WorldWideScience

Sample records for mercury cleaner air

  1. Breathing easier: Indonesia works towards cleaner air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, Michael Amdi

    2015-01-01

    Indonesians can look forward to breathing cleaner air following upcoming changes in regulations introduced as a result of a study conducted using nuclear analytical techniques. Lead pollution and other fine particulate matter in the air is now, for the first time, being accurately monitored and is giving Indonesian officials a good understanding of their air pollution problem and how to manage it.

  2. Indoor plants as air cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dela Cruz, Majbrit; Christensen, Jan H.; Müller, Renate

    2015-01-01

    exchange and a constant VOC concentration. With the new system it was found that removal rates obtained in chambers with air exchange and constant VOC concentration were significantly higher than removal rates obtained in closed chambers. This means that removal rates obtained in closed chambers may......, but also by microorganisms in the soil. Furthermore, the rate of removal is dependent on the plant species and can be influenced by exogenous factors such as light intensity and VOC concentration. The research within this field is, however, limited by the fact that the knowledge gained from laboratory...... experiments is not directly transferrable to real life settings. The largest problem is the use of closed chambers where there is no air exchange. This also results in a declining VOC concentration over time. Due to this limitation, we constructed a new experimental system which among others can allow for air...

  3. Providing cleaner air to Canadians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-02-01

    This booklet is designed to explain salient aspects of the Ozone Annex, negotiated and signed recently by Canada and the United States, in a joint effort to improve air quality in North America. By significantly reducing the transboundary flows of air pollutants that cause smog, the Ozone Annex will benefit some 16 million people in central and eastern Canada and provide an example for a future round of negotiations to address concerns of the millions of Canadians and Americans who live in the border area between British Columbia and Washington State. The brochure provide summaries of the Canadian and American commitments, focusing on transportation, monitoring and reporting. The Ozone Annex complements other air quality initiatives by the Government of Canada enacted under the Environmental Protection Act, 1999. These measures include regulations to reduce sulphur content to 30 parts per million by Jan 1, 2005; proposing to restrict toxic particulate matter (PM) to less than 10 microns; establishing daily smog forecasts in the Maritimes and committing to a national program built upon existing smog advisories and forecasts in Quebec, Ontario and British Columbia; and investing in more clean air research through the newly created Canadian Foundation for Climate and Atmospheric Sciences

  4. Integrated Technology Air Cleaners (ITAC): Design and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.; Cohn, Sebastian; Destaillats, Hugo; Henzel, Victor; Sidheswaran, Meera; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2013-09-13

    The primary objective of this project was to design, build, and test an air cleaner for residential use with the potential to substantially improve indoor air quality, or maintain indoor air quality unchanged, when outdoor air ventilation rates are reduced to save energy. Two air cleaners were designed and fabricated. The design targets for airflow rate, fan power, and projected cost were met. In short term laboratory studies, both units performed as expected; however, during field studies in homes, the formaldehyde removal performance of the air cleaners was much lower than expected. In subsequent laboratory studies, incomplete decomposition of some indoor air volatile organic compounds, with formaldehyde as a product of partial decomposition of volatile organic compounds, was confirmed as the explanation for the poor formaldehyde removal performance in the field studies. The amount of formaldehyde produced per unit of decomposition of other volatile organic compounds was substantially diminished by increasing the amount of catalyst on the filter and also by decreasing the air velocity. Together, these two measures reduced formaldehyde production, per unit destruction of other volatile organic compounds, by a factor of four, while increasing the removal efficiency of volatile organic compounds by a factor of 1.4. A company with a southern California office is conducting studies in conjunction with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, with the goal of incorporating the ITAC catalytic air cleaning technology in their future commercial products.

  5. Guide to Air Cleaners in the Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as those coming from household cleaning products, air fresheners, certain paints, wood flooring, or carpets. Ultrafine particles may be linked with adverse health effects in some sensitive populations. ... effectiveness of gas-phase air filters, ASHRAE is developing a standard method to ...

  6. Ultrafine particle removal and generation by portable air cleaners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Michael S.; Siegel, Jeffrey A.; Corsi, Richard L.

    Portable air cleaners can both remove and generate pollutants indoors. To investigate these phenomena, we conducted a two-phase investigation in a 14.75 m 3 stainless steel chamber. In the first phase, particle size-resolved (12.6-514 nm diameter) clean air delivery rates (CADR) and efficiencies were determined, as were ozone emission rates, for two high-efficiency particle arresting (HEPA) filters, one electrostatic precipitator with a fan, and two ion generators without fans. The two HEPA air cleaners had count average CADR (standard deviation) of 188 (30) and 324 (44) m 3 h -1; the electrostatic precipitator 284 (62) m 3 h -1; and the two ion generators 41 (11) and 35 (13) m 3 h -1. The electrostatic precipitator emitted ozone at a rate of 3.8±0.2 mg h -1, and the two ion generators 3.3±0.2 and 4.3±0.2 mg h -1. Ozone initiates reactions with certain unsaturated organic compounds that produce ultrafine and fine particles, carbonyls, other oxidized products, and free radicals. During the second phase, five different ion generators were operated separately in the presence of a plug-in liquid or solid air freshener, representing a strong terpene source. For air exchange rates of between 0.49 and 0.96 h -1, three ion generators acted as steady-state net particle generators in the entire measured range of 4.61-157 nm, and two generated particles in the range of approximately 10 to 39-55 nm. Terpene and aldehyde concentrations were also sampled for one ion generator, and concentrations of terpenes decreased and formaldehyde increased. Given these results, the pollutant removal benefits of ozone-generating air cleaners may be outweighed by the generation of indoor pollution.

  7. Environmental Technology Verification: Supplement to Test/QA Plan for Biological and Aerosol Testing of General Ventilation Air Cleaners; Bioaerosol Inactivation Efficiency by HVAC In-Duct Ultraviolet Light Air Cleaners

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Air Pollution Control Technology Verification Center has selected general ventilation air cleaners as a technology area. The Generic Verification Protocol for Biological and Aerosol Testing of General Ventilation Air Cleaners is on the Environmental Technology Verification we...

  8. Control of Respirable Particles in Indoor Air with Portable AirCleaners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Offermann, F.J.; Sextro, R.G.; Fisk, W.J.; Grimsrud, D.T.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Nero, A.V.; Revzan, K.L.; Yater, J.

    1984-10-01

    Eleven portable air cleaning devices have been evaluated for control of indoor concentrations of respirable particles using in situ chamber decay tests. Following injection of cigarette smoke in a room-size chamber, decay rates for particle concentrations were obtained for total number concentration and for number concentration by particle size with and without air cleaner operation. The size distribution of the tobacco smoke particles was log normal with a count median diameter of 0.15 {micro}m and a geometric standard deviation of 2.0. Without air cleaner operation, the natural mass-averaged surface deposition rate of particles was observed to be 0.1 h{sup -1}. Air cleaning rates for particles were found to be negligible for several small panel-filter devices, a residential-sized ion-generator, and a pair of mixing fans. Electrostatic precipitators and extended surface filters removed particles at substantial rates, and a HEPA-type filter was the most efficient air cleaner studied.

  9. A Case Study of Air Cleaner by the Intelligent Interaction and Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Huai; Sun, Yuwen

    2018-02-01

    The pure and fresh air can not only contribute to our physical and mental health, but also can be beneficial to ease the pressure and relax the mood. The vertical intelligent air cleaner can remove the harmful gases from the air and absorb the suspended particles in the air, especially all kinds of the bacteria and viruses. The air cleaner is good for improving the air quality of the indoor and maintaining the health of the people. The designing of the vertical air cleaner is as follows: The designing of the vertical intelligent make full use of the developed air purification technology. The smart home is inserted into the work. Simultaneously, in the aspect of the design of intelligent products, the intelligent interactive processes are scientifically planned. Moreover, the emotional design and the user experience are fully considered, which can enhance the comprehensive design ability.

  10. Pollution prevention for cleaner air: EPA's air and energy engineering research laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaver, E.M.

    1992-01-01

    The article discusses the role of EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL) in pollution prevention research for cleaner air. For more than 20 years, AEERL has been conducting research to identify control approaches for the pollutants and sources which contribute to air quality problems. The Laboratory has successfully developed and demonstrated cost-effective sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate control technologies for fossil fuel combustion sources. More recently, it has expanded its research activities to include indoor air quality, radon, organic control, stratospheric ozone depletion, and global warming. AEERL also develops inventories of air emissions of many types. Over the last several years, it has made substantial efforts to expand research on pollution prevention as the preferred choice for air emissions reduction

  11. Control of respirable particles and radon progeny with portable air cleaners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Offermann, F.J.; Sextro, R.G.; Fisk, W.J.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Nero, A.V.; Revzan, K.L.; Yater, J.

    1984-02-01

    Eleven portable air cleaning devices have been evaluated for control of indoor concentrations of respirable particles and radon progeny. Following injection of cigarette smoke and radon in a room-size chamber, decay rates for particles and radon progeny concentrations were measured with and without air cleaner operation. Particle concentrations were obtained for total number concentration and for number concentration by particle size. In tests with no air cleaner the natural decay rate for cigarette smoke was observed to be 0.2 hr -1 . Air cleaning rates for particles were found to be negligible for several small panel-filters, a residential ion-generator, and a pair of mixing fans. The electrostatic precipitators and extended surface filters tested had significant particle removal rates, and a HEPA-type filter was the most efficient air cleaner. The evaluation of radon progeny control produced similar results; the air cleaners which were effective in removing particles were also effective in removing radon progeny. At low particle concentrations plateout of the unattached radon progeny is an important removal mechanism. Based on data from these tests, the plateout rate for unattached progeny was found to be 15 hr -1 . The unattached fraction and the overall removal rate due to deposition of attached and unattached nuclides have been estimated for each radon decay product as a function of particle concentration. While air cleaning can be effective in reducing total radon progeny, concentrations of unattached radon progeny can increase with increasing air cleaning. 39 references, 26 figures, 9 tables

  12. IMPACT OF AN OZONE GENERATOR AIR CLEANER ON STYRENE CONCENTRATIONS IN AN INDOOR AIR QUALITY RESEARCH CHAMBER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of an investigation of the impact of an ozone generator air cleaner on vapor-phase styrene concentrations in a full-scale indoor air quality test chamber. The time history of the concentrations of styrene and ozone is well predicted by a simulation model u...

  13. Evaluating The Operation Of Three Air Cleaners Working Individually In A Clean Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Afshari, Alireza; Bergsøe, Niels Christian

    2011-01-01

    The use of portable air cleaners is becoming increasingly popular in many countries including Denmark. Portable air cleaners are known for not only removing but also generating particles and gases. To clarify this, three air cleaning technologies were evaluated. They were nonthermal plasma......, photochemical air purifier and corona discharge ionizer. The concentrations of ultrafine particles, ozone and total volatile organic compounds were measured both in a duct and in a clean room. It was found that the studied air cleaning technologies increased the ozone level in the clean room and the duct....... The increase of ozone level in the clean room was more than that was measured in the duct. Additionally, it was found that the number of ultrafine particles in the room increased due to the generated ozone. The number of generated particles changed with the season. The study leads to the recommendation...

  14. FRACTIONAL AEROSOL FILTRATION EFFICIENCY OF IN-DUCT VENTILATION AIR CLEANERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The filtration efficiency of ventilation air cleaners is highly particle-size dependent over the 0.01 to 3 μm diameter size range. Current standardized test methods, which determine only overall efficiencies for ambient aerosol or other test aerosols, provide data of limited util...

  15. Clinical effects of air cleaners in homes of asthmatic children sensitized to pet allergens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, S.; van Aalderen, W. M.; Kauffman, H. F.; Dubois, A. E.; de Monchy, J. G.

    1999-01-01

    Exposure to cat and dog allergens is very common in the Western World and is a serious cause of asthma in sensitized subjects. We sought to study the clinical effects of air cleaners in living rooms and bedrooms of asthmatic children sensitized to cat or dog allergens. Twenty asthmatic children

  16. Clinical effects of air cleaners in homes of asthmatic children sensitized to pet allergens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, S; van Aalderen, WMC; Kauffman, HF; Dubois, AEJ; de Monchy, JGR

    Background: Exposure to cat and dog allergens is very common in the Western World and is a serious cause of asthma in sensitized subjects. Objective: We sought to study the clinical effects of air cleaners in living rooms and bedrooms of asthmatic children sensitized to cat or dog allergens.

  17. Evaluation of ozone generation and indoor organic compounds removal by air cleaners based on chamber tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kuo-Pin; Lee, Grace Whei-May; Hsieh, Ching-Pei; Lin, Chi-Chi

    2011-01-01

    Ozone can cause many health problems, including exacerbation of asthma, throat irritation, cough, chest ache, shortness of breath, and respiratory infections. Air cleaners are one of the sources of indoor ozone, and thus the evaluation of ozone generated by air cleaners is desired significant issue. Most evaluation methods proposed are based on chamber tests. However, the adsorption and desorption of ozone on the wall of test chamber and the deposition of ozone resulted from the surface reaction can influence the evaluation results. In this study, we developed a mass balance model that took the adsorption, desorption and deposition of ozone into consideration to evaluate the effective ozone emission rates of six selected air cleaners. The experiments were conducted in a stainless steel chamber with a volume of 11.3 m 3 at 25 °C and 60% relative humidity. The adsorption, desorption and deposition rate constants of ozone obtained by fitting the model to the experimental data were k a = 0.149 ± 0.052 m h -1, k d = 0.013 ± 0.007 h -1, and k r = 0.050 ± 0.020 h -1, respectively. The effective ozone emission rates of Air Cleaners No. 1, 2, and 3 ranged between 13,400-24,500 μg h -1, 7190-10,400 μg h -1, and 4880-6560 μg h -1, respectively, which were more stable than those of No.4, 5, and 6. The effective ozone emission rates of Air Cleaners No. 4, 5, and 6 increased with the time of operation which might be relevant to the decrease of ozone removal by the "aging" filter installed in these cleaners. The removal of toluene and formaldehyde by these six air cleaners were also evaluated and the clean air delivery rates (CADRs) of these two pollutants ranged from non-detectable to 0.42 ± 0.08 m 3 h -1, and from non-detectable to 0.75 ± 0.07 m 3 h -1, respectively. The CADRs showed an insignificant relationship with the effective ozone emission rates. Thus, the removal of toluene and formaldehyde might be resulted from the adsorption on the filters and the

  18. Effect of an Air Cleaner with Electrostatic Filter on the Removal of Airborne House Dust Mite Allergens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Santosh Rani; Kim, Hak-Joon; Lee, Yong Won; Sohn, Jung-Ho; Lee, Jae Hyun; Kim, Yong-Jin; Lee, Sung-Hwa; Hong, Chein-Soo

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The effects of air cleaners on the removal of airborne indoor allergens, especially house dust mites (HDM), are still controversial. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of an air cleaner with an electrostatic filter on the removal of airborne mite allergens. Materials and Methods A dried HDM culture medium that contained mite body particles and excretions was dispersed in a chamber equipped with an electrostatic air cleaner. The number of airborne particles was recorded continuously by a dust spectrometer for 60 minutes. Airborne particles in the chamber were collected on a sampling filter at a flow rate of 10 L/min and the Der f 1 concentration in the filter extracts was measured by two-site ELISA. Results The air cleaner efficiently removed airborne HDM particles. The air cleaner removed airborne HDM particles (size 2-12.5 µm) 11.4 ± 2.9 fold (cleaner operating for 15 minutes), 5.4 ± 0.7 fold (cleaner operating for 30 minutes), and 2.4 ± 0.2 fold (cleaner operating for 60 minutes) more than the removal of HDM particles by natural settle down. Removal kinetics differed according to the particle size of the airborne particles. The air cleaner decreased the concentration of Der f 1 in the extraction of airborne particles collected on the air sampling filter by 60.3%. Conclusion The electrostatic air cleaner can remove airborne HDM allergens and may be useful as a supplementary environmental control tool for HDM sensitized respiratory allergic patients. PMID:20879060

  19. UV air cleaners and upper-room air ultraviolet germicidal irradiation for controlling airborne bacteria and fungal spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujundzic, Elmira; Matalkah, Fatimah; Howard, Cody J; Hernandez, Mark; Miller, Shelly L

    2006-10-01

    In-room air cleaners (ACs) and upper-room air ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) are engineering control technologies that can help reduce the concentrations of airborne bacteria and fungal spores in the indoor environment. This study investigated six different types of ACs and quantified their ability to remove and/or inactivate airborne bacteria and fungal spores. Four of the air cleaners incorporated UV lamp(s) into their flow path. In addition, the efficacy of combining ACs with upper-room air UVGI was investigated. With the ventilation system providing zero or six air changes per hour, the air cleaners were tested separately or with the upper-room air UVGI system in operation in an 87-m3 test room. Active bacteria cells and fungal spores were aerosolized into the room such that their numbers and physiologic state were comparable both with and without air cleaning and upper-room air UVGI. In addition, the disinfection performance of a UV-C lamp internal to one of the ACs was evaluated by estimating the percentage of airborne bacteria cells and fungal spores captured on the air filter medium surface that were inactivated with UV exposure. Average airborne microbial clean air delivery rates (CADRm) varied between 26-981 m3 hr-1 depending on the AC, and between 1480-2370 m3 hr-1, when using air cleaners in combination with upper-room air UVGI. Culturing, direct microscopy, and optical particle counting revealed similar CADRm. The ACs performed similarly when challenged with three different microorganisms. Testing two of the ACs showed that no additional air cleaning was provided with the operation of an internal UV-C lamp; the internal UV-C lamps, however, inactivated 75% of fungal spores and 97% of bacteria cells captured in the air filter medium within 60 min.

  20. Experimental analysis of indoor air quality improvement achieved by using a Clean-Air Heat Pump (CAHP) air-cleaner in a ventilation system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheng, Ying; Fang, Lei; Nie, Jinzhe

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the air purification effect of a Clean-Air Heat Pump (CAHP) air-cleaner which combined a silica gel rotor with a heat pump to achieve air cleaning, heating and ventilation in buildings. The experiments were conducted in a field laboratory and compared a low outdoor air sup...

  1. Control of respirable particles and radon progeny with portable air cleaners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Offermann, F.J.; Sextro, R.G.; Fisk, W.J.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Nero, A.V.; Revzan, K.L.; Yater, J.

    1984-02-01

    Eleven portable air cleaning devices have been evaluated for control of indoor concentrations of respirable particles and radon progeny. Following injection of cigarette smoke and radon in a room-size chamber, decay rates for particles and radon progeny concentrations were measured with and without air cleaner operation. Particle concentrations were obtained for total number concentration and for number concentration by particle size. In tests with no air cleaner the natural decay rate for cigarette smoke was observed to be 0.2 hr/sup -1/. Air cleaning rates for particles were found to be negligible for several small panel-filters, a residential ion-generator, and a pair of mixing fans. The electrostatic precipitators and extended surface filters tested had significant particle removal rates, and a HEPA-type filter was the most efficient air cleaner. The evaluation of radon progeny control produced similar results; the air cleaners which were effective in removing particles were also effective in removing radon progeny. At low particle concentrations plateout of the unattached radon progeny is an important removal mechanism. Based on data from these tests, the plateout rate for unattached progeny was found to be 15 hr/sup -1/. The unattached fraction and the overall removal rate due to deposition of attached and unattached nuclides have been estimated for each radon decay product as a function of particle concentration. While air cleaning can be effective in reducing total radon progeny, concentrations of unattached radon progeny can increase with increasing air cleaning. 39 references, 26 figures, 9 tables.

  2. Evaluation of a Combined Ultraviolet Photocatalytic Oxidation(UVPCO)/Chemisorbent Air Cleaner for Indoor Air Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgson, Alfred T.; Destaillats, Hugo; Hotchi, Toshifumi; Fisk,William J.

    2007-02-01

    We previously reported that gas-phase byproducts of incomplete oxidation were generated when a prototype ultraviolet photocatalytic oxidation (UVPCO) air cleaner was operated in the laboratory with indoor-relevant mixtures of VOCs at realistic concentrations. Under these conditions, there was net production of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, two important indoor air toxicants. Here, we further explore the issue of byproduct generation. Using the same UVPCO air cleaner, we conducted experiments to identify common VOCs that lead to the production of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde and to quantify their production rates. We sought to reduce the production of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde to acceptable levels by employing different chemisorbent scrubbers downstream of the UVPCO device. Additionally, we made preliminary measurements to estimate the capacity and expected lifetime of the chemisorbent media. For most experiments, the system was operated at 680-780 m{sup 3}/h (400-460 cfm). A set of experiments was conducted with common VOCs introduced into the UVPCO device individually and in mixture. Compound conversion efficiencies and the production of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were determined by comparison of compound concentrations upstream and downstream of the reactor. There was general agreement between compound conversions efficiencies determined individually and in the mixture. This suggests that competition among compounds for active sites on the photocatalyst surface will not limit the performance of the UVPCO device when the total VOC concentration is low. A possible exception was the very volatile alcohols, for which there were some indications of competitive adsorption. The results also showed that formaldehyde was produced from many commonly encountered VOCs, while acetaldehyde was generated by specific VOCs, particularly ethanol. The implication is that formaldehyde concentrations are likely to increase when an effective UVPCO air cleaner is used in

  3. Heave a sigh of relief. Practical measures for cleaner air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendriksen, T.

    2006-01-01

    The Dutch national information and technology platform for infrastructure, traffic, transport and public space CROW started a knowledge development program in 2005 to improve the air quality on a local level: SOLVE (Dutch abbreviation for fast solutions for the air and traffic) [nl

  4. Cleaner air by means of a better flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-11-01

    This publication explains the relationship between the concept of 'Slow is faster' and air quality. According to this concept motorists drive slower, but with 'right of way' through the city. This results in a better traffic flow and thus in a reduction of emissions. Municipalities can use this measure to improve air quality along local roads. [nl

  5. The Diesel Paradox: Why Dieselization Will Lead to Cleaner Air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhardt, James J.

    2000-08-20

    There are challenges facing the U.S. and the world that are brought on by the growing demand for transporting people and goods. These include the growing consumption of petroleum, urban air pollution, and global climate change.

  6. Ozone Generators That Are Sold as Air Cleaners

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fabrics and art work containing susceptible dyes and pigments (U.S. EPA, 1996a). Top of Page What Other ... Weschler, Charles J; and Shields, Helen C. 1996. Production of the Hydroxyl Radical in Indoor Air. Environmental ...

  7. Cleaner fuels for the improvement of air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catani, R.; Marchionna, M.; Rossini, S.

    1998-01-01

    Harder standards of quality of the air and the consequent limits on the emissions involve the necessity to adopt various measures: programs for inspection/maintenance, technological advance on motors and catalytic mufflers and the reformulation of fuel. This last one is not the only solution but plays a remarkable role, because it has an immediate effect on the quality of the air. As result of that, the present paper explains the main variations that will regard the composition of ben zine and diesel oil

  8. Air cleaners used in the paper industry. January, 1972-August, 1981 (Citations from the Institute of Paper Chemistry Data Base). Report for Jan 72-Aug 81

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning cleaners used in the paper industry. The techniques and technology relating the fabrication and applications of various types of air to air cleaners and air filter materials and media are covered, not only from the manufacturing point of view, but also from that of pollution control. Properties and performance for specific types of air cleaners are also considered. (Contains 66 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  9. Mold Occurring on the Air Cleaner High-Efficiency Particulate Air Filters Used in the Houses of Child Patients with Atopic Dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seong Hwan; Ahn, Geum Ran; Son, Seung Yeol; Bae, Gwi-Nam; Yun, Yeo Hong

    2014-01-01

    Fungi are the known sources of irritation associated with atopic diseases (e.g., asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and atopic eczema). To quantitatively estimate their presence in the indoor environment of atopic dermatitis-inflicted child patient's houses (ADCPHs), the high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters installed inside the air cleaners of three different ADCPHs were investigated for the presence of mold. The air cleaner HEPA filters obtained from the three different ADCPHs w...

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF OZONE EMISSIONS FROM AIR CLEANERS EQUIPPED WITH OZONE GENERATORS AND SENSOR AND FEEDBACK CONTROL CIRCUITRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper give results of a characterization of ozone emissions from air cleaners equipped with ozone generators and sensor and feedback control circuitry. Ozone emission rates of several consumer appliances, marketed as indoor air treatment or air purification systems, were det...

  11. A study on the sound quality evaluation model of mechanical air-cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ih, Jeong-Guon; Jang, Su-Won; Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2009-01-01

    and subjective analyses. Sound signals from various aircleaners were recorded and they were edited by increasing or decreasing the loudness at three wide specific-loudness bands: 20-400 Hz (0-3.8 barks), 400-1250 Hz (3.8-10 barks), and 1.25- 12.5 kHz bands (10-22.8 barks). Subjective tests using the edited...... perceptive descriptor. Annoyance and performance indices of air-cleaners were modeled from the subjective responses of the juries and the measured sound quality metrics: loudness, sharpness, roughness, and fluctuation strength. The multiple regression method was employed to generate sound quality evaluation...

  12. Rapid Monitoring of Mercury in Air from an Organic Chemical Factory in China Using a Portable Mercury Analyzer

    OpenAIRE

    Yasutake, Akira; Cheng, Jin Ping; Kiyono, Masako; Uraguchi, Shimpei; Liu, Xiaojie; Miura, Kyoko; Yasuda, Yoshiaki; Mashyanov, Nikolay

    2011-01-01

    A chemical factory, using a production technology of acetaldehyde with mercury catalysis, was located southeast of Qingzhen City in Guizhou Province, China. Previous research showed heavy mercury pollution through an extensive downstream area. A current investigation of the mercury distribution in ambient air, soils, and plants suggests that mobile mercury species in soils created elevated mercury concentrations in ambient air and vegetation. Mercury concentrations of up to 600 ng/m3 in air o...

  13. Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... has set a limit of 2 parts of mercury per billion parts of drinking water (2 ppb). The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has set a maximum permissible level of 1 part of methylmercury in a million ... of 0.1 milligram of organic mercury per cubic meter of workplace air (0.1 ...

  14. Study of high levels indoor air mercury contamination from mercury amalgam use in dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khwaja, M.A.; Abbasi, M.S.; Mehmood, F.; Jahangir, S.

    2014-01-01

    In 2005, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) estimated that 362 tonnes of dental mercury are consumed annually worldwide. Dental mercury amalgams also called silver fillings and amalgam fillings are widely done. These fillings gave off mercury vapours. Estimated average absorbed concentrations of mercury vapours from dental fillings vary from 3,000 to 17,000 ng Hg. Mercury (Hg) also known as quick silver is an essential constituent of dental amalgam. It is a toxic substance of global concern. A persistent pollutant, mercury is not limited to its source but it travels, on time thousands of kilometers away from the source. Scientific evidence, including, UNEP Global Mercury report, establishes mercury as an extremely toxic substance, which is a major threat to wildlife, ecosystem and human health, at a global scale. Children are more at risk from mercury poisoning which affects their neurological development and brain. Mercury poisoning diminishes memory, attention, thinking and sight. In the past, a number of studies at dental sites in many countries have been carried out and reported which have been reviewed and briefly described. This paper describes and discusses the recent investigations, regarding mercury vapours level in air, carried out at 18 dental sites in Pakistan and other countries. It is evident from the data of 42 dental sites in 17 countries, including, selected dental sites in five main cities of Pakistan, described and discussed in this paper that at most dental sites in many countries including Pakistan, the indoor mercury vapours levels exceed far above the permissible limit, recommended for safe physical and mental health. At these sites, public, in general, and the medical, paramedical staff and vulnerable population, in particular, are at most serious risk to health resulting from exposure to toxic and hazardous mercury. (author)

  15. Ambient air monitoring for mercury around an industrial complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, R.R.; Bogle, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    Public and scientific interest in mercury in the environment has experienced an upsurge in the past few years, due in part to disclosures that fish in certain waters, which have apparently received no direct industrial discharges, were contaminated with mercury. Atmospheric releases of mercury from fossil fuel energy generators, waste incinerators and other industrial sources are suspected to be contributing to this problem. Such releases can be evaluated in a variety of ways, including stack sampling, material balance studies, soil/vegetation sampling and ambient air monitoring. Ambient air monitoring of mercury presents significant challenges because of the typically low concentrations (ng/m 3 ) encountered and numerous opportunities for sample contamination or analyte loss. There are presently no EPA-approved protocols for such sampling and analysis. Elemental mercury was used in large quantities at a nuclear weapons plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee between 1950 and 1963 in a process similar to chloralkali production. Soil and water contamination with mercury were known to be present at the facility but outdoor ambient air contamination had not been investigated prior to the present study. In addition, one large building still contained original process equipment with mercury residuals. The objectives of this study were to establish a monitoring network for mercury which could be used (1) to demonstrate whether or not human health and the environment was being protected, and (2), to establish a decommissioning activities at the facility

  16. Health risks following ingestion of mercury and zinc air batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, M; Tucker, I

    1981-01-01

    This paper reports on a study set up to assess the corrosive behaviour of mercury and zinc air batteries in the gastric juice environment of the stomach. The results show a relatively rapid rate of corrosion for charged mercury batteries. In contrast, the zinc air battery showed no visible corrosion under the same conditions. In view of the toxic dangers from leakage of mercury batteries, it is recommended that steps be taken to ensure that such batteries do not remain in the acidic environment of the stomach, should ingestion occur.

  17. Ammonia emissions from air cleaners at pig farms in Denmark using a Picarro cavity ring-down spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Renato; Adamsen, Anders Peter S.

    2017-04-01

    Ammonia emissions from agricultural activities such as, cattle, pig and poultry farms have become an ever more important topic both for scientists as well as for regulatory bodies due to the severe impacts of ammonia on human health and the environment. In the European Union, the agricultural sector accounts for most of the ammonia emissions, and therefore the EU authorities have put in place reduction targets for the member states. In Denmark, most pig farmers have to deploy one or more ammonia abatement technologies in order to fulfill the national regulation when building new pig houses. A promising ammonia abatement technology is partial floor ventilation and subsequent cleaning using one or two step chemical air cleaners. The cleaned air will have ammonia concentration is the sub-ppm level and with high humidity. Here we present method of monitoring NH3 emissions from air cleaners deployed on pig farms using the G2103 Picarro laser spectrometer. The Picarro G2103 NH3 analyzer is a high precision cavity ring-down spectrometer using a high finesse optical cavity and a near infra-red light laser light source with a very narrow light band. The latter eliminates cross-interferences from other gases present in livestock air. Picarro instruments are built for field measurements and have been widely used for atmospheric monitoring of greenhouse gases and of air pollutants such as NH3.

  18. Estimating the effects of ambient conditions on the performance of UVGI air cleaners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, Josephine; Bahnfleth, William; Freihaut, James [Indoor Environment Center, Department of Architectural Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) uses UVC radiation produced by low pressure mercury vapor lamps to control biological air contaminants. Ambient air velocity and temperature have a strong effect on lamp output by influencing the lamp surface cold spot temperature. In-duct UVGI systems are particularly susceptible to ambient effects due to the range of velocity and temperature conditions they may experience. An analytical model of the effect of ambient conditions on lamp surface temperature was developed for three common lamp types in cross flow from a convective-radiative energy balance assuming constant surface temperature. For one lamp type, a single tube standard output lamp, UVC output and cold spot temperature data were obtained under typical in-duct operating conditions. Over an ambient temperature range of 10-32.2 C and an air velocity range of 0-3.25 m/s, measured cold spot temperature varied from 12.7 to 41.9 C and measured lamp output varied by 68% of maximum. Surface temperatures predicted by the heat transfer model were 6-17 C higher than corresponding measured cold spot temperatures, but were found to correlate well with cold spot temperature via a two-variable linear regression. When corrected using this relationship, the simple model predicted the cold spot temperature within 1 C and lamp UVC output within {+-}5%. To illustrate its practical use, the calibrated lamp model was employed in a simulation of the control of a contaminant in a single-zone ventilation system by an in-duct UVGI device. In this example, failure to account for the impact of ambient condition effects resulted in under-prediction of average space concentration by approximately 20% relative to a constant output system operating at maximum UVC output. (author)

  19. Seasonal variations of ambient air mercury species nearby an airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Guor-Cheng; Tsai, Kai-Hsiang; Huang, Chao-Yang; Yang, Kuang-Pu Ou; Xiao, You-Fu; Huang, Wen-Chuan; Zhuang, Yuan-Jie

    2018-04-01

    This study focuses on the collection of ambient air mercury species (total gaseous mercury (TGM), reactive gaseous mercury (RGM), gaseous element mercury (GEM) and particulate bound mercury (PBM) pollutants at airport nearby sampling site during the year of Apr. 2016 to Mar. 2017 by using Four-stage gold amalgamation and denuder. The results indicated that the average TGM, RGM and GEM concentrations were 5.04 ± 2.43 ng/m3, 29.58 ± 80.54 pg/m3, 4.70 ± 2.63 ng/m3, respectively during the year of Apr. 2016 to Mar. 2017 (n = 49) period at this airport sampling site nearby. In addition, the results also indicated that the average PBM concentrations in TSP and PM2.5 were 0.35 ± 0.08 ng/m3 and 0.09 ± 0.03 ng/m3, respectively. And the average PBM in TSP concentrations order follows as summer > autumn > spring > winter, while the average PBM in PM2.5 concentrations order follows as spring > summer > winter > autumn. Moreover, the average TGM, RGM and GEM concentrations order follow as spring > summer > autumn > winter. Finally, the Asian continent has the highest average mercury species concentrations (TGM, RGM, GEM and PBM) when compared with the American and European continents, and the average mercury species concentrations (TGM, RGM, GEM and PBM) displayed declined trends for North America (United States and Canada) and Europe (Spain, Sweden and Southern Baltic) during the years of 2004-2014. Also noteworthy is that the average mercury species concentrations (TGM, RGM, GEM) displayed increasing trends in China and Taiwan during the years of 2008-2016. Japan and Korea are the only two exceptions. Those above two countries mercury species concentrations displayed decreasing trends during years of 2008-2015.

  20. 77 FR 30274 - The Commission's Role Regarding the Environmental Protection Agency's Mercury and Air Toxics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... Role Regarding the Environmental Protection Agency's Mercury and Air Toxics Standards; Policy Statement on the Commission's Role Regarding the Environmental Protection Agency's Mercury and Air Toxics... noncompliance with EPA's Mercury and Air Toxics Standards (MATS).\\1\\ As noted below, this Policy Statement does...

  1. Toward the next generation of air quality monitoring: Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirrone, Nicola; Aas, Wenche; Cinnirella, Sergio; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Hedgecock, Ian M.; Pacyna, Jozef; Sprovieri, Francesca; Sunderland, Elsie M.

    2013-12-01

    understanding the link between the magnitude of mercury emissions and the concentrations found in the fish that we consume. For air quality monitoring, priorities include expanding the existing data collection network and widening the scope of atmospheric mercury measurements (elemental, oxidised, and particulate species as well as mercury in precipitation). Presently, the only accurate indicators of mercury impacts on human and biological health are methylmercury concentrations in biota. However, recent advances in analytical techniques (stable mercury isotopes) and integrated modelling tools are allowing greater understanding of the relationship between atmospheric deposition, concentrations in water, methylation and uptake by biota. This article recommends an expansion of the current atmospheric monitoring network and the establishment of new coordinated measurements of total mercury and methylmercury concentrations in seawater and concurrent concentrations and trends in marine fish.

  2. Field Performance Test of an Air-Cleaner with Photocatalysis-Plasma Synergistic Reactors for Practical and Long-Term Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Ochiai

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A practical and long-term usable air-cleaner based on the synergy of photocatalysis and plasma treatments has been developed. A field test of the air-cleaner was carried out in an office smoking room. The results were compared to previously reported laboratory test results. Even after a treatment of 12,000 cigarettes-worth of tobacco smoke, the air-cleaner maintained high-level air-purification activity (98.9% ± 0.1% and 88% ± 1% removal of the total suspended particulate (TSP and total volatile organic compound (TVOC concentrations, respectively at single-pass conditions. Although the removal ratio of TSP concentrations was 98.6% ± 0.2%, the ratio of TVOC concentrations was 43.8% after a treatment of 21,900 cigarettes-worth of tobacco smoke in the field test. These results indicate the importance of suitable maintenance of the reactors in the air-cleaner during field use.

  3. Air/surface exchange processes of mercury and their linkage to atmospheric pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahlmann, Enno; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2001-01-01

    The atmospheric mercury cycle is strongly linked to the terrestrial, aquatic and biologic cycle of mercury via air/surface exchange processes. In order to quantify mercury fluxes from and to the atmosphere to predict local and regional source contributions the methods for flux measurements as well as the physicochemical factors controlling air/surface exchange processes must be assessed. We will describe methods for the determination of mercury and mercury species in ambient air which are basic for investigation of air/surface exchange processes. Further on we will describe approaches for studying the physicochemical factors controlling this processes by using a new laboratory flux measurement system. (author)

  4. Mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilas, F.; Chapman, C.R.; Matthews, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    Papers are presented on future observations of and missions to Mercury, the photometry and polarimetry of Mercury, the surface composition of Mercury from reflectance spectrophotometry, the Goldstone radar observations of Mercury, the radar observations of Mercury, the stratigraphy and geologic history of Mercury, the geomorphology of impact craters on Mercury, and the cratering record on Mercury and the origin of impacting objects. Consideration is also given to the tectonics of Mercury, the tectonic history of Mercury, Mercury's thermal history and the generation of its magnetic field, the rotational dynamics of Mercury and the state of its core, Mercury's magnetic field and interior, the magnetosphere of Mercury, and the Mercury atmosphere. Other papers are on the present bounds on the bulk composition of Mercury and the implications for planetary formation processes, the building stones of the planets, the origin and composition of Mercury, the formation of Mercury from planetesimals, and theoretical considerations on the strange density of Mercury

  5. Performance and Effectiveness of Portable Air Cleaners in an Office Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Afshari, Alireza; Bergsøe, Niels Christian

    2015-01-01

    have adverse health effects on human body. Air cleaning devices are commonly marketed as being beneficial for the health by removing air pollutants and consequently improving indoor air quality. The performance of five air cleaning technologies was tested in order to determine the generation of ozone......Nowadays, many people work in an office environment. Air pollutants, including particles and gases, are generated by humans and by different devices that are used in offices. Pollutants can also enter an office room with the air supplied from outdoors. It has been established that air pollutants...... and particles in an office room. The particle removal effectiveness of the technologies was also determined in order to clarify their ability to remove UFPs (ultrafine particles) in the office room. The tested five air cleaning technologies are non-thermal plasma, corona discharge ionizer, portable air purifier...

  6. Cleaner shipping. Trade off between air pollution, costs and refinery CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wilde, H.P.J.; Kroon, P.

    2008-05-01

    Still subject to final approval in October 2008, the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) agreed on a maximum sulphur content of 0.5% for shipping fuels in 2020. This target will induce major changes in the global refinery industry. We have estimated the impact on the Dutch refinery industry, which annually produces about 8 million tons of heavy fuel oil for sea shipping, with refinery residues as main component. It is technically possible to convert all residues, although this process will cause an additional energy use of about one million tons of crude oil and a related CO2 emission of about 4 million tons. The investment costs for these major changes in the Dutch refinery industry are estimated at about 1.5 tot 2 billion euros. The recent IMO agreement enables a gradual introduction of cleaner shipping fuels, which will reduce market disruptions and peak prices. Nevertheless, Rotterdam may not necessarily be able to develop a similar position in import, export and bunkering of future low sulphur fuels, compared to its present strong position in the market of heavy marine bunkers. Extrapolation of our national study to the global scale suggests that the deep conversion of 350 million tons of heavy fuel oil for shipping would require refinery investments in the order of 70-100 billion euros. The associated CO2 emissions would amount up to 175 Mton. The net additional CO2 emission, however, would be smaller since lighter shipping fuels result in less CO2 emissions at sea. On balance, we expect that the improvements in fuel economy, driven by the expensive low-carbon shipping fuels, will decrease CO2 emissions more than the increase in CO2 emissions from additional desulphurization in the refineries. Nevertheless CO2 emissions from sea shipping will continue to increase since marine transport is rapidly growing

  7. The unattached fraction of radon decay products: Potential effects of in-home air cleaners on lung cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    Radon decay products are a factor in the development of lung cancer. Because of their efficient deposition within the lung, the fraction of decay products not attached to particulate (i.e., the unattached fraction) is very important in lung dosimetry. This study simulated the use of two in-home air cleaning devices to reduce airborne particulate concentrations, measure the effect on the unattached fraction, and estimate the radon lung cancer risk. Radon was released into a chamber having a volume-to-surface-area ratio similar to a small home. At radon-decay product equilibrium, radon and airborne particle concentrations were measured, and the concentration of the unattached fraction was estimated. The effect of particle concentration on the unattached fraction was then determined. The average unattached fractions corresponding to the particle concentration ranges expected for the air cleaning devices were used to calculate the annual alpha radiation dose and annual radon lung cancer for men, women and children at rest and under light activity. The annual doses and related risks were compared to those used in the models published by the Environmental Protection Agency. For particulate concentrations of a home with no particulate generating activities (e.g., smoking, cooking), the electronic air cleaner is predicted to reduce the unattached fraction from seven percent (the value used by the NCRP and confirmed in this study) to four percent. These conditions represent the maximum reduction in the unattached fraction. The decrease in the unattached fraction is tentatively attributed to an increase in plateout. Based on these results, a reduction of less than ten percent in the calculated annual lung cancer risk is found in all cases

  8. Particle Removal Efficiency of the Portable HEPA Air Cleaner in a Simulated Hospital Ward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qian, Hua; Li, Yuguo; Sun, Hequan

    2010-01-01

    Use of a HEPA (high efficiency particulate air) filter in a room is believed to assist in reducing the risk of transmission of infectious diseases through removing the particles or large droplets to which pathogens may be attached. Use of a portable HEPA filter(s) in hospital wards is hypothesized...... to increase the effective ventilation rate (for particles only). Use of a portable HEPA filter is also hypothesized to increase the effective airflow rate of the general ward to the standard of an isolation ward for emerging infection diseases. This may be a good solution for housing patients when the number...... of beds in an isolation ward is insufficient. An experiment was conducted in a full scale experimental ward with a dimension of 6.7 m × 6 m × 2.7 m and 6 beds to test these hypotheses for a portable HEPA filter. The removal efficiency for different size particles was measured at different locations...

  9. Experimental Study on Ultrafine Particle Removal Performance of Portable Air Cleaners with Different Filters in an Office Room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Size- and time-dependent aerodynamic behaviors of indoor particles, including PM1.0, were evaluated in a school office in order to test the performance of air-cleaning devices using different filters. In-situ real-time measurements were taken using an optical particle counter. The filtration characteristics of filter media, including single-pass efficiency, volume and effectiveness, were evaluated and analyzed. The electret filter (EE medium shows better initial removal efficiency than the high efficiency (HE medium in the 0.3–3.5 μm particle size range, while under the same face velocity, the filtration resistance of the HE medium is several times higher than that of the EE medium. During service life testing, the efficiency of the EE medium decreased to 60% with a total purifying air flow of 25 × 104 m3/m2. The resistance curve rose slightly before the efficiency reached the bottom, and then increased almost exponentially. The single-pass efficiency of portable air cleaner (PAC with the pre-filter (PR or the active carbon granule filter (CF was relatively poor. While PAC with the pre-filter and the high efficiency filter (PR&HE showed maximum single-pass efficiency for PM1.0 (88.6%, PAC with the HE was the most effective at removing PM1.0. The enhancement of PR with HE and electret filters augmented the single-pass efficiency, but lessened the airflow rate and effectiveness. Combined with PR, the decay constant of large-sized particles could be greater than for PACs without PR. Without regard to the lifetime, the electret filters performed better with respect to resource saving and purification improvement. A most penetrating particle size range (MPPS: 0.4–0.65 μm exists in both HE and electret filters; the MPPS tends to become larger after HE and electret filters are combined with PR. These results serve to provide a better understanding of the indoor particle removal performance of PACs when combined with different kinds of filters in

  10. Mercury and Air Toxic Element Impacts of Coal Combustion By-Product Disposal and Utilizaton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Hassett; Loreal Heebink; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Tera Buckley; Erick Zacher; Mei Xin; Mae Sexauer Gustin; Rob Jung

    2007-03-31

    The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) conducted a multiyear study to evaluate the impact of mercury and other air toxic elements (ATEs) on the management of coal combustion by-products (CCBs). The ATEs evaluated in this project were arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, and selenium. The study included laboratory tasks to develop measurement techniques for mercury and ATE releases, sample characterization, and release experiments. A field task was also performed to measure mercury releases at a field site. Samples of fly ash and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials were collected preferentially from full-scale coal-fired power plants operating both without and with mercury control technologies in place. In some cases, samples from pilot- and bench-scale emission control tests were included in the laboratory studies. Several sets of 'paired' baseline and test fly ash and FGD materials collected during full-scale mercury emission control tests were also included in laboratory evaluations. Samples from mercury emission control tests all contained activated carbon (AC) and some also incorporated a sorbent-enhancing agent (EA). Laboratory release experiments focused on measuring releases of mercury under conditions designed to simulate CCB exposure to water, ambient-temperature air, elevated temperatures, and microbes in both wet and dry conditions. Results of laboratory evaluations indicated that: (1) Mercury and sometimes selenium are collected with AC used for mercury emission control and, therefore, present at higher concentrations than samples collected without mercury emission controls present. (2) Mercury is stable on CCBs collected from systems both without and with mercury emission controls present under most conditions tested, with the exception of vapor-phase releases of mercury exposed to elevated temperatures. (3) The presence of carbon either from added AC or from unburned coal can result in mercury

  11. Mercury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Irma

    2017-01-01

    Mercury is a naturally occurring metal that exists in several physical and chemical forms. Inorganic mercury refers to compounds formed after the combining of mercury with elements such as chlorine, sulfur, or oxygen. After combining with carbon by covalent linkage, the compounds formed are called

  12. A Comparison between Temperature-Controlled Laminar Airflow Device and a Room Air-Cleaner in Reducing Exposure to Particles While Asleep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spilak, Michal; Sigsgaard, Torben; Takai, Hisamitsu

    2016-01-01

    environment might be a feasible method to alleviate these health symptoms. We performed full-scale laboratory measurements using a thermal manikin positioned on an experimental bed. Three ventilation settings were tested: with no filtration system operated, use of portable air cleaner and use of a temperature...... and turbulence diffusivity level, with a particle reduction rate of 52% compared to baseline after 30 minutes. The TLA device delivered a laminar airflow to the breathing zone with a reduction rate of 99.5%. During a periodical duvet lifting mimicking a subject's movement in bed, the particle concentration...... the duvet and the laying body....

  13. Product-related emissions of Mercury to Air in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindbom, Karin; Munthe, John

    2007-06-15

    Mercury emissions to air from the use of mercury in products have been estimated for the EU for the year 2005. The consumption of mercury in the EU in 2005 was amounted to 125 tonnes in technical products. Estimates of emissions of mercury from dental amalgam were derived from information on cremations in European countries and average contents of amalgam fillings. Annual emissions of mercury to air from product use in EU27 have been estimated to be in the range 10-18 tonnes (best estimate 14 tonnes) from technical products and to 2-5 tonnes from cremation, in total 12-23 tonnes. Of the mercury consumed in technical products, 11% was calculated to be emitted to air, 31% to end up in safe storage while 58% would still be accumulated in society or disposed of in landfills. From the share still accumulated in society, as well as from the already land filled amounts, further emissions of mercury to air may occur in the longer term. Emissions from technical products are calculated based on the consumption of mercury in 2005. Emissions occurring in the same year but caused by consumption in the previous 10 years were derived using the consumption in 2005 and assuming the same patterns of distribution and emissions. The latest available estimates of total anthropogenic emissions of mercury in EU27 refer to the year 2000 and are in the order of 140-190 tonnes, probably to have declined to 2005. Based on these figures the contribution to anthropogenic mercury emissions to air in EU from product use and cremation in 2005 is at least 6-16%. In a previous report product related air emissions of 72 tonnes were estimated for Europe in the mid 1990s, corresponding to 18% of the total air emissions. A significant decrease of emissions has thus occurred which is in line with a decreasing use of mercury in technical products, more efficient collection of remaining products and better emission control. However, the calculations show that the use of mercury in products still

  14. Ultralow Level Mercury Treatment Using Chemical Reduction and Air Stripping: Scoping Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looney, B.B.

    2000-01-01

    Data collected during the first stage of a Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) Strategic Research and Development Project confirmed the efficacy of chemical reduction and air stripping/sparging as an ultralow level mercury treatment concept for waters containing Hg(II). The process consists of dosing the water with low levels of stannous chloride to convert the mercury to Hg. This form of mercury can easily be removed from the water by air stripping or sparging. Samples of Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater containing approximately 130 ng/L of total mercury (as Hg(II)) were used for the study. In undosed samples, sparging removed 0 percent of the initial mercury. In the dosed samples, all of the removals were greater than 94 percent, except in one water type at one dose. This sample, which was saturated with dissolved oxygen, showed a 63 percent reduction in mercury following treatment at the lowest dose. Following dosing at minimally effective levels and sparging, treated water contained less than 10 ng/L total mercury. In general, the data indicate that the reduction of mercury is highly favored and that stannous chloride reagent efficiently targets the Hg(II) contaminant in the presence of competing reactions. Based on the results, the authors estimated that the costs of implementing and operating an ultralow level mercury treatment process based on chemical reduction and stripping/sparging are 10 percent to 20 percent of traditional treatment technologies

  15. Development Of Chemical Reduction And Air Stripping Processes To Remove Mercury From Wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Dennis G.; Looney, Brian B.; Craig, Robert R.; Thompson, Martha C.; Kmetz, Thomas F.

    2013-07-10

    This study evaluates the removal of mercury from wastewater using chemical reduction and air stripping using a full-scale treatment system at the Savannah River Site. The existing water treatment system utilizes air stripping as the unit operation to remove organic compounds from groundwater that also contains mercury (C ~ 250 ng/L). The baseline air stripping process was ineffective in removing mercury and the water exceeded a proposed limit of 51 ng/L. To test an enhancement to the existing treatment modality a continuous dose of reducing agent was injected for 6-hours at the inlet of the air stripper. This action resulted in the chemical reduction of mercury to Hg(0), a species that is removable with the existing unit operation. During the injection period a 94% decrease in concentration was observed and the effluent satisfied proposed limits. The process was optimized over a 2-day period by sequentially evaluating dose rates ranging from 0.64X to 297X stoichiometry. A minimum dose of 16X stoichiometry was necessary to initiate the reduction reaction that facilitated the mercury removal. Competing electron acceptors likely inhibited the reaction at the lower 1 doses, which prevented removal by air stripping. These results indicate that chemical reduction coupled with air stripping can effectively treat large-volumes of water to emerging part per trillion regulatory standards for mercury.

  16. Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... build up in fish, shellfish, and animals that eat fish. The nervous system is sensitive to all forms of mercury. Exposure to high levels can damage the brain and kidneys. Pregnant women can pass the mercury in their bodies to their babies. It is important to protect your family from ...

  17. 76 FR 80727 - Flexible Implementation of the Mercury and Air Toxics Standards Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... emissions of mercury and other toxic air pollutants from power plants, which collectively are among the... Air Toxics Standards rule for power plants (the ``MATS Rule'') represents a major step forward in my... Commission, State utility regulators, Regional Transmission Organizations, the North American Electric...

  18. Ultralow Level Mercury Treatment Using Chemical Reduction and Air Stripping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, B.B.

    2001-02-23

    The overall objective of this work is to develop a reasonable and cost-effective approach to meet the emerging mercury standards, especially for high volume outfalls with concentrations below the drinking water standard.

  19. Ultralow Level Mercury Treatment Using Chemical Reduction and Air Stripping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looney, B.B.

    2001-01-01

    The overall objective of this work is to develop a reasonable and cost-effective approach to meet the emerging mercury standards, especially for high volume outfalls with concentrations below the drinking water standard

  20. Sampling problems and the determination of mercury in surface water, seawater, and air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, H.A.; van der Sloot, H.A.

    1976-01-01

    Analysis of surface water for mercury comprises the determination of both ionic and organically bound mercury in solution and that of the total mercury content of the suspended matter. Eventually, metallic mercury has to be determined too. Requirements for the sampling procedure are given. A method for the routine determination of mercury in surface water and seawater was developed and applied to Dutch surface waters. The total sample volume is 2500 ml. About 500 ml is used for the determination of the content of suspended matter and the total amount of mercury in the water. The sample is filtered through a bed of previously purified active charcoal at a low flow-rate. The main portion ca. 2000 ml) passes a flow-through centrifuge to separate the solid fraction. One liter is used to separate ''inorganic'' mercury by reduction, volatilization in an airstream and adsorption on active charcoal. The other liter is led through a column of active charcoal to collect all mercury. The procedures were checked with 197 Hg radiotracer both as an ion and incorporated in organic compounds. The mercury is determined by thermal neutron activation, followed by volatilization in a tube furnace and adsorption on a fresh carbon bed. The limit of determination is approximately equal to 1 ng 1 -1 . The rate of desorption from and adsorption on suspended material has been measured as a function of a pH of the solution for Hg +2 and various other ions. It can be concluded that only the procedure mentioned above does not disturb the equilibrium. The separation of mercury from air is obtained by suction of 1 m 3 through a 0.22 μm filter and a charcoal bed. The determination is then performed as in the case of the water samples

  1. Trends in mercury wet deposition and mercury air concentrations across the U.S. and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss-Penzias, Peter S.; Gay, David A.; Brigham, Mark E.; Parsons, Matthew T.; Gustin, Mae S.; ter Shure, Arnout

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the spatial and temporal trends of mercury (Hg) in wet deposition and air concentrations in the United States (U.S.) and Canada between 1997 and 2013. Data were obtained from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) and Environment Canada monitoring networks, and other sources. Of the 19 sites with data records from 1997–2013, 53% had significant negative trends in Hg concentration in wet deposition, while no sites had significant positive trends, which is in general agreement with earlier studies that considered NADP data up until about 2010. However, for the time period 2007–2013 (71 sites), 17% and 13% of the sites had significant positive and negative trends, respectively, and for the time period 2008–2013 (81 sites) 30% and 6% of the sites had significant positive and negative trends, respectively. Non-significant positive tendencies were also widespread. Regional trend analyses revealed significant positive trends in Hg concentration in the Rocky Mountains, Plains, and Upper Midwest regions for the recent time periods in addition to significant positive trends in Hg deposition for the continent as a whole. Sulfate concentration trends in wet deposition were negative in all regions, suggesting a lower importance of local Hg sources. The trend in gaseous elemental Hg from short-term datasets merged as one continuous record was broadly consistent with trends in Hg concentration in wet deposition, with the early time period (1998–2007) producing a significantly negative trend (− 1.5 ± 0.2% year− 1) and the recent time period (2008–2013) displaying a flat slope (− 0.3 ± 0.1% year− 1, not significant). The observed shift to more positive or less negative trends in Hg wet deposition primarily seen in the Central-Western regions is consistent with the effects of rising Hg emissions from regions outside the U.S. and Canada and the influence of long-range transport in the free troposphere.

  2. Mercury isotope fractionation during transfer from post-desulfurized seawater to air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shuyuan; Lin, Kunning; Yuan, Dongxing; Gao, Yaqin; Sun, Lumin

    2016-12-15

    Samples of dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) in the post-desulfurized seawater discharged from a coal-fired power plant together with samples of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) over the post-desulfurized seawater surface were collected and analyzed to study the mercury isotope fractionation during transfer from post-desulfurized seawater to air. Experimental results showed that when DGM in the seawater was converted to GEM in the air, the δ 202 Hg and Δ 199 Hg values were changed, ranging from -2.98 to -0.04‰ and from -0.31 to 0.64‰, respectively. Aeration played a key role in accelerating the transformation of DGM to GEM, and resulted in light mercury isotopes being more likely to be enriched in the GEM. The ratio Δ 199 Hg/Δ 201 Hg was 1.626 in all samples, suggesting that mercury mass independent fractionation occurred owing to the nuclear volume effect during the transformation. In addition, mass independent fractionation of mercury even isotopes was found in the GEM above the post-desulfurized seawater surface in the aeration pool. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Mercury

    CERN Document Server

    Balogh, André; Steiger, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    Mercury, the planet closest to the Sun, is different in several respects from the other three terrestrial planets. In appearance, it resembles the heavily cratered surface of the Moon, but its density is high, it has a magnetic field and magnetosphere, but no atmosphere or ionosphere. This book reviews the progress made in Mercury studies since the flybys by Mariner 10 in 1974-75, based on the continued research using the Mariner 10 archive, on observations from Earth, and on increasingly realistic models of its interior evolution.

  4. Benefits of European climate policies for mercury air pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rafaj, P.; Cofala, J.; Kuenen, J.; Wyrwa, A.; Zyśk, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology and results of impact assessment of renewable energy policies on atmospheric emissions of mercury in Europe. The modeling exercise described here involves an interaction of several models. First, a set of energy scenarios has been developed with the REMix

  5. Model analyses of atmospheric mercury: present air quality and effects of transpacific transport on the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, H.; Liang, X.-Z.; Wuebbles, D. J.; Tao, Z.

    2013-11-01

    Atmospheric mercury is a toxic air and water pollutant that is of significant concern because of its effects on human health and ecosystems. A mechanistic representation of the atmospheric mercury cycle is developed for the state-of-the-art global climate-chemistry model, CAM-Chem (Community Atmospheric Model with Chemistry). The model simulates the emission, transport, transformation and deposition of atmospheric mercury (Hg) in three forms: elemental mercury (Hg(0)), reactive mercury (Hg(II)), and particulate mercury (PHg). Emissions of mercury include those from human, land, ocean, biomass burning and volcano related sources. Land emissions are calculated based on surface solar radiation flux and skin temperature. A simplified air-sea mercury exchange scheme is used to calculate emissions from the oceans. The chemistry mechanism includes the oxidation of Hg(0) in gaseous phase by ozone with temperature dependence, OH, H2O2 and chlorine. Aqueous chemistry includes both oxidation and reduction of Hg(0). Transport and deposition of mercury species are calculated through adapting the original formulations in CAM-Chem. The CAM-Chem model with mercury is driven by present meteorology to simulate the present mercury air quality during the 1999-2001 period. The resulting surface concentrations of total gaseous mercury (TGM) are then compared with the observations from worldwide sites. Simulated wet depositions of mercury over the continental United States are compared to the observations from 26 Mercury Deposition Network stations to test the wet deposition simulations. The evaluations of gaseous concentrations and wet deposition confirm a strong capability for the CAM-Chem mercury mechanism to simulate the atmospheric mercury cycle. The general reproduction of global TGM concentrations and the overestimation on South Africa indicate that model simulations of TGM are seriously affected by emissions. The comparison to wet deposition indicates that wet deposition patterns

  6. Characterisation and modelling of mercury speciation in urban air affected by gold mining - assessment of bioavailability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cukrowska E. M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The growing global concern over the release of mercury to the environment has prompted specific inventories that quantify mercury emissions from various sources. Investigations of atmospheric mercury have been mostly done on gaseous species. Although, to assess human expose to mercury, especially in urban areas, the inhalable dust should be included in a study. The Witwatersrand Basin in South Africa is one of the most important gold mining regions in the world. Mercury (Hg, which occurs in gold-bearing ores, was also used for gold recoveries in previous centuries (19th and early 20th century and presently in illegal artisanal mining. The consequences of these mining activities were the release of Hg to the environment, mainly due to AMD from tailings dumps which are presently reprocessed. The city of Johannesburg is a multimillion population exposed strongly to industrial pollution. The aim of this study was to determine the magnitude of mercury pollution in this urban area and assess its bioavailability. The gaseous samples were collected by trapping mercury on various gold traps. Dust samples were collected from a ground and on inhalation levels (1–2 m above a ground. They were later separated into different fractions by micro sieving. Bioavailability of mercury in inhalable dust (25 μm was tested by leaching collected samples with artificial lung fluid (ALF, pH 4.5, Gray’s solution (pH 7.4 and water. The leaching conditions were selected to mimic lungs environment (incubator at 30°C, time 24 hrs, rotation of samples 150 rpm. Total concentrations of mercury in dust fractions were also determined after microwave digestion. The results showed extremely high concentration levels of mercury in air and dust in industrial areas. Especially high levels were found around presently reprocessed old gold tailings dumps, up to 900 000 μgl–1. The levels dropped significantly in CBD area but still showing elevated concentrations up to 10 μgl−1

  7. The dosage of mercury vapours in air. Application to an atmospheric control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, H.; Vettier, M.C.; Moser, Y.

    1961-01-01

    The authors have studied a technique making it possible to trap completely the mercury vapours in the atmosphere and to analyse them with precision; their object is an application to an atmospheric control. The analytical method used is particularly sensitive and makes possible the determination of 1 micro-gram of mercury in a 1000 litre sample of air with an accuracy of 2 per cent. The total time for the operation can be estimated to be about 2 1/2 hours, including the analysis. The operations are straightforward and can be carried out by specialised personnel after a short training. (author) [fr

  8. QFD analysis of RSRM aqueous cleaners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrs, Roy D.; Jones, Randy K.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a Quality Function Deployment (QFD) analysis of the final down-selected aqueous cleaners to be used on the Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) program. The new cleaner will replace solvent vapor degreasing. The RSRM Ozone Depleting Compound Elimination program is discontinuing the methyl chloroform vapor degreasing process and replacing it with a spray-in-air aqueous cleaning process. Previously, 15 cleaners were down-selected to two candidates by passing screening tests involving toxicity, flammability, cleaning efficiency, contaminant solubility, corrosion potential, cost, and bond strength. The two down-selected cleaners were further evaluated with more intensive testing and evaluated using QFD techniques to assess suitability for cleaning RSRM case and nozzle surfaces in preparation for adhesive bonding.

