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Sample records for mercury 193 target

  1. Activation calculation of the EURISOL mercury target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, B.; David, J.C.; Blideanu, V.; Dore, D.; Ridikas, D.; Thiolliere, N

    2006-08-15

    We have used MCNPX coupled to CINDER to estimate the production of radioactive nuclides in the EURISOL 4 MW liquid mercury target during a 40 years'lifetime of the installation. The calculations have been done with different intra-nuclear cascade and fission evaporation model combinations. A benchmark exercise has allowed a better understanding of differences seen between these models for the creation of tritium and fission products. To obtain a realistic production yield for tritium gas in proton induced spallation reactions, we recommend using the ISABEL-RAL model, while both CEM2k and BERTINI-RAL overestimate the production rate above 1 GeV incident proton. The best combinations of models to calculate the residual nuclei production are those using ABLA fission-evaporation model, CEM2k or combinations using RAL model are giving too broad mass distributions when compared to available data. An extensive list of radio-nuclides was obtained and is available on tabular format, we show that the 4 nuclei whose contributions to the total activity of the mercury target (after 40 years of irradiation) are the most important are the following: -) 1 day after shutdown: Y{sup 91} (15%), Y{sup 90} (13%), Hg{sup 197} (6%) and Sr{sup 89} (5%); -) 1 year after shutdown: H{sup 3} (19%), Y{sup 90} (17%), Sr{sup 90} (17%) and Nb{sup 93*} (10%); -) 10 years after shutdown: Y{sup 90} (22%), Sr{sup 90} (22%), H{sup 3} (18%) and Nb{sup 93*} (14%); and -) 100 years after shutdown: Mo{sup 93} (34%), Nb{sup 93*} (32%), Pt{sup 193} (9%) and Y{sup 90} (8%). (A.C.)

  2. Mercury erosion experiments for spallation target system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Kaminaga, Masanori; Haga, Katsuhiro; Hino, Ryutaro

    2003-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) are promoting a plan to construct the spallation neutron source at the Tokai Research Establishment, JAERI, under the High-Intensity Proton Accelerator Project (J-PARC). A mercury circulation system has been designed so as to supply mercury to the target stably under the rated flow rate of 41 m 3 /hr. Then, it was necessary to confirm a mercury pump performance from the viewpoint of making the mercury circulation system feasible, and more, to investigate erosion rate under the mercury flow as well as an amount of mercury remained on the surface after drain from the viewpoints of mechanical strength relating to the lifetime and remote handling of mercury components. The mercury pump performance was tested under the mercury flow conditions by using an experimental gear pump, which had almost the same structure as a practical mercury pump to be expected in the mercury circulation system, and the erosion rates in a mercury pipeline as well as the amount of mercury remained on the surface were also investigated. The discharged flow rates of the experimental gear pump increased linearly with the rotation speed, so that the gear pump would work as the flow meter. Erosion rates obtained under the mercury velocity less than 1.6 m/s was found to be so small that decrease of pipeline wall thickness would be 390 μm after 30-year operation under the rated mercury velocity of 0.7 m/s. For the amount of remaining mercury on the pipeline, remaining rates of weight and volume were estimated at 50.7 g/m 2 and 3.74 Hg-cm 3 /m 2 , respectively. Applying these remaining rates of weight and volume to the mercury target, the remaining mercury was estimated at about 106.5 g and 7.9 cm 3 . Radioactivity of this remaining mercury volume was found to be three-order lower than that of the target casing. (author)

  3. Failure probability analysis on mercury target vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikura, Syuichi; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Sato, Hiroshi; Haga, Katsuhiro; Ikeda, Yujiro

    2005-03-01

    Failure probability analysis was carried out to estimate the lifetime of the mercury target which will be installed into the JSNS (Japan spallation neutron source) in J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex). The lifetime was estimated as taking loading condition and materials degradation into account. Considered loads imposed on the target vessel were the static stresses due to thermal expansion and static pre-pressure on He-gas and mercury and the dynamic stresses due to the thermally shocked pressure waves generated repeatedly at 25 Hz. Materials used in target vessel will be degraded by the fatigue, neutron and proton irradiation, mercury immersion and pitting damages, etc. The imposed stresses were evaluated through static and dynamic structural analyses. The material-degradations were deduced based on published experimental data. As a result, it was quantitatively confirmed that the failure probability for the lifetime expected in the design is very much lower, 10 -11 in the safety hull, meaning that it will be hardly failed during the design lifetime. On the other hand, the beam window of mercury vessel suffered with high-pressure waves exhibits the failure probability of 12%. It was concluded, therefore, that the leaked mercury from the failed area at the beam window is adequately kept in the space between the safety hull and the mercury vessel by using mercury-leakage sensors. (author)

  4. Radiochemical aspects of liquid mercury spallation targets

    CERN Document Server

    Neuhausen, Joerg; Eichler, Bernd; Eller, Martin; Horn, Susanne; Schumann, Dorothea; Stora, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    Liquid metal spallation targets using mercury as target material are used in state-of-the-art high power pulsed neutron sources that have been constructed in the USA and Japan within the last decade. Similar target concepts were also proposed for next generation ISOL, beta-beam and neutrino facilities. A large amount of radioactivity will be induced in the liquid metal during operation caused by the interaction of the target material with the intense proton beam. This radioactivity - carried by a wide range of radioisotopes of all the elements of the periodic table from hydrogen up to thallium - must be considered for the assessment of safe operation and maintenance procedures as well as for a final disposal of the used target material and components. This report presents an overview on chemical investigations performed in our laboratory that deal with the behavior of radionuclides in proton irradiated mercury samples. The solubility of elements in mercury was calculated using thermodynamical data obtained by...

  5. A self-focusing mercury jet target

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, C

    2002-01-01

    Mercury jet production targets have been studied in relation to antiproton production and, more recently, pion production for a neutrino factory. There has always been a temptation to include some self-focusing of the secondaries by passing a current through the mercury jet analogous to the already proven lithium lens. However, skin heating of the mercury causes fast vaporization leading to the development of a gliding discharge along the surface of the jet. This external discharge can, nevertheless, provide some useful focusing of the secondaries in the case of the neutrino factory. The technical complications must not be underestimated.

  6. Epigenetically altered miR-193b targets cyclin D1 in prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaukoniemi, Kirsi M; Rauhala, Hanna E; Scaravilli, Mauro; Latonen, Leena; Annala, Matti; Vessella, Robert L; Nykter, Matti; Tammela, Teuvo L J; Visakorpi, Tapio

    2015-01-01

    Micro-RNAs (miRNA) are important regulators of gene expression and often differentially expressed in cancer and other diseases. We have previously shown that miR-193b is hypermethylated in prostate cancer (PC) and suppresses cell growth. It has been suggested that miR-193b targets cyclin D1 in several malignancies. Here, our aim was to determine if miR-193b targets cyclin D1 in prostate cancer. Our data show that miR-193b is commonly methylated in PC samples compared to benign prostate hyperplasia. We found reduced miR-193b expression (P < 0.05) in stage pT3 tumors compared to pT2 tumors in a cohort of prostatectomy specimens. In 22Rv1 PC cells with low endogenous miR-193b expression, the overexpression of miR-193b reduced CCND1mRNA levels and cyclin D1 protein levels. In addition, the exogenous expression of miR-193b decreased the phosphorylation level of RB, a target of the cyclin D1-CDK4/6 pathway. Moreover, according to a reporter assay, miR-193b targeted the 3’UTR of CCND1 in PC cells and the CCND1 activity was rescued by expressing CCND1 lacking its 3’UTR. Immunohistochemical analysis of cyclin D1 showed that castration-resistant prostate cancers have significantly (P = 0.0237) higher expression of cyclin D1 compared to hormone-naïve cases. Furthermore, the PC cell lines 22Rv1 and VCaP, which express low levels of miR-193b and high levels of CCND1, showed significant growth retardation when treated with a CDK4/6 inhibitor. In contrast, the inhibitor had no effect on the growth of PC-3 and DU145 cells with high miR-193b and low CCND1 expression. Taken together, our data demonstrate that miR-193b targets cyclin D1 in prostate cancer

  7. Preparation of isotopically enriched mercury sulphide targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szerypo, J.; Friebel, H.U.; Frischke, D.; Grossman, R.; Maier, H.J. [Dept. fuer Physik, Univ. Muenchen (LMU) (Germany); Maier-Leibnitz-Lab. (MLL), Garching (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The primary difficulty in performing nuclear reactions on mercury is to obtain a suitable target. The primary difficulty in performing nuclear reactions on mercury is to obtain a suitable target. The utilization of amalgam targets has been reported in early publications. These targets, however, were lacking homogeneity and in-beam stability. A thorough investigation of literature shows, that HgS, because of its comparatively high chemical and mechanical stability, is one of the more adequate Hg compounds for accelerator target applications. In this presentation we describe the production of HgS targets consisting of an enriched Hg isotope and S of natural isotopic abundance, starting up from HgO. Following the outline given in [3], in this special case HgS can be prepared by dissolving HgO in diluted HNO{sub 3} and subsequent precipitation of the black HgS modification with gaseous H{sub 2}S. Last step of the target production procedure is evaporation-condensation of HgS in vacuum. In the present case, HgS layers of 500 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} on a backing carbon foil of 26 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} with a protective carbon layer of about 20 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} thickness on top of the HgS layer were produced. (orig.)

  8. Isolation of radioactive thallium from mercury targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevast'yanova, A.S.; Kozlova, M.D.; Malinin, A.B.; Kurenkov, N.V.

    1989-01-01

    The extraction method of thallium-201, 202, 200 separation from mercury target irradiated by protons is suggested. Tl + in sulfuric acid solution prepared after Hg-target treatment with the sulfuric acid was oxidized up to Tl 3+ with hydrogen peroxide and then it was extracted with butylacetate. Thallium was re-exrtacted by the sulfurous acid solution in the presence of CCl 4 , and Tl 3+ was recovered up to Tl + . The method permits to separate thallium with chemical yield nor less than 95 %. 2 refs

  9. Thermal shocks and magnetohydrodynamics in high power mercury jet targets

    CERN Document Server

    Lettry, Jacques; Gilardoni, S S; Benedikt, Michael; Farhat, M; Robert, E

    2003-01-01

    The response of mercury samples submitted to a pulsed proton beam and the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects of a mercury jet injected into a 20 T magnetic field are reported. The experimental conditions differ from those of proposed neutrino factories and the purpose of these measurements is to provide benchmarks for simulation tools of a realistic free mercury jet target. These measurements were completed in June 2002. Analysis is ongoing and the presented results are preliminary. (12 refs).

  10. EURISOL MERCURY TARGET EXPERIMENT: CERN SAFETY REPORT

    CERN Document Server

    J. Gulley (CERN SC/GS)

    Report on a visit to the mercury-handling lab at IPUL. The aim was to provide recommendations to IPUL on general health and safety issues relatring to the handling of mercury, the objective being to reduce exposure to acceptable levels, so far as is reasonably practical.

  11. Solubility of helium in mercury for bubbling technology of the spallation neutron mercury target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, S.; Naoe, T.; Futakawa, M.

    2010-01-01

    The pitting damage of mercury target container that originates in the pressure wave excited by the proton beam incidence becomes a large problem to reach the high-power neutron source in JSNS and SNS. The lifetime of mercury container is decreased remarkably by the pitting damage. As one of solutions, the pressure wave is mitigated by injecting the helium micro bubbles in mercury. In order to inject the helium micro bubbles into mercury, it is important to understand the characteristic of micro bubbles in mercury. The solubility of mercury-helium system is a key factor to decide bubbling conditions, because the disappearance behavior, i.e. the lifetime of micro bubbles, depends on the solubility. In addition, the bubble generation method is affected by it. Moreover, the experimental data related to the solubility of helium in mercury hardly exist. In this work, the solubility was obtained experimentally by measuring precisely the pressure drop of the gas that is facing to mercury surface. The pressure drop was attributed to the helium dissolution into mercury. Based on the measured solubility, the lifetime of micro bubbles and the method of the bubble generation is estimated using the solubility data.

  12. Off-line tests on pitting damage in mercury target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futakawa, Masatoshi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Ishikura, Shuichi; Ikeda, Yujiro

    2003-03-01

    A liquid-mercury target system for the MW-scale target is being developed in the world. The moment the proton beams bombard the target, stress waves will be imposed on the beam window and pressure waves will be generated in the mercury by the thermally shocked heat deposition. Provided that the negative pressure generates through its propagation in the mercury target and causes cavitation in the mercury, there is the possibility for the cavitation bubbles collapse to form pits on the interface between the mercury and the target vessel wall. In order to estimate the cavitation erosion damage due to pitting, two types of off-line tests were performed: Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB), and Magnetic IMpact Testing Machine (MIMTM). The data on the piping damage at the high cycle impacts up to 10 million were given by the MIMTM. Additionally the data obtained were compared with classical vibratory horn tests. As a result, it is confirmed that the mean depth erosion is predictable using a homologous line in the steady state with mass loss independently of testing machines and the incubation period is very dependent on materials and imposed pressures. (author)

  13. Off-line tests on pitting damage in mercury target

    CERN Document Server

    Futakawa, M; Ishikura, S; Kogawa, H; Tsai, C C

    2003-01-01

    A liquid-mercury target system for the MW-scale target is being developed in the world. The moment the proton beams bombard the target, stress waves will be imposed on the beam window and pressure waves will be generated in the mercury by the thermally shocked heat deposition. Provided that the negative pressure generates through its propagation in the mercury target and causes cavitation in the mercury, there is the possibility for the cavitation bubbles collapse to form pits on the interface between the mercury and the target vessel wall. In order to estimate the cavitation erosion damage due to pitting, two types of off-line tests were performed: Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB), and Magnetic IMpact Testing Machine (MIMTM). The data on the piping damage at the high cycle impacts up to 10 million were given by the MIMTM. Additionally the data obtained were compared with classical vibratory horn tests. As a result, it is confirmed that the mean depth erosion is predictable using a homologous line in the s...

  14. Phase I biodistribution and pharmacokinetic study of Lewis Y targeting immunoconjugate CMD-193 in patients with advanced epithelial cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbertson, R. A.; Lee, F. T.; Hopkins, W.; Smyth, F. E.; Murone, C.; Tebbutt, N. C.; Micallef, N.; MacFarlane, D. J.; Bellen, J.; Sonnichsen, D. S.; Brechbiel, M. W.; Scott, A. M.; Lee, T. L.

    2009-01-01

    Full text:Background: The Lewis Y (Ley) antigen is a blood-group related antigen expressed in >70% of solid tumours. This study explored the biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of the immunoconjugate CMD-193 (humanized anti-Ley antibody conjugated with calichaemicin) in patients with advanced Ley expressing epithelial cancers. Methods: There were 2 dose cohorts, (1.0mg/m2 and 2.6mg/m2). Primary objectives were to determine biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of CMD-193. The first cycle was labelled with 111In for biodistribution assessment, and subsequent cycles were administered 3 weekly to a maximum of 6 cycles. Tumour targeting was assessed using SPECT imaging, and pharmacokinetic analysis was based on gamma counting (111In-CMD-193) and ELISA (CMD-193 protein). Results: Nine patients were enrolled, and received 1-6 treatment cycles. Biodistribution imaging demonstrated initial blood pooling, followed by markedly increased hepatic uptake by day 2 (which persisted to day 8), and fast blood clearance. This pattern was seen for all patients, with no significant tumour uptake visualised in any patient. The overall T 1 /2 of 111In-CMD-193 complex formation in blood. One patient had partial metabolic response on 18F-FDG-PET. No radiologic responses were observed. Conclusions: CMD-193 demonstrates rapid blood clearance and increased hepatic uptake compared to prior studies of the original non-conjugated antibody. This trial highlights the importance of biodistribution and pharmacodynamic assessment in early phase studies of new biologics in clinical development.

  15. Preliminary study of mercury target structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminaga, Masanori; Haga, Katsuhiro; Hino, Ryutaro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Kumasaka, Katsuyuki; Uchida, Shoji; Nakagawa, Toshi; Mori, Seiji; Nishikawa, Akira

    1997-11-01

    Development of a proton accelerator based neutron source (1.5 GeV, 5.3 mA (for neutron source 3.3 mA), thermal power 8 MW) is currently conducted by the Special Task Force for Neutron Science Initiative, JAERI. Preliminary design studies and related R and D of a solid metal target for the first stage (1.5 GeV, 1 mA) and a liquid metal target for both the first and second stages (1.5 GeV, 3.3 mA) are conducted by the Target Group to develop both solid and liquid metal target systems. A few kinds of target structures have been investigated in FY 1996 and the preliminary results for the target structures are described in this paper. Investigation results of alternative materials for the target container are also described in this paper. (author)

  16. Treatment Of Mercury Target Off-Gas At SNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVore, Joe R.; Freeman, David W.

    2007-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is the first operational spallation source to use liquid Mercury as a target material. This paper describes the treatment system to remove volatile spallation products from a Helium purge stream that emanates from the Mercury target and adjustments made to achieve design goals in response to phenomena experienced during initial operations. The Helium stream is treated to remove volatile spallation products prior to environmental release because of its activity level as these accumulate in the gas space in the Mercury Loop. Unanticipated local dose rates were noted in treatment system components during low power startup. Gamma scanning of these components identified the presence of nineteen noble gas isotopes and their daughters, indicating that the doses resulted from noble gas sorption. Treatment of this equipment with stable Xenon greatly reduced but did not eliminate these. Significant moisture was also encountered in the system, resulting in the plugging of the system cold trap. Changes to some of the system equipment were required together with moisture elimination from components to which moisture was sorbed. Necessary re-configuration of Mercury pump components presented additional requirements and system control changes to accommodate system operation at reduced pressure. The Off-Gas Treatment System has been successfully operated since April, 2006. System availability and removal effectiveness have been high. Operational issues occurring during the first year of operation have been resolved.

  17. Mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilas, F.; Chapman, C.R.; Matthews, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    Papers are presented on future observations of and missions to Mercury, the photometry and polarimetry of Mercury, the surface composition of Mercury from reflectance spectrophotometry, the Goldstone radar observations of Mercury, the radar observations of Mercury, the stratigraphy and geologic history of Mercury, the geomorphology of impact craters on Mercury, and the cratering record on Mercury and the origin of impacting objects. Consideration is also given to the tectonics of Mercury, the tectonic history of Mercury, Mercury's thermal history and the generation of its magnetic field, the rotational dynamics of Mercury and the state of its core, Mercury's magnetic field and interior, the magnetosphere of Mercury, and the Mercury atmosphere. Other papers are on the present bounds on the bulk composition of Mercury and the implications for planetary formation processes, the building stones of the planets, the origin and composition of Mercury, the formation of Mercury from planetesimals, and theoretical considerations on the strange density of Mercury

  18. Cavitation damage prediction for the JSNS mercury target vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naoe, Takashi, E-mail: naoe.takashi@jaea.go.jp; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Wakui, Takashi; Haga, Katsuhiro; Teshigawara, Makoto; Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Takada, Hiroshi; Futakawa, Masatoshi

    2016-01-15

    The liquid mercury target system for the Japan Spallation Neutron Source (JSNS) at the Materials and Life science experimental Facility (MLF) in the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) is designed to produce pulsed neutrons. The mercury target vessel in this system, which is made of type 316L stainless steel, is damaged by pressure wave-induced cavitation due to proton beam bombardment. Currently, cavitation damage is considered to be the dominant factor influencing the service life of the target vessel rather than radiation damage. In this study, cavitation damage to the interior surface of the target vessel was predicted on the basis of accumulated damage data from off-beam and on-beam experiments. The predicted damage was compared with the damage observed in a used target vessel. Furthermore, the effect of injecting gas microbubbles on cavitation damage was predicted through the measurement of the acoustic vibration of the target vessel. It was shown that the predicted depth of cavitation damage is reasonably coincident with the observed results. Moreover, it was confirmed that the injection of gas microbubbles had an effect on cavitation damage.

  19. Optical diagnostics of mercury jet for an intense proton target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H; Tsang, T; Kirk, H G; Ladeinde, F; Graves, V B; Spampinato, P T; Carroll, A J; Titus, P H; McDonald, K T

    2008-04-01

    An optical diagnostic system is designed and constructed for imaging a free mercury jet interacting with a high intensity proton beam in a pulsed high-field solenoid magnet. The optical imaging system employs a backilluminated, laser shadow photography technique. Object illumination and image capture are transmitted through radiation-hard multimode optical fibers and flexible coherent imaging fibers. A retroreflected illumination design allows the entire passive imaging system to fit inside the bore of the solenoid magnet. A sequence of synchronized short laser light pulses are used to freeze the transient events, and the images are recorded by several high speed charge coupled devices. Quantitative and qualitative data analysis using image processing based on probability approach is described. The characteristics of free mercury jet as a high power target for beam-jet interaction at various levels of the magnetic induction field is reported in this paper.

  20. Pathologically decreased expression of miR-193a contributes to metastasis by targeting WT1-E-cadherin axis in non-small cell lung cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Chen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The metastatic cascade is a complex and multistep process with many potential barriers. Recently, miR-193a has been reported to be a suppressive miRNA in multiple types of cancers, but its underlying anti-oncogenic activity in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC is not fully elucidated. Methods The expressions of miR-193a (miR-193a-5p in human lung cancer tissues and cell lines were detected by real-time PCR. Dual-luciferase reporter assay was used to identify the direct target of miR-193a. Cell proliferation, apoptosis, and metastasis were assessed by CCK-8, flow cytometry, and Transwell assay, respectively. Results The expression of miR-193a in lung cancer tissues was decreased comparing to adjacent non-tumor tissues due to DNA hypermethylation in lung cancer tissues. Ectopic expression of miR-193a inhibited cell proliferation, colony formation, migration, and invasion in A549 and H1299 cells. Moreover, overexpression of miR-193a partially reversed tumor growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT in NSCLC cells. Mechanistically, miR-193a reduced the expression of WT1, which negatively regulated the protein level of E-cadherin, suggesting that miR-193a might prevent EMT via modulating WT1-E-cadherin axis. Importantly, knockdown of WT1 resembled the anti-cancer activity by miR-193a and overexpression of WT1 partially reversed miR-193a-induced anti-cancer activity, indicating that WT1 plays an important role in miR-193a-induced anti-cancer activity. Finally, overexpression of miR-193a decreased the growth of tumor xenografts in mice. Conclusion Collectively, our results have revealed an important role of miR-193a-WT1-E-cadherin axis in metastasis, demonstrated an important molecular cue for EMT, and suggested a therapeutic strategy of restoring miR-193a expression in NSCLC.

  1. Estimation of thermochemical behavior of spallation products in mercury target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Kaoru; Kaminaga, Masanori; Haga, Katsuhiro; Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Aso, Tomokazu; Teshigawara, Makoto; Hino, Ryutaro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-02-01

    In order to examine the radiation safety of a spallation mercury target system, especially source term evaluation, it is necessary to clarify the chemical forms of spallation products generated by spallation reaction with proton beam. As for the chemical forms of spallation products in mercury that involves large amounts of spallation products, these forms were estimated by using the binary phase diagrams and the thermochemical equilibrium calculation based on the amounts of spallation product. Calculation results showed that the mercury would dissolve Al, As, B, Be, Bi, C, Co, Cr, Fe, Ga, Ge, Ir, Mo, Nb, Os, Re, Ru, Sb, Si, Ta, Tc, V and W in the element state, and Ag, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Cl, Cs, Cu, Dy, Er, Eu, F, Gd, Hf, Ho, I, In, K, La, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Nd, Ni, O, Pb, Pd, Pr, Pt, Rb, Rh, S, Sc, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Tb, Te, Ti, Tl, Tm, Y, Yb, Zn and Zr in the form of inorganic mercury compounds. As for As, Be, Co, Cr, Fe, Ge, Ir, Mo, Nb, Os, Pt, Re, Ru, Se, Ta, V, W and Zr, precipitation could be occurred when increasing the amounts of spallation products with operation time of the spallation target system. On the other hand, beryllium-7 (Be-7), which is produced by spallation reaction of oxygen in the cooling water of a safety hull, becomes the main factor of the external exposure to maintain the cooling loop. Based on the thermochemical equilibrium calculation to Be-H{sub 2}O binary system, the chemical forms of Be in the cooling water were estimated. Then the Be could exist in the form of cations such as BeOH{sup +}, BeO{sup +} and Be{sup 2+} under the condition of less than 10{sup -8} of the Be mole fraction in the cooling water. (author)

  2. Estimation of thermochemical behavior of spallation products in mercury target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Kaoru; Kaminaga, Masanori; Haga, Katsuhiro; Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Aso, Tomokazu; Teshigawara, Makoto; Hino, Ryutaro

    2002-02-01

    In order to examine the radiation safety of a spallation mercury target system, especially source term evaluation, it is necessary to clarify the chemical forms of spallation products generated by spallation reaction with proton beam. As for the chemical forms of spallation products in mercury that involves large amounts of spallation products, these forms were estimated by using the binary phase diagrams and the thermochemical equilibrium calculation based on the amounts of spallation product. Calculation results showed that the mercury would dissolve Al, As, B, Be, Bi, C, Co, Cr, Fe, Ga, Ge, Ir, Mo, Nb, Os, Re, Ru, Sb, Si, Ta, Tc, V and W in the element state, and Ag, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Cl, Cs, Cu, Dy, Er, Eu, F, Gd, Hf, Ho, I, In, K, La, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Nd, Ni, O, Pb, Pd, Pr, Pt, Rb, Rh, S, Sc, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Tb, Te, Ti, Tl, Tm, Y, Yb, Zn and Zr in the form of inorganic mercury compounds. As for As, Be, Co, Cr, Fe, Ge, Ir, Mo, Nb, Os, Pt, Re, Ru, Se, Ta, V, W and Zr, precipitation could be occurred when increasing the amounts of spallation products with operation time of the spallation target system. On the other hand, beryllium-7 (Be-7), which is produced by spallation reaction of oxygen in the cooling water of a safety hull, becomes the main factor of the external exposure to maintain the cooling loop. Based on the thermochemical equilibrium calculation to Be-H 2 O binary system, the chemical forms of Be in the cooling water were estimated. Then the Be could exist in the form of cations such as BeOH + , BeO + and Be 2+ under the condition of less than 10 -8 of the Be mole fraction in the cooling water. (author)

  3. Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercury is an element that is found in air, water and soil. It has several forms. Metallic mercury is a shiny, silver-white, odorless liquid. If ... with other elements to form powders or crystals. Mercury is in many products. Metallic mercury is used ...

  4. Mercury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Irma

    2017-01-01

    Mercury is a naturally occurring metal that exists in several physical and chemical forms. Inorganic mercury refers to compounds formed after the combining of mercury with elements such as chlorine, sulfur, or oxygen. After combining with carbon by covalent linkage, the compounds formed are called

  5. Investigation of flow asymmetry and instability in the liquid mercury target of the Spallation Neutron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pointer, D.; Ruggles, A.; Wendel, M.; Crye, J.

    2000-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) will utilize a liquid mercury target placed in the path of a high-energy proton beam to produce neutrons for research activities. As the high-energy protons interact with the mercury target, the majority of the beam energy is converted to thermal energy. The liquid mercury must provide sufficient heat transfer to maintain the temperature of the target structure within the thermal limits of the structural materials. Therefore, the behavior of the liquid mercury flow must be characterized in sufficient detail to ensure accurate evaluation of heat transfer in the mercury target. A combination of experimental and computational methods is utilized to characterize the flow in these preliminary analyses. Preliminary studies of the liquid mercury flow in the SNS target indicate that the flow in the exit channel may exhibit multiple recirculation zones, flow asymmetries, and possibly large-scale flow instabilities. While these studies are not conclusive, they serve to focus the efforts of subsequent CFD modeling and experimental programs to better characterize the flow patterns in the SNS mercury target

  6. System dynamic analyses on the JKJ mercury target and cold moderator systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Toshio; Kaminaga, Masanori; Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Aso, Tomokazu; Haga, Katsuhiro; Hino, Ryutaro

    2001-01-01

    The temperature responses of major points in a mercury target cooling system and in a cold moderator system of JKJ (JAERI/KEK Joint Project) were simulated by the analytical code MATLAB (SIMULINK). As a result, it was made clear that non-control of mercury temperature is the best way to control the mercury target cooling system. If the mercury temperature of the system is controlled by the PID control system using an outlet temperature of heat exchanger, the PID control system shows the characteristics of an on-off control system, and the temperature cannot be controlled. Analytical results also showed that mercury temperature remained below the boiling point of 356degC under 0.1 MPa during a transient at one cooling pump trip. Analytical results for the cold moderator system showed that the outlet temperature of cold moderator vessels could be kept within a temperature range of 1 k during steady-state conditions. (author)

  7. CALCULATIONS FOR A MERCURY JET TARGET IN A SOLENOID MAGNET CAPTURE SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GALLARDO, J.; KAHN, S.; PALMER, R.B.; THIEBERGER, P.; WEGGEL, R.J.; MCDONALD, K.

    2001-01-01

    A mercury jet is being considered as the production target for a muon storage ring facility to produce an intense neutrino beam. A 20 T solenoid magnet that captures pions for muon production surrounds the mercury target. As the liquid metal jet enters or exits the field eddy currents are induced. We calculate the effects that a liquid metal jet experiences in entering and exiting the magnetic field for the magnetic configuration considered in the Neutrino Factory Feasibility Study II

  8. Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that mercuric chloride and methylmercury are possible human carcinogens. top How does mercury affect children? Very young ... billion parts of drinking water (2 ppb). The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has set a maximum ...

  9. Mockup experiments to investigate the leak rate correlation between mercury and helium for the mercury target system of J-PARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haga, Katsuhiro; Naoe, Takashi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Wakui, Takashi; Futakawa, Masatoshi

    2009-01-01

    Checking the seal performance of the mercury piping network is very important for the mercury target system operation of J-PARC, and the test method for leaks using the pressure change measurement is preferable for this purpose because it can be carried out easily and precisely by measuring the pressure change, and it is free from the risk of mercury contamination. The piping network is pressurized by helium gas. Thus, the correlation between the helium leak rate and mercury leak flow rate was investigated experimentally by carrying out leak tests for helium and mercury with an identical mockup flange model. The results showed that the mercury leak flow rates of the experimental data were lower than those of the estimated value by 64% on average. It was also found that the threshold of the helium leak rate at which good seal performance for mercury can be obtained exists between 2.18 x 10 -4 and 1.01 x 10 -2 Pa.m 3 /s. This fact confirmed the sufficient safety margin of the mercury target system against the mercury leak, where 1 x 10 -6 Pa.m 3 /s was adopted as the seal performance criterion. (author)

  10. Mercury

    CERN Document Server

    Mahoney, T J

    2014-01-01

    This gazetteer and atlas on Mercury lists, defines and illustrates every named (as opposed to merely catalogued) object and term as related to Mercury within a single reference work. It contains a glossary of terminology used, an index of all the headwords in the gazetteer, an atlas comprising maps and images with coordinate grids and labels identifying features listed in the gazetteer, and appendix material on the IAU nomenclature system and the transcription systems used for non-roman alphabets. This book is useful for the general reader, writers and editors dealing with astronomical themes, and those astronomers concerned with any aspect of astronomical nomenclature.

  11. Mercury

    CERN Document Server

    Balogh, André; Steiger, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    Mercury, the planet closest to the Sun, is different in several respects from the other three terrestrial planets. In appearance, it resembles the heavily cratered surface of the Moon, but its density is high, it has a magnetic field and magnetosphere, but no atmosphere or ionosphere. This book reviews the progress made in Mercury studies since the flybys by Mariner 10 in 1974-75, based on the continued research using the Mariner 10 archive, on observations from Earth, and on increasingly realistic models of its interior evolution.

  12. Subcellular Targeting of Methylmercury Lyase Enhances Its Specific Activity for Organic Mercury Detoxification in Plants1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizily, Scott P.; Kim, Tehryung; Kandasamy, Muthugapatti K.; Meagher, Richard B.

    2003-01-01

    Methylmercury is an environmental pollutant that biomagnifies in the aquatic food chain with severe consequences for humans and other animals. In an effort to remove this toxin in situ, we have been engineering plants that express the bacterial mercury resistance enzymes organomercurial lyase MerB and mercuric ion reductase MerA. In vivo kinetics experiments suggest that the diffusion of hydrophobic organic mercury to MerB limits the rate of the coupled reaction with MerA (Bizily et al., 2000). To optimize reaction kinetics for organic mercury compounds, the merB gene was engineered to target MerB for accumulation in the endoplasmic reticulum and for secretion to the cell wall. Plants expressing the targeted MerB proteins and cytoplasmic MerA are highly resistant to organic mercury and degrade organic mercury at 10 to 70 times higher specific activity than plants with the cytoplasmically distributed wild-type MerB enzyme. MerB protein in endoplasmic reticulum-targeted plants appears to accumulate in large vesicular structures that can be visualized in immunolabeled plant cells. These results suggest that the toxic effects of organic mercury are focused in microenvironments of the secretory pathway, that these hydrophobic compartments provide more favorable reaction conditions for MerB activity, and that moderate increases in targeted MerB expression will lead to significant gains in detoxification. In summary, to maximize phytoremediation efficiency of hydrophobic pollutants in plants, it may be beneficial to target enzymes to specific subcellular environments. PMID:12586871

  13. CFD analysis of a liquid mercury target for the National Spallation Neutron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendel, M.W.; Tov, M.S.

    1997-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is being used to analyze the design of the National Spallation Neutron Source (NSNS) target. The target is subjected to the neutronic (internal) heat generation that results from the proton collisions with the mercury nuclei. The liquid mercury simultaneously serves as the neutronic target medium, transports away the heat generated within itself, and cools the metallic target structure. Recirculation and stagnation zones within the target are of particular concern because of the likelihood that they will result in local hot spots. These zones exist because the most feasible target designs include a complete U-turn flow redirection. Although the primary concern is that the target is adequately cooled, the pressure drop from inlet to outlet must also be considered because pressure drop directly affects structural loading and required pumping power. Various design options have been considered in an effort to satisfy these design criteria. Significant improvements to the design have been recommended based on the results. Detailed results are presented for the current target design including a comparison with published pressure-drop data. Comparisons are also made with forced convection heat transfer data for liquid mercury flow in circular tubes

  14. The Merit(nTOF-11) High Intensity Liquid Mercury Target Experiment at the CERN PS

    CERN Document Server

    Efthymiopoulos, I; Caretta, O; Carroll, A J; Fabich, A; Graves, V B; Grudiev, A; Haug, F; Kirk, H G; Lettry, Jacques; Loveridge, P; McDonald, K T; Mokhov, N; Palm, M; Park, H; Pernegger, H; Spampinato, P T; Steerenberg, R; Striganov, S; Tsang, T

    2008-01-01

    The MERIT(nTOF-11) experiment is a proof-ofprinciple test of a target system for a high power proton beam to be used as front-end for a neutrino factory or a muon collider. The experiment took data in autumn 2007 with the fast-extracted beam from the CERN Proton Synchrotron (PS) to a maximum intensity of $30 × 10^{12}$ per pulse. The target system, based on a free mercury jet, is capable of intercepting a 4-MW proton beam inside a 15-T magnetic field required to capture the low energy secondary pions as the source for intense muon beams. Partice detectors installed around the target setup measure the secondary particle flux out of the target and can probe cavitation effects in the mercury jet when excited by an intense proton beam.Preliminary results of the data analysis will be presented here.

  15. High Power Proton Beam Shocks and Magnetohydrodynamics in a Mercury Jet Target for a Neutrino Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Fabich, A; Fabjan, Christian

    2002-01-01

    The feasibility of liquid metal jet targets for secondary particle production with high power proton beams has been studied. The main aspects of the thesis were benchmark experiments covering the behaviour of liquid targets under thermal shock waves induced by high power proton beams, and also magnetohydrodynamic effects. Severe challenges were imposed by safety issues and the restricted beam time to the tests in ISOLDE at CERN and at the High Magnetic Field Laboratory at Grenoble. Restricted access times in high radiation level areas were of the order of minutes and in this short time span, the complete experimental setup had to be performed and verified. The involvement of mercury as liquid target material and its activation during beam tests demanded special confinement precautions. The setup for both experiments was based on the use of a high speed camera system for observation of the mercury target. The presence of high radiation or high magnetic field required the installation of the sensitive camera sy...

  16. Optimization study on structural analyses for the J-PARC mercury target vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Wenhai; Wakai, Eiichi; Naoe, Takashi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Wakui, Takashi; Haga, Katsuhiro; Takada, Hiroshi; Futakawa, Masatoshi

    2018-06-01

    The spallation neutron source at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) mercury target vessel is used for various materials science studies, work is underway to achieve stable operation at 1 MW. This is very important for enhancing the structural integrity and durability of the target vessel, which is being developed for 1 MW operation. In the present study, to reduce thermal stress and relax stress concentrations more effectively in the existing target vessel in J-PARC, an optimization approach called the Taguchi method (TM) is applied to thermo-mechanical analysis. The ribs and their relative parameters, as well as the thickness of the mercury vessel and shrouds, were selected as important design parameters for this investigation. According to the analytical results of 18 model types designed using the TM, the optimal design was determined. It is characterized by discrete ribs and a thicker vessel wall than the current design. The maximum thermal stresses in the mercury vessel and the outer shroud were reduced by 14% and 15%, respectively. Furthermore, it was indicated that variations in rib width, left/right rib intervals, and shroud thickness could influence the maximum thermal stress performance. It is therefore concluded that the TM was useful for optimizing the structure of the target vessel and to reduce the thermal stress in a small number of calculation cases.

  17. Massive mercury target for thallium isotope production on the beam of high energy protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novgorodov, A.F.; Kolachkovski, A.; Nguen Kong Chang.

    1980-01-01

    The yields of thallium radioisotopes in a massive mercury target irradiated with 660 MeV protons have been determined. The constancy of isotopic composition of radiothallium along the whole length (40 cm) of the target has been found. The yields of 200 Tl, 201 Tl and 202 Tl amount to 22.9+-2.8; 3.42+-0.45 and 0.459+-0.61 mCu/mkA h, respectively. It has been shown that the extraction of radioisotopes of thallium and some other elements from large amounts of mercury as well as their subsequent concentration may be carried out fully and relatavely fast when using dilute solutions of acetic acid

  18. MicroRNA-193b-3p acts as a tumor suppressor by targeting the MYB oncogene in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mets, E; Van der Meulen, J; Van Peer, G; Boice, M; Mestdagh, P; Van de Walle, I; Lammens, T; Goossens, S; De Moerloose, B; Benoit, Y; Van Roy, N; Clappier, E; Poppe, B; Vandesompele, J; Wendel, H-G; Taghon, T; Rondou, P; Soulier, J; Van Vlierberghe, P; Speleman, F

    2015-04-01

    The MYB oncogene is a leucine zipper transcription factor essential for normal and malignant hematopoiesis. In T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), elevated MYB levels can arise directly through T-cell receptor-mediated MYB translocations, genomic MYB duplications or enhanced TAL1 complex binding at the MYB locus or indirectly through the TAL1/miR-223/FBXW7 regulatory axis. In this study, we used an unbiased MYB 3'untranslated region-microRNA (miRNA) library screen and identified 33 putative MYB-targeting miRNAs. Subsequently, transcriptome data from two independent T-ALL cohorts and different subsets of normal T-cells were used to select miRNAs with relevance in the context of normal and malignant T-cell transformation. Hereby, miR-193b-3p was identified as a novel bona fide tumor-suppressor miRNA that targets MYB during malignant T-cell transformation thereby offering an entry point for efficient MYB targeting-oriented therapies for human T-ALL.

  19. THERMODYNAMIC INTERACTION OF THE PRIMARY PROTON BEAM WITH A MERCURY JET TARGET AT A NEUTRINO FACTORY SOURCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SIMOS, N.; LUDEWIG, H.; KIRK, H.; THIEBERGER, P.; MCDONALD, K.

    2001-01-01

    This paper addresses the thermodynamic interaction of an intense proton beam with the proposed mercury jet target at a neutrino factory or muon collider source, and the consequences of the generated pressure waves on the target integrity. Specifically, a 24 GeV proton beam with approximately 1.6e13 protons per pulse and a pulse length of 2 nanosec will interact with a 1 cm diameter mercury jet within a 20 Tesla magnetic field. In one option, a train of six such proton pulses is to be delivered on target within 2 microsec, in which case the state of the mercury jet following the interaction with each pulse is critical. Using the equation of state for mercury from the SESAME library, in combination with the energy deposition rates calculated the by the hadron interaction code MARS, the induced 3-D pressure field in the target is estimated. The consequent pressure wave propagation and attenuation in the mercury jet is calculated using an ANSYS code transient analysis, and the state of the mercury jet at the time of arrival of the subsequent pulse is assessed. The amplitude of the pressure wave reaching the nozzle that ejects the mercury jet into the magnetic field is estimated and the potential for mechanical damage is addressed

  20. Design study on large-scale mercury loop for engineering test of target of high-intensity proton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, Ryutaro; Haga, Katsuhiro; Aita, Hideki; Sekita, Kenji; Sudo, Yukio; Koiso, Kohji; Kaminaga, Masanori; Takahashi, Hiromichi.

    1997-03-01

    A heavy liquid-metal target has been proposed as a representative target of a 5MW-scale neutron source for a neutron scattering facility coupled with a high-intensity proton accelerator. In the report, about mercury considered to be the best material of the heavy liquid-metal target, its properties needed for the design were formulated, and results of research on mercury treatment and of evaluation of heat removal performance on the basis of generating heat obtained by a numerical calculation of a spallation reaction were presented. From these results, a 1.5MW-scale mercury loop which equals to that for the first stage operation of the neutron science program of JAERI was designed conceptually for obtaining design data of the mercury target, and basic flow diagram of the loop and specifications of components were decided: diameter of pipelines flowing mercury at the velocity below 1m/s, power of an electro-magnet pump and structure of a cooler. Through the design, engineering problems were made clear such as selection and development of mercury-resistant materials and optimization of the loop and components for decreasing mercury inventory. (author)

  1. Thermal shock analysis of liquid-mercury spallation target

    CERN Document Server

    Ishikura, S; Futakawa, M; Hino, R; Date, H

    2002-01-01

    The developments of the neutron scattering facilities are carried out under the high-intensity proton accelerator project promoted by JAERI and KEK. To estimate the structural integrity of the heavy liquid-metal (Hg) target used as a spallation neutron source in a MW-class neutron scattering facility, dynamic stress behavior due to the incident of a 1 MW-pulsed proton beam was analyzed by using FEM code. Two-type target containers with semi-cylindrical type and flat-plate type window were used as models for analyses. As a result, it is confirmed that the stress (pressure wave) generated by dynamic thermal shock becomes the largest at the center of window, and the flat-plate type window is more advantageous from the structural viewpoint than the semi-cylindrical type window. It has been understood that the stress generated in the window by the pressure wave can be treated as the secondary stress. (author)

  2. Mercury purification in the megawatt liquid metal spallation target of EURISOL-DS

    CERN Document Server

    Neuhausen, Joerg; Eller, Martin; Schumann, Dorothea; Eichler, Bernd; Horn, Susanne

    High power spallation targets are going to be used extensively in future research and technical facilities such as spallation neutron sources, neutrino factories, radioactive beam facilities or accelerator driven systems for the transmutation of long-lived nuclear waste. Within EURISOL-DS, a 4 MW liquid metal spallation target is designed to provide neutrons for a fission target, where neutron rich radionuclides will be produced. For the spallation target, mercury is planned to be used as target material. A large amount of radionuclides ranging from atomic number Z=1 to 81 will be produced in the liquid metal during long term irradiation. It is planned to remove those radionuclides by chemical or physicochemical methods to reduce its radioactivity. For the development of a purification procedure, knowledge about the chemical state of the different elements present in the mixture is required. We present a general concept of applicable separation techniques in a target system and show some results of experiment...

  3. Thermal-hydraulic design of cross-flow type mercury target for JAERI/KEK joint project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminaga, Masanori; Terada, Atsuhiko; Haga, Katsuhiro; Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Hino, Ryutaro

    2001-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) are promoting a plan to construct a neutron scattering facility. In the facility, 1 MW pulsed proton beam from a high-intensity proton accelerator will be injected into a mercury target in order to produce high-intensity neutrons for use in the fields of life and material sciences. In the spallation mercury target system design, an integrated structure of target vessel with a safety hull was proposed to ensure the safety and to collect mercury in case of mercury leakage caused by the target beam window failure. The inner structure arrangement of the mercury target vessel was determined based on the thermal hydraulic analytical results of 3 GeV, 1 MW proton beam injection. The safety hull consists of vessels for helium and heavy water. The vessels for mercury target, helium and heavy water will be connected each other by reinforcement ribs mounted on the surface of each vessel. From the structural analyses, the structural integrity of the safety hull would be maintained under the static pressure of 0.5 MPa. (author)

  4. Innovative Waste Management in the Mercury Loop of the EURISOL Multi-MW Converter Target

    CERN Document Server

    PSI: Jörg Neuhausen, Dorothea Schumann, Rugard Dressler, Susanne Horn, Sabrina Lüthi, Stephan Heinitz, Suresh ChirikiCERN: Thierry Stora, Martin Eller

    The choice of mercury as target material imposes various questions concerning the safe operation of such a system that are related to the physical and chemical properties of the target material itself and the nuclear reaction products produced within the target during its life time of several decades. Therefore, a subtask was created within the EURISOL-DS project that is concerned with studying an innovative waste management for the generated radioactivity by chemical means. Such a study strongly depends on the radioactive inventory and its distribution throughout the target and loop system. Radioactive inventory calculations were performed within task 5 [6]. The distribution of nuclear reaction products and their chemical state that can be expected within the target and loop system is one of the topics covered in this report. Based on the results obtained by theoretical studies as well as laboratory scale experiments, the feasibility of waste reduction using chemical methods, both conventional (e.g. leaching...

  5. MERIT - The high intensity liquid mercury target experiment at the CERN PS

    CERN Document Server

    Efthymiopoulos, I

    2009-01-01

    The MERIT experiment is a proof-of-principle test of a target system for high power proton beams to be used as front-end for a Neutrino Factory complex or a Muon Collider. The experiment took data in autumn 2007 with the fast extracted beam from the CERN Proton Synchrotron (PS) to a maximum intensity of about 30 × 1012 protons per pulse. The target system, based on a free mercury jet, allowed investigation of the interseption of a 4-MW proton beam inside a 15-T magnetic field required to capture the low-energy secondary pions as the source of the required intense muon beams. Particle detectors have been installed around the target setup to measure the secondary particle flux out of the target and probe cavitation effects in the mercury jet when exited with a beam of variable intensity. With the analysis of the data ongoing, results will be presented here that demonstrate the validity of the liquid target concept.

  6. Mercury-induced hepatotoxicity in zebrafish: in vivo mechanistic insights from transcriptome analysis, phenotype anchoring and targeted gene expression validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathavan Sinnakaruppan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mercury is a prominent environmental contaminant that causes detrimental effects to human health. Although the liver has been known to be a main target organ, there is limited information on in vivo molecular mechanism of mercury-induced toxicity in the liver. By using transcriptome analysis, phenotypic anchoring and validation of targeted gene expression in zebrafish, mercury-induced hepatotoxicity was investigated and a number of perturbed cellular processes were identified and compared with those captured in the in vitro human cell line studies. Results Hepato-transcriptome analysis of mercury-exposed zebrafish revealed that the earliest deregulated genes were associated with electron transport chain, mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation, nuclear receptor signaling and apoptotic pathway, followed by complement system and proteasome pathway, and thereafter DNA damage, hypoxia, Wnt signaling, fatty acid synthesis, gluconeogenesis, cell cycle and motility. Comparative meta-analysis of microarray data between zebrafish liver and human HepG2 cells exposed to mercury identified some common toxicological effects of mercury-induced hepatotoxicity in both models. Histological analyses of liver from mercury-exposed fish revealed morphological changes of liver parenchyma, decreased nucleated cell count, increased lipid vesicles, glycogen and apoptotic bodies, thus providing phenotypic evidence for anchoring of the transcriptome analysis. Validation of targeted gene expression confirmed deregulated gene-pathways from enrichment analysis. Some of these genes responding to low concentrations of mercury may serve as toxicogenomic-based markers for detection and health risk assessment of environmental mercury contaminations. Conclusion Mercury-induced hepatotoxicity was triggered by oxidative stresses, intrinsic apoptotic pathway, deregulation of nuclear receptor and kinase activities including Gsk3 that deregulates Wnt signaling

  7. The value of gamma camera and computed tomography data set coregistration to assess Lewis Y antigen targeting in small cell lung cancer by 111Indium-labeled humanized monoclonal antibody 3S193

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quaia, Emilio; Krug, Lee M.; Pandit-Taskar, Neeta; Nagel, Andrew; Reuter, Victor E.; Humm, John; Divgi, Chaitanya

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To assess the value of data set coregistration of gamma camera and computed tomography (CT) in the assessment of targeting of humanized monoclonal antibody 3S193 labeled with indium-111 ( 111 In-hu3S193) to small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Methods and materials: Ten patients (6 male and 4 female; mean age ± S.D., 60 ± 4 years), from an overall population of 20 patients with SCLCs expressing Lewis Y antigen at immunohistochemical analysis, completed a four weekly injections of 111 In-hu3S193 and underwent gamma camera imaging. All had had, as part of their baseline evaluation, Fluorine18 fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). Two readers in consensus retrospectively coregistered the gamma camera images with the CT component of the FDG PET/CT by automatic or manual alignment. The resulting image sets were visually examined and SCLC lesions targeting at coregistered gamma camera and CT was correlated side-by-side with the 18 F-FDG uptake. Results: A total number of 31 lesions from SCLC with a thoracic (n = 13) or extrathoracic location (n = 18) were all positive on FDG PET/CT. Coregistration of the gamma camera to the CT demonstrated targeting of antibody to all lesions >2 cm (n = 20) and in a few lesions ≤2 cm (n = 2), with no visualization of most lesions ≤2 cm (n = 9). No 111 In-hu3S193 uptake in normal tissues was observed. Conclusion: Coregistration of antibody gamma camera imaging to FDG PET/CT is feasible and allows valuable assessment of 111 In-hu3S193 antibody targeting to SCLC lesions >2 cm, while lesions ≤2 cm reveal a limited targeting

  8. Cytochrome P4502D6(193-212): a new immunodominant epitope and target of virus/self cross-reactivity in liver kidney microsomal autoantibody type 1-positive liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkar, Nanda; Choudhuri, Kaushik; Ma, Yun; Mahmoud, Ayman; Bogdanos, Dimitrios P; Muratori, Luigi; Bianchi, Francesco; Williams, Roger; Mieli-Vergani, Giorgina; Vergani, Diego

    2003-02-01

    Cytochrome P4502D6 (CYP2D6), target of liver kidney microsomal autoantibody type 1 (LKM1), characterizes autoimmune hepatitis type 2 (AIH2) but is also found in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. To provide a complete linear epitope B cell map of CYP2D6, we tested peptides spanning the entire sequence of CYP2D6. In addition to confirming previously described antigenic sites, we identified four new epitopes (193-212, 238-257, 268-287, and 478-497). CYP2D6(193-212) is immunodominant and was the target of 12 of 13 (93%) patients with AIH2 and 5 of 10 (50%) HCV/LKM1-positive patients. Because LKM1 is present in both AIH2 and a viral infection, we tested whether Abs to CYP2D6(193-212) arise through cross-reactive immunity between virus and self. We identified a hexameric sequence "RLLDLA" sharing 5 of 6 aa with "RLLDLS" of HCV(2985-2990) and all 6 aa with CMV(130-135). Of 17 CYP2D6(193-212)-reactive sera, 11 (7 AIH and 4 HCV) reacted by ELISA with the HCV homologue, 8 (5 AIH and 3 HCV) with the CMV homologue, and 8 (5 AIH and 3 HCV) showed double reactivity. Autoantibody binding to CYP2D6(193-212) was inhibited by preincubation with HCV(2977-2996) or CMV(121-140). Recombinant HCV-nonstructural protein 5 and CMV-UL98 proteins also inhibited Ab binding to CYP2D6(193-212). Affinity-purified CYP2D6(193-212)-specific Ab inhibited the metabolic activity of CYP2D6. The demonstrated similarity and cross-reactivity between CYP2D6(193-212) and two unrelated viruses suggests that multiple exposure to viruses mimicking self may represent an important pathway to the development of autoimmunity.

  9. Martensitic/ferritic steels as container materials for liquid mercury target of ESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Y.

    1996-01-01

    In the previous report, the suitability of steels as the ESS liquid mercury target container material was discussed on the basis of the existing database on conventional austenitic and martensitic/ferritic steels, especially on their representatives, solution annealed 316 stainless steel (SA 316) and Sandvik HT-9 martensitic steel (HT-9). Compared to solution annealed austenitic stainless steels, martensitic/ferritic steels have superior properties in terms of strength, thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, mercury corrosion resistance, void swelling and irradiation creep resistance. The main limitation for conventional martensitic/ferritic steels (CMFS) is embrittlement after low temperature (≤380 degrees C) irradiation. The ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) can increase as much as 250 to 300 degrees C and the upper-shelf energy (USE), at the same time, reduce more than 50%. This makes the application temperature range of CMFS is likely between 300 degrees C to 500 degrees C. For the present target design concept, the temperature at the container will be likely controlled in a temperature range between 180 degrees C to 330 degrees C. Hence, CMFS seem to be difficult to apply. However, solution annealed austenitic stainless steels are also difficult to apply as the maximum stress level at the container will be higher than the design stress. The solution to the problem is very likely to use advanced low-activation martensitic/ferritic steels (LAMS) developed by the fusion materials community though the present database on the materials is still very limited

  10. Measurement of induced radioactivity in a spallation neutron field of a mercury target for GeV-proton bombardment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasugai, Y.; Takada, H.; Nakashima, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

    2001-03-01

    An integral experiment on radioactivity induced in spallation neutron fields was carried out under the ASTE (AGS-Spallation Target Experiment) collaboration using AGS (Alternative Gradient Synchrotron) at BNL (Brookhaven National Laboratory). The spallation neutrons were produced by bombarding a mercury target with protons of 1.6, 12 and 24 GeV. The number of protons was 3 - 4 x 10{sup 13} for each irradiation. The irradiated materials were titanium, nickel, cobalt, yttrium, and bismuth, and placed on the cylindrical surface of the mercury target at the distance of 15 - 16 cm from the beam-incident-surface of the target. Disintegration rates of induced radioactivities were measured at several cooling-time ranging from hours to months. The principal nuclides contributing to the radioactivity were pointed out for each material. The experimental results for bismuth were compared with the calculations with DCAHIN-SP code. (author)

  11. Measurement of induced radioactivity in a spallation neutron field of a mercury target for GeV-proton bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasugai, Y.; Takada, H.; Nakashima, H.

    2001-01-01

    An integral experiment on radioactivity induced in spallation neutron fields was carried out under the ASTE (AGS-Spallation Target Experiment) collaboration using AGS (Alternative Gradient Synchrotron) at BNL (Brookhaven National Laboratory). The spallation neutrons were produced by bombarding a mercury target with protons of 1.6, 12 and 24 GeV. The number of protons was 3 - 4 x 10 13 for each irradiation. The irradiated materials were titanium, nickel, cobalt, yttrium, and bismuth, and placed on the cylindrical surface of the mercury target at the distance of 15 - 16 cm from the beam-incident-surface of the target. Disintegration rates of induced radioactivities were measured at several cooling-time ranging from hours to months. The principal nuclides contributing to the radioactivity were pointed out for each material. The experimental results for bismuth were compared with the calculations with DCAHIN-SP code. (author)

  12. Target molecular weights for red cell band 3 stilbene and mercurial binding sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verkman, A.S.; Skorecki, K.L.; Jung, C.Y.; Ausiello, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation inactivation was used to measure the target sizes for binding of disulfonic stilbene anion transport inhibitor 4,4'-dibenzamido-2,2'-disulfonic stilbene (DBDS) and mercurial water transport inhibitor p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonate (pCMBS) to human erythrocytes. The measured target size for erythrocyte ghost acetylcholinesterase was 78 +/- 3 kDa. DBDS binding to ghost membranes was measured by a fluorescence enhancement technique. Radiation (0-26 Mrad) had no effect on total membrane protein and DBDS binding affinity, whereas DBDS binding stoichiometry decreased exponentially with radiation dose, giving a target size of 59 +/- 4 kDa. H2-4,4'-diisothiocyano-2,2'-disulfonic stilbene (H2-DIDS, 5 microM) blocked greater than 95% of DBDS binding at all radiation doses. pCMBS binding was measured from the time course of tryptophan fluorescence quenching in ghosts treated with the sulfhydryl reagent N-ethylmaleimide (NEM). Radiation did not affect the kinetics of tryptophan quenching, whereas the total amplitude of the fluorescence signal inactivated with radiation with a target size of 31 +/- 6 kDa. These results support the notion that DBDS and pCMBS bind to the transmembrane domain of erythrocyte band 3 in NEM-treated ghosts and demonstrate that radiation inactivation may probe a target significantly smaller than a covalently linked protein subunit. The small target size for the band 3 stilbene binding site may correspond to the intramembrane domain of the band 3 monomer (52 kDa), which is physically distinct from the cytoplasmic domain (42 kDa)

  13. Comment: 193 [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Japanese Bush Warbler Cettia diphone Cettia_diphone_L.png 193.png Takeru Nakazato (...: Takeru Nakazato (Database Center for Life Science) ウグイス Cettia diphone cantans nakazato 2008/12/22 10:09:51 2010/01/14 20:05:22 ...

