Sample records for mesoscale numerical model

  1. Coupling a Mesoscale Numerical Weather Prediction Model with Large-Eddy Simulation for Realistic Wind Plant Aerodynamics Simulations (Poster)

    Draxl, C.; Churchfield, M.; Mirocha, J.; Lee, S.; Lundquist, J.; Michalakes, J.; Moriarty, P.; Purkayastha, A.; Sprague, M.; Vanderwende, B.


    Wind plant aerodynamics are influenced by a combination of microscale and mesoscale phenomena. Incorporating mesoscale atmospheric forcing (e.g., diurnal cycles and frontal passages) into wind plant simulations can lead to a more accurate representation of microscale flows, aerodynamics, and wind turbine/plant performance. Our goal is to couple a numerical weather prediction model that can represent mesoscale flow [specifically the Weather Research and Forecasting model] with a microscale LES model (OpenFOAM) that can predict microscale turbulence and wake losses.

  2. Verification of some numerical models for operationally predicting mesoscale winds aloft

    Cornett, J.S.; Randerson, D.


    Four numerical models are described for predicting mesoscale winds aloft for a 6 h period. These models are all tested statistically against persistence as the control forecast and against predictions made by operational forecasters. Mesoscale winds aloft data were used to initialize the models and to verify the predictions on an hourly basis. The model yielding the smallest root-mean-square vector errors (RMSVE's) was the one based on the most physics which included advection, ageostrophic acceleration, vertical mixing and friction. Horizontal advection was found to be the most important term in reducing the RMSVE's followed by ageostrophic acceleration, vertical advection, surface friction and vertical mixing. From a comparison of the mean absolute errors based on up to 72 independent wind-profile predictions made by operational forecasters, by the most complete model, and by persistence, we conclude that the model is the best wind predictor in the free air. In the boundary layer, the results tend to favor the forecaster for direction predictions. The speed predictions showed no overall superiority in any of these three models

  3. Preliminary analysis of four numerical models for calculating the mesoscale transport of Kr-85

    Pepper, D W; Cooper, R E [Du Pont de Nemours (E.I.) and Co., Aiken, SC (USA). Savannah River Lab.


    A performance study of four numerical algorithms for multi-dimensional advection-diffusion prediction on mesoscale grids has been made. Dispersion from point and distributed sources and a simulation of a continuous source are compared with analytical solutions to assess relative accuracy. Model predictions are then compared with actual measurements of Kr-85 emitted from the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The particle-in-cell and method of moments algorithms exhibit superior accuracy in modeling single source releases. For modeling distributed sources, algorithms based on the pseudospectral and finite element interpolation concepts exhibit comparable accuracy. The method of moments is felt to be the best overall performer, although all the models appear to be relatively close in accuracy.

  4. High-resolution numerical modeling of mesoscale island wakes and sensitivity to static topographic relief data

    C. G. Nunalee


    Full Text Available Recent decades have witnessed a drastic increase in the fidelity of numerical weather prediction (NWP modeling. Currently, both research-grade and operational NWP models regularly perform simulations with horizontal grid spacings as fine as 1 km. This migration towards higher resolution potentially improves NWP model solutions by increasing the resolvability of mesoscale processes and reducing dependency on empirical physics parameterizations. However, at the same time, the accuracy of high-resolution simulations, particularly in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL, is also sensitive to orographic forcing which can have significant variability on the same spatial scale as, or smaller than, NWP model grids. Despite this sensitivity, many high-resolution atmospheric simulations do not consider uncertainty with respect to selection of static terrain height data set. In this paper, we use the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model to simulate realistic cases of lower tropospheric flow over and downstream of mountainous islands using the default global 30 s United States Geographic Survey terrain height data set (GTOPO30, the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM, and the Global Multi-resolution Terrain Elevation Data set (GMTED2010 terrain height data sets. While the differences between the SRTM-based and GMTED2010-based simulations are extremely small, the GTOPO30-based simulations differ significantly. Our results demonstrate cases where the differences between the source terrain data sets are significant enough to produce entirely different orographic wake mechanics, such as vortex shedding vs. no vortex shedding. These results are also compared to MODIS visible satellite imagery and ASCAT near-surface wind retrievals. Collectively, these results highlight the importance of utilizing accurate static orographic boundary conditions when running high-resolution mesoscale models.

  5. Mesoscale spiral vortex embedded within a Lake Michigan snow squall band - High resolution satellite observations and numerical model simulations

    Lyons, Walter A.; Keen, Cecil S.; Hjelmfelt, Mark; Pease, Steven R.


    It is known that Great Lakes snow squall convection occurs in a variety of different modes depending on various factors such as air-water temperature contrast, boundary-layer wind shear, and geostrophic wind direction. An exceptional and often neglected source of data for mesoscale cloud studies is the ultrahigh resolution multispectral data produced by Landsat satellites. On October 19, 1972, a clearly defined spiral vortex was noted in a Landsat-1 image near the southern end of Lake Michigan during an exceptionally early cold air outbreak over a still very warm lake. In a numerical simulation using a three-dimensional Eulerian hydrostatic primitive equation mesoscale model with an initially uniform wind field, a definite analog to the observed vortex was generated. This suggests that intense surface heating can be a principal cause in the development of a low-level mesoscale vortex.

  6. The HIRLAM fast radiation scheme for mesoscale numerical weather prediction models

    Rontu, Laura; Gleeson, Emily; Räisänen, Petri; Pagh Nielsen, Kristian; Savijärvi, Hannu; Hansen Sass, Bent


    This paper provides an overview of the HLRADIA shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) broadband radiation schemes used in the HIRLAM numerical weather prediction (NWP) model and available in the HARMONIE-AROME mesoscale NWP model. The advantage of broadband, over spectral, schemes is that they can be called more frequently within the model, without compromising on computational efficiency. In mesoscale models fast interactions between clouds and radiation and the surface and radiation can be of greater importance than accounting for the spectral details of clear-sky radiation; thus calling the routines more frequently can be of greater benefit than the deterioration due to loss of spectral details. Fast but physically based radiation parametrizations are expected to be valuable for high-resolution ensemble forecasting, because as well as the speed of their execution, they may provide realistic physical perturbations. Results from single-column diagnostic experiments based on CIRC benchmark cases and an evaluation of 10 years of radiation output from the FMI operational archive of HIRLAM forecasts indicate that HLRADIA performs sufficiently well with respect to the clear-sky downwelling SW and longwave LW fluxes at the surface. In general, HLRADIA tends to overestimate surface fluxes, with the exception of LW fluxes under cold and dry conditions. The most obvious overestimation of the surface SW flux was seen in the cloudy cases in the 10-year comparison; this bias may be related to using a cloud inhomogeneity correction, which was too large. According to the CIRC comparisons, the outgoing LW and SW fluxes at the top of atmosphere are mostly overestimated by HLRADIA and the net LW flux is underestimated above clouds. The absorption of SW radiation by the atmosphere seems to be underestimated and LW absorption seems to be overestimated. Despite these issues, the overall results are satisfying and work on the improvement of HLRADIA for the use in HARMONIE-AROME NWP system

  7. Mesoscale modelling in China: Risø DTU numerical wind atlas calculation for NE China (Dongbei)

    Badger, Jake; Larsén, Xiaoli Guo; Hahmann, Andrea N.

    of the wind resource for Dongbei south of 50oN. The results of the numerical wind atlas show a wind resource over the region of interest modulated mainly by topographic features. These are principally elevated terrain features, giving high resources on exposed ridges and lower resources adjacent to the low......This document reports on the methods and findings of project “A01 Mesoscale Modelling”, part of the CMA component of the Wind Energy Development (WED) programme, focusing mainly on the methods and work undertaken by Risø DTU. The KAMM/WAsP methodology for numerical wind atlas calculation....... The major new aspects of the project were the large number of KAMM/WAsP sensitivity studies, comparison with WRF, and the CMA’s numerical wind atlas method (WERAS). Additionally, the reliability of the input data for the methodology, and the wave-number spectra properties of the output data were...

  8. Modeling mesoscale eddies

    Canuto, V. M.; Dubovikov, M. S.

    Mesoscale eddies are not resolved in coarse resolution ocean models and must be modeled. They affect both mean momentum and scalars. At present, no generally accepted model exists for the former; in the latter case, mesoscales are modeled with a bolus velocity u∗ to represent a sink of mean potential energy. However, comparison of u∗(model) vs. u∗ (eddy resolving code, [J. Phys. Ocean. 29 (1999) 2442]) has shown that u∗(model) is incomplete and that additional terms, "unrelated to thickness source or sinks", are required. Thus far, no form of the additional terms has been suggested. To describe mesoscale eddies, we employ the Navier-Stokes and scalar equations and a turbulence model to treat the non-linear interactions. We then show that the problem reduces to an eigenvalue problem for the mesoscale Bernoulli potential. The solution, which we derive in analytic form, is used to construct the momentum and thickness fluxes. In the latter case, the bolus velocity u∗ is found to contain two types of terms: the first type entails the gradient of the mean potential vorticity and represents a positive contribution to the production of mesoscale potential energy; the second type of terms, which is new, entails the velocity of the mean flow and represents a negative contribution to the production of mesoscale potential energy, or equivalently, a backscatter process whereby a fraction of the mesoscale potential energy is returned to the original reservoir of mean potential energy. This type of terms satisfies the physical description of the additional terms given by [J. Phys. Ocean. 29 (1999) 2442]. The mesoscale flux that enters the momentum equations is also contributed by two types of terms of the same physical nature as those entering the thickness flux. The potential vorticity flux is also shown to contain two types of terms: the first is of the gradient-type while the other terms entail the velocity of the mean flow. An expression is derived for the mesoscale

  9. Mesoscale Modeling, Forecasting and Remote Sensing Research.

    remote sensing , cyclonic scale diagnostic studies and mesoscale numerical modeling and forecasting are summarized. Mechanisms involved in the release of potential instability are discussed and simulated quantitatively, giving particular attention to the convective formulation. The basic mesoscale model is documented including the equations, boundary condition, finite differences and initialization through an idealized frontal zone. Results of tests including a three dimensional test with real data, tests of convective/mesoscale interaction and tests with a detailed

  10. Short range forecasting of sea breeze generated thunderstorms at the Kennedy Space Center: A real-time experiment using a primitive equation mesoscale numerical model

    Lyons, Walter A.; Schuh, Jerome A.; Moon, Dennis; Pielke, Roger A.; Cotton, William; Arritt, Raymond


    The operational efficiency of using guidance from a mesoscale numerical model to improve sea breeze thunderstorm forecasts at and around the Shuttle landing strip was assessed. The Prognostic Three-Dimensional Mesoscale (P3DM) model, developed as a sea breeze model, reveals a strong correlation between regions of mesoscale convergence and the triggering of sea breeze convection thunderstorms. The P3DM was modified to generate stability parameters familiar to the operational forecaster. In addition to the mesoscale fields of wind, vertical motion, moisture, temperature, a stability indicator, a combination of model-predicted K and Lifted Indices and the maximum grid cell vertical motion, were proposed and tested. Results of blind tests indicate that a forecaster, provided with guidance derived from model output, could improve local thunderstorm forecasts.

  11. Improvement of a mesoscale atmospheric dynamic model PHYSIC. Utilization of output from synoptic numerical prediction model for initial and boundary condition

    Nagai, Haruyasu; Yamazawa, Hiromi


    This report describes the improvement of the mesoscale atmospheric dynamic model which is a part of the atmospheric dispersion calculation model PHYSIC. To introduce large-scale meteorological changes into the mesoscale atmospheric dynamic model, it is necessary to make the initial and boundary conditions of the model by using GPV (Grid Point Value) which is the output of the numerical weather prediction model of JMA (Japan Meteorological Agency). Therefore, the program which preprocesses the GPV data to make a input file to PHYSIC was developed and the input process and the methods of spatial and temporal interpolation were improved to correspond to the file. Moreover, the methods of calculating the cloud amount and ground surface moisture from GPV data were developed and added to the model code. As the example of calculation by the improved model, the wind field simulations of a north-west monsoon in winter and a sea breeze in summer in the Tokai area were also presented. (author)

  12. Numerical modeling of a downwind-developing mesoscale convective system over the Masurian Lake District

    Wójcik Damian K.


    Full Text Available Meteorological data concerning the severe convective system from the 21 August 2007 are analyzed in this study. Compiled information allows to understand the reason for the storm development and to identify its fundamental convective mode. Next, the EULAG model is utilized to perform an idealized test that shows a downwind–developing storm growth in an environment comparable to the one that was observed on the 21 August 2007 in the Masurian Lake District. Finally, the COSMO numerical weather prediction model is applied to reconstruct the storm development. The experiment is carried out for various computational grids having the horizontal grid length between 7.0 and 0.55 km. It turns out that the COSMO model is capable in simulating storms of that type. Since the model is used for operational weather forecasting in Poland the evaluation of this skill contributes to the increase of public safety.

  13. Impact of aircraft exhaust on the atmosphere. Box model studies and 3-D mesoscale numerical case studies of seasonal differences

    Petry, H; Ebel, A; Franzkowiak, V; Hendricks, J; Lippert, E; Moellhoff, M [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geophysik und Meteorologie


    The impact of aircraft emissions released in the tropopause region on atmospheric trace gases as O{sub 3} or HNO{sub 3} is investigated by means of model studies. Special emphasis is drawn on seasonal effects. A box model is applied as well as a 3-D mesoscale chemistry transport model. These model studies show that the impact of aircraft emissions on ozone in the tropopause region is much stronger in summer than in late autumn with a difference of one order of magnitude. (author) 14 refs.

  14. Impact of aircraft exhaust on the atmosphere. Box model studies and 3-D mesoscale numerical case studies of seasonal differences

    Petry, H.; Ebel, A.; Franzkowiak, V.; Hendricks, J.; Lippert, E.; Moellhoff, M. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geophysik und Meteorologie


    The impact of aircraft emissions released in the tropopause region on atmospheric trace gases as O{sub 3} or HNO{sub 3} is investigated by means of model studies. Special emphasis is drawn on seasonal effects. A box model is applied as well as a 3-D mesoscale chemistry transport model. These model studies show that the impact of aircraft emissions on ozone in the tropopause region is much stronger in summer than in late autumn with a difference of one order of magnitude. (author) 14 refs.

  15. Evaluation of cloud prediction and determination of critical relative humidity for a mesoscale numerical weather prediction model

    Seaman, N.L.; Guo, Z.; Ackerman, T.P. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)


    Predictions of cloud occurrence and vertical location from the Pennsylvannia State University/National Center for Atmospheric Research nonhydrostatic mesoscale model (MM5) were evaluated statistically using cloud observations obtained at Coffeyville, Kansas, as part of the Second International satellite Cloud Climatology Project Regional Experiment campaign. Seventeen cases were selected for simulation during a November-December 1991 field study. MM5 was used to produce two sets of 36-km simulations, one with and one without four-dimensional data assimilation (FDDA), and a set of 12-km simulations without FDDA, but nested within the 36-km FDDA runs.

  16. Wake modelling combining mesoscale and microscale models

    Badger, Jake; Volker, Patrick; Prospathospoulos, J.


    In this paper the basis for introducing thrust information from microscale wake models into mesocale model wake parameterizations will be described. A classification system for the different types of mesoscale wake parameterizations is suggested and outlined. Four different mesoscale wake paramet...

  17. On the forcing mechanisms of mesocyclones in the eastern Weddell Sea region, Antarctica: Process studies using a mesoscale numerical model

    Thomas Klein


    Full Text Available Development mechanisms of Antarctic mesocyclones in the eastern Weddell Sea area are examined by means of simulations with a mesoscale model using different idealized initial conditions. In one of the experiments, a mesocyclone develops over an area of open water close to the coast of the Antarctic continent. The forcing mechanisms of this mesocyclogenesis are investigated by means of sensitivity studies in which certain physical processes and the relevance of the surface conditions topography, sea surface temperature and sea ice coverage are examined. The sensitivity experiments show that the simulated mesocyclone is forced by an interaction of several forcing mechanisms at different stages of the development rather than by a single mechanism. The topography of the eastern Weddell Sea region and the summertime coastal polynia are shown to be of great importance for the mesocyclogenesis. A suitable synoptic-scale flow is necessary to support the katabatic flow over the sloped ice sheet, and to enhance the generation of cyclonic vorticity due to vertical stretching for the initial mesocyclogenesis. The diabatic process of the convergence of the sensible and latent heat fluxes in the boundary layer over the coastal polynia then becomes the dominant forcing mechanism for the further development of the mesocyclone.

  18. Scaling and Numerical Model Evaluation of Snow-Cover Effects on the Generation and Modification of Daytime Mesoscale Circulations.

    Segal, M.; Garratt, J. R.; Pielke, R. A.; Ye, Z.


    Consideration of the sensible heat flux characteristics over a snow surface suggests a significant diminution in the magnitude of the flux, compared to that over a snow-free surface under the same environmental conditions. Consequently, the existence of snow-covered mesoscale areas adjacent to snow-free areas produces horizontal thermal gradients in the lower atmosphere during the daytime, possibly resulting in a `snow breeze.' In addition, suppression of the daytime thermally induced upslope flow over snow-covered slopes is likely to occur. The present paper provides scaling and modeling evaluations of these situations, with quantification of the generated and modified circulations. These evaluations suggest that under ideal situations involved with uniform snow cover over large areas, particularly in late winter and early spring, a noticeable `snow breeze' is likely to develop. Additionally: suppression of the daytime thermally induced upslope flow is significant and may even result in a daytime drainage flow. The effects of bare ground patchiness in the snow cover on these circulations are also explored, both for flat terrain and slope-flow situations. A patchiness fraction greater than 0.5 is found to result in a noticeably reduced snow-breeze circulation, while a patchiness fraction of only 0.1 caused the simulated daytime drainage flow over slopes to he reversed.

  19. Effect of Mesoscale and Multiscale Modeling on the Performance of Kevlar Woven Fabric Subjected to Ballistic Impact: A Numerical Study

    Jia, Xin; Huang, Zhengxiang; Zu, Xudong; Gu, Xiaohui; Xiao, Qiangqiang


    In this study, an optimal finite element model of Kevlar woven fabric that is more computational efficient compared with existing models was developed to simulate ballistic impact onto fabric. Kevlar woven fabric was modeled to yarn level architecture by using the hybrid elements analysis (HEA), which uses solid elements in modeling the yarns at the impact region and uses shell elements in modeling the yarns away from the impact region. Three HEA configurations were constructed, in which the solid element region was set as about one, two, and three times that of the projectile's diameter with impact velocities of 30 m/s (non-perforation case) and 200 m/s (perforation case) to determine the optimal ratio between the solid element region and the shell element region. To further reduce computational time and to maintain the necessary accuracy, three multiscale models were presented also. These multiscale models combine the local region with the yarn level architecture by using the HEA approach and the global region with homogenous level architecture. The effect of the varying ratios of the local and global area on the ballistic performance of fabric was discussed. The deformation and damage mechanisms of fabric were analyzed and compared among numerical models. Simulation results indicate that the multiscale model based on HEA accurately reproduces the baseline results and obviously decreases computational time.

  20. Turbulence Dissipation Rates in the Planetary Boundary Layer from Wind Profiling Radars and Mesoscale Numerical Weather Prediction Models during WFIP2

    Bianco, L.; McCaffrey, K.; Wilczak, J. M.; Olson, J. B.; Kenyon, J.


    When forecasting winds at a wind plant for energy production, the turbulence parameterizations in the forecast models are crucial for understanding wind plant performance. Recent research shows that the turbulence (eddy) dissipation rate in planetary boundary layer (PBL) parameterization schemes introduces significant uncertainty in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Thus, developing the capability to measure dissipation rates in the PBL will allow for identification of weaknesses in, and improvements to the parameterizations. During a preliminary field study at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory in spring 2015, a 915-MHz wind profiling radar (WPR) measured dissipation rates concurrently with sonic anemometers mounted on a 300-meter tower. WPR set-up parameters (e.g., spectral resolution), post-processing techniques (e.g., filtering for non-atmospheric signals), and spectral averaging were optimized to capture the most accurate Doppler spectra for measuring spectral widths for use in the computation of the eddy dissipation rates. These encouraging results lead to the implementation of the observing strategy on a 915-MHz WPR in Wasco, OR, operating as part of the Wind Forecasting Improvement Project 2 (WFIP2). These observations are compared to dissipation rates calculated from the High-Resolution Rapid Refresh model, a WRF-based mesoscale numerical weather prediction model run for WFIP2 at 3000 m horizontal grid spacing and with a nest, which has 750-meter horizontal grid spacing, in the complex terrain region of the Columbia River Gorge. The observed profiles of dissipation rates are used to evaluate the PBL parameterization schemes used in the HRRR model, which are based on the modeled turbulent kinetic energy and a tunable length scale.

  1. Wind-Farm Parametrisations in Mesoscale Models

    Volker, Patrick; Badger, Jake; Hahmann, Andrea N.


    In this paper we compare three wind-farm parametrisations for mesoscale models against measurement data from the Horns Rev I offshore wind-farm. The parametrisations vary from a simple rotor drag method, to more sophisticated models. Additional to (4) we investigated the horizontal resolution dep...

  2. Parameterization of phase change of water in a mesoscale model

    Levkov, L; Eppel, D; Grassl, H


    A parameterization scheme of phase change of water is suggested to be used in the 3-D numerical nonhydrostatic model GESIMA. The microphysical formulation follows the so-called bulk technique. With this procedure the net production rates in the balance equations for water and potential temperature are given both for liquid and ice-phase. Convectively stable as well as convectively unstable mesoscale systems are considered. With 2 figs..

  3. Multiscale Modeling of Mesoscale and Interfacial Phenomena

    Petsev, Nikolai Dimitrov

    With rapidly emerging technologies that feature interfaces modified at the nanoscale, traditional macroscopic models are pushed to their limits to explain phenomena where molecular processes can play a key role. Often, such problems appear to defy explanation when treated with coarse-grained continuum models alone, yet remain prohibitively expensive from a molecular simulation perspective. A prominent example is surface nanobubbles: nanoscopic gaseous domains typically found on hydrophobic surfaces that have puzzled researchers for over two decades due to their unusually long lifetimes. We show how an entirely macroscopic, non-equilibrium model explains many of their anomalous properties, including their stability and abnormally small gas-side contact angles. From this purely transport perspective, we investigate how factors such as temperature and saturation affect nanobubbles, providing numerous experimentally testable predictions. However, recent work also emphasizes the relevance of molecular-scale phenomena that cannot be described in terms of bulk phases or pristine interfaces. This is true for nanobubbles as well, whose nanoscale heights may require molecular detail to capture the relevant physics, in particular near the bubble three-phase contact line. Therefore, there is a clear need for general ways to link molecular granularity and behavior with large-scale continuum models in the treatment of many interfacial problems. In light of this, we have developed a general set of simulation strategies that couple mesoscale particle-based continuum models to molecular regions simulated through conventional molecular dynamics (MD). In addition, we derived a transport model for binary mixtures that opens the possibility for a wide range of applications in biological and drug delivery problems, and is readily reconciled with our hybrid MD-continuum techniques. Approaches that couple multiple length scales for fluid mixtures are largely absent in the literature, and

  4. Numerical simulation of mesoscale surface pressure features with trailing stratiform squall lines using WRF -ARW model over Gangetic West Bengal region

    Dawn, Soma; Satyanarayana, A. N. V.


    In the present study, an attempt has been made to investigate the simulation of mesoscale surface pressure patterns like pre-squall mesolow, mesohigh and wake low associated with leading convective line-trailing stratiform (TS) squall lines over Gangetic West Bengal (GWB). For this purpose, a two way interactive triple nested domain with high resolution WRF model having2 km grid length in the innermost domain is used. The model simulated results are compared with the available in-situ observations obtained as a part of Severe Thunderstorm: Observations and Regional Modeling (STORM) programme, reflectivity products of Doppler Weather Radar (DWR) Kolkata and TRMM rainfall. Three TS squall lines (15 May 2009, 5 May 2010 and 7 May 2010) are chosen during pre-monsoon thunderstorm season for this study. The model simulated results of diurnal variation of temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction at the station Kharagpur in GWB region reveal a sudden fall in temperature, increase in the amount of relative humidity and sudden rise in wind speed during the arrival of the storms. Such results are well comparable with the observations though there are some leading or lagging of time in respect of actual occurrences of such events. The study indicates that the model is able to predict the occurrences of three typical surface pressure features namely: pre-squall mesolow, meso high and wake low. The predicted surface parameters like accumulated rainfall, maximum reflectivity and vertical profiles (temperature, relative humidity and winds) are well accorded with the observations. The convective and stratiform precipitation region of the TS squall lines are well represented by the model. A strong downdraft is observed to be a contributory factor for formation of mesohigh in the convective region of the squall line. Wake low is observed to reside in the stratiform rain region and the descending dry air at this place has triggered the wake low through adiabatic

  5. Mesoscale Models of Fluid Dynamics

    Boghosian, Bruce M.; Hadjiconstantinou, Nicolas G.

    During the last half century, enormous progress has been made in the field of computational materials modeling, to the extent that in many cases computational approaches are used in a predictive fashion. Despite this progress, modeling of general hydrodynamic behavior remains a challenging task. One of the main challenges stems from the fact that hydrodynamics manifests itself over a very wide range of length and time scales. On one end of the spectrum, one finds the fluid's "internal" scale characteristic of its molecular structure (in the absence of quantum effects, which we omit in this chapter). On the other end, the "outer" scale is set by the characteristic sizes of the problem's domain. The resulting scale separation or lack thereof as well as the existence of intermediate scales are key to determining the optimal approach. Successful treatments require a judicious choice of the level of description which is a delicate balancing act between the conflicting requirements of fidelity and manageable computational cost: a coarse description typically requires models for underlying processes occuring at smaller length and time scales; on the other hand, a fine-scale model will incur a significantly larger computational cost.

  6. Probabilistic, meso-scale flood loss modelling

    Kreibich, Heidi; Botto, Anna; Schröter, Kai; Merz, Bruno


    Flood risk analyses are an important basis for decisions on flood risk management and adaptation. However, such analyses are associated with significant uncertainty, even more if changes in risk due to global change are expected. Although uncertainty analysis and probabilistic approaches have received increased attention during the last years, they are still not standard practice for flood risk assessments and even more for flood loss modelling. State of the art in flood loss modelling is still the use of simple, deterministic approaches like stage-damage functions. Novel probabilistic, multi-variate flood loss models have been developed and validated on the micro-scale using a data-mining approach, namely bagging decision trees (Merz et al. 2013). In this presentation we demonstrate and evaluate the upscaling of the approach to the meso-scale, namely on the basis of land-use units. The model is applied in 19 municipalities which were affected during the 2002 flood by the River Mulde in Saxony, Germany (Botto et al. submitted). The application of bagging decision tree based loss models provide a probability distribution of estimated loss per municipality. Validation is undertaken on the one hand via a comparison with eight deterministic loss models including stage-damage functions as well as multi-variate models. On the other hand the results are compared with official loss data provided by the Saxon Relief Bank (SAB). The results show, that uncertainties of loss estimation remain high. Thus, the significant advantage of this probabilistic flood loss estimation approach is that it inherently provides quantitative information about the uncertainty of the prediction. References: Merz, B.; Kreibich, H.; Lall, U. (2013): Multi-variate flood damage assessment: a tree-based data-mining approach. NHESS, 13(1), 53-64. Botto A, Kreibich H, Merz B, Schröter K (submitted) Probabilistic, multi-variable flood loss modelling on the meso-scale with BT-FLEMO. Risk Analysis.

  7. EMMA model: an advanced operational mesoscale air quality model for urban and regional environments

    Jose, R.S.; Rodriguez, M.A.; Cortes, E.; Gonzalez, R.M.


    Mesoscale air quality models are an important tool to forecast and analyse the air quality in regional and urban areas. In recent years an increased interest has been shown by decision makers in these types of software tools. The complexity of such a model has grown exponentially with the increase of computer power. Nowadays, medium workstations can run operational versions of these modelling systems successfully. Presents a complex mesoscale air quality model which has been installed in the Environmental Office of the Madrid community (Spain) in order to forecast accurately the ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide air concentrations in a 3D domain centred on Madrid city. Describes the challenging scientific matters to be solved in order to develop an operational version of the atmospheric mesoscale numerical pollution model for urban and regional areas (ANA). Some encouraging results have been achieved in the attempts to improve the accuracy of the predictions made by the version already installed. (Author)

  8. Adaptation of Mesoscale Weather Models to Local Forecasting

    Manobianco, John T.; Taylor, Gregory E.; Case, Jonathan L.; Dianic, Allan V.; Wheeler, Mark W.; Zack, John W.; Nutter, Paul A.


    Methodologies have been developed for (1) configuring mesoscale numerical weather-prediction models for execution on high-performance computer workstations to make short-range weather forecasts for the vicinity of the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) and (2) evaluating the performances of the models as configured. These methodologies have been implemented as part of a continuing effort to improve weather forecasting in support of operations of the U.S. space program. The models, methodologies, and results of the evaluations also have potential value for commercial users who could benefit from tailoring their operations and/or marketing strategies based on accurate predictions of local weather. More specifically, the purpose of developing the methodologies for configuring the models to run on computers at KSC and CCAFS is to provide accurate forecasts of winds, temperature, and such specific thunderstorm-related phenomena as lightning and precipitation. The purpose of developing the evaluation methodologies is to maximize the utility of the models by providing users with assessments of the capabilities and limitations of the models. The models used in this effort thus far include the Mesoscale Atmospheric Simulation System (MASS), the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Eta Model ( Eta for short). The configuration of the MASS and RAMS is designed to run the models at very high spatial resolution and incorporate local data to resolve fine-scale weather features. Model preprocessors were modified to incorporate surface, ship, buoy, and rawinsonde data as well as data from local wind towers, wind profilers, and conventional or Doppler radars. The overall evaluation of the MASS, Eta, and RAMS was designed to assess the utility of these mesoscale models for satisfying the weather-forecasting needs of the U.S. space program. The evaluation methodology includes

  9. Extreme gust wind estimation using mesoscale modeling

    Larsén, Xiaoli Guo; Kruger, Andries


    , surface turbulence characteristics. In this study, we follow a theory that is different from the local gust concept as described above. In this theory, the gust at the surface is non-local; it is produced by the deflection of air parcels flowing in the boundary layer and brought down to the surface...... from the Danish site Høvsøre help us to understand the limitation of the traditional method. Good agreement was found between the extreme gust atlases for South Africa and the existing map made from a limited number of measurements across the country. Our study supports the non-local gust theory. While...... through turbulent eddies. This process is modeled using the mesoscale Weather Forecasting and Research (WRF) model. The gust at the surface is calculated as the largest winds over a layer where the averaged turbulence kinetic energy is greater than the averaged buoyancy force. The experiments have been...

  10. Mesoscale Modelling of the Response of Aluminas

    Bourne, N. K.


    The response of polycrystalline alumina to shock is not well addressed. There are several operating mechanisms that only hypothesized which results in models which are empirical. A similar state of affairs in reactive flow modelling led to the development of mesoscale representations of the flow to illuminate operating mechanisms. In this spirit, a similar effort is undergone for a polycrystalline alumina. Simulations are conducted to observe operating mechanisms at the micron scale. A method is then developed to extend the simulations to meet response at the continuum level where measurements are made. The approach is validated by comparison with continuum experiments. The method and results are presented, and some of the operating mechanisms are illuminated by the observed response

  11. Rotational and divergent kinetic energy in the mesoscale model ALADIN

    V. Blažica


    Full Text Available Kinetic energy spectra from the mesoscale numerical weather prediction (NWP model ALADIN with horizontal resolution 4.4 km are split into divergent and rotational components which are then compared at horizontal scales below 300 km and various vertical levels. It is shown that about 50% of kinetic energy in the free troposphere in ALADIN is divergent energy. The percentage increases towards 70% near the surface and in the upper troposphere towards 100 hPa. The maximal percentage of divergent energy is found at stratospheric levels around 100 hPa and at scales below 100 km which are not represented by the global models. At all levels, the divergent energy spectra are characterised by shallower slopes than the rotational energy spectra, and the difference increases as horizontal scales become larger. A very similar vertical distribution of divergent energy is obtained by using the standard ALADIN approach for the computation of spectra based on the extension zone and by applying detrending approach commonly used in mesoscale NWP community.

  12. Numerical simulation and decomposition of kinetic energy in the Central Mediterranean: insight on mesoscale circulation and energy conversion

    R. Sorgente


    Full Text Available The spatial and temporal variability of eddy and mean kinetic energy of the Central Mediterranean region has been investigated, from January 2008 to December 2010, by mean of a numerical simulation mainly to quantify the mesoscale dynamics and their relationships with physical forcing. In order to understand the energy redistribution processes, the baroclinic energy conversion has been analysed, suggesting hypotheses about the drivers of the mesoscale activity in this area. The ocean model used is based on the Princeton Ocean Model implemented at 1/32° horizontal resolution. Surface momentum and buoyancy fluxes are interactively computed by mean of standard bulk formulae using predicted model Sea Surface Temperature and atmospheric variables provided by the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast operational analyses. At its lateral boundaries the model is one-way nested within the Mediterranean Forecasting System operational products.

    The model domain has been subdivided in four sub-regions: Sardinia channel and southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Sicily channel, eastern Tunisian shelf and Libyan Sea. Temporal evolution of eddy and mean kinetic energy has been analysed, on each of the four sub-regions, showing different behaviours. On annual scales and within the first 5 m depth, the eddy kinetic energy represents approximately the 60 % of the total kinetic energy over the whole domain, confirming the strong mesoscale nature of the surface current flows in this area. The analyses show that the model well reproduces the path and the temporal behaviour of the main known sub-basin circulation features. New mesoscale structures have been also identified, from numerical results and direct observations, for the first time as the Pantelleria Vortex and the Medina Gyre.

    The classical kinetic energy decomposition (eddy and mean allowed to depict and to quantify the permanent and fluctuating parts of the circulation in the region, and

  13. Analysis of Surface Heterogeneity Effects with Mesoscale Terrestrial Modeling Platforms

    Simmer, C.


    An improved understanding of the full variability in the weather and climate system is crucial for reducing the uncertainty in weather forecasting and climate prediction, and to aid policy makers to develop adaptation and mitigation strategies. A yet unknown part of uncertainty in the predictions from the numerical models is caused by the negligence of non-resolved land surface heterogeneity and the sub-surface dynamics and their potential impact on the state of the atmosphere. At the same time, mesoscale numerical models using finer horizontal grid resolution [O(1)km] can suffer from inconsistencies and neglected scale-dependencies in ABL parameterizations and non-resolved effects of integrated surface-subsurface lateral flow at this scale. Our present knowledge suggests large-eddy-simulation (LES) as an eventual solution to overcome the inadequacy of the physical parameterizations in the atmosphere in this transition scale, yet we are constrained by the computational resources, memory management, big-data, when using LES for regional domains. For the present, there is a need for scale-aware parameterizations not only in the atmosphere but also in the land surface and subsurface model components. In this study, we use the recently developed Terrestrial Systems Modeling Platform (TerrSysMP) as a numerical tool to analyze the uncertainty in the simulation of surface exchange fluxes and boundary layer circulations at grid resolutions of the order of 1km, and explore the sensitivity of the atmospheric boundary layer evolution and convective rainfall processes on land surface heterogeneity.

  14. Benchmarking the mesoscale variability in global ocean eddy-permitting numerical systems

    Cipollone, Andrea; Masina, Simona; Storto, Andrea; Iovino, Doroteaciro


    The role of data assimilation procedures on representing ocean mesoscale variability is assessed by applying eddy statistics to a state-of-the-art global ocean reanalysis (C-GLORS), a free global ocean simulation (performed with the NEMO system) and an observation-based dataset (ARMOR3D) used as an independent benchmark. Numerical results are computed on a 1/4 ∘ horizontal grid (ORCA025) and share the same resolution with ARMOR3D dataset. This "eddy-permitting" resolution is sufficient to allow ocean eddies to form. Further to assessing the eddy statistics from three different datasets, a global three-dimensional eddy detection system is implemented in order to bypass the need of regional-dependent definition of thresholds, typical of commonly adopted eddy detection algorithms. It thus provides full three-dimensional eddy statistics segmenting vertical profiles from local rotational velocities. This criterion is crucial for discerning real eddies from transient surface noise that inevitably affects any two-dimensional algorithm. Data assimilation enhances and corrects mesoscale variability on a wide range of features that cannot be well reproduced otherwise. The free simulation fairly reproduces eddies emerging from western boundary currents and deep baroclinic instabilities, while underestimates shallower vortexes that populate the full basin. The ocean reanalysis recovers most of the missing turbulence, shown by satellite products , that is not generated by the model itself and consistently projects surface variability deep into the water column. The comparison with the statistically reconstructed vertical profiles from ARMOR3D show that ocean data assimilation is able to embed variability into the model dynamics, constraining eddies with in situ and altimetry observation and generating them consistently with local environment.

  15. On Improving 4-km Mesoscale Model Simulations

    Deng, Aijun; Stauffer, David R.


    A previous study showed that use of analysis-nudging four-dimensional data assimilation (FDDA) and improved physics in the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model (MM5) produced the best overall performance on a 12-km-domain simulation, based on the 18 19 September 1983 Cross-Appalachian Tracer Experiment (CAPTEX) case. However, reducing the simulated grid length to 4 km had detrimental effects. The primary cause was likely the explicit representation of convection accompanying a cold-frontal system. Because no convective parameterization scheme (CPS) was used, the convective updrafts were forced on coarser-than-realistic scales, and the rainfall and the atmospheric response to the convection were too strong. The evaporative cooling and downdrafts were too vigorous, causing widespread disruption of the low-level winds and spurious advection of the simulated tracer. In this study, a series of experiments was designed to address this general problem involving 4-km model precipitation and gridpoint storms and associated model sensitivities to the use of FDDA, planetary boundary layer (PBL) turbulence physics, grid-explicit microphysics, a CPS, and enhanced horizontal diffusion. Some of the conclusions include the following: 1) Enhanced parameterized vertical mixing in the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) turbulence scheme has shown marked improvements in the simulated fields. 2) Use of a CPS on the 4-km grid improved the precipitation and low-level wind results. 3) Use of the Hong and Pan Medium-Range Forecast PBL scheme showed larger model errors within the PBL and a clear tendency to predict much deeper PBL heights than the TKE scheme. 4) Combining observation-nudging FDDA with a CPS produced the best overall simulations. 5) Finer horizontal resolution does not always produce better simulations, especially in convectively unstable environments, and a new CPS suitable for 4-km resolution is needed. 6

  16. Meso-scale modeling of irradiated concrete in test reactor

    Giorla, A.; Vaitová, M.; Le Pape, Y.; Štemberk, P.


    Highlights: • A meso-scale finite element model for irradiated concrete is developed. • Neutron radiation-induced volumetric expansion is a predominant degradation mode. • Confrontation with expansion and damage obtained from experiments is successful. • Effects of paste shrinkage, creep and ductility are discussed. - Abstract: A numerical model accounting for the effects of neutron irradiation on concrete at the mesoscale is detailed in this paper. Irradiation experiments in test reactor (Elleuch et al., 1972), i.e., in accelerated conditions, are simulated. Concrete is considered as a two-phase material made of elastic inclusions (aggregate) subjected to thermal and irradiation-induced swelling and embedded in a cementitious matrix subjected to shrinkage and thermal expansion. The role of the hardened cement paste in the post-peak regime (brittle-ductile transition with decreasing loading rate), and creep effects are investigated. Radiation-induced volumetric expansion (RIVE) of the aggregate cause the development and propagation of damage around the aggregate which further develops in bridging cracks across the hardened cement paste between the individual aggregate particles. The development of damage is aggravated when shrinkage occurs simultaneously with RIVE during the irradiation experiment. The post-irradiation expansion derived from the simulation is well correlated with the experimental data and, the obtained damage levels are fully consistent with previous estimations based on a micromechanical interpretation of the experimental post-irradiation elastic properties (Le Pape et al., 2015). The proposed modeling opens new perspectives for the interpretation of test reactor experiments in regards to the actual operation of light water reactors.

  17. Meso-scale modeling of irradiated concrete in test reactor

    Giorla, A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, One Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Vaitová, M. [Czech Technical University, Thakurova 7, 166 29 Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Le Pape, Y., E-mail: [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, One Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Štemberk, P. [Czech Technical University, Thakurova 7, 166 29 Praha 6 (Czech Republic)


    Highlights: • A meso-scale finite element model for irradiated concrete is developed. • Neutron radiation-induced volumetric expansion is a predominant degradation mode. • Confrontation with expansion and damage obtained from experiments is successful. • Effects of paste shrinkage, creep and ductility are discussed. - Abstract: A numerical model accounting for the effects of neutron irradiation on concrete at the mesoscale is detailed in this paper. Irradiation experiments in test reactor (Elleuch et al., 1972), i.e., in accelerated conditions, are simulated. Concrete is considered as a two-phase material made of elastic inclusions (aggregate) subjected to thermal and irradiation-induced swelling and embedded in a cementitious matrix subjected to shrinkage and thermal expansion. The role of the hardened cement paste in the post-peak regime (brittle-ductile transition with decreasing loading rate), and creep effects are investigated. Radiation-induced volumetric expansion (RIVE) of the aggregate cause the development and propagation of damage around the aggregate which further develops in bridging cracks across the hardened cement paste between the individual aggregate particles. The development of damage is aggravated when shrinkage occurs simultaneously with RIVE during the irradiation experiment. The post-irradiation expansion derived from the simulation is well correlated with the experimental data and, the obtained damage levels are fully consistent with previous estimations based on a micromechanical interpretation of the experimental post-irradiation elastic properties (Le Pape et al., 2015). The proposed modeling opens new perspectives for the interpretation of test reactor experiments in regards to the actual operation of light water reactors.

  18. Modeling Air-Quality in Complex Terrain Using Mesoscale and ...

    Air-quality in a complex terrain (Colorado-River-Valley/Grand-Canyon Area, Southwest U.S.) is modeled using a higher-order closure mesoscale model and a higher-order closure dispersion model. Non-reactive tracers have been released in the Colorado-River valley, during winter and summer 1992, to study the ...

  19. Skills of different mesoscale models over Indian region during ...

    tion and prediction of high impact severe weather systems. Such models ... mesoscale models can be run at cloud resolving resolutions (∼1km) ... J. Earth Syst. Sci. 117, No. ..... similar to climate drift, indicating that those error components are ...

  20. Mesoscale meteorological model based on radioactive explosion cloud simulation

    Zheng Yi; Zhang Yan; Ying Chuntong


    In order to simulate nuclear explosion and dirty bomb radioactive cloud movement and concentration distribution, mesoscale meteorological model RAMS was used. Particles-size, size-active distribution and gravitational fallout in the cloud were considered. The results show that the model can simulate the 'mushroom' clouds of explosion. Three-dimension fluid field and radioactive concentration field were received. (authors)

  1. The mesoscale dispersion modeling system a simulation tool for development of an emergency response system

    Uliasz, M.


    The mesoscale dispersion modeling system is under continuous development. The included numerical models require further improvements and evaluation against data from meteorological and tracer field experiments. The system can not be directly applied to real time predictions. However, it seems to be a useful simulation tool for solving several problems related to planning the monitoring network and development of the emergency response system for the nuclear power plant located in a coastal area. The modeling system can be also applied to another environmental problems connected with air pollution dispersion in complex terrain. The presented numerical models are designed for the use on personal computers and are relatively fast in comparison with the similar mesoscale models developed on mainframe computers

  2. Mesoscale modeling of solute precipitation and radiation damage

    Zhang, Yongfeng [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Schwen, Daniel [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ke, Huibin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Bai, Xianming [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hales, Jason [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    This report summarizes the low length scale effort during FY 2014 in developing mesoscale capabilities for microstructure evolution in reactor pressure vessels. During operation, reactor pressure vessels are subject to hardening and embrittlement caused by irradiation-induced defect accumulation and irradiation-enhanced solute precipitation. Both defect production and solute precipitation start from the atomic scale, and manifest their eventual effects as degradation in engineering-scale properties. To predict the property degradation, multiscale modeling and simulation are needed to deal with the microstructure evolution, and to link the microstructure feature to material properties. In this report, the development of mesoscale capabilities for defect accumulation and solute precipitation are summarized. Atomic-scale efforts that supply information for the mesoscale capabilities are also included.

  3. Role of land state in a high resolution mesoscale model

    ... Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences · Resonance – Journal of Science ... Land surface characteristics; high resolution mesoscale model; Uttarakhand ... to predict realistic location, timing, amount,intensity and distribution of rainfall ... region embedded within two low pressure centers over Arabian Seaand Bay of Bengal.

  4. Calculation of extreme wind atlases using mesoscale modeling. Final report

    Larsén, Xiaoli Guo; Badger, Jake

    This is the final report of the project PSO-10240 "Calculation of extreme wind atlases using mesoscale modeling". The overall objective is to improve the estimation of extreme winds by developing and applying new methodologies to confront the many weaknesses in the current methodologies as explai...

  5. A Parameterization of Dry Thermals and Shallow Cumuli for Mesoscale Numerical Weather Prediction

    Pergaud, Julien; Masson, Valéry; Malardel, Sylvie; Couvreux, Fleur


    For numerical weather prediction models and models resolving deep convection, shallow convective ascents are subgrid processes that are not parameterized by classical local turbulent schemes. The mass flux formulation of convective mixing is now largely accepted as an efficient approach for parameterizing the contribution of larger plumes in convective dry and cloudy boundary layers. We propose a new formulation of the EDMF scheme (for Eddy DiffusivityMass Flux) based on a single updraft that improves the representation of dry thermals and shallow convective clouds and conserves a correct representation of stratocumulus in mesoscale models. The definition of entrainment and detrainment in the dry part of the updraft is original, and is specified as proportional to the ratio of buoyancy to vertical velocity. In the cloudy part of the updraft, the classical buoyancy sorting approach is chosen. The main closure of the scheme is based on the mass flux near the surface, which is proportional to the sub-cloud layer convective velocity scale w *. The link with the prognostic grid-scale cloud content and cloud cover and the projection on the non- conservative variables is processed by the cloud scheme. The validation of this new formulation using large-eddy simulations focused on showing the robustness of the scheme to represent three different boundary layer regimes. For dry convective cases, this parameterization enables a correct representation of the countergradient zone where the mass flux part represents the top entrainment (IHOP case). It can also handle the diurnal cycle of boundary-layer cumulus clouds (EUROCSARM) and conserve a realistic evolution of stratocumulus (EUROCSFIRE).

  6. Toward an extended-geostrophic Euler-Poincare model for mesoscale oceanographic flow

    Allen, J.S.; Newberger, P.A. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Coll. of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences; Holm, D.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)


    The authors consider the motion of a rotating, continuously stratified fluid governed by the hydrostatic primitive equations (PE). An approximate Hamiltonian (L1) model for small Rossby number {var_epsilon} is derived for application to mesoscale oceanographic flow problems. Numerical experiments involving a baroclinically unstable oceanic jet are utilized to assess the accuracy of the L1 model compared to the PE and to other approximate models, such as the quasigeostrophic (QG) and the geostrophic momentum (GM) equations. The results of the numerical experiments for moderate Rossby number flow show that the L1 model gives accurate solutions with errors substantially smaller than QG or GM.

  7. Framework of cloud parameterization including ice for 3-D mesoscale models

    Levkov, L; Jacob, D; Eppel, D; Grassl, H


    A parameterization scheme for the simulation of ice in clouds incorporated into the hydrostatic version of the GKSS three-dimensional mesoscale model. Numerical simulations of precipitation are performed: over the Northe Sea, the Hawaiian trade wind area and in the region of the intertropical convergence zone. Not only some major features of convective structures in all three areas but also cloud-aerosol interactions have successfully been simulated. (orig.) With 19 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Simulation of coastal winds along the central west coast of India using the MM5 mesoscale model

    Pushpadas, D.; Vethamony, P.; Sudheesh, K.; George, S.; Babu, M.T.; Nair, T.M.B.

    A high-resolution mesoscale numerical model (MM5) has been used to study the coastal atmospheric circulation of the central west coast of India, and Goa in particular. The model is employed with three nested domains. The innermost domain of 3 km...

  9. Mesoscale modeling of metal-loaded high explosives

    Bdzil, John Bohdan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lieberthal, Brandon [UNIV OF ILLINOIS; Srewart, Donald S [UNIV OF ILLINOIS


    We describe a 3D approach to modeling multi-phase blast explosive, which is primarily condensed explosive by volume with inert embedded particles. These embedded particles are uniform in size and placed on the array of a regular lattice. The asymptotic theory of detonation shock dynamics governs the detonation shock propagation in the explosive. Mesoscale hydrodynamic simulations are used to show how the particles are compressed, deformed, and accelerated by the high-speed detonation products flow.

  10. Development and analysis of prognostic equations for mesoscale kinetic energy and mesoscale (subgrid scale) fluxes for large-scale atmospheric models

    Avissar, Roni; Chen, Fei


    Generated by landscape discontinuities (e.g., sea breezes) mesoscale circulation processes are not represented in large-scale atmospheric models (e.g., general circulation models), which have an inappropiate grid-scale resolution. With the assumption that atmospheric variables can be separated into large scale, mesoscale, and turbulent scale, a set of prognostic equations applicable in large-scale atmospheric models for momentum, temperature, moisture, and any other gaseous or aerosol material, which includes both mesoscale and turbulent fluxes is developed. Prognostic equations are also developed for these mesoscale fluxes, which indicate a closure problem and, therefore, require a parameterization. For this purpose, the mean mesoscale kinetic energy (MKE) per unit of mass is used, defined as E-tilde = 0.5 (the mean value of u'(sub i exp 2), where u'(sub i) represents the three Cartesian components of a mesoscale circulation (the angle bracket symbol is the grid-scale, horizontal averaging operator in the large-scale model, and a tilde indicates a corresponding large-scale mean value). A prognostic equation is developed for E-tilde, and an analysis of the different terms of this equation indicates that the mesoscale vertical heat flux, the mesoscale pressure correlation, and the interaction between turbulence and mesoscale perturbations are the major terms that affect the time tendency of E-tilde. A-state-of-the-art mesoscale atmospheric model is used to investigate the relationship between MKE, landscape discontinuities (as characterized by the spatial distribution of heat fluxes at the earth's surface), and mesoscale sensible and latent heat fluxes in the atmosphere. MKE is compared with turbulence kinetic energy to illustrate the importance of mesoscale processes as compared to turbulent processes. This analysis emphasizes the potential use of MKE to bridge between landscape discontinuities and mesoscale fluxes and, therefore, to parameterize mesoscale fluxes

  11. Mesoscale modeling: solving complex flows in biology and biotechnology.

    Mills, Zachary Grant; Mao, Wenbin; Alexeev, Alexander


    Fluids are involved in practically all physiological activities of living organisms. However, biological and biorelated flows are hard to analyze due to the inherent combination of interdependent effects and processes that occur on a multitude of spatial and temporal scales. Recent advances in mesoscale simulations enable researchers to tackle problems that are central for the understanding of such flows. Furthermore, computational modeling effectively facilitates the development of novel therapeutic approaches. Among other methods, dissipative particle dynamics and the lattice Boltzmann method have become increasingly popular during recent years due to their ability to solve a large variety of problems. In this review, we discuss recent applications of these mesoscale methods to several fluid-related problems in medicine, bioengineering, and biotechnology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of SLA assimilation in the Sicily Channel Regional Model: model skills and mesoscale features

    A. Olita


    Full Text Available The impact of the assimilation of MyOcean sea level anomalies along-track data on the analyses of the Sicily Channel Regional Model was studied. The numerical model has a resolution of 1/32° degrees and is capable to reproduce mesoscale and sub-mesoscale features. The impact of the SLA assimilation is studied by comparing a simulation (SIM, which does not assimilate data with an analysis (AN assimilating SLA along-track multi-mission data produced in the framework of MyOcean project. The quality of the analysis was evaluated by computing RMSE of the misfits between analysis background and observations (sea level before assimilation. A qualitative evaluation of the ability of the analyses to reproduce mesoscale structures is accomplished by comparing model results with ocean colour and SST satellite data, able to detect such features on the ocean surface. CTD profiles allowed to evaluate the impact of the SLA assimilation along the water column. We found a significant improvement for AN solution in terms of SLA RMSE with respect to SIM (the averaged RMSE of AN SLA misfits over 2 years is about 0.5 cm smaller than SIM. Comparison with CTD data shows a questionable improvement produced by the assimilation process in terms of vertical features: AN is better in temperature while for salinity it gets worse than SIM at the surface. This suggests that a better a-priori description of the vertical error covariances would be desirable. The qualitative comparison of simulation and analyses with synoptic satellite independent data proves that SLA assimilation allows to correctly reproduce some dynamical features (above all the circulation in the Ionian portion of the domain and mesoscale structures otherwise misplaced or neglected by SIM. Such mesoscale changes also infer that the eddy momentum fluxes (i.e. Reynolds stresses show major changes in the Ionian area. Changes in Reynolds stresses reflect a different pumping of eastward momentum from the eddy to

  13. Mesoscale Model Data Preparation and Execution: A New Method Utilizing the Internet

    Kirby, Stephen


    In order to streamline and simplify the methodologies required to obtain and process the requisite meteorological data for mesoscale meteorological models such as the Battlescale Forecast Model (BFM...

  14. Evaluation of kriging based surrogate models constructed from mesoscale computations of shock interaction with particles

    Sen, Oishik, E-mail: [Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Gaul, Nicholas J., E-mail: [RAMDO Solutions, LLC, Iowa City, IA 52240 (United States); Choi, K.K., E-mail: [Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Jacobs, Gustaaf, E-mail: [Aerospace Engineering, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92115 (United States); Udaykumar, H.S., E-mail: [Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)


    Macro-scale computations of shocked particulate flows require closure laws that model the exchange of momentum/energy between the fluid and particle phases. Closure laws are constructed in this work in the form of surrogate models derived from highly resolved mesoscale computations of shock-particle interactions. The mesoscale computations are performed to calculate the drag force on a cluster of particles for different values of Mach Number and particle volume fraction. Two Kriging-based methods, viz. the Dynamic Kriging Method (DKG) and the Modified Bayesian Kriging Method (MBKG) are evaluated for their ability to construct surrogate models with sparse data; i.e. using the least number of mesoscale simulations. It is shown that if the input data is noise-free, the DKG method converges monotonically; convergence is less robust in the presence of noise. The MBKG method converges monotonically even with noisy input data and is therefore more suitable for surrogate model construction from numerical experiments. This work is the first step towards a full multiscale modeling of interaction of shocked particle laden flows.

  15. Numerical simulation of terrain-induced mesoscale circulation in the Chiang Mai area, Thailand

    Sathitkunarat, Surachai; Wongwises, Prungchan; Pan-Aram, Rudklao; Zhang, Meigen


    The regional atmospheric modeling system (RAMS) was applied to Chiang Mai province, a mountainous area in Thailand, to study terrain-induced mesoscale circulations. Eight cases in wet and dry seasons under different weather conditions were analyzed to show thermal and dynamic impacts on local circulations. This is the first study of RAMS in Thailand especially investigating the effect of mountainous area on the simulated meteorological data. Analysis of model results indicates that the model can reproduce major features of local circulation and diurnal variations in temperatures. For evaluating the model performance, model results were compared with observed wind speed, wind direction, and temperature monitored at a meteorological tower. Comparison shows that the modeled values are generally in good agreement with observations and that the model captured many of the observed features.

  16. Numerical simulation of heavy precipitation events using mesoscale weather forecast models. Validation with radar data and diagnosis of the atmospheric moisture budget; Numerische Simulation von Starkniederschlagsereignissen mit mesoskaligen Wettervorhersagemodellen. Ueberpruefung mit Radar-Daten und Diagnose der atmosphaerischen Wasserbilanz

    Keil, C.


    Convective precipitation systems contribute substantially to the summertime rainfall maximum in the northern Alpine region. The capability of mesoscale weather forecast models in capturing such heavy precipitation events is investigated. The complementary application of so far hardly used areal radar data and conventional rain gauge observations enables a case-study-type evaluation of summertime precipitation episodes. Different rainfall episodes are simulated with the former operational model (DM, meshsize 14 km) of Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD). The influence of the horizontal resolution and the parameterization of moist convection is subsequently studied with a higher resolution atmospheric model (MC2, meshsize 2 km). Diagnostic studies on the atmospheric water budget regarding the rainfall episode, which instigated the Oder-flood in summer 1997, allow an examination of the origin of the moisture and the genesis of the copious precipitation. (orig.) [German] Konvektive Niederschlagssysterne tragen im Nordalpenraum wesentlich zum sommerlichen Niederschlagsmaximum bei. Die Faehigkeit mesoskaliger Wettervorhersagemodelle, solche Starkniederschlagsereignisse zu erfassen, wird in dieser Arbeit untersucht. Durch den komplementaeren Gebrauch von, bisher kaum genutzten, flaechendeckenden Radardaten und konventionellen Niederschlagsmessungen des Bodenmessnetzes werden Modellergebnisse sommerlicher Niederschlagssysteme fallstudienhaft detailliert ueberprueft. Fuer verschiedene Starkniederschlagsereignisse werden dazu Modellsimulationen mit dem in den 90er Jahren operationellen Modell (DM, Maschenweite 14 km) des Deutschen Wetterdienstes (DWD) durchgefuehrt. Zur Untersuchung des Einflusses der horizontalen Maschenweite und der Niederschlagsparametrisierung werden ferner numerische Simulationen mit einem hoeher aufloesdenden Atmosphaerenmodell (MC2, Maschenweite 2 km) behandelt. Anhand diagnostischer Untersuchungen der atmosphaerischen Wasserbilanz laesst sich ausserdem die

  17. LBM estimation of thermal conductivity in meso-scale modelling

    Grucelski, A


    Recently, there is a growing engineering interest in more rigorous prediction of effective transport coefficients for multicomponent, geometrically complex materials. We present main assumptions and constituents of the meso-scale model for the simulation of the coal or biomass devolatilisation with the Lattice Boltzmann method. For the results, the estimated values of the thermal conductivity coefficient of coal (solids), pyrolytic gases and air matrix are presented for a non-steady state with account for chemical reactions in fluid flow and heat transfer. (paper)

  18. Optogenetic stimulation of a meso-scale human cortical model

    Selvaraj, Prashanth; Szeri, Andrew; Sleigh, Jamie; Kirsch, Heidi


    Neurological phenomena like sleep and seizures depend not only on the activity of individual neurons, but on the dynamics of neuron populations as well. Meso-scale models of cortical activity provide a means to study neural dynamics at the level of neuron populations. Additionally, they offer a safe and economical way to test the effects and efficacy of stimulation techniques on the dynamics of the cortex. Here, we use a physiologically relevant meso-scale model of the cortex to study the hypersynchronous activity of neuron populations during epileptic seizures. The model consists of a set of stochastic, highly non-linear partial differential equations. Next, we use optogenetic stimulation to control seizures in a hyperexcited cortex, and to induce seizures in a normally functioning cortex. The high spatial and temporal resolution this method offers makes a strong case for the use of optogenetics in treating meso scale cortical disorders such as epileptic seizures. We use bifurcation analysis to investigate the effect of optogenetic stimulation in the meso scale model, and its efficacy in suppressing the non-linear dynamics of seizures.

  19. A three-dimensional viscous topography mesoscale model

    Eichhorn, J; Flender, M; Kandlbinder, T; Panhans, W G; Trautmann, T; Zdunkowski, W G [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Cui, K; Ries, R; Siebert, J; Wedi, N


    This study describes the theoretical foundation and applications of a newly designed mesoscale model named CLIMM (climate model Mainz). In contrast to terrain following coordinates, a cartesian grid is used to keep the finite difference equations as simple as possible. The method of viscous topography is applied to the flow part of the model. Since the topography intersects the cartesian grid cells, the new concept of boundary weight factors is introduced for the solution of Poisson`s equation. A three-dimensional radiosity model was implemented to handle radiative transfer at the ground. The model is applied to study thermally induced circulations and gravity waves at an idealized mountain. Furthermore, CLIMM was used to simulate typical wind and temperature distributions for the city of Mainz and its rural surroundings. It was found that the model in all cases produced realistic results. (orig.) 38 refs.

