WorldWideScience

Sample records for merchant marine

  1. MERCHANT MARINE SHIP REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumm, J.F.; North, D.C. Jr.; Rock, H.R.; Geston, D.K.

    1961-05-01

    A nuclear reactor is described for use in a merchant marine ship. The reactor is of pressurized light water cooled and moderated design in which three passes of the water through the core in successive regions of low, intermediate, and high heat generation and downflow in a fuel region are made. The foregoing design makes a compact reactor construction with extended core life. The core has an egg-crate lattice containing the fuel elements confined between a lower flow baffle and upper grid plate, with the latter serving also as part of a turn- around manifold from which the entire coolant is distributed into the outer fuel elements for the second pass through the core. The inner fuel elements are cooled in the third pass.

  2. 77 FR 31518 - Validation of Merchant Mariners' Vital Information and Issuance of Coast Guard Merchant Mariner's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    ..., which were necessary to improve maritime safety and promote the national security interest of the United... Merchant Mariner Licensing and Documentation program, which were necessary to improve maritime safety and... INFORMATION CONTACT: If you have questions on this rule, call or email Mr. Gerald Miante, Maritime Personnel...

  3. 78 FR 21134 - Merchant Mariner Medical Advisory Committee; Vacancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... consideration for appointment as members to the Merchant Mariner Medical Advisory Committee (MEDMAC). MEDMAC provides advice to the United States Coast Guard on matters related to medical certification determinations... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard [Docket No. USCG-2011-1114] Merchant Mariner Medical...

  4. 76 FR 77546 - Merchant Mariner Medical Advisory Committee; Vacancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... Guard seeks applications for membership on the Merchant Mariner Medical Advisory Committee. This Committee provides advice to the Coast Guard on matters related to medical certification determinations for... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard [Docket No. USCG-2011-1114] Merchant Mariner Medical...

  5. 77 FR 11142 - Merchant Marine Personnel Advisory Committee: Intercessional Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard [Docket No. USCG-2012-0133] Merchant Marine Personnel... at the Hilton San Francisco Airport Bayfront Hotel, 600 Airport Blvd., Burlingame, CA 94010. For..., we are inviting public comment on the issues to be considered by the working group, which are listed...

  6. 78 FR 33855 - Merchant Mariner Medical Advisory Committee: Intercessional Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard [Docket No. USCG-2011-0138] Merchant Mariner Medical..., Maryland 20674-0075. For further information about the Paul Hall Center hotel facilities or services for... participation, we are inviting public comment on the issues to be considered by the working groups as listed in...

  7. 77 FR 65570 - Merchant Marine Personnel Advisory Committee: Intercessional Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard [Docket No. USCG-2012-0968] Merchant Marine Personnel... hotel facilities or services for individuals with disabilities or to request special assistance, contact... comment on the issues to be considered by the work group, which are listed in the ``Agenda'' section below...

  8. 78 FR 63232 - Merchant Marine Personnel Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... Director of Commercial Regulations and Standards on matters relating to personnel in the U.S. merchant marine, including but not limited to training, qualifications, certification, documentation, and fitness... judgment to the Secretary. A copy of all meeting documentation is available at https://homeport.uscg.mil by...

  9. 43 CFR 41.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Coverage § 41.210 Military and merchant marine educational institutions. These Title IX regulations do not apply to an educational institution whose primary purpose is the training of individuals for a military... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Military and merchant marine educational...

  10. 28 CFR 54.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Coverage § 54.210 Military and merchant marine educational institutions. These Title IX regulations do not apply to an educational institution whose primary purpose is the training of individuals for a military... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Military and merchant marine educational...

  11. 22 CFR 229.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Coverage § 229.210 Military and merchant marine educational institutions. These Title IX regulations do not apply to an educational institution whose primary purpose is the training of individuals for a military... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Military and merchant marine educational...

  12. 14 CFR 1253.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Coverage § 1253.210 Military and merchant marine educational institutions. These Title IX regulations do not apply to an educational institution whose primary purpose is the training of individuals for a... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Military and merchant marine educational...

  13. 6 CFR 17.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Coverage § 17.210 Military and merchant marine educational institutions. These Title IX regulations do not apply to an educational institution whose primary purpose is the training of individuals for a military... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Military and merchant marine educational...

  14. 29 CFR 36.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Military and merchant marine educational institutions. 36... merchant marine educational institutions. These Title IX regulations do not apply to an educational institution whose primary purpose is the training of individuals for a military service of the United States...

  15. 49 CFR 25.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Coverage § 25.210 Military and merchant marine educational institutions. These Title IX regulations do not apply to an educational institution whose primary purpose is the training of individuals for a military... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Military and merchant marine educational...

  16. 34 CFR 106.13 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Military and merchant marine educational institutions... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 106.13 Military and merchant marine educational institutions. This part does not apply to an educational institution whose primary purpose is the training of...

  17. 10 CFR 5.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Military and merchant marine educational institutions. 5... merchant marine educational institutions. These Title IX regulations do not apply to an educational institution whose primary purpose is the training of individuals for a military service of the United States...

  18. 22 CFR 146.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 146.210 Military and merchant marine educational institutions. These Title IX regulations do not apply to an educational institution whose primary purpose is the training of individuals for a military... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Military and merchant marine educational...

  19. 45 CFR 86.13 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Coverage § 86.13 Military and merchant marine educational institutions. This part does not apply to an educational institution whose primary purpose is the training of individuals for a military service of the... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Military and merchant marine educational...

  20. 76 FR 35173 - Validation of Merchant Mariners' Vital Information and Issuance of Coast Guard Merchant Mariner's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... RECs' attempt ``to accomplish even more with fewer resources is the basis of the current problem with... mariner's birthday, and that current documents should be extended as necessary to implement this change... additional 5-year period. To help alleviate the problem created by the 5-year validity period, the NMC is...

  1. 44 CFR 19.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Military and merchant marine educational institutions. 19.210 Section 19.210 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY... marine educational institutions. These Title IX regulations do not apply to an educational institution...

  2. 7 CFR 15a.13 - Military and merchant marine educational institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Military and merchant marine educational institution. 15a.13 Section 15a.13 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR... marine educational institution. This part does not apply to an educational institution whose primary...

  3. 38 CFR 23.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... marine educational institutions. 23.210 Section 23.210 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 23.210 Military and merchant marine educational institutions. These Title IX regulations do not apply to an educational institution whose primary purpose is...

  4. 41 CFR 101-4.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... marine educational institutions. 101-4.210 Section 101-4.210 Public Contracts and Property Management... Coverage § 101-4.210 Military and merchant marine educational institutions. These Title IX regulations do not apply to an educational institution whose primary purpose is the training of individuals for a...

  5. 18 CFR 1317.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... marine educational institutions. 1317.210 Section 1317.210 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 1317.210 Military and merchant marine educational institutions. These Title IX regulations do not apply to an educational institution whose primary purpose is...

  6. 46 CFR 15.1107 - Maintenance of merchant mariners' records by owner or operator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... information is maintained throughout his or her service, and is readily accessible to those in management...., record of training completed, and of relevant on-the-job experience acquired). (c) Competency in assigned... vessel shall ensure that procedures are in place, in respect of each merchant mariner holding a license...

  7. 40 CFR 5.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... educational institutions. 5.210 Section 5.210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 5.210 Military and merchant marine educational institutions. These Title IX regulations do not apply to an educational institution whose primary purpose is the training of individuals...

  8. 45 CFR 2555.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... educational institutions. These Title IX regulations do not apply to an educational institution whose primary... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Military and merchant marine educational institutions. 2555.210 Section 2555.210 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued...

  9. 31 CFR 28.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... educational institutions. 28.210 Section 28.210 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 28.210 Military and merchant marine educational institutions. These Title IX regulations do not apply to an educational institution whose primary purpose is the training of individuals...

  10. 15 CFR 8a.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... educational institutions. 8a.210 Section 8a.210 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce... Coverage § 8a.210 Military and merchant marine educational institutions. These Title IX regulations do not apply to an educational institution whose primary purpose is the training of individuals for a military...

  11. 45 CFR 618.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... institutions. These Title IX regulations do not apply to an educational institution whose primary purpose is... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Military and merchant marine educational institutions. 618.210 Section 618.210 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued...

  12. 13 CFR 113.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... educational institutions. 113.210 Section 113.210 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION... Financial Assistance Coverage § 113.210 Military and merchant marine educational institutions. These Title IX regulations do not apply to an educational institution whose primary purpose is the training of...

  13. 24 CFR 3.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... educational institutions. 3.210 Section 3.210 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 3.210 Military and merchant marine educational institutions. These Title IX regulations do not apply to an educational institution whose primary purpose is...

  14. 32 CFR 196.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... educational institutions. These Title IX regulations do not apply to an educational institution whose primary... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Military and merchant marine educational institutions. 196.210 Section 196.210 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE...

  15. 36 CFR 1211.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Military and merchant marine educational institutions. 1211.210 Section 1211.210 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND... educational institutions. These Title IX regulations do not apply to an educational institution whose primary...

  16. Casualty data analysis of the world merchant fleet for reported fire and explosion incidents resulting in marine pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    World wide merchant vessel fire and explosion data were analyzed to determine the contribution of these casualties to the marine pollution problem. The source of information is the Lloyd's Casualty Information System Data Base. The major findings of ...

  17. 77 FR 1944 - Merchant Marine Personnel Advisory Committee: Intercessional Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-12

    ... information provided. You may review a Privacy Act notice regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008... measures which can be used to assess mariner competencies listed in the International Convention on... assess mariner competencies listed in the STCW, and Task Statement 77, concerning the development of new...

  18. 77 FR 12068 - Merchant Marine Personnel Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... assess mariner competencies listed in the International Convention on Standards of Training... Development of Performance Measures (Assessment Criteria) which can be used to assess mariner competencies... web address: https://homeport.uscg.mil and use these key strokes: Missions; Port and Waterways Safety...

  19. Cruel Seas: World War 2 Merchant Marine-Related Nautical Fiction from the 1930s to Present

    OpenAIRE

    Krummes, Daniel C

    2015-01-01

    Cruel Seas is an annotated bibliography of fiction in English that involves civilian steamships of the merchant marine in works set during World War Two (or slightly before).  While the subtitle states "1930s to Present," the last entry was added in 2008, and the work will not be updated.  The entries include novels, novellas, and short stories, but exclude poetry, theater plays, and fiction written for juveniles (unless the work can appeal to adults as well). Many of the works invol...

  20. 77 FR 55174 - Medical Waivers for Merchant Mariner Credential Applicants With Anti-Tachycardia Devices or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ... Management Facility (M-30), U.S. Department of Transportation, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200... of Transportation West Building, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20590, between 9 a.m. and... syndrome, Long QT syndrome, etc.)? (2) Does the mariner have a prior history of ventricular fibrillation or...

  1. Asbestos-related chest X-ray changes among Greek merchant marine seamen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velonakis, E.G.; Tsorva, A.; Tzonou, A.; Trichopoulos, D.

    1989-01-01

    One hundred forty-one retired Greek mariners were examined radiologically for asbestos-related lung disease. Thirty-eight (27%) had small opacities classified as ILO category 1/0 or more; 37 (26%) had radiologic evidence of pleural lesions; 17 (12%) had both parenchymal and pleural lesions; and a total of 58 (41%) had one or more radiologic findings of asbestos-related lung disease. In discriminant analysis, duration of maritime employment was predictive of pleural lesions, but the association was not statistically significant (one-tail, p = .16). The prevalence of pleural lesions was also higher among sailors than among officers, and this association was statistically significant (one-tail, p = .05). In this group, none of the occupational variables studied (age, duration of maritime employment, and rank) was related to lung fibrosis. After controlling by multiple regression for mutual confounding effects, suggestive negative associations for the presence of pleural lesions were found with FVC (one-tail, p = .13) as well as with FEF25% (one-tail, p = .09) and FEF50% (one-tail, p = .07). By contrast, no association was found between pulmonary fibrosis and any of the respiratory volumes. The results of this study suggest that mariners may present evidence of asbestos-related disease after many years from onset of exposure on ships

  2. United States Merchant Marine Academy: Internal Control Weaknesses Resulted in Improper Sources and Uses of Funds; Some Corrective Actions Are Under Way. Report to Congressional Committees. GAO-09-635

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzel, Jeanette M.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Merchant Marine Academy (Academy), a component of the Department of Transportation's Maritime Administration (MARAD), is one of five U.S. service academies. The Academy is affiliated with 14 nonappropriated fund instrumentalities (NAFI) and two foundations. The US Government Accountability Office (GAO) was asked to determine whether…

  3. 33 CFR 1.01-20 - Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... action in cases of misconduct, negligence, or incompetence of merchant marine officers or seamen; and the..., negligence, misconduct, unskillfulness, incompetence or misbehavior of persons holding merchant mariner's...

  4. Barry Merchant's new novel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Ib

    2016-01-01

    Review of Barry Merchant: A Quest for Self Discovery: An East End lad battles poverty and depression in his search for God and redemption. Mereo Books, 2016.......Review of Barry Merchant: A Quest for Self Discovery: An East End lad battles poverty and depression in his search for God and redemption. Mereo Books, 2016....

  5. Merchant Seamen Monument

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    Postcard. Colour photograph of Merchant Seamen Monument. Printed description on reverse "This memorial was erected in remembrance of the merchant seamen from Limerick and the Shannon Estuary Seamen who lost their lives in the course of duty". 1991 Limerick Treaty 300 logo.

  6. Hearings before the Ad Hoc Committee on Maritime Education and Training of the Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries, Ninety-Third Congress; Second Session on Officer Requirements, and Session on Maritime Education Regarding Safety at Sea. Serial No. 93-44.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries.

    The publication consists of Congressional hearings before the Ad Hoc Committee on Maritime Education and Training: (1) June 26, 1974 hearing pertaining to officer requirements and (2) November 19, 1974 hearing on maritime education regarding safety at sea. Estimated cost per graduate for the U. S. Merchant Marine 1973 class was $31,100. Supply and…

  7. Pre-1947 Marine Monthly Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observations taken on board U.S. Navy and merchant marine vessels and submitted to the U.S. Weather Bureau. Merchant ships are of many nationalities, and mainly...

  8. Marketing Strategy for Merchant Shipbuilders

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    1995 Ship Production Symposium Paper No. 26: Marketing Strategy for Merchant Shipbuilders U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CARDEROCK DIVISION, NAVAL...Production Symposium Paper No. 26: Marketing Strategy for Merchant Shipbuilders 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6... Marketing Strategy for Merchant Shipbuilders Paul W. Stott (V), A&P Appledore international, U.K. ABSTRACT Much has been published over the years about

  9. Development of the merchant plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfinger, R.; Gilliss, M.B.

    1998-07-01

    The co-authors of this paper are currently involved in over 1500 megawatts of merchant plant developments in the US. This paper will discuss the latest in combined cycle steam reheat ``H and G'' technology. Big improvements in heat rates along with substantial drop in installed cost will make this power cycle the leading merchant plant of the future. This paper will compare the actual present day performance and clearing price of a state-of-the-art merchant plant versus utility dispatch cost duration curves, known as ``system lambda''. Deregulation of the power market will ultimately provide an open market for these efficient plants to compete effectively against aging utility plants. Comparison of utility system heat rates versus merchant plant heat rates along with an increase need for generation capacity and forecasts of stable gas prices supports to the potential for a large scale building program of these high efficiency generators. This paper will also review the capacity crunch in the Northeast and Wisconsin and how problems with nuclear plants may accelerate the need for merchant plants. This paper will compare the required capacity for the population growth in the SERC Region and in Florida and how this will produce a potential ``hot bed'' for merchant plant development.

  10. Development of the merchant plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfinger, R.; Gilliss, M.B.

    1998-01-01

    The co-authors of this paper are currently involved in over 1500 megawatts of merchant plant developments in the US. This paper will discuss the latest in combined cycle steam reheat ''H and G'' technology. Big improvements in heat rates along with substantial drop in installed cost will make this power cycle the leading merchant plant of the future. This paper will compare the actual present day performance and clearing price of a state-of-the-art merchant plant versus utility dispatch cost duration curves, known as ''system lambda''. Deregulation of the power market will ultimately provide an open market for these efficient plants to compete effectively against aging utility plants. Comparison of utility system heat rates versus merchant plant heat rates along with an increase need for generation capacity and forecasts of stable gas prices supports to the potential for a large scale building program of these high efficiency generators. This paper will also review the capacity crunch in the Northeast and Wisconsin and how problems with nuclear plants may accelerate the need for merchant plants. This paper will compare the required capacity for the population growth in the SERC Region and in Florida and how this will produce a potential ''hot bed'' for merchant plant development

  11. Psychoactive substances consumption in French fishermen and merchant seamen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Emmanuel; Massardier-Pilonchéry, Amélie; Bergeret, Alain

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study is to assess tobacco consumption, nicotine dependence as diagnosed by Fagerström test, alcohol consumption, alcohol dependence as diagnosed by CAGE questionnaire and drug consumption in French seamen. Results are presented according to job category: fishermen and merchant seamen. French seamen were recruited from a stratified survey of 19 ports in France. Subjects completed a questionnaire during their annual medical check-up. The questionnaire covered demographic and professional items, tobacco, alcohol and drug consumption behaviour. Nicotine and alcohol dependence were, respectively, assessed by the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) and a French version of the CAGE questionnaire. A urine test was used to detect cannabis derivatives. Prevalence rates for current smoking and daily alcohol consumption were higher in fishermen than merchant seamen. The prevalence of nicotine dependence on FTND was likewise higher in fisherman smokers, who also showed more intense smoking behaviour. The category of seamen did not correlate with alcohol addiction, but differences in alcohol-related behaviour emerged between fishermen and merchant seamen. Prevalence of cannabis and other drug use was higher in merchant seamen, although the two categories of seaman did not differ with respect to recent use of cannabis. Demographic factors cannot fully explain these differences, as multivariate analysis showed significantly greater risks in marine fisheries. Alcohol and tobacco consumption are a major public health problem for seafarers. Fishermen seem to be more liable to high consumption. Working conditions may explain these differences.

  12. The city of the merchant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnow, Niels Finn

    The City of the Merchant deals with cities, towns and villages in the European medieval period - i.e. in post-antique and pre-industrial Europe. In actual fact, the book mainly deals with Denmark and Northern Italy (the City States), with digressions to other "feudal" localities in France on Sicily...

  13. Merchant marine nuclear-powered vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khlopkin, N.S.; Zotov, A.P.

    1997-01-01

    The history of civil nuclear-powered vessels development in Russia is highlighted. Advantages of nuclear propulsion for icebreakers operating in the Arctic are discussed. The operation of nuclear-powered icebreakers and the nuclear lighters-aboard ship in the Arctic has changed the situation on the Northern Sea Way. The all year round navigation there now is a reality. The reliability, safety and ecological cleanness of nuclear-powered vessels are discussed. The necessity of internationally recognized standards, rules and codes for safe operation of nuclear-powered trade vessels is underlined. (orig.)

  14. Tamil merchant in ancient Mesopotamia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malliya Gounder Palanichamy

    Full Text Available Recent analyses of ancient Mesopotamian mitochondrial genomes have suggested a genetic link between the Indian subcontinent and Mesopotamian civilization. There is no consensus on the origin of the ancient Mesopotamians. They may be descendants of migrants, who founded regional Mesopotamian groups like that of Terqa or they may be merchants who were involved in trans Mesopotamia trade. To identify the Indian source population showing linkage to the ancient Mesopotamians, we screened a total of 15,751 mitochondrial DNAs (11,432 from the literature and 4,319 from this study representing all major populations of India. Our results although suggest that south India (Tamil Nadu and northeast India served as the source of the ancient Mesopotamian mtDNA gene pool, mtDNA of these ancient Mesopotamians probably contributed by Tamil merchants who were involved in the Indo-Roman trade.

  15. Tamil Merchant in Ancient Mesopotamia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanichamy, Malliya gounder; Mitra, Bikash; Debnath, Monojit; Agrawal, Suraksha; Chaudhuri, Tapas Kumar; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Recent analyses of ancient Mesopotamian mitochondrial genomes have suggested a genetic link between the Indian subcontinent and Mesopotamian civilization. There is no consensus on the origin of the ancient Mesopotamians. They may be descendants of migrants, who founded regional Mesopotamian groups like that of Terqa or they may be merchants who were involved in trans Mesopotamia trade. To identify the Indian source population showing linkage to the ancient Mesopotamians, we screened a total of 15,751 mitochondrial DNAs (11,432 from the literature and 4,319 from this study) representing all major populations of India. Our results although suggest that south India (Tamil Nadu) and northeast India served as the source of the ancient Mesopotamian mtDNA gene pool, mtDNA of these ancient Mesopotamians probably contributed by Tamil merchants who were involved in the Indo-Roman trade. PMID:25299580

  16. Tamil merchant in ancient Mesopotamia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanichamy, Malliya Gounder; Mitra, Bikash; Debnath, Monojit; Agrawal, Suraksha; Chaudhuri, Tapas Kumar; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Recent analyses of ancient Mesopotamian mitochondrial genomes have suggested a genetic link between the Indian subcontinent and Mesopotamian civilization. There is no consensus on the origin of the ancient Mesopotamians. They may be descendants of migrants, who founded regional Mesopotamian groups like that of Terqa or they may be merchants who were involved in trans Mesopotamia trade. To identify the Indian source population showing linkage to the ancient Mesopotamians, we screened a total of 15,751 mitochondrial DNAs (11,432 from the literature and 4,319 from this study) representing all major populations of India. Our results although suggest that south India (Tamil Nadu) and northeast India served as the source of the ancient Mesopotamian mtDNA gene pool, mtDNA of these ancient Mesopotamians probably contributed by Tamil merchants who were involved in the Indo-Roman trade.

  17. Evaluating the merchant transmission market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, E.; Bartholomew Fisher, E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviewed the North American bulk electric transmission system, with particular reference to the following merchant power transmission projects that have applied to sell transmission at negotiated rates by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC): Cross Sound Cable; Neptune Phase 1; TransCanada's Northern Lights HVDC line; Montana Alberta Tie; Juan de Fuca Cable; Linden VFT; Connecticut-Long Island Cable; Lake Erie Link; Empire Connection; Harbor Cable; Chesapeake Transmission; and the Neptune/Green Line. The projects were sorted by status as either active, inactive and restructured. Each summary included the interconnection points, capacity, and sponsor. This paper also identified the major hurdles in their approvals. The relative success of the merchant transmission framework in attracting new investment was then reviewed. The successful projects shared 3 common attributes. They connected areas with large price differentials and they used advanced flow control technology such as HVDC, PARs, and VFTs. The successful projects also bridged some type of border, either geographic, electrical, economic, or a combination. Three of the active projects crossed the Canadian-US border, while the other 3 connected New York City to neighbouring regions. It was shown that merchant transmission fills a niche, enabling market responses to connect areas that may be overlooked by a regional planning process. 27 refs

  18. The city of the merchant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnow, Niels Finn

    The City of the Merchant deals with cities, towns and villages in the European medieval period - i.e. in post-antique and pre-industrial Europe. In actual fact, the book mainly deals with Denmark and Northern Italy (the City States), with digressions to other "feudal" localities in France on Sici......, in the middle East, the Crusades, in Germany (the Hansatic League) and, finally, as far a field as the Danish West Indies. The book is part of a larger project that comprises other historical environments....

  19. Regulatory Issues Surrounding Merchant Interconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuijlaars, Kees-Jan; Zwart, Gijsbert

    2003-11-01

    We discussed various issues concerning the regulatory perspective on private investment in interconnectors. One might claim that leaving investment in transmission infrastructure to competing market parties is more efficient than relying on regulated investment only (especially in the case of long (DC) lines connecting previously unconnected parts of the grids, so that externalities from e.g. loop flows do not play a significant role). We considered that some aspects of interconnection might reduce these market benefits. In particular, the large fixed costs of interconnection construction may lead to significant under investment (due to both first mover monopoly power and the fact that part of generation cost efficiencies realised by interconnection are not captured by the investor itself, and remain external to the investment decision). Second, merchant ownership restricts future opportunities for adaptation of regulation, as would be required e.g. for introduction of potentially more sophisticated methods of congestion management or market splitting. Some of the disadvantages of merchant investment may be mitigated however by a suitable regulatory framework, and we discussed some views in this direction. The issues we discussed are not intended to give a complete framework, and detailed regulation will certainly involve many more specific requirements. Areas we did not touch upon include e.g. the treatment of deep connection costs, rules for operation and maintenance of the line, and impact on availability of capacity on other interconnections

  20. Utilization of uranium cost/benefit study for nuclear powered merchant ships. Special study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.R.

    1977-05-01

    This study presents a cost/benefit analysis for the utilization of uranium in merchant ships versus the use of uranium for the generation of electricity in central power stations. The study concludes that an alternative naval fuel to oil must be developed for the merchant marine to reduce U.S. dependency upon foreign supplies of a critical fuel. The study further indicates that use of uranium for ship propulsion results in transport of large quantities of needed import/exports while the residual oil saved will generate the same quantity of electricity in a central power station as the uranium used for ship propulsion

  1. 76 FR 35169 - Validation of Merchant Mariners' Vital Information and Issuance of Coast Guard Merchant Mariner's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... Renee V. Wright, Program Manager, Docket Operations, telephone 202-366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION... where persons who have made mistakes, paid their debt to society and were living as responsible citizens...

  2. 77 FR 31515 - Validation of Merchant Mariners' Vital Information and Issuance of Coast Guard Merchant Mariner's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    ... definition of a dangerous drug. DATES: This final rule is effective June 28, 2012. ADDRESSES: Comments and.... Abbreviations II. Regulatory History III. Basis and Purpose IV. Background V. Discussion of Comments and Changes... section of the January 13, 2006, interim rule that has remained unfinalized is the definition of...

  3. Dutch Commerce and Chinese Merchants in Java

    OpenAIRE

    Claver, A.

    2014-01-01

    Dutch Commerce and Chinese Merchants in Java describes the vanished commercial world of colonial Java. Alexander Claver shows the challenges of a demanding business environment by highlighting trade and finance mechanisms, and the relationships between the participants involved.

  4. Gypsies, Jews, and "The Merchant of Venice."

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKendy, Thomas

    1988-01-01

    Shows how looking at Shakespeare's prejudices and their roots, as seen in "The Merchant of Venice," can teach students not only about historical attitudes but also about their own unacknowledged assumptions and stereotypes. (MM)

  5. Problems in the Construction of Gender and Professional Identities for Women in a United Kingdom Merchant Navy Training School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Caroline; Peart, David; Gleaves, Alan

    2003-01-01

    The United Kingdom Merchant Navy has a very poor record on access and training for females in terms of marine careers across all levels. Furthermore, it is a world where equity and equality are often simply overlooked, partly because the difficult and harsh realities of "normal" working conditions effectively marginalise both women and…

  6. Compatible volume-taper equations for predicting merchantable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compatible systems of merchantable total tree cubic volume and stem taper equations are derived by integrating an existing volume equation. The systems are developed to yield volume at any merchantable length, total volume and for any merchantable top diameter. It is also demonstrated that the most common types of ...

  7. Historic survey on nuclear merchant ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freire, Luciano Ondir; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The nuclear merchants ships already built are described and studied. • Their history and main architectural choices are presented, focusing nuclear domain. • The typical problems in those projects are discussed. • Some key factors for developing successful nuclear merchant ships are identified. - Abstract: This work provides a survey on past nuclear merchant ships experience. On light of new regulations on CO 2 , SO x and NO x , the options for clean naval propulsion need to be studied. Despite many efforts, the only already sea proven emissions-free energy is nuclear power of pressurized water reactor type. Given the past experience on the field, this work provides some information on history, architectures and hints of reasons for the success or failures of each project. It is found that adequate requirements identification must be done keeping economics always in the center of design. Experience shows, except after major catastrophic accidents, public trust may be earned by open dialog and sound engineering practices.

  8. Marine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Govers, L.; Man in 't Veld, W.A.; Meffert, J.P.; Bouma, T.J.; van Rijswick, P.C.; Heusinkveld, J.H.T.; Orth, R.J.; van Katwijk, M.M.; van der Heide, T.

    2016-01-01

    Phytophthora species are potent pathogens that can devastate terrestrial plants, causing billions of dollars of damage yearly to agricultural crops and harming fragile ecosystems worldwide. Yet, virtually nothing is known about the distribution and pathogenicity of their marine relatives.

  9. Merchant Banks Fortunes And Structureal Challenges Of Universal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined universal banking and its impact on the fortunes merchant banks in the Port Harcourt business environment. To achieve the purpose of the study, questionnaire and personal interview instruments were used, and this involved 15 executives of five merchant banks operating in Port Harcourt metropolis.

  10. Total tree, merchantable stem and branch volume models for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total tree, merchantable stem and branch volume models for miombo woodlands of Malawi. Daud J Kachamba, Tron Eid. Abstract. The objective of this study was to develop general (multispecies) models for prediction of total tree, merchantable stem and branch volume including options with diameter at breast height (dbh) ...

  11. [The wine merchant as weight watcher].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rössner, S

    1996-01-01

    Berry Brothers & Rudd Ltd are a company of wine merchants, based in central London, with traditions dating from the 18th century. From the beginning the company traded in colonial goods. This required a pair of scales. Buying coffe became an opportunity for a weighing session for the customers and over the years since 1765 weight records from the British nobility and gentry are available in seven leatherbound ledgers. Several interesting weight histories can be documented by the study of these well kept records. They illustrate that there was a need to measure body weight, long before the association between relative body weight and health had become clear.

  12. 75 FR 6680 - Merchant Marine Personnel Advisory Committee; Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... Marriott Metairie at Lakeway Hotel, 3838 N. Causeway Boulevard, Metairie, LA. Send written material and..., Washington, DC 20593-7126. This notice may be viewed in our online docket, USCG-2010-0054, at http://www... the STCW Convention and the STCW Code Identified for Comprehensive Review; (d) Task Statement 71...

  13. 78 FR 19725 - Merchant Mariner Medical Evaluation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ... merits of a closed, open, or hybrid system of medical evaluation, noting advantages and disadvantages of... have access to the Internet, you may view the docket online by visiting the Docket Management Facility...

  14. 78 FR 54265 - Merchant Marine Personnel Advisory Committee; Vacancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... basis of race, color, religion, sex, national origin, political affiliation, sexual orientation, gender identity, marital status, disability and genetic information, age, membership in an employee organization... and social security number. To visit our online docket, go to http://www.regulations.gov , enter the...

  15. 76 FR 50746 - Merchant Marine Personnel Advisory Committee: Intercessional Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ... Mark Gould as indicated above to register as a speaker. Dated: August 10, 2011. J.G. Lantz, Director of...: Mr. Mark Gould, Alternate Designated Federal Officer (ADFO) to the Designated Federal Officer (DFO... contacting Mark Gould. Once you have accessed the MERPAC Committee page, click on the meetings tab and then...

  16. 76 FR 16434 - Merchant Marine Personnel Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... C. Gould, Commandant (CG-5221), Attention MERPAC, U.S. Coast Guard, 2100 Second St., SW., STOP 7126, Washington, DC 20593-7126; e-mail: mark.c.gould@uscg.mil ; fax: (202) 372-1926. If you have questions on... Commandant of the Coast Guard. Dated: March 17, 2011. J.G. Lantz, Director of Commercial Regulations and...

  17. 78 FR 1217 - Merchant Marine Personnel Advisory Committee; Vacancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... vessels; one position for a member who represents the viewpoint of shipping companies employed in ship... Ethics Official (DAEO) or his or her designee may release a Confidential Financial Disclosure Report. Applicants can obtain this form by going to the Web site of the Office of Government Ethics ( www.oge.gov...

  18. 77 FR 51039 - Merchant Mariner Medical Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... received will be posted without alteration at http://www.regulations.gov , including any personal... recommendations on this date. The public will have ] an opportunity to speak after each Working Group's Report...

  19. 78 FR 52779 - Merchant Mariner Medical Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-26

    ... be posted without alteration at http://www.regulations.gov , including any personal information... recommendations on this date. The public will have an opportunity to speak after each Working Group's Report...

  20. 78 FR 11213 - Merchant Mariner Medical Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... action. Comments received will be posted without alteration at http://www.regulations.gov , including any.... The public will have an opportunity to speak after each Working Group's Report before the full...

  1. 78 FR 28602 - Merchant Marine Personnel Advisory Committee: Intercessional Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ..., entitled ``Development of competency requirements to meet the provisions of Table A-III/2 of the Convention...). Fax: 202-493-2251. Mail: Docket Management Facility (M-30), U.S. Department of Transportation, West... Advisory Committees; MERPAC; and then use the event key. Alternatively, you may contact Mr. Breyer as noted...

  2. 78 FR 51736 - Merchant Marine Personnel Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... International Labor Organization's Maritime Labour Convention, 2006; (d) Task Statement 80, Crew Training... International Labor Organization's Maritime Labour Convention, 2006; (d) Task Statement 80, Crew Training... discussion: (a) Report on National Maritime Center (NMC) activities from NMC Commanding Officer, such as the...

  3. 78 FR 11214 - Merchant Marine Personnel Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... Organization's Maritime Labour Convention, 2006; and (g) Task Statement 80, Crew Training Requirements Onboard... Criteria); (f) Task Statement 78, Consideration of the International Labor Organization's Maritime Labour... Maritime Center (NMC) activities from NMC Commanding Officer, such as the net processing time it takes for...

  4. A view of merchant coke in Shanxi Province of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Naiyi [Xin Yuan Law Firm, Beijing (China)

    2003-07-01

    The paper describes the production of merchant coke in Shanxi province both before and after 1999. Production by beehive ovens reached a peak in 1995. Despite being banned in 1996 this technology was used until the end of 2000. Since 2000, advanced machinery recovery ovens with carbonization chambers of over 3 or 4 metres have been built, along with non-recovery 'clean beehive ovens'. The supply and demand of merchant coke, from Shanxi is discussed. Recently 75% of China's merchant coke has been produced in Shanxi.

  5. Two is Company, N is a Crowd? Merchant Guilds and Social Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Dessi, Roberta; Piccolo, Salvatore

    2009-01-01

    Local merchant guilds were ubiquitous in medieval Europe, and their development was inextricably linked with the development of towns and the rise of the merchant class. We develop a theory of the emergence of local merchant guilds as an efficient mechanism to implement collusion among merchants and rulers, building on the natural complementarity between merchants’ market trading and mutual monitoring. Our model explains the main observed features of local merchant guilds’ behavior, their rul...