  14. Measurements of activation reaction rate distributions on a mercury target bombarded with high-energy protons at AGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, Hiroshi; Kasugai, Yoshimi; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Yujiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Ino, Takashi; Kawai, Masayoshi [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Jerde, Eric; Glasgow, David [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2000-02-01

    A neutronics experiment was carried out using a thick mercury target at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) facility of Brookhaven National Laboratory in a framework of the ASTE (AGS Spallation Target Experiment) collaboration. Reaction rate distributions around the target were measured by the activation technique at incident proton energies of 1.6, 12 and 24 GeV. Various activation detectors such as the {sup 115}In(n,n'){sup 115m}In, {sup 93}Nb(n,2n){sup 92m}Nb, and {sup 209}Bi(n,xn) reactions with threshold energies ranging from 0.3 to 70.5 MeV were employed to obtain the reaction rate data for estimating spallation source neutron characteristics of the mercury target. It was found from the measured {sup 115}In(n,n'){sup 115m}In reaction rate distribution that the number of leakage neutrons becomes maximum at about 11 cm from the top of hemisphere of the mercury target for the 1.6-GeV proton incidence and the peak position moves towards forward direction with increase of the incident proton energy. The similar result was observed in the reaction rate distributions of other activation detectors. The experimental procedures and a full set of experimental data in numerical form are summarized in this report. (author)

  15. Water flow experiments and analyses on the cross-flow type mercury target model with the flow guide plates

    CERN Document Server

    Haga, K; Kaminaga, M; Hino, R

    2001-01-01

    A mercury target is used in the spallation neutron source driven by a high-intensity proton accelerator. In this study, the effectiveness of the cross-flow type mercury target structure was evaluated experimentally and analytically. Prior to the experiment, the mercury flow field and the temperature distribution in the target container were analyzed assuming a proton beam energy and power of 1.5 GeV and 5 MW, respectively, and the feasibility of the cross-flow type target was evaluated. Then the average water flow velocity field in the target mock-up model, which was fabricated from Plexiglass for a water experiment, was measured at room temperature using the PIV technique. Water flow analyses were conducted and the analytical results were compared with the experimental results. The experimental results showed that the cross-flow could be realized in most of the proton beam path area and the analytical result of the water flow velocity field showed good correspondence to the experimental results in the case w...

  16. Measurements of activation reaction rate distributions on a mercury target bombarded with high-energy protons at AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Hiroshi; Kasugai, Yoshimi; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Yujiro; Jerde, Eric; Glasgow, David

    2000-02-01

    A neutronics experiment was carried out using a thick mercury target at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) facility of Brookhaven National Laboratory in a framework of the ASTE (AGS Spallation Target Experiment) collaboration. Reaction rate distributions around the target were measured by the activation technique at incident proton energies of 1.6, 12 and 24 GeV. Various activation detectors such as the 115 In(n,n') 115m In, 93 Nb(n,2n) 92m Nb, and 209 Bi(n,xn) reactions with threshold energies ranging from 0.3 to 70.5 MeV were employed to obtain the reaction rate data for estimating spallation source neutron characteristics of the mercury target. It was found from the measured 115 In(n,n') 115m In reaction rate distribution that the number of leakage neutrons becomes maximum at about 11 cm from the top of hemisphere of the mercury target for the 1.6-GeV proton incidence and the peak position moves towards forward direction with increase of the incident proton energy. The similar result was observed in the reaction rate distributions of other activation detectors. The experimental procedures and a full set of experimental data in numerical form are summarized in this report. (author)

  17. Gigacycle fatigue behaviour of austenitic stainless steels used for mercury target vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naoe, Takashi; Xiong, Zhihong; Futakawa, Masatoshi

    2016-01-01

    A mercury enclosure vessel for the pulsed spallation neutron source manufactured from a type 316L austenitic stainless steel, a so-called target vessel, suffers the cyclic loading caused by the proton beam induced pressure waves. A design criteria of the JSNS target vessel which is defined based on the irradiation damage is 2500 h at 1 MW with a repetition rate of 25 Hz, that is, the target vessel suffers approximately 10 9 cyclic loading while in operation. Furthermore, strain rate of the beam window of the target vessel reaches 50 s −1 at the maximum, which is much higher than that of the conventional fatigue. Gigacycle fatigue strength up to 10 9 cycles for solution annealed 316L (SA) and cold-worked 316L (CW) were investigated through the ultrasonic fatigue tests. Fatigue tests were performed under room temperature and 250 °C which is the maximum temperature evaluated at the beam window in order to investigate the effect of temperature on fatigue strength of SA and CW 316L. The results showed that the fatigue strength at 250 °C is clearly reduced in comparison with room temperature, regardless of cold work level. In addition, residual strength and microhardness of the fatigue tested specimen were measured to investigate the change in mechanical properties by cyclic loading. Cyclic hardening was observed in both the SA and CW 316L, and cyclic softening was observed in the initial stage of cyclic loading in CW 316L. Furthermore, abrupt temperature rising just before fatigue failure was observed regardless of testing conditions.

  18. 49 CFR 193.2183-193.2185 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design Impoundment Design and Capacity §§ 193.2183-193.2185 [Reserved] LNG Storage Tanks ...

  19. 49 CFR 193.2189-193.2233 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design Lng Storage Tanks §§ 193.2189-193.2233 [Reserved] ...

  20. Pressure and stress waves in a spallation neutron source mercury target generated by high-power proton pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Futakawa, M; Conrad, H; Stechemesser, H

    2000-01-01

    The international ASTE collaboration has performed a first series of measurements on a spallation neutron source target at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) in Brookhaven. The dynamic response of a liquid mercury target hit by high-power proton pulses of about 40 ns duration has been measured by a laser Doppler technique and compared with finite elements calculations using the ABAQUS code. It is shown that the calculation can describe the experimental results for at least the time interval up to 100 mu s after the pulse injection. Furthermore, it has been observed that piezoelectric pressure transducers cannot be applied in the high gamma-radiation field of a spallation target.

  1. Dynamic Pressure of Liquid Mercury Target During 800-MeV Proton Thermal Shock Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, S.W.; Andriulli, J.B.; Cates, M.R.; Earl, D.D.; Haines, J.R.; Morrissey, F.X.; Tsai, C.C.; Wender, S.

    2000-01-01

    Described here are efforts to diagnose transient pressures generated by a short-pulse (about 0.5 microseconds) high intensity proton (∼ 2 * 10 14 per pulse) beam. Proton energy is 800-MeV. The tests were performed at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center - Weapons Neutron Research (LANSCE-WNR). Such capability is required for understanding target interaction for the Spallation Neutron Source project as described previously at this conference.1-4 The main approach to effect the pressure measurements utilized the deflection of a diaphragm in intimate contact with the mercury. There are a wide variety of diaphragm-deflection methods used in scientific and industrial applications. Many deflection-sensing approaches are typically used, including, for instance, capacitive and optical fiber techniques. It was found, however, that conventional pressure measurement using commercial pressure gages with electrical leads was not possible due to the intense nuclear radiation environment. Earlier work with a fiber optic strain gauge demonstrated the viability of using fiber optics for this environment

  2. A Target-Lighted dsDNA-Indicator for High-Performance Monitoring of Mercury Pollution and Its Antagonists Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Zhihe; Zhu, Lixuan; Li, Xiaoxuan; Yang, Sheng; Zou, Zhen; Guo, Jingru; Cao, Zhong; Yang, Ronghua

    2017-10-17

    As well-known, the excessive discharge of heavy-metal mercury not only destroys the ecological environment, bust also leads to severe damage of human health after ingestion via drinking and bioaccumulation of food chains, and mercury ion (Hg 2+ ) is designated as one of most prevalent toxic metal ions in drinking water. Thus, the high-performance monitoring of mercury pollution is necessary. Functional nucleic acids have been widely used as recognition probes in biochemical sensing. In this work, a carbazole derivative, ethyl-4-[3,6-bis(1-methyl-4-vinylpyridium iodine)-9H-carbazol -9-yl)] butanoate (EBCB), has been synthesized and found as a target-lighted DNA fluorescent indicator. As a proof-of-concept, Hg 2+ detection was carried out based on EBCB and Hg 2+ -mediated conformation transformation of a designed DNA probe. By comparison with conventional nucleic acid indicators, EBCB held excellent advantages, such as minimal background interference and maximal sensitivity. Outstanding detection capabilities were displayed, especially including simple operation (add-and-read manner), ultrarapidity (30 s), and low detection limit (0.82 nM). Furthermore, based on these advantages, the potential for high-performance screening of mercury antagonists was also demonstrated by the fluorescence change of EBCB. Therefore, we believe that this work is meaningful in pollution monitoring, environment restoration and emergency treatment, and may pave a way to apply EBCB as an ideal signal transducer for development of high-performance sensing strategies.

  3. Foil analysis of 1.5-GeV proton bombardment of a mercury target

    CERN Document Server

    Charlton, L A; Glasgow, D C; Gabriel, T A

    1999-01-01

    The number of reactant nuclei in a series of foils surrounding a container of mercury that has been bombarded by 1.5-GeV protons is calculated and compared with experimental measurements. This procedure is done to aid in the validation of the mercury cross sections used in the design studies of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). It is found that the calculations match the measurements to within the uncertainties inherent in the analysis.

  4. Organic antireflective coatings for 193-nm lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trefonas, Peter, III; Blacksmith, Robert F.; Szmanda, Charles R.; Kavanagh, Robert J.; Adams, Timothy G.; Taylor, Gary N.; Coley, Suzanne; Pohlers, Gerd

    1999-06-01

    Organic anti-reflective coatings (ARCs) continue to play an important role in semiconductor manufacturing. These materials provide a convenient means of greatly reducing the resist photospeed swing and reflective notching. In this paper, we describe a novel class of ARC materials optimized for lithographic applications using 193 nm exposure tools. These ARCs are based upon polymers containing hydroxyl-alkyl methacrylate monomers for crosslinkable sites, styrene for a chromophore at 193 nm, and additional alkyl-methacrylate monomers as property modifiers. A glycouril crosslinker and a thermally-activated acidic catalyst provide a route to forming an impervious crosslinked film activate data high bake temperatures. ARC compositions can be adjusted to optimize the film's real and imaginary refractive indices. Selection of optimal target indices for 193 nm lithographic processing through simulations is described. Potential chromophores for 193 nm were explored using ZNDO modeling. We show how these theoretical studies were combined with material selection criteria to yield a versatile organic anti-reflectant film, Shipley 193 G0 ARC. Lithographic process data indicates the materials is capable of supporting high resolution patterning, with the line features displaying a sharp resist/ARC interface with low line edge roughness. The resist Eo swing is successfully reduced from 43 percent to 6 percent.

  5. INTERACTION OF A 24 GeV PROTON BEAM WITH A MUON COLLIDER MERCURY JET TARGET EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND THERMODYNAMIC ASSESSMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SIMOS, N.; KIRK, H.; FINFROCK, C.; GREENE, G.; LUDEWIG, H.; MCDONALD, K.; MOKHOV, N.

    2001-01-01

    A muon collider or a neutrino factory based on a muon storage ring require intense beams of muons that can be generated by a 1-4 MW proton beam incident on a moving target inside a 20-T solenoid magnet, with a mercury jet as a preferred example. This paper addresses the thermodynamic interaction of the intense proton beam with the proposed mercury jet target, and the consequences of the generated pressure waves on the target integrity. Specifically, a 24 GeV proton beam with approximately 16 TP (1 TP = 10 12 protons) per pulse and a pulse length of 2 ns will interact with a 1 cm diameter mercury jet within the 20-Tesla magnetic field. In one option, a train of six such proton pulses is to be delivered on target within 2 micros, in which case the state of the mercury jet following the interaction with each pulse is critical. Using the equation of state for mercury from the SESAME library, in combination with the energy deposition rates calculated the by the hadron interaction code MARS, the induced 3-D pressure field in the target is estimated. The consequent pressure wave propagation and attenuation in the mercury jet is calculated using a transient analysis based on finite element modeling, and the state of the mercury jet at the time of arrival of the subsequent pulse is assessed. Issues associated with the use of a liquid metal jet as a target candidate are addressed. Lastly, some experimental results from the BNL E951 experiment are presented and discussed

  6. Vaporization of mercury from molten lead droplets doped with mercury: Pb/Hg source term experiment for the APT/SILC target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutu, N.K.; Greene, G.A.

    1994-09-01

    Experiments were performed to measure the fraction of mercury inventory released when droplets of molten lead, doped with a known concentration of mercury, fall through a controlled environment. The temperature of molten droplets ranged from 335 C to 346 C, and the concentration of mercury in the droplets ranged from 0.2 mass % to 1.0 mass %. The environment consisted of an air stream, at a temperature nominally equal to the melt temperature, and moving vertically upwards at a velocity of 10 cm/s. Direct observations and chemical analysis showed that no mercury was released from the molten droplets. Based upon the experimental results, it is concluded that no mercury vapor is likely to be released from the potentially molten source rod material in the APT-SILC Neutron Source Array to the confinement atmosphere during a postulated Large Break Loss Of Coolant Accident scenario leading to the melting of a fraction of the source rods

  7. Towards complete spectroscopy of 193Os

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisermann, Y.; Graw, G.; Metz, A.; Hertenberger, R.; Wirth, H.-F.

    2002-01-01

    Strong evidence for the existence of supersymmetry in atomic nuclei has been found in the quartet of nuclei 194,195 Pt, 195,196 Au. Our attention is now focused a second quartet of nuclei, that is 193,194 Ir, 192,193 Os where the model is applicable. We investigate the heaviest osmium isotope which is accessible in a single neutron transfer reaction: 193 Os. Excitation energies are known from (d,p) and (n,γ) measurements, but there is limited information about quantum numbers, To measure absolute cross-sections and asymmetries of the 192 Os(d(tilde),p) 193 Os reaction we used our facilities at the Munich tandem accelerator. The 22 MeV beam of vector-polarised deuterons was produced by our new Stern-Gerlach-Source. Outgoing protons were analysed by the Q3D magnetic spectrograph and detected with a strip-detector. The target consisted of a metallic foil of 146 μg/cm 2 highly enriched 192 Os (99%). (author)

  8. Mercury's Messenger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Clark R.

    2004-01-01

    Forty years after Mariner 2, planetary exploration has still only just begun, and many more missions are on drawing boards, nearing the launch pad, or even en route across interplanetary space to their targets. One of the most challenging missions that will be conducted this decade is sending the MESSENGER spacecraft to orbit the planet Mercury.…

  9. Water flow experiment using the PIV technique and the thermal hydraulic analysis on the cross-flow type mercury target model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haga, Katsuhiro; Terada, Atsuhiko; Kaminaga, Masanori; Hino, Ryutaro

    2001-01-01

    In this study the effectiveness of the cross-flow type mercury target structure was evaluated experimentally and analytically. The average water flow velocity field in the target mock-up model, which was fabricated with plexiglass, was measured at room temperature using the PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) technique. The water flow analyses were conducted and the analytical results were compared with the experimental results. The experimental results showed that the cross-flow could be realized in the former part of the proton beam path where the heat load by the spallation reaction is large, and the analytical result of the water flow velocity field showed good correspondence to the experimental result in the case of the Reynolds number of more than 4.83 x 10 5 at the model inlet. With these results, the effectiveness of the cross-flow type mercury target structure and the present analysis code system was demonstrated. Then the mercury flow field and the temperature distribution in the target container were analyzed assuming the proton beam energy and power of 3 GeV and 5 MW. The analytical result showed that the cross-flow field of mercury, which is similar to the water flow field, could also be attained. (author)

  10. Safety-technical lay-out of the operational environment of a high-power spallation target system of the megawatt class with mercury as target material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butzek, M.

    2005-06-01

    This thesis is concerning the safety relevant layout of the environment of a mercury based 5-Megawatt-spallation target. All safety relevant aspects related to construction, operation and dismantling as well as economical issues were taken into account. Safety concerns are basically driven by the toxic and radioactive inventory as well as the kind and intensity of radiation produced by the spallation process. Due to significant differences in inventory and radiation between a spallation source and a fission reactor, for the design of the spallation source mentioned above the safety philosophy of a fission reactor must not be used unchanged. Rather than this a systematic study of all safety related boundary conditions is necessary. Within this thesis all safety relevant boundary conditions for this specific type of machine are given. Beside the spatial distribution of different areas inside the target station, influence of medias to be used as well as arising radiation and handling requirements are discussed in detail. A general layout of the target station is presented, serving as a basis for all further component and system development. An enclosure concept for the target station was developed, taking into account the safety relevant issues concerning the mercury used as target materials, the water cooling loops containing massive amounts of tritium as well as the materials used for the moderators potentially forming explosive mixtures. Concept and detailed technical layout of the enclosure system was chosen to guarantee safe operation of the source as well as taking care of requirement arising for handling needs. For design of the shielding different suitable materials have been discussed. A design for assembling the shielding is shown taking into account the safety relevant requirements during operation as well as during dismantling. The neutron beam shutters, buried inside the shielding were designed to optimize handling and positioning issued of the inner part

  11. 46 CFR 193.50-1 - Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application. 193.50-1 Section 193.50-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION... Details § 193.50-1 Application. (a) The provisions of this subpart, with the exception of § 193.50-90...

  12. 46 CFR 193.50-10 - Location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Location. 193.50-10 Section 193.50-10 Shipping COAST... Details § 193.50-10 Location. (a) Approved hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems shall be installed in accordance with Table 193.50-10(a). The location of the equipment...

  13. Touchstones and mercury at Hedeby

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ježek, Martin; Holub, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 1 (2014), s. 193-204 ISSN 0079-4848 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : Hedeby * Viking Age * grave goods * touchstone * precious metal * mercury * chemical microanalysis * archaeometallurgy Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 0.278, year: 2014

  14. Measurement of activation reaction rate distribution on a mercury target with a lead-reflector and light-water-moderator for high energy proton bombardment using AGS accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasugai, Yoshimi; Takada, Hiroshi; Meigo, Shin-ichiro

    2001-02-01

    Characteristic of spallation neutrons driven by GeV protons from a mercury target with a lead-reflector and light-water-moderator was studied experimentally using the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) facility of Brookhaven National Laboratory in a framework of the ASTE (AGS Spallation Target Experiment) collaboration. Several reaction rates along with the mercury target were measured with the activation method at incident proton energies of 1.94, 12 and 24 GeV. Indium, niobium, aluminum, cobalt, nickel and bismuth were used as activation detectors to cover the threshold energy of between 0.33 and 40.9 MeV. This report summarizes the experimental procedure with all the measured data. (author)

  15. Adaption and use of a quadcopter for targeted sampling of gaseous mercury in the atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Oscar; Chen, Jingjing; Scircle, Austin; Zhou, Ying; Cizdziel, James V

    2018-03-22

    We modified a popular and inexpensive quadcopter to collect gaseous mercury (Hg) on gold-coated quartz cartridges, and analyzed the traps using cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Flight times averaged 16 min, limited by battery life, and yielded > 5 pg of Hg, well above the limit of detection (quadcopter, we measured atmospheric Hg near anthropogenic emission sources in the mid-south USA, including a municipal landfill, coal-fired power plant (CFPP), and a petroleum refinery. Average concentrations (± standard deviation) immediately downwind of the landfill were higher at ground level and 30 m compared to 60 and 120 m (5.3 ± 0.5 ng m -3 , 5.4 ± 0.7 ng m -3 , 4.2 ± 0.7 ng m -3 , and 2.5 ± 0.3 ng m -3 , respectively). Concentrations were also higher at an urban/industrial area (Memphis) (3.3 ± 0.9 ng m -3 ) compared with a rural/background area (1.5 ± 0.2 ng m -3 ). Due to airspace flight restrictions near the CFPP and refinery, we were unable to access near-field (stack) plumes and did not observe differences between upwind and downwind locations. Overall, this study demonstrates that highly maneuverable multicopters can be used to probe Hg concentrations aloft, which may be particularly useful for evaluating Hg emissions from remote landscapes and transient sources that are inadequately characterized and leading to uncertainties in ecosystem budgets.

  16. A rhizosphere-associated symbiont, Photobacterium spp. strain MELD1, and its targeted synergistic activity for phytoprotection against mercury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dony Chacko Mathew

    Full Text Available Though heavy metal such as mercury is toxic to plants and microorganisms, the synergistic activity between them may offer benefit for surviving. In this study, a mercury-reducing bacterium, Photobacterium spp. strain MELD1, with an MIC of 33 mg x kg(-1 mercury was isolated from a severely mercury and dioxin contaminated rhizosphere soil of reed (Phragmites australis. While the whole genome sequencing of MELD1 confirmed the presence of a mer operon, the mercury reductase MerA gene showed 99% sequence identity to Vibrio shilloni AK1 and implicates its route resulted from the event of horizontal gene transfer. The efficiency of MELD1 to vaporize mercury (25 mg x kg(-1, 24 h and its tolerance to toxic metals and xenobiotics such as lead, cadmium, pentachlorophenol, pentachloroethylene, 3-chlorobenzoic acid, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and 1,2,3,7,8,9-hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin is promising. Combination of a long yard bean (Vigna unguiculata ssp. Sesquipedalis and strain MELD1 proved beneficial in the phytoprotection of mercury in vivo. The effect of mercury (Hg on growth, distribution and tolerance was examined in root, shoot, leaves and pod of yard long bean with and without the inoculation of strain MELD1. The model plant inoculated with MELD1 had significant increases in biomass, root length, seed number, and increased mercury uptake limited to roots. Biolog plate assay were used to assess the sole-carbon source utilization pattern of the isolate and Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA productivity was analyzed to examine if the strain could contribute to plant growth. The results of this study suggest that, as a rhizosphere-associated symbiont, the synergistic activity between the plant and MELD1 can improve the efficiency for phytoprotection, phytostabilization and phytoremediation of mercury.

  17. A rhizosphere-associated symbiont, Photobacterium spp. strain MELD1, and its targeted synergistic activity for phytoprotection against mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Dony Chacko; Ho, Ying-Ning; Gicana, Ronnie Gicaraya; Mathew, Gincy Marina; Chien, Mei-Chieh; Huang, Chieh-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Though heavy metal such as mercury is toxic to plants and microorganisms, the synergistic activity between them may offer benefit for surviving. In this study, a mercury-reducing bacterium, Photobacterium spp. strain MELD1, with an MIC of 33 mg x kg(-1) mercury was isolated from a severely mercury and dioxin contaminated rhizosphere soil of reed (Phragmites australis). While the whole genome sequencing of MELD1 confirmed the presence of a mer operon, the mercury reductase MerA gene showed 99% sequence identity to Vibrio shilloni AK1 and implicates its route resulted from the event of horizontal gene transfer. The efficiency of MELD1 to vaporize mercury (25 mg x kg(-1), 24 h) and its tolerance to toxic metals and xenobiotics such as lead, cadmium, pentachlorophenol, pentachloroethylene, 3-chlorobenzoic acid, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and 1,2,3,7,8,9-hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin is promising. Combination of a long yard bean (Vigna unguiculata ssp. Sesquipedalis) and strain MELD1 proved beneficial in the phytoprotection of mercury in vivo. The effect of mercury (Hg) on growth, distribution and tolerance was examined in root, shoot, leaves and pod of yard long bean with and without the inoculation of strain MELD1. The model plant inoculated with MELD1 had significant increases in biomass, root length, seed number, and increased mercury uptake limited to roots. Biolog plate assay were used to assess the sole-carbon source utilization pattern of the isolate and Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) productivity was analyzed to examine if the strain could contribute to plant growth. The results of this study suggest that, as a rhizosphere-associated symbiont, the synergistic activity between the plant and MELD1 can improve the efficiency for phytoprotection, phytostabilization and phytoremediation of mercury.

  18. A Rhizosphere-Associated Symbiont, Photobacterium spp. Strain MELD1, and Its Targeted Synergistic Activity for Phytoprotection against Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Dony Chacko; Ho, Ying-Ning; Gicana, Ronnie Gicaraya; Mathew, Gincy Marina; Chien, Mei-Chieh; Huang, Chieh-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Though heavy metal such as mercury is toxic to plants and microorganisms, the synergistic activity between them may offer benefit for surviving. In this study, a mercury-reducing bacterium, Photobacterium spp. strain MELD1, with an MIC of 33 mg . kg-1 mercury was isolated from a severely mercury and dioxin contaminated rhizosphere soil of reed (Phragmites australis). While the whole genome sequencing of MELD1 confirmed the presence of a mer operon, the mercury reductase MerA gene showed 99% sequence identity to Vibrio shilloni AK1 and implicates its route resulted from the event of horizontal gene transfer. The efficiency of MELD1 to vaporize mercury (25 mg . kg-1, 24 h) and its tolerance to toxic metals and xenobiotics such as lead, cadmium, pentachlorophenol, pentachloroethylene, 3-chlorobenzoic acid, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and 1,2,3,7,8,9-hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin is promising. Combination of a long yard bean (Vigna unguiculata ssp. Sesquipedalis) and strain MELD1 proved beneficial in the phytoprotection of mercury in vivo. The effect of mercury (Hg) on growth, distribution and tolerance was examined in root, shoot, leaves and pod of yard long bean with and without the inoculation of strain MELD1. The model plant inoculated with MELD1 had significant increases in biomass, root length, seed number, and increased mercury uptake limited to roots. Biolog plate assay were used to assess the sole-carbon source utilization pattern of the isolate and Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) productivity was analyzed to examine if the strain could contribute to plant growth. The results of this study suggest that, as a rhizosphere-associated symbiont, the synergistic activity between the plant and MELD1 can improve the efficiency for phytoprotection, phytostabilization and phytoremediation of mercury. PMID:25816328

  19. 46 CFR 193.15-1 - Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application. 193.15-1 Section 193.15-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-1 Application. (a) The provisions of this...

  20. 46 CFR 193.30-1 - Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application. 193.30-1 Section 193.30-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkler Systems § 193.30-1 Application. Automatic sprinkling systems shall comply with...

  1. 46 CFR 193.60-1 - Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application. 193.60-1 Section 193.60-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Axes § 193.60-1 Application. (a) The provisions of this subpart shall apply to all vessels...

  2. 46 CFR 193.10-1 - Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application. 193.10-1 Section 193.10-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 193.10-1 Application. (a) The provisions of this subpart, with the...

  3. 46 CFR 193.50-5 - Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Classification. 193.50-5 Section 193.50-5 Shipping COAST... Details § 193.50-5 Classification. (a) Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire...) Classification Type Size Soda-acid and water, gals. Foam, gals. Carbon dioxide, lbs. Dry chemical, lbs. A II 21/2...

  4. 49 CFR 193.2913 - Security monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Security monitoring. 193.2913 Section 193.2913...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Security § 193.2913 Security monitoring. Each protective enclosure and the area.... Monitoring must be by visual observation in accordance with the schedule in the security procedures under...

  5. 46 CFR 193.60-10 - Location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Location. 193.60-10 Section 193.60-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Axes § 193.60-10 Location. (a) Fire axes shall be distributed throughout the spaces available...

  6. 49 CFR 193.2715 - Training: security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Training: security. 193.2715 Section 193.2715...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Personnel Qualifications and Training § 193.2715 Training: security. (a) Personnel responsible for security at an LNG plant must be trained in accordance with a written plan of...

  7. 49 CFR 193.2709 - Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Security. 193.2709 Section 193.2709 Transportation...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Personnel Qualifications and Training § 193.2709 Security. Personnel having security duties must be qualified to perform their assigned duties by successful completion of the training...

  8. 49 CFR 193.2711 - Personnel health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Personnel health. 193.2711 Section 193.2711 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Personnel Qualifications and Training § 193.2711 Personnel health. Each operator...

  9. 49 CFR 193.2609 - Support systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Support systems. 193.2609 Section 193.2609 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2609 Support systems. Each support system or foundation of each...

  10. 49 CFR 193.2611 - Fire protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire protection. 193.2611 Section 193.2611 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2611 Fire protection. (a) Maintenance activities on fire...

  11. 49 CFR 193.2801 - Fire protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire protection. 193.2801 Section 193.2801...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Fire Protection § 193.2801 Fire protection. Each operator must provide and maintain fire protection at LNG plants according to sections 9.1 through 9.7 and section 9.9 of NFPA 59A...

  12. 49 CFR 193.2625 - Corrosion protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Corrosion protection. 193.2625 Section 193.2625 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2625 Corrosion protection. (a) Each operator shall determine...

  13. 49 CFR 193.2519 - Communication systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Operations § 193.2519 Communication systems. (a) Each LNG plant must have a primary communication system that provides for verbal communications between all operating personnel at... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Communication systems. 193.2519 Section 193.2519...

  14. 49 CFR 193.2173 - Water removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water removal. 193.2173 Section 193.2173...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design Impoundment Design and Capacity § 193.2173 Water removal. (a) Impoundment areas must be constructed such that all areas drain completely to prevent water collection. Drainage...

  15. Mercury and Your Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Risk of Exposure to Mercury Learn About Mercury What is Mercury What is Metallic mercury? Toxicological Profile ToxFAQs Mercury Resources CDC’s National Biomonitoring Program Factsheet on Mercury ...

  16. 49 CFR 193.2607 - Foreign material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foreign material. 193.2607 Section 193.2607 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES...

  17. 19 CFR 10.193 - Imported directly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... control of the customs authority of the intermediate country; (2) Did not enter into the commerce of the... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Imported directly. 10.193 Section 10.193 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

  18. 27 CFR 28.193 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.193... Drawback Filing of Notice and Removal § 28.193 Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required... chapter, the exporter shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side of each case or Government head...

  19. Analysis of the AGS experiment on a mercury target with a moderator and a lead reflector bombarded by GeV energy protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Fujio; Meigo, Shin-ichiro; Kasugai, Yoshimi; Takada, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Yujiro; Ino, Takashi; Sato, Setsuo

    2001-01-01

    The AGS experiment on a mercury target with a moderator and a lead reflector bombarded by GeV energy protons was analyzed to investigate prediction capability of Monte Carlo simulation codes used in neutronic designs of spallation neutron sources. The NMTC/JAM code was used for nucleon meson transport calculations above 20 MeV while the MCNP-4A code with the JENDL cross section library was used for neutron transport below 20 MeV. The MCNPX code with the LA-150 library was also used for a reference. The calculations were compared with the experimental data obtained with 1.94, 12 and 24 GeV proton beams: (1) neutron flux distributions along the mercury target and (2) spectral fluxes of thermal neutrons extracted from a light water moderator. As a result, it was found that all the calculations predicted these experimental results with accuracies better than ±50% in absolute values. Accordingly, it was concluded that these calculation codes were adequate for neutronics designs of spallation neutron sources. (author)

  20. Planet Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Mariner 10's first image of Mercury acquired on March 24, 1974. During its flight, Mariner 10's trajectory brought it behind the lighted hemisphere of Mercury, where this image was taken, in order to acquire important measurements with other instruments.This picture was acquired from a distance of 3,340,000 miles (5,380,000 km) from the surface of Mercury. The diameter of Mercury (3,031 miles; 4,878 km) is about 1/3 that of Earth.Images of Mercury were acquired in two steps, an inbound leg (images acquired before passing into Mercury's shadow) and an outbound leg (after exiting from Mercury's shadow). More than 2300 useful images of Mercury were taken, both moderate resolution (3-20 km/pixel) color and high resolution (better than 1 km/pixel) black and white coverage.

  1. Mercurial poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorton, B

    1924-01-01

    Cats which had been kept in a thermometer factory to catch rats were afflicted with mercury poisoning. So were the rats they were supposed to eat. The symptoms of mercury poisoning were the same in both species. The source of mercury for these animals is a fine film of the metal which coats floors, a result of accidental spills during the manufacturing process.

  2. Got Mercury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Valerie E.; McCoy, J. Torin; Garcia, Hector D.; James, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Many of the operational and payload lighting units used in various spacecraft contain elemental mercury. If these devices were damaged on-orbit, elemental mercury could be released into the cabin. Although there are plans to replace operational units with alternate light sources, such as LEDs, that do not contain mercury, mercury-containing lamps efficiently produce high quality illumination and may never be completely replaced on orbit. Therefore, exposure to elemental mercury during spaceflight will remain possible and represents a toxicological hazard. Elemental mercury is a liquid metal that vaporizes slowly at room temperature. However, it may be completely vaporized at the elevated operating temperatures of lamps. Although liquid mercury is not readily absorbed through the skin or digestive tract, mercury vapors are efficiently absorbed through the respiratory tract. Therefore, the amount of mercury in the vapor form must be estimated. For mercury releases from lamps that are not being operated, we utilized a study conducted by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Quality to calculate the amount of mercury vapor expected to form over a 2-week period. For longer missions and for mercury releases occurring when lamps are operating, we conservatively assumed complete volatilization of the available mercury. Because current spacecraft environmental control systems are unable to remove mercury vapors, both short-term and long-term exposures to mercury vapors are possible. Acute exposure to high concentrations of mercury vapors can cause irritation of the respiratory tract and behavioral symptoms, such as irritability and hyperactivity. Chronic exposure can result in damage to the nervous system (tremors, memory loss, insomnia, etc.) and kidneys (proteinurea). Therefore, the JSC Toxicology Group recommends that stringent safety controls and verifications (vibrational testing, etc.) be applied to any hardware that contains elemental mercury that could yield

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR THE QUANTIFICATION OF THE CHEMICAL FORMS OF MERCURY AND OTHER TARGET POLLUTANTS IN COAL-FIRED BOILER FLUE GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terence J. McManus, Ph.D.

    1999-06-30

    Since approximately 55% of the electrical power produced in the U. S. is generated by coal-based power utility plants, there is serious concern about the massive amounts of coal combustion products emitted into the atmosphere annually. Furthermore, Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) requires the measurement and inventory of a possible 189 hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from any stationary source producing more than 10 tons per year of any one pollutant or more than 25 tons per year of total pollutants. Although power utilities are not presently included on the list of source categories, the CAAA requires the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency to carry out a study of emissions from electricity generation using fossil fuels. Since many of these HAPs are known to be present in coal derived flue gas, coal-fired electric power utilities may be subject to regulation following these studies if Congress considers it necessary. In a cooperative effort with the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) through its Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) initiated such a study in 1991. DOE-FETC commissioned five primary contractors to conduct emission studies at eight different coal-fired electric utilities. The eight sites represented a cross section of feed coal type, boiler designs, and particulate and gaseous pollutant control technologies. The major goal of these studies was to determine the sampling and analytical methodologies that could be used efficiently to perform these emission tests while producing representative and reliable emission data. The successful methodology could then be recommended to the EPA for use in compliance testing in the event the regulation of air toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants is implemented. A secondary purpose of the testing was to determine the effectiveness of the control technologies in reducing target hazardous air pollutants. Advanced Technology Systems, Inc

  4. Target-induced formation of gold amalgamation on DNA-based sensing platform for electrochemical monitoring of mercury ion coupling with cycling signal amplification strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jinfeng; Tang, Juan; Zhou, Jun; Zhang, Lan; Chen, Guonan; Tang, Dianping

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •We report a new electrochemical sensing protocol for the detection of mercury ion. •Gold amalgamation on DNA-based sensing platform was used as nanocatalyst. •The signal was amplified by cycling signal amplification strategy. -- Abstract: Heavy metal ion pollution poses severe risks in human health and environmental pollutant, because of the likelihood of bioaccumulation and toxicity. Driven by the requirement to monitor trace-level mercury ion (Hg 2+ ), herein we construct a new DNA-based sensor for sensitive electrochemical monitoring of Hg 2+ by coupling target-induced formation of gold amalgamation on DNA-based sensing platform with gold amalgamation-catalyzed cycling signal amplification strategy. The sensor was simply prepared by covalent conjugation of aminated poly-T (25) oligonucleotide onto the glassy carbon electrode by typical carbodiimide coupling. Upon introduction of target analyte, Hg 2+ ion was intercalated into the DNA polyion complex membrane based on T–Hg 2+ –T coordination chemistry. The chelated Hg 2+ ion could induce the formation of gold amalgamation, which could catalyze the p-nitrophenol with the aid of NaBH 4 and Ru(NH 3 ) 6 3+ for cycling signal amplification. Experimental results indicated that the electronic signal of our system increased with the increasing Hg 2+ level in the sample, and has a detection limit of 0.02 nM with a dynamic range of up to 1000 nM Hg 2+ . The strategy afforded exquisite selectivity for Hg 2+ against other environmentally related metal ions. In addition, the methodology was evaluated for the analysis of Hg 2+ in spiked tap-water samples, and the recovery was 87.9–113.8%

  5. Target-induced formation of gold amalgamation on DNA-based sensing platform for electrochemical monitoring of mercury ion coupling with cycling signal amplification strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jinfeng; Tang, Juan; Zhou, Jun; Zhang, Lan; Chen, Guonan; Tang, Dianping, E-mail: dianping.tang@fzu.edu.cn

    2014-01-31

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •We report a new electrochemical sensing protocol for the detection of mercury ion. •Gold amalgamation on DNA-based sensing platform was used as nanocatalyst. •The signal was amplified by cycling signal amplification strategy. -- Abstract: Heavy metal ion pollution poses severe risks in human health and environmental pollutant, because of the likelihood of bioaccumulation and toxicity. Driven by the requirement to monitor trace-level mercury ion (Hg{sup 2+}), herein we construct a new DNA-based sensor for sensitive electrochemical monitoring of Hg{sup 2+} by coupling target-induced formation of gold amalgamation on DNA-based sensing platform with gold amalgamation-catalyzed cycling signal amplification strategy. The sensor was simply prepared by covalent conjugation of aminated poly-T{sub (25)} oligonucleotide onto the glassy carbon electrode by typical carbodiimide coupling. Upon introduction of target analyte, Hg{sup 2+} ion was intercalated into the DNA polyion complex membrane based on T–Hg{sup 2+}–T coordination chemistry. The chelated Hg{sup 2+} ion could induce the formation of gold amalgamation, which could catalyze the p-nitrophenol with the aid of NaBH{sub 4} and Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}{sup 3+} for cycling signal amplification. Experimental results indicated that the electronic signal of our system increased with the increasing Hg{sup 2+} level in the sample, and has a detection limit of 0.02 nM with a dynamic range of up to 1000 nM Hg{sup 2+}. The strategy afforded exquisite selectivity for Hg{sup 2+} against other environmentally related metal ions. In addition, the methodology was evaluated for the analysis of Hg{sup 2+} in spiked tap-water samples, and the recovery was 87.9–113.8%.

  6. MicroRNA-193b represses cell proliferation and regulates cyclin D1 in melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiamin; Feilotter, Harriet E; Paré, Geneviève C; Zhang, Xiao; Pemberton, Joshua G W; Garady, Cherif; Lai, Dulcie; Yang, Xiaolong; Tron, Victor A

    2010-05-01

    Cutaneous melanoma is an aggressive form of human skin cancer characterized by high metastatic potential and poor prognosis. To better understand the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in melanoma, the expression of 470 miRNAs was profiled in tissue samples from benign nevi and metastatic melanomas. We identified 31 miRNAs that were differentially expressed (13 up-regulated and 18 down-regulated) in metastatic melanomas relative to benign nevi. Notably, miR-193b was significantly down-regulated in the melanoma tissues examined. To understand the role of miR-193b in melanoma, functional studies were undertaken. Overexpression of miR-193b in melanoma cell lines repressed cell proliferation. Gene expression profiling identified 314 genes down-regulated by overexpression of miR-193b in Malme-3M cells. Eighteen of these down-regulated genes, including cyclin D1 (CCND1), were also identified as putative miR-193b targets by TargetScan. Overexpression of miR-193b in Malme-3M cells down-regulated CCND1 mRNA and protein by > or = 50%. A luciferase reporter assay confirmed that miR-193b directly regulates CCND1 by binding to the 3'untranslated region of CCND1 mRNA. These studies indicate that miR-193b represses cell proliferation and regulates CCND1 expression and suggest that dysregulation of miR-193b may play an important role in melanoma development.

  7. Chemical Form Matters: Differential Accumulation of Mercury Following Inorganic and Organic Mercury Exposures in Zebrafish Larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korbas, Malgorzata; MacDonald, Tracy C.; Pickering, Ingrid J.; George, Graham N.; Krone, Patrick H. (Saskatchewan)

    2013-04-08

    Mercury, one of the most toxic elements, exists in various chemical forms each with different toxicities and health implications. Some methylated mercury forms, one of which exists in fish and other seafood products, pose a potential threat, especially during embryonic and early postnatal development. Despite global concerns, little is known about the mechanisms underlying transport and toxicity of different mercury species. To investigate the impact of different mercury chemical forms on vertebrate development, we have successfully combined the zebrafish, a well-established developmental biology model system, with synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence imaging. Our work revealed substantial differences in tissue-specific accumulation patterns of mercury in zebrafish larvae exposed to four different mercury formulations in water. Methylmercury species not only resulted in overall higher mercury burdens but also targeted different cells and tissues than their inorganic counterparts, thus revealing a significant role of speciation in cellular and molecular targeting and mercury sequestration. For methylmercury species, the highest mercury concentrations were in the eye lens epithelial cells, independent of the formulation ligand (chloride versus L-cysteine). For inorganic mercury species, in absence of L-cysteine, the olfactory epithelium and kidney accumulated the greatest amounts of mercury. However, with L-cysteine present in the treatment solution, mercuric bis-L-cysteineate species dominated the treatment, significantly decreasing uptake. Our results clearly demonstrate that the common differentiation between organic and inorganic mercury is not sufficient to determine the toxicity of various mercury species.

  8. 49 CFR 193.2321 - Nondestructive tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES... of storage tanks with internal design pressure above 15 psig must be nondestructively examined in... Vessel Code (Section VIII Division 1) (incorporated by reference, see § 193.2013). (b) For storage tanks...

  9. Human Exposure and Health Effects of Inorganic and Elemental Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Mercury is a toxic and non-essential metal in the human body. Mercury is ubiquitously distributed in the environment, present in natural products, and exists extensively in items encountered in daily life. There are three forms of mercury, i.e., elemental (or metallic) mercury, inorganic mercury compounds, and organic mercury compounds. This review examines the toxicity of elemental mercury and inorganic mercury compounds. Inorganic mercury compounds are water soluble with a bioavailability of 7% to 15% after ingestion; they are also irritants and cause gastrointestinal symptoms. Upon entering the body, inorganic mercury compounds are accumulated mainly in the kidneys and produce kidney damage. In contrast, human exposure to elemental mercury is mainly by inhalation, followed by rapid absorption and distribution in all major organs. Elemental mercury from ingestion is poorly absorbed with a bioavailability of less than 0.01%. The primary target organs of elemental mercury are the brain and kidney. Elemental mercury is lipid soluble and can cross the blood-brain barrier, while inorganic mercury compounds are not lipid soluble, rendering them unable to cross the blood-brain barrier. Elemental mercury may also enter the brain from the nasal cavity through the olfactory pathway. The blood mercury is a useful biomarker after short-term and high-level exposure, whereas the urine mercury is the ideal biomarker for long-term exposure to both elemental and inorganic mercury, and also as a good indicator of body burden. This review discusses the common sources of mercury exposure, skin lightening products containing mercury and mercury release from dental amalgam filling, two issues that happen in daily life, bear significant public health importance, and yet undergo extensive debate on their safety. PMID:23230464

  10. MiR-193b regulates early chondrogenesis by inhibiting the TGF-beta2 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Changhe; Yang, Zibo; Kang, Yan; Zhang, Ziji; Fu, Ming; He, Aishan; Zhang, Zhiqi; Liao, Weiming

    2015-04-13

    Cartilage generation and degradation are regulated by miRNAs. Our previous study has shown altered expression of miR-193b in chondrogenic human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADSCs). In the current study, we investigated the role of miR-193b in chondrogenesis and cartilage degradation. Luciferase reporter assays showed that miR-193b targeted seed sequences of the TGFB2 and TGFBR3 3'-UTRs. MiR-193b suppressed the expression of early chondrogenic markers in chondrogenic ATDC5 cells, and TNF-alpha expression in IL-1b-induced PMCs. In conclusion, MiR-193b may inhibit early chondrogenesis by targeting TGFB2 and TGFBR3, and may regulate inflammation by repressing TNF-alpha expression in inflamed chondrocytes. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Mercury flow experiments. 4th report: Measurements of erosion rate caused by mercury flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Kaminaga, Masanori; Haga, Katsuhiro; Hino, Ryutaro

    2002-06-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) are promoting a construction plan of the Material-Life Science Facility, which is consisted of a Muon Science Facility and a Neutron Scattering Facility, in order to open up the new science fields. The Neutron Scattering Facility will be utilized for advanced fields of Material and Life science using high intensity neutron generated by the spallation reaction of a 1 MW pulsed proton beam and mercury target. Design of the spallation mercury target system aims to obtain high neutron performance with high reliability and safety. Since the target system is using mercury as the target material and contains large amount of radioactive spallation products, it is necessary to estimate reliability for strength of instruments in a mercury flow system during lifetime of the facility. Piping and components in the mercury flow system would be damaged by erosion with mercury flow, since these components will be weak by thickness decreasing. This report presents experimental results of wall thickness change by erosion using a mercury experimental loop. In the experiments, an erosion test section and coupons were installed in the mercury experimental loop, and their wall thickness was measured with an ultra sonic thickness gage after every 1000 hours. As a result, under 0.7 m/s of mercury velocity condition which is slightly higher than the practical velocity in mercury pipelines, the erosion is about 3 μm in 1000 hours. The wall thickness decrease during facility lifetime of 30 years is estimated to be less than 0.5 mm. According to the experimental result, it is confirmed that the effect of erosion on component strength is extremely small. Moreover, a measurement of residual mercury on the piping surface was carried out. As a result, 19 g/m 2 was obtained as the residual mercury for the piping surface. According to this result, estimated amount of residual mercury for

  12. Mercury flow experiments. 4th report Measurements of erosion rate caused by mercury flow

    CERN Document Server

    Kinoshita, H; Hino, R; Kaminaga, M

    2002-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) are promoting a construction plan of the Material-Life Science Facility, which is consisted of a Muon Science Facility and a Neutron Scattering Facility, in order to open up the new science fields. The Neutron Scattering Facility will be utilized for advanced fields of Material and Life science using high intensity neutron generated by the spallation reaction of a 1 MW pulsed proton beam and mercury target. Design of the spallation mercury target system aims to obtain high neutron performance with high reliability and safety. Since the target system is using mercury as the target material and contains large amount of radioactive spallation products, it is necessary to estimate reliability for strength of instruments in a mercury flow system during lifetime of the facility. Piping and components in the mercury flow system would be damaged by erosion with mercury flow, since these components will be we...

  13. Target-induced formation of gold amalgamation on DNA-based sensing platform for electrochemical monitoring of mercury ion coupling with cycling signal amplification strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinfeng; Tang, Juan; Zhou, Jun; Zhang, Lan; Chen, Guonan; Tang, Dianping

    2014-01-31

    Heavy metal ion pollution poses severe risks in human health and environmental pollutant, because of the likelihood of bioaccumulation and toxicity. Driven by the requirement to monitor trace-level mercury ion (Hg(2+)), herein we construct a new DNA-based sensor for sensitive electrochemical monitoring of Hg(2+) by coupling target-induced formation of gold amalgamation on DNA-based sensing platform with gold amalgamation-catalyzed cycling signal amplification strategy. The sensor was simply prepared by covalent conjugation of aminated poly-T(25) oligonucleotide onto the glassy carbon electrode by typical carbodiimide coupling. Upon introduction of target analyte, Hg(2+) ion was intercalated into the DNA polyion complex membrane based on T-Hg(2+)-T coordination chemistry. The chelated Hg(2+) ion could induce the formation of gold amalgamation, which could catalyze the p-nitrophenol with the aid of NaBH4 and Ru(NH3)6(3+) for cycling signal amplification. Experimental results indicated that the electronic signal of our system increased with the increasing Hg(2+) level in the sample, and has a detection limit of 0.02nM with a dynamic range of up to 1000nM Hg(2+). The strategy afforded exquisite selectivity for Hg(2+) against other environmentally related metal ions. In addition, the methodology was evaluated for the analysis of Hg(2+) in spiked tap-water samples, and the recovery was 87.9-113.8%. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Reference: 193 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 193 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u4ria224u15772667i Peiter Edgar et al. 2005 Mar. Natur...ation and stomatal movement. 7031 404-8 15772667 2005 Mar Nature Hetherington Alistair M|Knight Heather|Maathuis Frans J M|Mills Lewis N|Peiter Edgar|Pelloux J辿r担me|Sanders Dale

  15. 49 CFR 193.2623 - Inspecting LNG storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2623 Inspecting LNG storage tanks. Each LNG... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspecting LNG storage tanks. 193.2623 Section 193...

  16. 49 CFR 193.2631 - Internal corrosion control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal corrosion control. 193.2631 Section 193... GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2631 Internal corrosion control. Each component that is subject to internal corrosive attack must be protected from internal corrosion by— (a...

  17. Mercury emission from crematories in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Takaoka

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic sources of mercury emissions have a significant impact on global pollution. Therefore, finding uncharacterised sources and assessing the emissions from these sources are important. However, limited data are available worldwide on mercury emissions from crematories. In Japan, 99.9% of dead bodies are cremated, which is the highest percentage in the world, and more than 1600 crematories are in operation. We thus focused on emissions from crematories in Japan. The number of targeted facilities was seven, and we used continuous emission monitoring to measure the mercury concentrations and investigate mercury behaviour. The total mercury concentrations in stack gases were a few μg/Nm3 (normal cubic meters. Considering the time profile of mercury and its species in cremations, the findings confirmed that the mercury in stack gas originated from dental amalgam. The amount of mercury emissions was calculated using the total concentration and gas flow rate. Furthermore, the annual amount of mercury emission from crematories in Japan was estimated by using the total number of corpses. The emission amount was considerably lower than that estimated in the United Kingdom. From statistical analyses on population demographics and measurements, future total emissions from crematories were also predicted. As a result, the amount of mercury emitted by crematories will likely increase by 2.6-fold from 2007 to 2037.

  18. Female reproductive health in two lamp factories: effects of exposure to inorganic mercury vapour and stress factors.

    OpenAIRE

    De Rosis, F; Anastasio, S P; Selvaggi, L; Beltrame, A; Moriani, G

    1985-01-01

    To evaluate the possible influence of mercury vapour on female reproduction, 153 women working in a mercury vapour lamp factory have been compared with 193 women employed in another factory of the same company, where mercury was not used. Both groups of subjects were exposed to stress factors (noise, rhythms of production, and shift work). The production process has been analysed by inspection of the plants and by collective discussions with "homogeneous groups" of workers; a retrospective in...

  19. Mercury Report-Children's exposure to elemental mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov . Mercury Background Mercury Report Additional Resources Mercury Report - Children's Exposure to Elemental Mercury Recommend on Facebook ... I limit exposure to mercury? Why was the report written? Children attending a daycare in New Jersey ...

  20. Study of 193Os beta- decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahn, Guilherme Soares

    2006-01-01

    In this work, the excited levels of 193 Ir populated by the beta - decay of 193 Os (T 1/2 ∼ 30h) were investigated. For that purpose, ∼ 5 mg samples of 99%-enriched 192 Os were irradiated under a thermal neutron flux of ∼ 10 12 s -1 and then analysed both using single gamma spectroscopy and a 4-detector multi parametric acquisition facility, which provided data for both a gamma gamma coincidence analysis and a directional angular correlation gamma gamma (θ ) study. From these data, 28 transitions were added to this decay scheme, 11 of which were previously known from nuclear reactions and 17 observed for the first time. Eight excited levels were also added to the decay scheme, 3 of which were known from nuclear reaction studies - the remaining 5 are suggested for the first time. Moreover, it was possible to confirm suspicions found in reference that the levels at 848.93 keV and 849.093 keV are indeed the same; it was also possible to confirm the existence of an excited level at 806.9 keV, which had been inferred, but not experimentally confirmed in beta decay studies to date. The angular correlation analysis allowed for the definition of the spin of the excited level at 874 keV as 5/2 +; moreover, the results showed a 79% probability that the spin of the 1078 keV level is 5/2/'-, and also restricted the spin possibilities for the new excited level at 960 keV to two values (1/2 or 3/2). It was also possible to measure the multipolarity mixing ratio (δ Ln+1 /L n ) for 43 transitions - 19 of them for the first time and most of the others with a better precision than previously known. Finally, an attempt was made to understand the low-lying levels structure for this nucleus using a theoretical model, which reproduced the ground state and the two lowest-lying excited levels in 193 Ir. (author)

  1. miR-193b Modulates Resistance to Doxorubicin in Human Breast Cancer Cells by Downregulating MCL-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingpei Long

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs family, which is involved in cancer development, proliferation, apoptosis, and drug resistance, is a group of noncoding RNAs that modulate the expression of oncogenes and antioncogenes. Doxorubicin is an active cytotoxic agent for breast cancer treatment, but the acquisition of doxorubicin resistance is a common and critical limitation to cancer therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate whether miR-193b mediated the resistance of breast cancer cells to doxorubicin by targeting myeloid cell leukemia-1 (MCL-1. In this study, we found that miR-193b levels were significantly lower in doxorubicin-resistant MCF-7 (MCF-7/DOXR cells than in the parental MCF-7 cells. We observed that exogenous miR-193b significantly suppressed the ability of MCF-7/DOXR cells to resist doxorubicin. It demonstrated that miR-193b directly targeted MCL-1 3′-UTR (3′-Untranslated Regions. Further studies indicated that miR-193b sensitized MCF-7/DOXR cells to doxorubicin through a mechanism involving the downregulation of MCL-1. Together, our findings provide evidence that the modulation of miR-193b may represent a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of breast cancer.

  2. Mercury Thermal Hydraulic Loop (MTHL) Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felde, David K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Crye, Jason Michael [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wendel, Mark W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Yoder, Jr, Graydon L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Farquharson, George [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jallouk, Philip A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McFee, Marshall T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pointer, William David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ruggles, Art E. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Carbajo, Juan J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a high-power linear accelerator built at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) which incorporates the use of a flowing liquid mercury target. The Mercury Thermal Hydraulic Loop (MTHL) was constructed to investigate and verify the heat transfer characteristics of liquid mercury in a rectangular channel. This report provides a compilation of previously reported results from the water-cooled and electrically heated straight and curved test sections that simulate the geometry of the window cooling channel in the target nose region.

  3. miR-193b Regulates Mcl-1 in Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiamin; Zhang, Xiao; Lentz, Cindy; Abi-Daoud, Marie; Paré, Geneviève C; Yang, Xiaolong; Feilotter, Harriet E; Tron, Victor A

    2011-11-01

    MicroRNAs play important roles in gene regulation, and their expression is frequently dysregulated in cancer cells. In a previous study, we reported that miR-193b represses cell proliferation and regulates cyclin D1 in melanoma cells, suggesting that miR-193b could act as a tumor suppressor. Herein, we demonstrate that miR-193b also down-regulates myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1 (Mcl-1) in melanoma cells. MicroRNA microarray profiling revealed that miR-193b is expressed at a significantly lower level in malignant melanoma than in benign nevi. Consistent with this, Mcl-1 is detected at a higher level in malignant melanoma than in benign nevi. In a survey of melanoma samples, the level of Mcl-1 is inversely correlated with the level of miR-193b. Overexpression of miR-193b in melanoma cells represses Mcl-1 expression. Previous studies showed that Mcl-1 knockdown cells are hypersensitive to ABT-737, a small-molecule inhibitor of Bcl-2, Bcl-X(L), and Bcl-w. Similarly, overexpression of miR-193b restores ABT-737 sensitivity to ABT-737-resistant cells. Furthermore, the effect of miR-193b on the expression of Mcl-1 seems to be mediated by direct interaction between miR-193b and seed and seedless pairing sequences in the 3' untranslated region of Mcl-1 mRNA. Thus, this study provides evidence that miR-193b directly regulates Mcl-1 and that down-regulation of miR-193b in vivo could be an early event in melanoma progression. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Mercury contamination extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmann, Mark [Silver Spring, MD; Heiser, John [Bayport, NY; Kalb, Paul [Wading River, NY

    2009-09-15

    Mercury is removed from contaminated waste by firstly applying a sulfur reagent to the waste. Mercury in the waste is then permitted to migrate to the reagent and is stabilized in a mercury sulfide compound. The stable compound may then be removed from the waste which itself remains in situ following mercury removal therefrom.