  20. Mesoscale modeling of amorphous metals by shear transformation zone dynamics

    Homer, Eric R.; Schuh, Christopher A.


    A new mesoscale modeling technique for the thermo-mechanical behavior of metallic glasses is proposed. The modeling framework considers the shear transformation zone (STZ) as the fundamental unit of deformation, and coarse-grains an amorphous collection of atoms into an ensemble of STZs on a mesh. By employing finite element analysis and a kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm, the modeling technique is capable of simulating glass processing and deformation on time and length scales greater than those usually attainable by atomistic modeling. A thorough explanation of the framework is presented, along with a specific two-dimensional implementation for a model metallic glass. The model is shown to capture the basic behaviors of metallic glasses, including high-temperature homogeneous flow following the expected constitutive law, and low-temperature strain localization into shear bands. Details of the effects of processing and thermal history on the glass structure and properties are also discussed.

  1. Mesoscale analysis of failure in quasi-brittle materials: comparison between lattice model and acoustic emission data.

    Grégoire, David; Verdon, Laura; Lefort, Vincent; Grassl, Peter; Saliba, Jacqueline; Regoin, Jean-Pierre; Loukili, Ahmed; Pijaudier-Cabot, Gilles


    The purpose of this paper is to analyse the development and the evolution of the fracture process zone during fracture and damage in quasi-brittle materials. A model taking into account the material details at the mesoscale is used to describe the failure process at the scale of the heterogeneities. This model is used to compute histograms of the relative distances between damaged points. These numerical results are compared with experimental data, where the damage evolution is monitored using acoustic emissions. Histograms of the relative distances between damage events in the numerical calculations and acoustic events in the experiments exhibit good agreement. It is shown that the mesoscale model provides relevant information from the point of view of both global responses and the local failure process. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Simulations of a November thunderstorm event by two mesoscale models in the south Alpine region

    Borroni, A.


    Abstract: Two numerical models have been used to investigate the development of a thunderstorm event that took place on November 7th , 2004, in the northern Italy. A cold air mass moved from the northeast to the Alps and the Po valley, while the temperature in the lower layers was quite warm. A thunderstorm with rain and hail developed in the central and eastern part of Italy's subalpine region. In this work it's analyzed some aspects of the thunderstorm dynamics at the mesoscale using two di...

  3. Description of the University of Auckland Global Mars Mesoscale Meteorological Model (GM4)

    Wing, D. R.; Austin, G. L.


    The University of Auckland Global Mars Mesoscale Meteorological Model (GM4) is a numerical weather prediction model of the Martian atmosphere that has been developed through the conversion of the Penn State University / National Center for Atmospheric Research fifth generation mesoscale model (MM5). The global aspect of this model is self consistent, overlapping, and forms a continuous domain around the entire planet, removing the need to provide boundary conditions other than at initialisation, yielding independence from the constraint of a Mars general circulation model. The brief overview of the model will be given, outlining the key physical processes and setup of the model. Comparison between data collected from Mars Pathfinder during its 1997 mission and simulated conditions using GM4 have been performed. Diurnal temperature variation as predicted by the model shows very good correspondence with the surface truth data, to within 5 K for the majority of the diurnal cycle. Mars Viking Data is also compared with the model, with good agreement. As a further means of validation for the model, various seasonal comparisons of surface and vertical atmospheric structure are conducted with the European Space Agency AOPP/LMD Mars Climate Database. Selected simulations over regions of interest will also be presented.

  4. Assimilation of Aircraft Observations in High-Resolution Mesoscale Modeling

    Brian P. Reen


    Full Text Available Aircraft-based observations are a promising source of above-surface observations for assimilation into mesoscale model simulations. The Tropospheric Airborne Meteorological Data Reporting (TAMDAR observations have potential advantages over some other aircraft observations including the presence of water vapor observations. The impact of assimilating TAMDAR observations via observation nudging in 1 km horizontal grid spacing Weather Research and Forecasting model simulations is evaluated using five cases centered over California. Overall, the impact of assimilating the observations is mixed, with the layer with the greatest benefit being above the surface in the lowest 1000 m above ground level and the variable showing the most consistent benefit being temperature. Varying the nudging configuration demonstrates the sensitivity of the results to details of the assimilation, but does not clearly demonstrate the superiority of a specific configuration.

  5. A new Method for the Estimation of Initial Condition Uncertainty Structures in Mesoscale Models

    Keller, J. D.; Bach, L.; Hense, A.


    The estimation of fast growing error modes of a system is a key interest of ensemble data assimilation when assessing uncertainty in initial conditions. Over the last two decades three methods (and variations of these methods) have evolved for global numerical weather prediction models: ensemble Kalman filter, singular vectors and breeding of growing modes (or now ensemble transform). While the former incorporates a priori model error information and observation error estimates to determine ensemble initial conditions, the latter two techniques directly address the error structures associated with Lyapunov vectors. However, in global models these structures are mainly associated with transient global wave patterns. When assessing initial condition uncertainty in mesoscale limited area models, several problems regarding the aforementioned techniques arise: (a) additional sources of uncertainty on the smaller scales contribute to the error and (b) error structures from the global scale may quickly move through the model domain (depending on the size of the domain). To address the latter problem, perturbation structures from global models are often included in the mesoscale predictions as perturbed boundary conditions. However, the initial perturbations (when used) are often generated with a variant of an ensemble Kalman filter which does not necessarily focus on the large scale error patterns. In the framework of the European regional reanalysis project of the Hans-Ertel-Center for Weather Research we use a mesoscale model with an implemented nudging data assimilation scheme which does not support ensemble data assimilation at all. In preparation of an ensemble-based regional reanalysis and for the estimation of three-dimensional atmospheric covariance structures, we implemented a new method for the assessment of fast growing error modes for mesoscale limited area models. The so-called self-breeding is development based on the breeding of growing modes technique

  6. Using SST and land cover data from EO Missions for improved mesoscale modelling of the coastal zone

    Karagali, Ioanna; Floors, Rogier Ralph; Lea, Guillaume

    was to evaluate the uncertainty of the modelled wind in the coastal zone and further improve it. Moreover LIDAR measurements were used to evaluate the wind speed retrieval from high resolution SAR systems (Sentinel-1 and TerraSAR-X). The WRF model used a high-resolution satellite SST reanalysis product from...... be implemented in the meso-scale model to better represent the actual conditions in the study area. Such improvements are expected to strengthen the model’s ability to represent land- sea and air-sea interactions, the atmospheric stability and the local topographic features that partly affect the coastal zone......Existing wind measurements in near-shore and offshore areas are sparse and scarce, therefore simulations from state-of-the-art meso-scale models are used for wind resource predictions. In coastal and near-shore areas, models are inaccurate and uncertain, mainly because of numerical approximations...

  7. A mesoscale chemical transport model (MEDIUM) nested in a global chemical transport model (MEDIANTE)

    Claveau, J; Ramaroson, R [Office National d` Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), 92 - Chatillon (France)


    The lower stratosphere and upper troposphere (UT-LS) are frequently subject to mesoscale or local scale exchange of air masses occurring along discontinuities. This exchange (e.g. downward) can constitute one of the most important source of ozone from the stratosphere down to the middle troposphere where strong mixing dilutes the air mass and competing the non-linear chemistry. The distribution of the chemical species in the troposphere and the lower stratosphere depends upon various source emissions, e.g. from polluted boundary layer or from aircraft emissions. Global models, as well as chemical transport models describe the climatological state of the atmosphere and are not able to describe correctly the stratosphere and troposphere exchange. Mesoscale models go further in the description of smaller scales and can reasonably include a rather detailed chemistry. They can be used to assess the budget of NO{sub x} from aircraft emissions in a mesoscale domain. (author) 4 refs.

  8. A mesoscale chemical transport model (MEDIUM) nested in a global chemical transport model (MEDIANTE)

    Claveau, J.; Ramaroson, R. [Office National d`Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), 92 - Chatillon (France)


    The lower stratosphere and upper troposphere (UT-LS) are frequently subject to mesoscale or local scale exchange of air masses occurring along discontinuities. This exchange (e.g. downward) can constitute one of the most important source of ozone from the stratosphere down to the middle troposphere where strong mixing dilutes the air mass and competing the non-linear chemistry. The distribution of the chemical species in the troposphere and the lower stratosphere depends upon various source emissions, e.g. from polluted boundary layer or from aircraft emissions. Global models, as well as chemical transport models describe the climatological state of the atmosphere and are not able to describe correctly the stratosphere and troposphere exchange. Mesoscale models go further in the description of smaller scales and can reasonably include a rather detailed chemistry. They can be used to assess the budget of NO{sub x} from aircraft emissions in a mesoscale domain. (author) 4 refs.

  9. An Initial Assessment of the Impact of CYGNSS Ocean Surface Wind Assimilation on Navy Global and Mesoscale Numerical Weather Prediction

    Baker, N. L.; Tsu, J.; Swadley, S. D.


    We assess the impact of assimilation of CYclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) ocean surface winds observations into the NAVGEM[i] global and COAMPS®[ii] mesoscale numerical weather prediction (NWP) systems. Both NAVGEM and COAMPS® used the NRL 4DVar assimilation system NAVDAS-AR[iii]. Long term monitoring of the NAVGEM Forecast Sensitivity Observation Impact (FSOI) indicates that the forecast error reduction for ocean surface wind vectors (ASCAT and WindSat) are significantly larger than for SSMIS wind speed observations. These differences are larger than can be explained by simply two pieces of information (for wind vectors) versus one (wind speed). To help understand these results, we conducted a series of Observing System Experiments (OSEs) to compare the assimilation of ASCAT wind vectors with the equivalent (computed) ASCAT wind speed observations. We found that wind vector assimilation was typically 3 times more effective at reducing the NAVGEM forecast error, with a higher percentage of beneficial observations. These results suggested that 4DVar, in the absence of an additional nonlinear outer loop, has limited ability to modify the analysis wind direction. We examined several strategies for assimilating CYGNSS ocean surface wind speed observations. In the first approach, we assimilated CYGNSS as wind speed observations, following the same methodology used for SSMIS winds. The next two approaches converted CYGNSS wind speed to wind vectors, using NAVGEM sea level pressure fields (following Holton, 1979), and using NAVGEM 10-m wind fields with the AER Variational Analysis Method. Finally, we compared these methods to CYGNSS wind speed assimilation using multiple outer loops with NAVGEM Hybrid 4DVar. Results support the earlier studies suggesting that NAVDAS-AR wind speed assimilation is sub-optimal. We present detailed results from multi-month NAVGEM assimilation runs along with case studies using COAMPS®. Comparisons include the fit of

  10. Probabilistic flood damage modelling at the meso-scale

    Kreibich, Heidi; Botto, Anna; Schröter, Kai; Merz, Bruno


    Decisions on flood risk management and adaptation are usually based on risk analyses. Such analyses are associated with significant uncertainty, even more if changes in risk due to global change are expected. Although uncertainty analysis and probabilistic approaches have received increased attention during the last years, they are still not standard practice for flood risk assessments. Most damage models have in common that complex damaging processes are described by simple, deterministic approaches like stage-damage functions. Novel probabilistic, multi-variate flood damage models have been developed and validated on the micro-scale using a data-mining approach, namely bagging decision trees (Merz et al. 2013). In this presentation we show how the model BT-FLEMO (Bagging decision Tree based Flood Loss Estimation MOdel) can be applied on the meso-scale, namely on the basis of ATKIS land-use units. The model is applied in 19 municipalities which were affected during the 2002 flood by the River Mulde in Saxony, Germany. The application of BT-FLEMO provides a probability distribution of estimated damage to residential buildings per municipality. Validation is undertaken on the one hand via a comparison with eight other damage models including stage-damage functions as well as multi-variate models. On the other hand the results are compared with official damage data provided by the Saxon Relief Bank (SAB). The results show, that uncertainties of damage estimation remain high. Thus, the significant advantage of this probabilistic flood loss estimation model BT-FLEMO is that it inherently provides quantitative information about the uncertainty of the prediction. Reference: Merz, B.; Kreibich, H.; Lall, U. (2013): Multi-variate flood damage assessment: a tree-based data-mining approach. NHESS, 13(1), 53-64.

  11. Implementation of meso-scale radioactive dispersion model for GPU

    Sunarko [National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia (BATAN), Jakarta (Indonesia). Nuclear Energy Assessment Center; Suud, Zaki [Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB), Bandung (Indonesia). Physics Dept.


    Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Method (LPDM) is applied to model atmospheric dispersion of radioactive material in a meso-scale of a few tens of kilometers for site study purpose. Empirical relationships are used to determine the dispersion coefficient for various atmospheric stabilities. Diagnostic 3-D wind-field is solved based on data from one meteorological station using mass-conservation principle. Particles representing radioactive pollutant are dispersed in the wind-field as a point source. Time-integrated air concentration is calculated using kernel density estimator (KDE) in the lowest layer of the atmosphere. Parallel code is developed for GTX-660Ti GPU with a total of 1 344 scalar processors using CUDA. A test of 1-hour release discovers that linear speedup is achieved starting at 28 800 particles-per-hour (pph) up to about 20 x at 14 4000 pph. Another test simulating 6-hour release with 36 000 pph resulted in a speedup of about 60 x. Statistical analysis reveals that resulting grid doses are nearly identical in both CPU and GPU versions of the code.

  12. Modeling of Mesoscale Variability in Biofilm Shear Behavior.

    Pallab Barai

    Full Text Available Formation of bacterial colonies as biofilm on the surface/interface of various objects has the potential to impact not only human health and disease but also energy and environmental considerations. Biofilms can be regarded as soft materials, and comprehension of their shear response to external forces is a key element to the fundamental understanding. A mesoscale model has been presented in this article based on digitization of a biofilm microstructure. Its response under externally applied shear load is analyzed. Strain stiffening type behavior is readily observed under high strain loads due to the unfolding of chains within soft polymeric substrate. Sustained shear loading of the biofilm network results in strain localization along the diagonal direction. Rupture of the soft polymeric matrix can potentially reduce the intercellular interaction between the bacterial cells. Evolution of stiffness within the biofilm network under shear reveals two regimes: a initial increase in stiffness due to strain stiffening of polymer matrix, and b eventual reduction in stiffness because of tear in polymeric substrate.

  13. Initializing a Mesoscale Boundary-Layer Model with Radiosonde Observations

    Berri, Guillermo J.; Bertossa, Germán


    A mesoscale boundary-layer model is used to simulate low-level regional wind fields over the La Plata River of South America, a region characterized by a strong daily cycle of land-river surface-temperature contrast and low-level circulations of sea-land breeze type. The initial and boundary conditions are defined from a limited number of local observations and the upper boundary condition is taken from the only radiosonde observations available in the region. The study considers 14 different upper boundary conditions defined from the radiosonde data at standard levels, significant levels, level of the inversion base and interpolated levels at fixed heights, all of them within the first 1500 m. The period of analysis is 1994-2008 during which eight daily observations from 13 weather stations of the region are used to validate the 24-h surface-wind forecast. The model errors are defined as the root-mean-square of relative error in wind-direction frequency distribution and mean wind speed per wind sector. Wind-direction errors are greater than wind-speed errors and show significant dispersion among the different upper boundary conditions, not present in wind speed, revealing a sensitivity to the initialization method. The wind-direction errors show a well-defined daily cycle, not evident in wind speed, with the minimum at noon and the maximum at dusk, but no systematic deterioration with time. The errors grow with the height of the upper boundary condition level, in particular wind direction, and double the errors obtained when the upper boundary condition is defined from the lower levels. The conclusion is that defining the model upper boundary condition from radiosonde data closer to the ground minimizes the low-level wind-field errors throughout the region.

  14. Toward a Mesoscale Model for the Dynamics of Polymer Solutions

    Miller, G H; Trebotich, D


    To model entire microfluidic systems containing solvated polymers we argue that it is necessary to have a numerical stability constraint governed only by the advective CFL condition. Advancements in the treatment of Kramers bead-rod polymer models are presented to enable tightly-coupled fluid-particle algorithms in the context of system-level modeling.

  15. Toward the use of a mesoscale model at a very high resolution

    Gasset, N.; Benoit, R.; Masson, C. [Canada Research Chair on Nordic Environment Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines, Ottawa, ON (Canada)


    This presentation described a new compressible mesoscale model designed to obtain wind speed data for potential wind power resource development. Microscale modelling and computerized fluid dynamics (CFD) are used to study the mean properties of the surface layer of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). Mesoscale models study the temporal evolution of synoptic to mesoscale atmospheric phenomena and environmental modelling. Mesoscale modelling is essential for wind energy applications and large-scale resource evaluation, and can be compared with microscale models in order to validate input data and determine boundary conditions. The compressible community mesoscale model (MC2) was comprised of a national weather prediction (NWP) model with semi-implicit semi-Lagrangian (SISL) dynamics and compressible Euler equation solutions. Physical parameters included radiations; microphysics; thermal stratification; turbulence; and convection. The turbulence diffusion feature included unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes; transport equations for turbulent kinetic energy; and mixing lengths. Operating modes included 3-D weather data, and surface and ground properties as well as 1-way self-nesting abilities. The validation framework for the model included a simulation of a set of realistic cases and theoretical cases including full dynamics and physics. Theoretical cases included manually imposed initial and boundary conditions and minimalist physics. Further research is being conducted to refine operating modes and boundary conditions. tabs., figs.

  16. A Study of Mesoscale Gravity Waves over the North Atlantic with Satellite Observations and a Mesoscale Model

    Wu, Dong L.; Zhang, Fuqing


    Satellite microwave data are used to study gravity wave properties and variabilities over the northeastern United States and the North Atlantic in the December-January periods. The gravity waves in this region, found in many winters, can reach the stratopause with growing amplitude. The Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) observations show that the wave occurrences are correlated well with the intensity and location of the tropospheric baroclinic jet front systems. To further investigate the cause(s) and properties of the North Atlantic gravity waves, we focus on a series of wave events during 19-21 January 2003 and compare AMSU-A observations to simulations from a mesoscale model (MM5). The simulated gravity waves compare qualitatively well with the satellite observations in terms of wave structures, timing, and overall morphology. Excitation mechanisms of these large-amplitude waves in the troposphere are complex and subject to further investigations.

  17. An Evaluation of Mesoscale Model Based Model Output Statistics (MOS) During the 2002 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games

    Hart, Kenneth


    The skill of a mesoscale model based Model Output Statistics (MOS) system that provided hourly forecasts for 18 sites over northern Utah during the 2002 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games is evaluated...

  18. A three-dimensional meso-scale modeling for helium bubble growth in metals

    Suzudo, T.; Kaburaki, H.; Wakai, E.


    A three-dimensional meso-scale computer model using a Monte-Carlo simulation method has been proposed to simulate the helium bubble growth in metals. The primary merit of this model is that it enables the visual comparison between the microstructure observed by the TEM imaging and those by calculations. The modeling is so simple that one can control easily the calculation by tuning parameters. The simulation results are confirmed by the ideal gas law and the capillary relation. helium bubble growth, meso-scale modeling, Monte-Carlo simulation, the ideal gas law and the capillary relation. (authors)

  19. Intercomparison of state-of-the-art models for wind energy resources with mesoscale models:

    Olsen, Bjarke Tobias; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Sempreviva, Anna Maria; Badger, Jake; Joergensen, Hans E.


    1. Introduction Mesoscale models are increasingly being used to estimate wind conditions to identify perspective areas and sites where to develop wind farm projects. Mesoscale models are functional for giving information over extensive areas with various terrain complexities where measurements are scarce and measurement campaigns costly. Several mesoscale models and families of models are being used, and each often contains thousands of setup options. Since long-term integrations are expensive and tedious to carry out, only limited comparisons exist. To remedy this problem and for evaluating the capabilities of mesoscale models to estimate site wind conditions, a tailored benchmarking study has been co-organized by the European Wind Energy Association (EWEA) and the European Energy Research Alliance Joint Programme Wind Energy (EERA JP WIND). EWEA hosted results and ensured that participants were anonymous. The blind evaluation was performed at the Wind Energy Department of the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) with the following objectives: (1) To highlight common issues on mesoscale modelling of wind conditions on sites with different characteristics, and (2) To identify gaps and strengths of models and understand the root conditions for further evaluating uncertainties. 2. Approach Three experimental sites were selected: FINO 3 (offshore, GE), Høvsore (coastal, DK), and Cabauw (land-based, NL), and three other sites without observations based on . The three mast sites were chosen because the availability of concurrent suitable time series of vertical profiles of winds speed and other surface parameters. The participants were asked to provide hourly time series of wind speed, wind direction, temperature, etc., at various vertical heights for a complete year. The methodology used to derive the time series was left to the choice of the participants, but they were asked for a brief description of their model and many other parameters (e.g., horizontal and

  20. Numerical Transducer Modeling

    Henriquez, Vicente Cutanda

    This thesis describes the development of a numerical model of the propagation of sound waves in fluids with viscous and thermal losses, with application to the simulation of acoustic transducers, in particular condenser microphones for measurement. The theoretical basis is presented, numerical...... manipulations are developed to satisfy the more complicated boundary conditions, and a model of a condenser microphone with a coupled membrane is developed. The model is tested against measurements of ¼ inch condenser microphones and analytical calculations. A detailed discussion of the results is given....

  1. Assimilation of low-level wind in a high-resolution mesoscale model using the back and forth nudging algorithm

    Jean-François Mahfouf


    Full Text Available The performance of a new data assimilation algorithm called back and forth nudging (BFN is evaluated using a high-resolution numerical mesoscale model and simulated wind observations in the boundary layer. This new algorithm, of interest for the assimilation of high-frequency observations provided by ground-based active remote-sensing instruments, is straightforward to implement in a realistic atmospheric model. The convergence towards a steady-state profile can be achieved after five iterations of the BFN algorithm, and the algorithm provides an improved solution with respect to direct nudging. It is shown that the contribution of the nudging term does not dominate over other model physical and dynamical tendencies. Moreover, by running backward integrations with an adiabatic version of the model, the nudging coefficients do not need to be increased in order to stabilise the numerical equations. The ability of BFN to produce model changes upstream from the observations, in a similar way to 4-D-Var assimilation systems, is demonstrated. The capacity of the model to adjust to rapid changes in wind direction with the BFN is a first encouraging step, for example, to improve the detection and prediction of low-level wind shear phenomena through high-resolution mesoscale modelling over airports.

  2. The effect of network resolution on data assimilation in a mesoscale model

    Dudhia, J.


    One goal of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is to characterize meteorological fields over wide areas (200-km square) in order to better parameterize sub-grid-scale variability in general circulation models used for climate studies. Such a detailed knowledge over these areas is impossible with current observational methods alone, but the synthesis of a dataset by combining observations with a mesoscale numerical model is feasible. Current data assimilation techniques allow observed data to be incorporated while a model is running, thus constraining the model to fit the data as well as the data to be dynamically consistent with the model atmosphere. This interaction may therefore be regarded as a dynamical analysis technique. The technique used for data assimilation here will be the nudging method (Stauffer and Seaman 1990, Kuo and Guo 1989). Specifically, observational nudging where data at observational sites are gradually forced in the model without the need for a gridded analysis. This method is particularly appropriate for asynoptic data covering meso-β-scales, such as will be available at the Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) sites. The method makes it possible to incorporate the wide variety of data coming from these sites

  3. A shallow convection parameterization for the non-hydrostatic MM5 mesoscale model

    Seaman, N.L.; Kain, J.S.; Deng, A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)


    A shallow convection parameterization suitable for the Pennsylvannia State University (PSU)/National Center for Atmospheric Research nonhydrostatic mesoscale model (MM5) is being developed at PSU. The parameterization is based on parcel perturbation theory developed in conjunction with a 1-D Mellor Yamada 1.5-order planetary boundary layer scheme and the Kain-Fritsch deep convection model.

  4. Meso-scale effects of tropical deforestation in Amazonia: preparatory LBA modelling studies

    A. J. Dolman


    Full Text Available As part of the preparation for the Large-Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia, a meso-scale modelling study was executed to highlight deficiencies in the current understanding of land surface atmosphere interaction at local to sub-continental scales in the dry season. Meso-scale models were run in 1-D and 3-D mode for the area of Rondonia State, Brazil. The important conclusions are that without calibration it is difficult to model the energy partitioning of pasture; modelling that of forest is easier due to the absence of a strong moisture deficit signal. The simulation of the boundary layer above forest is good, above deforested areas (pasture poor. The models' underestimate of the temperature of the boundary layer is likely to be caused by the neglect of the radiative effects of aerosols caused by biomass burning, but other factors such as lack of sufficient entrainment in the model at the mixed layer top may also contribute. The Andes generate patterns of subsidence and gravity waves, the effects of which are felt far into the Rondonian area The results show that the picture presented by GCM modelling studies may need to be balanced by an increased understanding of what happens at the meso-scale. The results are used to identify key measurements for the LBA atmospheric meso-scale campaign needed to improve the model simulations. Similar modelling studies are proposed for the wet season in Rondonia, when convection plays a major role.Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (aerosols and particles; biosphere-atmosphere interactions · Meterology and atmospheric dynamics (mesoscale meterology

  5. Meso-scale effects of tropical deforestation in Amazonia: preparatory LBA modelling studies

    A. J. Dolman

    Full Text Available As part of the preparation for the Large-Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia, a meso-scale modelling study was executed to highlight deficiencies in the current understanding of land surface atmosphere interaction at local to sub-continental scales in the dry season. Meso-scale models were run in 1-D and 3-D mode for the area of Rondonia State, Brazil. The important conclusions are that without calibration it is difficult to model the energy partitioning of pasture; modelling that of forest is easier due to the absence of a strong moisture deficit signal. The simulation of the boundary layer above forest is good, above deforested areas (pasture poor. The models' underestimate of the temperature of the boundary layer is likely to be caused by the neglect of the radiative effects of aerosols caused by biomass burning, but other factors such as lack of sufficient entrainment in the model at the mixed layer top may also contribute. The Andes generate patterns of subsidence and gravity waves, the effects of which are felt far into the Rondonian area The results show that the picture presented by GCM modelling studies may need to be balanced by an increased understanding of what happens at the meso-scale. The results are used to identify key measurements for the LBA atmospheric meso-scale campaign needed to improve the model simulations. Similar modelling studies are proposed for the wet season in Rondonia, when convection plays a major role.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (aerosols and particles; biosphere-atmosphere interactions · Meterology and atmospheric dynamics (mesoscale meterology

  6. Experimental and numerical investigations on flame stability of methane/air mixtures in mesoscale combustors filled with fibrous porous media

    Liu, Yi; Ning, Daoguan; Fan, Aiwu; Yao, Hong


    Highlights: • Flame stability in mesoscale channels with fibrous porous media was investigated. • Standing combustion waves were observed in the channels of 6-mm and 5-mm diameter. • The standing combustion wave was not observed in the channel with a diameter of 4 mm. • Flame velocity was inversely proportional to equivalence ratio and channel diameter. • A sharp drop in the efficiency was seen for the 4-mm channel due to wall quenching. - Abstract: Flame stability of methane/air mixtures in mesoscale channels with different diameters (6 mm, 5 mm and 4 mm) filled with fibrous porous media was experimentally investigated. Standing combustion waves (namely, stationary flame) are observed under low inlet velocity and high equivalence ratio conditions. Moreover, the standing wave regime becomes narrower as the channel diameter is reduced from 6 mm to 5 mm and vanishes for the 4-mm channel. For a fixed equivalence ratio, the flame length becomes shorter at a smaller channel or a less inlet velocity. Regarding the downstream propagating wave, its propagation velocity increases with the decrease of channel diameter. Splitting flame appears at large inlet velocities. Besides, at low equivalence ratios, the downstream propagating flames grow into small flame balls and can survive until the channel exit. Numerical results demonstrate that for a smaller channel, although the total heat loss rate is reduced, its heat loss ratio is increased, which leads to a lower wall temperature level and the flame is quenched out near the wall. The combustion efficiency is decreased significantly for the 4-mm channel due to fuel leakage from the near-wall “dead space”.

  7. Phase Behavior of Semiflexible-Flexible Diblock Copolymer Melt: Insight from Mesoscale Modeling.

    Beránek, P.; Posel, Zbyšek


    Roč. 16, č. 8 (2016), s. 7832-7835 ISSN 1533-4880 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH12020 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : conformational asymmetry * dissipative particle dynamics * mesoscale modeling Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.483, year: 2016

  8. Shadowing effects of offshore wind farms - an idealised mesoscale model study

    Volker, Patrick; Badger, Jake; Hahmann, Andrea N.

    The study of wind farm (WF) interaction is expected to gain importance, since the offshore wind farm density will increase especially in the North Sea in the near future. We present preliminary results of wind farm interaction simulated by mesoscale models. We use the Explicit Wake Parametrisatio...

  9. Modelling study of mesoscale cyclogenesis over Ross Sea, Antarctica, on February 18, 1988

    Stortini, M.; Morelli, S.; Marchesi, S. [Modena e Reggio Emilia Univ., Modena (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze dell' Ingegneria, Sez. Osservatorio Geofisico


    This paper examines the development of a summer event of mesoscale cyclogenesis off the coast of Victoria Land in the presence of katabatic winds, by means of numerical simulations. These refer to the period from 00 UTC 17 February to 00 UTC 19 February 1988 and were performed using the hydrostatic ETA (1993 version) limited area model with resolution 55 km x 55 km x 17 levels. The ETA model reproduces katabatic winds from Terra Nova Bay and a trough on the southwestern Ross Sea. A cyclonic vortex is simulated in the trough, even though it is weaker than the one present in the analysis initialized by the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecast (Reading, United Kingdom). Idealized simulations with varied surface conditions were also performed. In particular, an ice-covered ocean acts to weaken the atmospheric phenomena, while a no-mountain simulation emphasizes the influence of the orography and the cold winds from the coast of Victoria Land on the mesocyclonic activity.

  10. Mesoscale model response to random, surface-based perturbations — A sea-breeze experiment

    Garratt, J. R.; Pielke, R. A.; Miller, W. F.; Lee, T. J.


    The introduction into a mesoscale model of random (in space) variations in roughness length, or random (in space and time) surface perturbations of temperature and friction velocity, produces a measurable, but barely significant, response in the simulated flow dynamics of the lower atmosphere. The perturbations are an attempt to include the effects of sub-grid variability into the ensemble-mean parameterization schemes used in many numerical models. Their magnitude is set in our experiments by appeal to real-world observations of the spatial variations in roughness length and daytime surface temperature over the land on horizontal scales of one to several tens of kilometers. With sea-breeze simulations, comparisons of a number of realizations forced by roughness-length and surface-temperature perturbations with the standard simulation reveal no significant change in ensemble mean statistics, and only small changes in the sea-breeze vertical velocity. Changes in the updraft velocity for individual runs, of up to several cms-1 (compared to a mean of 14 cms-1), are directly the result of prefrontal temperature changes of 0.1 to 0.2K, produced by the random surface forcing. The correlation and magnitude of the changes are entirely consistent with a gravity-current interpretation of the sea breeze.

  11. Mesoscale influence on long-range transport — evidence from ETEX modelling and observations

    Sørensen, Jens Havskov; Rasmussen, Alix; Ellermann, Thomas; Lyck, Erik

    During the first European Tracer Experiment (ETEX) tracer gas was released from a site in Brittany, France, and subsequently observed over a range of 2000 km. Hourly measurements were taken at the National Environmental Research Institute (NERI) located at Risø, Denmark, using two measurement techniques. At this location, the observed concentration time series shows a double-peak structure occurring between two and three days after the release. By using the Danish Emergency Response Model of the Atmosphere (DERMA), which is developed at the Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI), simulations of the dispersion of the tracer gas have been performed. Using numerical weather-prediction data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) by DERMA, the arrival time of the tracer is quite well predicted, so also is the duration of the passage of the plume, but the double-peak structure is not reproduced. However, using higher-resolution data from the DMI version of the HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model (DMI-HIRLAM), DERMA reproduces the observed structure very well. The double-peak structure is caused by the influence of a mesoscale anti-cyclonic eddy on the tracer gas plume about one day earlier.

  12. Mesoscale modeling of smoke radiative feedback over the Sahel region

    Yang, Z.; Wang, J.; Ichoku, C. M.; Ellison, L.; Zhang, F.; Yue, Y.


    This study employs satellite observations and a fully-coupled meteorology-chemistry-aerosol model, Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) to study the smoke radative feedback on surface energy budget, boundary layer processes, and atmospheric lapse rate in February 2008 over the Sahel region. The smoke emission inventories we use come from various sources, including but not limited to the Fire Locating and Modeling of Burning Emissions (FLAMBE) developed by NRL and the Fire Energetic and Emissions Research (FEER) developed by NASA GSFC. Model performance is evaluated using numerous satellite and ground-based datasets: MODIS true color images, ground-based Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) measurements from AERONET, MODIS AOD retrievals, and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar data with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) atmospheric backscattering and extinction products. Specification of smoke injection height of 650 m in WRF-Chem yields aerosol vertical profiles that are most consistent with CALIOP observations of aerosol layer height. Statistically, 5% of the CALIPSO valid measurements of aerosols in February 2008 show aerosol layers either above the clouds or between the clouds, reinforcing the importance of the aerosol vertical distribution for quantifying aerosol impact on climate in the Sahel region. The results further show that the smoke radiative feedbacks are sensitive to assumptions of black carbon and organic carbon ratio in the particle emission inventory. Also investigated is the smoke semi-direct effect as a function of cloud fraction.

  13. Numerical model CCC

    Bodvarsson, G.S.; Lippmann, M.J.


    The computer program CCC (conduction-convection-consolidation), developed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, solves numerically the heat and mass flow equations for a fully saturated medium, and computes one-dimensional consolidation of the simulated systems. The model employs the Integrated Finite Difference Method (IFDM) in discretizing the saturated medium and formulating the governing equations. The sets of equations are solved either by an iterative solution technique (old version) or an efficient sparse solver (new version). The deformation of the medium is calculated using the one-dimensional consolidation theory of Terzaghi. In this paper, the numerical code is described, validation examples given and areas of application discussed. Several example problems involving flow through fractured media are also presented

  14. Meso-scale wind variability. Final report

    Larsen, S.; Larsen, X.; Vincent, C.; Soerensen, P.; Pinson, P.; Trombe, P.-J.; Madsen, H.; Cutululis, N.


    The project has aimed to characterize mesoscale meteorological phenomenon for the North Sea and the Inner Danish waters, and additionally aimed on improving the predictability and quality of the power production from offshore windfarms. The meso-scale meteorology has been characterized with respect to the physical processes, climatology, spectral characteristics and correlation properties based on measurements from wind farms, satellite data (SAR) and mesoscale numerical modeling (WRF). The abilities of the WRF model to characterize and predict relevant mesoscale phenomenon has been proven. Additionally application of statistical forecasting, using a Markov switching approach that can be related to the meteorological conditions, to analyze and short term predict the power production from an offshore wind farms have been documented. Two PhD studies have been conducted in connection with the project. The project has been a cooperative project between Risoe DTU, IMM DTU, DONG Energy, Vattenfall and VESTAS. It is registered as, project no. 2007-1-7141. (Author)

  15. Introducing uncertainty of radar-rainfall estimates to the verification of mesoscale model precipitation forecasts

    M. P. Mittermaier


    Full Text Available A simple measure of the uncertainty associated with using radar-derived rainfall estimates as "truth" has been introduced to the Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP verification process to assess the effect on forecast skill and errors. Deterministic precipitation forecasts from the mesoscale version of the UK Met Office Unified Model for a two-day high-impact event and for a month were verified at the daily and six-hourly time scale using a spatially-based intensity-scale method and various traditional skill scores such as the Equitable Threat Score (ETS and log-odds ratio. Radar-rainfall accumulations from the UK Nimrod radar-composite were used.

    The results show that the inclusion of uncertainty has some effect, shifting the forecast errors and skill. The study also allowed for the comparison of results from the intensity-scale method and traditional skill scores. It showed that the two methods complement each other, one detailing the scale and rainfall accumulation thresholds where the errors occur, the other showing how skillful the forecast is. It was also found that for the six-hourly forecasts the error distributions remain similar with forecast lead time but skill decreases. This highlights the difference between forecast error and forecast skill, and that they are not necessarily the same.

  16. Meteorology, Macrophysics, Microphysics, Microwaves, and Mesoscale Modeling of Mediterranean Mountain Storms: The M8 Laboratory

    Starr, David O. (Technical Monitor); Smith, Eric A.


    Comprehensive understanding of the microphysical nature of Mediterranean storms can be accomplished by a combination of in situ meteorological data analysis and radar-passive microwave data analysis, effectively integrated with numerical modeling studies at various scales, from synoptic scale down through the mesoscale, the cloud macrophysical scale, and ultimately the cloud microphysical scale. The microphysical properties of and their controls on severe storms are intrinsically related to meteorological processes under which storms have evolved, processes which eventually select and control the dominant microphysical properties themselves. This involves intense convective development, stratiform decay, orographic lifting, and sloped frontal lifting processes, as well as the associated vertical motions and thermodynamical instabilities governing physical processes that affect details of the size distributions and fall rates of the various types of hydrometeors found within the storm environment. Insofar as hazardous Mediterranean storms, highlighted in this study by three mountain storms producing damaging floods in northern Italy between 1992 and 2000, developing a comprehensive microphysical interpretation requires an understanding of the multiple phases of storm evolution and the heterogeneous nature of precipitation fields within a storm domain. This involves convective development, stratiform transition and decay, orographic lifting, and sloped frontal lifting processes. This also involves vertical motions and thermodynamical instabilities governing physical processes that determine details of the liquid/ice water contents, size disi:ributions, and fall rates of the various modes of hydrometeors found within hazardous storm environments.

  17. Numerical model SMODERP

    Kavka, P.; Jeřábek, J.; Strouhal, L.


    The contribution presents a numerical model SMODERP that is used for calculation and prediction of surface runoff and soil erosion from agricultural land. The physically based model includes the processes of infiltration (Phillips equation), surface runoff routing (kinematic wave based equation), surface retention, surface roughness and vegetation impact on runoff. The model is being developed at the Department of Irrigation, Drainage and Landscape Engineering, Civil Engineering Faculty, CTU in Prague. 2D version of the model was introduced in last years. The script uses ArcGIS system tools for data preparation. The physical relations are implemented through Python scripts. The main computing part is stand alone in numpy arrays. Flow direction is calculated by Steepest Descent algorithm and in multiple flow algorithm. Sheet flow is described by modified kinematic wave equation. Parameters for five different soil textures were calibrated on the set of hundred measurements performed on the laboratory and filed rainfall simulators. Spatially distributed models enable to estimate not only surface runoff but also flow in the rills. Development of the rills is based on critical shear stress and critical velocity. For modelling of the rills a specific sub model was created. This sub model uses Manning formula for flow estimation. Flow in the ditches and streams are also computed. Numerical stability of the model is controled by Courant criterion. Spatial scale is fixed. Time step is dynamic and depends on the actual discharge. The model is used in the framework of the project "Variability of Short-term Precipitation and Runoff in Small Czech Drainage Basins and its Influence on Water Resources Management". Main goal of the project is to elaborate a methodology and online utility for deriving short-term design precipitation series, which could be utilized by a broad community of scientists, state administration as well as design planners. The methodology will account for

  18. Development of extended WRF variational data assimilation system (WRFDA) for WRF non-hydrostatic mesoscale model

    Pattanayak, Sujata; Mohanty, U. C.


    The paper intends to present the development of the extended weather research forecasting data assimilation (WRFDA) system in the framework of the non-hydrostatic mesoscale model core of weather research forecasting system (WRF-NMM), as an imperative aspect of numerical modeling studies. Though originally the WRFDA provides improved initial conditions for advanced research WRF, we have successfully developed a unified WRFDA utility that can be used by the WRF-NMM core, as well. After critical evaluation, it has been strategized to develop a code to merge WRFDA framework and WRF-NMM output. In this paper, we have provided a few selected implementations and initial results through single observation test, and background error statistics like eigenvalues, eigenvector and length scale among others, which showcase the successful development of extended WRFDA code for WRF-NMM model. Furthermore, the extended WRFDA system is applied for the forecast of three severe cyclonic storms: Nargis (27 April-3 May 2008), Aila (23-26 May 2009) and Jal (4-8 November 2010) formed over the Bay of Bengal. Model results are compared and contrasted within the analysis fields and later on with high-resolution model forecasts. The mean initial position error is reduced by 33% with WRFDA as compared to GFS analysis. The vector displacement errors in track forecast are reduced by 33, 31, 30 and 20% to 24, 48, 72 and 96 hr forecasts respectively, in data assimilation experiments as compared to control run. The model diagnostics indicates successful implementation of WRFDA within the WRF-NMM system.

  19. Numerical modeling of polar mesocyclones generation mechanisms

    Sergeev, Dennis; Stepanenko, Victor


    parameters, lateral boundary conditions are varied in the typically observed range. The approach is fully nonlinear: we use a three-dimensional non-hydrostatic mesoscale model NH3D_MPI [1] coupled with one-dimensional water body model LAKE. A key method used in the present study is the analysis of eddy kinetic and available potential energy budgets. References 1. Mikushin, D.N., and Stepanenko, V.M., The implementation of regional atmospheric model numerical algorithms for CBEA-based clusters. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Parallel Processing and Applied Mathematics, 2010, vol. 6067, p. 525-534. 2. Rasmussen, E., and Turner, J. (eds), Polar Lows: Mesoscale Weather Systems in the Polar Regions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003, 612 pp. 3. Yanase, W., and Niino, H., Dependence of Polar Low Development on Baroclinicity and Physical Processes: An Idealized High-Resolution Experiment, J. Atmos. Sci., 2006, vol. 64, p. 3044-3067.

  20. Application of a mesoscale forecasting model (NMM) coupled to the CALMET to develop forecast meteorology to use with the CALPUFF air dispersion model

    Radonjic, Z.; Telenta, B.; Kirklady, J.; Chambers, D.; Kleb, H.


    An air quality assessment was undertaken as part of the Environmental Assessment for the Port Hope Area Initiative. The assessment predicted potential effects associated with the remediation efforts for historic low-level radioactive wastes and construction of Long-Term Waste Management Facilities (LTWMFs) for both the Port Hope and Port Granby Projects. A necessary element of air dispersion modelling is the development of suitable meteorological data. For the Port Hope and Port Granby Projects, a meteorological station was installed in close proximity to the location of the recommended LTWMF in Port Hope. The recommended location for the Port Granby LTWMF is approximately 10 km west of the Port Hope LTWMF. Concerns were raised regarding the applicability of data collected for the Port Hope meteorological station to the Port Granby Site. To address this concern, a new method for processing meteorological data, which coupled mesoscale meteorological forecasting data the U.S. EPA CALMET meteorological data processor, was applied. This methodology is possible because a new and advanced mesoscale forecasting modelling system enables extensive numerical calculations on personal computers. As a result of this advancement, mesoscale forecasting systems can now be coupled with the CALMET meteorological data processor and the CALPUFF air dispersion modelling system to facilitate wind field estimations and air dispersion analysis. (author)

  1. The Influence of Temperature on Time-Dependent Deformation and Failure in Granite: A Mesoscale Modeling Approach

    Xu, T.; Zhou, G. L.; Heap, Michael J.; Zhu, W. C.; Chen, C. F.; Baud, Patrick


    An understanding of the influence of temperature on brittle creep in granite is important for the management and optimization of granitic nuclear waste repositories and geothermal resources. We propose here a two-dimensional, thermo-mechanical numerical model that describes the time-dependent brittle deformation (brittle creep) of low-porosity granite under different constant temperatures and confining pressures. The mesoscale model accounts for material heterogeneity through a stochastic local failure stress field, and local material degradation using an exponential material softening law. Importantly, the model introduces the concept of a mesoscopic renormalization to capture the co-operative interaction between microcracks in the transition from distributed to localized damage. The mesoscale physico-mechanical parameters for the model were first determined using a trial-and-error method (until the modeled output accurately captured mechanical data from constant strain rate experiments on low-porosity granite at three different confining pressures). The thermo-physical parameters required for the model, such as specific heat capacity, coefficient of linear thermal expansion, and thermal conductivity, were then determined from brittle creep experiments performed on the same low-porosity granite at temperatures of 23, 50, and 90 °C. The good agreement between the modeled output and the experimental data, using a unique set of thermo-physico-mechanical parameters, lends confidence to our numerical approach. Using these parameters, we then explore the influence of temperature, differential stress, confining pressure, and sample homogeneity on brittle creep in low-porosity granite. Our simulations show that increases in temperature and differential stress increase the creep strain rate and therefore reduce time-to-failure, while increases in confining pressure and sample homogeneity decrease creep strain rate and increase time-to-failure. We anticipate that the

  2. Mesoscale model parameterizations for radiation and turbulent fluxes at the lower boundary

    Somieski, F.


    A radiation parameterization scheme for use in mesoscale models with orography and clouds has been developed. Broadband parameterizations are presented for the solar and the terrestrial spectral ranges. They account for clear, turbid or cloudy atmospheres. The scheme is one-dimensional in the atmosphere, but the effects of mountains (inclination, shading, elevated horizon) are taken into account at the surface. In the terrestrial band, grey and black clouds are considered. Furthermore, the calculation of turbulent fluxes of sensible and latent heat and momentum at an inclined lower model boundary is described. Surface-layer similarity and the surface energy budget are used to evaluate the ground surface temperature. The total scheme is part of the mesoscale model MESOSCOP. (orig.) With 3 figs., 25 refs [de

  3. Meso-scale modelling of the heat conductivity effect on the shock response of a porous material

    Resnyansky, A. D.


    Understanding of deformation mechanisms of porous materials under shock compression is important for tailoring material properties at the shock manufacturing of advanced materials from substrate powders and for studying the response of porous materials under shock loading. Numerical set-up of the present work considers a set of solid particles separated by air representing a volume of porous material. Condensed material in the meso-scale set-up is simulated with a viscoelastic rate sensitive material model with heat conduction formulated from the principles of irreversible thermodynamics. The model is implemented in the CTH shock physics code. The meso-scale CTH simulation of the shock loading of the representative volume reveals the mechanism of pore collapse and shows in detail the transition from a high porosity case typical for abnormal Hugoniot response to a moderate porosity case typical for conventional Hugoniot response. Results of the analysis agree with previous analytical considerations and support hypotheses used in the two-phase approach.

  4. A Distributed Hydrological model Forced by DIMP2 Data and the WRF Mesoscale model

    Wayand, N. E.


    Forecasted warming over the next century will drastically reduce seasonal snowpack that provides 40% of the world’s drinking water. With increased climate warming, droughts may occur more frequently, which will increase society’s reliance on this same summer snowpack as a water supply. This study aims to reduce driving data errors that lead to poor simulations of snow ablation and accumulation, and streamflow. Results from the Distributed Hydrological Model Intercomparison Project Phase 2 (DMIP2) project using the Distributed Hydrology Soil and Vegetation Model (DHSVM) highlighted the critical need for accurate driving data that distributed models require. Currently, the meteorological driving data for distributed hydrological models commonly rely on interpolation techniques between a network of observational stations, as well as historical monthly means. This method is limited by two significant issues: snowpack is stored at high elevations, where interpolation techniques perform poorly due to sparse observations, and historic climatological means may be unsuitable in a changing climate. Mesoscale models may provide a physically-based approach to supplement surface observations over high-elevation terrain. Initial results have shown that while temperature lapse rates are well represented by multiple mesoscale models, significant precipitation biases are dependent on the particular model microphysics. We evaluate multiple methods of downscaling surface variables from the Weather and Research Forecasting (WRF) model that are then used to drive DHSVM over the North Fork American River basin in California. A comparison between each downscaled driving data set and paired DHSVM results to observations will determine how much improvement in simulated streamflow and snowpack are gained at the expense of each additional degree of downscaling. Our results from DMIP2 will be used as a benchmark for the best available DHSVM run using all available observational data. The

  5. The Karlsruhe Atmospheric Mesoscale Model KAMM; Das Karlsruher Atmosphaerische Mesoskalige Modell KAMM

    Adrian, G. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Umwelt und Technik (Germany). Inst. fuer Meteorologie und Klimaforschung]|[Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.). (Germany). Inst. fuer Meteorologie und Klimaforschung


    The applications of the KAMM model range from real-time simulations over the analysis of mesoscale phenomena and the development of parametrizations to describing climatology. In the course of time, wishes emerged to change essential parts of the original model concept, calling for substantial reprogramming; so it was decided to entirely redraft the dynamic core of KAMM and to program it from the beginning including the parallelization of the code. The paper describes the basics of the new model core. (orig./KW) [Deutsch] Der Anwendungsbereich des KAMM-Modells erstreckt sich von Echtzeitsimulationen, ueber Analyse mesoskaliger Phaenomene, Entwicklung von Parametrisierungen bis hin zur beschreibenden Klimatologie. Weil im Laufe der Entstehungszeit wesentliche Aenderungswuensche des urspruenglichen Konzeptes entstanden sind, die eine Neuprogrammierung in wesentlichen Teilen erforderlich erscheinen lassen, wurde entschieden, den dynamischen Kern von KAMM voellig neu zu gestalten und bei der Programmierung eine Parallelisierung des Codes von Anfang an mit einzubeziehen. Die Grundlagen dieses neuen Modellkernes werden vorgestellt. (orig./KW)

  6. Surface Energy Balance in Jakarta and Neighboring Regions As Simulated Using Fifth Mesoscale Model (MM5

    Yopi Ilhamsyah


    Full Text Available The objective of the present research was to assess the surface energy balance particularly in terms of the computed surface energy and radiation balance and the development of boundary layer over Jakarta and Neighboring Regions (JNR by means of numerical model of fifth generation of Mesoscale Model (MM5. The MM5 with four domains of 9 kilometers in spatial resolution presenting the outermost and the innermost of JNR is utilized. The research focuses on the third and fourth domains covering the entire JNR. The description between radiation and energy balance at the surface is obtained from the model. The result showed that energy balance is higher in the city area during daytime. Meanwhile, energy components, e.g., surface sensible and latent heat flux showed that at the sea and in the city areas were higher than other areas. Moreover, ground flux showed eastern region was higher than others. In general, radiation and energy balance was higher in the daytime and lower in the nighttime for all regions. The calculation of Bowen Ratio, the ratio of surface sensible and latent heat fluxes, was also higher in the city area, reflecting the dominations of urban and built-up land in the region. Meanwhile, Bowen Ratio in the rural area dominated by irrigated cropland was lower. It is consistent with changes of land cover properties, e.g. albedo, soil moisture, and thermal characteristics. In addition, the boundary layer is also higher in the city. Meanwhile western region dominated by suburban showed higher boundary layer instead of eastern region.


    Werth, D.; O' Steen, L.


    We show that a simple evolutionary algorithm can optimize a set of mesoscale atmospheric model parameters with respect to agreement between the mesoscale simulation and a limited set of synthetic observations. This is illustrated using the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). A set of 23 RAMS parameters is optimized by minimizing a cost function based on the root mean square (rms) error between the RAMS simulation and synthetic data (observations derived from a separate RAMS simulation). We find that the optimization can be efficient with relatively modest computer resources, thus operational implementation is possible. The optimization efficiency, however, is found to depend strongly on the procedure used to perturb the 'child' parameters relative to their 'parents' within the evolutionary algorithm. In addition, the meteorological variables included in the rms error and their weighting are found to be an important factor with respect to finding the global optimum.

  8. Coastal Foredune Evolution, Part 2: Modeling Approaches for Meso-Scale Morphologic Evolution


    for Meso-Scale Morphologic Evolution by Margaret L. Palmsten1, Katherine L. Brodie2, and Nicholas J. Spore2 PURPOSE: This Coastal and Hydraulics ...managers because foredunes provide ecosystem services and can reduce storm damages to coastal infrastructure, both of which increase the resiliency...MS 2 U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory, Duck, NC ERDC/CHL CHETN-II-57 March 2017 2 models of

  9. GEM: a dynamic tracking model for mesoscale eddies in the ocean

    Li, Qiu-Yang; Sun, Liang; Lin, Sheng-Fu


    The Genealogical Evolution Model (GEM) presented here is an efficient logical model used to track dynamic evolution of mesoscale eddies in the ocean. It can distinguish between different dynamic processes (e.g., merging and splitting) within a dynamic evolution pattern, which is difficult to accomplish using other tracking methods. To this end, the GEM first uses a two-dimensional (2-D) similarity vector (i.e., a pair of ratios of overlap area between two eddies to the area of each eddy) rather than a scalar to measure the similarity between eddies, which effectively solves the "missing eddy" problem (temporarily lost eddy in tracking). Second, for tracking when an eddy splits, the GEM uses both "parent" (the original eddy) and "child" (eddy split from parent) and the dynamic processes are described as the birth and death of different generations. Additionally, a new look-ahead approach with selection rules effectively simplifies computation and recording. All of the computational steps are linear and do not include iteration. Given the pixel number of the target region L, the maximum number of eddies M, the number N of look-ahead time steps, and the total number of time steps T, the total computer time is O(LM(N + 1)T). The tracking of each eddy is very smooth because we require that the snapshots of each eddy on adjacent days overlap one another. Although eddy splitting or merging is ubiquitous in the ocean, they have different geographic distributions in the North Pacific Ocean. Both the merging and splitting rates of the eddies are high, especially at the western boundary, in currents and in "eddy deserts". The GEM is useful not only for satellite-based observational data, but also for numerical simulation outputs. It is potentially useful for studying dynamic processes in other related fields, e.g., the dynamics of cyclones in meteorology.

  10. Mesoscale atmospheric modelling technology as a tool for the long-term meteorological dataset development

    Platonov, Vladimir; Kislov, Alexander; Rivin, Gdaly; Varentsov, Mikhail; Rozinkina, Inna; Nikitin, Mikhail; Chumakov, Mikhail


    The detailed hydrodynamic modelling of meteorological parameters during the last 30 years (1985 - 2014) was performed for the Okhotsk Sea and the Sakhalin island regions. The regional non-hydrostatic atmospheric model COSMO-CLM used for this long-term simulation with 13.2, 6.6 and 2.2 km horizontal resolutions. The main objective of creation this dataset was the outlook of the investigation of statistical characteristics and the physical mechanisms of extreme weather events (primarily, wind speed extremes) on the small spatio-temporal scales. COSMO-CLM is the climate version of the well-known mesoscale COSMO model, including some modifications and extensions adapting to the long-term numerical experiments. The downscaling technique was realized and developed for the long-term simulations with three consequent nesting domains. ERA-Interim reanalysis ( 0.75 degrees resolution) used as global forcing data for the starting domain ( 13.2 km horizontal resolution), then these simulation data used as initial and boundary conditions for the next model runs over the domain with 6.6 km resolution, and similarly, for the next step to 2.2 km domain. Besides, the COSMO-CLM model configuration for 13.2 km run included the spectral nudging technique, i.e. an additional assimilation of reanalysis data not only at boundaries, but also inside the whole domain. Practically, this computational scheme realized on the SGI Altix 4700 supercomputer system in the Main Computer Center of Roshydromet and used 2,400 hours of CPU time total. According to modelling results, the verification of the obtained dataset was performed on the observation data. Estimations showed the mean error -0.5 0C, up to 2 - 3 0C RMSE in temperature, and overestimation in wind speed (RMSE is up to 2 m/s). Overall, analysis showed that the used downscaling technique with applying the COSMO-CLM model reproduced the meteorological conditions, spatial distribution, seasonal and synoptic variability of temperature and

  11. Numerical study on the interactions between the Kuroshio current in the Luzon Strait and a mesoscale eddy

    Kuo, Yi-Chun; Chern, Ching-Sheng; Zheng, Zhe-Wen


    The Luzon Strait (LS) connects the northwestern Pacific Ocean and the South China Sea (SCS) and is the western boundary gap for the Kuroshio current (KC). Satellite observations indicate that a cyclonic mesoscale eddy can trigger westward extension of the KC into the SCS and shed a smaller anticyclonic eddy to the west of the LS. We used a nonlinear reduced-gravity (primitive equation) model to study this phenomenon and analyzed the dynamic process. The location of the collision between the eddy and the KC could be critical for varying the circulation in the LS. The eddy's deformation rate, associated with its decaying speed, is also closely related to the location of the eddy during collision. When a cyclonic eddy moved from a region to the east of the Luzon Island toward the LS, the KC intruded into the SCS with growing negative vorticity during the collision of the eddy and KC. This tendency for negative vorticity is attributed to the beta effect and squeezing of the planetary vorticity caused by the flow divergence. As the eddy dissipated, the KC in the LS recovered its original pattern. When the collision of the eddy occurred at the center of the LS, the momentum balance of the KC loop was dominated by the inertial term, and the circulation in the LS remained in a leaping state.

  12. Statistical Studies of Mesoscale Forecast Models MM5 and WRF

    Henmi, Teizi


    ... models were carried out and the results were compared with surface observation data. Both models tended to overforecast temperature and dew-point temperature, although the correlation coefficients between forecast and observations were fairly high...

  13. Impact of two chemistry mechanisms fully coupled with mesoscale model on the atmospheric pollutants distribution

    Arteta, J.; Cautenet, S.; Taghavi, M.; Audiffren, N.

    Air quality models (AQM) consist of many modules (meteorology, emission, chemistry, deposition), and in some conditions such as: vicinity of clouds or aerosols plumes, complex local circulations (mountains, sea breezes), fully coupled models (online method) are necessary. In order to study the impact of lumped chemical mechanisms in AQM simulations, we examine the ability of both different chemical mechanisms: (i) simplified: Condensed Version of the MOdèle de Chimie Atmosphérique 2.2 (CV-MOCA2.2), and (ii) reference: Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Model (RACM), which are coupled online with the Regional Atmospheric Modeling Systems (RAMS) model, on the distribution of pollutants. During the ESCOMPTE experiment (Expérience sur Site pour COntraindre les Modèles de Pollution et de Transport d'Emissions) conducted over Southern France (including urban and industrial zones), Intensive observation periods (IOP) characterized by various meteorological and mixed chemical conditions are simulated. For both configurations of modeling, numerical results are compared with surface measurements (75 stations) for primary (NO x) and secondary (O 3) species. We point out the impact of the two different chemical mechanisms on the production of species involved in the oxidizing capacity such as ozone and radicals within urban and industrial areas. We highlight that both chemical mechanisms produce very similar results for the main pollutants (NO x and O 3) in three-dimensional (3D) distribution, despite large discrepancies in 0D modeling. For ozone concentration, we found sometimes small differences (5-10 ppb) between the mechanisms under study according to the cases (polluted or not). The relative difference between the two mechanisms over the whole domain is only -7% for ozone from CV-MOCA 2.2 versus RACM. When the order of magnitude is needed rather than an accurate estimate, a reduced mechanism is satisfactory. It has the advantage of running faster (four times less than CPU

  14. Application of Prognostic Mesoscale Modeling in the Southeast United States

    Buckley, R.L.