  9. Desiccant wheels as gas-phase absorption (GPA) air cleaners: evaluation by PTR-MS and sensory assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei; Zhang, G.; Wisthaler, A.

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the use of the co-sorption effect of a desiccant wheel for improving indoor air quality. One experiment was conducted in a climate chamber to investigate the co-sorption effect of a desiccant wheel on the chemical removal of indoor air pollutants......; another experiment was conducted in an office room to investigate the resulting effect on perceived air quality. A dehumidifier with a silica-gel desiccant wheel was installed in the ventilation system of the test chamber and office room to treat the recirculation airflow. Human subjects, flooring...

  10. Field controlled experiments of mercury accumulation in crops from air and soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu Zhenchuan [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhang Xiaoshan, E-mail: zhangxsh@rcees.ac.cn [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Wang Zhangwei, E-mail: wangzhw@rcees.ac.cn [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Ci Zhijia [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2011-10-15

    Field open top chambers (OTCs) and soil mercury (Hg) enriched experiments were employed to study the influence of Hg concentrations in air and soil on the Hg accumulation in the organs of maize (Zea mays L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Results showed that Hg concentrations in foliages were correlated significantly (p < 0.05) with air Hg concentrations but insignificantly correlated with soil Hg concentrations, indicating that Hg in crop foliages was mainly from air. Hg concentrations in roots were generally correlated with soil Hg concentrations (p < 0.05) but insignificantly correlated with air Hg concentrations, indicating that Hg in crop roots was mainly from soil. No significant correlations were found between Hg concentrations in stems and those in air and soil. However, Hg concentrations in upper stems were usually higher than those in bottom stems, implying air Hg might have stronger influence than soil Hg on stem Hg accumulation. - Highlights: > Hg accumulation in crop organs was studied by OTCs and soil Hg enriched experiments. > Hg accumulation in foliages and roots was mainly from air and soil, respectively. > Air Hg had stronger influence than soil Hg on stem Hg accumulation. > Foliar Hg concentrations showed the trend of increase over growth stages. - Capsule Mercury accumulated in the aboveground organs of crop was mainly from the air.

  11. Field controlled experiments of mercury accumulation in crops from air and soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Zhenchuan; Zhang Xiaoshan; Wang Zhangwei; Ci Zhijia

    2011-01-01

    Field open top chambers (OTCs) and soil mercury (Hg) enriched experiments were employed to study the influence of Hg concentrations in air and soil on the Hg accumulation in the organs of maize (Zea mays L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Results showed that Hg concentrations in foliages were correlated significantly (p < 0.05) with air Hg concentrations but insignificantly correlated with soil Hg concentrations, indicating that Hg in crop foliages was mainly from air. Hg concentrations in roots were generally correlated with soil Hg concentrations (p < 0.05) but insignificantly correlated with air Hg concentrations, indicating that Hg in crop roots was mainly from soil. No significant correlations were found between Hg concentrations in stems and those in air and soil. However, Hg concentrations in upper stems were usually higher than those in bottom stems, implying air Hg might have stronger influence than soil Hg on stem Hg accumulation. - Highlights: → Hg accumulation in crop organs was studied by OTCs and soil Hg enriched experiments. → Hg accumulation in foliages and roots was mainly from air and soil, respectively. → Air Hg had stronger influence than soil Hg on stem Hg accumulation. → Foliar Hg concentrations showed the trend of increase over growth stages. - Capsule Mercury accumulated in the aboveground organs of crop was mainly from the air.

  12. A comparison of recent methods for modelling mercury fluxes at the air-water interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fantozzi L.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric pathway of the global mercury flux is known to be the primary source of mercury contamination to most threatened aquatic ecosystems. Notwithstanding, the emission of mercury from surface water to the atmosphere is as much as 50% of total annual emissions of this metal into the atmosphere. In recent years, much effort has been made in theoretical and experimental researches to quantify the total mass flux of mercury to the atmosphere. In this study the most recent atmospheric modelling methods and the information obtained from them are presented and compared using experimental data collected during the Oceanographic Campaign Fenice 2011 (25 October – 8 November 2011, performed on board the Research Vessel (RV Urania of the CNR in the framework of the MEDOCEANOR ongoing program. A strategy for future numerical model development is proposed which is intended to gain a better knowledge of the long-term effects of meteo-climatic drivers on mercury evasional processes, and would provide key information on gaseous Hg exchange rates at the air-water interface.

  13. Do not let the Netherlands down. Cleaner air for health and nature by a new National Emission Ceiling guideline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-11-01

    An overview is provided of the seriousness of air pollution in various European countries and the hazardous effects on public health and nature. The facts and data in this publication are based on studies from authoritative research institutes in Europe. [mk] [nl

  14. Outfall 51 air stripping feasibility study for the Reduction of Mercury in Plant Effluent (RMPE) Project. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Within the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant there are a number of industrial wastewater discharge points or outfalls that empty into East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). EFPC originates within and runs continuously throughout the plant site and subsequently flows out the east end of the Y-12 Plant into the City of Oak Ridge. Mercury is present in outfall discharges due to contact of water with the soils surrounding past mercury-use buildings. As a result, the Reduction of Mercury in Plant Effluent (RMPE) Project was developed to achieve and maintain environmental compliance with regards to mercury, and, in particular with the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit for the Y-12 Plant. To achieve a reduction in mercury loading to EFPC, a number of options have already been studied and implemented as part of the RMPE project. With the successful implementation of these options, Outfall 51 remains as a significant contributor to mercury load to EFPC. The primary purpose of this project is to determine the feasibility of removing mercury from contaminated spring water using air stripping. In order to accomplish this goal, a number of different areas were addressed. A pilot-scale unit was tested in the field using actual mercury-contaminated source water. Properties which impact the mercury removal via air stripping were reviewed to determine their effect. Also, enhanced testing was performed to improve removal efficiencies. Finally, the variable outfall flow was studied to size appropriate processing equipment for full-scale treatment

  15. Pressure drop and heat transfer of a mercury single-phase flow and an air-mercury two-phase flow in a helical tube under a strong magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Minoru; Momozaki, Yoichi

    2000-01-01

    For the reduction of a large magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) pressure drop of a liquid metal single-phase flow, a liquid metal two-phase flow cooling system has been proposed. As a fundamental study, MHD pressure drops and heat transfer characteristics of a mercury single-phase flow and an air-mercury two-phase flow were experimentally investigated. A strong transverse magnetic field relevant to the fusion reactor conditions was applied to the mercury single-phase flow and the air-mercury two-phase flow in a helically coiled tube that was inserted in the vertical bore of a solenoidal superconducting magnet. It was found that MHD pressure drops of a mercury single-phase flow in the helically coiled tube were nearly equal to those in a straight tube. The Nusselt number at an outside wall was higher than that at an inside wall both in the mercury single-phase flow in the absence and presence of a magnetic field. The Nusselt number of the mercury single-phase flow decreased, increased and again decreased with an increase in the magnetic flux density. MHD pressure drops did not decrease appreciably by injecting air into a mercury flow and changing the mercury flow into the air-mercury two-phase flow. Remarkable heat transfer enhancement did not appear by the air injection. The injection of air into the mercury flow enhanced heat transfer in the ranges of high mercury flow rate and low magnetic flux density, possibly due to the agitation effect of air bubbles. The air injection deteriorated heat transfer in the range of low mercury flow rates possibly because of the occupation of air near heating wall

  16. [Concentrations of mercury in ambient air in wastewater irrigated area of Tianjin City and its accumulation in leafy vegetables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shun-An; Han, Yun-Lei; Zheng, Xiang-Qun

    2014-11-01

    limit of mercury in food. Spinach appeared to accumulate more mercury than the other four vegetables, in which the median and mean mercury content were both higher than 20 μg x kg(-1). The mercury concentrations in rape, lettuce and allium tuberosum were lower than the standard. Moreover, test results indicated that the Hg content in leafy vegetables was mainly the gaseous mercury through leaf adsorption but not the Hg particulates. This study clearly manifested that there should be a great concern on the pollution risk of both air-and soil borne mercury when cultivating leafy vegetables in long-term wastewater-irrigated area.

  17. 76 FR 13851 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... information identified as CBI only to the following address: Roberto Morales, OAQPS Document Control Officer... these average values being slightly less than 450 g/day per facility. Therefore, the information we... benefits for non-air quality related health and environmental values. The potential problems associated...

  18. Distribution and air-sea exchange of mercury (Hg) in polluted marine environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnato, E.; Sprovieri, M.; Bitetto, M.; Bonsignore, M.; Calabrese, S.; Di Stefano, V.; Oliveri, E.; Parello, F.; Mazzola, S.

    2012-04-01

    Mercury (Hg) is emitted in the atmosphere by anthropogenic and natural sources, these last accounting for one third of the total emissions. Since the pre-industrial age, the atmospheric deposition of mercury have increased notably, while ocean emissions have doubled owing to the re-emission of anthropogenic mercury. Exchange between the atmosphere and ocean plays an important role in cycling and transport of mercury. We present the preliminary results from a study on the distribution and evasion flux of mercury at the atmosphere/sea interface in the Augusta basin (SE Sicily, southern Italy), a semi-enclosed marine area affected by a high degree of contamination (heavy metals and PHA) due to the oil refineries placed inside its commercial harbor. It seems that the intense industrial activity of the past have lead to an high Hg pollution in the bottom sediments of the basin, whose concentrations are far from the background mercury value found in most of the Sicily Strait sediments. The release of mercury into the harbor seawater and its dispersion by diffusion from sediments to the surface, make the Augusta basin a potential supplier of mercury both to the Mediterranean Sea and the atmosphere. Based on these considerations, mercury concentration and flux at the air-sea interface of the Bay have been estimated using a real-time atomic adsorption spectrometer (LUMEX - RA915+) and an home-made accumulation chamber, respectively. Estimated Total Atmospheric Mercury (TGM) concentrations during the cruise on the bay were in the range of 1-3 ng · m-3, with a mean value of about 1.4 ng · m-3. These data well fit with the background Hgatm concentration values detected on the land (1-2 ng · m-3, this work), and, more in general, with the background atmospheric TGM levels found in the North Hemisphere (1.5-1.7 ng · m-3)a. Besides, our measurements are in the range of those reported for other important polluted marine areas. The mercury evasion flux at the air-sea interface

  19. JV Task 94 - Air Quality V: Mercury, Trace Elements, SO3, and Particulate Matter Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas A. Erickson

    2007-01-31

    This final report summarizes the planning, preparation, facilitation and production, and summary of the conference entitled 'Air Quality V: Mercury, Trace Elements, SO{sub 3}, and Particulate Matter,' held September 18-21, 2005, in Arlington, Virginia. The goal of the conference was to build on the discussions of the first four Air Quality Conferences, providing further opportunity for leading representatives of industry, government, research institutions, academia, and environmental organizations to discuss the key interrelationships between policy and science shaping near-term regulations and controls and to assist in moving forward on emerging issues that will lead to acceptable programs and policies to protect human health, the environment, and economic growth. The conference was extremely timely, as it was the last large conference prior to publication of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's final regulations for mercury control from coal-fired utilities, and provided a forum to realistically assess the status of mercury controls in relation to the new regulations.

  20. Speciated mercury measurements in ambient air from 2009 to 2011 at a Central European rural background monitoring site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weigelt A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Since January 2009 highly time-resolved mercury speciation measurements in ambient air are carried out at the Central European German EMEP monitoring station and measurement site of the German Federal Environment Agency “Waldhof“, providing the longest Central European dataset for mercury species. First statistical analyses do not indicate long term trends for the concentrations of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM and particle bound mercury (TPM. A potential increasing trend for reactive gaseous mercury (RGM will have to be verified in the coming years and should be regarded as indicative only at present. A seasonal cycle for TPM could be observed with higher concentrations during winter time. Furthermore a diurnal cycle for RGM is apparent with highest concentrations in the early afternoon.

  1. Environmental monitoring of mercury in urban soils, air and plants of a Mediterranean area, Alexandria, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashad, Mohamed; Darwish, Kh.M.; Abdel Salam, Hassan E. [Arid Lands Cultivation Research Institute, Land and Water Technologies Department, City of Scientific Research and Technological Applications (SRTACity), New Borg El-Arab, 21934 Alexandria (Egypt); Elsayed A. Shalaby, [Environmental Studies Department, Institute of Graduate Studies and Research, Alexandria University (Egypt)

    2013-07-01

    This study was conducted in order to assess the levels of mercury (Hg) in air, soil, and plants in an area around chlor-alkali plant using mercury cells to produce chlorine gas. The output results indicated that the levels of Hg were decreased in the studied components with increasing the distance from the hot spot. Geographically, the highest levels of Hg were recorded to the prevailing wind direction i.e., Southeast direction, while the other directions West and East had the lowest levels. A wide variation in the amount of total Hg in the air samples collected at different distances around the hot spot was found. Also there was a pronounced difference in Hg concentration in soil samples depending on location and sampling time. The maximum concentrations of soil Hg were measured during February 2008 for all sampling directions. The levels of total Hg in plant samples during the period of 12 month-study were relatively narrow compared with the levels in air and soil which represented great differences in the total Hg among different directions and sites.

  2. A Survey of Mercury in Air and Precipitation across Canada: Patterns and Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda S. Cole

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric mercury (Hg measurements from across Canada were compiled and analysed as part of a national Hg science assessment. Here we update long-term trends of Hg in air and precipitation, and present more extensive measurements on patterns and trends in speciated Hg species (gaseous elemental mercury—GEM, reactive gaseous mercury—RGM, and total particulate mercury on particles <2.5 μm—TPM2.5 at several sites. A spatial analysis across Canada revealed higher air concentrations and wet deposition of Hg in the vicinity of local and regional emission sources, and lower air concentrations of Hg at mid-latitude maritime sites compared to continental sites. Diel and seasonal patterns in atmospheric GEM, RGM and TPM2.5 concentrations reflected differences in patterns of anthropogenic emissions, photo-induced surface emissions, chemistry, deposition and mixing. Concentrations of GEM decreased at rates ranging from −0.9% to −3.3% per year at all sites where measurements began in the 1990s. Concentrations of total Hg in precipitation declined up to 3.7% yr−1. Trends in RGM and TPM2.5 were less clear due to shorter measurement periods and low concentrations, however, in spring at the high Arctic site (Alert when RGM and TPM2.5 concentrations were high, concentrations of both increased by 7%–10% per year.

  3. Using silver nano particles for sampling of toxic mercury vapors from industrial air sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Osanloo

    2014-05-01

    .Conclusion: The presented adsorbent is very useful for sampling of the trace amounts of mercury vapors from air. Moreover, it can be regenerated easily is suitable or sampling at 25 to 70 °C. Due to oxidation of silver and reduction in uptake of nanoparticles, oven temperature of 245 °C is used for the recovery of metallic silver. Low amount of adsorbent, high absorbency, high repeatability for sampling, low cost and high accuracy are of the advantages of the presented method.

  4. Metal cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do so by poison control or a health care provider. If the chemical is on the skin or in the eyes, flush with lots of water for at least 15 minutes. If the person swallowed the metal cleaner, give them water or milk right away, unless a provider tells you not ...

  5. Mercury Exchange at the Air-Water-Soil Interface: An Overview of Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengman Fang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available An attempt is made to assess the present knowledge about the methods of determining mercury (Hg exchange at the air-water-soil interface during the past 20 years. Methods determining processes of wet and dry removal/deposition of atmospheric Hg to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, as well as methods determining Hg emission fluxes to the atmosphere from natural surfaces (soil and water are discussed. On the basis of the impressive advances that have been made in the areas relating to Hg exchange among air-soil-water interfaces, we analyzed existing problems and shortcomings in our current knowledge. In addition, some important fields worth further research are discussed and proposed.

  6. Radiotracer method to study the transport of mercury(II)chloride from water to sediment and air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaca, F.; Aras, N.K.

    2004-01-01

    The fate of dissolved Hg(II) in surface waters is an important component of the Hg cycle. A simple experimental methodology was used to understand and measure the transport of Hg(II) from water to air and sediment. The use of radioactive dissolved Hg tracer for the determination of evasion and deposition is found to be a very useful technique. The evasion of mercury was investigated during a 140-hour period. It was observed that about a quarter of mercury chloride remained in the water phase, the other quarter was emitted via the evasion process and half of it deposited in sediment. (author)

  7. Institutionalising cleaner production in China: the cleaner production promotion law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, A.P.J.; Liu Yi,

    2005-01-01

    During the 1990s, cleaner production was introduced in China, in the beginning especially via development aid projects. From 1992 to 1997 the focus was strongly on the introduction of cleaner production methodology, the training of personnel and the implementation of demonstration projects at the

  8. Gaseous elemental mercury in the marine boundary layer and air-sea flux in the Southern Ocean in austral summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiancheng; Xie, Zhouqing; Wang, Feiyue; Kang, Hui

    2017-12-15

    Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) in the marine boundary layer (MBL), and dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) in surface seawater of the Southern Ocean were measured in the austral summer from December 13, 2014 to February 1, 2015. GEM concentrations in the MBL ranged from 0.4 to 1.9ngm -3 (mean±standard deviation: 0.9±0.2ngm -3 ), whereas DGM concentrations in surface seawater ranged from 7.0 to 75.9pgL -1 (mean±standard deviation: 23.7±13.2pgL -1 ). The occasionally observed low GEM in the MBL suggested either the occurrence of atmospheric mercury depletion in summer, or the transport of GEM-depleted air from the Antarctic Plateau. Elevated GEM concentrations in the MBL and DGM concentrations in surface seawater were consistently observed in the ice-covered region of the Ross Sea implying the influence of the sea ice environment. Diminishing sea ice could cause more mercury evasion from the ocean to the air. Using the thin film gas exchange model, the air-sea fluxes of gaseous mercury in non-ice-covered area during the study period were estimated to range from 0.0 to 6.5ngm -2 h -1 with a mean value of 1.5±1.8ngm -2 h -1 , revealing GEM (re-)emission from the East Southern Ocean in summer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Metal-Detergent/Cleaner Compatibility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hindin, Barry

    1994-01-01

    ...) such as CFC-1 13 or 1,1,1 Trichioroethane (TCA) in their cleaning and degreasing procedures. During the last few years, AGMC has been evaluating alternative, environmentally acceptable chemicals to replace their ODC cleaners...

  10. Mercury in Your Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basic information about mercury, how it gets in the air, how people are exposed to it and health effects associated with exposure; what EPA and other organizations are doing to limit exposures; what citizens should know to minimize exposures and to reduce mercury in the environment; and information about products that contain mercury.

  11. Mercury evaporation from amalgams with varied mercury contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmoto, K; Nakajima, H; Ferracane, J L; Shintani, H; Okabe, T

    2000-09-01

    This study examined the relationship between mercury content and mercury evaporation from amalgams during setting. Two different types of commercial high-copper amalgams (single composition and admixed types) were used. Cylindrical specimens of each amalgam were prepared with five different mercury contents according to ADA Specification No.1. Specimens were also prepared by hand condensation. Mercury evaporation from amalgam specimens maintained at 37 degrees C was measured using a gold film mercury analyzer from 10 min after the end of trituration until the mercury concentration in air reached an undetectable level. The mercury content more clearly influenced the mercury evaporation from the admixed type amalgam specimens when the mercury content decreased below the manufacturers' recommended trituration conditions. Triturating with less mercury than the manufacturers' recommended amount cannot lower the evaporation of mercury from freshly made amalgam. Proper condensing procedures can minimize the mercury evaporation from the amalgam surface.

  12. Historical releases of mercury to air, land, and water from coal combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streets, David G; Lu, Zifeng; Levin, Leonard; Ter Schure, Arnout F H; Sunderland, Elsie M

    2018-02-15

    Coal combustion is one of the largest contemporary sources of anthropogenic mercury (Hg). It releases geologically sequestered Hg to the atmosphere, and fly ash can contaminate terrestrial and aquatic systems. We estimate that coal combustion has released a cumulative total of 38.0 (14.8-98.9, 80% C.I.) Gg (gigagrams, 10 9 g or thousand tonnes) of Hg to air, land, and water up to the year 2010, most of which (97%) has occurred since 1850. The rate of release has grown by two orders of magnitude from 0.01Ggyr -1 in 1850 to 1Ggyr -1 in 2010. Geographically, Asia and Europe each account for 32% of cumulative releases and an additional 18% is from North America. About 26.3 (10.2-68.3) Gg, 71% of the total, were directly emitted to the atmosphere, mostly from the industrial (45%) and power generation (36%) sectors, while the remainder was disposed of to land and water bodies. While Europe and North America were the major contributing regions until 1950, Asia has surpassed both in recent decades. By 2010, Asia was responsible for 69% of the total releases of Hg from coal combustion to the environment. Control technologies installed on major emitting sources capture mainly particulate and divalent Hg, and therefore the fraction of elemental Hg in emissions from coal combustion has increased over time from 0.46 in 1850 to 0.61 in 2010. About 11.8 (4.6-30.6) Gg of Hg, 31% of the total, have been transferred to land and water bodies through the disposal or utilization of Hg-containing combustion waste and collected fly ash/FGD waste; approximately 8.8Gg of this Hg have simply been discarded to waste piles or ash ponds or rivers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of a Modified Vacuum Cleaner for Lunar Surface Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, Katherine P.; Lee, Steve A.; Edgerly, Rachel D.

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) mission to expand space exploration will return humans to the Moon with the goal of maintaining a long-term presence. One challenge that NASA will face returning to the Moon is managing the lunar regolith found on the Moon's surface, which will collect on extravehicular activity (EVA) suits and other equipment. Based on the Apollo experience, the issues astronauts encountered with lunar regolith included eye/lung irritation, and various hardware failures (seals, screw threads, electrical connectors and fabric contamination), which were all related to inadequate lunar regolith mitigation. A vacuum cleaner capable of detaching, transferring, and efficiently capturing lunar regolith has been proposed as a method to mitigate the lunar regolith problem in the habitable environment on lunar surface. In order to develop this vacuum, a modified "off-the-shelf' vacuum cleaner will be used to determine detachment efficiency, vacuum requirements, and optimal cleaning techniques to ensure efficient dust removal in habitable lunar surfaces, EVA spacesuits, and air exchange volume. During the initial development of the Lunar Surface System vacuum cleaner, systematic testing was performed with varying flow rates on multiple surfaces (fabrics and metallics), atmospheric (14.7 psia) and reduced pressures (10.2 and 8.3 psia), different vacuum tool attachments, and several vacuum cleaning techniques in order to determine the performance requirements for the vacuum cleaner. The data recorded during testing was evaluated by calculating particulate removal, relative to the retained simulant on the tested surface. In addition, optical microscopy was used to determine particle size distribution retained on the surface. The scope of this paper is to explain the initial phase of vacuum cleaner development, including historical Apollo mission data, current state-of-the-art vacuum cleaner technology, and vacuum cleaner testing that has

  14. Method and apparatus for sampling atmospheric mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Patricio E.; Campbell, Evan E.; Eutsler, Bernard C.

    1976-01-20

    A method of simultaneously sampling particulate mercury, organic mercurial vapors, and metallic mercury vapor in the working and occupational environment and determining the amount of mercury derived from each such source in the sampled air. A known volume of air is passed through a sampling tube containing a filter for particulate mercury collection, a first adsorber for the selective adsorption of organic mercurial vapors, and a second adsorber for the adsorption of metallic mercury vapor. Carbon black molecular sieves are particularly useful as the selective adsorber for organic mercurial vapors. The amount of mercury adsorbed or collected in each section of the sampling tube is readily quantitatively determined by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

  15. Isotopic Composition of Atmospheric Mercury in China: New Evidence for Sources and Transformation Processes in Air and in Vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ben; Fu, Xuewu; Yin, Runsheng; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Xun; Lin, Che-Jen; Wu, Chuansheng; Zhang, Yiping; He, Nannan; Fu, Pingqing; Wang, Zifa; Shang, Lihai; Sommar, Jonas; Sonke, Jeroen E; Maurice, Laurence; Guinot, Benjamin; Feng, Xinbin

    2016-09-06

    The isotopic composition of atmospheric total gaseous mercury (TGM) and particle-bound mercury (PBM) and mercury (Hg) in litterfall samples have been determined at urban/industrialized and rural sites distributed over mainland China for identifying Hg sources and transformation processes. TGM and PBM near anthropogenic emission sources display negative δ(202)Hg and near-zero Δ(199)Hg in contrast to relatively positive δ(202)Hg and negative Δ(199)Hg observed in remote regions, suggesting that different sources and atmospheric processes force the mass-dependent fractionation (MDF) and mass-independent fractionation (MIF) in the air samples. Both MDF and MIF occur during the uptake of atmospheric Hg by plants, resulting in negative δ(202)Hg and Δ(199)Hg observed in litter-bound Hg. The linear regression resulting from the scatter plot relating the δ(202)Hg to Δ(199)Hg data in the TGM samples indicates distinct anthropogenic or natural influences at the three study sites. A similar trend was also observed for Hg accumulated in broadleaved deciduous forest foliage grown in areas influenced by anthropogenic emissions. The relatively negative MIF in litter-bound Hg compared to TGM is likely a result of the photochemical reactions of Hg(2+) in foliage. This study demonstrates the diagnostic stable Hg isotopic composition characteristics for separating atmospheric Hg of different source origins in China and provides the isotopic fractionation clues for the study of Hg bioaccumulation.

  16. Inventory on cleaner production education and training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Pöyry, Sirkka; Huisingh, Donald

    Analysis and presentation of the data from an international inventory on cleaner production education and training......Analysis and presentation of the data from an international inventory on cleaner production education and training...

  17. Toilet bowl cleaners and deodorizers poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002743.htm Toilet bowl cleaners and deodorizers poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Toilet bowl cleaners and deodorizers are substances used to ...

  18. Robot Vacuum Cleaner Personality and Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Hendriks, A.F.M.; Meerbeek, B.W.; Boess, S.; Pauws, S.C; Sonneveld, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we report our study on the user experience of robot vacuum cleaner behavior. How do people want to experience this new type of cleaning appliance? Interviews were conducted to elicit a desired robot vacuum cleaner personality. With this knowledge in mind, behavior was designed for a future robot vacuum cleaner. A video prototype was used to evaluate how people experienced the behavior of this robot vacuum cleaner. The results indicate that people recognizedthe intended personali...

  19. Robotic Water Blast Cleaner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, M. H.; Roberts, M. L.; Hill, W. E.; Jackson, C. H.

    1983-01-01

    Water blasting system under development removes hard, dense, extraneous material from surfaces. High pressure pump forces water at supersonic speed through nozzle manipulated by robot. Impact of water blasts away unwanted material from workpiece rotated on air bearing turntable. Designed for removing thermal-protection material, system is adaptable to such industrial processes as cleaning iron or steel castings.

  20. Contamination by mercury in air of the mining district of San Martin de Loba in Bolivar's Department, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivero V, J.; Young C, F.; Caballero G, K.

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a heavy metal, considered a highly toxic pollutant. In its elemental state is volatile, making it easy to transport over long distances through the atmosphere, so that environmental pollution caused by it is a serious problem worldwide. Activities such as gold mining, where metallic Hg is used, have contributed with its global distribution, affecting ecosystems and human health. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of total mercury (T-Hg) in air in gold mining areas in Southern Bolivar, particularly in the mining district of San Martin de Loba, in the municipalities of San Martin de Loba and Barranco de Loba (Mina Santa Cruz), Colombia. In situ analyses were performed by atomic absorption spectroscopy, using a portable Ra-915 + Zeeman mercury analyzer. In Mina Santa Cruz, one of the most important gold mines in Colombia, concentrations of Hg in air ranged between 163.7 ± 6.6 and 40 455 ± 2154 mg/m 3 , while in the urban area of San Martin de Loba varied from 223.6 ± 20.8 to 27 140 ± 212.5 ng/m 3 . In those places where an amalgam burning process was taking place at the time of the measurements, Hg concentrations reached values of 40 455 ± 2154 ng/m 3 . These data imply a severe occupational exposure to Hg for operators and citizens living in cities located near mines. Therefore, it is important to regulate and control the use of Hg in gold mining, avoiding a chronic impact of the metal on the health of people and the environment. (author)

  1. SUBMERGED GRAVEL SCRUBBER DEMONSTRATION AS A PASSIVE AIR CLEANER FOR CONTAINMENT VENTING AND PURGING WITH SODIUM AEROSOLS -- CSTF TESTS AC7 - AC10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HILLIARD, R K.; MCCORMACK, J D.; POSTMA, A K.

    1981-11-01

    Four large-scale air cleaning tests (AC7 - AC10) were performed in the Containment Systems Test Facility (CS'lF) to demonstrate the performance of a Submerged Gravel Scrubber for cleaning the effluent gas from a vented and purged breeder reactor containment vessel. The test article, comprised of a Submerged Gravel Scrubber (SGS) followed by a high efficiency fiber demister, had a design gas flow rate of 0.47 m{sup 3}/s (1000 ft{sup 3}/min) at a pressure drop of 9.0 kPa (36 in. H{sub 2}O). The test aerosol was sodium oxide, sodium hydroxide, or sodium carbonate generated in the 850-m{sup 3} CSTF vessel by continuously spraying sodium into the air-filled vessel while adding steam or carbon dioxide. Approximately 4500 kg (10,000 lb) of sodium was sprayed over a total period of 100 h during the tests. The SGS/Demister system was shown to be highly efficient (removing ~99.98% of the entering sodium aerosol mass), had a high mass loading capacity, and operated in a passive manner, with no electrical requirement. Models for predicting aerosol capture, gas cooling, and pressure drop are developed and compared with experimental results.

  2. Mercury accumulation in grass and forb species as a function of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and mercury exposures in air and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millhollen, A G; Obrist, D; Gustin, M S

    2006-10-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the potential for atmospheric Hg degrees uptake by grassland species as a function of different air and soil Hg exposures, and to specifically test how increasing atmospheric CO(2) concentrations may influence foliar Hg concentrations. Four common tallgrass prairie species were germinated and grown for 7 months in environmentally controlled chambers using two different atmospheric elemental mercury (Hg major; 3.7+/-2.0 and 10.2+/-3.5 ng m(-3)), soil Hg (atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO(2)) (390+/-18, 598+/-22 micro mol mol(-1)) exposures. Species used included two C4 grasses and two C3 forbs. Elevated CO(2) concentrations led to lower foliar Hg concentrations in plants exposed to low (i.e., ambient) air Hg degrees concentrations, but no CO(2) effect was apparent at higher air Hg degrees exposure. The observed CO(2) effect suggests that leaf Hg uptake might be controlled by leaf physiological processes such as stomatal conductance which is typically reduced under elevated CO(2). Foliar tissue exposed to elevated air Hg degrees concentrations had higher concentrations than those exposed to low air Hg degrees , but only when also exposed to elevated CO(2). The relationships for foliar Hg concentrations at different atmospheric CO(2) and Hg degrees exposures indicate that these species may have a limited capacity for Hg storage; at ambient CO(2) concentrations all Hg absorption sites in leaves may have been saturated while at elevated CO(2) when stomatal conductance was reduced saturation may have been reached only at higher concentrations of atmospheric Hg degrees . Foliar Hg concentrations were not correlated to soil Hg exposures, except for one of the four species (Rudbeckia hirta). Higher soil Hg concentrations resulted in high root Hg concentrations and considerably increased the percentage of total plant Hg allocated to roots. The large shifts in Hg allocation patterns-notably under soil conditions only slightly above

  3. Mercury Emissions: The Global Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercury emissions are a global problem that knows no national or continental boundaries. Mercury that is emitted to the air can travel thousands of miles in the atmosphere before it is eventually deposited back to the earth.

  4. Mercury concentrations and distribution in soil, water, mine waste leachates, and air in and around mercury mines in the Big Bend region, Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, John E.; Theodorakos, Peter M.; Fey, David L.; Krabbenhoft, David P.

    2015-01-01

    Samples of soil, water, mine waste leachates, soil gas, and air were collected from areas mined for mercury (Hg) and baseline sites in the Big Bend area, Texas, to evaluate potential Hg contamination in the region. Soil samples collected within 300 m of an inactive Hg mine contained elevated Hg concentrations (3.8–11 µg/g), which were considerably higher than Hg in soil collected from baseline sites (0.03–0.05 µg/g) distal (as much as 24 km) from mines. Only three soil samples collected within 300 m of the mine exceeded the probable effect concentration for Hg of 1.06 µg/g, above which harmful effects are likely to be observed in sediment-dwelling organisms. Concentrations of Hg in mine water runoff (7.9–14 ng/L) were generally higher than those found in springs and wells (0.05–3.1 ng/L), baseline streams (1.1–9.7 ng/L), and sources of drinking water (0.63–9.1 ng/L) collected in the Big Bend region. Concentrations of Hg in all water samples collected in this study were considerably below the 2,000 ng/L drinking water Hg guideline and the 770 ng/L guideline recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to protect aquatic wildlife from chronic effects of Hg. Concentrations of Hg in water leachates obtained from leaching of mine wastes varied widely from wastes were elevated, persistent wind in southwest Texas disperses Hg in the air within a few meters of the ground surface.

  5. Natural and anthropogenic mercury sources and their impact on the air-surface exchange of mercury on regional and global scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebinghaus, R.; Tripathi, R.M.; Wallschlaeger, D.; Lindberg, S.E.

    1998-12-31

    Mercury is outstanding among the global environmental pollutants of continuing concern. Especially in the last decade of the 20th century, environmental scientists, legislators, politicians and the public have become aware of mercury pollution in the global environment. It has often been suggested that anthropogenic emissions are leading to a general increase in mercury on local, regional, and global scales (Lindqvist et al. 1991; Expert Panel 1994). Mercury is emitted into the atmosphere from a number of natural as well as anthropogenic sources. In contrast with most of the other heavy metals, mercury and many of its compounds behave exceptionally in the environment due to their volatility and capability for methylation. Long-range atmospheric transport of mercury, its transformation to more toxic methylmercury compounds, and their bioaccumulation in the aquatic foodchain have motivated intensive research on mercury as a pollutant of global concern. Mercury takes part in a number of complex environmental cycles, and special interest is focused on the aquatic-biological and the atmospheric cycles. (orig./SR)

  6. Mercury concentrations and distribution in soil, water, mine waste leachates, and air in and around mercury mines in the Big Bend region, Texas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, John E; Theodorakos, Peter M; Fey, David L; Krabbenhoft, David P

    2015-02-01

    Samples of soil, water, mine waste leachates, soil gas, and air were collected from areas mined for mercury (Hg) and baseline sites in the Big Bend area, Texas, to evaluate potential Hg contamination in the region. Soil samples collected within 300 m of an inactive Hg mine contained elevated Hg concentrations (3.8-11 µg/g), which were considerably higher than Hg in soil collected from baseline sites (0.03-0.05 µg/g) distal (as much as 24 km) from mines. Only three soil samples collected within 300 m of the mine exceeded the probable effect concentration for Hg of 1.06 µg/g, above which harmful effects are likely to be observed in sediment-dwelling organisms. Concentrations of Hg in mine water runoff (7.9-14 ng/L) were generally higher than those found in springs and wells (0.05-3.1 ng/L), baseline streams (1.1-9.7 ng/L), and sources of drinking water (0.63-9.1 ng/L) collected in the Big Bend region. Concentrations of Hg in all water samples collected in this study were considerably below the 2,000 ng/L drinking water Hg guideline and the 770 ng/L guideline recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to protect aquatic wildlife from chronic effects of Hg. Concentrations of Hg in water leachates obtained from leaching of mine wastes varied widely from <0.001 to 760 µg of Hg in leachate/g of sample leached, but only one leachate exceeded the USEPA Hg industrial soil screening level of 31 µg/g. Concentrations of Hg in soil gas collected at mined sites (690-82,000 ng/m(3)) were highly elevated compared to soil gas collected from baseline sites (1.2-77 ng/m(3)). However, air collected from mined areas at a height of 2 m above the ground surface contained concentrations of Hg (4.9-64 ng/m(3)) that were considerably lower than Hg in soil gas from the mined areas. Although concentrations of Hg emitted from mine-contaminated soils and mine wastes were elevated, persistent wind in southwest Texas disperses Hg in the air within a few meters of the

  7. Mercury balance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maag, J.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E.

    1996-01-01

    A detailed assessment of the consumption of mercury, divided into use areas, was carried out. Disposal and emissions to the environment were also qualified. The assessment is mainly based on data from 1992 - 1993. The most important source of emission of mercury to air is solid waste incineration which is assessed in particular to be due to the supply of mercury in batteries (most likely mercury oxide batteries from photo equipment) and to dental fillings. The second most important source of mercury emission to air is coal-fired power plants which are estimated to account for 200-500 kg of mercury emission p.a. Other mercury emissions are mainly related to waste treatment and disposal. The consumption of mercury is generally decreasing. During the period from 1982/83 - 1992-93, the total consumption of mercury in Denmark was about halved. This development is related to the fact that consumption with regard to several important use areas (batteries, dental fillings, thermometers etc.) has been significantly reduced, while for other purposes the use of mercury has completely, or almost disappeared, i.e. (fungicides for seed, tubes etc.). (EG)

  8. Soil-Air Mercury Flux near a Large Industrial Emission Source before and after Closure (Flin Flon, Manitoba, Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckley, Chris S; Blanchard, Pierrette; McLennan, Daniel; Mintz, Rachel; Sekela, Mark

    2015-08-18

    Prior to its closure, the base-metal smelter in Flin Flon, Manitoba, Canada was one of the North America's largest mercury (Hg) emission sources. Our project objective was to understand the exchange of Hg between the soil and the air before and after the smelter closure. Field and laboratory Hg flux measurements were conducted to identify the controlling variables and used for spatial and temporal scaling. Study results showed that deposition from the smelter resulted in the surrounding soil being enriched in Hg (up to 99 μg g(-1)) as well as other metals. During the period of smelter operation, air concentrations were elevated (30 ± 19 ng m(-3)), and the soil was a net Hg sink (daily flux: -3.8 ng m(-2) h(-1)). Following the smelter closure, air Hg(0) concentrations were reduced, and the soils had large emissions (daily flux: 108 ng m(-2) h(-1)). The annual scaling of soil Hg emissions following the smelter closure indicated that the landscape impacted by smelter deposition emitted or re-emitted almost 100 kg per year. Elevated soil Hg concentrations and emissions are predicted to continue for hundreds of years before background concentrations are re-established. Overall, the results indicate that legacy Hg deposition will continue to cycle in the environment long after point-source reductions.

  9. Cleaner Air in Sity Landscape / Ljuba Gornaja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gornaja, Ljuba

    1998-01-01

    1997.a. lõpul toimunud konverentsist "Transport ja keskkond Tallinnas" ئ perspektiivid ja areng. Tabelid: 1. Sõidukite arv Eestis 1981-1997, 2. Transpordi-dünaamika Tallinnas 1990-1996, 3. Ühistranspordi hinnad Tallinnas 1. jaan. 1998. 4. Mootorikütuse tariifid Eestis 1993-1999

  10. Cleaner Production in the mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto Martinez, Elias

    2004-01-01

    The control politics of the environmental contamination have substantially changed from the 80, toward new preventive tendencies that make the question. That we make with the residuals? What can we make for not generating residuals? On this position, the topic of clean production, it really indicates environmentally a production cleaner, to generate a more respectful final product with the environment, as a result of a process that incorporates in each one of the phases of the life cycle of products the best environmental practices. The national politics of cleaner production was approved in August of 1997 by the environmental national advice, it was formulated like an answer to the solution of the environmental problem of the productive sectors that looks for fundamentally to prevent the contamination in its origin, instead of treating her once generated, with significant results for the construction of the real possibilities of sustainability and competitiveness. Their implementation requires of the government like of the productive sectors, fundamentally, because the environmental problems have become very complex for its control, only through direct regulation, and because to reach the sustainable development of the productive activities implies to face the new challenges of the national and international competitiveness, considering that the environmental administration is a source of opportunities and not an obstacle. In the practice the application of the concept of cleaner production, so much in the current systems of production like in the products and services, it doesn't mean a substitution in strict sense for other different, but improving them continually, under the expert that the new technologies will be cleaner. Of here that production cleans it profiles as the goal that will be reached with the new investments, as long as the systematic search of the continuous improvement, corresponds to the concept of cleaner production that obeys a dynamic and

  11. The Clean Air Act and the Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since 1970, cleaner air and a growing economy have gone hand in hand. The Act has created market opportunities that have helped to inspire innovation in cleaner technologies for which the United States has become a global market leader.

  12. Occupational Exposure to Mercury: Air Exposure Assessment and Biological Monitoring based on Dispersive Ionic Liquid-Liquid Microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirkhanloo, Hamid; Golbabaei, Farideh; Hassani, Hamid; Eftekhar, Farrokh; Kian, Mohammad Javad

    2014-06-01

    Exposure to mercury (Hg) as a heavy metal can cause health effects. The objective of this study was to assess occupational exposure to Hg in a chlor-alkali petrochemical industry in Iran by determining of Hg concentrations in air, blood and urine samples. The study was performed on 50 exposed subjects and 50 unexposed controls. Air samples were collected in the breathing zone of exposed subjects, using hopcalite sorbents. Analysis was performed using a cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometer (CV-AAS) according to NIOSH analytical method 6009. For all participants, blood and urine samples were collected and then transferred into sterile glass tubes. After micro-extraction with ionic liquid and back extraction with nitric acid, Hg concentrations in blood and urine samples were determined by CV-AAS. The mean concentration of air Hg was 0.042± 0.003 mg/m(3). The mean concentrations of Hg in blood and urine samples of exposed subjects were significantly higher than unexposed controls (22.41± 12.58 versus 1.19± 0.95 μg/l and 30.61± 10.86 versus 1.99± 1.34 μg/g creatinine, respectively). Correlation of air Hg with blood Hg, urine Hg and blood Hg-urine Hg ratio were significant statistically (P< 0.05). The values of Hg in blood and urine samples of chlor-alkali workers were considerably high. Correlation coefficients showed that blood Hg and blood Hg-urine Hg ratio are better indicators than urine Hg for assessing occupationally exposed workers in terms of current exposure assessment.

  13. Surface-air mercury fluxes across Western North America: A synthesis of spatial trends and controlling variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckley, Chris S.; Tate, Michael T.; Lin, Che-Jen; Gustin, Mae S.; Dent, Stephen; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Lutz, Michelle A; Wickland, Kimberly; Wang, Bronwen; Gray, John E.; Edwards, Grant; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Smith, David

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) emission and deposition can occur to and from soils, and are an important component of the global atmospheric Hg budget. This paper focuses on synthesizing existing surface-air Hg flux data collected throughout the Western North American region and is part of a series of geographically focused Hg synthesis projects. A database of existing Hg flux data collected using the dynamic flux chamber (DFC) approach from almost a thousand locations was created for the Western North America region. Statistical analysis was performed on the data to identify the important variables controlling Hg fluxes and to allow spatiotemporal scaling. The results indicated that most of the variability in soil-air Hg fluxes could be explained by variations in soil-Hg concentrations, solar radiation, and soil moisture. This analysis also identified that variations in DFC methodological approaches were detectable among the field studies, with the chamber material and sampling flushing flow rate influencing the magnitude of calculated emissions. The spatiotemporal scaling of soil-air Hg fluxes identified that the largest emissions occurred from irrigated agricultural landscapes in California. Vegetation was shown to have a large impact on surface-air Hg fluxes due to both a reduction in solar radiation reaching the soil as well as from direct uptake of Hg in foliage. Despite high soil Hg emissions from some forested and other heavily vegetated regions, the net ecosystem flux (soil flux + vegetation uptake) was low. Conversely, sparsely vegetated regions showed larger net ecosystem emissions, which were similar in magnitude to atmospheric Hg deposition (except for the Mediterranean California region where soil emissions were higher). The net ecosystem flux results highlight the important role of landscape characteristics in effecting the balance between Hg sequestration and (re-)emission to the atmosphere.

  14. Robot Vacuum Cleaner Personality and Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, A.F.M.; Meerbeek, B.W.; Boess, S.; Pauws, S.C; Sonneveld, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we report our study on the user experience of robot vacuum cleaner behavior. How do people want to experience this new type of cleaning appliance? Interviews were conducted to elicit a desired robot vacuum cleaner personality. With this knowledge in mind, behavior was designed for a

  15. Evaluation of the cleaner technology programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou; Jørgensen, Ulrik

    The report presents an independent evaluation of the Danish development programme for cleaner technology 1986-1989 and of the Action Plan for Cleaner Technology 1990-1992. The evaluation focuses on the results of technology development and implementation projects, on an examination of the dissemi......The report presents an independent evaluation of the Danish development programme for cleaner technology 1986-1989 and of the Action Plan for Cleaner Technology 1990-1992. The evaluation focuses on the results of technology development and implementation projects, on an examination...... of the dissemination of cleaner technology solutions achieved in six industrial branches, and on the overall programme and its effects, in particular environmental impacts, but also results in the form of employment, environmental export, strenghtening of Danish know-how etc....

  16. Surface-air mercury fluxes across Western North America: A synthesis of spatial trends and controlling variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckley, Chris S.; Tate, Mike T.; Lin, Che-Jen; Gustin, Mae; Dent, Stephen; Eagles-Smith, Collin; Lutz, Michelle A.; Wickland, Kimberly P.; Wang, Bronwen; Gray, John E.; Edwards, Grant C.; Krabbenhoft, Dave P.; Smith, David B.

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) emission and deposition can occur to and from soils, and are an important component of the global atmospheric Hg budget. This paper focuses on synthesizing existing surface-air Hg flux data collected throughout the Western North American region and is part of a series of geographically focused Hg synthesis projects. A database of existing Hg flux data collected using the dynamic flux chamber (DFC) approach from almost a thousand locations was created for the Western North America region. Statistical analysis was performed on the data to identify the important variables controlling Hg fluxes and to allow spatiotemporal scaling. The results indicated that most of the variability in soil-air Hg fluxes could be explained by variations in soil-Hg concentrations, solar radiation, and soil moisture. This analysis also identified that variations in DFC methodological approaches were detectable among the field studies, with the chamber material and sampling flushing flow rate influencing the magnitude of calculated emissions. The spatiotemporal scaling of soil-air Hg fluxes identified that the largest emissions occurred from irrigated agricultural landscapes in California. Vegetation was shown to have a large impact on surface-air Hg fluxes due to both a reduction in solar radiation reaching the soil as well as from direct uptake of Hg in foliage. Despite high soil Hg emissions from some forested and other heavily vegetated regions, the net ecosystem flux (soil flux + vegetation uptake) was low. Conversely, sparsely vegetated regions showed larger net ecosystem emissions, which were similar in magnitude to atmospheric Hg deposition (except for the Mediterranean California region where soil emissions were higher). The net ecosystem flux results highlight the important role of landscape characteristics in effecting the balance between Hg sequestration and (re-)emission to the atmosphere. - Highlights: • Soil-air Hg fluxes are an important component of the

  17. Surface-air mercury fluxes across Western North America: A synthesis of spatial trends and controlling variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckley, Chris S., E-mail: eckley.chris@epa.gov [US Environmental Protection Agency, Region-10, Seattle, WA 98101 (United States); Tate, Mike T. [US Geological Survey, Middleton, WI 53562 (United States); Lin, Che-Jen [Center for Advances on Water and Air quality, Lamar University, Beaumont, TX 77710 (United States); Gustin, Mae [Department of Natural Resources & Environmental Science, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557 (United States); Dent, Stephen [CDM Smith, Portland, OR 97205 (United States); Eagles-Smith, Collin [US Geological Survey, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Lutz, Michelle A. [US Geological Survey, Middleton, WI 53562 (United States); Wickland, Kimberly P. [US Geological Survey Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Wang, Bronwen [US Geological Survey, Anchorage, AK 99508 (United States); Gray, John E. [US Geological Survey, Denver, CO 80225 (United States); Edwards, Grant C. [Department of Environment and Geography, Macquarie University, North Ryde, NSW 2109 (Australia); Krabbenhoft, Dave P. [US Geological Survey, Middleton, WI 53562 (United States); Smith, David B. [US Geological Survey, Denver, CO 80225 (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Mercury (Hg) emission and deposition can occur to and from soils, and are an important component of the global atmospheric Hg budget. This paper focuses on synthesizing existing surface-air Hg flux data collected throughout the Western North American region and is part of a series of geographically focused Hg synthesis projects. A database of existing Hg flux data collected using the dynamic flux chamber (DFC) approach from almost a thousand locations was created for the Western North America region. Statistical analysis was performed on the data to identify the important variables controlling Hg fluxes and to allow spatiotemporal scaling. The results indicated that most of the variability in soil-air Hg fluxes could be explained by variations in soil-Hg concentrations, solar radiation, and soil moisture. This analysis also identified that variations in DFC methodological approaches were detectable among the field studies, with the chamber material and sampling flushing flow rate influencing the magnitude of calculated emissions. The spatiotemporal scaling of soil-air Hg fluxes identified that the largest emissions occurred from irrigated agricultural landscapes in California. Vegetation was shown to have a large impact on surface-air Hg fluxes due to both a reduction in solar radiation reaching the soil as well as from direct uptake of Hg in foliage. Despite high soil Hg emissions from some forested and other heavily vegetated regions, the net ecosystem flux (soil flux + vegetation uptake) was low. Conversely, sparsely vegetated regions showed larger net ecosystem emissions, which were similar in magnitude to atmospheric Hg deposition (except for the Mediterranean California region where soil emissions were higher). The net ecosystem flux results highlight the important role of landscape characteristics in effecting the balance between Hg sequestration and (re-)emission to the atmosphere. - Highlights: • Soil-air Hg fluxes are an important component of the

  18. The drive to cleaner energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruebler, A.; McDonald, A.

    1995-12-31

    The world is not running out of energy, even with the global population expected to double by 2050 and to reach 12 billion by 2100. Indeed, there are enough potential resources, from oil and gas to coal and renewables, that the world will have choices. We will not need to push every resource to the limit just to keep up with population and economic growth. Which energy resources will predominate in the future will depend not on resource limits, but on which fuels can be most successfully tailored to match what consumers want. And what they want is clear: there is a continuing, pervasive and persistent trend in energy demand toward ever cleaner, more flexible, and more convenient energy end uses. 6 figs.

  19. An assessment of atmospheric mercury in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ model at an urban site and a rural site in the Great Lakes Region of North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Holloway

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative analysis of three atmospheric mercury species – gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0, reactive gaseous mercury (RGHg and particulate mercury (PHg – has been limited to date by lack of ambient measurement data as well as by uncertainties in numerical models and emission inventories. This study employs the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model version 4.6 with mercury chemistry (CMAQ-Hg, to examine how local emissions, meteorology, atmospheric chemistry, and deposition affect mercury concentration and deposition the Great Lakes Region (GLR, and two sites in Wisconsin in particular: the rural Devil's Lake site and the urban Milwaukee site. Ambient mercury exhibits significant biases at both sites. Hg0 is too low in CMAQ-Hg, with the model showing a 6% low bias at the rural site and 36% low bias at the urban site. Reactive mercury (RHg = RGHg + PHg is over-predicted by the model, with annual average biases >250%. Performance metrics for RHg are much worse than for mercury wet deposition, ozone (O3, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, or sulfur dioxide (SO2. Sensitivity simulations to isolate background inflow from regional emissions suggests that oxidation of imported Hg0 dominates model estimates of RHg at the rural study site (91% of base case value, and contributes 55% to the RHg at the urban site (local emissions contribute 45%.

  20. Mercury in air and plant specimens in herbaria: a pilot study at the MAF Herbarium in Madrid (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzun, R; Higueras, P; Esbrí, J M; Pizarro, J

    2007-11-15

    We present data from a study of mercury concentrations in air and plant specimens from the MAF Herbarium in Madrid (Spain). Hg (gas) emissions from old plant collections treated with mercuric chloride (HgCl(2)) in herbaria may pose a health risk for staff working in installations of this type. This is an issue not yet properly addressed. Plants that underwent insecticide treatment with HgCl(2) at the MAF Herbarium until the mid 1970s have persistent high concentrations of Hg in the range 1093-11,967 microg g(-1), whereas untreated specimens are in the range of 1.2-4.3 microg g(-1). The first group induces high concentrations of Hg (gas) in the main herbarium room, with seasonal variations of 404-727 ng m(-3) (late winter) and 748-7797 ng m(-3) (early summer) (baseline for Hg: 8 ng m(-3)). A test survey at another herbarium in Madrid showed even higher concentrations of Hg (gas) above 40,000 ng m(-3). The World Health Organization guidelines for chronic exposure to Hg (gas) are estimated at a maximum of 1000 ng m(-3). While staff was aware of the existence of HgCl(2) treated plants (the plant specimen sheets are labelled as 'poisoned'), they had no knowledge of the presence of high Hg (gas) concentrations in the buildings, a situation that may be relatively common in herbaria.

  1. Mercury in air and plant specimens in herbaria: A pilot study at the MAF Herbarium in Madrid (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyarzun, R.; Higueras, P.; Esbri, J.M.; Pizarro, J.

    2007-01-01

    We present data from a study of mercury concentrations in air and plant specimens from the MAF Herbarium in Madrid (Spain). Hg (gas) emissions from old plant collections treated with mercuric chloride (HgCl 2 ) in herbaria may pose a health risk for staff working in installations of this type. This is an issue not yet properly addressed. Plants that underwent insecticide treatment with HgCl 2 at the MAF Herbarium until the mid 1970s have persistent high concentrations of Hg in the range 1093-11,967 μg g -1 , whereas untreated specimens are in the range of 1.2-4.3 μg g -1 . The first group induces high concentrations of Hg (gas) in the main herbarium room, with seasonal variations of 404-727 ng m -3 (late winter) and 748-7797 ng m -3 (early summer) (baseline for Hg: 8 ng m -3 ). A test survey at another herbarium in Madrid showed even higher concentrations of Hg (gas) above 40,000 ng m -3 . The World Health Organization guidelines for chronic exposure to Hg (gas) are estimated at a maximum of 1000 ng m -3 . While staff was aware of the existence of HgCl 2 treated plants (the plant specimen sheets are labelled as 'poisoned'), they had no knowledge of the presence of high Hg (gas) concentrations in the buildings, a situation that may be relatively common in herbaria

  2. Enhancing mercury removal across air pollution control devices for coal-fired power plants by desulfurization wastewater evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Hu; Yang, Yi; Cai, Liang; Yang, Linjun; Roszak, Szczepan

    2017-10-09

    Desulfurization wastewater evaporation technology is used to enhance the removal of gaseous mercury (Hg) in conventional air pollution control devices (APCDs) for coal-fired power plants. Studies have affirmed that gaseous Hg is oxidized and removed by selective catalytic reduction (SCR), an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) in a coal-fired thermal experiment platform with WFGD wastewater evaporation. Effects of desulfurization wastewater evaporation position, evaporation temperature and chlorine ion concentration on Hg oxidation were studied as well. The Hg 0 oxidation efficiency was increased ranging from 30% to 60%, and the gaseous Hg removal efficiency was 62.16% in APCDs when wastewater evaporated before SCR. However, the Hg 0 oxidation efficiency was 18.99% and the gaseous Hg removal efficiency was 40.19% in APCDs when wastewater evaporated before ESP. The results show that WFGD wastewater evaporation before SCR is beneficial to improve the efficiency of Hg oxidized and removed in APCDs. Because Hg 2+ can be easily removed in ACPDs and WFGD wastewater in power plants is enriched with chlorine ions, this method realizes WFGD wastewater zero discharge and simultaneously enhances Hg removal in APCDs.

  3. Drivers for Cleaner Production in Malaysian Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangel, Arne

    2003-01-01

    This working paper tries to piece together information on regulatory initiatives promoting cleaner production (CP) in Malaysian industry, as well as points of discussion on environmental performance in the sector. It draws upon initial data collection by the team of the research project ‘A Study...... on Promotion and Implementation of Cleaner Production Practices in Malaysian Industry - Development of a National Program and Action Plan for Promotion of Cleaner Production’, which is coordinated by Institute of Environmental and Resource Management, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia; the objective of this study...

  4. Cleaner production - a tool for sustainable environmental development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.; Batool, S.

    2005-01-01

    Industrial Development and Production with no regard for environmental impacts creates water and air pollution, soil degradation, and large-scale global impacts such as acid rain, global warming and ozone depletion. To create more sustainable methods of industrial production, there needs to be a shift in attitudes away from control towards pollution prevention and management. Cleaner Production (CP) refers to a management process that seeks out and eliminates the causes of pollution, waste generation and resource consumption at their source through input reductions or substitutions, pollution prevention, internal recycling and more efficient production technology and processes for sustainable environmental development. The objective of cleaner production is to avoid generating pollution in the first place, which frequently cuts costs, reduces risks associated with liability, and identifies new market opportunities. Introducing cleaner production has become a goal to improve the competitiveness through increased eco-efficiency. CP is a business strategy for enhancing productivity and environmental performance for overall socio-economic development. The environmental and economic benefits can only be achieved by implementing cleaner production tools. The CP assessment methodology is used to systematically identify and evaluate the waste minimization opportunities and facilitate their implementation in industries. It refers to how goods and services are produced with the minimum environmental impact under present technological and economic limits. CP shares characteristics with many environmental management tools such as Environmental Assessment or Design for Environment by including them among the technological options for reducing material and energy intensiveness in production, as well as facilitating ruse trough remanufacturing and recycling. It is thus an extension of the total quality management process. The CP program has been successfully implemented in

  5. 7 CFR 58.230 - Heavy duty vacuum cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. 58.230 Section 58.230....230 Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. Each plant handling dry milk products shall be equipped with a heavy duty industrial vacuum cleaner. The vacuum cleaner shall be of a type that has a collector or...

  6. Health disparities between immigrant and Danish cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marie B; Rasmussen, Charlotte D N; Carneiro, Isabella G

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: It is unknown whether immigrants working in the cleaning industry have a poorer health and work ability than cleaners from the native population. The main aim was to investigate differences in objective and self-reported health measures between immigrant and Danish cleaners. METHODS: Three...... hundred and fifty-one cleaners, consisting of 166 Danes (88% women) and 179 immigrants (74% women) (6 with unknown ethnicity), from 9 workplaces in Denmark participated in the study. Health and work ability were obtained by objective (e.g., BMI and blood pressure) and self-reported measures (e.g., work...... ability, self-rated health, and musculoskeletal symptoms). In order to investigate differences between Danish and immigrant cleaners, logistic regression analyses and General Linear Models were performed. RESULTS: When controlling for age, sex, workplace, job seniority, and smoking, more Danish compared...

  7. Education and Manpower development for Cleaner Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1996-01-01

    An overview of the needs for education and training for dissemination and implementation of cleaner production. Expericne from training in companies and training of officials from public authorities and from integration into engineering, business and management and social science curricula...

  8. Inversion Approach to Validate Mercury Emissions Based on Background Air Monitoring at the High Altitude Research Station Jungfraujoch (3580 m).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzler, Basil; Bogdal, Christian; Henne, Stephan; Obrist, Daniel; Steinbacher, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2017-03-07

    The reduction of emissions of mercury is a declared aim of the Minamata Convention, a UN treaty designed to protect human health and the environment from adverse effects of mercury. To assess the effectiveness of the convention in the future, better constraints about the current mercury emissions is a premise. In our study, we applied a top-down approach to quantify mercury emissions on the basis of atmospheric mercury measurements conducted at the remote high altitude monitoring station Jungfraujoch, Switzerland. We established the source-receptor relationships and by the means of atmospheric inversion we were able to quantify spatially resolved European emissions of 89 ± 14 t/a for elemental mercury. Our European emission estimate is 17% higher than the bottom-up emission inventory, which is within stated uncertainties. However, some regions with unexpectedly high emissions were identified. Stationary combustion, in particular in coal-fired power plants, is found to be the main responsible sector for increased emission estimates. Our top-down approach, based on measurements, provides an independent constraint on mercury emissions, helps to improve and refine reported emission inventories, and can serve for continued assessment of future changes in emissions independent from bottom-up inventories.