  5. 49 CFR 193.2181 - Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design Impoundment Design and Capacity § 193.2181 Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. Each impounding system serving an LNG storage tank must have a... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. 193.2181...

  6. 49 CFR 193.2713 - Training: operations and maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... first-aid; and (3) All operating and appropriate supervisory personnel— (i) To understand detailed... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Training: operations and maintenance. 193.2713... LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Personnel Qualifications and Training § 193.2713...

  7. 49 CFR 192.193 - Valve installation in plastic pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Valve installation in plastic pipe. 192.193... Components § 192.193 Valve installation in plastic pipe. Each valve installed in plastic pipe must be designed so as to protect the plastic material against excessive torsional or shearing loads when the valve...

  8. Rethinking mercury: the role of selenium in the pathophysiology of mercury toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiller, Henry A

    2018-05-01

    There is increasing evidence that the pathophysiological target of mercury is in fact selenium, rather than the covalent binding of mercury to sulfur in the body's ubiquitous sulfhydryl groups. The role of selenium in mercury poisoning is multifaceted, bidirectional, and central to understanding the target organ toxicity of mercury. An initial search was performed using Medline/PubMed, Toxline, Google Scholar, and Google for published work on mercury and selenium. These searches yielded 2018 citations. Publications that did not evaluate selenium status or evaluated environmental status (e.g., lake or ocean sediment) were excluded, leaving approximately 500 citations. This initial selection was scrutinized carefully and 117 of the most relevant and representative references were selected for use in this review. Binding of mercury to thiol/sulfhydryl groups: Mercury has a lower affinity for thiol groups and higher affinity for selenium containing groups by several orders of magnitude, allowing for binding in a multifaceted way. The established binding of mercury to thiol moieties appears to primarily involve the transport across membranes, tissue distribution, and enhanced excretion, but does not explain the oxidative stress, calcium dyshomeostasis, or specific organ injury seen with mercury. Effects of mercury on selenium and the role this plays in the pathophysiology of mercury toxicity: Mercury impairs control of intracellular redox homeostasis with subsequent increased intracellular oxidative stress. Recent work has provided convincing evidence that the primary cellular targets are the selenoproteins of the thioredoxin system (thioredoxin reductase 1 and thioredoxin reductase 2) and the glutathione-glutaredoxin system (glutathione peroxidase). Mercury binds to the selenium site on these proteins and permanently inhibits their function, disrupting the intracellular redox environment. A number of other important possible target selenoproteins have been identified

  9. MVP-mediated exosomal sorting of miR-193a promotes colon cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Yun; Ren, Yi; Hu, Xin; Mu, Jingyao; Samykutty, Abhilash; Zhuang, Xiaoying; Deng, Zhongbin; Kumar, Anil; Zhang, Lifeng; Merchant, Michael L; Yan, Jun; Miller, Donald M; Zhang, Huang-Ge

    2017-02-17

    Exosomes are emerging mediators of intercellular communication; whether the release of exosomes has an effect on the exosome donor cells in addition to the recipient cells has not been investigated to any extent. Here, we examine different exosomal miRNA expression profiles in primary mouse colon tumour, liver metastasis of colon cancer and naive colon tissues. In more advanced disease, higher levels of tumour suppressor miRNAs are encapsulated in the exosomes. miR-193a interacts with major vault protein (MVP). Knockout of MVP leads to miR-193a accumulation in the exosomal donor cells instead of exosomes, inhibiting tumour progression. Furthermore, miR-193a causes cell cycle G1 arrest and cell proliferation repression through targeting of Caprin1, which upregulates Ccnd2 and c-Myc. Human colon cancer patients with more advanced disease show higher levels of circulating exosomal miR-193a. In summary, our data demonstrate that MVP-mediated selective sorting of tumour suppressor miRNA into exosomes promotes tumour progression.

  10. Mercury speciation analysis in marine samples by HPLC-ICPMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Svendsen, Maja Erecius; Herbst, M. Birgitte Koch

    Mercury (Hg) is a naturally occurring element, which is found in the earth’s crust and can be released into the environment through both natural and anthropogenic processes. Mercury exists as elemental mercury (metallic), inorganic mercury and organic mercury (primarily methylmercury......). Methylmercury is highly toxic, particularly to the nervous system, and the developing brain is thought to be the most sensitive target organ for methylmercury toxicity. Methylmercury bioaccumulates and biomagnifies along the food chain and it is the most common mercury species in fish and seafood. Human...... hydrochloric acid by sonication. Hereby the protein-bound mercury species are released. The extracts were then centrifuged (10 min at 3170 x g) and the supernatant decanted (extraction step was repeated twice). The combined extracts were added 10 M sodium hydroxide to increase pH, following further dilution...

  11. STUDY OF THE CHANGES IN SERUM LIPIDS FOLLOWING MERCURY INTOXIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M TAHER

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The toxicity of mercury which is used as mercury chloride in different parts of living world has been reported in literature. In our knowledge, however, these reports are on the effects of mercury on serum blood parameters. As lipids have important role in cell metabolism, we decided to study the effects of mercury on blood parameters which are related to lipid metabolism as well as its effect on hepatocyte triglycerides. Methods. Each group of 5 rats were treated with daily IP injections of either 10 mg/kg (Body Weight for 5 and 10 days or 5 mg/kg B.W. for 30 and 60 days, before determination of serum levels of triglycerides, cholesterol and lipoprotein fractions. Results. The results obtained are as follows. Daily intraperitoneal injection of 10 mg/kg B.W of mercury for 5 and 10 days elevated serum triglycerides by (10.9, 19.3 LDLc (16.5, 22.5 VLDLc (10.9, ,19.3 and hepatocytes containing triglycerides (105.1, 136.3 percent respectively. HDLc was decreased by (13.4, 17.3 percent. Daily intraperitoneal injection of 5 mg/kg body weight of mercury for 30 and 60 days elevated serum triglycerides by (34.7, 47.4. LDLc (28.9, 33.3, VLDLc (34.7, 47.4 and hepatocytes containing triglycerides (177.3, 213.4 percent respectively. HDLc was lowered by (22.9, 27.7 percent. Discussion. The results showed that mercury could affect lipid metabloism in a dose and time dependent manner. This effect might be considered as a possilbe cause of hyperlipidemia in those who are intoxified with this element.

  12. Global Trends in Mercury Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyunghee

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Environmental Program Governing Council has regulated mercury as a global pollutant since 2001 and has been preparing the mercury convention, which will have a strongly binding force through Global Mercury Assessment, Global Mercury Partnership Activities, and establishment of the Open-Ended Working Group on Mercury. The European Union maintains an inclusive strategy on risks and contamination of mercury, and has executed the Mercury Export Ban Act since December in 2010. The US Environmental Protection Agency established the Mercury Action Plan (1998) and the Mercury Roadmap (2006) and has proposed systematic mercury management methods to reduce the health risks posed by mercury exposure. Japan, which experienced Minamata disease, aims vigorously at perfection in mercury management in several ways. In Korea, the Ministry of Environment established the Comprehensive Plan and Countermeasures for Mercury Management to prepare for the mercury convention and to reduce risks of mercury to protect public health. PMID:23230466

  13. 14 CFR 61.193 - Flight instructor privileges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... than Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating § 61.193 Flight instructor privileges. A person who...; (e) An aircraft rating; (f) An instrument rating; (g) A flight review, operating privilege, or...

  14. 27 CFR 479.193 - Arms Export Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Other Laws Applicable § 479.193 Arms Export Control Act. For provisions relating to...

  15. Basic Information about Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or metallic mercury is a shiny, silver-white metal and is liquid at room temperature. It is ... releases can happen naturally. Both volcanoes and forest fires send mercury into the atmosphere. Human activities, however, ...

  16. Minamata Convention on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    On November 6, 2013 the United States signed the Minamata Convention on Mercury, a new multilateral environmental agreement that addresses specific human activities which are contributing to widespread mercury pollution

  17. Mercury in Your Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basic information about mercury, how it gets in the air, how people are exposed to it and health effects associated with exposure; what EPA and other organizations are doing to limit exposures; what citizens should know to minimize exposures and to reduce mercury in the environment; and information about products that contain mercury.

  18. Intoxication with metallic mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fichte, B.; Assmann, H.; Ritzau, F.

    1984-01-01

    Intoxications by metallic mercury are extremely rare. Report of a patient, who tried to commit suicide by subcutaneous injection of 500 g of metallic mercury. He died 16 months later in the course of the intoxication. A short review is given of effects and reactions of metallic mercury in the human organism. (orig.) [de

  19. Intoxication with metallic mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fichte, B.; Ritzau, F.; Assmann, H.

    1984-02-01

    Intoxications by metallic mercury are extremely rare. Report is given of a patient who tried to commit suicide by subcutaneous injection of 500 g of metallic mercury. He died 16 months later in the course of the intoxication. A short review is given of effects and reactions of metallic mercury in the human organism.

  20. Intoxication with metallic mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fichte, B.; Assmann, H.; Ritzau, F.

    1984-02-01

    Intoxications by metallic mercury are extremely rare. Report is given of a patient, who tried to commit suicide by subcutaneous injection of 500 g of metallic mercury. He died 16 months later in the course of the intoxication. A short review is given of effects and reactions of metallic mercury in the human organism.

  1. Mercury balance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maag, J.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E.

    1996-01-01

    A detailed assessment of the consumption of mercury, divided into use areas, was carried out. Disposal and emissions to the environment were also qualified. The assessment is mainly based on data from 1992 - 1993. The most important source of emission of mercury to air is solid waste incineration which is assessed in particular to be due to the supply of mercury in batteries (most likely mercury oxide batteries from photo equipment) and to dental fillings. The second most important source of mercury emission to air is coal-fired power plants which are estimated to account for 200-500 kg of mercury emission p.a. Other mercury emissions are mainly related to waste treatment and disposal. The consumption of mercury is generally decreasing. During the period from 1982/83 - 1992-93, the total consumption of mercury in Denmark was about halved. This development is related to the fact that consumption with regard to several important use areas (batteries, dental fillings, thermometers etc.) has been significantly reduced, while for other purposes the use of mercury has completely, or almost disappeared, i.e. (fungicides for seed, tubes etc.). (EG)

  2. Process for low mercury coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriam, Norman W.; Grimes, R. William; Tweed, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    A process for producing low mercury coal during precombustion procedures by releasing mercury through discriminating mild heating that minimizes other burdensome constituents. Said mercury is recovered from the overhead gases by selective removal.

  3. Mercury (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in contact with) to mercury is by eating fish or shellfish that have high levels of mercury. You can also get sick from: Touching it Breathing it in Drinking contaminated water How can mercury ...

  4. Mercury is Moon's brother

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ksanfomalifi, L.V.

    1976-01-01

    The latest information on Mercury planet is presented obtained by studying the planet with the aid of radar and space vehicles. Rotation of Mercury about its axis has been discovered; within 2/3 of its year it executes a complete revolution about its axis. In images obtained by the ''Mariner-10'' Mercurys surface differs little from that of the Moon. The ''Mariner-10'' has also discovered the Mercurys atmosphere, which consists of extremely rarefied helium. The helium is continuously supplied to the planet by the solar wind. The Mercury's magnetic field has been discovered, whose strength is 35 x 10 -4 at the Equator and 70 x 10 -4 E at the poles. The inclination of the dipole axis to the Mercury's rotation axis is 7 deg

  5. 49 CFR 193.2187 - Nonmetallic membrane liner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design Lng Storage Tanks § 193.2187 Nonmetallic membrane liner. A flammable nonmetallic membrane liner may not be used as an inner container in a storage tank...

  6. 27 CFR 24.193 - Conversion into still wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conversion into still wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Effervescent Wine § 24.193 Conversion into still wine. Sparkling wine or artificially carbonated wine may be dumped for use as still wine. The dumping process will...

  7. RECOVERY OF MERCURY FROM CONTAMINATED PRIMARY AND SECONDARY WASTES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A. Faucette; J. Bognar; T. Broderick; T. Battaglia

    2000-01-01

    Effective removal of mercury contamination from water is a complex and difficult problem. In particular, mercury treatment of natural waters is difficult because of the low regulatory standards. For example, the Environmental Protection Agency has established a national ambient water quality standard of 12 parts-per-trillion (ppt), whereas the standard is 1.8 ppt in the Great Lakes Region. In addition, mercury is typically present in several different forms, but sorption processes are rarely effective with more than one or two of these forms. To meet the low regulatory discharge limits, a sorption process must be able to address all forms of mercury present in the water. One approach is to apply different sorbents in series depending on the mercury speciation and the regulatory discharge limits. Four new sorbents have been developed to address the variety of mercury species present in industrial discharges and natural waters. Three of these sorbents have been field tested on contaminated creek water at the Y-12 Plant. Two of these sorbents have demonstrated very high removal efficiencies for soluble mercury species, with mercury concentrations at the outlet of a pilot-scale system less than 12 ppt for as long as six months. The other sorbent tested at the Y-12 Plant is targeted at colloidal mercury that is not removed by standard sorption or filtration processes. At the Y-12 Plant, colloidal mercury appears to be associated with iron, so a sorbent that removes mercury-iron complexes in the presence of a magnetic field was evaluated. Field results indicate good removal of this mercury fraction from the Y-12 waters. In addition, this sorbent is easily regenerated by simply removing the magnetic field and flushing the columns with water. The fourth sorbent is still undergoing laboratory development, but results to date indicate exceptionally high mercury sorption capacity. The sorbent is capable of removing all forms of mercury typically present in natural and

  8. MESSENGER at Mercury: Early Orbital Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNutt, Ralph L., Jr; Solomon, Sean C.; Bedini, Peter D.; Anderson, Brian J.; Blewett, David T.; Evans, Larry G.; Gold, Robert E.; Krimigis, Stamatios M.; Murchie, Scott L.; Nittler, Larry R.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft, launched in August 2004 under NASA's Discovery Program, was inserted into orbit about the planet Mercury in March 2011. MESSENGER's three flybys of Mercury in 2008-2009 marked the first spacecraft visits to the innermost planet since the Mariner 10 flybys in 1974-1975. The unprecedented orbital operations are yielding new insights into the nature and evolution of Mercury. The scientific questions that frame the MESSENGER mission led to the mission measurement objectives to be achieved by the seven payload instruments and the radio science experiment. Interweaving the full set of required orbital observations in a manner that maximizes the opportunity to satisfy all mission objectives and yet meet stringent spacecraft pointing and thermal constraints was a complex optimization problem that was solved with a software tool that simulates science observations and tracks progress toward meeting each objective. The final orbital observation plan, the outcome of that optimization process, meets all mission objectives. MESSENGER's Mercury Dual Imaging System is acquiring a global monochromatic image mosaic at better than 90% coverage and at least 250 m average resolution, a global color image mosaic at better than 90% coverage and at least 1 km average resolution, and global stereo imaging at better than 80% coverage and at least 250 m average resolution. Higher-resolution images are also being acquired of targeted areas. The elemental remote sensing instruments, including the Gamma-Ray and Neutron Spectrometer and the X-Ray Spectrometer, are being operated nearly continuously and will establish the average surface abundances of most major elements. The Visible and Infrared Spectrograph channel of MESSENGER's Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer is acquiring a global map of spectral reflectance from 300 to 1450 nm wavelength at a range of incidence and emission

  9. The Content of Mercury in Herbal Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodziak-Dopierała, Barbara; Fischer, Agnieszka; Szczelina, Wioletta; Stojko, Jerzy

    2018-01-17

    The dietary supplement market in Poland has been growing rapidly, and the number of registered products and their consumption increases steadily. Among the most popular and the easiest to get are herbal supplements, available in any supermarket. The aim of this paper was to investigate the mercury content in the herbal supplements. The dietary supplements that have been examined (24) are available on the Polish market and contain one or more herbal ingredients. Supplements were pulverized in porcelain mortar and identified by AMA 254 atomic absorption spectrometer. The range of variations for all tested supplements was within 0.02-4293.07 μg/kg. The arithmetic mean of the total result was 193.77 μg/kg. A higher mercury content then this mean was found in preparations-bamboo shoots and alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa. The studies have shown that mercury is present in every examined herbal supplement, and its content exceeds in two preparations (with bamboo and alga) the permissible limit of 0.10 mg/kg. There were statistically significant differences in the occurrence of mercury depending on the herbal ingredient in the supplement. The lowest content was found in the preparation with Tanacetum parthenium and the highest with bamboo shoots. The mercury content in the tested herbal supplements was statistically significant in the form of a supplement-a tablet and a capsule. Daily, weekly, monthly, and yearly consumption of mercury with examined supplements was calculated-the results did not exceed the PTWI-provisional tolerable weekly intake of mercury. To increase consumer safety, it is imperative to conduct further research on dietary supplements and implement a stricter quality control of the dietary supplements.

  10. Modeling Mercury in Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL; Parks, Jerry M [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a naturally occurring element that is released into the biosphere both by natural processes and anthropogenic activities. Although its reduced, elemental form Hg(0) is relatively non-toxic, other forms such as Hg2+ and, in particular, its methylated form, methylmercury, are toxic, with deleterious effects on both ecosystems and humans. Microorganisms play important roles in the transformation of mercury in the environment. Inorganic Hg2+ can be methylated by certain bacteria and archaea to form methylmercury. Conversely, bacteria also demethylate methylmercury and reduce Hg2+ to relatively inert Hg(0). Transformations and toxicity occur as a result of mercury interacting with various proteins. Clearly, then, understanding the toxic effects of mercury and its cycling in the environment requires characterization of these interactions. Computational approaches are ideally suited to studies of mercury in proteins because they can provide a detailed picture and circumvent issues associated with toxicity. Here we describe computational methods for investigating and characterizing how mercury binds to proteins, how inter- and intra-protein transfer of mercury is orchestrated in biological systems, and how chemical reactions in proteins transform the metal. We describe quantum chemical analyses of aqueous Hg(II), which reveal critical factors that determine ligand binding propensities. We then provide a perspective on how we used chemical reasoning to discover how microorganisms methylate mercury. We also highlight our combined computational and experimental studies of the proteins and enzymes of the mer operon, a suite of genes that confers mercury resistance in many bacteria. Lastly, we place work on mercury in proteins in the context of what is needed for a comprehensive multi-scale model of environmental mercury cycling.

  11. A Selective Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Sensor for Mercury(II) Based on a Porous Polymer Material and the Target-Mediated Displacement of a T-Rich Strand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Y.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, H.; Wu, T.; Du, Y.

    2017-05-01

    A sensitive and selective surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensor for mercury(II) was fabricated based on the target-mediated displacement of a T-rich oligonucleotide strand. A DNA/aptamer duplex was prepared by the hybridization between a tetramethylrhodamine(TMR)-labeled thymine(T)-rich Hg2+-specific aptamer (denoted as TMR-aptamer) and a thiolated adenine-rich capturing DNA. The duplex can be immobilized onto the SERS substrate of the Ag-moiety modified glycidyl methacrylate-ethylene dimethacrylate (denoted as Ag-GMA-EDMA) via self-assembly by the thiol anchor, in which the TMR-aptamer exists in a double-stranded chain. In this case, the label of the TMR moiety approaches the substrate surface and produces a strong SERS signal. Upon the addition of the target, a pair of TMR-aptamers could cooperatively coordinate with Hg2+ to form a stable duplex-like structure mediated by the T-Hg2+-T complex between two adjacent strands, which triggers the release of the TMR-aptamer from the SERS substrate surface, thus drawing the TMR tags away from the substrate with a significant decrease in the SERS signal. This optical sensor shows a sensitive response to Hg2+ in a concentration from 5 nM to 2.0 μM with a detection limit of 2.5 nM. The prepared sensor is negligibly responsive to other metal ions, can be easily regenerated, and shows good performance in real sample analysis.

  12. Intentional intravenous mercury injection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this case report, intravenous complications, treatment strategies and possible ... Mercury toxicity is commonly associated with vapour inhalation or oral ingestion, for which there exist definite treatment options. Intravenous mercury ... personality, anxiousness, irritability, insomnia, depression and drowsi- ness.[1] However ...

  13. Mercury's shifting, rolling past

    OpenAIRE

    Trulove, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Patterns of scalloped-edged cliffs or lobate scarps on Mercury's surface are thrust faults that are consistent with the planet shrinking and cooling with time. However, compression occurred in the planet's early history and Mariner 10 images revealed decades ago that lobate scarps are among the youngest features on Mercury. Why don't we find more evidence of older compressive features?

  14. Global Mercury Assessment 2013

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    mercury pollution. This summary report and the accompanying. Technical Background Report for the Global. Mercury Assessment 2013 are developed in response to Decision 25/5, paragraph ... The use of different pollution control technologies in different ...... vegetation, snow, freshwater, and seawater. One of the largest ...

  15. MESSENGER: Exploring Mercury's Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, James A.

    2008-01-01

    The MESSENGER mission to Mercury offers our first opportunity to explore this planet's miniature magnetosphere since Mariner 10's brief fly-bys in 1974-5. Mercury's magnetosphere is unique in many respects. The magnetosphere of Mercury is the smallest in the solar system with its magnetic field typically standing off the solar wind only - 1000 to 2000 km above the surface. For this reason there are no closed dri-fi paths for energetic particles and, hence, no radiation belts; the characteristic time scales for wave propagation and convective transport are short possibly coupling kinetic and fluid modes; magnetic reconnection at the dayside magnetopause may erode the subsolar magnetosphere allowing solar wind ions to directly impact the dayside regolith; inductive currents in Mercury's interior should act to modify the solar In addition, Mercury's magnetosphere is the only one with its defining magnetic flux tubes rooted in a planetary regolith as opposed to an atmosphere with a conductive ionosphere. This lack of an ionosphere is thought to be the underlying reason for the brevity of the very intense, but short lived, approx. 1-2 min, substorm-like energetic particle events observed by Mariner 10 in Mercury's magnetic tail. In this seminar, we review what we think we know about Mercury's magnetosphere and describe the MESSENGER science team's strategy for obtaining answers to the outstanding science questions surrounding the interaction of the solar wind with Mercury and its small, but dynamic magnetosphere.

  16. Mercury in canned tuna: white versus light and temporal variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2004-01-01

    mercury. These data indicate that people who eat canned tuna frequently can choose light tuna and reduce their mercury intake. Canned mackerel had much lower levels of mercury than tuna. Since cans of white tuna frequently exceed the FDA's original action level of 0.5 ppm, it would be prudent to continue some systematic monitoring of the nation's canned fish supply, particularly as the targets of commercial fisheries inevitably change as certain stocks become depleted

  17. Mercury in Nordic ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munthe, John; Waengberg, Ingvar (IVL Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Stockholm (SE)); Rognerud, Sigurd; Fjeld, Eirik (Norwegian Inst. for Water Research (NIVA), Oslo (Norway)); Verta, Matti; Porvari, Petri (Finnish Environment Inst. (SYKE), Helsinki (Finland)); Meili, Markus (Inst. of Applied Environmental Research (ITM), Stockholm (Sweden))

    2007-12-15

    This report provides a first comprehensive compilation and assessment of available data on mercury in air, precipitation, sediments and fish in the Nordic countries. The main conclusion is that mercury levels in Nordic ecosystems continue to be affected by long-range atmospheric transport. The geographical patterns of mercury concentrations in both sediments and fish are also strongly affected by ecosystem characteristics and in some regions possibly by historical pollution. An evaluation of geographical variations in mercury concentrations in precipitation indicates that the influence from anthropogenic sources from Central European areas is still significant. The annual variability of deposition is large and dependant of precipitation amounts. An evaluation of data from stations around the North Sea has indicated a significant decrease in mercury concentrations in precipitation indicating a continuous decrease of emissions in Europe (Waengberg et al., 2007). For mercury in air (TGM), the geographical pattern is less pronounced indicating the influence of mercury emissions and distribution over a larger geographical area (i.e. hemispherical transport). Comparison of recent (surficial) and historical lake sediments show significantly elevated concentrations of mercury most likely caused by anthropogenic atmospheric deposition over the past century. The highest pollution impact was observed in the coastal areas of southern Norway, in south western Finland and in Sweden from the coastal areas in the southwest across the central parts to the north-east. The general increase in recent versus old sediments was 2-5 fold. Data on mercury in Nordic freshwater fish was assembled and evaluated with respect to geographical variations. The fish data were further compared with temporal and spatial trends in mercury deposition and mercury contamination of lake sediments in order to investigate the coupling between atmospheric transport and deposition of mercury and local mercury

  18. Trace-level mercury removal from surface water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klasson, K.T.; Bostick, D.T.

    1998-01-01

    Many sorbents have been developed for the removal of mercury and heavy metals from waters; however, most of the data published thus far do not address the removal of mercury to the target levels represented in this project. The application to which these sorbents are targeted for use is the removal of mercury from microgram-per-liter levels to low nanogram-per-liter levels. Sorbents with thiouronium, thiol, amine, sulfur, and proprietary functional groups were selected for these studies. Mercury was successfully removed from surface water via adsorption onto Ionac SR-4 and Mersorb resins to levels below the target goal of 12 ng/L in batch studies. A thiol-based resin performed the best, indicating that over 200,000 volumes of water could be treated with one volume of resin. The cost of the resin is approximately $0.24 per 1,000 gal of water

  19. Getting Mercury out of Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999

    This guide was prepared while working with many Massachusetts schools to remove items that contain mercury and to find suitable alternatives. It contains fact sheets on: mercury in science laboratories and classrooms, mercury in school buildings and maintenance areas, mercury in the medical office and in medical technology classrooms in vocational…

  20. 46 CFR 193.10-5 - Fire pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Pitot tube pressure of not less than 50 p.s.i. Where 11/2-inch hose is permitted in lieu of 21/2-inch... 21/2-inch hose had been permitted. Where 3/4-inch hose is permitted by Table 193.10-5(a), the Pitot... fire pumps; or (B) Another suitable pump capable of supplying one hose stream at a Pitot tube pressure...

  1. Advances in 193 nm excimer lasers for mass spectrometry applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmdahl, Ralph; Esser, Hans-Gerd; Bonati, Guido

    2016-03-01

    Ongoing progress in mass analysis applications such as laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry of solid samples and ultraviolet photoionization mediated sequencing of peptides and proteins is to a large extent driven by ultrashort wavelength excimer lasers at 193 nm. This paper will introduce the latest improvements achieved in the development of compact high repetition rate excimer lasers and elaborate on the impact on mass spectrometry instrumentation. Various performance and lifetime measurements obtained in a long-term endurance test over the course of 18 months will be shown and discussed in view of the laser source requirements of different mass spectrometry tasks. These sampling type applications are served by excimer lasers delivering pulsed 193 nm output of several mJ as well as fast repetition rates which are already approaching one Kilohertz. In order to open up the pathway from the laboratory to broader market industrial use, sufficient component lifetimes and long-term stable performance behavior have to be ensured. The obtained long-term results which will be presented are based on diverse 193 nm excimer laser tube improvements aiming at e.g. optimizing the gas flow dynamics and have extended the operational life the laser tube for the first time over several billion pulses even under high duty-cycle conditions.

  2. Mercury's Dynamic Magnetic Tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, James A.

    2010-01-01

    The Mariner 10 and MESSENGER flybys of Mercury have revealed a magnetosphere that is likely the most responsive to upstream interplanetary conditions of any in the solar system. The source of the great dynamic variability observed during these brief passages is due to Mercury's proximity to the Sun and the inverse proportionality between reconnection rate and solar wind Alfven Mach number. However, this planet's lack of an ionosphere and its small physical dimensions also contribute to Mercury's very brief Dungey cycle, approx. 2 min, which governs the time scale for internal plasma circulation. Current observations and understanding of the structure and dynamics of Mercury's magnetotail are summarized and discussed. Special emphasis will be placed upon such questions as: 1) How much access does the solar wind have to this small magnetosphere as a function of upstream conditions? 2) What roles do heavy planetary ions play? 3) Do Earth-like substorms take place at Mercury? 4) How does Mercury's tail respond to extreme solar wind events such coronal mass ejections? Prospects for progress due to advances in the global magnetohydrodynamic and hybrid simulation modeling and the measurements to be taken by MESSENGER after it enters Mercury orbit on March 18, 2011 will be discussed.

  3. 10 CFR 431.193 - Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers. 431.193 Section 431.193 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY... § 431.193 Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers. The test...

  4. Comparison of damage induced by mercury chloride and ionizing radiation in the susceptible rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Hyang; Yoon, Yong Dal; Kim, Jin Kyu

    2003-01-01

    Mercury (Hg), one of the most diffused and hazardous organ-specific environmental contaminants, exists in a wide variety of physical and chemical states. Although the reports indicate that mercury induces a deleterious damage, little has been reported from the investigations of mercury effects in living things. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of mercury chloride and ionizing radiation. Prepubertal male F-344 rats were administered mercury chloride in drinking water throughout the experimental period. Two weeks after whole body irradiation, organs were collected for measuring the induced injury. Serum levels of GOT, GPT, ALP, and LDH were checked in the experimental groups and the hematological analysis was accomplished in plasma. In conclusion, the target organ of mercury chloride seems to be urinary organs and the pattern of damage induced by mercury differs from that of the irradiated group

  5. Total Mercury content of skin toning creams

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2008-04-01

    Apr 1, 2008 ... used it for cosmetics (Silberberg, 1995). Mercury- ... Cosmetic preparations containing mercury com- pounds are .... mercury determination by a modified version of an open .... level mercury exposure, which could lead to a.

  6. Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.

    1988-01-01

    A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H.sub.2 O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H.sub.2 O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds.

  7. Metallic mercury recycling. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, M.A.

    1994-07-01

    Metallic mercury is known to be a hazardous material and is regulated as such. The disposal of mercury, usually by landfill, is expensive and does not remove mercury from the environment. Results from the Metallic Mercury Recycling Project have demonstrated that metallic mercury is a good candidate for reclamation and recycling. Most of the potential contamination of mercury resides in the scum floating on the surface of the mercury. Pinhole filtration was demonstrated to be an inexpensive and easy way of removing residues from mercury. The analysis method is shown to be sufficient for present release practices, and should be sufficient for future release requirements. Data from tests are presented. The consistently higher level of activity of the filter residue versus the bulk mercury is discussed. Recommendations for the recycling procedure are made.

  8. Metallic mercury recycling. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    Metallic mercury is known to be a hazardous material and is regulated as such. The disposal of mercury, usually by landfill, is expensive and does not remove mercury from the environment. Results from the Metallic Mercury Recycling Project have demonstrated that metallic mercury is a good candidate for reclamation and recycling. Most of the potential contamination of mercury resides in the scum floating on the surface of the mercury. Pinhole filtration was demonstrated to be an inexpensive and easy way of removing residues from mercury. The analysis method is shown to be sufficient for present release practices, and should be sufficient for future release requirements. Data from tests are presented. The consistently higher level of activity of the filter residue versus the bulk mercury is discussed. Recommendations for the recycling procedure are made

  9. The tectonics of Mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melosh, H.J.; Mckinnon, W.B.

    1988-01-01

    The probable tectonic history of Mercury and the relative sequence of events are discussed on the basis of data collected by the Mariner-10 spacecraft. Results indicate that Mercury's tectonic activity was confined to its early history; its endogenic activity was principally due to a small change in the shape of its lithosphere, caused by tidal despinning, and a small change in area caused by shrinkage due to cooling. Exogenic processes, in particular the impact activity, have produced more abundant tectonic features. Many features associated with the Caloris basin are due to loading of Mercury's thick lithosphere by extrusive lavas or subsidence due to magma withdrawal. It is emphasized that tectonic features observed on Mercury yield insight into the earliest tectonic events on planets like Mars and, perhaps, the earth, where subsequent events obscured or erased the most ancient tectonic records

  10. Intentional intravenous mercury injection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elemental mercury is the well-known silver liquid and usually causes pulmonary, neurological and ... suicidal ideation or features of major depression. Clinically the patient was .... medically at this stage and consider surgical intervention later.

  11. Mercury's Dynamic Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imber, S. M.

    2018-05-01

    The global dynamics of Mercury's magnetosphere will be discussed, focussing on observed asymmetries in the magnetotail and on the precipitation of particles of magnetospheric origin onto the nightside planetary surface.

  12. Mercury analysis in hair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esteban, Marta; Schindler, Birgit K; Jiménez-Guerrero, José A

    2015-01-01

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) is an effective tool for assessing actual exposure to chemicals that takes into account all routes of intake. Although hair analysis is considered to be an optimal biomarker for assessing mercury exposure, the lack of harmonization as regards sampling and analytical...... assurance program (QAP) for assessing mercury levels in hair samples from more than 1800 mother-child pairs recruited in 17 European countries. To ensure the comparability of the results, standard operating procedures (SOPs) for sampling and for mercury analysis were drafted and distributed to participating...... laboratories. Training sessions were organized for field workers and four external quality-assessment exercises (ICI/EQUAS), followed by the corresponding web conferences, were organized between March 2011 and February 2012. ICI/EQUAS used native hair samples at two mercury concentration ranges (0...

  13. Mercury's Early Geologic History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denevi, B. W.; Ernst, C. M.; Klima, R. L.; Robinson, M. S.

    2018-05-01

    A combination of geologic mapping, compositional information, and geochemical models are providing a better understanding of Mercury's early geologic history, and allow us to place it in the context of the Moon and the terrestrial planets.

  14. Mercury CEM Calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani; Susan S. Sorini

    2007-03-31

    The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) which was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2005, requires that calibration of mercury continuous emissions monitors (CEMs) be performed with NIST-traceable standards. Western Research Institute (WRI) is working closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to facilitate the development of the experimental criteria for a NIST traceability protocol for dynamic elemental mercury vapor generators. The traceability protocol will be written by EPA. Traceability will be based on the actual analysis of the output of each calibration unit at several concentration levels ranging from about 2-40 ug/m{sup 3}, and this analysis will be directly traceable to analyses by NIST using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ID ICP/MS) through a chain of analyses linking the calibration unit in the power plant to the NIST ID ICP/MS. Prior to this project, NIST did not provide a recommended mercury vapor pressure equation or list mercury vapor pressure in its vapor pressure database. The NIST Physical and Chemical Properties Division in Boulder, Colorado was subcontracted under this project to study the issue in detail and to recommend a mercury vapor pressure equation that the vendors of mercury vapor pressure calibration units can use to calculate the elemental mercury vapor concentration in an equilibrium chamber at a particular temperature. As part of this study, a preliminary evaluation of calibration units from five vendors was made. The work was performed by NIST in Gaithersburg, MD and Joe Rovani from WRI who traveled to NIST as a Visiting Scientist.

  15. Cutaneous mercury granuloma

    OpenAIRE

    Kalpana A Bothale; Sadhana D Mahore; Sushil Pande; Trupti Dongre

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous mercury granuloma is rarely encountered. Clinically it may pose difficulty in diagnosis. Here, we report a 23-year-old male presented with erythematous, nodular lesions over the forearm and anterior aspect of chest wall. Metallic mercury in tissue sections appear as dark black, opaque, spherical globules of varying size and number. They are surrounded by granulomatous foreign-body reaction. It is composed of foreign body giant cells and mixed inflammatory infiltrate composed of hist...

  16. Mercury in human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapauan, P.A.; Cruz, C.C.; Verceluz, F.P.

    1980-10-01

    The analysis of mercury (Hg) in scalp hair obtained from individuals residing in five different localities in the Philippines - Metro Manila, Naga City in Bicol, Bataan, Oriental Mindoro, and Palawan is presented. An overall mean of 1.46 ug/g of hair was obtained for all samples excluding those from Palawan and represents a baseline value.'' In terms of the mercury levels found in hair, the Honda Bay area in Palawan is, relatively, a ''contaminated area.'' (author)

  17. All-dry resist processes for 193-nm lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Mark W.; Maxwell, Brian E.; Kunz, Roderick R.; Hibbs, Michael S.; Eriksen, Lynn M.; Palmateer, Susan C.; Forte, Anthony R.

    1995-06-01

    We report on two different all-dry resist schemes for 193-nm lithography, one negative tone and one positive tone. Our negative tone resist is an extension of our initial work on all-dry photoresists. This scheme employs a bilayer in which the imaging layer is formed by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) from tetramethylsilane (TMS) and deposited onto PECVD carbon-based planarizing layers. Figure 1 shows SEMs of dark field and light field octagons patterned in projection on Lincoln Laboratory's 0.5-NA 193-nm Micrascan system. These 0.225-micrometers and 0.200-micrometers line and space features were obtained at a dose of approximately 58 mJ/cm2. Dry development of the exposed resist was accomplished using Cl2 chemistry in a helicon high-ion-density etching tool. Pattern transfer was performed in the helicon tool with oxygen-based chemistries. Recently, we have also developed an all-dry positive-tone silylation photoresist. This photoresist is a PECVD carbon-based polymer which is crosslinked by 193-nm exposure, enabling selective silylation similar to that initially reported by Hartney et al., with spin-applied polymers. In those polymers, for example polyvinylphenol, the silylation site concentration is fixed by the hydroxyl groups on the polymer precursors, thus limiting the silicon uptake per unit volume. With PECVD polymers, the total concentration of silylation sites and their depth can be tailored by varying plasma species as a function of time during the deposition. This affords the possibility of greater silicon uptake per unit volume and better depth control of the silylation profile. Figure 2 shows a SEM of 0.5-micrometers features patterned in plasma deposited silylation resist.

  18. Selenium's importance in regulatory issues regarding mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, Laura J.; Ralston, Nicholas V.C. [University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center, 15 North 23rd Street, Stop 9018, Grand Forks, ND 58202-9018 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    Current seafood safety and health risk assessment criteria use mercury concentrations as their sole basis. This unfortunate limitation omits consideration of selenium, an essential trace element that appears to be the primary molecular target of mercury toxicity. Although selenium has been recognized for decades as a means of counteracting mercury toxicity, its effects have often been overlooked or misunderstood. Experimental animal studies have demonstrated that increasing concentrations of selenium throughout the normal dietary range increasingly counteracts methylmercury toxicity. Dietary concentrations of selenium that are slightly less than the average amount present in ocean fish have been shown to completely prevent the onset of toxic symptoms of mercury toxicity, while animals fed lesser amounts of selenium rapidly sickened and died. Dietary selenium from a variety of sources including ocean fish such as tuna, swordfish, menhaden, and rockfish has been shown to counteract mercury toxicity. Since ocean fish are among the richest sources of dietary selenium, it is important to include selenium concentration measurements in future mercury risk assessments and seafood safety criteria. Mercury:selenium molar ratios in blood provide far more consistent and physiologically meaningful risk assessments. Comprehensive seafood safety criteria such as the Selenium Health Benefit Value enable clear differentiation between seafoods that are safe and those that are hazardous for human consumption. Use of parameters that integrate mercury-selenium relationships also make it easy to understand the differences between the findings of maternal mercury exposure studies that have been performed in New Zealand, the Faroes, the Seychelles, and the United Kingdom. Development of criteria for evaluating mercury-selenium interactions will enhance environmental protection and improve public safety. (author)

  19. Method and apparatus for monitoring mercury emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Michael D.; Schlager, Richard J.; Sappey, Andrew D.; Sagan, Francis J.; Marmaro, Roger W.; Wilson, Kevin G.

    1997-01-01

    A mercury monitoring device that continuously monitors the total mercury concentration in a gas. The device uses the same chamber for converting speciated mercury into elemental mercury and for measurement of the mercury in the chamber by radiation absorption techniques. The interior of the chamber is resistant to the absorption of speciated and elemental mercury at the operating temperature of the chamber.

  20. Mercury pollution in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Jinap, S; Ismail, Ahmad; Mahyudin, Nor Ainy

    2012-01-01

    Although several studies have been published on levels of mercury contamination of the environment, and of food and human tissues in Peninsular Malaysia, there is a serious dearth of research that has been performed in East Malaysia (Sabah and Sarawak). Industry is rapidly developing in East Malaysia, and, hence, there is a need for establishing baseline levels of mercury contamination in environmental media in that part of the country by performing monitoring studies. Residues of total mercury and inorganic in food samples have been determined in nearly all previous studies that have been conducted; however, few researchers have analyzed samples for the presence of methlymercury residues. Because methylmercury is the most toxic form of mercury, and because there is a growing public awareness of the risk posed by methylmercury exposure that is associated with fish and seafood consumption, further monitoring studies on methylmercury in food are also essential. From the results of previous studies, it is obvious that the economic development in Malaysia, in recent years, has affected the aquatic environment of the country. Primary areas of environmental concern are centered on the rivers of the west Peninsular Malaysian coast, and the coastal waters of the Straits of Malacca, wherein industrial activities are rapidly expanding. The sources of existing mercury input to both of these areas of Malaysia should be studied and identified. Considering the high levels of mercury that now exists in human tissues, efforts should be continued, and accelerated in the future, if possible, to monitor mercury contamination levels in the coastal states, and particularly along the west Peninsular Malaysian coast. Most studies that have been carried out on mercury residues in environmental samples are dated, having been conducted 20-30 years ago; therefore, the need to collect much more and more current data is urgent. Furthermore, establishing baseline levels of mercury exposure to

  1. Low-energy levels calculation for 193Ir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahn, Guilherme Soares; Zamboni, Cibele Bugno; Genezini, Frederico Antonio; Mesa-Hormaza, Joel; Cruz, Manoel Tiago Freitas da

    2006-01-01

    In this work, a model based on single particle plus pairing residual interaction was used to study the low-lying excited states of the 193 Ir nucleus. In this model, the deformation parameters in equilibrium were obtained by minimizing the total energy calculated by the Strutinsky prescription; the macroscopic contribution to the potential was taken from the Liquid Droplet Model, with the shell and paring corrections used as as microscopic contributions. The nuclear shape was described using the Cassinian ovoids as base figures; the single particle energy spectra and wave functions for protons and neutrons were calculated in a deformed Woods-Saxon potential, where the parameters for neutrons were obtained from the literature and the parameters for protons were adjusted in order to describe the main sequence of angular momentum and parity of the band heads, as well as the proton binding energy of 193 Ir. The residual pairing interaction was calculated using the BCS prescription with Lipkin-Nogami approximation. The results obtained for the first three band heads (the 3/2 + ground state, the 1/2 + excited state at E ∼ 73 keV and the the 11/2 - isomeric state at E ∼ 80 keV) showed a very good agreement, but the model so far greatly overestimated the energy of the next band head, a 7/2 - at E ∼ 299 keV. (author)

  2. X-ray yields of superdeformed states in 193Hg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, D.M.; Lee, I.Y.; Baktash, C.

    1993-01-01

    The K α =x-ray yields associated with the superdeformed and normal-deformed bands in 193 Hg have been measured. The results indicate an excess yield of K α -x rays in coincidence with the superdeformed cascade relative to that in coincidence with the normal-deformed cascade. The internal conversion of known transitions along the superdeformed cascade cannot account for the observed K α -x ray yield. It is likely that this excess x-ray yield is associated with low energy M1 transitions competing with the low-spin superdeformed E2 transitions. These M1 γ rays are expected to connect the two superdeformed bands which are observed in coincidence with each other. Calculations based on the measured γ-ray intensities indicate that within the experimental uncertainties the excess K α yield can be entirely accounted for by interband-M1 transitions. X-ray yields from the recent 193 Hg EUROGAM experiment will also be discussed

  3. Mercury Quick Facts: Health Effects of Mercury Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2012 What are the Health Effects of Mercury Exposure? The health effects that can be caused by breathing mercury depend ... they breathe faster and have smaller lungs. Health effects caused by long-term exposure to mercury vapors • • Anxiety • • Excessive shyness • • Anorexia • • Sleeping ...

  4. Economic analysis of atmospheric mercury emission control for coal-fired power plants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancora, Maria Pia; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Shuxiao; Schreifels, Jeremy; Hao, Jiming

    2015-07-01

    Coal combustion and mercury pollution are closely linked, and this relationship is particularly relevant in China, the world's largest coal consumer. This paper begins with a summary of recent China-specific studies on mercury removal by air pollution control technologies and then provides an economic analysis of mercury abatement from these emission control technologies at coal-fired power plants in China. This includes a cost-effectiveness analysis at the enterprise and sector level in China using 2010 as a baseline and projecting out to 2020 and 2030. Of the control technologies evaluated, the most cost-effective is a fabric filter installed upstream of the wet flue gas desulfurization system (FF+WFGD). Halogen injection (HI) is also a cost-effective mercury-specific control strategy, although it has not yet reached commercial maturity. The sector-level analysis shows that 193 tons of mercury was removed in 2010 in China's coal-fired power sector, with annualized mercury emission control costs of 2.7 billion Chinese Yuan. Under a projected 2030 Emission Control (EC) scenario with stringent mercury limits compared to Business As Usual (BAU) scenario, the increase of selective catalytic reduction systems (SCR) and the use of HI could contribute to 39 tons of mercury removal at a cost of 3.8 billion CNY. The economic analysis presented in this paper offers insights on air pollution control technologies and practices for enhancing atmospheric mercury control that can aid decision-making in policy design and private-sector investments. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Mercury pOIsonIng

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case of mercury poisoning is reported and clinical observations of 6 .... fish ingested and occupational exposure. .... exposed to mercury as a result of inadequate industrial safety standards, and ... WHO Tech Rep Ser 1980; No. 674: 102-115.

  6. Mercury Study Report to Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Report to Congress on Mercury provides an assessment of the magnitude of U.S. mercury emissions by source, the health and environmental implications of those emissions, and the availability and cost of control technologies.

  7. True Polar Wander of Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, J. T.; Matsuyama, I.

    2018-05-01

    We use new MESSENGER gravity data to investigate how impact basins and volcanic provinces alter Mercury's moments of inertia. We find that Mercury has reoriented tens of degrees over its history, affecting tectonics, volatiles, and more.

  8. Mercury Emissions: The Global Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercury emissions are a global problem that knows no national or continental boundaries. Mercury that is emitted to the air can travel thousands of miles in the atmosphere before it is eventually deposited back to the earth.

  9. A systems toxicology approach identifies Lyn as a key signaling phosphoprotein modulated by mercury in a B lymphocyte cell model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caruso, Joseph A.; Stemmer, Paul M. [Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States); Dombkowski, Alan [Department of Pediatrics, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States); Caruthers, Nicholas J. [Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States); Gill, Randall [Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States); Rosenspire, Allen J., E-mail: arosenspire@wayne.edu [Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Network and protein–protein interaction analyses of proteins undergoing Hg{sup 2+}-induced phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in Hg{sup 2+}-intoxicated mouse WEHI-231 B cells identified Lyn as the most interconnected node. Lyn is a Src family protein tyrosine kinase known to be intimately involved in the B cell receptor (BCR) signaling pathway. Under normal signaling conditions the tyrosine kinase activity of Lyn is controlled by phosphorylation, primarily of two well known canonical regulatory tyrosine sites, Y-397 and Y-508. However, Lyn has several tyrosine residues that have not yet been determined to play a major role under normal signaling conditions, but are potentially important sites for phosphorylation following mercury exposure. In order to determine how Hg{sup 2+} exposure modulates the phosphorylation of additional residues in Lyn, a targeted MS assay was developed. Initial mass spectrometric surveys of purified Lyn identified 7 phosphorylated tyrosine residues. A quantitative assay was developed from these results using the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) strategy. WEHI-231 cells were treated with Hg{sup 2+}, pervanadate (a phosphatase inhibitor), or anti-Ig antibody (to stimulate the BCR). Results from these studies showed that the phosphoproteomic profile of Lyn after exposure of the WEHI-231 cells to a low concentration of Hg{sup 2+} closely resembled that of anti-Ig antibody stimulation, whereas exposure to higher concentrations of Hg{sup 2+} led to increases in the phosphorylation of Y-193/Y-194, Y-501 and Y-508 residues. These data indicate that mercury can disrupt a key regulatory signal transduction pathway in B cells and point to phospho-Lyn as a potential biomarker for mercury exposure. - Highlights: • Inorganic mercury (Hg{sup 2+}) induces changes in the WEHI-231 B cell phosphoproteome. • The B cell receptor (BCR) signaling pathway was the pathway most affected by Hg{sup 2+}. • The Src family phosphoprotein kinase Lyn was the

  10. Mercury's magnetic field and interior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connerney, J.E.P.; Ness, N.F.

    1988-01-01

    The magnetic-field data collected on Mercury by the Mariner-10 spacecraft present substantial evidence for an intrinsic global magnetic field. However, studies of Mercury's thermal evolution show that it is most likely that the inner core region of Mercury solidified or froze early in the planet's history. Thus, the explanation of Mercury's magnetic field in the framework of the traditional planetary dynamo is less than certain

  11. MERCURY IN MARINE LIFE DATABASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the Mercury in Marine Life Project is to organize information on estuarine and marine species so that EPA can better understand both the extent of monitoring for mercury and level of mercury contamination in the biota of coastal environments. This report follows a ...

  12. Reference Atmosphere for Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Rosemary M.

    2002-01-01

    We propose that Ar-40 measured in the lunar atmosphere and that in Mercury's atmosphere is due to current diffusion into connected pore space within the crust. Higher temperatures at Mercury, along with more rapid loss from the atmosphere will lead to a smaller column abundance of argon at Mercury than at the Moon, given the same crustal abundance of potassium. Because the noble gas abundance in the Hermean atmosphere represents current effusion, it is a direct measure of the crustal potassium abundance. Ar-40 in the atmospheres of the planets is a measure of potassium abundance in the interiors, since Ar-40 is a product of radiogenic decay of K-40 by electron capture with the subsequent emission of a 1.46 eV gamma-ray. Although the Ar-40 in the Earth's atmosphere is expected to have accumulated since the late bombardment, Ar-40 in the atmospheres of Mercury and the Moon is eroded quickly by photoionization and electron impact ionization. Thus, the argon content in the exospheres of the Moon and Mercury is representative of current effusion rather than accumulation over the lifetime of the planet.

  13. Technology of focus detection for 193nm projection lithographic tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Chengliang; Yan, Wei; Hu, Song; Xu, Feng; Li, Jinglong

    2012-10-01

    With the shortening printing wavelength and increasing numerical aperture of lithographic tool, the depth of focus(DOF) sees a rapidly drop down trend, reach a scale of several hundred nanometers while the repeatable accuracy of focusing and leveling must be one-tenth of DOF, approximately several dozen nanometers. For this feature, this article first introduces several focusing technology, Obtained the advantages and disadvantages of various methods by comparing. Then get the accuracy of dual-grating focusing method through theoretical calculation. And the dual-grating focusing method based on photoelastic modulation is divided into coarse focusing and precise focusing method to analyze, establishing image processing model of coarse focusing and photoelastic modulation model of accurate focusing. Finally, focusing algorithm is simulated with MATLAB. In conclusion dual-grating focusing method shows high precision, high efficiency and non-contact measurement of the focal plane, meeting the demands of focusing in 193nm projection lithography.

  14. Water displacement mercury pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, M.G.

    1984-04-20

    A water displacement mercury pump has a fluid inlet conduit and diffuser, a valve, a pressure cannister, and a fluid outlet conduit. The valve has a valve head which seats in an opening in the cannister. The entire assembly is readily insertable into a process vessel which produces mercury as a product. As the mercury settles, it flows into the opening in the cannister displacing lighter material. When the valve is in a closed position, the pressure cannister is sealed except for the fluid inlet conduit and the fluid outlet conduit. Introduction of a lighter fluid into the cannister will act to displace a heavier fluid from the cannister via the fluid outlet conduit. The entire pump assembly penetrates only a top wall of the process vessel, and not the sides or the bottom wall of the process vessel. This insures a leak-proof environment and is especially suitable for processing of hazardous materials.

  15. Mercury exposure in Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cullen, Elizabeth; Evans, David S; Davidson, Fred

    2014-01-01

    of a study to Coordinate and Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale (DEMOCOPHES) pilot biomonitoring study. METHODS: Hair mercury concentrations were determined from a convenience sample of 120 mother/child pairs. Mothers also completed a questionnaire. Rigorous quality assurance within DEMOCOPHES...... guaranteed the accuracy and international comparability of results. RESULTS: Mercury was detected in 79.2% of the samples from mothers, and 62.5% of children's samples. Arithmetic mean levels in mothers (0.262 µg/g hair) and children (0.149 µg /g hair) did not exceed the US EPA guidance value. Levels were...

  16. Mercury CEM Calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Schabron; Joseph Rovani; Mark Sanderson

    2008-02-29

    Mercury continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMS) are being implemented in over 800 coal-fired power plant stacks. The power industry desires to conduct at least a full year of monitoring before the formal monitoring and reporting requirement begins on January 1, 2009. It is important for the industry to have available reliable, turnkey equipment from CEM vendors. Western Research Institute (WRI) is working closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to facilitate the development of the experimental criteria for a NIST traceability protocol for dynamic elemental mercury vapor generators. The generators are used to calibrate mercury CEMs at power plant sites. The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) which was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2005 requires that calibration be performed with NIST-traceable standards (Federal Register 2007). Traceability procedures will be defined by EPA. An initial draft traceability protocol was issued by EPA in May 2007 for comment. In August 2007, EPA issued an interim traceability protocol for elemental mercury generators (EPA 2007). The protocol is based on the actual analysis of the output of each calibration unit at several concentration levels ranging initially from about 2-40 {micro}g/m{sup 3} elemental mercury, and in the future down to 0.2 {micro}g/m{sup 3}, and this analysis will be directly traceable to analyses by NIST. The document is divided into two separate sections. The first deals with the qualification of generators by the vendors for use in mercury CEM calibration. The second describes the procedure that the vendors must use to certify the generator models that meet the qualification specifications. The NIST traceable certification is performance based, traceable to analysis using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry performed by NIST in Gaithersburg, MD. The

  17. Study of {sup 193}Os beta{sup -} decay; Estudo do decaimento beta{sup -} do {sup 193}Os

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahn, Guilherme Soares

    2006-07-01

    In this work, the excited levels of {sup 193}Ir populated by the beta{sup -} decay of {sup 193}Os (T{sub 1/2} {approx} 30h) were investigated. For that purpose, {approx} 5 mg samples of 99%-enriched {sup 192}Os were irradiated under a thermal neutron flux of {approx} 10{sup 12} s{sup -1} and then analysed both using single gamma spectroscopy and a 4-detector multi parametric acquisition facility, which provided data for both a gamma gamma coincidence analysis and a directional angular correlation gamma gamma ({theta} ) study. From these data, 28 transitions were added to this decay scheme, 11 of which were previously known from nuclear reactions and 17 observed for the first time. Eight excited levels were also added to the decay scheme, 3 of which were known from nuclear reaction studies - the remaining 5 are suggested for the first time. Moreover, it was possible to confirm suspicions found in reference that the levels at 848.93 keV and 849.093 keV are indeed the same; it was also possible to confirm the existence of an excited level at 806.9 keV, which had been inferred, but not experimentally confirmed in beta decay studies to date. The angular correlation analysis allowed for the definition of the spin of the excited level at 874 keV as 5/2{sup +;} moreover, the results showed a 79% probability that the spin of the 1078 keV level is 5/2/'-, and also restricted the spin possibilities for the new excited level at 960 keV to two values (1/2 or 3/2). It was also possible to measure the multipolarity mixing ratio ({delta}{sub Ln+1}/L{sub n}) for 43 transitions - 19 of them for the first time and most of the others with a better precision than previously known. Finally, an attempt was made to understand the low-lying levels structure for this nucleus using a theoretical model, which reproduced the ground state and the two lowest-lying excited levels in {sup 193}Ir. (author)

  18. Assessment of Mercury in Fish Tissue from Select Lakes of Northeastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    A fish tissue study was conducted in five northeastern Oregon reservoirs to evaluate mercury concentrations in an area where elevated atmospheric mercury deposition had been predicted by a national EPA model, but where tissue data were sparse. The study targeted resident predator...

