was modified to assemble the dies by sinking them onto the receiving substrate with a stencil mask on top, demonstrating LED assembly with a very low error rate but at a lower speed. A solder-assisted self-alignment is used to further improve placement precision and to ensure the proper orientation of the dies. The second
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Popovski, Petar; Simeone, Osvaldo; Nielsen, Jimmy Jessen
2015-01-01
on traffic load and interference condition leads to performance gains. In this letter, a general network of multiple interfering two-way links is studied under the assumption of a balanced load in the two directions for each link. Using the notion of interference spin, we introduce an algebraic framework...
Schwarz, H.
2017-01-01
The thesis "Spinning Worlds" is about the characterisation of two types of gas-giant exoplanets: Hot Jupiters, with orbital periods of fewer than five days, and young, wide-orbit gas giants, with orbital periods as long as thousands of years. The thesis is based on near-infrared observations of 1
21st International Symposium on Spin Physics
Ma, Bo-Qiang; SPIN 2014; SPIN2014
2016-01-01
This special volume collected important papers written by leading experts, highlighting the latest research findings in various topics of spin phenomena in particle and nuclear physics. The contents are originated from the plenary talks at the latest symposium of the Spin Physics series (SPIN2014) which was held in Beijing, China, October 20-24, 2014.The volume also comprises a special collection of contributions in memory of the late Professor Michel Borghini, an outstanding physicist well remembered for his great contributions to the progress of high energy spin physics.
Birefringence (spin rotation and spin dichroism) of high-energy deuterons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baryshevskij, V.G.; Rovba, A.A.
2016-01-01
The phenomenon of birefringence (spin rotation and spin dichroism) of high-energy deuterons, currently observed in experiments, is the macroscopic quantum effect similar to the birefringence effect known in optics. This paper considers the contribution coming to the spin dichroism effect from the interaction of deuteron electric quadrupole moment and nuclear electric field. The effect proves to be responsive to the behavior of deuteron ground state wave functions at a small distance. [ru
Spin relaxation in disordered media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dzheparov, F S
2011-01-01
A review is given on theoretical grounds and typical experimental appearances of spin dynamics and relaxation in solids containing randomly distributed nuclear and/or electronic spins. Brief content is as follows. Disordered and magnetically diluted systems. General outlines of the spin transport theory. Random walks in disordered systems (RWDS). Observable values in phase spin relaxation, free induction decay (FID). Interrelation of longitudinal and transversal relaxation related to dynamics of occupancies and phases. Occupation number representation for equations of motion. Continuum media approximation and inapplicability of moment expansions. Long-range transitions vs percolation theory. Concentration expansion as a general constructive basis for analytical methods. Scaling properties of propagators. Singular point. Dynamical and kinematical memory in RWDS. Ways of regrouping of concentration expansions. CTRW and semi-phenomenology. Coherent medium approximation for nuclear relaxation via paramagnetic impurities. Combining of memory functions and cumulant expansions for calculation of FID. Path integral representations for RWDS. Numerical simulations of RWDS. Spin dynamics in magnetically diluted systems with low Zeeman and medium low dipole temperatures. Cluster expansions, regularization of dipole interactions and spectral dynamics.
From the atomic nucleus to mesoscopic systems to microwave cavities
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Nuclear- reaction theory is equivalent to the theory of waveguides . We will concentrate on processes in which the incident wave goes through a highly complicated motion in the nu- cleus . We will picture the nucleus as a closed cavity, with ...
Murani, A.; Chepelianskii, A.; Guéron, S.; Bouchiat, H.
2017-10-01
In order to point out experimentally accessible signatures of spin-orbit interaction, we investigate numerically the Andreev spectrum of a multichannel mesoscopic quantum wire (N) with high spin-orbit interaction coupled to superconducting electrodes (S), contrasting topological and nontopological behaviors. In the nontopological case (square lattice with Rashba interactions), we find that the Kramers degeneracy of Andreev levels is lifted by a phase difference between the S reservoirs except at multiples of π , when the normal quantum wires can host several conduction channels. The level crossings at these points invariant by time-reversal symmetry are not lifted by disorder. Whereas the dc Josephson current is insensitive to these level crossings, the high-frequency admittance (susceptibility) at finite temperature reveals these level crossings and the lifting of their degeneracy at π by a small Zeeman field. We have also investigated the hexagonal lattice with intrinsic spin-orbit interaction in the range of parameters where it is a two-dimensional topological insulator with one-dimensional helical edges protected against disorder. Nontopological superconducting contacts can induce topological superconductivity in this system characterized by zero-energy level crossing of Andreev levels. Both Josephson current and finite-frequency admittance carry then very specific signatures at low temperature of this disorder-protected Andreev level crossing at π and zero energy.
Spin-Circuit Representation of Spin Pumping
Roy, Kuntal
2017-07-01
Circuit theory has been tremendously successful in translating physical equations into circuit elements in an organized form for further analysis and proposing creative designs for applications. With the advent of new materials and phenomena in the field of spintronics and nanomagnetics, it is imperative to construct the spin-circuit representations for different materials and phenomena. Spin pumping is a phenomenon by which a pure spin current can be injected into the adjacent layers. If the adjacent layer is a material with a high spin-orbit coupling, a considerable amount of charge voltage can be generated via the inverse spin Hall effect allowing spin detection. Here we develop the spin-circuit representation of spin pumping. We then combine it with the spin-circuit representation for the materials having spin Hall effect to show that it reproduces the standard results as in the literature. We further show how complex multilayers can be analyzed by simply writing a netlist.
Double-spin-flip resonance of rhodium nuclei at positive and negative spin temperatures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tuoriniemi, J.T.; Knuuttila, T.A.; Lefmann, K.
2000-01-01
Sensitive SQUID-NMR measurements were used to study the mutual interactions in the highly polarized nuclear-spin system of rhodium metal. The dipolar coupling gives rise to a weak double-spin-flip resonance. The observed frequency shifts allow deducing separately the dipolarlike contribution...
16th Workshop on High Energy Spin Physics
2016-01-01
The Workshop will cover a wide range of spin phenomena at high and intermediate energies such as: recent experimental data on spin physics the nucleon spin structure and GPD's spin physics and QCD spin physics in the Standard Model and beyond T-odd spin effects polarization and heavy ion physics spin in gravity and astrophysics the future spin physics facilities spin physics at NICA polarimeters for high energy polarized beams acceleration and storage of polarized beams the new polarization technology related subjects The Workshop will be held in the Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region, Russia. The program of the workshop will include plenary and parallel (if necessary) sessions. Plenary sessions will be held in the Conference Hall. Parallel sections will take place in the same building. There will be invited talks (up to 40 min) and original reports (20 min). The invited speakers will present new experimental and theoretical re...
Spin noise spectroscopy of ZnO
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Horn, Hauke; Huebner, Jens; Oestreich, Michael [Institute for Solid State Physics, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz University Hannover (Germany); Marie, Xavier; Balocchi, Andrea [INSA-CNRS-UPS, LPCNO, Universite de Toulouse (France)
2010-07-01
ZnO is a promising material for optical spintronics showing long electron spin lifetimes due to the large band gap and low amount of nuclear spin isotopes. Here, we use spin noise spectroscopy to access the electron spin dynamics of this material in thermal equilibrium while avoiding carrier heating and excitation of electron hole pairs. A linear polarized laser beam (E{sub UV-Laser}=3.32 eV) close to the direct band gap of ZnO (E{sub D}{sup 0}{sub X}=3.36 eV) is used to detect the spin dynamics of neutral donors in ZnO with off-resonant, non-demolition Faraday rotation. The stochastic oriented electron spins induce polarization fluctuations of the transmitted laser beam. The fluctuation strength of N non-interacting, paramagnetic spins follow the Poisson statistics and generate measurable noise {proportional_to}{radical}(N) spins. These fluctuations are measured via a polarization bridge in the radio frequency regime and Fourier transformed in real-time. A magnetic field B is applied in Voigt-geometry and modulates the noise signal with the Larmor frequency of the electron spins {omega}{sub L}=g{mu}{sub B}B/{Dirac_h}. From the recorded noise spectra we can extract the electron g-factor, spin lifetimes, and densities.
Urbina, Juan-Diego; Kuipers, Jack; Matsumoto, Sho; Hummel, Quirin; Richter, Klaus
2016-03-01
The interplay between single-particle interference and quantum indistinguishability leads to signature correlations in many-body scattering. We uncover these with a semiclassical calculation of the transmission probabilities through mesoscopic cavities for systems of noninteracting particles. For chaotic cavities we provide the universal form of the first two moments of the transmission probabilities over ensembles of random unitary matrices, including weak localization and dephasing effects. If the incoming many-body state consists of two macroscopically occupied wave packets, their time delay drives a quantum-classical transition along a boundary determined by the bosonic birthday paradox. Mesoscopic chaotic scattering of Bose-Einstein condensates is, then, a realistic candidate to build a boson sampler and to observe the macroscopic Hong-Ou-Mandel effect.