    A prognostic model is being used to provide regional forecasts for a variety of applications at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Emergency response dispersion models available at SRS use the space and time-dependent meteorological data provided by this model to supplement local and regional observations. Output from the model is also used locally to aid in forecasting at SRS, and regionally in providing forecasts of the potential time and location of hurricane landfall within the southeast United States

  15. Gasdynamic modeling and parametric study of mesoscale internal combustion swing engine/generator systems

    Gu, Yongxian

    The demand of portable power generation systems for both domestic and military applications has driven the advances of mesoscale internal combustion engine systems. This dissertation was devoted to the gasdynamic modeling and parametric study of the mesoscale internal combustion swing engine/generator systems. First, the system-level thermodynamic modeling for the swing engine/generator systems has been developed. The system performance as well as the potentials of both two- and four-stroke swing engine systems has been investigated based on this model. Then through parameterc studies, the parameters that have significant impacts on the system performance have been identified, among which, the burn time and spark advance time are the critical factors related to combustion process. It is found that the shorter burn time leads to higher system efficiency and power output and the optimal spark advance time is about half of the burn time. Secondly, the turbulent combustion modeling based on levelset method (G-equation) has been implemented into the commercial software FLUENT. Thereafter, the turbulent flame propagation in a generic mesoscale combustion chamber and realistic swing engine chambers has been studied. It is found that, in mesoscale combustion engines, the burn time is dominated by the mean turbulent kinetic energy in the chamber. It is also shown that in a generic mesoscale combustion chamber, the burn time depends on the longest distance between the initial ignition kernel to its walls and by changing the ignition and injection locations, the burn time can be reduced by a factor of two. Furthermore, the studies of turbulent flame propagation in real swing engine chambers show that the combustion can be enhanced through in-chamber turbulence augmentation and with higher engine frequency, the burn time is shorter, which indicates that the in-chamber turbulence can be induced by the motion of moving components as well as the intake gas jet flow. The burn time

  16. Ensemble modelling of nitrogen fluxes: data fusion for a Swedish meso-scale catchment

    J.-F. Exbrayat


    Full Text Available Model predictions of biogeochemical fluxes at the landscape scale are highly uncertain, both with respect to stochastic (parameter and structural uncertainty. In this study 5 different models (LASCAM, LASCAM-S, a self-developed tool, SWAT and HBV-N-D designed to simulate hydrological fluxes as well as mobilisation and transport of one or several nitrogen species were applied to the mesoscale River Fyris catchment in mid-eastern Sweden.

    Hydrological calibration against 5 years of recorded daily discharge at two stations gave highly variable results with Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE ranging between 0.48 and 0.83. Using the calibrated hydrological parameter sets, the parameter uncertainty linked to the nitrogen parameters was explored in order to cover the range of possible predictions of exported loads for 3 nitrogen species: nitrate (NO3, ammonium (NH4 and total nitrogen (Tot-N. For each model and each nitrogen species, predictions were ranked in two different ways according to the performance indicated by two different goodness-of-fit measures: the coefficient of determination R2 and the root mean square error RMSE. A total of 2160 deterministic Single Model Ensembles (SME was generated using an increasing number of members (from the 2 best to the 10 best single predictions. Finally the best SME for each model, nitrogen species and discharge station were selected and merged into 330 different Multi-Model Ensembles (MME. The evolution of changes in R2 and RMSE was used as a performance descriptor of the ensemble procedure.

    In each studied case, numerous ensemble merging schemes were identified which outperformed any of their members. Improvement rates were generally higher when worse members were introduced. The highest improvements were achieved for the nitrogen SMEs compiled with multiple linear regression models with R2 selected members, which

  17. Physical modeling of shoreline bioremediation: Continuous flow mesoscale basins

    Sveum, P.; Ramstad, S.; Faksness, L.G.; Bech, C.; Johansen, B.


    This paper describes the design and use of continuous flow basin beach models in the study of bioremediation processes, and gives some results from an experiment designed to study the effects of different strategies for adding fertilizers. The continuous flow experimental basin system simulates an open system with natural tidal variation, wave action, and continuous supply and exchange of seawater. Biodegradation and bioremediation processes can thus be tested close to natural conditions. Results obtained using the models show a significant enhancement of biodegradation of oil in a sediment treated with an organic nutrient source, increased nutrient level in the interstitial water, and sediment microbial activity. These physical models gives biologically significant results, and can be used to simulate biodegradation and bioremediation in natural systems

  18. Mesoscale to microscale wind farm flow modeling and evaluation

    Sanz Rodrigo, Javier; Chávez Arroyo, Roberto Aurelio; Moriarty, Patrick


    The increasing size of wind turbines, with rotors already spanning more than 150m diameter and hub heights above 100m, requires proper modeling of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) from the surface to the free atmosphere. Furthermore, large wind farm arrays create their own boundary layer stru...

  19. Strain in the mesoscale kinetic Monte Carlo model for sintering

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Tikare, V.


    anisotropic strains for homogeneous powder compacts with aspect ratios different from unity. It is shown that the line direction biases shrinkage strains in proportion the compact dimension aspect ratios. A new algorithm that corrects this bias in strains is proposed; the direction for collapsing the column...... densification by vacancy annihilation removes an isolated pore site at a grain boundary and collapses a column of sites extending from the vacancy to the surface of sintering compact, through the center of mass of the nearest grain. Using this algorithm, the existing published kMC models are shown to produce...

  20. Numerical model simulations of boundary-layer dynamics during winter conditions

    Melas, D.; Persson, T.; Bruin, H. de


    A mesoscale numerical model, incorporating a land-surface scheme based on Deardorffs' approach, is used to study the diurnal variation of the boundary layer structure and surface fluxes during four consecutive days with air temperatures well below zero, snow covered ground and changing synoptic f...

  1. Wind Farm parametrization in the mesoscale model WRF

    Volker, Patrick; Badger, Jake; Hahmann, Andrea N.


    , but are parametrized as another sub-grid scale process. In order to appropriately capture the wind farm wake recovery and its direction, two properties are important, among others, the total energy extracted by the wind farm and its velocity deficit distribution. In the considered parametrization the individual...... the extracted force is proportional to the turbine area interfacing a grid cell. The sub-grid scale wake expansion is achieved by adding turbulence kinetic energy (proportional to the extracted power) to the flow. The validity of both wind farm parametrizations has been verified against observational data. We...... turbines produce a thrust dependent on the background velocity. For the sub-grid scale velocity deficit, the entrainment from the free atmospheric flow into the wake region, which is responsible for the expansion, is taken into account. Furthermore, since the model horizontal distance is several times...

  2. Mesoscale modelling of atmospheric CO2 across Denmark

    Lansø, Anne Sofie


    of the simulated atmospheric CO2 across Denmark was, in particular, affected by the Danish terrestrial surface exchanges and its temporal variability. This study urges all future modelling studies of air–sea CO2 to include short-term variability in pCO2. To capture the full heterogeneity of the surface exchanges......It is scientifically well-established that the increase of atmospheric CO2 affects the entire globe and will lead to higher surface temperatures. Although anthropogenic CO2is emitted straight into the atmosphere, it does not all contribute to the existing atmospheric CO2 reservoir. Approximately 29......% is taken up by the global oceans, due to under-saturation of CO2 in the surface waters, while another 33 % is taken up by the terrestrial biosphere, via photosynthesis. In order to estimate the effects of increasing anthropogenic emissions of CO2 more accurately in the future, it is essential to understand...

  3. Process analysis of the modelled 3-D mesoscale impact of aircraft emissions on the atmosphere

    Hendricks, J; Ebel, A; Lippert, E; Petry, H [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geophysik und Meterorologie


    A mesoscale chemistry transport model is applied to study the impact of aircraft emissions on the atmospheric trace gas composition. A special analysis of the simulations is conducted to separate the effects of chemistry, transport, diffusion and cloud processes on the transformation of the exhausts of a subsonic fleet cruising over the North Atlantic. The aircraft induced ozone production strongly depends on the tropopause height and the cruise altitude. Aircraft emissions may undergo an effective downward transport under the influence of stratosphere-troposphere exchange activity. (author) 12 refs.

  4. Estimation of parasitic losses in a proposed mesoscale resonant engine: Experiment and model

    Preetham, B. S.; Anderson, M.; Richards, C.


    A resonant engine in which the piston-cylinder assembly is replaced by a flexible cavity is realized at the mesoscale using flexible metal bellows to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept. A four stroke motoring technique is developed and measurements are performed to determine parasitic losses. A non-linear lumped parameter model is developed to evaluate the engine performance. Experimentally, the heat transfer and friction effects are separated by varying the engine speed and operating frequency. The engine energy flow diagram showing the energy distribution among various parasitic elements reveals that the friction loss in the bellows is smaller than the sliding friction loss in a typical piston-cylinder assembly.

  5. On the sensitivity of mesoscale models to surface-layer parameterization constants

    Garratt, J. R.; Pielke, R. A.


    The Colorado State University standard mesoscale model is used to evaluate the sensitivity of one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) fields to differences in surface-layer parameterization “constants”. Such differences reflect the range in the published values of the von Karman constant, Monin-Obukhov stability functions and the temperature roughness length at the surface. The sensitivity of 1D boundary-layer structure, and 2D sea-breeze intensity, is generally less than that found in published comparisons related to turbulence closure schemes generally.

  6. Process analysis of the modelled 3-D mesoscale impact of aircraft emissions on the atmosphere

    Hendricks, J.; Ebel, A.; Lippert, E.; Petry, H. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geophysik und Meterorologie


    A mesoscale chemistry transport model is applied to study the impact of aircraft emissions on the atmospheric trace gas composition. A special analysis of the simulations is conducted to separate the effects of chemistry, transport, diffusion and cloud processes on the transformation of the exhausts of a subsonic fleet cruising over the North Atlantic. The aircraft induced ozone production strongly depends on the tropopause height and the cruise altitude. Aircraft emissions may undergo an effective downward transport under the influence of stratosphere-troposphere exchange activity. (author) 12 refs.

  7. Meso-Scale Modelling of Deformation, Damage and Failure in Dual Phase Steels

    Sari Sarraf, Iman

    Advanced high strength steels (AHSS), such as dual phase (DP) and transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steels, offer high ductility, formability, and strength, as well as high strength-to-weight ratio and improved crash resistance. Dual phase steels belong to a family of high strength grades which consist of martensite, responsible for strengthening, distributed in a ductile ferrite matrix which accommodates the deformation throughout the forming process. It has been shown that the predominant damage mechanism and failure in DP steels depends on the ferrite and martensite grain sizes and their morphology, and can range from a mixture of brittle and ductile rupture to completely ductile rupture in a quasi-static uniaxial tension test. In this study, a hybrid finite element cellular automata model, initially proposed by Anton Shterenlikht (2003), was developed to evaluate the forming behaviour and predict the onset of instability and damage evolution in a dual phase steel. In this model, the finite element constitutive model is used to represent macro-level strain gradients and a damage variable, and two different cell arrays are designed to represent the ductile and brittle fracture modes in meso-scale. In the FE part of the model, a modified Rousselier ductile damage model is developed to account for nucleation, growth and coalescence of voids. Also, several rate-dependent hardening models were developed and evaluated to describe the work hardening flow curve of DP600. Based on statistical analysis and simulation results, a modified Johnson-Cook (JC) model and a multiplicative combination of the Voce-modified JC functions were found to be the most accurate hardening models. The developed models were then implemented in a user-defined material subroutine (VUMAT) for ABAQUS/Explicit finite element simulation software to simulate uniaxial tension tests at strain rates ranging from 0.001 1/s to 1000 1/s, Marciniak tests, and electrohydraulic free-forming (EHFF

  8. An intercomparison of several diagnostic meteorological processors used in mesoscale air quality modeling

    Vimont, J.C. [National Park Service, Lakewood, CO (United States); Scire, J.S. [Sigma Research Corp., Concord, MA (United States)


    A major component, and area of uncertainty, in mesoscale air quality modeling, is the specification of the meteorological fields which affect the transport and dispersion of pollutants. Various options are available for estimating the wind and mixing depth fields over a mesoscale domain. Estimates of the wind field can be obtained from spatial and temporal interpolation of available observations or from diagnostic meteorological models, which estimate a meteorological field from available data and adjust those fields based on parameterizations of physical processes. A major weakness of these processors is their dependence on spatially and temporally sparse input data, particularly upper air data. These problems are exacerbated in regions of complex terrain and along the shorelines of large bodies of water. Similarly, the estimation of mixing depth is also reliant upon sparse observations and the parameterization of the convective and mechanical processes. The meteorological processors examined in this analysis were developed to drive different Lagrangian puff models. This paper describes the algorithms these processors use to estimate the wind fields and mixing depth fields.

  9. Numerical modelling of mine workings.

    Lightfoot, N


    Full Text Available to cover most of what is required for a practising rock mechanics engineer to be able to use any of these five programs to solve practical mining problems. The chapters on specific programs discuss their individual strengths and weaknesses and highlight... and applications of numerical modelling in the context of the South African gold and platinum mining industries. This includes an example that utilises a number of different numerical 3 modelling programs to solve a single problem. This particular example...

  10. Numerical modeling of economic uncertainty

    Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans


    Representation and modeling of economic uncertainty is addressed by different modeling methods, namely stochastic variables and probabilities, interval analysis, and fuzzy numbers, in particular triple estimates. Focusing on discounted cash flow analysis numerical results are presented, comparisons...... are made between alternative modeling methods, and characteristics of the methods are discussed....

  11. The dependence of the oceans MOC on mesoscale eddy diffusivities: A model study

    Marshall, John; Scott, Jeffery R.; Romanou, Anastasia; Kelley, Maxwell; Leboissetier, Anthony


    The dependence of the depth and strength of the ocean's global meridional overturning cells (MOC) on the specification of mesoscale eddy diffusivity (K) is explored in two ocean models. The GISS and MIT ocean models are driven by the same prescribed forcing fields, configured in similar ways, spun up to equilibrium for a range of K 's and the resulting MOCs mapped and documented. Scaling laws implicit in modern theories of the MOC are used to rationalize the results. In all calculations the K used in the computation of eddy-induced circulation and that used in the representation of eddy stirring along neutral surfaces, is set to the same value but is changed across experiments. We are able to connect changes in the strength and depth of the Atlantic MOC, the southern ocean upwelling MOC, and the deep cell emanating from Antarctica, to changes in K.

  12. LDRD final report : mesoscale modeling of dynamic loading of heterogeneous materials

    Robbins, Joshua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dingreville, Remi Philippe Michel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Voth, Thomas Eugene [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Furnish, Michael David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Material response to dynamic loading is often dominated by microstructure (grain structure, porosity, inclusions, defects). An example critically important to Sandia's mission is dynamic strength of polycrystalline metals where heterogeneities lead to localization of deformation and loss of shear strength. Microstructural effects are of broad importance to the scientific community and several institutions within DoD and DOE; however, current models rely on inaccurate assumptions about mechanisms at the sub-continuum or mesoscale. Consequently, there is a critical need for accurate and robust methods for modeling heterogeneous material response at this lower length scale. This report summarizes work performed as part of an LDRD effort (FY11 to FY13; project number 151364) to meet these needs.

  13. Developing Mesoscale Model of Fibrin-Platelet Network Representing Blood Clotting =

    Sun, Yueyi; Nikolov, Svetoslav; Bowie, Sam; Alexeev, Alexander; Lam, Wilbur; Myers, David

    Blood clotting disorders which prevent the body's natural ability to achieve hemostasis can lead to a variety of life threatening conditions such as, excessive bleeding, stroke, or heart attack. Treatment of these disorders is highly dependent on understanding the underlying physics behind the clotting process. Since clotting is a highly complex multi scale mechanism developing a fully atomistic model is currently not possible. We develop a mesoscale model based on dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) to gain fundamental understanding of the underlying principles controlling the clotting process. In our study, we examine experimental data on clot contraction using stacks of confocal microscopy images to estimate the crosslink density in the fibrin networks and platelet location. Using this data we reconstruct the platelet rich fibrin network and study how platelet-fibrin interactions affect clotting. Furthermore, we probe how different system parameters affect clot contraction. ANSF CAREER Award DMR-1255288.

  14. Simulating mesoscale coastal evolution for decadal coastal management: A new framework integrating multiple, complementary modelling approaches

    van Maanen, Barend; Nicholls, Robert J.; French, Jon R.; Barkwith, Andrew; Bonaldo, Davide; Burningham, Helene; Brad Murray, A.; Payo, Andres; Sutherland, James; Thornhill, Gillian; Townend, Ian H.; van der Wegen, Mick; Walkden, Mike J. A.


    Coastal and shoreline management increasingly needs to consider morphological change occurring at decadal to centennial timescales, especially that related to climate change and sea-level rise. This requires the development of morphological models operating at a mesoscale, defined by time and length scales of the order 101 to 102 years and 101 to 102 km. So-called 'reduced complexity' models that represent critical processes at scales not much smaller than the primary scale of interest, and are regulated by capturing the critical feedbacks that govern landform behaviour, are proving effective as a means of exploring emergent coastal behaviour at a landscape scale. Such models tend to be computationally efficient and are thus easily applied within a probabilistic framework. At the same time, reductionist models, built upon a more detailed description of hydrodynamic and sediment transport processes, are capable of application at increasingly broad spatial and temporal scales. More qualitative modelling approaches are also emerging that can guide the development and deployment of quantitative models, and these can be supplemented by varied data-driven modelling approaches that can achieve new explanatory insights from observational datasets. Such disparate approaches have hitherto been pursued largely in isolation by mutually exclusive modelling communities. Brought together, they have the potential to facilitate a step change in our ability to simulate the evolution of coastal morphology at scales that are most relevant to managing erosion and flood risk. Here, we advocate and outline a new integrated modelling framework that deploys coupled mesoscale reduced complexity models, reductionist coastal area models, data-driven approaches, and qualitative conceptual models. Integration of these heterogeneous approaches gives rise to model compositions that can potentially resolve decadal- to centennial-scale behaviour of diverse coupled open coast, estuary and inner

  15. Predicting Tropical Cyclogenesis with a Global Mesoscale Model: Preliminary Results with Very Severe Cyclonic Storm Nargis (2008)

    Shen, B.; Tao, W.; Atlas, R.


    Very Severe Cyclonic Storm Nargis, the deadliest named tropical cyclone (TC) in the North Indian Ocean Basin, devastated Burma (Myanmar) in May 2008, causing tremendous damage and numerous fatalities. An increased lead time in the prediction of TC Nargis would have increased the warning time and may therefore have saved lives and reduced economic damage. Recent advances in high-resolution global models and supercomputers have shown the potential for improving TC track and intensity forecasts, presumably by improving multi-scale simulations. The key but challenging questions to be answered include: (1) if and how realistic, in terms of timing, location and TC general structure, the global mesoscale model (GMM) can simulate TC genesis and (2) under what conditions can the model extend the lead time of TC genesis forecasts. In this study, we focus on genesis prediction for TCs in the Indian Ocean with the GMM. Preliminary real-data simulations show that the initial formation and intensity variations of TC Nargis can be realistically predicted at a lead time of up to 5 days. These simulations also suggest that the accurate representations of a westerly wind burst (WWB) and an equatorial trough, associated with monsoon circulations and/or a Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), are important for predicting the formation of this kind of TC. In addition to the WWB and equatorial trough, other favorable environmental conditions will be examined, which include enhanced monsoonal circulation, upper-level outflow, low- and middle-level moistening, and surface fluxes.

  16. Numerical Modeling of Shoreline Undulations

    Kærgaard, Kasper Hauberg

    model has been developed which describes the longshore sediment transport along arbitrarily shaped shorelines. The numerical model is based on a spectral wave model, a depth integrated flow model, a wave-phase resolving sediment transport description and a one-line shoreline model. First the theoretical...... of the feature and under predicts the migration speeds of the features. On the second shoreline, the shoreline model predicts undulations lengths which are longer than the observed undulations. Lastly the thesis considers field measurements of undulations of the bottom bathymetry along an otherwise straight...... length of the shoreline undulations is determined in the linear regime using a shoreline stability analysis based on the numerical model. The analysis shows that the length of the undulations in the linear regime depends on the incoming wave conditions and on the coastal profile. For larger waves...

  17. Wind-Climate Estimation Based on Mesoscale and Microscale Modeling: Statistical-Dynamical Downscaling for Wind Energy Applications

    Badger, Jake; Frank, Helmut; Hahmann, Andrea N.


    This paper demonstrates that a statistical dynamical method can be used to accurately estimate the wind climate at a wind farm site. In particular, postprocessing of mesoscale model output allows an efficient calculation of the local wind climate required for wind resource estimation at a wind...

  18. Waterspout Forecasting Method Over the Eastern Adriatic Using a High-Resolution Numerical Weather Model

    Renko, Tanja; Ivušić, Sarah; Telišman Prtenjak, Maja; Šoljan, Vinko; Horvat, Igor


    In this study, a synoptic and mesoscale analysis was performed and Szilagyi's waterspout forecasting method was tested on ten waterspout events in the period of 2013-2016. Data regarding waterspout occurrences were collected from weather stations, an online survey at the official website of the National Meteorological and Hydrological Service of Croatia and eyewitness reports from newspapers and the internet. Synoptic weather conditions were analyzed using surface pressure fields, 500 hPa level synoptic charts, SYNOP reports and atmospheric soundings. For all observed waterspout events, a synoptic type was determined using the 500 hPa geopotential height chart. The occurrence of lightning activity was determined from the LINET lightning database, and waterspouts were divided into thunderstorm-related and "fair weather" ones. Mesoscale characteristics (with a focus on thermodynamic instability indices) were determined using the high-resolution (500 m grid length) mesoscale numerical weather model and model results were compared with the available observations. Because thermodynamic instability indices are usually insufficient for forecasting waterspout activity, the performance of the Szilagyi Waterspout Index (SWI) was tested using vertical atmospheric profiles provided by the mesoscale numerical model. The SWI successfully forecasted all waterspout events, even the winter events. This indicates that the Szilagyi's waterspout prognostic method could be used as a valid prognostic tool for the eastern Adriatic.

  19. Modelling daily sediment yield from a meso-scale catchment, a case study in SW Poland

    Keesstra, S. D.; Schoorl, J.; Temme, A. J. A. M.


    For management purposes it is important to be able to assess the sediment yield of a catchment. however, at this moment models designed for estimating sediment yield are only capable to give either very detailed storm-based information or year averages. The storm-based models require input data that are not available for most catchment. However, models that estimate yearly averages, ignore a lot of other detailed information, like daily discharge and precipitation data. There are currently no models available that model sediment yield on the temporal scale of one day and the spatial scale of a meso-scale catchment, without making use of very detailed input data. To fill this scientific and management gap, landscape evolution model LAPSUS has been adapted to model sediment yield on a daily basis. This model has the water balance as a base. To allow calibration with the discharge at the outlet, a subsurface flow module has been added to the model. (Author) 12 refs.

  20. Modelling daily sediment yield from a meso-scale catchment, a case study in SW Poland

    Keesstra, S. D.; Schoorl, J.; Temme, A. J. A. M.


    For management purposes it is important to be able to assess the sediment yield of a catchment. however, at this moment models designed for estimating sediment yield are only capable to give either very detailed storm-based information or year averages. The storm-based models require input data that are not available for most catchment. However, models that estimate yearly averages, ignore a lot of other detailed information, like daily discharge and precipitation data. There are currently no models available that model sediment yield on the temporal scale of one day and the spatial scale of a meso-scale catchment, without making use of very detailed input data. To fill this scientific and management gap, landscape evolution model LAPSUS has been adapted to model sediment yield on a daily basis. This model has the water balance as a base. To allow calibration with the discharge at the outlet, a subsurface flow module has been added to the model. (Author) 12 refs.

  1. Probabilistic, Multivariable Flood Loss Modeling on the Mesoscale with BT-FLEMO.

    Kreibich, Heidi; Botto, Anna; Merz, Bruno; Schröter, Kai


    Flood loss modeling is an important component for risk analyses and decision support in flood risk management. Commonly, flood loss models describe complex damaging processes by simple, deterministic approaches like depth-damage functions and are associated with large uncertainty. To improve flood loss estimation and to provide quantitative information about the uncertainty associated with loss modeling, a probabilistic, multivariable Bagging decision Tree Flood Loss Estimation MOdel (BT-FLEMO) for residential buildings was developed. The application of BT-FLEMO provides a probability distribution of estimated losses to residential buildings per municipality. BT-FLEMO was applied and validated at the mesoscale in 19 municipalities that were affected during the 2002 flood by the River Mulde in Saxony, Germany. Validation was undertaken on the one hand via a comparison with six deterministic loss models, including both depth-damage functions and multivariable models. On the other hand, the results were compared with official loss data. BT-FLEMO outperforms deterministic, univariable, and multivariable models with regard to model accuracy, although the prediction uncertainty remains high. An important advantage of BT-FLEMO is the quantification of prediction uncertainty. The probability distribution of loss estimates by BT-FLEMO well represents the variation range of loss estimates of the other models in the case study. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  2. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Advanced Physical Oceanographic Numerical Modelling


    This book is a direct result of the NATO Advanced Study Institute held in Banyuls-sur-mer, France, June 1985. The Institute had the same title as this book. It was held at Laboratoire Arago. Eighty lecturers and students from almost all NATO countries attended. The purpose was to review the state of the art of physical oceanographic numerical modelling including the parameterization of physical processes. This book represents a cross-section of the lectures presented at the ASI. It covers elementary mathematical aspects through large scale practical aspects of ocean circulation calculations. It does not encompass every facet of the science of oceanographic modelling. We have, however, captured most of the essence of mesoscale and large-scale ocean modelling for blue water and shallow seas. There have been considerable advances in modelling coastal circulation which are not included. The methods section does not include important material on phase and group velocity errors, selection of grid structures, advanc...

  3. MELSAR: a mesoscale air quality model for complex terrain. Volume 2. Appendices

    Allwine, K.J.; Whiteman, C.D.


    This final report is submitted as part of the Green River Ambient Model Assessment (GRAMA) project conducted at the US Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Environmental Protection Agency. The GRAMA Program has, as its ultimate goal, the development of validated air quality models that can be applied to the complex terrain of the Green River Formation of western Colorado, eastern Utah and southern Wyoming. The Green River Formation is a geologic formation containing large reserves of oil shale, coal, and other natural resources. Development of these resources may lead to a degradation of the air quality of the region. Air quality models are needed immediately for planning and regulatory purposes to assess the magnitude of these regional impacts. This report documents one of the models being developed for this purpose within GRAMA - specifically a model to predict short averaging time (less than or equal to 24 h) pollutant concentrations resulting from the mesoscale transport of pollutant releases from multiple sources. MELSAR has not undergone any rigorous operational testing, sensitivity analyses, or validation studies. Testing and evaluation of the model are needed to gain a measure of confidence in the model's performance. This report consists of two volumes. This volume contains the Appendices, which include listings of the FORTRAN code and Volume 1 contains the model overview, technical description, and user's guide. 13 figs., 10 tabs.

  4. Application of a COSMO Mesoscale Model to Assess the Influence of Forest Cover Changes on Regional Weather Conditions

    Olchev, A.; Rozinkina, I.; Kuzmina, E.; Nikitin, M.; Rivin, G. S.


    Modern changes in land use and forest cover have a significant influence on local, regional, and global weather and climate conditions. In this study, the mesoscale model COSMO is used to estimate the possible influence of forest cover change in the central part of the East European Plain on regional weather conditions. The "model region" of the study is surrounded by geographical coordinates 55° and 59°N and 28° and 37°E and situated in the central part of a large modeling domain (50° - 70° N and 15° 55° E), covering almost the entire East European Plain in Northern Eurasia. The forests cover about 50% of the area of the "model region". The modeling study includes 3 main numerical experiments. The first assumes total deforestation of the "model region" and replacement of forests by grasslands. The second is represented by afforestation of the "model region." In the third, weather conditions are simulated with present land use and vegetation structures of the "model region." Output of numerical experiments is at 13.2 km grid resolution, and the ERA-Interim global atmospheric reanalysis (with 6-h resolution in time and 0.75°×0.75° in space) is used to quantify initial and boundary conditions. Numerical experiments for the warm period of 2010 taken as an example show that deforestation and afforestation processes in the selected region can lead to significant changes in weather conditions. Deforestation processes in summer conditions can result in increased air temperature and wind speed, reduction of precipitation, lower clouds, and relative humidity. The afforestation process can result in opposite effects (decreased air temperature, increased precipitation, higher air humidity and fog frequency, and strengthened storm winds). Maximum meteorological changes under forest cover changes are projected for the summer months (July and August). It was also shown that changes of some meteorological characteristics (e.g., air temperature) is observed in the

  5. Numerical models for differential problems

    Quarteroni, Alfio


    In this text, we introduce the basic concepts for the numerical modelling of partial differential equations. We consider the classical elliptic, parabolic and hyperbolic linear equations, but also the diffusion, transport, and Navier-Stokes equations, as well as equations representing conservation laws, saddle-point problems and optimal control problems. Furthermore, we provide numerous physical examples which underline such equations. We then analyze numerical solution methods based on finite elements, finite differences, finite volumes, spectral methods and domain decomposition methods, and reduced basis methods. In particular, we discuss the algorithmic and computer implementation aspects and provide a number of easy-to-use programs. The text does not require any previous advanced mathematical knowledge of partial differential equations: the absolutely essential concepts are reported in a preliminary chapter. It is therefore suitable for students of bachelor and master courses in scientific disciplines, an...

  6. Numerical simulation of Higgs models

    Jaster, A.


    The SU(2) Higgs and the Schwinger model on the lattice were analysed. Numerical simulations of the SU(2) Higgs model were performed to study the finite temperature electroweak phase transition. With the help of the multicanonical method the distribution of an order parameter at the phase transition point was measured. This was used to obtain the order of the phase transition and the value of the interface tension with the histogram method. Numerical simulations were also performed at zero temperature to perform renormalization. The measured values for the Wilson loops were used to determine the static potential and from this the renormalized gauge coupling. The Schwinger model was simulated at different gauge couplings to analyse the properties of the Kaplan-Shamir fermions. The prediction that the mass parameter gets only multiplicative renormalization was tested and verified. (orig.)

  7. Comparison of the new intermediate complex atmospheric research (ICAR) model with the WRF model in a mesoscale catchment in Central Europe

    Härer, Stefan; Bernhardt, Matthias; Gutmann, Ethan; Bauer, Hans-Stefan; Schulz, Karsten


    Until recently, a large gap existed in the atmospheric downscaling strategies. On the one hand, computationally efficient statistical approaches are widely used, on the other hand, dynamic but CPU-intensive numeric atmospheric models like the weather research and forecast (WRF) model exist. The intermediate complex atmospheric research (ICAR) model developed at NCAR (Boulder, Colorado, USA) addresses this gap by combining the strengths of both approaches: the process-based structure of a dynamic model and its applicability in a changing climate as well as the speed of a parsimonious modelling approach which facilitates the modelling of ensembles and a straightforward way to test new parametrization schemes as well as various input data sources. However, the ICAR model has not been tested in Europe and on slightly undulated terrain yet. This study now evaluates for the first time the ICAR model to WRF model runs in Central Europe comparing a complete year of model results in the mesoscale Attert catchment (Luxembourg). In addition to these modelling results, we also describe the first implementation of ICAR on an Intel Phi architecture and consequently perform speed tests between the Vienna cluster, a standard workstation and the use of an Intel Phi coprocessor. Finally, the study gives an outlook on sensitivity studies using slightly different input data sources.

  8. Evaluation of a mesoscale dispersion modelling tool during the CAPITOUL experiment

    Lac, C.; Bonnardot, F.; Connan, O.; Camail, C.; Maro, D.; Hebert, D.; Rozet, M.; Pergaud, J.


    Atmospheric transport and dispersion were investigated during the CAPITOUL campaign using measurements of sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer. Six releases of SF6 tracer were performed (March 9-11 and July 1-3, 2004) in the same suburban area of Toulouse conurbation, during the Intensive Observing Periods (IOP) of CAPITOUL. Concentration data were collected both at ground-level along axes perpendicular to the wind direction (at distances ranging between 280 m and 5000 m from the release point), and above the ground at 100 m and 200 m height using aircraft flights. Meteorological conditions were all associated with daytime anticyclonic conditions with weak winds and convective clear and cloudy boundary layers. A meso-scale dispersion modelling system, PERLE, developed at Meteo-France for environmental emergencies in case of atmospheric accidental release, was evaluated in terms of meteorology and dispersion, for the different tracer experiments, in its operational configuration. PERLE is based on the combination of the non-hydrostatic meso-scale MESO-NH model, running at 2 km horizontal resolution, and the Lagrangian particle model SPRAY. The statistical meteorological evaluation includes two sets of simulations with initialisation from ECMWF or ALADIN. The meteorological day-to-day error statistics show fairly good Meso-NH predictions, in terms of wind speed, wind direction and near-surface temperature. A strong sensitivity to initial fields concerns the surface fluxes, crucial for dispersion, with an excessive drying of the convective boundary layer with ALADIN initial fields, leading to an overprediction of surface sensible heat fluxes. A parameterization of dry and shallow convection according to the Eddy-Diffusivity-Mass-Flux (EDMF) approach (Pergaud et al. 2008) allows an efficient mixing in the Convective Boundary Layer (CBL) and improves significantly the wind fields. A statistical evaluation of the dispersion prediction was then performed and shows a

  9. Satellite-derived land surface parameters for mesoscale modelling of the Mexico City basin

    B. de Foy


    Full Text Available Mesoscale meteorological modelling is an important tool to help understand air pollution and heat island effects in urban areas. Accurate wind simulations are difficult to obtain in areas of weak synoptic forcing. Local factors have a dominant role in the circulation and include land surface parameters and their interaction with the atmosphere. This paper examines an episode during the MCMA-2003 field campaign held in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA in April of 2003. Because the episode has weak synoptic forcing, there is the potential for the surface heat budget to influence the local meteorology. High resolution satellite observations are used to specify the land use, vegetation fraction, albedo and surface temperature in the MM5 model. Making use of these readily available data leads to improved meteorological simulations in the MCMA, both for the wind circulation patterns and the urban heat island. Replacing values previously obtained from land-use tables with actual measurements removes the number of unknowns in the model and increases the accuracy of the energy budget. In addition to improving the understanding of local meteorology, this sets the stage for the use of advanced urban modules.

  10. Numerical modeling of oil spills in continental and estuarine waters

    Goeury, C.


    The application of the European Water Framework Directive on water quality for human consumption and industrial activities creates a need for water quality assessment and monitoring systems. The MIGR'HYCAR research project ( was initiated to provide decisional tools for risks connected to oil spills in continental waters (rivers, lakes and estuaries), which represent more than 50% of accidental spills in France. Within the framework of this project, a new numerical oil spill model has been developed, as part of the TELEMAC hydro-informatics system (, by combining Lagrangian and Eulerian methods. The Lagrangian model describes the transport of an oil spill near the free surface. The oil spill model enables to simulate the main processes driving oil plumes: advection, diffusion, oil beaching, oil re-floating, evaporation, dissolution, spreading and volatilization. Though generally considered as a minor process, dissolution is important from the point of view of toxicity. To model dissolved oil in water, an Eulerian advection-diffusion model is used. The fraction of dissolved oil is represented by a passive tracer. This approach is able to follow dissolved hydrocarbons in the water column. Laboratory experiments were conducted to characterise the numerous kinetics of the processes listed above. In addition, meso-scale dynamic experiments in artificial channels and test cases derived from the literature are used to validate the numerical model. (author)

  11. Plasma modelling and numerical simulation

    Van Dijk, J; Kroesen, G M W; Bogaerts, A


    Plasma modelling is an exciting subject in which virtually all physical disciplines are represented. Plasma models combine the electromagnetic, statistical and fluid dynamical theories that have their roots in the 19th century with the modern insights concerning the structure of matter that were developed throughout the 20th century. The present cluster issue consists of 20 invited contributions, which are representative of the state of the art in plasma modelling and numerical simulation. These contributions provide an in-depth discussion of the major theories and modelling and simulation strategies, and their applications to contemporary plasma-based technologies. In this editorial review, we introduce and complement those papers by providing a bird's eye perspective on plasma modelling and discussing the historical context in which it has surfaced. (editorial review)

  12. Modeling mesoscale diffusion and transport processes for releases within coastal zones during land/sea breezes

    Lyons, W.A.; Keen, C.S.; Schuh, J.A.


    This document discusses the impacts of coastal mesoscale regimes (CMRs) upon the transport and diffusion of potential accidental radionuclide releases from a shoreline nuclear power plant. CMRs exhibit significant spatial (horizontal and vertical) and temporal variability. Case studies illustrate land breezes, sea/lake breeze inflows and return flows, thermal internal boundary layers, fumigation, plume trapping, coastal convergence zones, thunderstorms and snow squalls. The direct application of a conventional Gaussian straight-line dose assessment model, initialized only by on-site tower data, can potentially produce highly misleading guidance as to plume impact locations. Since much is known concerning CMRs, there are many potential improvements to modularized dose assessment codes, such as by proper parameterization of TIBLs, forecasting the inland penetration of convergence zones, etc. A three-dimensional primitive equation prognostic model showed excellent agreement with detailed lake breeze field measurements, giving indications that such codes can be used in both diagnostic and prognostic studies. The use of relatively inexpensive supplemental meteorological data especially from remote sensing systems (Doppler sodar, radar, lightning strike tracking) and computerized data bases should save significantly on software development costs. Better quality assurance of emergency response codes could include systems of flags providing personnel with confidence levels as to the applicability of a code being used during any given CMR

  13. Numerical model of thyroid counter

    Szuchta Maciej


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a numerical model of spectrometric thyroid counter, which is used for the measurements of internal contamination by in vivo method. The modeled detector is used for a routine internal exposure monitoring procedure in the Radiation Protection Measurements Laboratory of National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ. This procedure may also be used for monitoring of occupationally exposed nuclear medicine personnel. The developed model was prepared using Monte Carlo code FLUKA 2011 ver. 2b.6 Apr-14 and FLAIR ver. 1.2-5 interface. It contains a scintillation NaI(Tl detector, the collimator and the thyroid water phantom with a reference source of iodine 131I. The geometry of the model was designed and a gamma energy spectrum of iodine 131I deposited in the detector was calculated.

  14. Mesoscale simulation of concrete spall failure

    Knell, S.; Sauer, M.; Millon, O.; Riedel, W.


    Although intensively studied, it is still being debated which physical mechanisms are responsible for the increase of dynamic strength and fracture energy of concrete observed at high loading rates, and to what extent structural inertia forces on different scales contribute to the observation. We present a new approach for the three dimensional mesoscale modelling of dynamic damage and cracking in concrete. Concrete is approximated as a composite of spherical elastic aggregates of mm to cm size embedded in an elastic cement stone matrix. Cracking within the matrix and at aggregate interfaces in the μm range are modelled with adaptively inserted—initially rigid—cohesive interface elements. The model is applied to analyse the dynamic tensile failure observed in Hopkinson-Bar spallation experiments with strain rates up to 100/s. The influence of the key mesoscale failure parameters of strength, fracture energy and relative weakening of the ITZ on macromechanic strength, momentum and energy conservation is numerically investigated.

  15. Down-scaling wind energy resource from mesoscale to local scale by nesting and data assimilation with a CFD model

    Duraisamy Jothiprakasam, Venkatesh


    The development of wind energy generation requires precise and well-established methods for wind resource assessment, which is the initial step in every wind farm project. During the last two decades linear flow models were widely used in the wind industry for wind resource assessment and micro-siting. But the linear models inaccuracies in predicting the wind speeds in very complex terrain are well known and led to use of CFD, capable of modeling the complex flow in details around specific geographic features. Mesoscale models (NWP) are able to predict the wind regime at resolutions of several kilometers, but are not well suited to resolve the wind speed and turbulence induced by the topography features on the scale of a few hundred meters. CFD has proven successful in capturing flow details at smaller scales, but needs an accurate specification of the inlet conditions. Thus coupling NWP and CFD models is a better modeling approach for wind energy applications. A one-year field measurement campaign carried out in a complex terrain in southern France during 2007-2008 provides a well-documented data set both for input and validation data. The proposed new methodology aims to address two problems: the high spatial variation of the topography on the domain lateral boundaries, and the prediction errors of the mesoscale model. It is applied in this work using the open source CFD code Code-Saturne, coupled with the mesoscale forecast model of Meteo-France (ALADIN). The improvement is obtained by combining the mesoscale data as inlet condition and field measurement data assimilation into the CFD model. Newtonian relaxation (nudging) data assimilation technique is used to incorporate the measurement data into the CFD simulations. The methodology to reconstruct long term averages uses a clustering process to group the similar meteorological conditions and to reduce the number of CFD simulations needed to reproduce 1 year of atmospheric flow over the site. The assimilation

  16. O the Development and Use of Four-Dimensional Data Assimilation in Limited-Area Mesoscale Models Used for Meteorological Analysis.

    Stauffer, David R.


    The application of dynamic relationships to the analysis problem for the atmosphere is extended to use a full-physics limited-area mesoscale model as the dynamic constraint. A four-dimensional data assimilation (FDDA) scheme based on Newtonian relaxation or "nudging" is developed and evaluated in the Penn State/National Center for Atmospheric Research (PSU/NCAR) mesoscale model, which is used here as a dynamic-analysis tool. The thesis is to determine what assimilation strategies and what meterological fields (mass, wind or both) have the greatest positive impact on the 72-h numerical simulations (dynamic analyses) of two mid-latitude, real-data cases. The basic FDDA methodology is tested in a 10-layer version of the model with a bulk-aerodynamic (single-layer) representation of the planetary boundary layer (PBL), and refined in a 15-layer version of the model by considering the effects of data assimilation within a multi-layer PBL scheme. As designed, the model solution can be relaxed toward either gridded analyses ("analysis nudging"), or toward the actual observations ("obs nudging"). The data used for assimilation include standard 12-hourly rawinsonde data, and also 3-hourly mesoalpha-scale surface data which are applied within the model's multi-layer PBL. Continuous assimilation of standard-resolution rawinsonde data into the 10-layer model successfully reduced large-scale amplitude and phase errors while the model realistically simulated mesoscale structures poorly defined or absent in the rawinsonde analyses and in the model simulations without FDDA. Nudging the model fields directly toward the rawinsonde observations generally produced results comparable to nudging toward gridded analyses. This obs -nudging technique is especially attractive for the assimilation of high-frequency, asynoptic data. Assimilation of 3-hourly surface wind and moisture data into the 15-layer FDDA system was most effective for improving the simulated precipitation fields because a

  17. Comprehensive numerical modelling of tokamaks

    Cohen, R.H.; Cohen, B.I.; Dubois, P.F.


    We outline a plan for the development of a comprehensive numerical model of tokamaks. The model would consist of a suite of independent, communicating packages describing the various aspects of tokamak performance (core and edge transport coefficients and profiles, heating, fueling, magnetic configuration, etc.) as well as extensive diagnostics. These codes, which may run on different computers, would be flexibly linked by a user-friendly shell which would allow run-time specification of packages and generation of pre- and post-processing functions, including workstation-based visualization of output. One package in particular, the calculation of core transport coefficients via gyrokinetic particle simulation, will become practical on the scale required for comprehensive modelling only with the advent of teraFLOP computers. Incremental effort at LLNL would be focused on gyrokinetic simulation and development of the shell

  18. Genesis of Twin Tropical Cyclones as Revealed by a Global Mesoscale Model: The Role of Mixed Rossby Gravity Waves

    Shen, Bo-Wen; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Lin, Yuh-Lang; Laing, Arlene


    In this study, it is proposed that twin tropical cyclones (TCs), Kesiny and 01A, in May 2002 formed in association with the scale interactions of three gyres that appeared as a convectively coupled mixed Rossby gravity (ccMRG) wave during an active phase of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). This is shown by analyzing observational data, including NCEP reanalysis data and METEOSAT 7 IR satellite imagery, and performing numerical simulations using a global mesoscale model. A 10-day control run is initialized at 0000 UTC 1 May 2002 with grid-scale condensation but no sub-grid cumulus parameterizations. The ccMRG wave was identified as encompassing two developing and one non-developing gyres, the first two of which intensified and evolved into the twin TCs. The control run is able to reproduce the evolution of the ccMRG wave and thus the formation of the twin TCs about two and five days in advance as well as their subsequent intensity evolution and movement within an 8-10 day period. Five additional 10-day sensitivity experiments with different model configurations are conducted to help understand the interaction of the three gyres, leading to the formation of the TCs. These experiments suggest the improved lead time in the control run may be attributed to the realistic simulation of the ccMRG wave with the following processes: (1) wave deepening (intensification) associated with a reduction in wavelength and/or the intensification of individual gyres, (2) poleward movement of gyres that may be associated with boundary layer processes, (3) realistic simulation of moist processes at regional scales in association with each of the gyres, and (4) the vertical phasing of low- and mid-level cyclonic circulations associated with a specific gyre.

  19. Numerical modeling of foam flows

    Cheddadi, Ibrahim


    Liquid foam flows are involved in numerous applications, e.g. food and cosmetics industries, oil extraction, nuclear decontamination. Moreover, their study leads to fundamental knowledge: as it is easier to manipulate and analyse, foam is used as a model material to understand the flow of emulsions, polymers, pastes, or cell aggregates, all of which display both solid and liquid behaviour. Systematic experiments performed by Francois Graner et al. provide precise data that emphasize the non Newtonian properties of the foam. Meanwhile, Pierre Saramito proposed a visco-elasto-plastic continuous tensorial model, akin to predict the behaviour of the foam. The goal of this thesis is to understand this complex behaviour, using these two elements. We have built and validated a resolution algorithm based on a bidimensional finite elements methods. The numerical solutions are in excellent agreement with the spatial distribution of all measured quantities, and confirm the predictive capabilities of the model. The dominant parameters have been identified and we evidenced the fact that the viscous, elastic, and plastic contributions to the flow have to be treated simultaneously in a tensorial formalism. We provide a substantial contribution to the understanding of foams and open the path to realistic simulations of complex VEP flows for industrial applications. (author)

  20. Genesis of Hurricane Sandy (2012) Simulated with a Global Mesoscale Model

    Shen, Bo-Wen; DeMaria, Mark; Li, J.-L. F.; Cheung, S.


    In this study, we investigate the formation predictability of Hurricane Sandy (2012) with a global mesoscale model. We first present five track and intensity forecasts of Sandy initialized at 00Z 22-26 October 2012, realistically producing its movement with a northwestward turn prior to its landfall. We then show that three experiments initialized at 00Z 16-18 October captured the genesis of Sandy with a lead time of up to 6 days and simulated reasonable evolution of Sandy's track and intensity in the next 2 day period of 18Z 21-23 October. Results suggest that the extended lead time of formation prediction is achieved by realistic simulations of multiscale processes, including (1) the interaction between an easterly wave and a low-level westerly wind belt (WWB) and (2) the appearance of the upper-level trough at 200 hPa to Sandy's northwest. The low-level WWB and upper-level trough are likely associated with a Madden-Julian Oscillation.

  1. A Hybrid Wind-Farm Parametrization for Mesoscale and Climate Models

    Pan, Yang; Archer, Cristina L.


    To better understand the potential impact of wind farms on weather and climate at the regional to global scales, a new hybrid wind-farm parametrization is proposed for mesoscale and climate models. The proposed parametrization is a hybrid model because it is not based on physical processes or conservation laws, but on the multiple linear regression of the results of large-eddy simulations (LES) with the geometric properties of the wind-farm layout (e.g., the blockage ratio and blockage distance). The innovative aspect is that each wind turbine is treated individually based on its position in the farm and on the wind direction by predicting the velocity upstream of each turbine. The turbine-induced forces and added turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) are first derived analytically and then implemented in the Weather Research and Forecasting model. Idealized simulations of the offshore Lillgrund wind farm are conducted. The wind-speed deficit and TKE predicted with the hybrid model are in excellent agreement with those from the LES results, while the wind-power production estimated with the hybrid model is within 10% of that observed. Three additional wind farms with larger inter-turbine spacing than at Lillgrund are also considered, and a similar agreement with LES results is found, proving that the hybrid parametrization works well with any wind farm regardless of the spacing between turbines. These results indicate the wind-turbine position, wind direction, and added TKE are essential in accounting for the wind-farm effects on the surroundings, for which the hybrid wind-farm parametrization is a promising tool.

  2. Quantitative modelling of the closure of meso-scale parallel currents in the nightside ionosphere

    A. Marchaudon


    Full Text Available On 12 January 2000, during a northward IMF period, two successive conjunctions occur between the CUTLASS SuperDARN radar pair and the two satellites Ørsted and FAST. This situation is used to describe and model the electrodynamic of a nightside meso-scale arc associated with a convection shear. Three field-aligned current sheets, one upward and two downward on both sides, are observed. Based on the measurements of the parallel currents and either the conductance or the electric field profile, a model of the ionospheric current closure is developed along each satellite orbit. This model is one-dimensional, in a first attempt and a two-dimensional model is tested for the Ørsted case. These models allow one to quantify the balance between electric field gradients and ionospheric conductance gradients in the closure of the field-aligned currents. These radar and satellite data are also combined with images from Polar-UVI, allowing for a description of the time evolution of the arc between the two satellite passes. The arc is very dynamic, in spite of quiet solar wind conditions. Periodic enhancements of the convection and of electron precipitation associated with the arc are observed, probably associated with quasi-periodic injections of particles due to reconnection in the magnetotail. Also, a northward shift and a reorganisation of the precipitation pattern are observed, together with a southward shift of the convection shear. Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; electric fields and currents; particle precipitation – Magnetospheric physics (magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions

  3. Complementary Use of Glider Data, Altimetry, and Model for Exploring Mesoscale Eddies in the Tropical Pacific Solomon Sea

    Gourdeau, L.; Verron, J.; Chaigneau, A.; Cravatte, S.; Kessler, W.


    Mesoscale activity is an important component of the Solomon Sea circulation that interacts with the energetic low-latitude western boundary currents of the South Tropical Pacific Ocean carrying waters of subtropical origin before joining the equatorial Pacific. Mixing associated with mesoscale activity could explain water mass transformation observed in the Solomon Sea that likely impacts El Niño Southern Oscillation dynamics. This study makes synergetic use of glider data, altimetry, and high-resolution model for exploring mesoscale eddies, especially their vertical structures, and their role on the Solomon Sea circulation. The description of individual eddies observed by altimetry and gliders provides the first elements to characterize the 3-D structure of these tropical eddies, and confirms the usefulness of the model to access a more universal view of such eddies. Mesoscale eddies appear to have a vertical extension limited to the Surface Waters (SW) and the Upper Thermocline Water (UTW), i.e., the first 140-150 m depth. Most of the eddies are nonlinear, meaning that eddies can trap and transport water properties. But they weakly interact with the deep New Guinea Coastal Undercurrent that is a key piece of the equatorial circulation. Anticyclonic eddies are particularly efficient to advect salty and warm SW coming from the intrusion of equatorial Pacific waters at Solomon Strait, and to impact the characteristics of the New Guinea Coastal Current. Cyclonic eddies are particularly efficient to transport South Pacific Tropical Water (SPTW) anomalies from the North Vanuatu Jet and to erode by diapycnal mixing the high SPTW salinity.

  4. Numerical Modeling of Ocean Circulation

    Miller, Robert N.


    The modelling of ocean circulation is important not only for its own sake, but also in terms of the prediction of weather patterns and the effects of climate change. This book introduces the basic computational techniques necessary for all models of the ocean and atmosphere, and the conditions they must satisfy. It describes the workings of ocean models, the problems that must be solved in their construction, and how to evaluate computational results. Major emphasis is placed on examining ocean models critically, and determining what they do well and what they do poorly. Numerical analysis is introduced as needed, and exercises are included to illustrate major points. Developed from notes for a course taught in physical oceanography at the College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences at Oregon State University, this book is ideal for graduate students of oceanography, geophysics, climatology and atmospheric science, and researchers in oceanography and atmospheric science. Features examples and critical examination of ocean modelling and results Demonstrates the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches Includes exercises to illustrate major points and supplement mathematical and physical details

  5. Numerical modelling of fuel sprays

    Bergstroem, C.


    The way the fuel is introduced into the combustion chamber is one of the most important parameters for the power output and the generation of emissions in the combustion of liquid fuels. The interaction between the turbulent gas flow field and the liquid fuel droplets, the vaporisation of them and the mixing of the gaseous fuel with the ambient air that are vital parameters in the combustion process. The use of numerical calculations is an important tool to better understand these complex interacting phenomena. This thesis reports on the numerical modelling of fuel sprays in non-reacting cases using an own developed spray module. The spray module uses the stochastic parcel method to represent the spray. The module was made in such manner that it could by coupled with different gas flow solver. Results obtained from four different gas flow solvers are presented in the thesis, including the use of two different kinds of turbulence models. In the first part the spray module is coupled with a k-{eta} based 2-D cylindrical gas flow solver. A thorough sensitivity analysis was performed on the spray and gas flow solver parameters, such as grid size dependence and sensitivity to initial values of k-{eta}. The results of the spray module were also compared to results from other spray codes, e.g. the well known KIVA code. In the second part of this thesis the spray was injected into a turbulent and fully developed crossflow studied. The spray module was attached to a LES (Large Eddy Simulation) based flow solvers enabling the study of the complex structures and time dependent phenomena involved in spray in crossflows. It was found that the spray performs an oscillatory motion and that the Strouhal number in the wake was about 0.1. Different spray breakup models were evaluated by comparing with experimental results 66 refs, 56 figs

  6. Meso-Scale Modeling of Spall in a Heterogeneous Two-Phase Material

    Springer, Harry Keo [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)


    The influence of the heterogeneous second-phase particle structure and applied loading conditions on the ductile spall response of a model two-phase material was investigated. Quantitative metallography, three-dimensional (3D) meso-scale simulations (MSS), and small-scale spall experiments provided the foundation for this study. Nodular ductile iron (NDI) was selected as the model two-phase material for this study because it contains a large and readily identifiable second- phase particle population. Second-phase particles serve as the primary void nucleation sites in NDI and are, therefore, central to its ductile spall response. A mathematical model was developed for the NDI second-phase volume fraction that accounted for the non-uniform particle size and spacing distributions within the framework of a length-scale dependent Gaussian probability distribution function (PDF). This model was based on novel multiscale sampling measurements. A methodology was also developed for the computer generation of representative particle structures based on their mathematical description, enabling 3D MSS. MSS were used to investigate the effects of second-phase particle volume fraction and particle size, loading conditions, and physical domain size of simulation on the ductile spall response of a model two-phase material. MSS results reinforce existing model predictions, where the spall strength metric (SSM) logarithmically decreases with increasing particle volume fraction. While SSM predictions are nearly independent of applied load conditions at lower loading rates, which is consistent with previous studies, loading dependencies are observed at higher loading rates. There is also a logarithmic decrease in SSM for increasing (initial) void size, as well. A model was developed to account for the effects of loading rate, particle size, matrix sound-speed, and, in the NDI-specific case, the probabilistic particle volume fraction model. Small-scale spall experiments were designed

  7. ORILAM, a three-moment lognormal aerosol scheme for mesoscale atmospheric model: Online coupling into the Meso-NH-C model and validation on the Escompte campaign

    Tulet, Pierre; Crassier, Vincent; Cousin, Frederic; Suhre, Karsten; Rosset, Robert


    Classical aerosol schemes use either a sectional (bin) or lognormal approach. Both approaches have particular capabilities and interests: the sectional approach is able to describe every kind of distribution, whereas the lognormal one makes assumption of the distribution form with a fewer number of explicit variables. For this last reason we developed a three-moment lognormal aerosol scheme named ORILAM to be coupled in three-dimensional mesoscale or CTM models. This paper presents the concept and hypothesis of a range of aerosol processes such as nucleation, coagulation, condensation, sedimentation, and dry deposition. One particular interest of ORILAM is to keep explicit the aerosol composition and distribution (mass of each constituent, mean radius, and standard deviation of the distribution are explicit) using the prediction of three-moment (m0, m3, and m6). The new model was evaluated by comparing simulations to measurements from the Escompte campaign and to a previously published aerosol model. The numerical cost of the lognormal mode is lower than two bins of the sectional one.

  8. How does the Redi parameter for mesoscale mixing impact global climate in an Earth System Model?

    Pradal, Marie-Aude; Gnanadesikan, Anand


    A coupled climate model is used to examine the impact of an increase in the mixing due to mesoscale eddies on the global climate system. A sixfold increase in the Redi mixing coefficient ARedi, which is within the admissible range of variation, has the overall effect of warming the global-mean surface air and sea surface temperatures by more than 1°C. Locally, sea surface temperatures increase by up to 7°C in the North Pacific and by up to 4°C in the Southern Ocean, with corresponding impacts on the ice concentration and ice extent in polar regions. However, it is not clear that the changes in heat transport from tropics to poles associated with changing this coefficient are primarily responsible for these changes. We found that the changes in the transport of heat are often much smaller than changes in long-wave trapping and short-wave absorption. Additionally, changes in the advective and diffusive transport of heat toward the poles often oppose each other. However, we note that the poleward transport of salt increases near the surface as ARedi increases. We suggest a causal chain in which enhanced eddy stirring leads to increased high-latitude surface salinity reducing salt stratification and water column stability and enhancing convection, triggering two feedback loops. In one, deeper convection prevents sea ice formation, which decreases albedo, which increases SW absorption, further increasing SST and decreasing sea ice formation. In the other, increased SST and reduced sea ice allow for more water vapor in the atmosphere, trapping long-wave radiation. Destratifying the polar regions is thus a potential way in which changes in ocean circulation might warm the planet.

  9. A meso-scale model to study the compressive strength of woven carbon fiber reinforced plastics

    Schormans, J.M.J.; Remmers, J.J.C.; Wilson, W.; Deshpande, V.S.


    Modeling kink-band formation in woven composites using a detailed micro-model is numerically expensive. In order to reduce the computational resources, a method to homogenize fiber-tows is proposed which uses a rules of mixture approach. The method is tested by comparing the stiffness and

  10. Do we need full mesoscale models to simulate the urban heat island? A study over the city of Barcelona.

    García-Díez, Markel; Ballester, Joan; De Ridder, Koen; Hooyberghs, Hans; Lauwaet, Dirk; Rodó, Xavier


    As most of the population lives in urban environments, the simulation of the urban climate has become an important part of the global climate change impact assessment. However, due to the high resolution required, these simulations demand a large amount of computational resources. Here we present a comparison between a simplified fast urban climate model (UrbClim) and a widely used full mesoscale model, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, over the city of Barcelona. In order to check the advantages and disadvantages of each approach, both simulations were compared with station data and with land surface temperature observations retrieved by satellites, focusing on the urban heat island. The effect of changing the UrbClim boundary conditions was studied too, by using low resolution global reanalysis data (70 km) and a higher resolution forecast model (15 km). Finally, a strict comparison of the computational resources consumed by both models was carried out. Results show that, generally, the performance of the simple model is comparable to or better than the mesoscale model. The exception are the winds and the day-to-day correlation in the reanalysis driven run, but these problems disappear when taking the boundary conditions from a higher resolution global model. UrbClim was found to run 133 times faster than WRF, using 4x times higher resolution and, thus, it is an efficient solution for running long climate change simulations over large city ensembles.

  11. Mesoscale models for stacking faults, deformation twins and martensitic transformations: Linking atomistics to continuum

    Kibey, Sandeep A.

    We present a hierarchical approach that spans multiple length scales to describe defect formation---in particular, formation of stacking faults (SFs) and deformation twins---in fcc crystals. We link the energy pathways (calculated here via ab initio density functional theory, DFT) associated with formation of stacking faults and twins to corresponding heterogeneous defect nucleation models (described through mesoscale dislocation mechanics). Through the generalized Peieirls-Nabarro model, we first correlate the width of intrinsic SFs in fcc alloy systems to their nucleation pathways called generalized stacking fault energies (GSFE). We then establish a qualitative dependence of twinning tendency in fee metals and alloys---specifically, in pure Cu and dilute Cu-xAl (x= 5.0 and 8.3 at.%)---on their twin-energy pathways called the generalized planar fault energies (GPFE). We also link the twinning behavior of Cu-Al alloys to their electronic structure by determining the effect of solute Al on the valence charge density redistribution at the SF through ab initio DFT. Further, while several efforts have been undertaken to incorporate twinning for predicting stress-strain response of fcc materials, a fundamental law for critical twinning stress has not yet emerged. We resolve this long-standing issue by linking quantitatively the twin-energy pathways (GPFE) obtained via ab initio DFT to heterogeneous, dislocation-based twin nucleation models. We establish an analytical expression that quantitatively predicts the critical twinning stress in fcc metals in agreement with experiments without requiring any empiricism at any length scale. Our theory connects twinning stress to twin-energy pathways and predicts a monotonic relation between stress and unstable twin stacking fault energy revealing the physics of twinning. We further demonstrate that the theory holds for fcc alloys as well. Our theory inherently accounts for directional nature of twinning which available

  12. The Challenge of Forecasting the Onset and Development of Radiation Fog Using Mesoscale Atmospheric Models

    Steeneveld, G.J.; Ronda, R.J.; Holtslag, A.A.M.