  19. Baseline mercury and zinc concentrations in terrestrial and coastal organisms of Admiralty Bay, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues dos Santos, Isaac; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel Vieira; Schaefer, Carlos; Maria Sella, Silvia; Silva, Carlos A.; Gomes, Vicente; Passos, Maria Jose de A.C.R.; Phan Van Ngan

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides the first quantitative information on mercury in soil, coastal sediment, and in characteristic organisms of terrestrial and shallow coastal marine ecosystems from Admiralty Bay (King George Island, Antarctica). As expected for a remote area, mercury content is low in abiotic components of the ecosystem, and probably similar to natural levels. Mercury also occurs in very low concentrations in the vegetation, invertebrates and fish. These low mercury levels may be due to sulphide formation in reducing sediments of this environment. Higher concentrations of mercury occurred in bird feathers and mammal hair, indicating biomagnification. This was not found for Zinc. These results may be useful as a reference background to detect future inputs of trace elements in this remote area of the earth. Terrestrial vegetation and bird feathers are suggested as target regional biomonitors. - Low levels of mercury and zinc occurred in soil and plant samples from Antarctica, but high levels occurred in birds and mammals

  20. Method and apparatus for sampling atmospheric mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Patricio E.; Campbell, Evan E.; Eutsler, Bernard C.

    1976-01-20

    A method of simultaneously sampling particulate mercury, organic mercurial vapors, and metallic mercury vapor in the working and occupational environment and determining the amount of mercury derived from each such source in the sampled air. A known volume of air is passed through a sampling tube containing a filter for particulate mercury collection, a first adsorber for the selective adsorption of organic mercurial vapors, and a second adsorber for the adsorption of metallic mercury vapor. Carbon black molecular sieves are particularly useful as the selective adsorber for organic mercurial vapors. The amount of mercury adsorbed or collected in each section of the sampling tube is readily quantitatively determined by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

  1. Transient analysis of mercury experimental loop using the RELAP5 code. 3rd report. Transient analysis using mercury properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Kaminaga, Masanori; Hino, Ryutaro

    2000-02-01

    In order to promote the Neutron Science Project of JAERI, the design of a 5MW-spallation target system is in progress with the purpose of producing a practical neutron application while at the same time adhering to the highest levels of safety. To establish the safety of the target system, it is important to understand the transient behaviors during anticipated operational events of the system, and to design the safety protection systems for the safe termination of the transients. This report presents the analytical results of transient behaviors in the mercury experimental loop using mercury properties. At first, the analytical pressure distributions were compared with experimental data measured with the mercury experimental loop. The modeling data were modified to reproduce the actual pressure distributions of the mercury experimental loop. Then a loss of forced convection and a loss of coolant accident were analyzed. In the case of the pump trip, the transient analysis was conducted using two types of mercury pumps, the mechanical type pump with moment of inertia, and the electrical-magnetic type pump without moment of inertia. The results show there was no clear difference in the two analyses, since the mercury had a large inertia, which was 13.5 times that of the water. Moreover, in the case of a pipe rupture at the pump exit, a moderate pressure decrease was confirmed when a small breakage area existed in which the coolant flowed out gradually. Based on these results, it was appeared that the transient fluctuation of pressure in the mercury loop would not become large and accidents would have to be detected by small fluctuations in pressure. Based on these analyses, we plan to conduct a simulation test to verify the RELAP5 code, and then the analysis of a full-scale mercury system will be performed. (author)

  2. Mercury as the Unaccreted Projectile: Thermal Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asphaug, Erik; Gabriel, Travis; Jackson, Alan; Perera, Viranga

    2017-10-01

    Mercury retained substantial volatiles during its formation, in far greater proportion than the Moon, despite losing ~2/3 of its rocky mantle. Its volatile-rich geochemistry would contraindicate a giant impact because it would drive away the volatiles, as in the hypothesis for the Moon. However, the thermal consequences of Mercury formation vary considerably between the two giant impact scenarios, ‘direct hit’ (DH; Benz et al. 1989) and ‘hit and run’ (HR; Asphaug and Reufer 2014). Each begins with a differentiated chondritic proto-Mercury (PM) a bit larger than Mars. In DH, PM gets eroded by a very energetic impactor half its mass, at ~6-7 times the escape velocity. To remove half of PM’s mantle, the post-impact target gets completely shock-vaporized and is sheared apart into space. The bound remnant in DH would experience a comparable deposition of shock enthalpy, as in Moon formation, and would expand into a much larger volume of heliocentric space, leading to a dry planet. The bound remnant will go on to re-accrete much of the silicate mantle that it just lost, another challenge for DH. In HR, PM is the projectile that slams into a terrestrial planet twice its size (proto-Venus or proto-Earth). For typical impact angle and speed, a typical outcome is to ‘bounce”. But for HR to explain Mercury, PM must avoid accretion every time it encounters the target, until it is scattered or migrates away (or is accreted, in which case there is no Mercury), leading to multi-HR scenarios. Tides are intense in HR because the projectile grazes the target core; gravity does most of the work of mantle stripping. Shocks play a secondary role. Whereas in DH the impactor blasts the target inside-out, in HR the runner emerges relatively unshocked, and undispersed except for losing the gravitationally-unbound material. HR is a mechanism for collecting low-shocked remnants, because the intensely shocked material ends up bound to the target or escaping to heliocentric space

  3. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program: Mercury Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, A.P.; Redinger, K.W.; Holmes, M.J.

    1997-07-01

    selenium and mercury, the majority of trace elements are well controlled due to their association with the particulate phase of flue gas. Reflecting the current focus of the US EPA and state environmental agencies on mercury as a potential candidate for regulation, the project specifically targets the measurement and control of mercury species. This paper discusses the results of testing on the quantity and species distribution of mercury while firing Ohio high-sulfur coal to assess the mercury emissions control potential of conventional SO 2 and particulate control systems. Results from recent AECDP tests are presented and two alternative mercury speciation methods are compared. The AECDP results clearly show that higher total mercury control efficiency can be achieved with a wet FGD scrubber than recently reported in the interim final US EPA report on HAP emissions from fossil-fired electric utility steam generating units

  4. Mercury Information Clearinghouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chad A. Wocken; Michael J. Holmes; Dennis L. Laudal; Debra F. Pflughoeft-Hassett; Greg F. Weber; Nicholas V. C. Ralston; Stanley J. Miller; Grant E. Dunham; Edwin S. Olson; Laura J. Raymond; John H. Pavlish; Everett A. Sondreal; Steven A. Benson

    2006-03-31

    The Canadian Electricity Association (CEA) identified a need and contracted the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) to create and maintain an information clearinghouse on global research and development activities related to mercury emissions from coal-fired electric utilities. With the support of CEA, the Center for Air Toxic Metals{reg_sign} (CATM{reg_sign}) Affiliates, and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the EERC developed comprehensive quarterly information updates that provide a detailed assessment of developments in the various areas of mercury monitoring, control, policy, and research. A total of eight topical reports were completed and are summarized and updated in this final CEA quarterly report. The original quarterly reports can be viewed at the CEA Web site (www.ceamercuryprogram.ca). In addition to a comprehensive update of previous mercury-related topics, a review of results from the CEA Mercury Program is provided. Members of Canada's coal-fired electricity generation sector (ATCO Power, EPCOR, Manitoba Hydro, New Brunswick Power, Nova Scotia Power Inc., Ontario Power Generation, SaskPower, and TransAlta) and CEA, have compiled an extensive database of information from stack-, coal-, and ash-sampling activities. Data from this effort are also available at the CEA Web site and have provided critical information for establishing and reviewing a mercury standard for Canada that is protective of environment and public health and is cost-effective. Specific goals outlined for the CEA mercury program included the following: (1) Improve emission inventories and develop management options through an intensive 2-year coal-, ash-, and stack-sampling program; (2) Promote effective stack testing through the development of guidance material and the support of on-site training on the Ontario Hydro method for employees, government representatives, and contractors on an as-needed basis; (3) Strengthen laboratory analytical capabilities through

  5. Mercury Phase II Study - Mercury Behavior in Salt Processing Flowsheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, V.; Shah, H.; Wilmarth, W. R.

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) in the Savannah River Site Liquid Waste System (LWS) originated from decades of canyon processing where it was used as a catalyst for dissolving the aluminum cladding of reactor fuel. Approximately 60 metric tons of mercury is currently present throughout the LWS. Mercury has long been a consideration in the LWS, from both hazard and processing perspectives. In February 2015, a Mercury Program Team was established at the request of the Department of Energy to develop a comprehensive action plan for long-term management and removal of mercury. Evaluation was focused in two Phases. Phase I activities assessed the Liquid Waste inventory and chemical processing behavior using a system-by-system review methodology, and determined the speciation of the different mercury forms (Hg+, Hg++, elemental Hg, organomercury, and soluble versus insoluble mercury) within the LWS. Phase II activities are building on the Phase I activities, and results of the LWS flowsheet evaluations will be summarized in three reports: Mercury Behavior in the Salt Processing Flowsheet (i.e. this report); Mercury Behavior in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Flowsheet; and Mercury behavior in the Tank Farm Flowsheet (Evaporator Operations). The evaluation of the mercury behavior in the salt processing flowsheet indicates, inter alia, the following: (1) In the assembled Salt Batches 7, 8 and 9 in Tank 21, the total mercury is mostly soluble with methylmercury (MHg) contributing over 50% of the total mercury. Based on the analyses of samples from 2H Evaporator feed and drop tanks (Tanks 38/43), the source of MHg in Salt Batches 7, 8 and 9 can be attributed to the 2H evaporator concentrate used in assembling the salt batches. The 2H Evaporator is used to evaporate DWPF recycle water. (2) Comparison of data between Tank 21/49, Salt Solution Feed Tank (SSFT), Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT), and Tank 50 samples suggests that the total mercury as well as speciated

  6. A mercury transport and fate model (LM2-mercury) for mass budget assessment of mercury cycling in Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    LM2-Mercury, a mercury mass balance model, was developed to simulate and evaluate the transport, fate, and biogeochemical transformations of mercury in Lake Michigan. The model simulates total suspended solids (TSS), disolved organic carbon (DOC), and total, elemental, divalent, ...

  7. FINAL REPORT ON THE AQUATIC MERCURY ASSESSMENT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halverson, N

    2008-09-30

    . Methylmercury ranged from 0.002 ng/l in Upper Three Runs to 2.60 ng/l in Tims Branch. Total mercury in the Savannah River ranged from 0.62 ng/l to 43.9 ng/l, and methylmercury ranged from 0.036 ng/l to 7.54 ng/l. Both total and methylmercury concentrations were consistently high in the river near the mouth of Steel Creek. Total mercury was positively correlated with methylmercury (r = 0.88). Total mercury bound to particulates ranged from 41% to 57% in the river and from 28% to 90% in the streams. Particulate methylmercury varied from 9% to 37% in the river and from 6% to 79% in the streams. Small temporary pools in the Savannah River swamp area near and around Fourmile Branch had the highest concentrations observed in the Savannah River watershed, reaching 1,890 ng/l for total mercury and 34.0 ng/l for methylmercury. The second study developed a mercury bioaccumulation factor (BAF) for the Savannah River near SRS. A BAF is the ratio of the concentration of mercury in fish flesh to the concentration of mercury in the water. BAFs are important in the TMDL process because target concentrations for mercury in water are computed from BAFs. Mercury BAFs are known to differ substantially among fish species, water bodies, and possibly seasons. Knowledge of such variation is needed to determine a BAF that accurately represents average and extreme conditions in the water body under study. Analysis of fish tissue and aqueous methylmercury samples collected at a number of locations and over several seasons in a 110 km (68 mile) reach of the Savannah River demonstrated that BAFs for each species under study varied by factors of three to eight. Influences on BAF variability were location, habitat and season-related differences in fish mercury levels and seasonal differences in methylmercury levels in the water. Overall (all locations, habitats, and seasons) average BAFs were 3.7 x 10{sup 6} for largemouth bass, 1.4 x 10{sup 6} for sunfishes, and 2.5 x 10{sup 6} for white catfish. This study

  8. Mercury Exposure and Heart Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genchi, Giuseppe; Sinicropi, Maria Stefania; Carocci, Alessia; Lauria, Graziantonio; Catalano, Alessia

    2017-01-01

    Environmental contamination has exposed humans to various metal agents, including mercury. It has been determined that mercury is not only harmful to the health of vulnerable populations such as pregnant women and children, but is also toxic to ordinary adults in various ways. For many years, mercury was used in a wide variety of human activities. Nowadays, the exposure to this metal from both natural and artificial sources is significantly increasing. Recent studies suggest that chronic exposure, even to low concentration levels of mercury, can cause cardiovascular, reproductive, and developmental toxicity, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and carcinogenicity. Possible biological effects of mercury, including the relationship between mercury toxicity and diseases of the cardiovascular system, such as hypertension, coronary heart disease, and myocardial infarction, are being studied. As heart rhythm and function are under autonomic nervous system control, it has been hypothesized that the neurotoxic effects of mercury might also impact cardiac autonomic function. Mercury exposure could have a long-lasting effect on cardiac parasympathetic activity and some evidence has shown that mercury exposure might affect heart rate variability, particularly early exposures in children. The mechanism by which mercury produces toxic effects on the cardiovascular system is not fully elucidated, but this mechanism is believed to involve an increase in oxidative stress. The exposure to mercury increases the production of free radicals, potentially because of the role of mercury in the Fenton reaction and a reduction in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as glutathione peroxidase. In this review we report an overview on the toxicity of mercury and focus our attention on the toxic effects on the cardiovascular system. PMID:28085104

  9. Mercury Exposure and Heart Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genchi, Giuseppe; Sinicropi, Maria Stefania; Carocci, Alessia; Lauria, Graziantonio; Catalano, Alessia

    2017-01-12

    Environmental contamination has exposed humans to various metal agents, including mercury. It has been determined that mercury is not only harmful to the health of vulnerable populations such as pregnant women and children, but is also toxic to ordinary adults in various ways. For many years, mercury was used in a wide variety of human activities. Nowadays, the exposure to this metal from both natural and artificial sources is significantly increasing. Recent studies suggest that chronic exposure, even to low concentration levels of mercury, can cause cardiovascular, reproductive, and developmental toxicity, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and carcinogenicity. Possible biological effects of mercury, including the relationship between mercury toxicity and diseases of the cardiovascular system, such as hypertension, coronary heart disease, and myocardial infarction, are being studied. As heart rhythm and function are under autonomic nervous system control, it has been hypothesized that the neurotoxic effects of mercury might also impact cardiac autonomic function. Mercury exposure could have a long-lasting effect on cardiac parasympathetic activity and some evidence has shown that mercury exposure might affect heart rate variability, particularly early exposures in children. The mechanism by which mercury produces toxic effects on the cardiovascular system is not fully elucidated, but this mechanism is believed to involve an increase in oxidative stress. The exposure to mercury increases the production of free radicals, potentially because of the role of mercury in the Fenton reaction and a reduction in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as glutathione peroxidase. In this review we report an overview on the toxicity of mercury and focus our attention on the toxic effects on the cardiovascular system.

  10. Mercury Exposure and Heart Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Genchi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental contamination has exposed humans to various metal agents, including mercury. It has been determined that mercury is not only harmful to the health of vulnerable populations such as pregnant women and children, but is also toxic to ordinary adults in various ways. For many years, mercury was used in a wide variety of human activities. Nowadays, the exposure to this metal from both natural and artificial sources is significantly increasing. Recent studies suggest that chronic exposure, even to low concentration levels of mercury, can cause cardiovascular, reproductive, and developmental toxicity, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and carcinogenicity. Possible biological effects of mercury, including the relationship between mercury toxicity and diseases of the cardiovascular system, such as hypertension, coronary heart disease, and myocardial infarction, are being studied. As heart rhythm and function are under autonomic nervous system control, it has been hypothesized that the neurotoxic effects of mercury might also impact cardiac autonomic function. Mercury exposure could have a long-lasting effect on cardiac parasympathetic activity and some evidence has shown that mercury exposure might affect heart rate variability, particularly early exposures in children. The mechanism by which mercury produces toxic effects on the cardiovascular system is not fully elucidated, but this mechanism is believed to involve an increase in oxidative stress. The exposure to mercury increases the production of free radicals, potentially because of the role of mercury in the Fenton reaction and a reduction in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as glutathione peroxidase. In this review we report an overview on the toxicity of mercury and focus our attention on the toxic effects on the cardiovascular system.

  11. MERCURY USAGE AND ALTERNATIVES IN THE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS INDUSTRIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many industries have already found alternatives for mercury or have greatly decreased mercury use. However, the unique electromechanical and photoelectric properties of mercury and mercury compounds have made replacement of mercury difficult in some applications. This study was i...

  12. Micro pit formation by mercury-sphere collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikura, Syuichi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Kaminaga, Masanori; Hino, Ryutaro

    2004-01-01

    The development of a MW-class spallation neutron source facility is being carried out under the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) Project promoted by JAERI and KEK. A mercury target working as the spallation neutron source will be subjected to pressure waves generated by rapid thermal expansion of mercury due to a pulsed proton beam injection. The pressure wave will impose dynamic stress on the vessel and deform the vessel, which would cause cavitation in mercury. To evaluate the effect of mercury micro jets, driven by cavitation bubble collapse, on the micro-pit formation, analyses on mercury sphere collision were carried out: single bubble dynamics and collision behavior on interface between liquid and solid, which take the nonlinearity due to shock wave in mercury and the strain rate dependency of yield stress in solid metal into account. Analytical results give a good explanation to understand relationship between the micro-pit formation and material properties: the pit size could decrease with increasing the yield strength of materials. (author)

  13. Mercury's exosphere: observations during MESSENGER's First Mercury flyby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, William E; Bradley, E Todd; Vervack, Ronald J; Killen, Rosemary M; Sprague, Ann L; Izenberg, Noam R; Solomon, Sean C

    2008-07-04

    During MESSENGER's first Mercury flyby, the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer measured Mercury's exospheric emissions, including those from the antisunward sodium tail, calcium and sodium close to the planet, and hydrogen at high altitudes on the dayside. Spatial variations indicate that multiple source and loss processes generate and maintain the exosphere. Energetic processes connected to the solar wind and magnetospheric interaction with the planet likely played an important role in determining the distributions of exospheric species during the flyby.

  14. Laser ablation of nanoscale particles with 193 nm light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, J H; Lucas, D; Koshland, C P

    2007-01-01

    Laser interaction with nanoscale particles is distinct and different from laser-bulk material interaction, where a hot plasma is normally created. Here, we review our studies on 193 nm laser ablation of various nanoscale particles including NaCl, soot, polystyrene, and gold. The 20 ns laser beam with fluences up to 0.3 J/cm 2 irradiates nanoparticles in a gas stream at laser repetition rates from 10 to 100 Hz. The particle size distributions before and after irradiation are measured with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), and particle morphology is examined with electron microscopy. All the nanomaterials studied exhibit a similar disintegration pattern and similar particle formation characteristics. No broadband emission associated with particle heating or optical breakdown is observed. The nanoparticles formed after irradiation have a smaller mean diameter and an order of magnitude higher number concentration with a more spherical shape compared to the original particles. We use the photon-atom ratio (PAR) to interpret the laser-particle interaction energetics

  15. Recovery of mercury from acid waste residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, Wilbur O.

    1989-12-05

    Mercury can be recovered from nitric acid-containing fluids by reacting the fluid with aluminum metal to produce mercury metal, and then quenching the reactivity of the nitric acid prior to nitration of the mercury metal.

  16. Health Effects of Exposures to Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IRIS database Top of Page Elemental (Metallic) Mercury Effects Exposures to metallic mercury most often occur when metallic ... poor performance on tests of mental function Higher exposures may also cause kidney effects, respiratory failure and death. Note that metallic mercury ...

  17. Mercury Poisoning Linked to Skin Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Mercury Poisoning Linked to Skin Products Share Tweet Linkedin ... and, in some situations, criminal prosecution. Dangers of Mercury Exposure to mercury can have serious health consequences. ...

  18. 41 CFR 102-193.10 - What are the goals of the Federal Records Management Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the goals of the Federal Records Management Program? 102-193.10 Section 102-193.10 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION...

  19. 41 CFR 102-193.20 - What are the specific agency responsibilities for records management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the specific agency responsibilities for records management? 102-193.20 Section 102-193.20 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT...

  20. Elevated serum ferritin and mercury concentrations are associated with hypertension; analysis of the fourth and fifth Korea national health and nutrition examination survey (KNHANES IV-2, 3, 2008-2009 and V-1, 2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Beomhee; Yeum, Kyung-Jin; Park, Soo-Jung; Kim, Kyu-Nam; Joo, Nam-Seok

    2015-01-01

    The impact of simultaneously elevated serum ferritin and mercury concentrations on hypertension in the general population is not known. To determine the association of serum ferritin and mercury concentrations with hypertension, 6213 subjects (3060 men and 3153 women) over 20 years of age from 2008 to 2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were divided into tertiles according to serum ferritin and mercury concentrations in each gender. Serum ferritin (258.2 vs. 94.8 pmol/L) and mercury concentrations (28.4 vs. 19.9 nmol/L) were higher in men than in women. Serum ferritin (men; P = 0.029, women; P mercury (men; P mercury concentrations in both men (r = 0.193, P mercury tertiles increased after proper adjustments. Furthermore, significantly higher odds ratios of hypertension were found in the second (OR = 1.86, 95% CI; 1.05-3.30), and third (OR = 1.84, 95% CI; 1.01-3.36) tertiles of serum ferritin with the top tertile of serum mercury in men. The current study indicate that serum ferritin and mercury concentrations are associated with the prevalence of hypertension and that simultaneously elevated serum ferritin and mercury concentrations are related to the risk for hypertension in men. © 2013 The Authors. The Environmental Toxicology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Mercury content in Hot Springs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, R

    1974-01-01

    A method of determination of mercury in hot spring waters by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry is described. Further, the mercury content and the chemical behavior of the elementary mercury in hot springs are described. Sulfide and iodide ions interfered with the determination of mercury by the reduction-vapor phase technique. These interferences could, however, be minimized by the addition of potassium permanganate. Waters collected from 55 hot springs were found to contain up to 26.0 ppb mercury. High concentrations of mercury have been found in waters from Shimoburo Springs, Aomori (10.0 ppb), Osorezan Springs, Aomori (1.3 approximately 18.8 ppb), Gosyogake Springs, Akita (26.0 ppb), Manza Springs, Gunma (0.30 approximately 19.5 ppb) and Kusatu Springs, Gunma (1.70 approximately 4.50 ppb). These hot springs were acid waters containing a relatively high quantity of chloride or sulfate.

  2. Interior Volatile Reservoirs in Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzures, B. A.; Parman, S. W.; Milliken, R. E.; Head, J. W.

    2018-05-01

    More measurements of 1) surface volatiles, and 2) pyroclastic deposits paired with experimental volatile analyses in silicate minerals can constrain conditions of melting and subsequent eruption on Mercury.

  3. Mercury in Canadian crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollebone, B.P.

    2005-01-01

    Estimates for average mercury concentrations in crude oil range widely from 10 ng/g of oil to 3,500 ng/g of oil. With such a broad range of estimates, it is difficult to determine the contributions of the petroleum sector to the total budget of mercury emissions. In response to concerns that the combustion of petroleum products may be a major source of air-borne mercury pollution, Environment Canada and the Canadian Petroleum Products Institute has undertaken a survey of the average total mercury concentration in crude oil processed in Canadian refineries. In order to calculate the potential upper limit of total mercury in all refined products, samples of more than 30 different types of crude oil collected from refineries were measured for their concentration of mercury as it enters into a refinery before processing. High temperature combustion, cold vapour atomic absorption and cold vapour atomic fluorescence were the techniques used to quantify mercury in the samples. The results of the study provide information on the total mass of mercury present in crude oil processed in Canada each year. Results can be used to determine the impact of vehicle exhaust emissions to the overall Canadian mercury emission budget. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  4. Mercury in bryophytes (moss)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeaple, D S

    1972-01-28

    Recent reports in the literature, concerning the ability of certain mosses and lichens to concentrate heavy metals, have led to an investigation of the potential application of mosses as indicators of the transport of mercury through the atmosphere. A number of moss samples were collected to provide information regarding the level of mercury in moss around several types of populated areas. The results reported are from moss collected within an 80 mile radius of Boston, Massachusetts, along the Maine coast, near the tops of Mount Katahdin in Maine and Mount Washington in New Hampshire, and from Walden, New York, a small town located about 60 miles north of New York City. The data are admittedly limited, but provide sufficient insight into the usefulness of moss as an indicator to warrant the pursuit of a more detailed investigation. 6 references, 1 table.

  5. Integrated criteria document mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloof, W.; Beelan, P. van; Annema, J.A.; Janus, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    The document contains a systematic review and a critical evaluation of the most relevant data on the priority substance mercury for the purpose of effect-oriented environmental policy. Chapter headings are: properties and existing standards; production, application, sources and emissions (natural sources, industry, energy, households, agriculture, dental use, waste); distribution and transformation (cinnabar; Hg 2+ , Hg 2 2+ , elemental mercury, methylmercury, behavior in soil, water, air, biota); concentrations and fluxes in the environment and exposure levels (sampling and measuring methods, occurrence in soil, water, air etc.); effects (toxicity to humans and aquatic and terrestrial systems); emissions reduction (from industrial sources, energy, waste processing etc.); and evaluation (risks, standards, emission reduction objectives, measuring strategies). 395 refs

  6. Ultralow Level Mercury Treatment Using Chemical Reduction and Air Stripping: Scoping Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looney, B.B.

    2000-01-01

    Data collected during the first stage of a Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) Strategic Research and Development Project confirmed the efficacy of chemical reduction and air stripping/sparging as an ultralow level mercury treatment concept for waters containing Hg(II). The process consists of dosing the water with low levels of stannous chloride to convert the mercury to Hg. This form of mercury can easily be removed from the water by air stripping or sparging. Samples of Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater containing approximately 130 ng/L of total mercury (as Hg(II)) were used for the study. In undosed samples, sparging removed 0 percent of the initial mercury. In the dosed samples, all of the removals were greater than 94 percent, except in one water type at one dose. This sample, which was saturated with dissolved oxygen, showed a 63 percent reduction in mercury following treatment at the lowest dose. Following dosing at minimally effective levels and sparging, treated water contained less than 10 ng/L total mercury. In general, the data indicate that the reduction of mercury is highly favored and that stannous chloride reagent efficiently targets the Hg(II) contaminant in the presence of competing reactions. Based on the results, the authors estimated that the costs of implementing and operating an ultralow level mercury treatment process based on chemical reduction and stripping/sparging are 10 percent to 20 percent of traditional treatment technologies

  7. Method for mercury refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, M.W.; Speer, R.; George, W.A.

    1991-04-09

    The effluent from mercury collected during the photochemical separation of the [sup 196]Hg isotope is often contaminated with particulate mercurous chloride, Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2]. The use of mechanical filtering via thin glass tubes, ultrasonic rinsing with acetone (dimethyl ketone) and a specially designed cold trap have been found effective in removing the particulate (i.e., solid) Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] contaminant. The present invention is particularly directed to such filtering. 5 figures.

  8. Apparatus for mercury refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, M.W.; Speer, R.; George, W.A.

    1991-07-16

    The effluent from mercury collected during the photochemical separation of the [sup 196]Hg isotope is often contaminated with particulate mercurous chloride, Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2]. The use of mechanical filtering via thin glass tubes, ultrasonic rinsing with acetone (dimethyl ketone) and a specially designed cold trap have been found effective in removing the particulate (i.e., solid) Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] contaminant. The present invention is particularly directed to such filtering. 5 figures.

  9. The planet Mercury (1971)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The physical properties of the planet Mercury, its surface, and atmosphere are presented for space vehicle design criteria. The mass, dimensions, mean density, and orbital and rotational motions are described. The gravity field, magnetic field, electromagnetic radiation, and charged particles in the planet's orbit are discussed. Atmospheric pressure, temperature, and composition data are given along with the surface composition, soil mechanical properties, and topography, and the surface electromagnetic and temperature properties.

  10. Magnetic field of Mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.J.; Beard, D.B.

    1977-01-01

    The geomagnetic field, suitably scaled down and parameterized, is shown to give a very good fit to the magnetic field measurements taken on the first and third passes of the Mariner 10 space probe past Mercury. The excellence of the fit to a reliable planetary magnetospheric model is good evidence that the Mercury magnetosphere is formed by a simple, permanent, intrinsic planetary magnetic field distorted by the effects of the solar wind. The parameters used for a best fit to all the data are (depending slightly on the choice of data) 2.44--2.55 for the ratio of Mercury's magnetic field strength at the subsolar point to that of the earth's subsolar point field (this results in a dipole moment of 170 γR/sub M/ 3 (R/sub M/ is Mercury Radius), i.e., 2.41 x 10 22 G cm 3 in the same direction as the earth's dipole), approx.-113 γR/sub M/ 4 for the planetary quadrupole moment parallel to the dipole moment, 10degree--17degree for the tilt of the planet dipole toward the sun, 4.5degree for the tilt of the dipole toward dawn, and 2.5degree--7.6degree aberration angle for the shift in the tail axis from the planet-sun direction because of the planet's orbital velocity. The rms deviation overall for the entire data set compared with the theoretical fitted model for the magnetic field strength was 17 γ (approx.4% of the maximum field measured). If the data from the first pass that show presumed strong time variations are excluded, the overall rms deviation for the field magnitude is only 10 γ

  11. Method for scavenging mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shih-ger [El Cerrito, CA; Liu, Shou-heng [Kaohsiung, TW; Liu, Zhao-rong [Beijing, CN; Yan, Naiqiang [Berkeley, CA

    2009-01-20

    Disclosed herein is a method for removing mercury from a gas stream comprising contacting the gas stream with a getter composition comprising bromine, bromochloride, sulphur bromide, sulphur dichloride or sulphur monochloride and mixtures thereof. In one preferred embodiment the getter composition is adsorbed onto a sorbent. The sorbent may be selected from the group consisting of flyash, limestone, lime, calcium sulphate, calcium sulfite, activated carbon, charcoal, silicate, alumina and mixtures thereof. Preferred is flyash, activated carbon and silica.

  12. Apparatus for mercury refinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, M.W.; Speer, R.; George, W.A.

    1991-01-01

    The effluent from mercury collected during the photochemical separation of the 196 Hg isotope is often contaminated with particulate mercurous chloride, Hg 2 Cl 2 . The use of mechanical filtering via thin glass tubes, ultrasonic rinsing with acetone (dimethyl ketone) and a specially designed cold trap have been found effective in removing the particulate (i.e., solid) Hg 2 Cl 2 contaminant. The present invention is particularly directed to such filtering. 5 figures

  13. Method for mercury refinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, M.W.; Speer, R.; George, W.A.

    1991-01-01

    The effluent from mercury collected during the photochemical separation of the 196 Hg isotope is often contaminated with particulate mercurous chloride, Hg 2 Cl 2 . The use of mechanical filtering via thin glass tubes, ultrasonic rinsing with acetone (dimethyl ketone) and a specially designed cold trap have been found effective in removing the particulate (i.e., solid) Hg 2 Cl 2 contaminant. The present invention is particularly directed to such filtering. 5 figures

  14. Mercury's Densely Cratered Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Mariner 10 took this picture (FDS 27465) of the densely cratered surface of Mercury when the spacecraft was 18,200 kilometers (8085 miles) from the planet on March 29. The dark line across top of picture is a 'dropout' of a few TV lines of data. At lower left, a portion of a 61 kilometer (38 mile) crater shows a flow front extending across the crater floor and filling more than half of the crater. The smaller, fresh crater at center is about 25 kilometers (15 miles) in diameter. Craters as small as one kilometer (about one-half mile) across are visible in the picture.The Mariner 10 mission, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science, explored Venus in February 1974 on the way to three encounters with Mercury-in March and September 1974 and in March 1975. The spacecraft took more than 7,000 photos of Mercury, Venus, the Earth and the Moon.Image Credit: NASA/JPL/Northwestern University

  15. Mercury removal sorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alptekin, Gokhan

    2016-03-29

    Sorbents and methods of using them for removing mercury from flue gases over a wide range of temperatures are disclosed. Sorbent materials of this invention comprise oxy- or hydroxyl-halogen (chlorides and bromides) of manganese, copper and calcium as the active phase for Hg.sup.0 oxidation, and are dispersed on a high surface porous supports. In addition to the powder activated carbons (PACs), this support material can be comprised of commercial ceramic supports such as silica (SiO.sub.2), alumina (Al.sub.2O.sub.3), zeolites and clays. The support material may also comprise of oxides of various metals such as iron, manganese, and calcium. The non-carbon sorbents of the invention can be easily injected into the flue gas and recovered in the Particulate Control Device (PCD) along with the fly ash without altering the properties of the by-product fly ash enabling its use as a cement additive. Sorbent materials of this invention effectively remove both elemental and oxidized forms of mercury from flue gases and can be used at elevated temperatures. The sorbent combines an oxidation catalyst and a sorbent in the same particle to both oxidize the mercury and then immobilize it.

  16. Binary mixtures of mercury/ selenium, and lead/selenium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physiologically-based biokinetic models have been developed for predicting simultaneously the Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Elimination (ADME) properties of lead (Pb) and selenium (Se), and mercury (Hg) and selenium in a number of target tissues of humans. This was done for three population groups, ...

  17. Mercury flow tests (first report). Wall friction factor measurement tests and future tests plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminaga, Masanori; Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Haga, Katsuhiro; Hino, Ryutaro; Sudo, Yukio

    1999-07-01

    In the neutron science project at JAERI, we plan to inject a pulsed proton beam of a maximum power of 5 MW from a high intense proton accelerator into a mercury target in order to produce high energy neutrons of a magnitude of ten times or more than existing facilities. The neutrons produced by the facility will be utilized for advanced field of science such as the life sciences etc. An urgent issue in order to accomplish this project is the establishment of mercury target technology. With this in mind, a mercury experimental loop with the capacity to circulate mercury up to 15 L/min was constructed to perform thermal hydraulic tests, component tests and erosion characteristic tests. A measurement of the wall friction factor was carried out as a first step of the mercury flow tests, while testing the characteristic of components installed in the mercury loop. This report presents an outline of the mercury loop and experimental results of the wall friction factor measurement. From the wall friction factor measurement, it was made clear that the wettability of the mercury was improved with an increase of the loop operation time and at the same time the wall friction factors were increased. The measured wall friction factors were much lower than the values calculated by the Blasius equation at the beginning of the loop operation because of wall slip caused by a non-wetted condition. They agreed well with the values calculated by the Blasius equation within a deviation of 10% when the sum of the operation time increased more than 11 hours. This report also introduces technical problems with a mercury circulation and future tests plan indispensable for the development of the mercury target. (author)

  18. Mercury Specie and Multi-Pollutant Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rob James; Virgil Joffrion; John McDermott; Steve Piche

    2010-05-31

    This project was awarded to demonstrate the ability to affect and optimize mercury speciation and multi-pollutant control using non-intrusive advanced sensor and optimization technologies. The intent was to demonstrate plant-wide optimization systems on a large coal fired steam electric power plant in order to minimize emissions, including mercury (Hg), while maximizing efficiency and maintaining saleable byproducts. Advanced solutions utilizing state-of-the-art sensors and neural network-based optimization and control technologies were proposed to maximize the removal of mercury vapor from the boiler flue gas thereby resulting in lower uncontrolled releases of mercury into the atmosphere. Budget Period 1 (Phase I) - Included the installation of sensors, software system design and establishment of the as-found baseline operating metrics for pre-project and post-project data comparison. Budget Period 2 (Phase II) - Software was installed, data communications links from the sensors were verified, and modifications required to integrate the software system to the DCS were performed. Budget Period 3 (Phase III) - Included the validation and demonstration of all control systems and software, and the comparison of the optimized test results with the targets established for the project site. This report represents the final technical report for the project, covering the entire award period and representing the final results compared to project goals. NeuCo shouldered 61% of the total project cost; while DOE shouldered the remaining 39%. The DOE requires repayment of its investment. This repayment will result from commercial sales of the products developed under the project. NRG's Limestone power plant (formerly owned by Texas Genco) contributed the host site, human resources, and engineering support to ensure the project's success.

  19. Hyperfine structure of six low-lying fine structure levels of 191Ir and 193Ir and the 191Δs193 hyperfine anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buettgenbach, S.; Dicke, R.; Gebauer, H.; Kuhnen, R.; Traeber, F.

    1978-01-01

    The hyperfine interaction constants A and B of six low-lying metastable fine structure states of the two iridium isotopes 191 Ir and 193 Ir and the electronic g-factors of these levels have been measured using the atomic-beam magnetic-resonance method. From the values of the magnetic-dipole interaction constants A, corrected for off-diagonal perturbations, we extracted the hyperfine anomaly of a pure 6s-electron state: 191 Δs 193 = 0.64(7)%. Using nonrelativistic approximations for the effective radial parameters the nuclear electric-quadrupole moments were obtained: Q( 191 Ir) = 0.81(21)b, Q( 193 Ir) = 0.73(19)b (corrected for Sternheimer shielding effects). (orig.) [de

  20. Rotation of the planet mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferys, W H

    1966-04-08

    The equations of motion for the rotation of Mercury are solved for the general case by an asymptotic expansion. The findings of Liu and O'Keefe, obtained by numerical integration of a special case, that it is possible for Mercury's rotation to be locked into a 2:3 resonance with its revolution, are confirmed in detail. The general solution has further applications.

  1. Mercury: Exploration of a Planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The flight of the Mariner 10 spacecraft to Venus and Mercury is detailed in animation and photography. Views of Mercury are featured. Also included is animation on the origin of the solar system. Dr. Bruce C. Murray, director of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, comments on the mission.

  2. Mercury emissions from South Africa’s coal-fired power stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda L. Garnham

    2016-12-01

    can be achieved as a co-benefit of installing other emission abatement technologies. At the very least, more accurate calculations of mercury emissions per power station should be obtained by measuring the mercury content of more recent coal samples, and developing power station-specific ERF’s before mercury emission regulations are established or an investment into targeted mercury emission reduction technology is made.

  3. 49 CFR 173.164 - Mercury (metallic and articles containing mercury).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ounces) of mercury per package; (iv) Tubes which are completely jacketed in sealed leakproof metal cases... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mercury (metallic and articles containing mercury... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.164 Mercury (metallic and articles containing mercury). (a) For...

  4. Mercury Emission Control Technologies for PPL Montana-Colstrip Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John P. Kay; Michael L. Jones; Steven A. Benson

    2007-04-01

    technique at Colstrip is not seen. All the additives injected resulted in some reduction in mercury emissions. However, the target reduction of 55% was not achieved. The primary reason for the lower removal rates is because of the lower levels of mercury in the flue gas stream and the lower capture level of fine particles by the scrubbers (relative to that for larger particles). The reaction and interaction of the SEA materials is with the finer fraction of the fly ash, because the SEA materials are vaporized during the combustion or reaction process and condense on the surfaces of entrained particles or form very small particles. Mercury will have a tendency to react and interact with the finer fraction of entrained ash and sorbent as a result of the higher surface areas of the finer particles. The ability to capture the finer fraction of fly ash is the key to controlling mercury. Cost estimates for mercury removal based on the performance of each sorbent during this project are projected to be extremely high. When viewed on a dollar-per-pound-of-mercury removed basis activated carbon was projected to cost nearly $1.2 million per pound of mercury removed. This value is roughly six times the cost of other sorbent-enhancing agents, which were projected to be closer to $200,000 per pound of mercury removed.

  5. Methyl mercury in terrestrial compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoeppler, M.; Burow, M.; Padberg, S.; May, K.

    1993-09-01

    On the basis of the analytical methodology available at present the state of the art for the determination of total mercury and of various organometallic compounds of mercury in air, precipitation, limnic systems, soils, plants and biota is reviewed. This is followed by the presentation and discussion of examples for the data obtained hitherto for trace and ultratrace levels of total mercury and mainly methyl mercury in terrestrial and limnic environments as well as in biota. The data discussed stem predominantly from the past decade in which, due to significant methodological progress, many new aspects were elucidated. They include the most important results in this area achieved by the Research Centre (KFA) Juelich within the project 'Origin and Fate of Methyl Mercury' (contracts EV4V-0138-D and STEP-CT90-0057) supported by the Commission of the European Communities, Brussels. (orig.) [de

  6. Human Exposure and Health Effects of Inorganic and Elemental Mercury

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jung-Duck; Zheng, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Mercury is a toxic and non-essential metal in the human body. Mercury is ubiquitously distributed in the environment, present in natural products, and exists extensively in items encountered in daily life. There are three forms of mercury, i.e., elemental (or metallic) mercury, inorganic mercury compounds, and organic mercury compounds. This review examines the toxicity of elemental mercury and inorganic mercury compounds. Inorganic mercury compounds are water soluble with a bioavailability o...

  7. Recent Approaches to Modeling Transport of Mercury in Surface Water and Groundwater - Case Study in Upper East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, TN - 13349

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, Kent; Daniel, Anamary; Tachiev, Georgio; Malek-Mohammadi, Siamak

    2013-01-01

    below a target industrial groundwater concentration beneath the source and would not influence concentrations in surface water at Station 17. This analysis addressed only shallow concentrations in soil and the shallow groundwater flow path in soil and unconsolidated sediments to UEFPC. Other mercury sources may occur in bedrock and transport though bedrock to UEFPC may contribute to the mercury flux at Station 17. Generally mercury in the source areas adjacent to the stream and in sediment that is eroding can contribute to the flux of mercury in surface water. Because colloidally adsorbed mercury can be transported in surface water, actions that trap colloids and or hydrologically isolate surface water runoff from source areas would reduce the flux of mercury in surface water. Mercury in soil is highly adsorbed and transport in the groundwater system is very limited under porous media conditions. (authors)

  8. Recent Approaches to Modeling Transport of Mercury in Surface Water and Groundwater - Case Study in Upper East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, TN - 13349

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostick, Kent; Daniel, Anamary [Professional Project Services, Inc., Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN, 37922 (United States); Tachiev, Georgio [Florida International University, Applied Research Center 10555 W. Flagler St., EC 2100 Miami Florida 33174 (United States); Malek-Mohammadi, Siamak [Bradley University, 413A Jobst Hall, Preoria, IL 61625 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    below a target industrial groundwater concentration beneath the source and would not influence concentrations in surface water at Station 17. This analysis addressed only shallow concentrations in soil and the shallow groundwater flow path in soil and unconsolidated sediments to UEFPC. Other mercury sources may occur in bedrock and transport though bedrock to UEFPC may contribute to the mercury flux at Station 17. Generally mercury in the source areas adjacent to the stream and in sediment that is eroding can contribute to the flux of mercury in surface water. Because colloidally adsorbed mercury can be transported in surface water, actions that trap colloids and or hydrologically isolate surface water runoff from source areas would reduce the flux of mercury in surface water. Mercury in soil is highly adsorbed and transport in the groundwater system is very limited under porous media conditions. (authors)

  9. Methods for dispensing mercury into devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.

    1987-04-28

    A process for dispensing mercury into devices which requires mercury. Mercury is first electrolytically separated from either HgO or Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 and plated onto a cathode wire. The cathode wire is then placed into a device requiring mercury.

  10. Determination of mercury in plant material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickard, J A; Martin, J T

    1960-07-01

    An analytical procedure used for the determination of traces of mercury in plant material is described. The conditions of combustion of organic matter are controlled to avoid loss of mercury and EDTA is used to reduce the values for apparent mercury on uncontaminated samples. Satisfactory recoveries of mercury added to apples, tomatoes and coffee are obtained. 10 references, 1 table.

  11. Mercury's Lithospheric Magnetization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C.; Phillips, R. J.; Philpott, L. C.; Al Asad, M.; Plattner, A.; Mast, S.; Kinczyk, M. J.; Prockter, L. M.

    2017-12-01

    Magnetic field data obtained by the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft have been used to demonstrate the presence of lithospheric magnetization on Mercury. Larger amplitude fields resulting from the core dynamo and the strongly time-varying magnetospheric current systems are first estimated and subtracted from the magnetic field data to isolate lithospheric signals with wavelengths less than 500 km. These signals (hereafter referred to as data) are only observed at spacecraft altitudes less than 120 km, and are typically a few to 10 nT in amplitude. We present and compare equivalent source dipole magnetization models for latitudes 35°N to 75°N obtained from two distinct approaches to constrain the distribution and origin of lithospheric magnetization. First, models that fit either the data or the surface field predicted from a regional spherical harmonic representation of the data (see Plattner & Johnson abstract) and that minimize the root mean square (RMS) value of the magnetization are derived. Second, models in which the spatial distribution of magnetization required to fit the data is minimized are derived using the approach of Parker (1991). As seen previously, the largest amplitudes of lithospheric magnetization are concentrated around the Caloris basin. With this exception, across the northern hemisphere there are no overall correlations of magnetization with surface geology, although higher magnetizations are found in regions with darker surfaces. Similarly, there is no systematic correlation of magnetization signatures with crater materials, although there are specific instances of craters with interiors or ejecta that have magnetizations distinct from the surrounding region. For the latter case, we observe no correlation of the occurrence of these signatures with crater degradation state (a proxy for age). At the lowest spacecraft altitudes (source depths less than O(10 km) are unlikely in most regions

  12. 41 CFR 102-193.25 - What type of records management business process improvements should my agency strive to achieve?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... management business process improvements should my agency strive to achieve? 102-193.25 Section 102-193.25...-193.25 What type of records management business process improvements should my agency strive to... correspondence; (b) Design forms that are easy to fill-in, read, transmit, process, and retrieve, and reduce...

  13. 14 CFR 193.15 - What FAA officials exercise the authority of the Administrator under this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What FAA officials exercise the authority of the Administrator under this part? 193.15 Section 193.15 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... SUBMITTED INFORMATION § 193.15 What FAA officials exercise the authority of the Administrator under this...

  14. 14 CFR 193.5 - How may I submit safety or security information and have it protected from disclosure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SUBMITTED INFORMATION § 193.5 How may I submit safety or security information and have it protected from... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How may I submit safety or security information and have it protected from disclosure? 193.5 Section 193.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...

  15. Radar observations of Mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, J.K.; Campbell, D.B.

    1988-01-01

    Some of the radar altimetry profiles of Mercury obtained on the basis of data from the Arecibo Observatory are presented. In these measurements, the delay-Doppler method was used to measure altitudes along the Doppler equator, rather than to map radar reflectivity. The profiles, derived from observations made over a 6-yr period, provide extensive coverage over a restricted equatorial band and permit the identification of radar signatures for features as small as 50-km diameter craters and 1-km-high arcuate scarps. The data allowed identification of large-scale topographic features such as smooth plains subsidence zones and major highland regions

  16. Fluorescent sensor for mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zidong [Urbana, IL; Lee, Jung Heon [Evanston, IL; Lu, Yi [Champaign, IL

    2011-11-22

    The present invention provides a sensor for detecting mercury, comprising: a first polynucleotide, comprising a first region, and a second region, a second polynucleotide, a third polynucleotide, a fluorophore, and a quencher, wherein the third polynucleotide is optionally linked to the second region; the fluorophore is linked to the first polynucleotide and the quencher is linked to the second polynucleotide, or the fluorophore is linked to the second polynucleotide and the quencher is linked to the first polynucleotide; the first region and the second region hybridize to the second polynucleotide; and the second region binds to the third polynucleotide in the presence of Hg.sup.2+ ions.

  17. Photolysis of butenedial at 193, 248, 280, 308, 351, 400, and 450 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yongxin; Zhu, Lei

    2005-06-01

    We have studied the photolysis of butenedial at 193, 248, 280, 308, 351, 400, and 450 nm by using laser photolysis combined with cavity ring-down spectroscopy. The HCO radical is a photodissociation product at 193 and 248 nm. The corresponding HCO quantum yields are 0.55 ± 0.07 and 0.12 ± 0.01, independent of butenedial pressure and nitrogen buffer gas pressure. Absorption cross-sections of butenedial are (6.88 ± 0.39) × 10 -18 and (3.62 ± 0.69) × 10 -19 cm 2 at 193 and 248 nm. The end-products from the photolysis of butenedial at 193, 248, 308, and 351 nm were measured by FTIR. Acrolein and 3H-furan-2-one were observed and their yields have been estimated.

  18. SNS Target Test Facility for remote handling design and verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spampinato, P.T.; Graves, V.B.; Schrock, S.L.

    1998-01-01

    The Target Test Facility will be a full-scale prototype of the Spallation Neutron Source Target Station. It will be used to demonstrate remote handling operations on various components of the mercury flow loop and for thermal/hydraulic testing. This paper describes the remote handling aspects of the Target Test Facility. Since the facility will contain approximately 1 cubic meter of mercury for the thermal/hydraulic tests, an enclosure will also be constructed that matches the actual Target Test Cell

  19. Mercury kinetics in marine zooplankton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.W.; Heyraud, M.; LaRosa, J.

    1976-01-01

    Mercury, like many other heavy metals, is potentially available to marine animals by uptake directly from water and/or through the organisms food. Furthermore, bioavailability, assimilation and subsequent retention in biota may be affected by the chemical species of the element in sea water. While mercury is known to exist in the inorganic form in sea water, recent work has indicated that, in certain coastal areas, a good portion of the total mercury appears to be organically bound; however, the exact chemical nature of the organic fraction has yet to be determined. Methyl mercury may be one constituent of the natural organically bound fraction since microbial mechanisms for in situ methylation of mercury have been demonstrated in the aquatic environment. Despite the fact that naturally produced methyl mercury probably comprises only a small fraction of an aquatic ecosystem, the well-documented toxic effects of this organo-mercurial, caused by man-made introductions into marine food chains, make it an important compound to study

  20. Volcanic mercury in Pinus canariensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos; Miranda, José Carlos; Carbonell, Gregoria; Gil, Luis

    2013-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that is emitted to the atmosphere by both human activities and natural processes. Volcanic emissions are considered a natural source of mercury in the environment. In some cases, tree ring records taken close to volcanoes and their relation to volcanic activity over time are contradictory. In 1949, the Hoyo Negro volcano (La Palma-Canary Islands) produced significant pyroclastic flows that damaged the nearby stand of Pinus canariensis. Recently, 60 years after the eruption, we assessed mercury concentrations in the stem of a pine which survived volcano formation, located at a distance of 50 m from the crater. We show that Hg content in a wound caused by pyroclastic impacts (22.3 μg kg-1) is an order of magnitude higher than the Hg concentrations measured in the xylem before and after the eruption (2.3 μg kg-1). Thus, mercury emissions originating from the eruption remained only as a mark—in pyroclastic wounds—and can be considered a sporadic and very high mercury input that did not affect the overall Hg input in the xylem. In addition, mercury contents recorded in the phloem (9.5 μg kg-1) and bark (6.0 μg kg-1) suggest that mercury shifts towards non-living tissues of the pine, an aspect that can be related to detoxification in volcanism-adapted species.

  1. Atmospheric mercury footprints of nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Sai; Wang, Yafei; Cinnirella, Sergio; Pirrone, Nicola

    2015-03-17

    The Minamata Convention was established to protect humans and the natural environment from the adverse effects of mercury emissions. A cogent assessment of mercury emissions is required to help implement the Minamata Convention. Here, we use an environmentally extended multi-regional input-output model to calculate atmospheric mercury footprints of nations based on upstream production (meaning direct emissions from the production activities of a nation), downstream production (meaning both direct and indirect emissions caused by the production activities of a nation), and consumption (meaning both direct and indirect emissions caused by final consumption of goods and services in a nation). Results show that nations function differently within global supply chains. Developed nations usually have larger consumption-based emissions than up- and downstream production-based emissions. India, South Korea, and Taiwan have larger downstream production-based emissions than their upstream production- and consumption-based emissions. Developed nations (e.g., United States, Japan, and Germany) are in part responsible for mercury emissions of developing nations (e.g., China, India, and Indonesia). Our findings indicate that global mercury abatement should focus on multiple stages of global supply chains. We propose three initiatives for global mercury abatement, comprising the establishment of mercury control technologies of upstream producers, productivity improvement of downstream producers, and behavior optimization of final consumers.

  2. Volcanic mercury in Pinus canariensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos; Miranda, José Carlos; Carbonell, Gregoria; Gil, Luis

    2013-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that is emitted to the atmosphere by both human activities and natural processes. Volcanic emissions are considered a natural source of mercury in the environment. In some cases, tree ring records taken close to volcanoes and their relation to volcanic activity over time are contradictory. In 1949, the Hoyo Negro volcano (La Palma-Canary Islands) produced significant pyroclastic flows that damaged the nearby stand of Pinus canariensis. Recently, 60 years after the eruption, we assessed mercury concentrations in the stem of a pine which survived volcano formation, located at a distance of 50 m from the crater. We show that Hg content in a wound caused by pyroclastic impacts (22.3 μg kg(-1)) is an order of magnitude higher than the Hg concentrations measured in the xylem before and after the eruption (2.3 μg kg(-1)). Thus, mercury emissions originating from the eruption remained only as a mark-in pyroclastic wounds-and can be considered a sporadic and very high mercury input that did not affect the overall Hg input in the xylem. In addition, mercury contents recorded in the phloem (9.5 μg kg(-1)) and bark (6.0 μg kg(-1)) suggest that mercury shifts towards non-living tissues of the pine, an aspect that can be related to detoxification in volcanism-adapted species.

  3. Method for removal and stabilization of mercury in mercury-containing gas streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Thomas E.

    2005-09-13

    The present invention is directed to a process and apparatus for removing and stabilizing mercury from mercury-containing gas streams. A gas stream containing vapor phase elemental and/or speciated mercury is contacted with reagent, such as an oxygen-containing oxidant, in a liquid environment to form a mercury-containing precipitate. The mercury-containing precipitate is kept or placed in solution and reacts with one or more additional reagents to form a solid, stable mercury-containing compound.

  4. Technological characterization and survival of the exopolysaccharide-producing strain Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis 193 and its bile-resistant derivative 193+ in simulated gastric and intestinal juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Patricia; Vinderola, Gabriel; Reinheimer, Jorge; Cuesta, Isabel; de Los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia

    2011-08-01

    The capacity of lactic acid bacteria to produce exopolysaccharides (EPS) conferring microorganisms a ropy phenotype could be an interesting feature from a technological point of view. Progressive adaptation to bile salts might render some lactobacilli able to overcome physiological gut barriers but could also modify functional properties of the strain, including the production of EPS. In this work some technological properties and the survival ability in simulated gastrointestinal conditions of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis 193, and Lb. delbrueckii subsp. lactis 193+, a strain with stable bile-resistant phenotype derived thereof, were characterized in milk in order to know whether the acquisition of resistance to bile could modify some characteristics of the microorganism. Both strains were able to grow and acidify milk similarly; however the production of ethanol increased at the expense of the aroma compound acetaldehyde in milk fermented by the strain 193+, with respect to milk fermented by the strain 193. Both microorganisms produced a heteropolysaccharide composed of glucose and galactose, and were able to increase the viscosity of fermented milks. In spite of the higher production yield of EPS by the bile-resistant strain 193+, it displayed a lower ability to increase viscosity than Lb. delbrueckii subsp. lactis 193. Milk increased survival in simulated gastric juice; the presence of bile improved adhesion to the intestinal cell line HT29-MTX in both strains. However, the acquisition of a stable resistance phenotype did not improve survival in simulated gastric and intestinal conditions or the adhesion to the intestinal cell line HT29-MTX. Thus, Lb. delbrueckii subsp. lactis 193 presents suitable technological properties for the manufacture of fermented dairy products; the acquisition of a stable bile-resistant phenotype modified some properties of the microorganism. This suggests that the possible use of bile-resistant derivative strains should be

  5. Vaporization of elemental mercury from pools of molten lead at low concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, G.A.; Finfrock, C.C.