The local temperature and chemical potential inside a mesoscopic device driven out of equilibrium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Pei
2011-01-01
In this paper we introduce a method for calculating the local temperature and chemical potential inside a mesoscopic device out of equilibrium. We show how to check the conditions of local thermal equilibrium when the whole system is out of equilibrium. In particular, we study the on-site chemical potentials inside a chain coupled to two reservoirs at a finite voltage bias. We observe in the presence of disorder a large fluctuation in on-site chemical potentials, which can be suppressed by the electron–electron interaction. By taking the average with respect to the configurations of the disorder, we recover the classical picture where the voltage drops monotonically through the resistance wire. We prove the existence of local intensive variables in a mesoscopic device which is in equilibrium or not far from equilibrium
Optofluidic trapping and delivery of massive mesoscopic matters using mobile vortex array
Yang, Jianxin; Li, Zongbao; Wang, Haiyan; Zhu, Debin; Cai, Xiang; Cheng, Yupeng; Chen, Mingyu; Hu, Xiaowen; Xing, Xiaobo
2017-11-01
The realization of directional and controllable delivery of massive mesoscopic matters is of great significance in the field of microfluidics. Here, the mobile thermocapillary vortex array has achieved the enrichment and transport of massive mesoscopic matters in free or limited space. The ability of the vortex array to confine objects in the center ensures the controllability of particle trajectory. We also simulated the delivery process to reveal the stability of the mobile vortex. Owing to the distance between the vortex center and the heat source, the method provides the ability to protect trapped matters, including organisms and living cells. The mobile vortex array has opened the exciting possibilities of realizing that bridges the gap between remote optofluidics and lab on a chip.
A Mesoscopic Model for Protein-Protein Interactions in Solution
Lund, Mikael; Jönsson, Bo
2003-01-01
Protein self-association may be detrimental in biological systems, but can be utilized in a controlled fashion for protein crystallization. It is hence of considerable interest to understand how factors like solution conditions prevent or promote aggregation. Here we present a computational model describing interactions between protein molecules in solution. The calculations are based on a molecular description capturing the detailed structure of the protein molecule using x-ray or nuclear ma...
Mesoscopic Modeling of Concrete under Different Moisture Conditions and Loading Rates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Ronnie
2013-01-01
We present a mesoscopic finite element model for simulating the rate- and moisture-dependent material behavior of concrete. The idealized mesostructure consists of aggregates surrounded by an interfacial transition zone embedded in the bulk material. We examine the influence of the most significa....... The results indicate that the loading rate has a stronger influence than the saturation level on fracture processes and global strength....
Kalyuzhnyi, O.; Ilnytskyi, J. M.; Holovatch, Yu.; von Ferber, C.
2017-01-01
In this paper we study the shape characteristics of star-like polymers in various solvent quality using a mesoscopic level of modeling. The dissipative particle dynamics simulations are performed for the homogeneous and four different heterogeneous star polymers with the same molecular weight. We analyse the gyration radius and asphericity at the bad, good and $\\theta$-solvent regimes. Detailed explanation based on interplay between enthalpic and entropic contributions to the free energy and ...
Urbina, Juan-Diego; Kuipers, Jack; Hummel, Quirin; Matsumoto, Sho; Richter, Klaus
2014-01-01
The interplay between single-particle interference and quantum indistinguishability leads to signature correlations in many-body scattering. We uncover these with a semiclassical calculation of the transmission probabilities through mesoscopic cavities for systems of noninteracting particles. For chaotic cavities we provide the universal form of the first two moments of the transmission probabilities over ensembles of random unitary matrices, including weak localization and dephasing effects....
Study of a fluctuation-dissipation relation of a dissipative driven mesoscopic system
Arrachea, L.; Cugliandolo, L. F.
2005-06-01
We study the nonequilibrium dynamics of a mesoscopic metallic ring threaded by a time-dependent magnetic field and coupled to an electronic reservoir. We analyze the relation between the (nonstationary) real-time Keldysh and retarded Green functions and we argue that, in the linear-response regime with weak heat transfer to the environment, an effective temperature accounts for the modification of the equilibrium fluctuation-dissipation relation. We discuss possible extensions of this analysis.
Shuba, M. V.; Melnikov, A. V.; Kuzhir, P. P.; Maksimenko, S. A.; Slepyan, G. Y.; Boag, A.; Conte, A. Mosca; Pulci, O.; Bellucci, S.
2017-11-01
We present the electromagnetic scattering theory for a finite-length nanowire with an embedded mesoscopic object. The theory is based on a synthesis of the integral equation technique of classical electrodynamics and the quantum transport formalism. We formulate Hallén-type integral equations, where the canonical integral operators from wire antenna theory are combined with special terms responsible for the mesoscopic structure. The theory is applied to calculate the polarizability of a finite-length single-walled carbon nanotube (CNT) with a short low-conductive section (LCS) in the microwave and subterahertz ranges. The LCS is modeled as a multichannel two-electrode mesoscopic system. The effective resistive sheet impedance boundary conditions for the scattered field are applied on the CNT surface. It is shown that the imaginary part of the polarizability spectrum has three peaks. Two of them are in the terahertz range, while the third is in the gigahertz range. The polarizability spectrum of the CNT with many LCSs has only one gigahertz peak, which shifts to low frequencies as the number of LCSs increases. The physical nature of these peaks is explained, and potential applications of nanoantennas are proposed.
Combining molecular dynamics with mesoscopic Green’s function reaction dynamics simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vijaykumar, Adithya; Bolhuis, Peter G.; Rein ten Wolde, Pieter
2015-01-01
In many reaction-diffusion processes, ranging from biochemical networks, catalysis, to complex self-assembly, the spatial distribution of the reactants and the stochastic character of their interactions are crucial for the macroscopic behavior. The recently developed mesoscopic Green’s Function Reaction Dynamics (GFRD) method enables efficient simulation at the particle level provided the microscopic dynamics can be integrated out. Yet, many processes exhibit non-trivial microscopic dynamics that can qualitatively change the macroscopic behavior, calling for an atomistic, microscopic description. We propose a novel approach that combines GFRD for simulating the system at the mesoscopic scale where particles are far apart, with a microscopic technique such as Langevin dynamics or Molecular Dynamics (MD), for simulating the system at the microscopic scale where reactants are in close proximity. This scheme defines the regions where the particles are close together and simulated with high microscopic resolution and those where they are far apart and simulated with lower mesoscopic resolution, adaptively on the fly. The new multi-scale scheme, called MD-GFRD, is generic and can be used to efficiently simulate reaction-diffusion systems at the particle level
Convergence of methods for coupling of microscopic and mesoscopic reaction–diffusion simulations
Flegg, Mark B.
2015-05-01
© 2015 Elsevier Inc. In this paper, three multiscale methods for coupling of mesoscopic (compartment-based) and microscopic (molecular-based) stochastic reaction-diffusion simulations are investigated. Two of the three methods that will be discussed in detail have been previously reported in the literature; the two-regime method (TRM) and the compartment-placement method (CPM). The third method that is introduced and analysed in this paper is called the ghost cell method (GCM), since it works by constructing a "ghost cell" in which molecules can disappear and jump into the compartment-based simulation. Presented is a comparison of sources of error. The convergent properties of this error are studied as the time step δ. t (for updating the molecular-based part of the model) approaches zero. It is found that the error behaviour depends on another fundamental computational parameter h, the compartment size in the mesoscopic part of the model. Two important limiting cases, which appear in applications, are considered:. (i)δt→0 and h is fixed;(ii)δt→0 and h→0 such that δt/h is fixed. The error for previously developed approaches (the TRM and CPM) converges to zero only in the limiting case (ii), but not in case (i). It is shown that the error of the GCM converges in the limiting case (i). Thus the GCM is superior to previous coupling techniques if the mesoscopic description is much coarser than the microscopic part of the model.
Vortex 'puddles' and magic vortex numbers in mesoscopic superconducting disks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Connolly, M R; Milosevic, M V; Bending, S J [Department of Physics, University of Bath - Claverton Down, Bath, BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Clem, J R [Ames Laboratory Department of Physics and Astronomy - Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-3160 (United States); Tamegai, T, E-mail: mrc61@cam.ac.u [Department of Applied Physics, University of Tokyo - Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8627 (Japan)
2009-03-01
The magnetic properties of a superconducting disk change dramatically when its dimensions become mesoscopic. Unlike large disks, where the screening currents induced by an applied magnetic field are strong enough to force vortices to accumulate in a 'puddle' at the centre, in a mesoscopic disk the interaction between one of these vortices and the edge currents can be comparable to the intervortex repulsion, resulting in a destruction of the ordered triangular vortex lattice structure at the centre. Vortices instead form clusters which adopt polygonal and shell-like structures which exhibit magic number states similar to those of charged particles in a confining potential, and electrons in artificial atoms. We have fabricated mesoscopic high temperature superconducting Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+delta} disks and investigated their magnetic properties using magneto-optical imaging (MOI) and high resolution scanning Hall probe microscopy (SHPM). The temperature dependence of the vortex penetration field measured using MOI is in excellent agreement with models of the thermal excitation of pancake vortices over edge barriers. The growth of the central vortex puddle has been directly imaged using SHPM and magic vortex numbers showing higher stability have been correlated with abrupt jumps in the measured local magnetisation curves.
Mesoscopic Interactions and Species Coexistence in Evolutionary Game Dynamics of Cyclic Competitions
Cheng, Hongyan; Yao, Nan; Huang, Zi-Gang; Park, Junpyo; Do, Younghae; Lai, Ying-Cheng
2014-01-01
Evolutionary dynamical models for cyclic competitions of three species (e.g., rock, paper, and scissors, or RPS) provide a paradigm, at the microscopic level of individual interactions, to address many issues in coexistence and biodiversity. Real ecosystems often involve competitions among more than three species. By extending the RPS game model to five (rock-paper-scissors-lizard-Spock, or RPSLS) mobile species, we uncover a fundamental type of mesoscopic interactions among subgroups of species. In particular, competitions at the microscopic level lead to the emergence of various local groups in different regions of the space, each involving three species. It is the interactions among the groups that fundamentally determine how many species can coexist. In fact, as the mobility is increased from zero, two transitions can occur: one from a five- to a three-species coexistence state and another from the latter to a uniform, single-species state. We develop a mean-field theory to show that, in order to understand the first transition, group interactions at the mesoscopic scale must be taken into account. Our findings suggest, more broadly, the importance of mesoscopic interactions in coexistence of great many species. PMID:25501627
On the thermal properties of polarized nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hassan, M.Y.M.; Montasser, S.S.; Ramadan, S.