  6. LITERATURE CURRICULUM III--TEST FOR "THE MERCHANT OF VENICE."

    Science.gov (United States)

    KITZHABER, ALBERT R.

    THIS TEST--"THE MERCHANT OF VENICE"--WAS DESIGNED BY THE OREGON CURRICULUM STUDY CENTER FOR A NINTH-GRADE LITERATURE CURRICULUM. IT IS INTENDED TO ACCOMPANY CURRICULUM UNITS AVAILABLE AS ED 010 815 AND ED 010 816. (MM)

  7. 12 CFR 225.174 - What aggregate thresholds apply to merchant banking investments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What aggregate thresholds apply to merchant banking investments? 225.174 Section 225.174 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF...) Regulations Merchant Banking Investments § 225.174 What aggregate thresholds apply to merchant banking...

  8. 12 CFR 1500.5 - What aggregate thresholds apply to merchant banking investments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What aggregate thresholds apply to merchant banking investments? 1500.5 Section 1500.5 Banks and Banking DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GENERAL PROVISIONS MERCHANT BANKING INVESTMENTS § 1500.5 What aggregate thresholds apply to merchant banking investments? (a...

  9. 12 CFR 1500.3 - What are the holding periods permitted for merchant banking investments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are the holding periods permitted for merchant banking investments? 1500.3 Section 1500.3 Banks and Banking DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GENERAL PROVISIONS MERCHANT BANKING INVESTMENTS § 1500.3 What are the holding periods permitted for merchant banking...

  10. Merchant electricity transmission expansion: A European case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristiansen, T.; Rosellon, J.

    2010-01-01

    We apply a merchant transmission model to the trilateral market coupling (TLC) arrangement among the Netherlands, Belgium and France as an example, and note that it could further be applied to other market splitting or coupling of Europe's different national power markets. In this merchant framework the system operator allocates financial transmission rights (FTRs) to investors in transmission expansion based upon their preferences, and revenue adequacy. The independent system operator (ISO) preserves some proxy FTRs to manage potential negative externalities that may result from expansion projects. This scheme could help European market coupling arrangements attract additional investment. (author)

  11. A Teacher's Guide for "The Merchant of Venice" and "Othello."

    Science.gov (United States)

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    William Shakespeare has influenced most, if not all, Western playwrights. His techniques, themes, characters, and plots are contained in much of what is produced today, from television to Broadway. This teacher's guide provides summaries of the plays "The Merchant of Venice" and "Othello," essays, and corresponding student…

  12. MERCHANT OF VENICE. LITERATURE CURRICULUM III, TEACHER VERSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KITZHABER, ALBERT R.

    THIS TEACHING GUIDE ON "THE MERCHANT OF VENICE" WAS PREPARED FOR USE IN A NINTH-GRADE LITERATURE CURRICULUM. THE PURPOSE OF THE GUIDE WAS TO ILLUMINATE THE PLAY AS A WHOLE, AND TO SUGGEST TO THE TEACHER SOME USEFUL PRINCIPLES FOR FRAMING QUESTIONS AND GUIDING DISCUSSIONS IN THE CLASSROOM. THE GUIDE WAS NOT TO BE USED, HOWEVER, AS A BASE…

  13. Case Studies in Censorship: Censoring "The Merchant of Venice."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Richard A.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews censorship of "The Merchant of Venice," which has been based on its portrayal of the Jewish character Shylock. Background information is followed by an annotated bibliography which includes 15 citations dealing with Shylock, 22 citations to articles that address the censorship of the play, and 64 works of literature that have…

  14. THE MERCHANT OF VENICE. LITERATURE CURRICULUM III, STUDENT VERSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KITZHABER, ALBERT R.

    A GUIDE WAS PRODUCED FOR STUDENT USE IN NINTH-GRADE STUDY OF "THE MERCHANT OF VENICE." THE GUIDE PRESENTED SEVERAL ALTERNATE APPROACHES FOR UNDERSTANDING THE PLAY AND LEARNING ITS CONTENT. A MAJOR EMPHASIS OF THE GUIDE WAS PLACED ON THREE FORMS OF STUDENT QUESTIONS, RELATED TO SPECIFIC ACTS AND SCENES, THE CHARACTERS IN THE DRAMA, AND…

  15. PESTICIDES USE AMONG GRAIN MERCHANTS IN MUBI GRAIN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AGROSEARCH UIL

    Key words: Pesticides, food security, grain merchants, storage, perception. INTRODUCTION. Food security in sub-Saharan Africa largely depends upon improved food productivity through the use of sustainable agricultural practices and the reduction of post-harvest losses caused by pests and diseases (Adedire, 2001).

  16. Pesticides Use among Grain Merchants in Mubi Grain Markets of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is, therefore, recommended that farmers, retailers, distributors and all the pesticide workers should undergo regular training/workshop on the use and safety measures of pesticides. Also multimedia awareness activities in local language should be massively conducted. Key words: Pesticides, food security, grain merchants ...

  17. Research, Action, and Participation: The Merchant Shipping Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Richard E.; Gaffney, Michael E.

    1989-01-01

    Focuses on the international industry of merchant shipping to explore strategies used to promote organizational change over the past 20 years. This case study emphasizes the advantages of melding knowledge and action in participatory action. Points out the importance of the design and management of industry-level forums in assuring the success.…

  18. Economic and Environmental Impact Trade-Offs Related to In-Water Hull Cleanings of Merchant Vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagoropoulos, Aris; Kjær, Louise Laumann; Dong, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Merchant vessels are equipped with antifouling systems to prevent accumulation of marine organisms on the hull—a phenomenon known as fouling. In many cases, however, fouling accumulates and in-water hull cleaning is required. Hull cleanings are part of a hull management scheme, and although...... with the frequency of hull cleanings within the hull management scheme. Our analysis revealed a convex relationship between the frequency of hull cleanings and fuel savings. The higher the frequency of hull cleanings, the less fuel savings can be achieved per cleaning. In terms of costs, from some point on the costs...... of the service are likely to offset the savings—especially if fuel prices are low. In regards to climate change, avoided emissions due to fuel savings are likely to outweigh the limited impacts from the service itself. Last, while ecosystem impacts from marine, terrestrial, and freshwater eco-toxicity are likely...

  19. The evolution of merchant moral thought in Tokugawa Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Langrill

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Tokugawa Era of Japan is known for its domination by the shogunate, or warrior bureaucracy. While samurai capture the popular imagination, the merchant class of this era was changing their cultural narrative as well. The regime, officially Neo-Confucian, considered trade a vulgar and corrupting activity, but among commoners, especially in Osaka, a culture arose celebrating the virtue of commerce. Merchant scholars and commoners assailed the orthodoxy by putting forth alternate interpretations of Confucianism, and later by abandoning the entire Confucian framework. Their primary goal was to explore the nature of virtue and commerce, and justify their own place in the world. As a side effect, the marriage of virtue to commerce allowed a nexus of long-term relationships to arise, based in Osaka.

  20. Collateral Composition, Diversification Risk, and Systemically Important Merchant Banks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Derviz, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 14, Special Issue (2014), s. 23-34 ISSN 1572-3089 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-11983S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : collateral * systemic risk * merchant bank * CoCo Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.506, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/E/derviz-0433271.pdf

  1. EUV mask manufacturing readiness in the merchant mask industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Michael; Choi, Yohan; Ham, Young; Kamberian, Henry; Progler, Chris; Tseng, Shih-En; Chiou, Tsann-Bim; Miyazaki, Junji; Lammers, Ad; Chen, Alek

    2017-10-01

    As nodes progress into the 7nm and below regime, extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) becomes critical for all industry participants interested in remaining at the leading edge. One key cost driver for EUV in the supply chain is the reflective EUV mask. As of today, the relatively few end users of EUV consist primarily of integrated device manufactures (IDMs) and foundries that have internal (captive) mask manufacturing capability. At the same time, strong and early participation in EUV by the merchant mask industry should bring value to these chip makers, aiding the wide-scale adoption of EUV in the future. For this, merchants need access to high quality, representative test vehicles to develop and validate their own processes. This business circumstance provides the motivation for merchants to form Joint Development Partnerships (JDPs) with IDMs, foundries, Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) and other members of the EUV supplier ecosystem that leverage complementary strengths. In this paper, we will show how, through a collaborative supplier JDP model between a merchant and OEM, a novel, test chip driven strategy is applied to guide and validate mask level process development. We demonstrate how an EUV test vehicle (TV) is generated for mask process characterization in advance of receiving chip maker-specific designs. We utilize the TV to carry out mask process "stress testing" to define process boundary conditions which can be used to create Mask Rule Check (MRC) rules as well as serve as baseline conditions for future process improvement. We utilize Advanced Mask Characterization (AMC) techniques to understand process capability on designs of varying complexity that include EUV OPC models with and without sub-resolution assist features (SRAFs). Through these collaborations, we demonstrate ways to develop EUV processes and reduce implementation risks for eventual mass production. By reducing these risks, we hope to expand access to EUV mask capability for

  2. Internationalization of China's Shanxi Province New Merchants: Implications and Use in Teaching IB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Juanjuan

    2017-01-01

    The Jin (Jin refers to Shanxi Province) merchants have a very important position in the history of Chinese business. The Jin merchants is a business course that investigates Shanxi businessmen and their business activities. As a local characteristic of the business curriculum of China, this course is taught in a number of universities. Taking the…

  3. 17 CFR 1.14 - Risk assessment recordkeeping requirements for futures commission merchants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... risk, and other risks created by the futures commission merchant's proprietary and noncustomer clearing... Holding Company Act of 1956; or (3) In the case of a Material Affiliated Person that is subject to the... to any futures commission merchant which holds funds or property of or for futures customers of less...

  4. 12 CFR 225.172 - What are the holding periods permitted for merchant banking investments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are the holding periods permitted for merchant banking investments? 225.172 Section 225.172 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED... (REGULATION Y) Regulations Merchant Banking Investments § 225.172 What are the holding periods permitted for...

  5. 17 CFR 155.3 - Trading standards for futures commission merchants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trading standards for futures commission merchants. 155.3 Section 155.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION TRADING STANDARDS § 155.3 Trading standards for futures commission merchants. (a) Each futures...

  6. Is the Merchant Power Producer a broken model?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, James; Simshauser, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Deregulated energy markets were founded on the Merchant Power Producer, a stand-alone generator that sold its production to the spot and short-term forward markets, underpinned by long-dated project finance. The initial enthusiasm that existed for investment in existing and new merchant power plant capacity shortly after power system deregulation has progressively dissipated, following an excess entry result. In this article, we demonstrate why this has become a global trend. Using debt-sizing parameters typically used by project banks, we model a benchmark plant, then re-simulate its performance using live energy market price data and find that such financings are no longer feasible in the absence of long-term Power Purchase Agreements. - Highlights: ► We model a hypothetical CCGT plant in QLD under project financing constraints typical of the industry. ► We simulate plant operations with live market data to analyse the results. ► We find that a plant which should represent the industry's long-run marginal cost is not a feasible investment.

  7. Work environment and safety climate in the Swedish merchant fleet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsell, Karl; Eriksson, Helena; Järvholm, Bengt; Lundh, Monica; Andersson, Eva; Nilsson, Ralph

    2017-02-01

    To get knowledge of the work environment for seafarers sailing under the Swedish flag, in terms of safety climate, ergonomical, chemical and psychosocial exposures, and the seafarers self-rated health and work ability. A Web-based questionnaire was sent to all seafarers with a personal e-mail address in the Swedish Maritime Registry (N = 5608). Comparisons were made mainly within the study population, using Student's t test, prevalence odds ratios and logistic regressions with 95% confidence intervals. The response rate was 35% (N = 1972; 10% women, 90% men), with 61% of the respondents working on deck, 31% in the engine room and 7% in the catering/service department (1% not classifiable). Strain on neck, arm or back and heavy lifting were associated with female gender (p = 0.0001) and younger age (below or above 30 years of age, p work problems were noise, risk of an accident and vibrations from the hull of the ship. The safety climate was high in comparison with that in land-based occupations. One-fourth had experienced personal harassment or bullying during last year of service. Noise, risk of accidents, hand/arm and whole-body vibrations and psychosocial factors such as harassment were commonly reported work environment problems among seafarers within the Swedish merchant fleet.

  8. [Sharing and distrusting: street merchants' view of children in street situations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Suárez, Diana M; Giraldo-Puerta, Alexandra; Giraldo-Pineda, Álvaro; Forero-Pulido, Constanza

    2016-06-01

    Objective To understand the meanings, through the description of experiences that street merchants have of their interactions with children in a street situation in downtown of Medellin in 2013. Methodology Qualitative investigation with ethnographic approach. Observations were made in the zone at different times of the day. Twelve interviews with street merchants were held in their work places. Records were kept in a field journal. Results The street merchants and children in street situations share the same space. Both groups try to survive and their relationship is mediated by the trust-distrust that is established between them. The coexistence generates ambivalent feelings. For the street merchants, children in street situations are the result of abandonment by the family, the state and society. They live in a hard world in which they are exposed to a series of risks that they must face. Conclusion The interaction between street merchants and children in street situations is good to the extent that conflicts are avoided, establishing norms of coexistence. The element that determines this relationship is trust-distrust. In trust, strong affective ties are generated, considering each other family. Distrust generates a preventative attitude.

  9. How to make a graceful exit from the merchant function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holder, J. [Consumers Gas Co. Ltd., North York, ON (Canada)

    1998-09-01

    The impact that deregulation and convergence has had on local distribution companies (LDCs) was discussed. LDCs are getting out of a whole range of business activities, or are turning some of them into new entities while transferring others to affiliates. At the other end of the spectrum, Consumers Gas, Canada`s largest LDC, has moved from a gas distribution and an oil pipeline company to becoming a total energy provider. The changes at Consumers Gas began with the Halloween agreement which was based on the following four basic principles: (1) better access for Canadian buyers to gas supply, (2) better access for Canadian producers to gas markets, (3) protection for Canadian consumers for reasonable, foreseeable gas requirements, and (4) a commitment to create a competitive natural gas market in Canada. At the same time, several small niche market players have entered the retail market to compete with large producers such as Sunoco and Shell. Ontario also saw the arrival of large marketers such as Enron, and the development of an active direct purchase market. Today, 65 per cent of the volume of natural gas transport is on behalf of direct purchase customers. The next phase of deregulation was also looked at, focusing primarily on the growing problems with the current regulated local distribution companies` gas supply options and the resulting price volatility and uncertainty due to an increase of direct purchase activity. Various possible ways to resolve this problem are explored, including exiting the merchant function, i.e. to change from an obligation to supply gas to an obligation to deliver gas, all the while ensuring that the consumer is protected. Other problems, such as convergence, unbundling and rebundling will also have to be dealt with in the next phase of deregulation.

  10. How to make a graceful exit from the merchant function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holder, J.

    1998-01-01

    The impact that deregulation and convergence has had on local distribution companies (LDCs) was discussed. LDCs are getting out of a whole range of business activities, or are turning some of them into new entities while transferring others to affiliates. At the other end of the spectrum, Consumers Gas, Canada's largest LDC, has moved from a gas distribution and an oil pipeline company to becoming a total energy provider. The changes at Consumers Gas began with the Halloween agreement which was based on the following four basic principles: (1) better access for Canadian buyers to gas supply, (2) better access for Canadian producers to gas markets, (3) protection for Canadian consumers for reasonable, foreseeable gas requirements, and (4) a commitment to create a competitive natural gas market in Canada. At the same time, several small niche market players have entered the retail market to compete with large producers such as Sunoco and Shell. Ontario also saw the arrival of large marketers such as Enron, and the development of an active direct purchase market. Today, 65 per cent of the volume of natural gas transport is on behalf of direct purchase customers. The next phase of deregulation was also looked at, focusing primarily on the growing problems with the current regulated local distribution companies' gas supply options and the resulting price volatility and uncertainty due to an increase of direct purchase activity. Various possible ways to resolve this problem are explored, including exiting the merchant function, i.e. to change from an obligation to supply gas to an obligation to deliver gas, all the while ensuring that the consumer is protected. Other problems, such as convergence, unbundling and rebundling will also have to be dealt with in the next phase of deregulation

  11. 75 FR 24549 - Merchant Marine Act and Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (Magnuson...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... example, the FFP may elect to pay for insurance premiums on collateral property when the borrower has... Curve Rate to determine the discount rate. To include a lease among collateral, the project property... foreclose on the collateral pledged for the loan, or collect the loan directly from the defaulting borrower...

  12. 75 FR 78619 - Shipping Act, Merchant Marine, and Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ... property deed of trust, mortgage, assignment of lease or other adequate collateral interest for aquaculture... used as collateral as the basis for assessing the property's worth and suitability for lending. The... project property pledged as collateral. The Program, at its discretion, may request additional collateral...

  13. The United States Merchant Marine Academy Historic District: Nomination to the National Register of Historic Places

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    of Historic Places NY SHPO New York State Historic Preservation Office SUNY State University of New York USNR US Navy Reserve USMMA United States...echoed the Beaux Arts classicism of Wiley Hall, thus creating a unified architectural complex. With the exception of Wiley Hall, which is masonry ...and stucco, all buildings are of buff-colored concrete masonry units with cast stone (concrete) accents, and the build- ings display a generally

  14. 46 CFR 391.0 - Statutory provisions; section 607, Merchant Marine Act, 1936, as amended.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... States foreign, Great Lakes, or noncontiguous domestic trade or in the fisheries of the United States and... the United States or in the fisheries of the United States. (B) The amount allowable as a deduction... agreement but only if it is for: (A) The acquisition, construction, or reconstruction of a qualified vessel...

  15. 46 CFR 10.229 - Issuance of duplicate merchant mariner credentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... replaced credential(s). The duplicate issued will be in the form of an MMC. Until April 15, 2014, if a... charge. The term “other casualty” includes any damage to a ship caused by collision, explosion, tornado...

  16. 26 CFR 3.0 - Statutory provisions; section 607, Merchant Marine Act, 1936, as amended.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... capital. If at any time the fair market value of the stock in the fund is more than the agreed percentage... situation in which the fair market value of the stock does not exceed such agreed percentage. For purposes... reconstruction of a qualified vessel, (B) The acquisition, construction, or reconstruction of barges and...

  17. 10 CFR 1042.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... 1042.210 Section 1042.210 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 1042... an educational institution whose primary purpose is the training of individuals for a military...

  18. 78 FR 17917 - Medical Waivers for Merchant Mariner Credential Applicants With a History of Seizure Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-25

    ... on the Coast Guard's Web site at: http://www.uscg.mil/hq/cg5/nvic/2000s.asp#2008 . The Coast Guard... infection, such as encephalitis, meningitis, abscess, or cysticercosis; (d) Stroke; (e) Intracranial hemorrhage; (f) Post-operative brain surgery with significant brain hemorrhage; or (g) Brain tumor. (4) Under...

  19. 77 FR 74630 - Medical Waivers for Merchant Mariner Credential Applicants With Anti-Tachycardia Devices or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... the comment, if submitted on behalf of an association, business, labor union, etc.). You may review a... 9, 2012. Because of the complexity and importance of the issues involved, we are reopening the...

  20. 75 FR 52300 - Merchant Marine Act and Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act Provisions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ...-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act Provisions; Fishing Vessel, Fishing Facility and... the Fisheries Finance Program's programmatic regulations. The proposed rule was published with an...

  1. How to influence Venetian economic policy : collective petitions of the Netherlandish merchant community in the early seventeenth century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gelder, M.

    2009-01-01

    Protectionist legislation traditionally excluded immigrant merchants from Venetian trade, yet by 1600 the commercial balance of power had changed. This article argues that immigrant merchants with strong ties to the northern trading world were able directly to influence Venetian legislation. It does

  2. Leave It to Beaver. Merchants Millpond State Park: An Environmental Education Learning Experience Designed for Grades 4-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Floyd K.

    This learning packet, one in a group of eight, was developed by the Merchants Millpond State Park in North Carolina to teach students in grades 4-6 about the habitat and lifestyle of the beaver. Loose-leaf pages are presented in nine sections that contain: (1) introductions to the North Carolina State Parks System, the Merchants Millpond State…

  3. 12 CFR 1500.6 - What risk management, record keeping and reporting policies are required to make merchant banking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What risk management, record keeping and reporting policies are required to make merchant banking investments? 1500.6 Section 1500.6 Banks and Banking DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GENERAL PROVISIONS MERCHANT BANKING INVESTMENTS § 1500.6 What risk...

  4. The Merchant Shipping (Dangerous Goods) Rules 1978 (Statutory Instrument 1543, 25 October 1978)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    These Rules supersede the Merchant Shipping (Dangerous Goods) Rule of 1965 as amended by the Merchant Shipping (Dangerous Goods) (Amendment) Rules of 1968 and 1972. The Rules now define 'dangerous goods' by reference to goods classified as dangerous for carriage by sea as well as any other goods whose properties might be dangerous it they were carried by sea. This classification is based on that of the 1978 Report of the Standing Advisory Committee on the Carriage of Dangerous Goods of the Department of Trade, and the 1977 Edition of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code published by the Intergovernmental Maritime consultative Organisation. (NEA) [fr

  5. Reaching the Next Generation of Marine Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, J.

    2009-04-01

    The next generation of marine scientists are today at primary school, secondary school or at college. To encourage them in their career, and to introduce those who are as yet undecided to the wonders of marine science, the Irish Marine Institute has devised a series of three overlapping outreach programmes to reach children at all three levels. Beginning at primary school, the "Explorers" programme offers a range of resources to teachers to enable them to teach marine-related examples as part of the science or geography modules of the SESE curriculum. These include teacher training, expert visits to schools, the installation and stocking of aquaria, field trips and downloadable lesson plans. For older pupils, the "Follow the Fleet" programme is a web-based education asset that allows users to track individual merchant ships and research vessels across the world, to interact with senior crew members of ships and to learn about their cargoes, the ports they visit and the sea conditions along the way. Finally, the "Integrated Marine Exploration Programme (IMEP)" takes secondary school pupils and university students to sea aboard the Marine Institute's research vessels to give them a taste of life as a marine scientist or to educate them in the practical day-to-day sampling and data processing tasks that make up a marine scientist's job.

  6. 75 FR 70152 - Implementation of Conflicts of Interest Policies and Procedures by Futures Commission Merchants...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... evaluation or compensation of a research analyst. (iii) Except as provided in paragraph (c)(1)(iv) of this... Research Analyst Compensation. A futures commission merchant or introducing broker may not consider as a factor in reviewing or approving a research analyst's compensation his or her contributions to the...

  7. Understanding "The Merchant of Venice": A Student Casebook to Issues, Sources, and Historical Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halio, Jay L.

    "The Merchant of Venice," even in its own time, was considered William Shakespeare's most controversial play. Now, one of the most popular read and performed works, the play raises even more important issues for today, particularly anti-Semitism and the treatment of Jews. The analysis of the play in this casebook helps students interpret…

  8. Prejudice, Pedagogy, and the Play: A Study of "The Merchant of Venice."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiferman, Sharon

    There is little critical agreement on the meaning of Shakespeare's "The Merchant of Venice." One must confront the mindset of the play that systematically dehumanizes, stereotypes, excoriates, and seeks the extermination of one group on the grounds that their existence is repugnant to the controlling majority. Such a mindset is the…

  9. 78 FR 68505 - Enhancing Protections Afforded Customers and Customer Funds Held by Futures Commission Merchants...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ... protection of customers--and the safeguarding of money, securities or other property deposited by customers... Parts 1, 3, 22, et al. Enhancing Protections Afforded Customers and Customer Funds Held by Futures... Customers and Customer Funds Held by Futures Commission Merchants and Derivatives Clearing Organizations...

  10. 77 FR 67865 - Enhancing Protections Afforded Customers and Customer Funds Held by Futures Commission Merchants...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-14

    ... The protection of customers--and the safeguarding of money, securities or other property deposited by... Parts 1, 3, 22 et al. Enhancing Protections Afforded Customers and Customer Funds Held by Futures... Customers and Customer Funds Held by Futures Commission Merchants and Derivatives Clearing Organizations...

  11. Merchantable sawlog and bole-length equations for the Northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel A. Yaussy; Martin E. Dale; Martin E. Dale

    1991-01-01

    A modified Richards growth model is used to develop species-specific coefficients for equations estimating the merchantable sawlog and bole lengths of trees from 25 species groups common to the Northeastern United States. These regression coefficients have been incorporated into the growth-and-yield simulation software, NE-TWIGS.

  12. Evaluation of total aboveground biomass and total merchantable biomass in Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael E. Goerndt; David R. Larsen; Charles D. Keating

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the state of Missouri has been converting to biomass weight rather than volume as the standard measurement of wood for buying and selling sawtimber. Therefore, there is a need to identify accurate and precise methods of estimating whole tree biomass and merchantable biomass of harvested trees as well as total standing biomass of live timber for...

  13. 17 CFR 1.12 - Maintenance of minimum financial requirements by futures commission merchants and introducing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... financial requirements by futures commission merchants and introducing brokers. 1.12 Section 1.12 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION GENERAL REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Minimum Financial and Related Reporting Requirements § 1.12 Maintenance of minimum financial...

  14. 17 CFR 1.10 - Financial reports of futures commission merchants and introducing brokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION GENERAL REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Minimum Financial and Related Reporting Requirements § 1.10 Financial reports of futures commission merchants and introducing...-regulatory organization and conforms to minimum financial standards and related reporting requirements set by...

  15. Negotiating Trade: Merchant Manuals and Cross-Cultural Exchange in the Medieval Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Joseph F.

    2018-01-01

    This essay explores Italian mercantile perceptions of the non-western Mediterranean world during the late Middle Ages. In particular, it analyzes the corpus of merchant manuals known as "pratiche della mercatura" and argues that the intercultural and cross-confessional material included in these handbooks were vital components that…

  16. Developing and financing merchant power plants in the U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Limited recourse financing for merchant plants in some areas of the world such as Latin America has become almost commonplace in the recent past. Limited recourse project financing for merchant plants in the US, once almost unthinkable, has already been achieved with the frontier-breaking Calpine Pasadena project. While long-term power purchase agreements have historically provided comfort to lenders and developers alike, they are increasingly becoming a thing of the past as utilities are reluctant to lock themselves into a fixed price, which may turn out to exceed the prices available in the open market. So, it seems that the trends toward merchant plants in Latin America will soon take hold in the domestic market. With the market for limited recourse project financing still in the embryonic stage, and the strong likelihood that long-term power purchase agreements will not be available, it is clear that successful domestic projects will have to be well conceived, properly structured and capitalized to secure debt and equity funding commitments. This paper will focus on opportunities for developing merchant plants, the major risks present to developers and investors and the most appropriate strategies for structuring finance for a project

  17. 31 CFR 103.123 - Customer identification programs for futures commission merchants and introducing brokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... TRANSACTIONS Anti-Money Laundering Programs Anti-Money Laundering Programs § 103.123 Customer identification... each futures commission merchant's and introducing broker's anti-money laundering compliance program... money laundering activities, Federal law requires all financial institutions to obtain, verify, and...

  18. The Valencian Merchant Joan Augier’s Accounts Book: Year 1604

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa PÉREZ VILLALBA

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Merchants are essential figures in the economy of the modern centuries, and getting to know their activity allows for a better understanding of their environment. The accounts book therefore represents a valuable and also a scarce type of document, at least in xvi century Spain. The issue that made the following work possible spans years 1597-1613, and belonged to the Valencian merchant Joan Augier. The analysis of year 1604 reveals diversified economic and financial activity, among which we highlight import and export with Marseilles and Genoa, and tax renting or bond purchasing. The pages show a complex network of interprofessional relationships together with information concerning a range of items and service prices, thereby permitting an approach to the commercial, fiscal and financial life in Valencia at that time.

  19. Telemedical Maritime Assistance Service (TMAS) to Swedish merchant and passengers ships 1997-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westlund, Karin; Attvall, Stig; Nilsson, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Telemedical Maritime Assistance Service (TMAS) for seafarers and traveling passengers is important and can be crucial for the optimal medical treatment on board ships. The aim of this study was to analyse and to compare the data from consultations and evacuations from merchant ships...... Classification for Primary Care (ICPC-2). The distribution of symptoms, accidents and diseases, treatments/actions taken, evacuations and the communication forms were analysed. RESULTS: One thousand ninety-five contacts for seafarers from merchant ships and 651 passenger patients from Swedish ferries were...... analysed. While the evacuations for the seafarers gradually decreased over the years from 18% in 1997 to 14% in 2007, still 39.5% of the passenger patient contacts were evacuated mainly by helicopters and 70 patients were picked up by an ambulance on the quay. Accidents were 20% for seafarers and 25...

  20. “Getting By” at the Urban Periphery: Everyday Struggles of Informal Merchants in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Frische

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the significance of informal economic practices, e.g. street vending and informal commerce, for young merchants from Ettadhamen, a neighborhood situated in the northwestern periphery of the Greater Tunis area. It further addresses cross-border trade in the Tunisian-Libyan and Tunisian-Algerian border regions in which some of these merchants are indirectly involved. Peripheralization therefore does not imply complete socio-spatial exclusion. Peripheries rather offer important, albeit limited possibilities, to acquire resources through practices that are situated in the interstices between legality and illegality. As these possibilities often avoid state regulation and control, the article also addresses the ambivalent nature of the state-society relations that shapes everyday encounters between inhabitants and state agents, especially the police.

  1. Merchants and marvels commerce, science, and art in early modern Europe

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    The beginning of global commerce in the early modern period had an enormous impact on European culture, changing the very way people perceived the world around them. Merchants and Marvels assembles essays by leading scholars of cultural history, art history, and the history of science and technology to show how ideas about the representation of nature, in both art and science, underwent a profound transformation between the age of the Renaissance and the early 1700s.

  2. Merchant interconnector projects by generators in the EU: Profitability and allocation of capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koten, Silvester van

    2012-01-01

    When building a cross-border transmission line (a so-called interconnector) as a for-profit (merchant) project, where the regulator has required that capacity allocation be done non-discriminatorily by explicit auction, the identity of the investor can affect the profitability of the interconnector project and, once operational, the resulting allocation of its capacity. Specifically, when the investor is a generator (hereafter the integrated generator) who also can use the interconnector to export its electricity to a distant location, then, once operational, the integrated generator will bid more aggressively in the allocation auctions to increase the auction revenue and thus its profits. As a result, the integrated generator is more likely to win the auction and the capacity is sold for a higher price. This lowers the allocative efficiency of the auction, but it increases the expected ex-ante profitability of the merchant interconnector project. Unaffiliated, independent generators, however, are less likely to win the auction and, in any case, pay a higher price, which dramatically lowers their revenues from exporting electricity over this interconnector. - Highlights: ► A merchant interconnector owned by an electricity generator needs special attention of regulators. ► Even when allocation of the capacity is done by auctions, the generator will make a large profit. ► The generator will also decrease the allocation of capacity to competitors by bidding aggressively.

  3. US Marine Meteorological Journals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This series consists of volumes entitled 'Meteorological Journal' (a regulation Navy-issue publication) which were to be completed by masters of merchant vessels...

  4. 12 CFR 1500.2 - What are the limitations on managing or operating a portfolio company held as a merchant banking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are the limitations on managing or operating a portfolio company held as a merchant banking investment? 1500.2 Section 1500.2 Banks and Banking DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GENERAL PROVISIONS MERCHANT BANKING INVESTMENTS § 1500.2 What are the limitations...

  5. 12 CFR 1500.7 - How do the statutory cross marketing and sections 23A and B limitations apply to merchant banking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How do the statutory cross marketing and sections 23A and B limitations apply to merchant banking investments? 1500.7 Section 1500.7 Banks and Banking DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GENERAL PROVISIONS MERCHANT BANKING INVESTMENTS § 1500.7 How do the...

  6. Association between nationality and occupational injury risk on Danish non-passenger merchant ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, B.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maritime occupational accidents can be determined by several factors, among which human characteristics play a crucial role. Worker's safety behaviour depends on individual physical and mental characteristics as well as on his/her social and cultural background. The aim of this study...... is to investigate the frequency of workplace injuries in the Danish merchant fleet in the period 2010-2012, and to characterise its nationality dependence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Occupational injuries data reported from ships registered in the Danish International Ship Register to the Danish Maritime Authority were...

  7. Reconstructing Merchant Multilingualism : Lexical Studies of Early English East India Company Correspondence

    OpenAIRE

    Kaislaniemi, Samuli

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the multilingual practices of 17th-century English East India Company merchants, as revealed by the vocabulary they used in the texts they produced while stationed in the East Indies. The English East India Company (EIC) was founded in 1600. At first it was a moderately successful trading company, but in the 18th and 19th centuries the EIC rose to dominate the European trade in Indian goods, and then in Chinese tea and porcelain. During this period, it also ...

  8. MAGIC: Marine ARM GPCI Investigation of Clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, ER; Wiscombe, WJ; Albrecht, BA; Bland, GL; Flagg, CN; Klein, SA; Kollias, P; Mace, G; Reynolds, RM; Schwartz, SE; Siebesma, AP; Teixeira, J; Wood, R; Zhang, M

    2012-10-03

    The second Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF2) will be deployed aboard the Horizon Lines cargo container ship merchant vessel (M/V) Spirit for MAGIC, the Marine ARM GPCI1 Investigation of Clouds. The Spirit will traverse the route between Los Angeles, California, and Honolulu, Hawaii, from October 2012 through September 2013 (except for a few months in the middle of this time period when the ship will be in dry dock). During this field campaign, AMF2 will observe and characterize the properties of clouds and precipitation, aerosols, and atmospheric radiation; standard meteorological and oceanographic variables; and atmospheric structure. There will also be two intensive observational periods (IOPs), one in January 2013 and one in July 2013, during which more detailed measurements of the atmospheric structure will be made.

  9. Social Practices and Strategizing: a Study of Produce Merchants in the Vila Rubim Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Rodrigues Leite da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to understand the relationship between the meanings of social practices and strategy creation used by the produce merchants in Vila Rubim, Vitória, ES, from 1970 to the present time. To provide empirical evidence of the conceptual framework that was developed, we conducted a case study. The data gathered from the documents and interviews were treated using discourse analysis, and those obtained from observations were treated using content analysis. The possibility and the act of approaching the neighboring merchant’s customer is the link that joins the homonymous strategy and tactic, but the process in each of them has different implications (strengthening or transgressing the established order and develops in different and dynamic ways. Thus, the denomination of strategies and practices is dynamic, relational and temporary because the focus is on the process that permeates each strategy and its articulations in the practices and meanings in each flow. In their socio-historic process, the produce merchants in the VR Market articulate various flows. Among them, the empirical investigation identified fourteen flows, nine as strategies and five as tactics, according to the social references assumed in the analysis.