  9. Peru Mercury Inventory 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, William E.; Sandoval, Esteban; Yepez, Miguel A.; Howard, Howell

    2007-01-01

    In 2004, a specific need for data on mercury use in South America was indicated by the United Nations Environmental Programme-Chemicals (UNEP-Chemicals) at a workshop on regional mercury pollution that took place in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Mercury has long been mined and used in South America for artisanal gold mining and imported for chlor-alkali production, dental amalgam, and other uses. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides information on domestic and international mercury production, trade, prices, sources, and recycling in its annual Minerals Yearbook mercury chapter. Therefore, in response to UNEP-Chemicals, the USGS, in collaboration with the Economic Section of the U.S. Embassy, Lima, has herein compiled data on Peru's exports, imports, and byproduct production of mercury. Peru was selected for this inventory because it has a 2000-year history of mercury production and use, and continues today as an important source of mercury for the global market, as a byproduct from its gold mines. Peru is a regional distributor of imported mercury and user of mercury for artisanal gold mining and chlor-alkali production. Peruvian customs data showed that 22 metric tons (t) of byproduct mercury was exported to the United States in 2006. Transshipped mercury was exported to Brazil (1 t), Colombia (1 t), and Guyana (1 t). Mercury was imported from the United States (54 t), Spain (19 t), and Kyrgyzstan (8 t) in 2006 and was used for artisanal gold mining, chlor-alkali production, dental amalgam, or transshipment to other countries in the region. Site visits and interviews provided information on the use and disposition of mercury for artisanal gold mining and other uses. Peru also imports mercury-containing batteries, electronics and computers, fluorescent lamps, and thermometers. In 2006, Peru imported approximately 1,900 t of a wide variety of fluorescent lamps; however, the mercury contained in these lamps, a minimum of approximately 76 kilograms (kg), and in

  10. Measurement of flow inside a vacuum cleaner head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iguchi, Ryotaro; Ban, Hisataka; Sakakibara, Jun

    2017-11-01

    Vacuum cleaner head with rotating brushes is widely used as a home appliance. Although it efficiently collects dusts from the floor, flow field of the air and motion of the dust inside the head have not been fully investigated. In this study, we performed 3D-PIV (particle tracking velocimetry) measurement of velocity field inside the head. Water was used as working fluid, which allows a use of fluorescent particle to reduce unwanted reflection from the brushes and inner surface of the head. Mean velocity field and turbulence statistics in the head with and without the brush will be presented.

  11. Mercury in air and plant specimens in herbaria: A pilot study at the MAF Herbarium in Madrid (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyarzun, R. [Departamento de Cristalografia y Mineralogia, Facultad de Ciencias Geologicas, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: oyarzun@geo.ucm.es; Higueras, P.; Esbri, J.M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Geologica y Minera, Escuela Universitaria Politecnica de Almaden, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Plaza M. Meca 1, 13400 Almaden (Spain); Pizarro, J. [Departamento de Biologia Vegetal II, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2007-11-15

    We present data from a study of mercury concentrations in air and plant specimens from the MAF Herbarium in Madrid (Spain). Hg (gas) emissions from old plant collections treated with mercuric chloride (HgCl{sub 2}) in herbaria may pose a health risk for staff working in installations of this type. This is an issue not yet properly addressed. Plants that underwent insecticide treatment with HgCl{sub 2} at the MAF Herbarium until the mid 1970s have persistent high concentrations of Hg in the range 1093-11,967 {mu}g g{sup -1}, whereas untreated specimens are in the range of 1.2-4.3 {mu}g g{sup -1}. The first group induces high concentrations of Hg (gas) in the main herbarium room, with seasonal variations of 404-727 ng m{sup -3} (late winter) and 748-7797 ng m{sup -3} (early summer) (baseline for Hg: 8 ng m{sup -3}). A test survey at another herbarium in Madrid showed even higher concentrations of Hg (gas) above 40,000 ng m{sup -3}. The World Health Organization guidelines for chronic exposure to Hg (gas) are estimated at a maximum of 1000 ng m{sup -3}. While staff was aware of the existence of HgCl{sub 2} treated plants (the plant specimen sheets are labelled as 'poisoned'), they had no knowledge of the presence of high Hg (gas) concentrations in the buildings, a situation that may be relatively common in herbaria.

  12. Simultaneous Blind Separation and Recognition of Speech Mixtures Using Two Microphones to Control a Robot Cleaner

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Heungkyu

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for the simultaneous separation and recognition of speech mixtures in noisy environments using two-channel based independent vector analysis (IVA) on a home-robot cleaner. The issues to be considered in our target application are speech recognition at a distance and noise removal to cope with a variety of noises, including TV sounds, air conditioners, babble, and so on, that can occur in a house, where people can utter a voice command to control a robot cleaner at...

  13. Biotechnology in biofuels -- a cleaner technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jegannathan, K.R.; Chan, E.S.; Ravindra, P. [Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu (Malaysia). Centre of Materials and Minerals

    2011-07-01

    One quarter of the world's CO{sub 2} emissions are created by the transport sector which accounts for some 60% of the world's total oil consumption. Biofuel made from biomass has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions compared to fossil fuels. By using cleaner technology, it is possible to enhance economic growth in industries all over the world while at the same time saving water, energy, raw materials and waste to minimize the environmental footprint. The cleaner technology involves the use of enzymes in an industrial process. Enzymes can be used to make fuels and chemical intermediates in more sustainable, environmentally friendly ways. The development of new enzymes, including through the production and purification of enzymes from genetically modified organisms, is a major driving force in the commercialization of cleaner technology products and processes.

  14. Mercury in the marine boundary layer and seawater of the South China Sea: Concentrations, sea/air flux, and implication for land outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xuewu; Feng, Xinbin; Zhang, Gan; Xu, Weihai; Li, Xiangdong; Yao, Hen; Liang, Peng; Li, Jun; Sommar, Jonas; Yin, Runsheng; Liu, Na

    2010-03-01

    Using R/V Shiyan 3 as a sampling platform, measurements of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), surface seawater total mercury (THg), methyl mercury (MeHg), and dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) were carried out above and in the South China Sea (SCS). Measurements were collected for 2 weeks (10 to 28 August 2007) during an oceanographic expedition, which circumnavigated the northern SCS from Guangzhou (Canton), Hainan Inland, the Philippines, and back to Guangzhou. GEM concentrations over the northern SCS ranged from 1.04 to 6.75 ng m-3 (mean: 2.62 ng m-3, median: 2.24 ng m-3). The spatial distribution of GEM was characterized by elevated concentrations near the coastal sites adjacent to mainland China and lower concentrations at stations in the open sea. Trajectory analysis revealed that high concentrations of GEM were generally related to air masses from south China and the Indochina peninsula, while lower concentrations of GEM were related to air masses from the open sea area, reflecting great Hg emissions from south China and Indochina peninsula. The mean concentrations of THg, MeHg, and DGM in surface seawater were 1.2 ± 0.3 ng L-1, 0.12 ± 0.05 ng L-1, and 36.5 ± 14.9 pg L-1, respectively. In general, THg and MeHg levels in the northern SCS were higher compared to results reported from most other oceans/seas. Elevated THg levels in the study area were likely attributed to significant Hg delivery from surrounding areas of the SCS primarily via atmospheric deposition and riverine input, whereas other sources like in situ production by various biotic and abiotic processes may be important for MeHg. Average sea/air flux of Hg in the study area was estimated using a gas exchange method (4.5 ± 3.4 ng m-2 h-1). This value was comparable to those from other coastal areas and generally higher than those from open sea environments, which may be attributed to the reemission of Hg previously transported to this area.

  15. Mercury and Your Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Risk of Exposure to Mercury Learn About Mercury What is Mercury What is Metallic mercury? Toxicological Profile ToxFAQs Mercury Resources CDC’s National Biomonitoring Program Factsheet on Mercury ...

  16. RELATION BETWEEN FUNCTION AND FORM IN VACUUM CLEANERS DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADU Ștefan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses how robotic vacuum cleaner works, describing their cleaning capabilities and additional features. The paper illustrates advantages of using robotic vacuum cleaners that have intelligent programming and a vacuum cleaning system, the components of a robotic vacuum cleaner. The paper develops aspects concerning to create 2D scale models for the evaluation of specific features of the new components for a prototype robotic vacuum cleaner.

  17. Cleaner Technology in Denmark - support measures and regulatory efforts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2005-01-01

    Danish cleaner technology support policies have been successful in fostering innovations that reduce the invironmental impact of products and production. But the lack of enforcement support for cleaner technology in environmental permits has limited the overall impact.......Danish cleaner technology support policies have been successful in fostering innovations that reduce the invironmental impact of products and production. But the lack of enforcement support for cleaner technology in environmental permits has limited the overall impact....

  18. Biomarkers of mercury exposure in two eastern Ukraine cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, H.; Haver, C.; Kozlov, K.; Centeno, J.A.; Jurgenson, V.; Kolker, A.; Conko, K.M.; Landa, E.R.; Xu, H.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates biomarkers of mercury exposure among residents of Horlivka, a city in eastern Ukraine located in an area with geologic and industrial sources of environmental mercury, and residents of Artemivsk, a nearby comparison city outside the mercury-enriched area. Samples of urine, blood, hair, and nails were collected from study participants, and a questionnaire was administered to obtain data on age, gender, occupational history, smoking, alcohol consumption, fish consumption, tattoos, dental amalgams, home heating system, education, source of drinking water, and family employment in mines. Median biomarker mercury concentrations in Artemivsk were 0.26 ??g/g-Cr (urine), 0.92 ??g/L (blood), 0.42 ??g/g (hair), 0.11 ??g/g (toenails), and 0.09 ??g/g (fingernails); median concentrations in Horlivka were 0.15 ??g/g-Cr (urine), 1.01 ??g/L (blood), 0.14 ??g/g (hair), 0.31 ??g/g (toenails), and 0.31 ??g/g (fingernails). Biomarkers of mercury exposure for study participants from Horlivka and Artemivsk are low in comparison with occupationally exposed workers at a mercury recycling facility in Horlivka and in comparison with exposures known to be associated with clinical effects. Blood and urinary mercury did not suggest a higher mercury exposure among Horlivka residents as compared with Artemivsk; however, three individuals living in the immediate vicinity of the mercury mines had elevated blood and urinary mercury, relative to overall results for either city. For a limited number of residents from Horlivka (N = 7) and Artemivsk (N = 4), environmental samples (vacuum cleaner dust, dust wipes, soil) were collected from their residences. Mercury concentrations in vacuum cleaner dust and soil were good predictors of blood and urinary mercury. Copyright ?? 2011 JOEH, LLC.

  19. 7 CFR 2902.48 - General purpose household cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General purpose household cleaners. 2902.48 Section... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 2902.48 General purpose household cleaners. (a) Definition. Products designed... procurement preference for qualifying biobased general purpose household cleaners. By that date, Federal...

  20. Union Spinning Mills - Cleaner Production option report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Schneider, Zsig

    In October and November 2002 meetings were held between Union Spinning Mills and external consultants from the South African – Danish Cleaner Textile Production Project. Project participants from USM were: • From USM: Operations Director Johan Ferreira, Finishing Manager Anrico (Andrej) Kritzinger...

  1. Cleaner products : new tools, players and relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remmen, Arne

    In connection with the establishment of the Product Oriented Environmental Initiative, the Environmental Protection Agency wished to undertake a subevaluation of the projects initiated under the cleaner technology action plan in relation to the sectors and areas which have been initially under fo...

  2. Got Mercury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Valerie E.; McCoy, J. Torin; Garcia, Hector D.; James, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Many of the operational and payload lighting units used in various spacecraft contain elemental mercury. If these devices were damaged on-orbit, elemental mercury could be released into the cabin. Although there are plans to replace operational units with alternate light sources, such as LEDs, that do not contain mercury, mercury-containing lamps efficiently produce high quality illumination and may never be completely replaced on orbit. Therefore, exposure to elemental mercury during spaceflight will remain possible and represents a toxicological hazard. Elemental mercury is a liquid metal that vaporizes slowly at room temperature. However, it may be completely vaporized at the elevated operating temperatures of lamps. Although liquid mercury is not readily absorbed through the skin or digestive tract, mercury vapors are efficiently absorbed through the respiratory tract. Therefore, the amount of mercury in the vapor form must be estimated. For mercury releases from lamps that are not being operated, we utilized a study conducted by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Quality to calculate the amount of mercury vapor expected to form over a 2-week period. For longer missions and for mercury releases occurring when lamps are operating, we conservatively assumed complete volatilization of the available mercury. Because current spacecraft environmental control systems are unable to remove mercury vapors, both short-term and long-term exposures to mercury vapors are possible. Acute exposure to high concentrations of mercury vapors can cause irritation of the respiratory tract and behavioral symptoms, such as irritability and hyperactivity. Chronic exposure can result in damage to the nervous system (tremors, memory loss, insomnia, etc.) and kidneys (proteinurea). Therefore, the JSC Toxicology Group recommends that stringent safety controls and verifications (vibrational testing, etc.) be applied to any hardware that contains elemental mercury that could yield

  3. Contamination by mercury in air of the mining district of San Martin de Loba in Bolivar's Department, Colombia; Contaminacion por mercurio en aire del distrito minero de San Martin de loba en el Departamento de Bolivar, Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivero V, J.; Young C, F.; Caballero G, K., E-mail: jolivero@unicartagena.edu.co [Universidad de Cartagena, Facultad de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Grupo de Quimica Ambiental y Computacional, Calle de la Universidad 36-100, Cartagena de Indias (Colombia)

    2014-06-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a heavy metal, considered a highly toxic pollutant. In its elemental state is volatile, making it easy to transport over long distances through the atmosphere, so that environmental pollution caused by it is a serious problem worldwide. Activities such as gold mining, where metallic Hg is used, have contributed with its global distribution, affecting ecosystems and human health. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of total mercury (T-Hg) in air in gold mining areas in Southern Bolivar, particularly in the mining district of San Martin de Loba, in the municipalities of San Martin de Loba and Barranco de Loba (Mina Santa Cruz), Colombia. In situ analyses were performed by atomic absorption spectroscopy, using a portable Ra-915 + Zeeman mercury analyzer. In Mina Santa Cruz, one of the most important gold mines in Colombia, concentrations of Hg in air ranged between 163.7 ± 6.6 and 40 455 ± 2154 mg/m{sup 3}, while in the urban area of San Martin de Loba varied from 223.6 ± 20.8 to 27 140 ± 212.5 ng/m{sup 3}. In those places where an amalgam burning process was taking place at the time of the measurements, Hg concentrations reached values of 40 455 ± 2154 ng/m{sup 3}. These data imply a severe occupational exposure to Hg for operators and citizens living in cities located near mines. Therefore, it is important to regulate and control the use of Hg in gold mining, avoiding a chronic impact of the metal on the health of people and the environment. (author)

  4. Mercury CEM Calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani; Susan S. Sorini

    2007-03-31

    The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) which was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2005, requires that calibration of mercury continuous emissions monitors (CEMs) be performed with NIST-traceable standards. Western Research Institute (WRI) is working closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to facilitate the development of the experimental criteria for a NIST traceability protocol for dynamic elemental mercury vapor generators. The traceability protocol will be written by EPA. Traceability will be based on the actual analysis of the output of each calibration unit at several concentration levels ranging from about 2-40 ug/m{sup 3}, and this analysis will be directly traceable to analyses by NIST using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ID ICP/MS) through a chain of analyses linking the calibration unit in the power plant to the NIST ID ICP/MS. Prior to this project, NIST did not provide a recommended mercury vapor pressure equation or list mercury vapor pressure in its vapor pressure database. The NIST Physical and Chemical Properties Division in Boulder, Colorado was subcontracted under this project to study the issue in detail and to recommend a mercury vapor pressure equation that the vendors of mercury vapor pressure calibration units can use to calculate the elemental mercury vapor concentration in an equilibrium chamber at a particular temperature. As part of this study, a preliminary evaluation of calibration units from five vendors was made. The work was performed by NIST in Gaithersburg, MD and Joe Rovani from WRI who traveled to NIST as a Visiting Scientist.

  5. Seasonal variation of mercury vapor concentrations in industrial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mercury has been known as a toxic substance that could raise potential risks to human health. The main anthropogenic sources of mercury pollution in air include combustion of fossil fuel, metal smelting and processing, and vehicle transportation all of which exist in Ahvaz city in Southwestern Iran. Ambient air mercury ...

  6. Mercury in Canadian crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollebone, B.P.

    2005-01-01

    Estimates for average mercury concentrations in crude oil range widely from 10 ng/g of oil to 3,500 ng/g of oil. With such a broad range of estimates, it is difficult to determine the contributions of the petroleum sector to the total budget of mercury emissions. In response to concerns that the combustion of petroleum products may be a major source of air-borne mercury pollution, Environment Canada and the Canadian Petroleum Products Institute has undertaken a survey of the average total mercury concentration in crude oil processed in Canadian refineries. In order to calculate the potential upper limit of total mercury in all refined products, samples of more than 30 different types of crude oil collected from refineries were measured for their concentration of mercury as it enters into a refinery before processing. High temperature combustion, cold vapour atomic absorption and cold vapour atomic fluorescence were the techniques used to quantify mercury in the samples. The results of the study provide information on the total mass of mercury present in crude oil processed in Canada each year. Results can be used to determine the impact of vehicle exhaust emissions to the overall Canadian mercury emission budget. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  7. Basic Information about Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Environment Contact Us Share Basic Information about Mercury On this page: What is mercury? Emissions of ... Consumer products that traditionally contain mercury What is Mercury? Mercury is a naturally-occurring chemical element found ...

  8. Short-term respiratory effects of cleaning exposures in female domestic cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Ramón, M; Zock, J P; Kogevinas, M; Sunyer, J; Basagaña, X; Schwartz, J; Burge, P S; Moore, V; Antó, J M

    2006-06-01

    Symptoms of obstructive lung disease in domestic cleaners have been related to the use of bleach and other irritant cleaning products. The short-term effects of cleaning exposures on respiratory symptoms and peak expiratory flow (PEF) were investigated in domestic cleaners with respiratory disorders. In a panel study, 43 female domestic cleaners with a recent history of asthma and/or chronic bronchitis completed a 2-week diary, collecting information on respiratory symptoms, PEF and cleaning exposures. Mixed regression models were used to assess daily changes in symptoms and PEF associated with specific cleaning exposures. The probability of having work-related asthma was individually assessed by a computerised diagnostic system and an occupational asthma expert. Lower respiratory tract symptoms were more common on working days and were predominantly associated with exposure to diluted bleach, degreasing sprays/atomisers and air fresheners. Associations with upper respiratory tract symptoms and PEF were less apparent. Eleven (30%) subjects scored positively for work-related asthma. It is concluded that exposure to certain irritant cleaning products aggravates lower respiratory tract symptoms in female domestic cleaners with asthma or chronic bronchitis.

  9. The Infraordinary as Spatial Discourse: Tongue of the Dry Cleaner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Nielsen, Espen

    2014-01-01

    of perception, I interrogated a London dry cleaner as an (infra-ordinary) urban function: Tongue of the Dry Cleaner uses creative writing and critical spatial practice as tools for gaining insight. It moves through the elements of the space and production line of the dry cleaner, unfolding it bit by bit......Most of us pass along kiosks, pubs, dry cleaners, turn street corners, rise up stairways on a daily basis, in a sort of spatial anaesthesia. These spaces that facilitates our everyday existence are ‘worn half-invisible by use’, thereby not given due attention. Through his occupation with the infra...... onto the hangers of the dry cleaner, reintroducing the space to the users. The unheeded spaces and objects have ‘a function that is separate form their practical use.’2 A dry cleaner is not simply cleaning clothes, but a social vertex and interface through which events unfold, trajectories thickens...

  10. Mercury in the environment : a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodarzi, F.

    2000-01-01

    Both geogenic and anthropogenic sources are responsible for the input of mercury into the environment. However, mercury comes mostly from geogenic sources and is found naturally in air, water and soil. Crustal degassing results in emission of mercury into the atmosphere. Mercury in water and soil is due mostly to input from sedimentary rocks. Mercury in lake sediments is related mainly to input by country rock and anthropogenic activities such as agriculture. The mercury content of coal is similar to or less than the amount found in the earths crust. Natural charcoal is also able to capture mercury at low temperature combustion. The amount of mercury emitted from the stack of coal-fired power plants is related to the nature of the milled coal and its mineralogical and elemental content. Mercury emissions originating from the combustion of coal from electric utility power plants are considered to be among the greatest contributors to global mercury air emissions. In order to quantify the impact the electric power industry has on the environment, information regarding mercury concentrations in coal and their speciation is needed. For this reason the author examined the behaviour of mercury in three coal samples ashed at increasing temperatures. Mercury removal from coal-fired power plants ranges from 10 to 50 per cent by fabric filters and 20 to 95 per cent by FGD systems. This data will help in regulating emissions of hazardous air pollutants from electric utility steam generating units and will potentially provide insight into the industry's contribution to the global mercury burden. 50 refs

  11. Parasite infestation increases on coral reefs without cleaner fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grutter, A. S.; De Brauwer, M.; Bshary, R.; Cheney, K. L.; Cribb, T. H.; Madin, E. M. P.; McClure, E. C.; Meekan, M. G.; Sun, D.; Warner, R. R.; Werminghausen, J.; Sikkel, P. C.

    2018-03-01

    Mutualisms are pivotal in shaping ecological communities. Iconic images of cleaner fish entering the mouths of predatory fish clients to remove ectoparasites epitomize their mutual benefit. Experimental manipulations of cleaner wrasse reveal declines in fish size and growth, and population abundance and diversity of client fishes in the absence of cleaner wrasse. Fishes grow more slowly and are less abundant and diverse on reefs without cleaner wrasse, both for larger species that are regularly cleaned and have high ectoparasite loads ("attractive species"), and for those smaller species that are rarely cleaned and are rarely infested with parasites ("unattractive species"). We therefore considered whether these previously observed declines in individual and population parameters on reefs without cleaners were related to increased ectoparasite infestation using an attractive species ( Hemigymnus melapterus, Labridae) and an unattractive species ( Pomacentrus amboinensis, Pomacentridae). Traps with these fish as a form of bait were deployed to sample blood-sucking gnathiid ectoparasites (Gnathiidae: Isopoda) on reefs from which cleaners ( Labroides dimidiatus, Labridae) have been removed for 13 yr. Cleaner fish could not enter traps to access the clients/hosts, but gnathiids could enter the traps to infest hosts; thus, this method sampled the indirect effect of cleaners on gnathiid infestation of fish. Infestation was higher on reefs without cleaners than on those with them. The effect was only detected during the daytime when cleaners are active and only on the attractive species ( H. melapterus). Thus, cleaner presence indirectly reduced fish exposure to parasites in a species that is highly susceptible to parasites, but not in one that is rarely infested with parasites. This suggests that cleaner presence indirectly reduces exposure of a common fish species to harmful parasites, which may explain some observed benefits in fishes at this location.

  12. Psychosocial work environment among immigrant and Danish cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kasper; Carneiro, Isabella G; Jørgensen, Marie B

    2012-01-01

    Non-Western cleaners have been shown to have poorer health than their Danish colleagues. One reason could be a poorer psychosocial work environment. However, it is unknown if differences in self-reported psychosocial work environment exist between non-Western and Danish workers within the same...... social class. The aim of this study was to investigate such differences among cleaners with the hypothesis that the non-Western compared with Danish cleaners would report a generally poorer psychosocial work environment....

  13. Occupational exposures and health outcomes among Latina hotel cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yu-Chin Jerrie; Apostolopoulos, Yorghos; Hatzudis, Kiki; Sönmez, Sevil

    2014-01-01

    The poor working conditions of Latina hotel cleaners render them particularly vulnerable to elevated occupational hazards that lead to adverse health outcomes. This article presents a comprehensive review of occupational risks (including physical, chemical, biological, and psychosocial risk factors) and health outcomes (including musculoskeletal disorders, respiratory diseases, dermatological diseases and allergies, and psychological disorders) for Latina hotel cleaners, within their unique sociocultural contexts. Preventive interventions for improving Latina hotel cleaners' work and health conditions are recommended.

  14. The local implementation of clean(er) fuels policies in Europe. A Handbook with guidelines. Final version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, F.; Amara, Sliman Abu; Uustal, M.; Pelkmans, L.; Devriendt, N.; Rogulska, M.; Defranceschi, P.

    2009-05-01

    This handbook aims to guide the local/regional governments all over Europe who are involved in implementing clean(er) fuel policies in transport. The general challenge these governments are facing is how local policies on clean(er) fuels and vehicles can be made operational. Hence, how can the step be made from a vision on the strategic policy level, to a vision on the implementation of these policies. A local/regional policy on clean(er) fuels and vehicles is commonly part of the larger category 'sustainable transport policy', which in itself is part of a broader local environmental policy. The encompassing local/regional sustainable mobility policy will in most cases be based on the three well known main policy aims in this area: CO2 reduction; Improving the local air quality; and Improving the security of supply (locally often less stressed). This handbook will focus on the actual implementation of a clean(er) fuels and vehicles policy. It will describe the main challenges and how these can be overcome. It will describe how the market conditions for clean(er) fuels and vehicles can be created by establishing the vital market elements and which process is required to do so. And it will show how local enterprises can be involved and what the role of the local governments in this process can be. In order to identify the local success factors in overcoming the main challenges for implementation, case studies have been carried out in three European cities, namely Stockholm (Sweden), Graz (Austria) and Lille (France). The choice of these cities was based on their successes in implementing clean(er) fuel policies (although they followed different paths) and the fact that they managed to achieve ambitious clean(er) fuel/ clean(er) vehicle targets. These cities may thus be considered as ?good practice examples?. The case studies are based on existing literature, on multiple stakeholders? interviews in all three cities, and on two small surveys. The objectives of this

  15. Bacterial and fungal aerosols in the work environment of cleaners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Gołofit-Szymczak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cleaning services are carried out in almost all sectors and branches of industry. Due to the above, cleaners are exposed to various harmful biological agents, depending on the tasks performed and the commercial sector involved. The aim of this study was to assess the exposure of cleaning workers to biological agents based on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of airborne microflora. Material and methods: A six-stage Andersen sampler was used to collect bioaerosols during the cleaning activities in different workplaces, including schools, offices, car services, healthy services and shops. Standard Petri dishes filled with blood trypticase soy agar and malt extract agar were used for bacterial and fungal sampling, respectively. Results: The bioaerosol concentration values obtained during testing of selected workposts of cleaners were lower than the Polish recommended threshold limit values for microorganisms concentrations in public service. The most prevalent bacterial species in studied places were Gram-positive cocci (mainly of genera Micrococcus, Staphylococcus and endospore-forming Gram-positive rods (mainly of genera Bacillus. Among the most common fungal species were those from genera Penicillium and Aspergillus. The size distribution analysis revealed that bioaerosols present in the air of workposts at shops, schools and car services may be responsible for nose and eye mucosa irritation and allergic reactions in the form of asthma or allergic inflammation in the cleaning workers. Conclusions: The study shows that occupational activities of cleaning workers are associated with exposure to airborne biological agents classified into risk groups, 1. and 2., according to their level of infection risk, posing respiratory hazard. Med Pr 2015;66(6:779–791

  16. Determination of hydrogen sulfide and volatile thiols in air samples by mercury probe derivatization coupled with liquid chromatography-atomic fluorescence spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramanti, Emilia; D'Ulivo, Lucia; Lomonte, Cristina; Onor, Massimo; Zamboni, Roberto; Raspi, Giorgio; D'Ulivo, Alessandro

    2006-10-02

    A new procedure is proposed for the sampling and storage of hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and volatile thiols (methanethiol or methyl mercaptan, ethanethiol and propanethiol) for their determination by liquid chromatography. The sampling procedure is based on the trapping/pre-concentration of the analytes in alkaline aqueous solution containing an organic mercurial probe p-hydroxymercurybenzoate, HO-Hg-C6H4-COO- (PHMB), where they are derivatized to stable PHMB complexes based on mercury-sulfur covalent bonds. PHMB complexes are separated on a C18 reverse phase column, allowing their determination by liquid chromatography coupled with sequential non-selective UV-vis (DAD) and mercury specific (chemical vapor generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry, CVGAFS) on-line detectors. PHMB complexes, S(PHMB)2CH3S-PHMB, C2H5S-PHMB and C3H7S-PHMB, are stable alt least for 12 h at room temperature and for 3 months if stored frozen (-20 degrees C). The best analytical figures of merits in the optimized conditions were obtained by CVGAFS detection, with detection limits (LODc) of 9.7 microg L(-1) for H2S, 13.7 microg L(-1) for CH(3)SH, 17.7 microg L(-1) for C2H5SH and 21.7 microg L(-1) for C3H7SH in the trapping solution in form of RS-PHMB complexes, the relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) ranging between 1.0 and 1.5%, and a linear dynamic range (LDR) between 10 and 9700 microg L(-1). Conventional UV absorbance detectors tuned at 254 nm can be employed as well with comparable R.S.D. and LDR, but with LODc one order of magnitude higher than AFS detector and lower specificity. The sampling procedure followed by LC-DAD-CVGAFS analysis has been validated, as example, for H2S determination by a certified gas permeation tube as a source of 3.071+/-0.154 microg min(-1) of H2S, giving a recovery of 99.8+/-7% and it has been applied to the determination of sulfur compounds in real gas samples (biogas and the air of a plant for fractional distillation of crude oil).

  17. Cleaner production technology for the NDT industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relunia, Estrella D.; Mateo, Alejandro J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses te wastes generated from the conduct of nondestructive testing (NDT) techniques and operations like NDT film processing and the systems to reduce water pollution and the film system quality control. Discussions on clean technology production concepts and philosophy is also discussed. A case study on cleaner production technology where a process and equipment modifications and a product substitution were implemented is presented. The equipment modification and product substitution eliminated the use of 1,1,1-trichloroethane in its cleaning operation. (Author)

  18. Berg River Textiles - Cleaner Production Option Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Schneider, Zsig

    In October and November 2002 meetings were held between Berg River Textiles, Mr. Juan Laubscher, and external consultants from the South African – Danish Cleaner Textile Production Project, Mr. Zsig Schneider and Mr. Henrik Wenzel. This team of people collected information on recipes and flow sch...... projects including milestone plans for their implementation was made. A saving potential of around 3 mill. R was identified with a pay-back period of around 0.2 years as average of the identified options. The company implemented a large number of the options right away....

  19. Mercury exposure from interior latex paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agocs, M M; Etzel, R A; Parrish, R G; Paschal, D C; Campagna, P R; Cohen, D S; Kilbourne, E M; Hesse, J L

    1990-10-18

    Many paint companies have used phenylmercuric acetate as a preservative to prolong the shelf life of interior latex paint. In August 1989, acrodynia, a form of mercury poisoning, occurred in a child exposed to paint fumes in a home recently painted with a brand containing 4.7 mmol of mercury per liter (at that time the Environmental Protection Agency's recommended limit was 1.5 mmol or less per liter). To determine whether the recent use of that brand of paint containing phenylmercuric acetate was associated with elevated indoor-air and urinary mercury concentrations, we studied 74 "exposed" persons living in 19 homes recently painted with the brand and 28 "unexposed" persons living in 10 homes not recently painted with paint containing mercury. The paint samples from the homes of exposed persons contained a median of 3.8 mmol of mercury per liter, and air samples from the homes had a median mercury content of 10.0 nmol per cubic meter (range, less than 0.5 to 49.9). No mercury was detected in paint or air samples from the homes of unexposed persons. The median urinary mercury concentration was higher in the exposed persons (4.7 nmol of mercury per millimole of creatinine; range, 1.4 to 66.5) than in the unexposed persons (1.1 nmol per millimole; range, 0.02 to 3.9; P less than 0.001). Urinary mercury concentrations within the range that we found in exposed persons have been associated with symptomatic mercury poisoning. We found that potentially hazardous exposure to mercury had occurred among persons whose homes were painted with a brand of paint containing mercury at concentrations approximately 2 1/2 times the Environmental Protection Agency's recommended limit.

  20. The sea-air exchange of mercury (Hg) in the marine boundary layer of the Augusta basin (southern Italy): concentrations and evasion flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnato, E; Sproveri, M; Barra, M; Bitetto, M; Bonsignore, M; Calabrese, S; Di Stefano, V; Oliveri, E; Parello, F; Mazzola, S

    2013-11-01

    The first attempt to systematically investigate the atmospheric mercury (Hg) in the MBL of the Augusta basin (SE Sicily, Italy) has been undertaken. In the past the basin was the receptor for Hg from an intense industrial activity which contaminated the bottom sediments of the Bay, making this area a potential source of pollution for the surrounding Mediterranean. Three oceanographic cruises have been thus performed in the basin during the winter and summer 2011/2012, where we estimated averaged Hgatm concentrations of about 1.5±0.4 (range 0.9-3.1) and 2.1±0.98 (range 1.1-3.1) ng m(-3) for the two seasons, respectively. These data are somewhat higher than the background Hg atm value measured over the land (range 1.1±0.3 ng m(-3)) at downtown Augusta, while are similar to those detected in other polluted regions elsewhere. Hg evasion fluxes estimated at the sea/air interface over the Bay range from 3.6±0.3 (unpolluted site) to 72±0.1 (polluted site of the basin) ng m(-2) h(-1). By extending these measurements to the entire area of the Augusta basin (~23.5 km(2)), we calculated a total sea-air Hg evasion flux of about 9.7±0.1 g d(-1) (~0.004 tyr(-1)), accounting for ~0.0002% of the global Hg oceanic evasion (2000 tyr(-1)). The new proposed data set offers a unique and original study on the potential outflow of Hg from the sea-air interface at the basin, and it represents an important step for a better comprehension of the processes occurring in the marine biogeochemical cycle of this element. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Workload of window cleaners using ladders differing in rung separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoozemans, M.J.M.; Looze, M.P. de; Kingma, I.; Reijneveld, K.C.N.; Korte, E.M. de; Grinten, M.P. van der; Dieën, J.H. van

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare energetic workload, perceived exertion, perceived discomfort, safety, and mechanical load at lower limb joints among window cleaners during usage of extension ladders with 30 and 35 cm rung separation. Eleven healthy male professional window cleaners

  2. Occupational exposures among domestic and industrial professional cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Ahmed A; Hughes, Patrick C; Delclos, George L

    2008-10-01

    Despite being a large part of the workforce, cleaners remain a relatively understudied occupational group in the USA. The aims of this focus group study were to identify and characterize occupational exposures, symptoms and job tasks among domestic and industrial professional cleaners. Twelve focus group sessions were conducted in Lubbock, TX, and Houston, TX. Participants were asked about their job tasks, type of products they use to clean, bodily symptoms, job training and work environment. Out of 99 attendees, 79 domestic and industrial cleaners participated actively in the focus group sessions. Three general themes emerged regarding cleaning professionals' work experiences: (i) job training, (ii) chemical exposure and use and (iii) competence. Domestic cleaners demonstrated significant skills deficit across each of these three themes as compared to industrial cleaners. Domestic cleaners reported more frequent exposure to respiratory irritants and sensitizers and also reported adverse respiratory symptoms as compared to industrial cleaners. The results from this qualitative study are consistent with earlier findings from quantitative studies placing domestic cleaners at risk of exposure to chemicals that are respiratory irritants and/or sensitizers.

  3. 16 CFR 501.3 - Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. 501.3... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.3 Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. Replacement bags for..., provided: (a) The quantity of contents is expressed in terms of numerical count of the bags; (b) A...

  4. Ambient air total gaseous mercury concentrations in the vicinity of coal-fired power plants in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Maxwell; Mintz, Rachel; Lapalme, Monique; Wiens, Brian

    2009-12-20

    The Lake Wabamun area, in Alberta, is unique within Canada as there are four coal-fired power plants within a 500 km(2) area. Continuous monitoring of ambient total gaseous mercury (TGM) concentrations in the Lake Wabamun area was undertaken at two sites, Genesee and Meadows. The data were analyzed in order to characterise the effect of the coal-fired power plants on the regional TGM. Mean concentrations of 1.57 ng/m(3) for Genesee and 1.50 ng/m(3) for Meadows were comparable to other Canadian sites. Maximum concentrations of 9.50 ng/m(3) and 4.43 ng/m(3) were comparable to maxima recorded at Canadian sites influenced by anthropogenic sources. The Genesee site was directly affected by the coal-fired power plants with the occurrence of northwest winds, and this was evident by episodes of elevated TGM, NO(x) and SO(2) concentrations. NO(x)/TGM and SO(2)/TGM ratios of 21.71 and 19.98 microg/ng, respectively, were characteristic of the episodic events from the northwest wind direction. AERMOD modeling predicted that coal-fired power plant TGM emissions under normal operating conditions can influence hourly ground-level concentrations by 0.46-1.19 ng/m(3)(.) The effect of changes in coal-fired power plant electricity production on the ambient TGM concentrations was also investigated, and was useful in describing some of the episodes.

  5. The Infraordinary as Spatial Discourse: Tongue of the Dry Cleaner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Nielsen, Espen

    2014-01-01

    onto the hangers of the dry cleaner, reintroducing the space to the users. The unheeded spaces and objects have ‘a function that is separate form their practical use.’2 A dry cleaner is not simply cleaning clothes, but a social vertex and interface through which events unfold, trajectories thickens...... of perception, I interrogated a London dry cleaner as an (infra-ordinary) urban function: Tongue of the Dry Cleaner uses creative writing and critical spatial practice as tools for gaining insight. It moves through the elements of the space and production line of the dry cleaner, unfolding it bit by bit...... to architects’ and planners’ often rational and reductive idea of function and programme....

  6. Mercury and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Is it safe? > Mercury and pregnancy Mercury and pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... vision problems. How can you be exposed to mercury? Mercury has several forms: It can be a ...

  7. Mercury rising : mercury emissions from Ontario Power Generation's coal-fired plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rang, S.

    2004-09-01

    Ontario Power Generation (OPG) operates 5 coal-fired power plants which are the largest single source of mercury emissions in Ontario. Mercury is a persistent, bioaccumulative neurotoxin which is considered toxic under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act. This report examines the health and environmental impacts of mercury, and the trends for mercury emission in Ontario. In 2002, the 5 coal-fired plants emitted 527 kg of mercury into the atmosphere and contributed 39 per cent of the total amount of mercury emitted into the air. While many other sectors have reduced their mercury emissions since 1988, Ontario's coal-fired plants have lagged behind and have actually increased mercury emissions by 16 per cent since 1988. This paper suggests that phasing out OPG coal-fired plants by 2007 could lead to a 39 per cent reduction in airborne mercury emissions. It would also allow Ontario to achieve the Canada Wide Standard for mercury emissions 3 years early, and would help both Ontario and Canada meet air pollution reduction commitments under international agreements. It was noted that phasing out coal-fired power plants by one-third will help Ontario achieve its goal of a 90 per cent reduction in mercury emissions by 2010. It was suggested that alternative power sources can offer a wide range of environmental advantages. 16 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  8. Air Pollution Emissions Overview | Air Quality Planning & ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-08

    Air pollution comes from many different sources: stationary sources such as factories, power plants, and smelters and smaller sources such as dry cleaners and degreasing operations; mobile sources such as cars, buses, planes, trucks, and trains; and naturally occurring sources such as windblown dust, and volcanic eruptions, all contribute to air pollution.

  9. Distribution of atmospheric mercury species near ground. [Tampa Bay, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.L.; Braman, R.S.

    1974-01-01

    A recently developed technique makes possible the routine analysis of atmospheric samples for particulate and volatile mercury. The volatile fraction can be analyzed for several chemical species. This work presents the results of some Tampb Bay area analyses and diurnal studies of atmospheric mercury speciation. The mercury in air in the area investigated was primarily volatile (>90%) and was composed of significant proportions of mercury (II)-type compounds, methylmercury (II)-type compounds, and elemental mercury. Dimethylmercury was rarely observed. Results were quite variable suggesting a variety of sources and irregular wind transport processes. The data indicate that background mercury concentrations and the percentage distribution of mercury species in air in a local area may be established by mercury emanations from the ground or from adjacent bodies of water.

  10. Teaching Professionals Environmental Management and Cleaner Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Thorsen, Nils

    -ters. The target groups are professional environmental managers working in businesses including consultants, governmental institutions and organizations. To get access to the education the students must have a technical/nature science competence at master level or bachelor level combined with relevant job...... the education and be aware of urgent competence and personal empowerment needs among academic professionals working with environmental man-agement and cleaner technology matters.......This paper is based on almost five years of experience from the post-graduate Master’s program for professionals in Environmental Management at the Technical University of Denmark. The curricu-lum equals a year full time study carried out as two years half-time study activities in four semes...

  11. Mercury CEM Calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Schabron; Joseph Rovani; Mark Sanderson

    2008-02-29

    Mercury continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMS) are being implemented in over 800 coal-fired power plant stacks. The power industry desires to conduct at least a full year of monitoring before the formal monitoring and reporting requirement begins on January 1, 2009. It is important for the industry to have available reliable, turnkey equipment from CEM vendors. Western Research Institute (WRI) is working closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to facilitate the development of the experimental criteria for a NIST traceability protocol for dynamic elemental mercury vapor generators. The generators are used to calibrate mercury CEMs at power plant sites. The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) which was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2005 requires that calibration be performed with NIST-traceable standards (Federal Register 2007). Traceability procedures will be defined by EPA. An initial draft traceability protocol was issued by EPA in May 2007 for comment. In August 2007, EPA issued an interim traceability protocol for elemental mercury generators (EPA 2007). The protocol is based on the actual analysis of the output of each calibration unit at several concentration levels ranging initially from about 2-40 {micro}g/m{sup 3} elemental mercury, and in the future down to 0.2 {micro}g/m{sup 3}, and this analysis will be directly traceable to analyses by NIST. The document is divided into two separate sections. The first deals with the qualification of generators by the vendors for use in mercury CEM calibration. The second describes the procedure that the vendors must use to certify the generator models that meet the qualification specifications. The NIST traceable certification is performance based, traceable to analysis using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry performed by NIST in Gaithersburg, MD. The

  12. Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ Home The environment and your health Air Air While we don’t often think about the ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be ...

  13. Risk assessment of mercury contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hempel, M.

    1993-01-01

    At two sites, highly contaminated with mercury, risk assessment was executed. Methods were developed to determine organomercury compounds in water, air and soil. Toxicity tests demonstrated the high toxicity of organomercury compounds compared to inorganic mercury. Besides highly toxic methylmercury, ethylmercury was found in soils close to a chemical plant in Marktredwitz. In ultrafiltration-experiments mercury showed great affinity to high molecular substances in water. Lysimeter-experiments proved, that organomercury compounds are adsorbed and transformed to inorganic and elemental mercury. (orig.) [de

  14. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Lead Mercury Mold Nanomaterials Ozone Perfluorinated Chemicals Pesticides Radon Soy Infant Formula Styrene Water Pollution Weather ... government and non-government websites covering specific environmental, biological, and chemical agents that cause indoor air pollution. ...

  15. Mercury in products - a source of transboundary pollutant transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munthe, J.; Kindbom, K. [Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize current knowledge on product-related emissions of mercury to air on a European scale, and to estimate the contribution from mercury contained in products, to the total anthropogenic emissions of mercury to air and transboundary transport of mercury in Europe. Products included in this study are batteries, measuring and control instruments, light sources and electrical equipment, all intentionally containing mercury. The main result of this study is that product-related emission of mercury can contribute significantly to total emissions and transboundary transport of mercury in the European region and that measures to limit the use of mercury in products can contribute to an overall decrease of the environmental input of mercury in Europe. It is concluded that: -Mercury contained in products may be emitted to air during consumption, after disposal when incinerated or when volatilized from landfill. Mercury may also be emitted to air during recycling of scrap metal or when accumulated (stored) in society. -The amount of mercury consumed in batteries and in measuring and control instruments had decreased since the late 1980`s. The total use of mercury in light sources and electrical equipment has not changed significantly during the same time period. The contribution to total anthropogenic emissions of mercury to air in Europe in the mid 1990`s is estimated to be: for batteries 4%; for measuring and control instruments 3%; for lighting and electrical equipment 11%. -Mercury in products leads to significant wet deposition input in Scandinavia. The relative amount of the total deposition flux attributable to products is estimated to be 10-14% 26 refs, 4 figs, 10 tabs

  16. Simultaneous Blind Separation and Recognition of Speech Mixtures Using Two Microphones to Control a Robot Cleaner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heungkyu Lee

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method for the simultaneous separation and recognition of speech mixtures in noisy environments using two-channel based independent vector analysis (IVA on a home-robot cleaner. The issues to be considered in our target application are speech recognition at a distance and noise removal to cope with a variety of noises, including TV sounds, air conditioners, babble, and so on, that can occur in a house, where people can utter a voice command to control a robot cleaner at any time and at any location, even while a robot cleaner is moving. Thus, the system should always be in a recognition-ready state to promptly recognize a spoken word at any time, and the false acceptance rate should be lower. To cope with these issues, the keyword spotting technique is applied. In addition, a microphone alignment method and a model-based real-time IVA approach are proposed to effectively and simultaneously process the speech and noise sources, as well as to cover 360-degree directions irrespective of distance. From the experimental evaluations, we show that the proposed method is robust in terms of speech recognition accuracy, even when the speaker location is unfixed and changes all the time. In addition, the proposed method shows good performance in severely noisy environments.

  17. Grazing incidence diffraction and X-ray reflectivity studies of the interactions of inorganic mercury salts with membrane lipids in Langmuir monolayers at the air/water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broniatowski, Marcin; Flasiński, Michał; Dynarowicz-Łatka, Patrycja; Majewski, Jarosław

    2010-07-29

    The interactions of mercury ions with the membrane phospholipids are considered to be of great importance regarding the toxicity of this metal in living organisms. To obtain deeper insight into this problem, we performed systematic studies applying the Langmuir technique complemented with synchrotron X-ray scattering methods (grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) and X-ray reflectivity (XR)). We focused our attention on the interactions of inorganic mercury salts dissolved in the aqueous subphase with lipid monolayers, formed by selected membrane phospholipids, namely, dipalmitoylphosphatidylglicerol (DPPG), dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), 1-octadecyl 2-sn-phosphatidylcholine (lyso-PC), and sphingomyelin (SM). Two different inorganic mercury salts, one of a hydracid, HgCl(2), and the other of an oxacid, Hg(NO(3))(2), have been investigated. Our results proved that the elastic properties of phospholipid monolayers are a key factor regarding the interactions with mercury ions. Significant differences in mercury ions complexation are observed with double-chain phospholipids (such as DPPG and DPPC) forming fluid layers of low compressibility and phospholipids forming more compressible films (like SM and lyso-PC). Namely, important changes in the monolayer characteristic were observed only for the latter kind of lipids. This is an important finding taking into account the accumulation of mercury in the central nervous system and its neurotoxic effects. SM is one of the most abundant lipids in neurons shells and therefore can be considered as a target lipid complexing mercury ions.

  18. Accumulation of mercury in selected plant species grown in soils contaminated with different mercury compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Yi; Han, Fengxiang; Shiyab, Safwan; Chen, Jian; Monts, David L.

    2007-01-01

    of ppm mercury can be accumulated in the roots of Indian mustard plants grown with soil contaminated by mercury sulfide; HgS is assumed to be the most stable and also the predominant mercury form in flood plain soils. We have also started to investigate different mercury uptake mechanisms, such as root uptake of soil contaminant and foliar mercury accumulation from ambient air. We have observed mercury translocation from roots to shoot for Chinese fern and two Indian mustard varieties. (authors)

  19. Mercury Information Clearinghouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chad A. Wocken; Michael J. Holmes; Dennis L. Laudal; Debra F. Pflughoeft-Hassett; Greg F. Weber; Nicholas V. C. Ralston; Stanley J. Miller; Grant E. Dunham; Edwin S. Olson; Laura J. Raymond; John H. Pavlish; Everett A. Sondreal; Steven A. Benson

    2006-03-31

    The Canadian Electricity Association (CEA) identified a need and contracted the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) to create and maintain an information clearinghouse on global research and development activities related to mercury emissions from coal-fired electric utilities. With the support of CEA, the Center for Air Toxic Metals{reg_sign} (CATM{reg_sign}) Affiliates, and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the EERC developed comprehensive quarterly information updates that provide a detailed assessment of developments in the various areas of mercury monitoring, control, policy, and research. A total of eight topical reports were completed and are summarized and updated in this final CEA quarterly report. The original quarterly reports can be viewed at the CEA Web site (www.ceamercuryprogram.ca). In addition to a comprehensive update of previous mercury-related topics, a review of results from the CEA Mercury Program is provided. Members of Canada's coal-fired electricity generation sector (ATCO Power, EPCOR, Manitoba Hydro, New Brunswick Power, Nova Scotia Power Inc., Ontario Power Generation, SaskPower, and TransAlta) and CEA, have compiled an extensive database of information from stack-, coal-, and ash-sampling activities. Data from this effort are also available at the CEA Web site and have provided critical information for establishing and reviewing a mercury standard for Canada that is protective of environment and public health and is cost-effective. Specific goals outlined for the CEA mercury program included the following: (1) Improve emission inventories and develop management options through an intensive 2-year coal-, ash-, and stack-sampling program; (2) Promote effective stack testing through the development of guidance material and the support of on-site training on the Ontario Hydro method for employees, government representatives, and contractors on an as-needed basis; (3) Strengthen laboratory analytical capabilities through

  20. You Can Help Keep the Air Cleaner -- Every Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... If you use a wood-burning stove or fireplace insert, make sure it meets EPA design specifications. ... is expected to be high: Reduce or eliminate fireplace and wood stove use. Avoid using gas-powered ...

  1. Greener technologies for a cleaner environment: Hope or hot air?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, John Parm

    Denne artikel beskriver teknologiens rolle i behandlingen af miljøproblemer. Artiklen forsøger at komme ind under overfladen på de ofte 'hurtige' løsninger på de nuværende miljøproblemer, baseret på forførende slagord som renere teknologi, og bedst tilrådighedværende teknologi uden urimelige omko...

  2. Mercury emissions from municipal solid waste combustors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    This report examines emissions of mercury (Hg) from municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion in the United States (US). It is projected that total annual nationwide MSW combustor emissions of mercury could decrease from about 97 tonnes (1989 baseline uncontrolled emissions) to less than about 4 tonnes in the year 2000. This represents approximately a 95 percent reduction in the amount of mercury emitted from combusted MSW compared to the 1989 mercury emissions baseline. The likelihood that routinely achievable mercury emissions removal efficiencies of about 80 percent or more can be assured; it is estimated that MSW combustors in the US could prove to be a comparatively minor source of mercury emissions after about 1995. This forecast assumes that diligent measures to control mercury emissions, such as via use of supplemental control technologies (e.g., carbon adsorption), are generally employed at that time. However, no present consensus was found that such emissions control measures can be implemented industry-wide in the US within this time frame. Although the availability of technology is apparently not a limiting factor, practical implementation of necessary control technology may be limited by administrative constraints and other considerations (e.g., planning, budgeting, regulatory compliance requirements, etc.). These projections assume that: (a) about 80 percent mercury emissions reduction control efficiency is achieved with air pollution control equipment likely to be employed by that time; (b) most cylinder-shaped mercury-zinc (CSMZ) batteries used in hospital applications can be prevented from being disposed into the MSW stream or are replaced with alternative batteries that do not contain mercury; and (c) either the amount of mercury used in fluorescent lamps is decreased to an industry-wide average of about 27 milligrams of mercury per lamp or extensive diversion from the MSW stream of fluorescent lamps that contain mercury is accomplished.

  3. Cleaner Coal in China [Chinese Version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    China’s rapid economic growth has aroused intense interest around the world. Policy makers, industrialists, investors, environmentalists, researchers and others want to better understand the issues that this populous nation faces as it further develops an already thriving economy largely fuelled by coal. This study sheds light on the Chinese coal supply and transformation sectors. China’s rapid economic growth has aroused intense interest around the world. Policy makers, industrialists, investors, environmentalists, researchers and others want to better understand the issues that this populous nation faces as it further develops an already thriving economy largely fuelled by coal. This study sheds light on the Chinese coal supply and transformation sectors. China’s coal, mined locally and available at a relatively low cost, has brought enormous benefits to energy consumers in China and to those outside the country who enjoy the products of its coal-based economy. Yet from another perspective, China’s coal use has a high cost. Despite progress, health and safety in the thousands of small coal mines lag far behind the standards achieved in China’s modern, large mines. Environmental degradation is a real and pressing problem at all stages of coal production, supply and use. Adding to these burdens, emissions of carbon dioxide are of concern to the Chinese government as it embarks on its own climate protection strategy. Technology solutions are already transforming the way coal is used in China and elsewhere. This study explores the context in which the development and deployment of these technologies can be accelerated. Providing a large amount of new data, it describes in detail the situation in China as well as the experiences of other countries in making coal cleaner. Above all, the report calls for much greater levels of collaboration – existing bi-lateral and multi-lateral co-operation with China on coal is found lacking. China’s growing openness

  4. Aerobic exercise reduces biomarkers related to cardiovascular risk among cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Ravn, Marie Højbjerg; Holtermann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    an aerobic exercise worksite intervention changes the level of inflammation biomarkers among cleaners. METHODS: The design was a cluster-randomized controlled trial with 4-month worksite intervention. Before the 116 cleaners aged 18-65 years were randomized, they signed an informed consent form....... The reference group (n = 59) received lectures, and the aerobic exercise group (n = 57) performed worksite aerobic exercise (30 min twice a week). Levels of biomarkers (high-sensitive C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, cholesterol, low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride) were collected...... that an aerobic exercise intervention among cleaners leads to reduced levels of high-sensitive C-reactive protein and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and an unaltered level of fibrinogen. The aerobic exercise seems to improve inflammatory levels and lipoprotein profile among cleaners, with no signs...

  5. Evaluation of aqueous cleaners as alternatives to vapor degreasing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guidotti, R.A.; Schneider, T.W.; Frye, G.C. [and others

    1996-05-01

    As part of the preparation process during assembly of thermally activated batteries, the stainless steel piece parts are normally cleaned by vapor degreasing with trichloroethylene. Severe restrictions on the use of chlorinated and fluorinated hydrocarbons in recent years prompted the evaluation of a number of aqueous cleaners as a replacement technology for this application. A total of seven commercial aqueous degreasers was evaluated in this study at several dilution ratios and temperatures. One organic cleaner was also examined under ambient conditions. The effectiveness of the cleaner was determined by the use of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), which is a surface analytical technique that is very sensitive to low levels of surface contaminants. A quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) that is immersed in the cleaning bath was evaluated as a tool for monitoring the bath cleanliness. The best overall cleaning results were obtained with Micro, Impro-Clean 3800, and Sonicor cleaners.

  6. Evaluation of aqueous cleaners as alternatives to vapor degreasing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guidotti, R.A.; Schneider, T.W.; Frye, G.C. [and others

    1996-02-01

    As part of the preparation process during assembly of thermally activated batteries, the stainless steel piece parts are normally cleaned by vapor degreasing with trichloroethylene. Severe restrictions on the use of chlorinated and fluorinated hydrocarbons in recent years prompted the evaluation of a number of aqueous cleaners as a replacement technology for this application. A total of seven commercial aqueous degreasers was evaluated in this study at several dilution ratios and temperatures. One organic cleaner was also examined under ambient conditions. The effectiveness of the cleaner was determined by the use of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), which is a surface analytical technique that is very sensitive to low levels of surface contaminants. A quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) that is immersed in the cleaning bath was evaluated as a tool for monitoring the bath cleanliness. The best overall cleaning results were obtained with Micro, Impro-Clean 3800, and Sonicor cleaners.

  7. Fire Testing of Ethanol-Based Hand Cleaner

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marker, Timothy

    1998-01-01

    .... The waterless-type hand cleaner has a relatively low flash point, raising concern over its fire safety when in use in the galley area of commercial transport aircraft where radiant ovens are often located...

  8. The Life, Work and Recreational Physical Activity of Female Cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenneis, Verena

    and employed different theories, they drew a coherent picture: the interviewees’ everyday lives as migrant cleaners in Denmark had a decisive influence on their opportunities to engage in recreational physical activity: most women struggled with the demands of a physically exhausting job and an extensive...... targeting cleaners or other marginalized groups of the population must pay specific attention to structural factors such as the organization of the labour market or to the gendered division of work....

  9. Nuclear vacuum-cleaner with decloggable filter for glove boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean Paul Mathieu

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a new vacuum-cleaner designed with a decloggable filter and motorization fan shift on external. This development has been performed in partnership by AREVA recycling Business Unit, AREVA Cleanup Business Unit, MONDIATECH and ROBOTICS companies. This development improves ergonomics, performances and reduces the volume of wastes. Two patent applications have been filed on this new vacuum-cleaner. (author)

  10. The output mode cleaner of GEO 600

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prijatelj, M; Grote, H; Leong, J; Affeldt, C; Lück, H; Slutsky, J; Wittel, H; Strain, K; Danzmann, K; Degallaix, J; Hild, S

    2012-01-01

    The German-British interferometric gravitational wave detector GEO 600 is currently undergoing upgrades within the GEO-HF upgrade program. The goal of this program is to enhance the sensitivity of GEO 600, in particular at frequencies above 500 Hz. At these frequencies, the detector is limited by shot noise. An important element of the upgrade is the implementation of an output mode cleaner (OMC). This filtering cavity suppresses higher order spatial and temporal modes in the interferometer's output beam, thereby reducing the shot noise and enhancing sensitivity. Fully automated lock acquisition for the OMC was developed in order to ensure a high duty cycle of GEO 600. To maintain optimum sensitivity, the resonance condition of the OMC must be matched to the output beam from the interferometer. This requires continuous control of the resonance frequency of the OMC to the light, and alignment of the beam to the OMC. We describe the design and implementation of the OMC with special attention to the control techniques employed. We present results from the experience gained during the S6/VSR3 science run. Furthermore, we describe an upper limit measurement of the internal displacement noise of a piezoelectric actuator. (paper)

  11. Mercury's Messenger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Clark R.

    2004-01-01

    Forty years after Mariner 2, planetary exploration has still only just begun, and many more missions are on drawing boards, nearing the launch pad, or even en route across interplanetary space to their targets. One of the most challenging missions that will be conducted this decade is sending the MESSENGER spacecraft to orbit the planet Mercury.…

  12. Technical report: mercury in the environment: implications for pediatricians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, L R; Shannon, M W

    2001-07-01

    Mercury is a ubiquitous environmental toxin that causes a wide range of adverse health effects in humans. Three forms of mercury (elemental, inorganic, and organic) exist, and each has its own profile of toxicity. Exposure to mercury typically occurs by inhalation or ingestion. Readily absorbed after its inhalation, mercury can be an indoor air pollutant, for example, after spills of elemental mercury in the home; however, industry emissions with resulting ambient air pollution remain the most important source of inhaled mercury. Because fresh-water and ocean fish may contain large amounts of mercury, children and pregnant women can have significant exposure if they consume excessive amounts of fish. The developing fetus and young children are thought to be disproportionately affected by mercury exposure, because many aspects of development, particularly brain maturation, can be disturbed by the presence of mercury. Minimizing mercury exposure is, therefore, essential to optimal child health. This review provides pediatricians with current information on mercury, including environmental sources, toxicity, and treatment and prevention of mercury exposure.

  13. Mercury Report-Children's exposure to elemental mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov . Mercury Background Mercury Report Additional Resources Mercury Report - Children's Exposure to Elemental Mercury Recommend on Facebook ... I limit exposure to mercury? Why was the report written? Children attending a daycare in New Jersey ...

  14. Injurious effect of mercury vapor from bichloride of mercury in soil of rose houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, P.W.; Crocker, W.

    1933-01-01

    Addition of mercuric chloride, or corrosive sublimate, to Rose soil for killing earthworms may injure the Roses. The organic matter of the soil reduces the bichloride to metallic mercury and the vapors of the mercury rise into the air and kill the buds and peduncles. When the soil is rich in tankage or other organic matter, the rate of reduction of the bichloride is increased and thereby the severity of the injury intensified. If a container of metallic mercury is set in an enclosed chamber with Rose plants, severe injuries of the type mentioned below soon appear. The Briarcliff Rose is especially susceptible to mercury injury. 1 figure.

  15. Coal fired flue gas mercury emission controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jiang; Pan, Weiguo; Cao, Yan; Pan, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metals, harmful to both the environment and human health. Hg is released into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources and its emission control has caused much concern. This book introduces readers to Hg pollution from natural and anthropogenic sources and systematically describes coal-fired flue gas mercury emission control in industry, especially from coal-fired power stations. Mercury emission control theory and experimental research are demonstrated, including how elemental mercury is oxidized into oxidized mercury and the effect of flue gas contents on the mercury speciation transformation process. Mercury emission control methods, such as existing APCDs (air pollution control devices) at power stations, sorbent injection, additives in coal combustion and photo-catalytic methods are introduced in detail. Lab-scale, pilot-scale and full-scale experimental studies of sorbent injection conducted by the authors are presented systematically, helping researchers and engineers to understand how this approach reduces the mercury emissions in flue gas and to apply the methods in mercury emission control at coal-fired power stations.

  16. Comparison of concentrations of mercury in ambient air to its accumulation by leafy vegetables: An important step in terrestrial food chain analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temmerman, Ludwig de; Waegeneers, Nadia; Claeys, Natacha; Roekens, Edward

    2009-01-01

    A biomonitoring network with leafy vegetables was established near a chlor-alkali plant in order to compare the accumulation of mercury to the atmospheric total gaseous mercury (TGM) concentration. Based on data obtained in the reference area the 'normal' mercury concentration in vegetables is between 0.6 and 5.4 μg kg -1 FW. The effect detection limits (EDLs) are between 1.2 and 11.0 μg kg -1 FW and the biological detection limits (BDLs), the lowest [TGM] that can be detected significantly, are between 3 and 4 ng m -3 . The accumulation rate is lowest for lettuce and high for curly kale that proved to be an excellent accumulator and as such it is very useful for biomonitoring purposes. A comparison made in the 1980s between biomonitoring results with grass and the mercury concentration in leafy vegetables from private gardens nearby proved to be valid when applied to the current biomonitoring results with vegetables. - Leafy vegetables are an important component in the transfer of atmospheric mercury through the terrestrial food chain

  17. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart IIIii of... - Examples of Techniques for Equipment Problem Identification, Leak Detection and Mercury Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Problem Identification, Leak Detection and Mercury Vapor 6 Table 6 to Subpart IIIII of Part 63 Protection... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants Pt. 63, Subpt. IIIII..., Leak Detection and Mercury Vapor As stated in Tables 1 and 2 of Subpart IIIII, examples of techniques...