    2000-01-01

    Should coolant accidentally be lost to the APT (Accelerator Production of Tritium) blanket and target, and the decay heat in the target be deposited in the surrounding blanket by thermal radiation, temperatures in the blanket modules could exceed structural limits and cause a physical collapse of the blanket modules into a non-coolable geometry. Such a sequence of unmitigated events could result in some melting of the APT blanket and create the potential for the release of mercury into the target-blanket cavity air space. Experiments were conducted which simulate such hypothetical accident conditions in order to measure the rate of vaporization of elemental mercury from pools of molten lead to quantify the possible severe accident source term for the APT blanket region. Molten pools of from 0.01% to 0.10% mercury in lead were prepared under inert conditions. Experiments were conducted, which varied in duration from several hours to as long as a month, to measure the mercury vaporization from the lead pools. The melt pools and gas atmospheres were held fixed at 340 C during the tests. Parameters which were varied in the tests included the mercury concentration, gas flow rate over the melt and agitation of the melt, gas atmosphere composition and the addition of aluminum to the melt. The vaporization of mercury was found to scale roughly linearly with the concentration of mercury in the pool. Variations in the gas flow rates were not found to have any effect on the mass transfer, however agitation of the melt by a submerged stirrer did enhance the mercury vaporization rate. The rate of mercury vaporization with an argon (inert) atmosphere was found to exceed that for an air (oxidizing) atmosphere by as much as a factor of from ten to 20; the causal factor in this variation was the formation of an oxide layer over the melt pool with the air atmosphere which served to retard mass transfer across the melt-atmosphere interface. Aluminum was introduced into the melt to

  6. Exploring Mercury: The Iron Planet

    OpenAIRE

    Stevenson, David J.

    2004-01-01

    Planet Mercury is both difficult to observe and difficult to reach by spacecraft. Just one spacecraft, Mariner 10, flew by the planet 30 years ago. An upcoming NASA mission, MESSENGER, will be launched this year and will go into orbit around Mercury at the end of this decade. A European mission is planned for the following decade. It's worth going there because Mercury is a strange body and the history of planetary exploration has taught us that strangeness gives us insight into planetary ori...

  7. Chelation Therapy for Mercury Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Guan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chelation therapy has been the major treatment for heavy metal poisoning. Various chelating agents have been developed and tested for treatment of heavy metal intoxications, including mercury poisoning. It has been clearly shown that chelating agents could rescue the toxicity caused by heavy metal intoxication, but the potential preventive role of chelating agents against heavy metal poisoning has not been explored much. Recent paper by Siddiqi and colleagues has suggested a protective role of chelating agents against mercury poisoning, which provides a promising research direction for broader application of chelation therapy in prevention and treatment of mercury poisoning.

  8. MESSENGER'S First Flyby of Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, James A.

    2008-01-01

    The MESSENGER mission to Mercury offers our first opportunity to explore this planet's miniature magnetosphere since Mariner 10's brief fly-bys in 1974-5. The magnetosphere of Mercury is the smallest in the solar system with its magnetic field typically standing off the solar wind only - 1000 to 2000 km above the surface. An overview of the MESSENGER mission and its January 14th close flyby of Mercury will be provided. Primary science objectives and the science instrumentation will be described. Initial results from MESSENGER'S first flyby on January 14th, 2008 will be discussed with an emphasis on the magnetic field and charged particle measurements.

  9. Distribution and retention of organic and inorganic mercury in methyl mercury-treated neonatal rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.J.; Fisher, H.L.; Sumler, M.R.; Hall, L.L.; Mushak, P.

    1988-01-01

    Seven-day-old Long Evans rats received one mumol of 203 Hg-labeled methyl mercury/kg sc and whole body retention and tissue distribution of organic and inorganic mercury were examined for 32 days postdosing. Neonates cleared mercury slowly until 10 days postdosing when the clearance rate abruptly increased. During the interval when whole body clearance of mercury was extremely slow, methyl mercury was metabolized to inorganic mercury. Peak concentration of mercury in kidney occurred at 2 days postdosing. At 32 days postdosing, 8% of mercury in kidney was in an organic from. Liver mercury concentration peaked at 2 days postdosing and organic mercury accounted for 38% at 32 days postdosing. Brain concentrations of mercury peaked at 2 days postdosing. At 10 days postdosing, organic mercury accounted for 86% of the brain mercury burden, and, at 32 days postdosing, for 60%. The percentage of mercury body burden in pelt rose from 30 to 70% between 1 and 10 days postdosing. At 32 days postdosing pelt contained 85% of the body burden of mercury. At all time points, about 95% of mercury in pelt was in an organic form. Compartmental analysis of these data permitted development of a model to describe the distribution and excretion of organic and inorganic mercury in methyl mercury-treated neonatal rats

  10. Disposal strategy of proton irradiated mercury from high power spallation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiriki, Suresh

    2010-01-01

    Large spallation sources are intended to be constructed in Europe (EURISOL: nuclear physics research facility and ESS: European Spallation Source). These facilities would accumulate more than 20 metric tons of irradiated mercury in the target, which has to be treated as highly radioactive and chemo-toxic waste. Liquid waste cannot be tolerated in European repositories. As part of this work on safety/decommissioning of high-power spallation sources, our investigations were focused mainly to study experimentally and theoretically the solidification of liquid mercury waste (selection of an adequate solid mercury form and of an immobilization matrix, chemical engineering process studies on solidification/stabilization and on encapsulating in a matrix). Based on experimental results and supported by literature Hg-chalcogens (HgS, HgSe) will be more stable in repositories than amalgams. Our irradiation experimental studies on mercury waste revealed that mercury sulfide is a reasonable solid for disposal and shows larger stability in possible accidents with water ingress in a repository. Additionally immobilization of mercury in a cement matrix and polysiloxane matrix were tested. HgS formation from liquid target mercury by a wet process is identified as a suitable formation procedure. These investigations reveal that an almost 99.9% elementary Hg conversion can be achieved and that wet process can be reasonably handled under hot cell conditions. (orig.)

  11. Disposal strategy of proton irradiated mercury from high power spallation sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiriki, Suresh

    2010-07-01

    Large spallation sources are intended to be constructed in Europe (EURISOL: nuclear physics research facility and ESS: European Spallation Source). These facilities would accumulate more than 20 metric tons of irradiated mercury in the target, which has to be treated as highly radioactive and chemo-toxic waste. Liquid waste cannot be tolerated in European repositories. As part of this work on safety/decommissioning of high-power spallation sources, our investigations were focused mainly to study experimentally and theoretically the solidification of liquid mercury waste (selection of an adequate solid mercury form and of an immobilization matrix, chemical engineering process studies on solidification/stabilization and on encapsulating in a matrix). Based on experimental results and supported by literature Hg-chalcogens (HgS, HgSe) will be more stable in repositories than amalgams. Our irradiation experimental studies on mercury waste revealed that mercury sulfide is a reasonable solid for disposal and shows larger stability in possible accidents with water ingress in a repository. Additionally immobilization of mercury in a cement matrix and polysiloxane matrix were tested. HgS formation from liquid target mercury by a wet process is identified as a suitable formation procedure. These investigations reveal that an almost 99.9% elementary Hg conversion can be achieved and that wet process can be reasonably handled under hot cell conditions. (orig.)

  12. The Use of Bacteria for Remediation of Mercury Contaminated Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many processes of mercury transformation in the environment are bacteria mediated. Mercury properties cause some difficulties of remediation of mercury contaminated environment. Despite the significance of the problem of mercury pollution, methods of large scale bioremediation ...

  13. Elimination of mercury in health care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-01

    Mercury is a persistent, bioaccumulative toxin that has been linked to numerous health effects in humans and wildlife. It is a potent neurotoxin that may also harm the brain, kidneys, and lungs. Unborn children and young infants are at particular risk for brain damage from mercury exposure. Hospitals' use of mercury in chemical solutions, thermometers, blood pressure gauges, batteries, and fluorescent lamps makes these facilities large contributors to the overall emission of mercury into the environment. Most hospitals recognize the dangers of mercury. In a recent survey, four out of five hospitals stated that they have policies in place to eliminate the use of mercury-containing products. Sixty-two percent of them require vendors to disclose the presence of mercury in chemicals that the hospitals purchase. Only 12 percent distribute mercury-containing thermometers to new parents. Ninety-two percent teach their employees about the health and environmental effects of mercury, and 46 percent teach all employees how to clean up mercury spills. However, the same study showed that many hospitals have not implemented their policies. Forty-two percent were not aware whether they still purchased items containing mercury. In addition, 49 percent still purchase mercury thermometers, 44 percent purchase mercury gastrointestinal diagnostic equipment, and 64 percent still purchase mercury lab thermometers.

  14. Mercury pollution: a transdisciplinary treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zuber, Sharon L; Newman, Michael C

    2012-01-01

    .... Also included are smaller case studies, such as the Minamata tragedy, fish consumption, and international treaties"-- "Mercury is the gravest chemical pollutant problem of our time, and this is...

  15. Mercury contamination in the Amazon

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Nancy Minogue

    contamination is mainly caused by deforestation upstream. ... The team expected to find that the mercury levels in the water, sediment, and soil decreased as they ... Methylmercury poisoning — known as Minamata Disease after the Japanese ...

  16. Mercury absorption in aqueous hypochlorite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, L.L.; Rochelle, G.T.

    1999-01-01

    The absorption of elemental Hg vapor into aqueous hypochlorite was measured in a stirred tank reactor at 25 and 55C. NaOCl strongly absorbs Hg even at high pH. Low pH, high Cl - and high-temperature favor mercury absorption. Aqueous free Cl 2 was the active species that reacted with mercury. However, chlorine desorption was evident at high Cl - and pH 15 M -1 s -1 at 25C and 1.4x10 17 M -1 s -1 at 55C. Gas-phase reaction was observed between Hg and Cl 2 on apparatus surfaces. Strong mercury absorption in water was also detected with Cl 2 present. Results indicate that the chlorine concentration, moisture, and surface area contribute positively to mercury removal. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  17. Origin and composition of Mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    The predictions of the expected range of composition of Mercury at the time of its formation made on the basis of a suite of condensation-accretion models of Mercury spanning a range of condensation temperature and accretion sampling functions appropriate to Mercury are examined. It is concluded that these compositonal models can, if modified to take into account the nonselective loss of most of the silicate component of the planet during accretion, provide compositional predictions for the Weidenschilling (1978, 1980) mechanism for the accretion of a metal-rich Mercury. The silicate portion would, in this case, contain 3.6 to 4.5 percent alumina, roughly 1 percent of alkali oxides, and between 0.5 and 6 percent FeO

  18. Localized surface plasmon resonance mercury detection system and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jay; Lucas, Donald; Crosby, Jeffrey Scott; Koshland, Catherine P.

    2016-03-22

    A mercury detection system that includes a flow cell having a mercury sensor, a light source and a light detector is provided. The mercury sensor includes a transparent substrate and a submonolayer of mercury absorbing nanoparticles, e.g., gold nanoparticles, on a surface of the substrate. Methods of determining whether mercury is present in a sample using the mercury sensors are also provided. The subject mercury detection systems and methods find use in a variety of different applications, including mercury detecting applications.

  19. Mercury Toolset for Spatiotemporal Metadata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarakonda, Ranjeet; Palanisamy, Giri; Green, James; Wilson, Bruce; Rhyne, B. Timothy; Lindsley, Chris

    2010-06-01

    Mercury (http://mercury.ornl.gov) is a set of tools for federated harvesting, searching, and retrieving metadata, particularly spatiotemporal metadata. Version 3.0 of the Mercury toolset provides orders of magnitude improvements in search speed, support for additional metadata formats, integration with Google Maps for spatial queries, facetted type search, support for RSS (Really Simple Syndication) delivery of search results, and enhanced customization to meet the needs of the multiple projects that use Mercury. It provides a single portal to very quickly search for data and information contained in disparate data management systems, each of which may use different metadata formats. Mercury harvests metadata and key data from contributing project servers distributed around the world and builds a centralized index. The search interfaces then allow the users to perform a variety of fielded, spatial, and temporal searches across these metadata sources. This centralized repository of metadata with distributed data sources provides extremely fast search results to the user, while allowing data providers to advertise the availability of their data and maintain complete control and ownership of that data. Mercury periodically (typically daily)harvests metadata sources through a collection of interfaces and re-indexes these metadata to provide extremely rapid search capabilities, even over collections with tens of millions of metadata records. A number of both graphical and application interfaces have been constructed within Mercury, to enable both human users and other computer programs to perform queries. Mercury was also designed to support multiple different projects, so that the particular fields that can be queried and used with search filters are easy to configure for each different project.

  20. Mercury Toolset for Spatiotemporal Metadata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Bruce E.; Palanisamy, Giri; Devarakonda, Ranjeet; Rhyne, B. Timothy; Lindsley, Chris; Green, James

    2010-01-01

    Mercury (http://mercury.ornl.gov) is a set of tools for federated harvesting, searching, and retrieving metadata, particularly spatiotemporal metadata. Version 3.0 of the Mercury toolset provides orders of magnitude improvements in search speed, support for additional metadata formats, integration with Google Maps for spatial queries, facetted type search, support for RSS (Really Simple Syndication) delivery of search results, and enhanced customization to meet the needs of the multiple projects that use Mercury. It provides a single portal to very quickly search for data and information contained in disparate data management systems, each of which may use different metadata formats. Mercury harvests metadata and key data from contributing project servers distributed around the world and builds a centralized index. The search interfaces then allow the users to perform a variety of fielded, spatial, and temporal searches across these metadata sources. This centralized repository of metadata with distributed data sources provides extremely fast search results to the user, while allowing data providers to advertise the availability of their data and maintain complete control and ownership of that data. Mercury periodically (typically daily) harvests metadata sources through a collection of interfaces and re-indexes these metadata to provide extremely rapid search capabilities, even over collections with tens of millions of metadata records. A number of both graphical and application interfaces have been constructed within Mercury, to enable both human users and other computer programs to perform queries. Mercury was also designed to support multiple different projects, so that the particular fields that can be queried and used with search filters are easy to configure for each different project.

  1. Studies on the preparation of thallium-201 by irradiating mercury with protons using extraction chromatography technique to separate thallium from mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, L.

    1990-01-01

    Radionuclide sup(201)Tl is used in Nuclear Medicine to identify myocardial ischemia or myocardial infarct. It is a cyclotron-produced radioisotope, obtained indirectly from the decay of sup(202)Pb or directly by irradiating mercury with deuterons or protons. The usual technique to prepare sup(201)Tl makes use of the nuclear reaction: sup(203)(p,3n) → sup(201)Tl, which requires proton energy of around 28 MeV. Due to the limited proton energy of IPEN'S CV-28 cyclotron, studies on the irradiating conditions of natural mercury oxide pellets and drops of natural mercury metal were made in the range of 19 - 24 MeV. At the end of the bombardment of a 6 MeV thickness target of natural mercury metal with 19 MeV protons around 10 MBq sup(201)Tl/μ A h was obtained. (author)

  2. The Mercury Laser Advances Laser Technology for Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebbers, C A; Caird, J; Moses, E

    2009-01-21

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory is on target to demonstrate 'breakeven' - creating as much fusion-energy output as laser-energy input. NIF will compress a tiny sphere of hydrogen isotopes with 1.8 MJ of laser light in a 20-ns pulse, packing the isotopes so tightly that they fuse together, producing helium nuclei and releasing energy in the form of energetic particles. The achievement of breakeven will culminate an enormous effort by thousands of scientists and engineers, not only at Livermore but around the world, during the past several decades. But what about the day after NIF achieves breakeven? NIF is a world-class engineering research facility, but if laser fusion is ever to generate power for civilian consumption, the laser will have to deliver pulses nearly 100,000 times faster than NIF - a rate of perhaps 10 shots per second as opposed to NIF's several shots a day. The Mercury laser (named after the Roman messenger god) is intended to lead the way to a 10-shots-per-second, electrically-efficient, driver laser for commercial laser fusion. While the Mercury laser will generate only a small fraction of the peak power of NIF (1/30,000), Mercury operates at higher average power. The design of Mercury takes full advantage of the technology advances manifest in its behemoth cousin (Table 1). One significant difference is that, unlike the flashlamp-pumped NIF, Mercury is pumped by highly efficient laser diodes. Mercury is a prototype laser capable of scaling in aperture and energy to a NIF-like beamline, with greater electrical efficiency, while still running at a repetition rate 100,000 times greater.

  3. Phytoremediation of Ionic and Methyl Mercury Pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meagher, Richard B.

    2005-06-01

    Phytoremediation is defined as the use of plants to extract, resist, detoxify, and/or sequester toxic environmental pollutants. The long-term goal of the proposed research is to develop and test highly productive, field-adapted plant species that have been engineered for the phytoremediation of mercury. A variety of different genes, which should enable plants to clean mercury polluted sites are being tested as tools for mercury phytoremediation, first in model laboratory plants and then in potential field species. Several of these genes have already been shown to enhance mercury phytoremediation. Mercury pollution is a serious, world-wide problem affecting the health of human and wildlife populations. Environmentally, the most serious mercury threat is the production of methylmercury (CH3Hg+) by native bacteria at mercury contaminated wetland sites. Methylmercury is inherently more toxic than metallic (Hg(0)) or ionic (Hg(II)) mercury, and because methylmercury is prolifically biomagnified up the food chain, it poses the most immediate danger to animal populations. We have successfully engineered two model plants, Arabidopsis and tobacco, to use the bacterial merB gene to convert methylmercury to less toxic ionic mercury and to use the bacterial merA gene to further detoxify ionic mercury to the least toxic form of mercury, metallic mercury. Plants expressing both MerA and MerB proteins detoxify methylmercury in two steps to the metallic form. These plants germinate, grow, and set seed at normal growth rates on levels of methylmercury or ionic mercury that are lethal to normal plants. Our newest efforts involve engineering plants with several additional bacterial and plant genes that allow for higher levels of mercury resistance and mercury hyperaccumulation. The potential for these plants to hyperaccumulate mercury was further advanced by developing constitutive, aboveground, and root-specific gene expression systems. Our current strategy is to engineer plants to

  4. Autometallographic tracing of mercury in frog liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loumbourdis, N.S.; Danscher, G.

    2004-01-01

    The distribution of mercury in the liver of the frog Rana ridibunda with the autometallographic method was investigated. The mercury specific autometallographic (HgS/Se AMG ) technique is a sensitive histochemical approach for tracing mercury in tissues from mercury-exposed organisms. Mercury accumulates in vivo as mercury sulphur/mercury selenium nanocrystals that can be silver-enhanced. Thus, only a fraction of the Hg can be visualized. Six animals were exposed for one day and another group of six animals for 6 days in 1 ppm mercury (as HgCI 2 ) dissolved in fresh water. A third group of six animals, served as controls, were sacrificed the day of arrival at the laboratory. First, mercury appears in the blood plasma and erythrocytes. Next, mercury moves to hepatocytes and in the apical part of the cells, that facing bile canaliculi. In a next step, mercury appears in the endothelial and Kupffer cells. It seems likely that, the mercury of hepatocytes moves through bile canaliculi to the gut, most probably bound to glutathione and/or other similar ligands. Most probably, the endothelial and Kupffer cells comprise the first line of defense against metal toxicity. - Frogs can be good bioindicators of mercury

  5. Radiation induced cavitation: A possible phenomenon in liquid targets?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, C.D.

    1998-07-01

    The proposed design of a new, short-pulse spallation neutron source includes a liquid mercury target irradiated with a 1 GeV proton beam. This paper explores the possibility that cavitation bubbles may be formed in the mercury and briefly discusses some design features that could avoid harmful effects should cavitation take place.

  6. Radiation induced cavitation: A possible phenomenon in liquid targets?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, C.D.

    1998-01-01

    The proposed design of a new, short-pulse spallation neutron source includes a liquid mercury target irradiated with a 1 GeV proton beam. This paper explores the possibility that cavitation bubbles may be formed in the mercury and briefly discusses some design features that could avoid harmful effects should cavitation take place

  7. Mercury: Aspects of its ecology and environmental toxicity. [physiological effects of mercury compound contamination of environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of mercury pollution on the environment. The possible sources of mercury contamination in sea water are identified. The effects of mercury on food sources, as represented by swordfish, are analyzed. The physiological effects of varying concentrations of mercury are reported. Emphasis is placed on the situation existing in the Hawaiian Islands.

  8. 76 FR 13851 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali...-5] RIN 2060-AN99 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Supplemental...

  9. Groundwater Modeling Of Mercury Pollution At A Former Mercury Cell Chlor Alkali Facility In Pavoldar, Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Kazakhstan, there is a serious case of mercury pollution near the city of Pavlodar from an old mercury cell chlor-alkali plant. The soil, sediment, and water is severly contaminated with mercury and mercury compounds as a result of the industrial activity of this chemical pla...

  10. Evaluation of Energy Consumption in the Mercury Treatment of Phosphor Powder from Spent Fluorescent Lamps Using a Thermal Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Choi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In a pilot-plant-scale thermal mercury treatment of phosphor powder from spent fluorescent lamps, energy consumption was estimated to control mercury content by the consideration of reaction kinetics. Mercury content was analyzed as a function of treatment temperature and time. The initial mercury content of the phosphor powder used in the thermal process was approximately 3500 mg/kg. The target mercury content in the phosphor powder thermal process of the phosphor powder was 5 mg/kg or less at 400 °C or higher because the target mercury content was recommended by Minamata Convention and Basel Convention. During thermal processing, the reaction rate was represented by a first order reaction with the Arrhenius equation. The reaction rate constant increased with temperature from 0.0112 min−1 at 350 °C to 0.0558 min−1 at 600 °C. The frequency factor was 2.51 min−1, and the activation energy was 6509.11 kcal/kg. Reaction rate constants were used to evaluate the treatment time required to reduce mercury content in phosphor powder to be less than 5 mg/kg. The total energy consumption in a pilot-plant-scale thermal process was evaluated to determine the optimal temperature for removing mercury in phosphor powder.

  11. Measurement of the ground state spectroscopic quadrupole moments of 191Os and 193Os

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, H.; Hagn, E.; Zech, E.

    1979-01-01

    Radioactive 191 Os and 193 Os nuclei have been aligned in an Os single crystal at temperatures down to 4 mK. From the temperature dependence of the γ-anisotropy the quadrupole frequencies vsub(Q) = e 2 qQ/h have been determined as vsub(Q)( 191 OsOs) = -278+-9 MHz and vsub(Q)( 193 OsOs) = -96+-15 MHz. With the known electric field gradient for OsOs of eq = (-4.54+-0.24) x 10 17 V/cm 2 the ground state spectroscopic quadrupole moments are deduced to be Q( 191 Os) = +2.53+-0.16 b and Q( 193 Os) = +0.87+-0.15 b. (orig.)

  12. Mercury - the hollow planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothery, D. A.

    2012-04-01

    Mercury is turning out to be a planet characterized by various kinds of endogenous hole (discounting impact craters), which are compared here. These include volcanic vents and collapse features on horizontal scales of tens of km, and smaller scale depressions ('hollows') associated with bright crater-floor deposits (BCFD). The BCFD hollows are tens of metres deep and kilometres or less across and are characteristically flat-floored, with steep, scalloped walls. Their form suggests that they most likely result from removal of surface material by some kind of mass-wasting process, probably associated with volume-loss caused by removal (via sublimation?) of a volatile component. These do not appear to be primarily a result of undermining. Determining the composition of the high-albedo bluish surface coating in BCFDs will be a key goal for BepiColombo instruments such as MIXS (Mercury Imaging Xray Spectrometer). In contrast, collapse features are non-circular rimless pits, typically on crater floors (pit-floor craters), whose morphology suggests collapse into void spaces left by magma withdrawal. This could be by drainage of either erupted lava (or impact melt) or of shallowly-intruded magma. Unlike the much smaller-scale BCFD hollows, these 'collapse pit' features tend to lack extensive flat floors and instead tend to be close to triangular in cross-section with inward slopes near to the critical angle of repose. The different scale and morphology of BCFD hollows and collapse pits argues for quite different modes of origin. However, BCFD hollows adjacent to and within the collapse pit inside Scarlatti crater suggest that the volatile material whose loss was responsible for the growth of the hollows may have been emplaced in association with the magma whose drainage caused the main collapse. Another kind of volcanic collapse can be seen within a 25 km-wide volcanic vent outside the southern rim of the Caloris basin (22.5° N, 146.1° E), on a 28 m/pixel MDIS NAC image

  13. Clinical significance of miR-140-5p and miR-193b expression in patients with breast cancer and relationship to IGFBP5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökçe Güllü

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The functional role of IGFBP5 in breast cancer is complicated. Experimental and bioinformatics studies have shown that IGFBP5 is targeted by miR-140-5p and miR-193b, although this has not yet been proven in clinical samples. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of miR-140-5p and miR-193b in breast cancer and adjacent normal tissue and assess its correlation with IGFBP5 and the clinicopathological characteristics of the tumors. IGFBP5 protein expression was analyzed immunohistochemically and IGFBP5, miR-140 and miR-193b mRNA expression levels were analyzed with real-time RT-PCR. Tumor tissue had higher miR-140-5p expression than adjacent normal tissue (p = 0.015. Samples with no immunohistochemical staining for IGFBP5 showed increased miR-140-5p expression (p = 0.009. miR-140-5p expression was elevated in invasive ductal carcinomas (p = 0.002, whereas basal-like tumors had decreased expression of miR-140-5p compared to other tumors (p = 0.008. Lymph node-positive samples showed an approximately 13-fold increase in miR-140-5p expression compared to lymph node-negative tissue (p = 0.049. These findings suggest that miR-140-5p, but not miR-193b, could be an important determinant of IGFBP5 expression and clinical phenotype in breast cancer patients. Further studies are needed to clarify the expressional regulation of IGFBP5 by miR-140-5p.

  14. Mercury in dated Greenland marine sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmund, G.; Nielsen, S.P.

    2000-01-01

    Twenty marine sediment cores from Greenland were analysed for mercury, and dated by the lead-210 method. In general the cores exhibit a mercury profile with higher mercury concentrations in the upper centimetres of the core. The cores were studied by linear regression of In Hg vs, age of the sedi......Twenty marine sediment cores from Greenland were analysed for mercury, and dated by the lead-210 method. In general the cores exhibit a mercury profile with higher mercury concentrations in the upper centimetres of the core. The cores were studied by linear regression of In Hg vs, age...... indicating that the mercury mainly originates from atmospheric washout. But the large variability indicates that other processes also influence the mercury flux to Arctic marine sediments. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  15. Sorption of mercury on chemically synthesized polyaniline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remya Devi, P.S.; Verma, R.; Sudersanan, M.

    2006-01-01

    Sorption of inorganic mercury (Hg 2+ ) and methyl mercury, on chemically synthesized polyaniline, in 0.1-10N HCl solutions has been studied. Hg 2+ is strongly sorbed at low acidities and the extent of sorption decreases with increase in acidity. The sorption of methyl mercury is very low in the HCl concentration range studied. Sorption of Hg 2+ on polyaniline in 0.1-10N LiCl and H 2 SO 4 solutions has also been studied. The analysis of the data indicates that the sorption of Hg 2+ depends on the degree of protonation of polyaniline and the nature of mercury(II) chloride complexes in solution. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis (XPS) of polyaniline sorbed with mercury show that mercury is bound as Hg 2+ . Sorbed mercury is quantitatively eluted from polyaniline with 0.5N HNO 3 . Polyaniline can be used for separation and pre-concentration of inorganic mercury from aqueous samples. (author)

  16. Genetic effects of organic mercury compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramel, C

    1967-01-01

    Studies on the genetic and developmental effects of organic mercury compounds on lilies, drosophila, and ice were carried out. It was found that chromosomal and developmental abnormalities were correlated with the administration of mercury compounds.

  17. Mercury-Containing Devices and Demolition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some items inside residential buildings contain mercury, which poses a persistent and toxic human health and environmental threat. These materials should be carefully salvaged for proper recycling to prevent mercury contamination prior to demolition.

  18. EPA Leadership in the Global Mercury Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Global Mercury Partnership is a voluntary multi-stakeholder partnership initiated in 2005 to take immediate actions to protect human health and the environment from the releases of mercury and its compounds to the environment.

  19. Mercury in Thana creek, Bombay harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.; Desai, B.N.

    weight) with marked increased from harbour to the creek region suggests substantial mercury input in the head region. Chemical extraction by hydrogen peroxide indicated that more than 70% of mercury was leachable and probably organically bound...

  20. Mercury Lander Mission Concept Study Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, D. A.

    2018-05-01

    Provides a summary of the Mercury Lander Mission Concept Study performed as part of the last Planetary Decadal Survey. The presentation will focus on engineering trades and the challenges of developing a Mercury lander mission.

  1. Mercury Emission Measurement in Coal-Fired Boilers by Continuous Mercury Monitor and Ontario Hydro Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanqun; Zhou, Jinsong; He, Sheng; Cai, Xiaoshu; Hu, Changxin; Zheng, Jianming; Zhang, Le; Luo, Zhongyang; Cen, Kefa

    2007-06-01

    The mercury emission control approach attaches more importance. The accurate measurement of mercury speciation is a first step. Because OH method (accepted method) can't provide the real-time data and 2-week time for results attained, it's high time to seek on line mercury continuous emission monitors(Hg-CEM). Firstly, the gaseous elemental and oxidized mercury were conducted to measure using OH and CEM method under normal operation conditions of PC boiler after ESP, the results between two methods show good consistency. Secondly, through ESP, gaseous oxidized mercury decrease a little and particulate mercury reduce a little bit, but the elemental mercury is just the opposite. Besides, the WFGD system achieved to gaseous oxidized mercury removal of 53.4%, gaseous overall mercury and elemental mercury are 37.1% and 22.1%, respectively.

  2. Method for the removal and recovery of mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterly, Clay E.; Vass, Arpad A.; Tyndall, Richard L.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention is an enhanced method for the removal and recovery of mercury from mercury-contaminated matrices. The method involves contacting a mercury-contaminated matrix with an aqueous dispersant solution derived from specific intra-amoebic isolates to release the mercury from the mercury-contaminated matrix and emulsify the mercury; then, contacting the matrix with an amalgamating metal from a metal source to amalgamate the mercury to the amalgamating metal; removing the metallic source from the mercury-contaminated matrix; and heating the metallic source to vaporize the mercury in a closed system to capture the mercury vapors.

  3. Study of the environmental cycling of mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Frades, J P; Hildebrand, S G; Huckabee, J W; Murias, B; Diaz, F S; Wilson, R H

    1977-01-01

    A study of mercury in the environment is under way near the mercury mine at Almaden, Spain. The main aspects of the project are: ecology; atmospheric monitoring; and human studies. The mercury deposit at Almaden is described. The liquid effluent from the mine and smelter contains high concentrations of mercury that pollute nearby rivers. Sample collection and analytical methods used in the ecological survey are reviewed. Ecological experiments are considered. Air monitoring studies and human studies currently being performed are assessed. (1 map)

  4. Phytoremediation of Ionic and Methyl Mercury Pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meagher, Richard B.

    2004-12-01

    Phytoremediation is defined as the use of plants to extract, resist, detoxify, and/or sequester toxic environmental pollutants. The long-term goal of the proposed research is to develop and test highly productive, field-adapted plant species that have been engineered for the phytoremediation of mercury. A variety of different genes, which should enable plants to clean mercury polluted sites are being tested as tools for mercury phytoremediation, first in model laboratory plants and then in potential field species. Several of these genes have already been shown to enhance mercury phytoremediation. Mercury pollution is a serious, world-wide problem affecting the health of human and wildlife populations. Environmentally, the most serious mercury threat is the production of methylmercury (CH3Hg+) by native bacteria at mercury contaminated wetland sites. Methylmercury is inherently more toxic than metallic (Hg(0)) or ionic (Hg(II)) mercury, and because methylmercury is prolifically biomagnified up the food chain, it poses the most immediate danger to animal populations. We have successfully engineered two model plants, Arabidopsis and tobacco, to use the bacterial merB gene to convert methylmercury to less toxic ionic mercury and to use the bacterial merA gene to further detoxify ionic mercury to the least toxic form of mercury, metallic mercury. Plants expressing both MerA and MerB proteins detoxify methylmercury in two steps to the metallic form. These plants germinate, grow, and set seed at normal growth rates on levels of methylmercury or ionic mercury that are lethal to normal plants. Our newest efforts involve engineering plants with several additional bacterial and plant genes that allow for higher levels of mercury resistance and mercury hyperaccumulation. The potential for these plants to hyperaccumulate mercury was further advanced by developing constitutive, aboveground, and root-specific gene expression systems.

  5. Detection of OH on photolysis of styrene oxide at 193 nm in gas phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Awadhesh; SenGupta, Sumana; Pushpa, K. K.; Naik, P. D.; Bajaj, P. N.

    2006-10-01

    Photodissociation of styrene oxide at 193 nm in gas phase generates OH, as detected by laser-induced fluorescence technique. Under similar conditions, OH was not observed from ethylene and propylene oxides, primarily because of their low absorption cross-sections at 193 nm. Mechanism of OH formation involves first opening of the three-membered ring from the ground electronic state via cleavage of either of two C sbnd O bonds, followed by isomerization to enolic forms of phenylacetaldehyde and acetophenone, and finally scission of the C sbnd OH bond of enols. Ab initio molecular orbital calculations support the proposed mechanism.

  6. Absorption coefficients for water vapor at 193 nm from 300 to 1073 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, W. J.; Carleton, K. L.; Marinelli, W. J.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of the water absorption coefficient at 193 nm from 300 to 1073 K are reported. The measurements were made using broadband VUV radiation and a monochromator-based detection system. The water vapor was generated by a saturator and metered into a flowing, 99 cm absorption cell via a water vapor mass flow meter. The 193 nm absorption coefficient measurements are compared to room temperature and high temperature shock tube measurements with good agreement. The absorption can be parameterized by a nu3 vibrational mode reaction coordinate and the thermal population of the nu3 mode.

  7. Design, synthesis, and characterization of fluorine-free PAGs for 193-nm lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sen; Glodde, Martin; Varanasi, Pushkara R.

    2010-04-01

    Photoacid generators (PAGs) are a key component in chemically amplified resists used in photolithography. Perfluorooctanesulfonates (PFOS) and other perfluoroalkylsulfonates (PFAS) have been well adopted as PAGs in 193 nm photoresist. Recently, concerns have been raised about their environmental impact due to their chemical persistency, bioaccumulation and toxicity. It is a general interest to find environmentally benign PAGs that are free of fluorine atoms. Here we describe the design, synthesis and characterization of a series of novel fluorine-free onium salts as PAGs for 193 nm photoresists. These PAGs demonstrated desirable physical and lithography properties when compared with PFAS-based PAGs for both dry and immersion exposures.

  8. Mercury Continuous Emmission Monitor Calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Schabron; Eric Kalberer; Ryan Boysen; William Schuster; Joseph Rovani

    2009-03-12

    Mercury continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMs) are being implemented in over 800 coal-fired power plant stacks throughput the U.S. Western Research Institute (WRI) is working closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to facilitate the development of the experimental criteria for a NIST traceability protocol for dynamic elemental mercury vapor calibrators/generators. These devices are used to calibrate mercury CEMs at power plant sites. The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) which was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2005 and vacated by a Federal appeals court in early 2008 required that calibration be performed with NIST-traceable standards. Despite the vacature, mercury emissions regulations in the future will require NIST traceable calibration standards, and EPA does not want to interrupt the effort towards developing NIST traceability protocols. The traceability procedures will be defined by EPA. An initial draft traceability protocol was issued by EPA in May 2007 for comment. In August 2007, EPA issued a conceptual interim traceability protocol for elemental mercury calibrators. The protocol is based on the actual analysis of the output of each calibration unit at several concentration levels ranging initially from about 2-40 {micro}g/m{sup 3} elemental mercury, and in the future down to 0.2 {micro}g/m{sup 3}, and this analysis will be directly traceable to analyses by NIST. The EPA traceability protocol document is divided into two separate sections. The first deals with the qualification of calibrator models by the vendors for use in mercury CEM calibration. The second describes the procedure that the vendors must use to certify the calibrators that meet the qualification specifications. The NIST traceable certification is performance based, traceable to analysis using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma

  9. Evidence for dipolar bands in mercury isotopes using EUROGAM multi-detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Coz, Y.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to the study of nuclear structure around mass A 190 and in particular, to the search of oblate rotational dipole bands in mercury isotopes. The reactions used to populate high spin states in 192 Hg and 193 Hg were 160 Gd ( 36 S,n) 192 Hg and 150 Nd( 48 Ca, 5n) 193 Hg at beam energies of 159 and 213 MeV. Gamma-rays have been detected using the EUROGAM phase I array. Level schemes of those two nuclei have been extended up to an excitation energy of about 10 MeV and approximately spin 35h. In 192 Hg, two new dipole bands have been observed. Those two structures, as well as two similar structures in 193 Hg, have been connected to the low-lying states; so, excitation energy and bandhead spin of those bands have been deduced. Angular distribution and correlation analysis (specific to EUROGRAM phase I) have confirmed that the transitions are dipoles. After a general presentation of dipole bands in this A = 190 mass region, experimental results are compared with mean-field Hartree-Fock + BCS calculations, using the rotor plus quasi-particles model. The results are consistent with weakly oblate structures based on configurations which involve high-K proton orbitals driving the nucleus to an oblate shape. (author). 81 refs., 47 figs., 8 tabs., 4 ann

  10. MicroRNA-193a Regulates the Transdifferentiation of Human Parietal Epithelial Cells toward a Podocyte Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kietzmann, Leonie; Guhr, Sebastian S O; Meyer, Tobias N; Ni, Lan; Sachs, Marlies; Panzer, Ulf; Stahl, Rolf A K; Saleem, Moin A; Kerjaschki, Dontscho; Gebeshuber, Christoph A; Meyer-Schwesinger, Catherine

    2015-06-01

    Parietal epithelial cells have been identified as potential progenitor cells in glomerular regeneration, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this process are not fully defined. Here, we established an immortalized polyclonal human parietal epithelial cell (hPEC) line from naive human Bowman's capsule cells isolated by mechanical microdissection. These hPECs expressed high levels of PEC-specific proteins and microRNA-193a (miR-193a), a suppressor of podocyte differentiation through downregulation of Wilms' tumor 1 in mice. We then investigated the function of miR-193a in the establishment of podocyte and PEC identity and determined whether inhibition of miR-193a influences the behavior of PECs in glomerular disease. After stable knockdown of miR-193a, hPECs adopted a podocyte-like morphology and marker expression, with decreased expression levels of PEC markers. In mice, inhibition of miR-193a by complementary locked nucleic acids resulted in an upregulation of the podocyte proteins synaptopodin and Wilms' tumor 1. Conversely, overexpression of miR-193a in vivo resulted in the upregulation of PEC markers and the loss of podocyte markers in isolated glomeruli. Inhibition of miR-193a in a mouse model of nephrotoxic nephritis resulted in reduced crescent formation and decreased proteinuria. Together, these results show the establishment of a human PEC line and suggest that miR-193a functions as a master switch, such that glomerular epithelial cells with high levels of miR-193a adopt a PEC phenotype and cells with low levels of miR-193a adopt a podocyte phenotype. miR-193a-mediated maintenance of PECs in an undifferentiated reactive state might be a prerequisite for PEC proliferation and migration in crescent formation. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  11. MODELING MERCURY CONTROL WITH POWDERED ACTIVATED CARBON

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper presents a mathematical model of total mercury removed from the flue gas at coal-fired plants equipped with powdered activated carbon (PAC) injection for Mercury control. The developed algorithms account for mercury removal by both existing equipment and an added PAC in...

  12. Plain formation on Mercury: tectonic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.

    1980-01-01

    Four major plain units, plus intermediates, are distinguished on Mercury. The chronologic relationships between these plains indicate that plains formation was a permanent process on Mercury. Their location and morphology seem to indicate a possible volcanic origin for these plains. The relationships between tectonism and volcanism seems to indicate the global contraction is not the only tectonic process on Mercury. (Auth.)

  13. 21 CFR 872.3700 - Dental mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental mercury. 872.3700 Section 872.3700 Food and... DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3700 Dental mercury. (a) Identification. Dental mercury is a... dental cavity or a broken tooth. (b) Classification. Class I. ...

  14. Quarter 9 Mercury information clearinghouse final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laudal, D.L.; Miller, S.; Pflughoeft-Hassett, D.; Ralston, N.; Dunham, G.; Weber, G.

    2005-12-15

    The Canadian Electricity Association (CEA) identified a need and contracted the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) to create and maintain an information clearinghouse on global research and development activities related to mercury emissions from coal-fired electric utilities. A total of eight reports were completed and are summarized and updated in this final CEA quarterly report. Selected topics were discussed in detail in each quarterly report. Issues related to mercury from coal-fired utilities include the general areas of measurement, control, policy, and transformations. Specific topics that have been addressed in previous quarterly reports include the following: Quarterly 1 - Sorbent Control Technologies for Mercury Control; Quarterly 2 - Mercury Measurement; Quarterly 3 - Advanced and Developmental Mercury Control Technologies; Quarterly 4 - Prerelease of Mercury from Coal Combustion By-Products; Quarterly 5 - Mercury Fundamentals; Quarterly 6 - Mercury Control Field Demonstrations; Quarterly 7 - Mercury Regulations in the United States: Federal and State; and Quarterly 8 - Commercialization Aspects of Sorbent Injection Technologies in Canada. In this last of nine quarterly reports, an update of these mercury issues is presented that includes a summary of each topic, with recent information pertinent to advances made since the quarterly reports were originally presented. In addition to a comprehensive update of previous mercury-related topics, a review of results from the CEA Mercury Program is provided. 86 refs., 11 figs., 8 tabs.

  15. 40 CFR 721.10068 - Elemental mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Elemental mercury. 721.10068 Section... Substances § 721.10068 Elemental mercury. (a) Definitions. The definitions in § 721.3 apply to this section... elemental mercury (CAS. No. 7439-97-6) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  16. Mercury bioaccumulation in the Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinnirella S.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study details mercury pollution within the food chain of the Mediterranean by analysing the most comprehensive mercury dataset available for biota and water measurements. In this study we computed a bioaccumulation factor (BAF for datasets in the existing mercury-related scientific literature, in on-going programs, and in past measurement campaigns. Preliminary results indicate a major lack of information, making the outcome of any assessment very uncertain. Importantly, not all marine eco-regions are (or have ever been covered by measurement campaigns. Most lacking is information associated with the South-Eastern part of the Mediterranean, and in several eco-regions it is still impossible to reconstruct a trophic net, as the required species were not accounted for when mercury measurements were taken. The datasets also have additional temporal sampling problems, as species were often not sampled systematically (but only sporadically during any given sampling period. Moreover, datasets composed of mercury concentrations in water also suffer from similar geographic limitations, as they are concentrated in the North-Western Mediterranean. Despite these concerns, we found a very clear bioaccumulation trend in 1999, the only year where comprehensive information on both methylmercury concentrations in water and biota was available.

  17. Current and future levels of mercury atmospheric pollution on a global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacyna, Jozef M.; Travnikov, Oleg; De Simone, Francesco; Hedgecock, Ian M.; Sundseth, Kyrre; Pacyna, Elisabeth G.; Steenhuisen, Frits; Pirrone, Nicola; Munthe, John; Kindbom, Karin

    2016-10-01

    research instrument for supporting the scientific justification for the Minamata Convention and monitoring of the implementation of targets of this convention, as well as the EU Mercury Strategy. This project provided the state of the art with regard to the development of the latest emission inventories for mercury, future emission scenarios, dispersion modelling of atmospheric mercury on a global and regional scale, and source-receptor techniques for mercury emission apportionment on a global scale.

  18. Current and future levels of mercury atmospheric pollution on a global scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Pacyna

    2016-10-01

    proved to be a very important research instrument for supporting the scientific justification for the Minamata Convention and monitoring of the implementation of targets of this convention, as well as the EU Mercury Strategy. This project provided the state of the art with regard to the development of the latest emission inventories for mercury, future emission scenarios, dispersion modelling of atmospheric mercury on a global and regional scale, and source–receptor techniques for mercury emission apportionment on a global scale.

  19. Study on Hyperspectral Characteristics and Estimation Model of Soil Mercury Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinbao; Dong, Zhenyu; Sun, Zenghui; Ma, Hongchao; Shi, Lei

    2017-12-01

    In this study, the mercury content of 44 soil samples in Guan Zhong area of Shaanxi Province was used as the data source, and the reflectance spectrum of soil was obtained by ASD Field Spec HR (350-2500 nm) Comparing the reflection characteristics of different contents and the effect of different pre-treatment methods on the establishment of soil heavy metal spectral inversion model. The first order differential, second order differential and reflectance logarithmic transformations were carried out after the pre-treatment of NOR, MSC and SNV, and the sensitive bands of reflectance and mercury content in different mathematical transformations were selected. A hyperspectral estimation model is established by regression method. The results of chemical analysis show that there is a serious Hg pollution in the study area. The results show that: (1) the reflectivity decreases with the increase of mercury content, and the sensitive regions of mercury are located at 392 ~ 455nm, 923nm ~ 1040nm and 1806nm ~ 1969nm. (2) The combination of NOR, MSC and SNV transformations combined with differential transformations can improve the information of heavy metal elements in the soil, and the combination of high correlation band can improve the stability and prediction ability of the model. (3) The partial least squares regression model based on the logarithm of the original reflectance is better and the precision is higher, Rc2 = 0.9912, RMSEC = 0.665; Rv2 = 0.9506, RMSEP = 1.93, which can achieve the mercury content in this region Quick forecast.

  20. Effect of tensile stress on cavitation damage formation in mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naoe, Takashi, E-mail: naoe.takashi@jaea.go.j [J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Kogawa, Hiroyuki [J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Yoshihito [Nuclear Safety Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Futakawa, Masatoshi [J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2010-03-15

    Cavitation erosion or so called pitting damage was investigated under tensile stress conditions in mercury. In MW-class liquid metal spallation targets, pitting damage is a critical issue to satisfy required power and/or lifetime of the target vessel. Cavitation occurs by negative pressure which is induced through pressure wave propagation due to proton beam injection. Pitting damage is formed by microjet and/or shock wave during cavitation bubble collapse. A mercury target vessel suffers tensile stress due to thermal stress or welding. In order to investigate the effect of tensile stress on pitting damage formation, cavitation erosion tests were performed using stress imposed specimens in mercury. An ultrasonic vibratory horn and electro-Magnetic IMpact Testing Machine (MIMTM) were used to vary the cavitation intensity. In the incubation period of pitting damage, damaged area was slightly increased with increasing imposed tensile stress. In the steady state period, a mean depth of erosion was increased by the tensile stress. Additionally, in order to quantitatively evaluate the effect of tensile stress, an indentation test with Vickers indenter was carried out to quasi-statically simulate the impact load. From the measurement of the diagonal length of the indent aspect ratio and hardness, it is recognized that the threshold of the deformation, i.e. pitting damage formation, was decreased by the tensile stress.

  1. Control of mercury emissions: policies, technologies, and future trends

    OpenAIRE

    Rhee, Seung-Whee

    2015-01-01

    Seung-Whee Rhee Department of Environmental Engineering, Kyonggi University, Suwon, Republic of Korea Abstract: Owing to the Minamata Convention on Mercury and the Global Mercury Partnership, policies and regulations on mercury management in advanced countries were intensified by a mercury phaseout program in the mercury control strategy. In developing countries, the legislative or regulatory frameworks on mercury emissions are not established specifically, but mercury management is designed...

  2. Global Sources and Pathways of Mercury in the Context of Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyrre Sundseth

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews information from the existing literature and the EU GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System project to assess the current scientific knowledge on global mercury releases into the atmosphere, on global atmospheric transport and deposition, and on the linkage between environmental contamination and potential impacts on human health. The review concludes that assessment of global sources and pathways of mercury in the context of human health is important for being able to monitor the effects from implementation of the Minamata Convention targets, although new research is needed on the improvement of emission inventory data, the chemical and physical behaviour of mercury in the atmosphere, the improvement of monitoring network data, predictions of future emissions and speciation, and on the subsequent effects on the environment, human health, as well as the economic costs and benefits of reducing these aspects.

  3. Sodium Velocity Maps on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, A. E.; Killen, R. M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the current work was to measure two-dimensional maps of sodium velocities on the Mercury surface and examine the maps for evidence of sources or sinks of sodium on the surface. The McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope and the Stellar Spectrograph were used to measure Mercury spectra that were sampled at 7 milliAngstrom intervals. Observations were made each day during the period October 5-9, 2010. The dawn terminator was in view during that time. The velocity shift of the centroid of the Mercury emission line was measured relative to the solar sodium Fraunhofer line corrected for radial velocity of the Earth. The difference between the observed and calculated velocity shift was taken to be the velocity vector of the sodium relative to Earth. For each position of the spectrograph slit, a line of velocities across the planet was measured. Then, the spectrograph slit was stepped over the surface of Mercury at 1 arc second intervals. The position of Mercury was stabilized by an adaptive optics system. The collection of lines were assembled into an images of surface reflection, sodium emission intensities, and Earthward velocities over the surface of Mercury. The velocity map shows patches of higher velocity in the southern hemisphere, suggesting the existence of sodium sources there. The peak earthward velocity occurs in the equatorial region, and extends to the terminator. Since this was a dawn terminator, this might be an indication of dawn evaporation of sodium. Leblanc et al. (2008) have published a velocity map that is similar.

  4. Decommissioning and safety issues of liquid-mercury waste generated from high power spallation sources with particle accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Chiriki, S; Odoj, R; Moormann, R; Hinssen, H. K; Bukaemskiy, A

    2009-01-01

    Large spallation sources are intended to be constructed in Europe (EURISOL nuclear physics facility and ESS-European Spallation Source). These facilities accumulate more than 20 metric tons of irradiated mercury in the target, which has to be treated as highly radioactive and chemo-toxic waste. Because solids are the only appropriate (immobile) form for this radiotoxic and toxic type of waste solidification is required for irradiated mercury. Our irradiation experimental studies on mercury waste revealed that mercury sulfide is a reasonable solid for disposal and shows larger stability in assumed accidents with water ingress in a repository compared to amalgams. For preparation of mercury sulfide a wet process is more suitable than a dry one. It is easier to perform under hot cell conditions and allows complete Hg-conversion. Embedding HgS in a cementitious matrix increases its stability.

  5. Was the Narrow Line Seyfert 1 RGB J0044+193 ever radio loud?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maccarone, T.J.; Miller-Jones, J.C.A.; Fender, R.P.; Pooley, G.G.

    2005-01-01

    We show new radio data and a re-analysis of old data for the Narrow Line Seyfert 1 (NLSy1) galaxy RGB J0044+193. This galaxy has previously been suggested to be both radio loud, and highly variable in the radio. As most NLSy 1 galaxies are radio quiet, this was interpreted as possible evidence that

  6. 34 CFR 403.193 - What are the information requirements regarding special populations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the information requirements regarding special... TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION PROGRAM What Conditions Must be Met by Local Recipients? § 403.193 What are the... their parents information concerning— (i) The opportunities available in vocational education; (ii) The...

  7. 49 CFR 193.2629 - External corrosion control: buried or submerged components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2629 External... external corrosive attack must be protected from external corrosion by— (1) Material that has been designed...

  8. Results from a new 193nm die-to-database reticle inspection platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, William H.; Alles, David S.; Giusti, Michael T.; Kvamme, Damon F.; Shi, Rui-fang; Sousa, Weston L.; Walsh, Robert; Xiong, Yalin

    2010-05-01

    A new 193nm wavelength high resolution reticle defect inspection platform has been developed for both die-to-database and die-to-die inspection modes. In its initial configuration, this innovative platform has been designed to meet the reticle qualification requirements of the IC industry for the 22nm logic and 3xhp memory generations (and shrinks) with planned extensions to the next generation. The 22nm/3xhp IC generation includes advanced 193nm optical lithography using conventional RET, advanced computational lithography, and double patterning. Further, EUV pilot line lithography is beginning. This advanced 193nm inspection platform has world-class performance and the capability to meet these diverse needs in optical and EUV lithography. The architecture of the new 193nm inspection platform is described. Die-to-database inspection results are shown on a variety of reticles from industry sources; these reticles include standard programmed defect test reticles, as well as advanced optical and EUV product and product-like reticles. Results show high sensitivity and low false and nuisance detections on complex optical reticle designs and small feature size EUV reticles. A direct comparison with the existing industry standard 257nm wavelength inspection system shows measurable sensitivity improvement for small feature sizes

  9. 46 CFR 193.10-90 - Installations contracted for prior to March 1, 1968.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... service so long as they are maintained in good condition to the satisfaction of the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection. Minor repairs, alterations, and replacements may be permitted to the same standards as...) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 193.10-90 Installations...

  10. 15 CFR 19.3 - Do these regulations adopt the Federal Claims Collection Standards (FCCS)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Do these regulations adopt the Federal... of Commerce COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION General Provisions § 19.3 Do these regulations adopt the Federal Claims Collection Standards (FCCS)? This Part adopts and incorporates all provisions of the FCCS. This...

  11. 26 CFR 1.193-1 - Deduction for tertiary injectant expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... in which the expenses are paid or incurred. (b) Definitions—(1) Qualified tertiary injectant expenses... Chief Counsel (Technical) for purposes of section 193. (c) Special rules for hydrocarbons—(1) In general. If an injectant contains more than an insignificant amount of recoverable hydrocarbons, the amount...

  12. 193Hg collective oblate band with Ex>5.7 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, N.; Henry, E.A.; Becker, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    Rotational bands in the neutron-deficient Pb nuclei 192,194,196-201 Pb have been reported recently. Band members are connected by L = 1 transitions, with crossover L = 2 transitions observed at the higher γ-ray energies. Regular and irregular patterns of γ-ray energies are observed. Conversion coefficients determined from intensity balance suggest the L = 1 transitions are M1. The bands have generally been interpreted as collective oblate, involving deformation aligned high-j proton configurations such as π(s 1/2 -2 h 9/2 i 13/2 ), and rotation aligned i 13/2 -n neutrons. Evidence for a similar band in 193 Hg has been obtained. 193 Hg was populated in the reaction 176 Yb( 22 Ne,5n) at E i ( 22 Ne) = 110 MeV. Reaction γ rays were detected with the Ge detector array HERA. A new 'collective' structure was observed with E x >5.7 MeV. States of the structure extend from I≥47/2 to I +10, and they decay with competing dipole and quadrupole transitions. The ratio B(M1)/B(E2), ∼ 2μ 2 /(e b) 2 , is approximately 10x lower in 193 Hg than in the Pb bands. The lowest member is produced with ∼20% of the 193 Hg cross section. Evidence for a similar band in 196 Hg will be presented at this meeting

  13. Intake of mercury through fish consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarmani, S.B.; Kiprawi, A.Z.; Ismail, R.B.; Hassan, R.B.; Wood, A.K.; Rahman, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    Fish has been known as a source of non-occupational mercury exposure to fish consuming population groups, and this is shown by the high hair mercury levels. In this study, hair samples collected from fishermen and their families, and commercial marine fishes were analyzed for mercury and methylmercury by neutron activation and gas chromatography. The results showed a correlation between hair mercury levels and fish consumption patterns. The levels of mercury found in this study were similar to those reported by other workers for fish consuming population groups worldwide. (author)

  14. Coal fired flue gas mercury emission controls

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jiang; Pan, Weiguo; Pan, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metals, harmful to both the environment and human health. Hg is released into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources and its emission control has caused much concern. This book introduces readers to Hg pollution from natural and anthropogenic sources and systematically describes coal-fired flue gas mercury emission control in industry, especially from coal-fired power stations. Mercury emission control theory and experimental research are demonstrated, including how elemental mercury is oxidized into oxidized mercury and the effect of

  15. Apparatus for control of mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, William; Bailey, Ralph T.

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for reducing mercury in industrial gases such as the flue gas produced by the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal adds hydrogen sulfide to the flue gas in or just before a scrubber of the industrial process which contains the wet scrubber. The method and apparatus of the present invention is applicable to installations employing either wet or dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization systems. The present invention uses kraft green liquor as a source for hydrogen sulfide and/or the injection of mineral acids into the green liquor to release vaporous hydrogen sulfide in order to form mercury sulfide solids.

  16. Voltammetric Behaviour of Metronidazole at Mercury Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La-Scalea Mauro A.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Metronidazole is the most important drug of the group of 5-nitroimidazoles and possesses toxicity to anaerobic micro-organisms DNA being the main target for their biological action. The mechanism of biological action of metronidazole is dependent upon the nitro group reduction process. The reduction of metronidazole is pH dependent in acid medium and four electrons are involved in the complete reduction to the hydroxylamine derivative. In aprotic medium the reduction of the metronidazole occurs in two steps, the first involving one electron to form the nitro radical and the second step involving three more electrons until the formation of the hydroxylamine derivative. In this paper the mechanism of reduction of metronidazole was studied by using the voltammetric techniques: d.c. polarography, differential pulse polarography and cyclic voltammetry using the mercury drop as the working electrode.