  10. 78 FR 5268 - Allocation of Capacity on New Merchant Transmission Projects and New Cost-Based, Participant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... that enables developers of merchant transmission projects to meet the financial challenges unique to... AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Energy. ACTION: Final Policy Statement. SUMMARY: The Commission issues this final policy statement to clarify and refine its policies governing the allocation of...

  11. Alexander Claver, Dutch Commerce and Chinese Merchants in Java. Colonial Relationships in Trade and Finance, 1800-1942

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwee Hui Kian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Alexander Claver, Dutch Commerce and Chinese Merchants in Java. Colonial Relationships in Trade and Finance, 1800-1942 (Verhandelingen van het Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde 291; Leiden, Boston: Brill, 2014, xxiv + 442 pp., ISBN 978 90 04 25657 6.

  12. 17 CFR 270.17f-6 - Custody of investment company assets with Futures Commission Merchants and Commodity Clearing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... transactions in Exchange-Traded Futures Contracts and Commodity Options, Provided that: (1) The manner in which... Contracts and Commodity Options means commodity futures contracts, options on commodity futures contracts... assets with Futures Commission Merchants and Commodity Clearing Organizations. 270.17f-6 Section 270.17f...

  13. "I Could Teach You How to Choose Right": Using Holocaust Memoir to Teach Shakespeare's "The Merchant of Venice"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaley, Annemarie Koning

    2011-01-01

    The article examines the problems of teaching William Shakespeare's "The Merchant of Venice" after the Holocaust, arguing that even though the play is anti-Semitic, it can become a valuable teaching tool when placed in the context of the Holocaust memoirs "Dry Tears" by Nechama Tec and "The Nazi Officer's Wife" by…

  14. 12 CFR 225.175 - What risk management, record keeping and reporting policies are required to make merchant banking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What risk management, record keeping and reporting policies are required to make merchant banking investments? 225.175 Section 225.175 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BANK HOLDING...

  15. Estimation of merchantable bole volume and biomass above sawlog top in the National Forest inventory of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant M. Domke; Christopher M. Oswalt; Christopher W. Woodall; Jeffery A. Turner

    2013-01-01

    Emerging markets for small-diameter roundwood along with a renewed interest in forest biomass for energy have created a need for estimates of merchantable biomass above the minimum sawlog top diameter for timber species in the national forest inventory of the United States. The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the USDA Forest Service recently adopted the...

  16. Marine genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira Ribeiro, Ângela Maria; Foote, Andrew David; Kupczok, Anne

    2017-01-01

    evolutionary biology of non-model organisms to species of commercial relevance for fishing, aquaculture and biomedicine. Instead of providing an exhaustive list of available genomic data, we rather set to present contextualized examples that best represent the current status of the field of marine genomics.......Marine ecosystems occupy 71% of the surface of our planet, yet we know little about their diversity. Although the inventory of species is continually increasing, as registered by the Census of Marine Life program, only about 10% of the estimated two million marine species are known. This lag......-throughput sequencing approaches have been helping to improve our knowledge of marine biodiversity, from the rich microbial biota that forms the base of the tree of life to a wealth of plant and animal species. In this review, we present an overview of the applications of genomics to the study of marine life, from...

  17. Development of merchantable volume equations for natural brutian pine and black pine stands in Eğirdir District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Özçelik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of stem standing volume is very useful for both sustainable management of timber resources and practical purposes in forestry. Brutian pine (Pinus brutia Ten. and black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold. are important raw material of forest products industry of Turkey. With ever changing market conditions, there is a need to accurately estimate tree volumes utilizing multiple upper stem merchantability limits. This is not currently possible with the existing total stem volume tables for these three species. Nowadays, taper equations are the best way to estimate volume for saw timber and biomass purposes. In this study, variable exponent taper equations evaluated and fitted to data come from 253 destructively sampled trees which were collected in natural brutian pine and black pine stands in Eğirdir district. For this aim, the taper equations of Lee et al. (2003, Kozak (2004, and Sharma and Zhang (2004 were used. A second-order continuous-time autoregressive error structure was used to correct the inherent autocorrelation in the hierarchical data. The proposed models generally performed better for Merchantable tree volume. Results show that the Kozak (2004 taper equation was superior to the other equations in predicting diameter and merchantable height, while The Sharma and Zhang (2004 taper model provided the best predictions for merchantable volume than the other models. The one of the important results of this study, the importance of checking fit statistics of taper equations for both diameters and volume estimations.As a results, Sharma and Zhang (2004 taper model recommended for estimating diameter at a specific height, height to a specific diameter along the stem, and merchantable volume for brutian pine and black pine stands in Eğirdir analyzed

  18. Marine biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index

  19. The house of Kwee Sik Poo An Indonesian-Chinese merchant from Pasuruan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwee Hong Sien

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Kwee family is an old Indonesian-Chinese family from Pasuruan, in East Java, and one of a few merchant families of either Chinese or Arab ethnic origin which led successful lives in this small town in the nineteenth century. From their Chinese ancestral village, Liu Chuan in Fujian province, China, a Kwee ancestor travelled to Southeast Asia and settled in Pasuruan, probably in the eighteen century. As with many families who held important positions in the ethnic Chinese community, it also owned large homes, mostly in a mixed architectural style, called “eclecticism” and later in what was known as “the Indies-empire style”. The early family history is still clouded in mystery, as not much concrete information has survived. Its descendants worked hard and prospered and dealt among economic undertakings such as sugar production, opium sales, buying and selling of property and land as well as running pawnshops.

  20. Merchant Guilds and Courts between Tuscany and Catalonia around 14th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisa Soldani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available During the late Middle Ages, the development of mercantile institutions, as well as the prominent social and political action of the merchants settled in the major urban trading centers, were common features of both Italian and Catalan-Aragonese areas. Mercantile courts were characterized by sharp technical abilities and strong involvements in political powers; because of this, they had problematic relationships with other decision-making centers and ordinary courts. The aim of this paper is to focus on the essential features and the historical development of such institutions, by exploring the case-study of Tuscan and Catalan cities in a comparative approach. Starting from the analysis of the birth and growth of the urban and mercantile institutions in these two observatories, and focusing on the different influences of Roman law and royal powers, this paper suggests an interpretative key to point out the peculiarities of such contexts.

  1. 46 CFR 251.1 - Applications for construction-differential subsidy under Title V, Merchant Marine Act, 1936, as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... However the Board will permit modifications such as changes to reefer cargo capacity, deep tankage, and... contract will be allowed only when the net effect of the change will with reasonable certainty (a) comply... deep tanks, etc. This upper limit shall be adjusted downward to take into account features including...

  2. 26 CFR 2.1 - Statutory provisions; sections 511 and 905, Merchant Marine Act, 1936, and related statutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., reconstruction, reconditioning, or acquisition of vessels, or for other purposes authorized in this section... fisheries or owns in whole or in part a vessel or vessels being so operated, or who, at the time of purchase... vessel or vessels for the purpose of operation in such commerce or in the fisheries, may establish a...

  3. The Development of Maritime English Learning Model Using Authentic Assessment Based Bridge Simulator in Merchant Marine Polytechnic, Makassar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauzi, Ahmad; Bundu, Patta; Tahmir, Suradi

    2016-01-01

    Bridge simulator constitutes a very fundamental and vital tool to trigger and ensure that seamen or seafarers possess the standardized competence required. By using the bridge simulator technique, a reality based study can be presented easily and delivered to the students in ongoing basis to their classroom or study place. Afterwards, the validity…

  4. Teaching Jessica: race, religion, and gender in The Merchant of Venice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sicher Efraim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Jew’s “fair daughter” in Shakespeare’s play The Merchant of Venice converts and marries a Christian, Lorenzo. Recent attention, however, to changing ideas of race and identity in the early modern period has brought into question the divisions of Christian/Jew/Moor. Can Jessica convert and no longer be considered the Jew’s daughter? As “gentle” and “fair” is she to be considered gentile and in no way dark (spiritually or racially? Jessica’s conversion has apparently little religious meaning, but rather she is saved from the Jew her father by marriage to Lorenzo, who becomes Shylock’s heir. Is Jessica’s conversion to be considered a matter of convenience that might, as Launcelot quips, raise the price of hogs, or is it also to be counted as an ideological and racial conversion that reveals underlying anxieties about gender, sexuality, and religious identity? This essay attempts to argue against the grain of the performance history of The Merchant History, which often downplays the role of Jessica or revises the text of the play, and returns to the text in order to contextualize the conversion of Jessica in contemporary discourses of gender, race, and religion in England’s expansionist colonialism and proto-capitalist commerce. The conversion of Jessica can be seen in that context as an exchange of monetary and ethical value, in which women’s sexuality also had a price-tag. These questions have implications for the teaching of the play and for the understanding of its concerns with unstable sexual, religious, and national identities.

  5. Interpretive analysis of the textual codes in the Parrot and Merchant story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Najafi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Narratology is a brunch of semiology which considers any kind of narrative, literary or non literary, verbal or visual, story or non story and after this specifies the plot. One of the most important subjects in narratology is the interpretation of textual cods which based on can be understood a lot of hidden meanings. Molavi expresses a lot of mystic points in Mathnavi in narrative form which some of his ideas can be realized in the first study but these ideas aren’t all of subjects which he wants to say and a complex of different meaning is hidden in any narrative which can be revealed by consideration of cods.     In terminology of semiology, code is a special situation in historical process of all of indexes and signs which specified for synchronized analyze. In review of literary texts textual cods are more important. Textual cods are the cods which their ambit is more extended than few special text and links these texts to each other in an interpretational form. Aesthetic cods are a group of textual cods which are used in different arts like: poem, painting, theater, music and so on.       The style of expression of aesthetic cods is the same style of art and literature. In the review of Mathnavi's narratives paying attention to narrative cods and using them can be considered as paralinguistic signs. Narrative cods contain interpretational form which used by authors and commentators of texts. In the story of parrot and merchant the textual cods are as follows:   - Parrot: in this story parrot is a symbolic code which shows all of human soul's features.   - Merchant: in this story merchant act as a cultural code which indicates rich who always are solicitous about their finance and are unaware of spiritual world.    - India: in this story India as a signifier code indicates spiritual world. Hermeneutic cods   Molana uses codes which act as turning point and addressed can understand hidden meanings which haven

  6. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ment. Topics include, but are not limited to: theoretical studies, oceanography, marine biology and ecology, fisheries, recovery and restoration processes, legal and institutional frameworks, and interactions/relationships between humans and the coastal and marine environment. In addition, Western Indian Ocean Journal of ...

  7. Marine Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  8. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The journal publishes original research articles dealing with all aspects of marine science and coastal manage- ment. Topics include, but are not limited to: theoretical studies, oceanography, marine biology and ecology, fisheries, recovery and restoration processes, legal and institutional frameworks, and interactions/ ...

  9. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- ination of high quality research generated in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) region, in particular on the sustainable use of coastal and marine resources. This is central to the goal of supporting and promoting.

  10. Proceedings of Workshop on Transformation (4th), held on September 18-19 2002, at The Clubs at Quantico, Quantico Marine Base, Quantico, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-11-01

    international business consulting services. Prior, he was Maritime Counsel to the Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries of the U.S. House of... evangelist and a cheerleader for collaborative planning. And I learned this the hard way in a survival mode in the private sector. I didn�t even appreciate...architecture for homeland security. The pyramid framework that Steve described is in fact the framework that was developed by the federal CIO counsel

  11. Marine insects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cheng, Lanna

    1976-01-01

    .... Not only are true insects, such as the Collembola and insect parasites of marine birds and mammals, considered, but also other kinds of intertidal air-breathing arthropods, notably spiders, scorpions...

  12. Marine pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of petroleum, waste materials, halogenated hydrocarbons, radioactivity and heat on the marine ecosystem, the fishing industry and human health are discussed using the example of the North Sea. (orig.) [de

  13. Reconsidering the European regulation of merchant transmission investment in light of the third energy package: The role of dominant generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauteclocque, Adrien de; Rious, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    The regulation of merchant transmission investment (MTI) has become an important issue in the EU electricity sector, subsequent to the granting of authorizations by European authorities to five merchant projects: BritNed, Estlink, the East West Cables, NorGer and recently a merchant line connecting Italy and Austria. The creation of a new Agency for the Cooperation of Energy Regulators (ACER) at the EU level, which has decision-making powers on MTI, therefore presents a unique opportunity to question and re-design the current European policy. This paper shows that the recent decisions concerning MTI may suffer a strong bias against dominant electricity generators while incumbent Transmission System Operators (TSOs) or new entrant TSOs are generally favored by national regulators and the European Commission (EC). This strategy is misguided as it fails to recognize both the new incentives of generators to develop MTI and the conflict of interest between the regulated and non-regulated activities of incumbent TSOs. Letting dominant generators undertake MTI is indeed generally beneficial as long as potential abuses of dominance are mitigated. To deter possible anti-competitive effects, we propose a new and feasible allocation of regulatory powers based on a clear demarcation between the market monitoring powers of ACER and the antitrust powers of the EC. - Highlights: → We compare TSOs and generators as merchant transmission investors in Europe. → We find a bias among regulators against the involvement of generators. → The conflict of interest with the regulated activities of TSOs is under-estimated. → Investment by generators is preferable provided market manipulation is deterred. → We propose a new allocation of regulatory powers to make it possible.

  14. New products from the power merchant to customer with time measurements and load management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solem, Gerd; Doorman, Gerard; Grande, Ove S.

    2003-01-01

    The main aim is to develop products from the power merchants that improve the consumer flexibility. For the development of the products the basis is that the consumption is measured by hours and that a connection to a load management scheme is present. Calculations for four products are made where the risk exposure is different for the customer and the supplier. The four products are ''Spot price with mark-up'', ''The combination of constant price and spot price'', ''Constant price with disconnection'' and ''Effect subscription''. The customers are exposed to the spot price in the first two products and may through disconnection reduce the costs by adapting to the market signals. Remote disconnection of parts of the consumption may be offered as a service jointly by the network companies and the power suppliers through a two-way communication but it is not realistic that the customers may pay much for this. ''Spot price with mark-up'' implies that the customer carries the entire risk while constant price may place considerable risk at the power supplier by long high consumption combined with high spot prices. '' Constant price with disconnection'' gives the power supplier the possibilities of reducing the risks. A disconnection possibility that is committing to the customers may be part of the product specification. The customers may be offered a discount calculated out from the costs for alternative price securing. Also '' Effect subscription'' reduces the merchant risks considerably at the disconnection of the consumption. The ''combined product of constant and spot price'' may be interesting from the supplier's viewpoint due to considerable risk reductions compared to solely using the constant price. The product gives the customers a guaranteed price for a part of the product and has an additional possibility of adapting the consumption to the market signals. The network company routines for handling of the hour values are a large challenge. It is important to

  15. Occupational accidents in the Danish merchant fleet and the nationality of seafarers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ádám, Balázs; Rasmussen, Hanna Barbara; Nørgaard Fløe Pedersen, Randi

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to examine occupational accidents reported from non-passenger merchant ships registered in the Danish International Ship Register in 2010-2012, with a focus on analysing nationality differences in the risk of getting injured in an accident. Methods: Data about...... be attributed to various factors such as safety behaviour. Investigation of special injury types and characterisation of effective elements of safety culture can contribute to the improvement of workplace safety in the maritime sector....... notified occupational accidents were collected from notifications sent to the Danish Maritime Authority and from records of contact with Danish Radio Medical. Events were matched by personal identification and accident data to create a unified database. Stratified cumulative time spent on board...... by seafarers was used to calculate accident rates. Incidence rates of different nationalities were compared by Poisson regression. Results: Western European seafarers had an overall accident rate of 17.5 per 100000 person-days, which proved to be significantly higher than that of Eastern European, South East...

  16. Otters, Marine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, James A.; Bodkin, James L.; Ben-David, M.; Perrin, William F.; Würsing, Bernd; Thewissen, J.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    The otters (Mustelidae; Lutrinae) provide an exceptional perspective into the evolution of marine living by mammals. Most extant marine mammals (e.g. the cetaceans, pinnipeds, and sirenians) have been so highly modified by long periods of selection for life in the sea that they bear little resemblance to their terrestrial ancestors. Marine otters, in contrast, are more recent expatriates from freshwater habitats and some species still live in both environments. Contrasts among species within the otters, and among the otters, terrestrial mammals, and the more highly adapted pinnipeds and cetaceans provide powerful insights into mammalian adaptations to life in the sea (Estes, 1989). Among the marine mammals, sea otters (Enhydra lutris, Fig. 1) provide the clearest understanding of consumer-induced effects on ecosystem function. This is due in part to opportunities provided by history and in part to the relative ease with which shallow coastal systems where sea otters live can be observed and studied. Although more difficult to study than sea otters, other otter species reveal the connectivity among the marine, freshwater, and terrestrial systems. These three qualities of the otters – their comparative biology, their role as predators, and their role as agents of ecosystem connectivity – are what make them interesting to marine mammalogy.The following account provides a broad overview of the comparative biology and ecology of the otters, with particular emphasis on those species or populations that live in the sea. Sea otters are features prominently, in part because they live exclusively in the sea whereas other otters have obligate associations with freshwater and terrestrial environments (Kenyon, 1969; Riedman and Estes, 1990).

  17. Marine Battlefields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harðardóttir, Sara

    as they are an important food source for various marine animals. For both phytoand zooplankton predation is a major cause of mortality, and strategies for protection or avoidance are important for survival. Diatoms of the genera Nitzschia and Pseudo-nitzschia are known to produce a neuro-toxin, domoic acid (DA). Despite......Phytoplankton species are photosynthetic organisms found in most aquatic habitats. In the ocean, phytoplankton are tremendously important because they produce the energy that forms the base of the marine food web. Zooplankton feed on phytoplankton and mediate the energy to higher trophic levels...

  18. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fisheries, recovery and restoration processes, legal and institutional frameworks, and interactions/relationships between humans .... ally changing marine environment with small island states faced with issues related to rising sea level. Two field notes .... alter the structure of coral tissue, skeletal morphol- ogy and density ...

  19. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- .... Kaullysing et al. also present a field note on coral-eating gastropods observed around Mauritius. ... and decision making in the field of coral reef studies and management in Mauritius, while contributing.

  20. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mauritius Marine Conservation Society through their. Abstract. While no populations of seals are resident in the tropical Indian Ocean, vagrant animals are occasionally sighted in the region. Here we detail two new sightings of pinnipeds in the Mascarene Islands (Mauritius, Reunion and Rodri- gues) since 1996 and review ...

  1. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A. formosa and P. verrucosa responded significantly to seasonal fluctuation in both solar radiation and sea surface temperature by regulating their ... types from the environmental pool. It is concluded that seasonal fluctuations in both solar ..... photoprotection in symbiotic dinoflagellates from reef-building corals. Marine ...

  2. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sues of marine gastropods belonging to these genera contain a higher amount of protein and would there- fore benefit from a higher amount of PK added to the lysis buffer of choice. Moreover, it has been reported that PK is very active in the presence of the detergent. Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (SDS) (Gross-Bellard et al,.

  3. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fisheries, recovery and restoration processes, legal and institutional frameworks, and interactions/relationships between ... ISSN 0856-860X. Western Indian Ocean. J O U R N A L O F. Marine Science. Editorial Board. Serge ANDREFOUËT. France. Ranjeet BHAGOOLI. Mauritius ...... ence Technology, Rhodes, Greece.

  4. Marine Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meith, Nikki

    Marine mammals have not only fascinated and inspired human beings for thousands of years, but they also support a big business by providing flesh for sea-borne factories, sustaining Arctic lifestyles and traditions, and attracting tourists to ocean aquaria. While they are being harpooned, bludgeoned, shot, netted, and trained to jump through…

  5. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As in other oceans, anthropogenic activities have a large impact on marine habitats and ... effects of region (north vs south), country (proxy for latitude) and depth stratum on catch composition were con- sidered. Of 243 genera identified from 206 trawls, .... rather than species level. Two survey vessels with unequal fishing ...

  6. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- ination of high quality research ... PAHs are among the persistent organic pollutants that are a worldwide environmental ... combusted and petroleum products are used during boat/dhow making and servicing ...

  7. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    org/wio-journal-of-marine- science/ and AJOL ... The mangroves around Maputo city in Maputo Bay were studied to assess changes in forest cover area and the effect of cutting ..... factors on forest health condition has not yet been assessed.

  8. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    determining zonation in intertidal areas (Tomanek &. Helmuth, 2002), it is noteworthy that wave action and. Abstract. This study compared spatial variations in the density and diversity of marine benthic molluscs along Belle Mare and. Gris Gris, a sheltered and an exposed intertidal zone, respectively, in Mauritius. Species ...

  9. Nestorian ‘merchant missionaries’ – A model for Christian Chinese migrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Gordy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Both the Old and New Testament lay a foundation for the role of migrants in God’s mission, missio Dei. With the unprecedented rise of the Global South to prominence in the world mission enterprise, China is poised to play a major role in fulfilling the Great Commission Mandate. Already Christian Chinese migrants are in many countries, possibly in over 140 countries of the world, including many of the unreached, unengaged people groups. The Nestorians, also called ‘merchant missionaries’, were amongst the first to take the gospel to China. They can serve as a methodological mission model, using some basic biblical principles, to help Christian Chinese migrants today, especially the Wenzhou businessmen, to fulfil their apostolic role in world mission. Sowel die Ou as die Nuwe Testament lê ’n fondament vir die rol van nomades (rondtrekkendes in God se missie (missio Dei. Met die Globale Suide se ongeëwenaarde toename in prominensie ten opsigte van die onderneming van wêreldsending, is China gereed om ’n hoofrol in die verwesenliking van die Groot Sendingopdrag te vertolk. Chinese Christen nomades is alreeds in 140 lande van die wêreld besig, waarvan baie tussen die onbereikte, onbesette mensegroepe is. Die Nestoriane, of ‘kooplui-sendelinge’, was van die eerste sendelinge wat die evangelie na China geneem het. Hulle voorbeeld kan as ’n sendingmodel dien om Chinese Christen nomades te help, veral die Wenzhou-sakemanne, om hulle apostoliese rol in wêreldsending te vervul.

  10. «Fabricado de dinero»: the Dishonest Merchant in «La industria y la suerte» by Ruiz de Alarcón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoriano Roncero

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 16th century, Europe witnesses the triumph of the pre-capitalist economy, personified by the merchant. This new situation brought the rejection of the humanists, who wrote about the society’s decadence of values and the destruction of social status. Ruiz de Alarcón wrote La industria y la suerte, a play in which he describes the confrontation between the Sevillian traders and the nobility. Arnesto, the merchant, represents the corruption brought on by money, and, because of that, Don Juan defeats him in his attempt to gain Blanca’s love by the play’s end.

  11. A review of the status of, and prospects for, nuclear marine propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, J.

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that the matter of nuclear marine propulsion has been under consideration in the UK since 1957, at which time the Royal Navy commenced studies into the possibility of a nuclear powered 65,000 ton fleet support tanker. Nuclear warship studies started earlier in the USA, where studies were started in 1946 on the application of nuclear power to submarines and surface warships. The present position is that five nuclear merchant ships have been built, whereas 290 nuclear warships are either operational or building. Reference is made to a lecture given by the author in February 1974, in which the position at that time was reviewed, the present lecture up-dating that lecture with regard to subsequent events and their effects on the present prospects for nuclear merchant ships. Headings include the following: situation in early 1974; present situation; economic analyses; the energy situation; problems and prospects (economic assessments, inflation effects, safety requirements, construction time, refuelling requirements, ship residual value and decommissioning costs, training costs, insurance and indemnity, essential documentation, safety acceptance and port entry, licensing and legislative problems, accidents and their consequences); developments in marine reactor designs; and conclusions. The discussions are reproduced in full. (U.K.)

  12. Energy use in the marine transportation industry. Task I. Industry summary. Draft report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-11

    Task 1 of an energy study of ship transportation systems to identify the various operating or service sectors of the marine transportation industry and determine the numbers and types of vessels, their operating characteristics and energy consumption, is presented. The analysis includes all powered water-borne craft with the exception of those owned or operated by a government and fixed offshore production platforms. The approach is described. The broad sectors covered are: the ocean shipping, the Great Lakes, the coastal shipping, offshore, inland waterways, and the fishing and miscellaneous sectors. Recreational boats are covered. Information in the appendices covers marine fuel consumption calculations, essential trade routes, conversion factors, and merchant vessels of the US. (MCW)

  13. Marine pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerlach, S.A.

    1981-01-01

    The author of this book has combined his own vast experience as a marine biologist with a critical evaluation of the ever-increasing literature in a work which highlights those longterm effects and dangerous materials most threatening on a global scale. This English translation of the highly acclaimed German original has been revised and expanded to keep pace with the rapid process of research in the field. A particularly large number of changes were made in the chapter on oil pollution, and new chapters on waste heat and radioactivity in the ocean have been added. (orig.)

  14. Marine Biology

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    A retired soldier and his timid girlfriend. Two teenagers who are underemployed and overaged. A man who knows what he wants but not how to get it and his ex who knows how to get what she wants but not exactly what that is.What do all of these people have in common? They live in Westfield, New York, a town with just as many traffic lights as panoramic views of nearby Lake Erie and with about as many bartenders as schoolteachers. Everyone wants to leave, but nobody knows where to go.Marine Biol...

  15. Marine Microbiology: Facets & Opportunities

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.

    The book titled “Marine Microbiology: Facets & Opportunities” is an attempt to bring together some facets of marine microbiology as have been made out by many contemporaries in particular from the tropical marine regions. There are 18 contributed...

  16. 12 CFR 225.176 - How do the statutory cross marketing and sections 23A and B limitations apply to merchant banking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How do the statutory cross marketing and sections 23A and B limitations apply to merchant banking investments? 225.176 Section 225.176 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BANK HOLDING...

  17. 12 CFR 225.171 - What are the limitations on managing or operating a portfolio company held as a merchant banking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are the limitations on managing or operating a portfolio company held as a merchant banking investment? 225.171 Section 225.171 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BANK HOLDING...

  18. GROTESQUE ENCOUNTERS: READING SHAKESPEARE’S THE MERCHANT OF VENICE ALONG THE PRINCIPLES OF THE SUBLIME, BEAUTIFUL AND GROTESQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Bartha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is an attempt to apply the basic principles of the aesthetic discourse on the sublime, beautiful and grotesque to William Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice. Even though it is a discourse that only begins in the course of the eighteenth century, I will argue that the structure of the play parallels the model of the traditional sublime, as it deals with a subject-object binary and meditates on the relationship between the material (body and the transcendental (mind. However, the play is also rich in disruptive — or grotesque — forces that unsettle this binary structure. The parallels between the play and the aesthetic discourse could not only help our understanding of postmodern criticism and rewriting of the sublime, but the sublime can also, in turn, shed light on the reception of the play.

  19. Elzevirian Republics, wise merchants, and new perspectives on Spain and Portugal in the seventeenth-century Dutch Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Rauschenbach

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Between 1625 and 1649, the Leiden publishing house Elzevir issued a series of thirty-five descriptions of all European, a selection of non-European, and three ancient states, that became known as the ‘Elzevirian Republics’. This essay focuses on two of these ‘Republics’, Johannes de Laet’s descriptions of Spain and Portugal. I argue that these books convey an attitude towards geopolitics that is best understood in the light of Caspar Barlaeus’s ideal of the ‘wise merchant’ (mercator sapiens and the historical regent-merchant culture in seventeenth-century Amsterdam. The essay draws on recent scholarship in the history of knowledge, commerce, and the pre-history of objectivity.

  20. Trusteeship and Cooperation in the Flemish merchants community in Cadiz: The brotherhood of “San Andrés de los Flamencos” (17th-18th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Dr Ana Crespo Solana

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available  This article presents information on the development, over the centuries, of a little known aspect of the communities of foreign Merchants who settled in Spanish cities during the Modern Age. Using previously unpublished documents, relating to the “Ilustre y Antigua Nación Flamenca” of Seville and Cádiz, the article aims to give a description of the charitable activities carried out by the colony of merchants in Seville and, especially, in Cádiz, who were natives of the Southern Low Countries and the Dutch Republic. This merchant community had assigned the administration of a “Patronato” to their brotherhood, which included the control of numerous items of furniture and properties of great value. The description of this religious and benevolent activity gives a no less interesting view, when compared with the purely economic one, of its importance on the integration of these communities into the Spanish society of the 17th and 18th centuries. This research has been made with historical documents from Spanish Archives (Cádiz, Madrid and Alcalá de Henares.

  1. Marine animal stings or bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stings - marine animals; Bites - marine animals ... Things you can do to prevent a marine animal sting or bite include: Swim near a lifeguard. Observe posted signs that may warn of danger from jellyfish or other hazardous marine life. ...

  2. Mariners Weather Log

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Mariners Weather Log (MWL) is a publication containing articles, news and information about marine weather events and phenomena, worldwide environmental impact...

  3. Supermarket Marine Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Jennifer A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a survey used to determine the availability of intact marine vertebrates and live invertebrates in supermarkets. Results shows that local supermarkets frequently provide a variety of intact marine organisms suitable for demonstrations, experiments, or dissections. (ZWH)

  4. Marine Jurisdiction Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The NOAA Coastal Services Center's Marine Jurisdiction dataset was created to assist in marine spatial planning and offshore alternative energy sitting. This is a...

  5. MarineCadastre.gov

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MarineCadastre.gov is a marine information system that provides authoritative ocean data, offshore planning tools, and technical support to the offshore renewable...

  6. Mariner 10 Image Archive

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Mariner 10 Image Archive includes tools to view shaded relief maps of the surface of Mercury, a 3D globe, and all images acquired by NASA's Mariner 10 mission.

  7. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Maoka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine a...

  8. Seashore marine table quiz

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2013-01-01

    Develop an increasing awareness of plants and animals that live in local marine environments including the seashore, seas and oceans of Ireland. After learning all about the seashore and other marine related lessons, this quiz can be used to evaluate the student’s knowledge of the marine related living things and natural environments. The table quiz can be used as a guide, highlighting facts about the marine environment and some of the animals that live there.

  9. Sphingomonads from marine environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavicchioli, R; Fegatella, F; Ostrowski, M; Eguchi, M; Gottschal, J

    1999-01-01

    Sphingomonas species play an important role in the ecology of a range of marine habitats. Isolates and 16S-rRNA clones have been obtained from corals, natural and artificial sources of marine hydrocarbons and eutrophic and oligotrophic waters, and have been isolated as hosts for marine phages. In

  10. Marine Education Knowledge Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn

    This 35-item, multiple-choice Marine Education Knowledge Inventory was developed for use in upper elementary/middle schools to measure a student's knowledge of marine science. Content of test items is drawn from oceanography, ecology, earth science, navigation, and the biological sciences (focusing on marine animals). Steps in the construction of…

  11. Working conditions in the engine department - A qualitative study among engine room personnel on board Swedish merchant ships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundh, Monica; Lützhöft, Margareta; Rydstedt, Leif; Dahlman, Joakim

    2011-01-01

    The specific problems associated with the work on board within the merchant fleet are well known and have over the years been a topic of discussion. The work conditions in the engine room (ER) are demanding due to, e.g. the thermal climate, noise and awkward working postures. The work in the engine control room (ECR) has over recent years undergone major changes, mainly due to the introduction of computers on board. In order to capture the impact these changes had implied, and also to investigate how the work situation has developed, a total of 20 engine officers and engine ratings were interviewed. The interviews were semi-structured and Grounded Theory was used for the data analysis. The aim of the present study was to describe how the engine crew perceive their work situation and working environment on board. Further, the aim was to identify areas for improvements which the engine crew consider especially important for a safe and effective work environment. The result of the study shows that the design of the ECR and ER is crucial for how different tasks are performed. Design which does not support operational procedures and how tasks are performed risk inducing inappropriate behaviour as the crew members' are compelled to find alternative ways to perform their tasks in order to get the job done. These types of behaviour can induce an increased risk of exposure to hazardous substances and the engine crew members becoming injured. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  12. A Cost Benefit Analysis Approach to Identify Improvements in Merchant Navy Deck Officers’ HELM (Human Element Leadership and Management Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhan Saeed

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A review of maritime accidents conducted over the last decade confirms that human error is the main contributing factor in these incidents. Well-developed Non-Technical Skills (NTS can reduce the effects of human error. NTS include both interpersonal and cognitive skills such as situation awareness, teamwork, decision-making, leadership, managerial skills, communication and language skills. In a crisis situation good NTS allow a deck officer to recognise the problem quickly, take action to manage the situation, and utilise the available team members safely and effectively. This paper identifies the importance of NTS training for merchant navy deck officers. It also highlights room for improvement in the existing HELM training. Research has shown that at present the structure of HELM training is not very effective. The other safety critical domains’ efforts into NTS developments are investigated and examples of best practice are adapted into the maritime domain’s NTS training. Suggestions are given for improvements to the HELM course based on proven successful methods in other safety critical domains (aviation and anaesthesia. A subsequent Cost Benefit Analysis for improving deck officers’ NTS is also carried out through the use of Bayesian Networks and Decision Tree Modelling.

  13. Social Perception of Infertility and Its Treatment in Late Medieval Italy: Margherita Datini, an Italian Merchant's Wife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Jong Kuk

    2016-12-01

    Because the perception of infertility in medieval Europe ranged from the extremely religious view of it as a malediction of God or the devil's work, to the reasonable medical conception of it as a sort of disease to treat, it is very difficult to determine the general attitudes of ordinary people towards infertility. This article seeks to elucidate the common social perception of infertility and its treatment in late medieval Europe by analyzing the case of Margherita Datini, an Italian merchant's wife who lived in the 1400s. It relies heavily on the documents left by her and her husband, Francesco Datini; the couple left many records, including letters of correspondence between them. Margherita and those around her regarded infertility not as the devil's curse or a punishment by God but as a disease that can be cured. Margherita and her husband, Francesco, tried hard to cure their infertility. They received treatment and prescriptions from several doctors while also relying on folk remedies, religious therapies, and even magical remedies. The comparative analysis of Datini documents, medical books, and theoretical treatises or prescriptive essays by clerics suggests that the general perception of infertility in medieval Europe was located between the extremely religious and modern medical conceptions of it.