  18. Microbial contents of vacuum cleaner bag dust and emitted bioaerosols and their implications for human exposure indoors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veillette, Marc; Knibbs, Luke D; Pelletier, Ariane; Charlebois, Remi; Blais Lecours, Pascale; He, Congrong; Morawska, Lidia; Duchaine, Caroline

    2013-10-01

    Vacuum cleaners can release large concentrations of particles, both in their exhaust air and from resuspension of settled dust. However, the size, variability, and microbial diversity of these emissions are unknown, despite evidence to suggest they may contribute to allergic responses and infection transmission indoors. This study aimed to evaluate bioaerosol emission from various vacuum cleaners. We sampled the air in an experimental flow tunnel where vacuum cleaners were run, and their airborne emissions were sampled with closed-face cassettes. Dust samples were also collected from the dust bag. Total bacteria, total archaea, Penicillium/Aspergillus, and total Clostridium cluster 1 were quantified with specific quantitative PCR protocols, and emission rates were calculated. Clostridium botulinum and antibiotic resistance genes were detected in each sample using endpoint PCR. Bacterial diversity was also analyzed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), image analysis, and band sequencing. We demonstrated that emission of bacteria and molds (Penicillium/Aspergillus) can reach values as high as 1E5 cell equivalents/min and that those emissions are not related to each other. The bag dust bacterial and mold content was also consistent across the vacuums we assessed, reaching up to 1E7 bacterial or mold cell equivalents/g. Antibiotic resistance genes were detected in several samples. No archaea or C. botulinum was detected in any air samples. Diversity analyses showed that most bacteria are from human sources, in keeping with other recent results. These results highlight the potential capability of vacuum cleaners to disseminate appreciable quantities of molds and human-associated bacteria indoors and their role as a source of exposure to bioaerosols.

  19. Taxation on vehicle fuels: its impacts on switching to cleaner fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, W.-T.

    2006-01-01

    Vehicular consumption of fossil fuel contributes over 90% of air pollution in Hong Kong. A key strategy to improve Hong Kong's air quality is to discourage dirty fuels (e.g., leaded petrol and high-sulphur diesel) and to promote the use of clean fuels (e.g., low-sulphur diesel and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)). This paper presents the empirical evidence on the effectiveness of the Government's clean fuel programs that offer tax subsidy to lower the consumption cost of such fuels. For the cases of unleaded petrol and ultra-low-sulphur diesel, lower fuel duties were offered so that the prices of these fuels were below those of leaded petrol and conventional diesel. Conventional petrol and diesel were phased out. In order to decide on the level of fuel duty concessions required to introduce LPG for taxis and bio-diesel for other vehicles, various Government-run trial programs were introduced to obtain cost estimates of using these alternative cleaner fuels. LPG using vehicles were subsequently exempted from the fuel duty in order to attract taxi and light bus operators to switch to LPG. It is apparent that the higher the subsidy, the faster is the rate at which switching to cleaner fuels takes place

  20. Mercury pollution in Asia: a review of the contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P; Feng, X B; Qiu, G L; Shang, L H; Li, Z G

    2009-09-15

    This article describes the mercury contaminated sites in Asia. Among the various regions, Asia has become the largest contributor of anthropogenic atmospheric mercury (Hg), responsible for over half of the global emission. Based on different emission source categories, the mercury contaminated sites in Asia were divided into various types, such as Hg pollution from Hg mining, gold mining, chemical industry, metal smelting, coal combustion, metropolitan cities, natural resources and agricultural sources. By the review of a large number of studies, serious Hg pollutions to the local environment were found in the area influenced by chemical industry, mercury mining and gold mining. With the probable effects of a unique combination of climatic (e.g. subtropical climate), environmental (e.g. acid rain), economic (e.g. swift growth) and social factors (e.g. high population density), more effort is still needed to understand the biogeochemistry cycle of Hg and associated health effects in Asia. Safer alternatives and cleaner technologies must be developed and effectively implemented to reduce mercury emission; remedial techniques are also required to restore the historical mercury pollution in Asia.

  1. Environmental mercury problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Itri, F.M.

    1972-01-01

    The urgent need to eliminate or greatly reduce the discharge of mercury into the environment is paramount to the health and well being of man. That all forms of mercury are hazardous is widely recognized, but what is more devastating to our society is that all forms of mercury appear to have the potential to be converted in to highly toxic monomethylmercury, or dimethylmercury. This paper examined the historical uses of mercury, the background concentrations of mercury, the analytical methods for the determination of mercury, the contamination of the food chain by mercury, the biological methylation of mercury, the decontamination and restoration of mercury polluted areas, the epidemiology and toxicology of mercury, and the chronology of the world's mercury poisoning problem.

  2. The Development Of Cleaner Production Practices Between Environmental

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangel, Arne; Mohamed, Maketab; Agamuthu, P.

    2003-01-01

    , presenting figures on the results achieved, and discussing the experiences gained. Reviewing the approach and results of the Centre, as well as the status of cleaner production (CP) in Malaysia, the paper outlines the challenges for national policy making, when moving from promotion by project intervention......Cleaner technologies (CT) have been introduced into the Malaysian SME-sector primarily by foreign donor supported project interventions. The establishment of the Environmental and Energy Technology Centre at SIRIM was funded by a grant from the Danish Co-operation for Environment and Development...... (DANCED), Ministry of Environment and Energy. Small and medium-scale enterprises (SMEs) were targeted within three sectors: Textile, food and electroplating industries. The paper illustrates the change process from the perspective of electroplating SMEs by reviewing the cleaner production options chosen...

  3. Opportunities application of cleaner production practices in paint industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, Y. S. Y.

    2010-08-01

    There are releases of volatile organic compounds VOC from paint manufacturing process steps and from cleaning operations in El Mohandas Paint Factory. These emission can cause health, safety and productivity problems in the work area. Hence cleaner production application is necessary in this case. Some of the manufacturing processes and equipment used to accomplish these manufacturing are analyzed and generate cleaner production opportunities, implement some of cleaner production solutions of VOC emission control by some of the methods used by paint facilities in reducing emissions. It was found that there is no control available for emissions factors in paints manufacturing process, so that VOC emission based on raw material consumption rather than calculation emission from processes or equipment by alternative method. (Author)

  4. Substance Flow Analysis of Mercury in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, L. M.; Wang, S.; Zhang, L.; Wang, F. Y.; Wu, Q. R.

    2015-12-01

    In previous studies, the emission of anthropogenic atmospheric Hg in China as well as single sector have been examined a lot. However, there might have been more Hg released as solid wastes rather than air. Hg stored in solid wastes may be released to air again when the solid wastes experience high temperature process or cause local pollution if the solid wastes are stacked casually for a long time. To trace the fate of Hg in China, this study developed the substance flow of Hg in 2010 covering all the sectors summarized in table 1. Below showed in Figure 1, the total Hg input is 2825t. The unintentional input of Hg, mined Hg, and recycled Hg account for 57%, 32% and 11% respectively. Figure 2 provides the detail information of substance flow of Hg. Byproducts from one sector may be used as raw materials of another, causing cross Hg flow between sectors. The Hg input of cement production is 303 t, of which 34% comes from coal and limestone, 33% comes from non-ferrous smelting, 23% comes from coal combustion, 7% comes from iron and steel production and 3% comes from mercury mining. Hg flowing to recycledHg production is 639 t, mainly from Hg contained in waste active carbon and mercuric chloride catalyst from VCM production and acid sludge from non-ferrous smelting. There are 20 t mercury flowing from spent mercury adding products to incineration. Figure1 and Figure 2 also show that 46% of the output Hg belongs to "Lagged release", which means this part of mercury might be released later. The "Lagged release" Hg includes 809 t Hg contained in stacked byproducts form coal combustion, non-ferrous smelting, iron and steel production, Al production, cement production and mercury mining, 161t Hg stored in the pipeline of VCM producing, 10 t Hg in fluorescent lamps that are in use and 314 t mercury stored in materials waiting to be handled with in recycled mercury plants. There is 112 t Hg stored in landfill and 129 t Hg exported abroad with the export of mercury adding

  5. Urban artisanal gold shops and mercury emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordy, P.; Veiga, M.; Carrasco, V.H.G.

    2008-01-01

    Artisanal miners in developing countries use mercury amalgamation processes to extract gold. The amalgams are then refined before being sold on to urban gold shops. The amalgams can often contain between 2 to 40 per cent mercury. Unburned amalgams are also often sold directly to gold shops. There are serious health risks for shop employees and nearby populations when the gold is melted and further purified. Studies have shown that mercury concentrations in the ambient air of gold shops often exceeds World Health Organization (WHO) limits by an order of magnitude or more. This study examined the practices and technologies used to refine gold in Latin America and Indonesia. The study compared and contrasted various refining methods and their resulting mercury emissions. Methods of reducing mercury emissions were also investigated, including a filtration system designed to capture 80 per cent of mercury emissions. Barriers to implementing mercury emissions reduction plans were also investigated. It was concluded that the design of urban gold shops must include condensers, fume hoods, and efficient mercury capture systems. 15 refs

  6. Urban artisanal gold shops and mercury emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordy, P.; Veiga, M.; Carrasco, V.H.G. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Mining and Mineral Process Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Artisanal miners in developing countries use mercury amalgamation processes to extract gold. The amalgams are then refined before being sold on to urban gold shops. The amalgams can often contain between 2 to 40 per cent mercury. Unburned amalgams are also often sold directly to gold shops. There are serious health risks for shop employees and nearby populations when the gold is melted and further purified. Studies have shown that mercury concentrations in the ambient air of gold shops often exceeds World Health Organization (WHO) limits by an order of magnitude or more. This study examined the practices and technologies used to refine gold in Latin America and Indonesia. The study compared and contrasted various refining methods and their resulting mercury emissions. Methods of reducing mercury emissions were also investigated, including a filtration system designed to capture 80 per cent of mercury emissions. Barriers to implementing mercury emissions reduction plans were also investigated. It was concluded that the design of urban gold shops must include condensers, fume hoods, and efficient mercury capture systems. 15 refs.

  7. Airborne exposures associated with the typical use of an aerosol brake cleaner during vehicle repair work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Michael; Williams, Pamela R D; Ovesen, Jerald; Maier, Andrew

    2018-04-19

    Many petroleum-based products are used for degreasing and cleaning purposes during vehicle maintenance and repairs. Although prior studies have evaluated chemical exposures associated with this type of work, most of these have focused on gasoline and exhaust emissions, with few samples collected solely during the use of an aerosol cleaning product. In this case study, we assess the type of airborne exposures that would be expected from the typical use of an aerosol brake cleaner during vehicle repair work. Eight exposure scenarios were evaluated over a two-day study in which the benzene content of the brake cleaner and potential for dilution ventilation and air flow varied. Both short-term (15 min) and task-based (≥1 hr) charcoal tube samples were collected in the breathing zone and adjacent work area and analyzed for total hydrocarbons (THCs), toluene, and benzene. The majority of personal (N = 48) and area (N = 47) samples had detectable levels of THC and toluene, but no detections of benzene were found. For the personal short-term samples, average airborne concentrations ranged from 3.1 - 61.5 ppm (13.8-217.5 mg/m 3 ) for THC and 2.2 - 44.0 ppm (8.2-162.5 mg/m 3 ) for toluene, depending on the scenario. Compared to the personal short-term samples, average concentrations were generally 2 to 3 times lower for the personal task-based samples and 2 to 5 times lower for the area short-term samples. The highest exposures occurred when the garage bay doors were closed, floor fan was turned off, or greatest amount of brake cleaner was used. These findings add to the limited dataset on this topic and can be used to bound or approximate worker or consumer exposures from use of aerosol cleaning products with similar compositions and use patterns.

  8. Mercury contamination extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmann, Mark [Silver Spring, MD; Heiser, John [Bayport, NY; Kalb, Paul [Wading River, NY

    2009-09-15

    Mercury is removed from contaminated waste by firstly applying a sulfur reagent to the waste. Mercury in the waste is then permitted to migrate to the reagent and is stabilized in a mercury sulfide compound. The stable compound may then be removed from the waste which itself remains in situ following mercury removal therefrom.

  9. Planning of the evaluation of cleaner production experiences in the CEPITA companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1998-01-01

    The report describes the theoretical and methodological background for the evaluation in 1998 of the cleaner production implementation in a nu,mber of Tanzanian companies taking part in a DANIDA financed cleaner production develeopment project in 1994-95......The report describes the theoretical and methodological background for the evaluation in 1998 of the cleaner production implementation in a nu,mber of Tanzanian companies taking part in a DANIDA financed cleaner production develeopment project in 1994-95...

  10. Mercury Continuous Emmission Monitor Calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Schabron; Eric Kalberer; Ryan Boysen; William Schuster; Joseph Rovani

    2009-03-12

    Mercury continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMs) are being implemented in over 800 coal-fired power plant stacks throughput the U.S. Western Research Institute (WRI) is working closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to facilitate the development of the experimental criteria for a NIST traceability protocol for dynamic elemental mercury vapor calibrators/generators. These devices are used to calibrate mercury CEMs at power plant sites. The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) which was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2005 and vacated by a Federal appeals court in early 2008 required that calibration be performed with NIST-traceable standards. Despite the vacature, mercury emissions regulations in the future will require NIST traceable calibration standards, and EPA does not want to interrupt the effort towards developing NIST traceability protocols. The traceability procedures will be defined by EPA. An initial draft traceability protocol was issued by EPA in May 2007 for comment. In August 2007, EPA issued a conceptual interim traceability protocol for elemental mercury calibrators. The protocol is based on the actual analysis of the output of each calibration unit at several concentration levels ranging initially from about 2-40 {micro}g/m{sup 3} elemental mercury, and in the future down to 0.2 {micro}g/m{sup 3}, and this analysis will be directly traceable to analyses by NIST. The EPA traceability protocol document is divided into two separate sections. The first deals with the qualification of calibrator models by the vendors for use in mercury CEM calibration. The second describes the procedure that the vendors must use to certify the calibrators that meet the qualification specifications. The NIST traceable certification is performance based, traceable to analysis using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma

  11. Air Pollution Emissions | Air Quality Planning & Standards | US ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-08

    Air pollution comes from many different sources: stationary sources such as factories, power plants, and smelters and smaller sources such as dry cleaners and degreasing operations; mobile sources such as cars, buses, planes, trucks, and trains; and naturally occurring sources such as windblown dust, and volcanic eruptions, all contribute to air pollution.

  12. Mercury in the environment : a primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lourie, B.; Glenn, W. (ed.); Ogilvie, K.; Everhardus, E.; Friesen, K.; Rae, S.

    2003-06-01

    This report provides an overview of the occurrence and effects of mercury in the environment and its impacts on human health. Low levels of mercury occur naturally everywhere in the environment in plants, animals, rocks and air. Incidental emissions occur when natural mercury is released to the environment through human activity. In Canada, coal burning and metal processing are the two largest point sources of atmospheric mercury emissions. Energy facilities have the option to invest in expensive control technologies for coal plants, or they can generate electricity from alternative energy sources. Energy conservation, however, offers the greatest overall benefits for the environment and the public. Mercury can also be released when products containing mercury (such as electrical switches, thermostats, dental amalgam, and thermometers) are broken while in use, or when they are crushed in garbage trucks and dumped in landfills. Source separation is the best way to reduce waste-related emissions. Once mercury is released to the natural environment, it can be transported long distances through air or watercourses. It is volatile, therefore evaporates readily to the atmosphere where it may do one of three things: it may fall out near the point where it was emitted; it may be transported long distances to some point downwind; or, it may enter the global atmospheric mercury pool where it will circle the globe for a year or more within the Earth's major weather systems before being deposited. Data from Canada's National Pollutant Release Inventory indicates that mercury releases and transfers total 28,674 kg per year. The most critical component of the mercury cycle is the conversion of inorganic forms of mercury to the organic compound methylmercury which is more toxic to humans. Most concern about mercury focuses on lakes and other aquatic ecosystems. Fish in hydroelectric reservoirs have been found to contain elevated methylmercury levels because natural

  13. Mercury Quick Facts: Health Effects of Mercury Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercury Quick Facts Health Effects of Mercury Exposure What is Elemental Mercury? Elemental (metallic) mercury is the shiny, silver-gray metal found in thermometers, barometers, and thermostats and other ...

  14. Implementing Cleaner Technologies as a means of minimising waste production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    This article gives an overview of how Cleaner Production methods may contribute to minimising waste formation as well as showing energy and resource savings. It introduces the tools and procedures used when working in this field. It also illustrates the theoretical approach by using examples from...

  15. On Cleaner Technologies in a Transboundary Pollution Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benchekroun, H.; Ray Chaudhuri, A.

    2009-01-01

    We show that in a non-cooperative transboundary pollution game, a cleaner technology (i.e., a decrease in the emission to output ratio) induces each country to increase its emissions and ultimately can yield a higher level of pollution and reduce social welfare.

  16. Actual problems of municipal cleaner’s waste waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konko¾ová Patrícia

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available In paper are evaluated social and economical changes in water economy with emphasis on complex evaluation of municipal cleaner’s waste waters with respect of legislative, position of ownerskip relationskips and financial security of public experiences of water economy.

  17. Psychosocial work factors and shoulder pain in hotel room cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgel, Barbara J; White, Mary C; Gillen, Marion; Krause, Niklas

    2010-07-01

    Hotel room cleaners have physically demanding jobs that place them at high risk for shoulder pain. Psychosocial work factors may also play a role in shoulder pain, but their independent role has not been studied in this group. Seventy-four percent (941 of 1,276) of hotel room cleaners from five Las Vegas hotels completed a 29-page survey assessing health status, working conditions, and psychosocial work factors. For this study, 493 of the 941 (52%) with complete data for 21 variables were included in multivariate logistic regression analyses. Fifty-six percent reported shoulder pain in the prior four weeks. Room cleaners with effort-reward imbalance (ERI) were three times as likely to report shoulder pain (OR 2.99, 95% CI 1.95-4.59, P = 0.000) even after adjustment for physical workload and other factors. After adjustment for physical workload, job strain and iso-strain were not significantly associated with shoulder pain. ERI is independently associated with shoulder pain in hotel room cleaners even after adjustment for physical workload and other risk factors. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Assessing elemental mercury vapor exposure from cultural and religious practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, D M; Newby, C A; Leal-Almeraz, T O; Thomas, V M

    2001-08-01

    Use of elemental mercury in certain cultural and religious practices can cause high exposures to mercury vapor. Uses include sprinkling mercury on the floor of a home or car, burning it in a candle, and mixing it with perfume. Some uses can produce indoor air mercury concentrations one or two orders of magnitude above occupational exposure limits. Exposures resulting from other uses, such as infrequent use of a small bead of mercury, could be well below currently recognized risk levels. Metallic mercury is available at almost all of the 15 botanicas visited in New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, but botanica personnel often deny having mercury for sale when approached by outsiders to these religious and cultural traditions. Actions by public health authorities have driven the mercury trade underground in some locations. Interviews indicate that mercury users are aware that mercury is hazardous, but are not aware of the inhalation exposure risk. We argue against a crackdown by health authorities because it could drive the practices further underground, because high-risk practices may be rare, and because uninformed government intervention could have unfortunate political and civic side effects for some Caribbean and Latin American immigrant groups. We recommend an outreach and education program involving religious and community leaders, botanica personnel, and other mercury users.

  19. Air Cleaning Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective This health technology policy assessment will answer the following questions: When should in-room air cleaners be used? How effective are in-room air cleaners? Are in-room air cleaners that use combined HEPA and UVGI air cleaning technology more effective than those that use HEPA filtration alone? What is the Plasmacluster ion air purifier in the pandemic influenza preparation plan? The experience of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) locally, nationally, and internationally underscored the importance of administrative, environmental, and personal protective infection control measures in health care facilities. In the aftermath of the SARS crisis, there was a need for a clearer understanding of Ontario’s capacity to manage suspected or confirmed cases of airborne infectious diseases. In so doing, the Walker Commission thought that more attention should be paid to the potential use of new technologies such as in-room air cleaning units. It recommended that the Medical Advisory Secretariat of the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care evaluate the appropriate use and effectiveness of such new technologies. Accordingly, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee asked the Medical Advisory Secretariat to review the literature on the effectiveness and utility of in-room air cleaners that use high-efficiency particle air (HEPA) filters and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) air cleaning technology. Additionally, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee prioritized a request from the ministry’s Emergency Management Unit to investigate the possible role of the Plasmacluster ion air purifier manufactured by Sharp Electronics Corporation, in the pandemic influenza preparation plan. Clinical Need Airborne transmission of infectious diseases depends in part on the concentration of breathable infectious pathogens (germs) in room air. Infection control is achieved by a combination of administrative, engineering

  20. Low dose mercury toxicity and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahir, Farhana; Rizwi, Shamim J; Haq, Soghra K; Khan, Rizwan H

    2005-09-01

    Post Minamata incident there has been awareness about mercury toxicity even among the general public. Previous researches contributed a vast amount of data regarding acute mercury exposure, but gradually information about the low dose [Ninomiya, T., Ohmori, H., Hashimoto, K., Tsuruta, K., Ekino, S., 1995. Expansion of methylmercury poisoning outside minamata: an epidemiological study on chronic methylmercury poisoninig outside of Minamata. Environ. Res. 70 (1) 47-50; Lebel, J., Mergler, D., Lucotte, M., Amorim, M., Dolbec, J., Miranda, D., Arantes, G., Rheault, I., Pichet, P., 1996. Evidence of early nervous system dysfunction in Amazonian populations exposed to low-levels of methylmercury. Neurotoxicology 17 (1) 157-167] of mercury toxicity has been trickling in. With mercury contaminating rain-, ground- and sea-water no one is safe. Polluted water leads to mercury laced fish, meat and vegetable. In aquatic environments, inorganic mercury is microbiologically transformed into lipophilic organic compound 'methylmercury'. This transformation makes mercury more prone to biomagnification in food chains. Consequently, populations with traditionally high dietary intake of food originating from fresh or marine environment have highest dietary exposure to mercury. Extensive research done on locals across the globe have already established this, persons who routinely consume fish or a particular species of fish are at an increased risk of methylmercury poisoning. The easy access of the toxicant to man through multiple pathways air, water, food, cosmetic products and even vaccines increase the exposure. Foetus and children are more susceptible towards mercury toxicity. Mothers consuming diet containing mercury pass the toxicant to foetus and to infants through breast milk. Decreased performance in areas of motor function and memory has been reported among children exposed to presumably safe mercury levels. Similarly, disruption of attention, fine motor function and verbal

  1. Wet and Dry Atmospheric Mercury Deposition Accumulates in Watersheds of the Northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, E. W.; Grant, C.; Grimm, J.; Drohan, P. J.; Bennett, J.; Lawler, D.

    2013-12-01

    Mercury emissions to the atmosphere from coal-fired power plants and other sources such as waste incineration can be deposited to landscapes in precipitation and in dry fallout. Some mercury reaches watersheds and streams, where it can accumulate in sediments and biota. Human exposure to mercury occurs primarily through fish consumption, and currently mercury fish eating advisories are in place for many of the streams and lakes in the state. Here, we explored mercury in air, soils, water, and biota. To quantify atmospheric mercury deposition, we measured both wet and dry mercury deposition at over 10 locations in Pennsylvania, from which we present variation in mercury deposition and initial assessments of factors affecting the patterns. Further, we simulated mercury deposition at unmonitored locations in Pennsylvania and the northeastern United States over space and time with a high-resolution modeling technique that reflects storm tracks and air flow patterns. To consider mercury accumulation in watersheds, we collected data on soil mercury concentrations in a set of soil samples, and collected baseline data on mercury in streams draining 35 forested watersheds across Pennsylvania, spanning gradients of atmospheric deposition, climate and geology. Mercury concentrations were measured in stream water under base-flow conditions, in streambed sediments, aquatic mosses, and in fish tissues from brook trout. Results indicate that wet and dry atmospheric deposition is a primary source of mercury that is accumulating in watersheds of Pennsylvania and the northeastern United States.

  2. Mercury pollution in Wuchuan mercury mining area, Guizhou, Southwestern China: the impacts from large scale and artisanal mercury mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Feng, Xinbin; Qiu, Guangle; Shang, Lihai; Wang, Shaofeng

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate the environmental impacts from large scale mercury mining (LSMM) and artisanal mercury mining (AMM), total mercury (THg) and methyl mercury (MeHg) were determined in mine waste, ambient air, stream water and soil samples collected from Wuchuan mercury (Hg) mining area, Guizhou, Southwestern China. Mine wastes from both LSMM and AMM contained high THg concentrations, which are important Hg contamination sources to the local environment. Total gaseous mercury (TGM) concentrations in the ambient air near AMM furnaces were highly elevated, which indicated that AMM retorting is a major source of Hg emission. THg concentrations in the stream water varied from 43 to 2100 ng/L, where the elevated values were mainly found in the vicinity of AMM and mine waste heaps of LSMM. Surface soils were seriously contaminated with Hg, and land using types and organic matter played an important role in accumulation and transportation of Hg in soil. The results indicated heavy Hg contaminations in the study area, which were resulted from both LSMM and AMM. The areas impacted by LSMM were concentrated in the historical mining and smelting facilities, while Hg pollution resulted from AMM can be distributed anywhere in the Hg mining area. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evidence of mercury exposure in a particular low-income community in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oosthuizen, MA

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available countries in terms of mercury emissions to the environment. The human nervous system is very sensitive to mercury. When metallic mercury vapour in the air is inhaled, it may cross the blood-brain barrier and cause permanent brain damage (Figure 1). Bacteria...

  4. Current and future levels of mercury atmospheric pollution on global scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacyna, Jozef M.; Travnikov, Oleg; De Simone, Francesco; Hedgecock, Ian M.; Sundseth, Kyrre; Pacyna, Elisabeth G.; Steenhuisen, Frits; Pirrone, Nicola; Munthe, John; Kindbom, Karin

    2016-01-01

    An assessment of current and future emissions, air concentrations and atmospheric deposition of mercury world-wide are presented on the basis of results obtained during the performance of the EU GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System) project. Emission estimates for mercury were prepared with the

  5. Current and future levels of mercury atmospheric pollution on a global scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacyna, J. M.; Travnikov, O.; De Simone, F.; Hedgecock, I. M.; Sundseth, K.; Pacyna, E. G.; Steenhuisen, F.; Pirrone, N.; Munthe, J.; Kindbom, K.

    2016-01-01

    An assessment of current and future emissions, air concentrations, and atmospheric deposition of mercury worldwide is presented on the basis of results obtained during the performance of the EU GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System) project. Emission estimates for mercury were prepared with the

  6. Ameliorative effect of ascorbic acid on mercury chloride‑induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Mercury is a highly toxic metal that exerts its adverse effects on the health of humans and animals through air, soil, water and food. Aim: The present study was aimed at the evaluation of the effects of ascorbic acid on mercury chloride-induced changes on the histomorphology of the spleen of adult Wistar Rats.

  7. Residual Perchloroethylene in Dry-Cleaned Acetate: The Effect of Pressing and Extent of Inter-Dry-Cleaner Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Kevin P; Jang, Christine J; Park, Ju-Hyeong; Serrano, Paulina I; Weker, Robert A; Lee, Kiyoung; Yanagisawa, Yukio

    1999-02-01

    Measurements of residual perchloroethylene (PCE), a dry-cleaning solvent associated with human health effects, were made in dry-cleaned acetate cloth to enable improved characterizations of both occupational and environmental exposure. A limited sample size (25 acetate cloths) was used to explore the extent of inter-dry-cleaner variability in residual PCE and to characterize the effect of the pressing operation on residual PCE. A new method, which uses carbon-disulfide as the direct extracting agent, proved effective in the analysis of residual PCE, with a recovery-efficiency ≈ 75%. Inter-dry-cleaner variability of residual PCE, although marginally statistically significant, was relatively low, showing only a fourfold range compared to a 5-order-of-magnitude range obtained from Kawauchi and Nishiyama 1 . Pairwise comparison of residual PCE in nonpressed versus pressed acetate samples revealed a statistically significant reduction (p < 0.008), which amounted to a consistent (among dry-cleaners) pressing-related removal efficiency of 75 ± 4%. A preliminary assessment of the source term associated with the pressing operation (mass PCE liberated per kg cloth dry-cleaned, S PCE ≈ 30 mg/kg) indicates a minor contribution to the average ambient air concentrations within dry-cleaning establishments.

  8. Detection of concealed mercury with thermal neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, Z.W.

    1994-01-01

    In the United States today, governments at all levels and the citizenry are paying increasing attention to the effects, both real and hypothetical, of industrial activity on the environment. Responsible modem industries, reflecting this heightened public and regulatory awareness, are either substituting benign materials for hazardous ones, or using hazardous materials only under carefully controlled conditions. In addition, present-day environmental consciousness dictates that we deal responsibly with legacy wastes. The decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) of facilities at which mercury was used or processed presents a variety of challenges. Elemental mercury is a liquid at room temperature and readily evaporates in air. In large mercury-laden buildings, droplets may evaporate from one area only to recondense in other cooler areas. The rate of evaporation is a function of humidity and temperature; consequently, different parts of a building may be sources or sinks of mercury at different times of the day or even the year. Additionally, although mercury oxidizes in air, the oxides decompose upon heating. Hence, oxides contained within pipes or equipment, may be decomposed when those pipes and equipment are cut with saws or torches. Furthermore, mercury seeps through the pores and cracks in concrete blocks and pads, and collects as puddles and blobs in void spaces within and under them

  9. Impact of exposure to low levels of mercury on the health of dental workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leda Freitas Jesus

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the impact of exposure to mercury on the health of workers comparing dentists and dental assistants exposed to mercury by handling amalgam in a public dental clinic with a reference group which, in private offices, did not make use of the metal in their professional routine. Data collection included mercury levels in urine and air samples determined by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry, questionnaires and direct observation. The difference between urine and air samples in both groups was statistically significant while mercury levels in air and urine showed positive associations. Mercury concentration in urine correlated with gender, practice time, and age of workers. Half of those exposed had complaints compatible with mercury contamination. Among the exposed, the most common complaints were cognitive and neurocognitive symptoms. Correlations between symptoms and exposure time and also number of amalgam fillings placed per week were positive. Amalgam handling resulted in environmental and biological contamination by mercury.

  10. Mercury and halogens in coal--Their role in determining mercury emissions from coal combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolker, Allan; Quick, Jeffrey C.; Senior, Connie L.; Belkin, Harvey E.

    2012-01-01

    Mercury is a toxic pollutant. In its elemental form, gaseous mercury has a long residence time in the atmosphere, up to a year, allowing it to be transported long distances from emission sources. Mercury can be emitted from natural sources such as volcanoes, or from anthropogenic sources, such as coal-fired powerplants. In addition, all sources of mercury on the Earth's surface can re-emit it from land and sea back to the atmosphere, from which it is then redeposited. Mercury in the atmosphere is present in such low concentrations that it is not considered harmful. Once mercury enters the aquatic environment, however, it can undergo a series of biochemical transformations that convert a portion of the mercury originally present to methylmercury, a highly toxic organic form of mercury that accumulates in fish and birds. Many factors contribute to creation of methylmercury in aquatic ecosystems, including mercury availability, sediment and nutrient load, bacterial influence, and chemical conditions. In the United States, consumption of fish with high levels of methylmercury is the most common pathway for human exposure to mercury, leading the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to issue fish consumption advisories in every State. The EPA estimates that 50 percent of the mercury entering the atmosphere in the United States is emitted from coal-burning utility powerplants. An EPA rule, known as MATS (for Mercury and Air Toxics Standards), to reduce emissions of mercury and other toxic pollutants from powerplants, was signed in December 2011. The rule, which is currently under review, specifies limits for mercury and other toxic elements, such as arsenic, chromium, and nickel. MATS also places limits on emission of harmful acid gases, such as hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid. These standards are the result of a 2010 detailed nationwide program by the EPA to sample stack emissions and thousands of shipments of coal to coal-burning powerplants. The United

  11. Minamata Convention on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    On November 6, 2013 the United States signed the Minamata Convention on Mercury, a new multilateral environmental agreement that addresses specific human activities which are contributing to widespread mercury pollution

  12. Atmospheric mercury sources in the Mt. Amiata area, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrara, R.; Mazzolai, B.; Edner, H.; Svanberg, S.; Wallinder, E.

    1998-01-01

    Mt. Amiata, located in southern Tuscany (Italy), is part of the geologic anomaly of the Mediterranean basin, which contains about 65% of the world's cinnabar (HgS) deposits. Atmospheric mercury emissions from the main sources (geothermal power plants, abandoned mine structures and spoil banks of roasted cinnabar ore) were determined by flux chamber and by LIDAR remote sensing. Mercury emissions from five geothermal power plants were on the order of 24 g h -1 for each plant, a value that remains constant throughout the year. In the month of July, the mine spoils (covering an area of =200000 m 2 ) emit a few grams of mercury per hour, while the abandoned mine structures give off 100-110 g h -1 . These two mercury sources were strongly influenced by ambient temperature. The area affected by mercury sources displays an average air mercury concentration of 20 ng m -3 during the summer and 10 ng m -3 in winter

  13. Cleaner Production: A Growing Movement in Brazilian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oduvaldo Vendrametto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Cleaner Production (CP is gaining emphasis in both world and Brazilian production sectors. Nature’s warnings indicating the exhaustion of any capacity to absorb and regenerate waste, stricter legislation regarding pollution emitters, market competitiveness associated with environmental and social responsibility cause concerns and lead to actions to reduce aggressions against the environment. This paper shows evidence of this concern and presents cases in which a large automotive industry, acting as a partner to suppliers, promotes changes in how it delivers its products, eliminating large cardboard, plastic and wood packaging. A small company had a similar initiative, reducing the use of cardboard and plastic packaging. More important is the revelation of a widely dispersed, yet growing and incremental movement of responsibilities among companies.The benefits of cleaner production implementation were evaluated by confronting environmental and financial assessment. For the ambient evaluation, it will be used methodology of Material Intensity (Wuppertal Institute, a.

  14. Employee participation and cleaner technology: learning processes in environmental teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remmen, Arne; Lorentzen, Børge

    2000-01-01

    in the Implementation of Cleaner Technology” was to develop a more active role for employees in the environmental activities of companies. Based on practical experiments in five Danish firms within different industrial sectors, the project concluded that employee participation can have a strong effect on changing......The approach to pollution prevention in Danish industries in the late-1980s and in the beginning of the 1990s met criticism, because the cleaner technology projects focused too narrowly on technical solutions implemented by experts. The objective of the project “Employee Participation...... working routines, affecting behaviour and increasing environmental consciousness. The project found that the firms' employees had a comprehensive understanding of environmental problems and solutions, including health and safety aspects. Furthermore, the employees in the environmental teams were able...

  15. Trochanteric Stress Fracture in a Female Window Cleaner

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Bong-Jin; Song, Jyewon

    2016-01-01

    Stress fractures may occur at various sites in the femur including the head, neck, shaft, supracondylar and condylar regions. To the best of our knowledge, stress fracture occurring in the trochanteric region has not been previously reported. We report here a case of trochanteric stress fracture in a 53-year-old female window cleaner treated with hip nailing without adverse consequences. Careful consideration of this entity is needed when evaluating patients who have repetitive jumping up and...

  16. Primary DNA Damage in Dry Cleaners with Perchlorethylene Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Azimi; Mohammad Reza Bahrami; Vida Rezaei Hachesu; Javad Zavar Reza; Hamideh Mihanpour; Mohammad Javad Zare Sakhvidi; Mehrdad Mostaghaci

    2017-01-01

    Background: Perchloroethylene is a halogenated solvent widely used in dry cleaning. International agency of research on cancer classified this chemical as a probable human carcinogen. Objective: To evaluate the extent of primary DNA damage in dry cleaner workers who were exposed to perchloroethylene as compared to non-exposed subjects. The effect of exposure modifying factors such as use of personal protective equipment, perceived risk, and reported safe behaviors on observed DNA damage w...

  17. Intentional intravenous mercury injection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three forms of mercury exist: elemental, inorganic and organic, all of which may be toxic with clinical consequences, depending on the type of exposure. Elemental mercury poisoning usually occurs via vapour inhalation, as mercury is well absorbed through the lungs. The central nervous system is then the major site of ...

  18. The fate and management of high mercury-containing lamps from high technology industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, T C; You, S J; Yu, B S; Kong, H W

    2007-03-22

    This study investigated the fate and management of high mercury-contained lamps, such as cold cathode fluorescent lamps (CCFLs), ultraviolet lamps (UV lamps), and super high pressure mercury lamps (SHPs), from high technology industries in Taiwan, using material flow analysis (MFA) method. Several organizations, such as Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration, Taiwan External Trade Development Council, the light sources manufactories, mercury-containing lamps importer, high technology industrial user, and waste mercury-containing lamps treatment facilities were interviewed in this study. According to this survey, the total mercury contained in CCFLs, UV lamps, and SHPs produced in Taiwan or imported from other countries was 886kg in year 2004. Among the various lamps containing mercury, 57kg mercury was exported as primary CCFLs, 7kg mercury was wasted as defective CCFLs, and 820kg mercury was used in the high technology industries, including 463kg mercury contained in exported industrial products using CCFLs as components. On the contrary, only 59kg of mercury was exported, including 57kg in CCFLs and 2kg in UV lamps. It reveals that 364kg mercury was consumed in Taiwan during year 2004. In addition, 140kg of the 364kg mercury contained in lamps used by high technology industry was well treated through industrial waste treatment system. Among the waste mercury from high technology industry, 80kg (57%), 53kg (38%), and 7kg (5%) of mercury were through domestic treatment, offshore treatment, and emission in air, respectively. Unfortunately, 224kg waste mercury was not suitable treated, including 199kg mercury contained in CCFL, which is a component of monitor for personal computer and liquid crystal display television, and 25kg non-treated mercury. Thus, how to recover the mercury from the waste monitors is an important challenge of zero wastage policy in Taiwan.

  19. Primary DNA Damage in Dry Cleaners with Perchlorethylene Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimi, Mohammad; Bahrami, Mohammad Reza; Rezaei Hachesu, Vida; Zavar Reza, Javad; Mihanpour, Hamideh; Zare Sakhvidi, Mohammad Javad; Mostaghaci, Mehrdad

    2017-10-01

    Perchloroethylene is a halogenated solvent widely used in dry cleaning. International agency of research on cancer classified this chemical as a probable human carcinogen. To evaluate the extent of primary DNA damage in dry cleaner workers who were exposed to perchloroethylene as compared to non-exposed subjects. The effect of exposure modifying factors such as use of personal protective equipment, perceived risk, and reported safe behaviors on observed DNA damage were also studied. 59 exposed and non-exposed workers were selected from Yazd, Iran. All the 33 exposed workers had work history at least 3 months in the dry cleaning shops. Peripheral blood sampling was performed. Microscope examination was performed under fluorescent microscope (400×). Open comet software was used for image analysis. All biological analysis was performed in one laboratory. Primary DNA damage to leukocytes in dry cleaners was relatively high. The median tail length, %DNA in tail, and tail moment in exposed group were significantly higher than those in non-exposed group. There was no significant difference between smokers and nonsmokers in terms of tail length, tail moment, and %DNA in tail. There was no significant correlation between duration of employment in dry cleaning and observed DNA damage in terms of tail length, tail moment and %DNA in tail. Stratified analysis based on exposed and nonexposed category showed no significant relationship between age and observed DNA damage. Occupationally exposure to perchloroethylene can cause early DNA damage in dry cleaners.

  20. Primary DNA Damage in Dry Cleaners with Perchlorethylene Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Azimi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Perchloroethylene is a halogenated solvent widely used in dry cleaning. International agency of research on cancer classified this chemical as a probable human carcinogen. Objective: To evaluate the extent of primary DNA damage in dry cleaner workers who were exposed to perchloroethylene as compared to non-exposed subjects. The effect of exposure modifying factors such as use of personal protective equipment, perceived risk, and reported safe behaviors on observed DNA damage were also studied. Methods: 59 exposed and non-exposed workers were selected from Yazd, Iran. All the 33 exposed workers had work history at least 3 months in the dry cleaning shops. Peripheral blood sampling was performed. Microscope examination was performed under fluorescent microscope (400×. Open comet software was used for image analysis. All biological analysis was performed in one laboratory. Results: Primary DNA damage to leukocytes in dry cleaners was relatively high. The median tail length, %DNA in tail, and tail moment in exposed group were significantly higher than those in non-exposed group. There was no significant difference between smokers and nonsmokers in terms of tail length, tail moment, and %DNA in tail. There was no significant correlation between duration of employment in dry cleaning and observed DNA damage in terms of tail length, tail moment and %DNA in tail. Stratified analysis based on exposed and nonexposed category showed no significant relationship between age and observed DNA damage. Conclusion: Occupationally exposure to perchloroethylene can cause early DNA damage in dry cleaners.

  1. Monitoring of mercury concentration in atmosphere in Usti nad Labem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synek, V.; Baloch, T.; Otcenasek, J.; Kremlova, S.; Subrt, P.

    2007-01-01

    This study elaborates the observation of mercury pollution of the atmosphere in the city of Usti nad Labem. The biggest source of the polluting mercury in Usti nad Labem is the chlor-alkali production in the factory of Spolchemie Inc. The method of mercury determination applied is based on capturing the mercury contented in a volume of the air on an amalgamator and measuring the mercury by an atomic absorption spectrometer (Perkin -Elmer 4100ZL) equipped with a special adapter after a thermal release of the mercury from the amalgamator. The basic characteristics of this method were evaluated; e.g. the limit of detection and limit of determination are, respectively, 0.43 and 1.4 ng/m 3 , the relative expanded uncertainty is 28 %. The work gives results of long-term (1998-2006) observations in a few localities in Usti nad Labem situated in various distances from the mercury source (e.g. means of 28.6 and 14.1 ng/m3 were obtained, respectively, in places 350 and 700 m far from the electrolysis plant) and also in a different city (Duchcov). The cases with a higher mercury concentration are very frequent so the sets of the obtained results have lognormal distributions. This study statistically compares the total level and variability of the mercury concentrations in the time series. It also investigates their trends, correlations between them and meteorological influences upon the levels of mercury concentration in the air. The effect of the mercury emission from the chlor-alkali plant is dominant. It as the only factor determines when the cases with a high mercury concentration in the atmosphere occur. (author)

  2. Development of novel activated carbon-based adsorbents for the control of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radisav D. Vidic

    1999-03-01

    In addition to naturally occurring mercury sources, anthropogenic activities increase the mercury loading to the environment. Although not all produced mercury is dissipated directly into the environment, only minor portions of the total production are stocked or recycled, and the rest of the mercury and its compounds is finally released in some way into atmosphere, surface waters and soil, or ends in landfills dumps, and refuse. Since mercury and its compounds are highly toxic, their presence in the environment constitutes potential impact on all living organisms, including man. The first serious consequence of industrial mercury discharges causing neurological disorder even death occurred in Minimata, Japan in 1953. Systematic studies showed that mercury poisoning is mainly found in fish-eating populations. However, various levels of mercury are also found in food other than fish. During the past several decades, research has been conducted on the evaluation of risks due to exposure to mercury and the development of control technologies for mercury emissions. In 1990, the Clean Air Act Amendments listed mercury, along with 10 other metallic species, as a hazardous air pollutant (HAP). This has further stimulated research for mercury control during the past several years. The impact of mercury on humans, sources of mercury in the environment, current mercury control strategies and the objective of this research are discussed in this section.

  3. Planetary Vacuum Cleaner for Venus and Mars, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The majority of planetary bodies of interest to exploration are covered with a layer of granular material called regolith. These bodies include the Moon, Mercury,...

  4. Air

    CERN Document Server

    Rivera, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Air is all around us. Learn how it is used in art, technology, and engineering. Five easy-to-read chapters explain the science behind air, as well as its real-world applications. Vibrant, full-color photos, bolded glossary words, and a key stats section let readers zoom in even deeper. Aligned to Common Core Standards and correlated to state standards. Abdo Zoom is a division of ABDO.

  5. Mercury in the National Parks: Current Status and Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, C.; Blett, T. F.; Morris, K.

    2012-12-01

    Mercury is a globally distributed contaminant that can harm human and wildlife health, and threaten resources the National Park Service (NPS) is charged with protecting. Due in part to emissions and long-range transport from coal burning power plants, even remote national park environments receive mercury deposition from the atmosphere. Given the concern regarding mercury, there are and have been many mercury monitoring initiatives in national parks to determine the risk from mercury contamination. This includes the study of litter fall at Acadia National Park (Maine), snow at Mount Rainier National Park (Washington), heron eggs at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore (Indiana), bat hair at Mammoth Cave National Park (Kentucky), and panthers at Everglades National Park (Florida). Wet deposition is also measured at 16 national parks as part of the National Atmospheric Deposition Network / Mercury Deposition Network. Results from these studies indicate that mercury deposition is increasing or is elevated in many national parks, and fish and other biota have been found to contain levels of mercury above toxicity thresholds for impacts to both humans and wildlife. Current research coordinated by the NPS Air Resources Division (ARD) in Denver, Colorado, on the effects of mercury includes broad-scale assessments of mercury in fish, dragonfly larvae, and songbirds across 30+ national parks. Fish provide the trophic link to human and wildlife health, dragonfly larvae can describe fine-scale differences in mercury levels, and songbirds shed light on the risk to terrestrial ecosystems. External project partners include the U.S. Geological Survey, University of Maine, and the Biodiversity Research Institute. In addition, the dragonfly project engages citizen scientists in the collection of dragonfly larvae, supporting the NPS Centennial Initiative by connecting people to parks and advancing the educational mission, and increasing public awareness about mercury impacts. Much of

  6. Annual ambient atmospheric mercury speciation measurement from Longjing, a rural site in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Guor-Cheng; Lo, Chaur-Tsuen; Cho, Meng-Hsien; Zhuang, Yuan-Jie; Tsai, Kai-Hsiang; Huang, Chao-Yang; Xiao, You-Fu

    2017-08-01

    The main purpose of this study was to monitor ambient air particulates and mercury species [RGM, Hg(p), GEM and total mercury] concentrations and dry depositions over rural area at Longjing in central Taiwan during October 2014 to September 2015. In addition, passive air sampler and knife-edge surrogate surface samplers were used to collect the ambient air mercury species concentrations and dry depositions, respectively, in this study. Moreover, direct mercury analyzer was directly used to detect the mercury Hg(p) and RGM concentrations. The result indicated that: (1) The average highest RGM, Hg(p), GEM and total mercury concentrations, and dry depositions were observed in January, prevailing dust storm occurred in winter season was the possible major reason responsible for the above findings. (2) The highest average RGM, Hg(p), GEM and total mercury concentrations, dry depositions and velocities were occurred in winter. This is because that China is the largest atmospheric mercury (Hg) emitter in the world. Its Hg emissions and environmental impacts need to be evaluated. (3) The results indicated that the total mercury ratios of Kaohsiung to that of this study were 5.61. This is because that Kaohsiung has the largest industry density (~60 %) in Taiwan. (4) the USA showed average lower mercury species concentrations when compared to those of the other world countries. The average ratios of China/USA values were 89, 76 and 160 for total mercury, RGM and Hg(p), respectively, during the years of 2000-2012.

  7. A decrease in the abundance and strategic sophistication of cleaner fish after environmental perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triki, Zegni; Wismer, Sharon; Levorato, Elena; Bshary, Redouan

    2018-01-01

    Coral reef ecosystems are declining worldwide and under foreseeable threat due to climate change, resulting in significant changes in reef communities. It is unknown, however, how such community changes impact interspecific interactions. Recent extreme weather events affecting the Great Barrier Reef, that is, consecutive cyclones and the 2016 El Niño event, allowed us to explore potential consequences in the mutualistic interactions involving cleaner fish Labroides dimidiatus (hereafter "cleaner"). After the perturbations, cleaner densities were reduced by 80%, disproportionally compared to the variety of reef fish clients from which cleaners remove ectoparasites. Consequently, shifts in supply and demand yielded an increase in the clients' demand for cleaning. Therefore, clients became less selective toward cleaners, whereas cleaners were able to choose from a multitude of partners. In parallel, we found a significant decline in the ability of cleaners to manage their reputation and to learn to prioritize ephemeral food sources to maximize food intake in laboratory experiments. In other words, cleaners failed to display the previously documented strategic sophistication that made this species a prime example for fish intelligence. In conclusion, low population densities may cause various effects on individual behavior, and as a consequence, interspecific interactions. At the same time, our data suggest that a recovery of population densities would cause a recovery of previously described interaction patterns and cleaner strategic sophistication within the lifetime of individuals. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Identifying and Prioritizing Cleaner Production Strategies in Raw Materials’ Warehouse of Yazdbaf Textile Company in 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Ghaneian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cleaner productions in textile industry is achieved by reducing water and chemicals’ consumption, saving energy, reducing production of air pollution and solid wastes, reducing toxicity and noise pollution through many solutions. The purpose of the present research was to apply Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats (SWOT and Quality Systems Planning Matrix (QSPM techniques in identifying and prioritizing production in raw materials’ warehouse of Yazdbaf Textile Factory. Materials and Methods: In this research, effective internal and external factors in cleaner production were identified by providing the required information through field visit and interview with industry managers and supervisors of raw materials’ warehouse. Finally, To form matrix of internal and external factors 17 important internal factors and 7 important external factors were identified and selected respectively.Then, QSPM matrix was formed to determine the attractiveness and priority of the selected strategies by using results of internal and external factors and SWOT matrixes. Results: According to the results, the total score of raw materials’ warehouse in Internal Factor Evaluation (IFE matrix is equal to 2.90 which shows the good situation of warehouse than the internal factors. However, the total score in External Factor Evaluation (EFE matrix is 2.14 and indicates the relative weak situation of warehouse than the external factors. Conclusion: Based on the obtained results, continuity, monitor, and improvement of the general plan of qualitative control (QC of raw materials and laboratory as well as more emphasis on quality indexes according to its importance in the production processes were selected as the most important strategies. 

  9. Emissions of airborne toxics from coal-fired boilers: Mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.; Zaromb, S.

    1991-09-01

    Concerns over emissions of hazardous air Pollutants (air toxics) have emerged as a major environmental issue, and the authority of the US Environmental Protection Agency to regulate such pollutants was greatly expanded through the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Mercury has been singled out for particular attention because of concerns over possible effects of emissions on human health. This report evaluates available published information on the mercury content of coals mined in the United States, on mercury emitted in coal combustion, and on the efficacy of various environmental control technologies for controlling airborne emissions. Anthracite and bituminous coals have the highest mean-mercury concentrations, with subbituminous coals having the lowest. However, all coal types show very significant variations in mercury concentrations. Mercury emissions from coal combustion are not well-characterized, particularly with regard to determination of specific mercury compounds. Variations in emission rates of more than an order of magnitude have been reported for some boiler types. Data on the capture of mercury by environmental control technologies are available primarily for systems with electrostatic precipitators, where removals of approximately 20% to over 50% have been reported. Reported removals for wet flue-gas-desulfurization systems range between 35 and 95%, while spray-dryer/fabric-filter systems have given removals of 75 to 99% on municipal incinerators. In all cases, better data are needed before any definitive judgments can be made. This report briefly reviews several areas of research that may lead to improvements in mercury control for existing flue-gas-clean-up technologies and summarizes the status of techniques for measuring mercury emissions from combustion sources.

  10. Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugele, B.; Scheider, J.; Spangl, W.

    2001-01-01

    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)

  11. Identifying occupational and nonoccupational exposure to mercury in dental personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirkhanloo, Hamid; Fallah Mehrjerdi, Mohammad Ali; Hassani, Hamid

    2017-03-04

    The objective of this study was to investigate the occupational and nonoccupational exposure to mercury (Hg) vapor in dental personnel by examining the relationships between blood mercury, urine mercury, and their ratio with air mercury. The method was performed on 50 occupational exposed and 50 unexposed controls (25 men and 25 women). The mercury concentrations in air and human biological samples were determined based on the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) method and standard method (SM) by a new mode of liquid-phase microextraction, respectively. The mean mercury concentrations in urine (μg Hg 0 /g creatinine) and blood were significantly higher than control group, respectively (19.41 ± 5.18 vs 2.15 ± 0.07 μg/g and 16.40 ± 4.97 vs 2.50 ± 0.02 μg/L) (p mercury concentration in blood/urine ratio (r = .380) with dental office air are new indicators for assessing occupational exposure in dental personnel.

  12. A new cleaner process to prepare pressing-powder

    OpenAIRE

    Shu, Zheng; Monfort Gimeno, Eliseo; García Ten, Francisco Javier; Zhou, Jiaji; Amorós Albaro, José Luis; Wang, Yong-Xu

    2011-01-01

    An alternative cleaner process of pressing-powder preparation, based on filter-pressing and a novel granulation method, is presented to substitute the existing spray-drying process. In the new process, about two-thirds of wet-milled slurry is filterpressed, dried and milled into dry fine powder. The other one-third of the slurry and the as-obtained dry fine powder are spray-mixed in a tower, where the slurry droplets adsorb the dry powder to form granules which are then rolled and dried into ...

  13. A new cleaner process to prepare pressing-powder

    OpenAIRE

    Shu, Z.; Monfort, E.

    2011-01-01

    An alternative cleaner process of pressing-powder preparation, based on filter-pressing and a novel granulation method, is presented to substitute the existing spray-drying process. In the new process, about two-thirds of wet-milled slurry is filterpressed, dried and milled into dry fine powder. The other one-third of the slurry and the as-obtained dry fine powder are spray-mixed in a tower, where the slurry droplets adsorb the dry powder to form granules which are then rolled and dr...

  14. Standard Practice for Effects of Cleaners on Unpainted Aircraft Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes the procedure used to determine the effect of cleaners on unpainted aircraft surfaces. Visual observation is used for determining streaking or permanent stains which require polishing to remove. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  15. Transition to an intelligent use of cleaner biomass stoves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo; Jensen, Ole Michael; Vicent, Estela D.

    2016-01-01

    In Europe, inappropriate user behaviours in the operation of wood-burning stoves (WBSs) results in substantial energy losses where fireplaces and conventional stoves are major contributors to undue emissions of health damaging fine particulate matter (PM2.5). The design and adoption of cleaner WBSs...... and their contribution to residential heating. Laboratory and energy simulations were performed to study their thermal efficiency, PM2.5 emissions and the influence of their usage on the indoor climate. This work shows that the operation of enclosed stoves in uninsulated Iberian homes emit more PM2.5 than the Ecodesign...

  16. Process for low mercury coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriam, Norman W.; Grimes, R. William; Tweed, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    A process for producing low mercury coal during precombustion procedures by releasing mercury through discriminating mild heating that minimizes other burdensome constituents. Said mercury is recovered from the overhead gases by selective removal.

  17. Mercury is Moon's brother

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ksanfomalifi, L.V.

    1976-01-01

    The latest information on Mercury planet is presented obtained by studying the planet with the aid of radar and space vehicles. Rotation of Mercury about its axis has been discovered; within 2/3 of its year it executes a complete revolution about its axis. In images obtained by the ''Mariner-10'' Mercurys surface differs little from that of the Moon. The ''Mariner-10'' has also discovered the Mercurys atmosphere, which consists of extremely rarefied helium. The helium is continuously supplied to the planet by the solar wind. The Mercury's magnetic field has been discovered, whose strength is 35 x 10 -4 at the Equator and 70 x 10 -4 E at the poles. The inclination of the dipole axis to the Mercury's rotation axis is 7 deg

  18. A Study on Promotion and Implementation of Cleaner Production Practices in Malaysian Industry - Development of a National Program and Action Plan for Promotion of Cleaner Production. Progress Report 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangel, Arne

    This Progress Report presents the initial findings of the research project 'A Study on Promotion and Implementation of Cleaner Production Practices in Malaysian Industry - Development of a National Program and Action Plan for Promotion of Cleaner Production. Progress Report' funded...

  19. Strategies for the Engineered Phytoremediation of Mercury and Arsenic Pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhankher, Om Parkash; Meagher, Richard B.

    2003-03-26

    Phytoremediation is the use of plants to extract, transport, detoxify and/or sequester pollutants of the land, water or air. Mercury and arsenic are among the worst environmental pollutants, adversely affecting the health of hundreds of millions of people worldwide. We have demonstrated that plants can be engineered to take up and tolerate several times the levels of mercury and arsenic that would kill most plant species. Starting with methylmercury and/or ionic mercury contamination, mercury is detoxified, stored below or above ground, and even volatilized as part of the transpiration process and keeping it out of the food chain. Initial efforts with arsenate demonstrate that it can be taken up, transported aboveground, electrochemically reduced to arsenite in leaves and sequestered in thiol-rich peptide complexes. The transgenic mercury remediation strategies also worked in cultivated and wild plant species like canola, rice and cottonwood.

  20. Design and development of automatic sharia compliant wheelchair wheels cleaner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaari, Muhammad Farid; Rasli, Ibrahim Ismail Mohammad; Jamaludin, M. Z. Z. Wan; Isa, W. A. Mohamad; M., H.; Rashid, A. H. Abdul

    2017-04-01

    Sharia compliant wheelchair wheel cleaner was developed in order to assist the muslim Person with Disabilities (PWD) to pray in the mosque without leaving their wheelchair because of the filthy wheels. Though there are many wheelchair wheel cleaning system in the market, it is very rare to find sharia compliant cleaning system that applies sertu concept which is one of the cleaning and purification technique in Islamic practice. The sertu concept is based on 6:1 ratio that refers to the six times pipe water cleaning and one time soiled water cleaning. The development process consists of design stage, fabrication and system installation stage and followed by testing stage. During the design stage, the proposed prototype underwent design brainstorming, operation programming and structural simulation analysis. Once fabricated, the cleaner prototype underwent was tested. The results showed that the prototype can cater load up to 100kg with 1.31×10-6 mm shaft bending displacement. The water ejection timing varied approximately 3% compared to the program.

  1. Optimal alignment sensing of a readout mode cleaner cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Lefebvre, N; Ballmer, S; Evans, M; Waldman, S; Kawabe, K; Frolov, V; Mavalvala, N

    2011-11-15

    Critically coupled resonant optical cavities are often used as mode cleaners in optical systems to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a signal that is encoded as an amplitude modulation of a laser beam. Achieving the best SNR requires maintaining the alignment of the mode cleaner relative to the laser beam on which the signal is encoded. An automatic alignment system that is primarily sensitive to the carrier field component of the beam will not, in general, provide optimal SNR. We present an approach that modifies traditional dither alignment sensing by applying a large amplitude modulation on the signal field, thereby producing error signals that are sensitive to the signal sideband field alignment. When used in conjunction with alignment actuators, this approach can improve the detected SNR; we demonstrate a factor of 3 improvement in the SNR of a kilometer-scale detector of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory. This approach can be generalized to other types of alignment sensors.

  2. Applying real options analysis to assess cleaner energy development strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Ching-Tsung; Lo, Shang-Lien; Lin, Tyrone T.

    2011-01-01

    The energy industry, accounts for the largest portion of CO 2 emissions, is facing the issue of compliance with the national clean energy policy. The methodology for evaluating the energy mix policy is crucial because of the characteristics of lead time embedded with the power generation facilities investment and the uncertainty of future electricity demand. In this paper, a modified binomial model based on sequential compound options, which may account for the lead time and uncertainty as a whole is established, and a numerical example on evaluating the optional strategies and the strategic value of the cleaner energy policy is also presented. It is found that the optimal decision at some nodes in the binomial tree is path dependent, which is different from the standard sequential compound option model with lead time or time lag concept. The proposed modified binomial sequential compound real options model can be generalized and extensively applied to solve the general decision problems that deal with the long lead time of many government policies as well as capital intensive investments. - Highlights: → Introducing a flexible strategic management approach for government policy making. → Developing a modified binomial real options model based on sequential compound options. → Proposing an innovative model for managing the long term policy with lead time. → Applying to evaluate the options of various scenarios of cleaner energy strategies.

  3. Substance flow analysis for mercury emission in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panasiuk D.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Substance Flow Analysis (SFA is an approach showing main sources of emission and flows of pollution to the environment, which allows to define possible environmental risk. Total identified mercury emission to air, soil and water in Poland for year 2010 from anthropogenic sources was estimated as 18.0 Mg. Annual Hg emission to air from by-product sources was equal 13.5 Mg, with the highest share of emission from brown coal-fired power plants. Mercury contained in combustion residues and removed from flue gases is transferred to waste waters, disposed to landfills and used to a concrete production with unknown amounts. Annual mercury emission to air from the use of mercury-containing products (0.5 Mg was estimated by authors based on model for distribution and emissions for batteries, light sources, other electrical and electronic equipment and also for measuring and control equipment. Emission to air from dental practice (0.3 Mg was estimated for combustion of wastes containing dental amalgam and from bodies cremation. SFA for the use of mercury-containing products and dental practice presents significant load of 10.4 Mg mercury contained in hazardous wastes produced annually. It covers wastes of used products, dental amalgam wastes directly from clinics as well as stream from incineration of infectious dental wastes. In the paper mercury discharges to water from large and medium industrial facilities (2.9 Mg and municipal waste-water treatment plants in large agglomerations (0.4 Mg are presented. Smaller loads are generates by leachate transfer from municipal landfills to WWTPs and further to agriculture and also by releases from dental amalgam in buried bodies. The paper indicates lack of information in SFA which should be regarded, mainly concerning mercury releases from municipal landfills to water and soil and emissions from municipal WWTPs to air.