    The numerical weather prediction of radiation fog is challenging, as many models typically show large biases for the timing of the onset and dispersal of the fog, as well as for its depth and liquid water content. To understand the role of physical processes, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land-surface

  13. Mesoscale modelling methodology based on nudging to increase accuracy in WRA

    Mylonas Dirdiris, Markos; Barbouchi, Sami; Hermmann, Hugo


    The offshore wind energy has recently become a rapidly growing renewable energy resource worldwide, with several offshore wind projects in development in different planning stages. Despite of this, a better understanding of the atmospheric interaction within the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) is needed in order to contribute to a better energy capture and cost-effectiveness. Light has been thrown in observational nudging as it has recently become an innovative method to increase the accuracy of wind flow modelling. This particular study focuses on the observational nudging capability of Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) and ways the uncertainty of wind flow modelling in the wind resource assessment (WRA) can be reduced. Finally, an alternative way to calculate the model uncertainty is pinpointed. Approach WRF mesoscale model will be nudged with observations from FINO3 at three different heights. The model simulations with and without applying observational nudging will be verified against FINO1 measurement data at 100m. In order to evaluate the observational nudging capability of WRF two ways to derive the model uncertainty will be described: one global uncertainty and an uncertainty per wind speed bin derived using the recommended practice of the IEA in order to link the model uncertainty to a wind energy production uncertainty. This study assesses the observational data assimilation capability of WRF model within the same vertical gridded atmospheric column. The principal aim is to investigate whether having observations up to one height could improve the simulation at a higher vertical level. The study will use objective analysis implementing a Cress-man scheme interpolation to interpolate the observation in time and in sp ace (keeping the horizontal component constant) to the gridded analysis. Then the WRF model core will incorporate the interpolated variables to the "first guess" to develop a nudged simulation. Consequently, WRF with and without

  14. On the influence of temporal and spatial resolution of aircraft emission inventories for mesoscale modeling of pollutant dispersion

    Franzkowiak, V.; Petry, H.; Ebel, A. [Cologne Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Geophysics and Meteorology


    The sensitivity of a mesoscale chemistry transport model to the temporal and spatial resolution of aircraft emission inventories is evaluated. A statistical analysis of air traffic in the North-Atlantic flight corridor is carried out showing a highly variable, fine structured spatial distribution and a pronounced daily variation. Sensitivity studies comparing different emission scenarios reveal a strong dependency to the emission time and location of both transport and response in chemical formation of subsequent products. The introduction of a pronounced daily variation leads to a 30% higher ozone production in comparison to uniformly distributed emissions. (author) 9 refs.

  15. On the influence of temporal and spatial resolution of aircraft emission inventories for mesoscale modeling of pollutant dispersion

    Franzkowiak, V; Petry, H; Ebel, A [Cologne Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Geophysics and Meteorology


    The sensitivity of a mesoscale chemistry transport model to the temporal and spatial resolution of aircraft emission inventories is evaluated. A statistical analysis of air traffic in the North-Atlantic flight corridor is carried out showing a highly variable, fine structured spatial distribution and a pronounced daily variation. Sensitivity studies comparing different emission scenarios reveal a strong dependency to the emission time and location of both transport and response in chemical formation of subsequent products. The introduction of a pronounced daily variation leads to a 30% higher ozone production in comparison to uniformly distributed emissions. (author) 9 refs.

  16. Thermally forced mesoscale atmospheric flow over complex terrain in Southern Italy

    Baldi, M.; Colacino, M.; Dalu, G. A.; Piervitali, E.; Ye, Z.


    In this paper the Authors discuss some results concerning the analysis of the local atmospheric flow over the southern part of Italy, the peninsula of Calabria, using a mesoscale numerical model. Our study is focused on two different but related topics: a detailed analysis of the meteorology and climate of the region based on a data collection, reported in Colacino et al., 'Elementi di Climatologia della Calabria', edited by A. Guerrini, in the series P. S., 'Clima, Ambiente e Territorio nel Mezzogiorno' (CNR, Rome) 1997, pp. 218, and an analysis of the results based on the simulated flow produced using a mesoscale numerical model. The Colorado State University mesoscale numerical model has been applied to study several different climatic situations of particular interest for the region, as discussed in this paper

  17. Thermally forced mesoscale atmospheric flow over complex terrain in Southern Italy

    Baldi, M.; Colacino, M.; Dalu, G. A.; Piervitali, E.; Ye, Z. [CNR, Rome (Italy). Ist. di Fisica dell`Atmosfera


    In this paper the Authors discuss some results concerning the analysis of the local atmospheric flow over the southern part of Italy, the peninsula of Calabria, using a mesoscale numerical model. Our study is focused on two different but related topics: a detailed analysis of the meteorology and climate of the region based on a data collection, reported in Colacino et al., `Elementi di Climatologia della Calabria`, edited by A. Guerrini, in the series P. S., `Clima, Ambiente e Territorio nel Mezzogiorno` (CNR, Rome) 1997, pp. 218, and an analysis of the results based on the simulated flow produced using a mesoscale numerical model. The Colorado State University mesoscale numerical model has been applied to study several different climatic situations of particular interest for the region, as discussed in this paper.

  18. Numerical modeling of slow shocks

    Winske, D.


    This paper reviews previous attempt and the present status of efforts to understand the structure of slow shocks by means of time dependent numerical calculations. Studies carried out using MHD or hybrid-kinetic codes have demonstrated qualitative agreement with theory. A number of unresolved issues related to hybrid simulations of the internal shock structure are discussed in some detail. 43 refs., 8 figs

  19. Mesoscale Characterization of Fracture Properties of Steel Fiber-Reinforced Concrete Using a Lattice–Particle Model

    Francisco Montero-Chacón


    Full Text Available This work presents a lattice–particle model for the analysis of steel fiber-reinforced concrete (SFRC. In this approach, fibers are explicitly modeled and connected to the concrete matrix lattice via interface elements. The interface behavior was calibrated by means of pullout tests and a range for the bond properties is proposed. The model was validated with analytical and experimental results under uniaxial tension and compression, demonstrating the ability of the model to correctly describe the effect of fiber volume fraction and distribution on fracture properties of SFRC. The lattice–particle model was integrated into a hierarchical homogenization-based scheme in which macroscopic material parameters are obtained from mesoscale simulations. Moreover, a representative volume element (RVE analysis was carried out and the results shows that such an RVE does exist in the post-peak regime and until localization takes place. Finally, the multiscale upscaling strategy was successfully validated with three-point bending tests.

  20. Mesoscale Characterization of Fracture Properties of Steel Fiber-Reinforced Concrete Using a Lattice-Particle Model.

    Montero-Chacón, Francisco; Cifuentes, Héctor; Medina, Fernando


    This work presents a lattice-particle model for the analysis of steel fiber-reinforced concrete (SFRC). In this approach, fibers are explicitly modeled and connected to the concrete matrix lattice via interface elements. The interface behavior was calibrated by means of pullout tests and a range for the bond properties is proposed. The model was validated with analytical and experimental results under uniaxial tension and compression, demonstrating the ability of the model to correctly describe the effect of fiber volume fraction and distribution on fracture properties of SFRC. The lattice-particle model was integrated into a hierarchical homogenization-based scheme in which macroscopic material parameters are obtained from mesoscale simulations. Moreover, a representative volume element (RVE) analysis was carried out and the results shows that such an RVE does exist in the post-peak regime and until localization takes place. Finally, the multiscale upscaling strategy was successfully validated with three-point bending tests.

  1. Mesoscale Characterization of Fracture Properties of Steel Fiber-Reinforced Concrete Using a Lattice–Particle Model

    Montero-Chacón, Francisco; Cifuentes, Héctor; Medina, Fernando


    This work presents a lattice–particle model for the analysis of steel fiber-reinforced concrete (SFRC). In this approach, fibers are explicitly modeled and connected to the concrete matrix lattice via interface elements. The interface behavior was calibrated by means of pullout tests and a range for the bond properties is proposed. The model was validated with analytical and experimental results under uniaxial tension and compression, demonstrating the ability of the model to correctly describe the effect of fiber volume fraction and distribution on fracture properties of SFRC. The lattice–particle model was integrated into a hierarchical homogenization-based scheme in which macroscopic material parameters are obtained from mesoscale simulations. Moreover, a representative volume element (RVE) analysis was carried out and the results shows that such an RVE does exist in the post-peak regime and until localization takes place. Finally, the multiscale upscaling strategy was successfully validated with three-point bending tests. PMID:28772568

  2. Parameterization of Mixed Layer and Deep-Ocean Mesoscales Including Nonlinearity

    Canuto, V. M.; Cheng, Y.; Dubovikov, M. S.; Howard, A. M.; Leboissetier, A.


    In 2011, Chelton et al. carried out a comprehensive census of mesoscales using altimetry data and reached the following conclusions: "essentially all of the observed mesoscale features are nonlinear" and "mesoscales do not move with the mean velocity but with their own drift velocity," which is "the most germane of all the nonlinear metrics."� Accounting for these results in a mesoscale parameterization presents conceptual and practical challenges since linear analysis is no longer usable and one needs a model of nonlinearity. A mesoscale parameterization is presented that has the following features: 1) it is based on the solutions of the nonlinear mesoscale dynamical equations, 2) it describes arbitrary tracers, 3) it includes adiabatic (A) and diabatic (D) regimes, 4) the eddy-induced velocity is the sum of a Gent and McWilliams (GM) term plus a new term representing the difference between drift and mean velocities, 5) the new term lowers the transfer of mean potential energy to mesoscales, 6) the isopycnal slopes are not as flat as in the GM case, 7) deep-ocean stratification is enhanced compared to previous parameterizations where being more weakly stratified allowed a large heat uptake that is not observed, 8) the strength of the Deacon cell is reduced. The numerical results are from a stand-alone ocean code with Coordinated Ocean-Ice Reference Experiment I (CORE-I) normal-year forcing.

  3. Numerical Modelling of Electrical Discharges

    Durán-Olivencia, F J; Pontiga, F; Castellanos, A


    The problem of the propagation of an electrical discharge between a spherical electrode and a plane has been solved by means of finite element methods (FEM) using a fluid approximation and assuming weak ionization and local equilibrium with the electric field. The numerical simulation of this type of problems presents the usual difficulties of convection-diffusion-reaction problems, in addition to those associated with the nonlinearities of the charged species velocities, the formation of steep gradients of the electric field and particle densities, and the coexistence of very different temporal scales. The effect of using different temporal discretizations for the numerical integration of the corresponding system of partial differential equations will be here investigated. In particular, the so-called θ-methods will be used, which allows to implement implicit, semi-explicit and fully explicit schemes in a simple way

  4. Tracer experiment data sets for the verification of local and meso-scale atmospheric dispersion models including topographic effects

    Sartori, E.; Schuler, W.


    Software and data for nuclear energy applications are acquired, tested and distributed by several information centres; in particular, relevant computer codes are distributed internationally by the OECD/NEA Data Bank (France) and by ESTSC and EPIC/RSIC (United States). This activity is coordinated among the centres and is extended outside the OECD area through an arrangement with the IAEA. This article proposes more specifically a scheme for acquiring, storing and distributing atmospheric tracer experiment data (ATE) required for verification of atmospheric dispersion models especially the most advanced ones including topographic effects and specific to the local and meso-scale. These well documented data sets will form a valuable complement to the set of atmospheric dispersion computer codes distributed internationally. Modellers will be able to gain confidence in the predictive power of their models or to verify their modelling skills. (au)

  5. Modelling NOX concentrations through CFD-RANS in an urban hot-spot using high resolution traffic emissions and meteorology from a mesoscale model

    Sanchez, Beatriz; Santiago, Jose Luis; Martilli, Alberto; Martin, Fernando; Borge, Rafael; Quaassdorff, Christina; de la Paz, David


    Air quality management requires more detailed studies about air pollution at urban and local scale over long periods of time. This work focuses on obtaining the spatial distribution of NOx concentration averaged over several days in a heavily trafficked urban area in Madrid (Spain) using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. A methodology based on weighted average of CFD simulations is applied computing the time evolution of NOx dispersion as a sequence of steady-state scenarios taking into account the actual atmospheric conditions. The inputs of emissions are estimated from the traffic emission model and the meteorological information used is derived from a mesoscale model. Finally, the computed concentration map correlates well with 72 passive samplers deployed in the research area. This work reveals the potential of using urban mesoscale simulations together with detailed traffic emissions so as to provide accurate maps of pollutant concentration at microscale using CFD simulations.

  6. Mesoscale Benchmark Demonstration Problem 1: Mesoscale Simulations of Intra-granular Fission Gas Bubbles in UO2 under Post-irradiation Thermal Annealing

    Li, Yulan; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Montgomery, Robert; Gao, Fei; Sun, Xin; Tonks, Michael; Biner, Bullent; Millet, Paul; Tikare, Veena; Radhakrishnan, Balasubramaniam; Andersson , David


    A study was conducted to evaluate the capabilities of different numerical methods used to represent microstructure behavior at the mesoscale for irradiated material using an idealized benchmark problem. The purpose of the mesoscale benchmark problem was to provide a common basis to assess several mesoscale methods with the objective of identifying the strengths and areas of improvement in the predictive modeling of microstructure evolution. In this work, mesoscale models (phase-field, Potts, and kinetic Monte Carlo) developed by PNNL, INL, SNL, and ORNL were used to calculate the evolution kinetics of intra-granular fission gas bubbles in UO2 fuel under post-irradiation thermal annealing conditions. The benchmark problem was constructed to include important microstructural evolution mechanisms on the kinetics of intra-granular fission gas bubble behavior such as the atomic diffusion of Xe atoms, U vacancies, and O vacancies, the effect of vacancy capture and emission from defects, and the elastic interaction of non-equilibrium gas bubbles. An idealized set of assumptions was imposed on the benchmark problem to simplify the mechanisms considered. The capability and numerical efficiency of different models are compared against selected experimental and simulation results. These comparisons find that the phase-field methods, by the nature of the free energy formulation, are able to represent a larger subset of the mechanisms influencing the intra-granular bubble growth and coarsening mechanisms in the idealized benchmark problem as compared to the Potts and kinetic Monte Carlo methods. It is recognized that the mesoscale benchmark problem as formulated does not specifically highlight the strengths of the discrete particle modeling used in the Potts and kinetic Monte Carlo methods. Future efforts are recommended to construct increasingly more complex mesoscale benchmark problems to further verify and validate the predictive capabilities of the mesoscale modeling

  7. Extending atomistic scale chemistry to mesoscale model of condensed-phase deflagration

    Joshi, Kaushik; Chaudhuri, Santanu


    Predictive simulations connecting chemistry that follow the shock or thermal initiation of energetic materials to subsequent deflagration or detonation events is currently outside the realm of possibilities. Molecular dynamics and first-principles based dynamics have made progress in understanding reactions in picosecond to nanosecond time scale. Results from thermal ignition of different phases of RDX show a complex reaction network and emergence of a deterministic behavior for critical temperature before ignition and hot spot growth rates. The kinetics observed is dependent on the hot spot temperature, system size and thermal conductivity. For cases where ignition is observed, the incubation period is dominated by intermolecular and intramolecular hydrogen transfer reactions. The gradual temperature and pressure increase in the incubation period is accompanied by accumulation of heavier polyradicals. The challenge of connecting such chemistry in mesoscale simulations remain in reducing the complexity of chemistry. The hot spot growth kinetics in RDX grains and interfaces is an important challenge for reactive simulations aiming to fill in the gaps in our knowledge in the nanoseconds to microseconds time scale. The results discussed indicate that the mesoscale chemistry may include large polyradical molecules in dense reactive mix reaching an instability point at certain temperatures and pressures.

  8. Idealized Mesoscale Model Simulations of Open Cellular Convection Over the Sea

    Vincent, Claire Louise; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Kelly, Mark C.


    The atmospheric conditions during an observed case of open cellular convection over the North Sea were simulated using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) numerical model. Wind, temperature and water vapour mixing ratio profiles from the WRF simulation were used to initialize an idealized...... version of the model, which excluded the effects of topography, surface inhomogeneities and large-scale weather forcing. Cells with an average diameter of 17.4 km developed. Simulations both with and without a capping inversion were made, and the cell-scale kinetic energy budget was calculated for each...... case. By considering all sources of explicit diffusion in the model, the budgets were balanced. In comparison with previous work based on observational studies, the use of three-dimensional, gridded model data afforded the possibility of calculating all terms in the budgets, which showed...

  9. Numerical modelling in material physics

    Proville, L.


    The author first briefly presents his past research activities: investigation of a dislocation sliding in solid solution by molecular dynamics, modelling of metal film growth by phase field and Monte Carlo kinetics, phase field model for surface self-organisation, phase field model for the Al 3 Zr alloy, calculation of anharmonic photons, mobility of bipolarons in superconductors. Then, he more precisely reports the mesoscopic modelling in phase field, and some atomistic modelling (dislocation sliding, Monte Carlo simulation of metal surface growth, anharmonic network optical spectrum modelling)

  10. The Explicit Wake Parametrisation V1.0: a wind farm parametrisation in the mesoscale model WRF

    P. J. H. Volker


    Full Text Available We describe the theoretical basis, implementation, and validation of a new parametrisation that accounts for the effect of large offshore wind farms on the atmosphere and can be used in mesoscale and large-scale atmospheric models. This new parametrisation, referred to as the Explicit Wake Parametrisation (EWP, uses classical wake theory to describe the unresolved wake expansion. The EWP scheme is validated for a neutral atmospheric boundary layer against filtered in situ measurements from two meteorological masts situated a few kilometres away from the Danish offshore wind farm Horns Rev I. The simulated velocity deficit in the wake of the wind farm compares well to that observed in the measurements, and the velocity profile is qualitatively similar to that simulated with large eddy simulation models and from wind tunnel studies. At the same time, the validation process highlights the challenges in verifying such models with real observations.

  11. Numerical modelling approach for mine backfill

    Muhammad Zaka Emad


    Jul 24, 2017 ... conditions. This paper discusses a numerical modelling strategy for modelling mine backfill material. The .... placed in an ore pass that leads the ore to the ore bin and crusher, from ... 1 year, depending on the mine plan.

  12. Advancing Clouds Lifecycle Representation in Numerical Models Using Innovative Analysis Methods that Bridge ARM Observations and Models Over a Breadth of Scales

    Kollias, Pavlos [McGill Univ., Montreal, QC (Canada


    This the final report for the DE-SC0007096 - Advancing Clouds Lifecycle Representation in Numerical Models Using Innovative Analysis Methods that Bridge ARM Observations and Models Over a Breadth of Scales - PI: Pavlos Kollias. The final report outline the main findings of the research conducted using the aforementioned award in the area of cloud research from the cloud scale (10-100 m) to the mesoscale (20-50 km).

  13. Numerical modeling of water-vapor transport during pre-storm and COHMEX

    Djuric, Dusan


    Initial conditions are designed for numerical simulation of mesocale processes in the atmosphere using the Limited Area Mesoscale Prediction System (LAMPS) model. These initial conditions represent an idealized baroclinic wave in which the transport of water vapor can be simulated. The constructed atmosphere has two homogeneous air masses, polar front, polar jet stream and a stratosphere. All these simulate the basic structure of the earth's atmosphere. The hydrostatic and geostrophic balances make it possible to evaluate mutually consistent fields of wind and of the height of isobaric surfaces.

  14. A hybrid, coupled approach for modeling charged fluids from the nano to the mesoscale

    Cheung, James; Frischknecht, Amalie L.; Perego, Mauro; Bochev, Pavel


    We develop and demonstrate a new, hybrid simulation approach for charged fluids, which combines the accuracy of the nonlocal, classical density functional theory (cDFT) with the efficiency of the Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) equations. The approach is motivated by the fact that the more accurate description of the physics in the cDFT model is required only near the charged surfaces, while away from these regions the PNP equations provide an acceptable representation of the ionic system. We formulate the hybrid approach in two stages. The first stage defines a coupled hybrid model in which the PNP and cDFT equations act independently on two overlapping domains, subject to suitable interface coupling conditions. At the second stage we apply the principles of the alternating Schwarz method to the hybrid model by using the interface conditions to define the appropriate boundary conditions and volume constraints exchanged between the PNP and the cDFT subdomains. Numerical examples with two representative examples of ionic systems demonstrate the numerical properties of the method and its potential to reduce the computational cost of a full cDFT calculation, while retaining the accuracy of the latter near the charged surfaces.

  15. Experimental and numerical modeling of chloride diffusivity in hardened cement concrete considering the aggregate shapes and exposure-duration effects

    Wu Jie

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental and numerical model describing the effects of the aggregate shapes and exposure duration of chloride diffusion into cement-based materials. A simple chloride diffusion test was performed on a concrete specimen composed of a mixture of cement mortar with crushed granites and round gravels. A simulation was done and the numerical model developed was applied to the matrix at the meso-scale level and the chloride diffusivity was investigated at 30, 60, and 90 days. The experimental and simulation results showed that the aggregate shape and the exposure duration of chloride diffusing into concrete are of high significance. It was indicated that the model with crushed granite presents a good resistance against chloride ingress, while the model with rounded gravels shows some sensitivity to the chloride penetration. It was also found out that when the time dependence of the diffusion coefficient is not taken into account, the diffusion rate will be overestimated. The meso-scale model developed in this study also provides a new method applied in the analysis of the chloride and water transport that causes damage to concrete considering the particle inclusion and the diffusion duration. Keywords: Meso-scale modeling, Chloride diffusivity, Concrete, Effects of aggregates shape and exposure duration, FEM

  16. Incorporation of a high-roughness lower boundary into a mesoscale model for studies of dry deposition over complex terrain

    Physick, W. L.; Garratt, J. R.


    For flow over natural surfaces, there exists a roughness sublayer within the atmospheric surface layer near the boundary. In this sublayer (typically 50 z 0 deep in unstable conditions), the Monin-Obukhov (M-O) flux profile relations for homogeneous surfaces cannot be applied. We have incorporated a modified form of the M-O stability functions (Garratt, 1978, 1980, 1983) in a mesoscale model to take account of this roughness sublayer and examined the diurnal variation of the boundary-layer wind and temperature profiles with and without these modifications. We have also investigated the effect of the modified M-O functions on the aerodynamic and laminar-sublayer resistances associated with the transfer of trace gases to vegetation. Our results show that when an observation height or the lowest level in a model is within the roughness sublayer, neglect of the flux-profile modifications leads to an underestimate of resistances by 7% at the most.

  17. A methodology to aid in the design of naval steels: Linking first principles calculations to mesoscale modeling

    Spanos, G.; Geltmacher, A.B.; Lewis, A.C.; Bingert, J.F.; Mehl, M.; Papaconstantopoulos, D.; Mishin, Y.; Gupta, A.; Matic, P.


    This paper provides a brief overview of a multidisciplinary effort at the Naval Research Laboratory aimed at developing a computationally-based methodology to assist in the design of advanced Naval steels. This program uses multiple computational techniques ranging from the atomistic length scale to continuum response. First-principles electronic structure calculations using density functional theory were employed, semi-empirical angular dependent potentials were developed based on the embedded atom method, and these potentials were used as input into Monte-Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations. Experimental techniques have also been applied to a super-austenitic stainless steel (AL6XN) to provide experimental input, guidance, verification, and enhancements to the models. These experimental methods include optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, and serial sectioning in conjunction with computer-based three-dimensional reconstruction and quantitative analyses. The experimental results are also used as critical input into mesoscale finite element models of materials response

  18. A dual theory of price and value in a meso-scale economic model with stochastic profit rate

    Greenblatt, R. E.


    The problem of commodity price determination in a market-based, capitalist economy has a long and contentious history. Neoclassical microeconomic theories are based typically on marginal utility assumptions, while classical macroeconomic theories tend to be value-based. In the current work, I study a simplified meso-scale model of a commodity capitalist economy. The production/exchange model is represented by a network whose nodes are firms, workers, capitalists, and markets, and whose directed edges represent physical or monetary flows. A pair of multivariate linear equations with stochastic input parameters represent physical (supply/demand) and monetary (income/expense) balance. The input parameters yield a non-degenerate profit rate distribution across firms. Labor time and price are found to be eigenvector solutions to the respective balance equations. A simple relation is derived relating the expected value of commodity price to commodity labor content. Results of Monte Carlo simulations are consistent with the stochastic price/labor content relation.

  19. Comparing Epileptiform Behavior of Mesoscale Detailed Models and Population Models of Neocortex

    Visser, S.; Meijer, Hil Gaétan Ellart; Lee, Hyong C.; van Drongelen, Wim; van Putten, Michel Johannes Antonius Maria; van Gils, Stephanus A.


    Two models of the neocortex are developed to study normal and pathologic neuronal activity. One model contains a detailed description of a neocortical microcolumn represented by 656 neurons, including superficial and deep pyramidal cells, four types of inhibitory neurons, and realistic synaptic

  20. Numerical models of planetary dynamos

    Glatzmaier, G.A.; Roberts, P.H.


    We describe a nonlinear, axisymmetric, spherical-shell model of planetary dynamos. This intermediate-type dynamo model requires a prescribed helicity field (the alpha effect) and a prescribed buoyancy force or thermal wind (the omega effect) and solves for the axisymmetric time-dependent magnetic and velocity fields. Three very different time dependent solutions are obtained from different prescribed sets of alpha and omega fields

  1. Numerical Modeling of Microelectrochemical Systems

    Adesokan, Bolaji James

    incorporates the finite size of ionic species in the transport equation. The model presents a more appropriate boundary conditions which describe the modified Butler-Volmer reaction kinetics and account for the surface capacitance of the thin electric double layer. We also have found analytical solution...... at the electrode in a microelectrochemical system. In our analysis, we account for the finite size properties of ions in the mass and the charge transport of ionic species in an electrochemical system. This term characterizes the saturation of the ionic species close to the electrode surface. We then analyse......The PhD dissertation is concerned with mathematical modeling and simulation of electrochemical systems. The first three chapters of the thesis consist of the introductory part, the model development chapter and the chapter on the summary of the main results. The remaining three chapters report...

  2. Mathematical and Numerical Modeling in Maritime Geomechanics

    Miguel Martín Stickle


    Full Text Available A theoretical and numerical framework to model the foundation of marine offshore structures is presented. The theoretical model is composed by a system of partial differential equations describing coupling between seabed solid skeleton and pore fluids (water, air, oil,... combined with a system of ordinary differential equations describing the specific constitutive relation of the seabed soil skeleton. Once the theoretical model is described, the finite element numerical procedure to achieve an approximate solution of the overning equations is outlined. In order to validate the proposed theoretical and numerical framework the seaward tilt mechanism induced by the action of breaking waves over a vertical breakwater is numerically reproduced. The results numerically attained are in agreement with the main conclusions drawn from the literature associated with this failure mechanism.

  3. Data assimilation of a ten-day period during June 1993 over the Southern Great Plains Site using a nested mesoscale model

    Dudhia, J.; Guo, Y.R. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)


    A goal of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has been to obtain a complete representation of physical processes on the scale of a general circulation model (GCM) grid box in order to better parameterize radiative processes in these models. Since an observational network of practical size cannot be used alone to characterize the Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site`s 3D structure and time development, data assimilation using the enhanced observations together with a mesoscale model is used to give a full 4D analysis at high resolution. The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)/Penn State Mesoscale Model (MM5) has been applied over a ten-day continuous period in a triple-nested mode with grid sizes of 60, 20 and 6.67 in. The outer domain covers the United States` 48 contiguous states; the innermost is a 480-km square centered on Lamont, Oklahoma. A simulation has been run with data assimilation using the Mesoscale Analysis and Prediction System (MAPS) 60-km analyses from the Forecast Systems Laboratory (FSL) of the National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The nested domains take boundary conditions from and feed back continually to their parent meshes (i.e., they are two-way interactive). As reported last year, this provided a simulation of the basic features of mesoscale events over the CART site during the period 16-26 June 1993 when an Intensive Observation Period (IOP) was under way.

  4. Evaluation of the Weather Research and Forecasting mesoscale model for GABLS3: Impact of boundary-layer schemes, boundary conditions and spin-up

    Kleczek, M.A.; Steeneveld, G.J.; Holtslag, A.A.M.


    We evaluated the performance of the three-dimensional Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model, specifically the performance of the planetary boundary-layer (PBL) parametrizations. For this purpose, Cabauw tower observations were used, with the study extending beyond the third GEWEX

  5. Simulating an extreme over-the-horizon optical propagation event over Lake Michigan using a coupled mesoscale modeling and ray tracing framework

    Basu, S.


    Accurate simulation and forecasting of over-the-horizon propagation events are essential for various civilian and defense applications. We demonstrate the prowess of a newly proposed coupled mesoscale modeling and ray tracing framework in reproducing such an event. Wherever possible, routinely

  6. Numerical modelling of reflood processes

    Glynn, D.R.; Rhodes, N.; Tatchell, D.G.


    The use of a detailed computer model to investigate the effects of grid size and the choice of wall-to-fluid heat-transfer correlations on the predictions obtained for reflooding of a vertical heated channel is described. The model employs equations for the momentum and enthalpy of vapour and liquid and hence accounts for both thermal non-equilibrium and slip between the phases. Empirical correlations are used to calculate interphase and wall-to-fluid friction and heat-transfer as functions of flow regime and local conditions. The empirical formulae have remained fixed with the exception of the wall-to-fluid heat-transfer correlations. These have been varied according to the practices adopted in other computer codes used to model reflood, namely REFLUX, RELAP and TRAC. Calculations have been performed to predict the CSNI standard problem number 7, and the results are compared with experiment. It is shown that the results are substantially grid-independent, and that the choice of correlation has a significant influence on the general flow behaviour, the rate of quenching and on the maximum cladding temperature predicted by the model. It is concluded that good predictions of reflooding rates can be obtained with particular correlation sets. (author)

  7. Development of a prototype mesoscale computer model incorporating treatment of topography

    Apsimon, H.M.; Goddard, A.J.H.; Kitson, K.; Fawcett, M.


    More sophisticated models are now available to simulate dispersal of accidental radioactive releases to the atmosphere; these use mass-consistent windfields and attempt allowance for site-specific topographical features. Our aim has been to examine these techniques critically, develop where possible, and assess limitations and accuracy. The resulting windfield model WAFT uses efficient numerical techniques with improved orographic resolution and treatment of meteorological conditions. Time integrated air concentrations, dry and wet deposition are derived from TOMCATS, which applies Monte-Carlo techniques to an assembly of pseudo-particles representing the release, with specific attention to the role of large eddies and evolving inhomogeneous rainfields. These models have been assessed by application to hypothetical releases in complex terrain using data which would have been available in the event of an accident, and undertaking sensitivity studies. It is concluded that there is considerable uncertainty in results produced by such models; although they may be useful in post-facto analysis, such limitations cast doubt on their advantages relative to simpler techniques, with more modest requirements, during an actual emergency. (author)

  8. Recent advances in numerical modeling of detonations

    Mader, C.L.


    Three lectures were presented on recent advances in numerical modeling detonations entitled (1) Jet Initiation and Penetration of Explosives; (2) Explosive Desensitization by Preshocking; (3) Inert Metal-Loaded Explosives.

  9. A numerical reference model for themomechanical subduction

    Quinquis, Matthieu; Chemia, Zurab; Tosi, Nicola


    Building an advanced numerical model of subduction requires choosing values for various geometrical parameters and material properties, among others, the initial lithosphere thicknesses, representative lithological types and their mechanical and thermal properties, rheologies, initial temperature...

  10. Other relevant numerical modelling papers

    Chartier, M.


    The ocean modelling is a rapidly evolving science and a large number of results have been published. Several categories of papers are of particular interest for this review: the papers published by the international atomic institutions, such as the NEA (for the CRESP or Subseabed Programs), the IAEA (for example the Safety Series, the Technical Report Series or the TECDOC), and the ICRP, and the papers concerned by more fundamental research, which are published in specific scientific literature. This paper aims to list some of the most relevant publications for the CRESP purposes. It means by no way to be exhaustive, but informative on the incontestable progress recently achieved in that field. One should note that some of these papers are so recent that their final version has not yet been published

  11. Confronting the WRF and RAMS mesoscale models with innovative observations in the Netherlands: Evaluating the boundary layer heat budget

    Steeneveld, G. J.; Tolk, L. F.; Moene, A. F.; Hartogensis, O. K.; Peters, W.; Holtslag, A. A. M.


    The Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) and the Regional Atmospheric Mesoscale Model System (RAMS) are frequently used for (regional) weather, climate and air quality studies. This paper covers an evaluation of these models for a windy and calm episode against Cabauw tower observations (Netherlands), with a special focus on the representation of the physical processes in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). In addition, area averaged sensible heat flux observations by scintillometry are utilized which enables evaluation of grid scale model fluxes and flux observations at the same horizontal scale. Also, novel ABL height observations by ceilometry and of the near surface longwave radiation divergence are utilized. It appears that WRF in its basic set-up shows satisfactory model results for nearly all atmospheric near surface variables compared to field observations, while RAMS needed refining of its ABL scheme. An important inconsistency was found regarding the ABL daytime heat budget: Both model versions are only able to correctly forecast the ABL thermodynamic structure when the modeled surface sensible heat flux is much larger than both the eddy-covariance and scintillometer observations indicate. In order to clarify this discrepancy, model results for each term of the heat budget equation is evaluated against field observations. Sensitivity studies and evaluation of radiative tendencies and entrainment reveal that possible errors in these variables cannot explain the overestimation of the sensible heat flux within the current model infrastructure.

  12. Numerical modelling of elastic space tethers

    Kristiansen, Kristian Uldall; Palmer, P. L.; Roberts, R. M.


    In this paper the importance of the ill-posedness of the classical, non-dissipative massive tether model on an orbiting tether system is studied numerically. The computations document that via the regularisation of bending resistance a more reliable numerical integrator can be produced. Furthermo....... It is also shown that on the slow manifold the dynamics of the satellites are well-approximated by the finite dimensional slack-spring model....

  13. Numerical models of groundwater flow and transport

    Konikow, L.F.


    This chapter reviews the state-of-the-art in deterministic modeling of groundwater flow and transport processes, which can be used for interpretation of isotope data through groundwater flow analyses. Numerical models which are available for this purpose are described and their applications to complex field problems are discussed. The theoretical bases of deterministic modeling are summarized, and advantages and limitations of numerical models are described. The selection of models for specific applications and their calibration procedures are described, and results of a few illustrative case study type applications are provided. (author). 145 refs, 17 figs, 2 tabs

  14. Numerical models of groundwater flow and transport

    Konikow, L F [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)


    This chapter reviews the state-of-the-art in deterministic modeling of groundwater flow and transport processes, which can be used for interpretation of isotope data through groundwater flow analyses. Numerical models which are available for this purpose are described and their applications to complex field problems are discussed. The theoretical bases of deterministic modeling are summarized, and advantages and limitations of numerical models are described. The selection of models for specific applications and their calibration procedures are described, and results of a few illustrative case study type applications are provided. (author). 145 refs, 17 figs, 2 tabs.

  15. Modeling of mesoscale dispersion effect on the piezoresistivity of carbon nanotube-polymer nanocomposites via 3D computational multiscale micromechanics methods

    Ren, Xiang; Seidel, Gary D; Chaurasia, Adarsh K; Oliva-Avilés, Andrés I; Ku-Herrera, José J; Avilés, Francis


    In uniaxial tension and compression experiments, carbon nanotube (CNT)-polymer nanocomposites have demonstrated exceptional mechanical and coupled electrostatic properties in the form of piezoresistivity. In order to better understand the correlation of the piezoresistive response with the CNT dispersion at the mesoscale, a 3D computational multiscale micromechanics model based on finite element analysis is constructed to predict the effective macroscale piezoresistive response of CNT/polymer nanocomposites. The key factors that may contribute to the overall piezoresistive response, i.e. the nanoscale electrical tunneling effect, the inherent CNT piezoresistivity and the CNT mesoscale network effect are incorporated in the model based on a 3D multiscale mechanical–electrostatic coupled code. The results not only explain how different nanoscale mechanisms influence the overall macroscale piezoresistive response through the mesoscale CNT network, but also give reason and provide bounds for the wide range of gauge factors found in the literature offering insight regarding how control of the mesoscale CNT networks can be used to tailor nanocomposite piezoresistive response. (paper)

  16. Mesoscale modeling of smoke transport over the South Asian maritime continent: vertical distributions and topographic effect

    Ge, C.; Wang, J.; Yang, Z.; Hyer, E. J.; Reid, J. S.; Chew, B.; Mahamod, M.


    The online-coupled Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used in conjunction with the FLAMBE MODIS-based biomass burning emissions to simulate the transport of smoke particles over the southeast Asian Maritime Continent (MC, 10°S - 10°N, 90°E-150°E) during September - October 2006 when the moderate El Nino event caused the largest region biomass burning outbreak since 1998. The modeled smoke transport pathway is found to be consistent with the MODIS true color images. Quantitatively, the modeled smoke particle mass can explain ~50% of temporal variability in 24-hour average observed PM10 at most ground stations, with linear correlation coefficients often larger than 0.7. Analysis of CALIOP data shows that smoke aerosols are primarily located within 3.5 km above the surface, and we found that smoke injection height in the model should be at ~800 m above surface to best match CALIOP observations downwind, instead of 2 km as used in the past literature. Comparison of CALIOP data in October 2006 with that in other years (2007-2010) reveals that the peak of aerosol extinction always occurs at ~1 km above surface, but smoke events in 2006 doubled the aerosol extinction from the surface to 3.5 km. Numerical experiments further show that the Tama Abu topography in Malaysia Peninsula has a significant impact on smoke transport and the surface in the vicinity. A conceptual model, based upon our analysis of two-month WRFchem simulation and satellite data, is proposed to explain the meteorological causes for smoke layers above the clouds as seen in the CALIOP data.

  17. Analytical and numerical modeling of sandbanks dynamics

    Idier, Deborah; Astruc, Dominique


    Linear and nonlinear behavior of large-scale underwater bedform patterns like sandbanks are studied using linear stability analysis and numerical modeling. The model is based on depth-integrated hydrodynamics equations with a quadratic bottom friction law and a bed load sediment transport model

  18. Numerical 3-D Modelling of Overflows

    Larsen, Torben; Nielsen, L.; Jensen, B.


    -dimensional so-called Volume of Fluid Models (VOF-models) based on the full Navier-Stokes equations (named NS3 and developed by DHI Water & Environment) As a general conclusion, the two numerical models show excellent results when compared with measurements. However, considerable errors occur when...

  19. An Objective Verification of the North American Mesoscale Model for Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

    Bauman, William H., III


    The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) Launch Weather Officers (LWO's) use the 12-km resolution North American Mesoscale (NAM) model (MesoNAM) text and graphical product forecasts extensively to support launch weather operations. However, the actual performance of the model at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) has not been measured objectively. In order to have tangible evidence of model performance, the 45 WS tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU; Bauman et ai, 2004) to conduct a detailed statistical analysis of model output compared to observed values. The model products are provided to the 45 WS by ACTA, Inc. and include hourly forecasts from 0 to 84 hours based on model initialization times of 00, 06, 12 and 18 UTC. The objective analysis compared the MesoNAM forecast winds, temperature (T) and dew pOint (T d), as well as the changes in these parameters over time, to the observed values from the sensors in the KSC/CCAFS wind tower network shown in Table 1. These objective statistics give the forecasters knowledge of the model's strengths and weaknesses, which will result in improved forecasts for operations.

  20. Ferrofluids: Modeling, numerical analysis, and scientific computation

    Tomas, Ignacio

    This dissertation presents some developments in the Numerical Analysis of Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) describing the behavior of ferrofluids. The most widely accepted PDE model for ferrofluids is the Micropolar model proposed by R.E. Rosensweig. The Micropolar Navier-Stokes Equations (MNSE) is a subsystem of PDEs within the Rosensweig model. Being a simplified version of the much bigger system of PDEs proposed by Rosensweig, the MNSE are a natural starting point of this thesis. The MNSE couple linear velocity u, angular velocity w, and pressure p. We propose and analyze a first-order semi-implicit fully-discrete scheme for the MNSE, which decouples the computation of the linear and angular velocities, is unconditionally stable and delivers optimal convergence rates under assumptions analogous to those used for the Navier-Stokes equations. Moving onto the much more complex Rosensweig's model, we provide a definition (approximation) for the effective magnetizing field h, and explain the assumptions behind this definition. Unlike previous definitions available in the literature, this new definition is able to accommodate the effect of external magnetic fields. Using this definition we setup the system of PDEs coupling linear velocity u, pressure p, angular velocity w, magnetization m, and magnetic potential ϕ We show that this system is energy-stable and devise a numerical scheme that mimics the same stability property. We prove that solutions of the numerical scheme always exist and, under certain simplifying assumptions, that the discrete solutions converge. A notable outcome of the analysis of the numerical scheme for the Rosensweig's model is the choice of finite element spaces that allow the construction of an energy-stable scheme. Finally, with the lessons learned from Rosensweig's model, we develop a diffuse-interface model describing the behavior of two-phase ferrofluid flows and present an energy-stable numerical scheme for this model. For a

  1. Evaluation of data assimilation techniques for a mesoscale meteorological model and their effects on air quality model results

    Amicarelli, A; Pelliccioni, A [ISPESL - Dipartimento Insediamenti Produttivi e Interazione con l' Ambiente, Via Fontana Candida, 1 00040 Monteporzio Catone (RM) Italy (Italy); Finardi, S; Silibello, C [ARIANET, via Gilino 9, 20128 Milano (Italy); Gariazzo, C


    Data assimilation techniques are methods to limit the growth of errors in a dynamical model by allowing observations distributed in space and time to force (nudge) model solutions. They have become common for meteorological model applications in recent years, especially to enhance weather forecast and to support air-quality studies. In order to investigate the influence of different data assimilation techniques on the meteorological fields produced by RAMS model, and to evaluate their effects on the ozone and PM{sub 10} concentrations predicted by FARM model, several numeric experiments were conducted over the urban area of Rome, Italy, during a summer episode.

  2. Evaluation of data assimilation techniques for a mesoscale meteorological model and their effects on air quality model results

    Amicarelli, A.; Gariazzo, C.; Finardi, S.; Pelliccioni, A.; Silibello, C.


    Data assimilation techniques are methods to limit the growth of errors in a dynamical model by allowing observations distributed in space and time to force (nudge) model solutions. They have become common for meteorological model applications in recent years, especially to enhance weather forecast and to support air-quality studies. In order to investigate the influence of different data assimilation techniques on the meteorological fields produced by RAMS model, and to evaluate their effects on the ozone and PM10 concentrations predicted by FARM model, several numeric experiments were conducted over the urban area of Rome, Italy, during a summer episode.

  3. Evaluation of data assimilation techniques for a mesoscale meteorological model and their effects on air quality model results

    Amicarelli, A; Pelliccioni, A; Finardi, S; Silibello, C; Gariazzo, C


    Data assimilation techniques are methods to limit the growth of errors in a dynamical model by allowing observations distributed in space and time to force (nudge) model solutions. They have become common for meteorological model applications in recent years, especially to enhance weather forecast and to support air-quality studies. In order to investigate the influence of different data assimilation techniques on the meteorological fields produced by RAMS model, and to evaluate their effects on the ozone and PM 10 concentrations predicted by FARM model, several numeric experiments were conducted over the urban area of Rome, Italy, during a summer episode

  4. A Novel Observation-Guided Approach for Evaluating Mesoscale Convective Systems Simulated by the DOE ACME Model

    Feng, Z.; Ma, P. L.; Hardin, J. C.; Houze, R.


    Mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) are the largest type of convective storms that develop when convection aggregates and induces mesoscale circulation features. Over North America, MCSs contribute over 60% of the total warm-season precipitation and over half of the extreme daily precipitation in the central U.S. Our recent study (Feng et al. 2016) found that the observed increases in springtime total and extreme rainfall in this region are dominated by increased frequency and intensity of long-lived MCSs*. To date, global climate models typically do not run at a resolution high enough to explicitly simulate individual convective elements and may not have adequate process representations for MCSs, resulting in a large deficiency in projecting changes of the frequency of extreme precipitation events in future climate. In this study, we developed a novel observation-guided approach specifically designed to evaluate simulated MCSs in the Department of Energy's climate model, Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy (ACME). The ACME model has advanced treatments for convection and subgrid variability and for this study is run at 25 km and 100 km grid spacings. We constructed a robust MCS database consisting of over 500 MCSs from 3 warm-season observations by applying a feature-tracking algorithm to 4-km resolution merged geostationary satellite and 3-D NEXRAD radar network data over the Continental US. This high-resolution MCS database is then down-sampled to the 25 and 100 km ACME grids to re-characterize key MCS properties. The feature-tracking algorithm is adapted with the adjusted characteristics to identify MCSs from ACME model simulations. We demonstrate that this new analysis framework is useful for evaluating ACME's warm-season precipitation statistics associated with MCSs, and provides insights into the model process representations related to extreme precipitation events for future improvement. *Feng, Z., L. R. Leung, S. Hagos, R. A. Houze, C. D. Burleyson

  5. Comparing numerically exact and modelled static friction

    Krengel Dominik


    Full Text Available Currently there exists no mechanically consistent “numerically exact” implementation of static and dynamic Coulomb friction for general soft particle simulations with arbitrary contact situations in two or three dimension, but only along one dimension. We outline a differential-algebraic equation approach for a “numerically exact” computation of friction in two dimensions and compare its application to the Cundall-Strack model in some test cases.

  6. Reactor Thermal Hydraulic Numerical Calculation And Modeling

    Duong Ngoc Hai; Dang The Ba


    In the paper the results of analysis of thermal hydraulic state models using the numerical codes such as COOLOD, EUREKA and RELAP5 for simulation of the reactor thermal hydraulic states are presented. The calculations, analyses of reactor thermal hydraulic state and safety were implemented using different codes. The received numerical results, which were compared each to other, to experiment measurement of Dalat (Vietnam) research reactor and published results, show their appropriateness and capacity for analyses of different appropriate cases. (author)

  7. Numerical Modeling of Ablation Heat Transfer

    Ewing, Mark E.; Laker, Travis S.; Walker, David T.


    A unique numerical method has been developed for solving one-dimensional ablation heat transfer problems. This paper provides a comprehensive description of the method, along with detailed derivations of the governing equations. This methodology supports solutions for traditional ablation modeling including such effects as heat transfer, material decomposition, pyrolysis gas permeation and heat exchange, and thermochemical surface erosion. The numerical scheme utilizes a control-volume approach with a variable grid to account for surface movement. This method directly supports implementation of nontraditional models such as material swelling and mechanical erosion, extending capabilities for modeling complex ablation phenomena. Verifications of the numerical implementation are provided using analytical solutions, code comparisons, and the method of manufactured solutions. These verifications are used to demonstrate solution accuracy and proper error convergence rates. A simple demonstration of a mechanical erosion (spallation) model is also provided to illustrate the unique capabilities of the method.

  8. Numerical methods and modelling for engineering

    Khoury, Richard


    This textbook provides a step-by-step approach to numerical methods in engineering modelling. The authors provide a consistent treatment of the topic, from the ground up, to reinforce for students that numerical methods are a set of mathematical modelling tools which allow engineers to represent real-world systems and compute features of these systems with a predictable error rate. Each method presented addresses a specific type of problem, namely root-finding, optimization, integral, derivative, initial value problem, or boundary value problem, and each one encompasses a set of algorithms to solve the problem given some information and to a known error bound. The authors demonstrate that after developing a proper model and understanding of the engineering situation they are working on, engineers can break down a model into a set of specific mathematical problems, and then implement the appropriate numerical methods to solve these problems. Uses a “building-block” approach, starting with simpler mathemati...

  9. On the Hughes model and numerical aspects

    Gomes, Diogo A.


    We study a crowd model proposed by R. Hughes in [11] and we describe a numerical approach to solve it. This model comprises a Fokker-Planck equation coupled with an eikonal equation with Dirichlet or Neumann data. First, we establish a priori estimates for the solutions. Second, we study radial solutions and identify a shock formation mechanism. Third, we illustrate the existence of congestion, the breakdown of the model, and the trend to the equilibrium. Finally, we propose a new numerical method and consider two examples.

  10. Up-scaling of multi-variable flood loss models from objects to land use units at the meso-scale

    H. Kreibich


    Full Text Available Flood risk management increasingly relies on risk analyses, including loss modelling. Most of the flood loss models usually applied in standard practice have in common that complex damaging processes are described by simple approaches like stage-damage functions. Novel multi-variable models significantly improve loss estimation on the micro-scale and may also be advantageous for large-scale applications. However, more input parameters also reveal additional uncertainty, even more in upscaling procedures for meso-scale applications, where the parameters need to be estimated on a regional area-wide basis. To gain more knowledge about challenges associated with the up-scaling of multi-variable flood loss models the following approach is applied: Single- and multi-variable micro-scale flood loss models are up-scaled and applied on the meso-scale, namely on basis of ATKIS land-use units. Application and validation is undertaken in 19 municipalities, which were affected during the 2002 flood by the River Mulde in Saxony, Germany by comparison to official loss data provided by the Saxon Relief Bank (SAB.In the meso-scale case study based model validation, most multi-variable models show smaller errors than the uni-variable stage-damage functions. The results show the suitability of the up-scaling approach, and, in accordance with micro-scale validation studies, that multi-variable models are an improvement in flood loss modelling also on the meso-scale. However, uncertainties remain high, stressing the importance of uncertainty quantification. Thus, the development of probabilistic loss models, like BT-FLEMO used in this study, which inherently provide uncertainty information are the way forward.

  11. Up-scaling of multi-variable flood loss models from objects to land use units at the meso-scale

    Kreibich, Heidi; Schröter, Kai; Merz, Bruno


    Flood risk management increasingly relies on risk analyses, including loss modelling. Most of the flood loss models usually applied in standard practice have in common that complex damaging processes are described by simple approaches like stage-damage functions. Novel multi-variable models significantly improve loss estimation on the micro-scale and may also be advantageous for large-scale applications. However, more input parameters also reveal additional uncertainty, even more in upscaling procedures for meso-scale applications, where the parameters need to be estimated on a regional area-wide basis. To gain more knowledge about challenges associated with the up-scaling of multi-variable flood loss models the following approach is applied: Single- and multi-variable micro-scale flood loss models are up-scaled and applied on the meso-scale, namely on basis of ATKIS land-use units. Application and validation is undertaken in 19 municipalities, which were affected during the 2002 flood by the River Mulde in Saxony, Germany by comparison to official loss data provided by the Saxon Relief Bank (SAB).In the meso-scale case study based model validation, most multi-variable models show smaller errors than the uni-variable stage-damage functions. The results show the suitability of the up-scaling approach, and, in accordance with micro-scale validation studies, that multi-variable models are an improvement in flood loss modelling also on the meso-scale. However, uncertainties remain high, stressing the importance of uncertainty quantification. Thus, the development of probabilistic loss models, like BT-FLEMO used in this study, which inherently provide uncertainty information are the way forward.

  12. On the Hughes model and numerical aspects

    Gomes, Diogo A.; Machado Velho, Roberto


    We study a crowd model proposed by R. Hughes in [11] and we describe a numerical approach to solve it. This model comprises a Fokker-Planck equation coupled with an eikonal equation with Dirichlet or Neumann data. First, we establish a priori

  13. Reduced fractal model for quantitative analysis of averaged micromotions in mesoscale: Characterization of blow-like signals

    Nigmatullin, Raoul R.; Toboev, Vyacheslav A.; Lino, Paolo; Maione, Guido


    Highlights: •A new approach describes fractal-branched systems with long-range fluctuations. •A reduced fractal model is proposed. •The approach is used to characterize blow-like signals. •The approach is tested on data from different fields. -- Abstract: It has been shown that many micromotions in the mesoscale region are averaged in accordance with their self-similar (geometrical/dynamical) structure. This distinctive feature helps to reduce a wide set of different micromotions describing relaxation/exchange processes to an averaged collective motion, expressed mathematically in a rather general form. This reduction opens new perspectives in description of different blow-like signals (BLS) in many complex systems. The main characteristic of these signals is a finite duration also when the generalized reduced function is used for their quantitative fitting. As an example, we describe quantitatively available signals that are generated by bronchial asthmatic people, songs by queen bees, and car engine valves operating in the idling regime. We develop a special treatment procedure based on the eigen-coordinates (ECs) method that allows to justify the generalized reduced fractal model (RFM) for description of BLS that can propagate in different complex systems. The obtained describing function is based on the self-similar properties of the different considered micromotions. This kind of cooperative model is proposed here for the first time. In spite of the fact that the nature of the dynamic processes that take place in fractal structure on a mesoscale level is not well understood, the parameters of the RFM fitting function can be used for construction of calibration curves, affected by various external/random factors. Then, the calculated set of the fitting parameters of these calibration curves can characterize BLS of different complex systems affected by those factors. Though the method to construct and analyze the calibration curves goes beyond the scope

  14. Screen-level non-GTS data assimilation in a limited-area mesoscale model

    M. Milelli


    Full Text Available The forecast in areas of very complex topography, as for instance the Alpine region, is still a challenge even for the new generation of numerical weather prediction models which aim at reaching the km-scale. The problem is enhanced by a general lack of standard observations, which is even more evident over the southern side of the Alps. For this reason, it would be useful to increase the performance of the mathematical models by locally assimilating non-conventional data. Since in ARPA Piemonte there is the availability of a great number of non-GTS stations, it has been decided to assimilate the 2 m temperature, coming from this dataset, in the very-high resolution version of the COSMO model, which has a horizontal resolution of about 3 km, more similar to the average resolution of the thermometers. Four different weather situations have been considered, ranging from spring to winter, from cloudy to clear sky. The aim of the work is to investigate the effects of the assimilation of non-GTS data in order to create an operational very high-resolution analysis, but also to test the option of running in the future a very short-range forecast starting from these analyses (RUC or Rapid Update Cycle. The results, in terms of Root Mean Square Error, Mean Error and diurnal cycle of some surface variables such as 2 m temperature, 2 m relative humidity and 10 m wind intensity show a positive impact during the assimilation cycle which tends to dissipate a few hours after the end of it. Moreover, the 2 m temperature assimilation has a slightly positive or neutral impact on the vertical profiles of temperature, eventhough some calibration is needed for the precipitation field which is too much perturbed during the assimilation cycle, while it is unaffected in the forecast period. So the stability of the planetary boundary layer, on the one hand, has not been particularly improved by the new-data assimilation, but, on the other hand, it has not been destroyed

  15. Mesoscale modeling of the water vapor cycle at Mawrth Vallis: a Mars2020 and ExoMars exploration rovers high-priority landing site

    Pla-García, Jorge


    Introduction: The Mars Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (MRAMS) was used to predict meteorological conditions that are likely to be encountered by the Mars 2020 (NASA) Rover at several of their respective proposed landing sites during entry, descent, and landing at Ls5 [1] and by the ExoMars (ESA) Rover at one of the final landing sites. MRAMS is ideally suited for this type of investigation; the model is explicitly designed to simu-late Mars' atmospheric circulations at the mesoscale and smaller with realistic, high-resolution surface proper-ties [2, 3]. One of the sights studied for both rovers was Mawrth Vallis (MV), an ancient water outflow channel with light colored clay-rich rocks in the mid-latitude north hemisphere (Oxia Palus quadrangle). MV is the northernmost of the Mars2020 and ExoMars landing sites and the closest to the northern polar cap water source. The primary source of water vapor to the atmosphere is the northern polar cap during the northern summer. In order to highlight MV habitability implications, additional numerical experiments at Ls90, 140 and 180, highest column abundance of water vapor is found over MV [4], were performed to study how the atmospheric circulation connects MV with the polar water source. Once the winter CO2 retreats, the underlying polar water ice is exposed and begins to sublimate. The water is transported equatorward where it is manifested in the tropical aphelion cloud belt. If transport is assumed to be the result of the summer Hadley Cell, then the polar water is carried aloft in the northern high latitude rising branch before moving equatorward and eventually toward the southern high latitudes. Thus, the mean meridional summer circulation precludes a direct water vapor connection between MV and the polar source. Around the equinoxes (Ls0 and Ls180), there is a brief transition period where the rising branch quickly crosses from one hemisphere into the other as it migrates to its more typical solstitial location

  16. Impact of deep convection in the tropical tropopause layer in West Africa: in-situ observations and mesoscale modelling

    F. Fierli


    Full Text Available We present the analysis of the impact of convection on the composition of the tropical tropopause layer region (TTL in West-Africa during the AMMA-SCOUT campaign. Geophysica M55 aircraft observations of water vapor, ozone, aerosol and CO2 during August 2006 show perturbed values at altitudes ranging from 14 km to 17 km (above the main convective outflow and satellite data indicates that air detrainment is likely to have originated from convective cloud east of the flights. Simulations of the BOLAM mesoscale model, nudged with infrared radiance temperatures, are used to estimate the convective impact in the upper troposphere and to assess the fraction of air processed by convection. The analysis shows that BOLAM correctly reproduces the location and the vertical structure of convective outflow. Model-aided analysis indicates that convection can influence the composition of the upper troposphere above the level of main outflow for an event of deep convection close to the observation site. Model analysis also shows that deep convection occurring in the entire Sahelian transect (up to 2000 km E of the measurement area has a non negligible role in determining TTL composition.

  17. Radiation-induced aging of PDMS Elastomer TR-55: a summary of constitutive, mesoscale, and population-based models

    Maiti, A [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Weisgraber, T. H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dinh, L. N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    Filled and cross-linked elastomeric rubbers are versatile network materials with a multitude of applications ranging from artificial organs and biomedical devices to cushions, coatings, adhesives, interconnects, and seismic-isolation-, thermal-, and electrical barriers. External factors like mechanical stress, temperature fluctuations, or radiation are known to create chemical changes in such materials that can directly affect the molecular weight distribution (MWD) of the polymer between cross-links and alter the structural and mechanical properties. From a Materials Science point of view it is highly desirable to understand, effect, and manipulate such property changes in a controlled manner. In this report we summarize our modeling efforts on a polysiloxane elastomer TR-55, which is an important component in several of our systems, and representative of a wide class of filled rubber materials. The primary aging driver in this work has been γ-radiation, and a variety of modeling approaches have been employed, including constitutive, mesoscale, and population-based models. The work utilizes diverse experimental data, including mechanical stress-strain and compression set measurements, as well as MWD measurements using multiquantum NMR.

  18. Fundamentals of Numerical Modelling of Casting Processes

    Hattel, Jesper Henri; Pryds, Nini; Thorborg, Jesper

    Fundamentals of Numerical Modelling of Casting Processes comprises a thorough presentation of the basic phenomena that need to be addressed in numerical simulation of casting processes. The main philosophy of the book is to present the topics in view of their physical meaning, whenever possible......, rather than relying strictly on mathematical formalism. The book, aimed both at the researcher and the practicing engineer, as well as the student, is naturally divided into four parts. Part I (Chapters 1-3) introduces the fundamentals of modelling in a 1-dimensional framework. Part II (Chapter 4...