  14. [Detection of stool antigens of Echinococcus granulosus in dogs belonging to slaughterhouse workers and offal merchants in Metropolitan Lima].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Veronika; Falcón, Néstor; Morel, Noelia; González, Gualberto

    2017-04-20

    To demonstrate the presence of Echinoccocus granulosus in the definitive host in the city of Lima, Perú, by detecting parasite antigens in the stool of dogs belonging to offal handlers and merchants in authorized slaughterhouses in Metropolitan Lima. Stool samples were collected from 58 dogs and examined using the coproELISA technique for the detection of secretory/excretory antigens of E. granulosus. A survey was conducted to obtain information on pet feeding and handling practices. Positivity to E. granulosus was detected in 13.8% (8/58) of the dogs. In 27.8% (5/18) of the homes, at least one animal showed positivity, and in families that had more than four dogs the chances of finding positivity in at least one dog were higher (P dog tested positive the pets were fed on offal. Of study participants, 94.4% (17) knew nothing about the routes of transmission of hydatid disease. Results show the presence of definitive hosts in the urban area of Lima and underscore the need to more widely disseminate practices for the prevention of parasite transmission.

  15. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maoka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade. PMID:21566799

  16. Marine Robot Autonomy

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Autonomy for Marine Robots provides a timely and insightful overview of intelligent autonomy in marine robots. A brief history of this emerging field is provided, along with a discussion of the challenges unique to the underwater environment and their impact on the level of intelligent autonomy required.  Topics covered at length examine advanced frameworks, path-planning, fault tolerance, machine learning, and cooperation as relevant to marine robots that need intelligent autonomy.  This book also: Discusses and offers solutions for the unique challenges presented by more complex missions and the dynamic underwater environment when operating autonomous marine robots Includes case studies that demonstrate intelligent autonomy in marine robots to perform underwater simultaneous localization and mapping  Autonomy for Marine Robots is an ideal book for researchers and engineers interested in the field of marine robots.      

  17. Innovative processes and products involving marine organisms in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... namely marine aquaculture, omics of marine organisms and marine bioprospecting, and discusses these accomplishments in context to marine biotechnology internationally. Keywords: marine aquaculture, marine bioprospecting, marine biotechnology, marine invertebrates, marine microorganisms, omics, seaweeds

  18. Marine Environmental History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    This essay provides an overview of recent trends in the historiography of marine environmental history, a sub-field of environmental history which has grown tremendously in scope and size over the last c. 15 years. The object of marine environmental history is the changing relationship between...... human society and natural marine resources. Within this broad topic, several trends and objectives are discernable. The essay argue that the so-called material marine environmental history has its main focus on trying to reconstruct the presence, development and environmental impact of past fisheries...... and whaling operations. This ambition often entails a reconstruction also of how marine life has changed over time. The time frame rages from Paleolithicum to the present era. The field of marine environmental history also includes a more culturally oriented environmental history, which mainly has come...

  19. Marine infectious disease ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2017-01-01

    To put marine disease impacts in context requires a broad perspective on the roles infectious agents have in the ocean. Parasites infect most marine vertebrate and invertebrate species, and parasites and predators can have comparable biomass density, suggesting they play comparable parts as consumers in marine food webs. Although some parasites might increase with disturbance, most probably decline as food webs unravel. There are several ways to adapt epidemiological theory to the marine environment. In particular, because the ocean represents a three-dimensional moving habitat for hosts and parasites, models should open up the spatial scales at which infective stages and host larvae travel. In addition to open recruitment and dimensionality, marine parasites are subject to fishing, filter feeders, dosedependent infection, environmental forcing, and death-based transmission. Adding such considerations to marine disease models will make it easier to predict which infectious diseases will increase or decrease in a changing ocean.

  20. Total Stem and Merchantable Volume Equations of Norway Spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. Growing on Former Farmland in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tord Johansson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An equation was constructed to estimate the stem volume of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. in 145 stands growing on former farmland in Sweden (Latitude 56–63° N. The mean total age was 40 ± 13 (range 17–91 years, the mean diameter at breast height (ob was 15 ± 4 (range 5–27 cm and the mean density was 1621 ± 902 (range 100–7600 stems ha−1. The equation which fits the data best used the diameter at breast height and total stem height as predictive variables. Merchantable volume equations for the estimation of commercial volume for any top diameter and bole length were developed. Soil types in the stands were sediments (coarse sand, fine sand and silt and heavy, medium and light clay, tills (sandy, fine sandy and silty and peat. The standing volume was calculated; the mean was 253 ± 103 (range 26–507 m3 ha−1 with a MAI (mean annual increment of 6.9±3.5 (range 1.3–16.7 m3 ha−1 year−1. There were statistically significant differences between MAI and coarse sand, sand and silt, light clay, peat and silty till soils. Spruce stands growing on silty tills had the lowest MAI (4.94 ± 2.27 m3 ha−1 year−1 and light clay, fine sand and silt and peat the highest (7.62 ± 4.24, 7.46 ± 3.33 and 8.67 ± 2.83 m3 ha−1 year−1.

  1. Marine electrical practice

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, G O

    1991-01-01

    Marine Engineering Series: Marine Electrical Practice, Sixth Edition focuses on changes in the marine industry, including the application of programmable electronic systems, generators, and motors. The publication first ponders on insulation and temperature ratings of equipment, protection and discrimination, and AC generators. Discussions focus on construction, shaft-drive generators, effect of unbalanced loading, subtransient and transient reactance, protection discrimination, fault current, measurement of ambient air temperature, and basis of machine ratings. The text then examines AC switc

  2. New marine studies center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple University has established a Center for Marine Studies with faculty members from four of its colleges. The center will offer courses leading to a certificate in marine studies.Studies will focus on urbanization's impact on the marine environment and will focus on management and economics of waterfront utilization. In addition, faculty members will be constructing an artificial reef off Absecon Inlet to determine if increasing protective environments will permit increased sport fishing.

  3. Marine nitrogen cycle

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.

    of the marine nitrogen cycle and its influence on atmospheric CO 2 , in: The Ocean Carbon Cycle and Climate, edited by: Follows, M., and Oguz, T., Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, 97-148, 2004. ISBN 1402020864. Citation Naqvi, Syed. 2006. "Marine nitrogen cycle...]. Marine_nitrogen_cycle> All text is available under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike license. Please see the Encyclopedia of Earth's website for Terms of Use information. Supported...

  4. Biosurfactants from marine microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suppasil Maneerat

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants are the surface-active molecules synthesized by microorganisms. With the advantage of environmental compatibility, the demand for biosurfactants has been steadily increasing and may eventually replace their chemically synthesized counterparts. Marine biosurfactants produced by some marine microorganisms have been paid more attention, particularly for the bioremediation of the sea polluted by crude oil. This review describes screening of biosurfactant-producing microorganisms, the determination of biosurfactant activity as well as the recovery of marine surfactant. The uses of marine biosurfactants for bioremediation are also discussed.

  5. Characterizing Marine Soundscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbe, Christine; McCauley, Robert; Gavrilov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The study of marine soundscapes is becoming widespread and the amount of data collected is increasing rapidly. Data owners (typically academia, industry, government, and defense) are negotiating data sharing and generating potential for data syntheses, comparative studies, analyses of trends, and large-scale and long-term acoustic ecology research. A problem is the lack of standards and commonly agreed protocols for the recording of marine soundscapes, data analysis, and reporting that make a synthesis and comparison of results difficult. We provide a brief overview of the components in a marine soundscape, the hard- and software tools for recording and analyzing marine soundscapes, and common reporting formats.

  6. Marine functional food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luten, J.B.

    2009-01-01

    This book reviews the research on seafood and health, the use and quality aspects of marine lipids and seafood proteins as ingredients in functional foods and consumer acceptance of (marine) functional food. The first chapter covers novel merging areas where seafood may prevent disease and improve

  7. Marine Mammal Protection Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA or Act) prohibits, with certain exceptions, the "take" of marine mammals in U.S. waters and by U.S. citizens on the high seas,...

  8. Marine gamma spectrometric survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostoglodov, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    Presented are theoretical problems physical and geochemical prerequisites and possibilities of practical application of the method of continuous submarine gamma-spectrometric survey and radiometric survey destined for rapid study of the surface layer of marine sediments. Shown is high efficiency and advantages of this method in comparison with traditional and widely spread in marine geology methods of bottom sediments investigation

  9. High Performance Marine Vessels

    CERN Document Server

    Yun, Liang

    2012-01-01

    High Performance Marine Vessels (HPMVs) range from the Fast Ferries to the latest high speed Navy Craft, including competition power boats and hydroplanes, hydrofoils, hovercraft, catamarans and other multi-hull craft. High Performance Marine Vessels covers the main concepts of HPMVs and discusses historical background, design features, services that have been successful and not so successful, and some sample data of the range of HPMVs to date. Included is a comparison of all HPMVs craft and the differences between them and descriptions of performance (hydrodynamics and aerodynamics). Readers will find a comprehensive overview of the design, development and building of HPMVs. In summary, this book: Focuses on technology at the aero-marine interface Covers the full range of high performance marine vessel concepts Explains the historical development of various HPMVs Discusses ferries, racing and pleasure craft, as well as utility and military missions High Performance Marine Vessels is an ideal book for student...

  10. THE ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES OF A GLOBAL MERCHANT -BANKER IN CHILE: HUTH & CO. OF LONDON, 1820S-1850S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANUEL LLORCA-JAÑA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with Huth & Co.'s activities in Chile during the 1820s-1850s. Huth was the only London merchant-banker that decided to go global before 1850, and also the only one to open a branch in Chile. The analysis of how his branches operated should take this into account, yet Huth's activities in Chile have only previously been examined using a bilateral approach to examine the economic relations between Chile and Britain. This situation was mainly due to the fact that the richest collection of primary material on Huth & Co. (the Huth papers at University College London had been ignored by scholars working on Anglo-Chilean economic relations during the first half of the nineteenth-century. The main focus of this paper is on the information that we were made unaware of due to this restricted investigative approach. Among them are the connections established between Huth's branches in Chile and the USA, Asia, continental Europe and the rest of Latin America; and the important trade in Spanish quicksilver.El presente artículo trata sobre las actividades económicas en Chile de Huth & Co. durante el período 1820-1850. Huth & Co. fue el único mercader banquero de Londres que decidió tener una empresa global antes de 1850 y el único también en abrir una oficina en Chile. Por lo tanto, las actividades de la sucursal en Chile deben ser analizadas considerando estos dos importantes hechos. Sin embargo, antes de este estudio, las actividades de Huth en el país fueron examinadas usando un enfoque estrictamente bilateral de las relaciones entre Chile y Gran Bretaña. Esta visión restrictiva se debió en gran parte al desconocimiento de los historiadores interesados en las relaciones anglo-chilenas de una importante fuente de información: los archivos de Huth disponibles en el University College London. Debido a este desconocimiento, la historiografía no ha dado cuenta de importantes hechos tratado en este artículo. Por ejemplo, de las

  11. Marine Viruses: Key Players in Marine Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Middelboe

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Viruses were recognized as the causative agents of fish diseases, such as infectious pancreatic necrosis and Oregon sockeye disease, in the early 1960s [1], and have since been shown to be responsible for diseases in all marine life from bacteria to protists, mollusks, crustaceans, fish and mammals [2].[...

  12. Matters of Responsibility for Marine Pollution under the Legislation of the Russian Federation. (Review of the Main Legislative Acts)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolodkin, A.L.; Kulistikova, O.V.; Mokhova, E.M.

    1997-12-31

    International Northern Sea Route Programme, INSROP, is a five-year multilateral research programme. The main phase of the programme started in 1993. The three principal cooperating partners are research institutes in Russia, Japan and Norway. The aim of INSROP is to build up a knowledge base to provide foundation for a long-term planning and decision making by state agencies and private companies etc., for purposes of promoting rational decision making on the use of the Northern Sea route for transit and regional development. This report reviews the main legislative acts of former USSR and the Russian Federation, systematized by the responsibility types: (1) civil (property), (2) criminal and (3) administrative. It also discusses the issues of responsibility for marine pollution in accordance with the draft of the new Merchant Shipping Code of the Russian Federation, which contains sections on liability for damage caused by oil pollution from ships or by transport of hazardous and noxious substances by sea. 18 refs.

  13. Marine fragrance chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hügel, Helmut M; Drevermann, Britta; Lingham, Anthony R; Marriott, Philip J

    2008-06-01

    The main marine message in perfumery is projected by Calone 1951 (7-methyl-2H-1,5-benzodioxepin-3(4H)-one). Kraft (Givaudan) and Gaudin (Firmenich) further maximized the marine fragrance molecular membership by extending the carbon chain of the 7-Me group. Our research targeted the polar group of the benzodioxepinone parent compound to investigate how this region of molecular makeup resonates with the dominant marine fragrance of the Calone 1951 structure. The olfactory evaluation of analogues prepared by chemical modification or removal of the CO group resulted in the introduction of aldehydic, sweet and floral-fruity notes with a diluted/diminished potency of the marine odor. To further analyze the olfactory properties of benzodioxepinones containing a diverse range of aromatic ring substituents, a novel synthesis route was developed. We found that a 7-alkyl group in Calone 1951 was essential for the maintenance of the significant marine odor characteristic, and our studies support the concept that the odorant structure occupying the hydrophobic binding pocket adjacent to the aromatic ring-binding site of the olfactory receptor is pivotal in the design and discovery of more potent and characteristic marine fragrances. How the structure of benzodioxepinones connects to marine sea-breeze fragrances is our continuing challenging research focus at the chemistry-biology interface.

  14. Will marine productivity wane?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufkötter, Charlotte; Gruber, Nicolas

    2018-03-01

    If marine algae are impaired severely by global climate change, the resulting reduction in marine primary production would strongly affect marine life and the ocean's biological pump that sequesters substantial amounts of atmospheric carbon dioxide in the ocean's interior. Most studies, including the latest generation of Earth system models, project only moderate global decreases in biological production until 2100 (1, 2), suggesting that these concerns are unwarranted. But on page 1139 of this issue, Moore et al. (3) show that this conclusion might be shortsighted and that there may be much larger long-term changes in ocean productivity than previously appreciated.

  15. PIR Marine Turtle Nesting

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Effective management of marine turtle data is essential to maximize their research value and enable timely population assessments and recovery monitoring. To provide...

  16. Marine Pollution Prevention Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Pollution Prevention Act of 2008 implements the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, including related Protocols (MARPOL)...

  17. Encyclopedia of marine sciences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baretta-Bekker, J.G; Duursma, E.K; Kuipers, B.R

    1992-01-01

    ...) is reflected in some 1850 up-to-date alphabetically listed keywords, and many illustrations, to give scientists, teachers, and students a helpful and timesaving aid when studying marine scientific literature...

  18. Marine Bacterial Genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machado, Henrique

    microorganisms to be used as cell factories for production. Therefore exploitation of new microbial niches and use of different strategies is an opportunity to boost discoveries. Even though scientists have started to explore several habitats other than the terrestrial ones, the marine environment stands out...... as a hitherto under-explored niche. This thesis work uses high-throughput sequencing technologies on a collection of marine bacteria established during the Galathea 3 expedition, with the purpose of unraveling new biodiversity and new bioactivities. Several tools were used for genomic analysis in order...... to better understand the potential harbored in marine bacteria. The work presented makes use of whole genome sequencing of marine bacteria to prove that the genetic repertoire for secondary metabolite production harbored in these bacteria is far larger than anticipated; to identify and develop a new...

  19. Marine Sanitation Devices (MSDs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine sanitation devices treat or retain sewage from vessels, and have performance standards set by the EPA. This page provides information on MSDs, including who must use an MSD, states' roles, types of MSDs and standards.

  20. Marine Acoustic Sensor Assembly

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ruffa, Anthony A

    2007-01-01

    A marine acoustic sensor assembly includes an acoustic panel having a forward surface and an after surface, a laser scanner oriented so as to project a laser beam onto the acoustic panel after surface...

  1. PIR Marine Turtle Strandings

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Effective management of marine turtle data is essential to maximize their research value and enable timely population assessments and recovery monitoring. To provide...

  2. The marine cyanobacterium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pade, N.; Compaoré, J.; Klähn, S.; Stal, L.J.; Hagemann, M.

    2012-01-01

    Compatible solutes are small organic molecules that are involved in the acclimation to various stresses such as temperature and salinity. Marine or moderate halotolerant cyanobacteria accumulate glucosylglycerol, while cyanobacteria with low salt tolerance (freshwater strains) usually accumulate

  3. Marine Trackline Geophysical Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains bathymetry, magnetic, gravity and seismic shot point navigation data collected during marine cruises from 1939 to the present. Coverage is...

  4. Marine Aerosols and Clouds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Sarah D; Thornton, Daniel C O

    2018-01-03

    The role of marine bioaerosols in cloud formation and climate is currently so uncertain that even the sign of the climate forcing is unclear. Marine aerosols form through direct emissions and through the conversion of gas-phase emissions to aerosols in the atmosphere. The composition and size of aerosols determine how effective they are in catalyzing the formation of water droplets and ice crystals in clouds by acting as cloud condensation nuclei and ice nucleating particles, respectively. Marine organic aerosols may be sourced both from recent regional phytoplankton blooms that add labile organic matter to the surface ocean and from long-term global processes, such as the upwelling of old refractory dissolved organic matter from the deep ocean. Understanding the formation of marine aerosols and their propensity to catalyze cloud formation processes are challenges that must be addressed given the major uncertainties associated with aerosols in climate models.

  5. Marine Reference Materials

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various publications and other instructions for taking marine weather observations. includes Weather Service Observing Handbook No. 1, Weather Bureau Circular M, and...

  6. Exploring marine life

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, V.R.

    the diversity, geographic distribution and abundance of marine species from pole to pole covering estuarine coastal and Plankton were first found to be associated with the phenomenon of discolouration of water associated with their swarming. Probably...

  7. Foodborne Marine Biotoxins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Poli, Mark

    2003-01-01

    ...). In addition to human intoxications, they cause massive fish kills, negatively impact coastal tourism and fishery industries, and have been implicated in mass mortalities of birds and marine mammals...

  8. LEGACY - EOP Marine Debris

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data contains towed diver surveys of and weights of marine debris removed from the near shore environments of the NWHI.

  9. Mariner Outreach Data -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — This dataset provides MARAD with the ability to determine available personnel and resources in a time of emergency. It also provides a portal for mariners to update...

  10. Marine prostanoids - a review

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; DeSouza, L.

    The occurrence and structure of prostaglandins including clavulones, punaglandins and claviridenones in marine organisms is reviewEd. by comparison of the spectral data reported the identity of 20-acetoxy claviridenones b and c with 20 acetoxy...

  11. Permitted Marine Hydrokinetic Projects

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data represents pending or issued preliminary permits or issued licenses for marine hydrokinetic projects that produce energy from waves or directly from the...

  12. IAEA Monitors Marine Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, Aabha; Kaiser, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The IAEA assists Member States in using scientific tools to precisely identify and track nuclear and nonnuclear contaminants, as well as to investigate their biological effects on the marine ecosystem

  13. Marine Aerosols and Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Sarah D.; Thornton, Daniel C. O.

    2018-01-01

    The role of marine bioaerosols in cloud formation and climate is currently so uncertain that even the sign of the climate forcing is unclear. Marine aerosols form through direct emissions and through the conversion of gas-phase emissions to aerosols in the atmosphere. The composition and size of aerosols determine how effective they are in catalyzing the formation of water droplets and ice crystals in clouds by acting as cloud condensation nuclei and ice nucleating particles, respectively. Marine organic aerosols may be sourced both from recent regional phytoplankton blooms that add labile organic matter to the surface ocean and from long-term global processes, such as the upwelling of old refractory dissolved organic matter from the deep ocean. Understanding the formation of marine aerosols and their propensity to catalyze cloud formation processes are challenges that must be addressed given the major uncertainties associated with aerosols in climate models.

  14. WMO Marine Final Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Final reports of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Commission for Marine Meteorology, Commission for Synoptic Meteorology, and Commission for Basic...

  15. Marine Ecosystem Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler, Berit; Ahtiainen, Heini; Hasselström, Linus

    MARECOS (Marine Ecosystem Services) er et tværfagligt studie, der har haft til formål at tilvejebringe information vedrørende kortlægning og værdisætning af økosystemtjenester, som kan anvendes i forbindelse med udformning af regulering på det marine område såvel nationalt, som regionalt og...

  16. Marine Anthropogenic Litter

    OpenAIRE

    Bergmann, Melanie; Gutow, Lars; Klages, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This book describes how manmade litter, primarily plastic, has spread into the remotest parts of the oceans and covers all aspects of this pollution problem from the impacts on wildlife and human health to socio-economic and political issues. Marine litter is a prime threat to marine wildlife, habitats and food webs worldwide. The book illustrates how advanced technologies from deep-sea research, microbiology and mathematic modelling as well as classic beach litter counts by volunteers co...

  17. Marine biodiversity characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeuf, Gilles

    2011-05-01

    Oceans contain the largest living volume of the "blue" planet, inhabited by approximately 235-250,000 described species, all groups included. They only represent some 13% of the known species on the Earth, but the marine biomasses are really huge. Marine phytoplankton alone represents half the production of organic matter on Earth while marine bacteria represent more than 10%. Life first appeared in the oceans more than 3.8 billion years ago and several determining events took place that changed the course of life, ranging from the development of the cell nucleus to sexual reproduction going through multi-cellular organisms and the capture of organelles. Of the 31 animal phyla currently listed, 12 are exclusively marine phyla and have never left the ocean. An interesting question is to try to understand why there are so few marine species versus land species? This pattern of distribution seems pretty recent in the course of Evolution. From an exclusively marine world, since the beginning until 440 million years ago, land number of species much increased 110 million years ago. Specific diversity and ancestral roles, in addition to organizational models and original behaviors, have made marine organisms excellent reservoirs for identifying and extracting molecules (>15,000 today) with pharmacological potential. They also make particularly relevant models for both fundamental and applied research. Some marine models have been the source of essential discoveries in life sciences. From this diversity, the ocean provides humankind with renewable resources, which are highly threatened today and need more adequate management to preserve ocean habitats, stocks and biodiversity. Copyright © 2011 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Marine Pollution and Ecotoxicology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.

    . Heavy metals Editorial Guest The special issue of Environment International has come up with selected papers presented in the International workshop on Marine Pollution and Ecotoxicology held at the National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa..., India during 25– 26 February 2004. The theme of the special issue is bMarine Pollution and EcotoxicologyQ. The International workshop was organized in honour of a distinguished scientist, Dr. S.N. De Souza, Deputy Director who superannuated on 29...

  19. Improved Marine Waters Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazov, Atanas; Yakushev, Evgeniy; Milkova, Tanya; Slabakova, Violeta; Hristova, Ognyana

    2017-04-01

    IMAMO - Improved Marine Waters Monitoring is a project under the Programme BG02: Improved monitoring of marine waters, managed by Bulgarian Ministry of environment and waters and co-financed by the Financial Mechanism of the European Economic Area (EEA FM) 2009 - 2014. Project Beneficiary is the Institute of oceanology - Bulgarian Academy of Sciences with two partners: Norwegian Institute for Water Research and Bulgarian Black Sea Basin Directorate. The Project aims to improve the monitoring capacity and expertise of the organizations responsible for marine waters monitoring in Bulgaria to meet the requirements of EU and national legislation. The main outcomes are to fill the gaps in information from the Initial assessment of the marine environment and to collect data to assess the current ecological status of marine waters including information as a base for revision of ecological targets established by the monitoring programme prepared in 2014 under Art. 11 of MSFD. Project activities are targeted to ensure data for Descriptors 5, 8 and 9. IMAMO aims to increase the institutional capacity of the Bulgarian partners related to the monitoring and assessment of the Black Sea environment. The main outputs are: establishment of real time monitoring and set up of accredited laboratory facilities for marine waters and sediments chemical analysis to ensure the ability of Bulgarian partners to monitor progress of subsequent measures undertaken.

  20. Bioprospecting Marine Plankton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Bowler

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The ocean dominates the surface of our planet and plays a major role in regulating the biosphere. For example, the microscopic photosynthetic organisms living within provide 50% of the oxygen we breathe, and much of our food and mineral resources are extracted from the ocean. In a time of ecological crisis and major changes in our society, it is essential to turn our attention towards the sea to find additional solutions for a sustainable future. Remarkably, while we are overexploiting many marine resources, particularly the fisheries, the planktonic compartment composed of zooplankton, phytoplankton, bacteria and viruses, represents 95% of marine biomass and yet the extent of its diversity remains largely unknown and underexploited. Consequently, the potential of plankton as a bioresource for humanity is largely untapped. Due to their diverse evolutionary backgrounds, planktonic organisms offer immense opportunities: new resources for medicine, cosmetics and food, renewable energy, and long-term solutions to mitigate climate change. Research programs aiming to exploit culture collections of marine micro-organisms as well as to prospect the huge resources of marine planktonic biodiversity in the oceans are now underway, and several bioactive extracts and purified compounds have already been identified. This review will survey and assess the current state-of-the-art and will propose methodologies to better exploit the potential of marine plankton for drug discovery and for dermocosmetics.

  1. A Marine Traffic Flow Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsz Leung Yip

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A model is developed for studying marine traffic flow through classical traffic flow theories, which can provide us with a better understanding of the phenomenon of traffic flow of ships. On one hand, marine traffic has its special features and is fundamentally different from highway, air and pedestrian traffic. The existing traffic models cannot be simply extended to marine traffic without addressing marine traffic features. On the other hand, existing literature on marine traffic focuses on one ship or two ships but does not address the issues in marine traffic flow.

  2. Marine biodiversity in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, Juan Manuel

    2002-01-01

    One decade ago, the seas and oceans were considered biologically less diverse that the terrestrial environment. Now it is known that it is on the contrary; 33 of the 34 categories of animals (phylum), they are represented in the sea, compared with those solely 15 that exist in earth. The investigation about the diversity of life in the sea has been relatively scorned, but there are big benefits that we can wait if this is protected. The captures of fish depend on it; the species captured by the fisheries are sustained of the biodiversity of their trophic chains and habitats. The marine species are probably the biggest reservoir of chemical substances that can be used in pharmaceutical products. The genetic material of some species can be useful in biotechnical applications. The paper treats topics like the current state of the knowledge in marine biodiversity and it is done a diagnostic of the marine biodiversity in Colombia

  3. The marine diversity spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuman, Daniel C.; Gislason, Henrik; Barnes, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    of taxonomy (all the species in a region regardless of clade) are much less studied but are equally important and will illuminate a different set of ecological and evolutionary processes. We develop and test a mechanistic model of how diversity varies with body mass in marine ecosystems. The model predicts...... the form of the diversity spectrum', which quantifies the distribution of species' asymptotic body masses, is a species analogue of the classic size spectrum of individuals, and which we have found to be a new and widely applicable description of diversity patterns. The marine diversity spectrum...... is predicted to be approximately linear across an asymptotic mass range spanning seven orders of magnitude. Slope -0 center dot 5 is predicted for the global marine diversity spectrum for all combined pelagic zones of continental shelf seas, and slopes for large regions are predicted to lie between -0 center...

  4. Marine-Design Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul; Birmingham, R.; Sortland, B.

    2006-01-01

    This report addresses Marine-Design Education in view of present and forecasted demands of the maritime industry, determined by a drastically transforming economic and technological maritime environment. In this framework, this report discusses in depth IT-based Marine Design education (par. 4...... for continuity between traditional and modern ways of teaching (par. 4) and points out that Marine Design education is not only about Design, but should also address project/business administration and decision making issues (par. 7).......) and reveals innovative educational concepts and initiatives, such as the EiT (Experts in a Team) concept (par. 3), the SFS (Student Friendly Software) initiative (par. 5), Education Driven Research (EDR, par. 6) and Research Based Education (RBE, par. 6). Nevertheless, the paper stresses the need...

  5. Marine Mineral Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The past 20 years have seen extensive marine exploration work by the major industrialized countries. Studies have, in part, been concentrated on Pacific manganese nodule occurrences and on massive sulfides on mid-oceanic ridges. An international jurisdictional framework of the sea-bed mineral...... resources was negotiated by the United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS III). A most important outcome of this conference was the establishment of an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of at least 200 nautical miles for all coastal states and the recognition of a deep-sea regime. Mineral deposits...... in EEZ areas are fairly unknown; many areas need detailed mapping and mineral exploration, and the majority of coastal or island states with large EEZ areas have little experience in exploration for marine hard minerals. This book describes the systematic steps in marine mineral exploration...

  6. New Waves in Marine Science Symposium: Marine Animal Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Betty, Comp.

    1989-01-01

    Presented are the abstracts from three research projects on marine social systems which were a part of a marine science symposium. Five sets of activities on marine animal communication are included, one each for grades K-2, 3-5, 6-8 and 9-12, and informal education. (CW)

  7. Marine natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blunt, John W; Copp, Brent R; Keyzers, Robert A; Munro, Murray H G; Prinsep, Michèle R

    2016-03-01

    This review covers the literature published in 2014 for marine natural products (MNPs), with 1116 citations (753 for the period January to December 2014) referring to compounds isolated from marine microorganisms and phytoplankton, green, brown and red algae, sponges, cnidarians, bryozoans, molluscs, tunicates, echinoderms, mangroves and other intertidal plants and microorganisms. The emphasis is on new compounds (1378 in 456 papers for 2014), together with the relevant biological activities, source organisms and country of origin. Reviews, biosynthetic studies, first syntheses, and syntheses that lead to the revision of structures or stereochemistries, have been included.

  8. 75 FR 19670 - Marine Highway Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Marine Highway Projects ACTION: Solicitation of applications for Marine highway projects. SUMMARY: The Department of Transportation is soliciting applications for Marine Highway Projects as specified in the America's Marine Highway Program Final Rule, MARAD...

  9. 76 FR 25308 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ...-XA165 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Jennifer Burns, Ph.D., University of Alaska Anchorage, Biology Department, 3101 Science Circle, Anchorage, AK, has been issued a permit to conduct [[Page 25309

  10. Identifying Sources of Marine Litter

    OpenAIRE

    VEIGA Joana Mira; FLEET David; KINSEY Sue; NILSSON Per; VLACHOGIANNI Thomais; WERNER Stefanie; GALGANI Francois; THOMPSON Richard; DAGEVOS Jeroen; GAGO Jesus; SOBRAL Paula; CRONIN Richard

    2016-01-01

    Marine litter is a global problem causing harm to marine wildlife, coastal communities and maritime activities. It also embodies an emerging concern for human health and safety. The reduction of marine litter pollution poses a complex challenge for humankind, requiring adjustments in human behaviour as well as in the different phases of the life-cycle of products and across multiple economic sectors. The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) requires European Member States to monitor...

  11. Harm caused by Marine Litter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werner, S.; Budziak, A.; Franeker, van J.A.; Galgani, F.; Hanke, G.; Maes, T.; Matiddi, M.; Nilsson, P.; Oosterbaan, L.; Priestland, E.; Thompson, R.; Veiga, J.; Vlachogianni, T.

    2016-01-01

    Marine litter is a global concern with a range of problems associated to it, as recognised by the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Marine litter can impact organisms at different levels of biological organization and habitats in a number of ways namely: through entanglement in, or

  12. Oceanic processes in marine pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgartner, D.J.; Duedall, I.W.

    1990-01-01

    This book covers the following areas: bioaccumulation of Polycyclic Aromatic hydrocarbons in marine environments; behavior of drilling fluid discharges off the coast of California; effects of drilling fluids on marine organisms; and the effects of radioactive waste disposal on marine amphipods

  13. Marine Electrician--Fundamentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutliff, Ronald D.; And Others

    This self-study course is designed to familiarize Marine Corps enlisted personnel with the principles of electricity, safety, and tools. The course contains three study units. Each study unit begins with a general objective, which is a statement of what the student should learn from the unit. The study units are divided into numbered work units,…

  14. Marine complex adaptive systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bigagli, Emanuele

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic and climate-related stressors challenge the health of nearly every part of the global oceans. They affect the capacity of oceans to regulate global weather and climate, as well as ocean productivity and food services, and result in the loss or degradation of marine habitats and

  15. Thai marine fungal diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Rattaket Choeyklin; Souwalak Phongpaichit; Ittichai Chatmala; Jariya Sakayaroj; Apiradee Pilantanapak; E.B. Gareth Jones

    2006-01-01

    The marine fungal diversity of Thailand was investigated and 116 Ascomycota, 3 Basidiomycota, 28 anamorphic fungi, 7 Stramenopiles recorded, with 30 tentatively identified. These species have primarily been collected from driftwood and attached decayed wood of mangrove trees. The holotype number of 15 taxa is from Thailand and 33 are new records from the country.

  16. Thai marine fungal diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattaket Choeyklin

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The marine fungal diversity of Thailand was investigated and 116 Ascomycota, 3 Basidiomycota, 28 anamorphic fungi, 7 Stramenopiles recorded, with 30 tentatively identified. These species have primarily been collected from driftwood and attached decayed wood of mangrove trees. The holotype number of 15 taxa is from Thailand and 33 are new records from the country.

  17. Photoinhibition in marine picocyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soitamo, Arto; Havurinne, Vesa; Tyystjärvi, Esa

    2017-09-01

    Marine Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus cyanobacteria have different antenna compositions although they are genetically near to each other, and different strains thrive in very different illumination conditions. We measured growth and photoinhibition of PSII in two low-light and one high-light Prochlorococcus strains and in one Synechococcus strain. All strains were found to be able to shortly utilize moderate or even high light, but the low-light strains bleached rapidly in moderate light. Measurements of photoinhibition in the presence of the antibiotic lincomycin showed that a low-light Prochlorococcus strain was more sensitive than a high-light strain and both were more sensitive than the marine Synechococcus. The action spectrum of photoinhibition showed an increase from blue to ultraviolet wavelengths in all strains, suggesting contribution of manganese absorption to photoinhibition, but blue light caused less photoinhibition in marine cyanobacteria than expected on the basis of earlier results from plants and cyanobacteria. The visible-light part of the action spectrum resembled the absorption spectrum of the organism, suggesting that photosynthetic antenna pigments, especially divinyl chlorophylls, have a more important role as photoreceptors of visible-light photoinhibition in marine cyanobacteria than in other photoautotrophs. © 2017 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  18. Marine and Estuarine Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reish, Donald J.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the effects of various pollutants on marine and estuarine organisms, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) effects of pesticides, dredging, dumping, sludge, and petroleum hydrocarbons; and (2) diseases and tissue abnormalities. A list of 441 references is also presented. (HM)

  19. Marine complex adaptive systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bigagli, Emanuele

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic and climate-related stressors challenge the health of nearly every part of the global oceans. They affect the capacity of oceans to regulate global weather and climate, as well as ocean productivity and food services, and result in the loss or degradation of marine habitats and

  20. Marine fungi: A critique

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, S.; Raghukumar, C.

    in the sea have been ignored to a large extent. However, several instances of terrestrial species of fungi, active in marine environment have been reported. The arguments to support the view that terrestrial species of fungi by virtue of their physiological...