  4. Fate modeling of mercury species and fluxes estimation in an urban river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, Yindong; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Cen; Chen, Long; Wang, Wentao; Hu, Xindi; Wang, Huanhuan; Hu, Dan; Ou, Langbo; Wang, Xuejun; Wang, Qiguang

    2014-01-01

    The fate and transfer of mercury in urban river is an important environmental concern. In this study, QWASI (Quantitative Water–Air–Sediment Interaction) model was selected to estimate the levels of total mercury and three mercury species in water and sediment, and was used to quantify the fluxes of mercury at water/air and sediment/water interfaces of an urban river. The predicted mercury levels in water and sediments were closed to the measured values. Water inflow, re-suspension of sediment and diffusion from sediment to water are major input sources of mercury in water. The net mercury transfer flux from water to air was 0.16 ng/(m 2 h). At the sediment/water interface, a net total mercury transfer of 1.32 ng/(m 2 h) from water to sediment was seen. In addition to the existing dynamic flux chambers measurement, this model method could provide a new perspective to identify the distribution and transfer of mercury in the urban river. -- Highlights: • QWASI could be a good tool to quantify transfer and fate of mercury in environment. • Distribution and flux of mercury species in an urban river was modeled. • Mercury in water mainly came from water inflow, sediment re-suspension and diffusion. • Net mercury transfer from water to air and sediment were 0.16 and 1.32 ng/(m 2 h). -- Quantitative Water–Air–Sediment Interaction model was used to quantify the transfer and fate of mercury in an urban river

  5. Ultra-Stable, New Generation Q-Switched Monolithic Laser Cleaners for Fine Art Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brioschi, F.; Salvadeo, P.

    The increasing use of laser cleaners in fine art conservation boosts the demand on improvements of the laser performances. More power and more wavelengths are required by the current applications, while laser should be more reliable, rugged and compact. The characteristics and performances of a new generation of laser cleaners are presented as a result of a dedicated research and development program.

  6. A 24-h assessment of physical activity and cardio-respiratory fitness among female hospital cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Korshøj; Krustrup, Peter; Jespersen, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of methods for objective 24-h sampling of physical activity among cleaners. Twenty cleaners participated in three 24-h measurements. Amount of steps, heart rate (HR), cardio-respiratory fitness, body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure were me...

  7. Back to Office Report. Mission no.1 to Tanzania as counterpart institution to Cleaner Production Centre of Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1996-01-01

    A presentation of some important actors and institutions in the capacity building within cleaner production in Tanzania......A presentation of some important actors and institutions in the capacity building within cleaner production in Tanzania...

  8. Modeling Mercury in Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL; Parks, Jerry M [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a naturally occurring element that is released into the biosphere both by natural processes and anthropogenic activities. Although its reduced, elemental form Hg(0) is relatively non-toxic, other forms such as Hg2+ and, in particular, its methylated form, methylmercury, are toxic, with deleterious effects on both ecosystems and humans. Microorganisms play important roles in the transformation of mercury in the environment. Inorganic Hg2+ can be methylated by certain bacteria and archaea to form methylmercury. Conversely, bacteria also demethylate methylmercury and reduce Hg2+ to relatively inert Hg(0). Transformations and toxicity occur as a result of mercury interacting with various proteins. Clearly, then, understanding the toxic effects of mercury and its cycling in the environment requires characterization of these interactions. Computational approaches are ideally suited to studies of mercury in proteins because they can provide a detailed picture and circumvent issues associated with toxicity. Here we describe computational methods for investigating and characterizing how mercury binds to proteins, how inter- and intra-protein transfer of mercury is orchestrated in biological systems, and how chemical reactions in proteins transform the metal. We describe quantum chemical analyses of aqueous Hg(II), which reveal critical factors that determine ligand binding propensities. We then provide a perspective on how we used chemical reasoning to discover how microorganisms methylate mercury. We also highlight our combined computational and experimental studies of the proteins and enzymes of the mer operon, a suite of genes that confers mercury resistance in many bacteria. Lastly, we place work on mercury in proteins in the context of what is needed for a comprehensive multi-scale model of environmental mercury cycling.

  9. Mercury in terrestrial forested systems with highly elevated mercury deposition in southwestern China: The risk to insects and potential release from wildfires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Jun; Wang, Zhangwei; Sun, Ting; Zhang, Huan; Zhang, Xiaoshan

    2016-01-01

    Forests are considered a pool of mercury in the global mercury cycle. However, few studies have investigated the distribution of mercury in the forested systems in China. Tieshanping forest catchment in southwest China was impacted by mercury emissions from industrial activities and coal combustions. Our work studied mercury content in atmosphere, soil, vegetation and insect with a view to estimating the potential for mercury release during forest fires. Results of the present study showed that total gaseous mercury (TGM) was highly elevated and the annual mean concentration was 3.51 ± 1.39 ng m −2 . Of the vegetation tissues, the mercury concentration follows the order of leaf/needle > root > bark > branch > bole wood for each species. Total ecosystem mercury pool was 103.5 mg m −2 and about 99.4% of the mercury resides in soil layers (0–40 cm). The remaining 0.6% (0.50 mg m −2 ) of mercury was stored in biomass. The large mercury stocks in the forest ecosystem pose a serious threat for large pluses to the atmospheric mercury during potential wildfires and additional ecological stress to forest insect: dung beetles, cicada and longicorn, with mercury concentration of 1983 ± 446, 49 ± 38 and 7 ± 5 ng g −1 , respectively. Hence, the results obtained in the present study has implications for global estimates of mercury storage in forests, risks to forest insect and potential release to the atmosphere during wildfires. - Highlights: • Mercury in air, soil, biomass and insect were studied at a subtropical forest. • 99.4% of the total ecosystem mercury pools was resided in soil layers. • High mercury pools were large pulses to the atmosphere during potential wildfires. • High mercury deposition in forest pose an ecological stress to insect. - Large mercury pools in forest pose a serious threat for large pluses to the atmospheric mercury during potential wildfires and ecological stress to insect.

  10. Associations between psychosocial work environment and hypertension among non-Western immigrant and Danish cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kasper Vinther; Carneiro, Isabella G; Jørgensen, Marie B

    2012-01-01

    was assessed by the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ). In each population, multivariate logistic regressions were applied testing for an association between each of the COPSOQ scales and hypertension. RESULTS: Models adjusted for age, sex, BMI, smoking, workplace and physical work exertion showed......INTRODUCTION: Non-Western cleaners have reported better psychosocial work environment but worse health compared with their Danish colleagues. The aim of this study was to compare the association between psychosocial work environment and hypertension among non-Western immigrant cleaners and Danish...... cleaners. METHODS: Two hundred and eighty-five cleaners from nine workplaces in Denmark participated in this cross-sectional study. The cleaners were identified as non-Western immigrants (n = 137) or Danes (n = 148). Blood pressure was measured in a seated position, and psychosocial work environment...

  11. Environmental and health aspects of lighting: Mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clear, R.; Berman, S.

    1993-07-01

    Most discharge lamps, including fluorescent lamps, metal halide lamps, and high pressure sodium lamps, contain Mercury, a toxic chemical. Lighting professionals need to be able to respond to questions about the direct hazards of Mercury from accidentally breaking lamps, and the potential environmental hazards of lamp operation and disposal. We calculated the exposures that could occur from an accidental breakage of lamps. Acute poisoning appears almost impossible. Under some circumstances a sealed environment, such as a space station, could be contaminated enough to make it unhealthy for long-term occupation. Mercury becomes a potential environmental hazard after it becomes methylated. Mercury is methylated in aquatic environments, where it may accumulate in fish, eventually rendering them toxic to people and other animals. Lighting causes Mercury to enter the environment directly from lamp disposal, and indirectly from power plant emissions. The environmental tradeoffs between incandescent and discharge lamps depend upon the amounts released by these two sources, their local concentrations, and their probabilities of being methylated. Indirect environmental effects of lighting also include the release of other heavy metals (Cadmium, Lead and Arsenic), and other air pollutants and carbon dioxide that are emitted by fossil fuel power plants. For a given light output, the level of power plant emissions depends upon the efficacy of the light source, and is thus much larger for incandescent lamps than for fluorescent or discharge lamps. As disposal and control technologies change the relative direct and indirect emissions from discharge and incandescent lamps will change.

  12. Assessment of mercury in the Savannah River Site environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvartek, E.J.; Carlton, W.H.; Denham, M.; Eldridge, L.; Newman, M.C.

    1994-09-01

    Mercury has been valued by humans for several millennia. Its principal ore, cinnabar, was mined for its distinctive reddish-gold color and high density. Mercury and its salts were used as medicines and aphrodisiacs. At SRS, mercury originated from one of the following: as a processing aid in aluminum dissolution and chloride precipitation; as part of the tritium facilities' gas handling system; from experimental, laboratory, or process support facilities; and as a waste from site operations. Mercury is also found in Par Pond and some SRS streams as the result of discharges from a mercury-cell-type chlor-alkali plant near the city of Augusta, GA. Reactor cooling water, drawn from the Savannah River, transported mercury onto the SRS. Approximately 80,000 kg of mercury is contained in the high level waste tanks and 10,000 kg is located in the SWDF. Additional quantities are located in the various seepage basins. In 1992, 617 wells were monitored for mercury contamination, with 47 indicating contamination in excess of the 0.002-ppm EPA Primary Drinking Water Standard. More than 20 Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) reports and publications pertinent to mercury (Hg) have been generated during the last two decades. They are divided into three groupings: SRS-specific studies, basic studies of bioaccumulation, and basic studies of effect. Many studies have taken place at Par Pond and Upper Three Runs Creek. Mercury has been detected in wells monitoring the groundwater beneath SRS, but not in water supply wells in excess of the Primary Drinking Water Limit of 0.002 ppm. There has been no significant release of mercury from SRS to the Savannah River. While releases to air are likely, based on process knowledge, modeling of the releases indicates concentrations that are well below the SCDHEC ambient standard

  13. Assessment of mercury in the Savannah River Site environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvartek, E.J.; Carlton, W.H.; Denham, M.; Eldridge, L.; Newman, M.C.

    1994-09-01

    Mercury has been valued by humans for several millennia. Its principal ore, cinnabar, was mined for its distinctive reddish-gold color and high density. Mercury and its salts were used as medicines and aphrodisiacs. At SRS, mercury originated from one of the following: as a processing aid in aluminum dissolution and chloride precipitation; as part of the tritium facilities` gas handling system; from experimental, laboratory, or process support facilities; and as a waste from site operations. Mercury is also found in Par Pond and some SRS streams as the result of discharges from a mercury-cell-type chlor-alkali plant near the city of Augusta, GA. Reactor cooling water, drawn from the Savannah River, transported mercury onto the SRS. Approximately 80,000 kg of mercury is contained in the high level waste tanks and 10,000 kg is located in the SWDF. Additional quantities are located in the various seepage basins. In 1992, 617 wells were monitored for mercury contamination, with 47 indicating contamination in excess of the 0.002-ppm EPA Primary Drinking Water Standard. More than 20 Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) reports and publications pertinent to mercury (Hg) have been generated during the last two decades. They are divided into three groupings: SRS-specific studies, basic studies of bioaccumulation, and basic studies of effect. Many studies have taken place at Par Pond and Upper Three Runs Creek. Mercury has been detected in wells monitoring the groundwater beneath SRS, but not in water supply wells in excess of the Primary Drinking Water Limit of 0.002 ppm. There has been no significant release of mercury from SRS to the Savannah River. While releases to air are likely, based on process knowledge, modeling of the releases indicates concentrations that are well below the SCDHEC ambient standard.

  14. Modified determination of total and inorganic mercury in urine by cold vapor atomic absorption sectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlejohn, D; Fell, G S; Ottaway, J M

    1976-10-01

    In this procedure a single-beam spectrophotometer is used without background correction. By the method of Magos [Analyst (London) 96, 847 (1971)] mercury in undigested urine is complexed to L-cysteine in acid solution. At high pH and in the presence of stannous ions, mercury ions are reduced to elemental mercury. The mercury vapor is partitioned above the reagent solution in a specially designed chemical reduction apparatus similar in principle to that used by Kubasik et al. [Clin. Chem. 18, 1326 (1972)]. The vapor is then flushed by air through an "absorption" cell, where the absorption of the mercury line at 253.7 nm is measured. The value obtained for inorganic mercury subtracted from that for total mercury gives a value for organic mercury. CV's for the inorganic mercury procedure at 40 and 5 mug/liter concentrations were 3.1% and 7.5%, respectively. The detection limit is 0.82 mug/liter. The CV for the total-mercury procedure (20 mug/liter) was 2.6%. Mean analytical recoveries of organic and inorganic mercury were 96.5% and 101%, respectively. We investigated storage conditions for urine and compared results by the present technique with those by activation analysis. Our method is a convenient way to screen individuals who have been exposed to a mercury hazard.

  15. Laying Waste to Mercury: Inexpensive Sorbents Made from Sulfur and Recycled Cooking Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Max J H; Kucera, Renata L; Albuquerque, Inês S; Gibson, Christopher T; Sibley, Alexander; Slattery, Ashley D; Campbell, Jonathan A; Alboaiji, Salah F K; Muller, Katherine A; Young, Jason; Adamson, Nick; Gascooke, Jason R; Jampaiah, Deshetti; Sabri, Ylias M; Bhargava, Suresh K; Ippolito, Samuel J; Lewis, David A; Quinton, Jamie S; Ellis, Amanda V; Johs, Alexander; Bernardes, Gonçalo J L; Chalker, Justin M

    2017-11-16

    Mercury pollution threatens the environment and human health across the globe. This neurotoxic substance is encountered in artisanal gold mining, coal combustion, oil and gas refining, waste incineration, chloralkali plant operation, metallurgy, and areas of agriculture in which mercury-rich fungicides are used. Thousands of tonnes of mercury are emitted annually through these activities. With the Minamata Convention on Mercury entering force this year, increasing regulation of mercury pollution is imminent. It is therefore critical to provide inexpensive and scalable mercury sorbents. The research herein addresses this need by introducing low-cost mercury sorbents made solely from sulfur and unsaturated cooking oils. A porous version of the polymer was prepared by simply synthesising the polymer in the presence of a sodium chloride porogen. The resulting material is a rubber that captures liquid mercury metal, mercury vapour, inorganic mercury bound to organic matter, and highly toxic alkylmercury compounds. Mercury removal from air, water and soil was demonstrated. Because sulfur is a by-product of petroleum refining and spent cooking oils from the food industry are suitable starting materials, these mercury-capturing polymers can be synthesised entirely from waste and supplied on multi-kilogram scales. This study is therefore an advance in waste valorisation and environmental chemistry. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  16. Formation of mercury sulfide from Hg(II)−thiolate complexes in natural organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alain Manceau,; Cyprien Lemouchi,; Mironel Enescu,; Anne-Claire Gaillot,; Martine Lanson,; Valerie Magnin,; Pieter Glatzel,; Poulin, Brett; Ryan, Joseph N.; Aiken, George R.; Isabelle Gautier-Lunea,; Kathryn L. Nagy,

    2015-01-01

    Methylmercury is the environmental form of neurotoxic mercury that is biomagnified in the food chain. Methylation rates are reduced when the metal is sequestered in crystalline mercury sulfides or bound to thiol groups in macromolecular natural organic matter. Mercury sulfide minerals are known to nucleate in anoxic zones, by reaction of the thiol-bound mercury with biogenic sulfide, but not in oxic environments. We present experimental evidence that mercury sulfide forms from thiol-bound mercury alone in aqueous dark systems in contact with air. The maximum amount of nanoparticulate mercury sulfide relative to thiol-bound mercury obtained by reacting dissolved mercury and soil organic matter matches that detected in the organic horizon of a contaminated soil situated downstream from Oak Ridge, TN, in the United States. The nearly identical ratios of the two forms of mercury in field and experimental systems suggest a common reaction mechanism for nucleating the mineral. We identified a chemical reaction mechanism that is thermodynamically favorable in which thiol-bound mercury polymerizes to mercury–sulfur clusters. The clusters form by elimination of sulfur from the thiol complexes via breaking of mercury–sulfur bonds as in an alkylation reaction. Addition of sulfide is not required. This nucleation mechanism provides one explanation for how mercury may be immobilized, and eventually sequestered, in oxygenated surface environments.

  17. Intentional intravenous mercury injection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this case report, intravenous complications, treatment strategies and possible ... Mercury toxicity is commonly associated with vapour inhalation or oral ingestion, for which there exist definite treatment options. Intravenous mercury ... personality, anxiousness, irritability, insomnia, depression and drowsi- ness.[1] However ...

  18. International mercury conference

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Leaner, J

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Mercury (Hg) affects human health and the environment, it calls for immediate action. Action is needed at local, regional and international level to reduce the risk associated with mercury, which is a global international problem, as it is a...

  19. Mercury's shifting, rolling past

    OpenAIRE

    Trulove, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Patterns of scalloped-edged cliffs or lobate scarps on Mercury's surface are thrust faults that are consistent with the planet shrinking and cooling with time. However, compression occurred in the planet's early history and Mariner 10 images revealed decades ago that lobate scarps are among the youngest features on Mercury. Why don't we find more evidence of older compressive features?

  20. MESSENGER: Exploring Mercury's Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, James A.

    2008-01-01

    The MESSENGER mission to Mercury offers our first opportunity to explore this planet's miniature magnetosphere since Mariner 10's brief fly-bys in 1974-5. Mercury's magnetosphere is unique in many respects. The magnetosphere of Mercury is the smallest in the solar system with its magnetic field typically standing off the solar wind only - 1000 to 2000 km above the surface. For this reason there are no closed dri-fi paths for energetic particles and, hence, no radiation belts; the characteristic time scales for wave propagation and convective transport are short possibly coupling kinetic and fluid modes; magnetic reconnection at the dayside magnetopause may erode the subsolar magnetosphere allowing solar wind ions to directly impact the dayside regolith; inductive currents in Mercury's interior should act to modify the solar In addition, Mercury's magnetosphere is the only one with its defining magnetic flux tubes rooted in a planetary regolith as opposed to an atmosphere with a conductive ionosphere. This lack of an ionosphere is thought to be the underlying reason for the brevity of the very intense, but short lived, approx. 1-2 min, substorm-like energetic particle events observed by Mariner 10 in Mercury's magnetic tail. In this seminar, we review what we think we know about Mercury's magnetosphere and describe the MESSENGER science team's strategy for obtaining answers to the outstanding science questions surrounding the interaction of the solar wind with Mercury and its small, but dynamic magnetosphere.

  1. Global Mercury Assessment 2013

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    mercury pollution. This summary report and the accompanying. Technical Background Report for the Global. Mercury Assessment 2013 are developed in response to Decision 25/5, paragraph ... The use of different pollution control technologies in different ...... vegetation, snow, freshwater, and seawater. One of the largest ...

  2. Micrometeorological methods for measurements of mercury emissions over contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.H.; Lindberg, S.E.; Hanson, P.J.; Owens, J.; Myers, T.P.

    1993-01-01

    As part of a larger study involving development and application of field and laboratory methods (micrometeorological, dynamic enclosure chamber, and controlled laboratory chamber methods) to measure the air/surface exchange of Hg vapor, we performed a series of preliminary measurements over contaminated soils. From March--April 1993, we used the modified Bowen ratio (MBR) method to measure emission rates of mercury over a floodplain contaminated with mercury near Oak Ridge, TN. The mercury emission rates measured from contaminated EFPC soils using the MBR method during early spring show that (1) in all cases, the contaminated soils acted as a source of mercury to the atmosphere with source strengths ranging from 17 to 160 ng m -2 h -1 ; and (2) the strengths of mercury emissions can be greatly influenced by the combined effects of surface soil temperature, residence time of air masses over the source area, and turbulence conditions. The mercury fluxes measured in a controlled flow chamber indicate that contaminated soils can exhibit up to an order of magnitude higher emission rates of Hg under conditions of elevated soil temperature, soil structure disturbance, and high turbulence. Mercury emissions from contaminated soils exceeded emissions from background soils by one to two orders of magnitude

  3. Whole house particle removal and clean air delivery rates for in-duct and portable ventilation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintosh, David L; Myatt, Theodore A; Ludwig, Jerry F; Baker, Brian J; Suh, Helen H; Spengler, John D

    2008-11-01

    A novel method for determining whole house particle removal and clean air delivery rates attributable to central and portable ventilation/air cleaning systems is described. The method is used to characterize total and air-cleaner-specific particle removal rates during operation of four in-duct air cleaners and two portable air-cleaning devices in a fully instrumented test home. Operation of in-duct and portable air cleaners typically increased particle removal rates over the baseline rates determined in the absence of operating a central fan or an indoor air cleaner. Removal rates of 0.3- to 0.5-microm particles ranged from 1.5 hr(-1) during operation of an in-duct, 5-in. pleated media filter to 7.2 hr(-1) for an in-duct electrostatic air cleaner in comparison to a baseline rate of 0 hr(-1) when the air handler was operating without a filter. Removal rates for total particulate matter less than 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) mass concentrations were 0.5 hr(-1) under baseline conditions, 0.5 hr(-1) during operation of three portable ionic air cleaners, 1 hr(-1) for an in-duct 1-in. media filter, 2.4 hr(-1) for a single high-efficiency particle arrestance (HEPA) portable air cleaner, 4.6 hr(-1) for an in-duct 5-in. media filter, 4.7 hr(-1) during operation of five portable HEPA filters, 6.1 hr(-1) for a conventional in-duct electronic air cleaner, and 7.5 hr(-1) for a high efficiency in-duct electrostatic air cleaner. Corresponding whole house clean air delivery rates for PM2.5 attributable to the air cleaner independent of losses within the central ventilation system ranged from 2 m3/min for the conventional media filter to 32 m3/min for the high efficiency in-duct electrostatic device. Except for the portable ionic air cleaner, the devices considered here increased particle removal indoors over baseline deposition rates.

  4. Mercury embrittlement of Cu-Al alloys under cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, T. M.; Stoloff, N. S.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of mercury on the room temperature, high cycle fatigue properties of three alloys: Cu-5.5 pct Al, Cu-7.3 pct Al, and Cu-6.3 pct Al-2.5 pct Fe has been determined. Severe embrittlement under cyclic loading in mercury is associated with rapid crack propagation in the presence of the liquid metal. A pronounced grain size effect is noted under mercury, while fatigue properties in air are insensitive to grain size. The fatigue results are discussed in relation to theories of adsorption-induced liquid metal embrittlement.

  5. Potassium permanganate for mercury vapor environmental control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuivinen, D. E.

    1972-01-01

    Potassium permanganate (KMnO4) was evaluated for application in removing mercury vapor from exhaust air systems. The KMnO4 may be used in water solution with a liquid spray scrubber system or as a solid adsorber bed material when impregnated onto a zeolite. Air samples contaminated with as much as 112 mg/cu m of mercury were scrubbed to 0.06mg/cum with the KMnO4-impregnated zeolite (molecular sieve material). The water spray solution of permanganate was also found to be as effective as the impregnated zeolite. The KMnO4-impregnated zeolite was applied as a solid adsorber material to (1) a hardware decontamination system, (2) a model incinerator, and (3) a high vacuum chamber for ion engine testing with mercury as the propellant. A liquid scrubber system was also applied in an incinerator system. Based on the results of these experiments, it is concluded that the use of KMnO4 can be an effective method for controlling noxious mercury vapor.

  6. Municipal actions to reduce mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-03-15

    This paper presented proper management practices for products containing mercury. The measures can help reduce mercury releases, occupational exposure and mercury spills, thereby preventing impacts on human health and the environment. Despite mercury's toxic nature, many common products that contain mercury are commercially available. These include thermostats, thermometers, fluorescent lamps, pressure measuring devices, electrical switches and relays, and dental amalgam. Mercury emissions are also associated with base metal smelting, waste incineration and coal-fired power generation. Mercury in the environment is a global issue, because it can travel in the atmosphere on wind currents. The actions taken by municipalities to address the issue include reducing or eliminating mercury releases from internal municipal operations and sources within the community. This document provided guidance on how to develop a Municipal Mercury Elimination Policy and Plan that will help reduce mercury releases. It presented information and case studies that will help municipalities manage mercury-containing products found in municipal buildings and street lighting. Information on sources of mercury from within the community was presented along with case studies that can help municipalities determine where community action is needed to reduce mercury releases. The 5 modules of this document were intended to help municipalities identify priorities, timelines and budget requirements for mercury initiatives. It was emphasized that municipalities that adopt a Municipal Mercury Elimination Policy and Plan formally commit to reducing and eliminating mercury from the environment. tabs., figs.

  7. Getting Mercury out of Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999

    This guide was prepared while working with many Massachusetts schools to remove items that contain mercury and to find suitable alternatives. It contains fact sheets on: mercury in science laboratories and classrooms, mercury in school buildings and maintenance areas, mercury in the medical office and in medical technology classrooms in vocational…

  8. Radiation technology helps China’s industries make water cleaner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawerth, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    China is pursuing the use of radiation technology as part of its wastewater treatment methods to further efforts to manage industrial waste in an environmentally friendly way. “Treating the water that comes from our industries is very important, so we have been doing this for a long time. Now we want to become better at making our water cleaner,” said Jianlong Wang, Vice-President of the Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology (INET) at Tsinghua University in Beijing. “We are receiving a lot of support from the IAEA to use electron beam based technologies to help us get rid of various water pollutants that the other methods cannot do on their own.”

  9. Cleaner production at pharmaceutical industry: first steps assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilaine Conceição Rezende

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Cleaner Production (CP is an environmental management system effective to comply the environmental obligations and promote sustainable development of enterprises. In this study, the implementing possibilities of CP practices were evaluated to pharmaceutical industry, through prior identification procedures for Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Practices. The study was conducted in a scientific and health care institution, which produces pharmaceutical drugs and makes assistance for public health. The production process was evaluated and made a survey of the main points of waste and sewage generations in each stage, in order to diagnose the measures of CP established and propose new actions. Thus, by using this tool, it was possible to demonstrate the reduction of environmental impacts associated with pharmaceutical production. The Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Practices also contributed to the implementation of measures CP, preserving the final product quality, and generating environmental and economic benefits.

  10. Structural optimization of Beach-Cleaner snatch mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Lian-ge; Wei, Qin-rui; Zhou, Shui-ting; Peng, Qian; Zhao, Yuan-jiang; Wang, Fang

    2017-12-01

    In the working process of one Beach-Cleaner snatch institution, the second knuckle arm angular speed was too high, which resulted in the pick-up device would crash into the basic arm in the fold process. The rational position of joint to reduce the second knuckle arm angular speed and the force along the axis direction of the most dangerous point can be obtained from the kinematics simulation of snatch institution in the code of Automatic Dynamic Analysis off Mechanical Systems (ADAAMS). The feasible of scheme was validated by analyzing the optimized model in the software of ANSYS. The analysis results revealed: the open angle between the basic arm and the second knuckle arm improved from 125.0° too 135.24°, thee second knuckle arm angular speed decreased from 990.74rad/s to 58.53 rad/s, Not only improved work efficiency of snatch institution, but also prolonged its operation smoothness.

  11. Cleaner shrimp use a rocking dance to advertise cleaning service to clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Justine H A; Curtis, Lynda M; Grutter, Alexandra S

    2005-04-26

    Signals transmit information to receivers about sender attributes, increase the fitness of both parties, and are selected for in cooperative interactions between species to reduce conflict [1, 2]. Marine cleaning interactions are known for stereotyped behaviors [3-6] that likely serve as signals. For example, "dancing" and "tactile dancing" in cleaner fish may serve to advertise cleaning services to client fish [7] and manipulate client behavior [8], respectively. Cleaner shrimp clean fish [9], yet are cryptic in comparison to cleaner fish. Signals, therefore, are likely essential for cleaner shrimp to attract clients. Here, we show that the yellow-beaked cleaner shrimp [10] Urocaridella sp. c [11] uses a stereotypical side-to-side movement, or "rocking dance," while approaching potential client fish in the water column. This dance was followed by a cleaning interaction with the client 100% of the time. Hungry cleaner shrimp, which are more willing to clean than satiated ones [12], spent more time rocking and in closer proximity to clients Cephalopholis cyanostigma than satiated ones, and when given a choice, clients preferred hungry, rocking shrimp. The rocking dance therefore influenced client behavior and, thus, appears to function as a signal to advertise the presence of cleaner shrimp to potential clients.

  12. Mercury's Dynamic Magnetic Tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, James A.

    2010-01-01

    The Mariner 10 and MESSENGER flybys of Mercury have revealed a magnetosphere that is likely the most responsive to upstream interplanetary conditions of any in the solar system. The source of the great dynamic variability observed during these brief passages is due to Mercury's proximity to the Sun and the inverse proportionality between reconnection rate and solar wind Alfven Mach number. However, this planet's lack of an ionosphere and its small physical dimensions also contribute to Mercury's very brief Dungey cycle, approx. 2 min, which governs the time scale for internal plasma circulation. Current observations and understanding of the structure and dynamics of Mercury's magnetotail are summarized and discussed. Special emphasis will be placed upon such questions as: 1) How much access does the solar wind have to this small magnetosphere as a function of upstream conditions? 2) What roles do heavy planetary ions play? 3) Do Earth-like substorms take place at Mercury? 4) How does Mercury's tail respond to extreme solar wind events such coronal mass ejections? Prospects for progress due to advances in the global magnetohydrodynamic and hybrid simulation modeling and the measurements to be taken by MESSENGER after it enters Mercury orbit on March 18, 2011 will be discussed.

  13. Mercury vapour exposure during dental student training in amalgam removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Robin; O'Connor, Andrea; Lamey, Brianne

    2013-10-03

    Amalgam that is used for dental fillings contains approximately 50% elemental mercury. During dental student training, amalgam is often removed by drilling without the use of water spray and suction, which are protective measures in preventing mercury aerosol. In this study we measured mercury vapor levels in ambient air during amalgam removal as is typically performed in dental training. Mercury vapor levels in ambient air were measured in a dental school laboratory during removal of amalgam fillings from artificial teeth set into a dental jaw simulator. Mercury vapor was measured under three conditions (25 measurements each): with the simultaneous use of water spray and suction, with the use of suction only, and with the use of neither suction nor water spray. These three conditions are all used during dental student training. Results were compared to Alberta occupational exposure limits for mercury vapor in order to assess potential occupational risk to students. Analysis of variance testing was used to compare data obtained under the three conditions. When water spray and suction were used, mercury vapor levels ranged from 4.0 to 19.0 μg/m3 (arithmetic mean = 8.0 μg/m3); when suction only was used, mercury vapor levels ranged from 14.0 to 999.0 (999.0 μg/m3 represents the high limit detection of the Jerome analyzer) (arithmetic mean = 141.0 μg/m3); when neither suction nor water was used, the vapor levels ranged from 34.0 to 796.0 μg/m3 (arithmetic mean = 214.0 μg/m3). The Alberta Occupational Health and Safety threshold limit value for mercury vapor over an eight-hour time-weighted period is 25.0 μg/m3. The absolute ceiling for mercury vapor, not to be exceeded at any time, is 125.0 μg/m3. When both water spray and suction were used, mercury vapor levels were consistently below this threshold. When suction without water spray was used, mercury vapor levels exceeded the safety threshold 8% of the time. When neither water spray nor

  14. Mercury emissions from coal combustion in Silesia, analysis using geostatistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zasina, Damian; Zawadzki, Jaroslaw

    2015-04-01

    Data provided by the UNEP's report on mercury [1] shows that solid fuel combustion in significant source of mercury emission to air. Silesia, located in southwestern Poland, is notably affected by mercury emission due to being one of the most industrialized Polish regions: the place of coal mining, production of metals, stone mining, mineral quarrying and chemical industry. Moreover, Silesia is the region with high population density. People are exposed to severe risk of mercury emitted from both: industrial and domestic sources (i.e. small household furnaces). Small sources have significant contribution to total emission of mercury. Official and statistical analysis, including prepared for international purposes [2] did not provide data about spatial distribution of the mercury emitted to air, however number of analysis on Polish public power and energy sector had been prepared so far [3; 4]. The distribution of locations exposed for mercury emission from small domestic sources is interesting matter merging information from various sources: statistical, economical and environmental. This paper presents geostatistical approach to distibution of mercury emission from coal combustion. Analysed data organized in 2 independent levels: individual, bottom-up approach derived from national emission reporting system [5; 6] and top down - regional data calculated basing on official statistics [7]. Analysis, that will be presented, will include comparison of spatial distributions of mercury emission using data derived from sources mentioned above. Investigation will include three voivodeships of Poland: Lower Silesian, Opole (voivodeship) and Silesian using selected geostatistical methodologies including ordinary kriging [8]. References [1] UNEP. Global Mercury Assessment 2013: Sources, Emissions, Releases and Environmental Transport. UNEP Chemicals Branch, Geneva, Switzerland, 2013. [2] NCEM. Poland's Informative Inventory Report 2014. NCEM at the IEP-NRI, 2014. http

  15. Inorganic: the other mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risher, John F; De Rosa, Christopher T

    2007-11-01

    There is a broad array of mercury species to which humans may be exposed. While exposure to methylmercury through fish consumption is widely recognized, the public is less aware of the sources and potential toxicity of inorganic forms of mercury. Some oral and laboratory thermometers, barometers, small batteries, thermostats, gas pressure regulators, light switches, dental amalgam fillings, cosmetic products, medications, cultural/religious practices, and gold mining all represent potential sources of exposure to inorganic forms of mercury. The route of exposure, the extent of absorption, the pharmacokinetics, and the effects all vary with the specific form of mercury and the magnitude and duration of exposure. If exposure is suspected, a number of tissue analyses can be conducted to confirm exposure or to determine whether an exposure might reasonably be expected to be biologically significant. By contrast with determination of exposure to methylmercury, for which hair and blood are credible indicators, urine is the preferred biological medium for the determination of exposure to inorganic mercury, including elemental mercury, with blood normally being of value only if exposure is ongoing. Although treatments are available to help rid the body of mercury in cases of extreme exposure, prevention of exposure will make such treatments unnecessary. Knowing the sources of mercury and avoiding unnecessary exposure are the prudent ways of preventing mercury intoxication. When exposure occurs, it should be kept in mind that not all unwanted exposures will result in adverse health consequences. In all cases, elimination of the source of exposure should be the first priority of public health officials.

  16. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT II, MAINTAINING THE AIR SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE AIR SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE (1) OPERATION AND FUNCTION, (2) AIR CLEANER, (3) AIR SHUT-DOWN HOUSING, (4) EXHAUST SYSTEM, (5) BLOWER, (6) TURBOCHARGER, AND (7) TROUBLE-SHOOTING TIPS ON THE AIR SYSTEM. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A…

  17. The method of determination of mercury adsorption from flue gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budzyń Stanisław

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For several recent years Faculty of Energy and Fuels of the AGH University of Science and Technology in Krakow conduct intensive studies on the occurrence of mercury contained in thermal and coking coals, as well as on the possible reduction of fossil-fuel mercury emissions. This research focuses, among others, on application of sorbents for removal of mercury from flue gases. In this paper we present the methodology for testing mercury adsorption using various types of sorbents, in laboratory conditions. Our model assumes burning a coal sample, with a specific mercury content, in a strictly determined time period and temperature conditions, oxygen or air flow rates, and the flow of flue gases through sorbent in a specific temperature. It was developed for particular projects concerning the possibilities of applying different sorbents to remove mercury from flue gases. Test stand itself is composed of a vertical pipe furnace inside which a quartz tube was mounted for sample burning purposes. At the furnace outlet, there is a heated glass vessel with a sorbent sample through which flue gases are passing. Furnace allows burning at a defined temperature. The exhaust gas flow path is heated to prevent condensation of the mercury vapor prior to contact with a sorbent. The sorbent container is positioned in the heating element, with controlled and stabilized temperature, which allows for testing mercury sorption in various temperatures. Determination of mercury content is determined before (coal and sorbent, as well as after the process (sorbent and ash. The mercury balance is calculated based on the Hg content determination results. This testing method allows to study sorbent efficiency, depending on sorption temperature, sorbent grain size, and flue-gas rates.

  18. Mercury from combustion sources: a review of the chemical species emitted and their transport in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpi, A.

    1997-01-01

    Different species of mercury have different physical/chemical properties and thus behave quite differentially in air pollution control equipment and in the atmosphere. In general, emission of mercury from coal combustion sources are approximately 20-50% elemental mercury (Hg 0 ) and 50-80% divalent mercury (Hg(II)), which may be predominantly HgCl 2 . Emissions of mercury from waste incinerators are approximately 10-20% Hg 0 and 75-85% Hg(II). The partitioning of mercury in flue gas between the elemental and divalent forms may be dependent on the concentration of particulate carbon, HCl and other pollutants in the stack emissions. The emission of mercury from combustion facilities depends on the species in the exhaust stream and the type of air pollution control equipment used at the source. Air pollution control equipment for mercury removal at combustion facilities includes activated carbon injection, sodium sulfide injection and wet lime/limestone flue gas desulfurization. White Hg(II) is water-soluble and may be removed form the atmosphere by wet and dry deposition close to the combustion sources, the combination of a high vapor pressure and low water-solubility facilitate the long-range transport of Hg 0 in the atmosphere. Background mercury in the atmosphere is predominantly Hg 0 . Elemental mercury is eventually removed from the atmosphere by dry deposition onto surfaces and by wet deposition after oxidation to water-soluble, divalent mercury. 62 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  19. Research on Duct Flow Field Optimisation of a Robot Vacuum Cleaner

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Xiao-bo; Wang, Hai-shun; Liu, Hua-shan

    2011-01-01

    The duct of a robot vacuum cleaner is the length of the flow channel between the inlet of the rolling brush blower and the outlet of the vacuum blower. To cope with the pressure drop problem of the duct flow field in a robot vacuum cleaner, a method based on Pressure Implicit with Splitting of Operators (PRISO) algorithm is introduced and the optimisation design of the duct flow field is implemented. Firstly, the duct structure in a robot vacuum cleaner is taken as a research object, with the...

  20. Reactions of dairy cows during the operation of a robotic slat cleaner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Stülpner

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available During manure removal, robotic slat cleaners move in close proximity to dairy cows. The present study investigated the influence of a robotic cleaner on the animals by video recording and analysing their reactions. As most important influence factors concerning individual animal reactions, the small proportion of 8 % of marked reactions by cows to the slat robot as well as the actual distance between the cows and the slat robot, indicated a good adaption of dairy cows to the equipment. Observation of the complete herd of cows demonstrated that animals increased their movement from lying area to feeding area while the robotic slat cleaner was operating.

  1. [Open-top Chamber for in situ Research on Response of Mercury Enrichment in Rice to the Rising Gaseous Elemental Mercury in the Atmosphere].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Wang, Zhang-wei; Zhang, Xiao-shan; Qin, Pu-feng; Lu, Hai-jun

    2015-08-01

    In situ research was conducted on the response of mercury enrichment in rice organs to elevated gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) with open-top chambers (OTCs) fumigation experiment and soil Hg enriched experiment. The results showed that Hg concentrations in roots were generally correlated with soil Hg concentrations (R = 0.9988, P 0.05), indicating that Hg in rice roots was mainly from soil. Hg concentrations in stems increased linearly (R(B) = 0.9646, R(U) = 0.9831, P atmosphere respectively, and yet only 8%-56% of mercury in bottom-stem was attributed to air. Therefore, mercury in rice aboveground biomass was mainly from the atmosphere, and these results will provide theoretical basis for the regional atmospheric mercury budgets and the model of mercury cycling.

  2. Cleaner fuels for ships provide public health benefits with climate tradeoffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofiev, Mikhail; Winebrake, James J; Johansson, Lasse; Carr, Edward W; Prank, Marje; Soares, Joana; Vira, Julius; Kouznetsov, Rostislav; Jalkanen, Jukka-Pekka; Corbett, James J

    2018-02-06

    We evaluate public health and climate impacts of low-sulphur fuels in global shipping. Using high-resolution emissions inventories, integrated atmospheric models, and health risk functions, we assess ship-related PM 2.5 pollution impacts in 2020 with and without the use of low-sulphur fuels. Cleaner marine fuels will reduce ship-related premature mortality and morbidity by 34 and 54%, respectively, representing a ~ 2.6% global reduction in PM 2.5 cardiovascular and lung cancer deaths and a ~3.6% global reduction in childhood asthma. Despite these reductions, low-sulphur marine fuels will still account for ~250k deaths and ~6.4 M childhood asthma cases annually, and more stringent standards beyond 2020 may provide additional health benefits. Lower sulphur fuels also reduce radiative cooling from ship aerosols by ~80%, equating to a ~3% increase in current estimates of total anthropogenic forcing. Therefore, stronger international shipping policies may need to achieve climate and health targets by jointly reducing greenhouse gases and air pollution.

  3. Air-snowpack exchange of bromine, ozone and mercury in the springtime Arctic simulated by the 1-D model PHANTAS - Part 1: In-snow bromine activation and its impact on ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, K.; McConnell, J. C.; Staebler, R. M.; Dastoor, A. P.

    2013-08-01

    To provide a theoretical framework towards better understanding of ozone depletion events (ODEs) and atmospheric mercury depletion events (AMDEs) in the polar boundary layer, we have developed a one-dimensional model that simulates multiphase chemistry and transport of trace constituents from porous snowpack and through the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) as a unified system. In this paper, we describe a general configuration of the model and the results of simulations related to reactive bromine release from the snowpack and ODEs during the Arctic spring. The model employs a chemical mechanism adapted from the one previously used for the simulation of multiphase halogen chemistry involving deliquesced sea-salt aerosols in the marine boundary layer. A common set of aqueous-phase reactions describe chemistry both in the liquid-like (or brine) layer on the grain surface of the snowpack and in "haze" aerosols mainly composed of sulfate in the atmosphere. The process of highly soluble/reactive trace gases, whether entering the snowpack from the atmosphere or formed via gas-phase chemistry in the snowpack interstitial air (SIA), is simulated by the uptake on brine-covered snow grains and subsequent reactions in the aqueous phase while being traveled vertically within the SIA. A "bromine explosion", by which, in a conventional definition, HOBr formed in the ambient air is deposited and then converted heterogeneously to Br2, is a dominant process of reactive bromine formation in the top 1 mm (or less) layer of the snowpack. Deeper in the snowpack, HOBr formed within the SIA leads to an in-snow bromine explosion, but a significant fraction of Br2 is also produced via aqueous radical chemistry in the brine on the surface of the snow grains. These top- and deeper-layer productions of Br2 both contribute to the Br2 release into the atmosphere, but the deeper-layer production is found to be more important for the net outflux of reactive bromine. Although ozone is removed via

  4. Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.

    1988-01-01

    A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H.sub.2 O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H.sub.2 O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds.

  5. The tectonics of Mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melosh, H.J.; Mckinnon, W.B.

    1988-01-01

    The probable tectonic history of Mercury and the relative sequence of events are discussed on the basis of data collected by the Mariner-10 spacecraft. Results indicate that Mercury's tectonic activity was confined to its early history; its endogenic activity was principally due to a small change in the shape of its lithosphere, caused by tidal despinning, and a small change in area caused by shrinkage due to cooling. Exogenic processes, in particular the impact activity, have produced more abundant tectonic features. Many features associated with the Caloris basin are due to loading of Mercury's thick lithosphere by extrusive lavas or subsidence due to magma withdrawal. It is emphasized that tectonic features observed on Mercury yield insight into the earliest tectonic events on planets like Mars and, perhaps, the earth, where subsequent events obscured or erased the most ancient tectonic records

  6. Mercury in human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapauan, P.A.; Cruz, C.C.; Verceluz, F.P.

    1980-10-01

    The analysis of mercury (Hg) in scalp hair obtained from individuals residing in five different localities in the Philippines - Metro Manila, Naga City in Bicol, Bataan, Oriental Mindoro, and Palawan is presented. An overall mean of 1.46 ug/g of hair was obtained for all samples excluding those from Palawan and represents a baseline value.'' In terms of the mercury levels found in hair, the Honda Bay area in Palawan is, relatively, a ''contaminated area.'' (author)

  7. FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING OF MERCURY CONTROL IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses the existing knowledge base applicable to mercury (Hg) control in coal-fired boilers and outlines the gaps in knowledge that can be filled by experimentation and data gathering. Mercury can be controlled by existing air pollution control devices or by retrofit...

  8. Evaluation of mercury speciation by EPA (Draft) Method 29

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laudal, D.L.; Heidt, M.K. [Energy & Environmental Research Center, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Nott, B. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments require that the U.S. Environmental protection Agency (EPA) assess the health risks associated with mercury emissions. Also, the law requires a separate assessment of health risks posed by the emission of 189 tract chemicals (including mercury) for electric utility steam-generating units. In order to conduct a meaningful assessment of health and environmental effects, we must have, among other things, a reliable and accurate method to measure mercury emissions. In addition, the rate of mercury deposition and the type of control strategies used may depend upon the type of mercury emitted (i.e., whether it is in the oxidized or elemental form). It has been speculated that EPA (Draft) Method 29 can speciate mercury by selective absorption; however, this claim has yet to be proven. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have contracted with the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) at University of North Dakota to evaluate EPA (Draft) Method 29 at the pilot-scale level. The objective of the work is to determine whether EPA (Draft) Method 29 can reliably quantify and speciate mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired boilers.

  9. Analytical investigation of relative motion of contamination particles in gravitational cleaner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. I. Терьохін

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Analytical investigation of relative motion of contamination particles in liquids when cleaned in gravitation cleaner is practically absent, i.e. the transmission power inertia F™ is balanced by horizontal constituent of Stoke's resistance power

  10. [Acroosteolysis in PVC autoclave cleaners: history of an occupational disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zocchetti, C; Osculati, A; Colosio, C

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the history of an occupational disease which has now disappeared: acroosteolysis of manual tank cleaners in the production of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), which is a rare disease characterized by destructive alterations of the distal phalanges of the hands. All the available literature on this disease was examined. The history of acroosteolysis was studied within the general framework of the history of the discovery of adverse health effects of exposure to vinyl chloride, and this history was studied up to the end of the 1960's. The disease was observed for the first time in mid-1963 in Belgium (Jemeppe) in a chemical plant operated by Solvay, and affected two workers whose job was the manual cleaning of vessels used for the polymerization of vinyl chloride; similar cases occurred in almost all PVC production plants all over the world, but not in the plants where the main activity was the production of vinyl chloride monomer (VCM). Little more than one hundred cases are described in the scientific literature, and this number increases by a few dozen if we consider known but unpublished cases. These figures confirm the rarity of the disease, which peaked at the end of the 1960's and disappeared during the 1970's, probably due to the complete elimination of manual reactor cleaning. Observation of the disease lasted no more than fifteen years and the disease was not replicated in experimental conditions on animals. The disease was clinically characterized, had a short latency (from several months to several years), was rare and unequivocally linked to the manual cleaning of PVC polymerization tanks. However many questions still remain open: the period when the disease first appeared (many years after the start of PVC production in the world), the etiology of the disease (the most accredited hypothesis considers three concomitant factors: a chemical factor--one of the many substances used during polymerization, and particularly vinyl chloride monomer

  11. IMPACT OF COSOLVENT FLUSHING ON SUBSURFACE MICROBIAL ECOLOGY AT THE FORMER SAGE'S DRY CLEANER SITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Solvent Extraction Residual Biotreatment (SERB) technology was evaluated at the former Sage's Dry Cleaner site in Jacksonville, FL where an area of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) contamination was identified. The SERB technology is a treatment train approach to complete site rest...

  12. Source, concentration, and distribution of elemental mercury in the atmosphere in Toronto, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cairns, Elaine; Tharumakulasingam, Kavitharan; Athar, Makshoof; Yousaf, Muhammad; Cheng, Irene; Huang, Y.; Lu, Julia; Yap, Dave

    2011-01-01

    Atmospheric gaseous elemental mercury [GEM] at 1.8, 4, and 59 m above ground, in parking lots, and in indoor and outdoor air was measured in Toronto City, Canada from May 2008-July 2009. The average GEM value at 1.8 m was 1.89 ± 0.62 ng m -3 . The GEM values increased with elevation. The average GEM in underground parking lots ranged from 1.37 to 7.86 ng m -3 and was higher than those observed from the surface parking lots. The GEM in the indoor air ranged from 1.21 to 28.50 ng m -3 , was higher in the laboratories than in the offices, and was much higher than that in the outdoor air. All these indicate that buildings serve as sources of mercury to the urban atmosphere. More studies are needed to estimate the contribution of urban areas to the atmospheric mercury budget and the impact of indoor air on outdoor air quality and human health. - Highlights: → Buildings served as mercury sources to urban atmosphere. → Atmospheric mercury level increased with increasing height in the street canyon. → Emission from vehicles and ground surfaces was not the major sources of Hg to urban air. → Mercury levels were higher in indoor than outdoor air and in laboratories than in offices. → Mercury levels were higher in the outdoor air near building walls. - Buildings serve as sources of gaseous elemental mercury and research is needed to quantify the emission and to assess the impact of indoor air on outdoor air quality and human health.

  13. Influence of emissions on regional atmospheric mercury concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bieser J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is a global pollutant that is rapidly transported in the atmosphere. Unlike the majority of air pollutants the background concentrations of mercury play a major role for the atmospheric concentrations on a hemispheric scale. In this study the influence of regional anthropogenic emissions in comparison to the global emissions on mercury concentrations over Europe are investigated. For this purpose an advanced threedimensional model system is used that consists of three components. The emission model SMOKE-EU, the meteorological model COSMO-CLM, and the chemistry transport model (CTM CMAQ. A variety of sensitivity runs is performed in order to determine the influence of different driving factors (i.e. boundary conditions, anthropogenic and natural emissions, emission factors, meteorological fields on the atmoshperic concentrations of different mercury species. This study is part of the European FP7 project GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System. The aim is to identify the most important drivers for atmospheric mercury in order to optimize future regional modelling studies in the course of the GMOS project. Moreover, the model results are used to determine areas of interest for air-plane based in-situ measurements which are also part of GMOS.

  14. Method and apparatus for monitoring mercury emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Michael D.; Schlager, Richard J.; Sappey, Andrew D.; Sagan, Francis J.; Marmaro, Roger W.; Wilson, Kevin G.

    1997-01-01

    A mercury monitoring device that continuously monitors the total mercury concentration in a gas. The device uses the same chamber for converting speciated mercury into elemental mercury and for measurement of the mercury in the chamber by radiation absorption techniques. The interior of the chamber is resistant to the absorption of speciated and elemental mercury at the operating temperature of the chamber.

  15. Evaluation of mercury vapor in dental offices in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasani Tabatabaei M.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Dental Amalgam is a common restorative material for posterior teeth. Because of Hg content in the composition of amalgam, during the handling of material, mercury may release as vapor in the environment. Excess amount of mercury vapor can cause serious health problems in dental personnel. The aim of this investigation was to determine mercury vapor concentration in working environment of dentists in Tehran. Materials and Methods: 211 dental clinics were participated in this cross-sectional study. The clinics were randomly selected from different regions of Tehran (north, center, south, east and west. The dentists were asked to complete a questionnaire including items on demographic characteristics such as age, sex and work history, method of handling of amalgam, environmental characteristics and general health conditions. Environmental measurements of mercury vapor in dentists’ offices were done by mercury absorption tubes (Hydrar and personal pumps (SKC, 222-3, England as suggested in NIOSH method. Analysis of air samples was done by atomic absorption spectrophotometery (cold vapor. The data were analyzed by non-parametric tests (Kruskall Wallis, Mann-Whitney and Kendall.P<0.05 as the level of significance. Results: The mean mercury vapor concentration in dentists’ offices was 8.39(±9.68 µg/m³.There was no significant relationship between the urine mercury of dentists (3.107±3.95 and the air Hg vapor concentration of their offices. Using precapsulated amalgam showed significantly less Hg vapor than bulk amalgam (P=0.034. Also the surface area of working room and air Hg vapor (P=0.009 had a significant relationship (P=0.009 r=0.81. There was not any significant correlation between mercury vapor and other factors such as working hours per day and working days per week, squeezing of triturated amalgam or not, storage medium of set amalgam (water or fixer solution, mercury storage method and type of ventilation

  16. Pairs of cleaner fish prolong interaction duration with client reef fish by increasing service quality

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Gingins; Redouan Bshary

    2015-01-01

    Few biological examples of cooperation seem to precisely fit the assumptions of an iterated prisoner’s dilemma. In an attempt to increase biological validity, one model altered the assumption that cooperating is an all-or-nothing decision to a situation where benefits are a function of interaction duration, which in turn is a function of the levels of cooperation. A potential application involves pairs of cleaner fish coinspecting a client fish. In this mutualism, clients visit cleaners to ha...

  17. Catalysts for cleaner combustion of coal, wood and briquettes sulfur dioxide reduction options for low emission sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.V. [Global Environmental Solutions, Inc., Morton Grove, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Coal fired, low emission sources are a major factor in the air quality problems facing eastern European cities. These sources include: stoker-fired boilers which feed district heating systems and also meet local industrial steam demand, hand-fired boilers which provide heat for one building or a small group of buildings, and masonary tile stoves which heat individual rooms. Global Environmental Systems is marketing through Global Environmental Systems of Polane, Inc. catalysts to improve the combustion of coal, wood or fuel oils in these combustion systems. PCCL-II Combustion Catalysts promotes more complete combustion, reduces or eliminates slag formations, soot, corrosion and some air pollution emissions and is especially effective on high sulfur-high vanadium residual oils. Glo-Klen is a semi-dry powder continuous acting catalyst that is injected directly into the furnace of boilers by operating personnel. It is a multi-purpose catalyst that is a furnace combustion catalyst that saves fuel by increasing combustion efficiency, a cleaner of heat transfer surfaces that saves additional fuel by increasing the absorption of heat, a corrosion-inhibiting catalyst that reduces costly corrosion damage and an air pollution reducing catalyst that reduces air pollution type stack emissions. The reduction of sulfur dioxides from coal or oil-fired boilers of the hand fired stoker design and larger, can be controlled by the induction of the Glo-Klen combustion catalyst and either hydrated lime or pulverized limestone.

  18. Ecological and physiological parameters of mercury and cesium-137 accumulation in the raccoon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, A.H.

    1981-01-01

    Raccoons from 4 regions in the southeastern Coastal Plain were evaluated for mercury content. Mercury content of hair when used as an indicator of total body mercury content was significantly different among 3 of the 4 areas: Okefenokee Swamp, Eglin Air Force Base, and Sapelo Island on the Georgia Coast. Raccoons from Echols County Georgia were not significantly different from those of the Okefenokee. Mercury in the liver and kidney was significantly different between Okefenokee and Sapelo. There was a strong correlation between the age of the raccoon and the mercury in hair, with older animals having higher concentrations. This relationship was also valid for most other tissues. There was evidence that mercury content in some tissues was correlated with the season and the body condition of the raccoon. Mercury was not transferred through the placenta to the fetal raccoons. There was a strong relationship of mercury content to raccoon behavioral characteristics. Raccoon body weight was slightly different between the areas studied. Cesium-137 values in raccoons were significantly different between the Okefenokee and Sapelo Island. Cesium-137 content was correlated with raccoon age, body weight, and mercury content. Generally non-detectable levels of chlorinated hydrocarbons and PCB were found in Okefenokee raccoons. Mercury concentrations in crayfish were generally low but probably of importance in the raccoon food chain. The biological half life of mercury in brain, gonad, pancreas, spleen, heart, and lung was approximately 52 days. The half-life of mercury in muscle was 35 days. Mercury content of hair, liver, and kidney decreased at very slow rates, with biological half lives of 229, 108, and 138 days. This was probably due to the role of these tissues in clearance of mercury from the body, and to the molting pattern of raccoon hair

  19. Final disposal options for mercury/uranium mixed wastes from the Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorin, A.H.; Leckey, J.H.; Nulf, L.E.

    1994-01-01

    Laboratory testing was completed on chemical stabilization and physical encapsulation methods that are applicable (to comply with federal and state regulations) to the final disposal of both hazardous and mixed hazardous elemental mercury waste that is in either of the following categories: (1) waste generated during decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities on mercury-contaminated buildings, such as Building 9201-4 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, or (2) waste stored and regulated under either the Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement or the Federal Facilities Compliance Act. Methods were used that produced copper-mercury, zinc-mercury, and sulfur-mercury materials at room temperature by dry mixing techniques. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) results for mercury on batches of both the copper-mercury and the sulfur-mercury amalgams consistently produced leachates with less than the 0.2-mg/L Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulatory limit for mercury. The results clearly showed that the reaction of mercury with sulfur at room temperature produces black mercuric sulfide, a material that is well suited for land disposal. The results also showed that the copper-mercury and zinc-mercury amalgams had major adverse properties that make them undesirable for land disposal. In particular, they reacted readily in air to form oxides and liberate elemental mercury. Another major finding of this study is that sulfur polymer cement is potentially useful as a physical encapsulating agent for mercuric sulfide. This material provides a barrier in addition to the chemical stabilization that further prevents mercury, in the form of mercuric sulfide, from migrating into the environment

  20. Mercury pollution in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Jinap, S; Ismail, Ahmad; Mahyudin, Nor Ainy

    2012-01-01

    Although several studies have been published on levels of mercury contamination of the environment, and of food and human tissues in Peninsular Malaysia, there is a serious dearth of research that has been performed in East Malaysia (Sabah and Sarawak). Industry is rapidly developing in East Malaysia, and, hence, there is a need for establishing baseline levels of mercury contamination in environmental media in that part of the country by performing monitoring studies. Residues of total mercury and inorganic in food samples have been determined in nearly all previous studies that have been conducted; however, few researchers have analyzed samples for the presence of methlymercury residues. Because methylmercury is the most toxic form of mercury, and because there is a growing public awareness of the risk posed by methylmercury exposure that is associated with fish and seafood consumption, further monitoring studies on methylmercury in food are also essential. From the results of previous studies, it is obvious that the economic development in Malaysia, in recent years, has affected the aquatic environment of the country. Primary areas of environmental concern are centered on the rivers of the west Peninsular Malaysian coast, and the coastal waters of the Straits of Malacca, wherein industrial activities are rapidly expanding. The sources of existing mercury input to both of these areas of Malaysia should be studied and identified. Considering the high levels of mercury that now exists in human tissues, efforts should be continued, and accelerated in the future, if possible, to monitor mercury contamination levels in the coastal states, and particularly along the west Peninsular Malaysian coast. Most studies that have been carried out on mercury residues in environmental samples are dated, having been conducted 20-30 years ago; therefore, the need to collect much more and more current data is urgent. Furthermore, establishing baseline levels of mercury exposure to

  1. Fabrication of mercury target vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakui, Takashi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Haga, Katsuhiro; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Hayashi, Ryoichi; Uchiyama, Naoyoshi; Okamoto, Yoshinao; Nakamura, Koji

    2010-03-01

    The construction of materials and life science experimental facility in J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Complex) project had been completed and accepted pulsed proton beams with low power. Since 2003, the detailed design, fabrication and examination for the mercury target vessel as a pulsed neutron source were carried out by the vender. The mercury target vessel consists of triple-walled structure in order to prevent the leak of mercury to outside at the failure of the mercury vessel and to remove the heat of the safety hull, which covers the mercury vessel, due to the injection of the pulsed proton beams. The high fabrication accuracy is required for the mercury target vessel assembled by the welding, because there are the relationships between the mercury target vessel and other components (target trolley, target storage container, flange of helium vessel, reflector and water-cooled shield). At each fabrication step, the examinations for the mercury target vessel with multi-walled structure were required. In this report, the required specification and basic structure of parts in the mercury target vessel are described and the fabrication procedure of the mercury target vessel by the vender is reported. In the fabrication of the mercury target vessel, there were many troubles such as large deformation due to the welding and then the vender repaired and brought the mercury target vessel to completion. Furthermore, improvements for the design and fabrication of the mercury target are reported. (author)

  2. Arginine vasotocin reduces levels of cooperative behaviour in a cleaner fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Sónia C; Paitio, José R; Oliveira, Rui F; Bshary, Redouan; Soares, Marta C

    2015-02-01

    Cooperation between unrelated individuals usually involves investments that often mean a decrease in immediate payoffs, but ensure future benefits. Here we investigated the potential role of the neuropeptides Arginine-vasotocin (AVT) and Isotocin (IT) as proximate agents affecting individuals' cooperative levels in the Indo-pacific bluestreak cleaner wrasse Labroides dimidiatus. Their 'client' reef fish partners only benefit from interacting if cleaners eat ectoparasites and refrain from gleaning preferred client mucus. Thus, cleaners must control their impulse to eat according to their preference, and eat less preferred items to maintain ongoing interactions and avoid clients' leaving or punishing. We found that solely the experimental transient higher dosage of AVT led to a decrease of cleaners' willingness to feed against their preference, while IT and AVT antagonists had no significant effects. The sole effect of AVT on cleaner's performance may imply a link between AVT's influence and a potential activation of a stress response. Our results confirm the importance of the AVT/AVP system as an agent affecting levels of cooperation, offering a potential mechanistic pathway for the reported flexible service quality that cleaners provide their clients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Isotopic Fractionation of Mercury in Great Lakes Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratz, L. E.; Keeler, G. J.; Blum, J. D.; Sherman, L. S.