1979-08-01
The thermal properties of polarized nuclear matter are calculated using Skyrme III interaction modified by Dabrowski for polarized nuclear matter. The temperature dependence of the volume, isospin, spin and spin isospin pressure and energies are determined. The temperature, isospin, spin and spin isospin dependence of the equilibrium Fermi momentum is also discussed. (author)
PREFACE: SPIN2010 - Preface for Conference Proceedings
Ströher, Hans; Rathmann, Frank
2011-03-01
SPIN2010, the 19th International Spin Physics Symposium, took place between 27 September and 2 October, 2010 on the campus of Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH (FZJ) in Jülich, Germany. The scientific program of this Symposium included many topics related to spin phenomena in particle and nuclear physics as well as those in related fields. The International Spin Physics Symposium series has combined the High Energy Spin Symposia and the Nuclear Polarization Conferences since 2000. The most recent two Symposia were held in Virginia, USA (October 2008) and in Kyoto, Japan (October 2006). The meeting was opened by the chairman of the Board of Management of Jülich Forschungszentrum, Professor Achim Bachem, who cordially welcomed the participants from all over the world and gave a brief introduction to the Center and the research conducted there. The scientific program consisted of plenary sessions and parallel sessions and included the following topics: Fundamental symmetries and spin Spin structure of hadrons Spin physics beyond the Standard Model Spin in hadronic reactions Spin physics with photons and leptons Spin physics in nuclear reactions and nuclei Acceleration, storage, and polarimetry of polarized beams Polarized ion and lepton sources and targets Future facilities and experiments Medical and technological applications of spin physics The 6-day symposium had about 300 participants. In total 35 plenary talks (including 3 summaries of other spin physics meetings) and 163 contributed talks were given. The contents of many of these can be found in the present contributions, arranged according to the above topics and the time sequence. In addition, a public lecture on "Drall in der Quantenwelt", presented by H O Meyer (Bloomington) was received very well. Participants had the option to visit the Cooler synchrotron COSY at the Nuclear Physics Institute (IKP) and the 9.4 T MRT-PET hybrid scanner at the Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM), two unique
Berezovsky, Jesse
As we begin to look at how spin qubits might be integrated into a scalable platform, a promising strategy is to engineer the magnetic environment of the spins using micron- or nanometer-scale ferromagnetic (FM) elements, for functionalities such as nanoscale addressability, spin-wave mediated coupling, or enhanced sensing. The promise of these FM/spin interactions brings with it the question of how the coherence properties of the spin will be affected by coupling to these complex mesoscopic systems. To explore the physics of individual spins coupled to a proximal, dynamic ferromagnetic structure, we have studied interactions between individual nitrogen-vacancy (NV) spins and a model FM system - a vortex magnetization state. The complex, yet controllable, spin texture of a FM vortex, formed in a thin disk or nanowire, allows one to study different regimes of interaction with a nearby confined spin. The vortex core produces a large static dipole-like fringe field. The vortex state also displays discrete dynamic modes ranging from several 100 MHz to GHz. By applying an in-plane magnetic field, the position of the vortex core relative to the NV spin can be controlled with nanometer-scale resolution, and time resolution of 10s of nanoseconds. As the vortex core is translated into proximity with an NV spin, the fringe field from the core generates a large position-dependent spin splitting, permitting nanoscale spin addressability. We also find that the dynamic interaction of the vortex, NV spin, and applied microwave field results in amplification of the Rabi transition rate by more than an order of magnitude. Finally, we explore how spin decoherence and relaxation mechanisms are enhanced as the vortex core approaches the NVs, with implications for proposed technology incorporating coherent spins and proximal FM elements. We acknowledge support from DOE, Award No. DE-SC008148.
Gordon Conference on Nuclear Research
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Austin, S.M.
1983-09-01
Session topics were: quarks and nuclear physics; anomalons and anti-protons; the independent particle structure of nuclei; relativistic descriptions of nuclear structure and scattering; nuclear structure at high excitation; advances in nuclear astrophysics; properties of nuclear material; the earliest moments of the universe; and pions and spin excitations in nuclei
Coherent electron-spin-resonance manipulation of three individual spins in a triple quantum dot
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Noiri, A. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Yoneda, J.; Nakajima, T.; Otsuka, T.; Delbecq, M. R.; Takeda, K.; Tarucha, S. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); RIKEN, Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Amaha, S.; Allison, G. [RIKEN, Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Ludwig, A.; Wieck, A. D. [Lehrstuhl für Angewandte Festkörperphysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)
2016-04-11
Quantum dot arrays provide a promising platform for quantum information processing. For universal quantum simulation and computation, one central issue is to demonstrate the exhaustive controllability of quantum states. Here, we report the addressable manipulation of three single electron spins in a triple quantum dot using a technique combining electron-spin-resonance and a micro-magnet. The micro-magnet makes the local Zeeman field difference between neighboring spins much larger than the nuclear field fluctuation, which ensures the addressable driving of electron-spin-resonance by shifting the resonance condition for each spin. We observe distinct coherent Rabi oscillations for three spins in a semiconductor triple quantum dot with up to 25 MHz spin rotation frequencies. This individual manipulation over three spins enables us to arbitrarily change the magnetic spin quantum number of the three spin system, and thus to operate a triple-dot device as a three-qubit system in combination with the existing technique of exchange operations among three spins.
Resolving spin-orbit- and hyperfine-mediated electric dipole spin resonance in a quantum dot.
Shafiei, M; Nowack, K C; Reichl, C; Wegscheider, W; Vandersypen, L M K
2013-03-08
We investigate the electric manipulation of a single-electron spin in a single gate-defined quantum dot. We observe that so-far neglected differences between the hyperfine- and spin-orbit-mediated electric dipole spin resonance conditions have important consequences at high magnetic fields. In experiments using adiabatic rapid passage to invert the electron spin, we observe an unusually wide and asymmetric response as a function of the magnetic field. Simulations support the interpretation of the line shape in terms of four different resonance conditions. These findings may lead to isotope-selective control of dynamic nuclear polarization in quantum dots.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Stone, J.; Ohya, S.; Rikovska, J.; Woehr, A.; Betts, P.; Dupák, Jan; Fogelberg, B.; Jacobsson, L.
č. 133 (2001), s. 111 - 115 ISSN 0304-3843 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2065902 Keywords : nuclear orientation * Korringa constant Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.634, year: 2001
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohnuma, Yuichi; Matsuo, Mamoru; Maekawa, Sadamichi; Saitoh, Eeiji
2017-01-01
Spin Seebeck and spin Peltier effects, which are mutual conversion phenomena of heat and spin, are discussed on the basis of the microscopic theory. First, the spin Seebeck effect, which is the spin-current generation due to heat current, is discussed. The recent progress in research on the spin Seebeck effect are introduced. We explain the origin of the observed sign changes of the spin Seebeck effect in compensated ferromagnets. Next, the spin Peltier effect, which is the heat-current generation due to spin current, is discussed. Finally, we show that the spin Seebeck and spin Peltier effects are summarized by Onsager's reciprocal relation and derive Kelvin's relation for the spin and heat transports. (author)
Coherent and correlated spin transport in nanoscale superconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Morten, Jan Petter
2008-03-15
Motivated by the desire for better understanding of nano electronic systems, we theoretically study the conductance and noise characteristics of current flow between superconductors, ferromagnets, and normal-metals. Such nano structures can reveal information about superconductor proximity effects, spin-relaxation processes, and spintronic effects with potential applications for different areas of mesoscopic physics. We employ the quasiclassical theory of superconductivity in the Keldysh formalism, and calculate the nonequilibrium transport of spin and charge using various approaches like the circuit theory of quantum transport and full counting statistics. For two of the studied structures, we have been able to compare our theory to experimental data and obtain good agreement. Transport and relaxation of spin polarized current in superconductors is governed by energy-dependent transport coefficients and spin-flip rates which are determined by quantum interference effects. We calculate the resulting temperature-dependent spin flow in ferromagnet-superconductor devices. Experimental data for spin accumulation and spin relaxation in a superconducting nano wire is in agreement with the theory, and allows for a spin-flip spectroscopy that determines the dominant mechanism for spin-flip relaxation in the studied samples. A ferromagnet precessing under resonance conditions can give rise to pure spin current injection into superconductors. We find that the absorbed spin current is measurable as a temperature dependent Gilbert damping, which we calculate and compare to experimental data. Crossed Andreev reflection denotes superconducting pairing of electrons flowing from different normal-metal or ferromagnet terminals into a superconductor. We calculate the nonlocal currents resulting from this process in competition with direct electron transport between the normal-metal terminals. We take dephasing into account, and study the nonlocal current when the types of contact in
Selected topics in nuclear structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1994-01-01
The collection of abstracts on selected topics in nuclear structure are given. Special attention pays to collective excitations and high-spin states of nuclei, giant resonance structure, nuclear reaction mechanisms and so on
Nuclear Level Density, Quantum Chaos and Related Physics
Zelevinsky, V.; Karampagia, S.