  1. Marine Renewable Energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azzellino, Arianna; Conley, Daniel; Vicinanza, Diego

    2013-01-01

    Countries with coastlines may have valuable renewable energy resources in the form of tides, currents, waves, and offshorewind.The potential to gather energy from the sea has recently gained interest in several nations, so Marine Renewable Energy Installations (hereinafter MREIs) will likely become...

  2. Marine Fish Hybridization

    KAUST Repository

    He, Song

    2017-04-01

    Natural hybridization is reproduction (without artificial influence) between two or more species/populations which are distinguishable from each other by heritable characters. Natural hybridizations among marine fishes were highly underappreciated due to limited research effort; it seems that this phenomenon occurs more often than is commonly recognized. As hybridization plays an important role in biodiversity processes in the marine environment, detecting hybridization events and investigating hybridization is important to understand and protect biodiversity. The first chapter sets the framework for this disseration study. The Cohesion Species Concept was selected as the working definition of a species for this study as it can handle marine fish hybridization events. The concept does not require restrictive species boundaries. A general history and background of natural hybridization in marine fishes is reviewed during in chapter as well. Four marine fish hybridization cases were examed and documented in Chapters 2 to 5. In each case study, at least one diagnostic nuclear marker, screened from among ~14 candidate markers, was found to discriminate the putative hybridizing parent species. To further investigate genetic evidence to support the hybrid status for each hybrid offspring in each case, haploweb analysis on diagnostic markers (nuclear and/or mitochondrial) and the DAPC/PCA analysis on microsatellite data were used. By combining the genetic evidences, morphological traits, and ecological observations together, the potential reasons that triggered each hybridization events and the potential genetic/ecology effects could be discussed. In the last chapter, sequences from 82 pairs of hybridizing parents species (for which COI barcoding sequences were available either on GenBank or in our lab) were collected. By comparing the COI fragment p-distance between each hybridizing parent species, some general questions about marine fish hybridization were discussed: Is

  3. Epigenomics in marine fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, David C H; Schulte, Patricia M

    2016-12-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms are an underappreciated and often ignored component of an organism's response to environmental change and may underlie many types of phenotypic plasticity. Recent technological advances in methods for detecting epigenetic marks at a whole-genome scale have launched new opportunities for studying epigenomics in ecologically relevant non-model systems. The study of ecological epigenomics holds great promise to better understand the linkages between genotype, phenotype, and the environment and to explore mechanisms of phenotypic plasticity. The many attributes of marine fish species, including their high diversity, variable life histories, high fecundity, impressive plasticity, and economic value provide unique opportunities for studying epigenetic mechanisms in an environmental context. To provide a primer on epigenomic research for fish biologists, we start by describing fundamental aspects of epigenetics, focusing on the most widely studied and most well understood of the epigenetic marks: DNA methylation. We then describe the techniques that have been used to investigate DNA methylation in marine fishes to date and highlight some new techniques that hold great promise for future studies. Epigenomic research in marine fishes is in its early stages, so we first briefly discuss what has been learned about the establishment, maintenance, and function of DNA methylation in fishes from studies in zebrafish and then summarize the studies demonstrating the pervasive effects of the environment on the epigenomes of marine fishes. We conclude by highlighting the potential for ongoing research on the epigenomics of marine fishes to reveal critical aspects of the interaction between organisms and their environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Anticoagulant effect of marine algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Kwon; Wijesekara, Isuru

    2011-01-01

    Recently, a great deal of interest has been developed in the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries to isolate natural anticoagulant compounds from marine resources. Among marine resources, marine algae are valuable sources of novel bioactive compounds with anticoagulant effect. Phlorotannins and sulfated polysaccharides such as fucoidans in brown algae, carrageenans in red algae, and ulvans in green algae have been recognized as potential anticoagulant agents. Therefore, marine algae-derived phlorotannins and SPs have great potential for developing as anticoagulant drugs in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical areas. This chapter focuses on the potential anticoagulant agents in marine algae and presents an overview of their anticoagulant effect. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. New marine community

    Science.gov (United States)

    While exploring the West Florida Escarpment, a steep slope in the Gulf of Mexico several hundred kilometers off the Florida coast, the deep submergence research vessel Alvin chanced upon a well-developed community of marine life akin to that found 7 years ago in the eastern Pacific Ocean.According to the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, which operates the submersible and its new tender, the Atlantis II (Eos, November 1, 1983, p. 619), the marine community contains large clams, mussels, crabs, fish, and tube worms like those found at hydrothermal vents in the eastern Pacific. While the east Pacific communities exist at spreading centers, the newly discovered group, which may stretch for almost 2 km at a depth of roughly 3200 km, lies in a passive continental margin. Also, whereas the water around the Pacific hydrothermal vents is much warmer than the surrounding seawater, the water around the new found community is apparently the same temperature as the ambient waters.

  6. Mariner 9 Michelson interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanel, R.; Schlachman, B.; Rodgers, D.; Breihan, E.; Bywaters, R.; Chapman, F.; Rhodes, M.; Vanous, D.

    1972-01-01

    The Michelson interferometer on Mariner 9 measures the thermal emission spectrum of Mars between 200 and 2000 per cm (between 5 and 50 microns) with a spectral resolution of 2.4 per cm in the apodized mode. A noise equivalent radiance of 0.5 x 10 to the minus 7th W/sq cm/ster/cm is deduced from data recorded in orbit around Mars. The Mariner interferometer deviates in design from the Nimbus 3 and 4 interferometers in several areas, notably, by a cesium iodide beam splitter and certain aspects of the digital information processing. Special attention has been given to the problem of external vibration. The instrument performance is demonstrated by calibration data and samples of Mars spectra.

  7. Marine cloud brightening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, Hugh; Connolly, Paul; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John; Neukermans, Armand; Ormond, Bob; Parkes, Ben; Rasch, Phillip; Rush, John; Salter, Stephen; Stevenson, Tom; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Qin; Wood, Rob

    2012-01-01

    The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could—subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified herein—have the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point. We describe herein an account of our recent research on a number of critical issues associated with MCB. This involves (i) GCM studies, which are our primary tools for evaluating globally the effectiveness of MCB, and assessing its climate impacts on rainfall amounts and distribution, and also polar sea-ice cover and thickness; (ii) high-resolution modelling of the effects of seeding on marine stratocumulus, which are required to understand the complex array of interacting processes involved in cloud brightening; (iii) microphysical modelling sensitivity studies, examining the influence of seeding amount, seed-particle salt-mass, air-mass characteristics, updraught speed and other parameters on cloud–albedo change; (iv) sea water spray-production techniques; (v) computational fluid dynamics studies of possible large-scale periodicities in Flettner rotors; and (vi) the planning of a three-stage limited-area field research experiment, with the primary objectives of technology testing and determining to what extent, if any, cloud albedo might be enhanced by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds on a spatial scale of around 100×100 km. We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of MCB unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favour of such action

  8. Chemistry of marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yen, T.F.

    1977-01-01

    Some topics considered are as follows: characterization of sediments in the vicinity of offshore petroleum production; thermal alteration experiments on organic matter in recent marine sediments as a model for petroleum genesis; composition of polluted bottom sediments in Great Lakes harbors; distribution of heavy metals in sediment fractions; recent deposition of lead off the coast of southern California; release of trace constituents from sediments resuspended during dredging operations; and migration of chemical constituents in sediment-seawater interfaces

  9. Marine Cloud Brightening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, H.; Connolly, P.; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John; Neukermans, Armand; Ormond, Bob; Parkes, Ben; Rasch, Philip J.; Rush, John; Salter, Stephen; Stevenson, Tom; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Qin; Wood, Robert

    2012-09-07

    The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could - subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified herein - have the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point. We describe herein an account of our recent research on a number of critical issues associated with MCB. This involves (i) GCM studies, which are our primary tools for evaluating globally the effectiveness of MCB, and assessing its climate impacts on rainfall amounts and distribution, and also polar sea-ice cover and thickness; (ii) high-resolution modelling of the effects of seeding on marine stratocumulus, which are required to understand the complex array of interacting processes involved in cloud brightening; (iii) microphysical modelling sensitivity studies, examining the influence of seeding amount, seedparticle salt-mass, air-mass characteristics, updraught speed and other parameters on cloud-albedo change; (iv) sea water spray-production techniques; (v) computational fluid dynamics studies of possible large-scale periodicities in Flettner rotors; and (vi) the planning of a three-stage limited-area field research experiment, with the primary objectives of technology testing and determining to what extent, if any, cloud albedo might be enhanced by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds on a spatial scale of around 100 km. We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of MCB unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favour of such action.

  10. Marine botany. Second edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawes, C.J. [Univ. of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States)

    1998-12-01

    Marine plants are a diverse group that include unicellular algae, seaweeds, seagrasses, salt marshes, and mangrove forests. They carry out a variety of ecological functions and serve as the primary producers in coastal wetlands and oceanic waters. The theme that connects such a wide variety of plants is their ecology, which was also emphasized in the 1981 edition. The goal of this revision is to present taxonomic, physiological, chemical, and ecological aspects of marine plants, their adaptations, and how abiotic and biotic factors interact in their communities. The data are presented in a concise, comparative manner in order to identify similarities and differences between communities such as salt marsh and mangroves or subtidal seaweeds and seagrasses. To accomplish this, the text is organized into five chapters that introduce the marine habitats, consider abiotic and biotic factors, and anthropogenic influences on the communities followed by seven chapters that deal with microalgae, seaweeds, salt marshes, mangroves, seagrasses, and coral reefs. Two appendixes are included; one presents simple field techniques and the other is a summary of seaweed uses.

  11. Violent video games and the Supreme Court: lessons for the scientific community in the wake of Brown v. Entertainment Merchants Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Christopher J

    2013-01-01

    In June 2011 the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that video games enjoy full free speech protections and that the regulation of violent game sales to minors is unconstitutional. The Supreme Court also referred to psychological research on violent video games as "unpersuasive" and noted that such research contains many methodological flaws. Recent reviews in many scholarly journals have come to similar conclusions, although much debate continues. Given past statements by the American Psychological Association linking video game and media violence with aggression, the Supreme Court ruling, particularly its critique of the science, is likely to be shocking and disappointing to some psychologists. One possible outcome is that the psychological community may increase the conclusiveness of their statements linking violent games to harm as a form of defensive reaction. However, in this article the author argues that the psychological community would be better served by reflecting on this research and considering whether the scientific process failed by permitting and even encouraging statements about video game violence that exceeded the data or ignored conflicting data. Although it is likely that debates on this issue will continue, a move toward caution and conservatism as well as increased dialogue between scholars on opposing sides of this debate will be necessary to restore scientific credibility. The current article reviews the involvement of the psychological science community in the Brown v. Entertainment Merchants Association case and suggests that it might learn from some of the errors in this case for the future. (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. 75 FR 67948 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Marine Recreational Information Program (Marine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... information collection. Marine recreational anglers are surveyed for catch and effort data, fish biology data... Collection; Comment Request; Marine Recreational Information Program (Marine Recreational Fisheries..., regarding conservation and management of fishery resources. Marine recreational fishing catch and effort...

  13. Viruses manipulate the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohwer, Forest; Thurber, Rebecca Vega

    2009-05-14

    Marine viruses affect Bacteria, Archaea and eukaryotic organisms and are major components of the marine food web. Most studies have focused on their role as predators and parasites, but many of the interactions between marine viruses and their hosts are much more complicated. A series of recent studies has shown that viruses have the ability to manipulate the life histories and evolution of their hosts in remarkable ways, challenging our understanding of this almost invisible world.

  14. Anticancer agents from marine sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jianjun; Zhou, Feng; Al-Kareef, Ammar M Q; Wang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Marine sponges are currently one of the richest sources of anticancer active compounds found in the marine ecosystems. More than 5300 different known metabolites are from sponges and their associated microorganisms. To survive in the complicated marine environment, most of the sponge species have evolved chemical means to defend against predation. Such chemical adaptation produces many biologically active secondary metabolites including anticancer agents. This review highlights novel secondary metabolites in sponges which inhibited diverse cancer species in the recent 5 years. These natural products of marine sponges are categorized based on various chemical characteristics.

  15. A review of the status of and prospects for nuclear marine propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, J.

    1976-01-01

    The review relates particularly to commercial nuclear merchant ships. The effects of the oil price escalation on world trade recession and price inflation are shown in relation to the rapid decrease in demand for new shipping and inflation in costs of any new construction. Economic analyses which began to be accepted as in favour of nuclear ships of relatively high power and high load factor have become somewhat less favourable, particularly from the point of view of higher investment costs and the presumed reluctance of shipowners to risk having these ships idle. On the other hand it is pointed out that the overall energy crisis remains and it is considered prudent to identify and seek solutions to those problems in nuclear ship propulsion which either still leave important uncertainties or which are likely to inhibit its use on a wide commercial scale. These are discussed under the following headings: economic assessments; safety acceptance and port entry; licensing and legislative problems; accidents and their consequences; decommissioning a nuclear ship; developments in the marine reactor designs. (U.K.)

  16. Marine biogeochemistry of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.W.

    1997-01-01

    Radionuclides entering the ocean from runoff, fallout, or deliberate release rapidly become involved in marine biogeochemical cycles. Sources, sinks and transport of radionuclides and analogue elements are discussed with emphasis placed on how these elements interact with marine organisms. Water, food and sediments are the source terms from which marine biota acquire radionuclides. Uptake from water occurs by surface adsorption, absorption across body surfaces, or a combination of both. Radionuclides ingested with food are either assimilated into tissue or excreted. The relative importance of the food and water pathway in uptake varies with the radionuclide and the conditions under which exposure occurs. Evidence suggests that, compared to the water and food pathways, bioavailability of sediment-bound radionuclides is low. Bioaccumulation processes are controlled by many environmental and intrinsic factors including exposure time, physical-chemical form of the radionuclide, salinity, temperature, competitive effects with other elements, organism size, physiology, life cycle and feeding habits. Once accumulated, radionuclides are transported actively by vertical and horizontal movements of organisms and passively by release of biogenic products, e.g., soluble excreta, feces, molts and eggs. Through feeding activities, particles containing radionuclides are ''packaged'' into larger aggregates which are redistributed upon release. Most radionuclides are not irreversibly bound to such particles but are remineralized as they sink and/or decompose. In the pelagic zones, sinking aggregates can further scavenge particle-reactive elements thus removing them from the surface layers and transporting them to depth. Evidence from both radiotracer experiments and in situ sediment trap studies is presented which illustrates the importance of biological scavenging in controlling the distribution of radionuclides in the water column. (author)

  17. Persistent marine debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, E.M.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the distribution of persistent marine debris, adrift on world oceans and stranded on beaches globally, is reviewed and related to the known inputs and transport by the major surface currents. Since naturally occurring processes eventually degrade petroleum in the environment, international measures to reduce the inputs have been largely successful in alleviating oil pollution on a global, if not on a local, scale. Many plastics, however, are so resistant to natural degradation that merely controlling inputs will be insufficient, and more drastic and costly measures will be needed to cope with the emerging global problem posed by these materials

  18. Extremozymes from Marine Actinobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriya, J; Bharathiraja, S; Krishnan, M; Manivasagan, P; Kim, S-K

    Marine microorganisms that have the possibility to survive in diverse conditions such as extreme temperature, pH, pressure, and salinity are known as extremophiles. They produce biocatalysts so named as extremozymes that are active and stable at extreme conditions. These enzymes have numerous industrial applications due to its distinct properties. Till now, only a fraction of microorganisms on Earth have been exploited for screening of extremozymes. Novel techniques used for the cultivation and production of extremophiles, as well as cloning and overexpression of their genes in various expression systems, will pave the way to use these enzymes for chemical, food, pharmaceutical, and other industrial applications. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A novel marine nitrite-oxidizing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haaijer, S.C.M.; Ji, K.; van Niftrik, L.; Hoischen, A.; Speth, D.R.; Jetten, M.S.M.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Op den Camp, H.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Marine microorganisms are important for the global nitrogen cycle, but marine nitrifiers, especially aerobic nitrite oxidizers, remain largely unexplored. To increase the number of cultured representatives of marine nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB), a bioreactor cultivation approach was adopted to

  20. Preamble to marine microbiology: Facets and opportunities

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.

    The book titled 'Marine Microbiology: Facets & Opportunities' is an attempt to bring together some facets of marine microbiology as have been made out by many contemporaries in particular from the tropical marine regions. There are 18 contributed...

  1. A global census of marine microbes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Amaral-Zettler, L.; Artigas, L.F.; Baross, J.; LokaBharathi, P.A; Boetius, A; Chandramohan, D.; Herndl, G.; Kogure, K.; Neal, P.; Pedros-Alio, C.; Ramette, A; Schouten, S.; Stal, L.; Thessen, A; De Leeuw, J.; Sogin, M.

    In this chapter we provide a brief history of what is known about marine microbial diversity, summarize our achievements in performing a global census of marine microbes, and reflect on the questions and priorities for the future of the marine...

  2. Marine conservation strategies for Maharashtra Coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Dhargalkar, V.K.

    , Wildlife Sanctuaries, Marine Parks and Protected Areas. Detailed studies of 37 sites along the Maharashtra Coast, for their marine biota and also the ecological conditions, were taken up. Out of these, seven most luxuriant areas in marine biodiversity have...

  3. Manganese in Marine Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansel, Colleen M

    2017-01-01

    The importance of manganese in the physiology of marine microbes, the biogeochemistry of the ocean and the health of microbial communities of past and present is emerging. Manganese is distributed widely throughout the global ocean, taking the form of an essential antioxidant (Mn 2+ ), a potent oxidant (Mn 3+ ) and strong adsorbent (Mn oxides) sequestering disproportionately high levels of trace metals and nutrients in comparison to the surrounding seawater. Manganese is, in fact, linked to nearly all other elemental cycles and intricately involved in the health, metabolism and function of the ocean's microbiome. Here, we briefly review the diversity of microbes and pathways responsible for the transformation of Mn within the three Mn pools and their distribution within the marine environment. Despite decades of interrogation, we still have much to learn about the players, mechanisms and consequences of the Mn cycle, and new and exciting discoveries are being made at a rapid rate. What is clear is the dynamic and ever-inspiring complexity of reactions involving Mn, and the acknowledgement that microorganisms are the catalytic engine driving the Mn cycle. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Marine debris occurrence and treatment: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Iñiguez, María Esperanza; Conesa, Juan A.; Fullana, Andres

    2016-01-01

    Marine debris produces a wide variety of negative environmental, economic, safety, health and cultural impacts. Most marine litter has a very low decomposition rate (as plastics, which are the most abundant type of marine debris), leading to a gradual, but significant accumulation in the coastal and marine environment. Along that time, marine debris is a significant source of chemical contaminants to the marine environment. Once extracted from the water, incineration is the method most widely...

  5. Marine Biology and Human Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, F. S.

    1976-01-01

    Marine biology has become an important area for study throughout the world. The author of this article discusses some of the important discoveries and fields of research in marine biology that are useful for mankind. Topics include food from the sea, fish farming, pesticides, pollution, and conservation. (MA)

  6. Marine line fish research programme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    SANCOR

    1979-04-01

    Full Text Available This report outlines the framework for a marine line fish programme under the aegis of the South African National Committee for Oceanographic Research (SANCOR). An attempt is made to assess the state of knowledge about South African marine line...

  7. Plastics in the Marine Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Kara Lavender

    2017-01-03

    Plastics contamination in the marine environment was first reported nearly 50 years ago, less than two decades after the rise of commercial plastics production, when less than 50 million metric tons were produced per year. In 2014, global plastics production surpassed 300 million metric tons per year. Plastic debris has been detected worldwide in all major marine habitats, in sizes from microns to meters. In response, concerns about risks to marine wildlife upon exposure to the varied forms of plastic debris have increased, stimulating new research into the extent and consequences of plastics contamination in the marine environment. Here, I present a framework to evaluate the current understanding of the sources, distribution, fate, and impacts of marine plastics. Despite remaining knowledge gaps in mass budgeting and challenges in investigating ecological impacts, the increasing evidence of the ubiquity of plastics contamination in the marine environment, the continued rapid growth in plastics production, and the evidence-albeit limited-of demonstrated impacts to marine wildlife support immediate implementation of source-reducing measures to decrease the potential risks of plastics in the marine ecosystem.

  8. Biodiversity of arctic marine fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mecklenburg, Catherine W.; Møller, Peter Rask; Steinke, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Taxonomic and distributional information on each fish species found in arctic marine waters is reviewed, and a list of families and species with commentary on distributional records is presented. The list incorporates results from examination of museum collections of arctic marine fishes dating b...

  9. Marine Casualty and Pollution Data for Researchers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Marine Casualty and Pollution Data files provide details about marine casualty and pollution incidents investigated by Coast Guard Offices throughout the United...

  10. A Guideline for Marine Corps Financial Managers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wright, Anthone

    1998-01-01

    ...), and Marine Corps orders, publications and directives to determine those keys areas considered most essential to Marine Corps financial management specialists in the performance of their duties...

  11. Public Aquariums and Marine Aesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nola Semczyszyn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the inaccessibility of the marine environment, the closest many of us come to viewing it is at public aquariums. Aquariums also provide us with rich aesthetic experiences, but it is not clear whether we appreciate the marine environment at aquariums. I present the dilemma of aquarium appreciation as an inconsistent triad: 1 we treat aquariums as places to appreciate marine environments, 2 aquariums are artifacts, not natural objects, and 3 nature and art should be appreciated differently. I argue that aquarium displays are scientific models of marine environments with aesthetic, educational, and scientific aims. My solution to the dilemma involves accepting the paradox and modifying 2. By appreciating displays as the kind of artifacts they are, we are better able to appreciate the marine environment.

  12. Antimycobacterial Metabolites from Marine Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daletos, Georgios; Ancheeva, Elena; Chaidir, Chaidir; Kalscheuer, Rainer; Proksch, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Marine organisms play an important role in natural product-based drug research due to accumulation of structurally unique and bioactive metabolites. The exploration of marine-derived compounds may significantly extend the scientific knowledge of potential scaffolds for antibiotic drug discovery. Development of novel antitubercular agents is especially significant as the emergence of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains remains threateningly high. Marine invertebrates (i.e., sponges, corals, gorgonians) as a source of new chemical entities are the center of research for several scientific groups, and the wide spectrum of biological activities of marine-derived compounds encourages scientists to carry out investigations in the field of antibiotic research, including tuberculosis treatment. The present review covers published data on antitubercular natural products from marine invertebrates grouped according to their biogenetic origin. Studies on the structure-activity relationships of these important leads are highlighted as well. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Merchants in Florence, Knights under the rule of the kings of Aragon. The Tecchini-Taquí between the 14th and the 15th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soldani, Maria Elisa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The path of the Tecchinis is a relevant example of a Florentine family’s naturalization in the Catalan-Aragonese kingdoms. In contrast to many of their conationals, the record of Tecchini-Taquí is characterized by their long presence and by establishing a unique integration process, which involved a transgression of social rank from merchants to knights in less then a century. The key to their achievements was double identity and the coexistence of the Tuscan merchant’s typical skills with the involvements of the great mercantile Catalan families. As a result they could cover the role of intermediates between Florentine companies and the local world. The members of this family also made use of a direct and privileged relation with the Crown, established due to the professional services they offered to the monarchs.

    La traiettoria dei Tecchini costituisce un esempio significativo di naturalizzazione di una famiglia fiorentina in ambito catalano-aragonese. I Tecchini- Taquí, al contrario di molti dei loro connazionali, furono caratterizzati da una presenza di lunga durata e dall’avviarsi di un processo d’integrazione che avrebbe comportato, in meno di un secolo, anche un passaggio di status da mercanti a cavalieri. La chiave del loro successo fu la doppia appartenenza, il coesistere delle caratteristiche tipiche del mercante toscano con gli interessi delle grandi famiglie mercantili catalano-aragonesi, che gli consentì di ricoprire il ruolo di mediatori tra compagnie fiorentine e mondo locale. Gli esponenti di questa famiglia si avvalsero anche di un rapporto diretto e privilegiato con la Corona, stretto grazie ai servizi di natura professionale offerti ai monarchi.

  14. How Environmental "Merchants of Doubt" Use Peer-Reviewed Publication as a Means to Commandeer Scientific Debate: A Case Study of a Publishing Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, D. I.

    2015-12-01

    This year, the USEPA reported no systemic problem with respect to pollution of potable waters by solutes or natural gas resulting from unconventional drilling for oil and gas, despite attempts by anti-fracking opponents to frighten the public about water pollution from rare circumstances (much as those who have cherry- picked climate data to suggest burning fossil fuels does not affect climate). Scientific "merchants of doubt" have figured out how to use peer-reviewed papers to advocate their bias, regardless of the side for which they advocate. I present a personal example. Prior to the EPA report, authors of a highly-cited peer-reviewed paper argued that more dissolved methane than usual should be expected in ground water located close to unconventional gas wells. This paper figured prominently in the New York State's recent ban on fracking. To test the reproducibility of this conclusion, colleagues and I redid the study but by sampling ~13,000 NE Pennsylvania domestic wells, densely arrayed near ~800 gas wells. Not surprising, we found no systemic relationship between methane in drinking water and proximity to gas wells; failed gas wells actually are rare. The peer reviewed system of publication has been broken for years, because of continual pressure to publish more to achieve academic success coupled to a flood of international submissions. Editors routinely have a difficult time finding senior scientists to agree to review papers, and so they wind up relying more on reviewers suggested by authors, who can and have gamed the peer review system through it. To resolve this problem, I suggest that journal editors be more far more draconian before releasing papers for review and that they enforce clear rubrics to insure that reviewers address reviews properly. Finally, conflict of interest disclosure needs to be clearer, since common assumption that bias inherently evolves from funded research outside of Federal and non-profit organizations, appears to be, at

  15. Marine radioecology. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palsson, S.E

    1998-06-01

    Results of the EKO-1 project for the period 1994-1997 are summarised in this report. The aim of the project was to make a joint Nordic study on radionuclides in sediment and water and the interaction between these two phases. Relatively less emphasis has been put on this factor compared to others in previous Nordic studies on marine radioecology. For some of the participating countries this work was the first of its kind undertaken. The project work involved field, laboratory and model studies. Results of the study have appeared in various scientific journal and it has formed the bases for two Ph.D. theses and two M.Sc. theses. (au)

  16. Lipides polaires marins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanni Jacques

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Les lipides polaires marins, notamment les phospholipides (PL, retiennent depuis quelques années l’attention des chercheurs et des industriels en raison de leur composition, particulièrement riche en acides gras polyinsaturés à longue chaîne (AGPI-LC. Ils combinent ainsi les propriétés reconnues des AGPI-LC à l’intérêt métabolique et structural des phospholipides. Les sources sont nombreuses et d’accès très diversifié. Le défi industriel provient de leurs caractéristiques amphiphiles et aromatiques particulièrement marquées qui rend leur extraction très difficile.

  17. Monaco and marine environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimaldi, Albert II Prince

    2006-01-01

    The importance of the protection of the marine environment for sustainable development and economy of coastal countries, like Monaco, is well known. Sadly, this environment has been under continuous threats from development, tourism, urbanisation and demographic pressure. The semi-enclosed Mediterranean sea is challenged by new pollutant cocktails, problems of fresh water management, over-fishing, and now increasingly climate change impacts. Monaco has a long history in the investigation of the marine environment. Prince Albert I, was one of the pioneers in oceanographic exploration, organizer of European oceanographic research and founder of several international organizations including the Musee Oceanographique. The International Atomic Energy Agency established in 1961 its Marine Environment Laboratory in Monaco, the only marine laboratory in the United Nations system. More than 40 years ago the IAEA joined forces with the Grimaldi family and several interested governments to establish the Marine Environment Laboratory in Monaco. Their first purpose-built facilities, dedicated to marine research, launched a new era in the investigation of the marine environment using radioactive and stable isotopes as tracers for better understanding of processes in the oceans and seas, addressing their pollution and promoting wide international cooperation. The Government of the Principality of Monaco has been actively engaged in these developments and is continuously supporting activities of the Monaco Laboratory

  18. 76 FR 39386 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to the Port of Anchorage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... graduate and undergraduate marine biology students conducted approximately 600 hours of scientific... Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to the Port of Anchorage Marine Terminal Redevelopment Project AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration...

  19. 75 FR 38465 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to the Port of Anchorage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ..., from May 4 through November 18, 2009, trained graduate and undergraduate marine biology students... Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to the Port of Anchorage Marine Terminal Redevelopment Project AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration...

  20. Databases of the marine metagenomics

    KAUST Repository

    Mineta, Katsuhiko

    2015-10-28

    The metagenomic data obtained from marine environments is significantly useful for understanding marine microbial communities. In comparison with the conventional amplicon-based approach of metagenomics, the recent shotgun sequencing-based approach has become a powerful tool that provides an efficient way of grasping a diversity of the entire microbial community at a sampling point in the sea. However, this approach accelerates accumulation of the metagenome data as well as increase of data complexity. Moreover, when metagenomic approach is used for monitoring a time change of marine environments at multiple locations of the seawater, accumulation of metagenomics data will become tremendous with an enormous speed. Because this kind of situation has started becoming of reality at many marine research institutions and stations all over the world, it looks obvious that the data management and analysis will be confronted by the so-called Big Data issues such as how the database can be constructed in an efficient way and how useful knowledge should be extracted from a vast amount of the data. In this review, we summarize the outline of all the major databases of marine metagenome that are currently publically available, noting that database exclusively on marine metagenome is none but the number of metagenome databases including marine metagenome data are six, unexpectedly still small. We also extend our explanation to the databases, as reference database we call, that will be useful for constructing a marine metagenome database as well as complementing important information with the database. Then, we would point out a number of challenges to be conquered in constructing the marine metagenome database.

  1. Climate change and marine life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richardson, Anthony J.; Brown, Christopher J.; Brander, Keith

    2012-01-01

    A Marine Climate Impacts Workshop was held from 29 April to 3 May 2012 at the US National Center of Ecological Analysis and Synthesis in Santa Barbara. This workshop was the culmination of a series of six meetings over the past three years, which had brought together 25 experts in climate change...... ecology, analysis of large datasets, palaeontology, marine ecology and physical oceanography. Aims of these workshops were to produce a global synthesis of climate impacts on marine biota, to identify sensitive habitats and taxa, to inform the current Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC...

  2. Aspects of Organic Marine Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duursma, E.K.; Marchand, M.

    1976-01-01

    A literature review is intended to summarize available information on the various aspects of pollution of the marine environment by organic substances. Chemicals such as pesticides, particularly the organo chlorine insecticides and herbicides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), oil and hydrocarbons, sewage, detergents, wastes from wood processing industries, cyanides and other organic pollutants are discussed. For each of these pollutants, information has been presented on their determination, their distribution in the marine environment, biogeochemical phenomena such as persistence, degradation and bioaccumulation, and finally on their effects on marine organisms. (author)

  3. 46 CFR 10.214 - Security Check.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Security Check. 10.214 Section 10.214 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN MERCHANT MARINER CREDENTIAL General Requirements for All Merchant Mariner Credentials § 10.214 Security Check. Until April 15, 2009...

  4. 75 FR 952 - Draft Marine Sanitation Device Discharge Regulations for the Florida Keys National Marine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-07

    ... Marine Sanitation Device Discharge Regulations for the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary; Public... generated by marine sanitation devices, and to require marine sanitation devices be locked to prevent... biodegradable effluent incidental to vessel use and generated by marine sanitation devices, and to require...

  5. Preface to: Special issue on Marine mycology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.

    in the meantime. This sparked a debate on “what is a marine fungus?” The terms “marine-derived fungi” or fungi from marine environment slowly but reluctantly got acceptance from true marine mycologists and thus paved way for a special issue of the journal Fungal... in which it was found buried was dated to be 0.43 million years old. These findings highlight the presence of terrestrial or geofungi in the marine environment. This special issue on Marine Mycology in Indian Journal of Marine Sciences covers articles...

  6. Disease in marine aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindermann, C. J.

    1984-03-01

    It has become almost a truism that success in intensive production of animals must be based in part on development of methods for disease diagnosis and control. Excellent progress has been made in methods of diagnosis for major pathogens of cultivated fish, crustacean and molluscan species. In many instances these have proved to be facultative pathogens, able to exert severe effects in populations of animals under other stresses (marginal physical or chemical conditions; overcrowding). The concept of stress management as a critical prophylactic measure is not new, but its significance is being demonstrated repeatedly. The particular relationship of water quality and facultative pathogens such as Vibrio, Pseudomonas and Aeromonas species has been especially apparent. Virus diseases of marine vertebrates and invertebrates — little known two decades ago — are now recognized to be of significance to aquaculture. Virus infections of oysters, clams, shrimps and crabs have been described, and mortalities have been attributed to them. Several virus diseases of fish have also been recognized as potential or actual problems in culture. In some instances, the pathogens seem to be latent in natural populations, and may be provoked into patency by stresses of artificial environments. One of the most promising approaches to disease prophylaxis is through immunization. Fish respond well to various vaccination procedures, and new non-stressing methods have been developed. Vibriosis — probably the most severe disease of ocean-reared salmon — has been controlled to a great extent through use of a polyvalent bacterin, which can be modified as new pathogenic strains are isolated. Prophylactic immunization for other bacterial diseases of cultivated fish has been attempted, especially in Japan, with some success. There is also some evidence that the larger crustaceans may be immunologically responsive, and that at least short-term protection may be afforded to cultured

  7. Radiochemical tracers in marine biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrocelli, S.R.; Anderson, J.W.; Neff, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    Tracers have been used in a great variety of experimentation. More recently, labeled materials have been applied in marine biological research. Some of the existing tracer techniques have been utilized directly, while others have been modified to suit the specific needs of marine biologists. This chapter describes some of the uses of tracers in marine biological research. It also mentions the problems encountered as well as offering possible solutions and discusses further applications of these techniques. Only pertinent references are cited and additional information may be obtained by consulting these references. Due to their relative ease of maintenance, freshwater species are also utilized in studies which involve radiotracer techniques. Since most of these techniques e directly applicable to marine species, some of these studies will also be included

  8. NCEI Marine Geology Data Archive

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine Geologic data compilations and reports in the NCEI archive are from academic and government sources around the world. Over ten terabytes of analyses,...