    2009-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a hazardous bioaccumulative neurotoxin, and atmospheric deposition is a primary way in which mercury enters terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. However, the chemical processes and transport regimes that mercury undergoes from emission to deposition are not well understood. Thus the use of mercury isotopes to characterize the biogeochemical cycling of mercury is a rapidly growing area of study. Precipitation samples were collected in Chicago, IL, Holland, MI, and Dexter, MI from April 2007 - October 2007 to begin examining the isotopic fractionation of atmospheric mercury in the Great Lakes region. Results show that mass-dependent fractionation relative to NIST-3133 (MDF - δ202Hg) ranged from -0.8‰ to 0.2‰ (±0.2‰) in precipitation samples, while mass-independent fractionation (MIF - Δ199Hg) varied from 0.1‰ to 0.6‰ (±0.1‰). Although clear urban-rural differences were not observed, this may be due to the weekly collection of precipitation samples rather than collection of individual events, making it difficult to truly characterize the meteorology and source influences associated with each sample and suggesting that event-based collection is necessary during future sampling campaigns. Additionally, total vapor phase mercury samples were collected in Dexter, MI in 2009 to examine isotopic fractionation of mercury in ambient air. In ambient samples δ202Hg ranged from 0.3‰ to 0.5‰ (±0.1‰), however Δ199Hg was not significant. Because mercury in precipitation is predominantly Hg2+, while ambient vapor phase mercury is primarily Hg0, these results may suggest the occurrence of MIF during the oxidation of Hg0 to Hg2+ prior to deposition. Furthermore, although it has not been previously reported or predicted, MIF of 200Hg was also detected. Δ200Hg ranged from 0.0‰ to 0.2‰ in precipitation and from -0.1‰ to 0.0‰ in ambient samples. This work resulted in methodological developments in the collection and processing of

  4. A new cleaner process to prepare pressing-powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Z.; Monfort, E.; Garcia-Ten, J.; Zhou, J.; Amoros, J. L.; Wang, Y.

    2011-07-01

    An alternative cleaner process of pressing-powder preparation, based on filter-pressing and a novel granulation method, is presented to substitute the existing spray-drying process. In the new process, about two-thirds of wet-milled slurry is filter pressed, dried and milled into dry fine powder. The other one-third of the slurry and the as-obtained dry fine powder are spray-mixed in a tower, where the slurry droplets adsorb the dry powder to form granules which are then rolled and dried into a usable pressing-powder for tile pressing. The key stages, filter-pressing and granulation (consisting of spray-mixing and rolling treatment), are specially studied. The pressing-powder properties and pressing/firing behavior, and, energy/water consumption and pollution emission data are presented, and a comparison between the new process and the existing spray-drying process is made. This new process has been found to be feasible and provides a pressing-powder with suitable properties, together with lower energy/water consumption and pollution emission (particulate matter and CO{sub 2}). (Author) 28 refs.

  5. Interactions between cleaner-birds and ungulates are personality dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Found, Rob

    2017-11-01

    While a growing body of literature explores the ecological implications of consistent individual variation in the behaviour of wildlife, few studies have looked at the reciprocal influences of personality within interspecific interactions, despite the potentially significant impacts on biodiversity. Here I used two species involved in cleaner-bird behaviour-black-billed magpies ( Pica pica ) and Rocky mountain elk ( Cervus canadensis )-to show that the exhibition of mutualistic behaviour can depend on the personality of the individual involved. I recorded suites of correlated behaviours in both elk and magpies to derive personality gradients from 'shy' to 'bold', which I compared with observations of interspecific interactions. I measured each half of this mutualistic relationship separately. I found that bold elk were more likely to aggressively reject magpie landings, while shy elk allowed magpies to land and groom them. Contrastingly, I found it was bold magpies that were willing to risk landings, while shy magpies rarely attempted landings. These results show that the exhibition of interspecific behaviour is predicated on the personality of the individuals, and thus likely contributes to the selection and maintenance of personality variation within populations. © 2017 The Author(s).

  6. Quality care means valuing care assistants, porters, and cleaners too.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toynbee, P

    2003-12-01

    All too often, the focus of the very clever strategy papers produced in the upper reaches of the health department is on the next grand plan. Some of these reforms have been catastrophic for the quality of service that patients experience at ward level. Of these, the contracting out culture introduced in the 1980s and the 1990s has been the worst. Researching my book, Hard work-life in low pay Britain, I took six jobs at around the minimum wage, including work as a hospital porter, as a hospital cleaner, and as a care assistant. These are jobs at the sharp end, up close and very personal to the patients, strongly influencing their experiences of the services they were using. Yet they are low paid, undervalued jobs that fall below the radar of the policy makers. In hospitals they need to be brought back in-house and integrated into a team ethos. Paying these people more would cost more, but it would also harvest great rewards by using their untapped commitment.

  7. Risk of musculoskeletal injury among cleaners during vacuuming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Alison F; Steele, Julie R

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the risk of work-related upper-limb musculoskeletal disorders in cleaning workers during the work task of vacuuming. In total, 24 cleaning workers were observed while they performed vacuum cleaning tasks in the normal course of their employment in government schools, hospitality and commercial office space sectors. Risk of upper-limb musculoskeletal disorders were rated using three observational assessment tools: Manual Task Risk Assessment (ManTRA); Quick Exposure Check (QEC); the Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA). Mean results (e.g. ManTRA wrist/hand cumulative wrist score 18.67 ± 1.27, QEC neck score 13 ± 1.77, RULA score 6.54 ± 0.509) demonstrated that cleaning workers who perform the task of vacuum cleaning are at risk of work-related upper-limb musculoskeletal injury, regardless of whether they use a back-pack or canister machine. Government school cleaners experienced greater risk of work-related upper-limb musculoskeletal disorders than workers in either the hospitality or commercial office space sectors. Cleaning workers in Australia are mostly female, ageing and of non-English-speaking backgrounds and involved in repetitive manual tasks. Their occupation is low status. This research confirms that vacuuming tasks are a risk for cleaning workers and highlights the need for further research to improve conditions for these workers.

  8. Miraflow, Soft Contact Lens Cleaner: Activity Against Acanthamoeba Spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takeshi; Higuchi-Watanabe, Narumi; Shiraishi, Atsushi; Uno, Toshihiko; Ohashi, Yuichi

    2015-07-01

    Miraflow is a cleaner for soft contact lens which contains 20% isopropyl alcohol. The purpose of this study was to determine the activity against Acanthamoeba trophozoites and cysts for Miraflow. In addition, to determine the activity of combined Miraflow and multipurpose solutions (MPSs) against Acanthamoeba cysts. Two simulated-use studies were conducted. The significance in the log reduction in the number of trophozoites and cysts of A. castellanii strains ATCC 50514 and ATCC 50370 or A. polyphaga ATCC 30461 after exposure to Miraflow alone was determined by the Spearman-Karber method. To examine the activity against Acanthamoeba of combined Miraflow and an MPS, the log reduction in the number of cysts after a 1-min exposure to Miraflow followed by a 4-hr exposure to MPS (ReNu fresh) was also determined. Short-time exposure of 30 sec to Miraflow demonstrated activity against the Acanthamoeba trophozoites. However, a 1-min treatment was only relatively effective (1.1 log reduction) against the cysts of A. castellanii ATCC 50514, but no statistically significant reduction was observed for the cysts of the other 2 strains. The combined use with Miraflow and MPS demonstrated activity against the cysts, and a 3.0, 1.0, or 1.5 log reduction in the numbers was obtained for A. castellanii ATCC 50514, A. castellanii ATCC 50370, and A. polyphaga ATCC 30461, respectively. Exposure to combined Miraflow and MPS resulted in reductions in the number of Acanthamoeba cysts.

  9. Mercury's magnetic field and interior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connerney, J.E.P.; Ness, N.F.

    1988-01-01

    The magnetic-field data collected on Mercury by the Mariner-10 spacecraft present substantial evidence for an intrinsic global magnetic field. However, studies of Mercury's thermal evolution show that it is most likely that the inner core region of Mercury solidified or froze early in the planet's history. Thus, the explanation of Mercury's magnetic field in the framework of the traditional planetary dynamo is less than certain

  10. Mercury contamination from artisanal gold mining in Antioquia, Colombia: The world's highest per capita mercury pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordy, Paul; Veiga, Marcello M; Salih, Ibrahim; Al-Saadi, Sari; Console, Stephanie; Garcia, Oseas; Mesa, Luis Alberto; Velásquez-López, Patricio C; Roeser, Monika

    2011-12-01

    The artisanal gold mining sector in Colombia has 200,000 miners officially producing 30tonnes Au/a. In the Northeast of the Department of Antioquia, there are 17 mining towns and between 15,000 and 30,000 artisanal gold miners. Guerrillas and paramilitary activities in the rural areas of Antioquia pushed miners to bring their gold ores to the towns to be processed in Processing Centers or entables. These Centers operate in the urban areas amalgamating the whole ore, i.e. without previous concentration, and later burn gold amalgam without any filtering/condensing system. Based on mercury mass balance in 15 entables, 50% of the mercury added to small ball mills (cocos) is lost: 46% with tailings and 4% when amalgam is burned. In just 5 cities of Antioquia, with a total of 150,000 inhabitants: Segovia, Remedios, Zaragoza, El Bagre, and Nechí, there are 323 entables producing 10-20tonnes Au/a. Considering the average levels of mercury consumption estimated by mass balance and interviews of entables owners, the mercury consumed (and lost) in these 5 municipalities must be around 93tonnes/a. Urban air mercury levels range from 300ng Hg/m(3) (background) to 1million ng Hg/m(3) (inside gold shops) with 10,000ng Hg/m(3) being common in residential areas. The WHO limit for public exposure is 1000ng/m(3). The total mercury release/emissions to the Colombian environment can be as high as 150tonnes/a giving this country the shameful first position as the world's largest mercury polluter per capita from artisanal gold mining. One necessary government intervention is to cut the supply of mercury to the entables. In 2009, eleven companies in Colombia legally imported 130tonnes of metallic mercury, much of it flowing to artisanal gold mines. Entables must be removed from urban centers and technical assistance is badly needed to improve their technology and reduce emissions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Laying Waste to Mercury: Inexpensive Sorbents Made from Sulfur and Recycled Cooking Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Max J. H.; Kucera, Renata L.; Albuquerque, Inês S.; Gibson, Christopher T.; Sibley, Alexander; Slattery, Ashley D.; Campbell, Jonathan A.; Alboaiji, Salah F. K.; Muller, Katherine A.; Young, Jason; Adamson, Nick; Gascooke, Jason R.; Jampaiah, Deshetti; Sabri, Ylias M.; Bhargava, Suresh K.; Ippolito, Samuel J.; Lewis, David A.; Quinton, Jamie S.; Ellis, Amanda V.; Johs, Alexander; Bernardes, Gonçalo J. L.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Mercury pollution threatens the environment and human health across the globe. This neurotoxic substance is encountered in artisanal gold mining, coal combustion, oil and gas refining, waste incineration, chloralkali plant operation, metallurgy, and areas of agriculture in which mercury‐rich fungicides are used. Thousands of tonnes of mercury are emitted annually through these activities. With the Minamata Convention on Mercury entering force this year, increasing regulation of mercury pollution is imminent. It is therefore critical to provide inexpensive and scalable mercury sorbents. The research herein addresses this need by introducing low‐cost mercury sorbents made solely from sulfur and unsaturated cooking oils. A porous version of the polymer was prepared by simply synthesising the polymer in the presence of a sodium chloride porogen. The resulting material is a rubber that captures liquid mercury metal, mercury vapour, inorganic mercury bound to organic matter, and highly toxic alkylmercury compounds. Mercury removal from air, water and soil was demonstrated. Because sulfur is a by‐product of petroleum refining and spent cooking oils from the food industry are suitable starting materials, these mercury‐capturing polymers can be synthesised entirely from waste and supplied on multi‐kilogram scales. This study is therefore an advance in waste valorisation and environmental chemistry. PMID:28763123

  12. The materials flow of mercury in the economies of the United States and the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sznopek, John L.; Goonan, Thomas G.

    2000-01-01

    Although natural sources of mercury exist in the environment, measured data and modeling results indicate that the amount of mercury released into the biosphere has increased since the beginning of the industrial age. Mercury is naturally distributed in the air, water, and soil in minute amounts, and can be mobile within and between these media. Because of these properties and the subsequent impacts on human health, mercury was selected for an initial materials flow study, focusing on the United States in 1990. This study was initiated to provide a current domestic and international analysis. As part of an increased emphasis on materials flow, this report researched changes and identified the associated trends in mercury flows; it also updates statistics through 1996. In addition to domestic flows, the report includes an international section, because all primary mercury-producing mines are currently foreign, 86 percent of the mercury cell sector of the worldwide chlor-alkali industry is outside the United States, there is a large international mercury trade (1,395 t 1 in 1996), and environmental regulations are not uniform or similarly enforced from country to country. Environmental concerns have brought about numerous regulations that have dramatically decreased both the use and the production of mercury since the late 1980?s. Our study indicates that this trend is likely to continue into the future, as the world eliminates the large mercury inventories that have been stockpiled to support prior industrial processes and products.

  13. Occupational and Community Exposures to Toxic Metals: Lead, Cadmium, Mercury and Arsenic

    OpenAIRE

    Landrigan, Philip J.

    1982-01-01

    Lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic are widely dispersed in the environment. Adults are primarily exposed to these contaminants in the workplace. Children may be exposed to toxic metals from numerous sources, including contaminated air, water, soil and food.

  14. Reference Atmosphere for Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Rosemary M.

    2002-01-01

    We propose that Ar-40 measured in the lunar atmosphere and that in Mercury's atmosphere is due to current diffusion into connected pore space within the crust. Higher temperatures at Mercury, along with more rapid loss from the atmosphere will lead to a smaller column abundance of argon at Mercury than at the Moon, given the same crustal abundance of potassium. Because the noble gas abundance in the Hermean atmosphere represents current effusion, it is a direct measure of the crustal potassium abundance. Ar-40 in the atmospheres of the planets is a measure of potassium abundance in the interiors, since Ar-40 is a product of radiogenic decay of K-40 by electron capture with the subsequent emission of a 1.46 eV gamma-ray. Although the Ar-40 in the Earth's atmosphere is expected to have accumulated since the late bombardment, Ar-40 in the atmospheres of Mercury and the Moon is eroded quickly by photoionization and electron impact ionization. Thus, the argon content in the exospheres of the Moon and Mercury is representative of current effusion rather than accumulation over the lifetime of the planet.

  15. Mercury content of edible mushrooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woidich, H.; Pfannhauser, W.

    1975-05-01

    The mercury content of edible fungi is different. Relatively high burdened are Boletus and Agaricus campestris. A minimum of mercury is found in Russula, Agaricus bisporus and Cantharellus cibarius. The possibilities of mercury uptake and the potential cumulation mechanism is discussed. 8 references, 3 tables.

  16. Mercury (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Water Waterborne Diseases & Illnesses Water Cycle Water Treatment Mercury The Basics Mercury — sometimes called quicksilver — is a natural metal. It’s ... to breathe it in without knowing it. When mercury combines with other chemical elements, it creates compounds, ...

  17. Mercury in Indiana watersheds: retrospective for 2001-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, Martin R.; Baker, Nancy T.; Fowler, Kathleen K.; Egler, Amanda L.; Lampe, David C.

    2010-01-01

    exceeded the 0.3 milligram per kilogram (mg/kg) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) methylmercury criterion in 12.4 percent of the 1,731 samples. The median wet-weight concentration in the fish-tissue samples was 0.13 mg/kg, and the maximum was 1.07 mg/kg. A coarse-scale analysis of all fish-tissue data in each watershed and a fine-scale analysis of data within 5 kilometers (km) of the downstream end of each watershed showed similar results overall. Mercury concentrations in fish-tissue samples were highest in the White River watershed in southern Indiana and the Fall Creek watershed in central Indiana. In fish-tissue samples within 5 km of the downstream end of a watershed, the USEPA methylmercury criterion was exceeded by 45 percent of mercury concentrations from the White River watershed and 40 percent of the mercury concentration from the Fall Creek watershed. A clear relation between mercury concentrations in fish-tissue samples and methylmercury concentrations in water was not observed in the data from watersheds in Indiana. Average annual atmospheric mercury wet-deposition rates were mapped with data at 156 locations in Indiana and four surrounding states for 2001-2006. These maps revealed an area in southeastern Indiana with high mercury wet-deposition rates-from 15 to 19 micrograms per square meter per year (ug/m2/yr). Annual atmospheric mercury dry-deposition rates were estimated with an inferential method by using concentrations of mercury species in air samples at three locations in Indiana. Mercury dry deposition-rates were 5.6 to 13.6 ug/m2/yr and were 0.49 to 1.4 times mercury wet-deposition rates. Total mercury concentrations were detected in 96 percent of 402 samples of wastewater effluent from 50 publicly owned treatment works in the watersheds; the median concentration was 3.0 ng/L, and the maximum was 88 ng/L. When these concentrations were compared to Indiana water-quality criteria for mercury, 12 percent exceeded the 12-n

  18. Sensing Mercury for Biomedical and Environmental Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Xiaojun Zhao

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is a very toxic element that is widely spread in the atmosphere, lithosphere, and surface water. Concentrated mercury poses serious problems to human health, as bioaccumulation of mercury within the brain and kidneys ultimately leads to neurological diseases. To control mercury pollution and reduce mercury damage to human health, sensitive determination of mercury is important. This article summarizes some current sensors for the determination of both abiotic and biotic mercury. A wide array of sensors for monitoring mercury is described, including biosensors and chemical sensors, while piezoelectric and microcantilever sensors are also described. Additionally, newly developed nanomaterials offer great potential for fabricating novel mercury sensors. Some of the functional fluorescent nanosensors for the determination of mercury are covered. Afterwards, the in vivo determination of mercury and the characterization of different forms of mercury are discussed. Finally, the future direction for mercury detection is outlined, suggesting that nanomaterials may provide revolutionary tools in biomedical and environmental monitoring of mercury.

  19. Water displacement mercury pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, M.G.

    1984-04-20

    A water displacement mercury pump has a fluid inlet conduit and diffuser, a valve, a pressure cannister, and a fluid outlet conduit. The valve has a valve head which seats in an opening in the cannister. The entire assembly is readily insertable into a process vessel which produces mercury as a product. As the mercury settles, it flows into the opening in the cannister displacing lighter material. When the valve is in a closed position, the pressure cannister is sealed except for the fluid inlet conduit and the fluid outlet conduit. Introduction of a lighter fluid into the cannister will act to displace a heavier fluid from the cannister via the fluid outlet conduit. The entire pump assembly penetrates only a top wall of the process vessel, and not the sides or the bottom wall of the process vessel. This insures a leak-proof environment and is especially suitable for processing of hazardous materials.

  20. Screening for Common Mental Disorders and Substance Abuse among Temporary Hired Cleaners in Egyptian Governmental Hospitals, Zagazig City, Sharqia Governorate

    OpenAIRE

    RA Abbas; RAM Hammam; SS El-Gohary; LME Sabik; MS Hunter

    2012-01-01

    Background: Informal employment is common in developing countries, including Egypt. This type of employment may have significant consequences on mental health. Objectives: To determine the prevalence and risk factors of common mental disorders and substance abuse among temporary hired hospital cleaners. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 242 adult temporary cleaners and 209 permanent cleaners working in 4 governmental hospitals in Zagazig City, Sharqia Governorate, Egyp...

  1. Enhanced Control of Mercury and other HAPs by Innovative Modifications to Wet FGD Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hargrove, O.W.; Carey, T.R.; Richardson, C.F.; Skarupa, R.C.; Meserole, F.B.; Rhudy, R.G.; Brown, Thomas D.

    1997-01-01

    The overall objective of this project was to learn more about controlling emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from coal-fired power plants that are equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The project was included by FETC as a Phase I project in its Mega-PRDA program. Phase I of this project focused on three research areas. These areas in order of priority were: (1) Catalytic oxidation of vapor-phase elemental mercury; (2) Enhanced particulate-phase HAPs removal by electrostatic charging of liquid droplets; and (3) Enhanced mercury removal by addition of additives to FGD process liquor. Mercury can exist in two forms in utility flue gas--as elemental mercury and as oxidized mercury (predominant form believed to be HgCl 2 ). Previous test results have shown that wet scrubbers effectively remove the oxidized mercury from the gas but are ineffective in removing elemental mercury. Recent improvements in mercury speciation techniques confirm this finding. Catalytic oxidation of vapor-phase elemental mercury is of interest in cases where a wet scrubber exists or is planned for SO 2 control. If a loW--cost process could be developed to oxidize all of the elemental mercury in the flue gas, then the maximum achievable mercury removal across the existing or planned wet scrubber would increase. Other approaches for improving control of HAPs included a method for improving particulate removal across the FGD process and the use of additives to increase mercury solubility. This paper discusses results related only to catalytic oxidation of elemental mercury

  2. Ship-Based Measurements of Atmospheric Mercury Concentrations over the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Hoglind

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is a toxic pollutant emitted from both natural sources and through human activities. A global interest in atmospheric mercury has risen ever since the discovery of the Minamata disease in 1956. Properties of gaseous elemental mercury enable long range transport, which can cause pollution even in pristine environments. Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM was measured from winter 2016 to spring 2017 over the Baltic Sea. A Tekran 2357A mercury analyser was installed aboard the research and icebreaking vessel Oden for the purpose of continuous measurements of gaseous mercury in ambient air. Measurements were performed during a campaign along the Swedish east coast and in the Bothnian Bay near Lulea during the icebreaking season. Data was evaluated from Gothenburg using plotting software, and back trajectories for air masses were calculated. The GEM average of 1.36 ± 0.054 ng/m3 during winter and 1.29 ± 0.140 ng/m3 during spring was calculated as well as a total average of 1.36 ± 0.16 ng/m3. Back trajectories showed a possible correlation of anthropogenic sources elevating the mercury background level in some areas. There were also indications of depleted air, i.e., air with lower concentrations than average, being transported from the Arctic to northern Sweden, resulting in a drop in GEM levels.

  3. Cytogenetic analysis of an exposed-referent study: perchloroethylene-exposed dry cleaners compared to unexposed laundry workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKernan Lauralynn

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Significant numbers of people are exposed to tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene, PCE every year, including workers in the dry cleaning industry. Adverse health effects have been associated with PCE exposure. However, investigations of possible cumulative cytogenetic damage resulting from PCE exposure are lacking. Methods Eighteen dry cleaning workers and 18 laundry workers (unexposed controls provided a peripheral blood sample for cytogenetic analysis by whole chromosome painting. Pre-shift exhaled air on these same participants was collected and analyzed for PCE levels. The laundry workers were matched to the dry cleaners on race, age, and smoking status. The relationships between levels of cytological damage and exposures (including PCE levels in the shop and in workers' blood, packyears, cumulative alcohol consumption, and age were compared with correlation coefficients and t-tests. Multiple linear regressions considered blood PCE, packyears, alcohol, and age. Results There were no significant differences between the PCE-exposed dry cleaners and the laundry workers for chromosome translocation frequencies, but PCE levels were significantly correlated with percentage of cells with acentric fragments (R2 = 0.488, p Conclusions There does not appear to be a strong effect in these dry cleaning workers of PCE exposure on persistent chromosome damage as measured by translocations. However, the correlation between frequencies of acentric fragments and PCE exposure level suggests that recent exposures to PCE may induce transient genetic damage. More heavily exposed participants and a larger sample size will be needed to determine whether PCE exposure induces significant levels of persistent chromosome damage.

  4. Mercury transformation and speciation in flue gases from anthropogenic emission sources: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Mercury transformation mechanisms and speciation profiles are reviewed for mercury formed in and released from flue gases of coal-fired boilers, non-ferrous metal smelters, cement plants, iron and steel plants, waste incinerators, biomass burning and so on. Mercury in coal, ores, and other raw materials is released to flue gases in the form of Hg0 during combustion or smelting in boilers, kilns or furnaces. Decreasing temperature from over 800 °C to below 300 °C in flue gases leaving boilers, kilns or furnaces promotes homogeneous and heterogeneous oxidation of Hg0 to gaseous divalent mercury (Hg2+, with a portion of Hg2+ adsorbed onto fly ash to form particulate-bound mercury (Hgp. Halogen is the primary oxidizer for Hg0 in flue gases, and active components (e.g., TiO2, Fe2O3, etc. on fly ash promote heterogeneous oxidation and adsorption processes. In addition to mercury removal, mercury transformation also occurs when passing through air pollution control devices (APCDs, affecting the mercury speciation in flue gases. In coal-fired power plants, selective catalytic reduction (SCR system promotes mercury oxidation by 34–85 %, electrostatic precipitator (ESP and fabric filter (FF remove over 99 % of Hgp, and wet flue gas desulfurization system (WFGD captures 60–95 % of Hg2+. In non-ferrous metal smelters, most Hg0 is converted to Hg2+ and removed in acid plants (APs. For cement clinker production, mercury cycling and operational conditions promote heterogeneous mercury oxidation and adsorption. The mercury speciation profiles in flue gases emitted to the atmosphere are determined by transformation mechanisms and mercury removal efficiencies by various APCDs. For all the sectors reviewed in this study, Hgp accounts for less than 5 % in flue gases. In China, mercury emission has a higher Hg0 fraction (66–82 % of total mercury in flue gases from coal combustion, in contrast to a greater Hg2+ fraction (29–90 % from non-ferrous metal

  5. Remediation of mercury-polluted soils using artificial wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Mercadoa, Héctor Daniel; Fernándezb, Georgina; Garzón-Zúñigac, Marco Antonio; Durán-Domínguez-de-Bazúaa, María Del Carmen

    2017-01-02

    Mexico's mercury mining industry is important for economic development, but has unfortunately contaminated soils due to open-air disposal. This case was seen at two sites in the municipality of Pinal de Amoles, State of Queretaro, Mexico. This paper presents an evaluation of mercury dynamics and biogeochemistry in two soils (mining waste soil) using ex-situ wetlands over 36 weeks. In soils sampled in two former mines of Pinal de Amoles, initial mercury concentrations were 424 ± 29 and 433 ± 12 mg kg -1 in La Lorena and San Jose, former mines, respectively. Typha latifolia and Phragmites australis were used and 20 reactors were constructed (with and without plants). The reactors were weekly amended with a nutrient solution (NPK), for each plant, at a pH of 5.0. For remediation using soils from San Jose 70-78% of mercury was removed in T. latifolia reactors and 76-82% in P. australis reactors, and for remediation of soils from La Lorena, mercury content was reduced by 55-71% using T. latifolia and 58-66% in P. australis reactors. Mercury emissions into the atmosphere were estimated to be 2-4 mg m -2 h -1 for both soils.

  6. Mercury distribution characteristics in primary manganese smelting plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, Seung-Ki; Sung, Jin-Ho; Moon, Young-Hoon; Kim, Young-Hee; Seok, Kwang-Seol; Song, Geum-Ju; Seo, Yong-Chil

    2017-08-01

    The mercury (Hg) distribution characteristics were investigated in three primary manganese smelting plants in Korea for the assessment of anthropogenic Hg released. Input and output materials were sampled from each process, and Hg concentrations in the samples were analyzed. Among the input materials, the most mercury was found in the manganese ore (83.1-99.7%) and mercury was mainly released through fly ash or off gas, depending on the condition of off gas cleaning system. As off gas temperature decreases, proportion and concentration of emitted gaseous elemental mercury (Hg 0 ) in off gas decreases. Based on mass balance study from these three plants and national manganese production data, the total amount of mercury released from those Korean plants was estimated to 644 kg/yr. About half of it was emitted into the air while the rest was released to waste as fly ash. With the results of this investigation, national inventory for Hg emission and release could be updated for the response to Minamata Convention on Mercury. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Static and Transient Cavitation Threshold Measurements for Mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraga, F.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.

    1999-11-14

    Transient and static cavitation thresholds for mercury as a function of the cover gas (helium or air), and pressure are reported. Both static and transient cavitation onset pressure thresholds increase linearly with cover gas pressure. Additionally, the cavitation thresholds as a function of dissolved gases were also measured and are reported.

  8. Distribution of arsenic and mercury in subtropical coastal beachrock ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An assessment of coastal pollution was made on the basis of trace element concentrations (arsenic –. As, mercury – Hg) in the ... to determine the As and Hg using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS-air-acetylene and nitrous oxide method). ..... adjoining rivers, channels and regular monitoring of coastal zones are ...

  9. Vaporization of mercury from molten lead droplets doped with mercury: Pb/Hg source term experiment for the APT/SILC target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutu, N.K.; Greene, G.A.

    1994-09-01

    Experiments were performed to measure the fraction of mercury inventory released when droplets of molten lead, doped with a known concentration of mercury, fall through a controlled environment. The temperature of molten droplets ranged from 335 C to 346 C, and the concentration of mercury in the droplets ranged from 0.2 mass % to 1.0 mass %. The environment consisted of an air stream, at a temperature nominally equal to the melt temperature, and moving vertically upwards at a velocity of 10 cm/s. Direct observations and chemical analysis showed that no mercury was released from the molten droplets. Based upon the experimental results, it is concluded that no mercury vapor is likely to be released from the potentially molten source rod material in the APT-SILC Neutron Source Array to the confinement atmosphere during a postulated Large Break Loss Of Coolant Accident scenario leading to the melting of a fraction of the source rods

  10. STAR Measurements and Modeling for Quantifying Air Quality and Climatic Impacts of Residential Biomass or Coal Combustion for Cooking, Heating and Lighting Kick-off Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    STAR grantees and EPA scientists will discuss progress on their projects which aim to quantify the extent to which interventions for cleaner cooking, heating, or lighting can impact air quality and climate, which in turn affect human health and welfare

  11. Low-Cost Options for Moderate Levels of Mercury Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharon Sjostrom

    2006-03-31

    On March 15, 2005, EPA issued the Clean Air Mercury Rule, requiring phased-in reductions of mercury emissions from electric power generators. ADA-ES, Inc., with support from DOE/NETL and industry partners, is conducting evaluations of EPRI's TOXECON II{trademark} process and of high-temperature reagents and sorbents to determine the capabilities of sorbent/reagent injection, including activated carbon, for mercury control on different coals and air emissions control equipment configurations. DOE/NETL targets for total mercury removal are {ge}55% (lignite), {ge}65% (subbituminous), and {ge}80% (bituminous). Based on work done to date at various scales, meeting the removal targets appears feasible. However, work needs to progress to more thoroughly document and test these promising technologies at full scale. This is the final site report for tests conducted at MidAmerican's Louisa Station, one of three sites evaluated in this DOE/NETL program. The other two sites in the program are MidAmerican's Council Bluff Station and Entergy's Independence Station. MidAmerican's Louisa Station burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and employs hot-side electrostatic precipitators with flue gas conditioning for particulate control. This part of the testing program evaluated the effect of reagents used in the existing flue gas conditioning on mercury removal.

  12. Mercury analysis in hair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esteban, Marta; Schindler, Birgit Karin; Jiménez, José Antonio

    2015-01-01

    laboratories. Training sessions were organized for field workers and four external quality-assessment exercises (ICI/EQUAS), followed by the corresponding web conferences, were organized between March 2011 and February 2012. ICI/EQUAS used native hair samples at two mercury concentration ranges (0...

  13. Mercury exposure in Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cullen, Elizabeth; Evans, David S; Davidson, Fred

    2014-01-01

    of a study to Coordinate and Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale (DEMOCOPHES) pilot biomonitoring study. METHODS: Hair mercury concentrations were determined from a convenience sample of 120 mother/child pairs. Mothers also completed a questionnaire. Rigorous quality assurance within DEMOCOPHES...

  14. Metabolic models for methyl and inorganic mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, S.R.; Purdue, P.

    1984-03-01

    Following the outbreak of mercury poisoning in Minimata, Japan (1953-60), much work has been done on the toxicology of mercury - in particular methyl mercury. In this paper, the authors derive two compartmental models for the metabolism of methyl mercury and inorganic mercury based upon the data which have been collected since 1960.

  15. [Mercury in vaccines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessel, Luc

    2003-01-01

    Thiomersal, also called thimerosal, is an ethyl mercury derivative used as a preservative to prevent bacterial contamination of multidose vaccine vials after they have been opened. Exposure to low doses of thiomersal has essentially been associated with hypersensitivity reactions. Nevertheless there is no evidence that allergy to thiomersal could be induced by thiomersal-containing vaccines. Allergy to thiomersal is usually of delayed-hypersensitivity type, but its detection through cutaneous tests is not very reliable. Hypersensitivity to thiomersal is not considered as a contraindication to the use of thiomersal-containing vaccines. In 1999 in the USA, thiomersal was present in approximately 30 different childhood vaccines, whereas there were only 2 in France. Although there were no evidence of neurological toxicity in infants related to the use of thiomersal-containing vaccines, the FDA considered that the cumulative dose of mercury received by young infants following vaccination was high enough (although lower than the FDA threshold for methyl mercury) to request vaccine manufacturers to remove thiomersal from vaccine formulations. Since 2002, all childhood vaccines used in Europe and the USA are thiomersal-free or contain only minute amounts of thiomersal. Recently published studies have shown that the mercury levels in the blood, faeces and urine of children who had received thiomersal-containing vaccines were much lower than those accepted by the American Environmental Protection Agency. It has also been demonstrated that the elimination of mercury in children was much faster than what was expected on the basis of studies conducted with methyl mercury originating from food. Recently, the hypothesis that mercury contained in vaccines could be the cause of autism and other neurological developmental disorders created a new debate in the medical community and the general public. To date, none of the epidemiological studies conducted in Europe and elsewhere

  16. Small Mercury Relativity Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Peter L.; Vincent, Mark A.

    1989-01-01

    The accuracy of solar system tests of gravitational theory could be very much improved by range and Doppler measurements to a Small Mercury Relativity Orbiter. A nearly circular orbit at roughly 2400 km altitude is assumed in order to minimize problems with orbit determination and thermal radiation from the surface. The spacecraft is spin-stabilized and has a 30 cm diameter de-spun antenna. With K-band and X-band ranging systems using a 50 MHz offset sidetone at K-band, a range accuracy of 3 cm appears to be realistically achievable. The estimated spacecraft mass is 50 kg. A consider-covariance analysis was performed to determine how well the Earth-Mercury distance as a function of time could be determined with such a Relativity Orbiter. The minimum data set is assumed to be 40 independent 8-hour arcs of tracking data at selected times during a two year period. The gravity field of Mercury up through degree and order 10 is solved for, along with the initial conditions for each arc and the Earth-Mercury distance at the center of each arc. The considered parameters include the gravity field parameters of degree 11 and 12 plus the tracking station coordinates, the tropospheric delay, and two parameters in a crude radiation pressure model. The conclusion is that the Earth-Mercury distance can be determined to 6 cm accuracy or better. From a modified worst-case analysis, this would lead to roughly 2 orders of magnitude improvement in the knowledge of the precession of perihelion, the relativistic time delay, and the possible change in the gravitational constant with time.

  17. Mercury Phase II Study - Mercury Behavior in Salt Processing Flowsheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, V. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Shah, H. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States). Sludge and Salt Planning; Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Wilmarth, W. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-07-25

    Mercury (Hg) in the Savannah River Site Liquid Waste System (LWS) originated from decades of canyon processing where it was used as a catalyst for dissolving the aluminum cladding of reactor fuel. Approximately 60 metric tons of mercury is currently present throughout the LWS. Mercury has long been a consideration in the LWS, from both hazard and processing perspectives. In February 2015, a Mercury Program Team was established at the request of the Department of Energy to develop a comprehensive action plan for long-term management and removal of mercury. Evaluation was focused in two Phases. Phase I activities assessed the Liquid Waste inventory and chemical processing behavior using a system-by-system review methodology, and determined the speciation of the different mercury forms (Hg+, Hg++, elemental Hg, organomercury, and soluble versus insoluble mercury) within the LWS. Phase II activities are building on the Phase I activities, and results of the LWS flowsheet evaluations will be summarized in three reports: Mercury Behavior in the Salt Processing Flowsheet (i.e. this report); Mercury Behavior in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Flowsheet; and Mercury behavior in the Tank Farm Flowsheet (Evaporator Operations). The evaluation of the mercury behavior in the salt processing flowsheet indicates, inter alia, the following: (1) In the assembled Salt Batches 7, 8 and 9 in Tank 21, the total mercury is mostly soluble with methylmercury (MHg) contributing over 50% of the total mercury. Based on the analyses of samples from 2H Evaporator feed and drop tanks (Tanks 38/43), the source of MHg in Salt Batches 7, 8 and 9 can be attributed to the 2H evaporator concentrate used in assembling the salt batches. The 2H Evaporator is used to evaporate DWPF recycle water. (2) Comparison of data between Tank 21/49, Salt Solution Feed Tank (SSFT), Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT), and Tank 50 samples suggests that the total mercury as well as speciated

  18. Mercury Phase II Study - Mercury Behavior in Salt Processing Flowsheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, V.; Shah, H.; Wilmarth, W. R.

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) in the Savannah River Site Liquid Waste System (LWS) originated from decades of canyon processing where it was used as a catalyst for dissolving the aluminum cladding of reactor fuel. Approximately 60 metric tons of mercury is currently present throughout the LWS. Mercury has long been a consideration in the LWS, from both hazard and processing perspectives. In February 2015, a Mercury Program Team was established at the request of the Department of Energy to develop a comprehensive action plan for long-term management and removal of mercury. Evaluation was focused in two Phases. Phase I activities assessed the Liquid Waste inventory and chemical processing behavior using a system-by-system review methodology, and determined the speciation of the different mercury forms (Hg+, Hg++, elemental Hg, organomercury, and soluble versus insoluble mercury) within the LWS. Phase II activities are building on the Phase I activities, and results of the LWS flowsheet evaluations will be summarized in three reports: Mercury Behavior in the Salt Processing Flowsheet (i.e. this report); Mercury Behavior in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Flowsheet; and Mercury behavior in the Tank Farm Flowsheet (Evaporator Operations). The evaluation of the mercury behavior in the salt processing flowsheet indicates, inter alia, the following: (1) In the assembled Salt Batches 7, 8 and 9 in Tank 21, the total mercury is mostly soluble with methylmercury (MHg) contributing over 50% of the total mercury. Based on the analyses of samples from 2H Evaporator feed and drop tanks (Tanks 38/43), the source of MHg in Salt Batches 7, 8 and 9 can be attributed to the 2H evaporator concentrate used in assembling the salt batches. The 2H Evaporator is used to evaporate DWPF recycle water. (2) Comparison of data between Tank 21/49, Salt Solution Feed Tank (SSFT), Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT), and Tank 50 samples suggests that the total mercury as well as speciated

  19. Cleaner Production Practices, Environmental Management and National Policy Development in Malaysia for Electroplating Enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangel, Arne; Mohamed, Maketab; Agamuthu, P.

    2004-01-01

    figures on the results achieved, and discussing the experiences gained. Reviewing the approach and results of the Centre, as well as the status of cleaner production (CP) in Malaysia, the paper outlines the challenges for national policy making, when moving from promotion by project intervention towards......Cleaner technologies (CT) have been introduced into the Malaysian Small and medium-scale enterprises (SMEs) sector primarily by foreign donor supported project interventions. The establishment of the Environmental and Energy Technology Centre at SIRIM was funded by a grant from the Danish Co......-operation for Environment and Development (DANCED), Ministry of Environment and Energy. SMEs were targeted within three sectors: Textile, food and electroplating industries. The paper illustrates the change process from the perspective of electroplating SMEs by reviewing the cleaner production options chosen, presenting...

  20. A randomised controlled trial among cleaners--effects on strength, balance and kinesiophobia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Ektor-Andersen, John; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2011-01-01

    Cleaners constitute a job group with poor health and low socioeconomic resources. Therefore, there is a great need for scientifically documented health promoting initiatives for cleaners. However, both workplace initiatives and high quality intervention studies are lacking. The aim of this study...... training (PCT, n = 95), Cognitive behavioural theory-based training (CBTr, n = 99) and Reference group (REF, n = 100). Interventions were conducted during work hours for an average of 1 hour/week. Muscle strength was measured by maximal voluntary contractions in trunk/extension, and shoulder abduction......, and kinesiophobia from CBTr. The improved strength, postural balance and kinesiophobia may improve the cleaners' tolerance for high physical work demands. Future studies should investigate the potential in the combination of PCT and CBTr in a workplace intervention. Current controlled trials ISRCTN96241850....

  1. What characterizes cleaners sustaining good musculoskeletal health after years with physically heavy work?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, A; Blangsted, A K; Christensen, H

    2009-01-01

    reported severe symptoms in the low back, neck shoulders or upper limbs. The groups were of matching age, height, body weight and seniority (19 years). Muscular strength was recorded by isometric maximal voluntary contractions on a day without pain. Exposure to physical risk factors at work, psychosocial......OBJECTIVES: The aim of this case-control study was to investigate characteristics of cleaners with good musculoskeletal health after years with physically heavy work. METHODS: One hundred and 41 female seniority cleaners participated. Twenty-five reported no musculoskeletal symptoms, whereas 83...... work factors, and leisure time physical activity were assessed by a postal questionnaire. RESULTS: Cleaners with good musculoskeletal health were not reporting different exposure to physical risk factors at work or leisure time physical activity, but had higher muscular strength and reported higher...

  2. Efficiency Enhancement of a Low-Voltage Automotive Vacuum Cleaner Using a Switched Reluctance Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Geol Seon

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A recent increase in the number of diverse leisure activities and family outdoor activities has increased the need for the automobile-embedded vacuum cleaner. To date, this technology has not been applied in Korea and development efforts are not underway. Many of the existing portable cleaners connecting to the lighter jack of the vehicle use a direct current motor (DC motor. However, they do not have sufficient suction power to satisfy consumers; moreover, they have low durability and efficiency. In this paper, we therefore propose a technology for increasing the efficiency of the low-voltage automobile vacuum cleaner by replacing the existing DC motor with a switched reluctance motor (SRM, which has superior durability and efficiency.

  3. Mercury capture within coal-fired power plant electrostatic precipitators: model evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clack, Herek L

    2009-03-01

    Efforts to reduce anthropogenic mercury emissions worldwide have recently focused on a variety of sources, including mercury emitted during coal combustion. Toward that end, much research has been ongoing seeking to develop new processes for reducing coal combustion mercury emissions. Among air pollution control processes that can be applied to coal-fired boilers, electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) are by far the most common, both on a global scale and among the principal countries of India, China, and the U.S. that burn coal for electric power generation. A previously reported theoretical model of in-flight mercury capture within ESPs is herein evaluated against data from a number of full-scale tests of activated carbon injection for mercury emissions control. By using the established particle size distribution of the activated carbon and actual or estimated values of its equilibrium mercury adsorption capacity, the incremental reduction in mercury concentration across each ESP can be predicted and compared to experimental results. Because the model does not incorporate kinetics associated with gas-phase mercury transformation or surface adsorption, the model predictions representthe mass-transfer-limited performance. Comparing field data to model results reveals many facilities performing at or near the predicted mass-transfer-limited maximum, particularly at low rates of sorbent injection. Where agreement is poor between field data and model predictions, additional chemical or physical phenomena may be responsible for reducing mercury removal efficiencies.

  4. Seasonal Study of Mercury Species in the Antarctic Sea Ice Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerentorp Mastromonaco, Michelle G; Gårdfeldt, Katarina; Langer, Sarka; Dommergue, Aurélien

    2016-12-06

    Limited studies have been conducted on mercury concentrations in the polar cryosphere and the factors affecting the distribution of mercury within sea ice and snow are poorly understood. Here we present the first comprehensive seasonal study of elemental and total mercury concentrations in the Antarctic sea ice environment covering data from measurements in air, sea ice, seawater, snow, frost flowers, and brine. The average concentration of total mercury in sea ice decreased from winter (9.7 ng L -1 ) to spring (4.7 ng L -1 ) while the average elemental mercury concentration increased from winter (0.07 ng L -1 ) to summer (0.105 ng L -1 ). The opposite trends suggest potential photo- or dark oxidation/reduction processes within the ice and an eventual loss of mercury via brine drainage or gas evasion of elemental mercury. Our results indicate a seasonal variation of mercury species in the polar sea ice environment probably due to varying factors such as solar radiation, temperature, brine volume, and atmospheric deposition. This study shows that the sea ice environment is a significant interphase between the polar ocean and the atmosphere and should be accounted for when studying how climate change may affect the mercury cycle in polar regions.

  5. Real-time analysis of total, elemental, and total speciated mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlager, R.J.; Wilson, K.G.; Sappey, A.D.

    1995-01-01

    ADA Technologies, Inc., is developing a continuous emissions monitoring system that measures the concentrations of mercury in flue gas. Mercury is emitted as an air pollutant from a number of industrial processes. The largest contributors of these emissions are coal and oil combustion, municipal waste combustion, medical waste combustion, and the thermal treatment of hazardous materials. It is difficult, time consuming, and expensive to measure mercury emissions using current testing methods. Part of the difficulty lies in the fact that mercury is emitted from sources in several different forms, such as elemental mercury and mercuric chloride. The ADA analyzer measures these emissions in real time, thus providing a number of advantages over existing test methods: (1) it will provide a real-time measure of emission rates, (2) it will assure facility operators, regulators, and the public that emissions control systems are working at peak efficiency, and (3) it will provide information as to the nature of the emitted mercury (elemental mercury or speciated compounds). This update presents an overview of the CEM and describes features of key components of the monitoring system--the mercury detector, a mercury species converter, and the analyzer calibration system

  6. Real-time analysis of total, elemental, and total speciated mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlager, R.J.; Wilson, K.G.; Sappey, A.D. [ADA Technologies, Inc., Englewood, CO (United States)

    1995-11-01

    ADA Technologies, Inc., is developing a continuous emissions monitoring system that measures the concentrations of mercury in flue gas. Mercury is emitted as an air pollutant from a number of industrial processes. The largest contributors of these emissions are coal and oil combustion, municipal waste combustion, medical waste combustion, and the thermal treatment of hazardous materials. It is difficult, time consuming, and expensive to measure mercury emissions using current testing methods. Part of the difficulty lies in the fact that mercury is emitted from sources in several different forms, such as elemental mercury and mercuric chloride. The ADA analyzer measures these emissions in real time, thus providing a number of advantages over existing test methods: (1) it will provide a real-time measure of emission rates, (2) it will assure facility operators, regulators, and the public that emissions control systems are working at peak efficiency, and (3) it will provide information as to the nature of the emitted mercury (elemental mercury or speciated compounds). This update presents an overview of the CEM and describes features of key components of the monitoring system--the mercury detector, a mercury species converter, and the analyzer calibration system.

  7. Mercury Emission From Phragmites in a Contaminated Wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubb, M.; Peters, S.

    2008-12-01

    Characterizing the role of vegetation has been an elusive component to a complete understanding of the mercury cycle. Defining this contribution is of ecological and environmental significance as it pertains to contaminated industrial sites. Various studies have demonstrated that foliar exchange of gaseous mercury is bi-directional and may depend on atmospheric concentrations of mercury as well as other environmental parameters. In particular emergent aquatic vegetation such as Typha, Cladium, and Phragmites, in areas of elevated mercury soil concentrations have been shown to generate relatively high daytime fluxes of ~30ng/m2/hr, ~20ng/m2/hr, and in one case 90ng/m2/hr, respectively. For this research mercury fluxes were measured from foliar surfaces of Phragmites australis in a highly contaminated portion of the New Jersey Hackensack Meadowlands using a dynamic flux chamber. The chamber is constructed from UV transparent acrylic sheets sized to average Phragmites leaves and employs a sheath-like design so that it may be easily slid over foliage with minimal interference. The design also circumvents the use of foams or silicone as sealant which in the past have been shown to emit or absorb mercury. Laboratory and field tests have shown good agreement between ambient air and chamber blank mercury levels. During field excursions generally 5-7 adjacent plants would be sampled for 20-30 min each.Over one 6-hour sampling period in late summer 2008 mean Phragmites flux was - 0.12ng/m2/hr±0.25 with a maximum negative flux of -0.64ng/m2/hr. Another sampling period showed a positive average of 0.07ng/m2/hr±0.07 with a maximum of 0.11ng/m2/hr. These values, as well as those observed in earlier literature, are likely the result of significant environmental parameters operating on the mechanism by which foliar flux is produced. Such parameters include, incoming solar radiation, wind velocity, air temperature, air quality, humidity, sediment pore water mercury concentrations

  8. A mercury transport and fate model (LM2-mercury) for mass budget assessment of mercury cycling in Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    LM2-Mercury, a mercury mass balance model, was developed to simulate and evaluate the transport, fate, and biogeochemical transformations of mercury in Lake Michigan. The model simulates total suspended solids (TSS), disolved organic carbon (DOC), and total, elemental, divalent, ...

  9. Environmental Sampling FY03 Annual Report - Understanding the Movement of Mercury on the INEEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael L. Abbott

    2003-01-01

    Environmental mercury measurements were started in Fy-01 at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEEL) to monitor downwind impacts from on-going waste treatment operations at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) and to improve our scientific understanding of mercury fate and transport in this region. This document provides a summary of the sampling done in FY04. Continuous total gaseous mercury (TGM) measurements were made using a Tekran Model 2537A mercury vapor analyzer during October 2002 and from February through July 2003. The equipment was deployed in a self-contained field trailer at the Experimental Field Station (EFS) four kilometers downwind (northeast) of INTEC. Mercury surface-to-air flux measurements were made in October 2002 and from February through May 2003 to better understand the fate of the estimated 1500 kg of mercury emitted from 36 years of calciner operations at INTEC and to improve our scientific understanding of mercury environmental cycling in this region. Flux was measured using an INEEL-designed dynamic flux chamber system with a Tekran automated dual sampling (TADS) unit. Diel flux was positively correlated with solar radiation (r = 0.65), air temperature (r = 0.64), and wind speed (r = 0.38), and a general linear model for flux prediction at the INEEL was developed. Reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) was measured at EFS in July using a Tekran Model 1130 mercury speciation unit. Based on comparisons with other published data around the U.S., mercury air concentrations and surface flux rates directly downwind from INTEC were not distinguishable from remote area (non-industrial) background levels during the monitoring period

  10. Mercury Exposure and Heart Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genchi, Giuseppe; Sinicropi, Maria Stefania; Carocci, Alessia; Lauria, Graziantonio; Catalano, Alessia

    2017-01-12

    Environmental contamination has exposed humans to various metal agents, including mercury. It has been determined that mercury is not only harmful to the health of vulnerable populations such as pregnant women and children, but is also toxic to ordinary adults in various ways. For many years, mercury was used in a wide variety of human activities. Nowadays, the exposure to this metal from both natural and artificial sources is significantly increasing. Recent studies suggest that chronic exposure, even to low concentration levels of mercury, can cause cardiovascular, reproductive, and developmental toxicity, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and carcinogenicity. Possible biological effects of mercury, including the relationship between mercury toxicity and diseases of the cardiovascular system, such as hypertension, coronary heart disease, and myocardial infarction, are being studied. As heart rhythm and function are under autonomic nervous system control, it has been hypothesized that the neurotoxic effects of mercury might also impact cardiac autonomic function. Mercury exposure could have a long-lasting effect on cardiac parasympathetic activity and some evidence has shown that mercury exposure might affect heart rate variability, particularly early exposures in children. The mechanism by which mercury produces toxic effects on the cardiovascular system is not fully elucidated, but this mechanism is believed to involve an increase in oxidative stress. The exposure to mercury increases the production of free radicals, potentially because of the role of mercury in the Fenton reaction and a reduction in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as glutathione peroxidase. In this review we report an overview on the toxicity of mercury and focus our attention on the toxic effects on the cardiovascular system.

  11. Mercury Exposure and Heart Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Genchi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental contamination has exposed humans to various metal agents, including mercury. It has been determined that mercury is not only harmful to the health of vulnerable populations such as pregnant women and children, but is also toxic to ordinary adults in various ways. For many years, mercury was used in a wide variety of human activities. Nowadays, the exposure to this metal from both natural and artificial sources is significantly increasing. Recent studies suggest that chronic exposure, even to low concentration levels of mercury, can cause cardiovascular, reproductive, and developmental toxicity, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and carcinogenicity. Possible biological effects of mercury, including the relationship between mercury toxicity and diseases of the cardiovascular system, such as hypertension, coronary heart disease, and myocardial infarction, are being studied. As heart rhythm and function are under autonomic nervous system control, it has been hypothesized that the neurotoxic effects of mercury might also impact cardiac autonomic function. Mercury exposure could have a long-lasting effect on cardiac parasympathetic activity and some evidence has shown that mercury exposure might affect heart rate variability, particularly early exposures in children. The mechanism by which mercury produces toxic effects on the cardiovascular system is not fully elucidated, but this mechanism is believed to involve an increase in oxidative stress. The exposure to mercury increases the production of free radicals, potentially because of the role of mercury in the Fenton reaction and a reduction in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as glutathione peroxidase. In this review we report an overview on the toxicity of mercury and focus our attention on the toxic effects on the cardiovascular system.

  12. Evaluation of heat stress in dry cleaner units:A case study in Qom, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Malakouti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Nowadays, heat stress is one of the most harmful physical agents in workplaces. According to the consequences of heat stress and have no information about it in Qom dry cleaner units, Iran, this study have been designed to evaluate the heat stress among workers of dry cleaner units in Qom province of Iran, in Jul-Aug 2011. Materials & Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 113 units of active dry cleaner units. WBGT (Wet Bulb Globe Temperature index was selected for heat stress evaluation. In order to measure the requisite parameters, WBGT meter made of Casella Company had been used according to ISO 7243. Data had been analyzed according to Occupational Exposure Limits (OELs with SPSS V.16, using analysis of variance, independent T and LSD tests. Results: The average of WBGT index in Qom dry cleaner units of Iran were 28.98±1.64 °C. The average of WBGT index in 66.4% of units was up to 28°C. The average of relative humidity was 42.86%, the average of wet bulb temperature and globe temperature were 25.56°C and 36.72°C, respectively. The findings showed a significant correlation between the average of WBGT index and the standard recommendation level (p<0.0001. In dry cleaner units with less than 10 m2 area, heat stress was higher than other units  significantly (p<0.05. Conclusions: Heat stress in many dry cleaner units in Qom, Iran, was more than recommended OELs. Because of wet bulb and globe temperature in units were high value, the most important measures to heat controls, are technical engineering controls such as  radiation shield, insulation on boilers and modify the cooling systems.

  13. Occupational Exposure to Mercury among Workers in a Fluorescent Lamp Factory, Quisna Industrial Zone, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Al-Batanony

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the fast growth in the market of fluorescent lamps, particularly compact fluorescent light, the associated risk of mercury exposure, which is an essential component in all types of fluorescent lamps, has received increasing public attention worldwide. Even low doses of mercury are toxic. Objective: To study the health consequences of occupational exposure to mercury in workers of a fluorescent lamp factory. Methods: In a cross-sectional study 138 workers of a florescent lamp factory and 151 people who had no occupational exposure to mercury (the comparison group were studied. Environmental study of mercury and noise levels was done. For all participants a neurobehavioral test battery was administered, spirometry was performed and air conduction audiometry was done. Urinary mercury level was also measured for all participants. Results: Prominent symptoms among workers exposed to mercury included tremors, emotional lability, memory changes, neuromuscular changes, and performance deficits in tests of cognitive function. Among the exposed group, the mean urinary mercury level was significantly higher in those who had personality changes or had manifestations of mercury toxicity. With increasing duration of employment and urinary mercury level, the performance of participants in neurobehavioral test battery and spirometric parameters deteriorated. Conclusion: Neurobehavioral test battery must be used for studying subclinical central nervous system dysfunction in those with chronic exposure to mercury. The test is especially useful for evaluating the severity of mercury effects in epidemiological studies. This study also reinforces the need for effective preventive programs for florescent lamp industry workplaces especially in developing countries with the lowest unhygienic work conditions.

  14. Mercury's exosphere: observations during MESSENGER's First Mercury flyby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, William E; Bradley, E Todd; Vervack, Ronald J; Killen, Rosemary M; Sprague, Ann L; Izenberg, Noam R; Solomon, Sean C

    2008-07-04

    During MESSENGER's first Mercury flyby, the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer measured Mercury's exospheric emissions, including those from the antisunward sodium tail, calcium and sodium close to the planet, and hydrogen at high altitudes on the dayside. Spatial variations indicate that multiple source and loss processes generate and maintain the exosphere. Energetic processes connected to the solar wind and magnetospheric interaction with the planet likely played an important role in determining the distributions of exospheric species during the flyby.

  15. Participation of Danish and immigrant cleaners in a 1-year worksite intervention preventingphysical deterioration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Charlotte D N; Jørgensen, Marie B; Carneiro, Isabella G

    2012-01-01

    Worksite health promotion is seldom offered to workers who are low-educated and multi-ethnic, possibly due to an assumption that they are more reluctant to participate. Furthermore, little has been done to promote health at female-dominated workplaces. The main aim of this study was to investigate...... differences in participation among immigrant and Danish cleaners throughout a 1-year randomised controlled study tailored to cleaners and carried out in predominantly female workplaces. No significant differences in ethnicity were found in consent and participation throughout the 1-year intervention. Dropout...

  16. Life cycle environmental impacts of vacuum cleaners and the effects of European regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallego-Schmid, Alejandro; Mendoza, Joan Manuel F.; Jeswani, Harish Kumar; Azapagic, Adisa

    2016-01-01

    Energy efficiency of vacuum cleaners has been declining over the past decades while at the same time their number in Europe has been increasing. The European Commission has recently adopted an eco-design regulation to improve the environmental performance of vacuum cleaners. In addition to the existing directive on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), the regulation could potentially have significant effects on the environmental performance of vacuum cleaners. However, the scale of the effects is currently unknown, beyond scant information on greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, this paper considers for the first time life cycle environmental impacts of vacuum cleaners and the effects of the implementation of these regulations at the European level. The effects of electricity decarbonisation, product lifetime and end-of-life disposal options are also considered. The results suggest that the implementation of the eco-design regulation alone will reduce significantly the impacts from vacuum cleaners (37%–44%) by 2020 compared with current situation. If business as usual continued and the regulation was not implemented, the impacts would be 82%–109% higher by 2020 compared to the impacts with the implementation of the regulation. Improvements associated with the implementation of the WEEE directive will be much smaller (< 1% in 2020). However, if the WEEE directive did not exist, then the impacts would be 2%–21% higher by 2020 relative to the impacts with the implementation of the directive. Further improvements in most impacts (6%–20%) could be achieved by decarbonising the electricity mix. Therefore, energy efficiency measures must be accompanied by appropriate actions to reduce the environmental impacts of electricity generation; otherwise, the benefits of improved energy efficiency could be limited. Moreover, because of expected lower life expectancy of vacuum cleaners and limited availability of some raw materials, the eco-design regulation should

  17. Evaluation of cleaner production options in dyeing and printing industry: Using combination weighting method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hong; Zhang, Yun; Hou, Haochen; Sun, Xiaoyang; Qin, Chenglu

    2018-03-01

    The textile industry has a high environmental impact so that implementing cleaner production audit is an effective way to achieve energy conservation and emissions reduction. But the evaluation method in current cleaner production audit divided the evaluation of CPOs into two parts: environment and economy. The evaluation index system was constructed from three criteria of environment benefits, economy benefits and product performance; weights of five indicators were determined by combination weights of entropy method and factor weight sorting method. Then efficiencies were evaluated comprehensively. The results showed that the best alkali recovery option was the nanofiltration membrane method (S=0.80).

  18. The Urban Function of the Infraordinary: Dry Cleaners as Social Vertexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Nielsen, Espen

    2015-01-01

    of social coexistence that has ‘a function that is separate from their practical use’ (Jorn 1954). A London dry cleaner serves as testing ground, employing critical spatial practices and creative writing as research tools. The dry cleaner does not simply clean clothes, but is a social vertex and physical...... through allowing for occupation, inhabitation and co-authoring. Hence, these latent qualities and spatial materiality of the infraordinary form vital components of the social dimension of the city and points towards a recalibration of current urban practices....

  19. Level of self-reported neck/shoulder pain and biomechanical workload in cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madeleine, Pascal; Søgaard, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relation between self-reported pain, muscular activity and postural load during cleaning tasks. Eighteen cleaners performed usual cleaning tasks in both a laboratory and a lecture room. The level of perceived pain in the neck-shoulder region...... erector spinae muscles (P≤0.08). Cleaners with low pain level exhibited higher muscular activity during cleaning. Pain played or tended to play a significant role on PE of left and right erector spinae muscles (P≤0.08). Pain played a significant role on the 10th, 50th and 90th percentile (P...

  20. Atmospheric mercury concentration and chemical speciation at a rural site in Beijing, China: implications of mercury emission sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Continuous measurements of atmospheric mercury concentration and speciation play a key role in identifying mercury sources and its behavior in the atmosphere. In this study, speciated atmospheric mercury including gaseous elemental mercury (GEM, reactive gaseous mercury (RGM and particle-bound mercury (PBM were continuously measured at Miyun, a rural site in Beijing, China, from December 2008 to November 2009. The average GEM, RGM and PBM concentrations were found to be 3.22 ± 1.74, 10.1 ± 18.8 and 98.2 ± 112.7 pg m−3, respectively, about 2–20 times higher than the background concentration of the Northern Hemisphere. The results indicated that atmospheric mercury concentrations in northern China were highly affected by anthropogenic emissions. The atmospheric mercury showed obvious seasonal variations, with the highest seasonal average GEM concentration in summer (3.48 ng m−3 and the lowest value in winter (2.66 ng m−3. In autumn and winter a diurnal variation of GEM was observed, with peak levels in the late afternoon till midnight. Most of the high RGM concentration values occurred in the afternoon of all seasons due to the higher oxidation. The PBM concentration was higher in early morning of all seasons because of the the temperature inversion that increases in depth as the night proceeds. The ratio of GEM to CO indicates that residential boilers play an important role in the elevation of GEM in winter. The ratio of RGM to O3 could be an indicator of the contribution of local primary sources. The ratio of PBM to PM2.5 reveals that the air mass from the east and southwest of the site in spring and summer carries more atmospheric mercury. The HYSPLIT back-trajectory analysis indicated that the monitoring site is affected by local, regional and interregional sources simultaneously during heavy pollution episodes. The results from the potential source contribution function (PSCF model indicate that the atmospheric transport

  1. Recovery of mercury from acid waste residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, Wilbur O.

    1989-12-05

    Mercury can be recovered from nitric acid-containing fluids by reacting the fluid with aluminum metal to produce mercury metal, and then quenching the reactivity of the nitric acid prior to nitration of the mercury metal.