2018-02-01
The knowledge of the level density is necessary for understanding nuclear reactions and many applications of nuclear science.We use the moments method based on the statistical properties of mesoscopic systems (interactions between the constituents and resulting quantum chaos) and the many-body Hamiltonian in a truncated orbital space avoiding the diagonalization of huge matrices. We briefly discuss the method, general results in comparison with other approaches and available data, the underlying physics, collective enhancement phenomenon, and constant temperature description.
Optical pumping production of spin polarized hydrogen
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Knize, R.J.; Happer, W.; Cecchi, J.L.
1984-01-01
There has been much interest recently in the production of large quantities of spin polarized hydrogen in various fields including controlled fusion, quantum fluids, high energy, and nuclear physics. One promising method for the development of large quantities of spin polarized hydrogen is the utilization of optical pumping with a laser. Optical pumping is a process where photon angular momentum is converted into electron and nuclear spin. The advent of tunable CW dye lasers (approx. 1 watt) allow the production of greater than 10 18 polarized atoms/sec. We have begun a program at Princeton to investigate the physics and technology of using optical pumping to produce large quantities of spin polarized hydrogen. Initial experiments have been done in small closed glass cells. Eventually, a flowing system, open target, or polarized ion source could be constructed
Wang, Tao; Kimball, Derek F. Jackson; Sushkov, Alexander O.; Aybas, Deniz; Blanchard, John W.; Centers, Gary; Kelley, Sean R. O.'; Wickenbrock, Arne; Fang, Jiancheng; Budker, Dmitry
2018-03-01
The Cosmic Axion Spin Precession Experiment (CASPEr) seeks to measure oscillating torques on nuclear spins caused by axion or axion-like-particle (ALP) dark matter via nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. A sample spin-polarized along a leading magnetic field experiences a resonance when the Larmor frequency matches the axion/ALP Compton frequency, generating precessing transverse nuclear magnetization. Here we demonstrate a Spin-Exchange Relaxation-Free (SERF) magnetometer with sensitivity ≈ 1 fT /√{ Hz } and an effective sensing volume of 0.1 cm3 that may be useful for NMR detection in CASPEr. A potential drawback of SERF-magnetometer-based NMR detection is the SERF's limited dynamic range. Use of a magnetic flux transformer to suppress the leading magnetic field is considered as a potential method to expand the SERF's dynamic range in order to probe higher axion/ALP Compton frequencies.
Stimulated polarization wave process in spin 3/2 chains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Furman, G. B.
2007-01-01
Stimulated wave of polarization, triggered by a flip of a single spin, presents a simple model of quantum amplification. Recently, it has been demonstrated that, in an idealized one-dimensional Ising spin 1/2 chain with nearest-neighbor interactions and realistic spin 1/2 chain including the natural dipole-dipole interactions, irradiated by a weak resonant transverse field, a wave of flipped spins can be triggered by a single spin flip. Here we focuse on control of polarization wave in chain of spin 3/2, where the nuclear quadrupole interaction is dominant. Results of simulations for 1D spin chains and rings with up to five spins are presented.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
September 2000 physics pp.L471–L478. High spin states in. 63. Cu. B MUKHERJEE. ½,¾. , S MURALITHAR. ½. , R P SINGH. ½. , R KUMAR. ½. , K RANI. ½. ,. S C PANCHOLI. ¿ and R K BHOWMIK. ½. ½. Nuclear Science Centre, P.B. No. 10502, New Delhi 110 067, India. 2. Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110 ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2001-07-31
Jul 31, 2001 ... High spin states; nuclear structure; gamma-ray spectroscopy;. ½¿. Pr energy levels. PACS Nos 21.10.-k; 23.20.-g; 27.60.+j; 29.30.Kv. 1. Introduction. The transitional nuclei in the A. ½ ¼ region with N between 77 and 81 are interesting as it offer good scope to look for possible shape changes, similar to ...
Uspenskaya, Yu. A.; Mamin, G. V.; Babunts, R. A.; Badalyan, A. G.; Edinach, E. V.; Asatryan, H. R.; Romanov, N. G.; Orlinskii, S. B.; Khanin, V. M.; Wieczorek, H.; Ronda, C.; Baranov, P. G.
2018-03-01
The presence of aluminum and gallium isotopes with large nuclear magnetic and quadrupole moments in the nearest environment of impurity ions Mn2+ and Ce3+ in garnets made it possible to use hyperfine and quadrupole interactions with these ions to determine the spatial distribution of the unpaired electron and the gradient of the electric field at the sites of aluminum and gallium in the garnet lattice. High-frequency (94 GHz) electron spin echo detected electron paramagnetic resonance and electron-nuclear double resonance measurements have been performed. Large difference in the electric field gradient and quadrupole splitting at octahedral and tetrahedral sites allowed identifying the positions of aluminum and gallium ions in the garnet lattice and proving that gallium first fills tetrahedral positions in mixed aluminum-gallium garnets. This should be taken into account in the development of garnet-based scintillators and lasers. It is shown that the electric field gradient at aluminum nuclei near Mn2+ possessing an excess negative charge in the garnet lattice is ca. 2.5 times larger than on aluminum nuclei near Ce3+.
Spin noise spectroscopy on donors in GaAs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bernien, Hannes; Mueller, Georg; Roemer, Michael; Huebner, Jens; Oestreich, Michael [Institute for Solid State Physics, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz University Hannover (Germany)
2009-07-01
In recent experiments spin noise spectroscopy (SNS) has proven to be a very sensitive technique to study electron spin dynamics in semiconductors at thermal equilibrium. Here we present SNS-measurements on donor bound electrons in very low doped bulk GaAs. In this environment the donors do not interact with each other and form artificial atoms. We discuss the detection of single donor bound electron spins, which should have extremely long spin relaxation times compared to ensemble spin relaxation times. In further experiments the electron bound to the donor will be used to probe and study the local nuclear magnetic field at the donor site.
Yoshitake, Junki; Nasu, Joji; Motome, Yukitoshi
2016-10-07
Experimental identification of quantum spin liquids remains a challenge, as the pristine nature is to be seen in asymptotically low temperatures. We here theoretically show that the precursor of quantum spin liquids appears in the spin dynamics in the paramagnetic state over a wide temperature range. Using the cluster dynamical mean-field theory and the continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo method, which are newly developed in the Majorana fermion representation, we calculate the dynamical spin structure factor, relaxation rate in nuclear magnetic resonance, and magnetic susceptibility for the honeycomb Kitaev model whose ground state is a canonical example of the quantum spin liquid. We find that dynamical spin correlations show peculiar temperature and frequency dependence even below the temperature where static correlations saturate. The results provide the experimentally accessible symptoms of the fluctuating fractionalized spins evincing the quantum spin liquids.
The decay of /sup 185/Hg low-spin states in /sup 185/Au as a probe of the nuclear models
Bourgeois, C; Kilcher, P; Roussière, B; Sauvage-Letessier, J
1981-01-01
The /sup 185/Au has been studied from the beta /sup +//EC decay of /sup 185m+g/Hg using the ISOCELE facility. Conversion electron measurements have been performed by means of a semi-circular magnetic spectrograph: new low-energy transitions have been observed. A 330 keV very converted transition has also been found. Its existence is discussed. In addition to the usual states observed in heavier gold isotopes, numerous negative-parity low-spin states have been located. The experimental states corresponding to a prolate shaped nucleus are compared with those extracted from an 'axial rotor+quasi-particle' coupling model. They could be identified with two state families, the first one arising from the h9/2+f5/2 sub-shells, the second from the p3/2+f7/2 sub-shells. (12 refs).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Chen
2011-12-01
Full Text Available The nature of the parent compound of a high-temperature superconductor (HTS often plays a pivotal role in determining its superconductivity. The parent compounds of the cuprate HTSs are antiferromagnetically ordered Mott insulators, while those of the iron-pnictide HTSs are metals with spin-density-wave order. Here we report the electronic identification of two insulating parental phases and one semiconducting parental phase of the newly discovered family of K_{x}Fe_{2-y}Se_{2} superconductors. The two insulating phases exhibit Mott-insulator-like signatures, and one of the insulating phases is even present in the superconducting and semiconducting K_{x}Fe_{2-y}Se_{2} compounds. However, it is mesoscopically phase-separated from the superconducting or semiconducting phase. Moreover, we find that both the superconducting and semiconducting phases are free of the magnetic and vacancy orders present in the insulating phases, and that the electronic structure of the superconducting phase could be developed by doping the semiconducting phase with electrons. The rich electronic properties discovered in these parental phases of the K_{x}Fe_{2-y}Se_{2} superconductors provide the foundation for studying the anomalous behavior in this new class of iron-based superconductors.