  19. Numerical modeling techniques for flood analysis

    Anees, Mohd Talha; Abdullah, K.; Nawawi, M. N. M.; Ab Rahman, Nik Norulaini Nik; Piah, Abd. Rahni Mt.; Zakaria, Nor Azazi; Syakir, M. I.; Mohd. Omar, A. K.


    Topographic and climatic changes are the main causes of abrupt flooding in tropical areas. It is the need to find out exact causes and effects of these changes. Numerical modeling techniques plays a vital role for such studies due to their use of hydrological parameters which are strongly linked with topographic changes. In this review, some of the widely used models utilizing hydrological and river modeling parameters and their estimation in data sparse region are discussed. Shortcomings of 1D and 2D numerical models and the possible improvements over these models through 3D modeling are also discussed. It is found that the HEC-RAS and FLO 2D model are best in terms of economical and accurate flood analysis for river and floodplain modeling respectively. Limitations of FLO 2D in floodplain modeling mainly such as floodplain elevation differences and its vertical roughness in grids were found which can be improve through 3D model. Therefore, 3D model was found to be more suitable than 1D and 2D models in terms of vertical accuracy in grid cells. It was also found that 3D models for open channel flows already developed recently but not for floodplain. Hence, it was suggested that a 3D model for floodplain should be developed by considering all hydrological and high resolution topographic parameter's models, discussed in this review, to enhance the findings of causes and effects of flooding.

  20. A unified bond theory, probabilistic meso-scale modeling, and experimental validation of deformed steel rebar in normal strength concrete

    Wu, Chenglin

    Bond between deformed rebar and concrete is affected by rebar deformation pattern, concrete properties, concrete confinement, and rebar-concrete interfacial properties. Two distinct groups of bond models were traditionally developed based on the dominant effects of concrete splitting and near-interface shear-off failures. Their accuracy highly depended upon the test data sets selected in analysis and calibration. In this study, a unified bond model is proposed and developed based on an analogy to the indentation problem around the rib front of deformed rebar. This mechanics-based model can take into account the combined effect of concrete splitting and interface shear-off failures, resulting in average bond strengths for all practical scenarios. To understand the fracture process associated with bond failure, a probabilistic meso-scale model of concrete is proposed and its sensitivity to interface and confinement strengths are investigated. Both the mechanical and finite element models are validated with the available test data sets and are superior to existing models in prediction of average bond strength (rib spacing-to-height ratio of deformed rebar. It can accurately predict the transition of failure modes from concrete splitting to rebar pullout and predict the effect of rebar surface characteristics as the rib spacing-to-height ratio increases. Based on the unified theory, a global bond model is proposed and developed by introducing bond-slip laws, and validated with testing of concrete beams with spliced reinforcement, achieving a load capacity prediction error of less than 26%. The optimal rebar parameters and concrete cover in structural designs can be derived from this study.

  1. Simulation of a severe convective storm using a numerical model with explicitly incorporated aerosols

    Lompar, Miloš; Ćurić, Mladjen; Romanic, Djordje


    Despite an important role the aerosols play in all stages of cloud lifecycle, their representation in numerical weather prediction models is often rather crude. This paper investigates the effects the explicit versus implicit inclusion of aerosols in a microphysics parameterization scheme in Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) - Advanced Research WRF (WRF-ARW) model has on cloud dynamics and microphysics. The testbed selected for this study is a severe mesoscale convective system with supercells that struck west and central parts of Serbia in the afternoon of July 21, 2014. Numerical products of two model runs, i.e. one with aerosols explicitly (WRF-AE) included and another with aerosols implicitly (WRF-AI) assumed, are compared against precipitation measurements from surface network of rain gauges, as well as against radar and satellite observations. The WRF-AE model accurately captured the transportation of dust from the north Africa over the Mediterranean and to the Balkan region. On smaller scales, both models displaced the locations of clouds situated above west and central Serbia towards southeast and under-predicted the maximum values of composite radar reflectivity. Similar to satellite images, WRF-AE shows the mesoscale convective system as a merged cluster of cumulonimbus clouds. Both models over-predicted the precipitation amounts; WRF-AE over-predictions are particularly pronounced in the zones of light rain, while WRF-AI gave larger outliers. Unlike WRF-AI, the WRF-AE approach enables the modelling of time evolution and influx of aerosols into the cloud which could be of practical importance in weather forecasting and weather modification. Several likely causes for discrepancies between models and observations are discussed and prospects for further research in this field are outlined.

  2. Basset force in numerical models of saltation

    Lukerchenko, Nikolay; Dolanský, Jindřich; Vlasák, Pavel


    Roč. 60, č. 4 (2012), s. 277-287 ISSN 0042-790X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/09/1718 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : basset force * bed load transport * numerical model * particle-bed collision Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.653, year: 2012

  3. Thin sheet numerical modelling of continental collision

    Jimenez-Munt, I.; Garcia-Gastellanos, D.; Fernandez, M.


    We study the effects of incorporating surface mass transport and the gravitational potential energy of both crust and lithospheric mantle to the viscous thin sheet approach. Recent 2D (cross-section) numerical models show that surface erosion and sediment transport can play a major role in shaping

  4. Numerical modelling of steel arc welding

    Hamide, M.


    Welding is a highly used assembly technique. Welding simulation software would give access to residual stresses and information about the weld's microstructure, in order to evaluate the mechanical resistance of a weld. It would also permit to evaluate the process feasibility when complex geometrical components are to be made, and to optimize the welding sequences in order to minimize defects. This work deals with the numerical modelling of arc welding process of steels. After describing the industrial context and the state of art, the models implemented in TransWeld (software developed at CEMEF) are presented. The set of macroscopic equations is followed by a discussion on their numerical implementation. Then, the theory of re-meshing and our adaptive anisotropic re-meshing strategy are explained. Two welding metal addition techniques are investigated and are compared in terms of the joint size and transient temperature and stresses. The accuracy of the finite element model is evaluated based on experimental results and the results of the analytical solution. Comparative analysis between experimental and numerical results allows the assessment of the ability of the numerical code to predict the thermomechanical and metallurgical response of the welded structure. The models limitations and the phenomena identified during this study are finally discussed and permit to define interesting orientations for future developments. (author)

  5. Numerical modeling of magma-repository interactions

    Bokhove, Onno


    This report explains the numerical programs behind a comprehensive modeling effort of magma-repository interactions. Magma-repository interactions occur when a magma dike with high-volatile content magma ascends through surrounding rock and encounters a tunnel or drift filled with either a magmatic

  6. Graphical interpretation of numerical model results

    Drewes, D.R.


    Computer software has been developed to produce high quality graphical displays of data from a numerical grid model. The code uses an existing graphical display package (DISSPLA) and overcomes some of the problems of both line-printer output and traditional graphics. The software has been designed to be flexible enough to handle arbitrarily placed computation grids and a variety of display requirements

  7. Adaptive numerical modeling of dynamic crack propagation

    Adouani, H.; Tie, B.; Berdin, C.; Aubry, D.


    We propose an adaptive numerical strategy that aims at developing reliable and efficient numerical tools to model dynamic crack propagation and crack arrest. We use the cohesive zone theory as behavior of interface-type elements to model crack. Since the crack path is generally unknown beforehand, adaptive meshing is proposed to model the dynamic crack propagation. The dynamic study requires the development of specific solvers for time integration. As both geometry and finite element mesh of the studied structure evolve in time during transient analysis, the stability behavior of dynamic solver becomes a major concern. For this purpose, we use the space-time discontinuous Galerkin finite element method, well-known to provide a natural framework to manage meshes that evolve in time. As an important result, we prove that the space-time discontinuous Galerkin solver is unconditionally stable, when the dynamic crack propagation is modeled by the cohesive zone theory, which is highly non-linear. (authors)

  8. Numerical modelling in non linear fracture mechanics

    Viggo Tvergaard


    Full Text Available Some numerical studies of crack propagation are based on using constitutive models that accountfor damage evolution in the material. When a critical damage value has been reached in a materialpoint, it is natural to assume that this point has no more carrying capacity, as is done numerically in the elementvanish technique. In the present review this procedure is illustrated for micromechanically based materialmodels, such as a ductile failure model that accounts for the nucleation and growth of voids to coalescence, and a model for intergranular creep failure with diffusive growth of grain boundary cavities leading to micro-crack formation. The procedure is also illustrated for low cycle fatigue, based on continuum damage mechanics. In addition, the possibility of crack growth predictions for elastic-plastic solids using cohesive zone models to represent the fracture process is discussed.

  9. Mesoscale modeling for the Wind Atlas of South Africa (WASA) project

    Hahmann, Andrea N.; Lennard, Chris; Badger, Jake

    This document reports on the methods used to create and the results of the two numerical wind atlases developed for the Wind Atlas for South Africa (WASA) project. The wind atlases were created using the KAMM-WAsP method and from the output of climate-type simulations of the Weather, Research...

  10. Evaluation of the performance of a meso-scale NWP model to forecast solar irradiance on Reunion Island for photovoltaic power applications

    Kalecinski, Natacha; Haeffelin, Martial; Badosa, Jordi; Periard, Christophe


    Solar photovoltaic power is a predominant source of electrical power on Reunion Island, regularly providing near 30% of electrical power demand for a few hours per day. However solar power on Reunion Island is strongly modulated by clouds in small temporal and spatial scales. Today regional regulations require that new solar photovoltaic plants be combined with storage systems to reduce electrical power fluctuations on the grid. Hence cloud and solar irradiance forecasting becomes an important tool to help optimize the operation of new solar photovoltaic plants on Reunion Island. Reunion Island, located in the South West of the Indian Ocean, is exposed to persistent trade winds, most of all in winter. In summer, the southward motion of the ITCZ brings atmospheric instabilities on the island and weakens trade winds. This context together with the complex topography of Reunion Island, which is about 60 km wide, with two high summits (3070 and 2512 m) connected by a 1500 m plateau, makes cloudiness very heterogeneous. High cloudiness variability is found between mountain and coastal areas and between the windward, leeward and lateral regions defined with respect to the synoptic wind direction. A detailed study of local dynamics variability is necessary to better understand cloud life cycles around the island. In the presented work, our approach to explore the short-term solar irradiance forecast at local scales is to use the deterministic output from a meso-scale numerical weather prediction (NWP) model, AROME, developed by Meteo France. To start we evaluate the performance of the deterministic forecast from AROME by using meteorological measurements from 21 meteorological ground stations widely spread around the island (and with altitudes from 8 to 2245 m). Ground measurements include solar irradiation, wind speed and direction, relative humidity, air temperature, precipitation and pressure. Secondly we study in the model the local dynamics and thermodynamics that

  11. Suitability of Water Harvesting in the Upper Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia: A First Step towards a Mesoscale Hydrological Modeling Framework

    Yihun T. Dile


    Full Text Available Extreme rainfall variability has been one of the major factors to famine and environmental degradation in Ethiopia. The potential for water harvesting in the Upper Blue Nile Basin was assessed using two GIS-based Multicriteria Evaluation methods: (1 a Boolean approach to locate suitable areas for in situ and ex situ systems and (2 a weighted overlay analysis to classify suitable areas into different water harvesting suitability levels. The sensitivity of the results was analyzed to the influence given to different constraining factors. A large part of the basin was suitable for water harvesting: the Boolean analysis showed that 36% of the basin was suitable for in situ and ex situ systems, while the weighted overlay analysis showed that 6–24% of the basin was highly suitable. Rainfall has the highest influence on suitability for water harvesting. Implementing water harvesting in nonagricultural land use types may further increase the benefit. Assessing water harvesting suitability at the larger catchment scale lays the foundation for modeling of water harvesting at mesoscale, which enables analysis of the potential and implications of upscaling of water harvesting practices for building resilience against climatic shocks. A complete water harvesting suitability study requires socioeconomic analysis and stakeholder consultation.

  12. Electronic and Magnetic Properties of Transition-Metal Oxide Nanocomposites: A Tight-Binding Modeling at Mesoscale

    Tai, Yuan-Yen; Zhu, Jian-Xin

    Transition metal oxides (TMOs) exhibit many emergent phenomena ranging from high-temperature superconductivity and giant magnetoresistance to magnetism and ferroelectricity. In addition, when TMOs are interfaced with each other, new functionalities can arise, which are absent in individual components. In this talk, I will present an overview on our recent efforts in theoretical understanding of the electronic and magnetic properties TMO nanocomposites. In particular, I will introduce our recently developed tight-binding modeling of these properties arising from the interplay of competing interactions at the interfaces of planar and pillar nanocomposites. Our theoretical tool package will provide a unique capability to address the emergent phenomena in TMO nanocomposites and their mesoscale response to such effects like strain and microstructures at the interfaces, and ultimately help establish design principles of new multifunctionality with TMOs. This work was carried out under the auspices of the National Nuclear Security Administration of the U.S. Department of Energy at LANL under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25396, and was supported by the LANL LDRD Program.

  13. Micro-mechanics based damage mechanics for 3D Orthogonal Woven Composites: Experiment and Numerical Modelling

    Saleh, Mohamed Nasr


    Damage initiation and evolution of three-dimensional (3D) orthogonal woven carbon fibre composite (3DOWC) is investigated experimentally and numerically. Meso-scale homogenisation of the representative volume element (RVE) is utilised to predict the elastic properties, simulate damage initiation and evolution when loaded in tension. The effect of intra-yarns transverse cracking and shear diffused damage on the in-plane transverse modulus and shear modulus is investigated while one failure criterion is introduced to simulate the matrix damage. The proposed model is based on two major assumptions. First, the effect of the binder yarns, on the in-plane properties, is neglected, so the 3DOWC unit cell can be approximated as a (0o/90o) cross-ply laminate. Second, a micro-mechanics based damage approach is used at the meso-scale, so damage indicators can be correlated, explicitly, to the density of cracks within the material. Results from the simulated RVE are validated against experimental results along the warp (0o direction) and weft (90o direction). This approach paves the road for more predictive models as damage evolution laws are obtained from micro mechanical considerations and rely on few well-defined material parameters. This largely differs from classical damage mechanics approaches in which the evolution law is obtained by retrofitting experimental observations.

  14. Micro-mechanics based damage mechanics for 3D Orthogonal Woven Composites: Experiment and Numerical Modelling

    Saleh, Mohamed Nasr; Lubineau, Gilles; Potluri, Prasad; Withers, Philip; Soutis, Constantinos


    Damage initiation and evolution of three-dimensional (3D) orthogonal woven carbon fibre composite (3DOWC) is investigated experimentally and numerically. Meso-scale homogenisation of the representative volume element (RVE) is utilised to predict the elastic properties, simulate damage initiation and evolution when loaded in tension. The effect of intra-yarns transverse cracking and shear diffused damage on the in-plane transverse modulus and shear modulus is investigated while one failure criterion is introduced to simulate the matrix damage. The proposed model is based on two major assumptions. First, the effect of the binder yarns, on the in-plane properties, is neglected, so the 3DOWC unit cell can be approximated as a (0o/90o) cross-ply laminate. Second, a micro-mechanics based damage approach is used at the meso-scale, so damage indicators can be correlated, explicitly, to the density of cracks within the material. Results from the simulated RVE are validated against experimental results along the warp (0o direction) and weft (90o direction). This approach paves the road for more predictive models as damage evolution laws are obtained from micro mechanical considerations and rely on few well-defined material parameters. This largely differs from classical damage mechanics approaches in which the evolution law is obtained by retrofitting experimental observations.

  15. Utilization of mesoscale atmospheric dynamic model PHYSIC as a meteorological forecast model in nuclear emergency response system

    Nagai, Haruyasu; Yamazawa, Hiromi


    It is advantageous for an emergency response system to have a forecast function to provide a time margin for countermeasures in case of a nuclear accident. We propose to apply an atmospheric dynamic model PHYSIC (Prognostic HYdroStatic model Including turbulence Closure model) as a meteorological forecast model in the emergency system. The model uses GPV data which are the output of the numerical weather forecast model of Japan Meteorological Agency as the initial and boundary conditions. The roles of PHYSIC are the interface between GPV data and the emergency response system and the forecast of local atmospheric phenomena within the model domain. This paper presents a scheme to use PHYSIC to forecast local wind and its performance. Horizontal grid number of PHYSIC is fixed to 50 x 50, whereas the mesh and domain sizes are determined in consideration of topography causing local winds at an objective area. The model performance was examined for the introduction of GPV data through initial and boundary conditions and the predictability of local wind field and atmospheric stability. The model performance was on an acceptable level as the forecast model. It was also recognized that improvement of cloud calculation was necessary in simulating atmospheric stability. (author)

  16. Numerical modeling of fires on gas pipelines

    Zhao Yang; Jianbo Lai; Lu Liu


    When natural gas is released through a hole on a high-pressure pipeline, it disperses in the atmosphere as a jet. A jet fire will occur when the leaked gas meets an ignition source. To estimate the dangerous area, the shape and size of the fire must be known. The evolution of the jet fire in air is predicted by using a finite-volume procedure to solve the flow equations. The model is three-dimensional, elliptic and calculated by using a compressibility corrected version of the k - ξ turbulence model, and also includes a probability density function/laminar flamelet model of turbulent non-premixed combustion process. Radiation heat transfer is described using an adaptive version of the discrete transfer method. The model is compared with the experiments about a horizontal jet fire in a wind tunnel in the literature with success. The influence of wind and jet velocity on the fire shape has been investigated. And a correlation based on numerical results for predicting the stoichiometric flame length is proposed. - Research highlights: → We developed a model to predict the evolution of turbulent jet diffusion flames. → Measurements of temperature distributions match well with the numerical predictions. → A correlation has been proposed to predict the stoichiometric flame length. → Buoyancy effects are higher in the numerical results. → The radiative heat loss is bigger in the experimental results.

  17. Continuum-Kinetic Models and Numerical Methods for Multiphase Applications

    Nault, Isaac Michael

    This thesis presents a continuum-kinetic approach for modeling general problems in multiphase solid mechanics. In this context, a continuum model refers to any model, typically on the macro-scale, in which continuous state variables are used to capture the most important physics: conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. A kinetic model refers to any model, typically on the meso-scale, which captures the statistical motion and evolution of microscopic entitites. Multiphase phenomena usually involve non-negligible micro or meso-scopic effects at the interfaces between phases. The approach developed in the thesis attempts to combine the computational performance benefits of a continuum model with the physical accuracy of a kinetic model when applied to a multiphase problem. The approach is applied to modeling a single particle impact in Cold Spray, an engineering process that intimately involves the interaction of crystal grains with high-magnitude elastic waves. Such a situation could be classified a multiphase application due to the discrete nature of grains on the spatial scale of the problem. For this application, a hyper elasto-plastic model is solved by a finite volume method with approximate Riemann solver. The results of this model are compared for two types of plastic closure: a phenomenological macro-scale constitutive law, and a physics-based meso-scale Crystal Plasticity model.

  18. Numerical Modelling Of Pumpkin Balloon Instability

    Wakefield, D.

    Tensys have been involved in the numerical formfinding and load analysis of architectural stressed membrane structures for 15 years. They have recently broadened this range of activities into the `lighter than air' field with significant involvement in aerostat and heavy-lift hybrid airship design. Since early 2004 they have been investigating pumpkin balloon instability on behalf of the NASA ULDB programme. These studies are undertaken using inTENS, an in-house finite element program suite based upon the Dynamic Relaxation solution method and developed especially for the non-linear analysis and patterning of membrane structures. The paper describes the current state of an investigation that started with a numerical simulation of the lobed cylinder problem first studied by Calladine. The influence of material properties and local geometric deformation on stability is demonstrated. A number of models of complete pumpkin balloons have then been established, including a 64-gore balloon with geometry based upon Julian Nott's Endeavour. This latter clefted dramatically upon initial inflation, a phenomenon that has been reproduced in the numerical model. Ongoing investigations include the introduction of membrane contact modelling into inTENS and correlation studies with the series of large-scale ULDB models currently in preparation.

  19. Numerical Modeling of Piezoelectric Transducers Using Physical Parameters

    Cappon, H.; Keesman, K.J.


    Design of ultrasonic equipment is frequently facilitated with numerical models. These numerical models, however, need a calibration step, because usually not all characteristics of the materials used are known. Characterization of material properties combined with numerical simulations and

  20. Improvement of AEP Predictions Using Diurnal CFD Modelling with Site-Specific Stability Weightings Provided from Mesoscale Simulation

    Hristov, Y; Oxley, G; Žagar, M


    The Bolund measurement campaign, performed by Danish Technical University (DTU) Wind Energy Department (also known as RISØ), provided significant insight into wind flow modeling over complex terrain. In the blind comparison study several modelling solutions were submitted with the vast majority being steady-state Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approaches with two equation k-ε turbulence closure. This approach yielded the most accurate results, and was identified as the state-of-the-art tool for wind turbine generator (WTG) micro-siting. Based on the findings from Bolund, further comparison between CFD and field measurement data has been deemed essential in order to improve simulation accuracy for turbine load and long-term Annual Energy Production (AEP) estimations. Vestas Wind Systems A/S is a major WTG original equipment manufacturer (OEM) with an installed base of over 60GW in over 70 countries accounting for 19% of the global installed base. The Vestas Performance and Diagnostic Centre (VPDC) provides online live data to more than 47GW of these turbines allowing a comprehensive comparison between modelled and real-world energy production data. In previous studies, multiple sites have been simulated with a steady neutral CFD formulation for the atmospheric surface layer (ASL), and wind resource (RSF) files have been generated as a base for long-term AEP predictions showing significant improvement over predictions performed with the industry standard linear WAsP tool. In this study, further improvements to the wind resource file generation with CFD are examined using an unsteady diurnal cycle approach with a full atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) formulation, with the unique stratifications throughout the cycle weighted according to mesoscale simulated sectorwise stability frequencies

  1. Mesoscale Modeling of Smoke Particles Distribution and Their Radiative Feedback over Northern Sub-Saharan African Region

    Yue, Y.; Wang, J.; Ichoku, C. M.; Ellison, L.


    Stretching from southern boundary of Sahara to the equator and expanding west to east from Atlantic Ocean coasts to the India Ocean coasts, the northern sub-Saharan African (NSSA) region has been subject to intense biomass burning. Comprised of savanna, shrub, tropical forest and a number of agricultural crops, the extensive fires burn belt covers central and south of NSSA during dry season (from October to March) contributes to one of the highest biomass burning rate per km2 in the world. Due to smoke particles' absorption effects of solar radiation, they can modify the surface and atmosphere temperature and thus change atmospheric stability, height of the boundary layer, regional atmospheric circulation, evaporation rate, cloud formation, and precipitation. Hence, smoke particles emitted from biomass burning over NSSA region has a significant influence to the air quality, weather and climate variability. In this study, the first version of this Fire Energetics and Emissions Research (FEER.v1) emissions of several smoke constituents including light-absorbing organic carbon (OC) and black carbon (BC) are applied to a state-of-science meteorology-chemistry model as NOAA Weather Research and Forecasting Model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem). We analyzed WRF-Chem simulations of surface and vertical distribution of various pollutants and their direct radiative effects in conjunction with satellite observation data from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar data with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIPSO) to strengthen the importance of combining space measured emission products like FEER.v1 emission inventory with mesoscale model over intense biomass burning region, especially in area where ground-based air-quality and radiation-related observations are limited or absent.

  2. Constructing irregular surfaces to enclose macromolecular complexes for mesoscale modeling using the discrete surface charge optimization (DISCO) algorithm.

    Zhang, Qing; Beard, Daniel A; Schlick, Tamar


    minimizer) is efficient and does not depend on the initial assigned values, and that the residual is acceptable when the distance to the model surface is close to, or larger than, the Debye length. We illustrate applications of DiSCO's model-building procedure to chromatin folding and supercoiled DNA bound to Hin and Fis proteins. DiSCO is generally applicable to other interesting macromolecular systems for which mesoscale models are appropriate, to yield a resolution between the all-atom representative and the polymer level. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Comput Chem 24: 2063-2074, 2003

  3. Numerical modeling in materials science and engineering

    Rappaz, Michel; Deville, Michel


    This book introduces the concepts and methodologies related to the modelling of the complex phenomena occurring in materials processing. After a short reminder of conservation laws and constitutive relationships, the authors introduce the main numerical methods: finite differences, finite volumes and finite elements. These techniques are developed in three main chapters of the book that tackle more specific problems: phase transformation, solid mechanics and fluid flow. The two last chapters treat inverse methods to obtain the boundary conditions or the material properties and stochastic methods for microstructural simulation. This book is intended for undergraduate and graduate students in materials science and engineering, mechanical engineering and physics and for engineering professionals or researchers who want to get acquainted with numerical simulation to model and compute materials processing.

  4. Lattice Boltzmann model for numerical relativity.

    Ilseven, E; Mendoza, M


    In the Z4 formulation, Einstein equations are written as a set of flux conservative first-order hyperbolic equations that resemble fluid dynamics equations. Based on this formulation, we construct a lattice Boltzmann model for numerical relativity and validate it with well-established tests, also known as "apples with apples." Furthermore, we find that by increasing the relaxation time, we gain stability at the cost of losing accuracy, and by decreasing the lattice spacings while keeping a constant numerical diffusivity, the accuracy and stability of our simulations improve. Finally, in order to show the potential of our approach, a linear scaling law for parallelization with respect to number of CPU cores is demonstrated. Our model represents the first step in using lattice kinetic theory to solve gravitational problems.

  5. Infrared radiation parameterizations in numerical climate models

    Chou, Ming-Dah; Kratz, David P.; Ridgway, William


    This study presents various approaches to parameterizing the broadband transmission functions for utilization in numerical climate models. One-parameter scaling is applied to approximate a nonhomogeneous path with an equivalent homogeneous path, and the diffuse transmittances are either interpolated from precomputed tables or fit by analytical functions. Two-parameter scaling is applied to parameterizing the carbon dioxide and ozone transmission functions in both the lower and middle atmosphere. Parameterizations are given for the nitrous oxide and methane diffuse transmission functions.

  6. Advanced Numerical Model for Irradiated Concrete

    Giorla, Alain B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    In this report, we establish a numerical model for concrete exposed to irradiation to address these three critical points. The model accounts for creep in the cement paste and its coupling with damage, temperature and relative humidity. The shift in failure mode with the loading rate is also properly represented. The numerical model for creep has been validated and calibrated against different experiments in the literature [Wittmann, 1970, Le Roy, 1995]. Results from a simplified model are shown to showcase the ability of numerical homogenization to simulate irradiation effects in concrete. In future works, the complete model will be applied to the analysis of the irradiation experiments of Elleuch et al. [1972] and Kelly et al. [1969]. This requires a careful examination of the experimental environmental conditions as in both cases certain critical information are missing, including the relative humidity history. A sensitivity analysis will be conducted to provide lower and upper bounds of the concrete expansion under irradiation, and check if the scatter in the simulated results matches the one found in experiments. The numerical and experimental results will be compared in terms of expansion and loss of mechanical stiffness and strength. Both effects should be captured accordingly by the model to validate it. Once the model has been validated on these two experiments, it can be applied to simulate concrete from nuclear power plants. To do so, the materials used in these concrete must be as well characterized as possible. The main parameters required are the mechanical properties of each constituent in the concrete (aggregates, cement paste), namely the elastic modulus, the creep properties, the tensile and compressive strength, the thermal expansion coefficient, and the drying shrinkage. These can be either measured experimentally, estimated from the initial composition in the case of cement paste, or back-calculated from mechanical tests on concrete. If some

  7. An intercomparison of mesoscale models at simple sites for wind energy applications

    Olsen, Bjarke Tobias; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Sempreviva, Anna Maria


    of the output from 25 NWP models is presented for three sites in northern Europe characterized by simple terrain. The models are evaluated sing a number of statistical properties relevant to wind energy and verified with observations. On average the models have small wind speed biases offshore and aloft ( ... %) and larger biases closer to the surface over land (> 7 %). A similar pattern is detected for the inter-model spread. Strongly stable and strongly unstable atmospheric stability conditions are associated with larger wind speed errors. Strong indications are found that using a grid spacing larger than 3 km...... decreases the accuracy of the models, but we found no evidence that using a grid spacing smaller than 3 km is necessary for these simple sites. Applying the models to a simple wind energy offshore wind farm highlights the importance of capturing the correct distributions of wind speed and direction....

  8. Numerical model simulation of atmospheric coolant plumes

    Gaillard, P.


    The effect of humid atmospheric coolants on the atmosphere is simulated by means of a three-dimensional numerical model. The atmosphere is defined by its natural vertical profiles of horizontal velocity, temperature, pressure and relative humidity. Effluent discharge is characterised by its vertical velocity and the temperature of air satured with water vapour. The subject of investigation is the area in the vicinity of the point of discharge, with due allowance for the wake effect of the tower and buildings and, where application, wind veer with altitude. The model equations express the conservation relationships for mometum, energy, total mass and water mass, for an incompressible fluid behaving in accordance with the Boussinesq assumptions. Condensation is represented by a simple thermodynamic model, and turbulent fluxes are simulated by introduction of turbulent viscosity and diffusivity data based on in-situ and experimental water model measurements. The three-dimensional problem expressed in terms of the primitive variables (u, v, w, p) is governed by an elliptic equation system which is solved numerically by application of an explicit time-marching algorithm in order to predict the steady-flow velocity distribution, temperature, water vapour concentration and the liquid-water concentration defining the visible plume. Windstill conditions are simulated by a program processing the elliptic equations in an axisymmetrical revolution coordinate system. The calculated visible plumes are compared with plumes observed on site with a view to validate the models [fr

  9. Numerical modelling of methanol liquid pool fires

    Prasad, Kuldeep; Li, Chiping; Kailasanath, K.; Ndubizu, Chuka; Ananth, Ramagopal; Tatem, P. A.


    The focus of this paper is on numerical modelling of methanol liquid pool fires. A mathematical model is first developed to describe the evaporation and burning of a two-dimensional or axisymmetric pool containing pure liquid methanol. Then, the complete set of unsteady, compressible Navier-Stokes equations for reactive flows are solved in the gas phase to describe the convection of the fuel gases away from the pool surface, diffusion of the gases into the surrounding air and the oxidation of the fuel into product species. Heat transfer into the liquid pool and the metal container through conduction, convection and radiation are modelled by solving a modified form of the energy equation. Clausius-Clapeyron relationships are invoked to model the evaporation rate of a two-dimensional pool of pure liquid methanol. The governing equations along with appropriate boundary and interface conditions are solved using the flux-corrected transport algorithm. Numerical results exhibit a flame structure that compares well with experimental observations. Temperature profiles and burning rates were found to compare favourably with experimental data from single- and three-compartment laboratory burners. The model predicts a puffing frequency of approximately 12 Hz for a 1 cm diameter methanol pool in the absence of any air co-flow. It is also observed that increasing the air co-flow velocity helps in stabilizing the diffusion flame, by pushing the vortical structures away from the flame region.

  10. Meso-scale modeling of air pollution transport/chemistry/deposition and its application

    Kitada, Toshihiro


    Transport/chemistry/deposition model for atmospheric trace chemical species is now regarded as an important tool for an understanding of the effects of various human activities, such as fuel combustion and deforestation, on human health, eco-system, and climate and for planning of appropriate control of emission sources. Several 'comprehensive' models have been proposed such as RADM (Chang, et al., 1987), STEM-II (Carmichael, et al., 1986), and CMAQ (Community Multi-scale Air Quality model, e.g., EPA website, 2003); the 'comprehensive' models include not only gas/aerosol phase chemistry but also aqueous phase chemistry in cloud/rain water in addition to the processes of advection, diffusion, wet deposition (mass transfer between aqueous and gas/aerosol phases), and dry deposition. The target of the development of the 'comprehensive' model will be that the model can correctly reproduce mass balance of various chemical species in the atmosphere with keeping adequate accuracy for calculated concentration distributions of chemical species. For the purpose, one of the important problems is a reliable wet deposition modeling, and here, we introduce two types of methods of 'cloud-resolving' and 'non-cloud-resolving' modeling for the wet deposition of pollutants. (author)

  11. A Numerical Model for Trickle Bed Reactors

    Propp, Richard M.; Colella, Phillip; Crutchfield, William Y.; Day, Marcus S.


    Trickle bed reactors are governed by equations of flow in porous media such as Darcy's law and the conservation of mass. Our numerical method for solving these equations is based on a total-velocity splitting, sequential formulation which leads to an implicit pressure equation and a semi-implicit mass conservation equation. We use high-resolution finite-difference methods to discretize these equations. Our solution scheme extends previous work in modeling porous media flows in two ways. First, we incorporate physical effects due to capillary pressure, a nonlinear inlet boundary condition, spatial porosity variations, and inertial effects on phase mobilities. In particular, capillary forces introduce a parabolic component into the recast evolution equation, and the inertial effects give rise to hyperbolic nonconvexity. Second, we introduce a modification of the slope-limiting algorithm to prevent our numerical method from producing spurious shocks. We present a numerical algorithm for accommodating these difficulties, show the algorithm is second-order accurate, and demonstrate its performance on a number of simplified problems relevant to trickle bed reactor modeling.

  12. High-Resolution Mesoscale Simulations of the 6-7 May 2000 Missouri Flash Flood: Impact of Model Initialization and Land Surface Treatment

    Baker, R. David; Wang, Yansen; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Wetzel, Peter; Belcher, Larry R.


    High-resolution mesoscale model simulations of the 6-7 May 2000 Missouri flash flood event were performed to test the impact of model initialization and land surface treatment on timing, intensity, and location of extreme precipitation. In this flash flood event, a mesoscale convective system (MCS) produced over 340 mm of rain in roughly 9 hours in some locations. Two different types of model initialization were employed: 1) NCEP global reanalysis with 2.5-degree grid spacing and 12-hour temporal resolution, and 2) Eta reanalysis with 40- km grid spacing and $hour temporal resolution. In addition, two different land surface treatments were considered. A simple land scheme. (SLAB) keeps soil moisture fixed at initial values throughout the simulation, while a more sophisticated land model (PLACE) allows for r interactive feedback. Simulations with high-resolution Eta model initialization show considerable improvement in the intensity of precipitation due to the presence in the initialization of a residual mesoscale convective vortex (hlCV) from a previous MCS. Simulations with the PLACE land model show improved location of heavy precipitation. Since soil moisture can vary over time in the PLACE model, surface energy fluxes exhibit strong spatial gradients. These surface energy flux gradients help produce a strong low-level jet (LLJ) in the correct location. The LLJ then interacts with the cold outflow boundary of the MCS to produce new convective cells. The simulation with both high-resolution model initialization and time-varying soil moisture test reproduces the intensity and location of observed rainfall.

  13. Mesoscale atmospheric modeling of accidental toxic and radioactive releases for emergency response at SRS

    O'Steen, B.L.; Fast, J.D.


    In August of 1991, the Environmental Transport Group (ETG) began the development of an advanced Emergency Response (ER) system based upon the Colorado State University Regional Atmospheric Modeling System 1 (RAMS). This model simulates the three-dimensional, time-dependent, flow field and thermodynamic structure of the planetary boundary layer (PBL). A companion Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model 2 (LPDM) simulates contaminant transport based on the flow and turbulence fields generated by RAMS. The current report describes progress to date on this project in the areas of data development, data assimilation, and operational (real-time) procedures. In particular, a diagnostic capability for simulating contaminant transport is demonstrated

  14. Modeling Hot-Spot Contributions in Shocked High Explosives at the Mesoscale

    Harrier, Danielle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    When looking at performance of high explosives, the defects within the explosive become very important. Plastic bonded explosives, or PBXs, contain voids of air and bonder between the particles of explosive material that aid in the ignition of the explosive. These voids collapse in high pressure shock conditions, which leads to the formation of hot spots. Hot spots are localized high temperature and high pressure regions that cause significant changes in the way the explosive material detonates. Previously hot spots have been overlooked with modeling, but now scientists are realizing their importance and new modeling systems that can accurately model hot spots are underway.

  15. Numerical modelling of swirling diffusive flames

    Parra-Santos Teresa


    Full Text Available Computational Fluid Dynamics has been used to study the mixing and combustion of two confined jets whose setup and operating conditions are those of the benchmark of Roback and Johnson. Numerical model solves 3D transient Navier Stokes for turbulent and reactive flows. Averaged velocity profiles using RNG swirl dominated k-epsilon model have been validated with experimental measurements from other sources for the non reactive case. The combustion model is Probability Density Function. Bearing in mind the annular jet has swirl number over 0.5, a vortex breakdown appears in the axis of the burner. Besides, the sudden expansion with a ratio of 2 in diameter between nozzle exits and the test chamber produces the boundary layer separation with the corresponding torus shape recirculation. Contrasting the mixing and combustion models, the last one produces the reduction of the vortex breakdown.

  16. Mesoscale atmospheric modeling of the July 12, 1992 tritium release from the Savannah River Site

    Fast, J.D.; O'Steen, B.L.; Addis, R.P.


    In August of 1991, the Environmental Transport Group (ETG) began the development of an advanced Emergency Response (ER) system based upon the Colorado State University Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). This model simulates the three-dimensional, time-dependent, flow field and thermodynamic structure of the planetary boundary layer (PBL). A companion Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (LPDM) simulates contaminant transport based on the flow and turbulence fields generated by RAMS. This paper describes the performance of the advanced ER system in predicting transport and diffusion near the SRS when compared to meteorological and sampling data taken during the July 12, 1992 tritium release. Since PUFF/PLUME and 2DPUF are two Weather INformation and Display (WIND) System atmospheric models that were used to predict the transport and diffusion of the plume at the time of the release, the results from the advanced ER system are also compared to those produced by PUFF/PLUME and 2DPUF

  17. Application of two phosphorus models with different complexities in a mesoscale river catchment

    B. Guse


    Full Text Available The water balance and phosphorus inputs of surface waters of the Weiße Elster catchment, Germany, have been quantified using the models GROWA/MEPhos and SWAT. A comparison of the model results shows small differences in the mean long-term total runoff for the entire study area. All relevant pathways of phosphorus transport were considered in MEPhos with phosphorus inputs resulting to about 65% from point sources. SWAT focuses on agricultural areas and estimates a phosphorus input of about 60% through erosion. The mean annual phosphorus input from erosion calculated with SWAT is six times higher than the estimation with MEPhos due to the differing model concepts. This shows the uncertainty contributed by the modelling description of phosphorus pathways.

  18. Atmosphere surface storm track response to resolved ocean mesoscale in two sets of global climate model experiments

    Small, R. Justin; Msadek, Rym; Kwon, Young-Oh; Booth, James F.; Zarzycki, Colin


    It has been hypothesized that the ocean mesoscale (particularly ocean fronts) can affect the strength and location of the overlying extratropical atmospheric storm track. In this paper, we examine whether resolving ocean fronts in global climate models indeed leads to significant improvement in the simulated storm track, defined using low level meridional wind. Two main sets of experiments are used: (i) global climate model Community Earth System Model version 1 with non-eddy-resolving standard resolution or with ocean eddy-resolving resolution, and (ii) the same but with the GFDL Climate Model version 2. In case (i), it is found that higher ocean resolution leads to a reduction of a very warm sea surface temperature (SST) bias at the east coasts of the U.S. and Japan seen in standard resolution models. This in turn leads to a reduction of storm track strength near the coastlines, by up to 20%, and a better location of the storm track maxima, over the western boundary currents as observed. In case (ii), the change in absolute SST bias in these regions is less notable, and there are modest (10% or less) increases in surface storm track, and smaller changes in the free troposphere. In contrast, in the southern Indian Ocean, case (ii) shows most sensitivity to ocean resolution, and this coincides with a larger change in mean SST as ocean resolution is changed. Where the ocean resolution does make a difference, it consistently brings the storm track closer in appearance to that seen in ERA-Interim Reanalysis data. Overall, for the range of ocean model resolutions used here (1° versus 0.1°) we find that the differences in SST gradient have a small effect on the storm track strength whilst changes in absolute SST between experiments can have a larger effect. The latter affects the land-sea contrast, air-sea stability, surface latent heat flux, and the boundary layer baroclinicity in such a way as to reduce storm track activity adjacent to the western boundary in the N

  19. Network-based Modeling of Mesoscale Catchments - The Hydrology Perspective of Glowa-danube

    Ludwig, R.; Escher-Vetter, H.; Hennicker, R.; Mauser, W.; Niemeyer, S.; Reichstein, M.; Tenhunen, J.

    Within the GLOWA initiative of the German Ministry for Research and Educa- tion (BMBF), the project GLOWA-Danube is funded to establish a transdisciplinary network-based decision support tool for water related issues in the Upper Danube wa- tershed. It aims to develop and validate integration techniques, integrated models and integrated monitoring procedures and to implement them in the network-based De- cision Support System DANUBIA. An accurate description of processes involved in energy, water and matter fluxes and turnovers requires an intense collaboration and exchange of water related expertise of different scientific disciplines. DANUBIA is conceived as a distributed expert network and is developed on the basis of re-useable, refineable, and documented sub-models. In order to synthesize a common understand- ing between the project partners, a standardized notation of parameters and functions and a platform-independent structure of computational methods and interfaces has been established using the Unified Modeling Language UML. DANUBIA is object- oriented, spatially distributed and raster-based at its core. It applies the concept of "proxels" (Process Pixel) as its basic object, which has different dimensions depend- ing on the viewing scale and connects to its environment through fluxes. The presented study excerpts the hydrological view point of GLOWA-Danube, its approach of model coupling and network based communication (using the Remote Method Invocation RMI), the object-oriented technology to simulate physical processes and interactions at the land surface and the methodology to treat the issue of spatial and temporal scal- ing in large, heterogeneous catchments. The mechanisms applied to communicate data and model parameters across the typical discipline borders will be demonstrated from the perspective of a land-surface object, which comprises the capabilities of interde- pendent expert models for snowmelt, soil water movement, runoff formation, plant

  20. Upscale Impact of Mesoscale Disturbances of Tropical Convection on Convectively Coupled Kelvin Waves

    Yang, Q.; Majda, A.


    Tropical convection associated with convectively coupled Kelvin waves (CCKWs) is typically organized by an eastward-moving synoptic-scale convective envelope with numerous embedded westward-moving mesoscale disturbances. It is of central importance to assess upscale impact of mesoscale disturbances on CCKWs as mesoscale disturbances propagate at various tilt angles and speeds. Here a simple multi-scale model is used to capture this multi-scale structure, where mesoscale fluctuations are directly driven by mesoscale heating and synoptic-scale circulation is forced by mean heating and eddy transfer of momentum and temperature. The two-dimensional version of the multi-scale model drives the synoptic-scale circulation, successfully reproduces key features of flow fields with a front-to-rear tilt and compares well with results from a cloud resolving model. In the scenario with an elevated upright mean heating, the tilted vertical structure of synoptic-scale circulation is still induced by the upscale impact of mesoscale disturbances. In a faster propagation scenario, the upscale impact becomes less important, while the synoptic-scale circulation response to mean heating dominates. In the unrealistic scenario with upward/westward tilted mesoscale heating, positive potential temperature anomalies are induced in the leading edge, which will suppress shallow convection in a moist environment. In its three-dimensional version, results show that upscale impact of mesoscale disturbances that propagate at tilt angles (110o 250o) induces negative lower-tropospheric potential temperature anomalies in the leading edge, providing favorable conditions for shallow convection in a moist environment, while the remaining tilt angle cases have opposite effects. Even in the presence of upright mean heating, the front-to-rear tilted synoptic-scale circulation can still be induced by eddy terms at tilt angles (120o 240o). In the case with fast propagating mesoscale heating, positive

  1. MESOI Version 2.0: an interactive mesoscale Lagrangian puff dispersion model with deposition and decay

    Ramsdell, J.V.; Athey, G.F.; Glantz, C.S.


    MESOI Version 2.0 is an interactive Lagrangian puff model for estimating the transport, diffusion, deposition and decay of effluents released to the atmosphere. The model is capable of treating simultaneous releases from as many as four release points, which may be elevated or at ground-level. The puffs are advected by a horizontal wind field that is defined in three dimensions. The wind field may be adjusted for expected topographic effects. The concentration distribution within the puffs is initially assumed to be Gaussian in the horizontal and vertical. However, the vertical concentration distribution is modified by assuming reflection at the ground and the top of the atmospheric mixing layer. Material is deposited on the surface using a source depletion, dry deposition model and a washout coefficient model. The model also treats the decay of a primary effluent species and the ingrowth and decay of a single daughter species using a first order decay process. This report is divided into two parts. The first part discusses the theoretical and mathematical bases upon which MESOI Version 2.0 is based. The second part contains the MESOI computer code. The programs were written in the ANSI standard FORTRAN 77 and were developed on a VAX 11/780 computer. 43 references, 14 figures, 13 tables

  2. Development of a prototype mesoscale computer model incorporating treatment of topography

    Apsimon, H.; Kitson, K.; Fawcett, M.; Goddard, A.J.H.


    Models are available for simulating dispersal of accidental releases, using mass-consistent wind-fields and accounting for site-specific topography. These techniques were examined critically to see if they might be improved, and to assess their limitations. An improved model, windfield adjusted for topography (WAFT), was developed (with advantages over MATHEW used in the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability - ARAC system). To simulate dispersion in the windfields produced by WAFT and calculate time integrated air concentrations and dry and wet deposition the TOMCATS model was developed. It treats the release as an assembly of pseudo-particles using Monte Carlo techniques to simulate turbulent displacements. It allows for larger eddy effects in the horizontal turbulence spectrum. Wet deposition is calculated using inhomogeneous rainfields evolving in time and space. The models were assessed, applying them to hypothetical releases in complex terrain, using typical data applicable in accident conditions, and undertaking sensitivity studies. One finds considerable uncertainty in results produced by these models. Although useful for post-facto analysis, such limitations cast doubt on their advantages, relative to simpler techniques, during an actual emergency

  3. Mesoscale modeling of smoke transport from equatorial Southeast Asian Maritime Continent to the Philippines: First comparison of ensemble analysis with in situ observations

    Ge, Cui; Wang, Jun; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Posselt, Derek J.; Xian, Peng; Hyer, Edward


    Atmospheric transport of smoke from equatorial Southeast Asian Maritime Continent (Indonesia, Singapore, and Malaysia) to the Philippines was recently verified by the first-ever measurement of aerosol composition in the region of the Sulu Sea from a research vessel named Vasco. However, numerical modeling of such transport can have large uncertainties due to the lack of observations for parameterization schemes and for describing fire emission and meteorology in this region. These uncertainties are analyzed here, for the first time, with an ensemble of 24 Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) simulations. The ensemble reproduces the time series of observed surface nonsea-salt PM2.5 concentrations observed from the Vasco vessel during 17-30 September 2011 and overall agrees with satellite (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)) and Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data. The difference of meteorology between National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP's) Final (FNL) and European Center for Medium range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF's) ERA renders the biggest spread in the ensemble (up to 20 μg m-3 or 200% in surface PM2.5), with FNL showing systematically superior results. The second biggest uncertainty is from fire emissions; the 2 day maximum Fire Locating and Modelling of Burning Emissions (FLAMBE) emission is superior than the instantaneous one. While Grell-Devenyi (G3) and Betts-Miller-Janjić cumulus schemes only produce a difference of 3 μg m-3 of surface PM2.5 over the Sulu Sea, the ensemble mean agrees best with Climate Prediction Center (CPC) MORPHing (CMORPH)'s spatial distribution of precipitation. Simulation with FNL-G3, 2 day maximum FLAMBE, and 800 m injection height outperforms other ensemble members. Finally, the global transport model (Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System (NAAPS)) outperforms all WRF

  4. Random variability in mesoscale wind observations and implications for diffusion models

    Hanna, S.R. [Sigma Research Corp., Concord, MA (United States)


    The investigation reported in this paper grew out of a preliminary analysis of methods by which regional air quality models such as the Regional Oxidant Model account for horizontal transport and diffusion. It was discovered that there is a variety of often inconsistent methods used to parameterize horizontal diffusion at meso- and regional scales, and the time seemed ripe to review and compare and contrast these schemes. This paper provides a brief overview of the major issues that were uncovered and lists a few specific examples of the technical approaches that are used. Subsequent sections cover the basic physics of horizontal diffusion, the characteristics of observed wind fields, and methods of parameterizing horizontal diffusion in air quality models.

  5. Reference Evapotranspiration Retrievals from a Mesoscale Model Based Weather Variables for Soil Moisture Deficit Estimation

    Prashant K. Srivastava


    Full Text Available Reference Evapotranspiration (ETo and soil moisture deficit (SMD are vital for understanding the hydrological processes, particularly in the context of sustainable water use efficiency in the globe. Precise estimation of ETo and SMD are required for developing appropriate forecasting systems, in hydrological modeling and also in precision agriculture. In this study, the surface temperature downscaled from Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model is used to estimate ETo using the boundary conditions that are provided by the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF. In order to understand the performance, the Hamon’s method is employed to estimate the ETo using the temperature from meteorological station and WRF derived variables. After estimating the ETo, a range of linear and non-linear models is utilized to retrieve SMD. The performance statistics such as RMSE, %Bias, and Nash Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE indicates that the exponential model (RMSE = 0.226; %Bias = −0.077; NSE = 0.616 is efficient for SMD estimation by using the Observed ETo in comparison to the other linear and non-linear models (RMSE range = 0.019–0.667; %Bias range = 2.821–6.894; NSE = 0.013–0.419 used in this study. On the other hand, in the scenario where SMD is estimated using WRF downscaled meteorological variables based ETo, the linear model is found promising (RMSE = 0.017; %Bias = 5.280; NSE = 0.448 as compared to the non-linear models (RMSE range = 0.022–0.707; %Bias range = −0.207–−6.088; NSE range = 0.013–0.149. Our findings also suggest that all the models are performing better during the growing season (RMSE range = 0.024–0.025; %Bias range = −4.982–−3.431; r = 0.245–0.281 than the non−growing season (RMSE range = 0.011–0.12; %Bias range = 33.073–32.701; r = 0.161–0.244 for SMD estimation.

  6. Mesoscale modeling and simulation of microstructure evolution during dynamic recrystallization of a Ni-based superalloy

    Chen, Fei [University of Nottingham, Department of Mechanical, Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Institute of Forming Technology and Equipment, Shanghai (China); Cui, Zhenshan [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Institute of Forming Technology and Equipment, Shanghai (China); Ou, Hengan [University of Nottingham, Department of Mechanical, Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Long, Hui [University of Sheffield, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sheffield (United Kingdom)


    Microstructural evolution and plastic flow characteristics of a Ni-based superalloy were investigated using a simulative model that couples the basic metallurgical principle of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) with the two-dimensional (2D) cellular automaton (CA). Variation of dislocation density with local strain of deformation is considered for accurate determination of the microstructural evolution during DRX. The grain topography, the grain size and the recrystallized fraction can be well predicted by using the developed CA model, which enables to the establishment of the relationship between the flow stress, dislocation density, recrystallized fraction volume, recrystallized grain size and the thermomechanical parameters. (orig.)

  7. The dynamic background of a non-hydrostatic mesoscale model of the atmospheric circulation

    Kapitza, H.


    The anelastically approximated basic equations are transformed into a rectangular computational domain. The integration is performed with the McCormack-Scheme, while the pressure is calculated by a CG-method (KAPITZA and EPPEL, 1987). Useful boundary conditions are discussed. The model is tested with stratified flow over isolated hills. Analytic solutions derived from the linearized equations are compared with results of the linear model version. Very good agreement is found as long as wave reflexions at the upper boundary are prevented. With 27 figs [de

  8. Role of land state in a high resolution mesoscale model for ...



    Oct 2, 2015 ... School of Earth, Ocean and Climate Sciences ... Though global models predicted the large scale event, but they had failed to predict realistic ... this study is to assess the impact of land state conditions in ...... Chand, R and C Singh 2015 Movements of western disturbance and associated cloud convection J.

  9. Validation of a mesoscale hydrological model in a small-scale forested catchment

    Šípek, Václav; Tesař, Miroslav


    Roč. 47, č. 1 (2016), s. 27-41 ISSN 1998-9563 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA02021451 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : hydrological modelling * small catchment * soil moisture * subsurface lateral flow * SWIM Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 1.754, year: 2016

  10. Ecohydrological modelling of water discharge and nitrate loads in a mesoscale lowland catchment, Germany

    N. Fohrer


    Full Text Available The aims of this study are to identify the capacities of applying an ecohydrological model for simulating flow and to assess the impact of point and non-point source pollution on nitrate loads in a complex lowland catchment, which has special hydrological characteristics in comparison with those of other catchments. The study area Kielstau catchment has a size of approximately 50 km2 and is located in the North German lowlands. The water quality is not only influenced by the predominating agricultural land use in the catchment as cropland and pasture, but also by six municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    Ecohydrological models like the SWAT model (Soil and Water Assessment Tool are useful tools for simulating nutrient loads in river catchments. Diffuse entries from the agriculture resulting from fertilizers as well as punctual entries from the wastewater treatment plants are implemented in the model set-up.

    The results of this study show good agreement between simulated and measured daily discharges with a Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency and a correlation coefficient of 0.76 and 0.88 for the calibration period (November 1998 to October 2004; 0.75 and 0.92 for the validation period (November 2004 to December 2007. The model efficiency for daily nitrate loads is 0.64 and 0.5 for the calibration period (June 2005 to May 2007 and the validation period (June 2007 to December 2007, respectively. The study revealed that SWAT performed satisfactorily in simulating daily flow and nitrate loads at the lowland catchment in Northern Germany.

  11. Aerosol numerical modelling at local scale

    Albriet, Bastien


    At local scale and in urban areas, an important part of particulate pollution is due to traffic. It contributes largely to the high number concentrations observed. Two aerosol sources are mainly linked to traffic. Primary emission of soot particles and secondary nanoparticle formation by nucleation. The emissions and mechanisms leading to the formation of such bimodal distribution are still badly understood nowadays. In this thesis, we try to provide an answer to this problematic by numerical modelling. The Modal Aerosol Model MAM is used, coupled with two 3D-codes: a CFD (Mercure Saturne) and a CTM (Polair3D). A sensitivity analysis is performed, at the border of a road but also in the first meters of an exhaust plume, to identify the role of each process involved and the sensitivity of different parameters used in the modelling. (author) [fr

  12. Posttraumatic Orbital Emphysema: A Numerical Model

    Andrzej Skorek


    Full Text Available Orbital emphysema is a common symptom accompanying orbital fracture. The pathomechanism is still not recognized and the usually assumed cause, elevated pressure in the upper airways connected with sneezing or coughing, does not always contribute to the occurrence of this type of fracture. Observations based on the finite model (simulating blowout type fracture of the deformations of the inferior orbital wall after a strike in its lower rim. Authors created a computer numeric model of the orbit with specified features—thickness and resilience modulus. During simulation an evenly spread 14400 N force was applied to the nodular points in the inferior rim (the maximal value not causing cracking of the outer rim, but only ruptures in the inferior wall. The observation was made from 1·10-3 to 1·10-2 second after a strike. Right after a strike dislocations of the inferior orbital wall toward the maxillary sinus were observed. Afterwards a retrograde wave of the dislocation of the inferior wall toward the orbit was noticed. Overall dislocation amplitude reached about 6 mm. Based on a numeric model of the orbit submitted to a strike in the inferior wall an existence of a retrograde shock wave causing orbital emphysema has been found.

  13. Numerical modeling of atmospheric washout processes

    Bayer, D.; Beheng, K.D.; Herbert, F.


    For the washout of particles from the atmosphere by clouds and rain one has to distinguish between processes which work in the first phase of cloud development, when condensation nuclei build up in saturated air (Nucleation Aerosol Scavenging, NAS) and those processes which work at the following cloud development. In the second case particles are taken off by cloud droplets or by falling rain drops via collision (Collision Aerosol Scavenging, CAS). The physics of both processes is described. For the CAS process a numerical model is presented. The report contains a documentation of the mathematical equations and the computer programs (FORTRAN). (KW) [de

  14. Thermomechanical properties of polypropylene-based lightweight composites modeled on the mesoscale

    Dostálová, Darina; Kafka, Vratislav; Vokoun, David; Heller, Luděk; Matějka, L.; Kadeřávek, Lukáš; Pěnčík, J.


    Roč. 26, Oct (2017), s. 5166-5172 ISSN 1059-9495 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36566G Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:68378297 Keywords : building material * composite * creep tests * mesomechanical model * thermal insulation Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials OBOR OECD: Composites (including laminates, reinforced plastics, cermets, combined natural and synthetic fibre fabrics Impact factor: 1.331, year: 2016

  15. Mesoscale modelling of radioactive contamination formation in Ukraine caused by the Chernobyl accident

    Talerko, Nikolai


    This work is devoted to the reconstruction of time-dependent radioactive contamination fields in the territory of Ukraine in the initial period of the Chernobyl accident using the model of atmospheric transport LEDI (Lagrangian-Eulerian DIffusion model). The modelling results were compared with available 137 Cs air and ground contamination measurement data. The 137 Cs atmospheric transport over the territory of Ukraine was simulated during the first 12 days after the accident (from 26 April to 7 May 1986) using real aerological information and rain measurement network data. The detailed scenario of the release from the accidental unit of the Chernobyl nuclear plant has been built (including time-dependent radioactivity release intensity and time-varied height of the release). The calculations have enabled to explain the main features of spatial and temporal variations of radioactive contamination fields over the territory of Ukraine on the regional scale, including the formation of the major large-scale spots of radioactive contamination caused by dry and wet deposition

  16. Multiscale modeling of dislocation processes in BCC tantalum: bridging atomistic and mesoscale simulations

    Yang, L H; Tang, M; Moriarty, J A


    Plastic deformation in bcc metals at low temperatures and high-strain rates is controlled by the motion of a/2 screw dislocations, and understanding the fundamental atomistic processes of this motion is essential to develop predictive multiscale models of crystal plasticity. The multiscale modeling approach presented here for bcc Ta is based on information passing, where results of simulations at the atomic scale are used in simulations of plastic deformation at mesoscopic length scales via dislocation dynamics (DD). The relevant core properties of a/2 screw dislocations in Ta have been obtained using quantum-based interatomic potentials derived from model generalized pseudopotential theory and an ab-initio data base together with an accurate Green's-function simulation method that implements flexible boundary conditions. In particular, the stress-dependent activation enthalpy for the lowest-energy kink-pair mechanism has been calculated and fitted to a revealing analytic form. This is the critical quantity determining dislocation mobility in the DD simulations, and the present activation enthalpy is found to be in good agreement with the previous empirical form used to explain the temperature dependence of the yield stress

  17. Mapping Offshore Winds Around Iceland Using Satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar and Mesoscale Model Simulations

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete; Nawri, Nikolai


    effects, gap flow, coastal barrier jets, and atmospheric gravity waves are not only observed in SAR, but are also modeled well from HARMONIE. Offshore meteorological observations are not available, but wind speed and wind direction measurements from coastal meteorological masts are found to compare well...... to nearby offshore locations observed by SAR. More than 2500 SAR scenes from the Envisat ASAR wide swathmode are used for wind energy resource estimation. The wind energy potential observed from satellite SAR shows high values above 1000 Wm −2 in coastal regions in the south, east, and west, with lower...

  18. Mathematical modeling of a four-stroke resonant engine for micro and mesoscale applications

    Preetham, B. S.; Anderson, M.; Richards, C.


    In order to mitigate frictional and leakage losses in small scale engines, a compliant engine design is proposed in which the piston in cylinder arrangement is replaced by a flexible cavity. A physics-based nonlinear lumped-parameter model is derived to predict the performance of a prototype engine. The model showed that the engine performance depends on input parameters, such as heat input, heat loss, and load on the engine. A sample simulation for a reference engine with octane fuel/air ratio of 0.043 resulted in an indicated thermal efficiency of 41.2%. For a fixed fuel/air ratio, higher output power is obtained for smaller loads and vice-versa. The heat loss from the engine and the work done on the engine during the intake stroke are found to decrease the indicated thermal efficiency. The ratio of friction work to indicated work in the prototype engine is about 8%, which is smaller in comparison to the traditional reciprocating engines.