  2. Mercury Poisoning Linked to Skin Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Mercury Poisoning Linked to Skin Products Share Tweet Linkedin ... and, in some situations, criminal prosecution. Dangers of Mercury Exposure to mercury can have serious health consequences. ...

  3. The association between health and sickness absence among Danish and non-Western immigrant cleaners in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carneiro, Isabella G.; Rasmussen, Charlotte D. N.; Jørgensen, Marie B.

    2013-01-01

    related to high occurrence of sickness absence. Among Danish cleaners, high blood pressure was related to high occurrence of sickness absence. Among non-Western immigrant cleaners, total body pain and having one or more diagnosed chronic disease were related to high occurrence of sickness absence...

  4. Screening for common mental disorders and substance abuse among temporary hired cleaners in Egyptian Governmental Hospitals, Zagazig City, Sharqia Governorate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, R A; Hammam, R A M; El-Gohary, S S; Sabik, L M E; Hunter, M S

    2013-01-01

    Informal employment is common in developing countries, including Egypt. This type of employment may have significant consequences on mental health. To determine the prevalence and risk factors of common mental disorders and substance abuse among temporary hired hospital cleaners. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 242 adult temporary cleaners and 209 permanent cleaners working in 4 governmental hospitals in Zagazig City, Sharqia Governorate, Egypt. All participants were invited to complete a structured questionnaire through a semi-structured interview which included the self-reporting questionnaire 20 items (SRQ-20) and the work stress scale. Assessment of drug use included urine-based screening tests for common substances abused. The prevalence of job stress, common mental disorders and substance abuse, particularly tramadol and cannabis (Bango), was significantly higher in the studied temporary cleaners compared to permanent cleaners. Risk factors associated with increased susceptibility of the temporary cleaners to common mental disorders were family history of substance abuse, high crowding index, history of physical illness, low educational level, and smoking; while being unmarried, male sex, family history of mental disorder, age ≥40 years, smoking, and length of service ≥8 years, were associated with substance abuse among the same group. Temporary hired hospital cleaners suffered from impaired mental health more than permanent cleaners. Therefore, expanding the coverage of current laws and occupational safety and health standards to cover workers in the informal sector especially in developing countries is recommended.

  5. THE ROLE OF COAL PROPERTIES AND COMBUSTION CONDITIONS IN THE CAPTURE OF MERCURY BY FLY ASH AND SORBENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U. S. fleet of coal-fired power plants, with generating capacity of just over 300 GW, is known to be the major anthropogenic source of domestic mercury (Hg) emissions. As such, in March 2005, the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated the Clean Air Mercury R...

  6. A new cleaner process to prepare pressing-powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu, Z.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available An alternative cleaner process of pressing-powder preparation, based on filter-pressing and a novel granulation method, is presented to substitute the existing spray-drying process. In the new process, about two-thirds of wet-milled slurry is filterpressed, dried and milled into dry fine powder. The other one-third of the slurry and the as-obtained dry fine powder are spray-mixed in a tower, where the slurry droplets adsorb the dry powder to form granules which are then rolled and dried into a useable pressing-powder for tile pressing. The key stages, filter-pressing and granulation (consisting of spray-mixing and rolling treatment, are specially studied. The pressing-powder properties and pressing/firing behavior, and, energy/water consumption and pollution emission data are presented, and a comparison between the new process and the existing spray-drying process is made. This new process has been found to be feasible and provides a pressing-powder with suitable properties, together with lower energy/water consumption and pollution emission (particulate matter and CO2.

    En ese trabajo se presenta un proceso alternativo y más ecológico para la preparación de polvo de prensas por molienda vía húmeda de las materias primas. En este proceso la eliminación del agua de la suspensión obtenida en la etapa de molienda, en vez de realizarse por secado por atomización, se lleva a cabo en dos etapas, en una primera etapa dos tercios de esta suspensión se filtro-prensan, posteriormente se secan y molturan hasta obtener un polvo seco micronizado. Este material seco se introduce por la parte superior de una torre granuladora, en la que se pulveriza el tercio de la suspensión restante por la parte inferior, de forma que las gotas adsorben sobre su superficie las partículas secas formando gránulos, que posteriormente se compactan por rodamiento (“rolling”, y finalmente se secan hasta la humedad requerida para el prensado. En

  7. The catalogCleaner: Separating the Sheep from the Goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, K.; Hankin, S. C.; Schweitzer, R.; Koyuk, H.

    2012-12-01

    possible. However, it quickly became obvious, through the sheer volume of data servers available, that the manual process of building a master catalog was not scalable. Thus, the idea for the catalogCleaner tool was born. The goal of this tool is to automatically crawl a remote OPeNDAP or THREDDS server, and from the information in the server build a "clean" catalog of data that will be: a) served through uniform access services; b) have CF compliant metadata; c) directly link the data to common visualization tools thereby allowing users to immediately begin exploring actual data. In addition, the UAF-generated clean catalog can then be used to drive data discovery tools such as Geoportal, GI-CAT, etc. This presentation will further explore the motivation of creating this tool, the implementation of this tool, as well as the myriad of challenges and difficulties there were encountered along the way.

  8. Vaporization of elemental mercury from pools of molten lead at low concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, G.A.; Finfrock, C.C.

    2000-01-01

    Should coolant accidentally be lost to the APT (Accelerator Production of Tritium) blanket and target, and the decay heat in the target be deposited in the surrounding blanket by thermal radiation, temperatures in the blanket modules could exceed structural limits and cause a physical collapse of the blanket modules into a non-coolable geometry. Such a sequence of unmitigated events could result in some melting of the APT blanket and create the potential for the release of mercury into the target-blanket cavity air space. Experiments were conducted which simulate such hypothetical accident conditions in order to measure the rate of vaporization of elemental mercury from pools of molten lead to quantify the possible severe accident source term for the APT blanket region. Molten pools of from 0.01% to 0.10% mercury in lead were prepared under inert conditions. Experiments were conducted, which varied in duration from several hours to as long as a month, to measure the mercury vaporization from the lead pools. The melt pools and gas atmospheres were held fixed at 340 C during the tests. Parameters which were varied in the tests included the mercury concentration, gas flow rate over the melt and agitation of the melt, gas atmosphere composition and the addition of aluminum to the melt. The vaporization of mercury was found to scale roughly linearly with the concentration of mercury in the pool. Variations in the gas flow rates were not found to have any effect on the mass transfer, however agitation of the melt by a submerged stirrer did enhance the mercury vaporization rate. The rate of mercury vaporization with an argon (inert) atmosphere was found to exceed that for an air (oxidizing) atmosphere by as much as a factor of from ten to 20; the causal factor in this variation was the formation of an oxide layer over the melt pool with the air atmosphere which served to retard mass transfer across the melt-atmosphere interface. Aluminum was introduced into the melt to

  9. Mercury, Vaccines, and Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jeffrey P.

    2008-01-01

    The controversy regarding the once widely used mercury-containing preservative thimerosal in childhood vaccines has raised many historical questions that have not been adequately explored. Why was this preservative incorporated in the first place? Was there any real evidence that it caused harm? And how did thimerosal become linked in the public mind to the “autism epidemic”? I examine the origins of the thimerosal controversy and their legacy for the debate that has followed. More specifically, I explore the parallel histories of three factors that converged to create the crisis: vaccine preservatives, mercury poisoning, and autism. An understanding of this history provides important lessons for physicians and policymakers seeking to preserve the public’s trust in the nation’s vaccine system. PMID:18172138

  10. Visibility and social recognition as psychosocial work environment factors among cleaners in a multi-ethnic workplace intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hviid, Kirsten; Smith, Louise Hardman; Frydendall, Karen Bo; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann

    2012-12-24

    This article focuses on the psychosocial work environment of immigrant cleaners at a Danish workplace. Today, many cleaners working in Danish cleaning jobs are women from the established immigrant communities, but also labour migrants from the newer EU member states have found their way to the cleaning industry. Studies have drawn attention to immigrants' low position in the cleaning industry and their increased risk of work injuries. This article is based on a case study of an intervention called "Make a Difference" designed to improve the work environment among cleaners at a multi-ethnic workplace. We used semi-structured interviews, photo logs, observation and participation to investigate how the cleaners experienced their work environment. The cleaners reported an overload of heavy work, related to the concept of a classroom's "readiness for cleaning", and they expressed strained social relations and communication in addition to a lack of social recognition and invisibility at the workplace, a school. We analysed these psychosocial work environmental problems by investigating the different forms of social relationships and communication within the group of cleaners, and between the cleaners and the teachers and pupils at the school. Moreover, we discussed why the intervention, based on training of language and cleaning skills and social interaction, only partially improved the cleaners' psychosocial work environment problems. In this article, we argue that social divisions based on ethnicity between the new and the established group of cleaners, combined with their marginal position and poor work organisation at the school, reinforced the cleaners' experiences of psychosocial work environment problems. This article suggests that increased effort towards social inclusion at work and improved work organisation, especially for the new labour migrants from newer EU-countries, should be considered.

  11. MERCURY IN SOIL AND ATMOSPHERE AS A PATHFINDER ELEMENT FOR ISTRIAN BAUXITE DEPOSITS — A TENTATIVE EXPLORATION MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav A. Palinkaš

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available ID order to find out a secondary dispersion halo of mercury and some other trace elements around the bauxite ore bodies, the authors sampled terra rossa along traverses over them. At the same time, mercury in air is measured and expressed by relative values (mA using Zeeman mercury vapor analyser. Mercury in soil was determined by flameless atomic absorption method and Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Co and Mn by standard AA techniques. The results are equivocal since the natural vertical soil profiles are severely disturbed on traverses due to different land use, what should be taken into consideration during continuation of the survey.

  12. Measurement of atmospheric mercury species with manual sampling and analysis methods in a case study in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, M.R.; Prestbo, E.M.; Hawkins, L.

    2007-01-01

    Ground-level concentrations of three atmospheric mercury species were measured using manual sampling and analysis to provide data for estimates of mercury dry deposition. Three monitoring stations were operated simultaneously during winter, spring, and summer 2004, adjacent to three mercury wet-deposition monitoring stations in northern, central, and southern Indiana. The monitoring locations differed in land-use setting and annual mercury-emissions level from nearby sources. A timer-controlled air-sampling system that contained a three-part sampling train was used to isolate reactive gaseous mercury, particulate-bound mercury, and elemental mercury. The sampling trains were exchanged every 6 days, and the mercury species were quantified in a laboratory. A quality-assurance study indicated the sampling trains could be held at least 120 h without a significant change in reactive gaseous or particulate-bound mercury concentrations. The manual sampling method was able to provide valid mercury concentrations in 90 to 95% of samples. Statistical differences in mercury concentrations were observed during the project. Concentrations of reactive gaseous and elemental mercury were higher in the daytime samples than in the nighttime samples. Concentrations of reactive gaseous mercury were higher in winter than in summer and were highest at the urban monitoring location. The results of this case study indicated manual sampling and analysis could be a reliable method for measurement of atmospheric mercury species and has the capability for supplying representative concentrations in an effective manner from a long-term deposition-monitoring network. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  13. Method for mercury refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, M.W.; Speer, R.; George, W.A.

    1991-04-09

    The effluent from mercury collected during the photochemical separation of the [sup 196]Hg isotope is often contaminated with particulate mercurous chloride, Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2]. The use of mechanical filtering via thin glass tubes, ultrasonic rinsing with acetone (dimethyl ketone) and a specially designed cold trap have been found effective in removing the particulate (i.e., solid) Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] contaminant. The present invention is particularly directed to such filtering. 5 figures.

  14. Apparatus for mercury refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, M.W.; Speer, R.; George, W.A.

    1991-07-16

    The effluent from mercury collected during the photochemical separation of the [sup 196]Hg isotope is often contaminated with particulate mercurous chloride, Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2]. The use of mechanical filtering via thin glass tubes, ultrasonic rinsing with acetone (dimethyl ketone) and a specially designed cold trap have been found effective in removing the particulate (i.e., solid) Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] contaminant. The present invention is particularly directed to such filtering. 5 figures.

  15. Apparatus for mercury refinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, M.W.; Speer, R.; George, W.A.

    1991-01-01

    The effluent from mercury collected during the photochemical separation of the 196 Hg isotope is often contaminated with particulate mercurous chloride, Hg 2 Cl 2 . The use of mechanical filtering via thin glass tubes, ultrasonic rinsing with acetone (dimethyl ketone) and a specially designed cold trap have been found effective in removing the particulate (i.e., solid) Hg 2 Cl 2 contaminant. The present invention is particularly directed to such filtering. 5 figures

  16. Method for scavenging mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shih-ger [El Cerrito, CA; Liu, Shou-heng [Kaohsiung, TW; Liu, Zhao-rong [Beijing, CN; Yan, Naiqiang [Berkeley, CA

    2009-01-20

    Disclosed herein is a method for removing mercury from a gas stream comprising contacting the gas stream with a getter composition comprising bromine, bromochloride, sulphur bromide, sulphur dichloride or sulphur monochloride and mixtures thereof. In one preferred embodiment the getter composition is adsorbed onto a sorbent. The sorbent may be selected from the group consisting of flyash, limestone, lime, calcium sulphate, calcium sulfite, activated carbon, charcoal, silicate, alumina and mixtures thereof. Preferred is flyash, activated carbon and silica.

  17. Magnetic field of Mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.J.; Beard, D.B.

    1977-01-01

    The geomagnetic field, suitably scaled down and parameterized, is shown to give a very good fit to the magnetic field measurements taken on the first and third passes of the Mariner 10 space probe past Mercury. The excellence of the fit to a reliable planetary magnetospheric model is good evidence that the Mercury magnetosphere is formed by a simple, permanent, intrinsic planetary magnetic field distorted by the effects of the solar wind. The parameters used for a best fit to all the data are (depending slightly on the choice of data) 2.44--2.55 for the ratio of Mercury's magnetic field strength at the subsolar point to that of the earth's subsolar point field (this results in a dipole moment of 170 γR/sub M/ 3 (R/sub M/ is Mercury Radius), i.e., 2.41 x 10 22 G cm 3 in the same direction as the earth's dipole), approx.-113 γR/sub M/ 4 for the planetary quadrupole moment parallel to the dipole moment, 10degree--17degree for the tilt of the planet dipole toward the sun, 4.5degree for the tilt of the dipole toward dawn, and 2.5degree--7.6degree aberration angle for the shift in the tail axis from the planet-sun direction because of the planet's orbital velocity. The rms deviation overall for the entire data set compared with the theoretical fitted model for the magnetic field strength was 17 γ (approx.4% of the maximum field measured). If the data from the first pass that show presumed strong time variations are excluded, the overall rms deviation for the field magnitude is only 10 γ

  18. The planet Mercury (1971)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The physical properties of the planet Mercury, its surface, and atmosphere are presented for space vehicle design criteria. The mass, dimensions, mean density, and orbital and rotational motions are described. The gravity field, magnetic field, electromagnetic radiation, and charged particles in the planet's orbit are discussed. Atmospheric pressure, temperature, and composition data are given along with the surface composition, soil mechanical properties, and topography, and the surface electromagnetic and temperature properties.

  19. Mercury removal sorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alptekin, Gokhan

    2016-03-29

    Sorbents and methods of using them for removing mercury from flue gases over a wide range of temperatures are disclosed. Sorbent materials of this invention comprise oxy- or hydroxyl-halogen (chlorides and bromides) of manganese, copper and calcium as the active phase for Hg.sup.0 oxidation, and are dispersed on a high surface porous supports. In addition to the powder activated carbons (PACs), this support material can be comprised of commercial ceramic supports such as silica (SiO.sub.2), alumina (Al.sub.2O.sub.3), zeolites and clays. The support material may also comprise of oxides of various metals such as iron, manganese, and calcium. The non-carbon sorbents of the invention can be easily injected into the flue gas and recovered in the Particulate Control Device (PCD) along with the fly ash without altering the properties of the by-product fly ash enabling its use as a cement additive. Sorbent materials of this invention effectively remove both elemental and oxidized forms of mercury from flue gases and can be used at elevated temperatures. The sorbent combines an oxidation catalyst and a sorbent in the same particle to both oxidize the mercury and then immobilize it.

  20. The importance of integrated system design for the effectiveness of portable air cleaners in airborne infection

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Reenen, T

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available (CRE) at designed and measured capacities with the PAC running and idle. Streamlines were simulated to visualise airflow interactions between the PAC and HVAC systems. Results: Even with high total filter leakage (15% vs. 0.05% specified... contribution by the PAC to the CRE. The simulation using the higher airflow rates, measured during validation, showed little contribution by the PAC. The simulated airstreams indicated that the PAC operation could reduce the performance of the HVAC system...

  1. NREL Advancements in Methane Conversion Lead to Cleaner Air, Useful Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-01

    Researchers at NREL leveraged the recent on-site development of gas fermentation capabilities and novel genetic tools to directly convert methane to lactic acid using an engineered methanotrophic bacterium. The results provide proof-of-concept data for a gas-to-liquids bioprocess that concurrently produces fuels and chemicals from methane. NREL researchers developed genetic tools to express heterologous genes in methanotrophic organisms, which have historically been difficult to genetically engineer. Using these tools, researchers demonstrated microbial conversion of methane to lactate, a high-volume biochemical precursor predominantly utilized for the production of bioplastics. Methane biocatalysis offers a means to concurrently liquefy and upgrade natural gas and renewable biogas, enabling their utilization in conventional transportation and industrial manufacturing infrastructure. Producing chemicals and fuels from methane expands the suite of products currently generated from biorefineries, municipalities, and agricultural operations, with the potential to increase revenue and significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

  2. Mercury emissions from South Africa’s coal-fired power stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda L. Garnham

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is a persistent and toxic substance that can be bio-accumulated in the food chain. Natural and anthropogenic sources contribute to the mercury emitted in the atmosphere. Eskom’s coal-fired power stations in South Africa contributed just under 93% of the total electricity produced in 2015 (Eskom 2016. Trace amounts of mercury can be found in coal, mostly combined with sulphur, and can be released into the atmosphere upon combustion. Coal-fired electricity generation plants are the highest contributors to mercury emissions in South Africa. A major factor affecting the amount of mercury emitted into the atmosphere is the type and efficiency of emission abatement equipment at a power station. Eskom employs particulate emission control technology at all its coal-fired power stations, and new power stations will also have sulphur dioxide abatement technology. A co-beneficial reduction of mercury emissions exists as a result of emission control technology. The amount of mercury emitted from each of Eskom’s coal-fired power stations is calculated, based on the amount of coal burnt and the mercury content in the coal. Emission Reduction Factors (ERF’s from two sources are taken into consideration to reflect the co-benefit received from the emission control technologies at the stations. Between 17 and 23 tons of mercury is calculated to have been emitted from Eskom’s coal-fired power stations in 2015. On completion of Eskom’s emission reduction plan, which includes fabric filter plant retrofits at two and a half stations and a flue gas desulphurisation retrofit at one power station, total mercury emissions from the fleet will potentially be reduced by 6-13% by 2026 relative to the baseline. Mercury emission reduction is perhaps currently not the most pressing air quality problem in South Africa. While the focus should then be on reducing emissions of other pollutants which have a greater impact on human health, mercury emission reduction

  3. Cleaning products and short-term respiratory effects among female cleaners with asthma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vizcaya, D.; Mirabelli, M.C.; Gimeno, D.; Antó, J.M.; Delclos, G.L.; Rivera, M.; Orriols, R.; Arjona, L.; Burgos, F.; Zock, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated the short-term effects of exposure to cleaning products on lung function and respiratory symptoms among professional cleaning women. Methods: Twenty-one women with current asthma and employed as professional cleaners participated in a 15-day panel study. During 312

  4. 40 CFR 761.378 - Decontamination, reuse, and disposal of solvents, cleaners, and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decontamination, reuse, and disposal...-Porous Surfaces § 761.378 Decontamination, reuse, and disposal of solvents, cleaners, and equipment. (a) Decontamination. Decontaminate solvents and non-porous surfaces on equipment in accordance with the standards and...

  5. Aerobic exercise reduces biomarkers related to cardiovascular risk among cleaners: effects of a worksite intervention RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshøj, Mette; Ravn, Marie Højbjerg; Holtermann, Andreas; Hansen, Åse Marie; Krustrup, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Blue-collar workers have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, elevated levels of biomarkers related to risk of cardiovascular disease, such as high-sensitive C-reactive protein, have been observed among blue-collar workers. The objective was to examine whether an aerobic exercise worksite intervention changes the level of inflammation biomarkers among cleaners. The design was a cluster-randomized controlled trial with 4-month worksite intervention. Before the 116 cleaners aged 18-65 years were randomized, they signed an informed consent form. The reference group (n = 59) received lectures, and the aerobic exercise group (n = 57) performed worksite aerobic exercise (30 min twice a week). Levels of biomarkers (high-sensitive C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, cholesterol, low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride) were collected at baseline and after 4 months. A repeated-measure, multi-adjusted, mixed-model intention-to-treat analysis was applied to compare between-group differences. The study was registered as ISRCTN86682076. Significant (p aerobic exercise intervention among cleaners leads to reduced levels of high-sensitive C-reactive protein and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and an unaltered level of fibrinogen. The aerobic exercise seems to improve inflammatory levels and lipoprotein profile among cleaners, with no signs of cardiovascular overload.

  6. Cleaner Production and Workplace Health and Safety: A combined approach. A case study from South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess

    Environmental goals may be pursued narrow-mindedly with no attention paid to the workplace. This book examines combined approaches in cleaner production projects. It explores two main avenues. First, integration into the project specification. The planning tools in use by assistance agencies are ...

  7. Workshop on Indian Chemical Industry: perspectives on safety, cleaner production and environment production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    A Workshop on "Indian Chemical Industry: Perspectives on Safety, Cleaner Production and Environmental Protection" was held on 3, 4 and 5 January 1996, in Bombay, India. The main objective of the workshop, which was organised jointly by the Government of India, UNIDO/UNDP and the Indian Chemical

  8. Research on Duct Flow Field Optimisation of a Robot Vacuum Cleaner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-bo Lai

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The duct of a robot vacuum cleaner is the length of the flow channel between the inlet of the rolling brush blower and the outlet of the vacuum blower. To cope with the pressure drop problem of the duct flow field in a robot vacuum cleaner, a method based on Pressure Implicit with Splitting of Operators (PRISO algorithm is introduced and the optimisation design of the duct flow field is implemented. Firstly, the duct structure in a robot vacuum cleaner is taken as a research object, with the computational fluid dynamics (CFD theories adopted; a three-dimensional fluid model of the duct is established by means of the FLUENT solver of the CFD software. Secondly, with the k-∊ turbulence model of three-dimensional incompressible fluid considered and the PRISO pressure modification algorithm employed, the flow field numerical simulations inside the duct of the robot vacuum cleaner are carried out. Then, the velocity vector plots on the arbitrary plane of the duct flow field are obtained. Finally, an investigation of the dynamic characteristics of the duct flow field is done and defects of the original duct flow field are analysed, the optimisation of the original flow field has then been conducted. Experimental results show that the duct flow field after optimisation can effectively reduce pressure drop, the feasibility as well as the correctness of the theoretical modelling and optimisation approaches are validated.

  9. Research on Duct Flow Field Optimisation of a Robot Vacuum Cleaner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-bo Lai

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The duct of a robot vacuum cleaner is the length of the flow channel between the inlet of the rolling brush blower and the outlet of the vacuum blower. To cope with the pressure drop problem of the duct flow field in a robot vacuum cleaner, a method based on Pressure Implicit with Splitting of Operators (PRISO algorithm is introduced and the optimisation design of the duct flow field is implemented. Firstly, the duct structure in a robot vacuum cleaner is taken as a research object, with the computational fluid dynamics (CFD theories adopted; a three‐dimensional fluid model of the duct is established by means of the FLUENT solver of the CFD software. Secondly, with the k‐ε turbulence model of three‐ dimensional incompressible fluid considered and the PRISO pressure modification algorithm employed, the flow field numerical simulations inside the duct of the robot vacuum cleaner are carried out. Then, the velocity vector plots on the arbitrary plane of the duct flow field are obtained. Finally, an investigation of the dynamic characteristics of the duct flow field is done and defects of the original duct flow field are analysed, the optimisation of the original flow field has then been conducted. Experimental results show that the duct flow field after optimisation can effectively reduce pressure drop, the feasibility as well as the correctness of the theoretical modelling and optimisation approaches are validated.

  10. Study of a cleaner extraction of pyruvic acid from fermentation broth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new cleaner technology for extracting pyruvic acid (PA) from fermentative broth was explored. This process involves recycling waste residue combined with small amount of dispersant added to extract PA. Limited amount of dispersant in the process of rectification under vacuum (1.5 kPa) was found to inhibit the ...

  11. Physical Fitness of Cleaners in Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran, November 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Wibisono Sulistijo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cleaning is an occupation that is carried out worldwide in many different environments. Cleaning workers (cleaners often have low occupational skills and belong to the less advantaged educational and socioeconomic groups. Because of the high physical work demands and low cardiorespiratory fitness, cleaners have the risk to have cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to measure the 5 components of physical fitness (cardiorespiratory endurance, muscle endurance, muscle strength, flexibility and body composition of cleaners in Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran. Methods: A descriptive study was carried out to all cleaners (31 persons of Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran in November 2012. The subjects were tested for cardiorespiratory endurance, muscle endurance, muscle strength, flexibility and body composition. The results were categorized using the standard of Ministry of Health Republic Indonesia. Results: From 31 subjects, cardiorespiratory endurance was in poor category (50%. Shoulder and hand muscle endurance was in poor category (54.8% and stomach muscle endurance was in very poor category (67.7%. Hand−grip muscular strength was in very poor category: right hand (80.7% and left hand (87.1%. Back muscle strength was in poor category (58.1%. Leg muscular strength was in very poor category (48.4%. Flexibility was in a very good category (97% and body composition was also in a good category (54.8%. Conclusions: From 5 components of cleaners’ physical fitness, 3 components (cardiorespiratory endurance, muscle endurance and muscular strength are in poor and very poor category.

  12. [Case of dyspnea due to toilet cleaner containing nitric acid for household use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagawa, Youichi; Matsukawa, Takehisa; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Hirano, Yohei; Ri, Tetsunari; Aihara, Koichiro; Iba, Toshiaki; Tanaka, Hiroshi

    2013-09-01

    A 40-year-old male tried to clean a urinal at his home storing 900 mL of a toilet cleaner containing 9.8% nitric acid to remove calcium deposit, and clean the toilet floor for twenty minutes. Immediately after using the cleaner, he experienced eye irritation. He washed out the toilet cleaner. However, he thereafter experienced dyspnea, a compressive sensation in his chest, and chest and back pain about 40 minutes after the cleaning the toilet. He monitored his symptoms overnight and found them to gradually improve. However, the symptoms still remained the next morning and therefore he came to our department on foot. He had no particular past or family history. On arrival, his physiological findings and chest computed tomography scan were negative for any abnormalities. His arterial blood gas analysis revealed a mild abnormality of oxygenation. Observation without any drugs revealed that a complete remission of his symptoms occurred after approximately 4 weeks. Based on the results of the experiments, contact with the mucosal membrane and nitric acid gas produced by any accidentally coexisting metals or contact with moisture, including nitric acid produced by a reaction between CaCO3 and cleaner, may have been the mechanism of occurrence for the symptoms observed in this case. This is the first reported case of nitric acid poisoning due to the use of a toilet cleanser intended for household use.

  13. REDUCTION OF INHERENT MERCURY EMISSIONS IN PC COMBUSTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John C. Kramlich; Rebecca N. Sliger

    2000-08-26

    Oxidized mercury has been shown to be more easily removed from power plant flue gas by existing air pollution control equipment (e.g., wet scrubbers) than elemental mercury. The factors that determine how mercury is converted to the oxidized form in practical systems are, however, unknown. The present research focuses on developing an elementary, homogeneous mechanism that describes the oxidation of mercury by chlorine species as it occurs in practical furnaces. The goal is to use this mechanism (1) as a component in an overall homogeneous/heterogeneous mechanism that describes mercury behavior, and (2) to suggest low cost/low impact means of promoting mercury oxidation in furnaces. The results suggest an important role for Hg+Cl {r_arrow} HgCl and HgCl + Cl {r_arrow} HgCl{sub 2}. Here, the Cl is derived by radical attack on HCl in the high-temperature environment. The results suggest that the oxidation occurs during the time that the gases cool to room temperature. The high Cl concentrations from the flame persist into the quench region and provide for the oxidation of Hg to HgCl{sub 2} under lower temperatures where the products are stable. Under this mechanism, no significant HgCl{sub 2} is actually present at the higher temperatures where oxidized mercury is often reported in the literature (e.g., 900 C). Instead, all oxidation occurs as these gases are quenched. The results suggest that means of promoting Cl concentrations in the furnace will increase oxidation.

  14. Task 23 - field studies of the occurrence, transport, and fate of mercury at natural gas industry sites. Topical report, May 1, 1992--December 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, J.A.; Harju, J.A.; Kuehnel, V.; Charlton, D.S.

    1998-12-31

    The objective of this research project is to define the occurrence, transport, and fate of mercury in air, water, and soil at natural gas production sites that had been instrumented with mercury-based gas flowmeters in the past. The primary focus of this research was initially on determining the potential for mercury contamination in groundwater at these sites. The scope was later broadened to include determinations of the spatial distribution of mercury in soil. Air concentrations were determined solely as a health and safety routine.

  15. A preliminary study on health effects in villagers exposed to mercury in a small-scale artisanal gold mining area in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose-O'Reilly, Stephan; Schierl, Rudolf; Nowak, Dennis; Siebert, Uwe; William, Jossep Frederick; Owi, Fradico Teorgi; Ir, Yuyun Ismawati

    2016-08-01

    Cisitu is a small-scale gold mining village in Indonesia. Mercury (Hg) is used to extract gold from ore, heavily polluting air, soil, fish and rice paddy fields with Hg. Rice in Cisitu is burdened with mercury. The main staple food of the inhabitants of Cisitu is this polluted rice. Villagers were concerned that the severe diseases they observed in the community might be related to their mining activities, including high mercury exposure. Case report of the medical examinations and the mercury levels in urine and hair of 18 people with neurological symptoms. Typical signs and symptoms of chronic mercury intoxication were found (excessive salivation, sleep disturbances, tremor, ataxia, dysdiadochokinesia, pathological coordination tests, gray to bluish discoloration of the oral cavity and proteinuria). Mercury levels in urine were increased in eight patients (>7µg Hg/L urine). All 18 people had increased hair levels (>1µg Hg/g hair). 15 patients exhibited several, and sometimes numerous, symptoms in addition to having moderately to highly elevated levels of mercury in their specimens. These patients were classified as intoxicated. The situation in Cisitu is special, with rice paddy fields being irrigated with mercury-contaminated water and villagers consuming only local food, especially mercury-contaminated rice. Severe neurological symptoms and increased levels of mercury in urine and hair support are possibly caused by exposure to inorganic mercury in air, and the consumption of mercury-contaminated fish and rice. The mercury exposure needs to be reduced and treatment provided. Further research is needed to test the hypothesis that mercury-contaminated rice from small-scale gold mining areas might cause mercury intoxication. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Does seasonal snowpacks enhance or decrease mercury contamination of high elevation ecosystems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, A.; Fain, X.; Obrist, D.; Helmig, D.; Barth, C.; Jacques, H.; Chowanski, K.; Boyle, D.; William, M.

    2009-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) is an extremely toxic pollutant globally dispersed in the environment. Natural and anthropogenic sources emit Hg to the atmosphere, either as gaseous elemental mercury (GEM; Hg0) or as divalent mercury species. Due to the long lifetime of GEM mercury contamination is not limited to industrialized sites, but also a concern in remote areas such as high elevation mountain environments. During winter and spring 2009, we investigated the fate of atmospheric mercury deposited to mountain ecosystems in the Sierra Nevada (Sagehen station, California, USA) and the Rocky Mountains (Niwot Ridge station, Colorado, USA). At Sagehen, we monitored mercury in snow (surface snow sampling and snow pits), wet deposition, and stream water during the snow-dominated season. Comparison of Hg stream discharge to snow Hg wet deposition showed that only a small fraction of Hg wet deposition reached stream in the melt water. Furthermore, Hg concentration in soil transects (25 different locations) showed no correlations to wet deposition Hg loads due to pronounced altitudinal precipitation gradient suggesting that Hg deposited to the snowpack was not transferred to ecosystems. At Niwot Ridge, further characterization of the chemical transformation involving mercury species within snowpacks was achieved by 3-months of continuous monitoring of GEM and ozone concentrations in the snow air at eight depths from the soil-snow interface to the top of the up to 2 meter deep snowpack. Divalent mercury concentrations were monitored as well (surface snow sampling and snow pits). GEM levels in snow air exhibited strong diurnal pattern indicative of both oxidation and reduction processes. Low levels of divalent mercury concentrations in snow pack suggest that large fractions of Hg originally deposited as wet deposition was reemitted back to the atmosphere after reduction. Hence, these results suggest that the presence of a seasonal snowpack may decrease effective wet deposition of mercury and

  17. Mercury's Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. L.

    2014-12-01

    Mercury is the only inner solar system body other than Earth to possess an active core dynamo-driven magnetic field and the only planet with a small, highly dynamic magnetosphere. Measurements made by the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft have provided a wealth of data on Mercury's magnetic field environment. Mercury's weak magnetic field was discovered 40 years ago by the Mariner 10 spacecraft, but its large-scale geometry, strength and origin could not be definitively established. MESSENGER data have shown that the field is dynamo-generated and can be described as an offset axisymmetric dipole field (hereafter OAD): the magnetic equator lies ~0.2 RM (RM = 2440 km) north of the geographic equator and the dipole moment is 2.8 x1019 Am2 (~0.03% that of Earth's). The weak internal field and the high, but variable, solar wind ram pressure drive vigorous magnetospheric dynamics and result in an average distance from the planet center to the sub-solar magnetopause of only 1.42 RM. Magnetospheric models developed with MESSENGER data have allowed re-analysis of the Mariner 10 observations, establishing that there has been no measureable secular variation in the internal field over 40 years. Together with spatial power spectra for the OAD, this provides critical constraints for viable dynamo models. Time-varying magnetopause fields induce secondary core fields, the magnitudes of which confirm the core radius estimated from MESSENGER gravity and Earth-based radar data. After accounting for large-scale magnetospheric fields, residual signatures are dominated by additional external fields that are organized in the local time frame and that vary with magnetospheric activity. Birkeland currents have been identified, which likely close in the planetary interior at depths below the base of the crust. Near-periapsis magnetic field measurements at altitudes greater than 200 km have tantalizing hints of crustal fields, but crustal

  18. Probabilistic mercury multimedia exposure assessment in small children and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisset, Typhaine; Ramirez-Martinez, Alejandra; Wesolek, Nathalie; Roudot, Alain-Claude

    2013-09-01

    Emissions of mercury in the environment have been decreasing for several years. However, mercury species are still found in different media (food, water, air and breast-milk). Due to mercury toxicity and typical behaviour in children, we have conducted a mercury exposure assessment in French babies, and small children aged 0 to 36months. Consumption and mercury concentration data were chosen for the exposure assessment. The Monte Carlo technique has been used to calculate the weekly exposure dose in order to integrate inter-individual variability and parameter uncertainty. Exposure values have been compared to toxicological reference values for health risk assessment. Inorganic mercury median exposure levels ranged from 0.160 to 1.649μg/kg of body weight per week (95th percentile (P95): 0.298-2.027µg/kg bw/week); elemental mercury median exposure level in children was 0.11ng/kg bw/week (P95: 28ng/kg bw/week); and methylmercury median exposure level ranged from 0.247 to 0.273µg/kg bw/week (P95: 0.425-0.463µg/kg bw/week). Only elemental mercury by inhalation route (indoor air) and methylmercury by ingestion (fish and breast-milk) seem to lead to a health risk in small children. These results confirm the importance of assessing total mercury concentration in media like breast-milk, indoor air and dust and methylmercury level in food, other than fish and seafood. In this way, informed monitoring plan and risk assessment in an at-risk sub-population can be set. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The extent of the influence and flux estimation of volatile mercury from the aeration pool in a typical coal-fired power plant equipped with a seawater flue gas desulfurization system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Lumin; Feng, Lifeng; Yuan, Dongxing; Lin, Shanshan; Huang, Shuyuan; Gao, Liangming; Zhu, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Before being discharged, the waste seawater from the flue gas desulfurization system of coal-fired power plants contains a large amount of mercury, and is treated in aeration pools. During this aeration process, part of the mercury enters the atmosphere, but only very limited impact studies concerning this have been carried out. Taking a typical Xiamen power plant as an example, the present study targeted the elemental mercury emitted from the aeration pool. Concentrations of dissolved gaseous mercury as high as 1.14 ± 0.17 ng·L −1 were observed in the surface waste seawater in the aeration pool, and gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) as high as 10.94 ± 1.89 ng·m −3 was found in the air above the pool. To investigate the area affected by this GEM through air transfer, the total mercury in the dust and topsoil samples around the aeration pool were analyzed. Much higher values were found compared to those at a reference site. Environmental factors other than solar radiation had limited influence on the concentrations of the mercury species in the pool. A simulation device was built in our laboratory to study the flux of mercury from the aeration pool into the air. The results showed that more than 0.59 kg of mercury was released from the aeration pool every year, occupying 0.3% of the total mercury in the waste seawater. The transfer of mercury from water to air during the aeration pool and its environmental influence should not be ignored. - Highlights: ► High concentration of volatile mercury was observed in the aeration pool. ► More than 0.3% of total discharged Hg emitted from the pool into the air. ► Higher aeration rate resulted in more mercury emitted into the air. ► The dust and topsoil around the pool were polluted with the mercury

  20. Investigation of Processes Controlling Mercury Cycling at Midlatitudinal Marine and Inland Sites: Improvements and Applications of A Mercury Box Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    ye, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a hazardous pollutant due to the bioaccumulation in food chain. It is emitted to the atmosphere primarily as elemental form, and the long lifetime of which allows global transport. Oxidation of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) generates reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) which plays an important role in the atmospheric mercury cycle by enhancing the rate of mercury deposition to ecosystem. The present study aimed to investigate the midlatitudinal atmospheric Hg cycling. To achieve that, a mercury chemistry box model was improved by employing the most up-to-date kinetic data for gaseous and aqueous reactions, and was applied to summertime clear sky conditions at three specific sites: Appledore Island (marine site), Thompson Farm (coastal site), and Pack Monadnock (inland site). The model was evaluated using observational data of RGM and pHg (particulate mercury) concentrations from these sites. The simulation results for all three sites showed that HgO, which is produced from oxidation of GEM by O3 and OH, contributed the most (>82%) to the total RGM production. Even in the marine boundary layer, halogen species (mainly Br) only contributed less than 12% to total RGM. The importance of reactions in most updated halogen chemistry has been evaluated. Gas and particle partitioning played an important role in coastal and inland environments. Some abnormally high RGM peaks were found at Appledore Island which may be explained by transport and air-sea exchange. Specific reactions and other processes controlling the diurnal cycles of RGM and pHg at the three sites are still being investigated.

  1. Uptake of elemental mercury and activity of catalase in rat, hamster, guinea-pig, normal and acatalasemic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eide, I.; Syversen, T.L.M.

    1982-01-01

    Uptake of elemental mercury after inhalation (3.5 mg/m 3 ) and the activity of catalase in brain, liver, kidney and blood were investigated in rat, hamster, guinea-pig, and normal and acatalasemic mice. The uptake of mercury in the species investigated varied considerably, being highest in the two strains of mice, followed by rat and hamster, and lowest in the guinea-pig. The uptake seemed to be more dependent on pulmonary ventilation than on the activity of catalase. The two strains of mice were exposed to a wide range of mercury concentrations in air (0.002-3.5 mg/m 3 ). The content of mercury in brain, liver and kidney was linearly dependent on the mercury concentration in the air, whereas in blood this relationship was exponential. At the lower concentraions of mercury in the inhaled air, the mercury level in blood was significantly lower, and in kidney higher in the acatalasemic mice compared to the normal ones. In acatalasemic mice the mercury content in the liver has higher at all concentrations investigated, whereas in brain no difference between the two strains was found. (author)

  2. Impact of marine mercury cycling on coastal atmospheric mercury concentrations in the North- and Baltic Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Bieser

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The cycling of mercury between ocean and atmosphere is an important part of the global Hg cycle. Here we study the regional contribution of the air-sea exchange in the North- and Baltic Sea region. We use a newly developed coupled regional chemistry transport modeling (CTM system to determine the flux between atmosphere and ocean based on the meteorological model COSMO-CLM, the ocean-ecosystem model ECOSMO, the atmospheric CTM CMAQ and a newly developed module for mercury partitioning and speciation in the ocean (MECOSMO. The model was evaluated using atmospheric observations of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM, surface concentrations of dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM, and air-sea flux (ASF calculations based on observations made on seven cruises in the western and central Baltic Sea and three cruises in the North Sea performed between 1991 and 2006. It was shown that the model is in good agreement with observations: DGM (Normalized Mean Bias NMB=-0.27 N=413, ASF (NMB=-0.32, N=413, GEM (NMB=0.07, N=2359. Generally, the model was able to reproduce the seasonal DGM cycle with the best agreement during winter and autumn (NMBWinter=-0.26, NMBSpring=-0.41, NMBSummer=-0.29, NMBAutumn=-0.03. The modelled mercury evasion from the Baltic Sea ranged from 3400 to 4000 kg/a for the simulation period 1994–2007 which is on the lower end of previous estimates. Modelled atmospheric deposition, river inflow and air-sea exchange lead to an annual net Hg accumulation in the Baltic Sea of 500 to 1000 kg/a. For the North Sea the model calculates an annual mercury flux into the atmosphere between 5700 and 6000 kg/a. The mercury flux from the ocean influenced coastal atmospheric mercury concentrations. Running CMAQ coupled with the ocean model lead to better agreement with GEM observations. Directly at the coast GEM concentrations could be increased by up to 10% on annual average and observed peaks could be reproduced much better. At stations 100km downwind

  3. Household air pollution and childhood pneumonia in South Sudan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on studies which have indicated that reduction of household air pollution also reduces its health risks such as pneumonia, the World Health Organization recommended the use of cleaner fuels and/or technologies that offer significant health benefits, including the use of clean cooking stoves. Around 99% or all ...

  4. Mercury: Exploration of a Planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The flight of the Mariner 10 spacecraft to Venus and Mercury is detailed in animation and photography. Views of Mercury are featured. Also included is animation on the origin of the solar system. Dr. Bruce C. Murray, director of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, comments on the mission.

  5. Rotation of the planet mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferys, W H

    1966-04-08

    The equations of motion for the rotation of Mercury are solved for the general case by an asymptotic expansion. The findings of Liu and O'Keefe, obtained by numerical integration of a special case, that it is possible for Mercury's rotation to be locked into a 2:3 resonance with its revolution, are confirmed in detail. The general solution has further applications.

  6. [Environment spatial distribution of mercury pollution in Songhua River upstream gold mining areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ting-Ting; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Gang; Zhao, Dan-Dan

    2010-09-01

    Using Zeeman mercury spectrometer RA915+ monitoring the total gaseous mercury concentration were collected from gold mining area in Huadian, in the upper reaches of the Songhua River, during summer and autumn of 2008, where we simultaneously collected samples of air, water, sediment and soil. The research is focused on analyzing of the spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of atmospheric mercury pollution and the correlation with other environmental factors. The results show that: the concentration of atmospheric mercury in summer is higher than that in autumn and in the evening is higher than at noon, and it present a gradual decay with the distance to the gold mining area as the center point increasing. The distribution rule of mercury pollution of environmental factors in the gold mining area is: in sediment > in soil > in plant > in water, the characteristics of mercury pollution distribution in plant is: root > stem and leaf, and the content of mercury in plant in autumn is commonly higher than that in summer. This is thought due to the accumulation of pollutant element from soil during the growth of plant. The atmospheric mercury has a significant correlation with the root of plant, respectively 0.83 in summer and 0.97 in autumn.

  7. Integrating Mercury Science and Policy in the Marine Context: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Kathleen F.; Evers, David C.; Warner, Kimberly A.; King, Susannah L.; Selin, Noelle E.

    2014-01-01

    Mercury is a global pollutant and presents policy challenges at local, regional, and global scales. Mercury poses risks to the health of people, fish, and wildlife exposed to elevated levels of mercury, most commonly from the consumption of methylmercury in marine and estuarine fish. The patchwork of current mercury abatement efforts limits the effectiveness of national and multi-national policies. This paper provides an overview of the major policy challenges and opportunities related to mercury in coastal and marine environments, and highlights science and policy linkages of the past several decades. The U.S. policy examples explored here point to the need for a full life cycle approach to mercury policy with a focus on source reduction and increased attention to: (1) the transboundary movement of mercury in air, water, and biota; (2) the coordination of policy efforts across multiple environmental media; (3) the cross-cutting issues related to pollutant interactions, mitigation of legacy sources, and adaptation to elevated mercury via improved communication efforts; and (4) the integration of recent research on human and ecological health effects into benefits analyses for regulatory purposes. Stronger science and policy integration will benefit national and international efforts to prevent, control, and minimize exposure to methylmercury. PMID:22901766

  8. Estimation of mercury amount in the components of spent U-type lamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Seung-Whee

    2017-05-01

    Spent U-type lamps are strongly encouraged to be separately managed in Korea, because U-type lamps are categorized as a household waste and thereby could not be managed properly. Determination of mercury amount in the components of U-type lamp, such as plastics, glass tube and phosphor powder from 3 U-type lamp manufacturers (A, B and C), is carried out to estimate the mercury content in spent U-type lamps. Regardless of lamp manufacturers, the portion of mercury in phosphor powder was higher than 90%, but that in plastics and others was less than 1%. At an air flow rate of 1.0 L/min, the range of the initial mercury concentration in vapor phase for U-type lamp was between 849 and 2076 µg/m 3 from 3 companies. The estimated mercury amount in vapor phase of U-type lamp was in the range from 0.206 mg for company A to 0.593 mg for company B. And the portion of mercury in vapor phase in the total amount of mercury was estimated in the range from 3.0% for company A to 6.7% for company B. Hence, it is desirable to get rid of mercury from phosphor powder in order to perform U-type lamps recycling.

  9. Study on emission of hazardous trace elements in a 350 MW coal-fired power plant. Part 1. Mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shilin; Duan, Yufeng; Chen, Lei; Li, Yaning; Yao, Ting; Liu, Shuai; Liu, Meng; Lu, Jianhong

    2017-10-01

    Hazardous trace elements (HTEs), especially mercury, emitted from coal-fired power plants had caused widespread concern worldwide. Field test on mercury emissions at three different loads (100%, 85%, 68% output) using different types of coal was conducted in a 350 MW pulverized coal combustion power plant equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR), electrostatic precipitator and fabric filter (ESP + FF), and wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD). The Ontario Hydro Method was used for simultaneous flue gas mercury sampling for mercury at the inlet and outlet of each of the air pollutant control device (APCD). Results showed that mercury mass balance rates of the system or each APCD were in the range of 70%-130%. Mercury was mainly distributed in the flue gas, followed by ESP + FF ash, WFGD wastewater, and slag. Oxidized mercury (Hg 2+ ) was the main form of mercury form in the flue gas emitted to the atmosphere, which accounted for 57.64%-61.87% of total mercury. SCR was favorable for elemental mercury (Hg 0 ) removal, with oxidation efficiency of 50.13%-67.68%. ESP + FF had high particle-bound mercury (Hg p ) capture efficiency, at 99.95%-99.97%. Overall removal efficiency of mercury by the existing APCDs was 58.78%-73.32%. Addition of halogens or oxidants for Hg 0 conversion, and inhibitors for Hg 0 re-emission, plus the installation of a wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP) was a good way to improve the overall removal efficiency of mercury in the power plants. Mercury emission factor determined in this study was from 0.92 to 1.17 g/10 12 J. Mercury concentration in the emitted flue gas was much less than the regulatory limit of 30 μg/m 3 . Contamination of mercury in desulfurization wastewater should be given enough focus. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Long-Term Measurments of Atmospheric Mercury Species (TGM, TPM and Hg Deposition in the Silesian Region, Poland – Concept of the Mercury Deposition Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak Bartosz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to identify concentration levels of different chemical forms of mercury (TGM, TPM in the ambient air in selected areas of the Silesian Region, characterized by low and high mercury emission. Based on the obtained data TGM and TPM concentration levels were determined. The project also focused on determination of dry and wet deposition of mercury compounds. Data concerning TGM and TPM flux rates in the ambient air and data on mercury deposition were used to determine a deposition coefficient. The coefficient was calculated as a share of mercury deposition on the land surface (dry and wet to the amount of this contaminant transported with loads of air in the form of TGM and TPM in a given measurement station. At both monitoring stations the deposition coefficient did not exceed 0.2 %. The idea of calculating the deposition coefficient based on the analysis of TGM and TPM flux rate is a new solution. The proposed deposition coefficient allows to quantify information on a selected contaminant concentration and its potential impact resulting from deposition. Further studies on the deposition coefficient may contribute to the development of methods for estimating the impact of contaminants contained in the ambient air on other environmental components based on the analyses of the contaminant flux rate.

  11. A 24-h assessment of physical activity and cardio-respiratory fitness among female hospital cleaners: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshøj, Mette; Krustrup, Peter; Jespersen, Tobias; Søgaard, Karen; Skotte, Jørgen H; Holtermann, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of methods for objective 24-h sampling of physical activity among cleaners. Twenty cleaners participated in three 24-h measurements. Amount of steps, heart rate (HR), cardio-respiratory fitness, body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure were measured. The methods were feasible for the objective 24-h sampling of physical activity and cardio-respiratory fitness among cleaners. Measurements showed that the cleaners walked 20,198 ± 4,627 steps per day. During working hours, the average cardio-respiratory load was 25 ± 6% of heart rate reserve (HRR). The cleaners had a low estimated cardio-respiratory fitness (34 mlO2/kg/min), a high BMI (50%, >25 kg/m(2)) and blood pressure (50%, >120/>80 mmHg). The high amount of steps, the relatively high cardiovascular load at work and low cardio-respiratory fitness illustrate the need for further investigation of the relationship between physical activity at work and in leisure, and cardiovascular health in this population. This study evaluated the feasibility of methods for objective 24-h sampling of physical activity among cleaners; the methods used were found to be feasible. The cleaners had a high cardiovascular load at work and low cardio-respiratory fitness, suggesting that there is a need for further investigations.

  12. 49 CFR 173.164 - Mercury (metallic and articles containing mercury).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mercury (metallic and articles containing mercury... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.164 Mercury (metallic and articles containing mercury). (a) For transportation by aircraft, mercury must be packaged in packagings which meet the requirements of part 178 of...

  13. Mercury concentration in bivalve molluscs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szkoda Józef

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 85 mussel samples of eight species were examined. Analysis of mercury in the freeze-dried samples was carried out by atomic absorption spectrometry method using direct mercury analyser AMA 254. The analytical procedure for determination of mercury was covered by the quality assurance programme of research and participation in national and international proficiency tests. Concentrations of total mercury in all investigated samples were found to be generally low, in the range of 0.033-0.577 mg/kg of dry weight and of 0.003-0.045 mg/kg of wet weight. The results indicate that obtained levels of mercury in bivalve molluscs are not likely to pose a risk to the health of consumers.

  14. Mercury: Beethoven Quadrangle, H-7

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Mercury: Computer Photomosaic of the Beethoven Quadrangle, H-7 The Beethoven Quadrangle, named for the 19th century classical German composer, lies in Mercury's Equatorial Mercator located between longitude 740 to 1440. The Mariner 10 spacecraft imaged the region during its initial flyby of the planet. The Image Processing Lab at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory produced this photomosaic using computer software and techniques developed for use in processing planetary data. The images used to construct the Beethoven Quadrangle were taken as Mariner 10 flew passed Mercury. The Mariner 10 spacecraft was launched in 1974. The spacecraft took images of Venus in February 1974 on the way to three encounters with Mercury in March and September 1974 and March 1975. The spacecraft took more than 7,000 images of Mercury, Venus, the Earth and the Moon during its mission. The Mariner 10 Mission was managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science in Washington, D.C.

  15. Human Exposure and Health Effects of Inorganic and Elemental Mercury

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jung-Duck; Zheng, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Mercury is a toxic and non-essential metal in the human body. Mercury is ubiquitously distributed in the environment, present in natural products, and exists extensively in items encountered in daily life. There are three forms of mercury, i.e., elemental (or metallic) mercury, inorganic mercury compounds, and organic mercury compounds. This review examines the toxicity of elemental mercury and inorganic mercury compounds. Inorganic mercury compounds are water soluble with a bioavailability o...

  16. Methods for dispensing mercury into devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.

    1987-04-28

    A process for dispensing mercury into devices which requires mercury. Mercury is first electrolytically separated from either HgO or Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 and plated onto a cathode wire. The cathode wire is then placed into a device requiring mercury.

  17. 21 CFR 872.3700 - Dental mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental mercury. 872.3700 Section 872.3700 Food and... DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3700 Dental mercury. (a) Identification. Dental mercury is a device composed of mercury intended for use as a component of amalgam alloy in the restoration of a...

  18. Effects of cigarette smoke and denture cleaners on the surface roughness and color stability of different denture teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayaz, Elif Aydogan; Altintas, Subutay Han; Turgut, Sedanur

    2014-08-01

    Denture teeth have the most effect on the esthetics of complete dentures. However, extrinsic factors can change their roughness and color. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of smoking and denture cleaners on the roughness and color (CIE [Commission International de I'Eclairage] L*a*b*) of denture teeth. Maxillary central incisors made of acrylic resin, high-strength acrylic resin, and porcelain (Acrylux, SR, Orthosit PE-O, and Enta) were divided into 4 groups (n=10): control, denture cleaner, cigarette smoke, and cigarette smoke and denture cleaner. The dental cleaner group and cigarette smoke and dental cleaner group were immersed in denture cleaner (Protefix; Queisser Pharma) for 15 minutes; the cigarette smoke group and cigarette smoke and dental cleaner group were exposed to smoke from 20 cigarettes for 10 minutes per cigarette. The roughness was measured with a profilometer, and the color was measured with a colorimeter. The CIE L*a*b* values were recorded. The data were analyzed with a 3-way ANOVA and the Fisher least significant difference test (α=.05). The roughness of Acrylux, SR Orthosit PE-O (P<.001), and Enta (P<.01) was significantly higher in the cigarette smoke group and dental cleaner group than in the control group. Immersion in denture cleaner after exposure to cigarette smoke decreased the roughness of Acrylux, SR Orthosit PE-O (P<.001), and Enta (P<.01). The greatest color change (7.94) was observed in Acrylux in the cigarette smoke group, whereas the smallest color change (0.24) was in Enta in the control group. The color change of all of the teeth in the cigarette smoke group decreased after exposure to denture cleaner (P<.05). The L* decreased, and the a* and b* increased after exposure to smoke (P<.05). Smoking and denture cleaner increased the roughness and discolored the teeth, whereas denture cleaners after exposure to smoke decreased the roughness. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic

  19. Surface chemistry of a pine-oil cleaner and other terpene mixtures with ozone on vinyl flooring tiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Jason E; Wells, J Raymond

    2011-04-01

    Indoor environments are dynamic reactors where consumer products (such as cleaning agents, deodorants, and air fresheners) emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that can subsequently interact with indoor oxidants such as ozone (O(3)), hydroxyl radicals, and nitrate radicals. Typically, consumer products consist of mixtures of VOCs and semi-VOCs which can react in the gas-phase or on surfaces with these oxidants to generate a variety of oxygenated products. In this study, the reaction of a pine-oil cleaner (POC) with O(3) (100ppb) on a urethane-coated vinyl flooring tile was investigated at 5% and 50% relative humidity. These results were compared to previous α-terpineol+O(3) reactions on glass and vinyl surfaces. Additionally, other terpene and terpene alcohol mixtures were formulated to understand the emission profiles as seen in the POC data. Results showed that the α-terpineol+O(3) reaction products were the prominent species that were also observed in the POC/O(3) surface experiments. Furthermore, α-terpineol+O(3) reactions generate the largest fraction of oxygenated products even in equal mixtures of other terpene alcohols. This finding suggests that the judicial choice of terpene alcohols for inclusion in product formulations may be useful in reducing oxidation product emissions. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Lung function impairment in women exposed to biomass fuels during cooking compared to cleaner fuels in Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihari, Vipin; Iqbal, S M; Srivastava, L P; Kesavachandran, C; Siddique, M J A

    2013-11-01

    A national survey has shown that approximately 75-80% use of fire wood and chips, 10% of dung cake rural women in Uttar Pradesh, India. Considering the respiratory health risk of biomass fuel exposure to women, a cross sectional study was conducted to elucidate the relationship between cooking smoke and lung function impairments. The present study showed significant decline in air flow limitation based on reduced PEFR (3.69 | sec(-1)) and FEV1 (1.34 | sec(-1)) in women cooking with biomass fuels compared to PEFR (4.26 | sec(-1)) and FEV1 (1.73 | sec(-1)) in women cooking with cleaner fuels. The noxious gases and particles generated from biomass fuels during cooking reported in earlier studies may be the reason for the slight decline in airway status PEFR (3.69 | sec(-1)) and lung volumes FEV1 (1.34 | sec(-1)). The higher mean bio-fuels exposure index (52.5 hr-yrs) can attribute to reduced lung function in rural women.

  1. Fluorescent sensor for mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zidong [Urbana, IL; Lee, Jung Heon [Evanston, IL; Lu, Yi [Champaign, IL

    2011-11-22

    The present invention provides a sensor for detecting mercury, comprising: a first polynucleotide, comprising a first region, and a second region, a second polynucleotide, a third polynucleotide, a fluorophore, and a quencher, wherein the third polynucleotide is optionally linked to the second region; the fluorophore is linked to the first polynucleotide and the quencher is linked to the second polynucleotide, or the fluorophore is linked to the second polynucleotide and the quencher is linked to the first polynucleotide; the first region and the second region hybridize to the second polynucleotide; and the second region binds to the third polynucleotide in the presence of Hg.sup.2+ ions.

  2. Distribution of Gaseous and Particulate Mercury in the Coastal Rregion of Taiwan Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, J.

    2017-12-01

    This investigation provides information in the distribution patterns and sources of the atmospheric mercury species in the coastal region across Taiwan Strait. Total gaseous mercury (TGM) and total particulate mercury (TPM) were monitored from 2013 to 2017 in Xiamen, Fujian; and Kaosiung, Taiwan respectively. Results indicated that the average concentrations of TGM were 4.07±1.75 ng/m3, and 4.63±0.39 ng/m3, and the average concentrations of TPM were 195.72±132.37 pg/m3 and 194.72±42.19 pg/m3, respectively in Xiamen and Kaosiung. It is also found that seasonal variation of gaseous Hg was similar for those two cities, with higher concentration occurred in cold months and lower in warm months. The monsoon weather played a critical role in the seasonal variation of atmospheric mercury concentrations. Correlation analysis showed the concentrations of two atmospheric species mercury correlated negatively with wind speed, ambient temperature, and positively with NO2, CO and O3 in both cities. TPM had a more significant relationship with criteria air pollutants than that of TGM in Xiamen. Backward trajectory simulation (HYSPLIT) showed that the air masses originated commonly from North China and the Yellow Sea. They can transport through the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) and arrived in Xiamen when the events of high TGM concentration occurred. However, the clean air masses from open sea could dilute the concentration of atmospheric mercury.

  3. [Characteristics of mercury exchange flux between soil and atmosphere under the snow retention and snow melting control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gang; Wang, Ning; Ai, Jian-Chao; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Jing; Liu, Zi-Qi

    2013-02-01

    Jiapigou gold mine, located in the upper Songhua River, was once the largest mine in China due to gold output, where gold extraction with algamation was widely applied to extract gold resulting in severe mercury pollution to ambient environmental medium. In order to study the characteristics of mercury exchange flux between soil (snow) and atmosphere under the snow retention and snow melting control, sampling sites were selected in equal distances along the slope which is situated in the typical hill-valley terrain unit. Mercury exchange flux between soil (snow) and atmosphere was determined with the method of dynamic flux chamber and in all sampling sites the atmosphere concentration from 0 to 150 cm near to the earth in the vertical direction was measured. Furthermore, the impact factors including synchronous meteorology, the surface characteristics under the snow retention and snow melting control and the mercury concentration in vertical direction were also investigated. The results are as follows: During the period of snow retention and melting the air mercury tends to gather towards valley bottom along the slope and an obvious deposit tendency process was found from air to the earth's surface under the control of thermal inversion due to the underlying surface of cold source (snow surface). However, during the period of snow melting, mercury exchange flux between the soil and atmosphere on the surface of the earth with the snow being melted demonstrates alternative deposit and release processes. As for the earth with snow covered, the deposit level of mercury exchange flux between soil and atmosphere is lower than that during the period of snow retention. The relationship between mercury exchange flux and impact factors shows that in snow retention there is a remarkable negative linear correlation between mercury exchange flux and air mercury concentration as well as between the former and the air temperature. In addition, in snow melting mercury exchange

  4. Increased mercury emissions from modern dental amalgams

    OpenAIRE

    Bengtsson, Ulf G.; Hylander, Lars D.