  9. Response to marine oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This book reviews the problems posed by marine oil spills and the practical response measures which can be implemented. Aspects discussed include containment and recovery, the use of dispersants, shoreline clean-up and planning and operations. (UK)

  10. Endstrength: Forecasting Marine Corps Losses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hattiangadi, Anita U; Kimble, Theresa H; Lambert, William B; Quester, Aline O

    2005-01-01

    The Marine Corps' manpower costs are 60 percent of its annual budget. The Enlisted and Officer Strength Planners must develop plans, by paygrade and month, to meet endstrength requirements in the budget execution year and 6 out-years...

  11. Marine archaeological research in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Sundaresh; Vora, K.H.; Bandodkar, S.N.

    has undertaken the exploration and excavation of submerged ports and shipwrecks in Indian waters. The paper highlight the objectives, methodology, tools, findings and the progress made in India in the field of marine archaeology during the 50 years...

  12. 76 FR 75524 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ... griseus), killer whale (Orcinus orca) and Mesoplodont beaked whales (Mesoplodon spp); (3) add a new... cetacean behavior, sound production, and responses to sound. The research methods include tagging marine... measures vocalization, behavior, and physiological parameters. Research also involves conducting sound...

  13. The Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The�Marine Sciences Laboratory sits on 140 acres of tidelands and uplands located on Sequim Bay, Washington. Key capabilities include 6,000 sq ft of analytical and...

  14. Marine biotechnology: Opportunities for India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, D.

    manipulation is now reality. High yielding, fast growing and disease resistant strains of fish, shellfish and algae will boost the aquaculture industry. There may be a solution for all the problems of waste disposal in the marine environment. Considering...

  15. Coastal marine contamination in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garay T, Jesus A; Marin Z, Bienvenido; Velez G, Ana Maria

    2002-01-01

    The paper tries about the problem of the marine contamination and their marked influence in the health of the coastal ecosystems, of their narrow relationship with the growing increase of the populations that they inhabit the coastal areas and of equal it forms, with the increment of the domestic, agricultural and industrial activities that, for the wrong handling and inadequate control of the solid and liquid waste, they affect the marine environment with significant implications at ecological, socioeconomic level and of health. Another component of the environmental problem of the marine ecosystems in the country, resides in that don't exist in general normative on the chemical quality and sanitary for its marine waters, that which limits the categorization of this agreement ecosystems with its environmental quality, conditioning this the lack of adequate mechanisms to mitigate the causes that originate the deterioration of the quality of the Colombian coasts

  16. Marine archeology: The hidden history

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.

    Goa, with its 120 kms long coastline, had been the attraction for the mariners since the ancient historical period. There are several ancient ports mentioned in the literature and antiquity of the same has been attested. The important sites include...

  17. Cavitation simulation on marine propellers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, Keun Woo

    Cavitation on marine propellers causes thrust breakdown, noise, vibration and erosion. The increasing demand for high-efficiency propellers makes it difficult to avoid the occurrence of cavitation. Currently, practical analysis of propeller cavitation depends on cavitation tunnel test, empirical...

  18. Seagrasses - The forgotton marine habitat

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.; Rodrigues, R.S.

    Seagrasses, a specialized group of flowering plants, submerged in the marine, estuarine, bay and backwater regions of the world. Though seagrass beds are of great ecological and socio economic importance, they are mostly unknown to Indians. Seagrass...

  19. Veteran Unemployment of Transitioning Marines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    military experience. C2 Marines have high AFQT scores and work with information systems; they may pursue, for example, computer science degrees in college...i.e., they made a rational decision based on lack of information). DOD actuarial officials use the low MGIB benefit use rate to maintain program...such as computer science , to make their military skills transferable, while others may not. Marines in services, repair/maintenance, operator, and

  20. Marine sponges as microbial fermenters

    OpenAIRE

    Hentschel, Ute; Usher, Kayley M.; Taylor, Michael W.

    2006-01-01

    The discovery of phylogenetically complex, yet highly sponge-specific microbial communities in marine sponges, including novel lineages and even candidate phyla, came as a surprise. At the same time, unique research opportunities opened up, because the microorganisms of sponges are in many ways more accessible than those of seawater. Accordingly, we consider sponges as microbial fermenters that provide exciting new avenues in marine microbiology and biotechnology. This review covers recent fi...

  1. Marine Tar Residues: a Review

    OpenAIRE

    Warnock, April M.; Hagen, Scott C.; Passeri, Davina L.

    2015-01-01

    Marine tar residues originate from natural and anthropogenic oil releases into the ocean environment and are formed after liquid petroleum is transformed by weathering, sedimentation, and other processes. Tar balls, tar mats, and tar patties are common examples of marine tar residues and can range in size from millimeters in diameter (tar balls) to several meters in length and width (tar mats). These residues can remain in the ocean environment indefinitely, decomposing or becoming buried in ...

  2. Marine genomics: News and views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Ângela M; Foote, Andrew D; Kupczok, Anne; Frazão, Bárbara; Limborg, Morten T; Piñeiro, Rosalía; Abalde, Samuel; Rocha, Sara; da Fonseca, Rute R

    2017-02-01

    Marine ecosystems occupy 71% of the surface of our planet, yet we know little about their diversity. Although the inventory of species is continually increasing, as registered by the Census of Marine Life program, only about 10% of the estimated two million marine species are known. This lag between observed and estimated diversity is in part due to the elusiveness of most aquatic species and the technical difficulties of exploring extreme environments, as for instance the abyssal plains and polar waters. In the last decade, the rapid development of affordable and flexible high-throughput sequencing approaches have been helping to improve our knowledge of marine biodiversity, from the rich microbial biota that forms the base of the tree of life to a wealth of plant and animal species. In this review, we present an overview of the applications of genomics to the study of marine life, from evolutionary biology of non-model organisms to species of commercial relevance for fishing, aquaculture and biomedicine. Instead of providing an exhaustive list of available genomic data, we rather set to present contextualized examples that best represent the current status of the field of marine genomics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. L’Entrepreneuriat au sein de la famille. Marchands et entrepreneurs en Inde Entrepreneurship in the Family Context: Merchants and Entrepreneurs in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Tambs-Lyche

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Malgré le déni de Max Weber, l’essor actuel de l’économie indienne montre que non seulement l’esprit du capitalisme, mais aussi l’entrepreneuriat, sont bien présents en Inde. Dans cet article, j’analyse les stratégies commerciales des Gauda Saraswat Brahmanes du Sud Kanara (autour de Mangalore, sur la côte Ouest de l’Inde, en utilisant le modèle d’entrepreneuriat proposé par Fredrik Barth (1962, 1967. Fidèle à la tradition du « capitalisme de portefeuille » (Baily 1989, ces marchands distribuent leur capital entre des filières sûres mais modérément rentables, et des projets novateurs et profitables mais risqués. L’entrepreneur, ici, n’est que rarement l’individu, car il s’agit le plus souvent d’une stratégie orchestrée par la famille, qui se confond à son tour avec la firme familiale. Cette orchestration exige des chefs de famille un souci constant de management qui se manifeste en écoutant les idées des cadets et en leur confiant des rôles qui les gratifient au sein de l’entreprise familiale, tout en gardant la main sur la stratégie globale de la firme.In spite of Max Weber’s views, the present growth in the Indian economy shows rather conclusively the presence both of the spirit of capitalism and of entrepreneurship in India. In this article, I analyse the commercial strategies of the Gauda Saraswat Brahmins of South Kanara (around Mangalore, on the West coast of India, using the model of entrepreneurship proposed by Fredrik Barth (1962, 1967. True to the tradition of portefeuille capitalism (Baily 1989, these merchants distribute their capital between safe but moderately remunerative ventures, and projects that are profitable but risky. The entrepreneur, here, is rarely an individual, rather we see a strategy orchestrated by the family, which in its turn corresponds to the family firm. This organisation demands constant attention from the head of the family, who must listen to the ideas of

  4. Marine biogeochemistry of mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    Noncontaminating sample collection and handling procedures and accurate and sensitive analysis methods were developed to measure sub-picomolar Hg concentrations in seawater. Reliable and diagnostic oceanographic Hg distributions were obtained, permitting major processes governing the marine biogeochemistry of Hg to be identified. Mercury concentrations in the northwest Atlantic, central Pacific, southeast Pacific, and Tasman Sea ranged from 0.5 to 12 pM. Vertical Hg distributions often exhibited a maximum within or near the main thermocline. At similar depths, Hg concentrations in the northwest Atlantic Ocean were elevated compared to the N. Pacific Ocean. This pattern appears to result from a combination of enhanced supply of Hg to the northwest Atlantic by rainfall and scavenging removal along deep water circulation pathways. These observations are supported by geochemical steady-state box modelling which predicts a relatively short mean residence time for Hg in the oceans; demonstrating the reactive nature of Hg in seawater and precluding significant involvement in nutrient-type recyclic. Evidence for the rapid removal of Hg from seawater was obtained at two locations. Surface seawater Hg measurements along 160 0 W (20 0 N to 20 0 S) showed a depression in the equatorial upwelling area which correlated well with the transect region exhibiting low 234 Th/ 238 U activity ratios. This relationship implies that Hg will be scavenged and removed from surface seawater in biologically productive oceanic zones. Further, a broad minimum in the vertical distribution of Hg was observed to coincide with the intense oxygen minimum zone in the water column in coastal waters off Peru

  5. Marine disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodhead, D.S.

    1980-01-01

    In a general sense, the main attraction of the marine environment as a repository for the wastes generated by human activities lies in the degree of dispersion and dilution which is readily attainable. However, the capacity of the oceans to receive wastes without unacceptable consequences is clearly finite and this is even more true of localized marine environments such as estuaries, coastal waters and semi-enclosed seas. Radionuclides have always been present in the marine environment and marine organisms and humans consuming marine foodstuffs have always been exposed, to some degree, to radiation from this source. The hazard associated with ionizing radiations is dependent upon the adsorption of energy from the radiation field within some biological entity. Thus any disposal of radioactive wastes into the marine environment has consequences, the acceptability of which must be assessed in terms of the possible resultant increase in radiation exposure of human and aquatic populations. In the United Kingdom the primary consideration has been and remains the safe-guarding of public health. The control procedures are therefore designed to minimize as far as practicable the degree of human exposure within the overall limits recommended as acceptable by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. There are several approaches through which control could be exercised and the strenghs and weaknesses of each are considered. In this review the detailed application of the critical path technique to the control of the discharge into the north-east Irish Sea from the fuel reprocessing plant at Windscale is given as a practical example. It will be further demonstrated that when human exposure is controlled in this way no significant risk attaches to the increased radiation exposure experienced by populations of marine organisms in the area. (orig.) [de

  6. Endangered Species. Management Improvements Could Enhance Recovery Program. Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Fisheries and Wildlife Conservation and the Environment, Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries, House of Representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Resources, Community, and Economic Development Div.

    Extinction of animal and plant species has become a serious problem that threatens to become more acute in coming years. The endangered species program was established to prevent further extinctions and ultimately recover species designated as threatened or endangered through the development and implementation of species recovery plans. Concerned…

  7. International laboratory of marine radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The director's report presents the overall aims and objectives of the laboratory, and some of the significant findings to date. Among these is the different behaviour in oceans of Pu and Am. Thus, fallout Pu, in contrast to Am, tends to remain in the soluble form. The vertical downward transport of Am is much quicker than for Pu. Since 1980, uptake and depuration studies of sup(95m)Tc have been carried out on key marine species. Marine environmental behaviour of Tc is being evaluated carefully in view of its being a significant constituent of nuclear wastes. Growing demands are being made on the laboratory for providing intercalibration and instrument maintenance services, and for providing training for scientists from developing countries. The body of the report is divided into 5 sections dealing with marine biology, marine chemistry, marine geochemistry/sedimentation, environmental studies, and engineering services, respectively. Appendices list laboratory staff, publications by staff members, papers and reports presented at meetings or conferences, consultants to the laboratory from 1967-1980, fellowships, trainees and membership of committees, task forces and working groups

  8. Marine oils: Complex, confusing, confounded?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin B. Albert

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Marine oils gained prominence following the report that Greenland Inuits who consumed a high-fat diet rich in long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs also had low rates of cardiovascular disease. Marine n-3 PUFAs have since become a billion dollar industry, which will continue to grow based on current trends. However, recent systematic reviews question the health benefits of marine oil supplements, particularly in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Marine oils constitute an extremely complex dietary intervention for a number of reasons: i the many chemical compounds they contain; ii the many biological processes affected by n-3 PUFAs; iii their tendency to deteriorate and form potentially toxic primary and secondary oxidation products; and iv inaccuracy in the labelling of consumer products. These complexities may confound the clinical literature, limiting the ability to make substantive conclusions for some key health outcomes. Thus, there is a pressing need for clinical trials using marine oils whose composition has been independently verified and demonstrated to be minimally oxidised. Without such data, it is premature to conclude that n-3 PUFA rich supplements are ineffective.

  9. Marine oil spill response organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendry, C.

    1997-01-01

    The obligations under the law relative to the prevention of marine oil spills and the type of emergency plans needed to mitigate any adverse effects caused by a marine oil spill were discussed. The organizational structure, spill response resources and operational management capabilities of Canada's newly created Response Organizations (ROs) were described. The overall range of oil spill response services that the RO provides to the domestic oil handling, oil transportation and the international shipping industries were reviewed. Amendments to the Canada Shipping Act which require that certain ships and oil handling facilities take oil spill preparedness and response measures, including having an arrangement with an RO certified by the Canadian Coast Guard, were outlined. Canadians now benefit from five ROs established to provide coast-to-coast oil spill response coverage. These include the Western Canada Marine Response Corporation, the Canadian Marine Response Management Corporation, the Great Lakes Response Corporation, the Eastern Canada Response Corporation and the Atlantic Emergency Response Team Ltd. ROs have the expertise necessary to organize and manage marine oil spill response services. They can provide equipment, personnel and operational management for the containment, recovery and cleanup of oil spilled on water

  10. Marine Tar Residues: a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnock, April M; Hagen, Scott C; Passeri, Davina L

    Marine tar residues originate from natural and anthropogenic oil releases into the ocean environment and are formed after liquid petroleum is transformed by weathering, sedimentation, and other processes. Tar balls, tar mats, and tar patties are common examples of marine tar residues and can range in size from millimeters in diameter (tar balls) to several meters in length and width (tar mats). These residues can remain in the ocean environment indefinitely, decomposing or becoming buried in the sea floor. However, in many cases, they are transported ashore via currents and waves where they pose a concern to coastal recreation activities, the seafood industry and may have negative effects on wildlife. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge on marine tar residue formation, transport, degradation, and distribution. Methods of detection and removal of marine tar residues and their possible ecological effects are discussed, in addition to topics of marine tar research that warrant further investigation. Emphasis is placed on benthic tar residues, with a focus on the remnants of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in particular, which are still affecting the northern Gulf of Mexico shores years after the leaking submarine well was capped.

  11. Food enrichment with marine phospholipid emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Baron, Caroline P.

    of marine PL emulsions, iii) evaluation of non-enzymatic browning reactions in marine PL emulsions, iv) evaluation of sensory properties and oxidative stability of yoghurt enriched with marine PL. The obtained results showed that marine PL have good emulsifying properties and it was feasible to prepare...... to the interaction between lipid oxidation products with amine group either from phosphatidylethanolamine or residues of amino acids/proteins in marine PL. The study on enrichment of yoghurt with marine PL showed that the oxidative stability and sensory acceptability was highly dependent on the quality...

  12. The Evaluator as Power Merchant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fein, Edith; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The utilization of program evaluation is addressed and illustrated through the case study of a family reunification program at a New England child welfare agency. It is argued that evaluation is an exercise in power in an organization. Evaluators who understand power can work with the realities they find. (SLD)

  13. Occupational accidents aboard merchant ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.L.; Nielsen, D.; Frydenberg, Morten

    2002-01-01

    aboard. Relative risks for notified accidents and accidents causing permanent disability of 5% or more were calculated in a multivariate analysis including ship type, occupation, age, time on board, change of ship since last employment period, and nationality. Foreigners had a considerably lower recorded...... identified during a total of 31 140 years at sea. Among these, 209 accidents resulted in permanent disability of 5% or more, and 27 were fatal. The mean risk of having an occupational accident was 6.4/100 years at sea and the risk of an accident causing a permanent disability of 5% or more was 0.67/100 years...... rate of accidents than Danish citizens. Age was a major risk factor for accidents causing permanent disability. Change of ship and the first period aboard a particular ship were identified as risk factors. Walking from one place to another aboard the ship caused serious accidents. The most serious...

  14. Chitin Degradation In Marine Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Sara; Machado, Henrique; Gram, Lone

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Chitin is the most abundant polymer in the marine environment and the second most abundant in nature. Chitin does not accumulate on the ocean floor, because of microbial breakdown. Chitin degrading bacteria could have potential in the utilization of chitin as a renewable carbon...... and nitrogen source in the fermentation industry.Methods: Here, whole genome sequenced marine bacteria were screened for chitin degradation using phenotypic and in silico analyses.Results: The in silico analyses revealed the presence of three to nine chitinases in each strain, however the number of chitinases...... chitin regulatory system.Conclusions: This study has provided insight into the ecology of chitin degradation in marine bacteria. It also served as a basis for choosing a more efficient chitin degrading production strain e.g. for the use of chitin waste for large-scale fermentations....

  15. Survey on marine food consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1974-01-01

    Predicting the future effluence of low level radioactive waste water from the nuclear fuel retreating facilities to the ocean, critical food and critical group were investigated in the inhabitants of the coast of Ibaragi Prefecture since 1969. The survey included investigation of drinking water, menu of meal, and marine food consumption, and the results of the third item were chiefly presented in this paper. Both interview by visiting each family, and questionaire were adopted for investigation. Subjects were fishermans' families in Wada-cho in Chiba Prefecture and Kuji-cho in Hitachi City, non-fishermans' families in Tokai vilage, and both families in Nakaminato City and Oarai. The ratio of animal protein consumption per whole protein consumption was remarkably higher than the average of all over the country(23.8 per cent), showing 49 per cent in Kuji-cho. Fishermans' families in Kuji-cho revealed to be a critical group. Marine products of their whole body edible included immature anchovy, sardine, and immature prawn with their maximum individual consumption being 5 kg, 10 kg, and 5.6 kg respectively. Therefore, sardine and immature prawn should be taken care of other than immature anchovy. Marine food consumption of a person per day was estimated from the amount consumed during one week in every season, i.e., during 28 days a year. Marine food consumption of fishermans' families in Kuji-cho showed no seasonal change. Average of marine food consumption in fishermans' families of Kuji-cho and Nakaminato, was 190 g and 132 g of raw fishes, 8 g and 6 g of raw shells, and 4 g and 5 g of dried algae. Consumption frequency and consumption rate of marine foods by kinds and seasons were presented in the tables. (Mukohata, S.)

  16. Marine sponges as microbial fermenters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschel, Ute; Usher, Kayley M; Taylor, Michael W

    2006-02-01

    The discovery of phylogenetically complex, yet highly sponge-specific microbial communities in marine sponges, including novel lineages and even candidate phyla, came as a surprise. At the same time, unique research opportunities opened up, because the microorganisms of sponges are in many ways more accessible than those of seawater. Accordingly, we consider sponges as microbial fermenters that provide exciting new avenues in marine microbiology and biotechnology. This review covers recent findings regarding diversity, biogeography and population dynamics of sponge-associated microbiota, and the data are discussed within the larger context of the microbiology of the ocean.

  17. Conservation physiology of marine fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian; Peck, Myron A.; Antognarelli, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    At the end of May, 17 scientists involved in an EU COST Action on Conservation Physiology of Marine Fishes met in Oristano, Sardinia, to discuss how physiology can be better used in modelling tools to aid in management of marine ecosystems. Current modelling approaches incorporate physiology...... to different extents, ranging from no explicit consideration to detailed physiological mechanisms, and across scales from a single fish to global fishery resources. Biologists from different sub-disciplines are collaborating to rise to the challenge of projecting future changes in distribution and productivity...

  18. Status and strategies for marine biodiversity of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.

    The status of marine biodiversity and factors responsible for the degradation and loss of marine biodiversity are discussed. Goa has abundant marine wealth. Phytoplankton, marine algae, manglicolous fungi, seagrasses, mangrove flora and other...

  19. Marine’ Character of the United States Marine Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    nation and our Corps. Marine "musics" trace their roots back to the days of the Revolutionary War when fifes and drums inspired men to enlist in the...today. 14. D. Michael Ressler, 15-18. When Sousa left the Band on July 30, 1892, he was presented with an engraved baton. In 1953, Sousa’s daughters

  20. Marine Debris Research, Prevention, and Reduction Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Debris Research, Prevention, and Reduction Act legally establishes the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Marine Debris Program. The...

  1. Ocean Disposal of Marine Mammal Carcasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocean dumping of marine mammal carcasses is allowed with a permit issued by EPA under the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. Includes permit information, potential environmental impacts, and instructions for getting the general permit.

  2. Computerizing marine biota: a rational approach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chavan, V.S.; Chandramohan, D.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Data on marine biota while being extensive are also patchy and scattered; thus making retrieval and dissemination of information time consuming. This emphasise the need for computerizing information on marine biota with the objective to collate...

  3. Emulsifying activity of hydrocarbonoclastic marine yeasts

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gupta, R.

    Marine yeast growth on four petroleum hydrocarbons induced the production of extracellular emulsifying agents (biosurfactants). Out of the 17 marine yeast isolates tested, 7 isolates, i.e., Candida parapsilosis, C. cantarelli, C. membranae...

  4. Marine environment news. Vol. 2, no. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-03-01

    In this issue of the IAEA's Marine Environment Newsletter topics including radiotracers as new barometers of ocean-climate coupling, bio-indicatos species in detecting marine radioactvity and pollution as well as training activities are covered

  5. Summary report on marine research 1988.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    SANCOR

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available , Estuaries/ Marine Linefish, Marine Pollution, Ocean Engineering and a South African contribution to the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE). This report includes brief statements on the activities of each of these programmes in 1988 and emphasizes...

  6. 76 FR 6430 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ..., many marine animals may need to remain in areas where they are exposed to chronic stimuli (Richardson... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the Pacific Ocean off Costa Rica, April Through May, 2011 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic...

  7. 76 FR 77782 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ..., 1963), but because of ecological or physiological requirements, many marine animals may need to remain... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, February to March 2012 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National...

  8. 76 FR 33246 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... ecological or physiological requirements, many marine animals may need to remain in areas where they are... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the Central-Western Bering Sea, August 2011 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...

  9. 78 FR 33357 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... confidence in these values is unknown. Table 3--Marine Mammal Density Estimates Density Species (animals/km\\2... unintentional taking of marine animals occurring incidental to the shock testing which involved large explosives... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting...

  10. 75 FR 8652 - Incidental Takes of Marine Mammals During Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... for marine animals before and during airgun operations. NMFS believes that the realistic possibility... Takes of Marine Mammals During Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, April to June 2010 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...

  11. 76 FR 57959 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ..., many marine animals may need to remain in areas where they are exposed to chronic stimuli (Richardson... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the Central Pacific Ocean, November, 2011 Through January, 2012 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...

  12. 76 FR 18167 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ..., many marine animals may need to remain in areas where they are exposed to chronic stimuli (Richardson... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the Central Gulf of Alaska, June, 2011 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  13. 77 FR 25966 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Three Marine Geophysical Surveys in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ..., 1963), but because of ecological or physiological requirements, many marine animals may need to remain... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Three Marine Geophysical Surveys in the Northeast Pacific Ocean, June Through July 2012 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and...

  14. 77 FR 11401 - Marine Sanitation Devices (MSDs): No Discharge Zone (NDZ) for California State Marine Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... Marine Sanitation Devices (MSDs): No Discharge Zone (NDZ) for California State Marine Waters AGENCY... (EPA) is establishing a No Discharge Zone (NDZ) for marine waters of the State of California for sewage... while the vessel was outside of the marine waters of the State of California, pursuant to Section 312(f...

  15. Whale Multi-Disciplinary Studies: A Marine Education Infusion Unit. Northern New England Marine Education Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maine Univ., Orono. Coll. of Education.

    This multidisciplinary unit deals with whales, whaling lore and history, and the interaction of the whale with the complex marine ecosystem. It seeks to teach adaptation of marine organisms. It portrays the concept that man is part of the marine ecosystem and man's activities can deplete and degrade marine ecosystems, endangering the survival of…

  16. Biomedical Applications of Enzymes From Marine Actinobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamala, K; Sivaperumal, P

    Marine microbial enzyme technologies have progressed significantly in the last few decades for different applications. Among the various microorganisms, marine actinobacterial enzymes have significant active properties, which could allow them to be biocatalysts with tremendous bioactive metabolites. Moreover, marine actinobacteria have been considered as biofactories, since their enzymes fulfill biomedical and industrial needs. In this chapter, the marine actinobacteria and their enzymes' uses in biological activities and biomedical applications are described. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. 75 FR 38779 - Nomination of Existing Marine Protected Areas to the National System of Marine Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ... Marine Protected Areas to the National System of Marine Protected Areas AGENCY: NOAA, Department of... federal, state and territorial marine protected area programs to join the National System of Marine Protected Areas. [[Page 38780

  18. NODC Standard Format Marine Mammals of Coastal Alaska Data (1975-1981): Marine Mammal Specimens (F025) (NODC Accession 0014150)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC maintains data in three NODC Standard Format Marine Mammal Data Sets: Marine Mammal Sighting and Census (F127); Marine Mammal Specimens (F025); Marine Mammal...

  19. Promotion Factors For Enlisted Infantry Marines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    End of Active Service (EAS) date Date a Marine terminated contract with the Marine Corps Awards Type and Number of Awards a Marine has earned Waivers...oai/ oai?verb=getRecord&metadataPrefix=html&identifier=ADA479928. Hovey, Erik. 2005. “Fuzzy Math : Do Current Relative Values Tell An Accurate Story

  20. Identification & Registration of Marine Animals (IRMA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benders, F.P.A.; Zwan, T. van der; Verboom, W.C.

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge about habitats and behaviour of marine animals has become more important following an increased concern that acoustic sources may have an influence on marine life. Databases containing the habitats and behaviour are being filled all over the world. However, at present marine mammal

  1. Radioactivity in the Marine Environment. Chapter 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zal U'yun Wan Mahmood; Abdul Kadir Ishak; Norfaizal Mohamad; Wo, Y.M.; Kamarudin Samuding

    2015-01-01

    Radionuclide (radioactive isotopes or radioisotopes is widely distributed on the ground primarily in marine environments. Nowadays, more than 340 isotopes has been identified exist in our earth especially in marine environment. From that total, 80 isotopes was radioactive. The existence of radioactivity in the marine environment is through the direct and indirect distribution of radionuclides

  2. The 10. Danish marine research meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The publication comprises the programme for the 10th Danish meeting for marine researchers held in Hirtshals (Denmark) on January 21 - 27, 1998, and the abstracts of the papers that were presented at that meeting. Subjects covered are marine biology, sediments and sedimentation, fish, fishing and fishing regulations, marine processes and the monitoring of Danish straits. (EG)

  3. 8. Danish meeting for marine researchers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The publication comprises the programme for the 8th Danish meeting for marine researchers held in Odense (Denmark) on January 25th - 27th, 1994, and the abstracts of the papers that were presented at that meeting. Subjects covered are marine biology, sediments and sedimentation, fish, fishing and fishing regulation, marine processes and the monitoring of Danish straits. (AB)

  4. 50 CFR 14.18 - Marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING... a marine mammal on the high seas and who is authorized to import such marine mammal in accordance...) may import such marine mammal at any port or place. ...

  5. Climate change and marine top predators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Climate change affects all components of marine ecosystems. For endothermic top predators, i.e. seabirds and marine mammals, these impacts are often complex and mediated through trophic relationships. In this Research Topic, leading researchers attempt to identify patterns of change among seabirds...... and marine mammals, and the mechanisms through which climate change drives these changes....

  6. Bioactive Terpenes from Marine-Derived Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Elissawy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Marine-derived fungi continue to be a prolific source of secondary metabolites showing diverse bioactivities. Terpenoids from marine-derived fungi exhibit wide structural diversity including numerous compounds with pronounced biological activities. In this review, we survey the last five years’ reports on terpenoidal metabolites from marine-derived fungi with particular attention on those showing marked biological activities.

  7. Marine environment news. Vol. 1, no. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-09-01

    This is the first issue of the IAEA's Marine Environment Newsletter which is hoped to inform Member States, research partners, visitors and other stakeholders of highlights of the marine projects, surveys, hot issues, discoveries and training programmes being delivered by the IAEA's Marine Environment Laboratory (MEL) in Monaco. In this issue the mission of the MEL and its various activities are presented

  8. The Physics of Marine Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Kathleen

    1992-01-01

    Discusses ways in which marine biology can be integrated into the physics classroom. Topics suggested for incorporation include the harmonic motion of ocean waves, ocean currents, the interaction of visible light with ocean water, pressure, light absorption, and sound transfer in water. (MDH)

  9. Sexual selection in marine plankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sichlau, Mie Hylstofte

    Copepods are among the most abundant metazoans on the planet and play an important role in the marine food web. Many aspects of their ecology have consequently been studied, including details of their reproductive biology and mating behaviour. Sexual selection, the part of evolution which selects...

  10. Marine Picoeukaryotes in Cold Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nikolaj

    Picoeukaryotes form an important part of marine ecosystems, both as primary producers, bacterial grazers and parasites. The Arctic is experiencing accelerated global warming and picoeukaryotes may thus be considered to be at the forefront of climate change. This PhD thesis sets out to investigate...

  11. Blood rheology in marine mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Castellini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The field of blood oxygen transport and delivery to tissues has been studied by comparative physiologists for many decades. Within this general area, the particular differences in oxygen delivery between marine and terrestrial mammals has focused mainly on oxygen supply differences and delivery to the tissues under low blood flow diving conditions. Yet, the study of the inherent flow properties of the blood itself (hemorheology is rarely discussed when addressing diving. However, hemorheology is important to the study of marine mammals because of the critical nature of the oxygen stores that are carried in the blood during diving periods. This review focuses on the essential elements of hemorheology, how they are defined and on fundamental rheological applications to marine mammals. While the comparative rationale used throughout the review is much broader than the particular problems associated with diving, the basic concepts focus on how changes in the flow properties of whole blood would be critical to oxygen delivery during diving. This review introduces the reader to most of the major rheological concepts that are relevant to the unique and unusual aspects of the diving physiology of marine mammals.

  12. Marine Planning Benefits the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning (CMSP) and Ecosystem-Based Management (EBM) are management approaches that allow sustainable coastal and ocean planning. The basic unit of management under CMSP is a large region, with the United States coastlines and Great Lakes divided into ...

  13. Sunnyvale Marine Climate Deep Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, A.; Siddiqui, A.; Dakin, B.

    2014-11-01

    The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) and Allen Gilliland of One Sky Homes collaborated on a marine climate retrofit project designed to meet both Passive House (PH) and Building America (BA) program standards. The scope included sealing, installing wall, roof and floor insulation (previously lacking), replacing windows, upgrading the heating and cooling system, and installing.

  14. Sunnyvale Marine Climate Deep Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Siddiqui, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Dakin, B. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) and Allen Gilliland of One Sky Homes collaborated on a marine climate retrofit project designed to meet both Passive House (PH) and Building America program standards. The scope included sealing, installing wall, roof and floor insulation (previously lacking), replacing windows, upgrading the heating and cooling system, and installing mechanical ventilation.

  15. Performance optimization of marine propellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Sup Lee

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, a design method for increasing performance of the marine propellers including the WCT propeller is suggested. It is described to maximize the performance of the propeller by adjusting expanded areas of the propeller blade. Results show that efficiency can be increased up to over 2% through the suggested design method.

  16. Corrosion Failures in Marine Environment

    OpenAIRE

    R. Krishnan

    1985-01-01

    This paper gives a brief description of typical marine environments and the most common form of corrosion of materials used in this environment. Some typical case histories of failures pertaining to pitting, bimetallic corrosion, dealloying, cavitation and stress corrosion cracking are illustrated as typical examples of corrosion failures.

  17. Opportunities to improve marine forecasting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Opportunities to Improve Marine Obser; Marine Board; Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; National Research Council

    1989-01-01

    ... and Forecasting Marine Board Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1989 Copyrightoriginal retained, the be not from cannot book, paper original however, for version formatting, authoritative the typesetting-specific created from the as publication files other XML and from thi...

  18. The Netherlands’ marine Cladophora species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slootweg, A.F.G.

    1947-01-01

    When studying the marine species of the genus Cladophora in the Netherlands, I had the disposal of the material of the National Herbarium at Leiden, the herbaria of the Universities of Amsterdam, Groningen and Utrecht and those of the “Zoölogisch Station” at Den Helder and the “Koninklijke

  19. Transuranic behaviour in marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, V.T.

    1982-01-01

    This document summarizes the following specific studies concerning the transuranic behaviour in marine environment: 1. Radionuclides in deep sea amphipods; 2. Actinides, 55 Fe and 137 Cs in N. pacific water columns; 3. Vertical profile of artificial radionuclide concentrations in the central Arctic Ocean; 4. Bioturbation and the distributions of fallout radionuclides in Pacific Ocean sediments

  20. Environmental Impacts—Marine Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, Keith; Ottersen, Geir; Bakker, J.P.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter presents a review of what is known about the impacts of climate change on the biota (plankton, benthos, fish, seabirds and marine mammals) of the North Sea. Examples show how the changing North Sea environment is affecting biological processes and organisation at all scales, includin...

  1. Bicarbonate uptake by marine Crenarchaeota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wuchter, C.; Schouten, S.; Boschker, H.T.S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2003-01-01

    Biphytanyl membrane lipids and 16S rRNA sequences derived from marine Crenarchaeota were detected in shallow North Sea surface water in February 2002. To investigate the carbon fixation mechanism of these uncultivated archaea in situ 13C bicarbonate tracer experiments were performed with this water

  2. Marin Mersenne, 1588–1648

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 18; Issue 3. Marin Mersenne, 1588-1648. Shailesh A Shirali. General Article Volume 18 Issue 3 March 2013 pp 226-240. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/018/03/0226-0240. Keywords.