  19. Mesoscale Modeling of Kinetic Phase Behaviors in Mg-B-H (Subcontract Report)

    Yu, H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Thornton, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wood, B. C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    Storage of hydrogen on board vehicles is one of the critical enabling technologies for creating hydrogenfueled transportation systems that can reduce oil dependency and mitigate the long-term effects of fossil fuels on climate change. Stakeholders in developing hydrogen infrastructure are currently focused on highpressure storage at 350 bar and 700 bar, in part because no viable solid-phase storage material has emerged. Nevertheless, solid-state materials, including high-density hydrides, remain of interest because of their unique potential to meet all DOE targets and deliver hydrogen at lower pressures and higher on-board densities. A successful solution would significantly reduce costs and ensure the economic viability of a U.S. hydrogen infrastructure. The Mg(BH4)2-MgB2 system represents a highly promising solution because of its reasonable reaction enthalpy, high intrinsic capacity, and demonstrated reversibility, yet suffers from poor reaction kinetics. This subcontract aims to deliver a phase-field model for the kinetics of the evolution of the relevant phases within the Mg-B-H system during hydrogenation and dehydrogenation. This model will be used within a broader theory, synthesis, and characterization framework to study the properties of geometry-selected nanoparticles of pristine and doped MgB2/Mg(BH4)2 with two aims: (1) understand the intrinsic limitations in (de)hydrogenation; (2) devise strategies for improving thermodynamics and kinetics through nanostructuring.

  20. Constraining Methane Emissions from Natural Gas Production in Northeastern Pennsylvania Using Aircraft Observations and Mesoscale Modeling

    Barkley, Z.; Davis, K.; Lauvaux, T.; Miles, N.; Richardson, S.; Martins, D. K.; Deng, A.; Cao, Y.; Sweeney, C.; Karion, A.; Smith, M. L.; Kort, E. A.; Schwietzke, S.


    Leaks in natural gas infrastructure release methane (CH4), a potent greenhouse gas, into the atmosphere. The estimated fugitive emission rate associated with the production phase varies greatly between studies, hindering our understanding of the natural gas energy efficiency. This study presents a new application of inverse methodology for estimating regional fugitive emission rates from natural gas production. Methane observations across the Marcellus region in northeastern Pennsylvania were obtained during a three week flight campaign in May 2015 performed by a team from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Global Monitoring Division and the University of Michigan. In addition to these data, CH4 observations were obtained from automobile campaigns during various periods from 2013-2015. An inventory of CH4 emissions was then created for various sources in Pennsylvania, including coalmines, enteric fermentation, industry, waste management, and unconventional and conventional wells. As a first-guess emission rate for natural gas activity, a leakage rate equal to 2% of the natural gas production was emitted at the locations of unconventional wells across PA. These emission rates were coupled to the Weather Research and Forecasting model with the chemistry module (WRF-Chem) and atmospheric CH4 concentration fields at 1km resolution were generated. Projected atmospheric enhancements from WRF-Chem were compared to observations, and the emission rate from unconventional wells was adjusted to minimize errors between observations and simulation. We show that the modeled CH4 plume structures match observed plumes downwind of unconventional wells, providing confidence in the methodology. In all cases, the fugitive emission rate was found to be lower than our first guess. In this initial emission configuration, each well has been assigned the same fugitive emission rate, which can potentially impair our ability to match the observed spatial variability

  1. Meso-scale Modeling of Block Copolymers Self-Assembly in Casting Solutions for Membrane Manufacture

    Moreno Chaparro, Nicolas


    Isoporous membranes manufactured from diblock copolymer are successfully produced at laboratory scale under controlled conditions. Because of the complex phenomena involved, membrane preparation requires trial and error methodologies to find the optimal conditions, leading to a considerable demand of resources. Experimental insights demonstrate that the self-assembly of the block copolymers in solution has an effect on the final membrane structure. Nevertheless, the complete understanding of these multi-scale phenomena is elusive. Herein we use the coarse-grained method Dissipative Particle Dynamics to study the self-assembly of block copolymers that are used for the preparation of the membranes. To simulate representative time and length scales, we introduce a framework for model reduction of polymer chain representations for dissipative particle dynamics, which preserves the properties governing the phase equilibria. We reduce the number of degrees of freedom by accounting for the correlation between beads in fine-grained models via power laws and the consistent scaling of the simulation parameters. The coarse-graining models are consistent with the experimental evidence, showing a morphological transition of the aggregates as the polymer concentration and solvent affinity change. We show that hexagonal packing of the micelles can occur in solution within different windows of polymer concentration depending on the solvent affinity. However, the shape and size dispersion of the micelles determine the characteristic arrangement. We describe the order of crew-cut micelles using a rigid-sphere approximation and propose different phase parameters that characterize the emergence of monodisperse-spherical micelles in solution. Additionally, we investigate the effect of blending asymmetric diblock copolymers (AB/AC) over the properties of the membranes. We observe that the co-assembly mechanism localizes the AC molecules at the interface of A and B domains, and induces


    Petr Chmátal


    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to carry out a hydraulic design of rowing/sculling and paddling simulator. Nowadays there are two main approaches in the simulator design. The first one includes a static water with no artificial movement and counts on specially cut oars to provide the same resistance in the water. The second approach, on the other hand uses pumps or similar devices to force the water to circulate but both of the designs share many problems. Such problems are affecting already built facilities and can be summarized as unrealistic feeling, unwanted turbulent flow and bad velocity profile. Therefore, the goal was to design a new rowing simulator that would provide nature-like conditions for the racers and provide an unmatched experience. In order to accomplish this challenge, it was decided to use in-depth numerical modeling to solve the hydraulic problems. The general measures for the design were taken in accordance with space availability of the simulator ́s housing. The entire research was coordinated with other stages of the construction using BIM. The detailed geometry was designed using a numerical model in Ansys Fluent and parametric auto-optimization tools which led to minimum negative hydraulic phenomena and decreased investment and operational costs due to the decreased hydraulic losses in the system.

  3. Numerical modeling of materials under extreme conditions

    Brown, Eric


    The book presents twelve state of the art contributions in the field of numerical modeling of materials subjected to large strain, high strain rates, large pressure and high stress triaxialities, organized into two sections. The first part is focused on high strain rate-high pressures such as those occurring in impact dynamics and shock compression related phenomena, dealing with material response identification, advanced modeling incorporating microstructure and damage, stress waves propagation in solids and structures response under impact. The latter part is focused on large strain-low strain rates applications such as those occurring in technological material processing, dealing with microstructure and texture evolution, material response at elevated temperatures, structural behavior under large strain and multi axial state of stress.

  4. Partial Differential Equations Modeling and Numerical Simulation

    Glowinski, Roland


    This book is dedicated to Olivier Pironneau. For more than 250 years partial differential equations have been clearly the most important tool available to mankind in order to understand a large variety of phenomena, natural at first and then those originating from human activity and technological development. Mechanics, physics and their engineering applications were the first to benefit from the impact of partial differential equations on modeling and design, but a little less than a century ago the Schrödinger equation was the key opening the door to the application of partial differential equations to quantum chemistry, for small atomic and molecular systems at first, but then for systems of fast growing complexity. Mathematical modeling methods based on partial differential equations form an important part of contemporary science and are widely used in engineering and scientific applications. In this book several experts in this field present their latest results and discuss trends in the numerical analy...

  5. Extreme precipitation response to climate perturbations in an atmospheric mesoscale model

    Attema, Jisk J; Loriaux, Jessica M; Lenderink, Geert


    Observations of extreme (sub-)hourly precipitation at mid-latitudes show a large dependency on the dew point temperature often close to 14% per degree—2 times the dependency of the specific humidity on dew point temperature which is given by the Clausius–Clapeyron (CC) relation. By simulating a selection of 11 cases over the Netherlands characterized by intense showers, we investigate this behavior in the non-hydrostatic weather prediction model Harmonie at a resolution of 2.5 km. These experiments are repeated using perturbations of the atmospheric profiles of temperature and humidity: (i) using an idealized approach with a 2° warmer (colder) atmosphere assuming constant relative humidity, and (ii) using changes in temperature and humidity derived from a long climate change simulation at 2° global warming. All perturbations have a difference in the local dew point temperature compared to the reference of approximately 2°. Differences are considerable between the cases, with dependencies ranging from almost zero to an increase of 18% per degree rise of the dew point temperature. On average however, we find an increase of extreme precipitation intensity of 11% per degree for the idealized perturbation, and 9% per degree for the climate change perturbation. For the most extreme events these dependencies appear to approach a rate of 11–14% per degree, in closer agreement with the observed relation. (paper)

  6. A mesoscale granular model for the mechanical behavior of alloys during solidification

    Vernede, Stephane [Computational Materials Laboratory, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Station 12, Lausanne CH-1015 (Switzerland); Alcan Centre de Recherches de Voreppe, ZI Centr' Alp, 725 rue Aristide Berges, BP 27, Voreppe FR-38341 (France)], E-mail:; Dantzig, Jonathan A. [Computational Materials Laboratory, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Station 12, Lausanne CH-1015 (Switzerland); Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois, 1206 West Green Street Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Rappaz, Michel [Computational Materials Laboratory, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Station 12, Lausanne CH-1015 (Switzerland)


    We present a two-dimensional granular model for the mechanical behavior of an ensemble of globular grains during solidification. The grain structure is produced by a Voronoi tessellation based on an array of predefined nuclei. We consider the fluid flow caused by grain movement and solidification shrinkage in the network of channels that is formed by the faces of the grains in the tessellation. We develop the governing equations for the flow rate and pressure drop across each channel when the grains are allowed to move, and we then assemble the equations into a global expression that conserves mass and force in the system. We show that the formulation is consistent with dissipative formulations of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. Several example problems are presented to illustrate the effect of tensile strains and the availability of liquid to feed the deforming microstructure. For solid fractions below g{sub s}=0.97, we find that the fluid is able to feed the deformation at low strain, even if external feeding is not permitted. For solid fractions above g{sub s}=0.97, clusters of grains with 'dry' boundaries form and fluid flow becomes highly localized.

  7. Class Generation for Numerical Wind Atlases

    Cutler, N.J.; Jørgensen, B.H.; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær


    A new optimised clustering method is presented for generating wind classes for mesoscale modelling to produce numerical wind atlases. It is compared with the existing method of dividing the data in 12 to 16 sectors, 3 to 7 wind-speed bins and dividing again according to the stability...... of the atmosphere. Wind atlases are typically produced using many years of on-site wind observations at many locations. Numerical wind atlases are the result of mesoscale model integrations based on synoptic scale wind climates and can be produced in a number of hours of computation. 40 years of twice daily NCEP...... adapting to the local topography. The purpose of forming classes is to minimise the computational time for the mesoscale model while still representing the synoptic climate features. Only tried briefly in the past, clustering has traits that can be used to improve the existing class generation method...

  8. A delta-rule model of numerical and non-numerical order processing.

    Verguts, Tom; Van Opstal, Filip


    Numerical and non-numerical order processing share empirical characteristics (distance effect and semantic congruity), but there are also important differences (in size effect and end effect). At the same time, models and theories of numerical and non-numerical order processing developed largely separately. Currently, we combine insights from 2 earlier models to integrate them in a common framework. We argue that the same learning principle underlies numerical and non-numerical orders, but that environmental features determine the empirical differences. Implications for current theories on order processing are pointed out. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Wildfire particulate matter in Europe during summer 2003: meso-scale modeling of smoke emissions, transport and radiative effects

    A. Hodzic


    Full Text Available The present study investigates effects of wildfire emissions on air quality in Europe during an intense fire season that occurred in summer 2003. A meso-scale chemistry transport model CHIMERE is used, together with ground based and satellite aerosol optical measurements, to assess the dispersion of fire emissions and to quantify the associated radiative effects. The model has been improved to take into account a MODIS-derived daily smoke emission inventory as well as the injection altitude of smoke particles. The simulated aerosol optical properties are put into a radiative transfer model to estimate (off-line the effects of smoke particles on photolysis rates and atmospheric radiative forcing. We have found that the simulated wildfires generated comparable amounts of primary aerosol pollutants (130 kTons of PM2.5, fine particles to anthropogenic sources during August 2003, and caused significant changes in aerosol optical properties not only close to the fire source regions, but also over a large part of Europe as a result of the long-range transport of the smoke. Including these emissions into the model significantly improved its performance in simulating observed aerosol concentrations and optical properties. Quantitative comparison with MODIS and POLDER data during the major fire event (3–8 August 2003 showed the ability of the model to reproduce high aerosol optical thickness (AOT over Northern Europe caused by the advection of the smoke plume from the Portugal source region. Although there was a fairly good spatial agreement with satellite data (correlation coefficients ranging from 0.4 to 0.9, the temporal variability of AOT data at specific AERONET locations was not well captured by the model. Statistical analyses of model-simulated AOT data at AERONET ground stations showed a significant decrease in the model biases suggesting that wildfire emissions are responsible for a 30% enhancement in mean AOT values during the heat

  10. Measurements and Mesoscale Modeling of Autumnal Vertical Ozone Profiles in Southern Taiwan

    Yen-Ping Peng


    Full Text Available Vertical measurements of ozone were made using a tethered balloon at the Linyuan site in Kaohsiung County, southern Taiwan. Ozone was monitored at altitudes of 0, 100, 300, 500, and 1000 m from November 23 to 25 in 2005. The potential temperature profiles revealed a stable atmosphere during the study period, largely because of the dominance of the high-pressure system and nocturnal radiation cooling close to the surface. The mixing height was low (50 - 300 m, particularly in the late night and early morning. The surface ozone concentrations that were predicted using TAPM (The Air Pollution Model were high (33.7 - 119 ppbv in the daytime (10:00 - 16:00 and were low (10 - 40 ppbv at other times; the predictions of which were consistent with the observations. The simulated surface ozone concentrations reveal that costal lands typically had higher ozone concentrations than those inland, because most industrial parks are located in or close to the boundaries of Kaohsiung City. Both measurements and simulations indicate that daytime ozone concentrations decreased quickly with increasing height at altitudes below 300 m; while nighttime ozone concentrations were lower at low altitudes (50 to 300 m than at higher altitudes, partly because of dry deposition and titration of surface ozone by the near-surface nitrogen oxides (NOx and partly because of the existence of the residual layer above the stable nocturnal boundary layer. The simulations show a good correlation between the maximum daytime surface ozone concentration and average nighttime ozone concentration above the nocturnal boundary layer.

  11. Adaptive Numerical Algorithms in Space Weather Modeling

    Toth, Gabor; vanderHolst, Bart; Sokolov, Igor V.; DeZeeuw, Darren; Gombosi, Tamas I.; Fang, Fang; Manchester, Ward B.; Meng, Xing; Nakib, Dalal; Powell, Kenneth G.; hide


    Space weather describes the various processes in the Sun-Earth system that present danger to human health and technology. The goal of space weather forecasting is to provide an opportunity to mitigate these negative effects. Physics-based space weather modeling is characterized by disparate temporal and spatial scales as well as by different physics in different domains. A multi-physics system can be modeled by a software framework comprising of several components. Each component corresponds to a physics domain, and each component is represented by one or more numerical models. The publicly available Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF) can execute and couple together several components distributed over a parallel machine in a flexible and efficient manner. The framework also allows resolving disparate spatial and temporal scales with independent spatial and temporal discretizations in the various models. Several of the computationally most expensive domains of the framework are modeled by the Block-Adaptive Tree Solar wind Roe Upwind Scheme (BATS-R-US) code that can solve various forms of the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations, including Hall, semi-relativistic, multi-species and multi-fluid MHD, anisotropic pressure, radiative transport and heat conduction. Modeling disparate scales within BATS-R-US is achieved by a block-adaptive mesh both in Cartesian and generalized coordinates. Most recently we have created a new core for BATS-R-US: the Block-Adaptive Tree Library (BATL) that provides a general toolkit for creating, load balancing and message passing in a 1, 2 or 3 dimensional block-adaptive grid. We describe the algorithms of BATL and demonstrate its efficiency and scaling properties for various problems. BATS-R-US uses several time-integration schemes to address multiple time-scales: explicit time stepping with fixed or local time steps, partially steady-state evolution, point-implicit, semi-implicit, explicit/implicit, and fully implicit numerical

  12. Validation of satellite SAR offshore wind speed maps to in-situ data, microscala and mesoscale model results

    Hasager, C B; Astrup, P; Barthelmie, R; Dellwik, E; Hoffmann Joergensen, B; Gylling Mortensen, N; Nielsen, M; Pryor, S; Rathmann, O


    A validation study has been performed in order to investigate the precision and accuracy of the satellite-derived ERS-2 SAR wind products in offshore regions. The overall project goal is to develop a method for utilizing the satellite wind speed maps for offshore wind resources, e.g. in future planning of offshore wind farms. The report describes the validation analysis in detail for three sites in Denmark, Italy and Egypt. The site in Norway is analyzed by the Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Centre (NERSC). Wind speed maps and wind direction maps from Earth Observation data recorded by the ERS-2 SAR satellite have been obtained from the NERSC. For the Danish site the wind speed and wind direction maps have been compared to in-situ observations from a met-mast at Horns Rev in the North Sea located 14 km offshore. The SAR wind speeds have been area-averaged by simple and advanced footprint modelling, ie. the upwind conditions to the meteorological mast are explicitly averaged in the SAR wind speed maps before comparison. The comparison results are very promising with a standard error of {+-} 0.61 m s{sup -1}, a bias {approx}2 m s{sup -1} and R{sup 2} {approx}0.88 between in-situ wind speed observations and SAR footprint averaged values at 10 m level. Wind speeds predicted by the local scale model LINCOM and the mesoscale model KAMM2 have been compared to the spatial variations in the SAR wind speed maps. The finding is a good correspondence between SAR observations and model results. Near the coast is an 800 m wide band in which the SAR wind speed observations have a strong negative bias. The bathymetry of Horns Rev combined with tidal currents give rise to bias in the SAR wind speed maps near areas of shallow, complex bottom topography in some cases. A total of 16 cases were analyzed for Horns Rev. For Maddalena in Italy five cases were analyzed. At the Italian site the SAR wind speed maps were compared to WAsP and KAMM2 model results. The WAsP model

  13. Numerical modelling of ion transport in flames

    Han, Jie


    This paper presents a modelling framework to compute the diffusivity and mobility of ions in flames. The (n, 6, 4) interaction potential is adopted to model collisions between neutral and charged species. All required parameters in the potential are related to the polarizability of the species pair via semi-empirical formulas, which are derived using the most recently published data or best estimates. The resulting framework permits computation of the transport coefficients of any ion found in a hydrocarbon flame. The accuracy of the proposed method is evaluated by comparing its predictions with experimental data on the mobility of selected ions in single-component neutral gases. Based on this analysis, the value of a model constant available in the literature is modified in order to improve the model\\'s predictions. The newly determined ion transport coefficients are used as part of a previously developed numerical approach to compute the distribution of charged species in a freely propagating premixed lean CH4/O2 flame. Since a significant scatter of polarizability data exists in the literature, the effects of changes in polarizability on ion transport properties and the spatial distribution of ions in flames are explored. Our analysis shows that changes in polarizability propagate with decreasing effect from binary transport coefficients to species number densities. We conclude that the chosen polarizability value has a limited effect on the ion distribution in freely propagating flames. We expect that the modelling framework proposed here will benefit future efforts in modelling the effect of external voltages on flames. Supplemental data for this article can be accessed at © 2015 Taylor & Francis.

  14. Modeling and numerical simulations of the influenced Sznajd model

    Karan, Farshad Salimi Naneh; Srinivasan, Aravinda Ramakrishnan; Chakraborty, Subhadeep


    This paper investigates the effects of independent nonconformists or influencers on the behavioral dynamic of a population of agents interacting with each other based on the Sznajd model. The system is modeled on a complete graph using the master equation. The acquired equation has been numerically solved. Accuracy of the mathematical model and its corresponding assumptions have been validated by numerical simulations. Regions of initial magnetization have been found from where the system converges to one of two unique steady-state PDFs, depending on the distribution of influencers. The scaling property and entropy of the stationary system in presence of varying level of influence have been presented and discussed.

  15. A Mesoscale Model-Based Climatography of Nocturnal Boundary-Layer Characteristics over the Complex Terrain of North-Western Utah.

    Serafin, Stefano; De Wekker, Stephan F J; Knievel, Jason C

    Nocturnal boundary-layer phenomena in regions of complex topography are extremely diverse and respond to a multiplicity of forcing factors, acting primarily at the mesoscale and microscale. The interaction between different physical processes, e.g., drainage promoted by near-surface cooling and ambient flow over topography in a statically stable environment, may give rise to special flow patterns, uncommon over flat terrain. Here we present a climatography of boundary-layer flows, based on a 2-year archive of simulations from a high-resolution operational mesoscale weather modelling system, 4DWX. The geographical context is Dugway Proving Ground, in north-western Utah, USA, target area of the field campaigns of the MATERHORN (Mountain Terrain Atmospheric Modeling and Observations Program) project. The comparison between model fields and available observations in 2012-2014 shows that the 4DWX model system provides a realistic representation of wind speed and direction in the area, at least in an average sense. Regions displaying strong spatial gradients in the field variables, thought to be responsible for enhanced nocturnal mixing, are typically located in transition areas from mountain sidewalls to adjacent plains. A key dynamical process in this respect is the separation of dynamically accelerated downslope flows from the surface.

  16. Evaluation of meteorological fields generated by a prognostic mesoscale model using data collected during the 1993 GMAQS/COAST field study

    Lolk, N.K.; Douglas, S.G.


    In 1993, the US Interior Department's Minerals Management Service (MMS) sponsored the Gulf of Mexico Air Quality Study (GMAQS). Its purpose was to assess potential impacts of offshore petrochemical development on ozone concentrations in nonattainment areas in the Texas/Louisiana Gulf Coast region as mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. The GMAQS comprised data collection, data analysis, and applications of an advanced photochemical air quality model, the variable-grid Urban Airshed Model (UAM-V), and a prognostic mesoscale meteorological model (SAIMM -- Systems Applications International Mesoscale Model) to simulate two ozone episodes that were captured during the summer field study. The primary purpose of this paper is to evaluate the SAIMM-simulated meteorological fields using graphical analysis that utilize the comprehensive GMAQS/COAST (Gulf of Mexico Air Quality Study/Coastal Oxidant Assessment for Southeast Texas) database and to demonstrate the ability of the SAIMM to simulate the day-to-day variations in the evolution and structure of the gulf breeze and the mixed layer

  17. Mathematical models and numerical simulation in electromagnetism

    Bermúdez, Alfredo; Salgado, Pilar


    The book represents a basic support for a master course in electromagnetism oriented to numerical simulation. The main goal of the book is that the reader knows the boundary-value problems of partial differential equations that should be solved in order to perform computer simulation of electromagnetic processes. Moreover it includes a part devoted to electric circuit theory  based on ordinary differential equations. The book is mainly oriented to electric engineering applications, going from the general to the specific, namely, from the full Maxwell’s equations to the particular cases of electrostatics, direct current, magnetostatics and eddy currents models. Apart from standard exercises related to analytical calculus, the book includes some others oriented to real-life applications solved with MaxFEM free simulation software.

  18. Numerical modeling capabilities to predict repository performance


    This report presents a summary of current numerical modeling capabilities that are applicable to the design and performance evaluation of underground repositories for the storage of nuclear waste. The report includes codes that are available in-house, within Golder Associates and Lawrence Livermore Laboratories; as well as those that are generally available within the industry and universities. The first listing of programs are in-house codes in the subject areas of hydrology, solute transport, thermal and mechanical stress analysis, and structural geology. The second listing of programs are divided by subject into the following categories: site selection, structural geology, mine structural design, mine ventilation, hydrology, and mine design/construction/operation. These programs are not specifically designed for use in the design and evaluation of an underground repository for nuclear waste; but several or most of them may be so used

  19. Ocean wave prediction using numerical and neural network models

    Mandal, S.; Prabaharan, N.

    This paper presents an overview of the development of the numerical wave prediction models and recently used neural networks for ocean wave hindcasting and forecasting. The numerical wave models express the physical concepts of the phenomena...

  20. Numerical modeling of bubble dynamics in magmas

    Huber, Christian; Su, Yanqing; Parmigiani, Andrea


    Understanding the complex non-linear physics that governs volcanic eruptions is contingent on our ability to characterize the dynamics of bubbles and its effect on the ascending magma. The exsolution and migration of bubbles has also a great impact on the heat and mass transport in and out of magma bodies stored at shallow depths in the crust. Multiphase systems like magmas are by definition heterogeneous at small scales. Although mixture theory or homogenization methods are convenient to represent multiphase systems as a homogeneous equivalent media, these approaches do not inform us on possible feedbacks at the pore-scale and can be significantly misleading. In this presentation, we discuss the development and application of bubble-scale multiphase flow modeling to address the following questions : How do bubbles impact heat and mass transport in magma chambers ? How efficient are chemical exchanges between the melt and bubbles during magma decompression? What is the role of hydrodynamic interactions on the deformation of bubbles while the magma is sheared? Addressing these questions requires powerful numerical methods that accurately model the balance between viscous, capillary and pressure stresses. We discuss how these bubble-scale models can provide important constraints on the dynamics of magmas stored at shallow depth or ascending to the surface during an eruption.

  1. Numerical Modelling of Flow and Settling in Secondary Settling Tanks

    Dahl, Claus Poulsen

    This thesis discusses the development of a numerical model for the simulation of secondary settling tanks. In the first part, the status on the development of numerical models for settling tanks and a discussion of the current design practice are presented. A study of the existing numerical models...... and design practice proved a demand for further development to include numerical models in the design of settling tanks, thus improving the future settling tanks....

  2. Remote sensing applied to numerical modelling. [water resources pollution

    Sengupta, S.; Lee, S. S.; Veziroglu, T. N.; Bland, R.


    Progress and remaining difficulties in the construction of predictive mathematical models of large bodies of water as ecosystems are reviewed. Surface temperature is at present the only variable than can be measured accurately and reliably by remote sensing techniques, but satellite infrared data are of sufficient resolution for macro-scale modeling of oceans and large lakes, and airborne radiometers are useful in meso-scale analysis (of lakes, bays, and thermal plumes). Finite-element and finite-difference techniques applied to the solution of relevant coupled time-dependent nonlinear partial differential equations are compared, and the specific problem of the Biscayne Bay and environs ecosystem is tackled in a finite-differences treatment using the rigid-lid model and a rigid-line grid system.

  3. Numerical modeling of the autumnal thermal bar

    Tsydenov, Bair O.


    The autumnal riverine thermal bar of Kamloops Lake has been simulated using atmospheric data from December 1, 2015, to January 4, 2016. The nonhydrostatic 2.5D mathematical model developed takes into account the diurnal variability of the heat fluxes and wind on the lake surface. The average values for shortwave and longwave radiation and latent and sensible heat fluxes were 19.7 W/m2, - 95.9 W/m2, - 11.8 W/m2, and - 32.0 W/m2 respectively. Analysis of the wind regime data showed prevailing easterly winds and maximum speed of 11 m/s on the 8th and 19th days. Numerical experiments with different boundary conditions at the lake surface were conducted to evaluate effects of variable heat flux and wind stress. The results of modeling demonstrated that the variable heat flux affects the process of thermal bar evolution, especially during the lengthy night cooling. However, the wind had the greatest impact on the behavior of the autumnal thermal bar: The easterly winds contributed to an earlier appearance of the thermal bar, but the strong winds generating the intensive circulations (the velocity of the upper lake flow increased to 6 cm/s) may destroy the thermal bar front.

  4. A numerical model of aerosol scavenging

    Bradley, M.M.; Molenkamp, C.R.


    Using a three-dimensional numerical cloud/smoke-plume model, we have simulated the burning of a large, mid-latitude city following a nuclear exchange. The model includes 18 dynamic and microphysical equations that predict the fire-driven airflow, cloud processes, and smoke-cloud interactions. In the simulation, the intense heating from the burning city produces a firestorm with updraft velocities exceeding 60 m/s. Within 15 minutes of ignition, the smoke plume penetrates the tropopause. The updraft triggers a cumulonimbus cloud that produces significant quantities of ice, snow, and hail. These solid hydrometeors, as well as cloud droplets and rain, interact with the smoke particles from the fire. At the end of the one-hour simulation, over 20% of the smoke is in slowly falling snowflakes. If the snow reaches the ground before the flakes completely sublimate (or melt and then evaporate), then only approximately 50% of the smoke will survive the scavenging processes and remain in the atmosphere to affect the global climate

  5. Numerical Modelling of Seismic Slope Stability

    Bourdeau, Céline; Havenith, Hans-Balder; Fleurisson, Jean-Alain; Grandjean, Gilles

    Earthquake ground-motions recorded worldwide have shown that many morphological and geological structures (topography, sedimentary basin) are prone to amplify the seismic shaking (San Fernando, 1971 [Davis and West 1973] Irpinia, 1980 [Del Pezzo et al. 1983]). This phenomenon, called site effects, was again recently observed in El Salvador when, on the 13th of January 2001, the country was struck by a M = 7.6 earthquake. Indeed, while horizontal accelerations on a rock site at Berlin, 80 km from the epicentre, did not exceed 0.23 g, they reached 0.6 g at Armenia, 110 km from the epicentre. Armenia is located on a small hill underlaid by a few meters thick pyroclastic deposits. Both the local topography and the presence of surface layers are likely to have caused the observed amplification effects, which are supposed to have contributed to the triggering of some of the hundreds of landslides related to this seismic event (Murphy et al. 2002). In order to better characterize the way site effects may influence the triggering of landslides along slopes, 2D numerical elastic and elasto-plastic models were developed. Various geometrical, geological and seismic conditions were analysed and the dynamic behaviour of the slope under these con- ditions was studied in terms of creation and location of a sliding surface. Preliminary results suggest that the size of modelled slope failures is dependent on site effects.

  6. Understanding Etna flank instability through numerical models

    Apuani, Tiziana; Corazzato, Claudia; Merri, Andrea; Tibaldi, Alessandro


    As many active volcanoes, Mount Etna shows clear evidence of flank instability, and different mechanisms were suggested to explain this flank dynamics, based on the recorded deformation pattern and character. Shallow and deep deformations, mainly associated with both eruptive and seismic events, are concentrated along recognised fracture and fault systems, mobilising the eastern and south-eastern flank of the volcano. Several interacting causes were postulated to control the phenomenon, including gravity force, magma ascent along the feeding system, and a very complex local and/or regional tectonic activity. Nevertheless, the complexity of such dynamics is still an open subject of research and being the volcano flanks heavily urbanised, the comprehension of the gravitative dynamics is a major issue for public safety and civil protection. The present research explores the effects of the main geological features (in particular the role of the subetnean clays, interposed between the Apennine-Maghrebian flysch and the volcanic products) and the role of weakness zones, identified by fracture and fault systems, on the slope instability process. The effects of magma intrusions are also investigated. The problem is addressed by integrating field data, laboratory tests and numerical modelling. A bi- and tri-dimensional stress-strain analysis was performed by a finite difference numerical code (FLAC and FLAC3D), mainly aimed at evaluating the relationship among geological features, volcano-tectonic structures and magmatic activity in controlling the deformation processes. The analyses are well supported by dedicated structural-mechanical field surveys, which allowed to estimate the rock mass strength and deformability parameters. To take into account the uncertainties which inevitably occur in a so complicated model, many efforts were done in performing a sensitivity analysis along a WNW-ESE section crossing the volcano summit and the Valle del Bove depression. This was

  7. Regionalization of meso-scale physically based nitrogen modeling outputs to the macro-scale by the use of regression trees

    Künne, A.; Fink, M.; Kipka, H.; Krause, P.; Flügel, W.-A.


    In this paper, a method is presented to estimate excess nitrogen on large scales considering single field processes. The approach was implemented by using the physically based model J2000-S to simulate the nitrogen balance as well as the hydrological dynamics within meso-scale test catchments. The model input data, the parameterization, the results and a detailed system understanding were used to generate the regression tree models with GUIDE (Loh, 2002). For each landscape type in the federal state of Thuringia a regression tree was calibrated and validated using the model data and results of excess nitrogen from the test catchments. Hydrological parameters such as precipitation and evapotranspiration were also used to predict excess nitrogen by the regression tree model. Hence they had to be calculated and regionalized as well for the state of Thuringia. Here the model J2000g was used to simulate the water balance on the macro scale. With the regression trees the excess nitrogen was regionalized for each landscape type of Thuringia. The approach allows calculating the potential nitrogen input into the streams of the drainage area. The results show that the applied methodology was able to transfer the detailed model results of the meso-scale catchments to the entire state of Thuringia by low computing time without losing the detailed knowledge from the nitrogen transport modeling. This was validated with modeling results from Fink (2004) in a catchment lying in the regionalization area. The regionalized and modeled excess nitrogen correspond with 94%. The study was conducted within the framework of a project in collaboration with the Thuringian Environmental Ministry, whose overall aim was to assess the effect of agro-environmental measures regarding load reduction in the water bodies of Thuringia to fulfill the requirements of the European Water Framework Directive (Bäse et al., 2007; Fink, 2006; Fink et al., 2007).

  8. Numerical modeling of atoll island hydrogeology.

    Bailey, R T; Jenson, J W; Olsen, A E


    We implemented Ayers and Vachers' (1986) inclusive conceptual model for atoll island aquifers in a comprehensive numerical modeling study to evaluate the response of the fresh water lens to selected controlling climatic and geologic variables. Climatic factors include both constant and time-varying recharge rates, with particular attention paid to the effects of El Niño and the associated drought it brings to the western Pacific. Geologic factors include island width; hydraulic conductivity of the uppermost Holocene-age aquifer, which contains the fresh water lens; the depth to the contact with the underlying, and much more conductive, Pleistocene karst aquifer, which transmits tidal signals to the base of the lens; and the presence or absence of a semiconfining reef flat plate on the ocean side. Sensitivity analyses of steady-steady simulations show that lens thickness is most strongly sensitive to the depth to the Holocene-Pleistocene contact and to the hydraulic conductivity of the Holocene aquifer, respectively. Comparisons between modeling results and published observations of atoll island lens thicknesses suggest a hydraulic conductivity of approximately 50 m/d for leeward islands and approximately 400 m/d for windward islands. Results of transient simulations show that lens thickness fluctuations during average seasonal conditions and El Niño events are quite sensitive to island width, recharge rate, and hydraulic conductivity of the Holocene aquifer. In general, the depletion of the lens during drought conditions is most drastic for small, windward islands. Simulation results suggest that recovery from a 6-month drought requires about 1.5 years.

  9. Comparison of mesoscale model and tower measurements of surface fluxes during Winter Icing and Storms Program/Atmospheric Radiation Measurement 91

    Oncley, S.P.; Dudhia, J.


    This study is an evaluation of the ability of the Pennsylvania State University/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) mesoscale model (MM4) to determine surface fluxes to see if measured fluxes should be assimilated into model runs. Fluxes were compared from a high-resolution (5 km grid spacing) MM4 run during one day of the Winter Icing and Storms Programs/Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (WISP/ARM) experiment (over NE Colorado in winter 1991) with direct flux measurements made from a tower over a representative site by a three-dimensional sonic anemometer and fast response temperature and humidity sensors. This tower was part of the NCAR Atmosphere-Surface Turbulent Exchange Research (ASTER) facility. Also, mean values were compared to check whether any differences were due to the model parameterization or model variables

  10. Idealized numerical modeling of polar mesocyclones dynamics diagnosed by energy budget

    Sergeev, Dennis; Stepanenko, Victor


    Polar mesocyclones (MC) refer to a wide class of mesoscale vortices occuring poleward of the main polar front [1]. Their subtype - polar low - is commonly known for its intensity, that can result in windstorm damage of infrastructure in high latitudes. The observational data sparsity and the small size of polar MCs are major limitations for the clear understanding and numerical prediction of the evolution of these objects. The origin of polar MCs is still a matter of uncertainty, though the recent numerical investigations have exposed a strong dependence of the polar mesocyclone development upon the magnitude of baroclinicity and upon the water vapor concentration in the atmosphere. However, most of the previous studies focused on the individual polar low (the so-called case studies), with too many factors affecting it simultaneously and none of them being dominant in polar MC generation. This study focuses on the early stages of polar MC development within an idealized numerical experiments with mesoscale atmospheric model, where it is possible to look deeper into each single physical process. Our aim is to explain the role of such mechanisms as baroclinic instability or diabatic heating by comparing their contribution to the structure and dynamics of the vortex. The baroclinic instability, as reported by many researchers [2], can be a crucial factor in a MC's life cycle, especially in polar regions. Besides the baroclinic instability several diabatic processes can contribute to the energy generation that fuels a polar mesocyclone. One of the key energy sources in polar regions is surface heat fluxes. The other is the moisture content in the atmosphere that can affect the development of the disturbance by altering the latent heat release. To evaluate the relative importance of the diabatic and baroclinic energy sources for the development of the polar mesocyclone we apply energy diagnostics. In other words, we examine the rate of change of the kinetic energy (that

  11. Mesoscale Connections Summer 2017

    Kippen, Karen Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bourke, Mark Andrew M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Our challenge derives from the fact that in metals or explosives grains, interfaces and defects control engineering performance in ways that are neither amenable to continuum codes (which fail to rigorously describe the heterogeneities derived from microstructure) nor computationally tractable to first principles atomistic calculations. This is a region called the mesoscale, which stands at the frontier of our desire to translate fundamental science insights into confidence in aging system performance over the range of extreme conditions relevant in a nuclear weapon. For dynamic problems, the phenomena of interest can require extremely good temporal resolutions. A shock wave traveling at 1000 m/s (or 1 mm/μs) passes through a grain with a diameter of 1 micron in a nanosecond (10-9 sec). Thus, to observe the mesoscale phenomena—such as dislocations or phase transformations—as the shock passes, temporal resolution better than picoseconds (10-12 sec) may be needed. As we anticipate the science challenges over the next decade, experimental insights on material performance at the micron spatial scale with picosecond temporal resolution—at the mesoscale— are a clear challenge. This is a challenge fit for Los Alamos in partnership with our sister labs and academia. Mesoscale Connections will draw attention to our progress as we tackle the mesoscale challenge. We hope you like it and encourage suggestions of content you are interested in.

  12. Large scale experiments as a tool for numerical model development

    Kirkegaard, Jens; Hansen, Erik Asp; Fuchs, Jesper


    Experimental modelling is an important tool for study of hydrodynamic phenomena. The applicability of experiments can be expanded by the use of numerical models and experiments are important for documentation of the validity of numerical tools. In other cases numerical tools can be applied...

  13. Numerical modelling of new rockfall interception nets

    von Boetticher, Albrecht; Volkwein, Axel; Wendeler, Corinna


    The design and certification of effective rockfall protection barriers is mainly achieved through 1:1 prototype testing. In order to reduce development costs of a prototype it is recommended that pre-studies using numerical simulations are performed. A large component to modelling rockfall protection systems is the numerical simulation of the nets. To date there exist several approaches to model the different mesh types such as ring nets or diagonal meshes (Nicot 1999, Cazzani et al. 2002, Volkwein 2004). However, the consideration of chain link meshes has not yet been realised. Chain link meshes are normally found as standard fence structures. However, they also exist in setups using high-strength steel and wire bundles. These variants show an enormous capacity to retain loads e.g. rockfalls, and at the same time are very efficient due to their low demand of steel material. The increasing application of chain link mesh in barrier systems requires an accurate model is available to complete prototype studies. A new approach now aims to perform a Finite Element simulation of such chain link meshes. The main challenge herein is to achieve the net deformation behaviour that is observed in field tests also in the simulation. A simulation using simple truss elements would not work since it neglects the out-of-plane-height of the mesh construction providing important reserves for local and global high deformations. Thus addressing this, a specially developed Discrete Element is able to reconstruct the mechanical behaviour of the single chain wire (bundles). As input parameters it utilises typical properties such as longitudinal and transversal mesh widths, and break loads resulting from in-plane-tension tests and steel strength. The single chain elements then can be combined to a complete mesh (e.g. 130 x 65 mm, 3 - 4 mm wire with a strength of 1770 N-mm2). Combining these elements with a supporting structure consisting of posts, ropes and energy absorbers, enables the

  14. On Verifying Currents and Other Features in the Hawaiian Islands Region Using Fully Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System Compared to Global Ocean Model and Ocean Observations

    Jessen, P. G.; Chen, S.


    This poster introduces and evaluates features concerning the Hawaii, USA region using the U.S. Navy's fully Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS-OS™) coupled to the Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM). It also outlines some challenges in verifying ocean currents in the open ocean. The system is evaluated using in situ ocean data and initial forcing fields from the operational global Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM). Verification shows difficulties in modelling downstream currents off the Hawaiian islands (Hawaii's wake). Comparing HYCOM to NCOM current fields show some displacement of small features such as eddies. Generally, there is fair agreement from HYCOM to NCOM in salinity and temperature fields. There is good agreement in SSH fields.

  15. Numerical models for high beta magnetohydrodynamic flow

    Brackbill, J.U.


    The fundamentals of numerical magnetohydrodynamics for highly conducting, high-beta plasmas are outlined. The discussions emphasize the physical properties of the flow, and how elementary concepts in numerical analysis can be applied to the construction of finite difference approximations that capture these features. The linear and nonlinear stability of explicit and implicit differencing in time is examined, the origin and effect of numerical diffusion in the calculation of convective transport is described, and a technique for maintaining solenoidality in the magnetic field is developed. Many of the points are illustrated by numerical examples. The techniques described are applicable to the time-dependent, high-beta flows normally encountered in magnetically confined plasmas, plasma switches, and space and astrophysical plasmas. 40 refs

  16. Numerical modelling of nearshore wave transformation

    Chandramohan, P.; Nayak, B.U.; SanilKumar, V.

    A software has been developed for numerical refraction study based on finite amplitude wave theories. Wave attenuation due to shoaling, bottom friction, bottom percolation and viscous dissipation has also been incorporated. The software...

  17. Numerical modelling of multicomponent LNAPL dissolution kinetics ...

    subsequent removal of free phase liquid, still the organic compounds are present .... Since the flow through porous media is mainly restricted to the pore space ..... initial and boundary conditions for the numerical scheme are given in table 2.

  18. Wind-drive coastal currents in the Gulf of Tehuatepec: HF radar observations and numerical model simulations.

    Velazquez, F. A.; Martinez, J. A.; Durazo, R.; Flament, P.


    Most of the studies on coastal dynamics in the Gulf of Tehuatepec (GT) have been focused on mixing processes and mesoscale eddies generated due to strong off-shore wind events, know as Nortes or Tehuanos. In order to investigate the spatial and temporal mesoscale variability of surface dynamic in the GT in February 2005, two HF Radar model WERA were deployed along the shore of Oaxaca, Mexico. The spatial coverage of radars reaches up to 120 km off-shore. The radial velocities were processed to obtain total velocity maps every hour in a regular grid of 5.5 km. space resolution. The information of surface velocity and quickscat/NCEP wind obtained during the first sample days show that exist a coastal current toward the west and, during the wind events, is accelerated and steered toward the southwest. In this same period, we find that spatial density of kinetic energy and divergence of velocity field increase during wind events while the vorticity becomes negative. When strong wind events are not present the surface circulation is weakened, mainly for the zonal component of the wind that is mostly positive (westward). These results are in agreement with the upwelling processes observed on the coast and the anticyclonic eddie generation west of the GT during Tehuanos. Images of sea surface temperature and chlorophyll concentration are also used to observe the signature of wind events near the shore. Complementary to field observations, numerical simulation using a 3D primitive equations model (POM) are used to study the wind-driven circulation in the GT. It has been commonly accepted in previous studies that the strong wind events generate mesoscale eddies. We discuss the limited effect of the wind and the interaction of the wind with a coastal current required to generate long life eddies.

  19. Combined meso-scale modeling and experimental investigation of the effect of mechanical damage on the transport properties of cementitious composites

    Raghavan, Balaji; Niknezhad, Davood; Bernard, Fabrice; Kamali-Bernard, Siham


    The transport properties of cementitious composites such as concrete are important indicators of their durability, and are known to be heavily influenced by mechanical loading. In the current work, we use meso-scale hygro-mechanical modeling with a morphological 3D two phase mortar-aggregate model, in conjunction with experimentally obtained properties, to investigate the coupling between mechanical loading and damage and the permeability of the composite. The increase in permeability of a cylindrical test specimen at 28% aggregate fraction during a uniaxial displacement-controlled compression test at 85% of the peak load was measured using a gas permeameter. The mortar's mechanical behavior is assumed to follow the well-known compression damaged plasticity (CDP) model with isotropic damage, at varying thresholds, and obtained from different envelope curves. The damaged intrinsic permeability of the mortar evolves according to a logarithmic matching law with progressive loading. We fit the matching law parameters to the experimental result for the test specimen by inverse identification using our meso-scale model. We then subject a series of virtual composite specimens to quasi-static uniaxial compressive loading with varying boundary conditions to obtain the simulated damage and strain evolutions, and use the damage data and the previously identified parameters to determine the evolution of the macroscopic permeability tensor for the specimens, using a network model. We conduct a full parameter study by varying aggregate volume fraction, granulometric distribution, loading/boundary conditions and "matching law" parameters, as well as for different strain-damage thresholds and uniaxial loading envelope curves. Based on this study, we propose Avrami equation-based upper and lower bounds for the evolution of the damaged permeability of the composite.

  20. Numerical Modelling of Sediment Transport in Combined Sewer Systems

    Schlütter, Flemming

    A conceptual sediment transport model has been developed. Through a case study a comparison with other numerical models is performed.......A conceptual sediment transport model has been developed. Through a case study a comparison with other numerical models is performed....

  1. A numerical 4D Collision Risk Model

    Schmitt, Pal; Culloch, Ross; Lieber, Lilian; Kregting, Louise


    With the growing number of marine renewable energy (MRE) devices being installed across the world, some concern has been raised about the possibility of harming mobile, marine fauna by collision. Although physical contact between a MRE device and an organism has not been reported to date, these novel sub-sea structures pose a challenge for accurately estimating collision risks as part of environmental impact assessments. Even if the animal motion is simplified to linear translation, ignoring likely evasive behaviour, the mathematical problem of establishing an impact probability is not trivial. We present a numerical algorithm to obtain such probability distributions using transient, four-dimensional simulations of a novel marine renewable device concept, Deep Green, Minesto's power plant and hereafter referred to as the 'kite' that flies in a figure-of-eight configuration. Simulations were carried out altering several configurations including kite depth, kite speed and kite trajectory while keeping the speed of the moving object constant. Since the kite assembly is defined as two parts in the model, a tether (attached to the seabed) and the kite, collision risk of each part is reported independently. By comparing the number of collisions with the number of collision-free simulations, a probability of impact for each simulated position in the cross- section of the area is considered. Results suggest that close to the bottom, where the tether amplitude is small, the path is always blocked and the impact probability is 100% as expected. However, higher up in the water column, the collision probability is twice as high in the mid line, where the tether passes twice per period than at the extremes of its trajectory. The collision probability distribution is much more complex in the upper end of the water column, where the kite and tether can simultaneously collide with the object. Results demonstrate the viability of such models, which can also incorporate empirical

  2. Delayed shear enhancement in mesoscale atmospheric dispersion

    Moran, M.D. [Atmospheric Environment Service, Ontario (Canada); Pielke, R.A. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)


    Mesoscale atmospheric dispersion (MAD) is more complicated than smaller-scale dispersion because the mean wind field can no longer be considered steady or horizontally homogeneous over mesoscale time and space scales. Wind shear also plays a much more important role on the mesoscale: horizontal dispersion can be enhanced and often dominated by vertical wind shear on these scales through the interaction of horizontal differential advection and vertical mixing. Just over 30 years ago, Pasquill suggested that this interaction need not be simultaneous and that the combination of differential horizontal advection with delayed or subsequent vertical mixing could maintain effective horizontal diffusion in spite of temporal or spatial reductions in boundary-layer turbulence intensity. This two-step mechanism has not received much attention since then, but a recent analysis of observations from and numerical simulations of two mesoscale tracer experiments suggests that delayed shear enhancement can play an important role in MAD. This paper presents an overview of this analysis, with particular emphasis on the influence of resolvable vertical shear on MAD in these two case studies and the contributions made by delayed shear enhancement.

  3. Numerical

    M. Boumaza


    Full Text Available Transient convection heat transfer is of fundamental interest in many industrial and environmental situations, as well as in electronic devices and security of energy systems. Transient fluid flow problems are among the more difficult to analyze and yet are very often encountered in modern day technology. The main objective of this research project is to carry out a theoretical and numerical analysis of transient convective heat transfer in vertical flows, when the thermal field is due to different kinds of variation, in time and space of some boundary conditions, such as wall temperature or wall heat flux. This is achieved by the development of a mathematical model and its resolution by suitable numerical methods, as well as performing various sensitivity analyses. These objectives are achieved through a theoretical investigation of the effects of wall and fluid axial conduction, physical properties and heat capacity of the pipe wall on the transient downward mixed convection in a circular duct experiencing a sudden change in the applied heat flux on the outside surface of a central zone.

  4. Estimating the surface layer refractive index structure constant over snow and sea ice using Monin-Obukhov similarity theory with a mesoscale atmospheric model.

    Qing, Chun; Wu, Xiaoqing; Huang, Honghua; Tian, Qiguo; Zhu, Wenyue; Rao, Ruizhong; Li, Xuebin


    Since systematic direct measurements of refractive index structure constant ( Cn2) for many climates and seasons are not available, an indirect approach is developed in which Cn2 is estimated from the mesoscale atmospheric model outputs. In previous work, we have presented an approach that a state-of-the-art mesoscale atmospheric model called Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with Monin-Obukhov Similarity (MOS) theory which can be used to estimate surface layer Cn2 over the ocean. Here this paper is focused on surface layer Cn2 over snow and sea ice, which is the extending of estimating surface layer Cn2 utilizing WRF model for ground-based optical application requirements. This powerful approach is validated against the corresponding 9-day Cn2 data from a field campaign of the 30th Chinese National Antarctic Research Expedition (CHINARE). We employ several statistical operators to assess how this approach performs. Besides, we present an independent analysis of this approach performance using the contingency tables. Such a method permits us to provide supplementary key information with respect to statistical operators. These methods make our analysis more robust and permit us to confirm the excellent performances of this approach. The reasonably good agreement in trend and magnitude is found between estimated values and measurements overall, and the estimated Cn2 values are even better than the ones obtained by this approach over the ocean surface layer. The encouraging performance of this approach has a concrete practical implementation of ground-based optical applications over snow and sea ice.

  5. Mesoscale Climate Evaluation Using Grid Computing

    Campos Velho, H. F.; Freitas, S. R.; Souto, R. P.; Charao, A. S.; Ferraz, S.; Roberti, D. R.; Streck, N.; Navaux, P. O.; Maillard, N.; Collischonn, W.; Diniz, G.; Radin, B.


    The CLIMARS project is focused to establish an operational environment for seasonal climate prediction for the Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. The dynamical downscaling will be performed with the use of several software platforms and hardware infrastructure to carry out the investigation on mesoscale of the global change impact. The grid computing takes advantage of geographically spread out computer systems, connected by the internet, for enhancing the power of computation. The ensemble climate prediction is an appropriated application for processing on grid computing, because the integration of each ensemble member does not have a dependency on information from another ensemble members. The grid processing is employed to compute the 20-year climatology and the long range simulations under ensemble methodology. BRAMS (Brazilian Regional Atmospheric Model) is a mesoscale model developed from a version of the RAMS (from the Colorado State University - CSU, USA). BRAMS model is the tool for carrying out the dynamical downscaling from the IPCC scenarios. Long range BRAMS simulations will provide data for some climate (data) analysis, and supply data for numerical integration of different models: (a) Regime of the extreme events for temperature and precipitation fields: statistical analysis will be applied on the BRAMS data, (b) CCATT-BRAMS (Coupled Chemistry Aerosol Tracer Transport - BRAMS) is an environmental prediction system that will be used to evaluate if the new standards of temperature, rain regime, and wind field have a significant impact on the pollutant dispersion in the analyzed regions, (c) MGB-IPH (Portuguese acronym for the Large Basin Model (MGB), developed by the Hydraulic Research Institute, (IPH) from the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Brazil) will be employed to simulate the alteration of the river flux under new climate patterns. Important meteorological input variables for the MGB-IPH are the precipitation (most relevant

  6. Masonry constructions mechanical models and numerical applications

    Lucchesi, Massimiliano; Padovani, Cristina


    Numerical methods for the structural analysis of masonry constructions can be of great value in assessing the safety of artistically important masonry buildings and optimizing potential operations of maintenance and strengthening in terms of their cost-effectiveness, architectural impact and static effectiveness. This monograph firstly provides a detailed description of the constitutive equation of masonry-like materials, clearly setting out its most important features. It then goes on to provide a numerical procedure to solve the equilibrium problem of masonry solids. A large portion of the w

  7. Numerical considerations for Lagrangian stochastic dispersion models: Eliminating rogue trajectories, and the importance of numerical accuracy

    When Lagrangian stochastic models for turbulent dispersion are applied to complex flows, some type of ad hoc intervention is almost always necessary to eliminate unphysical behavior in the numerical solution. This paper discusses numerical considerations when solving the Langevin-based particle velo...

  8. Identification of Mesoscale Convective Complex (MCC) phenomenon with image of Himawari 8 Satellite and WRF ARW Model on Bangka Island (Case Study: 7-8 February 2016)

    Rinaldy, Nanda; Saragih, Immanuel J. A.; Wandala Putra, Agie; Redha Nugraheni, Imma; Wijaya Yonas, Banu


    Based on monitoring on 7th and 8th February 2016 there has been a flood that occurred due to heavy rainfall in a long time in some areas of Bangka Island. Mesoscale Convective Complex (MCC) is one type of Mesoscale Convective System (MCS). Previous research on MCC mentions that MCC can cause heavy rain for a long time. This study aims to identify the phenomenon of MCC in Bangka Island both in the satellite imagery and the output of the model. In addition, this study was also conducted to determine the effect of MCC on the weather conditions in Bangka Island. The study area in this research is Bangka Island with Pangkalpinang Meteorological Station as the centre of research. The data used in this research are FNL (Final Analysis) data from, Satellite Image of Himawari-8 IR1 Channel from BMKG, and meteorological observation data (synoptic and radiosonde) from Pangkalpinang Meteorological Station. The FNL data is simulated using the WRF-ARW model, verified using observation data and then visualized using GrADS. The results of the analysis of Himawari-8 satellite image data showed that two MCCs occurred on 7th and 8th February 2016 on Bangka Island and the MCC was nocturnal, which appeared at night which then continued until extinction in the morning the next day. In a peak cloud temperature review with the coordinates of Pangkalpinang Meteorological Station (-2,163 N 106,137 E) when 1st MCC and 2nd MCC events ranged from -60°C to -80°C. The result of WRF-ARW model output analysis shows that MCC area has high humidity value and positive vertical velocity value which indicates the potential of heavy rain for a long time.

  9. Some Experiences with Numerical Modelling of Overflows

    Larsen, Torben; Nielsen, L.; Jensen, B.


    across the edge of the overflow. To ensure critical flow across the edge, the upstream flow must be subcritical whereas the downstream flow is either supercritical or a free jet. Experimentally overflows are well studied. Based on laboratory experiments and Froude number scaling, numerous accurate...

  10. Numerical time integration for air pollution models

    J.G. Verwer (Jan); W. Hundsdorfer (Willem); J.G. Blom (Joke)


    textabstractDue to the large number of chemical species and the three space dimensions, off-the-shelf stiff ODE integrators are not feasible for the numerical time integration of stiff systems of advection-diffusion-reaction equations [ fracpar{c{t + nabla cdot left( vu{u c right) = nabla cdot left(

  11. Numerical modeling and the physical basis of seismic discriminants

    Denny, M.D.


    Accurate seismic event discrimination is critical to detection of nuclear explosions. Numerical modeling applied to seismic event discrimination can lead to increased reliability of proliferation detection. It is particularly applicable to error budgeting and to understanding explosion and earthquake phenomenologies. There also is a need for minimum requirements to validate the models used in numerical modeling

  12. 2-dimensional numerical modeling of active magnetic regeneration

    Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Pryds, Nini; Smith, Anders


    Various aspects of numerical modeling of Active Magnetic Regeneration (AMR) are presented. Using a 2-dimensional numerical model for solving the unsteady heat transfer equations for the AMR system, a range of physical effects on both idealized and non-idealized AMR are investigated. The modeled...

  13. Mesoscale hybrid calibration artifact

    Tran, Hy D.; Claudet, Andre A.; Oliver, Andrew D.


    A mesoscale calibration artifact, also called a hybrid artifact, suitable for hybrid dimensional measurement and the method for make the artifact. The hybrid artifact has structural characteristics that make it suitable for dimensional measurement in both vision-based systems and touch-probe-based systems. The hybrid artifact employs the intersection of bulk-micromachined planes to fabricate edges that are sharp to the nanometer level and intersecting planes with crystal-lattice-defined angles.

  14. Conceptual and Numerical Models for UZ Flow and Transport

    Liu, H.


    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the conceptual and numerical models used for modeling of unsaturated zone (UZ) fluid (water and air) flow and solute transport processes. This is in accordance with ''AMR Development Plan for U0030 Conceptual and Numerical Models for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Processes, Rev 00''. The conceptual and numerical modeling approaches described in this AMR are used for models of UZ flow and transport in fractured, unsaturated rock under ambient and thermal conditions, which are documented in separate AMRs. This AMR supports the UZ Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR), the Near Field Environment PMR, and the following models: Calibrated Properties Model; UZ Flow Models and Submodels; Mountain-Scale Coupled Processes Model; Thermal-Hydrologic-Chemical (THC) Seepage Model; Drift Scale Test (DST) THC Model; Seepage Model for Performance Assessment (PA); and UZ Radionuclide Transport Models

  15. The Impact of Microphysics on Intensity and Structure of Hurricanes and Mesoscale Convective Systems

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Shi, Jainn J.; Jou, Ben Jong-Dao; Lee, Wen-Chau; Lin, Pay-Liam; Chang, Mei-Yu


    During the past decade, both research and operational numerical weather prediction models, e.g. Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model, have started using more complex microphysical schemes originally developed for high-resolution cloud resolving models (CRMs) with a 1-2 km or less horizontal resolutions. WRF is a next-generation mesoscale forecast model and assimilation system that has incorporated modern software framework, advanced dynamics, numeric and data assimilation techniques, a multiple moveable nesting capability, and improved physical packages. WRF model can be used for a wide range of applications, from idealized research to operational forecasting, with an emphasis on horizontal grid sizes in the range of 1-10 km. The current WRF includes several different microphysics options such as Purdue Lin et al. (1983), WSM 6-class and Thompson microphysics schemes. We have recently implemented three sophisticated cloud microphysics schemes into WRF. The cloud microphysics schemes have been extensively tested and applied for different mesoscale systems in different geographical locations. The performances of these schemes have been compared to those from other WRF microphysics options. We are performing sensitivity tests in using WRF to examine the impact of six different cloud microphysical schemes on precipitation processes associated hurricanes and mesoscale convective systems developed at different geographic locations [Oklahoma (IHOP), Louisiana (Hurricane Katrina), Canada (C3VP - snow events), Washington (fire storm), India (Monsoon), Taiwan (TiMREX - terrain)]. We will determine the microphysical schemes for good simulated convective systems in these geographic locations. We are also performing the inline tracer calculation to comprehend the physical processes (i.e., boundary layer and each quadrant in the boundary layer) related to the development and structure of hurricanes and mesoscale convective systems.