Magnetic Nanostructures Spin Dynamics and Spin Transport
Farle, Michael
2013-01-01
Nanomagnetism and spintronics is a rapidly expanding and increasingly important field of research with many applications already on the market and many more to be expected in the near future. This field started in the mid-1980s with the discovery of the GMR effect, recently awarded with the Nobel prize to Albert Fert and Peter Grünberg. The present volume covers the most important and most timely aspects of magnetic heterostructures, including spin torque effects, spin injection, spin transport, spin fluctuations, proximity effects, and electrical control of spin valves. The chapters are written by internationally recognized experts in their respective fields and provide an overview of the latest status.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen Qiao, E-mail: cqhy1127@yahoo.com.c [Department of Maths and Physics, Hunan Institute of Engineering, Xiangtan 411104 (China); Liu Jin [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100190 (China); Wang Zhiyong [School of Optoelectronic Information, Chongqing University of Technology, Chongqing 400054 (China)
2011-01-17
We have investigated the current for the system of vibrating quantum dot irradiated with a rotating magnetic field and an oscillating magnetic field by nonequilibrium Green's function. The rotating magnetic field rotates with the angular frequency {omega}{sub r} around the z-axis with the tilt angle {theta}, and the time-oscillating magnetic field is located in the z-axis with the angular frequency {omega}. Different behaviors have been shown in the presence of electron-phonon interaction (EPI) which plays a significant role in the transport. The current displays asymmetric behavior as the source-drain bias eV=0, novel side peaks or shoulders can be found due to the phonon absorption and emission procedure, and the negative differential resistance becomes stronger as the parameter g increases. Furthermore, the strong EPI also destroys the quasiperiodic oscillations of current in the region {mu}{sub 0}B{sub 1}>2.5{Delta}. The electron transport properties are also significantly influenced by the linewidth function {Gamma}.
Spin-Orbit Interaction and Related Transport Phenomena in 2d Electron and Hole Systems
Khaetskii, A.
Spin-orbit interaction is responsible for many physical phenomena which are under intensive study currently. Here we discuss several of them. The first phenomenon is the edge spin accumulation, which appears due to spin-orbit interaction in 2D mesoscopic structures in the presence of a charge current. We consider the case of a strong spin-orbit-related splitting of the electron spectrum, i.e. a spin precession length is small compared to the mean free path l. The structure can be either in a ballistic regime (when the mean free path is the largest scale in the problem) or quasi-ballistic regime (when l is much smaller than the sample size). We show how physics of edge spin accumulation in different situations should be understood from the point of view of unitarity of boundary scattering. Using transparent method of scattering states, we are able to explain some previous puzzling theoretical results. We clarify the important role of the form of the spin-orbit Hamiltonian, the role of the boundary conditions, etc., and reveal the wrong results obtained in the field by other researchers. The relation between the edge spin density and the bulk spin current in different regimes is discussed. The detailed comparison with the existing theoretical works is presented. Besides, we consider several new transport phenomena which appear in the presence of spin-orbit interaction, for example, magnetotransport phenomena in an external classical magnetic field. In particular, new mechanism of negative magneto-resistance appears which is due to destruction of spin fluxes by the magnetic field, and which can be really pronounced in 2D systems with strong scatterers.
Mesoscopic CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 /TiO 2 Heterojunction Solar Cells
Etgar, Lioz
2012-10-24
We report for the first time on a hole conductor-free mesoscopic methylammonium lead iodide (CH 3NH 3PbI 3) perovskite/TiO 2 heterojunction solar cell, produced by deposition of perovskite nanoparticles from a solution of CH 3NH 3I and PbI 2 in γ-butyrolactone on a 400 nm thick film of TiO 2 (anatase) nanosheets exposing (001) facets. A gold film was evaporated on top of the CH 3NH 3PbI 3 as a back contact. Importantly, the CH 3NH 3PbI 3 nanoparticles assume here simultaneously the roles of both light harvester and hole conductor, rendering superfluous the use of an additional hole transporting material. The simple mesoscopic CH 3NH 3PbI 3/TiO 2 heterojunction solar cell shows impressive photovoltaic performance, with short-circuit photocurrent J sc= 16.1 mA/cm 2, open-circuit photovoltage V oc = 0.631 V, and a fill factor FF = 0.57, corresponding to a light to electric power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 5.5% under standard AM 1.5 solar light of 1000 W/m 2 intensity. At a lower light intensity of 100W/m 2, a PCE of 7.3% was measured. The advent of such simple solution-processed mesoscopic heterojunction solar cells paves the way to realize low-cost, high-efficiency solar cells. © 2012 American Chemical Society.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nguyen, T.D.
2010-01-01
This Ph.D. thesis aims at characterising and modeling the mechanical behavior of concrete at the mesoscopic scale. The more general scope of this study is the development of mesoscopic model for concrete; this model is to represent the concrete as a heterogeneous medium, taking into account the difference between aggregate and cement paste respecting the grading curve, the model parameters describe the mechanical and thermal behavior of cement paste and aggregates. We are interested in understanding the concrete behaviour, considered one structure. A program of random granular structure valid in 2D and 3D has been developed. This program is interfaced with the Finite Element code CAST3M in order to compute the numerical simulations. A method for numerical representation of the inclusions of concrete was also developed and validated by projection of the geometry on the shape functions, thus eliminating the problems of meshing that made the representation of all aggregates skeleton almost impossible, particularly in 3D. Firstly, the model is studied in two-dimensional and three-dimensional in order to optimize the geometrical model of the inner structure of concrete in terms of the meshing strategy and the smallest size of the aggregate to be taken into account. The results of the 2D and 3D model are analyzed and compared in the case of uniaxial tension and uniaxial compression. The model used is an isotropic unilateral damage model from Fichant [Fichant et al., 1999]. The model allows to simulate both the macroscopic behavior but also with the local studies of the distribution of crack and crack opening. The model shows interesting results on the transition from diffuse to localized damage and is able to reproduce dilatancy in compression. Finally, the mesoscopic model is applied to three simulations: the calculation of the permeability of cracked concrete; the simulation of the hydration of concrete at early age and finally the scale effect illustrated by bending
Mesoscopic objects, porous layers and nanocomposites-Possibilities of sol-gel chemistry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Piwonski, Ireneusz
2009-01-01
The goal of this study was to prepare mesoscopic objects, thin porous films and nanocomposite coatings with the use of sol-gel technique. Silica nanotubes, titania nanoparticles, porous titania and zirconia coatings as well as titania nanocomposites were successfully synthesized by changing the type of sol-gel precursor, sol composition and applying dip-coating deposition procedure in order to obtain thin films or coatings. All materials were visualized and characterized by the Atomic Force Microcscopy (AFM) technique. Moreover, characterization of titania nanocomposites was extended to the tribological tests performed by means of microtribometer operating in normal loads range of 30-100 mN. The AFM analysis of mesoscopic objects and nanoparticles showed that the diameter of synthesized silica nanotubes was 60-70 nm and the size of titania nanoparticles was 43 nm. In case of porous layers the pore size in titania and zirconia coatings oscillated between 100 and 240 nm, however their shape and distribution were irregular. Microtribological studies of nanocomposites revealed the moderate decrease of the coefficient of friction for samples containing 5, 15 and 5 wt.% of zirconia nanoparticles in titania coatings annealed at 100, 500 and 1000 deg. C respectively. An enhancement of antiwear properties was already observed for 1 wt.% of nanophase content, except the sample annealed at 500 deg. C. It was also found that the annealing at high temperatures is a primary factor which affects the reduction of friction and wear of titania coatings while the presence of nanoparticles has secondary effect. Investigations in this study carried out with the use of the AFM technique highlighted the potential and flexibility of sol-gel approach in designing of various types of advanced materials in a form of mesoscopic objects, porous coatings and composite layers. Results collected in this study clearly demonstrated that sol-gel technique can be applied effectively in preparation of
Critical behavior of a two-dimensional complex fluid: Macroscopic and mesoscopic views
Choudhuri, Madhumita; Datta, Alokmay
2016-04-01
Liquid disordered (Ld) to liquid ordered (Lo) phase transition in myristic acid [MyA, CH3(CH2) 12COOH ] Langmuir monolayers was studied macroscopically as well as mesoscopically to locate the critical point. Macroscopically, isotherms of the monolayer were obtained across the 20 ∘C-38 ∘Ctemperature (T ) range and the critical point was estimated, primarily from the vanishing of the order parameter, at ≈38 ∘C. Mesoscopically, domain morphology in the Ld-Lo coexistence regime was imaged using the technique of Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) as a function of T and the corresponding power spectral density function (PSDF) obtained. Monolayer morphology passed from stable circular domains and a sharp peak in PSDF to stable dendritic domains and a divergence of the correlation length as the critical point was approached from below. The critical point was found to be consistent at ≈38 ∘Cfrom both isotherm and BAM results. In the critical regime the scaling behavior of the transition followed the two-dimensional Ising model. Additionally, we obtained a precritical regime, over a temperature range of ≈8 ∘C below Tc, characterized by fluctuations in the order parameter at the macroscopic scale and at the mesoscopic scale characterized by unstable domains of fingering or dendritic morphology as well as proliferation of a large number of small sized domains, multiple peaks in the power spectra, and a corresponding fluctuation in the peak q values with T . Further, while comparing temperature studies on an ensemble of MyA monolayers with those on a single monolayer, the system was found to be not strictly ergodic in that the ensemble development did not strictly match with the time development in the system. In particular, the critical temperature was found to be lowered in the latter. These results clearly show that the critical behavior in fatty acid monolayer phase transitions have features of both complex and nonequilibrium systems.
Qian, Hong; Kjelstrup, Signe; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B; Bedeaux, Dick
2016-04-20
Nonequilibrium thermodynamics (NET) investigates processes in systems out of global equilibrium. On a mesoscopic level, it provides a statistical dynamic description of various complex phenomena such as chemical reactions, ion transport, diffusion, thermochemical, thermomechanical and mechanochemical fluxes. In the present review, we introduce a mesoscopic stochastic formulation of NET by analyzing entropy production in several simple examples. The fundamental role of nonequilibrium steady-state cycle kinetics is emphasized. The statistical mechanics of Onsager's reciprocal relations in this context is elucidated. Chemomechanical, thermomechanical, and enzyme-catalyzed thermochemical energy transduction processes are discussed. It is argued that mesoscopic stochastic NET in phase space provides a rigorous mathematical basis of fundamental concepts needed for understanding complex processes in chemistry, physics and biology. This theory is also relevant for nanoscale technological advances.