  3. The marine renewable energies file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    A set of articles addresses several aspects and issues related to the development of renewable marine energies: the objectives defined by the French government and the European Union in terms of share of renewable energies in energy consumption, some existing projects, the definition and assessment of the different renewable marine energies (offshore wind energy, sea thermal energy, sea current energy, sea tide energy, sea wave energy, marine biomass, osmotic energy), the need for a national strategy according to two researchers belonging to IFREMER, the implementation of the first offshore test platform by the Ecole Centrale de Nantes, the role of the ADEME (financial support, marketing studies, legislation, definition of a national programme), the recommendation by the European Commission of a large scale offshore wind energy development, the activities of EDF and Total in the field of marine energy, the problems faced by the first French offshore wind generator project, the actions undertaken in La Reunion in the field of sea thermal energy, and the opportunities in the use of micro-algae for hydrogen, bio-fuel or biogas production

  4. Microplastics Monitoring in Marine Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Dhamar Syakti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes the need for future spatiotemporal comparisons of microplastic abundance across marine environment, through standardized methods for microplastic sampling and analysis in sea water, beach and seabed sediment and marine organism. Pretreatment of the sample prior to the elimination of organic matter should be done using appropriate reagents was also described. Extraction of microplastics from environmental matrices is based on the different density of targeted microplastics with saturated salt solutions (NaCl, NaI, CaCl2, ZnCl2 and lithium metatungstate. Quantification can be achieved by microscopic techniques (binocular, stereomicroscope, fluorescence microscope and scanning electron microscope and discussion on identification methods including FTIR, Pyr-GC/MS and Raman spectroscopy will be provided. This review also endorses the importance of further study regarding the fate and impact of microplastics on marine biota and human health, especially when we acknowledge that co-pollution may occur during the transport on microplastic in marine environment.

  5. Alternative Fuel for Marine Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    The U.S. Maritime Administration (MARAD) is participating in the U.S. Navy's ongoing efforts to test alternative fuels for marine use by demonstrating their applicability on commercial vessels. In support of this effort, the Navy provided neat hydrot...

  6. African Journal of Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African (formerly South African) Journal of Marine Science provides an international forum for the publication of original scientific contributions or critical reviews, involving oceanic, shelf or estuarine waters, inclusive of oceanography, studies of organisms and their habitats, and aquaculture. Papers on the conservation ...

  7. Global marine radioactivity database (GLOMARD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-06-01

    The GLOMARD stores all available data on marine radioactivity in seawater, suspended matter, sediments and biota. The database provides critical input to the evaluation of the environmental radionuclide levels in regional seas and the world's oceans. It can be used as a basis for the assessment of the radiation doses to local, regional and global human populations and to marine biota. It also provides information on temporal trends of radionuclide levels in the marine environment and identifies gaps in available information. The database contains information on the sources of the data; the laboratories performing radionuclide analysis; the type of samples (seawater, sediment, biota) and associated details (such as volume and weight); the sample treatment, analytical methods, and measuring instruments; and the analysed results (such as radionuclide concentrations, uncertainties, temperature, salinity, etc.). The current version of the GLOMARD allows the input, maintenance and extraction of data for the production of various kinds of maps using external computer programs. Extracted data are processed by these programs to produce contour maps representing radionuclide distributions in studied areas. To date, development work has concentrated on the Barents and Kara Seas in the Arctic and the Sea of Japan in the northwest Pacific Ocean, in connection with the investigation of radioactive waste dumping sites, as well as on marine radioactivity assessment of the Mururoa and Fangataufa nuclear weapons tests sites in French Polynesia. Further data inputs and evaluations are being carried out for the Black and Mediterranean Seas. In the framework of the project on Worldwide Marine Radioactivity Studies, background levels of 3 H, 90 Sr, 137 Cs and 239,240 Pu in water, sediment and biota of the world's oceans and seas will be established

  8. Freshwater savings from marine protein consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gephart, Jessica A.; Pace, Michael L.; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Marine fisheries provide an essential source of protein for many people around the world. Unlike alternative terrestrial sources of protein, marine fish production requires little to no freshwater inputs. Consuming marine fish protein instead of terrestrial protein therefore represents freshwater savings (equivalent to an avoided water cost) and contributes to a low water footprint diet. These water savings are realized by the producers of alternative protein sources, rather than the consumers of marine protein. This study quantifies freshwater savings from marine fish consumption around the world by estimating the water footprint of replacing marine fish with terrestrial protein based on current consumption patterns. An estimated 7 600 km3 yr-1 of water is used for human food production. Replacing marine protein with terrestrial protein would require an additional 350 km3 yr-1 of water, meaning that marine protein provides current water savings of 4.6%. The importance of these freshwater savings is highly uneven around the globe, with savings ranging from as little as 0 to as much as 50%. The largest savings as a per cent of current water footprints occur in Asia, Oceania, and several coastal African nations. The greatest national water savings from marine fish protein occur in Southeast Asia and the United States. As the human population increases, future water savings from marine fish consumption will be increasingly important to food and water security and depend on sustainable harvest of capture fisheries and low water footprint growth of marine aquaculture.

  9. Marine Litter, Eutrophication and Noise Assessment Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazov, Atanas; Velcheva, Maya; Milkova, Tanya; Slabakova, Violeta; Marinova, Veselka

    2017-04-01

    MARLEN - Marine Litter, Eutrophication and Noise Assessment Tools is a project under the Programme BG02.03: Increased capacity for assessing and predicting environmental status in marine and inland waters, managed by Bulgarian Ministry of environment and waters and co-financed by the Financial Mechanism of the European Economic Area (EEA FM) 2009 - 2014. Project Beneficiary is the Institute of oceanology - Bulgarian Academy of Sciences with two partners: Burgas municipality and Bulgarian Black Sea Basin Directorate. Initial assessment of ecological state of Bulgarian marine waters showed lack of data for some descriptors of MSFD. The main goal of MARLEN is to build up tools for assessment of marine environment by implementing new technologies and best practices for addressing three main areas of interest with lack of marine data in particular: a) Marine litter detection and classification in coastal areas; b) Regular near real time surface water eutrophication monitoring on large aquatory; c) Underwater noise monitoring. Developed tools are an important source of real time, near real time and delay mode marine data for Bulgarian Black Sea waters. The partnership within the project increased capacity for environmental assessments and training of personnel and enhances collaboration between scientific institutes, regional and local authorities. Project results supported implementation of MSFD in Bulgarian marine waters for the benefit of coastal population, marine industry, tourism, marine research and marine spatial planning.

  10. Proceedings of the 2008 marine biodiesel symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    In addition to producing lower hydrocarbon emissions, marine biodiesel is biodegradable and does not harm fish. This symposium was held to discuss current marine biodiesel applications and examine methods of increasing the use of biodiesel in marine environments in British Columbia (BC). Biofuel policies and mandates in the province were reviewed, and methods of expanding the biodiesel market were explored. Updates on the use of biodiesel in ferries, tugboats, and smaller marine diesel engine applications were provided. Biodiesel projects in the United States were discussed. The environmental impacts of marine biodiesel were evaluated, and federal policies and standards for biodiesel were also outlined. The symposium was divided into the following 5 main sessions: (1) policy, (2) overviews, (3) using biodiesel in marine engines, (4) biodiesel in larger marine vessels, and (5) biodiesel quality and environmental considerations. The conference featured 13 presentations, of which 4 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs

  11. Marine (Brander-Smith report) and non-marine spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Current activities related to Canada's Green Plan are reviewed in the area of research on, and response to, marine and non-marine spills. The Emergency Response section of Environment Canada's Conservation and Protection Service has had a 130% increase in funding and 50% increase in personnel resources. Two thirds of these resources are assigned to regional operations where spill incidents occur and the rest to research. The section's first priority is to improve its spill prevention program. A national standard for emergency planning for industry has been prepared and thousands of copies have been sold. A Canada-USA joint inland pollution contingency plan will be established and training programs on response to oil and hazardous chemical spills has been implemented. Resources applied to spill response have also increased 150%; a computerized communications network has been provided for spill response personnel, with the aim to develop a single national spill reporting system. In terms of policy initiatives, amendments are being made to the Canada Shipping Act that will require on-board pollution emergency plans for ships operating in Canadian waters. A liability and compensation regime for chemical spills is being considered, as well as reimposition of a levy on petroleum products that resulted in creation of a ship-source oil pollution fund. Radar-based traffic control systems for heavily congested marine areas, electronic charting, and increased inspection of ships are among the spill prevention initiatives in progress. Research is being conducted on mapping environmentally sensitive shorelines and in oil spill cleanup methods

  12. Encyclopedic approach to Marine History of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey V. Ishin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine direction of foreign policy is for Russia one of key. It is determined geographical position of the Russian state banks of which is washed plenty of Maureies. Also it is related to that considerable part of population lives on the coast of Russian Maureies, and industry, located in an off-shore bar brings, in a large contribution to the economy.Many Russian marine travelers were the discoverers of «new» earths. The contribution of the Russian scientists to the hydrophysical, geological and biological study of Maureies and Oceans is great. Russia possesses a navy, to the constituents approximately one-third of total tonnage of world VMF and one of large in the world a rybopromyslovym fleet. Transport ships under the flag of Russian Federation it is possible to meet planets in the remotest corners. In a number of areas of military shipbuilding and civil shipbuilding Russia had and continues to save priority.Enhanceable interest to the Seas and Oceans found the reflection in the fundamental Russian documents, including, in the Marine doctrine of Russian Federation, ratified Russia President in 2015. In it the value of marine spaces for the Russian state is marked. In the Marine doctrine of Russian Federation is writtenin: «The skilled providing, marine teaching and education play an important role in the increase of efficiency of marine activity. They are directed on preparation, bringing in and maintainance of skilled shots of all levels, maintenance of professionalism, marine traditions and not indifferent relation of citizens to marine history of country, serve positive presentation, propaganda and support of national marine policy, to marine activity and marine service in society».Marine direction, marine science about regions found a reflection in the publications of row of the Russian authors, devoted research of policy of Russia in such regions, as: Black Sea region, Caspian region, Arctic, and also in the series of Encyclopaedias

  13. An assessment of natural product discovery from marine (sensu strictu) and marine-derived fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overy, David P.; Bayman, Paul; Kerr, Russell G.; Bills, Gerald F.

    2014-01-01

    The natural products community has been investigating secondary metabolites from marine fungi for several decades, but when one attempts to search for validated reports of new natural products from marine fungi, one encounters a literature saturated with reports from ‘marine-derived’ fungi. Of the 1000+ metabolites that have been characterized to date, only approximately 80 of these have been isolated from species from exclusively marine lineages. These metabolites are summarized here along with the lifestyle and habitats of their producing organisms. Furthermore, we address some of the reasons for the apparent disconnect between the stated objectives of discovering new chemistry from marine organisms and the apparent neglect of the truly exceptional obligate marine fungi. We also offer suggestions on how to reinvigorate enthusiasm for marine natural products discovery from fungi from exclusive marine lineages and highlight the need for critically assessing the role of apparently terrestrial fungi in the marine environment. PMID:25379338

  14. Progresses and Prospects in Developing Marine Geodetic Datum and Marine Navigation of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Yuanxi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Territorial water is a significant part of national sovereignty of China, thus the infrastructures of national space datum and location services should not only cover the land areas, but also the sea areas. China has established relatively complete geodetic datum in land areas over the past decades, including the new developed China Geodetic Coordinate System 2000 (CGCS 2000 and the national gravity datum 2000. However, the currently used geodetic infrastructures have not well covered the sea areas of China. The marine geodetic datum and marine navigation technologies need to be further developed and extended to satisfy the national demands of marine defense and marine economy development in new era of China. This paper mainly reviews the developing states and progress of Chinese marine geodetic datum and marine navigation, analyses key technologies in establishing the national marine geodetic datum. The develop current trends and future directions for the national marine geodetic datum and marine navigation technologies are listed.

  15. Antitumoral activity of marine organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdes Iglesias, O; Perez Gil, R; Colom, Y

    2010-01-01

    The study of the natural products from marine organism constitute a relatively recent scientific researcher field with high potentialities tanking in consideration that the oceans cover the three of the four parts of the earth. Poryphera and Bryozoans have been the Phylum more studied owning to the vulnerability, their soft body, their habitat on rocks, their slow movement and bright colors, for these reason these organisms are able to produce chemical substances as defense methods against depredators. Same mechanism is exhibit by the seaweeds with the production of secondary metabolites . In the present communication are exposed the main results obtained on the world a Cuba until the present in the looking for of substances with antitumor action from marine organism

  16. Ancient DNA from marine mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foote, Andrew David; Hofreiter, Michael; Morin, Philip A.

    2012-01-01

    discuss studies recon- structing inter- and intra-specific phylogenies from aDNA sequences and discuss how aDNA sequences could be used to estimate mutation rates. Finally, we highlight some of the problems of aDNA studies on marine mammals, such as obtaining sufficient sample sizes and calibrating...... such as bone, tooth, baleen, skin, fur, whiskers and scrimshaw using ancient DNA (aDNA) approaches provide an oppor- tunity for investigating such changes over evolutionary and ecological timescales. Here, we review the application of aDNA techniques to the study of marine mammals. Most of the studies have...... focused on detecting changes in genetic diversity following periods of exploitation and environmental change. To date, these studies have shown that even small sample sizes can provide useful information on historical genetic diversity. Ancient DNA has also been used in investigations of changes...

  17. From fresh to marine waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonçalves-Araujo, Rafael; Stedmon, Colin; Heim, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    and evaluates the behavior of DOM across the fresh water-marine gradient. Six fluorescent components (four humic-like; one marine humic-like; one protein-like) were identified by Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC) with a clear dominance of allochthonous humic-like signals. Colored DOM (CDOM) and dissolved...... organic carbon (DOC) were highly correlated and had their distribution coupled with hydrographical conditions. Higher DOM concentration and degree of humification were associated with the low salinity waters of the Lena River. Values decreased towards the higher salinity Laptev Sea shelf waters. Results...... demonstrate different responses of DOM mixing in relation to the vertical structure of the water column, as reflecting the hydrographical dynamics in the region. Two mixing curves for DOM were apparent. In surface waters above the pycnocline there was a sharper decrease in DOM concentration in relation...

  18. Marine propellers: the latest topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, H

    1996-02-01

    The impeller of the axial flow blood pump in an artificial heart is essentially based on the same principle as a marine propeller. Impellers designed for artificial hearts and marine propellers have a number of points in common. Decreased cavitation and relieved fluctuation load are only representative of them. As for a distinct concept of pressure distribution, the inverse method could be very useful. Skew may led to a more mild and natural character in the blood. Highly skewed blades and super elastic blades have the potential to decrease the burden on the entire circulatory system. This paper will address the main points and latest issues in propeller design concluding with a discussion of the implications of these issues for blood pump impellers.

  19. Marine cloud brightening: regional applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, John; Gadian, Alan; Fournier, Jim; Parkes, Ben; Wadhams, Peter; Chen, Jack

    2014-12-28

    The general principle behind the marine cloud brightening (MCB) climate engineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with substantial concentrations of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre-sized seawater particles might significantly enhance cloud albedo and longevity, thereby producing a cooling effect. This paper is concerned with preliminary studies of the possible beneficial application of MCB to three regional issues: (1) recovery of polar ice loss, (2) weakening of developing hurricanes and (3) elimination or reduction of coral bleaching. The primary focus is on Item 1. We focus discussion herein on advantages associated with engaging in limited-area seeding, regional effects rather than global; and the levels of seeding that may be required to address changing current and near-term conditions in the Arctic. We also mention the possibility that MCB might be capable of producing a localized cooling to help stabilize the West Antarctic Ice Sheet.

  20. Biological importance of marine algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Gamal, Ali A

    2010-01-01

    Marine organisms are potentially prolific sources of highly bioactive secondary metabolites that might represent useful leads in the development of new pharmaceutical agents. Algae can be classified into two main groups; first one is the microalgae, which includes blue green algae, dinoflagellates, bacillariophyta (diatoms)… etc., and second one is macroalgae (seaweeds) which includes green, brown and red algae. The microalgae phyla have been recognized to provide chemical and pharmacological novelty and diversity. Moreover, microalgae are considered as the actual producers of some highly bioactive compounds found in marine resources. Red algae are considered as the most important source of many biologically active metabolites in comparison to other algal classes. Seaweeds are used for great number of application by man. The principal use of seaweeds as a source of human food and as a source of gums (phycocollides). Phycocolloides like agar agar, alginic acid and carrageenan are primarily constituents of brown and red algal cell walls and are widely used in industry.

  1. Radioactivity in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, A.

    1977-01-01

    Reference is made to an editorial by Dr. Goldberg (Mar. Pollut. Bull.; 8:49 (1977)) in which he proposed that concerned scientists should combine their expertise both to gather information of radioactive disposal to the marine environment and to assess the implications of such pollution on marine resources. It is here stated that such data on their own, unsupported by any guidance as to their significance in environmental terms, may simply cause unwarranted alarm and provide yet another source of uninterpreted data to feed uninformed environmental discussion. Some examples of such observations and commentary are cited. In a reply Dr. Goldberg asserts that the possible misinterpretations of either the data or their evaluation is a small risk compared to the benefits to be gained from joint efforts by scientists of many nations to describe and predict possible jeopardies to the ocean system. (U.K.)

  2. Island biogeography of marine organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Hudson T.; Bernardi, Giacomo; Simon, Thiony; Joyeux, Jean-Christophe; Macieira, Raphael M.; Gasparini, João Luiz; Rocha, Claudia; Rocha, Luiz A.

    2017-09-01

    Studies on the distribution and evolution of organisms on oceanic islands have advanced towards a dynamic perspective, where terrestrial endemicity results from island geographical aspects and geological history intertwined with sea-level fluctuations. Diversification on these islands may follow neutral models, decreasing over time as niches are filled, or disequilibrium states and progression rules, where richness and endemism rise with the age of the archipelago owing to the splitting of ancestral lineages (cladogenesis). However, marine organisms have received comparatively little scientific attention. Therefore, island and seamount evolutionary processes in the aquatic environment remain unclear. Here we analyse the evolutionary history of reef fishes that are endemic to a volcanic ridge of seamounts and islands to understand their relations to island evolution and sea-level fluctuations. We also test how this evolutionary history fits island biogeography theory. We found that most endemic species have evolved recently (Pleistocene epoch), during a period of recurrent sea-level changes and intermittent connectivity caused by repeated aerial exposure of seamounts, a finding that is consistent with an ephemeral ecological speciation process. Similar to findings for terrestrial biodiversity, our data suggest that the marine speciation rate on islands is negatively correlated with immigration rate. However, because marine species disperse better than terrestrial species, most niches are filled by immigration: speciation increases with the random accumulation of species with low dispersal ability, with few opportunities for in situ cladogenesis and adaptive radiation. Moreover, we confirm that sea-level fluctuations and seamount location play a critical role in marine evolution, mainly by intermittently providing stepping stones for island colonization.

  3. Mixotrophy in the marine plankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoecker, Diane K.; Hansen, Per Juel; Caron, David

    2017-01-01

    Mixotrophs are important components of the bacterioplankton, phytoplankton, microzooplankton, and (sometimes) zooplankton in coastal and oceanic waters. Bacterivory among the phytoplankton may be important for alleviating inorganic nutrient stress and may increase primary production in oligotroph....... Modeling has indicated that mixotrophy has a profound impact on marine planktonic ecosystems and may enhance primary production, biomass transfer to higher trophic levels, and the functioning of the biological carbon pump....

  4. The Marine Mask of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    character of the institutions that make up our armed services. More specifically, on this date, celebrated around the world as the 236th birthday of the U.S...sometimes puzzling, frequently paradoxical , and unusually distinctive “personality” or institutional DNA of each of America’s armed services. The...So, give thanks if you know any Marines and Happy Birthday to our Corps! FPRI, 1528 Walnut Street, Suite 610, Philadelphia, PA 19102

  5. Global Marine Science and Carlsberg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Bo

    By accident, the world-famous brewery Carlsberg became a central force in global marine science during the first three decades of the 20th century. Within a core group of scientists and managers, Johannes Schmidt (1877-1933) was the key figure combining the efforts of the International Council...... the World’s oceans. While the formal North Atlantic Empire of the small state of Denmark was in decline, an informal empire of science was erected instead....

  6. Ecological Significance of Marine Microzooplankton

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Godhantaraman, N.

    al., 1996). Extensive research have been conducted on the ecological significance of major plankton communities in marine coastal and aquatic ecosystems both tropical as well as temperate waters. Research on microzooplankton received less attention... by planktologists because of their important role in the aquatic ecosystems/pelagic food web by providing a link between pico- and nanoplankton and higher trophic levels of meso- and macrozooplankton and fish larvae. Researchers have identified that microzooplankton...

  7. Collocations in Marine Engineering English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Borucinsky

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Collocations are very frequent in the English language (Hill, 2000, and they are probably the most common and most representative of English multi-word expressions (Lewis, 2000. Furthermore, as a subset of formulaic sequences, collocations are considered to be a central aspect of communicative competence (Nation, 2001. Hence, the importance of teaching collocations in General English (GE as well as in English for Specific Purposes (ESP is undeniable. Understanding and determining the relevant collocations and their mastery are of “utmost importance to a ME instructor” (Cole et al., 2007, p. 137, and collocations are one of the most productive ways of enriching vocabulary and terminology in modern ME. Vişan & Georgescu (2011 have undertaken a relevant study on  collocations and “collocational competence” on board ships, including mostly nautical terminology. However, no substantial work on collocations in Marine Engineering English as a sub-register of ME has been carried out. Hence, this paper tries to determine the most important collocations in Marine Engineering English, based on a small corpus of collected e-mails. After determining the most relevant collocations, we suggest how to implement these in the language classroom and how to improve the collocational competence of marine engineering students.

  8. Antifouling Compounds from Marine Macroalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahms, Hans Uwe; Dobretsov, Sergey

    2017-08-28

    Marine macroalgae produce a wide variety of biologically-active metabolites that have been developed into commercial products, such as antibiotics, immunosuppressive, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic agents, and cosmetic products. Many marine algae remain clean over longer periods of time, suggesting their strong antifouling potential. Isolation of biogenic compounds and the determination of their structure could provide leads for the development of environmentally-friendly antifouling paints. Isolated substances with potent antifouling activity belong to fatty acids, lipopeptides, amides, alkaloids, lactones, steroids, terpenoids, and pyrroles. It is unclear as yet to what extent symbiotic microorganisms are involved in the synthesis of these compounds. Algal secondary metabolites have the potential to be produced commercially using genetic and metabolic engineering techniques. This review provides an overview of publications from 2010 to February 2017 about antifouling activity of green, brown, and red algae. Some researchers were focusing on antifouling compounds of brown macroalgae, while metabolites of green algae received less attention. Several studies tested antifouling activity against bacteria, microalgae and invertebrates, but in only a few studies was the quorum sensing inhibitory activity of marine macroalgae tested. Rarely, antifouling compounds from macroalgae were isolated and tested in an ecologically-relevant way.

  9. Ecological Genomics of Marine Picocyanobacteria†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, D. J.; Ostrowski, M.; Mazard, S.; Dufresne, A.; Garczarek, L.; Hess, W. R.; Post, A. F.; Hagemann, M.; Paulsen, I.; Partensky, F.

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Marine picocyanobacteria of the genera Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus numerically dominate the picophytoplankton of the world ocean, making a key contribution to global primary production. Prochlorococcus was isolated around 20 years ago and is probably the most abundant photosynthetic organism on Earth. The genus comprises specific ecotypes which are phylogenetically distinct and differ markedly in their photophysiology, allowing growth over a broad range of light and nutrient conditions within the 45°N to 40°S latitudinal belt that they occupy. Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus are closely related, together forming a discrete picophytoplankton clade, but are distinguishable by their possession of dissimilar light-harvesting apparatuses and differences in cell size and elemental composition. Synechococcus strains have a ubiquitous oceanic distribution compared to that of Prochlorococcus strains and are characterized by phylogenetically discrete lineages with a wide range of pigmentation. In this review, we put our current knowledge of marine picocyanobacterial genomics into an environmental context and present previously unpublished genomic information arising from extensive genomic comparisons in order to provide insights into the adaptations of these marine microbes to their environment and how they are reflected at the genomic level. PMID:19487728

  10. Secondary metabolites from marine microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KELECOM ALPHONSE

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available After 40 years of intensive research, chemistry of marine natural products has become a mature field. Since 1995, there are signals of decreased interest in the search of new metabolites from traditional sources such as macroalgae and octocorals, and the number of annual reports on marine sponges stabilized. On the contrary, metabolites from microorganisms is a rapidly growing field, due, at least in part, to the suspicion that a number of metabolites obtained from algae and invertebrates may be produced by associated microorganisms. Studies are concerned with bacteria and fungi, isolated from seawater, sediments, algae, fish and mainly from marine invertebrates such as sponges, mollusks, tunicates, coelenterates and crustaceans. Although it is still to early to define tendencies, it may be stated that the metabolites from microorganisms are in most cases quite different from those produced by the invertebrate hosts. Nitrogenated metabolites predominate over acetate derivatives, and terpenes are uncommon. Among the latter, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes and carotenes have been isolated; among nitrogenated metabolites, amides, cyclic peptides and indole alkaloids predominate.

  11. Neoproterozoic marine carbonates and their paleoceanographic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Ashleigh van Smeerdijk; Wallace, Malcolm William

    2018-01-01

    The primary mineralogy of marine carbonate precipitates has been a crucial factor in constraining the major element composition of ancient oceans. Secular changes in Phanerozoic marine chemistry, including Mg/Ca, have been well-documented using the original carbonate mineralogy of ooids, marine cements and biominerals. However, the history of Precambrian seawater chemistry is not as well constrained, partially due to the prevalence of dolomitisation in the Precambrian geological record. The Neoproterozoic ( 1000 Ma to 541 Ma) record of primary carbonate mineralogy is documented here using a combination of literature data and new analysis of marine carbonate precipitates from the Otavi Fold Belt, Namibia, the Death Valley succession, USA and the Adelaide Fold Belt, Australia. These data suggest that the last 460 million years of the Proterozoic were dominated by aragonite and high-Mg calcite precipitation in shallow marine settings. In contrast, low-Mg calcite has only been recognised in a small number of formations. In addition to aragonite and calcite precipitation, marine dolomite precipitation was widespread in Neoproterozoic oceans, including mimetic (syn-sedimentary) dolomitisation and primary dolomite marine cementation. The combination of marine aragonite, high Mg-calcite and dolomite precipitation during the Neoproterozoic suggests extremely high seawater Mg/Ca conditions relative to Phanerozoic oceans. Marine dolomite precipitation may also be linked to widespread marine anoxia during this time.

  12. The impact of debris on marine life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, S C; Thompson, R C

    2015-03-15

    Marine debris is listed among the major perceived threats to biodiversity, and is cause for particular concern due to its abundance, durability and persistence in the marine environment. An extensive literature search reviewed the current state of knowledge on the effects of marine debris on marine organisms. 340 original publications reported encounters between organisms and marine debris and 693 species. Plastic debris accounted for 92% of encounters between debris and individuals. Numerous direct and indirect consequences were recorded, with the potential for sublethal effects of ingestion an area of considerable uncertainty and concern. Comparison to the IUCN Red List highlighted that at least 17% of species affected by entanglement and ingestion were listed as threatened or near threatened. Hence where marine debris combines with other anthropogenic stressors it may affect populations, trophic interactions and assemblages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Nutraceutical and pharmacological implications of marine carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallela, Ramjee

    2014-01-01

    Current day's research has been focusing much on the potential pharmacological or nutraceutical agents of selective health benefits with less toxicity. As a consequence of increased demand of nutritional supplements of great medicinal values, development of therapeutic agents from natural sources, in particular, marine environment are being considered much important. A diverse array of marine natural products containing medicinally useful nutritional substances, i.e., marine nutraceuticals have been focused to the benefit of mankind. Carbohydrates, by being constituted in considerable amount of many marine organisms display several nutraceutical and pharmaceutical behavior to defend from various diseases. Moreover, the carbohydrates from algae as well as from shellfish wastes, like chitosan and its derivatives, showed tremendous applications in biology and biomedicine. In the current chapter, several of marine carbohydrates from various marine flora and fauna have been covered with their applications and prospects in the development of nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Communicating marine reserve science to diverse audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grorud-Colvert, Kirsten; Lester, Sarah E.; Airamé, Satie; Neeley, Elizabeth; Gaines, Steven D.

    2010-01-01

    As human impacts cause ecosystem-wide changes in the oceans, the need to protect and restore marine resources has led to increasing calls for and establishment of marine reserves. Scientific information about marine reserves has multiplied over the last decade, providing useful knowledge about this tool for resource users, managers, policy makers, and the general public. This information must be conveyed to nonscientists in a nontechnical, credible, and neutral format, but most scientists are not trained to communicate in this style or to develop effective strategies for sharing their scientific knowledge. Here, we present a case study from California, in which communicating scientific information during the process to establish marine reserves in the Channel Islands and along the California mainland coast expanded into an international communication effort. We discuss how to develop a strategy for communicating marine reserve science to diverse audiences and highlight the influence that effective science communication can have in discussions about marine management. PMID:20427745

  15. Communicating marine reserve science to diverse audiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grorud-Colvert, Kirsten; Lester, Sarah E; Airamé, Satie; Neeley, Elizabeth; Gaines, Steven D

    2010-10-26

    As human impacts cause ecosystem-wide changes in the oceans, the need to protect and restore marine resources has led to increasing calls for and establishment of marine reserves. Scientific information about marine reserves has multiplied over the last decade, providing useful knowledge about this tool for resource users, managers, policy makers, and the general public. This information must be conveyed to nonscientists in a nontechnical, credible, and neutral format, but most scientists are not trained to communicate in this style or to develop effective strategies for sharing their scientific knowledge. Here, we present a case study from California, in which communicating scientific information during the process to establish marine reserves in the Channel Islands and along the California mainland coast expanded into an international communication effort. We discuss how to develop a strategy for communicating marine reserve science to diverse audiences and highlight the influence that effective science communication can have in discussions about marine management.

  16. Marine Arctic Ecosystem Study (MARES): Pilot Project - Marine Mammal Tagging and Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Marine Arctic Ecosystem Study (MARES): Pilot Project...inter-relationships of biophysical and chemical parameters on living resources, including marine mammals that use this ecosystem . This larger picture

  17. Marine renewable energies: status and development perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This document proposes an overview of the marine renewable energy (MRE) market, of the development perspectives, of the industrial, academic and institutional actors, of current technologies and technologies under development, and of French and European research and development programs. These energies comprise: tidal energy, the exploitation of sea temperature differences with respect with depth, wave energy, marine current power energy, osmotic and marine biomass energy

  18. Antifungal potential of marine natural products

    OpenAIRE

    El-Hossary, Ebaa M.; Cheng, Cheng; Hamed, Mostafa M.; El-Sayed Hamed, Ashraf Nageeb; Ohlsen, Knut; Hentschel, Ute; Abdelmohsen, Usama Ramadan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Fungal infections represent an increasing threat to human health. • Fungal infections in plants are a worldwide problem to the agricultural industry. • Diverse antifungal compounds were isolated from different marine organisms. • The number of new antifungal marine natural products is rapidly developing. • Marine sponges and bacteria are the predominant sources for antifungal compounds. Abstract: Fungal diseases represent an increasing threat to human healt...

  19. Biotechnological potential of marine natural products

    OpenAIRE

    Fusetani, Nobuhiro

    2010-01-01

    The number of marine natural products (MNPs) that have been applied to biotechnological industry is very limited, although nearly 20000 new compounds were discovered from marine organisms since the birth of MNPs in the early 1970s. However, it is apparent that they have a significant potential as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, nutraceuticals, research tools, and others. This article focuses on selective antitumor metabolites isolated from marine sponges and tunicates, and their modes of action, ...

  20. Characterizing changes in marine ecosystem services

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Kai MA; Ruckelshaus, Mary

    2010-01-01

    The benefits of marine ecosystems for people are increasingly being characterized through the concept of ecosystem services, with the promise to aid decision making from marine spatial planning to ecosystem-based management. The characterization of changes in marine ecosystem services is central to the application of ecological science to policy contexts, and this field is quickly evolving with innovations in frameworks for integrating science, understanding of ecosystems and human benefits, ...

  1. Biomarkers of marine pollution and bioremediation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.

    pollution and bioremediation Anupam Sarkar Accepted: 1 February 2006 / Published online: 4 May 2006 C211 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2006 This special issue of Ecotoxicology is dealt with selected papers presented at the ‘International Workshop... on Marine Pollution and Ecotoxicology’ held during February 25–26, 2004 at the National Institute of oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa, India. The theme of this special issue is ‘Biomarkers of marine pollution and microbial degradation of pollutants. Marine...

  2. Global Marine Fisheries with Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Sugiawan, Yogi; Islam, Moinul; Managi, Shunsuke

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the state of global marine fisheries and empirically analyzes its relationship to economic factors. We apply the pooled mean group estimator method to examine 70 fishing countries for the period of 1961-2010. We use both catch and the estimated size of stock as proxies for marine ecosystems. Our results confirm that economic growth initially leads to the deterioration of marine ecosystems. However, for a per capita income level of approximately 3,827 USD for the catch mode...

  3. Reliability Based Management of Marine Fouling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Michael Havbro; Hansen, Peter Friis

    1999-01-01

    The present paper describes the results of a recent study on the application of methods from structural reliability to optimise management of marine fouling on jacket type structures.In particular the study addresses effects on the structural response by assessment and quantification...... and more representative marine fouling profiles for design of new structures and finally an approach is outlined on how to include inspections of marine fouling into a risk based inspection philosophy....

  4. 46 CFR 70.20-1 - Marine engineering details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... General Marine Engineering Requirements § 70.20-1 Marine engineering details. All marine engineering... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine engineering details. 70.20-1 Section 70.20-1... subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of this chapter. ...

  5. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by marine bacterium, Idiomarina ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    have been synthesized using marine fungi (Kathiresan et al. 2009), marine cyanobacteria (Ali et al 2011) and marine algal extracts (Venkatpurwar and Pokharkar 2011). However, there are no reports on SNP synthesis by marine bacteria. In this paper, we report the synthesis of SNPs by a marine bac- terium, Idiomarina sp.

  6. Economic impacts of marine protected areas: A case study of the Mombasa Marine Park

    OpenAIRE

    Ngugi, I.