  16. Ensemble cloud-resolving modelling of a historic back-building mesoscale convective system over Liguria: the San Fruttuoso case of 1915

    Parodi, Antonio; Ferraris, Luca; Gallus, William; Maugeri, Maurizio; Molini, Luca; Siccardi, Franco; Boni, Giorgio


    Highly localized and persistent back-building mesoscale convective systems represent one of the most dangerous flash-flood-producing storms in the north-western Mediterranean area. Substantial warming of the Mediterranean Sea in recent decades raises concerns over possible increases in frequency or intensity of these types of events as increased atmospheric temperatures generally support increases in water vapour content. However, analyses of the historical record do not provide a univocal answer, but these are likely affected by a lack of detailed observations for older events. In the present study, 20th Century Reanalysis Project initial and boundary condition data in ensemble mode are used to address the feasibility of performing cloud-resolving simulations with 1 km horizontal grid spacing of a historic extreme event that occurred over Liguria: the San Fruttuoso case of 1915. The proposed approach focuses on the ensemble Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model runs that show strong convergence over the Ligurian Sea (17 out of 56 members) as these runs are the ones most likely to best simulate the event. It is found that these WRF runs generally do show wind and precipitation fields that are consistent with the occurrence of highly localized and persistent back-building mesoscale convective systems, although precipitation peak amounts are underestimated. Systematic small north-westward position errors with regard to the heaviest rain and strongest convergence areas imply that the reanalysis members may not be adequately representing the amount of cool air over the Po Plain outflowing into the Ligurian Sea through the Apennines gap. Regarding the role of historical data sources, this study shows that in addition to reanalysis products, unconventional data, such as historical meteorological bulletins, newspapers, and even photographs, can be very valuable sources of knowledge in the reconstruction of past extreme events.

  17. A heavy sea fog event over the Yellow Sea in March 2005: Analysis and numerical modeling

    Gao, Shanhong; Lin, Hang; Shen, Biao; Fu, Gang


    In this paper, a heavy sea fog episode that occurred over the Yellow Sea on 9 March 2005 is investigated. The sea fog patch, with a spatial scale of several hundred kilometers at its mature stage, reduced visibility along the Shandong Peninsula coast to 100 m or much less at some sites. Satellite images, surface observations and soundings at islands and coasts, and analyses from the Japan Meteorology Agency (JMA) are used to describe and analyze this event. The analysis indicates that this sea fog can be categorized as advection cooling fog. The main features of this sea fog including fog area and its movement are reasonably reproduced by the Fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University/National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model (MM5). Model results suggest that the formation and evolution of this event can be outlined as: (1) southerly warm/moist advection of low-level air resulted in a strong sea-surface-based inversion with a thickness of about 600 m; (2) when the inversion moved from the warmer East Sea to the colder Yellow Sea, a thermal internal boundary layer (TIBL) gradually formed at the base of the inversion while the sea fog grew in response to cooling and moistening by turbulence mixing; (3) the sea fog developed as the TIBL moved northward and (4) strong northerly cold and dry wind destroyed the TIBL and dissipated the sea fog. The principal findings of this study are that sea fog forms in response to relatively persistent southerly warm/moist wind and a cold sea surface, and that turbulence mixing by wind shear is the primary mechanism for the cooling and moistening the marine layer. In addition, the study of sensitivity experiments indicates that deterministic numerical modeling offers a promising approach to the prediction of sea fog over the Yellow Sea but it may be more efficient to consider ensemble numerical modeling because of the extreme sensitivity to model input.

  18. Numerical Models of Sewage Dispersion and Statistica Bathing Water Standards

    Petersen, Ole; Larsen, Torben


    As bathing water standards usually are founded in statistical methods, the numerical models used in outfall design should reflect this. A statistical approach, where stochastic variations in source strength and bacterial disappearance is incorporated into a numerical dilution model is presented. ...

  19. A New Framework to Compare Mass-Flux Schemes Within the AROME Numerical Weather Prediction Model

    Riette, Sébastien; Lac, Christine


    In the Application of Research to Operations at Mesoscale (AROME) numerical weather forecast model used in operations at Météo-France, five mass-flux schemes are available to parametrize shallow convection at kilometre resolution. All but one are based on the eddy-diffusivity-mass-flux approach, and differ in entrainment/detrainment, the updraft vertical velocity equation and the closure assumption. The fifth is based on a more classical mass-flux approach. Screen-level scores obtained with these schemes show few discrepancies and are not sufficient to highlight behaviour differences. Here, we describe and use a new experimental framework, able to compare and discriminate among different schemes. For a year, daily forecast experiments were conducted over small domains centred on the five French metropolitan radio-sounding locations. Cloud base, planetary boundary-layer height and normalized vertical profiles of specific humidity, potential temperature, wind speed and cloud condensate were compared with observations, and with each other. The framework allowed the behaviour of the different schemes in and above the boundary layer to be characterized. In particular, the impact of the entrainment/detrainment formulation, closure assumption and cloud scheme were clearly visible. Differences mainly concerned the transport intensity thus allowing schemes to be separated into two groups, with stronger or weaker updrafts. In the AROME model (with all interactions and the possible existence of compensating errors), evaluation diagnostics gave the advantage to the first group.

  20. Mathematical modelling and numerical simulation of casting processes

    Hattel, Jesper Henri


    The control volume method applied to numerical modelling of castning. Analytical solutions based on the error function.Riemann-temperature. Modelling of release of latent heat with the enthalpy method....

  1. A numerical model of heavy gas dispersion

    Bidokhtti, A.A.


    A simple mathematical model describing the motion of a dense gas released continuously into and environment is presented. The model correctly predicts the laboratory experiments which were carried out by Britter and Snyder (1987). It is an entrainment model better known as box model. In this model, the effects of temperature change and phase change are not considered and it is for a steady-state case. Further work is required for including these effects which are often associated with the mechanisms involved in accidental or natural release of heavy gases in the environment. The results of such a model will be extended to the practical situations which are and will be common to the nuclear industry at the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran. The applicability of such studies to these situations will be discussed

  2. Mesoscale Effects on Carbon Export: A Global Perspective

    Harrison, Cheryl S.; Long, Matthew C.; Lovenduski, Nicole S.; Moore, Jefferson K.


    Carbon export from the surface to the deep ocean is a primary control on global carbon budgets and is mediated by plankton that are sensitive to physical forcing. Earth system models generally do not resolve ocean mesoscale circulation (O(10-100) km), scales that strongly affect transport of nutrients and plankton. The role of mesoscale circulation in modulating export is evaluated by comparing global ocean simulations conducted at 1° and 0.1° horizontal resolution. Mesoscale resolution produces a small reduction in globally integrated export production (export production can be large (±50%), with compensating effects in different ocean basins. With mesoscale resolution, improved representation of coastal jets block off-shelf transport, leading to lower export in regions where shelf-derived nutrients fuel production. Export is further reduced in these regions by resolution of mesoscale turbulence, which restricts the spatial area of production. Maximum mixed layer depths are narrower and deeper across the Subantarctic at higher resolution, driving locally stronger nutrient entrainment and enhanced summer export production. In energetic regions with seasonal blooms, such as the Subantarctic and North Pacific, internally generated mesoscale variability drives substantial interannual variation in local export production. These results suggest that biogeochemical tracer dynamics show different sensitivities to transport biases than temperature and salinity, which should be considered in the formulation and validation of physical parameterizations. Efforts to compare estimates of export production from observations and models should account for large variability in space and time expected for regions strongly affected by mesoscale circulation.

  3. Numerical Model of High Strength Concrete

    Wang, R. Z.; Wang, C. Y.; Lin, Y. L.


    The purpose of this paper is to present a three-dimensional constitutive model based on the concept of equivalent uniaxial strain. closed Menetrey-Willam (CMW) failure surfaces which combined with Menetrey-Willam meridian and the cap model are introduced in this paper. Saenz stress-strain model is applied and adjusted by the ultimate strength parameters from CMW failure surface to reflect the latest stress or strain condition. The high strength concrete (HSC) under tri-axial non-proportional loading is considered and the model in this paper performed a good prediction.

  4. Mesoscale wind fluctuations over Danish waters

    Vincent, C.L.


    Mesoscale wind fluctuations affect the large scale integration of wind power because they undermine the day-ahead predictability of wind speed and power production, and because they can result in large fluctuations in power generation that must be balanced using reserve power. Large fluctuations in generated power are a particular problem for offshore wind farms because the typically high concentration of turbines within a limited geographical area means that fluctuations can be correlated across large numbers of turbines. Furthermore, organised mesoscale structures that often form over water, such as convective rolls and cellular convection, have length scales of tens of kilometers, and can cause large wind fluctuations on a time scale of around an hour. This thesis is an exploration of the predictability of mesoscale wind fluctuations using observations from the world's first two large offshore wind farms - Horns Rev I in the North Sea, and Nysted in the Baltic Sea. The thesis begins with a climatological analysis of wind fluctuations on time scales of 1-10 hours at the two sites. A novel method for calculating conditional climatologies of spectral information is proposed, based on binning and averaging the time axis of the Hilbert spectrum. Results reveal clear patterns between wind fluctuations and locally observed meteorological conditions. The analysis is expanded by classifying wind fluctuations on time scales of 1-3 hours according to synoptic patterns, satellite pictures and wind classes. Results indicate that cold air outbreaks and open cellular convection are a significant contributor to mesoscale wind variability at Horns Rev. The predictability of mesoscale wind fluctuations is tested by implementing standard statistical models that relate local wind variability to parameters based on a large scale weather analysis. The models show some skill, but only achieve a 15% improvement on a persistence forecast. The possibility of explicitly modelling

  5. Numerical model of Ca(OH)

    Koster, T.; Peelen, W.; Larbi, J.; Rooij, M. de; Polder, R.


    A mathematical model is being developed to describe a repair method in concrete, called cathodic protection (CP). The model is in principle also useful to describe electrodeposition in concrete, e.g. the process of re-precipitation of Ca(OH)2 invoked by an electrical current. In CP, the

  6. Numerical Modelling of Wave Run-Up

    Ramirez, Jorge Robert Rodriguez; Frigaard, Peter; Andersen, Thomas Lykke


    Wave loads are important in problems related to offshore structure, such as wave run-up, slamming. The computation of such wave problems are carried out by CFD models. This paper presents one model, NS3, which solve 3D Navier-Stokes equations and use Volume of Fluid (VOF) method to treat the free...

  7. Improving stability of regional numerical ocean models

    Herzfeld, Mike


    An operational limited-area ocean modelling system was developed to supply forecasts of ocean state out to 3 days. This system is designed to allow non-specialist users to locate the model domain anywhere within the Australasian region with minimum user input. The model is required to produce a stable simulation every time it is invoked. This paper outlines the methodology used to ensure the model remains stable over the wide range of circumstances it might encounter. Central to the model configuration is an alternative approach to implementing open boundary conditions in a one-way nesting environment. Approximately 170 simulations were performed on limited areas in the Australasian region to assess the model stability; of these, 130 ran successfully with a static model parameterisation allowing a statistical estimate of the model’s approach toward instability to be determined. Based on this, when the model was deemed to be approaching instability a strategy of adaptive intervention in the form of constraint on velocity and elevation was invoked to maintain stability.

  8. North American Mesoscale Forecast System (NAM) [12 km

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The North American Mesoscale Forecast System (NAM) is one of the major regional weather forecast models run by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction...

  9. Assimilation of Doppler weather radar observations in a mesoscale ...

    Research (PSU–NCAR) mesoscale model (MM5) version 3.5.6. The variational data assimilation ... investigation of the direct assimilation of radar reflectivity data in 3DVAR system. The present ...... Results presented in this paper are based on.

  10. The Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS)

    Hodur, Richard M; Hong, Xiaodong; Doyle, James D; Pullen, Julie; Cummings, James; Martin, Paul; Rennick, Mary Alice


    ... of the Couple Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS). The goal of this modeling project is to gain predictive skill in simulating the ocean and atmosphere at high resolution on time-scales of hours to several days...

  11. Numerical Modelling of Structures with Uncertainties

    Kahsin Maciej


    Full Text Available The nature of environmental interactions, as well as large dimensions and complex structure of marine offshore objects, make designing, building and operation of these objects a great challenge. This is the reason why a vast majority of investment cases of this type include structural analysis, performed using scaled laboratory models and complemented by extended computer simulations. The present paper focuses on FEM modelling of the offshore wind turbine supporting structure. Then problem is studied using the modal analysis, sensitivity analysis, as well as the design of experiment (DOE and response surface model (RSM methods. The results of modal analysis based simulations were used for assessing the quality of the FEM model against the data measured during the experimental modal analysis of the scaled laboratory model for different support conditions. The sensitivity analysis, in turn, has provided opportunities for assessing the effect of individual FEM model parameters on the dynamic response of the examined supporting structure. The DOE and RSM methods allowed to determine the effect of model parameter changes on the supporting structure response.

  12. Paleoclimate validation of a numerical climate model

    Schelling, F.J.; Church, H.W.; Zak, B.D.; Thompson, S.L.


    An analysis planned to validate regional climate model results for a past climate state at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, against paleoclimate evidence for the period is described. This analysis, which will use the GENESIS model of global climate nested with the RegCM2 regional climate model, is part of a larger study for DOE's Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project that is evaluating the impacts of long term future climate change on performance of the potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The planned analysis and anticipated results are presented

  13. Amorphous track models: a numerical comparison study

    Greilich, Steffen; Grzanka, Leszek; Hahn, Ute

    in carbon ion treatment at the particle facility HIT in Heidelberg. Apparent differences between the LEM and the Katz model are the way how interactions of individual particle tracks and how extended targets are handled. Complex scenarios, however, can mask the actual effect of these differences. Here, we......Amorphous track models such as Katz' Ion-Gamma-Kill (IGK) approach [1, 2] or the Local Effect Model (LEM) [3, 4] had reasonable success in predicting the response of solid state dosimeters and radiobiological systems. LEM is currently applied in radiotherapy for biological dose optimization...

  14. Mesoscale modeling of smoke transport over the Southeast Asian Maritime Continent: Interplay of sea breeze, trade wind, typhoon, and topography

    Wang, Jun; Ge, Cui; Yang, Zhifeng; Hyer, Edward J.; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Chew, Boon-Ning; Mahmud, Mastura; Zhang, Yongxin; Zhang, Meigen


    of the total aerosol extinction retrieved by CALIOP. Results suggest that the smoke injection height in the model should be set lower than the 2-5 km commonly used in transport simulations; smoke release at ~ 0.8 km instead of 2 km above surface gives a consistently better match to CALIOP observations. Numerical experiments further show that the Titiwangsa Mountains in Malaysia Peninsula and Tama Abu Mountains in Borneo have significant impacts on smoke transport and the surface air quality in the vicinity.

  15. An Evaluation of Mesoscale Model Predictions of Down-Valley and Canyon Flows and Their Consequences Using Doppler Lidar Measurements During VTMX 2000

    Fast, Jerome D.; Darby, Lisa S.


    A mesoscale model, a Lagrangian particle dispersion model, and extensive Doppler lidar wind measurements during the VTMX 2000 field campaign were used to examine converging flows over the Salt Lake Valley and their effect on vertical mixing of tracers at night and during the morning transition period. The simulated wind components were transformed into radial velocities to make a direct comparison with about 1.3 million Doppler lidar data points and critically evaluate, using correlation coefficients, the spatial variations in the simulated wind fields aloft. The mesoscale model captured reasonably well the general features of the observed circulations including the daytime up-valley flow, the nighttime slope, canyon, and down-valley flows, and the convergence of the flows over the valley. When there were errors in the simulated wind fields, they were usually associated with the timing, structure, or strength of specific flows. Simulated outflows from canyons along the Wasatch Mountains propagated over the valley and converged with the down-valley flow, but the advance and retreat of these simulated flows was often out of phase with the lidar measurements. While the flow reversal during the evening transition period produced rising motions over much of the valley atmosphere in the absence of significant ambient winds, average vertical velocities became close to zero as the down-valley flow developed. Still, vertical velocities between 5 and 15 cm s-1 occurred where down-slope, canyon and down-valley flows converged and vertical velocities greater than 50 cm s-1 were produced by hydraulic jumps at the base of the canyons. The presence of strong ambient winds resulted in smaller average rising motions during the evening transition period and larger average vertical velocities after that. A fraction of the tracer released at the surface was transported up to the height of the surrounding mountains; however, higher concentrations were produced aloft for evening s



    Jun 30, 2014 ... objective of this study is to control the simulation of unsteady flows around structures. ... Aerospace, our results were in good agreement with experimental .... Two-Equation Eddy-Viscosity Turbulence Models for Engineering.

  17. Development of a parameterization scheme of mesoscale convective systems

    Cotton, W.R.


    The goal of this research is to develop a parameterization scheme of mesoscale convective systems (MCS) including diabatic heating, moisture and momentum transports, cloud formation, and precipitation. The approach is to: Perform explicit cloud-resolving simulation of MCSs; Perform statistical analyses of simulated MCSs to assist in fabricating a parameterization, calibrating coefficients, etc.; Test the parameterization scheme against independent field data measurements and in numerical weather prediction (NWP) models emulating general circulation model (GCM) grid resolution. Thus far we have formulated, calibrated, implemented and tested a deep convective engine against explicit Florida sea breeze convection and in coarse-grid regional simulations of mid-latitude and tropical MCSs. Several explicit simulations of MCSs have been completed, and several other are in progress. Analysis code is being written and run on the explicitly simulated data

  18. Computational numerical modelling of plasma focus

    Brollo, Fabricio


    Several models for calculation of the dynamics of Plasma Focus have been developed. All of them begin from the same physic principle: the current sheet run down the anode length, ionizing and collecting the gas that finds in its way.This is known as snow-plow model.Concerning pinch's compression, a MHD model is proposed.The plasma is treated as a fluid , particularly as a high ionized gas.However, there are not many models that, taking into account thermal equilibrium inside the plasma, make approximated calculations of the maximum temperatures reached in the pinch.Besides, there are no models which use those temperatures to estimate the termofusion neutron yield for the Deuterium or Deuterium-Tritium gas filled cases.In the PLADEMA network (Dense Magnetized Plasmas) a code was developed with the objective of describe the plasma focus dynamics, in a conceptual engineering stage.The codes calculates the principal variables (currents, time to focus, etc) and estimates the neutron yield in Deuterium-filled plasma focus devices.It can be affirmed that the code's experimental validation, in its axial and radial stages, was very successfully. However, it was accepted that the compression stage should be formulated again, to find a solution for a large variation of a parameter related with velocity profiles for the particles trapped inside the pinch.The objectives of this work can be stated in the next way : - Check the compression's model hypothesis. Develop a new model .- Implement the new model in the code. Compare results against experimental data of Plasma Focus devices from all around the world [es

  19. Design optimization under uncertainties of a mesoscale implant in biological tissues using a probabilistic learning algorithm

    Soize, C.


    This paper deals with the optimal design of a titanium mesoscale implant in a cortical bone for which the apparent elasticity tensor is modeled by a non-Gaussian random field at mesoscale, which has been experimentally identified. The external applied forces are also random. The design parameters are geometrical dimensions related to the geometry of the implant. The stochastic elastostatic boundary value problem is discretized by the finite element method. The objective function and the constraints are related to normal, shear, and von Mises stresses inside the cortical bone. The constrained nonconvex optimization problem in presence of uncertainties is solved by using a probabilistic learning algorithm that allows for considerably reducing the numerical cost with respect to the classical approaches.

  20. The influence of numerical models on determining the drag coefficient

    Dobeš Josef


    Full Text Available The paper deals with numerical modelling of body aerodynamic drag coefficient in the transition from laminar to turbulent flow regimes, where the selection of a suitable numerical model is problematic. On the basic problem of flow around a simple body – sphere selected computational models are tested. The values obtained by numerical simulations of drag coefficients of each model are compared with the graph of dependency of the drag coefficient vs. Reynolds number for a sphere. Next the dependency of Strouhal number vs. Reynolds number is evaluated, where the vortex shedding frequency values for given speed are obtained numerically and experimentally and then the values are compared for each numerical model and experiment. The aim is to specify trends for the selection of appropriate numerical model for flow around bodies problem in which the precise description of the flow field around the obstacle is used to define the acoustic noise source. Numerical modelling is performed by finite volume method using CFD code.

  1. Simulation of Wind-Driven Snow Redistribution at a High-Elevation Alpine Site Using a Meso-Scale Atmospheric Model

    Vionnet, V.; Martin, E.; Masson, V.; Guyomarc'h, G.; Naaim-Bouvet, F.; Prokop, A.; Durand, Y.; Lac, C.


    In alpine regions, blowing snow events strongly influence the temporal and spatial evolution of the snow depth distribution throughout the winter season. We recently developed a new simulation system to gain understanding on the complex processes that drive the redistribution of snow by the wind in complex terrain. This new system couples directly the detailed snow-pack model Crocus with the meso-scale atmospheric model Meso-NH. A blowing snow scheme allows Meso-NH to simulate the transport of snow particles in the atmosphere. We used the coupled system to study a blowing snow event with snowfall that occurred in February 2011 in the Grandes Rousses range (French Alps). Three nested domains at an horizontal resolution of 450, 150 and 50 m allow the model to simulate the complex 3D precipitation and wind fields around our experimental site (2720 m a.s.l.) during this 22-hour event. Wind-induced snow transport is activated over the domains of higher resolution (150 and 50 m). We firstly assessed the ability of the model to reproduce atmospheric flows at high resolution in alpine terrain using a large dataset of observations (meteorological data, vertical profile of wind speed). Simulated blowing snow fluxes are then compared with measurements from SPC and mechanical snow traps. Finally a map of snow erosion and accumulation produced by Terrestrial Laser measurements allows to evaluate the quality of the simulated snow depth redistribution.

  2. Numerical modelling of laser rapid prototyping by fusion wire deposit

    Arbaoui , Larbi; Masse , J.E.; Barrallier , Laurent; Mocellin , Katia


    International audience; A finite element model has been developed to simulate an innovative laser rapid prototyping process. Several numerical developments have been implemented in order to simulate the main steps of the rapid prototyping process: injection, heating, phase change and deposit. The numerical model also takes into account different phenomena: surface tension in the liquid state, asborptivity and plasma effects during materiallaser interaction. The threedimensional model is based...

  3. Evaluation of wave runup predictions from numerical and parametric models

    Stockdon, Hilary F.; Thompson, David M.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Long, Joseph W.


    Wave runup during storms is a primary driver of coastal evolution, including shoreline and dune erosion and barrier island overwash. Runup and its components, setup and swash, can be predicted from a parameterized model that was developed by comparing runup observations to offshore wave height, wave period, and local beach slope. Because observations during extreme storms are often unavailable, a numerical model is used to simulate the storm-driven runup to compare to the parameterized model and then develop an approach to improve the accuracy of the parameterization. Numerically simulated and parameterized runup were compared to observations to evaluate model accuracies. The analysis demonstrated that setup was accurately predicted by both the parameterized model and numerical simulations. Infragravity swash heights were most accurately predicted by the parameterized model. The numerical model suffered from bias and gain errors that depended on whether a one-dimensional or two-dimensional spatial domain was used. Nonetheless, all of the predictions were significantly correlated to the observations, implying that the systematic errors can be corrected. The numerical simulations did not resolve the incident-band swash motions, as expected, and the parameterized model performed best at predicting incident-band swash heights. An assimilated prediction using a weighted average of the parameterized model and the numerical simulations resulted in a reduction in prediction error variance. Finally, the numerical simulations were extended to include storm conditions that have not been previously observed. These results indicated that the parameterized predictions of setup may need modification for extreme conditions; numerical simulations can be used to extend the validity of the parameterized predictions of infragravity swash; and numerical simulations systematically underpredict incident swash, which is relatively unimportant under extreme conditions.

  4. Numerical Modeling of Ophthalmic Response to Space

    Nelson, E. S.; Myers, J. G.; Mulugeta, L.; Vera, J.; Raykin, J.; Feola, A.; Gleason, R.; Samuels, B.; Ethier, C. R.


    To investigate ophthalmic changes in spaceflight, we would like to predict the impact of blood dysregulation and elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) on Intraocular Pressure (IOP). Unlike other physiological systems, there are very few lumped parameter models of the eye. The eye model described here is novel in its inclusion of the human choroid and retrobulbar subarachnoid space (rSAS), which are key elements in investigating the impact of increased ICP and ocular blood volume. Some ingenuity was required in modeling the blood and rSAS compartments due to the lack of quantitative data on essential hydrodynamic quantities, such as net choroidal volume and blood flowrate, inlet and exit pressures, and material properties, such as compliances between compartments.

  5. Piecewise Polynomial Aggregation as Preprocessing for Data Numerical Modeling

    Dobronets, B. S.; Popova, O. A.


    Data aggregation issues for numerical modeling are reviewed in the present study. The authors discuss data aggregation procedures as preprocessing for subsequent numerical modeling. To calculate the data aggregation, the authors propose using numerical probabilistic analysis (NPA). An important feature of this study is how the authors represent the aggregated data. The study shows that the offered approach to data aggregation can be interpreted as the frequency distribution of a variable. To study its properties, the density function is used. For this purpose, the authors propose using the piecewise polynomial models. A suitable example of such approach is the spline. The authors show that their approach to data aggregation allows reducing the level of data uncertainty and significantly increasing the efficiency of numerical calculations. To demonstrate the degree of the correspondence of the proposed methods to reality, the authors developed a theoretical framework and considered numerical examples devoted to time series aggregation.

  6. Aviation Model: A Fine-Scale Numerical Weather Prediction System for Aviation Applications at the Hong Kong International Airport

    Wai-Kin Wong


    Full Text Available The Hong Kong Observatory (HKO is planning to implement a fine-resolution Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP model for supporting the aviation weather applications at the Hong Kong International Airport (HKIA. This new NWP model system, called Aviation Model (AVM, is configured at a horizontal grid spacing of 600 m and 200 m. It is based on the WRF-ARW (Advance Research WRF model that can have sufficient computation efficiency in order to produce hourly updated forecasts up to 9 hours ahead on a future high performance computer system with theoretical peak performance of around 10 TFLOPS. AVM will be nested inside the operational mesoscale NWP model of HKO with horizontal resolution of 2 km. In this paper, initial numerical experiment results in forecast of windshear events due to seabreeze and terrain effect are discussed. The simulation of sea-breeze-related windshear is quite successful, and the headwind change observed from flight data could be reproduced in the model forecast. Some impacts of physical processes on generating the fine-scale wind circulation and development of significant convection are illustrated. The paper also discusses the limitations in the current model setup and proposes methods for the future development of AVM.

  7. Numerical model updating technique for structures using firefly algorithm

    Sai Kubair, K.; Mohan, S. C.


    Numerical model updating is a technique used for updating the existing experimental models for any structures related to civil, mechanical, automobiles, marine, aerospace engineering, etc. The basic concept behind this technique is updating the numerical models to closely match with experimental data obtained from real or prototype test structures. The present work involves the development of numerical model using MATLAB as a computational tool and with mathematical equations that define the experimental model. Firefly algorithm is used as an optimization tool in this study. In this updating process a response parameter of the structure has to be chosen, which helps to correlate the numerical model developed with the experimental results obtained. The variables for the updating can be either material or geometrical properties of the model or both. In this study, to verify the proposed technique, a cantilever beam is analyzed for its tip deflection and a space frame has been analyzed for its natural frequencies. Both the models are updated with their respective response values obtained from experimental results. The numerical results after updating show that there is a close relationship that can be brought between the experimental and the numerical models.

  8. Numerical Modeling of Rotary Kiln Productivity Increase

    Romero-Valle, M.A.; Pisaroni, M.; Van Puyvelde, D.; Lahaye, D.J.P.; Sadi, R.


    Rotary kilns are used in many industrial processes ranging from cement manufacturing to waste incineration. The operating conditions vary widely depending on the process. While there are many models available within the literature and industry, the wide range of operating conditions justifies

  9. Numerical modeling of transformer inrush currents

    Cardelli, E. [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Perugia, I-06125 Perugia (Italy); Center for Electric and Magnetic Applied Research (Italy); Faba, A., E-mail: [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Perugia, I-06125 Perugia (Italy); Center for Electric and Magnetic Applied Research (Italy)


    This paper presents an application of a vector hysteresis model to the prediction of the inrush current due the arbitrary initial excitation of a transformer after a fault. The approach proposed seems promising in order to predict the transient overshoot in current and the optimal time to close the circuit after the fault.

  10. Numerical Modeling of Foam Drilling Hydraulics

    Ozcan Baris


    Full Text Available The use of foam as a drilling fluid was developed to meet a special set of conditions under which other common drilling fluids had failed. Foam drilling is defined as the process of making boreholes by utilizing foam as the circulating fluid. When compared with conventional drilling, underbalanced or foam drilling has several advantages. These advantages include: avoidance of lost circulation problems, minimizing damage to pay zones, higher penetration rates and bit life. Foams are usually characterized by the quality, the ratio of the volume of gas, and the total foam volume. Obtaining dependable pressure profiles for aerated (gasified fluids and foam is more difficult than for single phase fluids, since in the former ones the drilling mud contains a gas phase that is entrained within the fluid system. The primary goal of this study is to expand the knowledge-base of the hydrodynamic phenomena that occur in a foam drilling operation. In order to gain a better understanding of foam drilling operations, a hydrodynamic model is developed and run at different operating conditions. For this purpose, the flow of foam through the drilling system is modeled by invoking the basic principles of continuum mechanics and thermodynamics. The model was designed to allow gas and liquid flow at desired volumetric flow rates through the drillstring and annulus. Parametric studies are conducted in order to identify the most influential variables in the hydrodynamic modeling of foam flow.

  11. Numerical Modelling and Prediction of Erosion Induced by Hydrodynamic Cavitation

    Peters, A.; Lantermann, U.; el Moctar, O.


    The present work aims to predict cavitation erosion using a numerical flow solver together with a new developed erosion model. The erosion model is based on the hypothesis that collapses of single cavitation bubbles near solid boundaries form high velocity microjets, which cause sonic impacts with high pressure amplitudes damaging the surface. The erosion model uses information from a numerical Euler-Euler flow simulation to predict erosion sensitive areas and assess the erosion aggressiveness of the flow. The obtained numerical results were compared to experimental results from tests of an axisymmetric nozzle.

  12. Some Numerical Aspects on Crowd Motion - The Hughes Model

    Gomes, Diogo A.


    Here, we study a crowd model proposed by R. Hughes in [5] and we describe a numerical approach to solve it. This model comprises a Fokker-Planck equation coupled with an Eikonal equation with Dirichlet or Neumann data. First, we establish a priori estimates for the solution. Second, we study radial solutions and identify a shock formation mechanism. Third, we illustrate the existence of congestion, the breakdown of the model, and the trend to the equilibrium. Finally, we propose a new numerical method and consider two numerical examples.

  13. Numerical Validation of Chemical Compositional Model for Wettability Alteration Processes

    Bekbauov, Bakhbergen; Berdyshev, Abdumauvlen; Baishemirov, Zharasbek; Bau, Domenico


    Chemical compositional simulation of enhanced oil recovery and surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation processes is a complex task that involves solving dozens of equations for all grid blocks representing a reservoir. In the present work, we perform a numerical validation of the newly developed mathematical formulation which satisfies the conservation laws of mass and energy and allows applying a sequential solution approach to solve the governing equations separately and implicitly. Through its application to the numerical experiment using a wettability alteration model and comparisons with existing chemical compositional model's numerical results, the new model has proven to be practical, reliable and stable.

  14. Numerical Modelling and Measurement in a Test Secondary Settling Tank

    Dahl, C.; Larsen, Torben; Petersen, O.


    sludge. Phenomena as free and hindered settling and the Bingham plastic characteristic of activated sludge suspensions are included in the numerical model. Further characterisation and test tank experiments are described. The characterisation experiments were designed to measure calibration parameters...... for model description of settling and density differences. In the test tank experiments, flow velocities and suspended sludge concentrations were measured with different tank inlet geomotry and hydraulic and sludge loads. The test tank experiments provided results for the calibration of the numerical model......A numerical model and measurements of flow and settling in activated sludge suspension is presented. The numerical model is an attempt to describe the complex and interrelated hydraulic and sedimentation phenomena by describing the turbulent flow field and the transport/dispersion of suspended...


    Vipman Tandjiria


    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the chicken-foot foundation using the finite element method. The foundation is considered as a reinforced concrete slab resting on a number of reinforced concrete pipes filled with and surrounded by in-situ soil. The soil and the pipes were modelled by isoparametric solid elements while the slab was modelled by isoparametric thick-plate elements. The study was intended to illustrate the basic mechanism of the chicken-foot foundation. Three cases have been considered for the parametric studies. The parameters investigated are thickness of slab, length of pipes and spacing between pipes. It is shown that such a foundation improves the behaviour of the raft foundation. It is also found that all the parameters used in the parametric studies influence the behaviour of the chicken-foot foundation.

  16. Analytical and numerical modeling for flexible pipes

    Wang, Wei; Chen, Geng


    The unbonded flexible pipe of eight layers, in which all the layers except the carcass layer are assumed to have isotropic properties, has been analyzed. Specifically, the carcass layer shows the orthotropic characteristics. The effective elastic moduli of the carcass layer have been developed in terms of the influence of deformation to stiffness. With consideration of the effective elastic moduli, the structure can be properly analyzed. Also the relative movements of tendons and relative displacements of wires in helical armour layer have been investigated. A three-dimensional nonlinear finite element model has been presented to predict the response of flexible pipes under axial force and torque. Further, the friction and contact of interlayer have been considered. Comparison between the finite element model and experimental results obtained in literature has been given and discussed, which might provide practical and technical support for the application of unbonded flexible pipes.

  17. Numerical modeling of a vaporizing multicomponent droplet

    Megaridis, C. M.; Sirignano, W. A.

    The fundamental processes governing the energy, mass, and momentum exchange between the liquid and gas phases of vaporizing, multicomponent liquid droplets have been investigated. The axisymmetric configuration under consideration consists of an isolated multicomponent droplet vaporizing in a convective environment. The model considers different volatilities of the liquid components, variable liquid properties due to variation of the species concentrations, and non-Fickian multicomponent gaseous diffusion. The bicomponent droplet model was employed to examine the commonly used assumptions of unity Lewis number in the liquid phase and Fickian gaseous diffusion. It is found that the droplet drag coefficients, the vaporization rates, and the related transfer numbers are not influenced by the above assumptions in a significant way.

  18. REPFLO model evaluation, physical and numerical consistency

    Wilson, R.N.; Holland, D.H.


    This report contains a description of some suggested changes and an evaluation of the REPFLO computer code, which models ground-water flow and nuclear-waste migration in and about a nuclear-waste repository. The discussion contained in the main body of the report is supplemented by a flow chart, presented in the Appendix of this report. The suggested changes are of four kinds: (1) technical changes to make the code compatible with a wider variety of digital computer systems; (2) changes to fill gaps in the computer code, due to missing proprietary subroutines; (3) changes to (a) correct programming errors, (b) correct logical flaws, and (c) remove unnecessary complexity; and (4) changes in the computer code logical structure to make REPFLO a more viable model from the physical point of view

  19. Numerical modeling of the debris flows runout

    Federico Francesco


    Full Text Available Rapid debris flows are identified among the most dangerous of all landslides. Due to their destructive potential, the runout length has to be predicted to define the hazardous areas and design safeguarding measures. To this purpose, a continuum model to predict the debris flows mobility is developed. It is based on the well known depth-integrated avalanche model proposed by Savage and Hutter (S&H model to simulate the dry granular materials flows. Conservation of mass and momentum equations, describing the evolving geometry and the depth averaged velocity distribution, are re-written taking into account the effects of the interstitial pressures and the possible variation of mass along the motion due to erosion/deposition processes. Furthermore, the mechanical behaviour of the debris flow is described by a recently developed rheological law, which allows to take into account the dissipative effects of the grain inelastic collisions and friction, simultaneously acting within a ‘shear layer’, typically at the base of the debris flows. The governing PDEs are solved by applying the finite difference method. The analysis of a documented case is finally carried out.

  20. Simulation of atmospheric temperature inversions over greater cairo using the MM5 Meso-Scale atmospheric model

    Kandil, H.A.; Elhadidi, B.M.; Kader, A. A.; Moaty, A.A.; Sherif, A.O.


    levels were used in the vertical direction to capture the correct surface heat flux and to observe the small changes in the vertical temperature gradient. The results of the numerical model showed that it is possible to capture both types of temperature inversion during the night and early morning hours. This can be observed from the results of the vertical temperature profile and temperature gradient, which indicate that an inversion system was present over Cairo at a layer extending between 300 m and 800 m above the ground

  1. Complexities in coastal sediment transport studies by numerical modelling

    Ilangovan, D.; ManiMurali, R.

    equations arrived based on scientific principles as all natural phenomena are governed by certain rules which can be explained by scientific principles. Efficiency of numerical modeling greatly depends on quality of input parameters. When input parameters...

  2. Mathematical and numerical foundations of turbulence models and applications

    Chacón Rebollo, Tomás


    With applications to climate, technology, and industry, the modeling and numerical simulation of turbulent flows are rich with history and modern relevance. The complexity of the problems that arise in the study of turbulence requires tools from various scientific disciplines, including mathematics, physics, engineering, and computer science. Authored by two experts in the area with a long history of collaboration, this monograph provides a current, detailed look at several turbulence models from both the theoretical and numerical perspectives. The k-epsilon, large-eddy simulation, and other models are rigorously derived and their performance is analyzed using benchmark simulations for real-world turbulent flows. Mathematical and Numerical Foundations of Turbulence Models and Applications is an ideal reference for students in applied mathematics and engineering, as well as researchers in mathematical and numerical fluid dynamics. It is also a valuable resource for advanced graduate students in fluid dynamics,...

  3. Summary of Numerical Modeling for Underground Nuclear Test Monitoring Symposium

    Taylor, S.R.; Kamm, J.R.


    This document contains the Proceedings of the Numerical Modeling for Underground Nuclear Test Monitoring Symposium held in Durango, Colorado on March 23-25, 1993. The symposium was sponsored by the Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation of the United States Department of Energy and hosted by the Source Region Program of Los Alamos National Laboratory. The purpose of the meeting was to discuss state-of-the-art advances in numerical simulations of nuclear explosion phenomenology for the purpose of test ban monitoring. Another goal of the symposium was to promote discussion between seismologists and explosion source-code calculators. Presentation topics include the following: numerical model fits to data, measurement and characterization of material response models, applications of modeling to monitoring problems, explosion source phenomenology, numerical simulations and seismic sources

  4. Guadalupe River, California, Sedimentation Study. Numerical Model Investigation

    Copeland, Ronald


    A numerical model study was conducted to evaluate the potential impact that the Guadalupe River flood-control project would have on channel stability in terms of channel aggradation and degradation...

  5. Numerical Modeling of Subglacial Sediment Deformation

    Damsgaard, Anders


    may cause mass loss in the near future to exceed current best estimates. Ice flow in larger ice sheets focuses in fast-moving streams due to mechanical non-linearity of ice. These ice streams often move at velocities several magnitudes larger than surrounding ice and consequentially constitute...... glaciers move by deforming their sedimentary beds. Several modern ice streams, in particular, move as plug flows due to basal sediment deformation. An intense and long-winded discussion about the appropriate description for subglacial sediment mechanics followed this discovery, with good reason...... incompatible with commonly accepted till rheology models. Variation in pore-water pressure proves to cause reorganization in the internal stress network and leads to slow creeping deformation. The rate of creep is non-linearly dependent on the applied stresses. Granular creep can explain slow glacial...

  6. Reservoir Models for Gas Hydrate Numerical Simulation

    Boswell, R.


    Scientific and industrial drilling programs have now providing detailed information on gas hydrate systems that will increasingly be the subject of field experiments. The need to carefully plan these programs requires reliable prediction of reservoir response to hydrate dissociation. Currently, a major emphasis in gas hydrate modeling is the integration of thermodynamic/hydrologic phenomena with geomechanical response for both reservoir and bounding strata. However, also critical to the ultimate success of these efforts is the appropriate development of input geologic models, including several emerging issues, including (1) reservoir heterogeneity, (2) understanding of the initial petrophysical characteristics of the system (reservoirs and seals), the dynamic evolution of those characteristics during active dissociation, and the interdependency of petrophysical parameters and (3) the nature of reservoir boundaries. Heterogeneity is ubiquitous aspect of every natural reservoir, and appropriate characterization is vital. However, heterogeneity is not random. Vertical variation can be evaluated with core and well log data; however, core data often are challenged by incomplete recovery. Well logs also provide interpretation challenges, particularly where reservoirs are thinly-bedded due to limitation in vertical resolution. This imprecision will extend to any petrophysical measurements that are derived from evaluation of log data. Extrapolation of log data laterally is also complex, and should be supported by geologic mapping. Key petrophysical parameters include porosity, permeability and it many aspects, and water saturation. Field data collected to date suggest that the degree of hydrate saturation is strongly controlled by/dependant upon reservoir quality and that the ratio of free to bound water in the remaining pore space is likely also controlled by reservoir quality. Further, those parameters will also evolve during dissociation, and not necessary in a simple

  7. Numerical solution of dynamic equilibrium models under Poisson uncertainty

    Posch, Olaf; Trimborn, Timo


    We propose a simple and powerful numerical algorithm to compute the transition process in continuous-time dynamic equilibrium models with rare events. In this paper we transform the dynamic system of stochastic differential equations into a system of functional differential equations of the retar...... solution to Lucas' endogenous growth model under Poisson uncertainty are used to compute the exact numerical error. We show how (potential) catastrophic events such as rare natural disasters substantially affect the economic decisions of households....

  8. The Turbulent Interstellar Medium: Insights and Questions from Numerical Models

    Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; de Avillez, Miguel A.; Korpi, Maarit J.


    "The purpose of numerical models is not numbers but insight." (Hamming) In the spirit of this adage, and of Don Cox's approach to scientific speaking, we discuss the questions that the latest generation of numerical models of the interstellar medium raise, at least for us. The energy source for the interstellar turbulence is still under discussion. We review the argument for supernovae dominating in star forming regions. Magnetorotational instability has been suggested as a way of coupling di...

  9. Numerical modeling in photonic crystals integrated technology: the COPERNICUS Project

    Malaguti, Stefania; Armaroli, Andrea; Bellanca, Gaetano


    Photonic crystals will play a fundamental role in the future of optical communications. The relevance of the numerical modeling for the success of this technology is assessed by using some examples concerning the experience of the COPERNICUS Project.......Photonic crystals will play a fundamental role in the future of optical communications. The relevance of the numerical modeling for the success of this technology is assessed by using some examples concerning the experience of the COPERNICUS Project....

  10. Polynomial model inversion control: numerical tests and applications

    Novara, Carlo


    A novel control design approach for general nonlinear systems is described in this paper. The approach is based on the identification of a polynomial model of the system to control and on the on-line inversion of this model. Extensive simulations are carried out to test the numerical efficiency of the approach. Numerical examples of applicative interest are presented, concerned with control of the Duffing oscillator, control of a robot manipulator and insulin regulation in a type 1 diabetic p...

  11. Numerical modelling of concentrated leak erosion during Hole Erosion Tests

    Mercier, F.; Bonelli, S.; Golay, F.; Anselmet, F.; Philippe, P.; Borghi, R.


    This study focuses on the numerical modelling of concentrated leak erosion of a cohesive soil by a turbulent flow in axisymmetrical geometry, with application to the Hole Erosion Test (HET). The numerical model is based on adaptive remeshing of the water/soil interface to ensure accurate description of the mechanical phenomena occurring near the soil/water interface. The erosion law governing the interface motion is based on two erosion parameters: the critical shear stress and the erosion co...

  12. A New Scheme for the Simulation of Microscale Flow and Dispersion in Urban Areas by Coupling Large-Eddy Simulation with Mesoscale Models

    Li, Haifeng; Cui, Guixiang; Zhang, Zhaoshun


    A coupling scheme is proposed for the simulation of microscale flow and dispersion in which both the mesoscale field and small-scale turbulence are specified at the boundary of a microscale model. The small-scale turbulence is obtained individually in the inner and outer layers by the transformation of pre-computed databases, and then combined in a weighted sum. Validation of the results of a flow over a cluster of model buildings shows that the inner- and outer-layer transition height should be located in the roughness sublayer. Both the new scheme and the previous scheme are applied in the simulation of the flow over the central business district of Oklahoma City (a point source during intensive observation period 3 of the Joint Urban 2003 experimental campaign), with results showing that the wind speed is well predicted in the canopy layer. Compared with the previous scheme, the new scheme improves the prediction of the wind direction and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) in the canopy layer. The flow field influences the scalar plume in two ways, i.e. the averaged flow field determines the advective flux and the TKE field determines the turbulent flux. Thus, the mean, root-mean-square and maximum of the concentration agree better with the observations with the new scheme. These results indicate that the new scheme is an effective means of simulating the complex flow and dispersion in urban canopies.

  13. Soil remediation by heat injection: Experiments and numerical modelling

    Betz, C.; Emmert, M.; Faerber, A. [Univ. of Stuttgart (Germany)] [and others


    In order to understand physical processes of thermally enhanced soil vapor extraction methods in porous media the isothermal, multiphase formulation for the numerical model MUFTE will be extended by a non-isothermal, multiphase-multicomponent formulation. In order to verify the numerical model, comparison with analytical solutions for well defined problems will be carried out. To identify relevant processes and their interactions, the results of the simulation will be compared with well controlled experiments with sophisticated measurement equipment in three different scales. The aim is to compare the different numerical solution techniques namely Finite Element versus Integral Finite Difference technique as implemented in MUFTE and TOUGH2 [9] respectively.

  14. How biophysical interactions associated with sub- and mesoscale structures and migration behavior affect planktonic larvae of the spiny lobster in the Juan Fernández Ridge: A modeling approach

    Medel, Carolina; Parada, Carolina; Morales, Carmen E.; Pizarro, Oscar; Ernst, Billy; Conejero, Carlos


    The Juan Fernández Ridge (JFR) is a chain of topographical elevations in the eastern South Pacific (∼33-35°S, 76-81.5°W). Rich in endemic marine species, this ridge is frequently affected by the arrival of mesoscale eddies originating in the coastal upwelling zone off central-southern Chile. The impacts of these interactions on the structure and dynamics of the JFR pelagic system have, however, not been addressed yet. The present model-based study is focused on the coupled influence of mesoscale-submesoscale processes and biological behavior (i.e., diel vertical migration) on the horizontal distribution of planktonic larvae of the spiny lobster (Jasus frontalis) around the JFR waters. Two case studies were selected from a hydrodynamic Regional Ocean Modeling System to characterize mesoscale and submesoscale structures and an Individual-based model (IBM) to simulate diel vertical migration (DVM) and its impact on the horizontal distribution and the patchiness level. DVM behavior of these larvae has not been clearly characterized, therefore, three types of vertical mechanisms were assessed on the IBM: (1) no migration (LG), (2) a short migration (0-50 m depth, DVM1), and (3) a long migration (10-200 m depth, DVM2). The influence of physical properties (eddy kinetic energy, stretching deformation and divergence) on larval aggregation within meso and submesoscale features was quantified. The patchiness index assessed for mesoscale and submesoscale structures showed higher values in the mesoscale than in the submesoscale. However, submesoscale structures revealed a higher accumulation of particles by unit of area. Both vertical migration mechanisms produced larger patchiness indices compared to the no migration experiment. DVM2 was the one that showed by far the largest aggregation of almost all the aggregation zones. Larval concentrations were highest in the submesoscale structures; these zones were characterized by low eddy kinetic energy, negative stretching

  15. Numerical approaches to expansion process modeling

    G. V. Alekseev


    Full Text Available Forage production is currently undergoing a period of intensive renovation and introduction of the most advanced technologies and equipment. More and more often such methods as barley toasting, grain extrusion, steaming and grain flattening, boiling bed explosion, infrared ray treatment of cereals and legumes, followed by flattening, and one-time or two-time granulation of the purified whole grain without humidification in matrix presses By grinding the granules. These methods require special apparatuses, machines, auxiliary equipment, created on the basis of different methods of compiled mathematical models. When roasting, simulating the heat fields arising in the working chamber, provide such conditions, the decomposition of a portion of the starch to monosaccharides, which makes the grain sweetish, but due to protein denaturation the digestibility of the protein and the availability of amino acids decrease somewhat. Grain is roasted mainly for young animals in order to teach them to eat food at an early age, stimulate the secretory activity of digestion, better development of the masticatory muscles. In addition, the high temperature is detrimental to bacterial contamination and various types of fungi, which largely avoids possible diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. This method has found wide application directly on the farms. Apply when used in feeding animals and legumes: peas, soy, lupine and lentils. These feeds are preliminarily ground, and then cooked or steamed for 1 hour for 30–40 minutes. In the feed mill. Such processing of feeds allows inactivating the anti-nutrients in them, which reduce the effectiveness of their use. After processing, legumes are used as protein supplements in an amount of 25–30% of the total nutritional value of the diet. But it is recommended to cook and steal a grain of good quality. A poor-quality grain that has been stored for a long time and damaged by pathogenic micro flora is subject to

  16. A simple numerical model of a geometrically nonlinear Timoshenko beam

    Keijdener, C.; Metrikine, A.


    In the original problem for which this model was developed, onedimensional flexible objects interact through a non-linear contact model. Due to the non-linear nature of the contact model, a numerical time-domain approach was adopted. One of the goals was to see if the coupling between axial and

  17. A modular approach to numerical human body modeling

    Forbes, P.A.; Griotto, G.; Rooij, L. van


    The choice of a human body model for a simulated automotive impact scenario must take into account both accurate model response and computational efficiency as key factors. This study presents a "modular numerical human body modeling" approach which allows the creation of a customized human body

  18. Evaluation of high intensity precipitation from 16 Regional climate models over a meso-scale catchment in the Midlands Regions of England

    Wetterhall, F.; He, Y.; Cloke, H.; Pappenberger, F.; Freer, J.; Wilson, M.; McGregor, G.


    Local flooding events are often triggered by high-intensity rain-fall events, and it is important that these can be correctly modelled by Regional Climate Models (RCMs) if the results are to be used in climate impact assessment. In this study, daily precipitation from 16 RCMs was compared with observations over a meso-scale catchment in the Midlands Region of England. The RCM data was provided from the European research project ENSEMBLES and the precipitation data from the UK MetOffice. The RCMs were all driven by reanalysis data from the ERA40 dataset over the time period 1961-2000. The ENSEMBLES data is on the spatial scale of 25 x 25 km and it was disaggregated onto a 5 x 5 km grid over the catchment and compared with interpolated observational data with the same resolution. The mean precipitation was generally underestimated by the ENSEMBLES data, and the maximum and persistence of high intensity rainfall was even more underestimated. The inter-annual variability was not fully captured by the RCMs, and there was a systematic underestimation of precipitation during the autumn months. The spatial pattern in the modelled precipitation data was too smooth in comparison with the observed data, especially in the high altitudes in the western part of the catchment where the high precipitation usually occurs. The RCM outputs cannot reproduce the current high intensity precipitation events that are needed to sufficiently model extreme flood events. The results point out the discrepancy between climate model output and the high intensity precipitation input needs for hydrological impact modelling.

  19. Application and comparison of the SCS-CN-based rainfall-runoff model in meso-scale watershed and field scale

    Luo, L.; Wang, Z.


    Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN) based hydrologic model, has widely been used for agricultural watersheds in recent years. However, there will be relative error when applying it due to differentiation of geographical and climatological conditions. This paper introduces a more adaptable and propagable model based on the modified SCS-CN method, which specializes into two different scale cases of research regions. Combining the typical conditions of the Zhanghe irrigation district in southern part of China, such as hydrometeorologic conditions and surface conditions, SCS-CN based models were established. The Xinbu-Qiao River basin (area =1207 km2) and the Tuanlin runoff test area (area =2.87 km2)were taken as the study areas of basin scale and field scale in Zhanghe irrigation district. Applications were extended from ordinary meso-scale watershed to field scale in Zhanghe paddy field-dominated irrigated . Based on actual measurement data of land use, soil classification, hydrology and meteorology, quantitative evaluation and modifications for two coefficients, i.e. preceding loss and runoff curve, were proposed with corresponding models, table of CN values for different landuse and AMC(antecedent moisture condition) grading standard fitting for research cases were proposed. The simulation precision was increased by putting forward a 12h unit hydrograph of the field area, and 12h unit hydrograph were simplified. Comparison between different scales show that it’s more effectively to use SCS-CN model on field scale after parameters calibrated in basin scale These results can help discovering the rainfall-runoff rule in the district. Differences of established SCS-CN model's parameters between the two study regions are also considered. Varied forms of landuse and impacts of human activities were the important factors which can impact the rainfall-runoff relations in Zhanghe irrigation district.

  20. Numerical simulations of a reduced model for blood coagulation

    Pavlova, Jevgenija; Fasano, Antonio; Sequeira, Adélia


    In this work, the three-dimensional numerical resolution of a complex mathematical model for the blood coagulation process is presented. The model was illustrated in Fasano et al. (Clin Hemorheol Microcirc 51:1-14, 2012), Pavlova et al. (Theor Biol 380:367-379, 2015). It incorporates the action of the biochemical and cellular components of blood as well as the effects of the flow. The model is characterized by a reduction in the biochemical network and considers the impact of the blood slip at the vessel wall. Numerical results showing the capacity of the model to predict different perturbations in the hemostatic system are discussed.

  1. Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Regional Atmospheric Model: Samoa

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale numerical weather prediction model 7-day hourly forecast for the region surrounding the islands of Samoa at...

  2. Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Regional Atmospheric Model: Guam

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale numerical weather prediction model 7-day hourly forecast for the region surrounding the island of Guam at...

  3. Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Regional Atmospheric Model: Oahu

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale numerical weather prediction model 3.5-day hourly forecast for the region surrounding the Hawaiian island of Oahu at...

  4. Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Regional Atmospheric Model: CNMI

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale numerical weather prediction model 7-day hourly forecast for the region surrounding the Commonwealth of the Northern...

  5. Crucial role of dynamic linker histone binding and divalent ions for DNA accessibility and gene regulation revealed by mesoscale modeling of oligonucleosomes

    Collepardo-Guevara, Rosana; Schlick, Tamar


    Monte Carlo simulations of a mesoscale model of oligonucleosomes are analyzed to examine the role of dynamic-linker histone (LH) binding/unbinding in high monovalent salt with divalent ions, and to further interpret noted chromatin fiber softening by dynamic LH in monovalent salt conditions. We find that divalent ions produce a fiber stiffening effect that competes with, but does not overshadow, the dramatic softening triggered by dynamic-LH behavior. Indeed, we find that in typical in vivo conditions, dynamic-LH binding/unbinding reduces fiber stiffening dramatically (by a factor of almost 5, as measured by the elasticity modulus) compared with rigidly fixed LH, and also the force needed to initiate chromatin unfolding, making it consistent with those of molecular motors. Our data also show that, during unfolding, divalent ions together with LHs induce linker-DNA bending and DNA–DNA repulsion screening, which guarantee formation of heteromorphic superbeads-on-a-string structures that combine regions of loose and compact fiber independently of the characteristics of the LH–core bond. These structures might be important for gene regulation as they expose regions of the DNA selectively. Dynamic control of LH binding/unbinding, either globally or locally, in the presence of divalent ions, might constitute a mechanism for regulation of gene expression. PMID:22790986

  6. Simulation of mesoscale circulation in the Tatar Strait of the Japan Sea

    Ponomarev, V. I.; Fayman, P. A.; Prants, S. V.; Budyansky, M. V.; Uleysky, M. Yu.


    The eddy-resolved ocean circulation model RIAMOM (Lee et al., 2003) is used to analyze seasonal variability of mesoscale circulation in the Tatar Strait of the Japan Sea. The model domain is a vast area including the northern Japan Sea, Okhotsk Sea and adjacent region in the Pacific Ocean. A numerical experiment with a horizontal 1/18° resolution has been carried out under realistic meteorological conditions from the ECMWF ERA-40 reanalysis with restoring of surface temperature and salinity. The simulated seasonal variability of both the current system and mesoscale eddy dynamics in the Tatar Strait is in a good agreement with temperature and salinity distributions of oceanographic observation data collected during various seasons and years. Two general circulation regimes in the Strait have been found. The circulation regime changes from summer to winter due to seasonal change of the North Asian Monsoon. On a synoptic time scale, the similar change of the circulation regime occurs due to change of the southeastern wind to the northwestern one when the meteorological situation with an anticyclone over the Okhotsk Sea changes to that with a strong cyclone. The Lagrangian maps illustrate seasonal changes in direction of the main currents and in polarity and location of mesoscale eddies in the Strait.

  7. Numerical Modeling and Mechanical Analysis of Flexible Risers

    J. Y. Li


    Full Text Available ABAQUS is used to create a detailed finite element model for a 10-layer unbonded flexible riser to simulate the riser’s mechanical behavior under three load conditions: tension force and internal and external pressure. It presents a technique to create detailed finite element model and to analyze flexible risers. In FEM model, all layers are modeled separately with contact interfaces; interaction between steel trips in certain layers has been considered as well. FEM model considering contact interaction, geometric nonlinearity, and friction has been employed to accurately simulate the structural behavior of riser. The model includes the main features of the riser geometry with very little simplifying assumptions. The model was solved using a fully explicit time-integration scheme implemented in a parallel environment on an eight-processor cluster and 24 G memory computer. There is a very good agreement obtained from numerical and analytical comparisons, which validates the use of numerical model here. The results from the numerical simulation show that the numerical model takes into account various details of the riser. It has been shown that the detailed finite element model can be used to predict riser’s mechanics behavior under various load cases and bound conditions.

  8. North Pacific Mesoscale Coupled Air-Ocean Simulations Compared with Observations

    Cerovecki, Ivana [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Scripps Inst. of Oceanography; McClean, Julie [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Scripps Inst. of Oceanography; Koracin, Darko [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States). Division of Atmospheric Sciences


    The overall objective of this study was to improve the representation of regional ocean circulation in the North Pacific by using high resolution atmospheric forcing that accurately represents mesoscale processes in ocean-atmosphere regional (North Pacific) model configuration. The goal was to assess the importance of accurate representation of mesoscale processes in the atmosphere and the ocean on large scale circulation. This is an important question, as mesoscale processes in the atmosphere which are resolved by the high resolution mesoscale atmospheric models such as Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF), are absent in commonly used atmospheric forcing such as CORE forcing, employed in e.g. the Community Climate System Model (CCSM).

  9. Numerical modelling of river morphodynamics: Latest developments and remaining challenges

    Siviglia, Annunziato; Crosato, Alessandra


    Numerical morphodynamic models provide scientific frameworks for advancing our understanding of river systems. The research on involved topics is an important and socially relevant undertaking regarding our environment. Nowadays numerical models are used for different purposes, from answering questions about basic morphodynamic research to managing complex river engineering problems. Due to increasing computer power and the development of advanced numerical techniques, morphodynamic models are now more and more used to predict the bed patterns evolution to a broad spectrum of spatial and temporal scales. The development and the success of application of such models are based upon a wide range of disciplines from applied mathematics for the numerical solution of the equations to geomorphology for the physical interpretation of the results. In this light we organized this special issue (SI) soliciting multidisciplinary contributions which encompass any aspect needed for the development and applications of such models. Most of the papers in the SI stem from contributions to session HS9.5/GM7.11 on numerical modelling and experiments in river morphodynamics at the European Geosciences Union (EGU) General Assembly held in Vienna, April 27th to May 2nd 2014.

  10. Nonspinning numerical relativity waveform surrogates: assessing the model

    Field, Scott; Blackman, Jonathan; Galley, Chad; Scheel, Mark; Szilagyi, Bela; Tiglio, Manuel


    Recently, multi-modal gravitational waveform surrogate models have been built directly from data numerically generated by the Spectral Einstein Code (SpEC). I will describe ways in which the surrogate model error can be quantified. This task, in turn, requires (i) characterizing differences between waveforms computed by SpEC with those predicted by the surrogate model and (ii) estimating errors associated with the SpEC waveforms from which the surrogate is built. Both pieces can have numerous sources of numerical and systematic errors. We make an attempt to study the most dominant error sources and, ultimately, the surrogate model's fidelity. These investigations yield information about the surrogate model's uncertainty as a function of time (or frequency) and parameter, and could be useful in parameter estimation studies which seek to incorporate model error. Finally, I will conclude by comparing the numerical relativity surrogate model to other inspiral-merger-ringdown models. A companion talk will cover the building of multi-modal surrogate models.