Werner, Jérémie
2016-12-05
Perovskite/crystalline silicon tandem solar cells have the potential to reach efficiencies beyond those of silicon single-junction record devices. However, the high-temperature process of 500 °C needed for state-of-the-art mesoscopic perovskite cells has, so far, been limiting their implementation in monolithic tandem devices. Here, we demonstrate the applicability of zinc tin oxide as a recombination layer and show its electrical and optical stability at temperatures up to 500 °C. To prove the concept, we fabricate monolithic tandem cells with mesoscopic top cell with up to 16% efficiency. We then investigate the effect of zinc tin oxide layer thickness variation, showing a strong influence on the optical interference pattern within the tandem device. Finally, we discuss the perspective of mesoscopic perovskite cells for high-efficiency monolithic tandem solar cells. © 2016 Author(s)
Qian, Hong; Kjelstrup, Signe; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B.; Bedeaux, Dick
2016-04-01
Nonequilibrium thermodynamics (NET) investigates processes in systems out of global equilibrium. On a mesoscopic level, it provides a statistical dynamic description of various complex phenomena such as chemical reactions, ion transport, diffusion, thermochemical, thermomechanical and mechanochemical fluxes. In the present review, we introduce a mesoscopic stochastic formulation of NET by analyzing entropy production in several simple examples. The fundamental role of nonequilibrium steady-state cycle kinetics is emphasized. The statistical mechanics of Onsager’s reciprocal relations in this context is elucidated. Chemomechanical, thermomechanical, and enzyme-catalyzed thermochemical energy transduction processes are discussed. It is argued that mesoscopic stochastic NET in phase space provides a rigorous mathematical basis of fundamental concepts needed for understanding complex processes in chemistry, physics and biology. This theory is also relevant for nanoscale technological advances.
Mesoscopic Diffusion of Poly(ethylene oxide) in Pure and Mixed Solvents.
Zheng, Xiong; Anisimov, Mikhail A; Sengers, Jan V; He, Maogang
2018-04-05
We present results from an experimental dynamic light-scattering study of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) in both a pure solvent (water) and a mixed solvent (tert-butanol + water). The concentration dependence of the diffusive relaxation of the PEO molecules is found to be typical of polymers in a good solvent. However, the mesoscopic diffusive behavior of PEO in the mixed solvent is very different, indicating an initial collapse and subsequent reswelling of PEO caused by co-nonsolvency. Furthermore, in the solutions of PEO with very large molecular weights, we found additional hydrodynamic modes indicating the presence of PEO clusters and aggregates similar to those found by some other investigators.
Mesoscopic analyses of porous concrete under static compression and drop weight impact tests
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Agar Ozbek, A.S.; Pedersen, R.R.; Weerheijm, J.
2008-01-01
was considered as a four-phase material incorporating aggregates, bulk cement paste, interfacial transition zones and meso-size air pores. The stress-displacement relations obtained from static compression tests, the stress values, and the corresponding damage levels provided by the drop weight impact tests were......The failure process in highly porous concrete was analyzed experimentally and numerically. A triaxial visco-plastic damage model and a mesoscale representation of the material composition were considered to reproduce static compression and drop weight impact tests. In the mesoscopic model, concrete...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fujitsuka, Mamoru (Div. of Molecular Engineering, Kyoto Univ. (Japan)); Nakahara, Reiko (Div. of Molecular Engineering, Kyoto Univ. (Japan)); Iyoda, Tomokazu (Div. of Molecular Engineering, Kyoto Univ. (Japan)); Shimidzu, Takeo (Div. of Molecular Engineering, Kyoto Univ. (Japan)); Tomita, Shigehisa (Toray Research Center Co., Ltd., Shiga (Japan)); Hatano, Yayoi (Toray Research Center Co., Ltd., Shiga (Japan)); Soeda, Fusami (Toray Research Center Co., Ltd., Shiga (Japan)); Ishitani, Akira (Toray Research Center Co., Ltd., Shiga (Japan)); Tsuchiya, Hajime (Nitto Technical Information Center Co., Ltd., Shimohozumi Ibaraki, Osaka (Japan)); Ohtani, Akira (Central Research Lab., Nitto Denko Co., Ltd., Shimohozumi Ibaraki, Osaka (Japan))
1992-11-01
Mesoscopic layered structures in conducting polymer thin films are fabricated by the potential-programmed electropolymerization method. High lateral quality in the layered structure is realized by the improvement of polymerization conditions, i.e., a mixture of pyrrole and bithiophene as monomers, a silicon single-crystal wafer as a working electrode and propylene carbonate as a solvent. SIMS depth profiling of the resulting layered films indicates a significant linear correlation between the electric charge passed and the thickness of the individual layers on a 100 A scale. (orig.)
Mesoscopic Modeling and Simulation of the Dynamic Tensile Behavior of Concrete
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Ronnie; Simone, A.; Sluys, L. J.
2013-01-01
of the most significant constitutive model parameters on global and local response. Different distributions and shapes of the aggregate grains are tested. Three model parameter sets, corresponding to different moisture conditions, are employed in the analysis of two specimens in which the applied loading rate......We present a two-dimensional mesoscopic finite element model for simulating the rate- and moisture-dependent material behavior of concrete. The idealized mesostructure consists of aggregate grains surrounded by an interfacial transition zone embedded in the bulk material. We examine the influence...
Mesoscopic fluctuations in disordered superconductors with broken time-reversal symmetry
Ryu, Shinsei; Furusaki, Akira; Ludwig, Andreas; Mudry, Christopher
2005-03-01
The mesoscopic regime in the problem of Anderson localization is a scaling regime in which disorder effects remain weak. It can be realized in quasi-one and higher dimensional systems. Fluctuations in the global density of states, the local density of states, as well as in the conductance were first studied for conventional metals in the pioneering works of Stone and Lee on the one hand, and Altshuler, Kravtsov, and Lerner, on the other hand. Here we extend the analysis of the conductance fluctuations by Altshuler, Kravtsov, and Lerner to dirty superconductors with broken time-reversal symmetry in near two spatial dimensions.
Mesoscopic modeling of multi-physicochemical transport phenomena in porous media
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kang, Qinjin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Moran [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukherjee, Partha P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lichtner, Peter C [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2009-01-01
We present our recent progress on mesoscopic modeling of multi-physicochemical transport phenomena in porous media based on the lattice Boltzmann method. Simulation examples include injection of CO{sub 2} saturated brine into a limestone rock, two-phase behavior and flooding phenomena in polymer electrolyte fuel cells, and electroosmosis in homogeneously charged porous media. It is shown that the lattice Boltzmann method can account for multiple, coupled physicochemical processes in these systems and can shed some light on the underlying physics occuning at the fundamental scale. Therefore, it can be a potential powerful numerical tool to analyze multi-physicochemical processes in various energy, earth, and environmental systems.
Magnetic response and critical current properties of mesoscopic-size YBCO superconducting samples
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lisboa-Filho, P N [UNESP - Universidade Estadual Paulista, Grupo de Materiais Avancados, Departamento de Fisica, Bauru (Brazil); Deimling, C V; Ortiz, W A, E-mail: plisboa@fc.unesp.b [Grupo de Supercondutividade e Magnetismo, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos (Brazil)
2010-01-15
In this contribution superconducting specimens of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} were synthesized by a modified polymeric precursor method, yielding a ceramic powder with particles of mesoscopic-size. Samples of this powder were then pressed into pellets and sintered under different conditions. The critical current density was analyzed by isothermal AC-susceptibility measurements as a function of the excitation field, as well as with isothermal DC-magnetization runs at different values of the applied field. Relevant features of the magnetic response could be associated to the microstructure of the specimens and, in particular, to the superconducting intra- and intergranular critical current properties.
Mesoscopic self-collimation and slow light in all-positive index layered photonic crystals.
Arlandis, Julien; Centeno, Emmanuel; Pollès, Rémi; Moreau, Antoine; Campos, Julien; Gauthier-Lafaye, Olivier; Monmayrant, Antoine
2012-01-20
We demonstrate a mesoscopic self-collimation effect in photonic crystal superlattices consisting of a periodic set of all-positive index 2D photonic crystal and homogeneous layers. We develop an electromagnetic theory showing that diffraction-free beams are observed when the curvature of the optical dispersion relation is properly compensated for. This approach allows us to combine slow-light regime together with self-collimation in photonic crystal superlattices presenting an extremely low filling ratio in air. © 2012 American Physical Society
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lim, Ae Ran
2007-01-01
Me 3 H(SeO 4 ) 2 (Me = Na, K, and Rb) single crystals were grown by the slow evaporation method, and the relaxation times of the 1 H and Me nuclei in these crystals were investigated using FT NMR spectrometry. The 1 H T 1 NMR results for K 3 H(SeO 4 ) 2 and Rb 3 H(SeO 4 ) 2 single crystals were very different from those for Na 3 H(SeO 4 ) 2 crystals. Short 1 H relaxation times were found for K 3 H(SeO 4 ) 2 and Rb 3 H(SeO 4 ) 2 at high temperatures, but not for Na 3 H(SeO 4 ) 2 , which are attributed to the destruction and reconstruction of hydrogen bonds; thus K 3 H(SeO 4 ) 2 and Rb 3 H(SeO 4 ) 2 have superionic phases, whereas Na 3 H(SeO 4 ) 2 does not. The temperature dependence of the relaxation rate for the 23 Na nucleus in Na 3 H(SeO 4 ) 2 crystals was in accord with a Raman process for nuclear spin-lattice relaxation (T 1 -1 ∝T 2 . In contrast, the spin-lattice relaxation rates for the 39 K and 87 Rb nuclei in K 3 H(SeO 4 ) 2 and Rb 3 H(SeO 4 ) 2 single crystals exhibited a very strong temperature dependence, T 1 -1 ∝T 7 . The motions giving rise to this strong temperature dependence may be related to the high electrical conductivities of these crystals at high temperatures
Decoherence dynamics of a single spin versus spin ensemble
Dobrovitski, V.V.; Feiguin, A.E.; Awschalom, D.D.; Hanson, R.