    2017-01-01

    All types of dental amalgams contain mercury, which partly is emitted as mercury vapor. All types of dental amalgams corrode after being placed in the oral cavity. Modern high copper amalgams exhibit two new traits of increased instability. Firstly, when subjected to wear/polishing, droplets rich in mercury are formed on the surface, showing that mercury is not being strongly bonded to the base or alloy metals. Secondly, high copper amalgams emit substantially larger amounts of mercury vapor ...

  5. A preliminary study on health effects in villagers exposed to mercury in a small-scale artisanal gold mining area in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    S. Bose-O'Reilly; R. Schierl; D. Nowak; U. Siebert; J.F. William; F.T. Owi; Y.I. Ir

    2016-01-01

    Cisitu is a small-scale gold mining village in Indonesia. Mercury (Hg) is used to extract gold from ore, heavily polluting air, soil, fish and rice paddy fields with Hg. Rice in Cisitu is burdened with mercury. The main staple food of the inhabitants of Cisitu is this polluted rice. Villagers were concerned that the severe diseases they observed in the community might be related to their mining activities, including high mercury exposure. Case report of the medical examinations and the mercur...

  6. Mercury toxicity and neurodegenerative effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carocci, Alessia; Rovito, Nicola; Sinicropi, Maria Stefania; Genchi, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Mercury is among the most toxic heavy metals and has no known physiological role in humans. Three forms of mercury exist: elemental, inorganic and organic. Mercury has been used by man since ancient times. Among the earliest were the Chinese and Romans, who employed cinnabar (mercury sulfide) as a red dye in ink (Clarkson et al. 2007). Mercury has also been used to purify gold and silver minerals by forming amalgams. This is a hazardous practice, but is still widespread in Brazil's Amazon basin, in Laos and in Venezuela, where tens of thousands of miners are engaged in local mining activities to find and purify gold or silver. Mercury compounds were long used to treat syphilis and the element is still used as an antiseptic,as a medicinal preservative and as a fungicide. Dental amalgams, which contain about 50% mercury, have been used to repair dental caries in the U.S. since 1856.Mercury still exists in many common household products around the world.Examples are: thermometers, barometers, batteries, and light bulbs (Swain et al.2007). In small amounts, some organo mercury-compounds (e.g., ethylmercury tiosalicylate(thimerosal) and phenylmercury nitrate) are used as preservatives in some medicines and vaccines (Ballet al. 2001).Each mercury form has its own toxicity profile. Exposure to Hg0 vapor and MeHg produce symptoms in CNS, whereas, the kidney is the target organ when exposures to the mono- and di-valent salts of mercury (Hg+ and Hg++, respectively)occur. Chronic exposure to inorganic mercury produces stomatitis, erethism and tremors. Chronic MeHg exposure induced symptoms similar to those observed in ALS, such as the early onset of hind limb weakness (Johnson and Atchison 2009).Among the organic mercury compounds, MeHg is the most biologically available and toxic (Scheuhammer et a!. 2007). MeHg is neurotoxic, reaching high levels of accumulation in the CNS; it can impair physiological function by disrupting endocrine glands (Tan et a!. 2009).The most

  7. Mercury kinetics in marine zooplankton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.W.; Heyraud, M.; LaRosa, J.

    1976-01-01

    Mercury, like many other heavy metals, is potentially available to marine animals by uptake directly from water and/or through the organisms food. Furthermore, bioavailability, assimilation and subsequent retention in biota may be affected by the chemical species of the element in sea water. While mercury is known to exist in the inorganic form in sea water, recent work has indicated that, in certain coastal areas, a good portion of the total mercury appears to be organically bound; however, the exact chemical nature of the organic fraction has yet to be determined. Methyl mercury may be one constituent of the natural organically bound fraction since microbial mechanisms for in situ methylation of mercury have been demonstrated in the aquatic environment. Despite the fact that naturally produced methyl mercury probably comprises only a small fraction of an aquatic ecosystem, the well-documented toxic effects of this organo-mercurial, caused by man-made introductions into marine food chains, make it an important compound to study

  8. Atmospheric mercury footprints of nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Sai; Wang, Yafei; Cinnirella, Sergio; Pirrone, Nicola

    2015-03-17

    The Minamata Convention was established to protect humans and the natural environment from the adverse effects of mercury emissions. A cogent assessment of mercury emissions is required to help implement the Minamata Convention. Here, we use an environmentally extended multi-regional input-output model to calculate atmospheric mercury footprints of nations based on upstream production (meaning direct emissions from the production activities of a nation), downstream production (meaning both direct and indirect emissions caused by the production activities of a nation), and consumption (meaning both direct and indirect emissions caused by final consumption of goods and services in a nation). Results show that nations function differently within global supply chains. Developed nations usually have larger consumption-based emissions than up- and downstream production-based emissions. India, South Korea, and Taiwan have larger downstream production-based emissions than their upstream production- and consumption-based emissions. Developed nations (e.g., United States, Japan, and Germany) are in part responsible for mercury emissions of developing nations (e.g., China, India, and Indonesia). Our findings indicate that global mercury abatement should focus on multiple stages of global supply chains. We propose three initiatives for global mercury abatement, comprising the establishment of mercury control technologies of upstream producers, productivity improvement of downstream producers, and behavior optimization of final consumers.

  9. Infiltration behaviour of elemental mercury DNAPL in fully and partially water saturated porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aniello, Andrea; Hartog, Niels; Sweijen, Thomas; Pianese, Domenico

    2018-02-01

    both air and water, depending on the initial water distribution within the pores. This indicates that the conventional wettability hierarchy, in which the NAPL has an intermediate wetting state between the air and the water phases, is not valid for liquid elemental mercury. Therefore, for future modelling of elemental mercury DNAPL infiltration behaviour in variably water saturated porous media, a different formulation of the governing constitutive relations will be required.

  10. Current and future levels of mercury atmospheric pollution on a global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacyna, Jozef M.; Travnikov, Oleg; De Simone, Francesco; Hedgecock, Ian M.; Sundseth, Kyrre; Pacyna, Elisabeth G.; Steenhuisen, Frits; Pirrone, Nicola; Munthe, John; Kindbom, Karin

    2016-10-01

    An assessment of current and future emissions, air concentrations, and atmospheric deposition of mercury worldwide is presented on the basis of results obtained during the performance of the EU GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System) project. Emission estimates for mercury were prepared with the main goal of applying them in models to assess current (2013) and future (2035) air concentrations and atmospheric deposition of this contaminant. The combustion of fossil fuels (mainly coal) for energy and heat production in power plants and in industrial and residential boilers, as well as artisanal and small-scale gold mining, is one of the major anthropogenic sources of Hg emissions to the atmosphere at present. These sources account for about 37 and 25 % of the total anthropogenic Hg emissions globally, estimated to be about 2000 t. Emissions in Asian countries, particularly in China and India, dominate the total emissions of Hg. The current estimates of mercury emissions from natural processes (primary mercury emissions and re-emissions), including mercury depletion events, were estimated to be 5207 t year-1, which represents nearly 70 % of the global mercury emission budget. Oceans are the most important sources (36 %), followed by biomass burning (9 %). A comparison of the 2035 anthropogenic emissions estimated for three different scenarios with current anthropogenic emissions indicates a reduction of these emissions in 2035 up to 85 % for the best-case scenario. Two global chemical transport models (GLEMOS and ECHMERIT) have been used for the evaluation of future mercury pollution levels considering future emission scenarios. Projections of future changes in mercury deposition on a global scale simulated by these models for three anthropogenic emissions scenarios of 2035 indicate a decrease in up to 50 % deposition in the Northern Hemisphere and up to 35 % in Southern Hemisphere for the best-case scenario. The EU GMOS project has proved to be a very important

  11. Current and future levels of mercury atmospheric pollution on a global scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Pacyna

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An assessment of current and future emissions, air concentrations, and atmospheric deposition of mercury worldwide is presented on the basis of results obtained during the performance of the EU GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System project. Emission estimates for mercury were prepared with the main goal of applying them in models to assess current (2013 and future (2035 air concentrations and atmospheric deposition of this contaminant. The combustion of fossil fuels (mainly coal for energy and heat production in power plants and in industrial and residential boilers, as well as artisanal and small-scale gold mining, is one of the major anthropogenic sources of Hg emissions to the atmosphere at present. These sources account for about 37 and 25 % of the total anthropogenic Hg emissions globally, estimated to be about 2000 t. Emissions in Asian countries, particularly in China and India, dominate the total emissions of Hg. The current estimates of mercury emissions from natural processes (primary mercury emissions and re-emissions, including mercury depletion events, were estimated to be 5207 t year−1, which represents nearly 70 % of the global mercury emission budget. Oceans are the most important sources (36 %, followed by biomass burning (9 %. A comparison of the 2035 anthropogenic emissions estimated for three different scenarios with current anthropogenic emissions indicates a reduction of these emissions in 2035 up to 85 % for the best-case scenario. Two global chemical transport models (GLEMOS and ECHMERIT have been used for the evaluation of future mercury pollution levels considering future emission scenarios. Projections of future changes in mercury deposition on a global scale simulated by these models for three anthropogenic emissions scenarios of 2035 indicate a decrease in up to 50 % deposition in the Northern Hemisphere and up to 35 % in Southern Hemisphere for the best-case scenario. The EU GMOS project has

  12. Economic analysis of atmospheric mercury emission control for coal-fired power plants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancora, Maria Pia; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Shuxiao; Schreifels, Jeremy; Hao, Jiming

    2015-07-01

    Coal combustion and mercury pollution are closely linked, and this relationship is particularly relevant in China, the world's largest coal consumer. This paper begins with a summary of recent China-specific studies on mercury removal by air pollution control technologies and then provides an economic analysis of mercury abatement from these emission control technologies at coal-fired power plants in China. This includes a cost-effectiveness analysis at the enterprise and sector level in China using 2010 as a baseline and projecting out to 2020 and 2030. Of the control technologies evaluated, the most cost-effective is a fabric filter installed upstream of the wet flue gas desulfurization system (FF+WFGD). Halogen injection (HI) is also a cost-effective mercury-specific control strategy, although it has not yet reached commercial maturity. The sector-level analysis shows that 193 tons of mercury was removed in 2010 in China's coal-fired power sector, with annualized mercury emission control costs of 2.7 billion Chinese Yuan. Under a projected 2030 Emission Control (EC) scenario with stringent mercury limits compared to Business As Usual (BAU) scenario, the increase of selective catalytic reduction systems (SCR) and the use of HI could contribute to 39 tons of mercury removal at a cost of 3.8 billion CNY. The economic analysis presented in this paper offers insights on air pollution control technologies and practices for enhancing atmospheric mercury control that can aid decision-making in policy design and private-sector investments. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Characteristics and source appointment of atmospheric particulate mercury over East China Sea: Implication on the deposition of atmospheric particulate mercury in marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Lian; Cheng, Na; Xiu, Guangli; Wang, Fujiang; Chen, Ying

    2017-05-01

    Total Suspended Particulate (TSP) samples were collected at Huaniao Island in northern East China Sea (ECS) from March 2012 to January 2013. Chemical analysis were conducted to measure the concentration of total particulate mercury (TPM) and speciated particulate mercury including HCl-soluble particulate mercury (HPM), elemental particulate mercury (EPM) and residual particulate mercury (RPM). The bromine (Br) and iodine (I) on particles were also detected. The mean concentration of TPM during the study period was 0.23 ± 0.15 ng m -3 , while the obviously seasonal variation was found that the concentrations of TPM in spring, summer, fall and winter were 0.34 ± 0.20 ng m -3 , 0.15 ± 0.03 ng m -3 , 0.15 ± 0.05 ng m -3 and 0.27 ± 0.26 ng m -3 , respectively. The statistically strong correlation of bromine and iodine to HPM was only found in spring with r = 0.81 and 0.77 (p mercury due to the deposition of mercury over the sea. The cluster of air mass across the sea had low concentration of HPM in winter, which suggested that the oxidation of mercury in winter might be related to other oxidants. During the whole sampling period, the air mass from the north of China contributed to the higher concentration of TPM in Huaniao Island. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Method for removal and stabilization of mercury in mercury-containing gas streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Thomas E.

    2005-09-13

    The present invention is directed to a process and apparatus for removing and stabilizing mercury from mercury-containing gas streams. A gas stream containing vapor phase elemental and/or speciated mercury is contacted with reagent, such as an oxygen-containing oxidant, in a liquid environment to form a mercury-containing precipitate. The mercury-containing precipitate is kept or placed in solution and reacts with one or more additional reagents to form a solid, stable mercury-containing compound.

  15. Effects of 12 months aerobic exercise intervention on work ability, need for recovery, productivity and rating of exertion among cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Mark; Søgaard, Karen; Krustrup, Peter

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study assessed the effects of a worksite aerobic exercise intervention among cleaners on: work ability, need for recovery, productivity, and rating of exertion. METHODS: In a monocentric randomised controlled trial in Denmark, 116, of 250 invited, cleaners were cluster-randomised (w......PURPOSE: This study assessed the effects of a worksite aerobic exercise intervention among cleaners on: work ability, need for recovery, productivity, and rating of exertion. METHODS: In a monocentric randomised controlled trial in Denmark, 116, of 250 invited, cleaners were cluster......-reported data on outcomes and sociodemographic information were collected at baseline, and at 4 and 12 month follow-up. All outcomes were analysed in a linear repeated-measures 2 × 2 mixed-model by an intention-to-treat analysis approach. RESULTS: Drop-out was 26 and 33% at 4 and 12 months, respectively...

  16. Exploring Mercury: The Iron Planet

    OpenAIRE

    Stevenson, David J.

    2004-01-01

    Planet Mercury is both difficult to observe and difficult to reach by spacecraft. Just one spacecraft, Mariner 10, flew by the planet 30 years ago. An upcoming NASA mission, MESSENGER, will be launched this year and will go into orbit around Mercury at the end of this decade. A European mission is planned for the following decade. It's worth going there because Mercury is a strange body and the history of planetary exploration has taught us that strangeness gives us insight into planetary ori...

  17. MESSENGER'S First Flyby of Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, James A.

    2008-01-01

    The MESSENGER mission to Mercury offers our first opportunity to explore this planet's miniature magnetosphere since Mariner 10's brief fly-bys in 1974-5. The magnetosphere of Mercury is the smallest in the solar system with its magnetic field typically standing off the solar wind only - 1000 to 2000 km above the surface. An overview of the MESSENGER mission and its January 14th close flyby of Mercury will be provided. Primary science objectives and the science instrumentation will be described. Initial results from MESSENGER'S first flyby on January 14th, 2008 will be discussed with an emphasis on the magnetic field and charged particle measurements.

  18. Assessment of chronic neuropsychological effects of mercury vapour poisoning in chloral-alkali plant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranjić, Nurka; Sinanović, Osman; Karamehić, Jasenko; Jakubović, Rusid

    2002-12-01

    A prospective case study was conducted in the Department of Occupational Medicine, Tuzla. The purpose of this study was to indicate negative effects from occupational exposure to mercury on behavioural and mental health, memory and psychomotor function that was tested in 46 chloral-alkali plant workers (mean age was 38. 8+/- 5. 7 years; mean age of occupational history 16. 5+/- 6. 0 years). Data on toxicological monitoring on atomic absorption spectrometer, and data on mental health were collected, psychiatric and other subjective symptoms, and behavioural, psychomotor and memory function tested. The data were compared to control group, 32 healthy non exposed workers. The study was designed to assess blood and urine mercury levels and length of occupational exposure and investigate its relationships to effects on the mental health. The mean air mercury levels were 0.23 mg/m3, the mean blood mercury concentrations was 3. 6 mg/ dl and the mean urine mercury concentrations were 151.7 +/- 180.4 mg/l. In 25 (53%) workers exposed to mercury vapour was identified Depression-Hypochondrias Syndrome (p trend 2. 9 mg/ dl, or urine mercury levels > 87 mg/l workers exposed to mercury vapour knew that toxic effects in body resulted in loosing some of intellectual abilities, and that people who handle chemicals had an increased health risk (ESW questionnaire). The occupational mercury exposed workers had introvert behaviour (EPQ). Aggressiveness was found in 71.7% workers. The cognitive disturbances: short-term memory loss, difficult to concentrate on tasks which require attention and thinking, were significantly differed compared to those of controls (p trend < 0. 001). In 24 (52%) exposed to mercury workers we have determined ego strength loss and regressive defensive mechanisms (LB). Handwriting disturbances-micrography we have identified in 27 (58.7%) workers.

  19. A pilot study of energy efficient air cleaning for ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundel, Lara A.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Katsapov, Gregory Y.; Fisk, William J.

    2002-11-01

    A laboratory pilot study has been undertaken with the material that showed the most promise (high capacity and low pressure drop) based on the literature review and associated calculations. The best-performing air cleaner was a commercially available pleated filter that contained a thin layer of small activated carbon particles between two sheets of non-woven fibrous webbing. We will refer to this unit as the ''ozone filter'' although it is marketed for removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from automobile passenger compartments. This pilot study strongly suggests that ozone air cleaning can be practical in commercial air handling systems; however, further tests are needed to assess air cleaner performance under a wider range of conditions.

  20. Blood cleaner on-chip design for artificial human kidney manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwanpayak, N; Jalil, MA; Aziz, MS; Ismail, FD; Ali, J; Yupapin, PP

    2011-01-01

    A novel design of a blood cleaner on-chip using an optical waveguide known as a PANDA ring resonator is proposed. By controlling some suitable parameters, the optical vortices (gradient optical fields/wells) can be generated and used to form the trapping tools in the same way as optical tweezers. In operation, the trapping force is formed by the combination between the gradient field and scattering photons by using the intense optical vortices generated within the PANDA ring resonator. This can be used for blood waste trapping and moves dynamically within the blood cleaner on-chip system (artificial kidney), and is performed within the wavelength routers. Finally, the blood quality test is exploited by the external probe before sending to the destination. The advantage of the proposed kidney on-chip system is that the unwanted substances can be trapped and filtered from the artificial kidney, which can be available for blood cleaning applications. PMID:21720507

  1. Sustainability in pelletizing iron ore through the Industrial Ecology and Cleaner Production Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Farias Coelho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the practices of a pelletizing iron ore industry with respect to adoption of pollution prevention measures, suggested by applying the concepts of Cleaner Production and Material Flow Analysis. The technical procedure adopted was the case study, the data collection was done through direct observation, with field research and literature review. The main results were obtained from analysis of company reports available to the public, but require a more detailed quantification of data. The study concludes that the identification of environmental opportunities is possible through the proposed implementation of Cleaner Production program, which provides better results when combined with the precepts of the industrial ecology tool, the Material Flow Analysis.

  2. Blood cleaner on-chip design for artificial human kidney manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwanpayak, N; Jalil, M A; Aziz, M S; Ismail, F D; Ali, J; Yupapin, P P

    2011-01-01

    A novel design of a blood cleaner on-chip using an optical waveguide known as a PANDA ring resonator is proposed. By controlling some suitable parameters, the optical vortices (gradient optical fields/wells) can be generated and used to form the trapping tools in the same way as optical tweezers. In operation, the trapping force is formed by the combination between the gradient field and scattering photons by using the intense optical vortices generated within the PANDA ring resonator. This can be used for blood waste trapping and moves dynamically within the blood cleaner on-chip system (artificial kidney), and is performed within the wavelength routers. Finally, the blood quality test is exploited by the external probe before sending to the destination. The advantage of the proposed kidney on-chip system is that the unwanted substances can be trapped and filtered from the artificial kidney, which can be available for blood cleaning applications.

  3. Upper-limit on the Advanced Virgo output mode cleaner cavity length noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnand, R.; Ducrot, M.; Gouaty, R.; Marion, F.; Masserot, A.; Mours, B.; Pacaud, E.; Rolland, L.; Was, M.

    2017-09-01

    The Advanced Virgo detector uses two monolithic optical cavities at its output port to suppress higher order modes and radio frequency sidebands from the carrier light used for gravitational wave detection. These two cavities in series form the output mode cleaner. We present a measured upper limit on the length noise of these cavities that is consistent with the thermo-refractive noise prediction of 8×10-16~m~Hz-1/2 at 15 Hz. The cavity length is controlled using Peltier cells and piezo-electric actuators to maintain resonance on the incoming light. A length lock precision of 3.5×10-13 m is achieved. These two results are combined to demonstrate that the broadband length noise of the output mode cleaner in the 10-60 Hz band is at least a factor 10 below other expected noise sources in the Advanced Virgo detector design configuration.

  4. Incorporation of occupational health and safety in cleaner production projects in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to reveal ways in which occupational health and safety can be integrated in environmental cleaner production projects. Of particular interest are those cleaner production projects that are run by the Danish government's environmental assistance agency, Danced......, in South Africa.The study explores two main avenues of integration. First, integrating through better planning, focussing at the tools and procedures in use by Danced for project management -- integrating occupational health and safety into the project specification, so to speak.Second, integrating...... occupational health and safety into the environmental activities that take place at company level. Two ways of doing so are explored, the main distinction being company size. For large companies, integration of management systems may be attractive. For small companies, integration into a less formal network...

  5. What drives successful implementation of pollution prevention and cleaner technology strategy? The role of innovative capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhupendra, Kumar Verma; Sangle, Shirish

    2015-05-15

    Firms that are dynamic and prepared to implement environmental strategies have a potential competitive advantage over their industry counterparts. Therefore, it is important to understand, what capabilities are required to implement proactive environmental strategies. The paper discusses the attributes of innovative capability required by firms in order to adopt pollution prevention and cleaner technology strategies. Empirical results show that process and behavioral innovativeness are required by firms to implement a pollution prevention strategy. In addition to process and behavioral innovativeness, firms need a top management with high risk-taking ability as well as market, product, and strategic innovativeness to implement a cleaner technology strategy. The paper proposes some important managerial implications on the basis of the above research findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiovascular workload and risk factors among cleaners; a cluster randomized worksite intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Krustrup, Peter; Jørgensen, Marie Birk

    2012-01-01

    and cardiovascular risk factors among cleaners. Cleaners are eligible if they are employed ≥ 20 hours/week, at one of the enrolled companies. In the randomization, strata are formed according to the manager the participant reports to. The clusters will be balanced on the following criteria: Geographical work......Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is unevenly distributed among occupational groups. The working environment, as well as lifestyle and socioeconomic status contribute to the disparity and variation in prevalence of these risk factors. High physical work demands have been shown to increase...... the risk for cardiovascular disease and mortality, contrary to leisure time physical activity. High physical work demands in combination with a low cardiorespiratory fitness infer a high relative workload and an excessive risk for cardiovascular mortality. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine...

  7. Playing after work? Opportunities and challenges of a physical activity programme for female cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenneis, Verena; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula

    2016-01-01

    experience with sport and exercise and struggled with the high demands at work and a “second shift” at home. As a consequence, most participants found the training too time- and energy-consuming. We conclude that exercise programmes should preferably be conducted at the workplace and during working hours.......The workplace is regarded as an ideal setting for health promotion, not least because large sections of the population, including “high risk groups”, can be reached. One group which is reportedly in great demand of health promotion is that of female (migrant) cleaners – the participants in our...... factors constrained and which supported participation. The interviews revealed a high degree of appreciation for the training but also pointed to a number of constraints which were embedded into the participants’ biographies and everyday lives as migrant cleaners in Denmark. Most women had no previous...

  8. Distribution and retention of organic and inorganic mercury in methyl mercury-treated neonatal rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.J.; Fisher, H.L.; Sumler, M.R.; Hall, L.L.; Mushak, P.

    1988-01-01

    Seven-day-old Long Evans rats received one mumol of 203 Hg-labeled methyl mercury/kg sc and whole body retention and tissue distribution of organic and inorganic mercury were examined for 32 days postdosing. Neonates cleared mercury slowly until 10 days postdosing when the clearance rate abruptly increased. During the interval when whole body clearance of mercury was extremely slow, methyl mercury was metabolized to inorganic mercury. Peak concentration of mercury in kidney occurred at 2 days postdosing. At 32 days postdosing, 8% of mercury in kidney was in an organic from. Liver mercury concentration peaked at 2 days postdosing and organic mercury accounted for 38% at 32 days postdosing. Brain concentrations of mercury peaked at 2 days postdosing. At 10 days postdosing, organic mercury accounted for 86% of the brain mercury burden, and, at 32 days postdosing, for 60%. The percentage of mercury body burden in pelt rose from 30 to 70% between 1 and 10 days postdosing. At 32 days postdosing pelt contained 85% of the body burden of mercury. At all time points, about 95% of mercury in pelt was in an organic form. Compartmental analysis of these data permitted development of a model to describe the distribution and excretion of organic and inorganic mercury in methyl mercury-treated neonatal rats

  9. Enhancing indoor air quality –The air filter advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vannan Kandi Vijayan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution has become the world's single biggest environmental health risk, linked to around 7 million deaths in 2012 according to a recent World Health Organisation (WHO report. The new data further reveals a stronger link between, indoor and outdoor air pollution exposure and cardiovascular diseases, such as strokes and ischemic heart disease, as well as between air pollution and cancer. The role of air pollution in the development of respiratory diseases, including acute respiratory infections and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, is well known. While both indoor and outdoor pollution affect health, recent statistics on the impact of household indoor pollutants (HAP is alarming. The WHO factsheet on HAP and health states that 3.8 million premature deaths annually - including stroke, ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and lung cancer are attributed to exposure to household air pollution. Use of air cleaners and filters are one of the suggested strategies to improve indoor air quality. This review discusses the impact of air pollutants with special focus on indoor air pollutants and the benefits of air filters in improving indoor air quality.

  10. Visibility and Social Recognition as Psychosocial Work Environment Factors among Cleaners in a Multi-Ethnic Workplace Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Hviid

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the psychosocial work environment of immigrant cleaners at a Danish workplace. Today, many cleaners working in Danish cleaning jobs are women from the established immigrant communities, but also labour migrants from the newer EU member states have found their way to the cleaning industry. Studies have drawn attention to immigrants’ low position in the cleaning industry and their increased risk of work injuries. This article is based on a case study of an intervention called “Make a Difference” designed to improve the work environment among cleaners at a multi-ethnic workplace. We used semi-structured interviews, photo logs, observation and participation to investigate how the cleaners experienced their work environment. The cleaners reported an overload of heavy work, related to the concept of a classroom’s “readiness for cleaning”, and they expressed strained social relations and communication in addition to a lack of social recognition and invisibility at the workplace, a school. We analysed these psychosocial work environmental problems by investigating the different forms of social relationships and communication within the group of cleaners, and between the cleaners and the teachers and pupils at the school. Moreover, we discussed why the intervention, based on training of language and cleaning skills and social interaction, only partially improved the cleaners’ psychosocial work environment problems. In this article, we argue that social divisions based on ethnicity between the new and the established group of cleaners, combined with their marginal position and poor work organisation at the school, reinforced the cleaners’ experiences of psychosocial work environment problems. This article suggests that increased effort towards social inclusion at work and improved work organisation, especially for the new labour migrants from newer EU-countries, should be considered.

  11. Determination and ranking cleaner production criteria by using analytic hierarchy process (Case study: Latif paper products company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaghob Asadizadeh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cleaner production process is an environmentally friendly approach that attempts to reduce waste and energy consumption then reduce environmental pollutions of industrial processes to provide the possibility of sustainable production in industrial units. To achieve this goal and alignment with cleaner production strategies, paper industries should consider reducing wastes of production processes and irregular consumption of energy as a priority in their programs. In this research Analytic Hierarchy Process has been applied and a three level hierarchy model was structured to facilitate the cleaner production process in Latif paper products firm. Using a literature review and field study, the proposed model provided a framework for cleaner production implementation in the firm. Results showed priorities of the main criteria of cleaner production are process change, product modification, implementation of preventive maintenance system, resititution and man force capitals respectively. Process change criterion allocated 40 percent of the total weighing value and has the highest priority in implementation of cleaner production strategy. Existence of industrial automation and its technology level which is a sub criterion of process change has the highest priority among 31 sub criteria. Also some of higher priority sub criteria such as use of higher quality inclusion and implementation of calibration system are related to process change. Therefore, to achieve cleaner production goals and implementation of its strategic objectives it is necessary to pay more attention to this criterion. Inconsistency ratio of the research is 0.06 which indicates the results are compatible. The results of this research can be used to accelerate the implementation of cleaner production process in Iran’s pulp and paper industry.

  12. A comprehensive review of mercury provoked autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, D A; King, P G; Sykes, L K; Geier, M R

    2008-10-01

    Emerging evidence supports the theory that some autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) may result from a combination of genetic/biochemical susceptibility, specifically a reduced ability to excrete mercury (Hg), and exposure to Hg at critical developmental periods. Elemental/inorganic Hg is released into the air/water where it becomes methylated and accumulates in animal tissues. The US population is primarily exposed to methyl-Hg by fish consumption. In addition, many pharmaceuticals have been, and some continue to be, a ubiquitous source of danger because they contain mercurials. Mercurials may be found in drugs for the eye, ear, nose, throat, and skin; in bleaching creams; as preservatives in cosmetics, tooth pastes, lens solutions, vaccines, allergy test and immunotherapy solutions; in antiseptics, disinfectants, and contraceptives; in fungicides and herbicides; in dental fillings and thermometers; and many other products. Hg has been found to cause immune, sensory, neurological, motor, and behavioural dysfunctions similar to traits defining/associated with ASDs, and that these similarities extend to neuroanatomy, neurotransmitters, and biochemistry. Furthermore, a review of molecular mechanisms indicates that Hg exposure can induce death, disorganization and/or damage to selected neurons in the brain similar to that seen in recent ASD brain pathology studies, and this alteration may likely produce the symptoms by which ASDs are diagnosed. Finally, a review of treatments suggests that ASD patients who undergo protocols to reduce Hg and/or its effects show significant clinical improvements in some cases. In conclusion, the overwhelming preponderance of the evidence favours acceptance that Hg exposure is capable of causing some ASDs.

  13. Fish mucus versus parasitic gnathiid isopods as sources of energy and sunscreens for a cleaner fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckes, Maxi; Dove, Sophie; Siebeck, Ulrike E.; Grutter, Alexandra S.

    2015-09-01

    The cleaning behaviour of the bluestreak cleaner wrasse Labroides dimidiatus is extensively used as a model system for understanding cooperation. It feeds mainly on blood-sucking gnathiid isopods and also on the epidermal mucus of client fish; the nutritional quality of these foods, however, is unknown. The epidermal mucus of reef fish contains ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing compounds (mycosporine-like amino acids, MAAs), which are only obtained via the diet; nevertheless, while La. dimidiatus has high amounts of MAAs in its mucus, their source is unknown. Therefore, the energetic value (calories and protein estimated using carbon and nitrogen) and MAA level in gnathiids and mucus from several clients [parrotfishes, wrasses (Labridae), and a snapper (Lutjanidae)] were determined. The energetic value of mucus and gnathiids varied among fishes. Overall, carbon, nitrogen, calories, and protein per dry weight were higher in the mucus of most client species compared to gnathiids. Thus, depending on the client species, mucus may be energetically more advantageous for cleaner wrasse to feed on than gnathiids. UV absorbance, a confirmed proxy for MAA levels, indicated high MAA levels in mucus, whereas gnathiids had no detectable MAAs. This suggests that La. dimidiatus obtain MAAs from mucus but not from gnathiids. Hence, in addition to energy, the mucus of some clients also provides La. dimidiatus with the added bonus of UV-absorbing compounds. This may explain why cleaner fish prefer to feed on mucus over gnathiid isopods. The likely costs and benefits to clients of the removal of UV protecting mucus and parasitic gnathiids, respectively, and the variation in benefits gained by cleaner fish from feeding on these foods may explain some variation in cooperation levels in cleaning interactions.

  14. A Control Strategy for an Autonomous Robotic Vacuum Cleaner for Solar Panels

    OpenAIRE

    Aravind, G; Gautham, Vasan; Kumar, T. S. B Gowtham; Naresh, Balaji

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of dust on the surface of solar panels reduces the amount of radiation reaching it. This leads to loss in generated electric power and formation of hotspots which would permanently damage the solar panel. This project aims at developing an autonomous vacuum cleaning method which can be used on a regular basis to maximize the lifetime and efficiency of a solar panel. This system is implemented using two subsystems namely a Robotic Vacuum Cleaner and a Docking Station. The Robotic ...

  15. Effect of an aerobic exercise intervention on cardiac autonomic regulation: A worksite RCT among cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, David M; Holtermann, Andreas; Søgaard, Karen; Krustrup, Peter; Kristiansen, Jesper; Korshøj, Mette

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) was to determine whether aerobic exercise during work hours affects cardiac autonomic regulation in cleaners characterized by high levels of occupational physical activity and poor cardiorespiratory fitness. Eligible cleaners (n=116) were randomized to an aerobic exercise group (n=59) or a reference group (n=57) with lectures. The intervention group received two 30-min sessions per week of supervised aerobic exercise over 4months. Diurnal measurements of heart rate variability (HRV) and physical activity (accelerometry) were obtained at baseline and at 4-month follow-up. Time and frequency domain indices of HRV were derived during work, leisure time and sleep to evaluate cardiac autonomic regulation. Linear mixed models were used to determine the effect of the intervention on HRV indices, with adjustment for age, gender and daily use of antihypertensive and/or heart medication. Compared with the reference group, the exercise group increased all HRV indices apart from a reduction in LF/HF ratio from baseline to follow-up both during work (psleep, the HRV indices tended to decrease in the exercise group compared with the reference group from baseline to follow-up, being significant for the HF spectral component (p=0.03). Among cleaners, a worksite aerobic exercise intervention improved cardiac autonomic regulation during work and leisure, but not during sleep. The health effect of this contrasting change in autonomic regulation needs further investigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of the efficacy of vacuum cleaners for the integrated control of brown spider Loxosceles intermedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Ramires

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Some venomous spiders of the genus Loxosceles can reach high population densities inside and around houses. In Brazil, most spider accidents are related to Loxosceles intermedia. Control of loxoscelism should utilize integrated pest management tools, such as vacuum cleaners, to eliminate egg sacs, webs and spiders. The present study tested the efficacy of one type of vacuum cleaner (for professional and domestic use in the control of L. intermedia populations. Cockroaches (Pycnoscelus surinamensis were used in some tests for comparison. Vacuuming using standard accessories or a paper tube resulted in the death of all female (n=60, male (n=60, young (n=60 and just-hatched (n=60 L. intermedia, and all egg sacs (n=5 were destroyed. The removal of the plastic plate present at the bottom of the vacuuming tube inside the machine allowed some spiders to survive the vacuuming process. When kept inside a vacuum bag full of dust and debris, adult females (n=10 survived for 10 days; however, significant mortality was observed among male (n=10 and young individuals (n=10. Addition of cornstarch to the vacuum bag did not affect the spiders (n=20. Vacuum cleaners, such as the one used in the present investigation, are promising tools for integrated management of L. intermedia and other spiders in domestic environments.

  17. TagCleaner: Identification and removal of tag sequences from genomic and metagenomic datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Yan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sequencing metagenomes that were pre-amplified with primer-based methods requires the removal of the additional tag sequences from the datasets. The sequenced reads can contain deletions or insertions due to sequencing limitations, and the primer sequence may contain ambiguous bases. Furthermore, the tag sequence may be unavailable or incorrectly reported. Because of the potential for downstream inaccuracies introduced by unwanted sequence contaminations, it is important to use reliable tools for pre-processing sequence data. Results TagCleaner is a web application developed to automatically identify and remove known or unknown tag sequences allowing insertions and deletions in the dataset. TagCleaner is designed to filter the trimmed reads for duplicates, short reads, and reads with high rates of ambiguous sequences. An additional screening for and splitting of fragment-to-fragment concatenations that gave rise to artificial concatenated sequences can increase the quality of the dataset. Users may modify the different filter parameters according to their own preferences. Conclusions TagCleaner is a publicly available web application that is able to automatically detect and efficiently remove tag sequences from metagenomic datasets. It is easily configurable and provides a user-friendly interface. The interactive web interface facilitates export functionality for subsequent data processing, and is available at http://edwards.sdsu.edu/tagcleaner.

  18. Blood cleaner on-chip design for artificial human kidney manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwanpayak N

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available N Suwanpayak1, MA Jalil2, MS Aziz3, FD Ismail3, J Ali3, PP Yupapin11Nanoscale Science and Engineering Research Alliance (N'SERA, Advanced Research Center for Photonics, Faculty of Science, King Mongkut's Institute of Technology, Ladkrabang, Bangkok, Thailand; 2Ibnu Sina Institute of Fundamental Science Studies (IIS, 3Institute of Advanced Photonics Science, Nanotechnology Research Alliance, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, MalaysiaAbstract: A novel design of a blood cleaner on-chip using an optical waveguide known as a PANDA ring resonator is proposed. By controlling some suitable parameters, the optical vortices (gradient optical fields/wells can be generated and used to form the trapping tools in the same way as optical tweezers. In operation, the trapping force is formed by the combination between the gradient field and scattering photons by using the intense optical vortices generated within the PANDA ring resonator. This can be used for blood waste trapping and moves dynamically within the blood cleaner on-chip system (artificial kidney, and is performed within the wavelength routers. Finally, the blood quality test is exploited by the external probe before sending to the destination. The advantage of the proposed kidney on-chip system is that the unwanted substances can be trapped and filtered from the artificial kidney, which can be available for blood cleaning applications.Keywords: optical trapping, blood dialysis, blood cleaner, human kidney manipulation

  19. EVALUATION AND ACTIONS OF CLEANER PRODUCTION IN GALVANIC INDUSTRY OF THE VILLA CLARA PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra G. Velazco Pedroso

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the assessment results accomplished in different processes of the galvanic industry are presented and it is taking into account the application of good practices and measures of Cleaner Production. The main critical points in the processes of metallic coating were identified; and the characterization of the effluents generated by the installation is done. A number of technological changes in the processes are proposed, as well as the introduction of cleaner production measures which contribute to increase the efficiency and safety of processes, reduce risks and improvements to internal operations. It provides advantages of economic, environmental and social nature for the galvanic industry due to the minimizing of the impacts on environment, because the sewage and its pollutant load are reduced. Besides, we can save water, energy and raw materials. The economic evaluation showed the feasibility of applying the Cleaner Production (PML measures proposed with a Net Present Value (NPV of $109 696.26, and an Internal Rate of Return (IRR of 64 % value and payback period lower than two years.

  20. Chronic neurobehavioural effects of elemental mercury in dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngim, C H; Foo, S C; Boey, K W; Jeyaratnam, J

    1992-11-01

    Neurobehavioural tests were performed by 98 dentists (mean age 32, range 24-49) exposed to elemental mercury vapour and 54 controls (mean age 34, range 23-50) with no history of occupational exposure to mercury. The dentists were exposed to an average personal air concentration time weighted average (TWA) of 0.014 (range 0.0007-0.042) mg/m3 for a mean period of 5.5 (range 0.7-24) years and had a mean blood mercury concentration of 9.8 (range 0.6-57) micrograms/l. In neurobehavioural tests measuring motor speed (finger tapping), visual scanning (trail making), visuomotor coordination and concentration (digit symbol), verbal memory (digit span, logical memory delayed recall), visual memory (visual reproduction, immediate and delayed recall), and visuomotor coordination speed (bender-gestalt time), the performance of the dentists was significantly worse than that of the controls. The dentists scored 3.9 to 38.9% (mean 13.9%) worse in these tests. In trail making, digit span, logical memory delayed recall, visual reproduction delayed recall, and bender-gestalt time test scores were more than 10% poorer. In each of the tests in which significant differences were found and in the block design time, the performance decreased as the exposed dose (product of the TWA of air mercury concentrations and the years of exposure) increased. These results raise the question as to whether the current threshold limit value of 0.050 mg/m3 (TWA) provides adequate protection against adverse effects of mercury.

  1. The association between health and sickness absence among Danish and non-Western immigrant cleaners in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Isabella G; Rasmussen, Charlotte D N; Jørgensen, Marie B; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann; Olesen, Kasper; Madeleine, Pascal; Ekner, Dorte; Søgaard, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the association between health and sickness absence among Danish and non-Western immigrant cleaners in Denmark. This study is based on a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 2007 to 2008. The study population includes 276 cleaners, 144 Danish and 132 non-Western immigrant cleaners. Cumulative sickness absences during a 6-month period from administrative records were subdivided into no sickness absence (0 days), low occurrence of sickness absence (1-10 days) and high occurrence of sickness absence (over 10 days). Measures of health consisted of self-report and objective assessments. The relationship between sickness absence and health was analyzed through multinomial logistic regression, stratified by immigrant status. For both Danish and non-Western immigrant cleaners, poor self-reported health was significantly related to high occurrence of sickness absence. Among Danish cleaners, high blood pressure was related to high occurrence of sickness absence. Among non-Western immigrant cleaners, total body pain and having one or more diagnosed chronic disease were related to high occurrence of sickness absence. No association between health and low occurrence of sickness absence was found. The findings confirm the importance of health for high occurrence of sickness absence, in both ethnic groups. Moreover, low occurrence of sickness absence was not related to the health conditions investigated.

  2. Environmental transformation and distribution of mercury released from gold mining and its implications on human health in Tanzania, studied by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikingura, Justinian R.

    2002-01-01

    fall of mercury levels in the air away from the source of emission. The presence of the mercury gradient in the lichens around the mine, make the lichens suitable as a bioindicator for the assessment of air mercury pollution from gold-ore processing operations. Results of the laboratory experiments on mercury absorption by laterite and bauxite and mercury transformation and uptake by fish in an aquatic system contaminated by gold-ore tailings are also discussed. (author)

  3. VOCs and formaldehyde emissions from cleaning products and air fresheners

    OpenAIRE

    Solal , Cécilia; Rousselle , Christophe; Mandin , Corinne; Manel , Jacques; Maupetit , François

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Human indoor exposure to Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) may be associated with the use of household products. However little is known about their emissions and to what extent they contribute to indoor air pollution. The French Agency for Environmental and Occupational Health Safety (Afsset) conducted tests in order to characterize VOCs emissions from 32 consumer products: air fresheners, glass cleaners, furniture polishes, toilet products, carpet and floor cleaning ...

  4. Health and environmental impact of mercury in the Philippines using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes-Maramba, Nelia; Reyes, J.P.; Panganiban, L.C.P.; Francisco-Rivera, Ana Trinidad; Suplido, M.L.; Akagi, Hirokatsu

    2002-01-01

    mercury only. Previous studies undertaken focused mainly on the exposure of adults and workers to mercury during mining/processing operations. Fifty-three (53) research subjects were selected by stratified random sampling in a mining community in Sibutad, Zamboanga del Norte, Philippines. There were 40 (75.47%) adults aged from 26 to 50 years and 13 children aged 6 months to 11 years. Environmental monitoring results showed that ambient air monitoring of three sampling station exceeded the standards for mercury in ambient air. Water quality monitoring of a drinking water source showed a slightly higher level than that obtained from a nearby river. Mercury levels in marine/aquatic samples ranged from 4.03-62.97 ng/g for total mercury and 3.75-35.98 ng/g in 9 species. These levels were below the recommended USFDA standard of 500 ng/g. The proportion of methylmercury ranged from 22.98%-89.78%. Hair samples in 51 respondents showed total mercury and methylmercury levels which ranged from 0.95-68.68 ng/g and 0.73-5.81 ng/g. The proportion of methylmercury in hair ranged from 2.66-99.98%. 10 had elevated total mercury levels and 23 with elevated methylmercury levels. Blood samples from 50 respondents showed total mercury and methylmercury levels ranged from 2.74-29.47 ug/L and 1. 63-23.11 ug/L. A total of 23 blood samples from the 50 tested showed total mercury values will be followed up for possible detoxification while 10 had elevated methylmercury levels. (author)

  5. Elimination of mercury in health care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-01

    Mercury is a persistent, bioaccumulative toxin that has been linked to numerous health effects in humans and wildlife. It is a potent neurotoxin that may also harm the brain, kidneys, and lungs. Unborn children and young infants are at particular risk for brain damage from mercury exposure. Hospitals' use of mercury in chemical solutions, thermometers, blood pressure gauges, batteries, and fluorescent lamps makes these facilities large contributors to the overall emission of mercury into the environment. Most hospitals recognize the dangers of mercury. In a recent survey, four out of five hospitals stated that they have policies in place to eliminate the use of mercury-containing products. Sixty-two percent of them require vendors to disclose the presence of mercury in chemicals that the hospitals purchase. Only 12 percent distribute mercury-containing thermometers to new parents. Ninety-two percent teach their employees about the health and environmental effects of mercury, and 46 percent teach all employees how to clean up mercury spills. However, the same study showed that many hospitals have not implemented their policies. Forty-two percent were not aware whether they still purchased items containing mercury. In addition, 49 percent still purchase mercury thermometers, 44 percent purchase mercury gastrointestinal diagnostic equipment, and 64 percent still purchase mercury lab thermometers.

  6. Mercury pollution: a transdisciplinary treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zuber, Sharon L; Newman, Michael C

    2012-01-01

    .... Also included are smaller case studies, such as the Minamata tragedy, fish consumption, and international treaties"-- "Mercury is the gravest chemical pollutant problem of our time, and this is...

  7. Origin and composition of Mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    The predictions of the expected range of composition of Mercury at the time of its formation made on the basis of a suite of condensation-accretion models of Mercury spanning a range of condensation temperature and accretion sampling functions appropriate to Mercury are examined. It is concluded that these compositonal models can, if modified to take into account the nonselective loss of most of the silicate component of the planet during accretion, provide compositional predictions for the Weidenschilling (1978, 1980) mechanism for the accretion of a metal-rich Mercury. The silicate portion would, in this case, contain 3.6 to 4.5 percent alumina, roughly 1 percent of alkali oxides, and between 0.5 and 6 percent FeO

  8. Materials compatibility and aging for flux and cleaner combinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archuleta, Kim M. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Piatt, Rochelle [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    A materials study of high reliability electronics cleaning is presented here. In Phase 1, mixed type substrates underwent a condensed contaminants application to view a worst- case scenario for unremoved flux with cleaning agent residue for parts in a silicone oil filled environment. In Phase 2, fluxes applied to copper coupons and to printed wiring boards underwent gentle cleaning then accelerated aging in air at 65% humidity and 30 O C. Both sets were aged for 4 weeks. Contaminants were no-clean (ORL0), water soluble (ORH1 liquid and ORH0 paste), and rosin (RMA; ROL0) fluxes. Defluxing agents were water, solvents, and engineered aqueous defluxers. In the first phase, coupons had flux applied and heated, then were placed in vials of oil with a small amount of cleaning agent and additional coupons. In the second phase, pairs of copper coupons and PWB were hand soldered by application of each flux, using tin-lead solder in a strip across the coupon or a set of test components on the PWB. One of each pair was cleaned in each cleaning agent, the first with a typical clean, and the second with a brief clean. Ionic contamination residue was measured before accelerated aging. After aging, substrates were removed and a visual record of coupon damage made, from which a subjective rank was applied for comparison between the various flux and defluxer combinations; more corrosion equated to higher rank. The ORH1 water soluble flux resulted in the highest ranking in both phases, the RMA flux the least. For the first phase, in which flux and defluxer remained on coupons, the aqueous defluxers led to worse corrosion. The vapor phase cleaning agents resulted in the highest ranking in the second phase, in which there was no physical cleaning. Further study of cleaning and rinsing parameters will be required.

  9. Localized surface plasmon resonance mercury detection system and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jay; Lucas, Donald; Crosby, Jeffrey Scott; Koshland, Catherine P.

    2016-03-22

    A mercury detection system that includes a flow cell having a mercury sensor, a light source and a light detector is provided. The mercury sensor includes a transparent substrate and a submonolayer of mercury absorbing nanoparticles, e.g., gold nanoparticles, on a surface of the substrate. Methods of determining whether mercury is present in a sample using the mercury sensors are also provided. The subject mercury detection systems and methods find use in a variety of different applications, including mercury detecting applications.

  10. Mercury Toolset for Spatiotemporal Metadata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarakonda, Ranjeet; Palanisamy, Giri; Green, James; Wilson, Bruce; Rhyne, B. Timothy; Lindsley, Chris

    2010-06-01

    Mercury (http://mercury.ornl.gov) is a set of tools for federated harvesting, searching, and retrieving metadata, particularly spatiotemporal metadata. Version 3.0 of the Mercury toolset provides orders of magnitude improvements in search speed, support for additional metadata formats, integration with Google Maps for spatial queries, facetted type search, support for RSS (Really Simple Syndication) delivery of search results, and enhanced customization to meet the needs of the multiple projects that use Mercury. It provides a single portal to very quickly search for data and information contained in disparate data management systems, each of which may use different metadata formats. Mercury harvests metadata and key data from contributing project servers distributed around the world and builds a centralized index. The search interfaces then allow the users to perform a variety of fielded, spatial, and temporal searches across these metadata sources. This centralized repository of metadata with distributed data sources provides extremely fast search results to the user, while allowing data providers to advertise the availability of their data and maintain complete control and ownership of that data. Mercury periodically (typically daily)harvests metadata sources through a collection of interfaces and re-indexes these metadata to provide extremely rapid search capabilities, even over collections with tens of millions of metadata records. A number of both graphical and application interfaces have been constructed within Mercury, to enable both human users and other computer programs to perform queries. Mercury was also designed to support multiple different projects, so that the particular fields that can be queried and used with search filters are easy to configure for each different project.

  11. Mercury Toolset for Spatiotemporal Metadata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Bruce E.; Palanisamy, Giri; Devarakonda, Ranjeet; Rhyne, B. Timothy; Lindsley, Chris; Green, James

    2010-01-01

    Mercury (http://mercury.ornl.gov) is a set of tools for federated harvesting, searching, and retrieving metadata, particularly spatiotemporal metadata. Version 3.0 of the Mercury toolset provides orders of magnitude improvements in search speed, support for additional metadata formats, integration with Google Maps for spatial queries, facetted type search, support for RSS (Really Simple Syndication) delivery of search results, and enhanced customization to meet the needs of the multiple projects that use Mercury. It provides a single portal to very quickly search for data and information contained in disparate data management systems, each of which may use different metadata formats. Mercury harvests metadata and key data from contributing project servers distributed around the world and builds a centralized index. The search interfaces then allow the users to perform a variety of fielded, spatial, and temporal searches across these metadata sources. This centralized repository of metadata with distributed data sources provides extremely fast search results to the user, while allowing data providers to advertise the availability of their data and maintain complete control and ownership of that data. Mercury periodically (typically daily) harvests metadata sources through a collection of interfaces and re-indexes these metadata to provide extremely rapid search capabilities, even over collections with tens of millions of metadata records. A number of both graphical and application interfaces have been constructed within Mercury, to enable both human users and other computer programs to perform queries. Mercury was also designed to support multiple different projects, so that the particular fields that can be queried and used with search filters are easy to configure for each different project.

  12. Measurement of Total Site Mercury Emissions from a Chlor-Alkali Plant Using Ultraviolet Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy and Cell Room Roof-Vent Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercury-cell chlor-alkali plants can emit significant quantities of fugitive elemental mercury vapor to the air as part of production operations and maintenance activities. In the fall of 2006, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a measurement project at a ch...

  13. Assessment of mercury emission at Norcem's cement kiln by the use of 203Hg-tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksen, D.R.; Meyer, J.; Qvenild, C.; Tokheim, L.A.; Eriksen, T.A.

    2007-01-01

    In manufacture of cement clinker, mercury is introduced in the cement kiln system via the fuels and as constituents in the raw materials, i.e., limestone, iron ore, etc. The permissible emission of Hg to air is very low (0.05 mg/Nm 3 ) due to its toxicity. Thus, it is important to know how mercury distributes and behaves in the kiln system. The objective of the study was to measure the distribution of mercury in the kiln system, to measure the hold up time of Hg, to measure the portion of emission through the chimneys, and to see the dependence of the injection sites on these parameters. The results showed that the amounts of mercury being emitted through the exhaust gases were largely dependent on where it was injected. The residence time of mercury in the system was nevertheless long, after 10 hours it was still increase in the count rate of the mercury absorbed. There was also an immediate increase in the filter dust, but nothing could be measured in the clinker. This knowledge is needed for the reduction of mercury emissions. (author)

  14. Impacts of changes in climate, land use and land cover on atmospheric mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Holmes, C. D.; Wu, S.

    2016-09-01

    Mercury is an important pollutant that can be transported globally due to its long lifetime in the atmosphere. Atmosphere-surface exchange is a major process affecting the cycling of mercury in the global environment and its impacts on food webs. We investigate the sensitivities of the air-surface exchange, atmospheric transport, and budget of mercury to projected 2000-2050 changes in climate and land use/land cover with a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem). We find that annual mean Hg(0) dry deposition flux over land could increase by up to 20% in northern mid-latitudes by 2050 due to increased vegetation and foliage density. Climate change can significantly affect both the wet deposition and atmospheric chemistry of mercury. In response to the projected climate change, the annual mean wet deposition flux increases over most continental regions and decreases over most of the mid-latitude and tropical oceans. The annual mean mercury wet deposition flux over northern and southern high latitudes increases by 7% and 8% respectively, largely driven by increases in precipitation there. Surface Hg(0) is predicted to increase generally, because high temperatures decrease Hg(0) oxidation by bromine and high moisture increases aqueous Hg(II) photo reduction. The combined effects of projected changes in climate, land use and land cover increase mercury deposition to the continental biosphere and decrease mercury deposition to the marine biosphere.

  15. Using native epiphytic ferns to estimate the atmospheric mercury levels in a small-scale gold mining area of West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Yuriko; Rahajoe, Joeni S; Hidayati, Nuril; Kodamatani, Hitoshi; Tomiyasu, Takashi

    2012-09-01

    Mercury pollution is caused by artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) operations along the Cikaniki River (West Java, Indonesia). The atmosphere is one of the primary media through which mercury can disperse. In this study, atmospheric mercury levels are estimated using the native epiphytic fern Asplenium nidus complex (A. nidus) as a biomonitor; these estimates shed light on the atmospheric dispersion of mercury released during mining. Samples were collected from 8 sites along the Cikaniki Basin during September-November, 2008 and September-November, 2009. The A. nidus fronds that were attached to tree trunks 1-3m above the ground were collected and measured for total mercury concentration using cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS) after acid-digestion. The atmospheric mercury was collected using porous gold collectors, and the concentrations were determined using double-amalgam CVAAS. The highest atmospheric mercury concentration, 1.8 × 10(3) ± 1.6 × 10(3) ngm(-3), was observed at the mining hot spot, and the lowest concentration of mercury, 5.6 ± 2.0 ngm(-3), was observed at the remote site from the Cikaniki River in 2009. The mercury concentrations in A. nidus were higher at the mining village (5.4 × 10(3) ± 1.6 × 10(3) ngg(-1)) than at the remote site (70 ± 30 ngg(-1)). The distribution of mercury in A. nidus was similar to that in the atmosphere; a significant correlation was observed between the mercury concentrations in the air and in A. nidus (r=0.895, P<0.001, n=14). The mercury levels in the atmosphere can be estimated from the mercury concentration in A. nidus using a regression equation: log (Hg(A.nidu)/ngg(-1))=0.740 log (Hg(Air)/ngm (-3)) - 1.324. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Selected markers of subclinical renal damage in men occupationally exposed to mercury vapours].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutowski, Jan; Moszczyński, Paulin

    2006-01-01

    The concentrations of albumin, IgG, transferrin, retinol binding protein (RBP), alpha-1-microglobulin (alpha-1-m) and beta-2-microglobulin (beta-2-m) were determined in urine of 83 males 21 to 60 years old (Mean = 41.2 +/- SD = 10.7) with a history of occupational exposure to metallic mercury vapours from 7 months to 37 years (Mean=16.3 +/- 10.9) and in 30 males without this exposure by using the nephelometry (Behring's antibodies, references and controls). The weighted mean of mercury concentrations in air was from 0.028 to 0.037 mg m(-3). The urinary level of mercury was determined by using the atomic absorption spectrometer Coleman Mercury Analyzer Mas-50, Perkin-Elmer USA, in alpha=253.7nm. The detection limit of the analytical procedure of determination of mercury in urine was 10 microg/dm3 and in blood was 4 microg Hg/dm3. Workers were divided into three groups depending on the duration of exposure: I/. 30 males with a short history of exposure to Hg0 (7 months to 9 years) (4.2 +/- 2.8), II/. 18 males exposed from 10 to 20 years (14.5 +/- 3.3) and III/. 35 males with a history of long exposure (21 to 37 years) (27.5 +/- 4.0) following three groups were divided depending on the degree of exposure: 1/. 32 males with concentrations of mercury in urine urine 51 to 150 microg Hg/dm3 (86.1 +/- 24.3) aged 21 to 60 years (39.8 +/- 10.8) and exposed to Hg0 from 7 months to 35 years (15.9 +/- 10.8) and group 3/. 32 males with concentrations of mercury in urine 151 to 260 microg Hg/dm3 (211.4 +/- 37.1) aged 21 to 56 years (35.5 +/- 13.1) and exposed to Hg0 from 7 months to 30 years (9.1 +/- 8.8). Occupational exposure to mercury vapours influenced urine mercury concentration and urine excretion of determined proteins: albumin, IgG, transferrin, alpha-1-microglubulin and beta-2-microglubulin. In the group of workers exposed to mercury vapours from 7 months to 9 years, statistically significance elevation of alpha-1-m and beta-2-m [alpha-1-m by 67.5% (purine

  17. Methods to reduce mercury pollution is small gold mining operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantoja-Timaran, F.; Alvarez-Rodriguez, R.; Rodriguez-Avello, A. S.

    2005-01-01

    The use of mercury for gold beneficiation is still a current practice in small mining operations, mainly in underdeveloped countries, due to the low investment required and necessity of easy to operate systems. But the lack of basic protections makes unavoidable the high pollution of water streams, soils, and in fact, human bodies. some improvements have been done at site like that related to the removal of the mercury from the amalgam, that usually was done in the open air, and now have been changed to the utilization of artisan iron retorts which considerable reduce the emissions of mercury vapors to the atmosphere, but there are still high losses of mercury into the waste solids or tailings coming from the amalgamation process (nearly most of the total weight of the ore treated). In order to reduce the mercury losses into the tailings from the process, this research work has been based in the use of cheap systems, available to the isolated miners, to proof that it is feasible to get an important reduction of the losses and the pollution. the procedure has been accomplished by means of washing the ores with alkaline or detergent agents, together with the use of activated mercury purified by electrowinning in a simple device, easily manufactured in site by the own workers. It is also proven herewith that controlling the time of amalgamation and the total amount of mercury used could reduce the total pollution, and in addition, the gold recovery would be improved. This investigation reports the possibility of a reduction of mercury losses down to 2.4 g per 100 of gold produced (case of rich ores like LaBruja), with gold recovery up to 94%; and 8,6 g per 100 g of gold produced (from ores with average grades like La Gruesa), and gold recoveries in the range of 92%. All that is about 20 to 100 times lower than data reported in current bibliography. The introduction of a previous step of the ore concentration in shaking tables, decreases the total amount of solids for

  18. Estimation of mercury emissions into the Slovene environment in 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Svetina

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to collect data for better control of mercury emissions in Slovenia, especially from the point and spread sources of all categories. In the past years the Slovenian industry avoided the use of mercury as a raw material in the productionprocess to prevent the emissions and discharge of this hazardous substance. About 733 kg of Hg was imported with products, 620 kg Hg was produced with coal combustion and cement production, 920 kg was sold with products and around 200 kg was exported as waste in year 2001. Annually 1620 kg of Hg emission into environment is estimated, of this approximately 900 kg is deposited as waste, 630 kg escape in the air and 90 kg in water. The following sectors have been identified in Slovenia as the potential sources of mercury into environment: the thermal power plants, dental amalgams, products of electric industry (batteries, lamps, thermometers, manometers, barometers, chemicals, cement industry, incineration and waste treatment. A mercury flow diagram for Slovenia in theyear 2001 was established.

  19. Control of mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.

    1992-09-01

    This project at Argonne is designed to investigate new concepts leading to advanced control technologies for fossil-energy systems. The objective of this new task on air toxics control is to develop new or improved, cost-effective control technology for the abatement of emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from fossil-fuel combustion plants and to evaluate the possible effects of any captured species on waste disposal. The HAPs to be investigated initially in this task include mercury and arsenic compounds.

  20. Control of mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.

    1992-01-01

    This project at Argonne is designed to investigate new concepts leading to advanced control technologies for fossil-energy systems. The objective of this new task on air toxics control is to develop new or improved, cost-effective control technology for the abatement of emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from fossil-fuel combustion plants and to evaluate the possible effects of any captured species on waste disposal. The HAPs to be investigated initially in this task include mercury and arsenic compounds.