  11. Thermodynamic analysis and numerical modeling of supercritical injection

    Banuti, Daniel


    Although liquid propellant rocket engines are operational and have been studied for decades, cryogenic injection at supercritical pressures is still considered essentially not understood. This thesis intends to approach this problem in three steps: by developing a numerical model for real gas thermodynamics, by extending the present thermodynamic view of supercritical injection, and finally by applying these methods to the analysis of injection. A new numerical real gas thermodynamics mode...

  12. Numerical modeling of nitrogen oxide emission and experimental verification

    Szecowka Lech


    Full Text Available The results of nitrogen reduction in combustion process with application of primary method are presented in paper. The reduction of NOx emission, by the recirculation of combustion gasses, staging of fuel and of air was investigated, and than the reduction of NOx emission by simultaneous usage of the mentioned above primary method with pulsatory disturbances.The investigations contain numerical modeling of NOx reduction and experimental verification of obtained numerical calculation results.

  13. Numerical modelling of the HAB Energy Buoy: Stage 1

    Kurniawan, Adi

    This report presents the results of the first stage of the project "Numerical modelling of the HAB Energy Buoy". The objectives of this stage are to develop a numerical model of the HAB Energy Buoy, a self-reacting wave energy device consisting of two heaving bodies, and to investigate a number...... and a summary of the main findings is presented. A numerical model of the HAB Energy Buoy has been developed in the frequency domain using two alternative formulations of the equations of motion. The model is capable of predicting the power capture, motion response, and power take-off loads of the device...... configuration are imposed to give a more realistic prediction of the power capture and help ensure a fair comparison. Recommendations with regard to the HAB design are finally suggested....

  14. Mesoscale wind fluctuations over Danish waters

    Vincent, Claire Louise

    in generated power are a particular problem for oshore wind farms because the typically high concentration of turbines within a limited geographical area means that uctuations can be correlated across large numbers of turbines. Furthermore, organised mesoscale structures that often form over water......Mesoscale wind uctuations aect the large scale integration of wind power because they undermine the day-ahead predictability of wind speed and power production, and because they can result in large uctuations in power generation that must be balanced using reserve power. Large uctuations...... that realistic hour-scale wind uctuations and open cellular convection patterns develop in WRF simulations with 2km horizontal grid spacing. The atmospheric conditions during one of the case studies are then used to initialise a simplied version of the model that has no large scale weather forcing, topography...

  15. Numerical modelling of the jet nozzle enrichment process

    Vercelli, P.


    A numerical model was developed for the simulation of the isotopic enrichment produced by the jet nozzle process. The flow was considered stationary and under ideal gas conditions. The model calculates, for any position of the skimmer piece: (a) values of radial mass concentration profiles for each isotopic species and (b) values of elementary separation effect (Σ sub(A)) and uranium cut (theta). The comparison of the numerical results obtained with the experimental values given in the literature proves the validity of the present work as an initial step in the modelling of the process. (Author) [pt

  16. Generalized Roe's numerical scheme for a two-fluid model

    Toumi, I.; Raymond, P.


    This paper is devoted to a mathematical and numerical study of a six equation two-fluid model. We will prove that the model is strictly hyperbolic due to the inclusion of the virtual mass force term in the phasic momentum equations. The two-fluid model is naturally written under a nonconservative form. To solve the nonlinear Riemann problem for this nonconservative hyperbolic system, a generalized Roe's approximate Riemann solver, is used, based on a linearization of the nonconservative terms. A Godunov type numerical scheme is built, using this approximate Riemann solver. 10 refs., 5 figs,

  17. Numerical Modelling of Flow and Settling in Secondary Settling Tanks

    Dahl, Claus Poulsen


    Denne afhandling omhandler udviklingen af en numerisk model til simulering af efterklaringstanke. lndledningsvis er beskrevet status for udviklingen inden for numeriske modeller for efterklaring og den nuværende designpraksis. Resultatet af denne statusbeskrivelse er et behov for videre udvikling for at indføre numeriske modeller i design af efterklaringstanke og hermed forbedre efterklaringstanke i fremtiden. This thesis discusses the development of a numerical model for the simulation of...

  18. Numerical equilibrium analysis for structured consumer resource models

    de Roos, A.M.; Diekmann, O.; Getto, P.; Kirkilionis, M.A.


    In this paper, we present methods for a numerical equilibrium and stability analysis for models of a size structured population competing for an unstructured re- source. We concentrate on cases where two model parameters are free, and thus existence boundaries for equilibria and stability boundaries

  19. Numerical equilibrium analysis for structured consumer resource models

    de Roos, A.M.; Diekmann, O.; Getto, P.; Kirkilionis, M.A.


    In this paper, we present methods for a numerical equilibrium and stability analysis for models of a size structured population competing for an unstructured resource. We concentrate on cases where two model parameters are free, and thus existence boundaries for equilibria and stability boundaries

  20. Application of numerical modelling in SSM automotive brake calliper castings

    Jahajeeah, N


    Full Text Available Numerical modelling has successfully been used as an efficient tool to convert a gravity cast brake calliper to a thixocasting process. The thixo-modue of Procast has been used for the modelling process to obtain optimum processing parameters...

  1. Some Numerical Aspects on Crowd Motion - The Hughes Model

    Gomes, Diogo A.; Machado Velho, Roberto


    Here, we study a crowd model proposed by R. Hughes in [5] and we describe a numerical approach to solve it. This model comprises a Fokker-Planck equation coupled with an Eikonal equation with Dirichlet or Neumann data. First, we establish a priori

  2. Numerical human model for impact and seating comfort

    Hoof, J.F.A.M. van; Lange, R. de; Verver, M.M.


    This paper presents a detailed numerical model of the human body that can be used to evaluate both safety and comfort aspects of vehicle interiors. The model is based on a combination of rigid body and finite element techniques to provide an optimal combination of computational efficiency and

  3. Numerical modelling of erosion and sedimentation around offshore pipelines

    van Beek, F.A.; Wind, H.G.


    In this paper a numerical model is presented for the description of the erosion and sedimentation near pipelines on the sea bottom. The model is based on the Navier-Stokes equations and the equation of motion and continuity of sediment. The results of the simulations have been compared with the


    M. M. Biliaiev


    Full Text Available Purpose. Scientific work involves: 1 development of 3D numerical models that allow calculating the process of air pollution by motor vehicles emissions; 2 creation of models which would allow predicting the air pollution level in urban areas. Methodology. To solve the problem upon assessing the level of air pollution by motor vehicles emissions fundamental equations of aerodynamics and mass transfer are used. For the solution of differential equations of aerodynamics and mass transfer finite-difference methods are used. For the numerical integration of the equation for the velocity potential the method of conditional approximations is applied. The equation for the velocity potential written in differential form, splits into two equations, where at each step of splitting an unknown value of the velocity potential is determined by an explicit scheme of running computation, while the difference scheme is implicit one. For the numerical integration of the emissions dispersion equation in the atmosphere applies the implicit alternating-triangular difference scheme of splitting. Emissions from the road are modeled by a series of point sources of given intensity. Developed numerical models form is the basis of the created software package. Findings. 3D numerical models were developed; they belong to the class of «diagnostic models». These models take into account main physical factors that influence the process of dispersion of harmful substances in the atmosphere when emissions from vehicles in the city occur. Based on the constructed numerical models the computational experiment was conducted to assess the level of air pollution in the street. Originality. Authors have developed numerical models that allow to calculate the 3D aerodynamics of the wind flow in urban areas and the process of mass transfer emissions from the highway. Calculations to determine the area of contamination, which is formed near the buildings, located along the highway were

  5. Biogeography of seabirds within a high-latitude ecosystem: Use of a data-assimilative ocean model to assess impacts of mesoscale oceanography

    Santora, Jarrod A.; Eisner, Lisa B.; Kuletz, Kathy J.; Ladd, Carol; Renner, Martin; Hunt, George L., Jr.


    We assessed the biogeography of seabirds within the Bering Sea Large Marine Ecosystem (LME), a highly productive and extensive continental shelf system that supports important fishing grounds. Our objective was to investigate how physical ocean conditions impact distribution of seabirds along latitudinal gradients. We tested the hypothesis that seabird biogeographic patterns reflect differences in ocean conditions relating to the boundary between northern and southern shelf ecosystems. We used a grid-based approach to develop spatial means (1975-2014) of summertime seabird species' abundance, species' richness, and a multivariate seabird assemblage index to examine species composition. Seabird indices were linked to ocean conditions derived from a data-assimilative oceanographic model to quantify relationships between physics (e.g., temperature, salinity, and current velocity), bathymetry and seabirds along latitudinal gradients. Species assemblages reflected two main sources of variation, a mode for elevated richness and abundance, and a mode related to partitioning of inner/middle shelf species from outer shelf-slope species. Overall, species richness and abundance increased markedly at higher latitudes. We found that latitudinal changes in species assemblages, richness and abundance indicates a major shift around 59-60°N within inner and middle shelf regions, but not in the outer shelf. Within the middle shelf, latitudinal shifts in seabird assemblages strongly related to hydrographic structure, as opposed to the inner and outer shelf waters. As expected, elevated species richness and abundance was associated with major breeding colonies and within important coastal foraging areas. Our study also indicates that seabird observations supported the conclusion that the oceanographic model captured mesoscale variability of ocean conditions important for understanding seabird distributions and represents an important step for evaluating modeling and empirical studies

  6. Prediction of Aerosol Optical Depth in West Asia: Machine Learning Methods versus Numerical Models

    Omid Nabavi, Seyed; Haimberger, Leopold; Abbasi, Reyhaneh; Samimi, Cyrus


    Dust-prone areas of West Asia are releasing increasingly large amounts of dust particles during warm months. Because of the lack of ground-based observations in the region, this phenomenon is mainly monitored through remotely sensed aerosol products. The recent development of mesoscale Numerical Models (NMs) has offered an unprecedented opportunity to predict dust emission, and, subsequently Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), at finer spatial and temporal resolutions. Nevertheless, the significant uncertainties in input data and simulations of dust activation and transport limit the performance of numerical models in dust prediction. The presented study aims to evaluate if machine-learning algorithms (MLAs), which require much less computational expense, can yield the same or even better performance than NMs. Deep blue (DB) AOD, which is observed by satellites but also predicted by MLAs and NMs, is used for validation. We concentrate our evaluations on the over dry Iraq plains, known as the main origin of recently intensified dust storms in West Asia. Here we examine the performance of four MLAs including Linear regression Model (LM), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS). The Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled to Chemistry (WRF-Chem) and the Dust REgional Atmosphere Model (DREAM) are included as NMs. The MACC aerosol re-analysis of European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) is also included, although it has assimilated satellite-based AOD data. Using the Recursive Feature Elimination (RFE) method, nine environmental features including soil moisture and temperature, NDVI, dust source function, albedo, dust uplift potential, vertical velocity, precipitation and 9-month SPEI drought index are selected for dust (AOD) modeling by MLAs. During the feature selection process, we noticed that NDVI and SPEI are of the highest importance in MLAs predictions. The data set was divided

  7. Vertical Transport by Coastal Mesoscale Convective Systems

    Lombardo, K.; Kading, T.


    This work is part of an ongoing investigation of coastal mesoscale convective systems (MCSs), including changes in vertical transport of boundary layer air by storms moving from inland to offshore. The density of a storm's cold pool versus that of the offshore marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL), in part, determines the ability of the storm to successfully cross the coast, the mechanism driving storm propagation, and the ability of the storm to lift air from the boundary layer aloft. The ability of an MCS to overturn boundary layer air can be especially important over the eastern US seaboard, where warm season coastal MCSs are relatively common and where large coastal population centers generate concentrated regions of pollution. Recent work numerically simulating idealized MCSs in a coastal environment has provided some insight into the physical mechanisms governing MCS coastal crossing success and the impact on vertical transport of boundary layer air. Storms are simulated using a cloud resolving model initialized with atmospheric conditions representative of a Mid-Atlantic environment. Simulations are run in 2-D at 250 m horizontal resolution with a vertical resolution stretched from 100 m in the boundary layer to 250 m aloft. The left half of the 800 km domain is configured to represent land, while the right half is assigned as water. Sensitivity experiments are conducted to quantify the influence of varying MABL structure on MCS coastal crossing success and air transport, with MABL values representative of those observed over the western Mid-Atlantic during warm season. Preliminary results indicate that when the density of the cold pool is much greater than the MABL, the storm successfully crosses the coastline, with lifting of surface parcels, which ascend through the troposphere. When the density of the cold pool is similar to that of the MABL, parcels within the MABL remain at low levels, though parcels above the MABL ascend through the troposphere.

  8. Rapid installation of numerical models in multiple parent codes

    Brannon, R.M.; Wong, M.K.


    A set of``model interface guidelines``, called MIG, is offered as a means to more rapidly install numerical models (such as stress-strain laws) into any parent code (hydrocode, finite element code, etc.) without having to modify the model subroutines. The model developer (who creates the model package in compliance with the guidelines) specifies the model`s input and storage requirements in a standardized way. For portability, database management (such as saving user inputs and field variables) is handled by the parent code. To date, NUG has proved viable in beta installations of several diverse models in vectorized and parallel codes written in different computer languages. A NUG-compliant model can be installed in different codes without modifying the model`s subroutines. By maintaining one model for many codes, MIG facilitates code-to-code comparisons and reduces duplication of effort potentially reducing the cost of installing and sharing models.

  9. Global Ocean Circulation in Thermohaline Coordinates and Small-scale and Mesoscale mixing: An Inverse Estimate.

    Groeskamp, S.; Zika, J. D.; McDougall, T. J.; Sloyan, B.


    I will present results of a new inverse technique that infers small-scale turbulent diffusivities and mesoscale eddy diffusivities from an ocean climatology of Salinity (S) and Temperature (T) in combination with surface freshwater and heat fluxes.First, the ocean circulation is represented in (S,T) coordinates, by the diathermohaline streamfunction. Framing the ocean circulation in (S,T) coordinates, isolates the component of the circulation that is directly related to water-mass transformation.Because water-mass transformation is directly related to fluxes of salt and heat, this framework allows for the formulation of an inverse method in which the diathermohaline streamfunction is balanced with known air-sea forcing and unknown mixing. When applying this inverse method to observations, we obtain observationally based estimates for both the streamfunction and the mixing. The results reveal new information about the component of the global ocean circulation due to water-mass transformation and its relation to surface freshwater and heat fluxes and small-scale and mesoscale mixing. The results provide global constraints on spatially varying patterns of diffusivities, in order to obtain a realistic overturning circulation. We find that mesoscale isopycnal mixing is much smaller than expected. These results are important for our understanding of the relation between global ocean circulation and mixing and may lead to improved parameterisations in numerical ocean models.

  10. Development of a numerical 2-dimensional beach evolution model

    Baykal, Cüneyt


    This paper presents the description of a 2-dimensional numerical model constructed for the simulation of beach evolution under the action of wind waves only over the arbitrary land and sea topographies around existing coastal structures and formations. The developed beach evolution numerical model...... is composed of 4 submodels: a nearshore spectral wave transformation model based on an energy balance equation including random wave breaking and diffraction terms to compute the nearshore wave characteristics, a nearshore wave-induced circulation model based on the nonlinear shallow water equations...... to compute the nearshore depth-averaged wave-induced current velocities and mean water level changes, a sediment transport model to compute the local total sediment transport rates occurring under the action of wind waves, and a bottom evolution model to compute the bed level changes in time based...

  11. High-frequency and meso-scale winter sea-ice variability in the Southern Ocean in a high-resolution global ocean model

    Stössel, Achim; von Storch, Jin-Song; Notz, Dirk; Haak, Helmuth; Gerdes, Rüdiger


    This study is on high-frequency temporal variability (HFV) and meso-scale spatial variability (MSV) of winter sea-ice drift in the Southern Ocean simulated with a global high-resolution (0.1°) sea ice-ocean model. Hourly model output is used to distinguish MSV characteristics via patterns of mean kinetic energy (MKE) and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) of ice drift, surface currents, and wind stress, and HFV characteristics via time series of raw variables and correlations. We find that (1) along the ice edge, the MSV of ice drift coincides with that of surface currents, in particular such due to ocean eddies; (2) along the coast, the MKE of ice drift is substantially larger than its TKE and coincides with the MKE of wind stress; (3) in the interior of the ice pack, the TKE of ice drift is larger than its MKE, mostly following the TKE pattern of wind stress; (4) the HFV of ice drift is dominated by weather events, and, in the absence of tidal currents, locally and to a much smaller degree by inertial oscillations; (5) along the ice edge, the curl of the ice drift is highly correlated with that of surface currents, mostly reflecting the impact of ocean eddies. Where ocean eddies occur and the ice is relatively thin, ice velocity is characterized by enhanced relative vorticity, largely matching that of surface currents. Along the ice edge, ocean eddies produce distinct ice filaments, the realism of which is largely confirmed by high-resolution satellite passive-microwave data.

  12. The Liquid Film Flow with Evaporation: Numerical Modelling

    Rezanova Ekaterina


    Full Text Available The flow of thin liquid layer on an inclined substrate is investigated numerically. The mathematical modelling is based on the Oberbeck-Boussinesq equations and the generalized conditions on the thermocapillary boundary simplified during the parametrical analysis. In the framework of the long-wave approximation the evolution equation which determines the thickness of the liquid layer in the case of moderate Reynolds numbers is derived. The results of numerical modelling of the liquid flow with evaporation at the interface are obtained.

  13. A numerical method for a transient two-fluid model

    Le Coq, G.; Libmann, M.


    The transient boiling two-phase flow is studied. In nuclear reactors, the driving conditions for the transient boiling are a pump power decay or/and an increase in heating power. The physical model adopted for the two-phase flow is the two fluid model with the assumption that the vapor remains at saturation. The numerical method for solving the thermohydraulics problems is a shooting method, this method is highly implicit. A particular problem exists at the boiling and condensation front. A computer code using this numerical method allow the calculation of a transient boiling initiated by a steady state for a PWR or for a LMFBR

  14. Calibration and verification of numerical runoff and erosion model

    Gabrić Ognjen


    Full Text Available Based on the field and laboratory measurements, and analogous with development of computational techniques, runoff and erosion models based on equations which describe the physics of the process are also developed. Based on the KINEROS2 model, this paper presents basic modelling principles of runoff and erosion processes based on the St. Venant's equations. Alternative equations for friction calculation, calculation of source and deposition elements and transport capacity are also shown. Numerical models based on original and alternative equations are calibrated and verified on laboratory scale model. According to the results, friction calculation based on the analytic solution of laminar flow must be included in all runoff and erosion models.

  15. Development of Numerical Grids for UZ Flow and Transport Modeling

    Hinds, J.


    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) describes the methods used to develop numerical grids of the unsaturated hydrogeologic system beneath Yucca Mountain. Numerical grid generation is an integral part of the development of a complex, three-dimensional (3-D) model, such as the Unsaturated-Zone Flow and Transport Model (UZ Model) of Yucca Mountain. The resulting numerical grids, developed using current geologic, hydrogeologic, and mineralogic data, provide the necessary framework to: (1) develop calibrated hydrogeologic property sets and flow fields, (2) test conceptual hypotheses of flow and transport, and (3) predict flow and transport behavior under a variety of climatic and thermal loading conditions. Revision 00 of the work described herein follows the planning and work direction outlined in the ''Development of Numerical Grids for UZ Flow and Transport Modeling'' (CRWMS M and O 1999c). The technical scope, content, and management of ICN 01 of this AMR is currently controlled by the planning document, ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' (BSC 2001a). The scope for the TBV resolution actions in this ICN is described in the ''Technical Work Plan for: Integrated Management of Technical Product Input Department'' (BSC 2001 b, Addendum B, Section 4.1). The steps involved in numerical grid development include: (1) defining the location of important calibration features, (2) determining model grid layers and fault geometry based on the Geologic Framework Model (GFM), the Integrated Site Model (ISM), and definition of hydrogeologic units (HGUs), (3) analyzing and extracting GFM and ISM data pertaining to layer contacts and property distributions, (4) discretizing and refining the two-dimensional (2-D), plan-view numerical grid, (5) generating the 3-D grid with finer resolution at the repository horizon and within the Calico Hills nonwelded (CHn) hydrogeologic unit, and (6) formulating the dual-permeability mesh. The

  16. Numerical modelling of carbonate platforms and reefs: approaches and opportunities

    Dalmasso, H.; Montaggioni, L.F.; Floquet, M. [Universite de Provence, Marseille (France). Centre de Sedimentologie-Palaeontologie; Bosence, D. [Royal Holloway University of London, Egham (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geology


    This paper compares different computing procedures that have been utilized in simulating shallow-water carbonate platform development. Based on our geological knowledge we can usually give a rather accurate qualitative description of the mechanisms controlling geological phenomena. Further description requires the use of computer stratigraphic simulation models that allow quantitative evaluation and understanding of the complex interactions of sedimentary depositional carbonate systems. The roles of modelling include: (1) encouraging accuracy and precision in data collection and process interpretation (Watney et al., 1999); (2) providing a means to quantitatively test interpretations concerning the control of various mechanisms on producing sedimentary packages; (3) predicting or extrapolating results into areas of limited control; (4) gaining new insights regarding the interaction of parameters; (5) helping focus on future studies to resolve specific problems. This paper addresses two main questions, namely: (1) What are the advantages and disadvantages of various types of models? (2) How well do models perform? In this paper we compare and discuss the application of five numerical models: CARBONATE (Bosence and Waltham, 1990), FUZZIM (Nordlund, 1999), CARBPLAT (Bosscher, 1992), DYNACARB (Li et al., 1993), PHIL (Bowman, 1997) and SEDPAK (Kendall et al., 1991). The comparison, testing and evaluation of these models allow one to gain a better knowledge and understanding of controlling parameters of carbonate platform development, which are necessary for modelling. Evaluating numerical models, critically comparing results from models using different approaches, and pushing experimental tests to their limits, provide an effective vehicle to improve and develop new numerical models. A main feature of this paper is to closely compare the performance between two numerical models: a forward model (CARBONATE) and a fuzzy logic model (FUZZIM). These two models use common

  17. Development of satellite green vegetation fraction time series for use in mesoscale modeling: application to the European heat wave 2006

    Nielsen, Joakim Refslund; Dellwik, Ebba; Hahmann, Andrea N.


    A method is presented for development of satellite green vegetation fraction (GVF) time series for use in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The GVF data is in the WRF model used to describe the temporal evolution of many land surface parameters, in addition to the evolution of veg...

  18. Mathematical modeling and numerical simulation of Czochralski Crystal Growth

    Jaervinen, J.; Nieminen, R. [Center for Scientific Computing, Espoo (Finland)


    A detailed mathematical model and numerical simulation tools based on the SUPG Finite Element Method for the Czochralski crystal growth has been developed. In this presentation the mathematical modeling and numerical simulation of the melt flow and the temperature distribution in a rotationally symmetric crystal growth environment is investigated. The temperature distribution and the position of the free boundary between the solid and liquid phases are solved by using the Enthalpy method. Heat inside of the Czochralski furnace is transferred by radiation, conduction and convection. The melt flow is governed by the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the enthalpy equation. The melt flow is numerically demonstrated and the temperature distribution in the whole Czochralski furnace. (author)

  19. Behavioral modeling of SRIM tables for numerical simulation

    Martinie, S., E-mail:; Saad-Saoud, T.; Moindjie, S.; Munteanu, D.; Autran, J.L., E-mail:


    Highlights: • Behavioral modeling of SRIM data is performed on the basis of power polynomial fitting functions. • Fast and continuous numerical functions are proposed for the stopping power and projected range. • Functions have been successfully tested for a wide variety of ions and targets. • Typical accuracies below the percent have been obtained in the range 1 keV–1 GeV. - Abstract: This work describes a simple way to implement SRIM stopping power and range tabulated data in the form of fast and continuous numerical functions for intensive simulation. We provide here the methodology of this behavioral modeling as well as the details of the implementation and some numerical examples for ions in silicon target. Developed functions have been successfully tested and used for the simulation of soft errors in microelectronics circuits.

  20. Mathematical modeling and numerical simulation of Czochralski Crystal Growth

    Jaervinen, J; Nieminen, R [Center for Scientific Computing, Espoo (Finland)


    A detailed mathematical model and numerical simulation tools based on the SUPG Finite Element Method for the Czochralski crystal growth has been developed. In this presentation the mathematical modeling and numerical simulation of the melt flow and the temperature distribution in a rotationally symmetric crystal growth environment is investigated. The temperature distribution and the position of the free boundary between the solid and liquid phases are solved by using the Enthalpy method. Heat inside of the Czochralski furnace is transferred by radiation, conduction and convection. The melt flow is governed by the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the enthalpy equation. The melt flow is numerically demonstrated and the temperature distribution in the whole Czochralski furnace. (author)

  1. Behavioral modeling of SRIM tables for numerical simulation

    Martinie, S.; Saad-Saoud, T.; Moindjie, S.; Munteanu, D.; Autran, J.L.


    Highlights: • Behavioral modeling of SRIM data is performed on the basis of power polynomial fitting functions. • Fast and continuous numerical functions are proposed for the stopping power and projected range. • Functions have been successfully tested for a wide variety of ions and targets. • Typical accuracies below the percent have been obtained in the range 1 keV–1 GeV. - Abstract: This work describes a simple way to implement SRIM stopping power and range tabulated data in the form of fast and continuous numerical functions for intensive simulation. We provide here the methodology of this behavioral modeling as well as the details of the implementation and some numerical examples for ions in silicon target. Developed functions have been successfully tested and used for the simulation of soft errors in microelectronics circuits

  2. Numerical modeling of turbulent combustion and flame spread

    Yan Zhenghua


    Theoretical models have been developed to address several important aspects of numerical modeling of turbulent combustion and flame spread. The developed models include a pyrolysis model for charring and non-charring solid materials, a fast narrow band radiation property evaluation model (FASTNB) and a turbulence model for buoyant flow and flame. In the pyrolysis model, a completely new algorithm has been proposed, where a moving dual mesh concept was developed and implemented. With this new concept, it provides proper spatial resolution for both temperature and density and automatically considers the regression of the surface of the non-charring solid material during its pyrolysis. It is simple, very efficient and applicable to both charring and non-charring materials. FASTNB speeds up significantly the evaluation of narrow band spectral radiation properties and thus provides a potential of applying narrow band model in numerical simulations of practical turbulent combustion. The turbulence model was developed to improve the consideration of buoyancy effect on turbulence and turbulent transport. It was found to be simple, promising and numerically stable. It has been tested against both plane and axisymmetric thermal plumes and an axisymmetric buoyant diffusion flame. When compared with the widely used standard buoyancy-modified {kappa} - {epsilon} model, it gives significant improvement on numerical results. These developed models have been fully incorporated into CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) code and coupled with other CFD sub-models, including the DT (Discrete Transfer) radiation model, EDC (Eddy Dissipation Concept) combustion model, flamelet combustion model, various soot models and transpired wall function. Comprehensive numerical simulations have been carried out to study soot formation and oxidation in turbulent buoyant diffusion flames, flame heat transfer and flame spread in fires. The gas temperature and velocity, soot volume fraction, wall

  3. Physical and numerical modeling of Joule-heated melters

    Eyler, L.L.; Skarda, R.J.; Crowder, R.S. III; Trent, D.S.; Reid, C.R.; Lessor, D.L.


    The Joule-heated ceramic-lined melter is an integral part of the high level waste immobilization process under development by the US Department of Energy. Scaleup and design of this waste glass melting furnace requires an understanding of the relationships between melting cavity design parameters and the furnace performance characteristics such as mixing, heat transfer, and electrical requirements. Developing empirical models of these relationships through actual melter testing with numerous designs would be a very costly and time consuming task. Additionally, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has been developing numerical models that simulate a Joule-heated melter for analyzing melter performance. This report documents the method used and results of this modeling effort. Numerical modeling results are compared with the more conventional, physical modeling results to validate the approach. Also included are the results of numerically simulating an operating research melter at PNL. Physical Joule-heated melters modeling results used for qualiying the simulation capabilities of the melter code included: (1) a melter with a single pair of electrodes and (2) a melter with a dual pair (two pairs) of electrodes. The physical model of the melter having two electrode pairs utilized a configuration with primary and secondary electrodes. The principal melter parameters (the ratio of power applied to each electrode pair, modeling fluid depth, electrode spacing) were varied in nine tests of the physical model during FY85. Code predictions were made for five of these tests. Voltage drops, temperature field data, and electric field data varied in their agreement with the physical modeling results, but in general were judged acceptable. 14 refs., 79 figs., 17 tabs.

  4. Physical and numerical modeling of Joule-heated melters

    Eyler, L.L.; Skarda, R.J.; Crowder, R.S. III; Trent, D.S.; Reid, C.R.; Lessor, D.L.


    The Joule-heated ceramic-lined melter is an integral part of the high level waste immobilization process under development by the US Department of Energy. Scaleup and design of this waste glass melting furnace requires an understanding of the relationships between melting cavity design parameters and the furnace performance characteristics such as mixing, heat transfer, and electrical requirements. Developing empirical models of these relationships through actual melter testing with numerous designs would be a very costly and time consuming task. Additionally, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has been developing numerical models that simulate a Joule-heated melter for analyzing melter performance. This report documents the method used and results of this modeling effort. Numerical modeling results are compared with the more conventional, physical modeling results to validate the approach. Also included are the results of numerically simulating an operating research melter at PNL. Physical Joule-heated melters modeling results used for qualiying the simulation capabilities of the melter code included: (1) a melter with a single pair of electrodes and (2) a melter with a dual pair (two pairs) of electrodes. The physical model of the melter having two electrode pairs utilized a configuration with primary and secondary electrodes. The principal melter parameters (the ratio of power applied to each electrode pair, modeling fluid depth, electrode spacing) were varied in nine tests of the physical model during FY85. Code predictions were made for five of these tests. Voltage drops, temperature field data, and electric field data varied in their agreement with the physical modeling results, but in general were judged acceptable. 14 refs., 79 figs., 17 tabs

  5. Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Regional Atmospheric Model: Maui-Oahu

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale numerical weather prediction model 7-day hourly forecast for the region surrounding the Hawaiian islands of Oahu,...

  6. Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Regional Atmospheric Model: Main Hawaiian Islands

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale numerical weather prediction model 7-day hourly forecast for the region surrounding the Main Hawaiian Islands (MHI)...

  7. Numerical Simulation of the Heston Model under Stochastic Correlation

    Long Teng


    Full Text Available Stochastic correlation models have become increasingly important in financial markets. In order to be able to price vanilla options in stochastic volatility and correlation models, in this work, we study the extension of the Heston model by imposing stochastic correlations driven by a stochastic differential equation. We discuss the efficient algorithms for the extended Heston model by incorporating stochastic correlations. Our numerical experiments show that the proposed algorithms can efficiently provide highly accurate results for the extended Heston by including stochastic correlations. By investigating the effect of stochastic correlations on the implied volatility, we find that the performance of the Heston model can be proved by including stochastic correlations.

  8. Energy- and humidity-budget of the non-hydrostatic mesoscale model GESIMA by nesting into the regional climate model REMO; Energie- und Feuchtehaushalt im nichthydrostatischen Mesoskalamodell GESIMA bei Nestung in das Regionalklimamodell REMO

    Horneffer, K. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Gewaesserphysik]|[Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich 15 - Geowissenschaften


    The `Geesthacht Simulationsmodel of the Atmosphere` (GESIMA) was nested into the `Regional Climate Model` (REMO). Exemplary studies prove that the presented nesting scheme is suitable to resolve subscale phenomena in the regional climate model. Some results of simulations above the island Gotland in the Baltic Sea were presented. The mesoscale model GESIMA could now be used to analyze real synoptic weather situations. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Geesthachter Simulationsmodell der Atmosphaere (GESIMA) wird in das Regionalklimamodell (REMO) genestet. Beispielhafte Untersuchungen zeigen, dass mit der genesteten Modellversion subskalige Effekte, die durch das grobe Raster des Regionalklimamodells fallen, aufgeloest werden. Dies wird anhand von Simulationen ueberprueft. Hauptuntersuchungsgegenstand ist die Insel Gotland in der Ostsee. Duch die Nestung kann das Mesoskalamodell fuer tatsaechliche synoptische Situationen eingesetzt werden. (orig.)

  9. Laser guidance of mesoscale particles

    Underdown, Frank Hartman, Jr.

    Mesoscale particles are guided and trapped in hollow optical fibers using radiation pressure forces. Laser light from a 0.4W, 780nm diode laser is guided in a low- loss fiber mode and used to generate the guidance forces. Laser scattering and absorption forces propels particles along the fiber and polarization gradient forces attract them to the fiber's axial center. Using two counter propagating laser beams, inside the fiber, particles can be trapped in three dimensions. Measuring the spring constant of the trap gives the gradient force. This dissertation describes Rayleigh and Mie scattering models for calculating guidance forces. Calculated forces as a function of particle size and composition (i.e. dielectric, semiconductor, and metals) will be presented. For example, under typical experimental conditions 100nm Au particles are guided by a 2 × 10-14 N propulsive force in a water filled fiber. In comparison, the measured force, obtained from the particle's velocity and Stokes' law, is 7.98 × 10-14 N.

  10. Numerical model for the thermal behavior of thermocline storage tanks

    Ehtiwesh, Ismael A. S.; Sousa, Antonio C. M.


    Energy storage is a critical factor in the advancement of solar thermal power systems for the sustained delivery of electricity. In addition, the incorporation of thermal energy storage into the operation of concentrated solar power systems (CSPs) offers the potential of delivering electricity without fossil-fuel backup even during peak demand, independent of weather conditions and daylight. Despite this potential, some areas of the design and performance of thermocline systems still require further attention for future incorporation in commercial CSPs, particularly, their operation and control. Therefore, the present study aims to develop a simple but efficient numerical model to allow the comprehensive analysis of thermocline storage systems aiming better understanding of their dynamic temperature response. The validation results, despite the simplifying assumptions of the numerical model, agree well with the experiments for the time evolution of the thermocline region. Three different cases are considered to test the versatility of the numerical model; for the particular type of a storage tank with top round impingement inlet, a simple analytical model was developed to take into consideration the increased turbulence level in the mixing region. The numerical predictions for the three cases are in general good agreement against the experimental results.

  11. Bubbles in inkjet printheads: analytical and numerical models

    Jeurissen, R.J.M.


    The phenomenon of nozzle failure of an inkjet printhead due to entrainment of air bubbles was studies using analytical and numerical models. The studied inkjet printheads consist of many channels in which an acoustic field is generated to eject a droplet. When an air bubble is entrained, it disrupts

  12. Bubbles in inkjet printheads : analytical and numerical models

    Jeurissen, R.J.M.


    The phenomenon of nozzle failure of an inkjet printhead due to entrainment of air bubbles was studies using analytical and numerical models. The studied inkjet printheads consist of many channels in which an acoustic field is generated to eject a droplet. When an air bubble is entrained, it disrupts

  13. Numerical modeling of secondary side thermohydraulics of horizontal steam generator

    Melikhov, V.I.; Melikhov, O.I.; Nigmatulin, B.I. [Research and Engineering Centre of LWR Nuclear Plants Safety, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    A mathematical model for the transient three-dimensional secondary side thermal hydraulics of the horizontal steam generator has been developed. The calculations of the steam generator PGV-1000 and PGV-4 nominal regimes and comparison of numerical and experimental results have been carried out. 7 refs.

  14. LED-based Photometric Stereo: Modeling, Calibration and Numerical Solutions

    Quéau, Yvain; Durix, Bastien; Wu, Tao


    We conduct a thorough study of photometric stereo under nearby point light source illumination, from modeling to numerical solution, through calibration. In the classical formulation of photometric stereo, the luminous fluxes are assumed to be directional, which is very difficult to achieve in pr...

  15. Numerical modeling of secondary side thermohydraulics of horizontal steam generator

    Melikhov, V I; Melikhov, O I; Nigmatulin, B I [Research and Engineering Centre of LWR Nuclear Plants Safety, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    A mathematical model for the transient three-dimensional secondary side thermal hydraulics of the horizontal steam generator has been developed. The calculations of the steam generator PGV-1000 and PGV-4 nominal regimes and comparison of numerical and experimental results have been carried out. 7 refs.

  16. Development of numerical Grids for UZ Flow and Transport Modeling

    P. Dobson


    This report describes the methods used to develop numerical grids of the unsaturated hydrogeologic system beneath Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Numerical grid generation is an integral part of the development of the unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport model, a complex, three-dimensional (3-D) model of Yucca Mountain. This revision contains changes made to improve the clarity of the description of grid generation. The numerical grids, developed using current geologic, hydrogeologic, and mineralogic data, provide the necessary framework to: (1) develop calibrated hydrogeologic property sets and flow fields, (2) test conceptual hypotheses of flow and transport, and (3) predict flow and transport behavior under a variety of climatic and thermal-loading conditions. The technical scope, content, and management for the current revision of this report are described in the planning document ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Section 2). Grids generated and documented in this report supersede those documented in Revision 00 of this report, ''Development of Numerical Grids for UZ Flow and Transport Modeling'' (BSC 2001 [DIRS 159356]). The grids presented in this report are the same as those developed in Revision 01 (BSC 2003 [DIRS 160109]); however, the documentation of the development of the grids in Revision 02 has been updated to address technical inconsistencies and achieve greater transparency, readability, and traceability. The constraints, assumptions, and limitations associated with this report are discussed in the appropriate sections that follow

  17. Physical and numerical modelling of low mach number compressible flows

    Paillerre, H.; Clerc, S.; Dabbene, F.; Cueto, O.


    This article reviews various physical models that may be used to describe compressible flow at low Mach numbers, as well as the numerical methods developed at DRN to discretize the different systems of equations. A selection of thermal-hydraulic applications illustrate the need to take into account compressibility and multidimensional effects as well as variable flow properties. (authors)

  18. Numerical Modeling of Multi-Material Active Magnetic Regeneration

    Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden


    and the specific heat as a function of temperature at constant magnetic field. A 2.5-dimensional numerical model of an active magnetic regenerative (AMR) refrigerator device is presented. The experimental AMR located at Risø DTU has been equipped with a parallel-plate based regenerator made of the two materials...

  19. Numerical modeling in real-time assessment of dispersal of radionuclides beyond ten to twenty kilometres from an accidental release

    ApSimon, H.M.; Wilson, J.J.N.


    The Chernobyl accident has demonstrated the need for capabilities to assess transport and contamination out to considerable distances and across national frontiers in the event of a nuclear accident. For real-time assessment close to the source, the transport, dilution and deposition of material are usually based on simple Gaussian plume or puff techniques. At greater distances, usually beyond 10 or 20 km., changing meteorological conditions and topographical features become increasingly important and may require rather different modelling techniques. At yet longer distances synoptic scale weather patterns and their evolution govern where material will travel, and regions where precipitation may potentially yield higher deposition of critical nuclides such as I-131 and Cs-137. This paper will consider the questions to be addressed by numerical models during a nuclear emergency, and how such models may be incorporated in an overall assessment system for emergency procedures, extending to span the European Continent. The appropriate modelling techniques available for simulating transport over mesoscale distances (out to a few hundred kilometres), and for the synoptic scale (out to a few thousand kilometres) will be reviewed. The radiological measurements which would be of the greatest use for checking and revising model calculations in an emergency situation will also be discussed, and the importance of international exchange of such information emphasized

  20. Numeral eddy current sensor modelling based on genetic neural network

    Yu Along


    This paper presents a method used to the numeral eddy current sensor modelling based on the genetic neural network to settle its nonlinear problem. The principle and algorithms of genetic neural network are introduced. In this method, the nonlinear model parameters of the numeral eddy current sensor are optimized by genetic neural network (GNN) according to measurement data. So the method remains both the global searching ability of genetic algorithm and the good local searching ability of neural network. The nonlinear model has the advantages of strong robustness, on-line modelling and high precision. The maximum nonlinearity error can be reduced to 0.037% by using GNN. However, the maximum nonlinearity error is 0.075% using the least square method

  1. Wind laws for shockless initialization. [numerical forecasting model

    Ghil, M.; Shkoller, B.


    A system of diagnostic equations for the velocity field, or wind laws, was derived for each of a number of models of large-scale atmospheric flow. The derivation in each case is mathematically exact and does not involve any physical assumptions not already present in the prognostic equations, such as nondivergence or vanishing of derivatives of the divergence. Therefore, initial states computed by solving these diagnostic equations should be compatible with the type of motion described by the prognostic equations of the model and should not generate initialization shocks when inserted into the model. Numerical solutions of the diagnostic system corresponding to a barotropic model are exhibited. Some problems concerning the possibility of implementing such a system in operational numerical weather prediction are discussed.

  2. Numerical modeling of batch formation in waste incineration plants

    Obroučka Karel


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is a mathematical description of algorithm for controlled assembly of incinerated batch of waste. The basis for formation of batch is selected parameters of incinerated waste as its calorific value or content of pollutants or the combination of both. The numerical model will allow, based on selected criteria, to compile batch of wastes which continuously follows the previous batch, which is a prerequisite for optimized operation of incinerator. The model was prepared as for waste storage in containers, as well as for waste storage in continuously refilled boxes. The mathematical model was developed into the computer program and its functionality was verified either by practical measurements or by numerical simulations. The proposed model can be used in incinerators for hazardous and municipal waste.

  3. The Finite Element Numerical Modelling of 3D Magnetotelluric

    Ligang Cao


    Full Text Available The ideal numerical simulation of 3D magnetotelluric was restricted by the methodology complexity and the time-consuming calculation. Boundary values, the variation of weighted residual equation, and the hexahedral mesh generation method of finite element are three major causes. A finite element method for 3D magnetotelluric numerical modeling is presented in this paper as a solution for the problem mentioned above. In this algorithm, a hexahedral element coefficient matrix for magnetoelluric finite method is developed, which solves large-scale equations using preconditioned conjugate gradient of the first-type boundary conditions. This algorithm is verified using the homogeneous model, and the positive landform model, as well as the low resistance anomaly model.

  4. Advanced Corrections for InSAR Using GPS and Numerical Weather Models

    Cossu, F.; Foster, J. H.; Amelung, F.; Varugu, B. K.; Businger, S.; Cherubini, T.


    We present results from an investigation into the application of numerical weather models for generating tropospheric correction fields for Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR). We apply the technique to data acquired from a UAVSAR campaign as well as from the CosmoSkyMed satellites. The complex spatial and temporal changes in the atmospheric propagation delay of the radar signal remain the single biggest factor limiting InSAR's potential for hazard monitoring and mitigation. A new generation of InSAR systems is being built and launched, and optimizing the science and hazard applications of these systems requires advanced methodologies to mitigate tropospheric noise. We use the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to generate a 900 m spatial resolution atmospheric models covering the Big Island of Hawaii and an even higher, 300 m resolution grid over the Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcanoes. By comparing a range of approaches, from the simplest, using reanalyses based on typically available meteorological observations, through to the "kitchen-sink" approach of assimilating all relevant data sets into our custom analyses, we examine the impact of the additional data sets on the atmospheric models and their effectiveness in correcting InSAR data. We focus particularly on the assimilation of information from the more than 60 GPS sites in the island. We ingest zenith tropospheric delay estimates from these sites directly into the WRF analyses, and also perform double-difference tomography using the phase residuals from the GPS processing to robustly incorporate heterogeneous information from the GPS data into the atmospheric models. We assess our performance through comparisons of our atmospheric models with external observations not ingested into the model, and through the effectiveness of the derived phase screens in reducing InSAR variance. Comparison of the InSAR data, our atmospheric analyses, and assessments of the active local and mesoscale

  5. Numerical modelling of damage evolution in ingot forging

    Christiansen, Peter; Martins, Paulo A.F.; Bay, Niels Oluf


    The ingot forging process is numerically simulated applying both the Shima-Oyane porous plasticity model as a coupled damage model and the uncoupled normalized Cockcroft & Latham criterion. Four different cases including two different lower die angles (120º and 180º) and two different sizes of feed...... (400mm and 800mm) are analysed. Comparison of the simulation results with recommendations in literature on ingot forging, indicates the normalized Cockcroft & Latham damage criterion to be the most realistic of the two....

  6. NORSEWIND – Mesoscale model derived Wind Atlases for the Irish Sea, the North Sea and the Baltic Sea

    Berge, Erik; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Bredesen, Rolv Erlend


    estimate a random uncertainty of ±4.0 % and a bias of -6.4 % which is higher than for the average annual wind speed. It is emphasized that the amount of validation data is small and considerable spatial variability of the uncertainty may be expected. For example, near coastal zones model errors could...

  7. Mesoscale modeling of smoke transport over Central Africa: influences of trade winds, subtropical high, ITCZ and vertical statistics

    Yang, Z.; Wang, J.; Hyer, E. J.; Ichoku, C. M.


    A fully-coupled meteorology-chemistry-aerosol model, Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem), is used to simulate the transport of smoke aerosol over the Central Africa during February 2008. Smoke emission used in this study is specified from the Fire Locating and Modeling of Burning Emissions (FLAMBE) database derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) fire products. Model performance is evaluated using MODIS true color images, measured Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) from space-borne MODIS (550 nm) and ground-based AERONET (500 nm), and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar data with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) level 1 and 2 products. The simulated smoke transport is in good agreement with the validation data. Analyzing from three smoke events, smoke is constrained in a narrow belt between the Equator and 10°N near the surface, with the interplay of trade winds, subtropical high, and ITCZ. At the 700 hpa level, smoke expands farther meridionally. Topography blocks the smoke transport to the southeast of study area, because of high mountains located near the Great Rift Valley region. The simulation with injection height of 650 m is consistent with CALIOP measurements. The particular phenomenon, aerosol above cloud, is studied statistically from CALIOP observations. The total percentage of aerosol above cloud is about 5%.

  8. Analysis and modeling of subgrid scalar mixing using numerical data

    Girimaji, Sharath S.; Zhou, YE


    Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of passive scalar mixing in isotropic turbulence is used to study, analyze and, subsequently, model the role of small (subgrid) scales in the mixing process. In particular, we attempt to model the dissipation of the large scale (supergrid) scalar fluctuations caused by the subgrid scales by decomposing it into two parts: (1) the effect due to the interaction among the subgrid scales; and (2) the effect due to interaction between the supergrid and the subgrid scales. Model comparisons with DNS data show good agreement. This model is expected to be useful in the large eddy simulations of scalar mixing and reaction.

  9. Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov model: a theoretical and numerical perspective

    Paul, S.


    This work is devoted to the theoretical and numerical study of Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) theory for attractive quantum systems, which is one of the main methods in nuclear physics. We first present the model and its main properties, and then explain how to get numerical solutions. We prove some convergence results, in particular for the simple fixed point algorithm (sometimes called Roothaan). We show that it converges, or oscillates between two states, none of them being a solution. This generalizes to the HFB case previous results of Cances and Le Bris for the simpler Hartree-Fock model in the repulsive case. Following these authors, we also propose a relaxed constraint algorithm for which convergence is guaranteed. In the last part of the thesis, we illustrate the behavior of these algorithms by some numerical experiments. We first consider a system where the particles only interact through the Newton potential. Our numerical results show that the pairing matrix never vanishes, a fact that has not yet been proved rigorously. We then study a very simplified model for protons and neutrons in a nucleus. (author)

  10. Simulating the Refractive Index Structure Constant ({C}_{n}^{2}) in the Surface Layer at Antarctica with a Mesoscale Model

    Qing, Chun; Wu, Xiaoqing; Li, Xuebin; Tian, Qiguo; Liu, Dong; Rao, Ruizhong; Zhu, Wenyue


    In this paper, we introduce an approach wherein the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is coupled with the bulk aerodynamic method to estimate the surface layer refractive index structure constant (C n 2) above Taishan Station in Antarctica. First, we use the measured meteorological parameters to estimate C n 2 using the bulk aerodynamic method, and second, we use the WRF model output parameters to estimate C n 2 using the bulk aerodynamic method. Finally, the corresponding C n 2 values from the micro-thermometer are compared with the C n 2 values estimated using the WRF model coupled with the bulk aerodynamic method. We analyzed the statistical operators—the bias, root mean square error (RMSE), bias-corrected RMSE (σ), and correlation coefficient (R xy )—in a 20 day data set to assess how this approach performs. In addition, we employ contingency tables to investigate the estimation quality of this approach, which provides complementary key information with respect to the bias, RMSE, σ, and R xy . The quantitative results are encouraging and permit us to confirm the fine performance of this approach. The main conclusions of this study tell us that this approach provides a positive impact on optimizing the observing time in astronomical applications and provides complementary key information for potential astronomical sites.

  11. Numerical models for fluid-grains interactions: opportunities and limitations

    Esteghamatian, Amir; Rahmani, Mona; Wachs, Anthony


    In the framework of a multi-scale approach, we develop numerical models for suspension flows. At the micro scale level, we perform particle-resolved numerical simulations using a Distributed Lagrange Multiplier/Fictitious Domain approach. At the meso scale level, we use a two-way Euler/Lagrange approach with a Gaussian filtering kernel to model fluid-solid momentum transfer. At both the micro and meso scale levels, particles are individually tracked in a Lagrangian way and all inter-particle collisions are computed by a Discrete Element/Soft-sphere method. The previous numerical models have been extended to handle particles of arbitrary shape (non-spherical, angular and even non-convex) as well as to treat heat and mass transfer. All simulation tools are fully-MPI parallel with standard domain decomposition and run on supercomputers with a satisfactory scalability on up to a few thousands of cores. The main asset of multi scale analysis is the ability to extend our comprehension of the dynamics of suspension flows based on the knowledge acquired from the high-fidelity micro scale simulations and to use that knowledge to improve the meso scale model. We illustrate how we can benefit from this strategy for a fluidized bed, where we introduce a stochastic drag force model derived from micro-scale simulations to recover the proper level of particle fluctuations. Conversely, we discuss the limitations of such modelling tools such as their limited ability to capture lubrication forces and boundary layers in highly inertial flows. We suggest ways to overcome these limitations in order to enhance further the capabilities of the numerical models.

  12. Acoustic Characterization of Mesoscale Objects

    Chinn, D; Huber, R; Chambers, D; Cole, G; Balogun, O; Spicer, J; Murray, T


    This report describes the science and engineering performed to provide state-of-the-art acoustic capabilities for nondestructively characterizing mesoscale (millimeter-sized) objects--allowing micrometer resolution over the objects entire volume. Materials and structures used in mesoscale objects necessitate the use of (1) GHz acoustic frequencies and (2) non-contacting laser generation and detection of acoustic waves. This effort demonstrated that acoustic methods at gigahertz frequencies have the necessary penetration depth and spatial resolution to effectively detect density discontinuities, gaps, and delaminations. A prototype laser-based ultrasonic system was designed and built. The system uses a micro-chip laser for excitation of broadband ultrasonic waves with frequency components reaching 1.0 GHz, and a path-stabilized Michelson interferometer for detection. The proof-of-concept for mesoscale characterization is demonstrated by imaging a micro-fabricated etched pattern in a 70 {micro}m thick silicon wafer.

  13. Mesoscale model simulation of low level equatorial winds over Borneo during the haze episode of September 1997

    Mahmud, Mastura


    The large-scale vegetation fires instigated by the local farmers during the dry period of the major El Niño event in 1997 can be considered as one of the worst environmental disasters that have occurred in southeast Asia in recent history. This study investigated the local meteorology characteristics of an equatorial environment within a domain that includes the northwestern part of Borneo from the 17 to 27 September 1997 during the height of the haze episode by utilizing a limited area three-dimensional meteorological and dispersion model, The Air Pollution Model (TAPM). Daily land and sea breeze conditions near the northwestern coast of Borneo in the state of Sarawak, Malaysia were predicted with moderate success by the index of agreement of less than one between the observed and simulated values for wind speed and a slight overprediction of 2.3 of the skill indicator that evaluates the standard deviation to the observed values. The innermost domain of study comprises an area of 24,193 km2, from approximately 109°E to 111°E, and from 1°N to 2.3°N, which includes a part of the South China Sea. Tracer analysis of air particles that were sourced in the state of Sarawak on the island of Borneo verified the existence of the landward and shoreward movements of the air during the simulation of the low level wind field. Polluted air particles were transported seawards during night-time, and landwards during daytime, highlighting the recirculation features of aged and newer air particles during the length of eleven days throughout the model simulation. Near calm conditions at low levels were simulated by the trajectory analysis from midnight to mid-day on the 22 of September 1997. Low-level turbulence within the planetary boundary layer in terms of the total kinetic energy was weak, congruent with the weak strength of low level winds that reduced the ability of the air to transport the pollutants. Statistical evaluation showed that parameters such as the systematic

  14. Numerical Analysis of Electromagnetic Fields in Multiscale Model

    Ma Ji; Fang Guang-You; Ji Yi-Cai


    Modeling technique for electromagnetic fields excited by antennas is an important topic in computational electromagnetics, which is concerned with the numerical solution of Maxwell's equations. In this paper, a novel hybrid technique that combines method of moments (MoM) with finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is presented to handle the problem. This approach employed Huygen's principle to realize the hybridization of the two classical numerical algorithms. For wideband electromagnetic data, the interpolation scheme is used in the MoM based on the dyadic Green's function. On the other hand, with the help of equivalence principle, the scattered electric and magnetic fields on the Huygen's surface calculated by MoM are taken as the sources for FDTD. Therefore, the electromagnetic fields in the environment can be obtained by employing finite-difference time-domain method. Finally, numerical results show the validity of the proposed technique by analyzing two canonical samples. (paper)

  15. Numerical modeling and experimental validation of thermoplastic composites induction welding

    Palmieri, Barbara; Nele, Luigi; Galise, Francesco


    In this work, a numerical simulation and experimental test of the induction welding of continuous fibre-reinforced thermoplastic composites (CFRTPCs) was provided. The thermoplastic Polyamide 66 (PA66) with carbon fiber fabric was used. Using a dedicated software (JMag Designer), the influence of the fundamental process parameters such as temperature, current and holding time was investigated. In order to validate the results of the simulations, and therefore the numerical model used, experimental tests were carried out, and the temperature values measured during the tests were compared with the aid of an optical pyrometer, with those provided by the numerical simulation. The mechanical properties of the welded joints were evaluated by single lap shear tests.

  16. Direct numerical methods of mathematical modeling in mechanical structural design

    Sahili, Jihad; Verchery, Georges; Ghaddar, Ahmad; Zoaeter, Mohamed


    Full text.Structural design and numerical methods are generally interactive; requiring optimization procedures as the structure is analyzed. This analysis leads to define some mathematical terms, as the stiffness matrix, which are resulting from the modeling and then used in numerical techniques during the dimensioning procedure. These techniques and many others involve the calculation of the generalized inverse of the stiffness matrix, called also the 'compliance matrix'. The aim of this paper is to introduce first, some different existing mathematical procedures, used to calculate the compliance matrix from the stiffness matrix, then apply direct numerical methods to solve the obtained system with the lowest computational time, and to compare the obtained results. The results show a big difference of the computational time between the different procedures

  17. Preliminary results of an attempt to provide soil moisture datasets in order to verify numerical weather prediction models

    Cassardo, C.; Loglisci, N.


    In the recent years, there has been a significant growth in the recognition of the soil moisture importance in large-scale hydrology and climate modelling. Soil moisture is a lower boundary condition, which rules the partitioning of energy in terms of sensible and latent heat flux. Wrong estimations of soil moisture lead to wrong simulation of the surface layer evolution and hence precipitations and cloud cover forecasts could be consequently affected. This is true for large scale medium-range weather forecasts as well as for local-scale short range weather forecasts, particularly in those situations in which local convection is well developed. Unfortunately; despite the importance of this physical parameter there are only few soil moisture data sets sparse in time and in space around in the world. Due to this scarcity of soil moisture observations, we developed an alternative method to provide soil moisture datasets in order to verify numerical weather prediction models. In this paper are presented the preliminary results of an attempt to verify soil moisture fields predicted by a mesoscale model. The data for the comparison were provided by the simulations of the diagnostic land surface scheme LSPM (Land Surface Process Model), widely used at the Piedmont Regional Weather Service for agro-meteorological purposes. To this end, LSPM was initialized and driven by Synop observations, while the surface (vegetation and soil) parameter values were initialized by ECOCLIMAP global dataset at 1km 2 resolution

  18. Sensitivity Studies on the Influence of Aerosols on Cloud and Precipitation Development Using WRF Mesoscale Model Simulations

    Thompson, G.; Eidhammer, T.; Rasmussen, R.


    Using the WRF model in simulations of shallow and deep precipitating cloud systems, we investigated the sensitivity to aerosols initiating as cloud condensation and ice nuclei. A global climatological dataset of sulfates, sea salts, and dust was used as input for a control experiment. Sensitivity experiments with significantly more polluted conditions were conducted to analyze the resulting impacts to cloud and precipitation formation. Simulations were performed using the WRF model with explicit treatment of aerosols added to the Thompson et al (2008) bulk microphysics scheme. The modified scheme achieves droplet formation using pre-tabulated CCN activation tables provided by a parcel model. The ice nucleation is parameterized as a function of dust aerosols as well as homogeneous freezing of deliquesced aerosols. The basic processes of aerosol activation and removal by wet scavenging are considered, but aerosol characteristic size or hygroscopicity does not change due to evaporating droplets. In other words, aerosol processing was ignored. Unique aspects of this study include the usage of one to four kilometer grid spacings and the direct parameterization of ice nucleation from aerosols rather than typical temperature and/or supersaturation relationships alone. Initial results from simulations of a deep winter cloud system and its interaction with significant orography show contrasting sensitivities in regions of warm rain versus mixed liquid and ice conditions. The classical view of higher precipitation amounts in relatively clean maritime clouds with fewer but larger droplets is confirmed for regions dominated by the warm-rain process. However, due to complex interactions with the ice phase and snow riming, the simulations revealed the reverse situation in high terrain areas dominated by snow reaching the surface. Results of other cloud systems will be summarized at the conference.

  19. Numerical modelling of flow and transport in rough fractures

    Scott Briggs


    Full Text Available Simulation of flow and transport through rough walled rock fractures is investigated using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM and random walk (RW, respectively. The numerical implementation is developed and validated on general purpose graphic processing units (GPGPUs. Both the LBM and RW method are well suited to parallel implementation on GPGPUs because they require only next-neighbour communication and thus can reduce expenses. The LBM model is an order of magnitude faster on GPGPUs than published results for LBM simulations run on modern CPUs. The fluid model is verified for parallel plate flow, backward facing step and single fracture flow; and the RW model is verified for point-source diffusion, Taylor-Aris dispersion and breakthrough behaviour in a single fracture. Both algorithms place limitations on the discrete displacement of fluid or particle transport per time step to minimise the numerical error that must be considered during implementation.

  20. Customer requirement modeling and mapping of numerical control machine

    Zhongqi Sheng


    Full Text Available In order to better obtain information about customer requirement and develop products meeting customer requirement, it is necessary to systematically analyze and handle the customer requirement. This article uses the product service system of numerical control machine as research objective and studies the customer requirement modeling and mapping oriented toward configuration design. It introduces the conception of requirement unit, expounds the customer requirement decomposition rules, and establishes customer requirement model; it builds the house of quality using quality function deployment and confirms the weight of technical feature of product and service; it explores the relevance rules between data using rough set theory, establishes rule database, and solves the target value of technical feature of product. Using economical turning center series numerical control machine as an example, it verifies the rationality of proposed customer requirement model.