2008-01-01
We study decoherence of central spins by a spin bath, focusing on the difference between measurement of a single central spin and measurement of a large number of central spins (as found in typical spin-resonance experiments). For a dilute spin bath, the single spin demonstrates Gaussian
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kamal, Anwar
2014-01-01
Explains the concepts in detail and in depth. Provides step-by-step derivations. Contains numerous tables and diagrams. Supports learning and teaching with numerous worked examples, questions and problems with answers. Sketches also the historical development of the subject. This textbook explains the experimental basics, effects and theory of nuclear physics. It supports learning and teaching with numerous worked examples, questions and problems with answers. Numerous tables and diagrams help to better understand the explanations. A better feeling to the subject of the book is given with sketches about the historical development of nuclear physics. The main topics of this book include the phenomena associated with passage of charged particles and radiation through matter which are related to nuclear resonance fluorescence and the Moessbauer effect., Gamov's theory of alpha decay, Fermi theory of beta decay, electron capture and gamma decay. The discussion of general properties of nuclei covers nuclear sizes and nuclear force, nuclear spin, magnetic dipole moment and electric quadrupole moment. Nuclear instability against various modes of decay and Yukawa theory are explained. Nuclear models such as Fermi Gas Model, Shell Model, Liquid Drop Model, Collective Model and Optical Model are outlined to explain various experimental facts related to nuclear structure. Heavy ion reactions, including nuclear fusion, are explained. Nuclear fission and fusion power production is treated elaborately.
Wei, Xiao-Jing; Zhao, Shun-Cai; Guo, Hong-Wei
2017-10-01
Starting from the quantum fluctuation of current in the mesoscopic composite right-left handed transmission line (CRLH-TL) in the thermal Fock state, we investigate the left-handedness dependent of the frequencies, intensity and quantum fluctuations of the current field in the CRLH-TL under different thermal environment. The results show that the intensity and quantum fluctuations of current field in lower frequency bands affect the left-handedness distinctly under different thermal environment. The thermal effect on the left-handedness in the mesoscopic CRLH-TL deserves further experimental investigation in its miniaturization application.
Spin-polarized spin excitation spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Loth, Sebastian; Lutz, Christopher P; Heinrich, Andreas J
2010-01-01
We report on the spin dependence of elastic and inelastic electron tunneling through transition metal atoms. Mn, Fe and Cu atoms were deposited onto a monolayer of Cu 2 N on Cu(100) and individually addressed with the probe tip of a scanning tunneling microscope. Electrons tunneling between the tip and the substrate exchange energy and spin angular momentum with the surface-bound magnetic atoms. The conservation of energy during the tunneling process results in a distinct onset threshold voltage above which the tunneling electrons create spin excitations in the Mn and Fe atoms. Here we show that the additional conservation of spin angular momentum leads to different cross-sections for spin excitations depending on the relative alignment of the surface spin and the spin of the tunneling electron. For this purpose, we developed a technique for measuring the same local spin with a spin-polarized and a non-spin-polarized tip by exchanging the last apex atom of the probe tip between different transition metal atoms. We derive a quantitative model describing the observed excitation cross-sections on the basis of an exchange scattering process.
Magnons, Spin Current and Spin Seebeck Effect
Maekawa, Sadamichi
2012-02-01
When metals and semiconductors are placed in a temperature gradient, the electric voltage is generated. This mechanism to convert heat into electricity, the so-called Seebeck effect, has attracted much attention recently as the mechanism for utilizing wasted heat energy. [1]. Ferromagnetic insulators are good conductors of spin current, i.e., the flow of electron spins [2]. When they are placed in a temperature gradient, generated are magnons, spin current and the spin voltage [3], i.e., spin accumulation. Once the spin voltage is converted into the electric voltage by inverse spin Hall effect in attached metal films such as Pt, the electric voltage is obtained from heat energy [4-5]. This is called the spin Seebeck effect. Here, we present the linear-response theory of spin Seebeck effect based on the fluctuation-dissipation theorem [6-8] and discuss a variety of the devices. [4pt] [1] S. Maekawa et al, Physics of Transition Metal Oxides (Springer, 2004). [0pt] [2] S. Maekawa: Nature Materials 8, 777 (2009). [0pt] [3] Concept in Spin Electronics, eds. S. Maekawa (Oxford University Press, 2006). [0pt] [4] K. Uchida et al., Nature 455, 778 (2008). [0pt] [5] K. Uchida et al., Nature Materials 9, 894 (2010) [0pt] [6] H. Adachi et al., APL 97, 252506 (2010) and Phys. Rev. B 83, 094410 (2011). [0pt] [7] J. Ohe et al., Phys. Rev. B (2011) [0pt] [8] K. Uchida et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 104419 (2010).
Spin microscope based on optically detected magnetic resonance
Berman, Gennady P.; Chernobrod, Boris M.
2007-12-11
The invention relates to scanning magnetic microscope which has a photoluminescent nanoprobe implanted in the tip apex of an atomic force microscope (AFM), a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and exhibits optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) in the vicinity of unpaired electron spins or nuclear magnetic moments in the sample material. The described spin microscope has demonstrated nanoscale lateral resolution and single spin sensitivity for the AFM and STM embodiments.
Collective nuclear dynamics. Abstracts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abrosimov, V.I.; Kolomietz, V.M.
1994-01-01
The fourth International school on nuclear physics was help on 29 Aug - 7 Sep, 1994 in Ukraine. The specialists discussed following subjects: liquid drop and the shell correction method; nuclear deformation energy and fission; nuclear structure at high spins, superdeformed states, structure of excited and exotic nuclei; nuclear fluid dynamics and large scale collective motion; order and chaos as they relate to the collective motion; quantum and interference phenomena in nuclear collisions; quasi-fission and multinucleon fragmentation effects; shell effects in non-nuclear systems; new nuclear facilities
Mesoscopic structures reveal the network between the layers of multiplex data sets
Iacovacci, Jacopo; Wu, Zhihao; Bianconi, Ginestra
2015-10-01
Multiplex networks describe a large variety of complex systems, whose elements (nodes) can be connected by different types of interactions forming different layers (networks) of the multiplex. Multiplex networks include social networks, transportation networks, or biological networks in the cell or in the brain. Extracting relevant information from these networks is of crucial importance for solving challenging inference problems and for characterizing the multiplex networks microscopic and mesoscopic structure. Here we propose an information theory method to extract the network between the layers of multiplex data sets, forming a "network of networks." We build an indicator function, based on the entropy of network ensembles, to characterize the mesoscopic similarities between the layers of a multiplex network, and we use clustering techniques to characterize the communities present in this network of networks. We apply the proposed method to study the Multiplex Collaboration Network formed by scientists collaborating on different subjects and publishing in the American Physical Society journals. The analysis of this data set reveals the interplay between the collaboration networks and the organization of knowledge in physics.
Dynamics of skyrmions and edge states in the resistive regime of mesoscopic p-wave superconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fernández Becerra, V., E-mail: VictorLeonardo.FernandezBecerra@uantwerpen.be; Milošević, M.V., E-mail: milorad.milosevic@uantwerpen.be
2017-02-15
Highlights: • Voltage–current characterization of a mesoscopic p-wave superconducting sample. • Skyrmions and edge states are stabilized with an out-of-plane applied magnetic field. • In the resistive regime, moving skyrmions and the edge state behave distinctly different from the conventional kinematic vortices. - Abstract: In a mesoscopic sample of a chiral p-wave superconductor, novel states comprising skyrmions and edge states have been stabilized in out-of-plane applied magnetic field. Using the time-dependent Ginzburg–Landau equations we shed light on the dynamic response of such states to an external applied current. Three different regimes are obtained, namely, the superconducting (stationary), resistive (non-stationary) and normal regime, similarly to conventional s-wave superconductors. However, in the resistive regime and depending on the external current, we found that moving skyrmions and the edge state behave distinctly different from the conventional kinematic vortex, thereby providing new fingerprints for identification of p-wave superconductivity.
Alekseev, S. A.; Dmitriev, A. S.; Dmitriev, A. A.; Makarov, P. G.; Mikhailova, I. A.
2017-11-01
In recent years, there has been a great interest in the development and creation of new functional energy materials, including for improving the energy efficiency of power equipment and for effectively removing heat from energy devices, microelectronics and optoelectronics (power micro electronics, supercapacitors, cooling of processors, servers and Data centers). In this paper, the technology of obtaining a new nanocomposite based on mesoscopic microspheres, polymers and graphene flakes is considered. The methods of sequential production of functional materials from graphite flakes of different volumetric concentration using polymers based on epoxy resins and polyimide, as well as the addition of a mesoscopic medium in the form of monodisperse microspheres are described. The data of optical and electron microscopy of such nanocomposites are presented, the main problems in the appearance of defects in such materials are described, the possibilities of their elimination by the selection of different concentrations and sizes of the components. Data are given on the measurement of the hysteresis of the contact angle and the evaporation of droplets on similar substrates. The results of studying the mechanical, electrophysical and thermal properties of such nanocomposites are presented. Particular attention is paid to the investigation of the thermal conductivity of these nanocomposites with respect to the creation of thermal interface materials for cooling devices of electronics, optoelectronics and power engineering.