  17. Marine biogeochemistry of mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    Noncontaminating sample collection and handling procedures and accurate and sensitive analysis methods were developed to measure sub-picomolar Hg concentrations in seawater. Reliable and diagnostic oceanographic Hg distributions were obtained, permitting major processes governing the marine biogeochemistry of Hg to be identified. Mercury concentrations in the northwest Atlantic, central Pacific, southeast Pacific, and Tasman Sea ranged from 0.5 to 12 pM. Vertical Hg distributions often exhibited a maximum within or near the main thermocline. At similar depths, Hg concentrations in the northwest Atlantic Ocean were elevated compared to the N. Pacific Ocean. This pattern appears to result from a combination of enhanced supply of Hg to the northwest Atlantic by rainfall and scavenging removal along deep water circulation pathways. These observations are supported by geochemical steady-state box modelling which predicts a relatively short mean residence time for Hg in the oceans; demonstrating the reactive nature of Hg in seawater and precluding significant involvement in nutrient-type recyclic. Evidence for the rapid removal of Hg from seawater was obtained at two locations. Surface seawater Hg measurements along 160 0 W (20 0 N to 20 0 S) showed a depression in the equatorial upwelling area which correlated well with the transect region exhibiting low 234 Th/ 238 U activity ratios. This relationship implies that Hg will be scavenged and removed from surface seawater in biologically productive oceanic zones. Further, a broad minimum in the vertical distribution of Hg was observed to coincide with the intense oxygen minimum zone in the water column in coastal waters off Peru

  18. Mercury accumulation plant Cyrtomium macrophyllum and its potential for phytoremediation of mercury polluted sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xun, Yu; Feng, Liu; Li, Youdan; Dong, Haochen

    2017-12-01

    Cyrtomium macrophyllum naturally grown in 225.73 mg kg -1 of soil mercury in mining area was found to be a potential mercury accumulator plant with the translocation factor of 2.62 and the high mercury concentration of 36.44 mg kg -1 accumulated in its aerial parts. Pot experiments indicated that Cyrtomium macrophyllum could even grow in 500 mg kg -1 of soil mercury with observed inhibition on growth but no obvious toxic effects, and showed excellent mercury accumulation and translocation abilities with both translocation and bioconcentration factors greater than 1 when exposed to 200 mg kg -1 and lower soil mercury, indicating that it could be considered as a great mercury accumulating species. Furthermore, the leaf tissue of Cyrtomium macrophyllum showed high resistance to mercury stress because of both the increased superoxide dismutase activity and the accumulation of glutathione and proline induced by mercury stress, which favorited mercury translocation from the roots to the aerial parts, revealing the possible reason for Cyrtomium macrophyllum to tolerate high concentration of soil mercury. In sum, due to its excellent mercury accumulation and translocation abilities as well as its high resistance to mercury stress, the use of Cyrtomium macrophyllum should be a promising approach to remediating mercury polluted soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Global Mercury Pathways in the Arctic Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahoutifard, N.; Lean, D.

    2003-12-01

    The sudden depletions of atmospheric mercury which occur during the Arctic spring are believed to involve oxidation of gaseous elemental mercury, Hg(0), rendering it less volatile and more soluble. The Hg(II) oxidation product(s) are more susceptible to deposition, consistent with the observation of dramatic increases in snow mercury levels during depletion events. Temporal correlations with ozone depletion events and the proliferation of BrO radicals support the hypothesis that oxidation of Hg(0) occurs in the gas phase and results in its conversion to RGM (Reactive Gaseous Mercury). The mechanisms of Hg(0) oxidation and particularly Hg(II) reduction are as yet unproven. In order to evaluate the feasibility of proposed chemical processes involving mercury in the Arctic atmosphere and its pathway after deposition on the snow from the air, we investigated mercury speciation in air and snow pack at Resolute, Nunavut, Canada (latitude 75° N) prior to and during snow melt during spring 2003. Quantitative, real-time information on emission, air transport and deposition were combined with experimental studies of the distribution and concentrations of different mercury species, methyl mercury, anions, total organic carbon and total inorganic carbon in snow samples. The effect of solar radiation and photoreductants on mercury in snow samples was also investigated. In this work, we quantify mercury removed from the air, and deposited on the snow and the transformation to inorganic and methyl mercury.

  20. Mercury emission monitoring on municipal waste combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, H.; Gerig, A.

    1991-01-01

    In waste incineration, mercury is the only heavy metal to be released as a gas, mostly as mercury(II) chloride, because of its high volatility. Continuous emission monitoring is possible only when mercury occurs in its elemental form. This paper reports on various possibilities of converting Hg(II) into Hg(0) that has been studied and tested on a laboratory scale and in the TAMARA refuse incineration pilot facility. Continuous mercury emission measurement appears to be possible, provided mercury is converted in the flue gas condensate precipitated. The measuring results obtained on two municipal solid waste and on one sewage treatment sludge incineration plants show that the mercury monitor is a highly sensitive and selective continuously working instrument for mercury emission monitoring

  1. Genetic effects of organic mercury compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramel, C

    1967-01-01

    Organic mercury compounds have a c-mitotic effect on plant cells that cause polyploidi. Studies were performed on Allium root cells. These investigations involved methyl mercury dicyandiamide, methyl mercury hydroxide, and phenyl mercury hydroxide. The lowest concentration necessary for a cytologically observable effect was about 0.05 ppM Hg for the methyl compounds. For the phenyl compound, the value was lower. Experiments were performed on Drosophila melanogaster. The question was whether the mercury would reach the gonads. Experimental data with mercury treated larvae indicated a chromosome disjunction. Data indicated a preferential segregation at the meiotic division might be involved. Experiments are being performed on mice inbred (CBA) in order to investigate teratogenic effects and dominant lethality caused by organic mercury compounds. The mutagenic effects of these compounds are studied on Neurospora Drosophila. No conclusive data is now available.

  2. Mercury risk in poultry in the Wanshan Mercury Mine, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Runsheng; Zhang, Wei; Sun, Guangyi; Feng, Zhaohui; Hurley, James P.; Yang, Liyuan; Shang, Lihai; Feng, Xinbin

    2017-01-01

    In this study, total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in muscles (leg and breast), organs (intestine, heart, stomach, liver) and blood were investigated for backyard chickens, ducks and geese of the Wanshan Mercury Mine, China. THg in poultry meat products range from 7.9 to 3917.1 ng/g, most of which exceeded the Chinese national standard limit for THg in meat (50 ng/g). Elevated MeHg concentrations (0.4–62.8 ng/g) were also observed in meat products, suggesting that poultry meat can be an important human MeHg exposure source. Ducks and geese showed higher Hg levels than chickens. For all poultry species, the highest Hg concentrations were observed in liver (THg: 23.2–3917.1 ng/g; MeHg: 7.1–62.8 ng/g) and blood (THg: 12.3–338.0 ng/g; MeHg: 1.4–17.6 ng/g). We estimated the Hg burdens in chickens (THg: 15.3–238.1 μg; MeHg: 2.2–15.6 μg), ducks (THg: 15.3–238.1 μg; MeHg: 3.5–14.7 μg) and geese (THg: 83.8–93.4 μg; MeHg: 15.4–29.7 μg). To not exceed the daily intake limit for THg (34.2 μg/day) and MeHg (6 μg/day), we suggested that the maximum amount (g) for chicken leg, breast, heart, stomach, intestine, liver, and blood should be 1384, 1498, 2315, 1214, 1081, 257, and 717, respectively; the maximum amount (g) for duck leg, breast, heart, stomach, intestine, liver, and blood should be 750, 1041, 986, 858, 752, 134, and 573, respectively; and the maximum amount (g) for goose leg, breast, heart, stomach, intestine, liver, and blood should be 941, 1051, 1040, 1131, 964, 137, and 562, respectively. - Highlights: • Elevated mercury levels were observed in poultry from Wanshan Mercury Mine, China. • Ducks and geese showed higher mercury levels than chickens. • Liver and blood showed the highest mercury levels. • Poultry can be an important dietary Hg exposure source for local residents. - High levels of Hg associated with poultry surrounding the Wanshan Mercury Mine pose a great risk of Hg exposure to

  3. Mercury contamination in Khramulia (Capoeta capoeta) from the Cheshme Kile and Zarrin Gol Rivers in Iran and human health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvandi, Hassan; Sari, Abbas Esmaili; Aliabadian, Mansour

    2014-10-01

    Total mercury concentrations were determined in muscle tissue of Khramulia (Capoeta capoeta) captured in the Cheshme Kile and Zarrin Gol Rivers, Iran. In Cheshme Kile River, 49 fish samples were collected. The mean total mercury concentration in the muscles of C. capoeta from this area was 249 ng g(-1) dw. In Zarrin Gol River, where 62 fish samples were collected, the total mercury in muscles averaged 164 ng g(-1) dw. A significant difference was found between means of mercury in the rivers (p rivers had mean mercury concentrations below the maximum allowable limits for mercury set by the Food and Agriculture Organization, World Health Organization, Standardization Administration of China and Environmental Protection Agency. The results of this study indicate that the values of hazard target quotient and estimated weekly intake are low and represent a negligible risk for human health.

  4. Behaviour of mercury compounds in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booer, J R

    1944-01-01

    The uses of inorganic compounds of mercury for the control of plant pests is reviewed, and a summary of the relevant chemical and physical properties of the compounds concerned is given. On chemical evidence a working hypothesis is propounded showing that all compounds may be expected to decompose into metallic mercury. A pot technique is described by means of which a correlation can be obtained between the effective mercury content of a given soil sample and the rate of growth of wheat seedlings. The mathematical treatment of the results is described, and the validity of the pot technique is verified by statistical analysis of results. Using the pot technqiue it is shown that volatilization losses are insignificant but that mercury is slowly rendered ineffective by the formation of mercuric sulphide. The effect of sulphur-reducing bacteria is considered and the influence of Vibrio desulphuricans on mercury is studied in detail. Experimental evidence obtained by the pot technique is produced to show that mercurous chloride slowly decomposes in the soil giving mercury and mercuric chloride, mercuric chloride rapidly decomposes into mercury and mercurous chloride, and other inorganic compounds decompose directly into mercury. The working hypothesis is substantiated in all major aspects. The uses and properties of the organo-mercury compounds are then discussed. Type compounds selected are ethyl mercury phosphate, phenyl mercury acetate and methoxyethyl mercury acetate. Using the pot technique it is shown that the formation of organo-mercury clays takes place and that these clays decompose giving metallic mercury. A mechanism is suggested.

  5. Mercury in the environment : a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodarzi, F.

    2000-01-01

    Both geogenic and anthropogenic sources are responsible for the input of mercury into the environment. However, mercury comes mostly from geogenic sources and is found naturally in air, water and soil. Crustal degassing results in emission of mercury into the atmosphere. Mercury in water and soil is due mostly to input from sedimentary rocks. Mercury in lake sediments is related mainly to input by country rock and anthropogenic activities such as agriculture. The mercury content of coal is similar to or less than the amount found in the earths crust. Natural charcoal is also able to capture mercury at low temperature combustion. The amount of mercury emitted from the stack of coal-fired power plants is related to the nature of the milled coal and its mineralogical and elemental content. Mercury emissions originating from the combustion of coal from electric utility power plants are considered to be among the greatest contributors to global mercury air emissions. In order to quantify the impact the electric power industry has on the environment, information regarding mercury concentrations in coal and their speciation is needed. For this reason the author examined the behaviour of mercury in three coal samples ashed at increasing temperatures. Mercury removal from coal-fired power plants ranges from 10 to 50 per cent by fabric filters and 20 to 95 per cent by FGD systems. This data will help in regulating emissions of hazardous air pollutants from electric utility steam generating units and will potentially provide insight into the industry's contribution to the global mercury burden. 50 refs

  6. AGS Spallation Target Experiment (ASTE) Collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyama, Yukio

    1999-01-01

    An experiment on mercury spallation target with high energy proton beam, called as the AGS Spallation Target Experiment (ASTE) Collaboration, has been performed at Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in USA, in cooperation among the laboratories in Japan, Europe and USA. The experimental setup, scope and preliminary results are presented in the paper. (author)

  7. Dissolved gaseous mercury formation and mercury volatilization in intertidal sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesário, Rute; Poissant, Laurier; Pilote, Martin; O'Driscoll, Nelson J; Mota, Ana M; Canário, João

    2017-12-15

    Intertidal sediments of Tagus estuary regularly experiences complex redistribution due to tidal forcing, which affects the cycling of mercury (Hg) between sediments and the water column. This study quantifies total mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MMHg) concentrations and fluxes in a flooded mudflat as well as the effects on water-level fluctuations on the air-surface exchange of mercury. A fast increase in dissolved Hg and MMHg concentrations was observed in overlying water in the first 10min of inundation and corresponded to a decrease in pore waters, suggesting a rapid export of Hg and MMHg from sediments to the water column. Estimations of daily advective transport exceeded the predicted diffusive fluxes by 5 orders of magnitude. A fast increase in dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) concentration was also observed in the first 20-30min of inundation (maximum of 40pg L -1 ). Suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentrations were inversely correlated with DGM concentrations. Dissolved Hg variation suggested that biotic DGM production in pore waters is a significant factor in addition to the photochemical reduction of Hg. Mercury volatilization (ranged from 1.1 to 3.3ngm -2 h -1 ; average of 2.1ngm -2 h -1 ) and DGM production exhibited the same pattern with no significant time-lag suggesting a fast release of the produced DGM. These results indicate that Hg sediment/water exchanges in the physical dominated estuaries can be underestimated when the tidal effect is not considered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Novel methodology for the study of mercury methylation and reduction in sediments and water using 197Hg radiotracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro Guevara, Sergio; Perez Catan, Soledad; Zizek, Suzana; Repinc, Urska; Jacimovic, Radojko; Horvat, Milena

    2007-01-01

    Mercury tracers are powerful tools that can be used to study mercury transformations in environmental systems, particularly mercury methylation, demethylation and reduction in sediments and water. However, mercury transformation studies using tracers can be subject to error, especially when used to assess methylation potential. The organic mercury extracted can be as low as 0.01% of the endogenous labeled mercury, and artefacts and contamination present during methylmercury (MeHg) extraction processes can cause interference. Solvent extraction methods based on the use of either KBr/H 2 SO 4 or HCl were evaluated in freshwater sediments using 197 Hg radiotracer. Values obtained for the 197 Hg tracer in the organic phase were up to 25-fold higher when HCl was used, which is due to the coextraction of 197 Hg 2+ into the organic phase during MeHg extraction. Evaluations of the production of MeHg gave similar results with both MeHg extraction procedures, but due to the higher Hg 2+ contamination of the controls, the uncertainty in the determination was higher when HCl was used. The Hg 2+ contamination of controls in the HCl extraction method showed a nonlinear correlation with the humic acid content of sediment pore water. Therefore, use of the KBr/H 2 SO 4 method is recommended, since it is free from these interferences. 197 Hg radiotracer (T 1/2 = 2.673 d) has a production rate that is about 50 times higher than that of 203 Hg (T 1/2 46.595 d), the most frequently used mercury radiotracer. Hence it is possible to obtain a similar level of performance to 203 Hg when it is used it in short-term experiments and produced by the irradiation of 196 Hg with thermal neutrons, using mercury targets with the natural isotopic composition. However, if the 0.15% natural abundance of the 196 Hg isotope is increased, the specific activity of the 197 Hg tracer can be significantly improved. In the present work, 197 Hg tracer was produced from mercury 51.58% enriched in the 196 Hg

  9. Novel biomarkers of mercury-induced autoimmune dysfunction: a Cross-sectional study in Amazonian Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motts, Jonathan A.; Shirley, Devon L.; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Nyland, Jennifer F.

    2014-01-01

    Mercury is an ubiquitous environmental contaminant, causing both neurotoxicity and immunotoxicity. Given its ability to amalgamate gold, mercury is frequently used in small-scale artisanal gold mining. We have previously reported that elevated serum titers of antinuclear autoantibodies (ANA) are associated with mercury exposures of miners in gold mining. The goal of this project was to identify novel serum biomarkers of mercury-induced immunotoxicity and autoimmune dysregulation. We conducted an analysis of serum samples from a cross-sectional epidemiological study on miners working in Amazonian Brazil. In proteomic screening analyses, samples were stratified based on mercury concentrations and ANA titer and a subset of serum samples (N=12) were profiled using Immune Response Biomarker Profiling ProtoArray protein microarray for elevated autoantibodies. Of the up-regulated autoantibodies in the mercury-exposed cohort, potential target autoantibodies were selected based on relevance to pro-inflammatory and macrophage activation pathways. ELISAs were developed to test the entire sample cohort (N=371) for serum titers to the highest of these autoantibodies (anti-glutathione S-transferase alpha, GSTA1) identified in the high mercury/high ANA group. We found positive associations between elevated mercury exposure and up-regulated serum titers of 3760 autoantibodies as identified by ProtoArray. Autoantibodies identified as potential novel biomarkers of mercury-induced immunotoxicity include antibodies to the following proteins: GSTA1, tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 13, linker for activation of T cells, signal peptide peptidase like 2B, stimulated by retinoic acid 13, and interferon induced transmembrane protein. ELISA analyses confirmed that mercury-exposed gold miners had significantly higher serum titers of anti-GSTA1 autoantibody [unadjusted odds ratio = 89.6; 95% confidence interval: 27.2, 294.6] compared to emerald miners (referent population

  10. 76 FR 75446 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Mercury, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ...-0894; Airspace Docket No. 11-AWP-14] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Mercury, NV AGENCY: Federal... Mercury, Desert Rock Airport, Mercury, NV. Decommissioning of the Mercury Non-Directional Beacon (NDB) at Mercury, Desert Rock Airport has made this action necessary for the safety and management of Instrument...

  11. 76 FR 30956 - Outer Continental Shelf, Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... Point Hope et al., v. Salazar, No. 1:08-cv-00004-RRB (D. Alaska)]. The sale was conducted in February... Continental Shelf, Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193 AGENCY: Bureau of...: BOEMRE announces the availability of a Revised Draft SEIS, OCS Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193, Chukchi Sea...

  12. 14 CFR 193.17 - How must design and production approval holders handle information they receive from the FAA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How must design and production approval... REGULATIONS PROTECTION OF VOLUNTARILY SUBMITTED INFORMATION § 193.17 How must design and production approval... under § 193.9(a)(2) to the holders of design approvals of production approvals issued by the FAA, the...

  13. Venus and Mercury as Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    A general evolutionary history of the solar planetary system is given. The previously observed characteristics of Venus and Mercury (i.e. length of day, solar orbit, temperature) are discussed. The role of the Mariner 10 space probe in gathering scientific information on the two planets is briefly described.

  14. PERCEPTION OF MERCURY RISK INFORMATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approximately 8% of American women have blood Mercury levels exceeding the EPA reference dose (a dose below which symptoms would be unlikely). The children of these women are at risk of neurological deficits (lower IQ scores) primarily because of the mother's consumption of conta...

  15. Venus and Mercury as planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    A general evolutionary history of the solar planetary system is given. The previously observed characteristics of Venus and Mercury (i.e. length of day, solar orbit, temperature) are discussed. The role of the Mariner 10 space probe in gathering scientific information on the two planets is briefly described

  16. A downstream voyage with mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Retrospective essay for the Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology.As I look back on my paper, “Effects of Low Dietary Levels of Methyl Mercury on Mallard Reproduction,” published in 1974 in the Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, a thought sticks in my mind. I realize just how much my mercury research was not unlike a leaf in a stream, carried this way and that, sometimes stalled in an eddy, restarted, and carried downstream at a pace and path that was not completely under my control. I was hired in 1969 by the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center to study the effects of environmental pollutants on the behavior of wildlife. A colleague was conducting a study on the reproductive effects of methylmercury on mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and he offered to give me some of the ducklings. I conducted a pilot study, testing how readily ducklings approached a tape-recorded maternal call. Sample sizes were small, but the results suggested that ducklings from mercury-treated parents behaved differently than controls. That’s how I got into mercury research—pretty much by chance.

  17. Ratio of tritiated water and hydrogen generated in mercury through a nuclear reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manabe, K. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)], E-mail: manabe.kentaro@jaea.go.jp; Yokoyama, S. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2008-02-15

    Tritium generated in a mercury target is a source of potential exposure of personnel at high-energy accelerator facilities. Knowledge of the chemical form of tritium is necessary to estimate the internal doses. We studied the tritium generation upon thermal neutron irradiation of a mercury target modified into liquid lithium amalgam to examine the ratio of tritiated water ([{sup 3}H]H{sub 2}O) and tritiated hydrogen ([{sup 3}H]H{sub 2}). The ratio between [{sup 3}H]H{sub 2}O and [{sup 3}H]H{sub 2} generated in lithium amalgam was 4:6 under these experimental conditions.

  18. EURISOL-DS MULTI-MW TARGET ISSUES: BEAM WINDOW AND TRANSVERSE FILM TARGET

    CERN Document Server

    Adonai Herrera-Martínez, Yacine Kadi

    The analysis of the EURISOL-DS Multi_MW target precise geometry (Fig.1) has proved that large fission yields can be achieved with a 4 MW, providing a technically feasible design to evacuate the power deposited in the liquid mercury. Different designs for the mercury flow have been proposed, which maintain its temperature below the boiling point with moderate flow speeds (maximum 4 m/s).

  19. Multi-MW target station: Beam Window Issues and Transverse Film Target

    CERN Document Server

    Herrera-Martinez, A

    The analysis of the EURISOL-DS Multi_MW target precise geometry has proved that large fission yields can be achieved with a 4 MW, providing a technically feasible design to evacuate the power deposited in the liquid mercury. Different designs for the mercury flow have been proposed, which maintain its temperature below the boiling point with moderate flow speeds (maximum 4 m/s).

  20. Multi-weight isotherm results for mercury removal in upper East Fork Popular Creek water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, D.A.; Klasson, K.T.

    1998-02-01

    Many sorbents have been developed for the removal of mercury and heavy metals from waters; however, the majority of data published to date do not address the removal of mercury to the target levels represented in this project. The application to which these sorbents are targeted for use is the removal of mercury from microgram-per-liter levels to low nanogram-per-liter levels. Sorbents with thiouronium, thiol, amine, sulfur, and proprietary functional groups were selected for these studies. The initial mercury content in the majority of the batch samples was significantly augmented so that the equilibrium concentration was similar to that found in the original stream sample for at least one sample. Mercury was successfully removed from actual water via adsorption onto Ionac SR-4 (by Sybron Chemicals, Inc.), Keyle:X (by SolmeteX), and Mersorb (by Nucon International, Inc.) resins to levels below the target goal of 12 ng/L. A thiol-based resin (Ionac SR-4) performed the best, indicating that over 200,000 volumes of water could be treated with one volume of resin. The cost of the resin is approximately $0.24 per 1000 gal of water

  1. The Plasma Environment at Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raines, James M.; Gershman, Daniel J.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Gloeckler, George; Slavin, James A.; Anderson, Brian J.; Korth, Haje; Krimigis, Stamatios M.; Killen, Rosemary M.; Sarantos, Menalos; hide

    2011-01-01

    Mercury is the least explored terrestrial planet, and the one subjected to the highest flux of solar radiation in the heliosphere. Its highly dynamic, miniature magnetosphere contains ions from the exosphere and solar wind, and at times may allow solar wind ions to directly impact the planet's surface. Together these features create a plasma environment that shares many features with, but is nonetheless very different from, that of Earth. The first in situ measurements of plasma ions in the Mercury space environment were made only recently, by the Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer (FIPS) during the MESSENGER spacecraft's three flybys of the planet in 2008-2009 as the probe was en route to insertion into orbit about Mercury earlier this year. Here. we present analysis of flyby and early orbital mission data with novel techniques that address the particular challenges inherent in these measurements. First. spacecraft structures and sensor orientation limit the FIPS field of view and allow only partial sampling of velocity distribution functions. We use a software model of FIPS sampling in velocity space to explore these effects and recover bulk parameters under certain assumptions. Second, the low densities found in the Mercury magnetosphere result in a relatively low signal-to-noise ratio for many ions. To address this issue, we apply a kernel density spread function to guide removal of background counts according to a background-signature probability map. We then assign individual counts to particular ion species with a time-of-flight forward model, taking into account energy losses in the carbon foil and other physical behavior of ions within the instrument. Using these methods, we have derived bulk plasma properties and heavy ion composition and evaluated them in the context of the Mercury magnetosphere.

  2. Environmental Mercury and Its Toxic Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M. Rice

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mercury exists naturally and as a man-made contaminant. The release of processed mercury can lead to a progressive increase in the amount of atmospheric mercury, which enters the atmospheric-soil-water distribution cycles where it can remain in circulation for years. Mercury poisoning is the result of exposure to mercury or mercury compounds resulting in various toxic effects depend on its chemical form and route of exposure. The major route of human exposure to methylmercury (MeHg is largely through eating contaminated fish, seafood, and wildlife which have been exposed to mercury through ingestion of contaminated lower organisms. MeHg toxicity is associated with nervous system damage in adults and impaired neurological development in infants and children. Ingested mercury may undergo bioaccumulation leading to progressive increases in body burdens. This review addresses the systemic pathophysiology of individual organ systems associated with mercury poisoning. Mercury has profound cellular, cardiovascular, hematological, pulmonary, renal, immunological, neurological, endocrine, reproductive, and embryonic toxicological effects.

  3. New Mechanisms of Mercury Binding to Peat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, K. L.; Manceau, A.; Gasper, J. D.; Ryan, J. N.; Aiken, G. R.

    2007-12-01

    Mercury can be immobilized in the aquatic environment by binding to peat, a solid form of natural organic matter. Binding mechanisms can vary in strength and reversibility, and therefore will control concentrations of bioreactive mercury, may explain rates of mercury methylation, and are important for designing approaches to improve water quality using natural wetlands or engineered phytoremediation schemes. In addition, strong binding between mercury and peat is likely to result in the fixation of mercury that ultimately resides in coal. The mechanisms by which aqueous mercury at low concentrations reacts with both dissolved and solid natural organic matter remain incompletely understood, despite recent efforts. We have identified three distinct binding mechanisms of divalent cationic mercury to solid peats from the Florida Everglades using EXAFS spectroscopic data (FAME beamline, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF)) obtained on experimental samples as compared to relevant references including mercury-bearing solids and mercury bound to various organic molecules. The proportions of the three molecular configurations vary with Hg concentration, and two new configurations that involve sulfur ligands occur at Hg concentrations up to about 4000 ppm. The binding mechanism at the lowest experimental Hg concentration (60-80 ppm) elucidates published reports on the inhibition of metacinnabar formation in the presence of Hg-bearing solutions and dissolved natural organic matter, and also, the differences in extent of mercury methylation in distinct areas of the Florida Everglades.

  4. Mercury Toxicity on Sodium Pump and Organoseleniums Intervention: A Paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ige Joseph Kade

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is an environmental poison, and the damage to living system is generally severe. The severity of mercury poisoning is consequent from the fact that it targets the thiol-containing enzymes, irreversibly oxidizing their critical thiol groups, consequently leading to an inactivation of the enzyme. The Na+/K+-ATPase is a sulfhydryl protein that is sensitive to Hg2+ assault. On the other hand, organoseleniums are a class of pharmacologically promising compounds with potent antioxidant effects. While Hg2+ oxidizes sulfhydryl groups of Na+/K+-ATPase under in vitro and in vivo conditions, the organoselenium compounds inhibit Na+/K+-ATPase in vitro but enhance its activities under in vivo conditions with concomitant increase in the level of endogenous thiols. Paradoxically, it appears that these two thiol oxidants can be used to counteract one another under in vivo conditions, and this hypothesis serves as the basis for this paper.

  5. Mercury emissions from municipal solid waste combustors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    This report examines emissions of mercury (Hg) from municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion in the United States (US). It is projected that total annual nationwide MSW combustor emissions of mercury could decrease from about 97 tonnes (1989 baseline uncontrolled emissions) to less than about 4 tonnes in the year 2000. This represents approximately a 95 percent reduction in the amount of mercury emitted from combusted MSW compared to the 1989 mercury emissions baseline. The likelihood that routinely achievable mercury emissions removal efficiencies of about 80 percent or more can be assured; it is estimated that MSW combustors in the US could prove to be a comparatively minor source of mercury emissions after about 1995. This forecast assumes that diligent measures to control mercury emissions, such as via use of supplemental control technologies (e.g., carbon adsorption), are generally employed at that time. However, no present consensus was found that such emissions control measures can be implemented industry-wide in the US within this time frame. Although the availability of technology is apparently not a limiting factor, practical implementation of necessary control technology may be limited by administrative constraints and other considerations (e.g., planning, budgeting, regulatory compliance requirements, etc.). These projections assume that: (a) about 80 percent mercury emissions reduction control efficiency is achieved with air pollution control equipment likely to be employed by that time; (b) most cylinder-shaped mercury-zinc (CSMZ) batteries used in hospital applications can be prevented from being disposed into the MSW stream or are replaced with alternative batteries that do not contain mercury; and (c) either the amount of mercury used in fluorescent lamps is decreased to an industry-wide average of about 27 milligrams of mercury per lamp or extensive diversion from the MSW stream of fluorescent lamps that contain mercury is accomplished.

  6. Advanced Gasification Mercury/Trace Metal Control with Monolith Traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musich, Mark; Swanson, Michael; Dunham, Grant; Stanislowski, Joshua

    2010-10-05

    Two Corning monoliths and a non-carbon-based material have been identified as potential additives for mercury capture in syngas at temperatures above 400°F and pressure of 600 psig. A new Corning monolith formulation, GR-F1-2189, described as an active sample appeared to be the best monolith tested to date. The Corning SR Liquid monolith concept continues to be a strong candidate for mercury capture. Both monolith types allowed mercury reduction to below 5-μg/m{sup 3} (~5 ppb), a current U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) goal for trace metal control. Preparation methods for formulating the SR Liquid monolith impacted the ability of the monolith to capture mercury. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC)-prepared Noncarbon Sorbents 1 and 2 appeared to offer potential for sustained and significant reduction of mercury concentration in the simulated fuel gas. The Noncarbon Sorbent 1 allowed sustained mercury reduction to below 5-μg/m{sup 3} (~5 ppb). The non-carbon-based sorbent appeared to offer the potential for regeneration, that is, desorption of mercury by temperature swing (using nitrogen and steam at temperatures above where adsorption takes place). A Corning cordierite monolith treated with a Group IB metal offered limited potential as a mercury sorbent. However, a Corning carbon-based monolith containing prereduced metallic species similar to those found on the noncarbon sorbents did not exhibit significant or sustained mercury reduction. EERC sorbents prepared with Group IB and IIB selenide appeared to have some promise for mercury capture. Unfortunately, these sorbents also released Se, as was evidenced by the measurement of H2Se in the effluent gas. All sorbents tested with arsine or hydrogen selenide, including Corning monoliths and the Group IB and IIB metal-based materials, showed an ability to capture arsine or hydrogen selenide at 400°F and 600 psig. Based on current testing, the noncarbon metal-based sorbents appear to be the most

  7. ADVANCED GASIFICATION MERCURY/TRACE METAL CONTROL WITH MONOLITH TRAPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark A. Musich; Michael L. Swanson; Grant E. Dunham; Joshua J. Stanislowski

    2010-07-31

    Two Corning monoliths and a non-carbon-based material have been identified as potential additives for mercury capture in syngas at temperatures above 400°F and pressure of 600 psig. A new Corning monolith formulation, GR-F1-2189, described as an active sample appeared to be the best monolith tested to date. The Corning SR Liquid monolith concept continues to be a strong candidate for mercury capture. Both monolith types allowed mercury reduction to below 5-μg/m3 (~5 ppb), a current U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) goal for trace metal control. Preparation methods for formulating the SR Liquid monolith impacted the ability of the monolith to capture mercury. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC)-prepared Noncarbon Sorbents 1 and 2 appeared to offer potential for sustained and significant reduction of mercury concentration in the simulated fuel gas. The Noncarbon Sorbent 1 allowed sustained mercury reduction to below 5-μg/m3 (~5 ppb). The non-carbon-based sorbent appeared to offer the potential for regeneration, that is, desorption of mercury by temperature swing (using nitrogen and steam at temperatures above where adsorption takes place). A Corning cordierite monolith treated with a Group IB metal offered limited potential as a mercury sorbent. However, a Corning carbon-based monolith containing prereduced metallic species similar to those found on the noncarbon sorbents did not exhibit significant or sustained mercury reduction. EERC sorbents prepared with Group IB and IIB selenide appeared to have some promise for mercury capture. Unfortunately, these sorbents also released Se, as was evidenced by the measurement of H2Se in the effluent gas. All sorbents tested with arsine or hydrogen selenide, including Corning monoliths and the Group IB and IIB metal-based materials, showed an ability to capture arsine or hydrogen selenide at 400°F and 600 psig. Based on current testing, the noncarbon metal-based sorbents appear to be the most effective arsine

  8. Chemonuclear studies for identification for new production routes for the therapeutically useful radionuclides {sup 140}Nd, {sup 192}Ir, {sup 191}Pt, {sup 193m}Pt, und {sup 195m}Pt; Kernchemische Studien zur Entwicklung neuerer Produktionsverfahren fuer die therapierelevanten Radionuklide {sup 140}Nd, {sup 192}Ir, {sup 191}Pt, {sup 193m}Pt, und {sup 195m}Pt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilgers, K.

    2005-12-15

    New production routes for the therapeutically useful radionuclides {sup 140}Nd, {sup 192}Ir, {sup 191}Pt, {sup 193m}Pt and {sup 195m}Pt were investigated. Cross section data were measured using the stacked-foil technique and compared with theoretical calculations. A production method for the platinum nuclides was developed. The {sup 141}Pr(p, 2n){sup 140}Nd and {sup nat}Ce({sup 3}He, xn){sup 140}Nd reactions were investigated for production of {sup 140}Nd. Cross section data of nuclear reactions leading to the side products {sup 141}Nd, {sup 139}Nd and {sup 139}Ce could also be achieved. The experimental data were compared with theoretical calculations using the code ALICE-IPPE. A comparison of the calculated thick target yields showed that the {sup 141}Pr(p, 2n){sup 140}Nd reaction gives a higher yield. The {sup 192}Os(p, n){sup 192}Ir reaction was examined in the context of the production of {sup 192}Ir. Cross section data were determined and compared with theoretical calculations using the codes ALICE-IPPE and EMPIRE II. The yield of this reaction was compared with the yield of the reactor production of this nuclide. The reactor production seems to be more suitable because of a higher purity and yield. Cross section data were measured for the {sup 192}Os({alpha}, n){sup 195m}Pt, {sup 192}Os({alpha}, 3n){sup 193m}Pt and {sup 192}Os({sup 3}He, 4n){sup 191}Pt reactions. The activity of {sup 193m}Pt and {sup 195m}Pt was determined by X-ray spectroscopy after a chemical separation procedure. The ALICE-IPPE code was found to be inappropriate to reproduce the experimental values. The calculated yields were compared with the yields of other reactions, especially the reactor production of {sup 195m}Pt. The yield of the {sup 192}Os({alpha}, n){sup 195m}Pt reaction is lower compared to the yield of the reactor production, but offers lower target costs and higher specific activity. A production method for {sup 193m}Pt and {sup 195m}Pt was developed. Batch yields of 0.9 MBq

  9. Streamwater fluxes of total mercury and methylmercury into and out of Lake Champlain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanley, James B.; Chalmers, Ann T.

    2012-01-01

    From 2000 to 2004, we sampled for total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in inlet streams to Lake Champlain, targeting high flow periods to capture increases in THg and MeHg concentrations with increasing flow. We used these data to model stream THg and MeHg fluxes for Water Years 2001 through 2009. In this mountainous forested basin with a high watershed-to-lake area ratio of 18, fluvial export from the terrestrial watershed was the dominant source of Hg to the lake. Unfiltered THg and MeHg fluxes were dominated by the particulate fraction; about 40% of stream THg was in the filtered ( −2 yr −1 , or about 13% of atmospheric Hg wet and dry deposition to the basin. THg export from the lake represented only about 3% of atmospheric Hg input to the basin. - Highlights: ► We monitored total mercury and methylmercury in major tributaries to Lake Champlain. ► Mercury and methylmercury export was primarily as particulates during high flow. ► Only 13% of atmospheric total mercury input reached the lake via streams. ► Only 3% of atmospheric total mercury input reached the lake outlet. - Eighty-seven percent of total mercury deposition to the Lake Champlain basin is retained in the terrestrial basin; stream export of total and methylmercury to the lake is primarily in the particulate phase.

  10. Overview of Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter (MMO) for BepiColombo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, G.; Hayakawa, H.; Fujimoto, M.; BepiColombo Project Team

    2018-05-01

    The next Mercury exploration mission BepiColombo will be launched in October 2018 and will arrive at Mercury in December 2025. We present the current status, science goals, and observation plans of JAXA's Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter (MMO).

  11. High-spin states in the 192Pb and 193Pb isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagrange, J.M.; Pautrat, M.

    1991-01-01

    The 193 Pb and 192 Pb isotopes are produced through the 182 W( 16 O, 5n, 6n) reactions. The de-excitation γ-ray and conversion electron spectra lead to the conversion coefficients for most transitions. With the results of the γ-γ and e - -γ coincidences, the half-lives measured for several states, the angular distribution coefficients for the odd isotope and the transition multipolarities, the data on the 192 Pb level scheme has been much enhanced and the 193 Pb one studied for the first time. The experimental schemes are compared to those given by microscopic calculations, in a two or three quasi-particle approximation using a surface delta interaction with a reduced pairing component. The discrepancies between theory and experiment are attributed to the increasing influence of proton configurations

  12. The drift velocity of electrons in carbon dioxide at temperatures between 193 and 573 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elford, M.T.; Haddad, G.N.

    1980-01-01

    The drift velocity of electrons in carbon dioxide has been measured at gas temperatures ranging from 193 to 573 K and at E/N values up to 20 Td at 193 K, 50 Td at 293 K and 40 Td at 573 K. The measured drift velocities were found to decrease linearly with increasing gas number density at a given value of E/N for gas temperatures less than 293 K. This dependence has been attributed to multiple scattering and the data have been extrapolated to zero number density to correct for this effect. Comparisons are made with previous measurements where available. The present data for the variation of μN(thermal) with temperature agree to within the experimental error with the data of Pact et al. (1962)

  13. Aging effect of AlF3 coatings for 193 nm lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jia; Wang, Lin; Zhang, Weili; Yi, Kui; Shao, Jianda

    2018-02-01

    As important part of components for 193 nm lithography, AlF3 coatings deposited by resistive heating method acquire advantages like lower optical loss and higher laser damage threshold, but they also possess some disadvantages like worse stability, which is what aging effect focuses on. AlF3 single-layer coatings were deposited; optical property, surface morphology and roughness, and composition were characterized in different periods. Owing to aging effect, refractive index and extinction coefficient increased; larger and larger roughness caused more and more scattering loss, which was in the same order with absorption at 193.4 nm and part of optical loss; from composition analysis, proportional substitution of AlF3 by alumina may account for changes in refractive index as well as absorption.

  14. Identification of low-lying proton-based intruder states in 189-193Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vel, K. van de; Andreyev, A.N.; Huyse, M.; Duppen, P. van; Cocks, J.F.C.; Dorvaux, O.; Greenlees, P.T.; Helariutta, K.; Jones, P.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Kettunen, H.; Kuusiniemi, P.; Leino, M.; Muikku, M.; Nieminen, P.; Eskola, K.; Wyss, R.

    2002-01-01

    Low-lying proton-based intruder states have been observed in the odd-mass isotopes 189,191,193 Pb in experiments at the RITU gas-filled recoil separator. The identification has been performed by observing the fine structure in the α decay of the parent 193,195,197 Po nuclei in prompt coincidence with conversion electrons and γ rays in the daughter lead isotopes. Along with the literature data these results establish a systematics of intruder states in the odd-mass lead isotopes from 197 Pb down to 185 Pb. Interpretation of these states involves the coupling of the 1i 13/2 or 3p 3/2 odd neutron to the 0 + state in the oblate minimum in the even-mass lead core. Conversion coefficients have been determined for some of the transitions, revealing mixing between the coexisting states. The experimental results are compared to potential energy surface calculations

  15. Fatigue properties of type 316LN stainless steel in air and mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strizak, J.P.; Tian, H.; Liaw, P.K.; Mansur, L.K.

    2005-01-01

    An extensive fatigue testing program on 316LN stainless steel was recently carried out to support the design of the mercury target container for the spallation neutron source (SNS) that is currently under construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the United States. The major objective was to determine the effects of mercury on fatigue behavior. The S-N fatigue behavior of 316LN stainless steel is characterized by a family of bilinear fatigue curves which are dependent on frequency, environment, mean stress and cold work. Generally, fatigue life increases with decreasing stress and levels off in the high cycle region to an endurance limit below which the material will not fail. For fully reversed loading as well as tensile mean stress loading conditions mercury had no effect on endurance limit. However, at higher stresses a synergistic relationship between mercury and cyclic loading frequency was observed at low frequencies. As expected, fatigue life decreased with decreasing frequency, but the response was more pronounced in mercury compared with air. As a result of liquid metal embrittlement (LME), fracture surfaces of specimens tested in mercury showed widespread brittle intergranular cracking as opposed to typical transgranular cracking for specimens tested in air. For fully reversed loading (zero mean stress) the effect of mercury disappeared as frequency increased to 10 Hz. For mean stress conditions with R-ratios of 0.1 and 0.3, LME was still evident at 10 Hz, but at 700 Hz the effect of mercury had disappeared (R 0.1). Further, for higher R-ratios (0.5 and 0.75) fatigue curves for 10 Hz showed no environmental effect. Finally, cold working (20%) increased tensile strength and hardness, and improved fatigue resistance. Fatigue behavior at 10 and 700 Hz was similar and no environmental effect was observed

  16. Fatigue properties of type 316LN stainless steel in air and mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strizak, J. P.; Tian, H.; Liaw, P. K.; Mansur, L. K.

    2005-08-01

    An extensive fatigue testing program on 316LN stainless steel was recently carried out to support the design of the mercury target container for the spallation neutron source (SNS) that is currently under construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the United States. The major objective was to determine the effects of mercury on fatigue behavior. The S- N fatigue behavior of 316LN stainless steel is characterized by a family of bilinear fatigue curves which are dependent on frequency, environment, mean stress and cold work. Generally, fatigue life increases with decreasing stress and levels off in the high cycle region to an endurance limit below which the material will not fail. For fully reversed loading as well as tensile mean stress loading conditions mercury had no effect on endurance limit. However, at higher stresses a synergistic relationship between mercury and cyclic loading frequency was observed at low frequencies. As expected, fatigue life decreased with decreasing frequency, but the response was more pronounced in mercury compared with air. As a result of liquid metal embrittlement (LME), fracture surfaces of specimens tested in mercury showed widespread brittle intergranular cracking as opposed to typical transgranular cracking for specimens tested in air. For fully reversed loading (zero mean stress) the effect of mercury disappeared as frequency increased to 10 Hz. For mean stress conditions with R-ratios of 0.1 and 0.3, LME was still evident at 10 Hz, but at 700 Hz the effect of mercury had disappeared ( R = 0.1). Further, for higher R-ratios (0.5 and 0.75) fatigue curves for 10 Hz showed no environmental effect. Finally, cold working (20%) increased tensile strength and hardness, and improved fatigue resistance. Fatigue behavior at 10 and 700 Hz was similar and no environmental effect was observed.

  17. Spatial variation of mercury bioaccumulation in bats of Canada linked to atmospheric mercury deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chételat, John; Hickey, M Brian C; Poulain, Alexandre J; Dastoor, Ashu; Ryjkov, Andrei; McAlpine, Donald; Vanderwolf, Karen; Jung, Thomas S; Hale, Lesley; Cooke, Emma L L; Hobson, Dave; Jonasson, Kristin; Kaupas, Laura; McCarthy, Sara; McClelland, Christine; Morningstar, Derek; Norquay, Kaleigh J O; Novy, Richard; Player, Delanie; Redford, Tony; Simard, Anouk; Stamler, Samantha; Webber, Quinn M R; Yumvihoze, Emmanuel; Zanuttig, Michelle

    2018-06-01

    Wildlife are exposed to neurotoxic mercury at locations distant from anthropogenic emission sources because of long-range atmospheric transport of this metal. In this study, mercury bioaccumulation in insectivorous bat species (Mammalia: Chiroptera) was investigated on a broad geographic scale in Canada. Fur was analyzed (n=1178) for total mercury from 43 locations spanning 20° latitude and 77° longitude. Total mercury and methylmercury concentrations in fur were positively correlated with concentrations in internal tissues (brain, liver, kidney) for a small subset (n=21) of little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) and big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), validating the use of fur to indicate internal mercury exposure. Brain methylmercury concentrations were approximately 10% of total mercury concentrations in fur. Three bat species were mainly collected (little brown bats, big brown bats, and northern long-eared bats [M. septentrionalis]), with little brown bats having lower total mercury concentrations in their fur than the other two species at sites where both species were sampled. On average, juvenile bats had lower total mercury concentrations than adults but no differences were found between males and females of a species. Combining our dataset with previously published data for eastern Canada, median total mercury concentrations in fur of little brown bats ranged from 0.88-12.78μg/g among 11 provinces and territories. Highest concentrations were found in eastern Canada where bats are most endangered from introduced disease. Model estimates of atmospheric mercury deposition indicated that eastern Canada was exposed to greater mercury deposition than central and western sites. Further, mean total mercury concentrations in fur of adult little brown bats were positively correlated with site-specific estimates of atmospheric mercury deposition. This study provides the largest geographic coverage of mercury measurements in bats to date and indicates that atmospheric

  18. Mercury Flow Through the Mercury-Containing Lamp Sector of the Economy of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: This Scientific Investigations Report examines the flow of mercury through the mercury-containing lamp sector of the U.S. economy in 2001 from lamp manufacture through disposal or recycling. Mercury-containing lamps illuminate commercial and industrial buildings, outdoor areas, and residences. Mercury is an essential component in fluorescent lamps and high-intensity discharge lamps (high-pressure sodium, mercury-vapor, and metal halide). A typical fluorescent lamp is composed of a phosphor-coated glass tube with electrodes located at either end. Only a very small amount of the mercury is in vapor form. The remainder of the mercury is in the form of either liquid mercury metal or solid mercury oxide (mercury oxidizes over the life of the lamp). When voltage is applied, the electrodes energize the mercury vapor and cause it to emit ultraviolet energy. The phosphor coating absorbs the ultraviolet energy, which causes the phosphor to fluoresce and emit visible light. Mercury-containing lamps provide more lumens per watt than incandescent lamps and, as a result, require from three to four times less energy to operate. Mercury is persistent and toxic within the environment. Mercury-containing lamps are of environmental concern because they are widely distributed throughout the environment and are easily broken in handling. The magnitude of lamp sector mercury emissions, estimated to be 2.9 metric tons per year (t/yr), is small compared with the estimated mercury losses of the U.S. coal-burning and chlor-alkali industries, which are about 70 t/yr and about 90 t/yr, respectively.

  19. Test of supersymmetry in the 193Ir→194Pt proton stripping reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergnes, M.; Rotbard, G.; Kalifa, J.; Berrier-Ronsin, G.; Vernotte, J.; Seltz, R.; Burke, D.G.

    1980-01-01

    A breakdown of the selection rules of the supersymmetry model is observed for the population of the 0 2 + and 2 2 + levels of 194 Pt in the 193 Ir → 194 Pt proton stripping reactions performed using the Orsay and Mc Master University tandem accelerators. The existence of other violations in the neighbouring nuclei leads to believe that we are seeing the limitations of the supersymmetry scheme itself, at least for particle transfer reactions

  20. Mercury and selenium in European catfish (Silurus glanis) from Northern Italian Rivers: can molar ratio be a predictive factor for mercury toxicity in a top predator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squadrone, S; Benedetto, A; Brizio, P; Prearo, M; Abete, M C

    2015-01-01

    The study of mercury and selenium bioaccumulation in fish is crucially important for evaluating the extent of contamination in freshwater environments, and the possible health risk posed for humans when the antagonistic interactions of these two elements are considered. Several factors affect the risk of mercury intake from fish consumption, including mercury levels, human consumption patterns, and sensitive populations (e.g., pregnant women, foetuses, young children and unknown genetic factors). The protective effects of selenium on mercury toxicity have been extensively publicised in recent years, particularly targeting fish consumers. In this study, mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) concentrations were determined in the muscle of European catfish (Silurus glanis) collected from North Italian Rivers. Differences in mercury and selenium levels, as a function of size, gender and location were investigated. Hg was strongly related to length, gender and location, while Se levels are not dependent on fish size or location. The mean Se/Hg molar ratio was strongly affected by location, and significantly related to length and age. Selenium was in molar excess of mercury in all sites, with a rank order of mean Se/Hg molar ratio of the Parma River (2.55)>Po River (1.71)>Tanaro River (1.66)>Bormida River (1.36). However, in 37% of analyzed samples, Hg exceeded the maximum level set by 1881/2006/EC and 629/2008/EC in fish muscle. The molar ratio of Se/Hg was 0.5mg/kg), and therefore the mean molar ratio cannot be considered as a safety criterion in top predator fish. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Amended Silicated for Mercury Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Butz; Thomas Broderick; Craig Turchi

    2006-12-31

    Amended Silicates{trademark}, a powdered, noncarbon mercury-control sorbent, was tested at Duke Energy's Miami Fort Station, Unit 6 during the first quarter of 2006. Unit 6 is a 175-MW boiler with a cold-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP). The plant burns run-of-the-river eastern bituminous coal with typical ash contents ranging from 8-15% and sulfur contents from 1.6-2.6% on an as-received basis. The performance of the Amended Silicates sorbent was compared with that for powdered activated carbon (PAC). The trial began with a period of baseline monitoring during which no sorbent was injected. Sampling during this and subsequent periods indicated mercury capture by the native fly ash was less than 10%. After the baseline period, Amended Silicates sorbent was injected at several different ratios, followed by a 30-day trial at a fixed injection ratio of 5-6 lb/MMACF. After this period, PAC was injected to provide a comparison. Approximately 40% mercury control was achieved for both the Amended Silicates sorbent and PAC at injection ratios of 5-6 lbs/MMACF. Higher injection ratios did not achieve significantly increased removal. Similar removal efficiencies have been reported for PAC injection trials at other plants with cold-side ESPs, most notably for plants using medium to high sulfur coal. Sorbent injection did not detrimentally impact plant operations and testing confirmed that the use of Amended Silicates sorbent does not degrade fly ash quality (unlike PAC). The cost for mercury control using either PAC or Amended Silicates sorbent was estimated to be equivalent if fly ash sales are not a consideration. However, if the plant did sell fly ash, the effective cost for mercury control could more than double if those sales were no longer possible, due to lost by-product sales and additional cost for waste disposal. Accordingly, the use of Amended Silicates sorbent could reduce the overall cost of mercury control by 50% or more versus PAC for locations where

  2. Human accumulation of mercury in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Poul; Mulvad, Gert; Pedersen, Henning Sloth

    2007-01-01

    In the Arctic, the traditional diet exposes its people to a high intake of mercury especially from marine mammals. To determine whether the mercury is accumulated in humans, we analyzed autopsy samples of liver, kidney and spleen from adult ethnic Greenlanders who died between 1990 and 1994 from...... a wide range of causes, natural and violent. Liver, kidney and spleen samples from between 33 and 71 case subjects were analyzed for total mercury and methylmercury, and liver samples also for selenium. Metal levels in men and women did not differ and were not related to age except in one case, i.......e. for total mercury in liver, where a significant declining concentration with age was observed. The highest total mercury levels were found in kidney followed by liver and spleen. Methylmercury followed the same pattern, but levels were much lower, constituting only 19% of the total mercury concentration...

  3. Acclimation of subsurface microbial communities to mercury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Lipthay, Julia R; Rasmussen, Lasse D; Øregaard, Gunnar

    2008-01-01

    of mercury tolerance and functional versatility of bacterial communities in contaminated soils initially were higher for surface soil, compared with the deeper soils. However, following new mercury exposure, no differences between bacterial communities were observed, which indicates a high adaptive potential......We studied the acclimation to mercury of bacterial communities of different depths from contaminated and noncontaminated floodplain soils. The level of mercury tolerance of the bacterial communities from the contaminated site was higher than those of the reference site. Furthermore, the level...... of the subsurface communities, possibly due to differences in the availability of mercury. IncP-1 trfA genes were detected in extracted community DNA from all soil depths of the contaminated site, and this finding was correlated to the isolation of four different mercury-resistance plasmids, all belonging...

  4. Action of mercury as a soil fungicide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booer, J R

    1951-01-01

    Metallic mercury and mercury compounds in the soil retard the growth of plants. The development of mosses and lichens is inhibited, and experimental evidence shows that the growth of toadstools on turf and the activity of ascomycetes is retarded by mercury. In vitro, mercury has no fungicidal action but the rate of growth of hyphae is reduced by mercury vapour. The lack of fungicial properties of mercury and its good performance in controlling certain soil-borne diseases are reconciled by assuming that a differential retardation disturbs the relationships necessary for infection. This assumption is supported by diagrams which treat the rates of growth of the parasite and the host as population characteristics normally distributed. 21 references, 10 figures, 5 tables.

  5. Human accumulation of mercury in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, P.; Mulvad, G.; Pedersen, H. S.

    2007-01-01

    a wide range of causes, natural and violent. Liver, kidney and spleen samples from between 33 and 71 case subjects were analyzed for total mercury and methylmercury, and liver samples also for selenium. Metal levels in men and women did not differ and were not related to age except in one case, i......In the Arctic, the traditional diet exposes its people to a high intake of mercury especially from marine mammals. To determine whether the mercury is accumulated in humans, we analyzed autopsy samples of liver, kidney and spleen from adult ethnic Greenlanders who died between 1990 and 1994 from.......e. for total mercury in liver, where a significant declining concentration with age was observed. The highest total mercury levels were found in kidney followed by liver and spleen. Methylmercury followed the same pattern, but levels were much lower, constituting only 19% of the total mercury concentration...

  6. CFD Validation of Gas Injection in Flowing Mercury over Vertical Smooth and Grooved Wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, Ashraf A.; Wendel, Mark W.; Felde, David K.; Riemer, Bernie

    2009-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is an accelerator-based neutron source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The nuclear spallation reaction occurs when a proton beam hits liquid mercury. This interaction causes thermal expansion of the liquid mercury which produces high pressure waves. When these pressure waves hit the target vessel wall, cavitation can occur and erode the wall. Research and development efforts at SNS include creation of a vertical protective gas layer between the flowing liquid mercury and target vessel wall to mitigate the cavitation damage erosion and extend the life time of the target. Since mercury is opaque, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can be used as a diagnostic tool to see inside the liquid mercury and guide the experimental efforts. In this study, CFD simulations of three dimensional, unsteady, turbulent, two-phase flow of helium gas injection in flowing liquid mercury over smooth, vertically grooved and horizontally grooved walls are carried out with the commercially available CFD code Fluent-12 from ANSYS. The Volume of Fluid (VOF) model is used to track the helium-mercury interface. V-shaped vertical and horizontal grooves with 0.5 mm pitch and about 0.7 mm depth were machined in the transparent wall of acrylic test sections. Flow visualization data of helium gas coverage through transparent test sections is obtained with a high-speed camera at the ORNL target test facility (TTF). The helium gas mass flow rate is 8 mg/min and introduced through a 0.5 mm diameter port. The local mercury velocity is 0.9 m/s. In this paper, the helium gas flow rate and the local mercury velocity are kept constant for the three cases. Time integration of predicted helium gas volume fraction over time is done to evaluate the gas coverage and calculate the average thickness of the helium gas layer. The predicted time-integrated gas coverage over vertically grooved and horizontally grooved test sections is better than over a smooth wall. The

  7. Templated in-situ synthesis of gold nanoclusters conjugated to drug target bacterial enoyl-ACP reductase, and their application to the detection of mercury ions using a test stripe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Han; Li, Hongwei; Liu, Pengchang; Wu, Yuqing; Shen, Jiacong; Hiltunen, J. Kalervo; Chen, Zhijun

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescent gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) were synthesized using a drug target bacterial enoyl-ACP reductase (FabI) as a template. The physical and chemical properties of the AuNCs were studied by UV-vis absorption, fluorescence, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and TEM. The AuNCs-FabI conjugate was prepared by in situ reduction of tetrachloroaurate in the presence of FabI. The conjugated particles were loaded onto nylon membranes by taking advantage of the electrostatic interaction between the negatively charged AuNCs-FabI and the nylon film which is positively charged at pH 7.4. This results in the formation of a test stripe with sensor spots that can be used to detect Hg(II) ion in the 1 nM to 10 μM concentration range. The test stripes are simple, convenient, selective, sensitive, and can be quickly read out with bare eyes after illumination with a UV lamp. (author)

  8. Thiosulphate assisted phytoextraction of mercury contaminated soils at the Wanshan Mercury Mining District, Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Wanshan, known as the “Mercury Capital” of China, is located in the Southwest of China. Due to the extensive mining and smelting works in the Wanshan area, the local ecosystem has been serious contaminated with mercury. In the present study, a number of soil samples were taken from the Wanshan mercury mining area and the mercury fractionations in soils were analyzed using sequential extraction procedure technique. The obtained results showed that the dominate mercury fractions (represent 95% of total mercury were residual and organic bound mercury. A field trial was conducted in a mercury polluted farmland at the Wanshan mercury mine. Four plant species Brassica juncea Czern. et Coss.var. ASKYC (ASKYC, Brassica juncea Czern. et Coss.var.DPDH (DPDH, Brassica juncea Czern. et Coss.var.CHBD(CHBD, Brassica juncea Czern. et Coss.var.LDZY (LDZY were tested their ability to extract mercury from soil with thiosulphate amendment. The results indicated that the mercury concentration in the roots and shoots of the four plants were significantly increased with thiosulphate treatment. The mercury phytoextraction yield of ASKYC, DPDH, CHBD and LDZY were 92, 526, 294 and 129 g/ha, respectively

  9. Thiosulphate assisted phytoextraction of mercury contaminated soils at the Wanshan Mercury Mining District, Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Wang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Wanshan, known as the “Mercury Capital” of China, is located in the Southwest of China. Due to the extensive mining and smelting works in the Wanshan area, the local ecosystem has been serious contaminated with mercury. In the present study, a number of soil samples were taken from the Wanshan mercury mining area and the mercury fractionations in soils were analyzed using sequential extraction procedure technique. The obtained results showed that the dominate mercury fractions (represent 95% of total mercury were residual and organic bound mercury. A field trial was conducted in a mercury polluted farmland at the Wanshan mercury mine. Four plant species Brassica juncea Czern. et Coss.var. ASKYC (ASKYC, Brassica juncea Czern. et Coss.var.DPDH (DPDH, Brassica juncea Czern. et Coss.var.CHBD(CHBD, Brassica juncea Czern. et Coss.var.LDZY (LDZY were tested their ability to extract mercury from soil with thiosulphate amendment. The results indicated that the mercury concentration in the roots and shoots of the four plants were significantly increased with thiosulphate treatment. The mercury phytoextraction yield of ASKYC, DPDH, CHBD and LDZY were 92, 526, 294 and 129 g/ha, respectively.