    2000-01-01

    The conservation of the marine environment is an integral part of the broader initiatives of environmental conservation in Kenya. A major motivation for the delineation of marine protected areas (MPAs) in Kenya has been the promotion of tourism and also the need to conserve marine biodiversity for posterity. However, the conservation of marine resources in Kenya has led to certain resource-use conflicts between national conservation agencies such as the Kenya Wildlife Servic...

  7. Chemical Investigations of Marine Filamentous and Zoosporic Fungi and Studies in Marine Microbial Chemical Ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Kelly M.

    1998-01-01

    The natural products chemistry of marine microorganisms is an emerging area of organic chemistry with the aim of discovering novel secondary metabolites exhibiting both biomedical and ecological activities. While marine bacteria have proven to be a productive source of new natural products, there are many groups of marine microorganisms which have not been fully investigated. In particular, marine fungi represent an untapped and potentially novel source of bioactive secondary metabolites. Whi...

  8. Marine Riparian Vegetation Communities of Puget Sound

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brennan, James S

    2007-01-01

    .... Coastal trees and other vegetation on backshore areas, banks, and bluffs help stabilize the soil, control pollution entering marine waters, provide fish and wildlife habitat, and modify stressful...

  9. Marine eutrophication is the process of enrich- ment of marine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Marine eutrophication is the process of enrich- ment of marine systems with plant nutrients that stim- ulate primary production, and, in its most serious manifestation, leads to visible algal blooms and at times massive growth of macrophytes” (Vollenweider. 1992, p. 3). Marine eutrophication has become a.

  10. 78 FR 52135 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ...--Marine Mammal Density Estimates Density Species (animals/km \\2\\) Bottlenose dolphin \\1\\ 0.455 Atlantic... criteria and thresholds in a final rule on the unintentional taking of marine animals occurring incidental... analysis assumed the marine species populations were 100 percent small animals. The criterion with the...

  11. 75 FR 72655 - Marine Sanitation Device Discharge Regulations for the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    .... 090122044-0403-02] RIN 0648-AX58 Marine Sanitation Device Discharge Regulations for the Florida Keys... incidental to vessel use and generated by marine sanitation devices (MSDs) approved under the Clean Water Act...; (B) Sewage incidental to vessel use and generated by a marine sanitation device approved in...

  12. Use of marine algae as biological indicator of heavy metal pollution in Turkish marine environment

    OpenAIRE

    Topcuoğlu, Sayhan; Kılıç, Önder; Belivermiş, Murat; Kalaycı, Halim Aytekin Ergül and Gülşah; Kalaycı, Gülşah

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The heavy metal concentrations were reviewed in marine algae species collected from Turkish marine environment and the new data also given in the marine algae samples at some stations at the Turkish coast of the Mediterranean Sea. Some data also reviewed at the neighbors countries of the Black Sea, Aegean Sea and Mediterranean Sea.

  13. Use of marine algae as biological indicator of heavy metal pollution in Turkish marine environment

    OpenAIRE

    Topcuoğlu, Sayhan; Kılıç, Önder; Belivermiş, Murat; Kalaycı, Halim Aytekin Ergül and Gülşah

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The heavy metal concentrations were reviewed in marine algae species collected from Turkish marine environment and the new data also given in the marine algae samples at some stations at the Turkish coast of the Mediterranean Sea. Some data also reviewed at the neighbors countries of the Black Sea, Aegean Sea and Mediterranean Sea.

  14. 77 FR 65059 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... harassment, small numbers of nine species of marine mammals incidental to in-ice marine seismic surveys in..., by harassment, from ION's in-ice seismic survey will have a negligible impacton the affected species... whales and other marine mammal species in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas during ION's in-ice seismic...

  15. 77 FR 43270 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Coastal Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... Marine Mammals Incidental to Coastal Commercial Fireworks Displays at Monterey Bay National Marine... supporting documentation are available for review in the Permits, and Conservation Division, Office of... of marine mammals by United States citizens who engage in a specified activity (other than commercial...

  16. 76 FR 11205 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Construction and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... Marine Mammals Incidental to Construction and Operation of a Liquefied Natural Gas Deepwater Port in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... marine mammal species incidental to construction and operation of a liquefied natural gas (LNG) deepwater...

  17. Marine habitat mapping at Labuan Marine Park, Federal Territory of Labuan, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustajap, Fazliana; Saleh, Ejria; Madin, John; Hamid, Shahimah Abdul

    2015-06-01

    Marine habitat mapping has recently become essential in coastal marine science research. It is one of the efforts to understand marine ecosystems, and thus to protect them. Habitat mapping is integral to marine-related industries such as fisheries, aquaculture, forestry and tourism. An assessment of marine habitat mapping was conducted at Labuan Marine Park (LMP), a marine protected area in the Federal Territory of Labuan. It is surrounded by shallow water within its islands (Kuraman, Rusukan Kecil and Rusukan Besar) with an area of 39.7 km2. The objectives of the study are to identify the substrate and types of marine habitat present within the park. Side scan sonar (SSS) (Aquascan TM) was used to determine the substrates and habitat while ground truthings were done through field observation and SCUBA diving survey. Seabed classification and marine habitat was based on NOAA's biogeography program. Three substrate types (sand, rock, silt) were identified in this area. The major marine habitats identified are corals, macro algae and small patches of sea grass. The study area is an important refuge for spawning and juvenile fish and supports the livelihood of the coastal communities on Labuan Island. Therefore, proper management is crucial in order to better maintain the marine protected area. The findings are significant and provide detailed baseline information on marine habitat for conservation, protection and future management in LMP.

  18. Cold adaptation in marine organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, I A

    1990-01-30

    Animals from polar seas exhibit numerous so called resistance adaptations that serve to maintain homeostasis at low temperature and prevent lethal freezing injury. Specialization to temperatures at or below 0 degrees C is associated with an inability to survive at temperatures above 3-8 degrees C. Polar fish synthesize various types of glycoproteins or peptides to lower the freezing point of most extracellular fluid compartments in a non-colligative manner. Antifreeze production is seasonal in boreal species and is often initiated by environmental cues other than low temperature, particularly short day lengths. Most of the adaptations that enable intertidal invertebrates to survive freezing are associated with their ability to withstand ariel exposure. Unique adaptations for freezing avoidance include the synthesis of low molecular mass ice-nucleating proteins that control and induce extracellular ice-formation. Marine poikilotherms also exhibit a range of capacity adaptations that increase the rate of some physiological processes so as to partially compensate for the effects of low temperature. However, the rate of embryonic development in a diverse range of marine organisms shows no evidence of temperature compensation. This results in a significant lengthening of the time from fertilization to hatching in polar, relative to temperate, species. Some aspects of the physiology of polar marine species, such as low metabolic and slow growth rates, probably result from a combination of low temperature and other factors such as the highly seasonal nature of food supplies. Although neuromuscular function shows a partial capacity adaptation in Antarctic fish, maximum swimming speeds are lower than for temperate and tropical species, particularly for early stages in the life history.

  19. 75 FR 81233 - Nomination of Existing Marine Protected Areas to the National System of Marine Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... Marine Protected Areas to the National System of Marine Protected Areas AGENCY: NOAA, Department of... state and territorial marine protected area programs to join the National System of Marine Protected... territorial marine protected area (MPA) programs with potentially eligible existing MPAs to nominate their...

  20. 78 FR 30870 - Nomination of Existing Marine Protected Areas to the National System of Marine Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... Marine Protected Areas to the National System of Marine Protected Areas AGENCY: National Marine Protected...) invited federal, state, commonwealth, and territorial marine protected area (MPA) programs with... of Marine Protected Areas of the United States (Framework), developed in response to Executive Order...

  1. 76 FR 41463 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... requirements, many marine animals may need to remain in areas where they are exposed to chronic stimuli... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a Marine... Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). ACTION: Notice; proposed...

  2. 77 FR 841 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Operations of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ... and the Single Ping Equivalent (SPE) To model potential impacts to marine animals from exposure to... Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 218 Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals... [Docket No. 110808485-1534-01] RIN 0648-BB14 Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals...

  3. 77 FR 50289 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Operations of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... implement. SAG members will include recognized marine biology and marine bio-acoustic scientific subject... Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 218 Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals... Part 218 [Docket No. 110808485-2148-02] RIN 0648-BB14 Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking...

  4. Marine and Other Aquatic Dermatoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Surg Capt Jandhyala; Deo, Surg Cdr Rajeev

    2017-01-01

    Occupational and recreational aquatic activity predisposes our population to a wide variety of dermatoses. Sunburn, urticaria, jellyfish stings, and contact dermatitis to rubber equipment are common allergies that are encountered in the aquatic environment. Among the infections, tinea versicolor, intertrigo, and verruca vulgaris are widespread. Swimmer's itch may occur due to skin penetration by schistosome cercariae, while free-floating nematocysts of marine coelenterates may precipitate seabather's eruption. "Suit squeeze" due to cutaneous barotrauma and lymphoedematous peau d'orange due to decompression are rare, described entities. This review serves as a ready reckoner for Indian dermatologists and medical practitioners to identify and manage these conditions.

  5. Marine and other aquatic dermatoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandhyala Sridhar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational and recreational aquatic activity predisposes our population to a wide variety of dermatoses. Sunburn, urticaria, jellyfish stings, and contact dermatitis to rubber equipment are common allergies that are encountered in the aquatic environment. Among the infections, tinea versicolor, intertrigo, and verruca vulgaris are widespread. Swimmer's itch may occur due to skin penetration by schistosome cercariae, while free-floating nematocysts of marine coelenterates may precipitate seabather's eruption. “Suit squeeze” due to cutaneous barotrauma and lymphoedematous peau d'orange due to decompression are rare, described entities. This review serves as a ready reckoner for Indian dermatologists and medical practitioners to identify and manage these conditions.

  6. Biomimicking micropatterned surfaces and their effect on marine biofouling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brzozowska, Agata M.; Parra-Velandia, Fernando J.; Quintana, Robert; Xiaoying, Zhu; Lee, Serina Siew Chen; Chin-Sing, Lim; Jańczewski, Dominik; Teo, Serena Lay Ming; Vancso, Julius G.

    2014-01-01

    When synthetic materials are submerged in marine environments, dissolved matter and marine organisms attach to their surfaces by a process known as marine fouling. This phenomenon may lead to diminished material performance with detrimental consequences. Bioinspired surface patterning and chemical

  7. Effect of Industrial Effluent on the Growth of Marine Diatom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Effect of Industrial Effluent on the Growth of Marine Diatom, Chaetoceros simplex (Ostenfeld, 1901). P. KARTHIKEYAN*, S. JAYASUDHA, P. SAMPATHKUMAR, K. MANIMARAN,. C. SANTHOSHKUMAR, S. ASHOKKUMAR AND V. ASHOKPRABU. CAS in Marine Biology, Faculty of Marine Sciences, Annamalai University,.

  8. Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economics - TANZANIA. Thierry LEVITRA. Marine Biology and Mariculture - MADAGASCAR. Blandina LUGENDO. Marine Ecology - TANZANIA. Aviti MMOCHI. Mariculture - TANZANIA. Nyawira MUTHIGA. Marine Ecology and Management - KENYA. Brent NEWMAN. Contamination and Risk Assessment – SOUTH AFRICA.

  9. Decomposition in pelagic marine ecosytems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, M.I.

    1986-01-01

    During the decomposition of plant detritus, complex microbial successions develop which are dominated in the early stages by a number of distinct bacterial morphotypes. The microheterotrophic community rapidly becomes heterogenous and may include cyanobacteria, fungi, yeasts and bactivorous protozoans. Microheterotrophs in the marine environment may have a biomass comparable to that of all other heterotrophs and their significance as a resource to higher trophic orders, and in the regeneration of nutrients, particularly nitrogen, that support 'regenerated' primary production, has aroused both attention and controversy. Numerous methods have been employed to measure heterotrophic bacterial production and activity. The most widely used involve estimates of 14 C-glucose uptake; the frequency of dividing cells; the incorporation of 3 H-thymidine and exponential population growth in predator-reduced filtrates. Recent attempts to model decomposition processes and C and N fluxes in pelagic marine ecosystems are described. This review examines the most sensitive components and predictions of the models with particular reference to estimates of bacterial production, net growth yield and predictions of N cycling determined by 15 N methodology. Directed estimates of nitrogen (and phosphorus) flux through phytoplanktonic and bacterioplanktonic communities using 15 N (and 32 P) tracer methods are likely to provide more realistic measures of nitrogen flow through planktonic communities

  10. Submersible Generator for Marine Hydrokinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cinq-Mars, Robert S; Burke, Timothy; Irish, James; Gustafson, Brian; Kirtley, James; Alawa, Aiman

    2011-09-01

    A submersible generator was designed as a distinct and critical subassembly of marine hydrokinetics systems, specifically tidal and stream energy conversion. The generator is designed to work with both vertical and horizontal axis turbines. The final product is a high-pole-count, radial-flux, permanent magnet, rim mounted generator, initially rated at twenty kilowatts in a two-meter-per-second flow, and designed to leverage established and simple manufacturing processes. The generator was designed to work with a 3 meter by 7 meter Gorlov Helical Turbine or a marine hydrokinetic version of the FloDesign wind turbine. The team consisted of experienced motor/generator design engineers with cooperation from major US component suppliers (magnetics, coil winding and electrical steel laminations). Support for this effort was provided by Lucid Energy Technologies and FloDesign, Inc. The following tasks were completed: Identified the conditions and requirements for MHK generators. Defined a methodology for sizing and rating MHK systems. Selected an MHK generator topology and form factor. Completed electromechanical design of submersible generator capable of coupling to multiple turbine styles. Investigated MHK generator manufacturing requirements. Reviewed cost implications and financial viability. Completed final reporting and deliverables

  11. Marine carbohydrates of wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudha, Prasad N; Gomathi, Thandapani; Vinodhini, P Angelin; Nasreen, K

    2014-01-01

    Our natural heritage (rivers, seas, and oceans) has been exploited, mistreated, and contaminated because of industrialization, globalization, population growth, urbanization with increased wealth, and more extravagant lifestyles. The scenario gets worse when the effluents or contaminants are discharged directly. So wastewater treatment is a very important and necessary in nowadays to purify wastewater before it enters a body of natural water, or it is applied to the land, or it is reused. Various methods are available for treating wastewater but with many disadvantages. Recently, numerous approaches have been studied for the development of cheaper and more effective technologies, both to decrease the amount of wastewater produced and to improve the quality of the treated effluent. Biosorption is an emerging technology, which uses natural materials as adsorbents for wastewater treatment. Low-cost adsorbents of polysaccharide-based materials obtained from marine, such as chitin, chitosan, alginate, agar, and carrageenan, are acting as rescue for wastewater treatment. This chapter reviews the treatment of wastewater up to the present time using marine polysaccharides and its derivatives. Special attention is paid to the advantages of the natural adsorbents, which are a wonderful gift for human survival. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Alexandru A. Marin (1945 - 2005)

    CERN Multimedia

    S. Ahlen; G. Mikenberg; F. Taylor; B. Zhou

    It is with great sorrow that we report that ATLAS Physicist Alexandru (Alex) A. Marin passed away November 14, 2005 in Geneva. He died after a courageous two-week struggle against necrotizing fasciitis, a very rare and rapidly progressing destructive infection. Employed by Boston University and working at Harvard University, Alex was a productive and popular member of the ATLAS muon detector group. He had been playing a leading role in the installation of end-cap muon chambers in Building 180 at CERN and was a long-term member of the ATLAS Muon Collaboration. After the Boston Muon Consortium (BMC) MDT chambers were constructed and commissioned, Marin relocated to CERN in May 2005 to take on installation and commissioning responsibilities of the US MDT endcap chambers. He had spent the previous seven years employed by Boston University as a physicist with the BMC, and had worked with Steve Ahlen, Peter Hurst, Rick Haggerty and many others to assemble and integrate end-cap muon chambers. His work was of th...

  13. Mercury kinetics in marine zooplankton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.W.; Heyraud, M.; LaRosa, J.

    1976-01-01

    Mercury, like many other heavy metals, is potentially available to marine animals by uptake directly from water and/or through the organisms food. Furthermore, bioavailability, assimilation and subsequent retention in biota may be affected by the chemical species of the element in sea water. While mercury is known to exist in the inorganic form in sea water, recent work has indicated that, in certain coastal areas, a good portion of the total mercury appears to be organically bound; however, the exact chemical nature of the organic fraction has yet to be determined. Methyl mercury may be one constituent of the natural organically bound fraction since microbial mechanisms for in situ methylation of mercury have been demonstrated in the aquatic environment. Despite the fact that naturally produced methyl mercury probably comprises only a small fraction of an aquatic ecosystem, the well-documented toxic effects of this organo-mercurial, caused by man-made introductions into marine food chains, make it an important compound to study

  14. Minerals From the Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruickshank, Michael J.

    The current interest in minerals centering on, among other things, potential shortages, long-term needs, and deep seabed nodules, accentuates the usefulness and timeliness of this little book authored by a former chairman of the British National Environmental Research Council.In less than 100 pages, the author puts into perspective the potential for producing minerals from offshore areas of the world. After introducing the reader to the ocean environment and the extraordinary variety of the nature of the seabed, the author describes in some detail the variety of minerals found there. This is done in seven separate chapters entitled ‘Bulk and Non-Metallic Minerals From the Seas’ ‘Metals From the Shallow Seas’ ‘Metals From the Deep Oceans’ ‘Minerals From Solution’ ‘Oil and Gas from the Shallow Seas’ ‘Oil and Gas From Deep Waters’ and ‘Coal Beneath the Sea.’ The remaining chapters give a brief regional review of marine minerals distribution for eight areas of significant socioeconomic structure, and a short recapitulation of special problems of mineral recovery in the marine environment including such matters as the effect of water motion on mineral processing and of international law on investments. Glossaries of geological periods and technical terms, a short list of references, and an index complete the work.

  15. Data categories for marine planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightsom, Frances L.; Cicchetti, Giancarlo; Wahle, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. National Ocean Policy calls for a science- and ecosystem-based approach to comprehensive planning and management of human activities and their impacts on America’s oceans. The Ocean Community in Data.gov is an outcome of 2010–2011 work by an interagency working group charged with designing a national information management system to support ocean planning. Within the working group, a smaller team developed a list of the data categories specifically relevant to marine planning. This set of categories is an important consensus statement of the breadth of information types required for ocean planning from a national, multidisciplinary perspective. Although the categories were described in a working document in 2011, they have not yet been fully implemented explicitly in online services or geospatial metadata, in part because authoritative definitions were not created formally. This document describes the purpose of the data categories, provides definitions, and identifies relations among the categories and between the categories and external standards. It is intended to be used by ocean data providers, managers, and users in order to provide a transparent and consistent framework for organizing and describing complex information about marine ecosystems and their connections to humans.

  16. Protecting the Marine Environment in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorisek, Alexandra Sasa

    2013-01-01

    The Cienfuegos Environmental Studies Centre (CEAC) in Cuba is a marine environmental research centre with expertise in nuclear and isotopic technologies. Cuba’s food security, transportation and tourism depend upon a healthy marine environment. CEAC scientists master resource challenges to produce the validated data needed for better environmental management

  17. Deep Water, Shallow Water: Marine Animal Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltow, Willow

    1984-01-01

    Examines the diversity of life in the oceans and ways in which teachers can explore ocean habitats with their students without leaving the classroom. Topic areas considered include: restricted habitats, people and marine habitats, pollution, incidental kills, and the commercial and recreational uses of marine waters. (JN)

  18. Strengthened enforcement enhances marine sanctuary performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan P. Kelaher

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine sanctuaries are areas where the extraction of biota is not permitted. Although most marine sanctuaries have a positive influence on biotic communities, not all sanctuaries are meeting their conservation objectives. Amidst possible explanations (e.g., size, age and isolation, insufficient enforcement is often speculated to be a key driver of marine sanctuary underperformance. Despite this, there are few studies directly linking quantitative enforcement data to changes in biotic communities within marine sanctuaries. Here, we used an asymmetrical-BACI experimental design from 2006–2012 to test whether new enforcement initiatives enhanced abundances of target fishes and threatened species in an existing large sub-tropical marine sanctuary relative to areas open to fishing. Implementation of the new enforcement initiatives in 2010 was associated with a 201% increase in annual fine rate and a significant increase in target fish and elasmobranch abundance, as well as sightings of a critically-endangered shark, in the marine sanctuary relative to areas open to fishing. Overall, these results demonstrate that strengthening enforcement can have a rapid positive influence on target fish and perhaps threatened species in a subtropical marine sanctuary. From this, we contend that increased enforcement guided by risk-based compliance planning and operations may be a useful first step for improving underperforming marine sanctuaries.

  19. Marine Conservation : The voice of the fishers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versleijen, N.; Hoorweg, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines attitudes towards marine conservation among fishers from two villages in Kilifi District, Kenya. It focuses on how the views of fishers have contributed to their willingness to engage in marine conservation and considers how these attitudes developed. Uyombo is situated near the

  20. Crustacean biodiversity through the marine fossil record

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sepkoski Jr., J. John

    2000-01-01

    Approximately 2,600 genera of marine crustaceans have been recognized in the fossil record, and crustaceans constitute the major component of marine arthropod diversity from the mid-Paleozoic to the Recent. Despite problems of sporadic fossil preservation and/or taxonomic ambiguity, some general

  1. Solutions for global marine litter pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Löhr, Ansje; Savelli, Heidi; Beunen, Raoul; Kalz, Marco; Ragas, Ad; Van Belleghem, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Since the 1950s the amount of plastics in the marine environment has increased dramatically. Worldwide there is a growing concern about the risks and possible adverse effects of (micro)plastics. This paper reflects on the sources and effects of marine litter and the effects of policies and other

  2. Collecting marine litter during regular fish surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der M.T.; Hal, van R.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents the results of the marine litter monitoring on the IBTS survey of 2014 and the BTS survey of 2013. Since 2013 marine litter is collected during the International Bottom Trawl Survey (IBTS) and Dutch Beam Trawl Survey (BTS) following a protocol developed by ICES. The composition

  3. Marine Natural Products as Prototype Agrochemical Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jiangnan; Shen, Xiaoyu; El Sayed, Khalid A.; Dunbar, D. C Harles; Perry, Tony L.; Wilkins, Scott P.; Hamann, Mark T.; Bobzin, Steve; Huesing, Joseph; Camp, Robin; Prinsen, Mike; Krupa, Dan; Wideman, Margaret A.

    2016-01-01

    In the interest of identifying new leads that could serve as prototype agrochemical agents, 18 structurally diverse marine-derived compounds were examined for insecticidal, herbicidal, and fungicidal activities. Several new classes of compounds have been shown to be insecticidal, herbicidal, and fungicidal, which suggests that marine natural products represent an intriguing source for the discovery of new agrochemical agents. PMID:12670165

  4. Bromophenols in Marine Algae and Their Bioactivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ming, Liu; Hansen, Poul Erik; Lin, Xiukun

    2011-01-01

    Marine algae contain various bromophenols that have been shown to possess a variety of biological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-diabetic, and anti-thrombotic effects. Here, we briefly review the recent progress of these marine algal biomaterials, with respect...

  5. Sustainability Entrepreneurship in marine protected areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bush, S.R.; Bottema, Mariska; Midavaine, J.J.; Carter, E.

    2017-01-01

    So called ‘entrepreneurial marine protected areas’ are one way in which private actors are setting and enforcing control over spatially contiguous marine habitats. These entrepreneurs fulfil both environmental and social outcomes, providing a sustainable source of funding for conservation and

  6. African Journal of Marine Science: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Marine Science: Submissions. Journal Home > About the Journal > African Journal of Marine Science: Submissions. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue ...

  7. Cumulative human impacts on marine predators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maxwell, Sara M; Hazen, Elliott L; Bograd, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    Stressors associated with human activities interact in complex ways to affect marine ecosystems, yet we lack spatially explicit assessments of cumulative impacts on ecologically and economically key components such as marine predators. Here we develop a metric of cumulative utilization and impact...

  8. Future marine zooplankton research - a perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bathmann, U.; Bundy, M.H.; Clarke, M.E.

    2001-01-01

    During the Second Marine Zooplankton Colloquium (MZC2) 3 issues were added to those developed 11 yr ago during the First Marine Zooplankton Colloquium (MZC1). First, we focused on hot spots, i.e., locations where zooplankton occur in higher than regular abundance and/or operate at higher rates, W...

  9. Marine disposal of radioactive wastes - the debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, R.

    1985-01-01

    The paper presents arguments against the marine disposal of radioactive wastes. Results of American studies of deep-water dump-sites, and strontium levels in fish, are cited as providing evidence of the detrimental effects of marine dumping. The London Dumping Convention and the British dumping programme, are briefly discussed. (U.K.)

  10. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of marine actinomycetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marine actinomycetes have great potential as producers of unique bioactive compounds due to its special adaptation in the harsh environment in the ocean. In this study, 100 strains of actinomycetes were isolated from marine sponges collected from sea area close to Sipadan Island in Sabah. Each strain was fermented in ...

  11. Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science (WIOJMS) provides an avenue for the wide dissemination of high quality research generated in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) region, in particular on the sustainable use of coastal and marine resources. Topics include, but are not limited to: theoretical studies, ...

  12. Effects of Biodiesel Blend on Marine Fuel Characteristics for Marine Vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherng-Yuan Lin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel produced from vegetable oils, animal fats and algae oil is a renewable, environmentally friendly and clean alternative fuel that reduces pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions in marine applications. This study investigates the influence of biodiesel blend on the characteristics of residual and distillate marine fuels. Adequate correlation equations are applied to calculate the fuel properties of the blended marine fuels with biodiesel. Residual marine fuel RMA has inferior fuel characteristics compared with distillate marine fuel DMA and biodiesel. The flash point of marine fuel RMA could be increased by 20% if blended with 20 vol% biodiesel. The sulfur content of residual marine fuel could meet the requirement of the 2008 MARPOL Annex VI Amendment by blending it with 23.0 vol% biodiesel. In addition, the kinematic viscosity of residual marine fuel could be reduced by 12.9% and the carbon residue by 23.6% if 20 vol% and 25 vol% biodiesel are used, respectively. Residual marine fuel blended with 20 vol% biodiesel decreases its lower heating value by 1.9%. Moreover, the fuel properties of residual marine fuel are found to improve more significantly with biodiesel blending than those of distillate marine fuel.

  13. [Bioactive compounds from marine sponges and cell culture of marine sponges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Ying; Zhao, Quan-Yu; Xue, Song; Zhang, Wei

    2002-01-01

    Presented a survey of bioactive compounds discovered from marine sponges in the recent five years, including the classes, distribution and their potential pharmaceutical uses. In particular, the compounds with antitumor, antivirus and antibacteria activity were discussed with their originating marine sponge species. Whereas the "Supply Problems" were identified to hinder the clinical tests and commercial applications of most of the sponge bioactive compounds. In vitro cell culture of marine sponges is one of the most promising approaches to solve this problem. The state-of-the art of marine sponge cell culture and the challenging areas were discussed. A brief summary of the R&D status was also given on the bioactive compounds from marine sponges in Chinese oceans. It is crucial to invest more efforts on studying marine sponges and their bioactive compounds in our country in order to develop new marine drugs of independent intellectual property.

  14. Marine Model Trout Farms: developments in marine RAS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg

    2011-01-01

    . This development and demonstration unit in commercial scale will during the next four years hopefully provide scientific and practical basis and support for further development in coming generations of Marine Model Trout Farms for large salmonids. The unit consist in the recirculation loop of one large fish tank......, nitrogen is removed in a full-scale experimental set-up where sludge from the drum filter is hydrolysed and the VFAs generated used as energy-source for the denitrification process in separate tanks/filters. Final polishing follows in a constructed wetland. For the first 2 years of operation production...... will be focussed on rainbow trout production, mimicking the typical Danish net cage farming cycle, where the cages are stocked with fish of 750 – 1,000 g in April/May and all harvested before Christmas weighing some 4 kg/pcs. During these two years important production parameters such as growth-rate, feed...

  15. Characterization of elements in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Toshiaki

    1993-01-01

    Characterization of elements in marine organisms was carried out to estimate the behavior of radionuclides in marine ecosystem or to clarify the physiological roles of elements in marine organisms. The concentrations of 238 U in fifty-five species of marine organisms were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The concentrations of 238 U in soft tissues of marine animals ranged from 0.076 to 5000ng/g wet wt. Especially, the branchial heart of octopus vulgaris showed the specific accumulation of 238 U. The kidney granules of bivalve molluscs showed very high concentrations of Mn, Zn, 210 Pb, 210 Po etc. The XAFS study for the granules of Cyclosunetta menstrualis indicated that the chemical form of metals in the granules was phosphate (e. g. Mn 3 (PO 4 ) 2 · 4H 2 O). (author)

  16. Production of Enzymes from Marine Actinobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X Q; Xu, X N; Chen, L Y

    Marine actinobacteria are well recognized for their capabilities to produce valuable natural products, which have great potential for applications in medical, agricultural, and fine chemical industries. In addition to producing unique enzymes responsible for biosynthesis of natural products, many marine actinobacteria also produce hydrolytic enzymes which are able to degrade various biopolymers, such as cellulose, xylan, and chitin. These enzymes are important to produce biofuels and biochemicals of interest from renewable biomass. In this chapter, the recent reports of novel enzymes produced by marine actinobacteria are reviewed, and advanced technologies that can be applied to search for novel marine enzymes as well as for improved enzyme production by marine actinobacteria are summarized, which include ribosome engineering, genome mining, as well as synthetic biology studies. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Study of plutonium cycle in marine ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merino Pareja, J.; Sanchez Cabeza, J. A.; Molero Savall, J.; Masque Barri, P.

    1998-01-01

    The distribution, transport and accumulation mechanisms of transuranics (and other radionuclides) in the marine environment depend on the source term, biogeochemical cycles, transport with the water masses, sedimentation processes and transfer mechanisms in the trophic chain. The biogeochemical behaviour of plutonium, which has been the focus of our work, was studied using the following approaches: determination of the physico-chemical speciation of plutonium in marine waters, vertical flux in the water column, uptake by marine organisms (phytoplankton and zooplankton) and distribution in dements cores. A preliminary model of the accumulation and distribution of plutonium in the first levels of the marine food chain in the Irish Sea has also been formulated. All this information allowed us to obtain an integrated view of the behaviour of plutonium in the marine environment. (Author) 14 refs

  18. Marine polysaccharides: therapeutic efficacy and biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Eun; Kim, Hyeongmin; Seo, Changwon; Park, Taejun; Lee, Kyung Bin; Yoo, Seung-Yup; Hong, Seong-Chul; Kim, Jeong Tae; Lee, Jaehwi

    2017-09-01

    The ocean contains numerous marine organisms, including algae, animals, and plants, from which diverse marine polysaccharides with useful physicochemical and biological properties can be extracted. In particular, fucoidan, carrageenan, alginate, and chitosan have been extensively investigated in pharmaceutical and biomedical fields owing to their desirable characteristics, such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, and bioactivity. Various therapeutic efficacies of marine polysaccharides have been elucidated, including the inhibition of cancer, inflammation, and viral infection. The therapeutic activities of these polysaccharides have been demonstrated in various settings, from in vitro laboratory-scale experiments to clinical trials. In addition, marine polysaccharides have been exploited for tissue engineering, the immobilization of biomolecules, and stent coating. Their ability to detect and respond to external stimuli, such as pH, temperature, and electric fields, has enabled their use in the design of novel drug delivery systems. Thus, along with the promising characteristics of marine polysaccharides, this review will comprehensively detail their various therapeutic, biomedical, and miscellaneous applications.

  19. From sea water to marine organisms; transfer to marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyanagi, Taku

    1979-01-01

    As a study on transfer of radioiodine to marine organisms, accumulation and excretion of radioiodine by five species of marine fishes were observed by the aquarium experiments using Na 131 I as the tracer. Transfer of radioiodine to the fishes was examined on three different pathways, via seawater, sediment, and food. Concentration of radioiodine in organs of tissues of sea bass, Lateolabrax japonics, yellow tail, Seriola quinqueradiata, and rock fish, Sebastes nivosus, reared in labeled seawater reached maximum within five to ten days and decreased thereafter. Concentration factors calculated at the fifth day of breeding showed the highest value in gall-bladder followed by gut-content suggesting the secretion of bile into the intestine. Loss of radioactivity from the fishes showed two components elimination patterns and biological half-lives were calculated as 2.8 days and 53.5 days, respectively, in muscle of sea bass, for example. Sediment-bound radioiodine administered to benthic fish, right-eye flounder, Kareius bicoloratus, was lost rapidly after the administration but about ten per cent of the whole-body radioactivity were retained by the fishes after the excretion of sediment and eliminated with longer half-lives comparable to those taken up from seawater. Distribution of radioiodine among organs or tissues of the flounder was different between the fishes before and after the elimination experiment showing rapid loss from gill and slower elimination from liver or muscle. Radioiodine administered to sea bream, Pagrus major, as labeled anchovy was climinated also with two components loss processes and elimination rates were little higher than the fishes administered radioiodine as solution in gelatine capsules. Higher distribution of radioiodine in gill of the sea bream suggested the dominant excretion of radioiodine through gill of the fishes. (author)

  20. Ragusan merchants and the Crusades in the Late Middle Ages. Financial support for the war and bequests pro anima... “ad pasagium turchorum seu saracenorum, et alliud super patarenos Bosnie”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romano, Daniela

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Ragusan wills of 13th and 14th centuries reveal peculiar and unsuspected aspects about armed pilgrimages by proxy in the Balkans. The struggle against infedeles and heretics propagandized by the Roman Church finds financial support and full agreement in Dubrovnik citizens, also thanks to the Franciscan and Dominican preaching. Nobles, merchants, clerics and priests, craftsmen, men and women, they are all ready to take part in the Just war. Anyway they would fight only on the condition of leaving a sum of money to those who would fight for their souls’ salvation.

    I testamenti ragusei del XIII e XIV secolo rivelano aspetti particolari e per nulla indagati sul pellegrinaggio armato per procura in area balcanica. La lotta agli infedeles e agli eretici messa in atto dalla Chiesa di Roma trova sostegno economico e piena adesione nei cittadini di Dubrovnik, città-stato baluardo della cristianità più a levante, anche grazie alla campagna pubblicistica attuata da francescani e domenicani. Nobili, mercanti, chierici e preti, artigiani, uomini e donne partecipano alla giusta guerra, prevedendo lasciti per uomini che combatteranno per la salvezza delle anime dei testatori.