Mesoscopic segregation of excitation and inhibition in a brain network model.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel Malagarriga
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Neurons in the brain are known to operate under a careful balance of excitation and inhibition, which maintains neural microcircuits within the proper operational range. How this balance is played out at the mesoscopic level of neuronal populations is, however, less clear. In order to address this issue, here we use a coupled neural mass model to study computationally the dynamics of a network of cortical macrocolumns operating in a partially synchronized, irregular regime. The topology of the network is heterogeneous, with a few of the nodes acting as connector hubs while the rest are relatively poorly connected. Our results show that in this type of mesoscopic network excitation and inhibition spontaneously segregate, with some columns acting mainly in an excitatory manner while some others have predominantly an inhibitory effect on their neighbors. We characterize the conditions under which this segregation arises, and relate the character of the different columns with their topological role within the network. In particular, we show that the connector hubs are preferentially inhibitory, the more so the larger the node's connectivity. These results suggest a potential mesoscale organization of the excitation-inhibition balance in brain networks.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chiara Biscarini
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The numerical simulation of fast-moving fronts originating from dam or levee breaches is a challenging task for small scale engineering projects. In this work, the use of fully three-dimensional Navier-Stokes (NS equations and lattice Boltzmann method (LBM is proposed for testing the validity of, respectively, macroscopic and mesoscopic mathematical models. Macroscopic simulations are performed employing an open-source computational fluid dynamics (CFD code that solves the NS combined with the volume of fluid (VOF multiphase method to represent free-surface flows. The mesoscopic model is a front-tracking experimental variant of the LBM. In the proposed LBM the air-gas interface is represented as a surface with zero thickness that handles the passage of the density field from the light to the dense phase and vice versa. A single set of LBM equations represents the liquid phase, while the free surface is characterized by an additional variable, the liquid volume fraction. Case studies show advantages and disadvantages of the proposed LBM and NS with specific regard to the computational efficiency and accuracy in dealing with the simulation of flows through complex geometries. In particular, the validation of the model application is developed by simulating the flow propagating through a synthetic urban setting and comparing results with analytical and experimental laboratory measurements.
A mesoscopic reaction rate model for shock initiation of multi-component PBX explosives.
Liu, Y R; Duan, Z P; Zhang, Z Y; Ou, Z C; Huang, F L
2016-11-05
The primary goal of this research is to develop a three-term mesoscopic reaction rate model that consists of a hot-spot ignition, a low-pressure slow burning and a high-pressure fast reaction terms for shock initiation of multi-component Plastic Bonded Explosives (PBX). Thereinto, based on the DZK hot-spot model for a single-component PBX explosive, the hot-spot ignition term as well as its reaction rate is obtained through a "mixing rule" of the explosive components; new expressions for both the low-pressure slow burning term and the high-pressure fast reaction term are also obtained by establishing the relationships between the reaction rate of the multi-component PBX explosive and that of its explosive components, based on the low-pressure slow burning term and the high-pressure fast reaction term of a mesoscopic reaction rate model. Furthermore, for verification, the new reaction rate model is incorporated into the DYNA2D code to simulate numerically the shock initiation process of the PBXC03 and the PBXC10 multi-component PBX explosives, and the numerical results of the pressure histories at different Lagrange locations in explosive are found to be in good agreements with previous experimental data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Transmission gaps, trapped modes and Fano resonances in Aharonov-Bohm connected mesoscopic loops
Mrabti, T.; Labdouti, Z.; El Abouti, O.; El Boudouti, E. H.; Fethi, F.; Djafari-Rouhani, B.
2018-03-01
A simple mesoscopic structure consisting of a double symmetric loops coupled by a segment of length d0 in the presence of an Aharonov-Bohm flux is designed to obtain transmission band gaps and Fano resonances. A general analytical expression for the transmission coefficient and the density of states (DOS) are obtained for various systems of this kind within the framework of the Green's function method in the presence of the magnetic flux. In this work, the amplitude of the transmission and DOS are discussed as a function of the wave vector. We show that the transmission spectrum of the whole structure may exhibit a band gap and a resonance of Fano type without introducing any impurity in one arm of the loop. In particular, we show that for specific values of the magnetic flux and the lengths of the arms constituting the loops, the Fano resonance collapses giving rise to the so-called trapped states or bound in continuum (BIC) states. These states appear when the width of the Fano resonance vanishes in the transmission coefficient as well as in the density of states. Also, we show that the shape of the Fano resonances and the width of the band gaps are very sensitive to the value of the magnetic flux and the geometry of the structure. These results may have important applications for electronic transport in mesoscopic systems.
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Sze Sing-Hoi
2008-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Since experimental determination of protein folding pathways remains difficult, computational techniques are often used to simulate protein folding. Most current techniques to predict protein folding pathways are computationally intensive and are suitable only for small proteins. Results By assuming that the native structure of a protein is known and representing each intermediate conformation as a collection of fully folded structures in which each of them contains a set of interacting secondary structure elements, we show that it is possible to significantly reduce the conformation space while still being able to predict the most energetically favorable folding pathway of large proteins with hundreds of residues at the mesoscopic level, including the pig muscle phosphoglycerate kinase with 416 residues. The model is detailed enough to distinguish between different folding pathways of structurally very similar proteins, including the streptococcal protein G and the peptostreptococcal protein L. The model is also able to recognize the differences between the folding pathways of protein G and its two structurally similar variants NuG1 and NuG2, which are even harder to distinguish. We show that this strategy can produce accurate predictions on many other proteins with experimentally determined intermediate folding states. Conclusion Our technique is efficient enough to predict folding pathways for both large and small proteins at the mesoscopic level. Such a strategy is often the only feasible choice for large proteins. A software program implementing this strategy (SSFold is available at http://faculty.cs.tamu.edu/shsze/ssfold.
Quasiclassical methods for spin-charge coupled dynamics in low-dimensional systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Corini, Cosimo
2009-01-01
Spintronics is a new field of study whose broad aim is the manipulation of the spin degrees of freedom in solid state systems. One of its main goals is the realization of devices capable of exploiting, besides the charge, the carriers' - and possibly the nuclei's - spin. The presence of spin-orbit coupling in a system enables the spin and charge degrees of freedom to ''communicate'', a favorable situation if one is to realize such devices. More importantly, it offers the opportunity of doing so by relying solely on electric fields, whereas magnetic fields are otherwise required. Eminent examples of versatile systems with built-in and variously tunable spin-orbit interaction are two-dimensional electron - or hole - gases. The study of spin-charge coupled dynamics in such a context faces a large number of open questions, both of the fundamental and of the more practical type. To tackle the problem we rely on the quasiclassical formalism. This is an approximate quantum-field theoretical formulation with a solid microscopic foundation, perfectly suited for describing phenomena at the mesoscopic scale, and bearing a resemblance to standard Boltzmann theory which makes for physical transparency. Originally born to deal with transport in electron-phonon systems, we first generalize it to the case in which spin-orbit coupling is present, and then move on to apply it to specific situations and phenomena. Among these, to the description of the spin Hall effect and of voltage induced spin polarizations in two-dimensional electron gases under a variety of conditions - stationary or time-dependent, in the presence of magnetic and non-magnetic disorder, in the bulk or in confined geometries -, and to the problem of spin relaxation in narrow wires. (orig.)
Quasiclassical methods for spin-charge coupled dynamics in low-dimensional systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Corini, Cosimo
2009-06-12
Spintronics is a new field of study whose broad aim is the manipulation of the spin degrees of freedom in solid state systems. One of its main goals is the realization of devices capable of exploiting, besides the charge, the carriers' - and possibly the nuclei's - spin. The presence of spin-orbit coupling in a system enables the spin and charge degrees of freedom to ''communicate'', a favorable situation if one is to realize such devices. More importantly, it offers the opportunity of doing so by relying solely on electric fields, whereas magnetic fields are otherwise required. Eminent examples of versatile systems with built-in and variously tunable spin-orbit interaction are two-dimensional electron - or hole - gases. The study of spin-charge coupled dynamics in such a context faces a large number of open questions, both of the fundamental and of the more practical type. To tackle the problem we rely on the quasiclassical formalism. This is an approximate quantum-field theoretical formulation with a solid microscopic foundation, perfectly suited for describing phenomena at the mesoscopic scale, and bearing a resemblance to standard Boltzmann theory which makes for physical transparency. Originally born to deal with transport in electron-phonon systems, we first generalize it to the case in which spin-orbit coupling is present, and then move on to apply it to specific situations and phenomena. Among these, to the description of the spin Hall effect and of voltage induced spin polarizations in two-dimensional electron gases under a variety of conditions - stationary or time-dependent, in the presence of magnetic and non-magnetic disorder, in the bulk or in confined geometries -, and to the problem of spin relaxation in narrow wires. (orig.)
CNI polarimetry and the hadronic spin dependence of pp scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trueman, T.L.
1996-01-01
Methods for limiting the size of hadronic spin-flip in the Coulomb- Nuclear Interference. region are critically assessed. This work was presented at the High Energy Polarimetry Workshop in Amsterdam, Sept. 9, 1996 and the RHIC Spin Collaboration meeting in Marseille, Sept. 17, 1996