  10. Radioactive mercury distribution in biological fluids and excretion in human subjects after inhalation of mercury vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherian, M.G.; Hursh, J.B.; Clarkson, T.W.; Allen, J.

    1978-01-01

    The distribution of mercury in red blood cells (RBCs) and plasma, and its excretion in urine and feces are described in five human subjects during the first 7 days following inhalation of radioactive mercury vapor. A major portion (98%) of radioactive mercury in whole blood is initially accumulated in the RBCs and is transferred partly to the plasma compartment until the ratio of mercury in RBCs to plasma is about 2 within 20 h. The cumulative urinary and fecal excretion of mercury for 7 days is about 11.6% of the retained dose, and is closely related to the percent decline in body burden of mercury. There is little correlation between either the urinary excretion and plasma radioactivity of mercury, or the specific activities of urine and plasma mercury, suggesting a mechanism other than a direct glomerular filtration involved in the urinary excretion of recently exposed mercury. These studies suggest that blood mercury levels can be used as an index of recent exposure, while urinary levels may be an index of renal concentration of mercury. However, there is no reliable index for mercury concentration in the brain

  11. Process for removing mercury from aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Googin, John M.; Napier, John M.; Makarewicz, Mark A.; Meredith, Paul F.

    1986-01-01

    A process for removing mercury from water to a level not greater than two parts per billion wherein an anion exchange material that is insoluble in water is contacted first with a sulfide containing compound and second with a compound containing a bivalent metal ion forming an insoluble metal sulfide. To this treated exchange material is contacted water containing mercury. The water containing not more than two parts per billion of mercury is separated from the exchange material.

  12. Surface composition of Mercury from reflectance spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilas, Faith

    1988-01-01

    The controversies surrounding the existing spectra of Mercury are discussed together with the various implications for interpretations of Mercury's surface composition. Special attention is given to the basic procedure used for reducing reflectance spectrophotometry data, the factors that must be accounted for in the reduction of these data, and the methodology for defining the portion of the surface contributing the greatest amount of light to an individual spectrum. The application of these methodologies to Mercury's spectra is presented.

  13. Mercury concentration in coal - Unraveling the puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toole-O'Neil, B.; Tewalt, S.J.; Finkelman, R.B.; Akers, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    Based on data from the US Geological Survey's COALQUAL database, the mean concentration of mercury in coal is approximately 0.2 ??gg-1. Assuming the database reflects in-ground US coal resources, values for conterminous US coal areas range from 0.08 ??gg-1 for coal in the San Juan and Uinta regions to 0.22 ??gg-1 for the Gulf Coast lignites. Recalculating the COALQUAL data to an equal energy basis unadjusted for moisture differences, the Gulf Coast lignites have the highest values (36.4 lb of Hg/1012 Btu) and the Hams Fork region coal has the lowest value (4.8 lb of Hg/1012Btu). Strong indirect geochemical evidence indicates that a substantial proportion of the mercury in coal is associated with pyrite occurrence. This association of mercury and pyrite probably accounts for the removal of mercury with the pyrite by physical coal cleaning procedures. Data from the literature indicate that conventional coal cleaning removes approximately 37% of the mercury on an equal energy basis, with a range of 0% to 78%. When the average mercury reduction value is applied to in-ground mercury values from the COALQUAL database, the resulting 'cleaned' mercury values are very close to mercury in 'as-shipped' coal from the same coal bed in the same county. Applying the reduction fact or for coal cleaning to eastern US bituminous coal, reduces the mercury input load compared to lower-rank non-deaned western US coal. In the absence of analytical data on as-shipped coal, the mercury data in the COALQUAL database, adjusted for deanability where appropriate, may be used as an estimator of mercury contents of as-shipped coal. ?? 1998 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mercury and halogens in coal: Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolker, Allan; Quick, Jeffrey C.; Granite, Evan J.; Pennline, Henry W.; Senior, Constance L.

    2014-01-01

    Apart from mercury itself, coal rank and halogen content are among the most important factors inherent in coal that determine the proportion of mercury captured by conventional controls during coal combustion. This chapter reviews how mercury in coal occurs, gives available concentration data for mercury in U.S. and international commercial coals, and provides an overview of the natural variation in halogens that influence mercury capture. Three databases, the U.S. Geological Survey coal quality (USGS COALQUAL) database for in-ground coals, and the 1999 and 2010 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Information Collection Request (ICR) databases for coals delivered to power stations, provide extensive results for mercury and other parameters that are compared in this chapter. In addition to the United States, detailed characterization of mercury is available on a nationwide basis for China, whose mean values in recent compilations are very similar to the United States in-ground mean of 0.17 ppm mercury. Available data for the next five largest producers (India, Australia, South Africa, the Russian Federation, and Indonesia) are more limited and with the possible exceptions of Australia and the Russian Federation, do not allow nationwide means for mercury in coal to be calculated. Chlorine in coal varies as a function of rank and correspondingly, depth of burial. As discussed elsewhere in this volume, on a proportional basis, bromine is more effective than chlorine in promoting mercury oxidation in flue gas and capture by conventional controls. The ratio of bromine to chlorine in coal is indicative of the proportion of halogens present in formation waters within a coal basin. This ratio is relatively constant except in coals that have interacted with deep-basin brines that have reached halite saturation, enriching residual fluids in bromine. Results presented here help optimize mercury capture by conventional controls and provide a starting point for

  15. Application of brown bear (Ursus arctos) records for retrospective assessment of mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solgi, Eisa; Ghasempouri, Seyed Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Because mercury (Hg) is released into the atmosphere, wildlife living in habitats located far from point sources of metal may still be at risk. Mercury accumulation, previously considered a risk for aquatic ecosystems, is also found in many wildlife terrestrial species. The aim of the present study was to examine total Hg concentrations in the brown bear (Ursus arctos) by measurement of metal in hair from museum collections in Iran. Another objective of this investigation was to characterize the risk of Hg exposure in bears in several parts of Iran. Brown bear (Ursus arctos) hair samples (n = 35) were collected from 14 provinces in Iran for analysis of Hg contamination, performed using an advanced mercury analyzer (model Leco 254 AMA, USA) according to ASTM standard D-6722. Total Hg levels in Iranian bears from all areas ranged from 115.81 to 505.82 μg/kg, with a mean of 193.39 ng/g. Mercury concentrations in brown bear hair from different provinces in Iran were as follows in descending order: Khorasan Razavi > Esfahan > Khozestan > Yazd > Lorestan > Charmahalva Bakhtiari > Bushehr > Mazandaran > Markazi > Tehran > Ardebil > Gilan > East Azerbaijan. The highest content of Hg was found in the south (206.62 ± 31.95 ng/g), whereas the lowest levels were detected in the west (167.71 ± 32.97 ng/g). Overall total Hg content in bear hair was below harmful levels for this species. A decreasing trend was noted in the period 1986-2006, which may be mainly due to reduction of global Hg emissions. Data suggest that food habits and habitat are two important factors that influence Hg accumulation in bears.

  16. Accumulation of mercury in selected plant species grown in soils contaminated with different mercury compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Yi; Han, Fengxiang; Shiyab, Safwan; Chen, Jian; Monts, David L.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of our research is to screen and search for suitable plant species for phyto-remediation of mercury-contaminated soil. Currently our effort is specifically focused on mercury removal from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, where mercury contamination is a major concern. In order to cost effectively implement mercury remediation efforts, it is necessary now to obtain an improved understanding of biological means of removing mercury and mercury compounds.. Phyto-remediation is a technology that uses various plants to degrade, extract, contain, or immobilize contaminants from soil and water. In particular, phyto-extraction is the uptake of contaminants by plant roots and translocation within the plants to shoots or leaves. Contaminants are generally removed by harvesting the plants. We have investigated phyto-extraction of mercury from contaminated soil by using some of the known metal-accumulating plants since no natural plant species with mercury hyper-accumulating properties has yet been identified. Different natural plant species have been studied for mercury uptake, accumulation, toxicity and overall mercury removal efficiency. Various mercury compounds, such as HgS, HgCl 2 , and Hg(NO 3 ) 2 , were used as contaminant sources. Different types of soil were examined and chosen for phyto-remediation experiments. We have applied microscopy and diffuse reflectance spectrometry as well as conventional analytical chemistry to monitor the phyto-remediation processes of mercury uptake, translocation and accumulation, and the physiological impact of mercury contaminants on selected plant species. Our results indicate that certain plant species, such as beard grass (Polypogon monospeliensis), accumulated a very limited amount of mercury in the shoots ( 2 powder, respectively; no visual stress symptoms were observed. We also studied mercury phyto-remediation using aged soils that contained HgS, HgCl 2 , or Hg(NO 3 ) 2 . We have found that up to hundreds

  17. Apparatus for isotopic alteration of mercury vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.; Marcucci, R.V.

    1988-01-01

    This patent describes an apparatus for enriching the isotopic content of mercury. It comprises: a low pressure electric discharge lamp, the lamp comprising an envelope transparent to ultraviolet radiation and containing a fill comprising mercury and an inert gas; a filter concentrically arranged around the low pressure electric discharge lamp, the filter being transparent to ultraviolet radiation and containing mercury including 196 Hg isotope; means for controlling mercury pressure in the filter; and a reactor arranged around the filter such that radiation passes from the low pressure electric discharge lamp through the filter and into Said reactor, the reactor being transparent to ultraviolet light

  18. Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Deborah A.; Holmes, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

  19. Apparatus for isotopic alteration of mercury vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.; Marcucci, Rudolph V.

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for enriching the isotopic Hg content of mercury is provided. The apparatus includes a reactor, a low pressure electric discharge lamp containing a fill including mercury and an inert gas. A filter is arranged concentrically around the lamp. In a preferred embodiment, constant mercury pressure is maintained in the filter by means of a water-cooled tube that depends from it, the tube having a drop of mercury disposed in it. The reactor is arranged around the filter, whereby radiation from said lamp passes through the filter and into said reactor. The lamp, the filter and the reactor are formed of a material which is transparent to ultraviolet light.

  20. Identification of elemental mercury in the subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Dennis G

    2015-01-06

    An apparatus and process is provided for detecting elemental mercury in soil. A sacrificial electrode of aluminum is inserted below ground to a desired location using direct-push/cone-penetrometer based equipment. The insertion process removes any oxides or previously found mercury from the electrode surface. Any mercury present adjacent the electrode can be detected using a voltmeter which indicates the presence or absence of mercury. Upon repositioning the electrode within the soil, a fresh surface of the aluminum electrode is created allowing additional new measurements.

  1. Coal fired flue gas mercury emission controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jiang; Pan, Weiguo; Cao, Yan; Pan, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metals, harmful to both the environment and human health. Hg is released into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources and its emission control has caused much concern. This book introduces readers to Hg pollution from natural and anthropogenic sources and systematically describes coal-fired flue gas mercury emission control in industry, especially from coal-fired power stations. Mercury emission control theory and experimental research are demonstrated, including how elemental mercury is oxidized into oxidized mercury and the effect of flue gas contents on the mercury speciation transformation process. Mercury emission control methods, such as existing APCDs (air pollution control devices) at power stations, sorbent injection, additives in coal combustion and photo-catalytic methods are introduced in detail. Lab-scale, pilot-scale and full-scale experimental studies of sorbent injection conducted by the authors are presented systematically, helping researchers and engineers to understand how this approach reduces the mercury emissions in flue gas and to apply the methods in mercury emission control at coal-fired power stations.

  2. Observations of Mercury in 1988 and 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmude, R.W. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    A visual study of the planet Mercury was carried out in May 1988 and in April and May 1989. Most of the observations were made with the 35.5-cm telescope at the Texas A ampersand M University Observatory. This report presents drawings and a map of Mercury that covers the longitude range of 195-285 deg. One important finding was that a polarizing filter combined with color filters gives a sharper view of the planet. It is also concluded that high-resolution images of Mercury's terminator, either as seen from the earth or with the Hubble Space Telescope, can provide information about Mercury's topography. 10 refs

  3. Fate of mercury in the Arctic (FOMA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, H.; Christensen, J.; Asmund, G.

    This report is the final reporting of the project FONA, funded by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency with means from the MIKA/DANCEA funds for Environmental Support to the Arctic Region. The aim of the project is to study the intercompartment mercury transport chain in the arctic area. From...... in the Arctic. The report focus on the surface exchange of mercury, the uptake of abiotic mercury into the biological system, and the bioaccumulation in the first steps of the food web, and the resulting distribution and time trend of mercury in selected animals feeding on various trophic levels...

  4. Sorbents for mercury removal from flue gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granite, Evan J.; Hargis, Richard A.; Pennline, Henry W.

    1998-01-01

    A review of the various promoters and sorbents examined for the removal of mercury from flue gas is presented. Commercial sorbent processes are described along with the chemistry of the various sorbent-mercury interactions. Novel sorbents for removing mercury from flue gas are suggested. Since activated carbons are expensive, alternate sorbents and/or improved activated carbons are needed. Because of their lower cost, sorbent development work can focus on base metal oxides and halides. Additionally, the long-term sequestration of the mercury on the sorbent needs to be addressed. Contacting methods between the flue gas and the sorbent also merit investigation.

  5. Coal fired flue gas mercury emission controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jiang; Pan, Weiguo [Shanghai Univ. of Electric Power (China); Cao, Yan; Pan, Weiping [Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metals, harmful to both the environment and human health. Hg is released into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources and its emission control has caused much concern. This book introduces readers to Hg pollution from natural and anthropogenic sources and systematically describes coal-fired flue gas mercury emission control in industry, especially from coal-fired power stations. Mercury emission control theory and experimental research are demonstrated, including how elemental mercury is oxidized into oxidized mercury and the effect of flue gas contents on the mercury speciation transformation process. Mercury emission control methods, such as existing APCDs (air pollution control devices) at power stations, sorbent injection, additives in coal combustion and photo-catalytic methods are introduced in detail. Lab-scale, pilot-scale and full-scale experimental studies of sorbent injection conducted by the authors are presented systematically, helping researchers and engineers to understand how this approach reduces the mercury emissions in flue gas and to apply the methods in mercury emission control at coal-fired power stations.

  6. Risk assessment of mercury contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hempel, M.

    1993-01-01

    At two sites, highly contaminated with mercury, risk assessment was executed. Methods were developed to determine organomercury compounds in water, air and soil. Toxicity tests demonstrated the high toxicity of organomercury compounds compared to inorganic mercury. Besides highly toxic methylmercury, ethylmercury was found in soils close to a chemical plant in Marktredwitz. In ultrafiltration-experiments mercury showed great affinity to high molecular substances in water. Lysimeter-experiments proved, that organomercury compounds are adsorbed and transformed to inorganic and elemental mercury. (orig.) [de

  7. EDITORIAL: Mercury-free discharges for lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverlag, M.

    2007-07-01

    This special Cluster of articles in Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics covers the subject of mercury-free discharges that are being investigated by different light source researchers, as an alternative to existing mercury-containing lamps. The main driving force to move away from mercury-containing discharge light sources is connected to the environmentally unfriendly nature of mercury. After inhalation or direct contact, severe mercury exposure can lead to damage to human brain cells, the kidneys, the liver and the nervous system. For this reason, the use of mercury in products is becoming more and more restricted by different governmental bodies. In the lighting industry, however, many products still make use of mercury, for different reasons. The main reason is that mercury-containing products are, in most cases, more efficient than mercury-free products. For a realistic comparison of the environmental impact, the mercury-contamination due to electricity production must be taken into account, which depends on the type of fuel being used. For an average European fuel-mix, the amount of mercury that is released into the environment is around 29 μg kWh-1. This means that a typical 30 W TL lamp during a lifetime of 20,000 hours will release a total of about 20 mg mercury due to electricity production, which exceeds the total mercury dose in the lamp (more and more of which is being recycled) by a factor of 5-10 for a modern TL lamp. This illustrates that, quite apart from other environmental arguments like increased CO2 production, mercury-free alternatives that use more energy can in fact be detrimental for the total mercury pollution over the lifetime of the lamp. For this reason, the lighting industry has concentrated on lowering the mercury content in lamps as long as no efficient alternatives exist. Nevertheless, new initiatives for HID lamps and fluorescent lamps with more or less equal efficiency are underway, and a number of them are described in this

  8. Phytoremediation of Ionic and Methyl Mercury Pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meagher, Richard B.

    2005-06-01

    Phytoremediation is defined as the use of plants to extract, resist, detoxify, and/or sequester toxic environmental pollutants. The long-term goal of the proposed research is to develop and test highly productive, field-adapted plant species that have been engineered for the phytoremediation of mercury. A variety of different genes, which should enable plants to clean mercury polluted sites are being tested as tools for mercury phytoremediation, first in model laboratory plants and then in potential field species. Several of these genes have already been shown to enhance mercury phytoremediation. Mercury pollution is a serious, world-wide problem affecting the health of human and wildlife populations. Environmentally, the most serious mercury threat is the production of methylmercury (CH3Hg+) by native bacteria at mercury contaminated wetland sites. Methylmercury is inherently more toxic than metallic (Hg(0)) or ionic (Hg(II)) mercury, and because methylmercury is prolifically biomagnified up the food chain, it poses the most immediate danger to animal populations. We have successfully engineered two model plants, Arabidopsis and tobacco, to use the bacterial merB gene to convert methylmercury to less toxic ionic mercury and to use the bacterial merA gene to further detoxify ionic mercury to the least toxic form of mercury, metallic mercury. Plants expressing both MerA and MerB proteins detoxify methylmercury in two steps to the metallic form. These plants germinate, grow, and set seed at normal growth rates on levels of methylmercury or ionic mercury that are lethal to normal plants. Our newest efforts involve engineering plants with several additional bacterial and plant genes that allow for higher levels of mercury resistance and mercury hyperaccumulation. The potential for these plants to hyperaccumulate mercury was further advanced by developing constitutive, aboveground, and root-specific gene expression systems. Our current strategy is to engineer plants to

  9. Augustus as Mercury at last

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Martins

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available My purpose in this paper is to investigate and to analyse the representation of Augustus as Mercury, and what this association may suggest and mean to the Romans from both the urbs and the prouinciae, focusing the epigraphy, the numismatic, and the literature. Furthermore, I review three researches that someway work this problem: Bandinelli, Zanker and Martins. Even though the associations between divinities and rulers were very common – Augustus represented as Apollo, Jupiter or Neptune; Tiberius as Apollo; Claudius as Jupiter; or Commodus as Hercules –, the discussion on the relationship between Augustus and Mercury is very rare in recent bibliography. The latest relevant research on this subject dates back to the first half of the twentieth century. Chittenden’s work on numismatic and Grether’s article on epigraphy are both very important. Thus, new evidences must be considered, so that we can further investigate these representations in the Roman world.

  10. The Messenger Mission to Mercury

    CERN Document Server

    Domingue, D. L

    2007-01-01

    NASA’s MESSENGER mission, launched on 3 August, 2004 is the seventh mission in the Discovery series. MESSENGER encounters the planet Mercury four times, culminating with an insertion into orbit on 18 March 2011. It carries a comprehensive package of geophysical, geological, geochemical, and space environment experiments to complete the complex investigations of this solar-system end member, which begun with Mariner 10. The articles in this book, written by the experts in each area of the MESSENGER mission, describe the mission, spacecraft, scientific objectives, and payload. The book is of interest to all potential users of the data returned by the MESSENGER mission, to those studying the nature of the planet Mercury, and by all those interested in the design and implementation of planetary exploration missions.

  11. The Chemical Composition of Mercury

    OpenAIRE

    Nittler, Larry R.; Chabot, Nancy L.; Grove, Timothy L.; Peplowski, Patrick N.

    2017-01-01

    The chemical composition of a planetary body reflects its starting conditions modified by numerous processes during its formation and geological evolution. Measurements by X-ray, gamma-ray, and neutron spectrometers on the MESSENGER spacecraft revealed Mercury's surface to have surprisingly high abundances of the moderately volatile elements sodium, sulfur, potassium, chlorine, and thorium, and a low abundance of iron. This composition rules out some formation models for which high temperatur...

  12. Multiscale geomorphometric modeling of Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florinsky, I. V.

    2018-02-01

    Topography is one of the key characteristics of a planetary body. Geomorphometry deals with quantitative modeling and analysis of the topographic surface and relationships between topography and other natural components of landscapes. The surface of Mercury is systematically studied by interpretation of images acquired during the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission. However, the Mercurian surface is still little explored by methods of geomorphometry. In this paper, we evaluate the Mercury MESSENGER Global DEM MSGR_DEM_USG_SC_I_V02 - a global digital elevation model (DEM) of Mercury with the resolution of 0.015625° - as a source for geomorphometric modeling of this planet. The study was performed at three spatial scales: the global, regional (the Caloris basin), and local (the Pantheon Fossae area) ones. As the initial data, we used three DEMs of these areas with resolutions of 0.25°, 0.0625°, and 0.015625°, correspondingly. The DEMs were extracted from the MESSENGER Global DEM. From the DEMs, we derived digital models of several fundamental morphometric variables, such as: slope gradient, horizontal curvature, vertical curvature, minimal curvature, maximal curvature, catchment area, and dispersive area. The morphometric maps obtained represent peculiarities of the Mercurian topography in different ways, according to the physical and mathematical sense of a particular variable. Geomorphometric models are a rich source of information on the Mercurian surface. These data can be utilized to study evolution and internal structure of the planet, for example, to visualize and quantify regional topographic differences as well as to refine geological boundaries.

  13. Chelation Therapy for Mercury Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Rong Guan; Han Dai

    2009-01-01

    Chelation therapy has been the major treatment for heavy metal poisoning. Various chelating agents have been developed and tested for treatment of heavy metal intoxications, including mercury poisoning. It has been clearly shown that chelating agents could rescue the toxicity caused by heavy metal intoxication, but the potential preventive role of chelating agents against heavy metal poisoning has not been explored much. Recent paper by Siddiqi and colleagues has suggested a protective role o...

  14. Experimental Investigation of Magnetohydrodynamics Effects in Molten Metals and Study of Homogeneity of Radioactive Mercury Amalgams

    CERN Document Server

    Astone, A

    2002-01-01

    The high neutrino output demanded for a neutri no factory requests a high power proton beam interacting with a static target. The additional circumstances of limited space and long term stability ask for development of novel concepts for such types of targets. In our working group, part of the Neutri no Factory Working Group (NFWG) of CERN, we are investigating on the proton interaction with the mercury target. This is called the study of proton induced shocks in molten metal. In the US scheme for a neutrino factory the interaction between proton beam and the mercury jet target takes place inside a 20 Tesla solenoidal magnetic field, which serv es as a focusing device for the produced particles. This field of study is refe rred to as Magneto Hydrodynamics (MHD). The high power proton beam deposits a large amount of energy in the small volume of the target, which results in disruption. The aim is to establi...

  15. Toward a Unified Understanding of Mercury and Methylated Mercury from the World's Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNutt, M. K.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Landing, W. M.; Sunderland, E. M.

    2012-12-01

    Marine fish and shellfish are the main source of toxic methylmercury exposure for humans. As recently as decade ago, very limited aqueous methylated mercury data were available from marine settings, resulting in a generally poor understanding of the processes controlling mercury in pelagic marine food webs. Recent oceanographic cruises have significantly improved availability of reliable measurements of methylated mercury and total mercury in seawater. This presentation will focus on vertical seawater profiles collected to depths 1000 m from three recent sampling efforts in collaboration with the CLIVAR Repeat Hydrography Program sponsored by NOAA including: 1) the northeastern Pacific (P16N cruise from Honolulu, Hawaii to Kodiak, Alaska); (2) the southern Indian Ocean (I5 cruise from Cape Town, South Africa, to Fremantle, Australia); and, (3) the Southern Ocean cruise (S4P from McMurdo, Antarctica, to Punta Arenas, Chile). Analytical results presented were all derived from the USGS Mercury Research Lab (http://wi.water.usgs.gov/mercury-lab). Supporting data derived from these cruises on water mass ages, nutrients, carbon and dissolved oxygen provide an opportunity to develop a stronger understanding of the biogeochemical factors controlling oceanic distributions of mercury and methylated mercury. Whole-water, median total mercury, and methylated mercury concentrations for the northern Pacific, southern Indian, and Southern Ocean were 1.10, 0.80, and 1.65 pM, , and 0.11, 0.08, and 0.32 pM, respectively. For all three oceans, vertical profiles of total mercury generally show the lowest concentrations in the surface mixed layer, and concentration maxima at the 700-1000 m depths. Surface depletion of total mercury is attributed to photo-chemical reduction and evasion of gaseous elemental mercury as well as scavenging by settling particulate matter, the main vector of transport to the subsurface ocean. Methylated mercury in all the ocean profiles reveal distinct mid

  16. Speciated atmospheric mercury on haze and non-haze days in an inland city in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Hong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Long-term continuous measurements of speciated atmospheric mercury were conducted from July 2013 to June 2014 in Hefei, a midlatitude inland city in eastern central China that experiences frequent haze pollution. The mean concentrations (±standard deviation of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM, gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM and particle-bound mercury (PBM were 3.95 ± 1.93 ng m−3, 2.49 ± 2.41 and 23.3 ± 90.8 pg m−3, respectively, on non-haze days, and 4.74 ± 1.62 ng m−3, 4.32 ± 8.36 and 60.2 ± 131.4 pg m−3, respectively, on haze days. Potential source contribution function (PSCF analysis suggested that atmospheric mercury pollution on haze days was caused primarily by local emissions, instead of via long-range transport. The poorer mixing conditions on haze days also favored the accumulation of atmospheric mercury. Compared to GEM and GOM, PBM was especially sensitive to haze pollution. The mean PBM concentration on haze days was 2.5 times that on non-haze days due to elevated concentrations of particulate matter. PBM also showed a clear seasonal trend; its concentration was the highest in fall and winter, decreased rapidly in spring and was the lowest in summer, following the same order in the frequency of haze days in different seasons. On both non-haze and haze days, GOM concentrations remained low at night, but increased rapidly just before sunrise, which could be due to diurnal variation in air exchange between the boundary layer and free troposphere. However, non-haze and haze days showed different trends in daytime GEM and GOM concentrations. On non-haze days, GEM and GOM declined synchronously through the afternoon, probably due to the retreat of the free tropospheric air as the height of the atmospheric boundary layer increases. In contrast, on haze days, GOM and GEM showed opposite trends with the highest GOM and lowest GEM observed in the afternoon, suggesting the occurrence of

  17. Mercury removal from liquid and solid mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, D.D.; Klasson, K.T.; Corder, S.L.; Cameron, P.A.; Perona, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    Based on bench-scale laboratory experiments, the following conclusions were reached: Sulfur-impregnated, activated, carbon pellets (Mersorb) can be used to remove mercury (Hg 2+ ) to below EPA's toxic characteristic level (0.2 mg/L). Mersorb works under acid conditions (pH 2) but its capacity is reduced by approximately 50% compared with neutral conditions. Competing ions present in the target waste stream reduced the Mersorb capacity by 50%. Mersorb appears to be economical compared with leading ion exchange resin. KI/I 2 leaching solution can be used to remove up to 99% of Hg in contaminated soil and glass. KI/I 2 leaching solution worked well with several mercury species, including Hg 0 , HgO, HgS, and HgCl 2 . KI/I 2 leaching solution worked well with a wide variety of initial mercury concentrations. Radionuclide surrogate studies suggested that uranium will not partition into KI/I 2 leaching solutions. Cesium may partition into the KI/I 2 leaching solution because of the high solubility of cesium salts

  18. Maternal transfer of mercury to songbird eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T; Hartman, C Alex; Herzog, Mark P

    2017-11-01

    We evaluated the maternal transfer of mercury to eggs in songbirds, determined whether this relationship differed between songbird species, and developed equations for predicting mercury concentrations in eggs from maternal blood. We sampled blood and feathers from 44 house wren (Troglodytes aedon) and 34 tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) mothers and collected their full clutches (n = 476 eggs) within 3 days of clutch completion. Additionally, we sampled blood and feathers from 53 tree swallow mothers and randomly collected one egg from their clutches (n = 53 eggs) during mid to late incubation (6-10 days incubated) to evaluate whether the relationship varied with the timing of sampling the mother's blood. Mercury concentrations in eggs were positively correlated with mercury concentrations in maternal blood sampled at (1) the time of clutch completion for both house wrens (R 2  = 0.97) and tree swallows (R 2  = 0.97) and (2) during mid to late incubation for tree swallows (R 2  = 0.71). The relationship between mercury concentrations in eggs and maternal blood did not differ with the stage of incubation when maternal blood was sampled. Importantly, the proportion of mercury transferred from mothers to their eggs decreased substantially with increasing blood mercury concentrations in tree swallows, but increased slightly with increasing blood mercury concentrations in house wrens. Additionally, the proportion of mercury transferred to eggs at the same maternal blood mercury concentration differed between species. Specifically, tree swallow mothers transferred 17%-107% more mercury to their eggs than house wren mothers over the observed mercury concentrations in maternal blood (0.15-1.92 μg/g ww). In contrast, mercury concentrations in eggs were not correlated with those in maternal feathers and, likewise, mercury concentrations in maternal blood were not correlated with those in feathers (all R 2  mercury concentrations from maternal blood to eggs

  19. Worldwide trend of atmospheric mercury since 1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Slemr

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Concern about the adverse effects of mercury on human health and ecosystems has led to tightening emission controls since the mid 1980s. But the resulting mercury emissions reductions in many parts of the world are believed to be offset or even surpassed by the increasing emissions in rapidly industrializing countries. Consequently, concentrations of atmospheric mercury are expected to remain roughly constant. Here we show that the worldwide atmospheric mercury concentrations have decreased by about 20 to 38 % since 1996 as indicated by long-term monitoring at stations in the Southern and Northern Hemispheres combined with intermittent measurements of latitudinal distribution over the Atlantic Ocean. The total reduction of the atmospheric mercury burden of this magnitude within 14 years is unusually large among most atmospheric trace gases and is at odds with the current mercury emission inventories with nearly constant anthropogenic emissions over this period. This suggests a major shift in the biogeochemical cycle of mercury including oceans and soil reservoirs. Decreasing reemissions from the legacy of historical mercury emissions are the most likely explanation for this decline since the hypothesis of an accelerated oxidation rate of elemental mercury in the atmosphere is not supported by the observed trends of other trace gases. Acidification of oceans, climate change, excess nutrient input and pollution may also contribute by their impact on the biogeochemistry of ocean and soils. Consequently, models of the atmospheric mercury cycle have to include soil and ocean mercury pools and their dynamics to be able to make projections of future trends.

  20. Recovery of Mercury From Contaminated Liquid Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Base Contract program emphasized the manufacture and testing of superior sorbents for mercury removal, testing of the sorption process at a DOE site, and determination of the regeneration conditions in the laboratory. During this project, ADA Technologies, Inc. demonstrated the following key elements of a successful regenerable mercury sorption process: (1) sorbents that have a high capacity for dissolved, ionic mercury; (2) removal of ionic mercury at greater than 99% efficiency; and (3) thermal regeneration of the spent sorbent. ADA's process is based on the highly efficient and selective sorption of mercury by noble metals. Contaminated liquid flows through two packed columns that contain microporous sorbent particles on which a noble metal has been finely dispersed. A third column is held in reserve. When the sorbent is loaded with mercury to the point of breakthrough at the outlet of the second column, the first column is taken off-line and the flow of contaminated liquid is switched to the second and third columns. The spent column is regenerated by heating. A small flow of purge gas carries the desorbed mercury to a capture unit where the liquid mercury is recovered. Laboratory-scale tests with mercuric chloride solutions demonstrated the sorbents' ability to remove mercury from contaminated wastewater. Isotherms on surrogate wastes from DOE's Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee showed greater than 99.9% mercury removal. Laboratory- and pilot-scale tests on actual Y-12 Plant wastes were also successful. Mercury concentrations were reduced to less than 1 ppt from a starting concentration of 1,000 ppt. The treatment objective was 50 ppt. The sorption unit showed 10 ppt discharge after six months. Laboratory-scale tests demonstrated the feasibility of sorbent regeneration. Results show that sorption behavior is not affected after four cycles

  1. Mercury(II) and methyl mercury speciation on Streptococcus pyogenes loaded Dowex Optipore SD-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuzen, Mustafa; Uluozlu, Ozgur Dogan; Karaman, Isa; Soylak, Mustafa

    2009-01-01

    A solid phase extraction procedure based on speciation of mercury(II) and methyl mercury on Streptococcus pyogenes immobilized on Dowex Optipore SD-2 has been established. Selective and sequential elution with 0.1 mol L -1 HCl for methyl mercury and 2 mol L -1 HCl for mercury(II) were performed at pH 8. The determination of mercury levels was performed by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS). Optimal analytical conditions including pH, amounts of biosorbent, sample volumes, etc., were investigated. The influences of the some alkaline and earth alkaline ions and some transition metals on the recoveries were also investigated. The capacity of biosorbent for mercury(II) and methyl mercury was 4.8 and 3.4 mg g -1 . The detection limit (3 sigma) of the reagent blank for mercury(II) and methyl mercury was 2.1 and 1.5 ng L -1 . Preconcentration factor was calculated as 25. The relative standard deviations of the procedure were below 7%. The validation of the presented procedure is performed by the analysis of standard reference material (NRCC-DORM 2 Dogfish Muscle). The procedure was successfully applied to the speciation of mercury(II) and methyl mercury in natural water and environmental samples.

  2. Mercury(II) and methyl mercury speciation on Streptococcus pyogenes loaded Dowex Optipore SD-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuzen, Mustafa, E-mail: m.tuzen@gmail.com [Gaziosmanpasa University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Chemistry Department, 60250 Tokat (Turkey); Uluozlu, Ozgur Dogan [Gaziosmanpasa University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Chemistry Department, 60250 Tokat (Turkey); Karaman, Isa [Gaziosmanpasa University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Biology Department, 60250 Tokat (Turkey); Soylak, Mustafa [Erciyes University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Chemistry Department, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)

    2009-09-30

    A solid phase extraction procedure based on speciation of mercury(II) and methyl mercury on Streptococcus pyogenes immobilized on Dowex Optipore SD-2 has been established. Selective and sequential elution with 0.1 mol L{sup -1} HCl for methyl mercury and 2 mol L{sup -1} HCl for mercury(II) were performed at pH 8. The determination of mercury levels was performed by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS). Optimal analytical conditions including pH, amounts of biosorbent, sample volumes, etc., were investigated. The influences of the some alkaline and earth alkaline ions and some transition metals on the recoveries were also investigated. The capacity of biosorbent for mercury(II) and methyl mercury was 4.8 and 3.4 mg g{sup -1}. The detection limit (3 sigma) of the reagent blank for mercury(II) and methyl mercury was 2.1 and 1.5 ng L{sup -1}. Preconcentration factor was calculated as 25. The relative standard deviations of the procedure were below 7%. The validation of the presented procedure is performed by the analysis of standard reference material (NRCC-DORM 2 Dogfish Muscle). The procedure was successfully applied to the speciation of mercury(II) and methyl mercury in natural water and environmental samples.

  3. Expression of a transgene encoding mutant p193/CUL7 preserves cardiac function and limits infarct expansion after myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassink, R. J.; Nakajima, H.; Nakajima, H. O.; Doevendans, P. A.; Field, L. J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Transgenic mice expressing the dominant interfering p193 protein in cardiomyocytes (MHC-1152stop mice) exhibit an induction of cell cycle activity and altered remodelling after experimental myocardial infarction (MI). Objective: To determine whether the altered remodelling results in

  4. Rapid Monitoring of Mercury in Air from an Organic Chemical Factory in China Using a Portable Mercury Analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Yasutake

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A chemical factory, using a production technology of acetaldehyde with mercury catalysis, was located southeast of Qingzhen City in Guizhou Province, China. Previous research showed heavy mercury pollution through an extensive downstream area. A current investigation of the mercury distribution in ambient air, soils, and plants suggests that mobile mercury species in soils created elevated mercury concentrations in ambient air and vegetation. Mercury concentrations of up to 600 ng/m3 in air over the contaminated area provided evidence of the mercury transformation to volatile Hg(0. Mercury analysis of soil and plant samples demonstrated that the mercury concentrations in soil with vaporized and plant-absorbable forms were higher in the southern area, which was closer to the factory. Our results suggest that air monitoring using a portable mercury analyzer can be a convenient and useful method for the rapid detection and mapping of mercury pollution in advanced field surveys.

  5. Sexual differences in the excretion of organic and inorganic mercury by methyl mercury-treated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.J.; Fisher, H.L.; Sumler, M.R.; Mushak, P.; Hall, L.L.

    1987-01-01

    Adult male and female Long Evans rats received 1 mumole of methyl ( 203 Hg) mercuric chloride per kilogram sc. Whole-body retention of mercury and excretion of organic and inorganic mercury in urine and feces were monitored for 98 days after dosing. Females cleared mercury from the body more rapidly than did males. The major route of mercury excretion was feces. By 98 days after dosing, cumulative mercury excretion in feces accounted for about 51% of the dose in males and about 54% of the dose in females. For both sexes, about 33% of the dose was excreted in feces as inorganic mercury. Cumulative excretion of organic mercury in feces accounted for about 18 and 21% of the dose in males and females, respectively. Urinary excretion of mercury was quantitatively a smaller route for mercury clearance but important sexual differences in loss by this route were found. Over the 98-day experimental period, males excreted in urine about 3.2% of the dose and females excreted 7.5%. Cumulative organic Hg excretion in urine accounted for 1.8% of the dose in males and 5.3% of the dose in females. These sexual differences in urinary and fecal excretion of organic and inorganic mercury following methyl mercury treatment were consistent with previous reports of sexual differences in mercury distribution and retention in methyl mercury-treated rats, particularly sexual differences in organic mercury uptake and retention in the kidney. Relationships between body burdens of organic or inorganic Hg and output of these forms of Hg in urine and feces were also found to be influenced by the interval after MeHg treatment and by sex. Relationship between concentration of Hg in liver and feces and in kidney and urine differed for organic and inorganic Hg and depended upon sexual status and interval after MeHg treatment

  6. Spallation neutron source target station design, development, and commissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haines, J.R., E-mail: hainesjr@ornl.gov; McManamy, T.J.; Gabriel, T.A.; Battle, R.E.; Chipley, K.K.; Crabtree, J.A.; Jacobs, L.L.; Lousteau, D.C.; Rennich, M.J.; Riemer, B.W.

    2014-11-11

    The spallation neutron source target station is designed to safely, reliably, and efficiently convert a 1 GeV beam of protons to a high flux of about 1 meV neutrons that are available at 24 neutron scattering instrument beam lines. Research and development findings, design requirements, design description, initial checkout testing, and results from early operation with beam are discussed for each of the primary target subsystems, including the mercury target, neutron moderators and reflector, surrounding vessels and shielding, utilities, remote handling equipment, and instrumentation and controls. Future plans for the mercury target development program are also briefly discussed.

  7. The extent of the influence and flux estimation of volatile mercury from the aeration pool in a typical coal-fired power plant equipped with a seawater flue gas desulfurization system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Lumin; Feng, Lifeng; Yuan, Dongxing; Lin, Shanshan; Huang, Shuyuan; Gao, Liangming; Zhu, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Before being discharged, the waste seawater from the flue gas desulfurization system of coal-fired power plants contains a large amount of mercury, and is treated in aeration pools. During this aeration process, part of the mercury enters the atmosphere, but only very limited impact studies concerning this have been carried out. Taking a typical Xiamen power plant as an example, the present study targeted the elemental mercury emitted from the aeration pool. Concentrations of dissolved gaseous mercury as high as 1.14 ± 0.17 ng·L −1 were observed in the surface waste seawater in the aeration pool, and gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) as high as 10.94 ± 1.89 ng·m −3 was found in the air above the pool. To investigate the area affected by this GEM through air transfer, the total mercury in the dust and topsoil samples around the aeration pool were analyzed. Much higher values were found compared to those at a reference site. Environmental factors other than solar radiation had limited influence on the concentrations of the mercury species in the pool. A simulation device was built in our laboratory to study the flux of mercury from the aeration pool into the air. The results showed that more than 0.59 kg of mercury was released from the aeration pool every year, occupying 0.3% of the total mercury in the waste seawater. The transfer of mercury from water to air during the aeration pool and its environmental influence should not be ignored. - Highlights: ► High concentration of volatile mercury was observed in the aeration pool. ► More than 0.3% of total discharged Hg emitted from the pool into the air. ► Higher aeration rate resulted in more mercury emitted into the air. ► The dust and topsoil around the pool were polluted with the mercury

  8. Safety concept for spallation target system. JAERI/KEK joint project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, K.; Kaminaga, M.; Haga, K.; Kinoshita, H.; Hino, R.

    2001-01-01

    A MW-class mercury target of the spallation target generates much larger amounts of radioactive nuclides than existing spallation neutron sources. To estimate the maximum level of public exposure under the guillotine break of mercury pipelines that is one of the major accidents of the target system, the hazard analyses were carried out by using a transportation model which considers heat transmission of mercury decay heat, diffusion of evaporated radioactive nuclides, etc. In the analyses, mercury, iodine, bromine and noble gas were selected as the effective source term because of their high vapor pressures and activation levels. From the preliminary analytical results obtained under the conservative conditions of 2 m/s of the air velocity around the mercury leakage area, the maximum level of the public exposure was approximately 5.8 x 10 -3 mSv. This level is negligible in comparison with 1 mSV one-year natural radiation exposure. (author)

  9. A Challenging Case of Acute Mercury Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nayfeh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mercury exists in multiple forms: elemental, organic, and inorganic. Its toxic manifestations depend on the type and magnitude of exposure. The role of colonoscopic decompression in acute mercury toxicity is still unclear. We present a case of acute elemental mercury toxicity secondary to mercury ingestion, which markedly improved with colonoscopic decompression. Clinical Case. A 54-year-old male presented to the ED five days after ingesting five ounces (148 cubic centimeters of elemental mercury. Examination was only significant for a distended abdomen. Labs showed elevated serum and urine mercury levels. An abdominal radiograph showed radiopaque material throughout the colon. Succimer and laxatives were initiated. The patient had recurrent bowel movements, and serial radiographs showed interval decrease of mercury in the descending colon with interval increase in the cecum and ascending colon. Colonoscopic decompression was done successfully. The colon was evacuated, and a repeat radiograph showed decreased hyperdense material in the colon. Three months later, a repeat radiograph showed no hyperdense material in the colon. Conclusion. Ingested elemental mercury can be retained in the colon. Although there are no established guidelines for colonoscopic decompression, our patient showed significant improvement. We believe further studies on this subject are needed to guide management practices.

  10. Mercury in tropical and subtropical coastal environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Monica F.; Landing, William M.; Kehrig, Helena A.; Barletta, Mário; Holmes, Christopher D.; Barrocas, Paulo R. G.; Evers, David C.; Buck, David G.; Vasconcellos, Ana Claudia; Hacon, Sandra S.; Moreira, Josino C.; Malm, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic activities influence the biogeochemical cycles of mercury, both qualitatively and quantitatively, on a global scale from sources to sinks. Anthropogenic processes that alter the temporal and spatial patterns of sources and cycling processes are changing the impacts of mercury contamination on aquatic biota and humans. Human exposure to mercury is dominated by the consumption of fish and products from aquaculture operations. The risk to society and to ecosystems from mercury contamination is growing, and it is important to monitor these expanding risks. However, the extent and manner to which anthropogenic activities will alter mercury sources and biogeochemical cycling in tropical and sub-tropical coastal environments is poorly understood. Factors as (1) lack of reliable local/regional data; (2) rapidly changing environmental conditions; (3) governmental priorities and; (4) technical actions from supra-national institutions, are some of the obstacles to overcome in mercury cycling research and policy formulation. In the tropics and sub-tropics, research on mercury in the environment is moving from an exploratory “inventory” phase towards more process-oriented studies. Addressing biodiversity conservation and human health issues related to mercury contamination of river basins and tropical coastal environments are an integral part of paragraph 221 paragraph of the United Nations document “The Future We Want” issued in Rio de Janeiro in June 2012. PMID:22901765

  11. Mercury Sorption onto Malt Spent Rootlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manariotis, I. D.; Anagnostopoulos, V.; Karapanagioti, H. K.; Chrysikopoulos, C.

    2011-12-01

    Mercury is a metal of particular concern due to its toxicity even at relatively low concentrations. The maximum permissible level for mercury in drinking water set by the European Union is 0.001 mg/L. Mercury is released into the environment via four principal pathways: (1) natural processes; i.e. a volcanic eruption, (2) incidental to some other activity; i.e. coal burning power plants, (3) accidentally during the manufacture, breakage or disposal of products that have mercury put into them deliberately, and (4) direct use in industrial settings. The present study focuses on the removal of mercury (II) from aqueous solutions via sorption onto Malt Spent Rootlets (MSR). Batch experiments were conducted employing MSR with size ranging from 0.18 to 1 mm. The effects of pH, mercury concentration, contact time, and solid to liquid ratio on mercury sorption onto MSR were investigated. The highest mercury removal from the aqueous phase, of 41%, was observed at pH of 5.

  12. Recent Advances in Atmospheric Chemistry of Mercury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Si

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is one of the most toxic metals and has global importance due to the biomagnification and bioaccumulation of organomercury via the aquatic food web. The physical and chemical transformations of various mercury species in the atmosphere strongly influence their composition, phase, transport characteristics and deposition rate back to the ground. Modeling efforts to assess global cycling of mercury require an accurate understanding of atmospheric mercury chemistry. Yet, there are several key uncertainties precluding accurate modeling of physical and chemical transformations. We focus this article on recent studies (since 2015 on improving our understanding of the atmospheric chemistry of mercury. We discuss recent advances in determining the dominant atmospheric oxidant of elemental mercury (Hg0 and understanding the oxidation reactions of Hg0 by halogen atoms and by nitrate radical (NO3—in the aqueous reduction of oxidized mercury compounds (HgII as well as in the heterogeneous reactions of Hg on atmospheric-relevant surfaces. The need for future research to improve understanding of the fate and transformation of mercury in the atmosphere is also discussed.

  13. Episodic bioavailability of environmental mercury: implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perennial wildfires in Africa and other continents contribute an estimated 8 x 105 kg of mercury to the global atmosphere with a residence time of approximately one year. This phenomenon changes the flux of biologically available mercury in natural microbial communities where enzymatic actions, including mercuric ...

  14. Increased Mercury Bioaccumulation Follows Water Quality Improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogle, M.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.

    1999-09-15

    Changes in physical and chemical characteristics of aquatic habitats made to reduce or eliminate ecological risks can sometimes have unforeseen consequences. Environmental management activities on the U.S. Dept. of Energy reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee,have succeeded in improving water quality in streams impacted by discharges fi-om industrial facilities and waste disposal sites. The diversity and abundance of pollution-sensitive components of the benthic macroinvertebrate communities of three streams improved after new waste treatment systems or remedial actions reduced inputs of various toxic chemicals. Two of the streams were known to be mercury-contaminated from historical spills and waste disposal practices. Waterborne mercury concentrations in the third were typical of uncontaminated systems. In each case, concentrations of mercury in fish, or the apparent biological availability of mercury increased over the period during which ecological metrics indicated improved water quality. In the system where waterborne mercury concentrations were at background levels, increased mercury bioaccumulation was probably a result of reduced aqueous selenium concentrations; however, the mechanisms for increased mercury accumulation in the other two streams remain under investigation. In each of the three systems, reduced inputs of metals and inorganic anions was followed by improvements in the health of aquatic invertebrate communities. However, this reduction in risk to aquatic invertebrates was accompanied by increased risk to humans and piscivorous wildlife related to increased mercury concentrations in fish.

  15. Intentional intravenous mercury injection | Yudelowitz | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intravenous mercury injection is rarely seen, with few documented cases. Treatment strategies are not clearly defined for such cases, although a few options do show benefit. This case report describes a 29-year-old man suffering from bipolar disorder, who presented following self-inflicted intravenous injection of mercury.

  16. Mercury soil surveys: a good reconnaissance tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, C.; Ruscetta, C.A.; Foley, D. (eds.)

    1981-05-01

    Three examples of mercury soil surveys are discussed, along with the gravity data. An excellent correlation was found in southern Arizona between buried structures revealed by gravity and mercury soil surveys. The advantages of the latter over the former as a reconnaissance tool are listed. (MHR)

  17. Increased Mercury Bioaccumulation Follows Water Quality Improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogle, M.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.

    1999-01-01

    Changes in physical and chemical characteristics of aquatic habitats made to reduce or eliminate ecological risks can sometimes have unforeseen consequences. Environmental management activities on the U.S. Dept. of Energy reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee,have succeeded in improving water quality in streams impacted by discharges fi-om industrial facilities and waste disposal sites. The diversity and abundance of pollution-sensitive components of the benthic macroinvertebrate communities of three streams improved after new waste treatment systems or remedial actions reduced inputs of various toxic chemicals. Two of the streams were known to be mercury-contaminated from historical spills and waste disposal practices. Waterborne mercury concentrations in the third were typical of uncontaminated systems. In each case, concentrations of mercury in fish, or the apparent biological availability of mercury increased over the period during which ecological metrics indicated improved water quality. In the system where waterborne mercury concentrations were at background levels, increased mercury bioaccumulation was probably a result of reduced aqueous selenium concentrations; however, the mechanisms for increased mercury accumulation in the other two streams remain under investigation. In each of the three systems, reduced inputs of metals and inorganic anions was followed by improvements in the health of aquatic invertebrate communities. However, this reduction in risk to aquatic invertebrates was accompanied by increased risk to humans and piscivorous wildlife related to increased mercury concentrations in fish

  18. Anthropogenic mercury deposition to arctic lake sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermanson, M.H. [Westchester University, Westchester, PA (United States). Dept. of Health

    1998-01-01

    The history of atmospheric mercury inputs to remote arctic regions can be measured in lake sediment cores using lead-210 chronology. In the investigation, total mercury deposition is measured in sediments from Imitavik and Annak Lakes on the Belcher Islands in southeastern Hudson Bay, an area in the southern Canadian Arctic with no history of local industrial or agricultural sources of contamination. Both lakes received background and atmospheric inputs of mercury while Annak also received mercury from raw domestic sewage from the Hamlet of Sanikiluaq, a growing Inuit community of about 550 established in the late 1960s. Results from Imitavik show that anthropogenic mercury inputs, apparently transported through the atmosphere, began to appear in the mid-eighteenth century, and continued to the 1990s. Annak had a similar mercury history until the late 1960s when disposal of domestic sewage led to increased sediment and contaminant accumulation. The high input of mercury to Annak confirms that Sanikiluaq residents are exposed to mercury through native food sources. 39 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Mercury-free discharges for lighting - editorial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverlag, M.

    2007-01-01

    This special Cluster of articles in Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics covers the subject of mercury-free discharges that are being investigated by different light source researchers, as an alternative to existing mercury-containing lamps. The main driving force to move away from

  20. Urban artisanal gold shops and mercury emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordy, P.; Veiga, M.; Carrasco, V.H.G.

    2008-01-01

    Artisanal miners in developing countries use mercury amalgamation processes to extract gold. The amalgams are then refined before being sold on to urban gold shops. The amalgams can often contain between 2 to 40 per cent mercury. Unburned amalgams are also often sold directly to gold shops. There are serious health risks for shop employees and nearby populations when the gold is melted and further purified. Studies have shown that mercury concentrations in the ambient air of gold shops often exceeds World Health Organization (WHO) limits by an order of magnitude or more. This study examined the practices and technologies used to refine gold in Latin America and Indonesia. The study compared and contrasted various refining methods and their resulting mercury emissions. Methods of reducing mercury emissions were also investigated, including a filtration system designed to capture 80 per cent of mercury emissions. Barriers to implementing mercury emissions reduction plans were also investigated. It was concluded that the design of urban gold shops must include condensers, fume hoods, and efficient mercury capture systems. 15 refs

  1. Mercury distribution in Douro estuary (Portugal)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramalhosa, E. [Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Pereira, E. [Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)]. E-mail: eduper@dq.ua.pt; Vale, C. [National Institute for Agronomy and Fishery Research, IPIMAR, Avenida Brasilia, 1449-006 Lisboa (Portugal); Valega, M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Monterroso, P. [Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Duarte, A.C. [Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2005-11-15

    Determinations of dissolved reactive and total dissolved mercury, particulate and sedimentary mercury, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), particulate organic carbon (POC) and suspended particulate matter (SPM) have been made in the estuary of river Douro, in northern Portugal. The estuary was stratified by salinity along most of its length, it had low concentrations of SPM, typically <20 mg dm{sup -3}, and concentrations of DOC in the range <1.0-1.8 mg dm{sup -3}. The surface waters had a maximum dissolved concentration of reactive mercury of about 10 ng dm{sup -3}, whereas for the more saline bottom waters it was about 65 ng dm{sup -3}. The surface waters had maximum concentrations of total suspended particulate mercury of {approx}7 {mu}g g{sup -1} and the bottom waters were always <1 {mu}g g{sup -1}. Concentrations of mercury in sediments was low and in the range from 0.06 to 0.18 {mu}g g{sup -1}. The transport of mercury in surface waters was mainly associated with organic-rich particulate matter, while in bottom waters the dissolved phase transport of mercury is more important. Lower particulate organic matter, formation of chlorocomplexes in more saline waters and eventually the presence of colloids appear to explain the difference of mercury partitioning in Douro estuarine waters.

  2. Mercury cycling in peatland watersheds. Chapter 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall K. Kolka; Carl P.J. Mitchell; Jeffrey D. Jeremiason; Neal A. Hines; David F. Grigal; Daniel R. Engstrom; Jill K. Coleman-Wasik; Edward A. Nater; Edward B. Swain; Bruce A. Monson; Jacob A. Fleck; Brian Johnson; James E. Almendinger; Brian A. Branfireun; Patrick L. Brezonik; James B. Cotner

    2011-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is of great environmental concern due to its transformation into the toxic methylmercury (MeHg) form that bioaccumulates within the food chain and causes health concerns for both humans and wildlife (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2002). Mercury can affect neurological development in fetuses and young children. In adults, exposure to Hg can lead to...

  3. Pneumonitis after Inhalation of Mercury Vapours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JD Glezos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A 43-year-old man presented to hospital with pneumonia but only after discharge from hospital did he admit to deliberate prior inhalation of mercury. His pulmonary involvement appeared to resolve almost completely with antibiotics and supportive care. Nevertheless, persisting elevated urinary excretion of mercury required two courses of chelation therapy. No serious systemic sequelae were observed.

  4. Mercury poisoning | Shamley | South African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diagnosis of mercury poisoning requires a high index of suspicion. Mercury poisoning in a patient involved in illicit gold extraction is reported and 6 other cases considered. Some of the clinical features and treatment of this condition are discussed. S Afr Med J 1989; 76: 114-116 ...

  5. Evidence for stepwise dissociation dynamics in acetone at 248 and 193 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Simon W.; Blank, David A.; Gezelter, J. Daniel; Longfellow, Cheryl A.; Lee, Yuan T.

    1995-03-01

    The technique of molecular beam photofragment translational spectroscopy has been used to study the dissociation of acetone following S1←S0 (248 nm) and S2←S0 (193 nm) excitation. Excitation at 248 nm resulted in the production of CH3 and CH3CO with 14.2±1.0 kcal/mole on average of the available energy appearing as translation of the photofragments. Comparison of the measured with values reported at 266 nm suggest that the energy partitioning is dominated by the exit barrier caused by an avoided crossing on the potential energy surface. A substantial fraction (30±4%) of the nascent acetyl radicals from the primary dissociation contain sufficient energy to undergo spontaneous secondary decomposition. From the onset of the truncation of the CH3CO P(ET) a threshold of 17.8±3.0 kcal/mole for the dissociation of the acetyl radical has been determined in agreement with recent results on the photodissociation of acetyl chloride. The translational energy release in the dissociation of CH3CO closely matches the experimentally determined exit barrier. At 193 nm the only observed dissociation pathway was the formation of two methyl radicals and carbon monoxide. On average ˜38% of the available energy is found in product translation suggesting that significant internal energy resides in the nascent CH3 fragments consistent with the results of Hall et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 94, 4182 (1991)]. We conclude that the dynamics and energy partitioning for dissociation at 193 nm is similar to that at 248 nm.

  6. Mercury in a coastal marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, J D; Leatherland, T M

    1971-06-18

    The problem of mercury pollution was investigated in Southampton Water and the English Channel. Mercury was determined in five specimens of the mollusk, Mercenaria mercenaria. The concentrations in whole organisms, without shell, ranged from 0.18 to 0.57 p.p.m. The amounts of mercury in the river and estuarine waters were found to be low. Yet, samples from the surface of the bottom mud in different parts of the estuary had mercury contents ranging from 0.19 to 0.64 p.p.m. The role of sediments in the transport of mercury in food chains could be significant, particularly for bottom living, suspension feeding animals. 14 references, 1 table.

  7. High activity carbon sorbents for mercury capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavropoulos George G.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available High efficiency activated carbons have been prepared for removing mercury from gas streams. Starting materials used were petroleum coke, lignite, charcoal and olive seed waste, and were chemically activated with KOH. Produced adsorbents were primarily characterized for their porosity by N2 adsorption at 77 K. Their mercury retention capacity was characterized based on the breakthrough curves. Compared with typical commercial carbons, they have exhibited considerably enhanced mercury adsorption capacity. An attempt has been made to correlate mercury entrapment and pore structure. It has been shown that physical surface area is increased during activation in contrast to the mercury adsorption capacity that initially increases and tends to decrease at latter stages. Desorption of active sites may be responsible for this behavior.

  8. Release of volatile mercury from vascular plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, S. M.; Puerner, N. J.; Speitel, T. W.

    1974-01-01

    Volatile, organic solvent soluble mercury has been found in leaves and seeds of several angiosperms. Leaves of garlic vine, avocado, and haole-koa release mercury in volatile form rapidly at room temperature. In garlic vine, the most active release is temperature dependent, but does not parallel the vapor-pressure temperature relationship for mercury. Mercury can be trapped in nitric-perchloric acid digestion fluid, or n-hexane, but is lost from the hexane unless the acid mixture is present. Seeds of haole-koa also contain extractable mercury but volatility declines in the series n-hexane (90%), methanol (50%), water (10%). This suggests that reduced volatility may accompany solvolysis in the more polar media.

  9. Mercury removal from solid mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, D.D.; Morrissey, M.; Chava, K.K.; Chao, K.

    1994-01-01

    The removal of mercury from mixed wastes is an essential step in eliminating the temporary storage of large inventories of mixed waste throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Currently thermal treatment has been identified as a baseline technology and is being developed as part of the DOE Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Since thermal treatment will not be applicable to all mercury containing mixed waste and the removal of mercury prior to thermal treatment may be desirable, laboratory studies have been initiated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to develop alternative remediation technologies capable of removing mercury from certain mixed waste. This paper describes laboratory investigations of the KI/I 2 leaching processes to determine the applicability of this process to mercury containing solid mixed waste

  10. Removal of mercury by adsorption: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jin-Gang; Yue, Bao-Yu; Wu, Xiong-Wei; Liu, Qi; Jiao, Fei-Peng; Jiang, Xin-Yu; Chen, Xiao-Qing

    2016-03-01

    Due to natural and production activities, mercury contamination has become one of the major environmental problems over the world. Mercury contamination is a serious threat to human health. Among the existing technologies available for mercury pollution control, the adsorption process can get excellent separation effects and has been further studied. This review is attempted to cover a wide range of adsorbents that were developed for the removal of mercury from the year 2011. Various adsorbents, including the latest adsorbents, are presented along with highlighting and discussing the key advancements on their preparation, modification technologies, and strategies. By comparing their adsorption capacities, it is evident from the literature survey that some adsorbents have shown excellent potential for the removal of mercury. However, there is still a need to develop novel, efficient adsorbents with low cost, high stability, and easy production and manufacture for practical utility.

  11. [Cleavage of DNA fragments induced by UV nanosecond laser excitation at 193 nm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vtiurina, N N; Grokhovskiĭ, S L; Filimonov, I V; Medvedkov, O I; Nechipurenko, D Iu; Vasil'ev, S A; Nechipurenko, Iu D

    2011-01-01

    The cleavage of dsDNA fragments in aqueous solution after irradiation with UV laser pulses at 193 nm has been studied. Samples were investigated using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The intensity of damage of particular phosphodiester bond after hot alkali treatment was shown to depend on the base pair sequence. It was established that the probability of cleavage is twice higher for sites of DNA containing two or more successively running guanine residues. A possible mechanism of damage to the DNA molecule connected with the migration of holes along the helix is discussed.

  12. Prodrug Therapy for Breast Cancer Targeted by Single-Chain Antibodies F19 and 3S193

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Deckert, Peter

    2003-01-01

    ... of E.coli CD with the yeast isoenzyme. In addition, a second line of fusion constructs with green fluorescent protein instead of cytosine deaminase was designed for histological and intracellular distribution studies...

  13. JAERI/KEK target material program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Kenji; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Sasa, Toshinobu

    2001-01-01

    Mercury target was designed for megawatt neutron scattering facility in JAERI/KEK spallation neutron source. The incident proton energy and current are 3 GeV and 333 μA, respectively: the total proton energy is 1 MW in short pulses at a frequency of 25 Hz. Under the guide rule the mercury target was designed: the maximum temperature of target window is 170degC and induced stresses for the type 316 stainless steel are within limits of design guide. In order to demonstrate ADS (Accelerator Driven Systems) transmutation critical and engineering facilities have been designed conceptually. In engineering facility lead-bismuth spallation target station is to be planned. Objective to build the facility is to demonstrate material irradiation. According to neutronics calculation irradiation damage of the target vessel window will be 5 dpa per year. (author)

  14. 21 CFR 880.2920 - Clinical mercury thermometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clinical mercury thermometer. 880.2920 Section 880... Devices § 880.2920 Clinical mercury thermometer. (a) Identification. A clinical mercury thermometer is a... mercury. (b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The device is exempt from the premarket...

  15. Mercury content of shark from south-western Australian waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caputi, N.; Edmonds, J.S.; Heald, D.I.

    1979-11-01

    Muscle samples from four species of commercially sought sharks off the Western Australia coast were analyzed for total mercury. While substantial amounts of mercury were accumulated by sharks, as by other marine fish, the lack of polluting industry on the coast indicates that such mercury levels probably are natural. Mercury concentrations generally increased with fish size. (4 graphs, 1 map, 8 references, 2 tables)

  16. 21 CFR 862.3600 - Mercury test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....3600 Mercury test system. (a) Identification. A mercury test system is a device intended to measure mercury, a heavy metal, in human specimens. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the diagnosis... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mercury test system. 862.3600 Section 862.3600...

  17. Distribution and excretion of inhaled mercury vapour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gage, J C

    1961-01-01

    Rats have been exposed for varying periods to an atmosphere containing 1 mg/cu.m. mercury vapor. The toxic effects produced showed resemblances to signs of mercurialism in man. An attempt has been made to study the kinetics of absorption and excretion of mercury from measurements of the amounts excreted and stored in the tissues. The efficiency of absorption of mercury by the rat lung is about 50%. A small proportion is excreted into the gut. After about 10 days of continuous exposure a steady state is reached in which excretion balances absorption. During short exposures the turnover of mercury in all tissues except brain is fairly rapid and most of the mercury is cleared from the body within a week after exposure. The urinary excretion of mercury, during the initial stage of storage in the tissues and the final stage of clearance, shows divergencies from the simple exponential pattern; there appears to be a delay mechanism in the kidney which, in intermittent exposures, may result in the occurrence of peak excretion during periods of non-exposure. After more prolonged exposures the mercury in the kidney appears to be converted to a form which is only very slowly excreted. The significance of the urinary excretion of mercury by man after industrial exposure to mercury vapour is discussed. The rat experiments suggest that single measurements will give only limited information concerning industrial conditions, but that an approximate assessment of the total absorbed during a working week would be obtained if it were possible to make a seven-day collection of urine. Repeated measurements after exposure would yield information on the duration of exposure and would have some diagnostic value.

  18. Estimating mercury emissions from a zinc smelter in relation to China's mercury control policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.X.; Song, J.X.; Li, G.H.; Wu, Y.; Zhang, L.; Wan, Q.; Streets, D.G.; Chin, Conrad K.; Hao, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Mercury concentrations of flue gas at inlet/outlet of the flue gas cleaning, electrostatic demister, reclaiming tower, acid plant, and mercury contents in zinc concentrate and by-products were measured in a hydrometallurgical zinc smelter. The removal efficiency of flue gas cleaning, electrostatic demister, mercury reclaiming and acid plant was about 17.4%, 30.3%, 87.9% and 97.4% respectively. Flue gas cleaning and electrostatic demister captured 11.7% and 25.3% of the mercury in the zinc concentrate, respectively. The mercury reclaiming tower captured 58.3% of the mercury in the zinc concentrate. About 4.2% of the mercury in the zinc concentrate was captured by the acid plant. Consequently, only 0.8% of the mercury in the zinc concentrate was emitted to the atmosphere. The atmospheric mercury emission factor was 0.5 g t -1 of zinc produced for the tested smelter, indicating that this process offers the potential to effectively reduce mercury emissions from zinc smelting. - Modern scale production equipped with acid plant and Hg reclaiming tower will significantly reduce Hg emissions from zinc smelters in China.

  19. Mercury migration into ground water, a literature study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlton, W.H.; Carden, J.L.; Kury, R.; Eichholz, G.G.

    1994-11-01

    This report presents a broad review of the technical literature dealing with mercury migration in the soil. The approach followed was to identify relevant articles by searching bibliographic data bases, obtaining the promising articles and searching these articles for any additional relevant citations. Eight catagories were used to organize the literature, with a review and summary of each paper. Catagories used were the following: chemical states of mercury under environmental conditions; diffusion of mercury vapor through soil; solubility and stability of mercury in environmental waters; transport of mercury on colloids; models for mercury migration through the environment; analytical techniques; retention of mercury by soil components; formation of organomecurials.

  20. Study of high levels indoor air mercury contamination from mercury amalgam use in dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khwaja, M.A.; Abbasi, M.S.; Mehmood, F.; Jahangir, S.

    2014-01-01

    In 2005, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) estimated that 362 tonnes of dental mercury are consumed annually worldwide. Dental mercury amalgams also called silver fillings and amalgam fillings are widely done. These fillings gave off mercury vapours. Estimated average absorbed concentrations of mercury vapours from dental fillings vary from 3,000 to 17,000 ng Hg. Mercury (Hg) also known as quick silver is an essential constituent of dental amalgam. It is a toxic substance of global concern. A persistent pollutant, mercury is not limited to its source but it travels, on time thousands of kilometers away from the source. Scientific evidence, including, UNEP Global Mercury report, establishes mercury as an extremely toxic substance, which is a major threat to wildlife, ecosystem and human health, at a global scale. Children are more at risk from mercury poisoning which affects their neurological development and brain. Mercury poisoning diminishes memory, attention, thinking and sight. In the past, a number of studies at dental sites in many countries have been carried out and reported which have been reviewed and briefly described. This paper describes and discusses the recent investigations, regarding mercury vapours level in air, carried out at 18 dental sites in Pakistan and other countries. It is evident from the data of 42 dental sites in 17 countries, including, selected dental sites in five main cities of Pakistan, described and discussed in this paper that at most dental sites in many countries including Pakistan, the indoor mercury vapours levels exceed far above the permissible limit, recommended for safe physical and mental health. At these sites, public, in general, and the medical, paramedical staff and vulnerable population, in particular, are at most serious risk to health resulting from exposure to toxic and hazardous mercury. (author)

  1. Mercuri tutuksi Y-sukupolvelle

    OpenAIRE

    Kyyhkynen, Toni; Kaisla, Noora

    2016-01-01

    Opinnäytetyö on tuotettu toimeksiantona Mercuri International Oy:lle. Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli tehdä Mercurille markkinointisuunnitelma, joka lisäisi yrityksen tunnettuutta Y-sukupolven silmissä kohderyhmälle sopivien markkinointitoimenpiteiden avulla. Toinen tavoite oli luoda keskustelua ja kiinnostusta Metropolian Liiketalouden opiskelijoiden keskuudessa B2B-myynnin alaa kohtaan. Teoreettinen osuus antaa viitekehyksen opinnäytetyön tutkimustehtävän sekä toimeksiannon kannalta oleel...

  2. Treatment of mercury containing waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalb, Paul D.; Melamed, Dan; Patel, Bhavesh R; Fuhrmann, Mark

    2002-01-01

    A process is provided for the treatment of mercury containing waste in a single reaction vessel which includes a) stabilizing the waste with sulfur polymer cement under an inert atmosphere to form a resulting mixture and b) encapsulating the resulting mixture by heating the mixture to form a molten product and casting the molten product as a monolithic final waste form. Additional sulfur polymer cement can be added in the encapsulation step if needed, and a stabilizing additive can be added in the process to improve the leaching properties of the waste form.

  3. Final amplifier design and mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, E.A.; Hanson, D.E.

    1991-01-01

    The final amplifier for the Mercury KrF excimer facility is being designed. The design exercise involves extensive modeling to predict amplifier performance. Models of the pulsed-power system, including a Child-Langmuir diode with closure, electron-beam energy deposition, KrF laser kinetics, amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), a time-dependent laser extraction in the presence of ASE are presented as a design package. The design exercise indicates that the energy objective of Phase I -- 100 joules -- will be met

  4. Geodesy at Mercury with MESSENGER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria t.; Peale, Stanley J.; Phillips, Roger J.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2006-01-01

    In 2011 the MESSENGER (MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging) spacecraft will enter Mercury orbit and begin the mapping phase of the mission. As part of its science objectives the MESSENGER mission will determine the shape and gravity field of Mercury. These observations will enable the topography and the crustal thickness to be derived for the planet and will determine the small libration of the planet about its axis, the latter critical to constraining the state of the core. These measurements require very precise positioning of the MESSENGER spacecraft in its eccentric orbit, which has a periapsis altitude as low as 200 km, an apoapsis altitude near 15,000 km, and a closest approach to the surface varying from latitude 60 to about 70 N. The X-band tracking of MESSENGER and the laser altimetry are the primary data that will be used to measure the planetary shape and gravity field. The laser altimeter, which has an expected range of 1000 to 1200 km, is expected to provide significant data only over the northern hemisphere because of MESSENGER's eccentric orbit. For the southern hemisphere, radio occultation measurements obtained as the spacecraft passes behind the planet as seen from Earth and images obtained with the imaging system will be used to provide the long-wavelength shape of the planet. Gravity, derived from the tracking data, will also have greater resolution in the northern hemisphere, but full global models for both topography and gravity will be obtained at low harmonic order and degree. The limiting factor for both gravity and topography is expected to be knowledge of the spacecraft location. Present estimations are that in a combined tracking, altimetry, and occultation solution the spacecraft position uncertainty is likely to be of order 10 m. This accuracy should be adequate for establishing an initial geodetic coordinate system for Mercury that will enable positioning of imaged features on the surface, determination of

  5. Analysis of mercury diffusion pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    Several mercury diffusion pump stages in the Tritium Purification process at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have been removed from service for scheduled preventive maintenance. These stages have been examined to determine if failure has occurred. Evidence of fatigue around the flange portion of the pump has been seen. In addition, erosion and cavitation inside the throat of the venturi tube and corrosion on the other surface of the venturi tube has been observed. Several measures are being examined in an attempt to improve the performance of these pumps. These measures, as well as the noted observations, are described. 4 refs

  6. Legislation, standards and methods for mercury emissions control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-04-15

    Mercury is an element of growing global concern. The United Nations Environment Programme plans to finalise and ratify a new global legally-binding convention on mercury by 2013. Canada already has legislation on mercury emissions from coal-fired utilities and the USA has recently released the new Mercury and Air Toxics Standard. Although other countries may not have mercury-specific legislation as such, many have legislation which results in significant co-benefit mercury reduction due to the installation of effective flue-gas cleaning technologies. This report reviews the current situation and trends in mercury emission legislation and, where possible, discusses the actions that will be taken under proposed or impending standards globally and regionally. The report also reviews the methods currently applied for mercury control and for mercury emission measurement with emphasis on the methodologies most appropriate for compliance. Examples of the methods of mercury control currently deployed in the USA, Canada and elsewhere are included.

  7. 40 CFR Appendix Xiii to Part 266 - Mercury Bearing Wastes That May Be Processed in Exempt Mercury Recovery Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mercury Bearing Wastes That May Be Processed in Exempt Mercury Recovery Units XIII Appendix XIII to Part 266 Protection of Environment... XIII to Part 266—Mercury Bearing Wastes That May Be Processed in Exempt Mercury Recovery Units These...

  8. Groundwater Modeling of Mercury Pollution at a Former Mercury Cell Chlor Alkali Facility in Pavlodar City, Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    In northern Kazakhstan, there is a serious case of mercury pollution near the city of Pavlodar from an old mercury cell chlor-alkali plant. The soil, sediment, and water is severely contaminated with mercury and mercury compounds as a result of the industrial activity of this ch...

  9. Mercury in the environment : a primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lourie, B; Glenn, W [ed.; Ogilvie, K; Everhardus, E; Friesen, K; Rae, S

    2003-06-01

    This report provides an overview of the occurrence and effects of mercury in the environment and its impacts on human health. Low levels of mercury occur naturally everywhere in the environment in plants, animals, rocks and air. Incidental emissions occur when natural mercury is released to the environment through human activity. In Canada, coal burning and metal processing are the two largest point sources of atmospheric mercury emissions. Energy facilities have the option to invest in expensive control technologies for coal plants, or they can generate electricity from alternative energy sources. Energy conservation, however, offers the greatest overall benefits for the environment and the public. Mercury can also be released when products containing mercury (such as electrical switches, thermostats, dental amalgam, and thermometers) are broken while in use, or when they are crushed in garbage trucks and dumped in landfills. Source separation is the best way to reduce waste-related emissions. Once mercury is released to the natural environment, it can be transported long distances through air or watercourses. It is volatile, therefore evaporates readily to the atmosphere where it may do one of three things: it may fall out near the point where it was emitted; it may be transported long distances to some point downwind; or, it may enter the global atmospheric mercury pool where it will circle the globe for a year or more within the Earth's major weather systems before being deposited. Data from Canada's National Pollutant Release Inventory indicates that mercury releases and transfers total 28,674 kg per year. The most critical component of the mercury cycle is the conversion of inorganic forms of mercury to the organic compound methylmercury which is more toxic to humans. Most concern about mercury focuses on lakes and other aquatic ecosystems. Fish in hydroelectric reservoirs have been found to contain elevated methylmercury levels because natural mercury in the

  10. Substance Flow Analysis of Mercury in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, L. M.; Wang, S.; Zhang, L.; Wang, F. Y.; Wu, Q. R.

    2015-12-01

    In previous studies, the emission of anthropogenic atmospheric Hg in China as well as single sector have been examined a lot. However, there might have been more Hg released as solid wastes rather than air. Hg stored in solid wastes may be released to air again when the solid wastes experience high temperature process or cause local pollution if the solid wastes are stacked casually for a long time. To trace the fate of Hg in China, this study developed the substance flow of Hg in 2010 covering all the sectors summarized in table 1. Below showed in Figure 1, the total Hg input is 2825t. The unintentional input of Hg, mined Hg, and recycled Hg account for 57%, 32% and 11% respectively. Figure 2 provides the detail information of substance flow of Hg. Byproducts from one sector may be used as raw materials of another, causing cross Hg flow between sectors. The Hg input of cement production is 303 t, of which 34% comes from coal and limestone, 33% comes from non-ferrous smelting, 23% comes from coal combustion, 7% comes from iron and steel production and 3% comes from mercury mining. Hg flowing to recycledHg production is 639 t, mainly from Hg contained in waste active carbon and mercuric chloride catalyst from VCM production and acid sludge from non-ferrous smelting. There are 20 t mercury flowing from spent mercury adding products to incineration. Figure1 and Figure 2 also show that 46% of the output Hg belongs to "Lagged release", which means this part of mercury might be released later. The "Lagged release" Hg includes 809 t Hg contained in stacked byproducts form coal combustion, non-ferrous smelting, iron and steel production, Al production, cement production and mercury mining, 161t Hg stored in the pipeline of VCM producing, 10 t Hg in fluorescent lamps that are in use and 314 t mercury stored in materials waiting to be handled with in recycled mercury plants. There is 112 t Hg stored in landfill and 129 t Hg exported abroad with the export of mercury adding

  11. Mercury dynamics in a coastal aquifer: Maunalua Bay, O´ahu, Hawai´i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguli, Priya M.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Dulaiova, Henrieta; Glenn, Craig R.; Flegal, A. Russell

    2014-03-01

    We evaluated the influence of groundwater-seawater interaction on mercury dynamics in Maunalua Bay, a coral reef ecosystem located on the south shore of O´ahu, Hawai´i, by combining geochemical data with submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) rates. During a rising tide, unfiltered total mercury (U-HgT) concentrations in seawater increased from ˜6 to 20 pM at Black Point (west Bay) and from ˜2.5 to 8 pM at Niu (central Bay). We attribute this change to an increase in suspended particulate matter at high tide. Approximately 90% of mercury in groundwater at Niu was in the filtered (weighted average Maunalua Bay groundwater mercury flux of 0.68 ± 0.67 mol yr-1 by combining the proportional flux of F-HgT from three distinct SGD zones, and place these results into a broader context by comparing and contrasting flux estimates from locations around the world. Results from existing SGD studies should be evaluated to develop future sampling strategies that address more targeted questions about mercury biogeochemical cycling at the groundwater-seawater interface.

  12. Mercury dynamics in a coastal aquifer: Maunalua Bay, Oʻahu, Hawaiʻi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguli, Priya M.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Dulaiova, Henrieta; Glenn, Craig R.; Flegal, A. Russell

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the influence of groundwater–seawater interaction on mercury dynamics in Maunalua Bay, a coral reef ecosystem located on the south shore of Oʻahu, Hawaiʻi, by combining geochemical data with submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) rates. During a rising tide, unfiltered total mercury (U-HgT) concentrations in seawater increased from ∼6 to 20 pM at Black Point (west Bay) and from ∼2.5 to 8 pM at Niu (central Bay). We attribute this change to an increase in suspended particulate matter at high tide. Approximately 90% of mercury in groundwater at Niu was in the filtered (weighted average Maunalua Bay groundwater mercury flux of 0.68 ± 0.67 mol yr−1 by combining the proportional flux of F-HgT from three distinct SGD zones, and place these results into a broader context by comparing and contrasting flux estimates from locations around the world. Results from existing SGD studies should be evaluated to develop future sampling strategies that address more targeted questions about mercury biogeochemical cycling at the groundwater–seawater interface.

  13. The adaptive response of lichens to mercury exposure involves changes in the photosynthetic machinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolardi, Valentina; Cai, Giampiero; Parrotta, Luigi; Puglia, Michele; Bianchi, Laura; Bini, Luca; Gaggi, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Lichens are an excellent model to study the bioaccumulation of heavy metals but limited information is available on the molecular mechanisms occurring during bioaccumulation. We investigated the changes of the lichen proteome during exposure to constant concentrations of mercury. We found that most of changes involves proteins of the photosynthetic pathway, such as the chloroplastic photosystem I reaction center subunit II, the oxygen-evolving protein and the chloroplastic ATP synthase β-subunit. This suggests that photosynthesis is a target of the toxic effects of mercury. These findings are also supported by changes in the content of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a and b, and β-carotene). Alterations to the photosynthetic machinery also reflect on the structure of thylakoid membranes of algal cells. Response of lichens to mercury also involves stress-related proteins (such as Hsp70) but not cytoskeletal proteins. Results suggest that lichens adapt to mercury exposure by changing the metabolic production of energy. - Highlights: ► Lichens exposed to Hg° vapors accumulate this metal irreversibly. ► Hg° interferes with physiological processes of the epiphytic lichen Evernia prunastri. ► Hg° promotes changes in the concentration of photosynthetic pigments. ► Hg° treatment causes changes in the ultrastructure of the photobiont plastids. ► Hg° induces changes in the protein machinery involved in the photosynthesis pathway. - Mercury affects the photosynthetic protein machinery of lichens.

  14. Comparison of 193 nm and 308 nm laser liquid printing by shadowgraphy imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palla-Papavlu, A., E-mail: apalla@nipne.ro [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, P.O. Box MG-36, Magurele, RO-077125 Bucharest (Romania); Shaw-Stewart, J. [EMPA, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Laboratory for Functional Polymers, Überlandstrasse 129, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Paul Scherrer Institute, General Energy Research Department, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Mattle, T. [Paul Scherrer Institute, General Energy Research Department, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Dinca, V. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, P.O. Box MG-36, Magurele, RO-077125 Bucharest (Romania); Lippert, T.; Wokaun, A. [Paul Scherrer Institute, General Energy Research Department, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Dinescu, M. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, P.O. Box MG-36, Magurele, RO-077125 Bucharest (Romania)

    2013-08-01

    Over the last years laser-induced forward transfer has emerged as a versatile and powerful tool for engineering surfaces with active compounds. Soft, easily damageable materials can be transferred using a triazene polymer as a sacrificial layer which acts as a pressure generator and at the same time protects the material from direct laser irradiation. To understand and optimize the transfer process of biomolecules in liquid solution by using an intermediate triazene polymer photosensitive layer, shadowgraphy imaging is carried out. Two laser systems i.e. an ArF laser operating at 193 nm and a XeCl laser operating at 308 nm are applied for the transfer. Solutions with 50% v/v glycerol concentration are prepared and the influence of the triazene polymer sacrificial layer thickness (60 nm) on the deposits is studied. The shadowgraphy images reveal a pronounced difference between laser-induced forward transfer using 193 nm or 308 nm, i.e. very different shapes of the ejected liquid.

  15. Novel methodology for the study of mercury methylation and reduction in sediments and water using 197Hg radiotracer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro Guevara, Sergio; Zizek, Suzana; Repinc, Urska; Pérez Catán, Soledad; Jaćimović, Radojko; Horvat, Milena

    2007-03-01

    Mercury tracers are powerful tools that can be used to study mercury transformations in environmental systems, particularly mercury methylation, demethylation and reduction in sediments and water. However, mercury transformation studies using tracers can be subject to error, especially when used to assess methylation potential. The organic mercury extracted can be as low as 0.01% of the endogenous labeled mercury, and artefacts and contamination present during methylmercury (MeHg) extraction processes can cause interference. Solvent extraction methods based on the use of either KBr/H2SO4 or HCl were evaluated in freshwater sediments using 197Hg radiotracer. Values obtained for the 197Hg tracer in the organic phase were up to 25-fold higher when HCl was used, which is due to the coextraction of 197Hg2+ into the organic phase during MeHg extraction. Evaluations of the production of MeHg gave similar results with both MeHg extraction procedures, but due to the higher Hg2+ contamination of the controls, the uncertainty in the determination was higher when HCl was used. The Hg2+ contamination of controls in the HCl extraction method showed a nonlinear correlation with the humic acid content of sediment pore water. Therefore, use of the KBr/H2SO4 method is recommended, since it is free from these interferences. 197Hg radiotracer (T1/2=2.673 d) has a production rate that is about 50 times higher than that of 203Hg (T1/2=46.595 d), the most frequently used mercury radiotracer. Hence it is possible to obtain a similar level of performance to 203Hg when it is used it in short-term experiments and produced by the irradiation of 196Hg with thermal neutrons, using mercury targets with the natural isotopic composition. However, if the 0.15% natural abundance of the 196Hg isotope is increased, the specific activity of the 197Hg tracer can be significantly improved. In the present work, 197Hg tracer was produced from mercury 51.58% enriched in the 196Hg isotope, and a 340-fold

  16. A thin, dense crust for Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sori, Michael M.

    2018-05-01

    Crustal thickness is a crucial geophysical parameter in understanding the geology and geochemistry of terrestrial planets. Recent development of mathematical techniques suggests that previous studies based on assumptions of isostasy overestimated crustal thickness on some of the solid bodies of the solar system, leading to a need to revisit those analyses. Here, I apply these techniques to Mercury. Using MESSENGER-derived elemental abundances, I calculate a map of grain density (average 2974 ± 89 kg/m3) which shows that Pratt isostasy is unlikely to be a major compensation mechanism of Mercury's topography. Assuming Airy isostasy, I find the best fit value for Mercury's mean crustal thickness is 26 ± 11 km, 25% lower than the most recently reported and previously thinnest number. Several geological implications follow from this relatively low value for crustal thickness, including showing that the largest impacts very likely excavated mantle material onto Mercury's surface. The new results also show that Mercury and the Moon have a similar proportion of their rocky silicates composing their crusts, and thus Mercury is not uniquely efficient at crustal production amongst terrestrial bodies. Higher resolution topography and gravity data, especially for the southern hemisphere, will be necessary to refine Mercury's crustal parameters further.

  17. Atmospheric mercury in Changbai Mountain area, northeastern China II. The distribution of reactive gaseous mercury and particulate mercury and mercury deposition fluxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Qi; Feng, Xinbin; Lu, Julia; Zheng, Wei; Song, Xinjie; Li, Ping; Han, Shijie; Xu, Hao

    2009-08-01

    Reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) and particulate mercury (Hgp) concentrations in ambient air from a remote site at Changbai Mountain area in northeastern China were intermittently monitored from August 2005 to July 2006 totaling 93 days representing fall, winter-spring and summer season, respectively. Rainwater and snow samples were collected during a whole year, and total mercury (THg) in rain samples were used to calculate wet depositional flux. A throughfall method and a model method were used to estimate dry depositional flux. Results showed mean concentrations of RGM and Hgp are 65 and 77 pg m(-3). Compared to background concentrations of atmospheric mercury species in Northern Hemisphere, RGM and Hgp are significantly elevated in Changbai area. Large values for standard deviation indicated fast reactivity and a low residence time for these mercury species. Seasonal variability is also important, with lower mercury levels in summer compared to other seasons, which is attributed to scavenging by rainfall and low local mercury emissions in summer. THg concentrations ranged from 11.5 to 15.9 ng L(-1) in rainwater samples and 14.9-18.6 ng L(-1) in throughfall samples. Wet depositional flux in Changbai area is calculated to be 8.4 microg m(-2) a(-1), and dry deposition flux is estimated to be 16.5 microg m(-2) a(-1) according to a throughfall method and 20.2 microg m(-2) a(-1) using a model method.

  18. Occupational Metallic Mercury Poisoning in Gilders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Vahabzadeh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Occupational exposure to elemental mercury vapor usually occurs through inhalation during its utilizations. This leads to a variety of adverse health effects. In some Islamic cities, this type of poisoning may occur during gilding of shrines using elemental mercury with gold. Herein, we report on three male patients aged 20–53 years, who were diagnosed with occupational metallic mercury poisoning due to gilding of a shrine. All patients presented with neuro-psychiatric disorders such as anxiety, loss of memory and concentration, and sleep disorders with high urinary mercury concentrations of 326–760 μg/L upon referring, 3–10 days after cessation of elemental mercury exposure. Following chelating therapy, the patients recovered clinically and their mercury concentrations declined to non-toxic level (<25 μg/L. Health, environmental and labor authorities, as well as the gilders should be aware of the toxicity risk of exposure to metalic mercury during gilding in closed environments and act accordingly.

  19. Does mercury vapor exposure increase urinary selenium excretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hongo, T; Suzuki, T; Himeno, S; Watanabe, C; Satoh, H; Shimada, Y

    1985-01-01

    It has been reported that an increase of urinary selenium excretion may occur as a result of mercury vapor exposure. However, experimental data regarding the interaction between mercury vapor and selenium have yielded ambiguous results about the retention and elimination of selenium due to mercury vapor exposure and the decrease of selenium excretion due to mercury in the form of mercuric mercury (Hg/sup 2 +/). In this study, the authors measured urinary mercury and selenium in workers with or without exposure to mercury vapor to determine whether or not urinary selenium excretion was increased as a result of mercury vapor exposure. Urine samples were collected from 141 workers, 71 men and 70 women, whose extent of exposure to mercury vapor varied according to their job sites. Workers were divided into five groups according to their urinary mercury levels. The mercury level in group I was less than 2.8 nmol/mmol creatinine which means that this group was mostly free from mercury exposure. The average age was almost identical among the groups. For both sexes, group V (with the highest urinary mercury level) had the lowest urinary selenium level, but one-way variance analysis (ANOVA) did not reveal any significant variations of urinary selenium with urinary mercury levels; however, a weak but significant negative correlation between mercury and selenium was found in men.

  20. Mercury's magnetosphere and magnetotial revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergan, S.; Engle, I.M.

    1981-01-01

    Magnetic observations which are not complicated by currents of trapped plasma are a good test of geomagnetopause and geomagnetotail predictions. Recent attempts to model the Hermean magnetospheric field based on a planet-centered magnetic multipole field with a quadrupole moment in addition to the planetary dipole field or a dipole field linearly displaced from planet center and no quadrupole moment have produced reasonably good fits to the Mercury magnetic field measurements. In this work we find a better fit for a dipole displacement from the planet center by making use of an improved representation of the magnetic field in the magnetotail, where many of the Mercury measurements were made. The rms deviation of the data was reduced from 10. or 11. γ to 9.3 γ by employing this new tail field representation. Also, by making use of this new tail field representation, we find a best fit for a dipole displacement of -0.0285 R/sub M/ (earlier, 0.026 R/sub M/) toward the dawn in the magnetic equatorial plane and 0.17 R/sub M/ (earlier, 0.189 R/sub M/ (earlier 0.189 R/sub M/) northward along the magnetic dipole axis, where R/sub M/ is the planet radius. Thus with only minor adjustments in the displacement vector of the dipole from the planet center we achieve a measurable improvement in the fit of the data by using the improved magnetotail field representation

  1. Concentration of mercury in wheat samples stored with mercury tablets as preservative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalit, B.Y.; Ramachandran, T.V.

    1977-01-01

    Tablets consisting of mercury in the form of a dull grey powder made by triturating mercury with chalk and sugar are used in Indian household for storing food-grains. The contamination of wheat samples by mercury, when stored with mercury tablets for period of upto four years has been assessed by using non-destructive neutron activation analysis. The details of the analytical procedure used have also been briefly described. The concentration of mercury in wheat increases with storage period. Loss of weight of mercury tablet is proportional to the storage period to a first approximation. In the present experiment, the average weight loss at the and end of first year was 0.009716 g corresponding to 6 ppm in wheat. (T.G.)

  2. Concentration of mercury in wheat samples stored with mercury tablets as preservative. [Neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalit, B Y; Ramachandran, T V [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Air Monitoring Section

    1977-01-01

    Tablets consisting of mercury in the form of a dull grey powder made by triturating mercury with chalk and sugar are used in Indian household for storing food-grains. The contamination of wheat samples by mercury, when stored with mercury tablets for period of upto four years has been assessed by using non-destructive neutron activation analysis. The details of the analytical procedure used have also been briefly described. The concentration of mercury in wheat increases with storage period. Loss of weight of mercury tablet is proportional to the storage period to a first approximation. In the present experiment, the average weight loss at the and end of first year was 0.009716 g corresponding to 6 ppm in wheat.

  3. An Assessment of the Potential Effects of Aquifer Storage and Recovery on Mercury Cycling in South Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krabbenhoft, David P.; Aiken, George R.; Anderson, Mary P.

    2007-01-01

    not represent a significant additional direct load of mercury and methyl-mercury to ASR 'receiving waters'. Net production of methylmercury, however, can result from additions of sulfate or natural organic carbon. Thus, because the Upper Floridan aquifer generally has elevated concentrations of sulfate (relative to ambient Everglades conditions) and surface waters near Lake Okeechobee (the assumed target for ASR receiving waters) are elevated in organic carbon and sulfate, at least some potential for increased methylmercury production might arise from the release of recovered ASR water to locations in or near the Everglades.

  4. Mercury speciation on three European mining districts by XANES techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbri, J. M.; Garcia-Noguero, E. M.; Guerrero, B.; Kocman, D.; Bernaus, A.; Gaona, X.; Higueras, P.; Alvarez, R.; Loredo, J.; Horvat, M.; Ávila, M.

    2009-04-01

    The mobility, bioavailability and toxicity of mercury in the environment depend on the chemical species in which is present in soil, sediments, water or air. In this work we used synchrotron radiation to determine mercury species in geological samples of three mercury mining districts: Almadén (Spain), Idria (Slovenia) and Asturias (Spain). The aim of this study was to find differences on mobility and bioavailability of mercury on three mining districts with different type of mineralization. For this porpoises we selected samples of ore, calcines, soils and stream sediments from the three sites, completely characterized by the Almadén School of Mines, Josef Stefan Institute of Ljubljana and Oviedo School of Mines. Speciation of mercury was carried out on Synchrotron Laboratories of Hamburg (HASYLAB) by XANES techniques. Spectra of pure compounds [HgCl2, HgSO4, HgO, CH3HgCl, Hg2Cl2 (calomel), HgSred (cinnabar), HgSblack (metacinnabar), Hg2NCl0.5(SO4)0.3(MoO4)0.1(CO3)0.1(H2O) (mosesite), Hg3S2Cl2 (corderoite), Hg3(SO4)O2 (schuetteite) y Hg2ClO (terlinguaite)] were obtained on transmittance mode. The number and type of the compounds required to reconstruct experimental spectra for each sample was obtained by PCA analysis and linear fitting of minimum quadratics of the pure compounds spectra. This offers a semiquantitative approach to the mineralogical constitution of each analyzed sample. The results put forward differences on the efficiency of roasting furnaces from the three studied sites, evidenced by the presence of metacinnabar on the less efficient (Almadén and Asturias) and absence on the most efficient (Idria). For the three studied sites, sulfide species (cinnabar and metacinnabar) were largely more abundant than soluble species (chlorides and sulfates). On the other hand, recent results on the mobility of both Hg and As on the target sites will be presented. These results correlate with the related chemical species found by XANES techniques.

  5. Highly Reducing Partitioning Experiments Relevant to the Planet Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Rick, II; Vander Kaaden, Kathleen E.; McCubbin, Francis M.; Danielson, Lisa R.

    2017-01-01

    With the data returned from the MErcury Surface Space ENvironment GEochemistry and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission, there are now numerous constraints on the physical and chemical properties of Mercury, including its surface composition. The high S and low FeO contents observed from MESSENGER on the planet's surface suggests a low oxygen fugacity of the present planetary materials. Estimates of the oxygen fugacity for Mercurian magmas are approximately 3-7 log units below the Iron-Wüstite (Fe-FeO) oxygen buffer, several orders of magnitude more reducing than other terrestrial bodies we have data from such as the Earth, Moon, or Mars. Most of our understanding of elemental partitioning behavior comes from observations made on terrestrial rocks, but Mercury's oxygen fugacity is far outside the conditions of those samples. With limited oxygen available, lithophile elements may instead exhibit chalcophile, halophile, or siderophile behaviors. Furthermore, very few natural samples of rocks that formed under reducing conditions are available in our collections (e.g., enstatite chondrites, achondrites, aubrites). With this limited amount of material, we must perform experiments to determine the elemental partitioning behavior of typically lithophile elements as a function of decreasing oxygen fugacity. Experiments are being conducted at 4 GPa in an 880-ton multi-anvil press, at temperatures up to 1850degC. The composition of starting materials for the experiments were selected for the final run products to contain metal, silicate melt, and sulfide melt phases. Oxygen fugacity is controlled in the experiments by adding silicon metal to the samples, using the Si-SiO2 oxygen buffer, which is approximately 5 log units more reducing than the Fe-FeO oxygen buffer at our temperatures of interest. The target silicate melt compositional is diopside (CaMgSi2O6) because measured surface compositions indicate partial melting of a pyroxene-rich mantle. Elements detected on Mercury

  6. Hidden sources of mercury in clinical laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Chavez, C R; Federico-Perez, R A; Gomez-Alvarez, A; Velazquez-Contreras, L E; Perez-Rios, R

    2014-09-01

    The healthcare sector is an important contributor to mercury (Hg) pollution because of the potential presence of mercury in thermometers, blood pressure cuffs, amalgams, etc. There are also other potential sources of mercury in this sector which are used frequently and in high volumes where the presence of the metal is not obvious and which might be collectively contributing to pollution. For instance, some chemicals used for the clinical diagnosis of illness may contain mercury. The goal of this study was to investigate potential sources of mercury pollution, which originate from clinical laboratory discharges, using an exploratory approach. The focus was on the residue generated during automatic analysis of patients' bodily fluids at a medical center in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. This study shows an overview of what might be happening in the region or the country related to non-obvious sources of mercury in the healthcare sector. The results showed measurable levels of mercury in the residues coming from urine sediment analysis. These amounts do not exceed the maximum allowed by Mexican environmental regulations; nevertheless, the frequency and cumulative volume of residues generated, combined with the potential for persistence and the bioaccumulation of mercury in the environment, warrant attention. The work carried out in this study is being taken as a model for future studies for pollution prevention in the healthcare sector with the goal of measuring mercury emissions to the environment from clinical laboratory wastewater, including identifying sources which--while not obvious--could be important given the frequency and volume of their use in the clinical diagnosis.

  7. Understanding the mercury reduction issue: the impact of mercury on the environment and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Richard T; Dault, Scott; Pichay, Teresa

    2004-07-01

    Mercury has been used in both medicine and dentistry for centuries. Recent media attention regarding the increased levels of mercury in dietary fish, high levels of mercury in air emissions, and conjecture that certain diseases may be caused by mercury exposure has increased public awareness of the potential adverse health effects of high doses of mercury. Dentistry has been criticized for its continued use of mercury in dental amalgam for both public health and environmental reasons. To address these concerns, dental professionals should understand the impact of the various levels and types of mercury on the environment and human health. Mercury is unique in its ability to form amalgams with other metals. Dental amalgam--consisting of silver, copper, tin, and mercury--has been used as a safe, stable, and cost-effective restorative material for more than 150 years. As a result of this use, the dental profession has been confronted by the public on two separate health issues concerning the mercury content in amalgam. The first issue is whether the mercury amalgamated with the various metals to create dental restorations poses a health issue for patients. The second is whether the scraps associated with amalgam placement and the removal of amalgam restorations poses environmental hazards which may eventually have an impact on human health. Despite the lack of scientific evidence for such hazards, there is growing pressure for the dental profession to address these health issues. In this article, the toxicology of mercury will be reviewed and the impact of amalgam on health and the environment will be examined.

  8. Methyl mercury, but not inorganic mercury, associated with higher blood pressure during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Ellen M; Herbstman, Julie B; Lin, Yu Hong; Hibbeln, Joseph R; Halden, Rolf U; Witter, Frank R; Goldman, Lynn R

    2017-04-01

    Prior studies addressing associations between mercury and blood pressure have produced inconsistent findings; some of this may result from measuring total instead of speciated mercury. This cross-sectional study of 263 pregnant women assessed total mercury, speciated mercury, selenium, and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in umbilical cord blood and blood pressure during labor and delivery. Models with a) total mercury or b) methyl and inorganic mercury were evaluated. Regression models adjusted for maternal age, race/ethnicity, prepregnancy body mass index, neighborhood income, parity, smoking, n-3 fatty acids and selenium. Geometric mean total, methyl, and inorganic mercury concentrations were 1.40µg/L (95% confidence interval: 1.29, 1.52); 0.95µg/L (0.84, 1.07); and 0.13µg/L (0.10, 0.17), respectively. Elevated systolic BP, diastolic BP, and pulse pressure were found, respectively, in 11.4%, 6.8%, and 19.8% of mothers. In adjusted multivariable models, a one-tertile increase of methyl mercury was associated with 2.83mmHg (0.17, 5.50) higher systolic blood pressure and 2.99mmHg (0.91, 5.08) higher pulse pressure. In the same models, an increase of one tertile of inorganic mercury was associated with -1.18mmHg (-3.72, 1.35) lower systolic blood pressure and -2.51mmHg (-4.49, -0.53) lower pulse pressure. No associations were observed with diastolic pressure. There was a non-significant trend of higher total mercury with higher systolic blood pressure. We observed a significant association of higher methyl mercury with higher systolic and pulse pressure, yet higher inorganic mercury was significantly associated with lower pulse pressure. These results should be confirmed with larger, longitudinal studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Isolation, screening and identification of mercury resistant bacteria from mercury contaminated soil

    OpenAIRE

    Kowalczyk Anna; Wilińska Magdalena; Chyc Marek; Bojko Monika; Latowski Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    New bacterial strains resistant to high concentration of mercury were obtained and character iz ed focusing on their potential application in bioremediation. The biological material was isolated from soil contaminated with mercury. The ability to removal of Hg from the liquid medium and the effect of the various pH and mercury concentrations in the environment on bacterial strains growth kinetics were tested. The selected strains were identified by analysis of the 16S ribosome subunit coding ...

  10. Physical properties of the planet Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Pamela E.

    1988-01-01

    The global physical properties of Mercury are summarized with attention given to its figure and orbital parameters. The combination of properties suggests that Mercury has an extensive iron-rich core, possibly with a still-functioning dynamo, which is 42 percent of the interior by volume. Mercury's three major axes are comparable in size, indicating that the planet is a triaxial ellipsoid rather than an oblate spheroid. In terms of the domination of its surface by an intermediate plains terrane, it is more Venus- or Mars-like; however, due to the presence of a large metallic magnetic core, its interior may be more earth-like.

  11. Magnetosphere, exosphere, and surface of Mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, A.F.; Krimigis, S.M.; Johnson, R.E.; Lanzerotti, L.J.

    1987-01-01

    It is presently suggested in light of the atomic Na exosphere discovered for Mercury that this planet, like the Jupiter moon Io, is capable of maintaining a heavy ion magnetosphere. Na(+) ions from the exosphere are in this scenario accelerated to keV energies en route to making substantial contributions to the mass and energy budgets of the magnetosphere. Since Mercury's Na supply to the exosphere is primarily internal, it would appear that Mercury is losing its semivolatiles and that this process will proceed by way of photosputtering, which maintains an adequate Na-ejection rate from the planet's surface. 39 references

  12. Conditioning of spent mercury by amalgamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yim, S. P.; Shon, J. S.; An, B. G.; Lee, H. J.; Lee, J. W.; Ji, C. G.; Kim, S. H.; Yoon, J. H.; Yang, M. S.

    2002-01-01

    Solidification by amalgamation was performed to immobilize and stabilize the liquid spent mercury. First, the appropriate metal and alloy which can convert liquid mercury into a solid form of amalgam were selected through initial tests. The amalgam form, formulated in optimum composition, was characterized and subjected to performance tests including compressive strength, water immersion, leachability and initial vaporization rate to evaluate mechanical integrity, durability and leaching properties. Finally, bench scale amalgamation trial was conducted with about 1 kg of spent mercury to verify the feasibility of amalgamation method

  13. determination of mercury content in milk powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovchev, M.; Grigorov, T.; Apostolov, D.

    1985-01-01

    Four samples of humanized full cream cow milk powder of Bulgarian origin for new-born, sucklings, small children and soured milk powder were activated for 18-24 h in a neutron flux of 5.10 12 , resp. 2.10 13 n/cm 2 .sec in quartz ampules. The samples were activated without preliminary lyophilization, thus avoiding possible mistakes from mercury losses. Ag-110m, being eliminated in the amalgam, was not an obstacle to the mercury determination. The results obtained for the mercury content are in the same order as in other investigations and many times lower than the admissible norm for foodstuffs - 50 ppb

  14. Article Commentary: Chelation Therapy for Mercury Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Guan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chelation therapy has been the major treatment for heavy metal poisoning. Various chelating agents have been developed and tested for treatment of heavy metal intoxications, including mercury poisoning. It has been clearly shown that chelating agents could rescue the toxicity caused by heavy metal intoxication, but the potential preventive role of chelating agents against heavy metal poisoning has not been explored much. Recent paper by Siddiqi and colleagues has suggested a protective role of chelating agents against mercury poisoning, which provides a promising research direction for broader application of chelation therapy in prevention and treatment of mercury poisoning.

  15. MESSENGER'S First and Second Flybys of Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, James A.

    2009-01-01

    The MESSENGER mission to Mercury offers our first opportunity to explore this planet's miniature magnetosphere since Mariner 10's brief fly-bys in 1974-5. The magnetosphere of Mercury is the smallest in the solar system with its magnetic field typically standing off the solar wind only approximately 1000 km above the surface. An overview of the MESSENGER mission and its January 14th and October 6th, 2008 close flybys of Mercury will be provided. Primary science objectives and the science instrumentation will be described. Initial results from MESSENGER will be discussed with an emphasis on the magnetic field and charged particle measurements.

  16. GeV Emission in the Region of HESS J1809‑193 and HESS J1813‑178: Is HESS J1809‑193 a Proton Pevatron?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Miguel

    2018-05-01

    HESS J1809‑193 is an unidentified TeV source discovered by the High Energy Stereoscopic System and originally classified as a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) candidate associated with the pulsar PSR J1809‑1917. However, a recent study of deep radio observations and the interstellar medium near the source has found evidence for a hadronic scenario for the gamma-rays. Here, a detailed study of the GeV emission in the region using data from the Fermi-LAT is presented. The GeV emission has an extended morphology in the region of the TeV emission and the overall spectrum can be accounted for by a cosmic-ray population having a simple power-law spectrum with energies extending up to 1 PeV. However, the spectrum at tens of TeV should be observed more deeply in the future to confirm its hadronic nature, and other scenarios involving combinations of leptonic and hadronic emission from several of the known supernova remnants in the region cannot be ruled out. The nearby TeV source HESS J1813‑178, thought to be a PWN, is also studied in detail at GeV energies and we find a region of significant emission that is much more extended than the TeV emission and whose spectrum is softer than expected from a PWN but similar to those seen in several star-forming regions that are believed to accelerate protons. There is marginal evidence for a GeV point source at the location of the X-ray PWN, beside the extended emission.

  17. Mercury nano-trap for effective and efficient removal of mercury(II) from aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baiyan; Zhang, Yiming; Ma, Dingxuan; Shi, Zhan; Ma, Shengqian

    2014-11-01

    Highly effective and highly efficient decontamination of mercury from aqueous media remains a serious task for public health and ecosystem protection. Here we report that this task can be addressed by creating a mercury ‘nano-trap’ as illustrated by functionalizing a high surface area and robust porous organic polymer with a high density of strong mercury chelating groups. The resultant porous organic polymer-based mercury ‘nano-trap’ exhibits a record-high saturation mercury uptake capacity of over 1,000 mg g-1, and can effectively reduce the mercury(II) concentration from 10 p.p.m. to the extremely low level of smaller than 0.4 p.p.b. well below the acceptable limits in drinking water standards (2 p.p.b.), and can also efficiently remove >99.9% mercury(II) within a few minutes. Our work therefore presents a new benchmark for mercury adsorbent materials and provides a new perspective for removing mercury(II) and also other heavy metal ions from contaminated water for environmental remediation.

  18. Mercury in mercury(II)-spiked soils is highly susceptible to plant bioaccumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlodák, Michal; Urík, Martin; Matúš, Peter; Kořenková, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Heavy metal phytotoxicity assessments usually use soluble metal compounds in spiked soils to evaluate metal bioaccumulation, growth inhibition and adverse effects on physiological parameters. However, exampling mercury phytotoxicity for barley (Hordeum vulgare) this paper highlights unsuitability of this experimental approach. Mercury(II) in spiked soils is extremely bioavailable, and there experimentally determined bioaccumulation is significantly higher compared to reported mercury bioaccumulation efficiency from soils collected from mercury-polluted areas. Our results indicate this is not affected by soil sorption capacity, thus soil ageing and formation of more stable mercuric complexes with soil fractions is necessary for reasonable metal phytotoxicity assessments.

  19. Tundra uptake of atmospheric elemental mercury drives Arctic mercury pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrist, Daniel; Agnan, Yannick; Jiskra, Martin; Olson, Christine L; Colegrove, Dominique P; Hueber, Jacques; Moore, Christopher W; Sonke, Jeroen E; Helmig, Detlev

    2017-07-12

    Anthropogenic activities have led to large-scale mercury (Hg) pollution in the Arctic. It has been suggested that sea-salt-induced chemical cycling of Hg (through 'atmospheric mercury depletion events', or AMDEs) and wet deposition via precipitation are sources of Hg to the Arctic in its oxidized form (Hg(ii)). However, there is little evidence for the occurrence of AMDEs outside of coastal regions, and their importance to net Hg deposition has been questioned. Furthermore, wet-deposition measurements in the Arctic showed some of the lowest levels of Hg deposition via precipitation worldwide, raising questions as to the sources of high Arctic Hg loading. Here we present a comprehensive Hg-deposition mass-balance study, and show that most of the Hg (about 70%) in the interior Arctic tundra is derived from gaseous elemental Hg (Hg(0)) deposition, with only minor contributions from the deposition of Hg(ii) via precipitation or AMDEs. We find that deposition of Hg(0)-the form ubiquitously present in the global atmosphere-occurs throughout the year, and that it is enhanced in summer through the uptake of Hg(0) by vegetation. Tundra uptake of gaseous Hg(0) leads to high soil Hg concentrations, with Hg masses greatly exceeding the levels found in temperate soils. Our concurrent Hg stable isotope measurements in the atmosphere, snowpack, vegetation and soils support our finding that Hg(0) dominates as a source to the tundra. Hg concentration and stable isotope data from an inland-to-coastal transect show high soil Hg concentrations consistently derived from Hg(0), suggesting that the Arctic tundra might be a globally important Hg sink. We suggest that the high tundra soil Hg concentrations might also explain why Arctic rivers annually transport large amounts of Hg to the Arctic Ocean.

  20. Excretion and distribution of mercury in rats, antidotes for mercury and effects of egg production and fertility of hens after mercury administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulfvarson, U

    1973-01-01

    The results of investigations of the distribution and excretion of organic and inorganic mercury compounds in albino rats and white leghorn hens conducted over a period of ten years are surveyed. The storage of mercury in eggs as well as its effects on the egg-lay-frequency and hatchability of the eggs have also been studied. All investigated mercury compounds were labelled with the radioactive mercury isotope /sup 203/Hg and the mercury level was measured with a scintillation technique. Since antidotes used in the treatment of mercury poisoning influence not only the excretion of mercury, but also its distribution in the body, the effects of nine antidotes on the metabolism of different mercury compounds were also investigated. The results of the survey are presented graphically. 6 references, 15 figures, 1 table.